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1

Design of porous polymeric scaffolds by gas foaming of heterogeneous blends  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the challenges in tissue engineering scaffold design is the realization of structures with a pre-defined multi-scaled\\u000a porous network. Along this line, this study aimed at the design of porous scaffolds with controlled porosity and pore size\\u000a distribution from blends of poly(?-caprolactone) (PCL) and thermoplastic gelatin (TG), a thermoplastic natural material obtained\\u000a by de novo thermoplasticization of gelatin. PCL\\/TG

A. Salerno; M. Oliviero; E. Di Maio; S. Iannace; P. A. Netti

2009-01-01

2

Glycerol-mediated nanostructure modification leading to improved transparency of porous polymeric scaffolds for high performance 3D cell imaging.  

PubMed

Glycerol is among the most commonly used optical clearing agents for tissues clearance largely due to refractive index (RI) matching between glycerol and the submerged tissues. Here we applied glycerol as structure modifier at both macroscopic (as porogen) and nanoscopic (as nanostructure ameliorant) scales to fabricate transparent porous scaffolds made from poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) as well as other widely used biomaterials (e.g., PLGA, PA, or gelatin), whose nanostructures, in the scale of light wavelength, dominantly improved the optical transmittance of the scaffolds even when immersed in RI mismatched medium (e.g., culture medium or water). We further exploited the clearing mechanisms based on Mie scattering theory, illustrating that conformational changes of polymer chains induced by solvent effects of glycerol enhanced the anisotropy (i.e., directional alignment) of the nanostructures, leading to reduced crystallinity and scattering of the resulted PEG scaffolds. Our findings represent the first and systematic demonstration with both experimental and theoretical evidence in effectively clearing porous polymeric scaffolds by mechanisms other than RI matching, which could tackle the limitations of current optical imaging of cells cultured within three-dimensional (3D) opaque porous scaffolds, such as poor visibility, low spatial resolution, and small penetration depth. PMID:24884229

Zhao, Shan; Shen, Zhiyuan; Wang, Jingyu; Li, Xiaokang; Zeng, Yang; Wang, Bingjie; He, Yonghong; Du, Yanan

2014-07-14

3

Processing and characterization of porous alumina scaffolds.  

PubMed

Bioceramic materials are used for the reconstruction or replacement of the damaged parts of the human body. In this study an improved procedure is described for producing ceramic scaffolds with controlled porosity. Bioinert alumina ceramic was used to make porous scaffolds by using indirect fused deposition modeling (FDM), a commercially available rapid prototyping (RP) technique. Porous alumina samples were coated with hydroxyapatite (HAp) to increase the biocompatibility of the scaffolds. Initial biological responses of the porous alumina scaffolds were assessed in vitro using rat pituitary tumor cells (PR1). Both porous alumina and HAp coated alumina ceramics provided favorable sites for cell attachments in a physiological solution at 37 degrees C, which suggests that these materials would promote good bonding while used as bone implants in vivo. Based on these preliminary studies, similar tests were performed with human osteosarcoma cells. Cell proliferation studies show that both the ceramic materials can potentially provide a non-toxic surface for bone bonding when implanted in vivo. PMID:15348200

Bose, Susmita; Darsell, Jens; Hosick, Howard L; Yang, Lihua; Sarkar, Dipak K; Bandyopadhyay, Amit

2002-01-01

4

Additive manufacturing of wet-spun polymeric scaffolds for bone tissue engineering.  

PubMed

An Additive Manufacturing technique for the fabrication of three-dimensional polymeric scaffolds, based on wet-spinning of poly(?-caprolactone) (PCL) or PCL/hydroxyapatite (HA) solutions, was developed. The processing conditions to fabricate scaffolds with a layer-by-layer approach were optimized by studying their influence on fibres morphology and alignment. Two different scaffold architectures were designed and fabricated by tuning inter-fibre distance and fibres staggering. The developed scaffolds showed good reproducibility of the internal architecture characterized by highly porous, aligned fibres with an average diameter in the range 200-250 ?m. Mechanical characterization showed that the architecture and HA loading influenced the scaffold compressive modulus and strength. Cell culture experiments employing MC3T3-E1 preosteoblast cell line showed good cell adhesion, proliferation, alkaline phosphatase activity and bone mineralization on the developed scaffolds. PMID:22767245

Puppi, Dario; Mota, Carlos; Gazzarri, Matteo; Dinucci, Dinuccio; Gloria, Antonio; Myrzabekova, Mairam; Ambrosio, Luigi; Chiellini, Federica

2012-12-01

5

Living Bacterial Sacrificial Porogens to Engineer Decellularized Porous Scaffolds  

E-print Network

Decellularization and cellularization of organs have emerged as disruptive methods in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Porous hydrogel scaffolds have widespread applications in tissue engineering, regenerative ...

Xu, Feng

6

Preparation of bioactive porous HA/PCL composite scaffolds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Porous hydroxyapatite (HA) bioceramic scaffold has been widely attracted the attention to act as a three-dimensional (3D) template for cell adhesion, proliferation, differentiation and thus promoting bone and cartilage regeneration because of its osteoinduction. However, the porous bioceramic scaffold is fragile so that it is not suitable to be applied in clinic for bone repair or replacement. Therefore, it is significant to improve the mechanical property of porous HA bioceramics while the interconnected structure is maintained for tissue ingrowth in vivo. In the present research, a porous composite scaffold composed of HA scaffold and polycaprolactone (PCL) lining was fabricated by the method of polymer impregnating to produce HA scaffold coated with PCL lining. Subsequently, the composite scaffolds were deposited with biomimetic coating for improving the bioactivity. The HA/PCL composite scaffolds with improved mechanical property and bioactivity is expected to be a promising bone substitute in tissue engineering applications.

Zhao, J.; Guo, L. Y.; Yang, X. B.; Weng, J.

2008-12-01

7

Mechanical Improvements to Reinforced Porous Silk Scaffolds  

PubMed Central

Load bearing porous biodegradable scaffolds are required to engineer functional tissues such as bone. Mechanical improvements to porogen leached scaffolds prepared from silk proteins were systematically studied through the addition of silk particles in combination with silk solution concentration, exploiting interfacial compatibility between the two components. Solvent solutions of silk up to 32 w/v% were successfully prepared in hexafluoroisopropanaol (HFIP) for the study. The mechanical properties of the reinforced silk scaffolds correlated to the material density and matched by a power law relationship, independent of the ratio of silk particles to matrix. These results were similar to the relationships previously shown for cancellous bone. The mechanism behind the increased mechanical properties was a densification effect, and not the effect of including stiffer silk particles into the softer silk continuous matrix. A continuous interface between the silk matrix and the silk particles, as well as homogeneous distribution of the silk particles within the matrix were observed. Furthermore, we note that the roughness of the pore walls was controllable by varying the ratio of particles matrix, providing a route to control topography. The rate of proteolytic hydrolysis of the scaffolds decreased with increase in mass of silk used in the matrix and with increasing silk particle content. PMID:21793193

Gil, Eun Seok; Kluge, Jonathan A.; Rockwood, Danielle N.; Rajkhowa, Rangam; Wang, Lijing; Wang, Xungai; Kaplan, David L

2012-01-01

8

Conformal encapsulation of three-dimensional, bioresorbable polymeric scaffolds using plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition.  

PubMed

Bioresorbable polymers such as poly(?-caprolactone) (PCL) have a multitude of potential biomaterial applications such as controlled-release drug delivery and regenerative tissue engineering. For such biological applications, the fabrication of porous three-dimensional bioresorbable materials with tunable surface chemistry is critical to maximize their surface-to-volume ratio, mimic the extracellular matrix, and increase drug-loading capacity. Here, two different fluorocarbon (FC) precursors (octofluoropropane (C3F8) and hexafluoropropylene oxide (HFPO)) were used to deposit FC films on PCL scaffolds using plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). These two coating systems were chosen with the intent of modifying the scaffold surfaces to be bio-nonreactive while maintaining desirable bulk properties of the scaffold. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed high-CF2 content films were deposited on both the exterior and interior of PCL scaffolds and that deposition behavior is PECVD system specific. Scanning electron microscopy data confirmed that FC film deposition yielded conformal rather than blanket coatings as the porous scaffold structure was maintained after plasma treatment. Treated scaffolds seeded with human dermal fibroblasts (HDF) demonstrate that the cells do not attach after 72 h and that the scaffolds are noncytotoxic to HDF. This work demonstrates conformal FC coatings can be deposited on 3D polymeric scaffolds using PECVD to fabricate 3D bio-nonreactive materials. PMID:25247481

Hawker, Morgan J; Pegalajar-Jurado, Adoracion; Fisher, Ellen R

2014-10-21

9

Image-based metrology of porous tissue engineering scaffolds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tissue engineering is an interdisciplinary effort aimed at the repair and regeneration of biological tissues through the application and control of cells, porous scaffolds and growth factors. The regeneration of specific tissues guided by tissue analogous substrates is dependent on diverse scaffold architectural indices that can be derived quantitatively from the microCT and microMR images of the scaffolds. However, the

Srinivasan Rajagopalan; Richard A. Robb

2006-01-01

10

Evaluation of phytochemical-incorporated porous polymeric sponges for bone tissue engineering: a novel perspective.  

PubMed

Porous polymeric scaffolds are extensively studied for delivery of bone growth factors. Since phytochemicals are known to produce changes in cell signalling and other metabolic pathways, osteogenic phytochemicals, that is, extracts of Cissus quadrangularis and Butea monosperma, are incorporated into sulphonated poly(aryl ether ketone) sponges. The results have shown that the scaffolds with phytochemicals enhanced the proliferation and alkaline phosphatase activity of the cells compared to cells treated on scaffolds without phytochemicals. Hence, these phytochemicals can be evaluated to augment, if not substitute the use of bone morphogenetic proteins in scaffolds. PMID:23736994

Raghavan, Ravi N; Somanathan, N; Sastry, Thottapalli P

2013-08-01

11

Porous Allograft Bone Scaffolds: Doping with Strontium  

PubMed Central

Strontium (Sr) can promote the process of bone formation. To improve bioactivity, porous allograft bone scaffolds (ABS) were doped with Sr and the mechanical strength and bioactivity of the scaffolds were evaluated. Sr-doped ABS were prepared using the ion exchange method. The density and distribution of Sr in bone scaffolds were investigated by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Controlled release of strontium ions was measured and mechanical strength was evaluated by a compressive strength test. The bioactivity of Sr-doped ABS was investigated by a simulated body fluid (SBF) assay, cytotoxicity testing, and an in vivo implantation experiment. The Sr molar concentration [Sr/(Sr+Ca)] in ABS surpassed 5% and Sr was distributed nearly evenly. XPS analyses suggest that Sr combined with oxygen and carbonate radicals. Released Sr ions were detected in the immersion solution at higher concentration than calcium ions until day 30. The compressive strength of the Sr-doped ABS did not change significantly. The bioactivity of Sr-doped material, as measured by the in vitro SBF immersion method, was superior to that of the Sr-free freeze-dried bone and the Sr-doped material did not show cytotoxicity compared with Sr-free culture medium. The rate of bone mineral deposition for Sr-doped ABS was faster than that of the control at 4 weeks (3.28±0.23 µm/day vs. 2.60±0.20 µm/day; p<0.05). Sr can be evenly doped into porous ABS at relevant concentrations to create highly active bone substitutes. PMID:23922703

Zhao, Yantao; Guo, Dagang; Hou, Shuxun; Zhong, Hongbin; Yan, Jun; Zhang, Chunli; Zhou, Ying

2013-01-01

12

Microporous polymeric 3D scaffolds templated by the layer-by-layer self-assembly.  

PubMed

Polymeric scaffolds serve as valuable supports for biological cells since they offer essential features for guiding cellular organization and tissue development. The main challenges for scaffold fabrication are i) to tune an internal structure and ii) to load bio-molecules such as growth factors and control their local concentration and distribution. Here, a new approach for the design of hollow polymeric scaffolds using porous CaCO3 particles (cores) as templates is presented. The cores packed into a microfluidic channel are coated with polymers employing the layer-by-layer (LbL) technique. Subsequent core elimination at mild conditions results in formation of the scaffold composed of interconnected hollow polymer microspheres. The size of the cores determines the feature dimensions and, as a consequence, governs cellular adhesion: for 3T3 fibroblasts an optimal microsphere size is 12 ?m. By making use of the carrier properties of the porous CaCO3 cores, the microspheres are loaded with BSA as a model protein. The scaffolds developed here may also be well suited for the localized release of bio-molecules using external triggers such as IR-light. PMID:25042776

Paulraj, Thomas; Feoktistova, Natalia; Velk, Natalia; Uhlig, Katja; Duschl, Claus; Volodkin, Dmitry

2014-08-01

13

Fabrication of porous extracellular matrix scaffolds from human adipose tissue.  

PubMed

Adipose tissue is found over the whole body and easily obtained in large quantities with minimal risk by a common surgical operation, liposuction. Although liposuction was originally intended for the removal of undesired adipose tissue, it may provide an ideal material for tissue engineering scaffolds. Here we present novel, porous scaffolds prepared from human adipose tissues. The scaffolds were fabricated in a variety of macroscopic shapes such as round dishes, squares, hollow tubes, and beads. The microscopic inner porous structure was controlled by the freezing temperature, with a decrease in pore size as the freezing temperature decreased. The scaffold prepared from human adipose tissue contains extracellular matrix components including collagen. Preliminary in vitro studies showed that human adipose-derived stem cells attached to a human extracellular matrix scaffold and proliferated. This scaffold based on human adipose tissue holds great promise for many clinical applications in regenerative medicine, particularly in patients requiring soft-tissue regeneration. PMID:19601696

Choi, Ji Suk; Yang, Hyun-Jin; Kim, Beob Soo; Kim, Jae Dong; Lee, Sang Hoon; Lee, Eun Kyu; Park, Kinam; Cho, Yong Woo; Lee, Hee Young

2010-06-01

14

Porous Biodegradable Metals for Hard Tissue Scaffolds: A Review  

PubMed Central

Scaffolds have been utilized in tissue regeneration to facilitate the formation and maturation of new tissues or organs where a balance between temporary mechanical support and mass transport (degradation and cell growth) is ideally achieved. Polymers have been widely chosen as tissue scaffolding material having a good combination of biodegradability, biocompatibility, and porous structure. Metals that can degrade in physiological environment, namely, biodegradable metals, are proposed as potential materials for hard tissue scaffolding where biodegradable polymers are often considered as having poor mechanical properties. Biodegradable metal scaffolds have showed interesting mechanical property that was close to that of human bone with tailored degradation behaviour. The current promising fabrication technique for making scaffolds, such as computation-aided solid free-form method, can be easily applied to metals. With further optimization in topologically ordered porosity design exploiting material property and fabrication technique, porous biodegradable metals could be the potential materials for making hard tissue scaffolds. PMID:22919393

Yusop, A. H.; Bakir, A. A.; Shaharom, N. A.; Abdul Kadir, M. R.; Hermawan, H.

2012-01-01

15

Development of polycaprolactone/chitosan blend porous scaffolds.  

PubMed

Polycaprolactone (PCL) and chitosan were blended to fabricate porous scaffolds for tissue-engineering applications by employing a concentrated acetic acid solution as solvent and salt particles as porogen. These scaffolds showed well-controlled and interconnected porous structures. The pore size and porosity of the scaffolds could be effectively modulated by selecting appropriate amounts and sizes of porogen. The results obtained from compressive mechanical measurements indicated that PCL/chitosan could basically retain their strength in their dry state compared to individual components. In a hydrated state, their compressive stress and modulus could be still well maintained even though the weight ratio of chitosan reached around 50 wt%. PMID:18987952

Wan, Ying; Xiao, Bo; Dalai, Siqin; Cao, Xiaoying; Wu, Quan

2009-03-01

16

Porous Poly(?-Caprolactone) Scaffolds for Retinal Pigment Epithelium Transplantation  

PubMed Central

Purpose. Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) transplantation is a promising strategy for the treatment of dry age-related macular degeneration (AMD). However, previous attempts at subretinal RPE cell transplantation have experienced limited success due to poor adhesion, organization, and function on aged or diseased Bruch's membrane. Instead, cell-based strategies may benefit from a synthetic scaffold that mimics the functions of healthy Bruch's membrane to promote the formation of a functional RPE monolayer while maintaining metabolite exchange between the vasculature and outer retina. Methods. This study evaluated the behavior of human RPE on nanopatterned porous poly(?-caprolactone) (PCL) film as a potential scaffold for therapeutic transplantation. Fetal human RPE (fhRPE) was cultured on porous PCL, nonporous PCL, or Costar porous polyester transwells for up to 8 weeks and assessed using light microscopy, fluorescent microscopy, transepithelial resistance, quantitative PCR, ELISAs, and phagocytosis assays. Results. fhRPE on porous PCL displayed improved markers of maturity and function compared with both porous polyester transwells and nonporous PCL, including pigmentation, increased cell density, superior barrier function, up-regulation of RPE-specific genes, and polarized growth factor secretion. Conclusions. This study indicates that porous PCL is an attractive scaffold for RPE transplantation. In addition to being biocompatible with the subretinal space, porous PCL also allows for trans-scaffold metabolite transport and significantly improves RPE cell behavior compared to nonporous PCL or porous polyester transwells. PMID:24550370

McHugh, Kevin J.; Tao, Sarah L.; Saint-Geniez, Magali

2014-01-01

17

Development of polycaprolactone porous scaffolds by combining solvent casting, particulate leaching, and polymer leaching techniques for bone tissue engineering.  

PubMed

Sodium chloride and polyethylene glycol (PEG) were used as water-soluble porogens for the formation of porous polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffolds. The main purpose was to prepare and evaluate in vitro efficacy of highly interconnected, three-dimensional, porous polymeric scaffolds, as obtained from the combined particulate and polymer leaching techniques. Microscopic analysis confirmed the high interconnectivity of the pores and relatively uniform pore size of 378-435 ?m. The PCL scaffolds were further characterized for their density and pore characteristics, water absorption and flow behaviors, and mechanical properties and the potential for their use as bone scaffolding materials was evaluated in vitro using mouse calvaria-derived preosteoblastic cells (MC3T3-E1). Evidently, the use of PEG as the secondary porogen not only improved the interconnectivity of the pore structures but also resulted in the PCL scaffolds that exhibited much better support for the proliferation and differentiation of the cultured bone cells. PMID:24132871

Thadavirul, Napaphat; Pavasant, Prasit; Supaphol, Pitt

2014-10-01

18

Novel Biodegradable Porous Scaffold Applied to Skin Regeneration  

PubMed Central

Skin wound healing is an important lifesaving issue for massive lesions. A novel porous scaffold with collagen, hyaluronic acid and gelatin was developed for skin wound repair. The swelling ratio of this developed scaffold was assayed by water absorption capacity and showed a value of over 20 g water/g dried scaffold. The scaffold was then degraded in time- and dose-dependent manners by three enzymes: lysozyme, hyaluronidase and collagenase I. The average pore diameter of the scaffold was 132.5±8.4 µm measured from SEM images. With human skin cells growing for 7 days, the SEM images showed surface fractures on the scaffold due to enzymatic digestion, indicating the biodegradable properties of this scaffold. To simulate skin distribution, the human epidermal keratinocytes, melanocytes and dermal fibroblasts were seeded on the porous scaffold and the cross-section immunofluorescent staining demonstrated normal human skin layer distributions. The collagen amount was also quantified after skin cells seeding and presented an amount 50% higher than those seeded on culture wells. The in vivo histological results showed that the scaffold ameliorated wound healing, including decreasing neutrophil infiltrates and thickening newly generated skin compared to the group without treatments. PMID:23762223

Wang, Hui-Min; Chou, Yi-Ting; Wen, Zhi-Hong; Wang, Zhao-Ren; Chen, Chun-Hong; Ho, Mei-Ling

2013-01-01

19

Nanostructured Polymeric Scaffolds for Orthopaedic Regenerative Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Successful regeneration necessitates the development of three-dimensional (3-D) tissue-inducing scaffolds that mimic the hierarchical architecture of native tissue extracellular matrix (ECM). Cells in nature recognize and interact with the surface topography they are exposed to via ECM proteins. The interaction of cells with nanotopographical features such as pores, ridges, groves, fibers, nodes, and their combinations has proven to be an

Meng Deng; Roshan James; Cato T. Laurencin; Sangamesh G. Kumbar

2012-01-01

20

Development of porous scaffolds for bone tissue engineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In bone tissue engineering, biodegradable scaffolds are used as a temporary biological and mechanical support for new tissue growth. A scaffold must have good biocompatibility, controllable degradation rate, and enough mechanical strength to support bone cell attachment, differentiation, and proliferation as it gradually degrades and finally is completely replaced by new bone tissues. Biological studies and clinical practices have established that a three-dimensional interconnected porous structure is necessary to allow cell attachment, proliferation, and differentiation, and to provide pathways for biofluids. However, the mechanical strength of a material generally decreases as increasing porosity. The conflicting interests between biological and mechanical requirements thus pose a challenge in developing porous scaffolds for load-bearing bone tissue engineering. Two types of ceramic scaffolds, (1) Hydroxaypatite and (2) Hydroxaypatite/tricalcium phosphate, are prepared in this study utilizing a novel technique that combines the gel casting and polymer sponge methods. This technique provides better control over material microstructure and can produce scaffolds with enhanced mechanical toughness and strength. The hydroxyapatite scaffolds prepared by this technique have an open, uniform and interconnected porous structure (˜porosity = 76%) with compressive modulus of 7 GPa, comparable to that of cortical bone, and compressive strength of 5 MPa, comparable to that of cancellous bone. The second type of ceramic scaffold is a biphasic nano composite with tricalcium phosphate as the main matrix reinforced with hydroxyapatite (HA) nano-fibers. The porous scaffold attained a compressive strength of 9.6 MPa (˜porosity = 73%), comparable to the high-end value of cancellous bone. The toughness of the scaffold increased from 1.00 to 1.72 kN/m (˜porosity = 73%), as the addition of HA nano-fibers increased up to 5 wt.%. Polymer scaffolds are prepared using a solid-liquid phase separation technique with a polyelectrolyte complex of chitosan and alginate as scaffolding material. These scaffolds were used to study sustained delivery of a model protein. The effect of size of ceramic in polymer matrix on mechanical and biological properties of scaffold is also examined by using both nano- and micron-sized ceramic particles.

Ramay, Hassna Rehman

21

Modeling of porous scaffold deformation induced by medium perfusion.  

PubMed

In this study, we tested the possibility of calculating permeability of porous scaffolds utilized in soft tissue engineering using pore size and shape. We validated the results using experimental measured pressure drop and simulations with the inclusion of structural deformation. We prepared Polycaprolactone (PCL) and Chitosan-Gelatin (CG) scaffolds by salt leaching and freeze drying technique, respectively. Micrographs were assessed for pore characteristics and mechanical properties. Porosity for both scaffolds was nearly same but the permeability varied 10-fold. Elastic moduli were 600 and 9 kPa for PCL and CG scaffolds, respectively, while Poisson's ratio was 0.3 for PCL scaffolds and ?1.0 for CG scaffolds. A flow-through bioreactor accommodating a 10 cm diameter and 0.2 cm thick scaffold was used to determine the pressure-drop at various flow rates. Additionally, computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations were performed by coupling fluid flow, described by Brinkman equation, with structural mechanics using a dynamic mesh. The experimentally obtained pressure drop matched the simulation results of PCL scaffolds. Simulations were extended to a broad range of permeabilities (10(-10) m(2) to 10(-14) m(2) ), elastic moduli (10-100,000 kPa) and Poisson's ratio (0.1-0.49). The results showed significant deviation in pressure drop due to scaffold deformation compared to rigid scaffold at permeabilities near healthy tissues. Also, considering the scaffold as a nonrigid structure altered the shear stress profile. In summary, scaffold permeability can be calculated using scaffold pore characteristics and deformation could be predicted using CFD simulation. These relationships could potentially be used in monitoring tissue regeneration noninvasively via pressure drop. PMID:24259467

Podichetty, Jagdeep T; Madihally, Sundararajan V

2014-05-01

22

Solvent/Non-Solvent Sintering: A Novel Route to Create Porous Microsphere Scaffolds For Tissue Regeneration  

PubMed Central

Solvent/non-solvent sintering creates porous polymeric microsphere scaffolds suitable for tissue engineering purposes with control over the resulting porosity, average pore diameter and mechanical properties. Five different biodegradable biocompatible polyphosphazenes exhibiting glass transition temperatures from ?8°C to 41oC and poly(lactide-co-glycolide), (PLAGA) a degradable polymer used in a number of biomedical settings, were examined to study the versatility of the process and benchmark the process to heat sintering. Parameters such as: solvent/non-solvent sintering solution composition and submersion time effect the sintering process. PLAGA microsphere scaffolds fabricated with solvent/non-solvent sintering exhibited an interconnected porosity and pore size of 31.9% and 179.1µm respectively which was analogous to that of conventional heat sintered PLAGA microsphere scaffolds. Biodegradable polyphosphazene microsphere scaffolds exhibited a maximum interconnected porosity of 37.6% and a maximum compressive modulus of 94.3MPa. Solvent/non-solvent sintering is an effective strategy for sintering polymeric microspheres, with a broad spectrum of glass transition temperatures, under ambient conditions making it an excellent fabrication route for developing tissue engineering scaffolds and drug delivery vehicles. PMID:18161819

Brown, Justin L.; Nair, Lakshmi S.; Laurencin, Cato T.

2009-01-01

23

Bioactive polymeric-ceramic hybrid 3D scaffold for application in bone tissue regeneration.  

PubMed

The regeneration of large bone defects remains a challenging scenario from a therapeutic point of view. In fact, the currently available bone substitutes are often limited by poor tissue integration and severe host inflammatory responses, which eventually lead to surgical removal. In an attempt to address these issues, herein we evaluated the importance of alginate incorporation in the production of improved and tunable ?-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) and hydroxyapatite (HA) three-dimensional (3D) porous scaffolds to be used as temporary templates for bone regeneration. Different bioceramic combinations were tested in order to investigate optimal scaffold architectures. Additionally, 3D ?-TCP/HA vacuum-coated with alginate, presented improved compressive strength, fracture toughness and Young's modulus, to values similar to those of native bone. The hybrid 3D polymeric-bioceramic scaffolds also supported osteoblast adhesion, maturation and proliferation, as demonstrated by fluorescence microscopy. To the best of our knowledge this is the first time that a 3D scaffold produced with this combination of biomaterials is described. Altogether, our results emphasize that this hybrid scaffold presents promising characteristics for its future application in bone regeneration. PMID:23910366

Torres, A L; Gaspar, V M; Serra, I R; Diogo, G S; Fradique, R; Silva, A P; Correia, I J

2013-10-01

24

Development of highly porous titanium scaffolds by selective laser melting  

Microsoft Academic Search

The selective laser melting (SLM) of the TiH2–Ti blended powder was performed in the present work. Porous titanium scaffolds characterized by high porosity (?70%), interconnected Ti walls and open porous structures with macroscopic pores (in a range of ?200 to ?500?m) were successfully prepared at a laser power of 1000W and a scan speed of 0.02m\\/s. The effects of componential

Yan Wang; Yifu Shen; Zhiyang Wang; Jialin Yang; Ning Liu; Wenrong Huang

2010-01-01

25

Living Bacterial Sacrificial Porogens to Engineer Decellularized Porous Scaffolds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decellularization and cellularization of organs have emerged as disruptive methods in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Porous hydrogel scaffolds have widespread applications in tissue engineering, regenerative medicine and drug discovery as viable tissue mimics. However, the existing hydrogel fabrication techniques suffer from limited control over pore interconnectivity, density and size, which leads to inefficient nutrient and oxygen transport to cells

Feng Xu; Banupriya Sridharan; Naside Gozde Durmus; Shuqi Wang; Ahmet Sinan Yavuz; Umut Atakan Gurkan; Utkan Demirci; Che John Connon

2011-01-01

26

Living Bacterial Sacrificial Porogens to Engineer Decellularized Porous Scaffolds  

E-print Network

, Providence, Rhode Island, United States of America, 3 Harvard-MIT Health Sciences and Technology, Cambridge as disruptive methods in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Porous hydrogel scaffolds have widespread of Medicine and Innovative Technology (CIMIT) under U.S. Army Medical Research Acquisition Activity

Demirci, Utkan

27

Living Bacterial Sacrificial Porogens to Engineer Decellularized Porous Scaffolds  

PubMed Central

Decellularization and cellularization of organs have emerged as disruptive methods in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Porous hydrogel scaffolds have widespread applications in tissue engineering, regenerative medicine and drug discovery as viable tissue mimics. However, the existing hydrogel fabrication techniques suffer from limited control over pore interconnectivity, density and size, which leads to inefficient nutrient and oxygen transport to cells embedded in the scaffolds. Here, we demonstrated an innovative approach to develop a new platform for tissue engineered constructs using live bacteria as sacrificial porogens. E.coli were patterned and cultured in an interconnected three-dimensional (3D) hydrogel network. The growing bacteria created interconnected micropores and microchannels. Then, the scafold was decellularized, and bacteria were eliminated from the scaffold through lysing and washing steps. This 3D porous network method combined with bioprinting has the potential to be broadly applicable and compatible with tissue specific applications allowing seeding of stem cells and other cell types. PMID:21552485

Xu, Feng; Sridharan, BanuPriya; Durmus, Naside Gozde; Wang, ShuQi; Yavuz, Ahmet Sinan; Gurkan, Umut Atakan; Demirci, Utkan

2011-01-01

28

Synthesis of polymer/inorganic nanocomposite films using highly porous inorganic scaffolds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polymeric/inorganic nanocomposite films have been fabricated through a combination of flame-spray-pyrolysis (FSP) made inorganic scaffold and surface initiated polymerization of cyanoacrylate. The highly porous structure of pristine SnO2 films allows the uptake of cyanoacrylate and the polymerization is surface initiated by the water adsorbed onto the SnO2 surface. Scanning electron microscopy study reveals a nonlinear increase in the composite particle size and the film thickness with polymerization time. The structural change is rather homogeneous throughout the whole layer. The composite is formed mainly by an increase of the particle size and not by just filling the existing pores. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy imaging shows SnO2 nanoparticles embedded in the polymeric matrix, constituting the nanocomposite material. Thermogravimetric analysis indicates that the porosity of the nanocomposite films decreases from 98% to 75%, resulting in a significant enhancement of the hardness of the films. DC conductivity measurements conducted in situ on the nanocomposite layer suggest a gradual increase in the layer resistance, pointing to a loss of connectivity between the SnO2 primary particles as the polymerization proceeds.Polymeric/inorganic nanocomposite films have been fabricated through a combination of flame-spray-pyrolysis (FSP) made inorganic scaffold and surface initiated polymerization of cyanoacrylate. The highly porous structure of pristine SnO2 films allows the uptake of cyanoacrylate and the polymerization is surface initiated by the water adsorbed onto the SnO2 surface. Scanning electron microscopy study reveals a nonlinear increase in the composite particle size and the film thickness with polymerization time. The structural change is rather homogeneous throughout the whole layer. The composite is formed mainly by an increase of the particle size and not by just filling the existing pores. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy imaging shows SnO2 nanoparticles embedded in the polymeric matrix, constituting the nanocomposite material. Thermogravimetric analysis indicates that the porosity of the nanocomposite films decreases from 98% to 75%, resulting in a significant enhancement of the hardness of the films. DC conductivity measurements conducted in situ on the nanocomposite layer suggest a gradual increase in the layer resistance, pointing to a loss of connectivity between the SnO2 primary particles as the polymerization proceeds. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: SEM images and powder XRD patterns. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr12029a

Zhang, Huanjun; Popp, Matthias; Hartwig, Andreas; Mädler, Lutz

2012-03-01

29

Tissue engineering scaffold material of porous nanohydroxyapatite/polyamide 66  

PubMed Central

The aim of the study was to investigate a porous nanohydroxyapatite/polyamide 66 (n-HA/PA66) scaffold material that was implanted into muscle and tibiae of 16 New Zealand white rabbits to evaluate the biocompatibility and osteogenesis and osteoinductivity of the materials in vivo. The samples were harvested at 2, 4, 12 and 26 weeks respectively, and subjected to histological analysis. At 2 weeks, the experiment showed that osteogenesis was detected in porous n-HA/PA66 composite and the density of new bone formation was similar to the surrounding host bone at 12 weeks. The study indicated that three-dimensional pore structures could facilitate cell adhesion, differentiation and proliferation, and help with fibrovascular and nerve colonization. In conclusion, porous n-HA/PA66 scaffold material could be a good candidate as a bone substitute material used in clinics due to its excellent histocompatibility, osteoconductivity and osteoinductivity. PMID:20517477

Xu, Qian; Lu, Hongyan; Zhang, Jingchao; Lu, Guoyu; Deng, Zhennan; Mo, Anchun

2010-01-01

30

Advancements in electrospinning of polymeric nanofibrous scaffolds for tissue engineering.  

PubMed

Polymeric nanofibers have potential as tissue engineering scaffolds, as they mimic the nanoscale properties and structural characteristics of native extracellular matrix (ECM). Nanofibers composed of natural and synthetic polymers, biomimetic composites, ceramics, and metals have been fabricated by electrospinning for various tissue engineering applications. The inherent advantages of electrospinning nanofibers include the generation of substrata with high surface area-to-volume ratios, the capacity to precisely control material and mechanical properties, and a tendency for cellular in-growth due to interconnectivity within the pores. Furthermore, the electrospinning process affords the opportunity to engineer scaffolds with micro- to nanoscale topography similar to the natural ECM. This review describes the fundamental aspects of the electrospinning process when applied to spinnable natural and synthetic polymers; particularly, those parameters that influence fiber geometry, morphology, mesh porosity, and scaffold mechanical properties. We describe cellular responses to fiber morphology achieved by varying processing parameters and highlight successful applications of electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds when used to tissue engineer bone, skin, and vascular grafts. PMID:24004443

Ingavle, Ganesh C; Leach, J Kent

2014-08-01

31

3D interconnected porous biomimetic scaffolds: In vitro cell response.  

PubMed

Bone cell response to 3D bioinspired scaffolds was tested on osteoblast culture supernatants and by means of quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Foaming and freeze-drying method was optimized in order to obtain three-dimensional interconnected porous scaffolds of gelatin at different contents of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite (HA). Addition of a non toxic crosslinking agent during foaming stabilized the scaffolds, as confirmed by the slow and relatively low gelatin release in phosphate buffer up to 28 days. Micro-computed tomography reconstructed images showed porous interconnected structures, with interconnected pores displaying average diameter ranging from about 158 to about 71 ?m as the inorganic phase content increases from 0 to 50 wt %. The high values of connectivity (>99%), porosity (> 60%), and percentage of pores with a size in the range 100-300 ?m (>50%) were maintained up to 30 wt % HA, whereas higher content provoked a reduction of these parameters, as well as of the average pore size, and a significant increase of the compressive modulus and collapse strength up to 8 ± 1 and 0.9 ± 0.2 MPa, respectively. Osteoblast cultured on the scaffolds showed good adhesion, proliferation and differentiation. The presence of HA promoted ALP activity, TGF-?1, and osteocalcin production, in agreement with the observed upregulation of ALP, OC, Runx2, and TGF-?1 gene in qPCR analysis, indicating that the composite scaffolds enhanced osteoblast activation and extra-cellular matrix mineralization processes. PMID:23629945

Panzavolta, Silvia; Torricelli, Paola; Amadori, Sofia; Parrilli, Annapaola; Rubini, Katia; della Bella, Elena; Fini, Milena; Bigi, Adriana

2013-12-01

32

Porous titanium scaffolds fabricated using a rapid prototyping and powder metallurgy technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the main issues in orthopaedic implant design is the fabrication of scaffolds that closely mimic the biomechanical properties of the surrounding bone. This research reports on a multi-stage rapid prototyping technique that was successfully developed to produce porous titanium scaffolds with fully interconnected pore networks and reproducible porosity and pore size. The scaffolds' porous characteristics were governed by

Garrett E. Ryan; Abhay S. Pandit; Dimitrios P. Apatsidis

2008-01-01

33

Injectable and porous PLGA microspheres that form highly porous scaffolds at body temperature  

PubMed Central

Injectable scaffolds are of interest in the field of regenerative medicine because of their minimally invasive mode of delivery. For tissue repair applications, it is essential that such scaffolds have the mechanical properties, porosity and pore diameter to support the formation of new tissue. In the current study, porous poly(dl-lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres were fabricated with an average size of 84 ± 24 ?m for use as injectable cell carriers. Treatment with ethanolic sodium hydroxide for 2 min was observed to increase surface porosity without causing the microsphere structure to disintegrate. This surface treatment also enabled the microspheres to fuse together at 37 °C to form scaffold structures. The average compressive strength of the scaffolds after 24 h at 37 °C was 0.9 ± 0.1 MPa, and the average Young’s modulus was 9.4 ± 1.2 MPa. Scaffold porosity levels were 81.6% on average, with a mean pore diameter of 54 ± 38 ?m. This study demonstrates a method for fabricating porous PLGA microspheres that form solid porous scaffolds at body temperature, creating an injectable system capable of supporting NIH-3T3 cell attachment and proliferation in vitro. PMID:25152354

Qutachi, Omar; Vetsch, Jolanda R.; Gill, Daniel; Cox, Helen; Scurr, David J.; Hofmann, Sandra; Müller, Ralph; Quirk, Robin A.; Shakesheff, Kevin M.; Rahman, Cheryl V.

2014-01-01

34

Ultra-porous titanium oxide scaffold with high compressive strength  

PubMed Central

Highly porous and well interconnected titanium dioxide (TiO2) scaffolds with compressive strength above 2.5 MPa were fabricated without compromising the desired pore architectural characteristics, such as high porosity, appropriate pore size, surface-to-volume ratio, and interconnectivity. Processing parameters and pore architectural characteristics were investigated in order to identify the key processing steps and morphological properties that contributed to the enhanced strength of the scaffolds. Cleaning of the TiO2 raw powder removed phosphates but introduced sodium into the powder, which was suggested to decrease the slurry stability. Strong correlation was found between compressive strength and both replication times and solid content in the ceramic slurry. Increase in the solid content resulted in more favourable sponge loading, which was achieved due to the more suitable rheological properties of the ceramic slurry. Repeated replication process induced only negligible changes in the pore architectural parameters indicating a reduced flaw size in the scaffold struts. The fabricated TiO2 scaffolds show great promise as load-bearing bone scaffolds for applications where moderate mechanical support is required. PMID:20711636

Tiainen, Hanna; Lyngstadaas, S. Petter; Ellingsen, Jan Eirik

2010-01-01

35

Gas-in-liquid foam templating as a method for the production of highly porous scaffolds.  

PubMed

In the present work, a novel synthetic methodology for the preparation of scaffold of biopolymeric nature is described. In particular, a porous gelatin scaffold was prepared by foam templating. The gas phase, nitrogen, was generated by means of the reaction between sulfamic acid and sodium nitrite in situ a concentrated solution of gelatin and in the presence of a suitable polymeric surfactant in association with sodium dodecyl sulfate. The foam was prepared at a temperature of 45 degrees C and then let gel at 5 degrees C. After purification, the physical gel was auto-cross-linked with EDC and freeze-dried. The scaffold synthesized with this technique presents a morphology characterized by voids of spherical symmetry highly interconnected by a plurality of interconnects, and, as a consequence, is particularly suited for cell culturing. In more quantitative terms, voids and interconnects are characterized by an average diameter of 230 and 90 microm, respectively. Preliminary tests of cell culturing demonstrated the suitability of such a scaffold for tissue engineering applications. PMID:19891500

Barbetta, Andrea; Gumiero, Andrea; Pecci, Raffaella; Bedini, Rossella; Dentini, Mariella

2009-12-14

36

Phenomenological study of Au and Pt nanowires grown in porous alumina scaffolds  

E-print Network

Porous anodic aluminum oxide, commonly known as AAO, has been widely used as a scaffold to synthesize nanowires and nanotubes. The porous alumina structure can be obtained from a simple electrochemical oxidation process, ...

Shin, Yong Cheol, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2011-01-01

37

Rapid prototyped porous nickel–titanium scaffolds as bone substitutes  

PubMed Central

While calcium phosphate–based ceramics are currently the most widely used materials in bone repair, they generally lack tensile strength for initial load bearing. Bulk titanium is the gold standard of metallic implant materials, but does not match the mechanical properties of the surrounding bone, potentially leading to problems of fixation and bone resorption. As an alternative, nickel–titanium alloys possess a unique combination of mechanical properties including a relatively low elastic modulus, pseudoelasticity, and high damping capacity, matching the properties of bone better than any other metallic material. With the ultimate goal of fabricating porous implants for spinal, orthopedic and dental applications, nickel–titanium substrates were fabricated by means of selective laser melting. The response of human mesenchymal stromal cells to the nickel–titanium substrates was compared to mesenchymal stromal cells cultured on clinically used titanium. Selective laser melted titanium as well as surface-treated nickel–titanium and titanium served as controls. Mesenchymal stromal cells had similar proliferation rates when cultured on selective laser melted nickel–titanium, clinically used titanium, or controls. Osteogenic differentiation was similar for mesenchymal stromal cells cultured on the selected materials, as indicated by similar gene expression levels of bone sialoprotein and osteocalcin. Mesenchymal stromal cells seeded and cultured on porous three-dimensional selective laser melted nickel–titanium scaffolds homogeneously colonized the scaffold, and following osteogenic induction, filled the scaffold’s pore volume with extracellular matrix. The combination of bone-related mechanical properties of selective laser melted nickel–titanium with its cytocompatibility and support of osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stromal cells highlights its potential as a superior bone substitute as compared to clinically used titanium. PMID:25383165

Hoffmann, Waldemar; Bormann, Therese; Rossi, Antonella; Müller, Bert; Schumacher, Ralf; Martin, Ivan; Wendt, David

2014-01-01

38

Porous nanoapatite scaffolds synthesized using an approach of interfacial mineralization reaction and their bioactivity.  

PubMed

There is a growing interest in the use of calcium phosphate, used to fabricate porous scaffolds for bone tissue regeneration and repair. However, it is difficult to obtain interconnected pores with very high porosity and to engineer the topography of the pore walls for calcium phosphate ceramic scaffolds. In this study, a novelty method interfacial mineralization reaction was used to fabricate porous nano-calcium phosphate ceramic scaffolds with three-dimensional surface topography of walls, which was tuned using different surfactants; using this method, porous scaffolds with different shapes were obtained, which demonstrates that interfacial mineralization reaction is not only a good method to prepare porous ceramic scaffolds of calcium phosphate but also an efficient approach to engineer the topography of the pore walls. The as-prepared porous ceramic scaffolds have also been proved to have good biocompatibility, bioactivity, and biodegradability, which are necessary for the clinical application. In vivo experimental results revealed that not only osteoconduction but also osteoinduction was responsible for the bone formation in our scaffolds, which accelerated the formation of new bone, and that the degradation process of our porous scaffolds could match osteoinduction, mineralization of matrix and bone, and reconstruction of new bone very well, and porous scaffolds could be completely substituted by the new bone. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 102B: 1749-1761, 2014. PMID:24692259

Wang, Jianxin; Yan, Haoran; Chen, Taijun; Wang, Yingying; Li, Huiyong; Zhi, Wei; Feng, Bo; Weng, Jie; Zhu, Minghua

2014-11-01

39

Rapid prototyped porous titanium coated with calcium phosphate as a scaffold for bone tissue engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

High strength porous scaffolds and mesenchymal stem cells are required for bone tissue engineering applications. Porous titanium scaffolds (TiS) with a regular array of interconnected pores of 1000?m in diameter and a porosity of 50% were produced using a rapid prototyping technique. A calcium phosphate (CaP) coating was applied to these titanium (Ti) scaffolds with an electrodeposition method. Raman spectroscopy

Marco A. Lopez-Heredia; Jerome Sohier; Cedric Gaillard; Sophie Quillard; Michel Dorget; Pierre Layrolle

2008-01-01

40

Novel polymeric nanocomposites and porous materials prepared using organogels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a new method for preparing polymeric nanocomposites and porous materials using self-assembled templates formed by 1,3:2,4-dibenzylidene sorbitol (DBS) organogels. DBS is capable of self-assembling into a 3D nanofibrillar network at relatively low concentrations in some organic solvents to produce organogels. In this study, we induced the formation of such physical cross-linked networks in styrene. Subsequently, we polymerized the styrene in the presence of chemical cross-linkers, divinyl benzene (DVB), with different amounts of DBS using thermal-initiated polymerization. The resulting materials were transparent, homogeneous polystyrene (PS) nanocomposites with both physical and chemical cross-links. The porous polymeric materials were obtained by solvent extraction of the DBS nanofibrils from the PS. Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) measurements show that the amounts of DBS and DVB influenced the specific surface area after the removal of the DBS fibrils.

Lai, Wei-Chi; Tseng, Shen-Chen

2009-11-01

41

Novel polymeric nanocomposites and porous materials prepared using organogels.  

PubMed

We propose a new method for preparing polymeric nanocomposites and porous materials using self-assembled templates formed by 1,3:2,4-dibenzylidene sorbitol (DBS) organogels. DBS is capable of self-assembling into a 3D nanofibrillar network at relatively low concentrations in some organic solvents to produce organogels. In this study, we induced the formation of such physical cross-linked networks in styrene. Subsequently, we polymerized the styrene in the presence of chemical cross-linkers, divinyl benzene (DVB), with different amounts of DBS using thermal-initiated polymerization. The resulting materials were transparent, homogeneous polystyrene (PS) nanocomposites with both physical and chemical cross-links. The porous polymeric materials were obtained by solvent extraction of the DBS nanofibrils from the PS. Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) measurements show that the amounts of DBS and DVB influenced the specific surface area after the removal of the DBS fibrils. PMID:19875871

Lai, Wei-Chi; Tseng, Shen-Chen

2009-11-25

42

Optimally porous and biomechanically compatible scaffolds for large-area bone regeneration.  

PubMed

Large-area or critical-sized bone defects pose a serious challenge in orthopedic surgery, as all current treatment options present with shortcomings. Bone tissue engineering offers a more promising alternative treatment strategy. However, this approach requires mechanically stable scaffolds that support homogenous bone formation throughout the scaffold thickness. Despite advances in scaffold fabrication, current scaffold-based techniques are unable to support uniform, three-dimensional bone regeneration, and are limited to only the scaffold surface in vitro and in vivo. This is mainly because of inadequate scaffold pore sizes (<200??m) and accessible pore volume, and the associated limited oxygen diffusion and vascular invasion. In this study, we have adopted a method combining microsphere-sintering and porogen-leaching techniques to fabricate scaffolds with an increased accessible pore volume. Of the scaffolds developed, moderately porous poly(85 lactide-co-15 glycolide) (PLGA) microsphere scaffolds were selected as most advantageous, since they retain mechanical strength in the range of human cancellous bone and display a significantly higher accessible pore volume, which is attributed to an increased percentage of larger pores (i.e., size range 200-600??m). Unlike control scaffolds with a limited pore size and an accessible pore volume, moderately porous scaffolds displayed increased oxygen diffusion, pre-osteoblast cell infiltration, proliferation, and survival throughout the entire scaffold. Furthermore, moderately porous PLGA microsphere scaffolds displayed enhanced and homogenous mineralization in vitro. Since these newly designed moderately porous scaffolds are weight bearing, are fully osteoconductive, and have the ability to support vascularization, they may serve as effective scaffolds for large-area bone defect repair/regeneration. In addition, this study demonstrates the ability to modulate scaffold porosity and, in turn, to develop oxygen tension-controlled matrices that are effective for large-area bone regeneration. PMID:22401817

Amini, Ami R; Adams, Douglas J; Laurencin, Cato T; Nukavarapu, Syam P

2012-07-01

43

Polycaprolactone coated porous tricalcium phosphate scaffolds for controlled release of protein for tissue engineering  

PubMed Central

Polycaprolactone (PCL) was coated on porous tricalcium phosphate (TCP) scaffolds to achieve controlled protein delivery. Porous TCP scaffolds were fabricated using reticulated polyurethane foam as sacrificial scaffold with a porosity of 70–90 vol %. PCL was coated on sintered porous TCP scaffolds by dipping-drying process. The compressive strength of TCP scaffolds increased significantly after PCL coating. The highest strength of 2.41 MPa at a porosity of 70% was obtained for the TCP scaffold coated with 5% PCL solution. Model protein bovine serum albumin (BSA) was encapsulated efficiently within the PCL coating. The amount of BSA encapsulation was controlled by varying proteins’ composition in the PCL coating. The FTIR analysis confirmed that BSA retained its structural conformation and did not show significant denaturization during PCL coating. The release kinetics in phosphate buffer solution indicated that the protein release was controlled and sustained, and primarily dependant on protein concentration encapsulated in the PCL coating. PMID:19572301

Xue, Weichang; Bandyopadhyay, Amit; Bose, Susmita

2010-01-01

44

Fabrication of porous chitosan-polyvinyl pyrrolidone scaffolds from a quaternary system via phase separation.  

PubMed

Three-dimensional porous chitosan-polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) scaffolds were fabricated for tissue engineering applications via liquid-liquid or liquid-solid phase separation. A mixture of an acidic aqueous solution with butanol as a non-solvent and a chitosan-PVP quaternary system were freeze-dried. We then studied the homogenous open pore structure and the minute pore distribution in order to improve the mass transfer and cell seeding efficiency while also obtaining the optimal ratio of PVP to provide high interconnectivity and to improve the open-pore structure. The properties of the porous chitosan-PVP scaffolds - including the microstructure, chemical release, water absorption properties, and cell proliferation tests were studied - and the results were compared against those obtained from conventional scaffolds. chitosan-PVP scaffolds with a porosity of over 70% were obtained, and the pore morphology on the surface and within the porous scaffolds showed the presence of homogenous open pores with excellent interconnectivity. As the PVP content increased, main pores (50-100 ?m) and minute pores (4-10 ?m) could be clearly observed. Also, the porous scaffold showed an improved efficiency for cell adhesion after the cells were cultured for 4 h. After 72 h, the cultured cells presented an increase in the cell proliferation and on the porous scaffolds. These results strongly suggest that the porous chitosan-PVP scaffolds can be widely used in tissue engineering, including for biopatches and artificial skin applications. PMID:25410721

Lim, Jin Ik; Im, Heejung; Lee, Woo-Kul

2015-01-01

45

Nanoscalar modifications to polymeric tissue engineering scaffolds: Effect on cellular behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polymeric scaffolds provide a surface that can facilitate cell growth and tissue morphogenesis. Of particular interest is the role of nanoscalar features on cell behavior. Nanoscale topographies can be generated on two-dimensional polymeric substrates via reactive ion etching. The magnitude and morphology of the resultant surfaces can be tailored by varying the gas media, etching time and power used. Nanofibrillar

Heather M. Powell

2004-01-01

46

Porous polymeric materials for hydrogen storage  

DOEpatents

Porous polymers, tribenzohexazatriphenylene, poly-9,9'-spirobifluorene, poly-tetraphenyl methane and their derivatives for storage of H.sub.2 prepared through a chemical synthesis method. The porous polymers have high specific surface area and narrow pore size distribution. Hydrogen uptake measurements conducted for these polymers determined a higher hydrogen storage capacity at the ambient temperature over that of the benchmark materials. The method of preparing such polymers, includes oxidatively activating solids by CO.sub.2/steam oxidation and supercritical water treatment.

Yu, Luping (Hoffman Estates, IL); Liu, Di-Jia (Naperville, IL); Yuan, Shengwen (Chicago, IL); Yang, Junbing (Westmont, IL)

2011-12-13

47

Fabrication and Characterization of Waterborne Biodegradable Polyurethanes 3Dimensional Porous Scaffolds for Vascular Tissue Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, a series of 3-D interconnected porous scaffolds with various pore diameters and porosities was fabricated by freeze-drying with non-toxic biodegradable waterborne polyurethane (WBPU) emulsions of different concentration. The structures of these porous scaffolds were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the pore diameters were calculated using CIAS 3.0 software. The pores obtained were 3-D interconnected in

Xia Jiang; Feilong Yu; Zhigao Wang; Jiehua Li; Hong Tan; Mingming Ding; Qiang Fu

2010-01-01

48

PHBV/PAM Scaffolds with Local Oriented Structure through UV Polymerization for Tissue Engineering  

PubMed Central

Locally oriented tissue engineering scaffolds can provoke cellular orientation and direct cell spread and migration, offering an exciting potential way for the regeneration of the complex tissue. Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) scaffolds with locally oriented hydrophilic polyacrylamide (PAM) inside the macropores of the scaffolds were achieved through UV graft polymerization. The interpenetrating PAM chains enabled good interconnectivity of PHBV/PAM scaffolds that presented a lower porosity and minor diameter of pores than PHBV scaffolds. The pores with diameter below 100??m increased to 82.15% of PHBV/PAM scaffolds compared with 31.5% of PHBV scaffolds. PHBV/PAM scaffold showed a much higher compressive elastic modulus than PHBV scaffold due to PAM stuffing. At 5 days of culturing, sheep chondrocytes spread along the similar direction in the macropores of PHBV/PAM scaffolds. The locally oriented PAM chains might guide the attachment and spreading of chondrocytes and direct the formation of microfilaments via contact guidance. PMID:24579074

Wang, Yingjun

2014-01-01

49

Peracetic acid: a practical agent for sterilizing heat-labile polymeric tissue-engineering scaffolds.  

PubMed

Advanced biomaterials and sophisticated processing technologies aim at fabricating tissue-engineering scaffolds that can predictably interact within a biological environment at the cellular level. Sterilization of such scaffolds is at the core of patient safety and is an important regulatory issue that needs to be addressed before clinical translation. In addition, it is crucial that meticulously engineered micro- and nano- structures are preserved after sterilization. Conventional sterilization methods involving heat, steam, and radiation are not compatible with engineered polymeric systems because of scaffold degradation and loss of architecture. Using electrospun scaffolds made from polycaprolactone, a low melting polymer, and employing spores of Bacillus atrophaeus as biological indicators, we compared ethylene oxide, autoclaving and 80% ethanol to a known chemical sterilant, peracetic acid (PAA), for their ability to sterilize as well as their effects on scaffold properties. PAA diluted in 20% ethanol to 1000 ppm or above sterilized electrospun scaffolds in 15 min at room temperature while maintaining nano-architecture and mechanical properties. Scaffolds treated with PAA at 5000 ppm were rendered hydrophilic, with contact angles reduced to 0°. Therefore, PAA can provide economical, rapid, and effective sterilization of heat-sensitive polymeric electrospun scaffolds that are used in tissue engineering. PMID:24341350

Yoganarasimha, Suyog; Trahan, William R; Best, Al M; Bowlin, Gary L; Kitten, Todd O; Moon, Peter C; Madurantakam, Parthasarathy A

2014-09-01

50

Enhanced visualization of biodegradable polymeric vascular scaffolds by incorporation of gold, silver and magnetite nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Due to improved tissue regeneration and the enabling of post-operative minimally invasive interventions in the same vessel segment, biodegradable polymeric scaffolds represent a competitive approach to permanent metallic stents in vascular applications. Despite these advantages some challenges, such as the improvement of the scaffold mechanics and enhancement of scaffold visibility during the implantation procedure, are persisting. Therefore, the scope of our studies was to investigate the potential of gold, silver and magnetite nanoparticles incorporated in a polymeric blend of poly(L-lactide)/poly(4-hydroxybutyrate) for image enhancement in X-ray, magnetic resonance or near-infrared imaging. Their impact on mechanical properties of such modified scaffold materials was also evaluated. PMID:22492201

Luderer, Frank; Begerow, Ivonne; Schmidt, Wolfram; Martin, Heiner; Grabow, Niels; Bünger, Carsten M; Schareck, Wolfgang; Schmitz, Klaus-Peter; Sternberg, Katrin

2013-08-01

51

Biomechanical and biocompatibility characteristics of electrospun polymeric tracheal scaffolds.  

PubMed

The development of tracheal scaffolds fabricated based on electrospinning technique by applying different ratios of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and polyurethane (PU) is introduced here. Prior to clinical implantation, evaluations of biomechanical and morphological properties, as well as biocompatibility and cell adhesion verifications are required and extensively performed on each scaffold type. However, the need for bioreactors and large cell numbers may delay the verification process during the early assessment phase. Hence, we investigated the feasibility of performing biocompatibility verification using static instead of dynamic culture. We performed bioreactor seeding on 3-dimensional (3-D) tracheal scaffolds (PET/PU and PET) and correlated the quantitative and qualitative results with 2-dimensional (2-D) sheets seeded under static conditions. We found that an 8-fold reduction for 2-D static seeding density can essentially provide validation on the qualitative and quantitative evaluations for 3-D scaffolds. In vitro studies revealed that there was notably better cell attachment on PET sheets/scaffolds than with the polyblend. However, the in vivo outcomes of cell seeded PET/PU and PET scaffolds in an orthotopic transplantation model in rodents were similar. They showed that both the scaffold types satisfied biocompatibility requirements and integrated well with the adjacent tissue without any observation of necrosis within 30 days of implantation. PMID:24703872

Ajalloueian, Fatemeh; Lim, Mei Ling; Lemon, Greg; Haag, Johannes C; Gustafsson, Ylva; Sjöqvist, Sebastian; Beltrán-Rodríguez, Antonio; Del Gaudio, Costantino; Baiguera, Silvia; Bianco, Alessandra; Jungebluth, Philipp; Macchiarini, Paolo

2014-07-01

52

Computer-aided characterization for effective mechanical properties of porous tissue scaffolds  

E-print Network

the behavior of the incorporated or ingrown cells. Understanding the mechanical properties of porous tissue inter- connectivity so that the desirable biological network for cell migration, nutrient transportation and biological properties of porous scaffolds, as well as cell growth and migration processes are determined

Sun, Wei

53

Development of an indirect solid freeform fabrication process based on microstereolithography for 3D porous scaffolds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scaffold fabrication using solid freeform fabrication (SFF) technology is a hot topic in tissue engineering. Here, we present a new indirect SFF technology based on microstereolithography (MSTL), which has the highest resolution of all SFF methods, to construct a three-dimensional (3D) porous scaffold by combining SFF with molding technology. To realize this indirect method, we investigated and modified a water-soluble photopolymer. We used MSTL technology to fabricate a high-resolution 3D porous mold composed of the modified polymer. The mold can be removed using an appropriate solvent. We tested two materials, polycaprolactone and calcium sulfate hemihydrate, using the molding process, and developed a lost-mold shape forming process by dissolving the mold. This procedure demonstrated that the proposed method can yield scaffold pore sizes as small as 60-70 µm. In addition, cytotoxicity test results indicated that the proposed process is feasible for producing 3D porous scaffolds.

Kang, Hyun-Wook; Seol, Young-Joon; Cho, Dong-Woo

2009-01-01

54

In silico prediction of the cell proliferation in porous scaffold using model of effective pore.  

PubMed

The mathematical prediction of cell proliferation in porous scaffold still remains a challenge. The analysis of existing models and experimental data confirms a need for a new solution, which takes into account cells" development on the scaffold pore walls as well as some additional parameters such as the pore size, cell density in cellular layers, the thickness of the growing cell layer and others. The simulations, presented below, are based on three main approaches. The first approach takes into account multilayer cell growth on the pore walls of the scaffold. The second approach is a simulation of cell proliferation in a discrete process as a continuous one. The third one is the representation of scaffold structure as a system of cylindrical channels. Oxygen (nutrient) mass transfer is realized inside these channels. The model, described below, proposes the new solution to time dependent description of cell proliferation in porous scaffold and optimized trophical conditions for tissue development. PMID:24141144

Makhaniok, A; Haranava, Y; Goranov, V; Panseri, S; Semerikhina, S; Russo, A; Marcacci, M; Dediu, V

2013-12-01

55

In vitro bioactivity and cytocompatibility of porous scaffolds of bioactive borosilicate glasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bioactive borosilicate scaffolds (R2O-RO-B2O3-SiO2-P2O5) with four different contents of borate were fabricated by replication technique. The bioactivity, degradability and the\\u000a cytotoxicity of the scaffolds were studied in this paper. The porosity of the scaffolds was found to be 73%–80%, and the pore\\u000a size was in the range of 200–300 ?m. The porous scaffolds immersed in 0.02 mol·L?1 K2HPO4 solution

Xin Zhang; HaiLuo Fu; Xin Liu; AiHua Yao; DePing Wang; WenHai Huang; Ying Zhao; XinQuan Jiang

2009-01-01

56

Biomimetic design and fabrication of porous chitosan–gelatin liver scaffolds with hierarchical channel network.  

PubMed

The presence of a hierarchical channel network in tissue engineering scaffold is essential to construct metabolically demanding liver tissue with thick and complex structures. In this research, chitosan–gelatin (C/G) scaffolds with fine three-dimensional channels were fabricated using indirect solid freeform fabrication and freeze-drying techniques. Fabrication processes were studied to create predesigned hierarchical channel network inside C/G scaffolds and achieve desired porous structure. Static in-vitro cell culture test showed that HepG2 cells attached on both micro-pores and micro-channels in C/G scaffolds successfully. HepG2 proliferated at much higher rates on C/G scaffolds with channel network, compared with those without channels. This approach demonstrated a promising way to engineer liver scaffolds with hierarchical channel network, and may lead to the development of thick and complex liver tissue equivalent in the future. PMID:24121873

Gong, Haibo; Agustin, Jephte; Wootton, David; Zhou, Jack G

2014-01-01

57

Poly(lactide-co-glycolide) porous scaffolds for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine  

PubMed Central

Porous scaffolds fabricated from biocompatible and biodegradable polymers play vital roles in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Among various scaffold matrix materials, poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) is a very popular and an important biodegradable polyester owing to its tunable degradation rates, good mechanical properties and processibility, etc. This review highlights the progress on PLGA scaffolds. In the latest decade, some facile fabrication approaches at room temperature were put forward; more appropriate pore structures were designed and achieved; the mechanical properties were investigated both for dry and wet scaffolds; a long time biodegradation of the PLGA scaffold was observed and a three-stage model was established; even the effects of pore size and porosity on in vitro biodegradation were revealed; the PLGA scaffolds have also been implanted into animals, and some tissues have been regenerated in vivo after loading cells including stem cells. PMID:23741612

Pan, Zhen; Ding, Jiandong

2012-01-01

58

Large Scale Laser Two-Photon Polymerization Structuring for Fabrication of Artificial Polymeric Scaffolds for Regenerative Medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a femtosecond Laser Two-Photon Polymerization (LTPP) system of large scale three-dimensional structuring for applications in tissue engineering. The direct laser writing system enables fabrication of artificial polymeric scaffolds over a large area (up to cm in lateral size) with sub-micrometer resolution which could find practical applications in biomedicine and surgery. Yb:KGW femtosecond laser oscillator (Pharos, Light Conversion. Co. Ltd.) is used as an irradiation source (75 fs, 515 nm (frequency doubled), 80 MHz). The sample is mounted on wide range linear motor driven stages having 10 nm sample positioning resolution (XY-ALS130-100, Z-ALS130-50, Aerotech, Inc.). These stages guarantee an overall travelling range of 100 mm into X and Y directions and 50 mm in Z direction and support the linear scanning speed up to 300 mm/s. By moving the sample three-dimensionally the position of laser focus in the photopolymer is changed and one is able to write complex 3D (three-dimensional) structures. An illumination system and CMOS camera enables online process monitoring. Control of all equipment is automated via custom made computer software ``3D-Poli'' specially designed for LTPP applications. Structures can be imported from computer aided design STereoLihography (stl) files or programmed directly. It can be used for rapid LTPP structuring in various photopolymers (SZ2080, AKRE19, PEG-DA-258) which are known to be suitable for bio-applications. Microstructured scaffolds can be produced on different substrates like glass, plastic and metal. In this paper, we present microfabricated polymeric scaffolds over a large area and growing of adult rabbit myogenic stem cells on them. Obtained results show the polymeric scaffolds to be applicable for cell growth practice. It exhibit potential to use it for artificial pericardium in the experimental model in the future.

Malinauskas, M.; Purlys, V.; Žukauskas, A.; Rutkauskas, M.; Danilevi?ius, P.; Paipulas, D.; Bi?kauskait?, G.; Bukelskis, L.; Baltriukien?, D.; Širmenis, R.; Gaidukevi?iut?, A.; Bukelskien?, V.; Gadonas, R.; Sirvydis, V.; Piskarskas, A.

2010-11-01

59

Investigation of osteoblast cells behavior in polymeric 3D micropatterned scaffolds using digital holographic microscopy.  

PubMed

The effect of micropatterned polymeric scaffolds on the features of the cultured cells at different time intervals after seeding was investigated by digital holographic microscopy. Both parallel and perpendicular walls, with different heights, were fabricated using two-photon lithography on photopolymers. The walls were subsequently coated with polypyrrole-based thin films using the matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation technique. Osteoblast-like cells, MG-63 line, were cultured on these polymeric 3D micropatterned scaffolds. To analyze these scaffolds with/without cultured cells, an inverted digital holographic microscope, which provides 3D images, was used. Information about the samples' refractive indices and heights was obtained from the phase shift introduced in the optical path. Characteristics of cell adhesion, alignment, orientation, and morphology as a function of the wall heights and time from seeding were highlighted. PMID:25090313

Mihailescu, M; Popescu, R C; Matei, A; Acasandrei, A; Paun, I A; Dinescu, M

2014-08-01

60

A Novel Porous Scaffold Fabrication Technique for Epithelial and Endothelial Tissue Engineering  

PubMed Central

Porous scaffolds have the ability to minimize transport barriers for both two- (2D) and three-dimensional tissue engineering. However, current porous scaffolds may be non-ideal for 2D tissues such as epithelium due to inherent fabrication-based characteristics. While 2D tissues require porosity to support molecular transport, pores must be small enough to prevent cell migration into the scaffold in order to avoid non-epithelial tissue architecture and compromised function. Though electrospun meshes are the most popular porous scaffolds used today, their heterogeneous pore size and intense topography may be poorly-suited for epithelium. Porous scaffolds produced using other methods have similar unavoidable limitations, frequently involving insufficient pore resolution and control, which make them incompatible with 2D tissues. In addition, many of these techniques require an entirely new round of process development in order to change material or pore size. Herein we describe “pore casting,” a fabrication method that produces flat scaffolds with deterministic pore shape, size, and location that can be easily altered to accommodate new materials or pore dimensions. As proof-of-concept, pore-cast poly(?-caprolactone) (PCL) scaffolds were fabricated and compared to electrospun PCL in vitro using canine kidney epithelium, human colon epithelium, and human umbilical vein endothelium. All cell types demonstrated improved morphology and function on pore-cast scaffolds, likely due to reduced topography and universally small pore size. These results suggest that pore casting is an attractive option for creating 2D tissue engineering scaffolds, especially when the application may benefit from well-controlled pore size or architecture. PMID:23625319

McHugh, Kevin J.; Tao, Sarah L.; Saint-Geniez, Magali

2014-01-01

61

Development of Composite Porous Scaffolds Based on Collagen and Biodegradable Poly(ester urethane)urea  

PubMed Central

Our objective in this work was to develop a flexible, biodegradable scaffold for cell transplantation that would incorporate a synthetic component for strength and flexibility and type I collagen for enzymatic lability and cytocompatibility. A biodegradable poly(ester urethane)urea was synthesized from poly(caprolactone), 1,4-diisocyanatobutane, and putrescine. Using a thermally induced phase separation process, porous scaffolds were created from a mixture containing this polyurethane and 0%, 10%, 20%, or 30% type I collagen. The resulting scaffolds were found to have open, interconnected pores (from 7 to >100 um) and porosities from 58% to 86% depending on the polyurethane/collagen ratio. The scaffolds were also flexible with breaking strains of 82–443% and tensile strengths of 0.97–4.11 MPa depending on preparation conditions. Scaffold degradation was significantly increased when collagenase was introduced into an incubating buffer in a manner that was dependent on the mass fraction of collagen present in the scaffold. Mass losses could be varied from 15% to 59% over 8 weeks. When culturing umbilical artery smooth muscle cells on these scaffolds higher cell numbers were observed over a 4-week culture period in scaffolds containing collagen. In summary, a strong and flexible scaffold system has been developed that can degrade by both hydrolysis and collagenase degradation pathways, as well as support cell growth. This scaffold possesses properties that would make it attractive for future use in soft tissue applications where such mechanical and biological features would be advantageous. PMID:16826792

Guan, Jianjun; Stankus, John J.; Wagner, William R.

2010-01-01

62

Development of an indirect solid freeform fabrication process based on microstereolithography for 3D porous scaffolds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scaffold fabrication using solid freeform fabrication (SFF) technology is a hot topic in tissue engineering. Here, we present a new indirect SFF technology based on microstereolithography (MSTL), which has the highest resolution of all SFF methods, to construct a three-dimensional (3D) porous scaffold by combining SFF with molding technology. To realize this indirect method, we investigated and modified a water-soluble

Hyun-Wook Kang; Young-Joon Seol; Dong-Woo Cho

2009-01-01

63

Polarization of porous hydroxyapatite scaffolds: influence on osteoblast cell proliferation and extracellular matrix production.  

PubMed

Improvements to clinically used biomaterials such as hydroxyapatite (HA) are of potential benefit to the patient. One modification, the addition of surface charges, has been shown to have an important role influencing cell response. In this study, porous HA scaffolds with both positive and negative surface charges were manufactured. The samples were sintered in air to produce porous HA ceramic scaffolds in the form of cylinders 12 mm in height × 7 mm in diameter. These were polarized with a dc voltage of 3 kV/cm. MC3T3E1 cells were placed on either negative or positive ends of the charged (or unpoled control) HA scaffolds. At 7 days, picogreen analysis was performed to analyze the cell number at the negative (4 mm), central (4 mm), and positive (4 mm) portions of the 12 mm cylindrical scaffold. At 4 weeks, micro-CT analysis was performed to quantify the regional volume of mineralized matrix deposition on the 3D scaffold. At 7 days, there were significantly more cells present at the negative end of the scaffold when seeded from the negative end in comparison to the other samples tested. Micro-CT data at 4 weeks correlated with this finding, demonstrating an increase in mineralized matrix at the negatively charged end of the scaffold seeded from the negative end in comparison to the positively charged and unpoled control scaffolds. The results indicate that the charge on HA influences cell activity and that this phenomenon can be translated to a clinically relevant porous scaffold structure. PMID:23650144

Cartmell, S H; Thurstan, S; Gittings, J P; Griffiths, S; Bowen, C R; Turner, I G

2014-04-01

64

Degradation and biocompatibility of porous nano-hydroxyapatite/polyurethane composite scaffold for bone tissue engineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Porous scaffold containing 30 wt% nano-hydroxyapatite (n-HA) and 70 wt% polyurethane (PU) from castor oil was prepared by a foaming method and investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared absorption (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. The results show that n-HA particles disperse homogeneously in the PU matrix. The porous scaffold has not only macropores of 100-800 ?m in size but also a lot of micropores on the walls of macropores. The porosity and compressive strength of scaffold are 80% and 271 kPa, respectively. After soaking in simulated body fluid (SBF), hydrolysis and deposition partly occur on the scaffold. The biological evaluation in vitro and in vivo shows that the n-HA/PU scaffold is non-cytotoxic and degradable. The porous structure provides a good microenvironment for cell adherence, growth and proliferation. The n-HA/PU composite scaffold can be satisfied with the basic requirement for tissue engineering, and has the potential to be applied in repair and substitute of human menisci of the knee-joint and articular cartilage.

Dong, Zhihong; Li, Yubao; Zou, Qin

2009-04-01

65

Silver nanoparticle studded porous polyethylene scaffolds: bacteria struggle to grow on them while mammalian cells thrive.  

PubMed

Silver nanoparticle studded scaffolds were prepared by exploiting the Ag(+) ion reducing activity of sophorolipids--a class of 'glycolipids' that cap the ensuing nanoparticles as well. To achieve this, the porous polyethylene scaffolds are subjected to N(2) + H(2) plasma treatment, in the first step. Subsequently the sophorolipids are covalently attached to the amine groups on the polymer surface through simple amide chemistry to yield sophorolipid grafted polymer scaffolds. These are then exposed to Ag(+) ions under appropriate conditions leading to the formation of silver nanoparticles immobilized on the polymer scaffolds. It has been found that while bacteria do not survive on these silver studded scaffolds, CHO-K1 cells thrive on them making them good candidates for tissue engineering and bio-implant applications. PMID:21643585

D'Britto, Virginia; Kapse, Harsha; Babrekar, Harshada; Prabhune, A A; Bhoraskar, S V; Premnath, V; Prasad, B L V

2011-07-01

66

Effective method for multi-scale gradient porous scaffold design and fabrication.  

PubMed

Function-based modeling is a highly flexible porous scaffold design approach for use in tissue engineering. It was recently proposed as a valid tool for constructing cellular structures by providing a compact representation of complex structures. However, current approaches have some limitations with regard to combining multiple function-based substructures. In this short communication, we propose an effective method for combination operations of multiple substructures based on given substructures and boundaries. With this proposed method, a functional gradient porous scaffold (FGPS) with multi-scale substructures could be easily constructed and directly fabricated by using additive manufacturing techniques. PMID:25175242

Yang, Nan; Zhou, Kuntao

2014-10-01

67

Silver nanoparticle studded porous polyethylene scaffolds: bacteria struggle to grow on them while mammalian cells thrive  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Silver nanoparticle studded scaffolds were prepared by exploiting the Ag+ ion reducing activity of sophorolipids--a class of `glycolipids' that cap the ensuing nanoparticles as well. To achieve this, the porous polyethylene scaffolds are subjected to N2 + H2 plasma treatment, in the first step. Subsequently the sophorolipids are covalently attached to the amine groups on the polymer surface through simple amide chemistry to yield sophorolipid grafted polymer scaffolds. These are then exposed to Ag+ ions under appropriate conditions leading to the formation of silver nanoparticles immobilized on the polymer scaffolds. It has been found that while bacteria do not survive on these silver studded scaffolds, CHO-K1 cells thrive on them making them good candidates for tissue engineering and bio-implant applications.Silver nanoparticle studded scaffolds were prepared by exploiting the Ag+ ion reducing activity of sophorolipids--a class of `glycolipids' that cap the ensuing nanoparticles as well. To achieve this, the porous polyethylene scaffolds are subjected to N2 + H2 plasma treatment, in the first step. Subsequently the sophorolipids are covalently attached to the amine groups on the polymer surface through simple amide chemistry to yield sophorolipid grafted polymer scaffolds. These are then exposed to Ag+ ions under appropriate conditions leading to the formation of silver nanoparticles immobilized on the polymer scaffolds. It has been found that while bacteria do not survive on these silver studded scaffolds, CHO-K1 cells thrive on them making them good candidates for tissue engineering and bio-implant applications. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: See DOI: 10.1039/c1nr10152d

D'Britto, Virginia; Kapse, Harsha; Babrekar, Harshada; Prabhune, A. A.; Bhoraskar, S. V.; Premnath, V.; Prasad, B. L. V.

2011-07-01

68

Repairing a critical-sized bone defect with highly porous modified and unmodified baghdadite scaffolds.  

PubMed

This is the first reported study to prepare highly porous baghdadite (Ca?ZrSi?O?) scaffolds with and without surface modification and investigate their ability to repair critical-sized bone defects in a rabbit radius under normal load. The modification was carried out to improve the mechanical properties of the baghdadite scaffolds (particularly to address their brittleness) by coating their surfaces with a thin layer (?400 nm) of polycaprolactone (PCL)/bioactive glass nanoparticles (nBGs). The ?-tricalcium phosphate/hydroxyapatite (TCP/HA) scaffolds with and without modification were used as the control groups. All of the tested scaffolds had an open and interconnected porous structure with a porosity of ?85% and average pore size of 500 ?m. The scaffolds (six per scaffold type and size of 4 mm × 4 mm × 15 mm) were implanted (press-fit) into the rabbit radial segmental defects for 12 weeks. Micro-computed tomography and histological evaluations were used to determine bone ingrowth, bone quality, and implant integration after 12 weeks of healing. Extensive new bone formation with complete bridging of the radial defect was evident with the baghdadite scaffolds (modified/unmodified) at the periphery and in close proximity to the ceramics within the pores, in contrast to TCP/HA scaffolds (modified/unmodified), where bone tended to grow between the ulna adjacent to the implant edge. Although the modification of the baghdadite scaffolds significantly improved their mechanical properties, it did not show any significant effect on in vivo bone formation. Our findings suggest that baghdadite scaffolds with and without modification can serve as a potential material to repair critical sized bone defects. PMID:22842031

Roohani-Esfahani, S I; Dunstan, C R; Davies, B; Pearce, S; Williams, R; Zreiqat, H

2012-11-01

69

Fabrication of highly porous tissue-engineering scaffolds using selective spherical porogens.  

PubMed

Tissue engineering holds great promise as an alternative strategy to current treatment modalities of diseased or otherwise failed tissues. Most strategies of tissue engineering rely on three-dimensional porous scaffolds to mimic the natural extracellular matrix (ECM) as templates onto which cells attach, multiply, migrate and function. When cells are harvested from a donor and seeded, scaffolds facilitate the organization of these cells into a three-dimensional architecture, control cell behavior and subsequently direct the formation of organ-specific tissue. In view of its role, scaffold fabrication methods target the creation of highly porous and interconnected pore structures. Among the different scaffolds fabrication methods explored, solvent casting followed by precipitation or particulate leaching is one of the most straightforward methods. In this paper, we conducted a comparative study of two methods to prepare spherical porogens using poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) as dispersing agents and we used these porogens to fabricate cylindrical porous scaffolds using a combination of pressure differential and solvent casting/particulate leaching method. Porogen particle size analyses showed that at 0.6% dispersing agent concentration, PVP produced smaller particles with narrower distribution (100-300 mum) than poly(vinyl alcohol) (100-500 mum) presumably due to the fast adsorption kinetics of the former. Scaffolds fabricated from PVP-stabilized porogens had higher open porosities and high pore interconnectivity than those based on porogens prepared using PVA stabilizer. Preliminary cell culture work also showed that scaffolds fabricated using PVP-stabilized porogens support attachment and spreading of human coronary artery smooth muscle cells (HCASMC) better than the PVA counterparts. This is the first time that such direct comparative studies on the porogen preparation methods and its effect on the scaffold porosity and cell attachment property is reported. PMID:20592448

Johnson, Taylor; Bahrampourian, Rahimeh; Patel, Alpesh; Mequanint, Kibret

2010-01-01

70

Porous anodic aluminum oxide scaffolds; formation mechanisms and applications  

E-print Network

Nanoporous anodic aluminium oxide (AAO) can be created with pores that self-assemble into ordered configurations. Nanostructured metal oxides have proven to be very useful as scaffolds for growth of nanowires and nanotubes ...

Oh, Jihun

2010-01-01

71

Architecture control of three-dimensional polymeric scaffolds for soft tissue engineering. I. Establishment and validation of numerical models  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most important functions of artificial three-dimensional (3D) polymeric scaffolds is to serve as a physical support to provide tissues with an appropriate architecture for in vitro cell culture as well as in vivo tissue regeneration. The production of three-dimensional (3D) polymeric scaffolds with tailored macroporous architecture is thus a crucial step in promoting controlled vascularization and tissue

Yang Cao; Malcolm R. Davidson; Andrea J. O'Connor; Geoffrey W. Stevens; Justin J. Cooper-White

2004-01-01

72

A porous tissue engineering scaffold selectively degraded by cell-generated reactive oxygen species.  

PubMed

Biodegradable tissue engineering scaffolds are commonly fabricated from poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) or similar polyesters that degrade by hydrolysis. PLGA hydrolysis generates acidic breakdown products that trigger an accelerated, autocatalytic degradation mechanism that can create mismatched rates of biomaterial breakdown and tissue formation. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are key mediators of cell function in both health and disease, especially at sites of inflammation and tissue healing, and induction of inflammation and ROS are natural components of the in vivo response to biomaterial implantation. Thus, polymeric biomaterials that are selectively degraded by cell-generated ROS may have potential for creating tissue engineering scaffolds with better matched rates of tissue in-growth and cell-mediated scaffold biodegradation. To explore this approach, a series of poly(thioketal) (PTK) urethane (PTK-UR) biomaterial scaffolds were synthesized that degrade specifically by an ROS-dependent mechanism. PTK-UR scaffolds had significantly higher compressive moduli than analogous poly(ester urethane) (PEUR) scaffolds formed from hydrolytically-degradable ester-based diols (p < 0.05). Unlike PEUR scaffolds, the PTK-UR scaffolds were stable under aqueous conditions out to 25 weeks but were selectively degraded by ROS, indicating that their biodegradation would be exclusively cell-mediated. The in vitro oxidative degradation rates of the PTK-URs followed first-order degradation kinetics, were significantly dependent on PTK composition (p < 0.05), and correlated to ROS concentration. In subcutaneous rat wounds, PTK-UR scaffolds supported cellular infiltration and granulation tissue formation, followed first-order degradation kinetics over 7 weeks, and produced significantly greater stenting of subcutaneous wounds compared to PEUR scaffolds. These combined results indicate that ROS-degradable PTK-UR tissue engineering scaffolds have significant advantages over analogous polyester-based biomaterials and provide a robust, cell-degradable substrate for guiding new tissue formation. PMID:24491510

Martin, John R; Gupta, Mukesh K; Page, Jonathan M; Yu, Fang; Davidson, Jeffrey M; Guelcher, Scott A; Duvall, Craig L

2014-04-01

73

Biomimetic apatite-coated porous PVA scaffolds promote the growth of breast cancer cells.  

PubMed

Recapitulating the native environment of bone tissue is essential to develop in vitro models of breast cancer bone metastasis. The bone is a composite material consisting of organic matrix and inorganic mineral phase, primarily hydroxyapatite. In this study, we report the mineralization of porous poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) scaffolds upon incubation in modified Hanks' Balanced Salt Solution (HBSS) for 14days. Scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, and X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that the deposited minerals have composition similar to hydroxyapatite. The study demonstrated that the rate of nucleation and growth of minerals was faster on surfaces of less porous scaffolds. However, upon prolonged incubation, formation of mineral layer was observed on the surface of all the scaffolds. In addition, the study also demonstrated that 3D mineralization only occurred for scaffolds with highly interconnected porous networks. The mineralization of the scaffolds promoted the adsorption of serum proteins and consequently, the adhesion and proliferation of breast cancer cells. PMID:25280710

Ye, Mao; Mohanty, Pravansu; Ghosh, Gargi

2014-11-01

74

Mathematical modelling of human mesenchymal stem cell proliferation and differentiation inside artificial porous scaffolds  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a mathematical model for the proliferation and differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells grown inside artificial porous scaffolds under different oxygen concentrations. The values of parameters in the model are determined by comparison of the model solutions to published experimental data, complemented with a sensitivity analysis of the fitted parameters. It is shown that a simple hypothesis whereby

Greg Lemon; Sarah L. Waters; Felicity R. A. J. Rose; John R. King

2007-01-01

75

Selective laser melting-produced porous titanium scaffolds regenerate bone in critical size cortical bone defects.  

PubMed

Porous titanium scaffolds have good mechanical properties that make them an interesting bone substitute material for large bone defects. These scaffolds can be produced with selective laser melting, which has the advantage of tailoring the structure's architecture. Reducing the strut size reduces the stiffness of the structure and may have a positive effect on bone formation. Two scaffolds with struts of 120-µm (titanium-120) or 230-µm (titanium-230) were studied in a load-bearing critical femoral bone defect in rats. The defect was stabilized with an internal plate and treated with titanium-120, titanium-230, or left empty. In vivo micro-CT scans at 4, 8, and 12 weeks showed more bone in the defects treated with scaffolds. Finally, 18.4?±?7.1?mm(3) (titanium-120, p?=?0.015) and 18.7?±?8.0?mm(3) (titanium-230, p?=?0.012) of bone was formed in those defects, significantly more than in the empty defects (5.8?±?5.1?mm(3) ). Bending tests on the excised femurs after 12 weeks showed that the fusion strength reached 62% (titanium-120) and 45% (titanium-230) of the intact contralateral femurs, but there was no significant difference between the two scaffolds. This study showed that in addition to adequate mechanical support, porous titanium scaffolds facilitate bone formation, which results in high mechanical integrity of the treated large bone defects. PMID:23255164

Van der Stok, Johan; Van der Jagt, Olav P; Amin Yavari, Saber; De Haas, Mirthe F P; Waarsing, Jan H; Jahr, Holger; Van Lieshout, Esther M M; Patka, Peter; Verhaar, Jan A N; Zadpoor, Amir A; Weinans, Harrie

2013-05-01

76

Bilayer porous scaffold based on poly-(?-caprolactone) nanofibrous membrane and gelatin sponge for favoring cell proliferation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrospun poly-(?-caprolactone) (PCL) nanofibers has been widely used in the medical prosthesis. However, poor hydrophilicity and the lack of natural recognition sites for covalent cell-recognition signal molecules to promote cell attachment have limited its utility as tissue scaffolds. In this study, Bilayer porous scaffolds based on PCL electrospun membranes and gelatin (GE) sponges were fabricated through soft hydrolysis of PCL electrospun followed by grafting gelatin onto the fiber surface, through crosslinking and freeze drying treatment of additional gelatin coat and grafted gelatin surface. GE sponges were stably anchored on PCL membrane surface with the aid of grafted GE molecules. The morphologies of bilayer porous scaffolds were observed through SEM. The contact angle of the scaffolds was 0°, the mechanical properties of scaffolds were measured by tensile test, Young's moduli of PCL scaffolds before and after hydrolysis are 66-77.3 MPa and 62.3-75.4 MPa, respectively. Thus, the bilayer porous scaffolds showed excellent hydrophilic surface and desirable mechanical strength due to the soft hydrolysis and GE coat. The cell culture results showed that the adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells did more favor to adhere and grow on the bilayer porous scaffolds than on PCL electrospun membranes. The better cell affinity of the final bilayer scaffolds not only attributed to the surface chemistry but also the introduction of bilayer porous structure.

Zhou, Zhihua; Zhou, Yang; Chen, Yiwang; Nie, Huarong; Wang, Yang; Li, Fan; Zheng, Yan

2011-12-01

77

Porous Ti6Al4V scaffolds directly fabricated by 3D fibre deposition technique: effect of nozzle diameter.  

PubMed

3D porous Ti6Al4V scaffolds were successfully directly fabricated by a rapid prototyping technology: 3D fibre deposition. In this study, the rheological properties of Ti6Al4V slurry was studied and the flow rate was analyzed at various pressures and nozzle diameters. Scaffolds with different fibre diameter and porosity were fabricated. ESEM observation and mechanical tests were performed on the obtained porous Ti6Al4V scaffolds with regard to the porous structure and mechanical properties. The results show that these scaffolds have 3D interconnected porous structure and a compressive strength which depends on porosity at constant fibre diameters and on the fibre diameter at constant porosity. These Ti6Al4V scaffolds are expected to be constructs for biomedical applications. PMID:16362216

Li, J P; de Wijn, J R; van Blitterswijk, C A; de Groot, K

2005-12-01

78

Osteoblast-Like Cell Behavior on Porous Scaffolds Based on Poly(styrene) Fibers  

PubMed Central

Scaffolds of nonresorbable biomaterials can represent an interesting alternative for replacing large bone defects in some particular clinical cases with massive bone loss. Poly(styrene) microfibers were prepared by a dry spinning method. They were partially melted to provide 3D porous scaffolds. The quality of the material was assessed by Raman spectroscopy. Surface roughness was determined by atomic force microscopy and vertical interference microscopy. Saos-2 osteoblast-like cells were seeded on the surface of the fibers and left to proliferate. Cell morphology, evaluated by scanning electron microscopy, revealed that they can spread and elongate on the rough microfiber surface. Porous 3D scaffolds made of nonresorbable poly(styrene) fibers are cytocompatible biomaterials mimicking allogenic bone trabeculae and allowing the growth and development of osteoblast-like cells in vitro. PMID:25045688

Serafim, Andrada; Mallet, Romain; Pascaretti-Grizon, Florence

2014-01-01

79

Modeling and Reconstruction of Micro-structured 3D Chitosan/Gelatin Porous Scaffolds Using Micro-CT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three dimensional (3D) channel networks are the key to promise the uniform distribution of nutrients inside 3D hepatic tissue engineering scaffolds and prompt elimination of metabolic products out of the scaffolds. 3D chitosan/gelatin porous scaffolds with predefined internal channels were fabricated and a combination of light microscope, laser confocal microscopy and micro-CT were employed to characterize the structure of porous scaffolds. In order to evaluate the flow field distribution inside the micro-structured 3D scaffolds, a computer reconstructing method based on Micro-CT was proposed. According to this evaluating method, a contrast between 3D porous scaffolds with and without predefined internal channels was also performed to assess scaffolds' fluid characters. Results showed that the internal channel of the 3D scaffolds formed the 3D fluid channel network; the uniformity of flow field distribution of the scaffolds fabricated in this paper was better than the simple porous scaffold without micro-fluid channels.

Gong, Haibo; Li, Dichen; He, Jiankang; Liu, Yaxiong; Lian, Qin; Zhao, Jinna

2008-09-01

80

Attachment, Proliferation, and Chondroinduction of Mesenchymal Stem Cells on Porous Chitosan-Calcium Phosphate Scaffolds  

PubMed Central

Symptomatic osteochondral lesions occur frequently, but relatively few treatment options are currently available. The purpose of this study was to conduct a preliminary investigation into a new tissue engineering approach to osteochondral regeneration. The concept is a biphasic construct consisting of a porous, osteoconductive chitosan-calcium phosphate scaffold supporting a layer of neocartilage formed by marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. Two experiments were conducted to assess the feasibility of this approach. The first experiment characterized the attachment efficiency and proliferation of primary human marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells seeded relatively sparely onto the scaffold’s surface. The second experiment compared two different methods of creating a biphasic construct using a much higher density of primary porcine marrow stromal cells. About 40% of the sparsely seeded human cells attached and proliferated rapidly. Constructs formed by one of the two experimental techniques exhibited a layer of cartilaginous tissue which only partially covered the scaffold’s surface due to inadequate adhesion between the cells and the scaffold. This study demonstrates some potential for the approach to yield an implantable biphasic construct, but further development is required to improve cell-scaffold adhesion. PMID:23986794

Elder, Steven; Gottipati, Anuhya; Zelenka, Hilary; Bumgardner, Joel

2013-01-01

81

3D porous chitosan scaffolds suit survival and neural differentiation of dental pulp stem cells.  

PubMed

A key aspect of cell replacement therapy in brain injury treatment is construction of a suitable biomaterial scaffold that can effectively carry and transport the therapeutic cells to the target area. In the present study, we created small 3D porous chitosan scaffolds through freeze-drying, and showed that these can support and enhance the differentiation of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) to nerve cells in vitro. The DPSCs were collected from the dental pulp of adult human third molars. At a swelling rate of ~84.33 ± 10.92 %, the scaffold displayed high porosity and interconnectivity of pores, as revealed by SEM. Cell counting kit-8 assay established the biocompatibility of the chitosan scaffold, supporting the growth and survival of DPSCs. The successful neural differentiation of DPSCs was assayed by RT-PCR, western blotting, and immunofluorescence. We found that the scaffold-attached DPSCs showed high expression of Nestin that decreased sharply following induction of differentiation. Exposure to the differentiation media also increased the expression of neural molecular markers Microtubule-associated protein 2, glial fibrillary acidic protein, and 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase. This study demonstrates that the granular 3D chitosan scaffolds are non-cytotoxic, biocompatible, and provide a conducive and favorable micro-environment for attachment, survival, and neural differentiation of DPSCs. These scaffolds have enormous potential to facilitate future advances in treatment of brain injury. PMID:24789753

Feng, Xingmei; Lu, Xiaohui; Huang, Dan; Xing, Jing; Feng, Guijuan; Jin, Guohua; Yi, Xin; Li, Liren; Lu, Yuanzhou; Nie, Dekang; Chen, Xiang; Zhang, Lei; Gu, Zhifeng; Zhang, Xinhua

2014-08-01

82

PLLA-collagen and PLLA-gelatin hybrid scaffolds with funnel-like porous structure for skin tissue engineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In skin tissue engineering, a three-dimensional porous scaffold is necessary to support cell adhesion and proliferation and to guide cells moving into the repair area in the wound healing process. Structurally, the porous scaffold should have an open and interconnected porous architecture to facilitate homogenous cell distribution. Moreover, the scaffolds should be mechanically strong to protect deformation during the formation of new skin. In this study, the hybrid scaffolds were prepared by forming funnel-like collagen or gelatin sponge on a woven poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) mesh. The hybrid scaffolds combined the advantages of both collagen or gelatin (good cell-interactions) and PLLA mesh (high mechanical strength). The hybrid scaffolds were used to culture dermal fibroblasts for dermal tissue engineering. The funnel-like porous structure promoted homogeneous cell distribution and extracellular matrix production. The PLLA mesh reinforced the scaffold to avoid deformation. Subcutaneous implantation showed that the PLLA-collagen and PLLA-gelatin scaffolds promoted the regeneration of dermal tissue and epidermis and reduced contraction during the formation of new tissue. These results indicate that funnel-like hybrid scaffolds can be used for skin tissue regeneration.

Lu, Hongxu; Oh, Hwan Hee; Kawazoe, Naoki; Yamagishi, Kozo; Chen, Guoping

2012-12-01

83

Porous chitosan tubular scaffolds with knitted outer wall and controllable inner structure for nerve tissue engineering.  

PubMed

In this study, a novel method was developed to create porous tubular scaffolds with desirable mechanical properties and controllable inner structure from chitosan, for nerve tissue engineering. Chitosan fiber-based yarns were first used to create porous hollow tubes, which served as the outer wall of the scaffolds, through an industrial knitting process. Then, an innovative molding technique was developed and used to produce inner matrices with multiple axially oriented macrochannels and radially interconnected micropores. Acupuncture needles were used as mandrels during molding to improve the safety and controllability of the process. In vitro characterization demonstrated that the scaffolds possessed suitable mechanical strength, porosity, swelling, and biodegradability for applications in nerve tissue engineering. In vitro cell culture experiments showed that differentiated Neuro-2a cells grew along the oriented macrochannels and the interconnected micropores were beneficial for nutrient diffusion and cell ingrowth to the scaffold's interior. Collectively, the well-defined architectural features in addition to the desirable mechanical and biological properties of the scaffolds make them promising for nerve tissue engineering. PMID:16758450

Wang, Aijun; Ao, Qiang; Cao, Wenling; Yu, Mingzhi; He, Qing; Kong, Lijun; Zhang, Ling; Gong, Yandao; Zhang, Xiufang

2006-10-01

84

An animal experimental study of porous magnesium scaffold degradation and osteogenesis  

PubMed Central

Our objective was to observe the biodegradable and osteogenic properties of magnesium scaffolding under in vivo conditions. Twelve 6-month-old male New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into two groups. The chosen operation site was the femoral condyle on the right side. The experimental group was implanted with porous magnesium scaffolds, while the control group was implanted with hydroxyapatite scaffolds. X-ray and blood tests, which included serum magnesium, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), creatinine (CREA), and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) were performed serially at 1, 2, and 3 weeks, and 1, 2, and 3 months. All rabbits were killed 3 months postoperatively, and the heart, kidney, spleen, and liver were analyzed with hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining. The bone samples were subjected to microcomputed tomography scanning (micro-CT) and hard tissue biopsy. SPSS 13.0 (USA) was used for data analysis, and values of P<0.05 were considered to be significant. Bubbles appeared in the X-ray of the experimental group after 2 weeks, whereas there was no gas in the control group. There were no statistical differences for the serum magnesium concentrations, ALT, BUN, and CREA between the two groups (P>0.05). All HE-stained slices were normal, which suggested good biocompatibility of the scaffold. Micro-CT showed that magnesium scaffolds degraded mainly from the outside to inside, and new bone was ingrown following the degradation of magnesium scaffolds. The hydroxyapatite scaffold was not degraded and had fewer osteoblasts scattered on its surface. There was a significant difference in the new bone formation and scaffold bioabsorption between the two groups (9.29±1.27 vs 1.40±0.49 and 7.80±0.50 vs 0.00±0.00 mm3, respectively; P<0.05). The magnesium scaffold performed well in degradation and osteogenesis, and is a promising material for orthopedics. PMID:25098717

Liu, Y.J.; Yang, Z.Y.; Tan, L.L.; Li, H.; Zhang, Y.Z.

2014-01-01

85

Bioengineering strategies for polymeric scaffold for tissue engineering an aortic heart valve: an update.  

PubMed

The occurrence of dysfunctional aortic valves is increasing every year, and current replacement heart valves, although having been shown to be clinically successful, are only short-term solutions and suffer from many agonizing long-term drawbacks. The tissue engineering of heart valves is recognized as one of the most promising answers for aortic valve disease therapy, but overcoming current shortcomings will require multidisciplinary efforts. The use of a polymeric scaffold to guide the growth of the tissue is the most common approach to generate a new tissue for an aortic heart valve. However, optimizing the design of the scaffold, in terms of biocompatibility, surface morphology for cell attachments and the correct rate of degradation is critical in creating a viable tissue-engineered aortic heart valve. This paper highlights the bioengineering strategies that need to be followed to construct a polymeric scaffold of sufficient mechanical integrity, with superior surface morphologies, that is capable of mimicking the valve dynamics in vivo. The current challenges and future directions of research for creating tissue-engineered aortic heart valves are also discussed. PMID:25262629

Morsi, Yosry S

2014-10-01

86

Effects of processing parameters in thermally induced phase separation technique on porous architecture of scaffolds for bone tissue engineering.  

PubMed

Tissue engineering makes use of 3D scaffolds to sustain three-dimensional growth of cells and guide new tissue formation. To meet the multiple requirements for regeneration of biological tissues and organs, a wide range of scaffold fabrication techniques have been developed, aiming to produce porous constructs with the desired pore size range and pore morphology. Among different scaffold fabrication techniques, thermally induced phase separation (TIPS) method has been widely used in recent years because of its potential to produce highly porous scaffolds with interconnected pore morphology. The scaffold architecture can be closely controlled by adjusting the process parameters, including polymer type and concentration, solvent composition, quenching temperature and time, coarsening process, and incorporation of inorganic particles. The objective of this review is to provide information pertaining to the effect of these parameters on the architecture and properties of the scaffolds fabricated by the TIPS technique. PMID:24425207

Akbarzadeh, Rosa; Yousefi, Azizeh-Mitra

2014-08-01

87

Reinforced Portland cement porous scaffolds for load-bearing bone tissue engineering applications.  

PubMed

Modified Portland cement porous scaffolds with suitable characteristics for load-bearing bone tissue engineering applications were manufactured by combining the particulate leaching and foaming methods. Non-crosslinked polydimethylsiloxane was evaluated as a potential reinforcing material. The scaffolds presented average porosities between 70 and 80% with mean pore sizes ranging from 300 ?m up to 5.0 mm. Non-reinforced scaffolds presented compressive strengths and elastic modulus values of 2.6 and 245 MPa, respectively, whereas reinforced scaffolds exhibited 4.2 and 443 MPa, respectively, an increase of ?62 and 80%. Portland cement scaffolds supported human osteoblast-like cell adhesion, spreading, and propagation (t = 1-28 days). Cell metabolism and alkaline phosphatase activity were found to be enhanced at longer culture intervals (t ? 14 days). These results suggest the possibility of obtaining strong and biocompatible scaffolds for bone repair applications from inexpensive, yet technologically advanced materials such as Portland cement. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater 100B: 501-507, 2012. PMID:22121151

Higuita-Castro, Natalia; Gallego-Perez, Daniel; Pelaez-Vargas, Alejandro; García Quiroz, Felipe; Posada, Olga M; López, Luis E; Sarassa, Carlos A; Agudelo-Florez, Piedad; Monteiro, Fernando J; Litsky, Alan S; Hansford, Derek J

2012-02-01

88

Tantalum coating on porous Ti6Al4V scaffold using chemical vapor deposition and preliminary biological evaluation.  

PubMed

Porous tantalum (Ta), produced via chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of commercially pure Ta onto a vitreous carbon, is currently available for use in orthopedic applications. However, the relatively high manufacturing cost and the incapability to produce customized implant using medical image data have limited its application to gain widespread acceptance. In this study, Ta film was deposited on porous Ti6Al4V scaffolds using CVD technique. Digital microscopy and scanning electron microscopy indicated that the Ta coating evenly covered the entire scaffold structure. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the coating consisted of ? and ? phases of Ta. Goat mesenchymal stem cells were seeded and cultured on the Ti6Al4V scaffolds with and without coating. The tetrazolium-based colorimetric assay exhibited better cell adhesion and proliferation on Ta-coated scaffolds compared with uncoated scaffolds. The porous scaffolds were subsequently implanted in goats for 12weeks. Histological analysis revealed similar bone formation around the periphery of the coated and uncoated implants, but bone ingrowth is better within the Ta-coated scaffolds. To demonstrate the ability of producing custom implant for clinical applications via this technology, we designed and fabricated a porous Ti6Al4V scaffold with segmental mandibular shape derived from patient computerized tomography data. PMID:23623123

Li, Xiang; Wang, Lin; Yu, Xiaoming; Feng, Yafei; Wang, Chengtao; Yang, Ke; Su, Daniel

2013-07-01

89

A novel fibrous scaffold composed of electrospun porous poly (epsilon-caprolactone) fibers for bone tissue engineering.  

PubMed

In this study, porous poly(?-caprolactone) (PCL) fiber-based fibrous scaffolds are created using a suitable ratio of dimethyl chloride and acetone by using electrospinning. With the porous structure, it induced CaP particles to easily coat on the fibers after immersion in simulated body fluid solution. The morphology of the electrospun membranes was observed using scanning electron microscopic observation. The results showed that the CaP coated successfully, as examined by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopic techniques and mass comparative analysis. The wettability of the coated fibrous scaffolds was tested using contact angle analysis. The in vitro cellular proliferation and cell interaction with fibrous scaffolds were investigated. In addition, the in vivo bone formation capacity of fibrous scaffolds including the non-porous (PCL-DCM), porous (PCL-DCM/Ace) and CaP coating on PCL/DCM-Ace for 2, 4, 8 and 12 h immersed in SBF solution were also investigated. By measuring the in vitro results, we verified that porous PCL fiber-based fibrous scaffold after 12 h of immersion in simulated body fluid (PCL-DCM/Ace-12) was excellent for cell interaction, growth and proliferation. The in vivo analyses showed that the PCL-DCM/Ace-12 fibrous scaffold enabled greater acceleration of bone formation than PCL/DCM and PCL/DCM-Ace fibrous scaffolds. PMID:23075833

Nguyen, Thi-Hiep; Bao, Trinh Quang; Park, Ihho; Lee, Byong-Taek

2013-11-01

90

Direct Ink Writing of Highly Porous and Strong Glass Scaffolds for Load-bearing Bone Defects Repair and Regeneration  

PubMed Central

The quest for synthetic materials to repair load-bearing bone lost because of trauma, cancer, or congenital bone defects requires development of porous and high-performance scaffolds with exceptional mechanical strength. However, the low mechanical strength of porous bioactive ceramic and glass scaffolds, compared with that of human cortical bone, has limited their use for these applications. In the present work, bioactive 6P53B glass scaffolds with superior mechanical strength were fabricated using a direct ink writing technique. The rheological properties of Pluronic® F-127 (referred to hereafter simply as F-127) hydrogel-based inkswere optimized for the printing of features as fine as 30 ?m and of the three-dimensional scaffolds. The mechanical strength and in vitro degradation of the scaffolds were assessed in a simulated body fluid (SBF). The sintered glass scaffolds show a compressive strength (136 ± 22 MPa) comparable to that of human cortical bone (100-150 MPa), while the porosity (60%) is in the range of that of trabecular bone (50-90%).The strength is ~100 times that of polymer scaffolds and 4–5 times that of ceramic and glass scaffolds with comparable porosities. Despite the strength decrease resulting from weight loss during immersion in an SBF, the value (77 MPa) is still far above that of trabecular bone after three weeks. The ability to create both porous and strong structures opens a new avenue for fabricating scaffolds for load-bearing bone defect repair and regeneration. PMID:21745606

Fu, Qiang; Saiz, Eduardo; Tomsia, Antoni P.

2011-01-01

91

Evaluation of 3D nano–macro porous bioactive glass scaffold for hard tissue engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, nano–macro dual-porous, three-dimensional (3D) glass structures were developed for use as bioscaffolds for hard\\u000a tissue regeneration, but there have been concerns regarding the interconnectivity and homogeneity of nanopores in the scaffolds,\\u000a as well as the cytotoxicity of the environment deep inside due to limited fluid access. Therefore, mercury porosimetry, nitrogen\\u000a absorption, and TEM have been used to characterize nanopore

S. Wang; M. M. Falk; A. Rashad; M. M. Saad; A. C. Marques; R. M. Almeida; M. K. Marei; H. Jain

2011-01-01

92

Porous Silk Scaffolds for Delivery of Growth Factors and Stem Cells to Enhance Bone Regeneration  

PubMed Central

Stem cell-based tissue engineering shows promise for bone regeneration and requires artificial microenvironments to enhance the survival, proliferation and differentiation of the seeded cells. Silk fibroin, as a natural protein polymer, has unique properties for tissue regeneration. The present study aimed to evaluate the influence of porous silk scaffolds on rat bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs) by lenti-GFP tracking both in vitro and in vivo in cranial bone defects. The number of cells seeded within silk scaffolds in rat cranial bone defects increased from 2 days to 2 weeks after implantation, followed by a decrease at eight weeks. Importantly, the implanted cells survived for 8 weeks in vivo and some of the cells might differentiate into endothelial cells and osteoblasts induced by the presence of VEGF and BMP-2 in the scaffolds to promote angiogenesis and osteogenesis. The results demonstrate that porous silk scaffolds provide a suitable niche to maintain long survival and function of the implanted cells for bone regeneration. PMID:25050556

Xu, Ling; Zhang, Xiaochen; Wu, Qianju; Zhang, Xiuli; Kaplan, David L.; Jiang, Xinquan

2014-01-01

93

The drug release study of ceftriaxone from porous hydroxyapatite scaffolds.  

PubMed

Hydroxyapatite (HAP) is an important biomedical material that is used for grafting osseous defects. It has an excellent bioactivity and biocompatibility properties. To isolate hydroxyapatite, pieces of cleaned cattle's bone were heated at different temperature range from 400 degrees C up to 1,200 degrees C. A reasonable yield of 60.32% w/w HAP was obtained at temperature range from 1,000 degrees C to 1,200 degrees C. Fourier transform infrared spectra and the thermogravimetric measurement showed a clear removal of organic at 600 degrees C as well as an excellent isolation of HAP from the bones which was achieved at 1,000-1,200 degrees C. This was also confirmed from X-ray diffraction of bone sample heated at 1,200 degrees C. The concentration ions were found to be sodium, potassium, lithium, zinc, copper, iron, calcium, magnesium, and phosphate present in bones within the acceptable limits for its role in the bioactivity property of HAP. Glucose powder was used as a porosifier. Glucose was novel and excellent as porogen where it was completely removed by heating, giving an efficient porosity in the used scaffolds. The results exhibited that the ceftriaxone drug release was increased with increasing the porosity. It was found that a faster, higher, and more regular drug release was obtained from the scaffold with a porosity of 10%. PMID:19499343

Al-Sokanee, Zeki N; Toabi, Abedl Amer H; Al-Assadi, Mohammed J; Alassadi, Erfan A S

2009-01-01

94

New paradigms in internal architecture design and freeform fabrication of tissue engineering porous scaffolds.  

PubMed

Advanced additive manufacture (AM) techniques are now being developed to fabricate scaffolds with controlled internal pore architectures in the field of tissue engineering. In general, these techniques use a hybrid method which combines computer-aided design (CAD) with computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) tools to design and fabricate complicated three-dimensional (3D) scaffold models. The mathematical descriptions of micro-architectures along with the macro-structures of the 3D scaffold models are limited by current CAD technologies as well as by the difficulty of transferring the designed digital models to standard formats for fabrication. To overcome these difficulties, we have developed an efficient internal pore architecture design system based on triply periodic minimal surface (TPMS) unit cell libraries and associated computational methods to assemble TPMS unit cells into an entire scaffold model. In addition, we have developed a process planning technique based on TPMS internal architecture pattern of unit cells to generate tool paths for freeform fabrication of tissue engineering porous scaffolds. PMID:22721938

Yoo, Dongjin

2012-07-01

95

Fabrication of porous hydroxyapatite scaffolds as artificial bone preform and its biocompatibility evaluation.  

PubMed

In this study, a novel porous hydroxyapatite scaffold was designed and fabricated to imitate natural bone through a multipass extrusion process. The conceptual design manifested unidirectional microchannels at the exterior part of the scaffold to facilitate rapid biomineralization and a central canal that houses the bone marrow. External and internal fissures were minimized during microwave sintering at 1,100 °C. No deformation was noted, and a mechanically stable scaffold was fabricated. Detailed microstructure of the fabricated artificial bone was examined by scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffractometer, and material properties like compressive strength were evaluated. The initial biocompatibility was examined by the cell proliferation of MG-63 osteoblast-like cells using MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay. Preliminary in vivo investigation in a rabbit model after 4 weeks and 8 weeks of implantation showed full osteointegration of the scaffold with the native tissue, and formation of bone tissue within the pore network, as examined by microcomputed tomography analyses and histological staining. Osteon-like bone microarchitecture was observed along the unidirectional channel with microblood vessels. These confirm a biomimetic regeneration model in the implanted bone scaffold, which can be used as an artificial alternative for damaged bone. PMID:24399056

Jang, Dong-Woo; Franco, Rose Ann; Sarkar, Swapan Kumar; Lee, Byong-Taek

2014-01-01

96

Direct fabrication of high-resolution three-dimensional polymeric scaffolds using electrohydrodynamic hot jet plotting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the direct three-dimensional (3D) fabrication of polymer scaffolds with sub-10 µm structures using electrohydrodynamic jet (EHD-jet) plotting of melted thermoplastic polymers. Traditional extrusion-based fabrication approaches of 3D periodic porous structures are very limited in their resolution, due to the excessive pressure requirement for extruding highly viscous thermoplastic polymers. EHD-jet printing has become a high-resolution alternative to other forms of nozzle deposition-based fabrication approaches by generating micro-scale liquid droplets or a fine jet through the application of a large electrical voltage between the nozzle and the substrate. In this study, we successfully apply EHD-jet plotting technology with melted biodegradable polymer (polycaprolactone, or PCL) for the fabrication of 2D patterns and 3D periodic porous scaffold structures in potential tissue engineering applications. Process conditions (e.g. electrical voltage, pressure, plotting speed) have been thoroughly investigated to achieve reliable jet printing of fine filaments. We have demonstrated for the first time that the EHD-jet plotting process is capable of the fabrication of 3D periodic structures with sub-10 µm resolution, which has great potential in advanced biomedical applications, such as cell alignment and guidance.

Wei, Chuang; Dong, Jingyan

2013-02-01

97

Flow and nutrient transport through porous scaffolds used for the culture of bone cells in perfusion bioreactors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal is to understand via computation the behavior of the flow inside porous scaffolds that are used in bone tissue bioreactors. Fluid shear is an important stimulatory factor in preosteoblastic cells seeded in scaffolds and cultured under continuous flow perfusion. A Lattice Boltzmann method has been employed to simulate the flow field within porous scaffolds obtained with high resolution micro-CT. Lagrangian methods have also been used to determine the nutrient dispersion inside the scaffolds. The shear stresses calculated inside the scaffold architecture indicate that the shear stresses experienced by cells inside the scaffold can vary by orders of magnitude. This is important when designing scaffolds for bone tissue growth, since osteoblastic cells require to be stimulated by shear for growth. Moreover, cell detachment can occur when the fluid shear is too high, thus, placing a limit on the stresses that a particular scaffold design should allows. The talk will address the methodology, the validation and the correlation of scaffold structure characteristics with the shear stresses and with the rate of mass transfer.

Papavassiliou, Dimitrios; Voronov, Roman; Sikavitsas, Vassilios; Vangordon, Samuel

2009-03-01

98

Scaffold design and in vitro study of osteochondral coculture in a three-dimensional porous polycaprolactone scaffold fabricated by fused deposition modeling.  

PubMed

Tissue engineering offers an alternative method that can overcome some of the existing drawbacks of current articular defect repair methods because articular cartilage has a limited capacity to respond to injury. The solution may lie in the design of a three-dimensional load-bearing scaffold. Here we describe the tissue engineering of an osteochondral construct by coculturing osteogenic cells and chondrogenic cells on a three-dimensional load-bearing bioresorbable polymer scaffold. Porous polycaprolactone scaffolds were designed and fabricated via fused deposition modeling. Osteogenic cells were seeded and precultured in one-half of the partitioned scaffolds. Chondrogenic cells were later seeded into the other half. The cell-seeded scaffolds were cultured in a coculture medium. Both cell types proliferated, migrated, linked in their scaffold compartments, and integrated at the interface. Osteoblasts and chondrocytes produced different extracellular matrices in each scaffold compartment. Mineralized nodules deposited in the osteogenic cell seeded compartment. High osteocalcin was detected in precultured osteogenic cell supernatant and high alkaline phosphatase was detected in the coculture supernatant of osteochondral constructs. This study suggests that a tissue-engineered osteochondral construct with a three-dimensional polycaprolactone scaffold has the potential for osteochondral defect repair. PMID:14511474

Cao, Tong; Ho, Kee-Hai; Teoh, Swee-Hin

2003-01-01

99

Conductive porous scaffolds as potential neural interface materials.  

SciTech Connect

Our overall intent is to develop improved prosthetic devices with the use of nerve interfaces through which transected nerves may grow, such that small groups of nerve fibers come into close contact with electrode sites, each of which is connected to electronics external to the interface. These interfaces must be physically structured to allow nerve fibers to grow through them, either by being porous or by including specific channels for the axons. They must be mechanically compatible with nerves such that they promote growth and do not harm the nervous system, and biocompatible to promote nerve fiber growth and to allow close integration with biological tissue. They must exhibit selective and structured conductivity to allow the connection of electrode sites with external circuitry, and electrical properties must be tuned to enable the transmission of neural signals. Finally, the interfaces must be capable of being physically connected to external circuitry, e.g. through attached wires. We have utilized electrospinning as a tool to create conductive, porous networks of non-woven biocompatible fibers in order to meet the materials requirements for the neural interface. The biocompatible fibers were based on the known biocompatible material poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS) as well as a newer biomaterial developed in our laboratories, poly(butylene fumarate) (PBF). Both of the polymers cannot be electrospun using conventional electrospinning techniques due to their low glass transition temperatures, so in situ crosslinking methodologies were developed to facilitate micro- and nano-fiber formation during electrospinning. The conductivity of the electrospun fiber mats was controlled by controlling the loading with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs). Fabrication, electrical and materials characterization will be discussed along with initial in vivo experimental results.

Hedberg-Dirk, Elizabeth L.; Cicotte, Kirsten N.; Buerger, Stephen P.; Reece, Gregory; Dirk, Shawn M.; Lin, Patrick P.

2011-11-01

100

Modeling Vascularized Bone Regeneration Within a Porous Biodegradable CaP Scaffold Loaded with Growth Factors  

PubMed Central

Osteogenetic microenvironment is a complex constitution in which extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules, stem cells and growth factors each interact to direct the coordinate regulation of bone tissue development. Importantly, angiogenesis improvement and revascularization are critical for osteogenesis during bone tissue regeneration processes. In this study, we developed a three-dimensional (3D) multi-scale system model to study cell response to growth factors released from a 3D biodegradable porous calcium phosphate (CaP) scaffold. Our model reconstructed the 3D bone regeneration system and examined the effects of pore size and porosity on bone formation and angiogenesis. The results suggested that scaffold porosity played a more dominant role in affecting bone formation and angiogenesis compared with pore size, while the pore size could be controlled to tailor the growth factor release rate and release fraction. Furthermore, a combination of gradient VEGF with BMP2 and Wnt released from the multi-layer scaffold promoted angiogenesis and bone formation more readily than single growth factors. These results demonstrated that the developed model can be potentially applied to predict vascularized bone regeneration with specific scaffold and growth factors. PMID:23566802

Sun, X; Kang, Y; Bao, J; Zhang, Y; Yang, Y; Zhou, X

2013-01-01

101

Preparation and in vitro evaluation of mesoporous hydroxyapatite coated ?-TCP porous scaffolds.  

PubMed

A mesoporous hydroxyapatite (HA) coating was prepared on a ?-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) porous scaffold by a sol-gel dip-coating method using the block copolymer Pluronic F127 (EO106PO70EO106) as the template. For application as a bone graft, in vitro cell response and bone-related protein expression of mesoporous HA coated ?-TCP scaffold were investigated, using the non-mesoporous HA coated scaffold as the control group, to evaluate the influence of the mesoporous structure on the biological properties of HA coating. It was found that the increased surface area of the mesoporous HA coating greatly affected the response of MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts and the expression of proteins. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay recorded a significantly higher expression of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and bone sialoprotein (BSP) in the mesoporous group than those in the control group (*p<0.05) after different incubation periods. The introduction of mesopores enhanced the expression of ALP and BSP in the cells grown on the mesoporous HA coatings, on the premise of maintaining the protein expression in a sequence to ensure the correct temporo-spatial expression in osteogenesis. These results indicated that the mesoporous HA coating would provide a good environment for cell growth, suggesting that it could be used as the coating material for the surface modification of the tissue engineering scaffolds. PMID:24094217

Ye, Xinyu; Cai, Shu; Xu, Guohua; Dou, Ying; Hu, Hongtao; Ye, Xiaojian

2013-12-01

102

Laser sintered porous polycaprolacone scaffolds loaded with hyaluronic acid and gelatin-grafted thermoresponsive hydrogel for cartilage tissue engineering.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to evaluate a soft/hard bi-phase scaffold for cartilage tissue engineering. Chondrocyte proliferation, glycoaminoglycan production and total collagen content are compared between laser-sintered porous polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffolds with and without a thermoresponsive hydrogel grafted with hyaluronic acid and gelatin. The in vitro results show that scaffolds loaded with hydrogel have a higher initial chondrocyte attachment than PCL scaffolds. At day 21 and 28, scaffolds loaded with hydrogel have a significantly higher glycosaminoglycan (GAG) production than PCL scaffolds alone, and total collagen content including collagen type II in the hydrogel-loaded group is three times higher than the group without hydrogel. It is concluded that the laser-sintered porous PCL scaffold has good cytocompatibility, and that the hydrogel phase is able to enhance initial chondrocytes attachment as well as GAG and collagen production of chondrocytes. This study suggests that a soft/hard bi-phase scaffold may be used for cartilage tissue engineering to enhance in vitro chondrogenesis. PMID:24165555

Lee, Ming-Yih; Tsai, Wen-Wei; Chen, His-Jung; Chen, Jyh-Ping; Chen, Chih-Hao; Yeh, Wen-Lin; An, Jia

2013-01-01

103

Wear mechanism and tribological characteristics of porous NiTi shape memory alloy for bone scaffold.  

PubMed

The abraded debris might cause osteocytic osteolysis on the interface between implants and bone tissues, thus inducing the subsequent mobilization of implants gradually and finally resulting in the failure of bone implants, which imposes restrictions on the applications of porous NiTi shape memory alloys (SMAs) scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. In this work, the effects of the annealing temperature, applied load, and porosity on the tribological behavior and wear resistance of three-dimensional porous NiTi SMA are investigated systematically. The porous structure and phase transformation during the exothermic process affect the tribological properties and wear mechanism significantly. In general, a larger porosity leads to better tribological resistance but sometimes, SMAs with small porosity possess better wear resistance than ones with higher porosity during the initial sliding stage. It can be ascribed to the better superelasticity of the former at the test temperature. The porous NiTi phase during the exothermic reaction also plays an important role in the wear resistance. Generally, porous NiTi has smaller friction coefficients under high loads due to stress-induced superelasticity. The wear mechanism is discussed based on plastic deformation and microcrack propagation. PMID:23401387

Wu, Shuilin; Liu, Xiangmei; Wu, Guosong; Yeung, Kelvin W K; Zheng, Dong; Chung, C Y; Xu, Z S; Chu, Paul K

2013-09-01

104

Enhanced osteoblast-like cell adhesion and proliferation using sulfonate-bearing polymeric scaffolds.  

PubMed

Orthopedic malfunction, degeneration, or damage remains a serious healthcare issue despite advances in medical technology. Proactive extracellular matrix (ECM)-mimetic scaffolds are being researched to orchestrate the activation of diverse osteogenic signaling cascades, facilitating osteointegration. We hypothesized that sulfonated functionalities incorporated into synthetic hydrogels would simulate anionic, sulfate-bearing proteoglycans, abundant in the ECM. Using this rationale, we successfully developed differentially sulfonated hydrogels, polymerizing a range of sulfopropyl acrylate potassium-acrylamide (SPAK-AM) mole ratios as monomer feeds under room temperature conditions. For anchorage-dependent cells, such as osteoblasts, adhesion is a critical prerequisite for subsequent osteointegration and cell specialization. The introduction of the sulfonated monomer, SPAK, resulted in favorable uptake of serum proteins with proportional increase in adhesion and proliferation rates of model cell lines, which included NIH/3T3 fibroblasts, MG-63 osteoblasts, and MC3T3-E1 subclone 4 preosteoblasts. In fact, higher proportions of sulfonate content (pSPAK75, pSPAK100) exhibited comparable or even higher degrees of adhesion and proliferation, relative to commercial grade tissue culture polystyrene in vitro. These results indicate promising potentials of sulfonated ECM-mimetic hydrogels as potential osteogenic tissue engineering scaffolds. PMID:17584889

Chaterji, Somali; Gemeinhart, Richard A

2007-12-15

105

Subcritical CO2 sintering of microspheres of different polymeric materials to fabricate scaffolds for tissue engineering.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to use CO2 at sub-critical pressures as a tool to sinter 3D, macroporous, microsphere-based scaffolds for bone and cartilage tissue engineering. Porous scaffolds composed of ~200 ?m microspheres of either poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) or polycaprolactone (PCL) were prepared using dense phase CO2 sintering, which were seeded with rat bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (rBMSCs), and exposed to either osteogenic (PLGA, PCL) or chondrogenic (PLGA) conditions for 6 weeks. Under osteogenic conditions, the PLGA constructs produced over an order of magnitude more calcium than the PCL constructs, whereas the PCL constructs had far superior mechanical and structural integrity (125 times stiffer than PLGA constructs) at week 6, along with twice the cell content of the PLGA constructs. Chondrogenic cell performance was limited in PLGA constructs, perhaps as a result of the polymer degradation rate being too high. The current study represents the first long-term culture of CO2-sintered microsphere-based scaffolds, and has established important thermodynamic differences in sintering between the selected formulations of PLGA and PCL, with the former requiring adjustment of pressure only, and the latter requiring the adjustment of both pressure and temperature. Based on more straightforward sintering conditions and more favorable cell performance, PLGA may be the material of choice for microspheres in a CO2 sintering application, although a different PLGA formulation with the encapsulation of growth factors, extracellular matrix-derived nanoparticles, and/or buffers in the microspheres may be advantageous for achieving a more superior cell performance than observed here. PMID:24094202

Bhamidipati, Manjari; Sridharan, BanuPriya; Scurto, Aaron M; Detamore, Michael S

2013-12-01

106

Highly aligned porous Ti scaffold coated with bone morphogenetic protein-loaded silica/chitosan hybrid for enhanced bone regeneration.  

PubMed

Porous Ti has been widely investigated for orthopedic and dental applications on account of their ability to promote implant fixation via bone ingrowth into pores. In this study, highly aligned porous Ti scaffolds coated with a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-loaded silica/chitosan hybrid were produced, and their bone regeneration ability was evaluated by in vivo animal experiments. Reverse freeze casting allowed for the creation of highly aligned pores, resulting in a high compressive strength of 254 ± 21 MPa of the scaffolds at a porosity level of ?51 vol %. In addition, a BMP-loaded silica/chitosan hybrid coating layer with a thickness of ?1 ?m was uniformly deposited on the porous Ti scaffold, which enabled the sustained release of the BMP over a prolonged period of time up to 26 days. The cumulative amount of the BMP released was ?4 ?g, which was much higher than that released from the specimen without a hybrid coating layer. In addition, the bone regeneration ability of the porous Ti scaffold with a BMP-loaded silica/chitosan coating layer was examined by in vivo animal testing using a rabbit calvarial defect model and compared with those of the as-produced porous Ti scaffold and porous Ti scaffold with a silica/chitosan coating layer. After 4 weeks of healing, the specimen coated with a BMP-loaded silica/chitosan hybrid showed a much higher bone regeneration volume (?36%) than the as-produced specimen (?15%) (p < 0.005) and even the specimen coated with a silica/chitosan hybrid (?25%) (p < 0.05). PMID:24259198

Jung, Hyun-Do; Yook, Se-Won; Han, Cheol-Min; Jang, Tae-Sik; Kim, Hyoun-Ee; Koh, Young-Hag; Estrin, Yuri

2014-07-01

107

Facile fabrication of hierarchical porous resins via high internal phase emulsion and polymeric porogen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To achieve the dual features of fast oil absorption rate and high oil absorbency for the practical application in emergency treatment of spilled chemical pollutants, hierarchical porous resins were synthesized. The polymerization of high internal phase emulsion was applied to fabricate the porous structure for the purpose of high oil absorbency. Polymeric porogens were proposed to adjust the second-order or interconnected pore structure for fast oil absorption rate. SEM revealed the hierarchical porous structure. Molecular weight and dose of polymeric porogen were investigated for the effect on the formation of porous structure and absorption features. Optimized resins have 31.5 g/g or 17.1 g/g absorbency for chloroform and toluene, respectively, and only 5 min is needed to reach their saturation absorption. Besides, the porous resins demonstrated high oil retention under pressure. The absorption/desorption cycling results revealed the high repeatability of recovered resins. All these tests predicted the potential applications of porous resins of this kind particularly in the emergency treatment of oil and chemical pollution.

Ma, Libin; Luo, Xiaogang; Cai, Ning; Xue, Yanan; Zhu, San; Fu, Zhen; Yu, Faquan

2014-06-01

108

Porous Shape Memory Polymers.  

PubMed

Porous shape memory polymers (SMPs) include foams, scaffolds, meshes, and other polymeric substrates that possess porous three-dimensional macrostructures. Porous SMPs exhibit active structural and volumetric transformations and have driven investigations in fields ranging from biomedical engineering to aerospace engineering to the clothing industry. The present review article examines recent developments in porous SMPs, with focus given to structural and chemical classification, methods of characterization, and applications. We conclude that the current body of literature presents porous SMPs as highly interesting smart materials with potential for industrial use. PMID:23646038

Hearon, Keith; Singhal, Pooja; Horn, John; Small, Ward; Olsovsky, Cory; Maitland, Kristen C; Wilson, Thomas S; Maitland, Duncan J

2013-02-01

109

Stress-strain analysis of porous scaffolds made from titanium alloys synthesized via SLS method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A layer-by-layer selective laser sintering (SLS) technology seems to be greatly promising for solving the plastic surgery problems, particularly those pertaining to the facial reconstruction. Made from titanium-based alloys (titanium or nitinol, i.e. NiTi-intermetallic phase), the porous scaffolds for cranioplasty are an efficient tool for rectifying the face defects and for the dental orthopedic surgery. The progress in the oral surgery and teeth implantation is caused by the problem of an osteointegration on the one hand, and by achievements of the implant synthesis techniques, on the other hand. An important problem thereby is a profound study of the stress-strain behavior of porous implants under the masticatory load or pressure. In the present study the ways for the optimization of the porous implant structural and strength properties as the function of the laser synthesis parameters are described. The finite element approach (ANSYS) was used here for a complex dowel description and numerical simulations. In order to evaluate the processes in the porous implant under the external loading, a CAD 3D model was built for different internal and external configurations of the implant and/or initial shape of powdered particles. The stress-strain dependences were calculated that displayed the irregularity of the stress distribution by the implant volume in the bone tissue. Most of the values are concentrated in places of object contact.

Shishkovsky, I.

2009-09-01

110

Biodegradable and bioactive porous scaffold structures prepared using fused deposition modeling.  

PubMed

Three-dimensional printing (3DP) refers to a group of additive manufacturing techniques that can be utilized in tissue engineering applications. Fused deposition modeling (FDM) is a 3DP method capable of using common thermoplastic polymers. However, the scope of materials applicable for FDM has not been fully recognized. The purpose of this study was to examine the creation of biodegradable porous scaffold structures using different materials in FDM and to determine the compressive properties and the fibroblast cell response of the structures. To the best of our knowledge, the printability of a poly(?-caprolactone)/bioactive glass (PCL/BAG) composite and L-lactide/?-caprolactone 75/25 mol % copolymer (PLC) was demonstrated for the first time. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images showed BAG particles at the surface of the printed PCL/BAG scaffolds. Compressive testing showed the possibility of altering the compressive stiffness of a scaffold without changing the compressive modulus. Compressive properties were significantly dependent on porosity level and structural geometry. Fibroblast proliferation was significantly higher in polylactide than in PCL or PCL/BAG composite. Optical microscope images and SEM images showed the viability of the cells, which demonstrated the biocompatibility of the structures. PMID:23281260

Korpela, Jyrki; Kokkari, Anne; Korhonen, Harri; Malin, Minna; Närhi, Timo; Seppälä, Jukka

2013-05-01

111

Bone regeneration in strong porous bioactive glass (13-93) scaffolds with an oriented microstructure implanted in rat calvarial defects  

PubMed Central

There is a need for synthetic bone graft substitutes to repair large bone defects resulting from trauma, malignancy, and congenital diseases. Bioactive glass has attractive properties as a scaffold material but factors that influence its ability to regenerate bone in vivo are not well understood. In the present work, the ability of strong porous scaffolds of 13–93 bioactive glass with an oriented microstructure to regenerate bone was evaluated in vivo using a rat calvarial defect model. Scaffolds with an oriented microstructure of columnar pores (porosity = 50%; pore diameter = 50–150 µm) showed mostly osteoconductive bone regeneration, and new bone formation, normalized to the available pore area (volume) of the scaffolds, increased from 37% at 12 weeks to 55% at 24 weeks. Scaffolds of the same glass with a trabecular microstructure (porosity = 80%; pore width = 100–500 µm), used as the positive control, showed bone regeneration in the pores of 25% and 46% at 12 and 24 weeks, respectively. The brittle mechanical response of the as-fabricated scaffolds changed markedly to an elasto-plastic response in vivo at both implantation times. These results indicate that both groups of 13–93 bioactive glass scaffolds could potentially be used to repair large bone defects, but scaffolds with the oriented microstructure could also be considered for the repair of loaded bone. PMID:22922251

Liu, Xin; Rahaman, Mohamed N.; Fu, Qiang

2012-01-01

112

Hydrothermal fabrication of hydroxyapatite/chitosan/carbon porous scaffolds for bone tissue engineering.  

PubMed

Porous carbon fiber felts (PCFFs) have great applications in orthopedic surgery because of the strong mechanical strength, low density, high stability, and porous structure, but they are biologically inert. To improve their biological properties, we developed, for the first time, the hydroxyapatite (HA)/chitosan/carbon porous scaffolds (HCCPs). HA/chitosan nanohybrid coatings have been fabricated on PCFFs according to the following stages: (i) deposition of chitosan/calcium phosphate precursors on PCFFs; and (ii) hydrothermal transformation of the calcium phosphate precursors in chitosan matrix into HA nanocrystals. The scanning electron microscopy images indicate that PCFFs are uniformly covered with elongated HA nanoplates and chitosan, and the macropores in PCFFs still remain. Interestingly, the calcium-deficient HA crystals exist as plate-like shapes with thickness of 10-18 nm, width of 30-40 nm, and length of 80-120 nm, which are similar to the biological apatite. The HA in HCCPs is similar to the mineral of natural bone in chemical composition, crystallinity, and morphology. As compared with PCFFs, HCCPs exhibit higher in vitro bioactivity and biocompatibility because of the presence of the HA/chitosan nanohybrid coatings. HCCPs not only promote the formation of bone-like apatite in simulated body fluid, but also improve the adhesion, spreading, and proliferation of human bone marrow stromal cells. Hence, HCCPs have great potentials as scaffold materials for bone tissue engineering and implantation. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 102B: 1740-1748, 2014. PMID:24687547

Long, Teng; Liu, Yu-Tai; Tang, Sha; Sun, Jin-Liang; Guo, Ya-Ping; Zhu, Zhen-An

2014-11-01

113

Chondrogenic differentiation of human adipose mesenchimal stem cells: Influence of a biomimetic gelatin genipin crosslinked porous scaffold.  

PubMed

Human adipose derived stem cells have shown chondrogenic differentiation potential in cartilage tissue engineering in combination with biomimetic materials. In this study, the chondrogenic potential of a porous gelatin based scaffold genipin (GNP) crosslinked was investigated in human mesenchymal stem cells obtained from adipose tissue. Cells were cultured up to 4 weeks on the scaffold and on monolayer, MTT assay was performed to evaluate cell viability, light, and transmission electron microscopy were carried out to demonstrate cell proliferation, scaffold adhesion, and cell colonization inside the porous architecture of the biomaterial. The expression of chondrogenic markers such as SOX9, collagen type II, aggregan, and versican was investigated by Real Time PCR. Results showed an high cell viability, adhesion, and colonization of the scaffold. Real Time PCR data demonstrated an upregulation of all the chondrogenic markers analyzed. In conclusion, 3D gelatin GNP crosslinked porous scaffold provides an improved environment for chondrogenic differentiation of stem cells compared with cell monolayer culture system. Microsc. Res. Tech. 77:928-934, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25099470

Focaroli, Stefano; Teti, Gabriella; Salvatore, Viviana; Durante, Sandra; Belmonte, Monica Mattioli; Giardino, Roberto; Mazzotti, Antonio; Bigi, Adriana; Falconi, Mirella

2014-11-01

114

Chondrogenic Differentiation of Adipose-Derived Adult Stem Cells by a Porous Scaffold Derived from Native Articular Cartilage Extracellular Matrix  

PubMed Central

Adipose-derived adult stem cells (ASCs) have the ability to differentiate into a chondrogenic phenotype in response to specific environmental signals such as growth factors or artificial biomaterial scaffolds. In this study, we examined the hypothesis that a porous scaffold derived exclusively from articular cartilage can induce chondrogenesis of ASCs. Human ASCs were seeded on porous scaffolds derived from adult porcine articular cartilage and cultured in standard medium without exogenous growth factors. Chondrogenesis of ASCs seeded within the scaffold was evident by quantitative RT-PCR analysis for cartilage-specific extracellular matrix (ECM) genes. Histological and immunohistochemical examination showed abundant production of cartilage-specific ECM components—particularly, type II collagen—after 4 or 6 weeks of culture. After 6 weeks of culture, the cellular morphology in the ASC-seeded constructs resembled those in native articular cartilage tissue, with rounded cells residing in the glycosaminoglycan-rich regions of the scaffolds. Biphasic mechanical testing showed that the aggregate modulus of the ASC-seeded constructs increased over time, reaching 150?kPa by day 42, more than threefold higher than that of the unseeded controls. These results suggest that a porous scaffold derived from articular cartilage has the ability to induce chondrogenic differentiation of ASCs without exogenous growth factors, with significant synthesis and accumulation of ECM macromolecules, and the development of mechanical properties approaching those of native cartilage. These findings support the potential for a processed cartilage ECM as a biomaterial scaffold for cartilage tissue engineering. Additional in vivo evaluation is necessary to fully recognize the clinical implication of these observations. PMID:18950290

Cheng, Nai-Chen; Estes, Bradley T.; Awad, Hani A.

2009-01-01

115

Collagen-poly(dialdehyde) guar gum based porous 3D scaffolds immobilized with growth factor for tissue engineering applications.  

PubMed

Here we report the preparation of collagen-poly(dialdehyde) guar gum based hybrid functionalized scaffolds covalently immobilized with platelet derived growth factor - BB for tissue engineering applications. Poly(dialdehyde) guar gum was synthesized from selective oxidation of guar gum using sodium periodate. The synthesized poly(dialdehyde) guar gum not only promotes crosslinking of collagen but also immobilizes the platelet derived growth factor through imine bonds. The covalent crosslinking formed in collagen improves thermal, swelling and biodegradation properties of the hybrid scaffolds. The prepared hybrid scaffolds show 3D interconnected honeycomb porous structure when viewed under a microscope. The release of immobilized platelet derived growth factor was seen up to 13th day of incubation thereby proving its sustained delivery. The developed hybrid scaffold leads to a quantum increase in NIH 3T3 fibroblast cell density and proliferation thereby demonstrating its potential for tissue engineering applications. PMID:25263907

Ragothaman, Murali; Palanisamy, Thanikaivelan; Kalirajan, Cheirmadurai

2014-12-19

116

3D porous chitosan-alginate scaffolds: a new matrix for studying prostate cancer cell-lymphocyte interactions in vitro.  

PubMed

The treatment of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) remains palliative. Immunotherapy offers a potentially effective therapy for CRPC; however, its advancement into the clinic has been slow, in part because of the lack of representative in vitro tumor models that resemble the in vivo tumor microenvironment for studying interactions of CRPC cells with immune cells and other potential therapeutics. This study evaluates the use of 3D porous chitosan-alginate (CA) scaffolds for culturing human prostate cancer (PCa) cells and studying tumor cell interaction with human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) ex vivo. CA scaffolds and Matrigel matrix samples support in vitro tumor spheroid formation over 15 d of culture, and CA scaffolds support live-cell fluorescence imaging with confocal microscopy using stably transfected PCa cells for 55 d. PCa cells grown in Matrigel matrix and CA scaffolds for 15 d are co-cultured with PBLs for 2 and 6 d in vitro and evaluated with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), immunohistochemistry (IHC), and flow cytometry. Both the Matrigel matrix and CA scaffolds support interaction of PBLs with PCa tumors, with CA scaffolds providing a more robust platform for subsequent analyses. This study demonstrates the use of 3D natural polymer scaffolds as a tissue culture model for supporting long-term analysis of interaction of prostate cancer tumor cells with immune cells, providing an in vitro platform for rapid immunotherapy development. PMID:23184794

Florczyk, Stephen J; Liu, Gang; Kievit, Forrest M; Lewis, Allison M; Wu, Jennifer D; Zhang, Miqin

2012-09-01

117

Hyaluronic acid based materials for scaffolding via two-photon polymerization.  

PubMed

Hydrogels are able to mimic the basic three-dimensional (3D) biological, chemical, and mechanical properties of native tissues. Since hyaluronic acid (HA) is a chief component of human extracellular matrix (ECM), it represents an extremely attractive starting material for the fabrication of scaffolds for tissue engineering. Due to poor mechanical properties of hydrogels, structure fabrication of this material class remains a major challenge. Two-photon polymerization (2PP) is a promising technique for biomedical applications, which allows the fabrication of complex 3D microstructures by moving the laser focus in the volume of a photosensitive material. Chemical modification of hyaluronan allows application of the 2PP technique to this natural material and, thus, precise fabrication of 3D hydrogel constructs. To create materials with tailor-made mechanochemical properties, HA was combined and covalently cross-linked with poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) in situ. 2PP was applied for the fabrication of well elaborated 3D HA and HA-PEGDA microstructures. For enhanced biological adaption, HA was functionalized with human epidermal growth factor. PMID:24432740

Kufelt, Olga; El-Tamer, Ayman; Sehring, Camilla; Schlie-Wolter, Sabrina; Chichkov, Boris N

2014-02-10

118

Fabrication and in vitro degradation of porous fumarate-based polymer/alumoxane nanocomposite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering.  

PubMed

In this work, the fabrication and in vitro degradation of porous fumarate-based/alumoxane nanocomposites were evaluated for their potential as bone tissue engineering scaffolds. The biodegradable polymer poly (propylene fumarate)/propylene fumarate-diacrylate (PPF/PF-DA), a macrocomposite composed of PPF/PF-DA and boehmite microparticles, and a nanocomposite composed of PPF/PF-DA and surface-modified alumoxane nanoparticles were used to fabricate porous scaffolds by photo-crosslinking and salt-leaching. Scaffolds then underwent 12 weeks of in vitro degradation in phosphate buffered saline at 37 degrees C. The presence of boehmite microparticles and alumoxane nanoparticles in the polymer inhibited scaffold shrinkage during crosslinking. Furthermore, the incorporation of alumoxane nanoparticles into the polymer limited salt-leaching, perhaps due to tighter crosslinking within the nanocomposite. Analysis of crosslinking revealed that the acrylate and overall double bond conversions in the nanocomposite were higher than in the PPF/PF-DA polymer alone, though these differences were not significant. During 12 weeks of in vitro degradation, the nanocomposite lost 5.3% +/- 2.4% of its mass but maintained its compressive mechanical properties and porous architecture. The addition of alumoxane nanoparticles into the fumarate-based polymer did not significantly affect the degradation of the nanocomposite compared with the other materials in terms of mass loss, compressive properties, and porous structure. These results demonstrate the feasibility of fabricating degradable nanocomposite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering by photo-crosslinking and salt-leaching mixtures of fumarate-based polymers, alumoxane nanoparticles, and salt microparticles. PMID:18428800

Mistry, Amit S; Cheng, Stacy H; Yeh, Tiffany; Christenson, Elizabeth; Jansen, John A; Mikos, Antonios G

2009-04-01

119

Tough and flexible CNT-polymeric hybrid scaffolds for engineering cardiac constructs.  

PubMed

In the past few years, a considerable amount of effort has been devoted toward the development of biomimetic scaffolds for cardiac tissue engineering. However, most of the previous scaffolds have been electrically insulating or lacked the structural and mechanical robustness to engineer cardiac tissue constructs with suitable electrophysiological functions. Here, we developed tough and flexible hybrid scaffolds with enhanced electrical properties composed of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) embedded aligned poly(glycerol sebacate):gelatin (PG) electrospun nanofibers. Incorporation of varying concentrations of CNTs from 0 to 1.5% within the PG nanofibrous scaffolds (CNT-PG scaffolds) notably enhanced fiber alignment and improved the electrical conductivity and toughness of the scaffolds while maintaining the viability, retention, alignment, and contractile activities of cardiomyocytes (CMs) seeded on the scaffolds. The resulting CNT-PG scaffolds resulted in stronger spontaneous and synchronous beating behavior (3.5-fold lower excitation threshold and 2.8-fold higher maximum capture rate) compared to those cultured on PG scaffold. Overall, our findings demonstrated that aligned CNT-PG scaffold exhibited superior mechanical properties with enhanced CM beating properties. It is envisioned that the proposed hybrid scaffolds can be useful for generating cardiac tissue constructs with improved organization and maturation. PMID:24927679

Kharaziha, Mahshid; Shin, Su Ryon; Nikkhah, Mehdi; Topkaya, Seda Nur; Masoumi, Nafiseh; Annabi, Nasim; Dokmeci, Mehmet R; Khademhosseini, Ali

2014-08-01

120

Freeze casting of porous hydroxyapatite scaffolds. II. Sintering, microstructure, and mechanical behavior.  

PubMed

In Part I, the influence of processing parameters on the general microstructure of freeze-cast hydroxyapatite (HA) constructs was explored. This work is an extension of Part I to investigate the effect of sintering conditions on the microstructure and mechanical behavior of freeze-cast HA. For constructs prepared from aqueous suspensions (5-20 vol % HA), sintering for 3 h at temperatures from 1250 degrees C to 1375 degrees C produced a decrease in porosity of <5% but an increase in strength of nearly 50%. Constructs with a porosity of 52% had compressive strengths of 12 +/- 1 MPa and 5 +/- 1 MPa in the directions parallel and perpendicular to the freezing direction, respectively. The mechanical response showed high strain tolerance (5-10% at the maximum stress), high strain to failure (>20%), and high strain rate sensitivity. Manipulation of the freeze-cast microstructure, achieved by additions of glycerol and 1,4-dioxane to the aqueous suspensions, produced changes in the magnitude of the mechanical response, but little change in the general nature of the response. The favorable mechanical behavior of the porous constructs, coupled with the ability to modify their microstructure, indicates the potential of the present freeze-casting route for the production of porous scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. PMID:18338786

Fu, Qiang; Rahaman, Mohamed N; Dogan, Fatih; Bal, B Sonny

2008-08-01

121

Design and application of chitosan/biphasic calcium phosphate porous scaffolds for bone tissue engineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the restoration of maxillofacial bone tissue, design of novel tissue engineering scaffolds capable of inducing bone remodeling through the delivery of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and an angiogenic growth factor, directly at the site of the defect was investigated in order to replace autogenous cancellous bone grafts with synthetic materials. Porous, three dimensional scaffolds were fabricated by a freeze drying method. In culture media, biphasic calcium phosphate particles within chitosan produced a surface reprecipitate of a composition similar to natural apatite that led to a uniform distribution of cells and mineralized ECM through chemotaxis. Further, the reprecipitation regulated the differentiation pathway and phenotype commitment of stem cells by altering the initial cell attachment morphology and actin cytoskeleton organization. In order to induce neovascularization after implantation, constructs were designed to be loaded with gelatin microspheres that delivered basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), a potent angiogenic factor. In vitro proliferation tests performed on fibroblastic cells showed no detectible loss of bFGF activity when delivered through enzymatic degradation of gelatin. Laser scanning confocal microscopy was used to demonstrate that gelatin microspheres can be injected evenly into cell-scaffold constructs owing to the spongy characteristics of the scaffold. To examine the binding interactions of bFGF with surface bound gelatin, a label free biosensor system, Biomolecular INteraction Detection sensor (BIND) was used. Results confirm that the principal interaction that takes place between bFGF and gelatin is electrostatic. Cell loaded tissue engineered constructs were produced in vitro at clinically relevant sizes and implanted with and without bFGF into a porcine mandibular defect model. Tissue engineered constructs facilitated the healing of mandibular defects only if combined with delivery of bFGF via gelatin microspheres. bFGF release from the constructs improved neovascularization in the defect area and subsequently enhanced new bone formation. Although the rate and extent of bone formation was similar in bFGF group to those in empty defects for the period of the study, existence of woven bone in bFGF group suggests that bone formation is continuing while the lamellar structure in empty defects indicates that bone formation in that group was finalized.

Sendemir-Urkmez, Aylin

122

Protein growth factors loaded highly porous chitosan scaffold: a comparison of bone healing properties.  

PubMed

Present study aimed to investigate and compare effectiveness of porous chitosan alone and in combination with insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) in bone healing. Highly porous (85±2%) with wide distribution of macroporous (70-900 ?m) chitosan scaffolds were fabricated as bone substitutes by employing a simple liquid hardening method using 2% (w/v) chitosan suspension. IGF-1 and BMP-2 were infiltrated using vacuum infiltration with freeze drying method. Adsorption efficiency was found to be 87±2 and 90±2% for BMP-2 and IGF-1 respectively. After thorough material characterization (pore details, FTIR and SEM), samples were used for subsequent in vivo animal trial. Eighteen rabbit models were used to evaluate and compare control (chitosan) (group A), chitosan with IGF-1 (group B) and chitosan with BMP-2 (group C) in the repair of critical size bone defect in tibia. Radiologically, there was evidence of radiodensity in defect area from 60th day (initiated on 30th day) in groups B and C as compared to group A and attaining nearly bony density in most of the part at day 90. Histological results depicted well developed osteoblastic proliferation around haversian canal along with proliferating fibroblast, vascularization and reticular network which was more pronounced in group B followed by groups C and A. Fluorochrome labeling and SEM studies in all groups showed similar outcome. Hence, porous chitosan alone and in combination with growth factors (GFs) can be successfully used for bone defect healing with slight advantage of IGF-1 in chitosan samples. PMID:23827571

Nandi, Samit K; Kundu, Biswanath; Basu, Debabrata

2013-04-01

123

Mechanical property evaluation of porous 13-93 Bioactive Glass and GL1550 Borate Glass 3D scaffolds D. Li, A. Scully, and T. M. G. Chu  

E-print Network

Mechanical property evaluation of porous 13-93 Bioactive Glass and GL1550 Borate Glass 3D scaffolds in either mechanical or biologic properties. Borate bioactive-glass (BBG) is a promising material for scaffolds due to its higher solubility compared to traditional 13-93 bioactive glass. The main objective

Zhou, Yaoqi

124

Comprehensive Genetic Analysis of Early Host Body Reactions to the Bioactive and Bio-Inert Porous Scaffolds  

PubMed Central

To design scaffolds for tissue regeneration, details of the host body reaction to the scaffolds must be studied. Host body reactions have been investigated mainly by immunohistological observations for a long time. Despite of recent dramatic development in genetic analysis technologies, genetically comprehensive changes in host body reactions are hardly studied. There is no information about host body reactions that can predict successful tissue regeneration in the future. In the present study, porous polyethylene scaffolds were coated with bioactive collagen or bio-inert poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine-co-n-butyl methacrylate) (PMB) and were implanted subcutaneously and compared the host body reaction to those substrates by normalizing the result using control non-coat polyethylene scaffold. The comprehensive analyses of early host body reactions to the scaffolds were carried out using a DNA microarray assay. Within numerous genes which were expressed differently among these scaffolds, particular genes related to inflammation, wound healing, and angiogenesis were focused upon. Interleukin (IL)-1? and IL-10 are important cytokines in tissue responses to biomaterials because IL-1? promotes both inflammation and wound healing and IL-10 suppresses both of them. IL-1? was up-regulated in the collagen-coated scaffold. Collagen-specifically up-regulated genes contained both M1- and M2-macrophage-related genes. Marked vessel formation in the collagen-coated scaffold was occurred in accordance with the up-regulation of many angiogenesis-inducible factors. The DNA microarray assay provided global information regarding the host body reaction. Interestingly, several up-regulated genes were detected even on the very bio-inert PMB-coated surfaces and those genes include inflammation-suppressive and wound healing-suppressive IL-10, suggesting that not only active tissue response but also the inert response may relates to these genetic regulations. PMID:24454803

Ehashi, Tomo; Takemura, Taro; Hanagata, Nobutaka; Minowa, Takashi; Kobayashi, Hisatoshi; Ishihara, Kazuhiko; Yamaoka, Tetsuji

2014-01-01

125

Influence of the laser assisted fabricated 3D porous scaffolds from bioceramoplasts of micron and nano sizes on culture of MMSC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of the investigation was to test the biocompatibility of 3D porous biopolymer matrices (tissue-cellular scaffolds), made of biocompatible and bioresorbable polymers (polycarbonate, polyetheretherketone /PEEK/, polycaprolactone), including the materials with biocompatible oxide ceramics additive (TiO2, Al2O3, ZrO2 and hydroxyapatite) of micron and nano sizes, for tissue-engineering purposes. The porous samples were prepared via a layer-by-layer SLS method. The surface microstructures and their roughness were analyzed by the optical microscopy equipped with the cell analysis software. The cellular morphology, proliferative activity and adhesion of the polymeric and ceramopolymeric matrices were the subjects for comparison. The study showed that all the tested materials posessed biocompatible properties. The experimentally estimated cell duplication speed per day turned out to be maximal for polycarbonate (0.279 duplications per day) and for PEEK + Al2O3 = 3:1 group (0.30 dupl/day) against 0.387 dupl/day for the reference sample and 0.270 dupl/day for the group of cells placed close to the pure titanium samples.

Shishkovsky, I.; Volchkov, S.

2013-11-01

126

Surface modification of porous polycaprolactone/biphasic calcium phosphate scaffolds for bone regeneration in rat calvaria defect.  

PubMed

In this study, polycaprolactone scaffolds fabricated by a salt-leaching process were loaded with biphasic calcium phosphate successfully to improve the osteoconductivity in bone regeneration. The surface of polycaprolactone/biphasic calcium phosphate scaffolds was aminolyzed by 1,6-hexamethylenediamine to introduce amino groups onto the surface, which was verified qualitatively by ninhyrin staining. Collagen was further immobilized on the aminolyzed porous polycaprolactone via N-ethyl-N'-(3-dimethylaminopropy) carbodiimide hydrochloride/hydroxy-2,5-dioxopyrolidine-3-sulfonic acid sodium cross-linking. The pore size of polycaprolactone/biphasic calcium phosphate-collagen scaffolds was 200-300?µm, which was suitable for bone in-growth. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed the coupling of collagen immobilized on the surface of polycaprolactone/biphasic calcium phosphate. In vitro results demonstrated that the spreading and viability of MC3T3-E1 cells were remarkably improved in the polycaprolactone/biphasic calcium phosphate-collagen scaffolds. The in vivo study was carried out by implanting the porous polycaprolactone, polycaprolactone/biphasic calcium phosphate, and polycaprolactone/biphasic calcium phosphate-collagen to the skulls of rats. Although the addition of biphasic calcium phosphate particles in the polycaprolactone scaffolds does not have a strong effect on the new bone formation, the immobilization of collagen on the polycaprolactone/biphasic calcium phosphate scaffolds significantly improved the bone regeneration even though the implantation time was short, 6 weeks. The present results provide more evidence that functionalizing polycaprolactone with biphasic calcium phosphate and collagen may be a feasible way to improve the osteoconduction in bone regeneration. PMID:24939961

Kim, Ji-Hyun; Linh, Nguyen Tb; Min, Young K; Lee, Byong-Taek

2014-10-01

127

MgCHA particles dispersion in porous PCL scaffolds: in vitro mineralization and in vivo bone formation.  

PubMed

In this work, we focus on the in vitro and in vivo response of composite scaffolds obtained by incorporating Mg,CO3 -doped hydroxyapatite (HA) particles in poly(?-caprolactone) (PCL) porous matrices. After a complete analysis of chemical and physical properties of synthesized particles (i.e. SEM/EDS, DSC, XRD and FTIR), we demonstrate that the Mg,CO3 doping influences the surface wettability with implications upon cell-material interaction and new bone formation mechanisms. In particular, ion substitution in apatite crystals positively influences the early in vitro cellular response of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs), i.e. adhesion and proliferation, and promotes an extensive mineralization of the scaffold in osteogenic medium, thus conforming to a more faithful reproduction of the native bone environment than undoped HA particles, used as control in PCL matrices. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Mg,CO3 -doped HA in PCL scaffolds support the in vivo cellular response by inducing neo-bone formation as early as 2?months post-implantation, and abundant mature bone tissue at the sixth month, with a lamellar structure and completely formed bone marrow. Together, these results indicate that Mg(2+) and CO3 (2-) ion substitution in HA particles enhances the scaffold properties, providing the right chemical signals to combine with morphological requirements (i.e. pore size, shape and interconnectivity) to drive osteogenic response in scaffold-aided bone regeneration. PMID:22730225

Guarino, Vincenzo; Scaglione, Silvia; Sandri, Monica; Alvarez-Perez, Marco A; Tampieri, Anna; Quarto, Rodolfo; Ambrosio, Luigi

2014-04-01

128

Porous keratin scaffold-promising biomaterial for tissue engineering and drug delivery.  

PubMed

A porous keratin scaffold, prepared from the reduced keratin solution, has shown good cell viability which makes it a potential candidate for cell seeding. An aqueous solution of reduced keratin was extracted from horn meal using a mixture of urea, sodium dodecyl sulfate, mercaptoethanol, and water at 60 degrees C. The molecular mass of the extracted keratin is found to be ranging between 225 and 150 KDa. The CD spectrum of aqueous solution of keratin shows the presence of infinity-helical structure with beta-turns as negative absorption band at 225 nm and as positive absorption band at 195 nm. The FTIR spectrum of the same confirms infinity-helical structure with beta-turns. Its characteristic absorption bands are assigned mainly to the peptide bonds for amide I, II, and III respectively. DSC and TGA data of the reduced keratin peaks fall in region 200 degrees C-250 degrees C and 200 degrees C-400 degrees C temperatures, respectively. They correspond to the infinity-helix denaturation of the material. PMID:19637379

Srinivasan, Balaji; Kumar, Ramadhar; Shanmugam, Kirubanandan; Sivagnam, Uma Tiruchirapalli; Reddy, Neelakanta Puily; Sehgal, Praveen Kumar

2010-01-01

129

Production, characterisation, and cytocompatibility of porous titanium-based particulate scaffolds.  

PubMed

Despite its non-matching mechanical properties titanium remains the preferred metal implant material in orthopaedics. As a consequence in some cases stress shielding effect occurs, leading to implant loosening, osteopenia, and finally revision surgery. Porous metal scaffolds to allow easier specialised cells ingrowth with mechanical properties closer to the ones of bone can overcome this problem. This should improve healing processes, implant integration, and dynamic strength of implants retaining. Three Ti-6Al-4V materials were metal injection moulded and tailored porosities were effectively achieved. After microstructural and mechanical characterisation, two different primary cells of mesenchymal origin (human umbilical cord perivascular cells and human bone derived cells which revealed to be two pertinent models) as well as one cell line originated from primary osteogenic sarcoma, Saos-2, were bestowed to investigate cell-material interaction on genomic and proteome levels. Biological examinations disclosed that no material has negative impact on early adhesion, proliferation or cell viability. An efficient cell ingrowth into material with an average porosity of 25-50 ?m was proved. PMID:23807315

Luthringer, B J C; Ali, F; Akaichi, H; Feyerabend, F; Ebel, T; Willumeit, R

2013-10-01

130

Image-based three-dimensional analysis to characterize the texture of porous scaffolds.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study is to characterize the microstructure of composite scaffolds for bone tissue regeneration containing different ratios of chitosan/gelatin blend and bioactive glasses. Starting from realistic 3D models of the scaffolds reconstructed from micro-CT images, the level of heterogeneity of scaffold architecture is evaluated performing a lacunarity analysis. The results demonstrate that the presence of the bioactive glass component affects not only macroscopic features such as porosity, but mainly scaffold microarchitecture giving rise to structural heterogeneity, which could have an impact on the local cell-scaffold interaction and scaffold performances. The adopted approach allows to investigate the scale-dependent pore distribution within the scaffold and the related structural heterogeneity features, providing a comprehensive characterization of the scaffold texture. PMID:24995272

Massai, Diana; Pennella, Francesco; Gentile, Piergiorgio; Gallo, Diego; Ciardelli, Gianluca; Bignardi, Cristina; Audenino, Alberto; Morbiducci, Umberto

2014-01-01

131

Image-Based Three-Dimensional Analysis to Characterize the Texture of Porous Scaffolds  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study is to characterize the microstructure of composite scaffolds for bone tissue regeneration containing different ratios of chitosan/gelatin blend and bioactive glasses. Starting from realistic 3D models of the scaffolds reconstructed from micro-CT images, the level of heterogeneity of scaffold architecture is evaluated performing a lacunarity analysis. The results demonstrate that the presence of the bioactive glass component affects not only macroscopic features such as porosity, but mainly scaffold microarchitecture giving rise to structural heterogeneity, which could have an impact on the local cell-scaffold interaction and scaffold performances. The adopted approach allows to investigate the scale-dependent pore distribution within the scaffold and the related structural heterogeneity features, providing a comprehensive characterization of the scaffold texture. PMID:24995272

Pennella, Francesco; Gallo, Diego; Ciardelli, Gianluca; Bignardi, Cristina; Audenino, Alberto; Morbiducci, Umberto

2014-01-01

132

Preparation of porous hydroxyapatite scaffolds by combination of the gel-casting and polymer sponge methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new technique of combining the gel-casting and polymer sponge methods is introduced in this study to prepare macroporous hydroxyapatite scaffolds, which provides a better control over the microstructures of scaffolds and enhances their mechanical properties. With this technique, we were able to produce scaffolds with mechanical and structural properties that cannot be attained by either the polymer sponge or

Hassna Rehman Ramay; Miqin Zhang

2003-01-01

133

Porous aromatic frameworks with anion-templated pore apertures serving as polymeric sieves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Owing to environmental pollution and energy depletion, efficient separation of energy gases has attracted widespread attention. Low-cost and efficient adsorbents for gas separation are greatly needed. Here we report a family of quaternary pyridinium-type porous aromatic frameworks with tunable channels. After carefully choosing and adjusting the sterically hindered counter ions via a facile ion exchange approach, the pore diameters are tuned at an angstrom scale in the range of 3.4-7?Å. The designed pore sizes may bring benefits to capturing or sieving gas molecules with varied diameters to separate them efficiently by size-exclusive effects. By combining their specific separation properties, a five-component (hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide and methane) gas mixture can be separated completely. The porous aromatic frameworks may hold promise for practical and commercial applications as polymeric sieves.

Yuan, Ye; Sun, Fuxing; Li, Lina; Cui, Peng; Zhu, Guangshan

2014-06-01

134

Novel porous scaffolds of pH responsive chitosan/carrageenan-based polyelectrolyte complexes for tissue engineering.  

PubMed

Polyelectrolyte complexes (PECs) represent promising materials for drug delivery and tissue engineering applications. These substances are obtained in aqueous medium without the need for crosslinking agents. PECs can be produced through the combination of oppositely charged medical grade polymers, which include the stimuli responsive ones. In this work, three-dimensional porous scaffolds were produced through the lyophilization of pH sensitive PECs made of chitosan (CS) and carrageenan (CRG). CS:CRG molar ratios of 1:1 (CSCRG1), 2:1 (CSCRG2), and 3:1 (CSCRG3) were used. The chemical compositions of the PECs, as well as their influence in the final structure of the scaffolds were meticulously studied. In addition, the pH responsiveness of the PECs in a range including the physiological pH values of 7.4 (simulating normal physiological conditions) and 4.5 (simulating inflammatory response) was assessed. Results showed that the PECs produced were stable at pH values of 7.4 and under but dissolved as the pH increased to nonphysiological values of 9 and 11. However, after dissolution, the PEC could be reprecipitated by decreasing the pH to values close to 4.5. The scaffolds obtained presented large and interconnected pores, being equally sensitive to changes in the pH. CSCRG1 scaffolds appeared to have higher hydrophilicity and therefore higher water absorption capacity. The increase in the CS:CRG molar ratios improved the scaffold mechanical properties, with CSCRG3 presenting the higher compressive modulus under wet conditions. Overall, the PEC scaffolds appear promising for tissue engineering related applications that require the use of pH responsive materials stable at physiological conditions. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 102A: 4415-4426, 2014. PMID:24677767

Araujo, J V; Davidenko, N; Danner, M; Cameron, R E; Best, S M

2014-12-01

135

Load-adaptive scaffold architecturing: a bioinspired approach to the design of porous additively manufactured scaffolds with optimized mechanical properties.  

PubMed

Computer-Aided Tissue Engineering (CATE) is based on a set of additive manufacturing techniques for the fabrication of patient-specific scaffolds, with geometries obtained from medical imaging. One of the main issues regarding the application of CATE concerns the definition of the internal architecture of the fabricated scaffolds, which, in turn, influences their porosity and mechanical strength. The present study envisages an innovative strategy for the fabrication of highly optimized structures, based on the a priori finite element analysis (FEA) of the physiological load set at the implant site. The resulting scaffold micro-architecture does not follow a regular geometrical pattern; on the contrary, it is based on the results of a numerical study. The algorithm was applied to a solid free-form fabrication process, using poly(?-caprolactone) as the starting material for the processing of additive manufactured structures. A simple and intuitive geometry was chosen as a proof-of-principle application, on which finite element simulations and mechanical testing were performed. Then, to demonstrate the capability in creating mechanically biomimetic structures, the proximal femur subjected to physiological loading conditions was considered and a construct fitting a femur head portion was designed and manufactured. PMID:22109804

Rainer, Alberto; Giannitelli, Sara M; Accoto, Dino; De Porcellinis, Stefano; Guglielmelli, Eugenio; Trombetta, Marcella

2012-04-01

136

The generation of biomolecular patterns in highly porous collagen-GAG scaffolds using direct photolithography  

PubMed Central

The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a complex organization of structural proteins found within tissues and organs. Heterogeneous tissues with spatially and temporally modulated properties play an important role in organism physiology. Here we present a benzophenone (BP) based direct, photolithographic approach to spatially pattern solution phase biomolecules within collagen-GAG (CG) scaffolds and demonstrate creation of a wide range of patterns composed of multiple biomolecular species in a manner independent from scaffold fabrication steps. We demonstrate the ability to immobilize biomolecules at surface densities of up to 1000 ligands per square micron on the scaffold strut surface and to depths limited by the penetration depth of the excitation source into the scaffold structure. Importantly, while BP photopatterning does further crosslink the CG scaffold, evidenced by increased mechanical properties and collagen crystallinity, it does not affect scaffold microstructural or compositional properties or negatively influence cell adhesion, viability, or proliferation. We show that covalently photoimmobilized fibronectin within a CG scaffold significantly increases the speed of MC3T3-E1 cell attachment relative to the bare CG scaffold or non-specifically adsorbed fibronectin, suggesting that this approach can be used to improve scaffold bioactivity. Our findings, on the whole, establish the use of direct, BP photolithography as a methodology for covalently incorporating activity-improving biochemical cues within 3D collagen biomaterial scaffolds with spatial control over biomolecular deposition. PMID:21397322

Martin, Teresa A.; Caliari, Steven R.; Williford, Paul D.; Harley, Brendan A.; Bailey, Ryan C.

2014-01-01

137

Microfabrication of complex porous tissue engineering scaffolds using 3D projection stereolithography  

PubMed Central

The success of tissue engineering will rely on the ability to generate complex, cell seeded three-dimensional (3D) structures. Therefore, methods that can be used to precisely engineer the architecture and topography of scaffolding materials will represent a critical aspect of functional tissue engineering. Previous approaches for 3D scaffold fabrication based on top-down and process driven methods are often not adequate to produce complex structures due to the lack of control on scaffold architecture, porosity, and cellular interactions. The proposed projection stereolithography (PSL) platform can be used to design intricate 3D tissue scaffolds that can be engineered to mimic the microarchitecture of tissues, based on computer aided design (CAD). The PSL system was developed, programmed and optimized to fabricate 3D scaffolds using gelatin methacrylate (GelMA). Variation of the structure and prepolymer concentration enabled tailoring the mechanical properties of the scaffolds. A dynamic cell seeding method was utilized to improve the coverage of the scaffold throughout its thickness. The results demonstrated that the interconnectivity of pores allowed for uniform human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) distribution and proliferation in the scaffolds, leading to high cell density and confluency at the end of the culture period. Moreover, immunohistochemistry results showed that cells seeded on the scaffold maintained their endothelial phenotype, demonstrating the biological functionality of the microfabricated GelMA scaffolds. PMID:22365811

Gauvin, Robert; Chen, Ying-Chieh; Lee, Jin Woo; Soman, Pranav; Zorlutuna, Pinar; Nichol, Jason W.; Bae, Hojae; Chen, Shaochen; Khademhosseini, Ali

2013-01-01

138

Microfabrication of complex porous tissue engineering scaffolds using 3D projection stereolithography.  

PubMed

The success of tissue engineering will rely on the ability to generate complex, cell seeded three-dimensional (3D) structures. Therefore, methods that can be used to precisely engineer the architecture and topography of scaffolding materials will represent a critical aspect of functional tissue engineering. Previous approaches for 3D scaffold fabrication based on top-down and process driven methods are often not adequate to produce complex structures due to the lack of control on scaffold architecture, porosity, and cellular interactions. The proposed projection stereolithography (PSL) platform can be used to design intricate 3D tissue scaffolds that can be engineered to mimic the microarchitecture of tissues, based on computer aided design (CAD). The PSL system was developed, programmed and optimized to fabricate 3D scaffolds using gelatin methacrylate (GelMA). Variation of the structure and prepolymer concentration enabled tailoring the mechanical properties of the scaffolds. A dynamic cell seeding method was utilized to improve the coverage of the scaffold throughout its thickness. The results demonstrated that the interconnectivity of pores allowed for uniform human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) distribution and proliferation in the scaffolds, leading to high cell density and confluency at the end of the culture period. Moreover, immunohistochemistry results showed that cells seeded on the scaffold maintained their endothelial phenotype, demonstrating the biological functionality of the microfabricated GelMA scaffolds. PMID:22365811

Gauvin, Robert; Chen, Ying-Chieh; Lee, Jin Woo; Soman, Pranav; Zorlutuna, Pinar; Nichol, Jason W; Bae, Hojae; Chen, Shaochen; Khademhosseini, Ali

2012-05-01

139

Improvement of dual-leached polycaprolactone porous scaffolds by incorporating with hydroxyapatite for bone tissue regeneration.  

PubMed

Polycaprolactone (PCL)/hydroxyapatite (HA) composite scaffolds were prepared by combining solvent casting and salt particulate leaching with a polymer leaching technique. The hydrophilicity of the dual-leached scaffold was improved by alkaline (NaOH) treatment. Well-defined interconnected pores were detected by scanning electron microscopy. The water absorption capacity of the NaOH-treated PCL/HA dual-leached scaffold increased greatly, confirming that the hydrophilicity of the scaffold was improved by NaOH treatment. The compressive modulus of the PCL/HA dual-leached scaffold was greatly increased by the addition of HA particles. An indirect evaluation of the cytotoxicity of all PCL dual-leached scaffolds with mouse fibroblastic cells (L929) and mouse calvaria-derived pre-osteoblastic cells (MC3T3-E1) indicated that the PCL dual-leached scaffolds are non-toxic to cells. The ability of the scaffolds to support mouse calvaria-derived pre-osteoblastic cell (MC3T3-E1) attachment, proliferation, differentiation, and mineralization was also evaluated. Although the viability of cells was lower on the PCL/HA dual-leached scaffold than on the tissue-culture polystyrene plates (TCPS) and on the other substrates at early time points, both the PCL and NaOH-treated PCL/HA dual-leached scaffolds supported the attachment of MC3T3-E1 at significantly higher levels than TCPS. During the proliferation period (days 1-3), all of the PCL dual-leached scaffolds were able to support the proliferation of MC3T3-E1 at higher levels than the TCPS; in addition, the cells grown on NaOH-treated PCL/HA dual-leached scaffolds proliferated more rapidly. The cells cultured on the surfaces of NaOH-treated PCL/HA dual-leached scaffolds had the highest rate of mineral deposition. PMID:25291106

Thadavirul, Napaphat; Pavasant, Prasit; Supaphol, Pitt

2014-12-01

140

Biocompatibility and bone-repairing effects: comparison between porous poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid and nano-hydroxyapatite/poly(lactic acid) scaffolds.  

PubMed

Copolymer composite scaffolds and bioceramic/polymer composite scaffolds are two representative forms of composite scaffolds used for bone tissue engineering. Studies to compare biocompatibility and bone-repairing effects between these two scaffolds are significant for selecting or improving the scaffold for clinical application. We prepared two porous scaffolds comprising poly-lactic-acid/poly-glycolic-acid (PLGA) and poly-lactic-acid/nano-hydroxyapatite (nHAP/PLA) respectively, and examined their biocompatibility with human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) through evaluating adhesion, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation potentials of hMSCs in the scaffold. Then, the PLGA scaffold with hMSCs (PM construct) and the nHAP/PLA scaffold with hMSCs (HPM construct) were transplanted into the rat calvarial defect areas to compare their effects on the bone reconstruction. The results showed that the nHAP/PLA scaffold was in favor of adhesion, matrix deposition and osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs. For in vivo transplantation, both HPM and PM constructs led to mineralization and osteogenesis in the defect area of rat. However, the area grafted with PM construct showed a better formation of mature bone than that with HPM construct. In addition, the evaluation of in vitro and in vivo degradation indicated that the degradation rate of nHAP/PLA scaffold was much lower than that of PLGA scaffold. It is inferred that the lower degradation of nHAP/PLA scaffold should result in its inferior bone reconstruction in rat calvaria. Therefore, the preparation of an ideal composite scaffold for bone tissue engineering should be taken into account of the balance between its biocompatibility, degradation rate, osteoconductivity and mechanical property. PMID:24749403

Zong, Chen; Qian, Xiaodan; Tang, Zihua; Hu, Qinghong; Chen, Jiarong; Gao, Changyou; Tang, Ruikang; Tong, Xiangmin; Wang, Jinfu

2014-06-01

141

Electrodeposition of manganese oxide nanosheets on a continuous three-dimensional nickel porous scaffold for high performance electrochemical capacitors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It's desirable to design an ideal three-dimensional (3D) interpenetrating network as the current collector for providing efficient ion and electron transport. Herein, we report a facile method to fabricate a novel continuous 3D Ni porous nanoarchitecture via the reduction of Ni(OH)2 nanowall precursors. The as-formed continuous 3D Ni porous network as the conductive scaffold can support a highly electrolytic accessible surface area of redox active MnO2 nanosheets, and provide reliable electrical connections to the MnO2 layers. In comparison with the planar conducting substrates, this 3D scaffold not only can increase the mass loading of MnO2 active materials, but also facilitate the facile transport of electron and electrolyte ion. Thus, the 3D (MnO2/Ni) electrode exhibited higher specific capacitance (1169.6 F g-1 at 2 A g-1, closed to the theoretical value) and better long-term cyclability (only ?5% loss after 1000 cycles) than that on the planar conducting substrate under the identical electrodeposition condition (611.6 F g-1 at 2 A g-1 and around 20% loss after 1000 cycles). These results suggest that such 3D Ni porous architecture is a promising current collector for high-performance electrochemical capacitor.

Xiao, Junwu; Yang, Shengxiong; Wan, Lian; Xiao, Fei; Wang, Shuai

2014-01-01

142

Selective separation of lambdacyhalothrin by porous/magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers prepared by Pickering emulsion polymerization.  

PubMed

Porous/magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers (PM-MIPs) were prepared by Pickering emulsion polymerization. The reaction was carried out in an oil/water emulsion using magnetic halloysite nanotubes as the stabilizer instead of a toxic surfactant. In the oil phase, the imprinting process was conducted by radical polymerization of functional and cross-linked monomers, and porogen chloroform generated steam under the high reaction temperature, which resulted in some pores decorated with easily accessible molecular binding sites within the as-made PM-MIPs. The characterization demonstrated that the PM-MIPs were porous and magnetic inorganic-polymer composite microparticles with magnetic sensitivity (M(s) = 0.7448 emu/g), thermal stability (below 473 K) and magnetic stability (over the pH range of 2.0-8.0). The PM-MIPs were used as a sorbent for the selective binding of lambdacyhalothrin (LC) and rapidly separated under an external magnetic field. The Freundlich isotherm model gave a good fit to the experimental data. The adsorption kinetics of the PM-MIPs was well described by pseudo-second-order kinetics, indicating that the chemical process could be the rate-limiting step in the adsorption of LC. The selective recognition experiments exhibited the outstanding selective adsorption effect of the PM-MIPs for target LC. Moreover, the PM-MIPs regeneration without significant loss in adsorption capacity was demonstrated by at least four repeated cycles. PMID:23894024

Hang, Hui; Li, Chunxiang; Pan, Jianming; Li, Linzi; Dai, Jiangdong; Dai, Xiaohui; Yu, Ping; Feng, Yonghai

2013-10-01

143

Physiologically Relevant Oxidative Degradation of Oligo(proline) Cross-Linked Polymeric Scaffolds  

E-print Network

replacement surgeries years after the original procedure. This phenomenon has been observed for a wide array Science and Engineering, Vanderbilt University Institute of Imaging Science, # Department of Chemical imaging. The current study provides insight into the development of scaffolds that respond to oxidative

144

Researchers are working to design porous polymer scaffolds infused with bioactive factors to enhance tissue regeneration.  

E-print Network

structure. The kinetics of plasmid DNA release and its integrity are evaluated using fluorescently labeled) Objective: Polymer scaffolds serve a central role in tissue engineering. They function to create seeks to develop scaffolds that can also function as drug delivery vehicle for the localized, controlled

Shull, Kenneth R.

145

Preparation of tissue engineering porous scaffold with poly(lactic acid) and polyethylene glycol solution blend by solvent-casting/particulate-leaching  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polyethylene glycol/poly(lactic acid) solution blend is employed as the raw materials to prepare porous scaffold of potential usage in tissue engineering. The solution blend can be naturally introduced in the classical solvent casting/particular leaching technique in porous matrix preparation. The PEG presence is to modify the degradation behavior of scaffolds to fit particular requirements in tissue engineering. The porous matrix of PEG/PLA with various weight ratios are made with pores size ? 250 ? m. The SEM characterizations have been done to investigate the porous morphology of products, the results indicate that though with the clear semi-miscibility feature of PEG/PLA blends, the macro-structure is not significantly affected by the PEG content percentage. The degradation results show an enhanced weight loss rate with the presence of PEG as expected.

Huang, Ran; Zhu, Xiaomin; Zhao, Tingting; Wan, Ajun

2014-12-01

146

Bone morphogenic protein-2 (BMP-2) loaded hybrid coating on porous hydroxyapatite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering.  

PubMed

In this study, a silica xerogel-chitosan hybrid is utilized as a coating material to incorporate bone morphogenic protein-2 (BMP-2) on a porous hydroxyapatite (HA) scaffold for bone tissue engineering. BMP-2 is known as a therapeutic agent for improving bone regeneration and repair. Silica xerogel-chitosan hybrids have been used for the delivery of a growth factor as well as osteoconductive coatings. The biological properties of the hybrid coating incorporated with BMP-2 were evaluated in terms of the BMP-2 release behavior, osteoblastic cellular responses and in vivo performance. BMP-2 was continuously released from the hybrid coating layer on the porous HA scaffold for up to 6 weeks. The hybrid coating containing BMP-2 showed significantly enhanced osteoblastic cell responses in comparison with the hybrid coating and HA substrate. Consequently, new bone formation was significantly increased within the hybrid coating containing BMP-2. These results reveal that the hybrid coating containing BMP-2 has the potential to be used as a bone implant, whose osteogenic properties are promoted by the release of BMP-2 in a controlled manner for a prolonged period of time. PMID:23344924

Jun, Shin-Hee; Lee, Eun-Jung; Jang, Tae-Sik; Kim, Hyoun-Ee; Jang, Jun-Hyeog; Koh, Young-Hag

2013-03-01

147

Accurate Fabrication of Hydroxyapatite Bone Models with Porous Scaffold Structures by Using Stereolithography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Computer graphic models of bioscaffolds with four-coordinate lattice structures of solid rods in artificial bones were designed by using a computer aided design. The scaffold models composed of acryl resin with hydroxyapatite particles at 45vol. % were fabricated by using stereolithography of a computer aided manufacturing. After dewaxing and sintering heat treatment processes, the ceramics scaffold models with four-coordinate lattices and fine hydroxyapatite microstructures were obtained successfully. By using a computer aided analysis, it was found that bio-fluids could flow extensively inside the sintered scaffolds. This result shows that the lattice structures will realize appropriate bio-fluid circulations and promote regenerations of new bones.

Maeda, Chiaki; Tasaki, Satoko; Kirihara, Soshu

2011-05-01

148

The Effect of Plasma Surface Treatment on a Porous Green Ceramic Film with Polymeric Binder Materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To reduce time and energy during thermal binder removal in the ceramic process, plasma surface treatment was applied before the lamination process. The adhesion strength in the lamination films was enhanced by oxidative plasma treatment of the porous green ceramic film with polymeric binding materials. The oxygen plasma characteristics were investigated through experimental parameters and weight loss analysis. The experimental results revealed the need for parameter analysis, including gas material, process time, flow rate, and discharge power, and supported a mechanism consisting of competing ablation and deposition processes. The weight loss analysis was conducted for cyclic plasma treatment rather than continuous plasma treatment for the purpose of improving the film's permeability by suppressing deposition of the ablated species. The cyclic plasma treatment improved the permeability compared to the continuous plasma treatment.

Jeong, Woo Yun

2013-06-01

149

Preparation in supercritical CO 2 of porous poly(methyl methacrylate)–poly( l-lactic acid) (PMMA–PLA) scaffolds incorporating ibuprofen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Partially biodegradable porous scaffolds incorporating bioactive molecules prepared by clean techniques posses an enormous interest in tissue engineering applications. Poly(methyl methacrylate)–poly(l-lactic acid) (PMMA–PLA) blends were submitted to CO2 supercritical conditions (P=160–260bar, T=60°C) after certain time and then rapidly depressurized to obtain porous structures that have been related with the supercritical parameters and to the polymer blend composition. In some cases

D. Velasco; L. Benito; M. Fernández-Gutiérrez; J. San Román; C. Elvira

2010-01-01

150

Rapid prototyping: porous titanium alloy scaffolds produced by selective laser melting for bone tissue engineering.  

PubMed

Selective laser melting (SLM), a method used in the nuclear, space, and racing industries, allows the creation of customized titanium alloy scaffolds with highly defined external shape and internal structure using rapid prototyping as supporting external structures within which bone tissue can grow. Human osteoblasts were cultured on SLM-produced Ti6Al4V mesh scaffolds to demonstrate biocompatibility using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), fluorescence microscopy after cell vitality staining, and common biocompatibility tests (lactate dihydrogenase (LDH), 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT), 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU), and water soluble tetrazolium (WST)). Cell occlusion of pores of different widths (0.45-1.2 mm) was evaluated. Scaffolds were tested for resistance to compressive force. SEM investigations showed osteoblasts with well-spread morphology and multiple contact points. Cell vitality staining and biocompatibility tests confirmed osteoblast vitality and proliferation on the scaffolds. Pore overgrowth increased during 6 weeks' culture at pore widths of 0.45 and 0.5 mm, and in the course of 3 weeks for pore widths of 0.55, 0.6, and 0.7 mm. No pore occlusion was observed on pores of width 0.9-1.2 mm. Porosity and maximum compressive load at failure increased and decreased with increasing pore width, respectively. In summary, the scaffolds are biocompatible, and pore width influences pore overgrowth, resistance to compressive force, and porosity. PMID:19072196

Warnke, Patrick H; Douglas, Timothy; Wollny, Patrick; Sherry, Eugene; Steiner, Martin; Galonska, Sebastian; Becker, Stephan T; Springer, Ingo N; Wiltfang, Jörg; Sivananthan, Sureshan

2009-06-01

151

Density Gradient Multilayered Polymerization (DGMP): A Novel Technique for Creating Multi-compartment, Customizable Scaffolds for Tissue Engineering  

PubMed Central

Complex tissue culture matrices, in which types and concentrations of biological stimuli (e.g. growth factors, inhibitors, or small molecules) or matrix structure (e.g. composition, concentration, or stiffness of the matrix) vary over space, would enable a wide range of investigations concerning how these variables affect cell differentiation, migration, and other phenomena. The major challenge in creating layered matrices is maintaining the structural integrity of layer interfaces without diffusion of individual components from each layer1. Current methodologies to achieve this include photopatterning2-3, lithography4, sequential functionalization5, freeze drying6, microfluidics7, or centrifugation8, many of which require sophisticated instrumentation and technical skills. Others rely on sequential attachment of individual layers, which may lead to delamination of layers9. DGMP overcomes these issues by using an inert density modifier such as iodixanol to create layers of varying densities10. Since the density modifier can be mixed with any prepolymer or bioactive molecule, DGMP allows each scaffold layer to be customized. Simply varying the concentration of the density modifier prevents mixing of adjacent layers while they remain aqueous. Subsequent single step polymerization gives rise to a structurally continuous multilayered scaffold, in which each layer has distinct chemical and mechanical properties. The density modifier can be easily removed with sufficient rinsing without perturbation of the individual layers or their components. This technique is therefore well suited for creating hydrogels of various sizes, shapes, and materials. A protocol for fabricating a 2D-polyethylene glycol (PEG) gel, in which alternating layers incorporate RGDS-350, is outlined below. We use PEG because it is biocompatible and inert. RGDS, a cell adhesion peptide11, is used to demonstrate spatial restriction of a biological cue, and the conjugation of a fluorophore (Alexa Fluor 350) enables us to visually distinguish various layers. This procedure can be adapted for other materials (e.g. collagen, hyaluronan, etc.) and can be extended to fabricate 3D gels with some modifications10. PMID:23426045

Joshi-Barr, Shivanjali; Karpiak, Jerome V.; Ner, Yogesh; Wen, Jessica H.; Engler, Adam J.; Almutairi, Adah

2013-01-01

152

Preparation of functional polyamine scaffolds via Mitsunobu post-polymerization modification reactions.  

PubMed

A Mitsunobu reaction of trifluoroacetamide (TFA amide) and alcohols is used in a postpolymerization modification process. The reaction is conducted on polystyrene (PSt) bearing 20 mol% TFA amide groups with 4-methyl benzyl alcohol in the presence of a N,N,N?,N ?-tetramethylazodicarboxamide and tributylphosphine as mediators. The Mitsunobu reaction on polymer proceeds efficiently, as confirmed by the obvious precipitation generation during the reaction and the conversion of TFA amide moiety reached 88.6% confirmed by 19 F NMR measurement, yielding PSt bearing tertiary TFA amide moieties. The obtained polymers featuring tertiary TFA amide moieties are deprotected in the presence of tetrabutylammonium hydroxide as a base to afford corresponding polymers featuring functionalized polyamine scaffolds with 92.5% conversion. In addition, the precise structural assignment is proven by synthesis and analysis of the model monomeric compounds and the respective model polymers. PMID:24643994

Kakuchi, Ryohei; Theato, Patrick

2014-03-01

153

Direct laser writing and geometrical analysis of scaffolds with designed pore architecture for three-dimensional cell culturing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traditional scaffold fabrication methods used in tissue engineering enable only limited control over essential parameters such as porosity, pore size and pore interconnectivity. In this study, we designed and fabricated five different types of three-dimensionally interconnected, highly porous scaffolds with precise control over the scaffold characteristics. We used two-photon polymerization (2PP) with a commercial polymer-ceramic material (Ormocomp®) for scaffold fabrication. Also for the first time, we analyzed the 2PP fabrication accuracy with respect to scaffold design parameters. Our results showed that the porosity values decreased up to 13% compared to the design specifications due to the fabrication process and the shrinkage of the material. Finally, we showed that our scaffolds supported human adipose stem cell adhesion and proliferation in a six day culture. By precise tuning of scaffold parameters, our design and fabrication method provides a novel approach for studying the effect of scaffold architecture on cell behavior in vitro.

Käpylä, Elli; Aydogan, Dogu Baran; Virjula, Sanni; Vanhatupa, Sari; Miettinen, Susanna; Hyttinen, Jari; Kellomäki, Minna

2012-11-01

154

Biocompatibility of a porous alumina ceramic scaffold coated with hydroxyapatite and bioglass.  

PubMed

This study aimed to evaluate the osteointegration and genotoxic potential of a bioactive scaffold, composed of alumina and coated with hydroxyapatite and bioglass, after their implantation in tibias of rats. For this purpose, Wistar rats underwent surgery to induce a tibial bone defect, which was filled with the bioactive scaffolds. Histology analysis (descriptive and morphometry) of the bone tissue and the single-cell gel assay (comet) in multiple organs (blood, liver, and kidney) were used to reach this aim after a period of 30, 60, 90, and 180 days of material implantation. The main findings showed that the incorporation of hydroxyapatite and bioglass in the alumina scaffolds produced a suitable environment for bone ingrowth in the tibial defects and did not demonstrate any genotoxicity in the organs evaluated in all experimental periods. These results clearly indicate that the bioactive scaffolds used in this study present osteogenic potential and still exhibit local and systemic biocompatibility. These findings are promising once they convey important information about the behavior of this novel biomaterial in biological system and highlight its possible clinical application. PMID:23894045

Kido, Hueliton Wilian; Ribeiro, Daniel Araki; de Oliveira, Poliani; Parizotto, Nivaldo Antônio; Camilo, Claudia Cristiane; Fortulan, Carlos Alberto; Marcantonio, Elcio; da Silva, Victor Hugo Pereira; Renno, Ana Claudia Muniz

2014-07-01

155

Endocultivation: 3D printed customized porous scaffolds for heterotopic bone induction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of computer assisted designed (CAD) synthetic hydroxyapatite and tricalciumphosphate blocks to serve as precise scaffolds for intramuscular bone induction in a rat model. A central channel to allow for vessel pedicle or nerve integration was added. Natural bovine hydroxyapatite blocks served as controls to evaluate and compare biocompatibility of the

Stephan T. Becker; Hendrik Bolte; Oliver Krapf; Hermann Seitz; Timothy Douglas; Sureshan Sivananthan; Jörg Wiltfang; Eugene Sherry; Patrick H. Warnke

2009-01-01

156

Endocultivation: 3D printed customized porous scaffolds for heterotopic bond induction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of computer assisted designed (CAD) synthetic hydroxyapatite and tricalciumphosphate blocks to serve as precise scaffolds for intramuscular bone induction in a rat model. A central channel to allow for vessel pedicle or nerve integration was added. Natural bovine hydroxyapatite blocks served as controls to evaluate and compare biocompatibility of the

Stephan T. Becker; Hendrik Bolte; Oliver Krapf; Hermann Seitz; Timothy Douglas; Sureshan Sivananthan; Jörg Wiltfang; Eugene Sherry; Patrick H. Warnke

2009-01-01

157

The Encapsulation of Rat Aortic Smooth Muscle Cells Within Porous Scaffold  

E-print Network

normal behavior. Current technology in polymers presents a potential means to create a 3-D porous environment that mimics the natural habitat for RASMC. Through this experiment various methods have been employed to produce the optimal structure...

Iacob, Alexandra

2009-09-30

158

Porous calcium polyphosphate scaffolds for bone substitute applications — in vitro characterization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Porous structures were formed by gravity sintering calcium polyphosphate (CPP) particles of either 106–150 or 150–250?m size to form samples with 30–45vol% porosity with pore sizes in the range of 100?m (40–140?m). Tensile strength of the samples assessed by diametral compression testing indicated relatively high values for porous ceramics with a maximum strength of 24.1MPa for samples made using the

R. M Pilliar; M. J Filiaggi; J. D Wells; M. D Grynpas; R. A Kandel

2001-01-01

159

Polymeric molecular sieve membranes via in situ cross-linking of non-porous polymer membrane templates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-performance polymeric membranes for gas separation are attractive for molecular-level separations in industrial-scale chemical, energyand environmental processes. Molecular sieving materials are widely regarded as the next-generation membranes to simultaneously achieve high permeability and selectivity. However, most polymeric molecular sieve membranes are based on a few solution-processable polymers such as polymers of intrinsic microporosity. Here we report an in situ cross-linking strategy for the preparation of polymeric molecular sieve membranes with hierarchical and tailorable porosity. These membranes demonstrate exceptional performance as molecular sieves with high gas permeabilities and selectivities for smaller gas molecules, such as carbon dioxide and oxygen, over larger molecules such as nitrogen. Hence, these membranes have potential for large-scale gas separations of commercial and environmental relevance. Moreover, this strategy could provide a possible alternative to ‘classical’ methods for the preparation of porous membranes and, in some cases, the only viable synthetic route towards certain membranes.

Qiao, Zhen-An; Chai, Song-Hai; Nelson, Kimberly; Bi, Zhonghe; Chen, Jihua; Mahurin, Shannon M.; Zhu, Xiang; Dai, Sheng

2014-04-01

160

Porous chitosan scaffolds with surface micropatterning and inner porosity and their effects on Schwann cells.  

PubMed

Chitosan is found to promote the regeneration of peripheral nerve system in our previous studies, whereas the regeneration speed is not satisfied with clinical request. Micropatterning could promote cell orientation and growth, however, the effect of porous chitosan micropatterning on nerve regeneration is rarely reported. In this study, the porous chitosan micropatterning with surface ridge/groove and inner porosity structure was fabricated using a combination of micromodeling and lyophilization method. The morphology and stability of the prepared chitosan micropatterning were evaluated, the regulation of Schwann cells behavior by chitosan micropatterning was evaluated. The results showed that the chitosan micropatterning displayed stripe-like structure with a clear and complete edge. The micropatterning with 30/30 ?m was more stable than 20/20 ?m sample. Schwann cells on chitosan micropatterning showed orientation adhesion and began to grow along a certain direction after culture for 2 h, and displayed the minimal orientation angle and the largest length/width ratio on 30/30 ?m micropatterning after further culture for 3 d and 5 d, indicating the most obvious cell orientation. Moreover, the secretion of nerve growth factor (NGF) demonstrated that the micropatterned chitosan had no negative influence on the physiological function of Schwann cells. Thus, the results indicate that the porous chitosan micropatterning can regulate Schwann cell growth well, which may have potential application in nerve regeneration. The study provides an important basis for constructing porous nerve conduit with micropatterning structure in the inner wall. PMID:25002265

Li, Guicai; Zhao, Xueying; Zhao, Weixin; Zhang, Luzhong; Wang, Caiping; Jiang, Maorong; Gu, Xiaosong; Yang, Yumin

2014-10-01

161

Freeze casting of porous hydroxyapatite scaffolds. I. Processing and general microstructure.  

PubMed

Freeze casting of aqueous suspensions on a cold substrate was investigated as a method for preparing hydroxyapatite (HA) scaffolds with unidirectional porosity. In the present paper, we report on the ability to manipulate the microstructure of freeze-cast constructs by controlling the processing parameters. Constructs prepared from aqueous suspensions (5-20 volume percent particles) on a steel substrate at -20 degrees C had a lamellar-type microstructure, consisting of plate-like HA and unidirectional pores oriented in the direction of freezing. Sintering for 3 h at 1350 degrees C produced constructs with dense HA lamellas, porosity of approximately 50%, and inter-lamellar pore widths of 5-30 microm. The thickness of the HA lamellas decreased but the width of the pores increased with decreasing particle concentration. Decreasing the substrate temperature from -20 degrees C to -196 degrees C produced a finer lamellar microstructure. The use of water-glycerol mixtures (20 wt % glycerol) as the solvent in the suspension resulted in the production of finer pores (1-10 microm) and a larger number of dendritic growth connecting the HA lamellas. On the other hand, the use of water-dioxane mixtures (60 wt % dioxane) produced a cellular-type microstructure with larger pores (90-110 microm). The ability to produce a uniaxial microstructure and its manipulation by controlling the processing parameters indicate the potential of the present freeze casting route for the production of scaffolds for bone tissue engineering applications. PMID:18098195

Fu, Qiang; Rahaman, Mohamed N; Dogan, Fatih; Bal, B Sonny

2008-07-01

162

Synthesis and cytocompatibility of porous chitosan–silicate hybrids for tissue engineering scaffold application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chitosan–silicate hybrids with 3D porous structures were prepared with freeze-drying precursor solutions derived from chitosan and ?-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GPTMS). They were formed easily in any shape, such as sheets, pellets, disks, granules, and even roll-cakes. The pore size was strongly dependent on the freezing temperature: lower freezing temperature resulted smaller pores, about 110?m for the hybrids frozen at ?20°C, and about

Yuki Shirosaki; Tomoyuki Okayama; Kanji Tsuru; Satoshi Hayakawa; Akiyoshi Osaka

2008-01-01

163

HA/nylon 6,6 porous scaffolds fabricated by salt-leaching/solvent casting technique: effect of nano-sized filler content on scaffold properties  

PubMed Central

Nanohydroxyapatite (n-HA)/nylon 6,6 composite scaffolds were produced by means of the salt-leaching/solvent casting technique. NaCl with a distinct range size was used with the aim of optimizing the pore network. Composite powders with different n-HA contents (40%, 60%) for scaffold fabrication were synthesized and tested. The composite scaffolds thus obtained were characterized for their microstructure, mechanical stability and strength, and bioactivity. The microstructure of the composite scaffolds possessed a well-developed interconnected porosity with approximate optimal pore size ranging from 200 to 500 ?m, ideal for bone regeneration and vascularization. The mechanical properties of the composite scaffolds were evaluated by compressive strength and modulus tests, and the results confirmed their similarity to cortical bone. To characterize bioactivity, the composite scaffolds were immersed in simulated body fluid for different lengths of time and results monitored by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis to determine formation of an apatite layer on the scaffold surface. PMID:21904455

Mehrabanian, Mehran; Nasr-Esfahani, Mojtaba

2011-01-01

164

Bioactive glass-based composites for the production of dense sintered bodies and porous scaffolds.  

PubMed

Recently several attempts have been made to combine calcium phosphates, such as ?-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) and, most of all, hydroxyapatite (HA), with bioactive glasses of different composition, in order to develop composites with improved biological and mechanical performance. Unfortunately, the production of such systems usually implies a high-temperature treatment (up to 1300 °C), which may result in several drawbacks, including crystallization of the original glass, decomposition of the calcium phosphate phase and/or reactions between the constituent phases, with non-trivial consequences in terms of microstructure, bioactivity and mechanical properties of the final samples. In the present contribution, novel binary composites have been obtained by sintering a bioactive glass, characterized by a low tendency to crystallize, with the addition of HA or ?-TCP as the second phase. In particular, the composites have been treated at a relatively low temperature (818 °C and 830 °C, depending on the sample), thus preserving the amorphous structure of the glass and minimizing the interaction between the constituent phases. The effects of the glass composition, calcium phosphate nature and processing conditions on the composite microstructure, mechanical properties and in vitro bioactivity have been systematically discussed. To conclude, a feasibility study to obtain scaffolds for bone tissue regeneration has been proposed. PMID:23498242

Bellucci, D; Sola, A; Cannillo, V

2013-05-01

165

Immobilization of cell adhesive RGD peptide onto the surface of highly porous biodegradable polymer scaffolds fabricated by a gas foaming/salt leaching method.  

PubMed

A cell adhesive peptide moiety, Gly-Arg-Gly-Asp-Tyr (GRGDY), was immobilized onto the surface of highly porous biodegradable polymer scaffolds for enhancing cell adhesion and function. A carboxyl terminal end of poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) was functionalized with a primary amine group by conjugating hexaethylene glycol-diamine. The PLGA-NH2 was blended with PLGA in varying ratios to prepare films by solvent casting or to fabricate porous scaffolds by a gas foaming/salt leaching method. Under hydrating conditions, the activated GRGDY could be directly immobilized to the surface exposed amine groups of the PLGA-NH2 blend films or scaffolds. For the PLGA blend films, the surface density of GRGDY, surface wettability change, and cell adhesion behaviors were characterized. The extent of cell adhesion was substantially enhanced by increasing the blend ratio of PLGA-NH2 to PLGA. The level of an alkaline phosphatase activity, measured as a degree of cell differentiation, was also enhanced as a result of the introduction of cell adhesive peptides. PMID:15159077

Yoon, Jun Jin; Song, Soon Ho; Lee, Doo Sung; Park, Tae Gwan

2004-11-01

166

Free-form-fabricated commercially pure Ti and Ti6Al4V porous scaffolds support the growth of human embryonic stem cell-derived mesodermal progenitors.  

PubMed

Commercially-pure titanium (cp-Ti) and the titanium-aluminum-vanadium alloy (Ti6Al4V) are widely used as reconstructive implants for skeletal engineering applications, due to their good mechanical properties, biocompatibility and ability to integrate with the surrounding bone. Electron beam melting technology (EBM) allows the fabrication of customized implants with tailored mechanical properties and high potential in the clinical practice. In order to augment the interaction with the biological tissue, stem cells have recently been combined with metallic scaffolds for skeletal engineering applications. We previously demonstrated that human embryonic stem cell-derived mesodermal progenitors (hES-MPs) hold a great potential to provide a homogeneous and unlimited supply of cells for bone engineering applications. This study demonstrates the effect of EBM-fabricated cp-Ti and Ti6Al4V porous scaffolds on hES-MPs behavior, in terms of cell attachment, growth and osteogenic differentiation. Displaying different chemical composition but similar surface properties, EBM-fabricated cp-Ti and Ti6Al4V scaffolds supported cell attachment and growth, and did not seem to alter the expression of genes involved in osteogenic differentiation and affect the alkaline phosphatase activity. In conclusion, interfacing hES-MPs to EBM-fabricated scaffolds may represent an interesting strategy for design of third-generation biomaterials, with the potential to promote implant integration in clinical conditions characterized by poor bone quality. PMID:22262956

de Peppo, G M; Palmquist, A; Borchardt, P; Lennerås, M; Hyllner, J; Snis, A; Lausmaa, J; Thomsen, P; Karlsson, C

2012-01-01

167

A multistep procedure to prepare pre-vascularized cardiac tissue constructs using adult stem sells, dynamic cell cultures, and porous scaffolds  

PubMed Central

The vascularization of tissue engineered products represents a key issue in regenerative medicine which needs to be addressed before the translation of these protocols to the bedside can be foreseen. Here we propose a multistep procedure to prepare pre-vascularized three-dimensional (3D) cardiac bio-substitutes using dynamic cell cultures and highly porous biocompatible gelatin scaffolds. The strategy adopted exploits the peculiar differentiation potential of two distinct subsets of adult stem cells to obtain human vascularized 3D cardiac tissues. In the first step of the procedure, human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are seeded onto gelatin scaffolds to provide interconnected vessel-like structures, while human cardiomyocyte progenitor cells (hCMPCs) are stimulated in vitro to obtain their commitment toward the cardiac phenotype. The use of a modular bioreactor allows the perfusion of the whole scaffold, providing superior performance in terms of cardiac tissue maturation and cell survival. Both the cell culture on natural-derived polymers and the continuous medium perfusion of the scaffold led to the formation of a densely packaged proto-tissue composed of vascular-like and cardiac-like cells, which might complete maturation process and interconnect with native tissue upon in vivo implantation. In conclusion, the data obtained through the approach here proposed highlight the importance to provide stem cells with complementary signals in vitro able to resemble the complexity of cardiac microenvironment. PMID:24917827

Pagliari, Stefania; Tirella, Annalisa; Ahluwalia, Arti; Duim, Sjoerd; Goumans, Marie-Josè; Aoyagi, Takao; Forte, Giancarlo

2014-01-01

168

Stem cell engineered bone with calcium-phosphate coated porous titanium scaffold or silicon hydroxyapatite granules for revision total joint arthroplasty.  

PubMed

Aseptic loosening in total joint replacements (TJRs) is mainly caused by osteolysis which leads to a reduction of the bone stock necessary for implant fixation in revision TJRs. Our aim was to develop bone tissue-engineered constructs based on scaffolds of clinical relevance in revision TJRs to reconstitute the bone stock at revision operations by using a perfusion bioreactor system (PBRS). The hypothesis was that a PBRS will enhance mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) proliferation and osteogenic differentiation and will provide an even distribution of MSCs throughout the scaffolds when compared to static cultures. A PBRS was designed and implemented. Scaffolds, silicon substituted hydroxyapatite granules and calcium-phosphate coated porous TiAl6V4 cylinders, were seeded with MSCs and cultured either in static conditions or in the PBRS at 0.75 mL/min. Statistically significant increased cell proliferation and alkaline phosphatase activity was found in samples cultured in the PBRS. Histology revealed a more even cell distribution in the perfused constructs. SEM showed that cells arranged in sheets. Long cytoplasmic processes attached the cells to the scaffolds. We conclude that a novel tissue engineering approach to address the issue of poor bone stock at revision operations is feasible by using a PBRS. PMID:24519756

García-Gareta, Elena; Hua, Jia; Rayan, Faizal; Blunn, Gordon W

2014-06-01

169

Porous graphitic carbon nitride synthesized via direct polymerization of urea for efficient sunlight-driven photocatalytic hydrogen production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Energy captured directly from sunlight provides an attractive approach towards fulfilling the need for green energy resources on the terawatt scale with minimal environmental impact. Collecting and storing solar energy into fuel through photocatalyzed water splitting to generate hydrogen in a cost-effective way is desirable. To achieve this goal, low cost and environmentally benign urea was used to synthesize the metal-free photocatalyst graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4). A porous structure is achieved via one-step polymerization of the single precursor. The porous structure with increased BET surface area and pore volume shows a much higher hydrogen production rate under simulated sunlight irradiation than thiourea-derived and dicyanamide-derived g-C3N4. The presence of an oxygen atom is presumed to play a key role in adjusting the textural properties. Further improvement of the photocatalytic function can be expected with after-treatment due to its rich chemistry in functionalization.Energy captured directly from sunlight provides an attractive approach towards fulfilling the need for green energy resources on the terawatt scale with minimal environmental impact. Collecting and storing solar energy into fuel through photocatalyzed water splitting to generate hydrogen in a cost-effective way is desirable. To achieve this goal, low cost and environmentally benign urea was used to synthesize the metal-free photocatalyst graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4). A porous structure is achieved via one-step polymerization of the single precursor. The porous structure with increased BET surface area and pore volume shows a much higher hydrogen production rate under simulated sunlight irradiation than thiourea-derived and dicyanamide-derived g-C3N4. The presence of an oxygen atom is presumed to play a key role in adjusting the textural properties. Further improvement of the photocatalytic function can be expected with after-treatment due to its rich chemistry in functionalization. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Methods for preparing and characterizing UCN, TCN and DCN samples. Methods for examining the photocatalytic hydrogen production. FTIR, XPS, and digital photos of three products are shown in Fig. S1-6. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr30948c

Zhang, Yuewei; Liu, Jinghai; Wu, Guan; Chen, Wei

2012-08-01

170

Bipolar porous polymeric frameworks for low-cost, high-power, long-life all-organic energy storage devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organic-based energy storage devices are of great interests due to their high potential as affordable, high-performance energy storage devices. Especially, all-organic energy storage devices, where cathode and anode are constituted of organic compounds, could be an extremely affordable device expected to be applied to smart grids. Recent reports on bipolar porous polymeric frameworks (BPPFs) suggest very promising features of this new organic electrode group towards high-performance energy storage devices. Here, we studied an all-organic system using BPPFs for both anode and cathode parts. The formation of BPPFs was confirmed by Raman spectroscopy and N2 isotherm measurements. The electrochemical properties of this all-organic energy storage device using BPPFs showed a high-power density of 1 kW kg-1 based on the total mass of the BPPFs and a long cycle life of over 1000 times.

Sakaushi, Ken; Hosono, Eiji; Nickerl, Georg; Zhou, Haoshen; Kaskel, Stefan; Eckert, Jürgen

2014-01-01

171

A one-step method to fabricate PLLA scaffolds with deposition of bioactive hydroxyapatite and collagen using ice-based microporogens  

PubMed Central

Porous poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) scaffolds with bioactive coatings were prepared by a novel one-step method. In this process, ice-based microporogens containing bioactive molecules, such as hydroxyapatite (HA) and collagen, served as both porogens to form the porous structure and vehicles to transfer the bioactive molecules to the inside of PLLA scaffolds in a single step. Based on scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis, the bioactive components were found to be transferred successfully from the porogens to PLLA scaffolds evenly. Osteoblast cells were used to evaluate the cellular behaviors of the composite scaffolds. After 8 days culturing, MTT assay and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity results suggested that HA/collagen could improve the interactions between osteoblast cells and the polymeric scaffold. PMID:20004261

Li, Jiashen; Chen, Yun; Mak, Arthur F.T.; Tuan, Rocky S.; Li, Lin; Li, Yi

2010-01-01

172

Extraction of naphthenic acid from kerosene using porous and nonporous polymeric membranes  

SciTech Connect

A systematic study of membrane-assisted extraction of naphthenic acids from hydrocarbon fractions by aqueous caustic soda using both porous and nonporous membranes is reported. The effects of hydrodynamic factors, concentration of naphthenic acids and caustic soda, and temperature on the transmembrane flux are discerned. The film model is used to determine the intrinsic mass transfer characteristics of the membranes.

Netke, S.A.; Pangarkar, V.G. [Univ. of Bombay, Matunga (India)

1996-01-01

173

Metal filled porous carbon  

DOEpatents

A porous carbon scaffold with a surface and pores, the porous carbon scaffold containing a primary metal and a secondary metal, where the primary metal is a metal that does not wet the surface of the pores of the carbon scaffold but wets the surface of the secondary metal, and the secondary metal is interspersed between the surface of the pores of the carbon scaffold and the primary metal.

Gross, Adam F. (Los Angeles, CA); Vajo, John J. (West Hills, CA); Cumberland, Robert W. (Malibu, CA); Liu, Ping (Irvine, CA); Salguero, Tina T. (Encino, CA)

2011-03-22

174

Active scaffolds for on-demand drug and cell delivery  

E-print Network

Porous biomaterials have been widely used as scaffolds in tissue engineering and cell-based therapies. The release of biological agents from conventional porous scaffolds is typically governed by molecular diffusion, ...

Zhao, Xuanhe

175

Grafting of molecularly imprinted polymer to porous polyethylene filtration membranes by plasma polymerization.  

PubMed

An application of plasma-induced grafting of polyethylene membranes with a thin layer of molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) was presented. High-density polyethylene (HDPE) membranes, "Vyon," were used as a substrate for plasma grafting modification. The herbicide atrazine, one of the most popular targets of the molecular imprinting, was chosen as a template. The parameters of the plasma treatment were optimized in order to achieve a good balance between polymerization and ablation processes. Modified HDPE membranes were characterized, and the presence of the grafted polymeric layer was confirmed based on the observed weight gain, pore size measurements, and infrared spectrometry. Since there was no significant change in the porosity of the modified membranes, it was assumed that only a thin layer of the polymer was introduced on the surface. The experiments on the re-binding of the template atrazine to the membranes modified with MIP and blank polymers were performed. HDPE membranes which were grafted with polymer using continuous plasma polymerization demonstrated the best result which was expressed in an imprinted factor equal to 3, suggesting that molecular imprinting was successfully achieved. PMID:23748644

Cowieson, D; Piletska, E; Moczko, E; Piletsky, S

2013-08-01

176

Constitutive models for a poly(e-caprolactone) scaffold.  

PubMed

We investigate material models for a porous, polymeric scaffold used for bone. The material was made by co-extruding poly(e-caprolactone) (PCL), a biodegradable polyester, and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO). The water soluble PEO was removed resulting in a porous scaffold. The stress-strain curve in compression was fit with a phenomenological model in hyperbolic form. This material model will be useful for designers for quasi-static analysis as it provides a simple form that can easily be used in finite element models. The ASTM D-1621 standard recommends using a secant modulus based on 10% strain. The resulting modulus has a smaller scatter in its value compared to the coefficients of the hyperbolic model, and it is therefore easier to compare material processing differences and ensure quality of the scaffold. A third material model was constructed from images of the microstructure. Each pixel of the micrographs was represented with a brick finite element and assigned the Young's modulus of bulk PCL or a value of 0 for a pore. A compressive strain was imposed on the model and the resulting stresses were calculated. The elastic constants of the scaffold were then computed using Hooke's law for a linear-elastic isotropic material. The model was able to predict the small strain Young's modulus measured in the experiments to within one standard deviation. Thus, by knowing the microstructure of the scaffold, its bulk properties can be predicted from the material properties of the constituents. PMID:15133966

Quinn, T P; Oreskovic, T L; McCowan, C N; Washburn, N R

2004-01-01

177

Hydroxyapatite/polylactide biphasic combination scaffold loaded with dexamethasone for bone regeneration.  

PubMed

This study presents a novel design of a ceramic/polymer biphasic combination scaffold that mimics natural bone structures and is used as a bone graft substitute. To mimic the natural bone structures, the outside cortical-like shells were composed of porous hydroxyapatite (HA) with a hollow interior using a polymeric template-coating technique; the inner trabecular-like core consisted of porous poly(D,L-lactic acid) (PLA) that was loaded with dexamethasone (DEX) and was directly produced using a particle leaching/gas forming technique to create the inner diameter of the HA scaffold. It was observed that the HA and PLA parts of the fabricated HA/PLA biphasic scaffold contained open and interconnected pore structures, and the boundary between both parts was tightly connected without any gaps. It was found that the structure of the combination scaffold was analogous to that of natural bone based on micro-computed tomography analysis. Additionally, the dense, uniform apatite layer was formed on the surface of the HA/PLA biphasic scaffold through a biomimetic process, and DEX was successfully released from the PLA of the biphasic scaffold over a 1-month period. This release caused human embryonic palatal mesenchyme cells to proliferate, differentiate, produce ECM, and form tissue in vitro. Therefore, it was concluded that this functionally graded scaffold is similar to natural bone and represents a potential bone-substitute material. PMID:21954052

Son, Jun-Sik; Kim, Su-Gwan; Oh, Ji-Su; Appleford, Mark; Oh, Sunho; Ong, Joo L; Lee, Kyu-Bok

2011-12-15

178

Fast and continuous preparation of high polymerization degree cellulose nanofibrils and their three-dimensional macroporous scaffold fabrication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

C6-carboxy-cellulose with a carboxylate content of 0.8 mmol g-1 was obtained by oxidation of once-dried cellulose, using the 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidinyl-1-oxyl (TEMPO)/NaClO/NaClO2 system at pH 6.8 and 60 °C for 16 h. This method, with the addition of reagents in the order TEMPO, NaClO and NaClO2, was 38 h faster than a previously published method. Individualized cellulose nanofibrils with a width of 3-5 nm and a length of several hundred nanometers were prepared by homogenizing the C6-carboxy-cellulose-water suspension. Macroporous cellulose nanofibril/poly(vinyl alcohol) scaffolds with interconnected large pores of 20-100 ?m diameter and small pores of 2-10 ?m diameter were fabricated. The cellulose nanofilaments formed nanofibrous structures on the surface of the PVA wall, which was similar to that of the collagen skeleton of the extracellular matrix. NIH/3T3 cells were cultured in the scaffolds for 4 weeks, SEM observation showed that the cells were anchored and clustered on the cellulose nanofilaments, forming spherical colonies. The extracellular matrix (ECM) was filled with mineralized particles.

Song, Jiankang; Tang, Aimin; Liu, Tingting; Wang, Jufang

2013-02-01

179

Protein adsorption characteristics of porous and tentacle anion-exchange membrane prepared by radiation-induced graft polymerization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A polymer chain containing a diethylamino group was grafted onto the pore surface of a porous hollow-fiber membrane by radiation-induced graft polymerization. Dependence of the protein binding capacity of the membrane on environmental parameters such as salt concentration, pH and temperature was investigated. Saturation capacity of protein bound onto the graft chain containing ion-exchange group was governed by the conformation of the graft chain and the intensity of ion-exchange interaction. The conformation of the graft chain was investigated based on the pore radius of the membrane estimated from the permeation flux of a buffer solution through the membrane. By sufficiently permeating a bovine serum albumin (BSA) solution within the concentration range of 0.2-10 mg-BSA/ml through the membrane, the BSA binding capacity was determined. With increasing salt concentration or pH of the protein buffer solution, the graft chain shrank and BSA binding capacity decreased. On the other hand, the BSA binding capacity slightly increased with increasing temperature, and the conformation of the graft chain was insensitive to temperature in the range from 278 to 303 K. The bound BSA could be quantitatively eluted by permeating a buffer solution containing 0.5 M NaCl, and no deterioration in the BSA binding capacity was observed during five cycles of adsorption, elution and conditioning.

Tsuneda, Satoshi; Saito, Kyoichi; Sugo, Takanobu; Makuuchi, Keizo

1995-08-01

180

3D polylactide-based scaffolds for studying human hepatocarcinoma processes in vitro  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We evaluated the combination of leaching techniques and melt blending of polymers and particles for the preparation of highly interconnected three-dimensional polymeric porous scaffolds for in vitro studies of human hepatocarcinoma processes. More specifically, sodium chloride and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) were used as water-soluble porogens to form porous and solvent-free poly(L,D-lactide) (PLA)-based scaffolds. Several characterization techniques, including porosimetry, image analysis and thermogravimetry, were combined to improve the reliability of measurements and mapping of the size, distribution and microarchitecture of pores. We also investigated the effect of processing, in PLA-based blends, on the simultaneous bulk/surface modifications and pore architectures in the scaffolds, and assessed the effects on human hepatocarcinoma viability and cell adhesion. The influence of PEG molecular weight on the scaffold morphology and cell viability and adhesion were also investigated. Morphological studies indicated that it was possible to obtain scaffolds with well-interconnected pores of assorted sizes. The analysis confirmed that SK-Hep1 cells adhered well to the polymeric support and emitted surface protrusions necessary to grow and differentiate three-dimensional systems. PEGs with higher molecular weight showed the best results in terms of cell adhesion and viability.

Scaffaro, Roberto; Lo Re, Giada; Rigogliuso, Salvatrice; Ghersi, Giulio

2012-08-01

181

Effect of silicon level on rate, quality and progression of bone healing within silicate-substituted porous hydroxyapatite scaffolds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The osseous response to silicon (Si) level (0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8 and 1.5wt% Si) within 5 batches of matched porosity silicate-substituted hydroxyapatite (SA) scaffold was assessed by implantation of 4.6mm diameter cylinders in the femoral intercondylar notch of New Zealand White rabbits for periods of 1, 3, 6 and 12 weeks. Histological evaluation and histomorphometric quantification of bone ingrowth and

Karin A. Hing; Peter A. Revell; Nigel Smith; Thomas Buckland

2006-01-01

182

Mechanical properties and bioactivity of porous PLGA\\/TiO 2 nanoparticle-filled composites for tissue engineering scaffolds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) foams and PLGA\\/titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticle-filled composite foams (porosity>90%) were produced by thermally induced solid–liquid phase separation (TIPS) and subsequent solvent sublimation. The scaffolds exhibit bimodal and anisotropic pore structures, with tubular macropores (approximately 100?m in diameter) interconnected by a network of micropores. Quasi-static compression testing and dynamic mechanical analysis were carried out and the results were correlated

F. G. Torres; S. N. Nazhat; V. Maquet; A. R. Boccaccini

2007-01-01

183

Fabrication of porous scaffolds by three-dimensional plotting of a pasty calcium phosphate bone cement under mild conditions.  

PubMed

The major advantage of hydroxyapatite (HA)-forming calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) used as bone replacement materials is their setting under physiological conditions without the necessity for thermal treatment that allows the incorporation of biological factors. In the present study, we have combined the biocompatible consolidation of CPCs with the potential of rapid prototyping (RP) techniques to generate calcium phosphate-based scaffolds with defined inner and outer morphology. We demonstrate the application of the RP technique three-dimensional (3D) plotting for the fabrication of HA cement scaffolds. This was realized by utilizing a paste-like CPC (P-CPC) which is stable as a malleable paste and whose setting reaction is initiated only after contact with aqueous solutions. The P-CPC showed good processability in the 3D plotting process and allowed the fabrication of stable?3D structures of different geometries with adequate mechanical stability and compressive strength. The cytocompatibility of the plotted P-CPC scaffolds was demonstrated in a cell culture experiment with human mesenchymal stem cells. The mild conditions during 3D plotting and post-processing and the realization of the whole procedure under sterile conditions make this approach highly attractive for fabrication of individualized implants with respect to patient-specific requirements by simultaneous plotting of biological components. PMID:22933381

Lode, Anja; Meissner, Katrin; Luo, Yongxiang; Sonntag, Frank; Glorius, Stefan; Nies, Berthold; Vater, Corina; Despang, Florian; Hanke, Thomas; Gelinsky, Michael

2014-09-01

184

Synergetic effect based gel-emulsions and their utilization for the template preparation of porous polymeric monoliths.  

PubMed

A polymerizable cholesteryl derivative (COA) was synthesized and used as a stabilizer for creating gel-emulsions with water in polymerizable monomers, of which they are styrene (ST), tert-butyl methacrylate (t-BMA), ethylene glycol dimethyl acrylate (EGDMA), and methyl methacrylate (MMA), etc. Interestingly, in addition to COA, the presence of a small amount of Span-80 is a necessity for the formation of the monomers containing gel-emulsions. Unlike conventional ones, the volume fraction of the dispersed phase in the gel-emulsions as created could be much lower than 74%, a critical value for routine gel-emulsions. Stabilization of these gel-emulsions as created has been attributed to the synergetic effect between COA, a typical low-molecular-mass gelator (LMMG), and Span-80, a surfactant, of which the former gels the continuous phase and the latter minimizes the interfacial energy of the continuous phase and the dispersed phase. SEM observation confirmed the network structures of COA in the gel-emulsions. Rheological tests demonstrated that the storage modulus, G', and the yield stress of the gel-emulsions decrease along with increasing the volume fraction of the dispersed phase, water, provided it is not greater than 74%-a result inconsistent with the theory explaining formation of routine gel-emulsions and in support of the conclusion that the systems under study follow a different mechanism. Furthermore, unlike LMMG-based stabilizers reported earlier, the gelator, COA, created in the present study has been functioning not only as a stabilizer but also a monomer. To illustrate the conceptual advantages, the gel-emulsions of water in ST/DVB/AIBN were polymerized. As expected, the densities and internal structures of the monoliths as prepared are highly adjustable, functionalization of the materials with cholesterol has been realized, and at the same time the problem of stabilizer leaking has been avoided. A preliminary test for gas adsorption demonstrated that the monoliths as prepared are good adsorbents for some volatile organic compounds (VOCs), in particular benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene-the famous and toxic BTEX. It is believed that the findings reported in the present work provide not only a new strategy for creating novel gel-emulsions but also a new route for functionalizing porous polymeric monoliths. PMID:25338107

Miao, Qing; Chen, Xiangli; Liu, Lingling; Peng, Junxia; Fang, Yu

2014-11-18

185

Functionalized ultra-porous titania nanofiber membranes as nuclear waste separation and sequestration scaffolds for nuclear fuels recycle.  

SciTech Connect

Advanced nuclear fuel cycle concept is interested in reducing separations to a simplified, one-step process if possible. This will benefit from the development of a one-step universal getter and sequestration material so as a simplified, universal waste form was proposed in this project. We have developed a technique combining a modified sol-gel chemistry and electrospinning for producing ultra-porous ceramic nanofiber membranes with controllable diameters and porous structures as the separation/sequestration materials. These ceramic nanofiber materials have been determined to have high porosity, permeability, loading capacity, and stability in extreme conditions. These porous fiber membranes were functionalized with silver nanoparticles and nanocrystal metal organic frameworks (MOFs) to introduce specific sites to capture gas species that are released during spent nuclear fuel reprocessing. Encapsulation into a durable waste form of ceramic composition was also demonstrated.

Liu, Haiqing; Bell, Nelson Simmons; Cipiti, Benjamin B.; Lewis, Tom Goslee,; Sava, Dorina Florentina; Nenoff, Tina Maria

2012-09-01

186

New porous materials from polymeric and molecular building blocks for applications in catalysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis describes the synthesis of porous materials from well-defined dendritic polymers and "single-source precursor" molecules. This work was undertaken in order to obtain novel materials whose properties can be precisely controlled by virtue of the "nanoscale" building blocks employed. Four new carbosilane dendrimers terminated with 12, 24, 36 and 72 benzyl groups have been synthesized and characterized by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization - time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry. These dendrimers were capped with Cp*Ru+ to yield polycations containing charges of 12+, 24+, 36+ and 72+. The charged dendrimers were characterized by electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry and full resolution of individual isotopic distributions was achieved. The first-generation, ruthenium-containing dendrimer (G1-Ru12) was also characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction. Second and third generation alkoxysiyl-terminated carbosilane dendrimers, Si[CH2CH2CH2Si(CH2CH2Si(OEt) 3)3]4 (G2-(OEt) 36) and Si{CH2CH2CH2Si[CH 2CH2CH2Si(CH2CH2Si(OEt) 3)3]3}4 (G3-(OEt )108), were hydrolyzed in THF and benzene to yield monolithic gels. The resulting xerogels, X-G2THF, X-G3THF, X-G2benz and X-G3 benz, respectively, have surface areas of 325 - 800 m 2/g, a high degree of Si-OH functionality and a spectroscopically well-define surface. The surface area of the xerogels increase with increasing dendritic radii, suggesting that the dendrimer building blocks of (for example) X-G2benz are compressed onto one another to a greater extent than the corresponding dendrimers that comprise X-G3benz. Post gellation processing produced xerogels with surface areas as high as 1300 m2/g. These aerogel-like materials were treated with Ti(O iPr)4 and Ti[OSi(OtBu) 3]4 to yield the corresponding Ti-impregnated gels. These gels were shown to be highly active catalysts for the epoxidation of cyclohexene. The synthesis of mesoporous, multicomponent oxides (denoted UCB1 ), based on the use of several molecular precursors in conjunction with block copolymer templates, has been achieved using a new synthetic protocol. This method is illustrated for materials with the compositions ZrO2•4SiO 2, Ta2O5•3SiO2, Fe2O 3•6SiO2, and AlPO4 by employing the precursors Zr[OSi(OtBu)3]4, (EtO) 2Ta[OSi(OtBu)3]3, Fe[OSi(OtBu)3]3•THF and [Al(OiPr)2O2P(O tBu)2]4, respectively, and block polyalkylene oxide copolymers. A new metal-siloxide (Mg[OSi(OtBu) 3]2) complex has been prepared. This molecule undergoes clean thermolytic conversion to MgO•2SiO2 gels in toluene solution. The monolithic gels were processed to obtain high surface area xerogels and aerogels.

Kriesel, Joshua Wilker

187

MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL DELIVERY INTO RAT INFARCTED MYOCARDIUM USING A POROUS POLYSACCHARIDE-BASED SCAFFOLD: A QUANTITATIVE  

E-print Network

1 MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL DELIVERY INTO RAT INFARCTED MYOCARDIUM USING A POROUS POLYSACCHARIDE myocardial infarction model. Cellular engraftment was measured by quantitative RT-PCR using MSCs previously in the peri-infarct area, mainly phenotypically consistent with immature MSCs. Functional assessment

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

188

X-ray imaging optimization of 3D tissue engineering scaffolds via combinatorial fabrication methods  

PubMed Central

We have developed a combinatorial method for determining optimum tissue scaffold composition for several X-ray imaging techniques. X-ray radiography and X-ray microcomputed tomography enable non-invasive imaging of implants in vivo and in vitro. However, highly porous polymeric scaffolds do not always possess sufficient X-ray contrast and are therefore difficult to image with X-ray-based techniques. Incorporation of high radiocontrast atoms, such as iodine, into the polymer structure improves X-ray radiopacity but also affects physicochemical properties and material performance. Thus, we have developed a combinatorial library approach to efficiently determine the minimum amount of contrast agent necessary for X-ray-based imaging. The combinatorial approach is demonstrated in a polymer blend scaffold system where X-ray imaging of poly(desaminotyrosyl-tyrosine ethyl ester carbonate) (pDTEc) scaffolds is improved through a controlled composition variation with an iodinated-pDTEc analog (pI2DTEc). The results show that pDTEc scaffolds must include at least 9%, 16%, 38% or 46% pI2DTEc (by mass) to enable effective imaging by microradiography, dental radiography, dental radiography through 0.75 cm of muscle tissue or micro-computed tomography, respectively. Only two scaffold libraries were required to determine these minimum pI2DTEc percentages required for X-ray imaging, which demonstrates the efficiency of this new combinatorial approach for optimizing scaffold formulations. PMID:18242689

Yang, Yanyin; Dorsey, Shauna M.; Becker, Matthew L.; Lin-Gibson, Sheng; Schumacher, Gary E.; Flaim, Glenn M.; Kohn, Joachim; Simon, Carl G.

2010-01-01

189

Antitumor activity of docetaxel-loaded polymeric nanoparticles fabricated by Shirasu porous glass membrane-emulsification technique  

PubMed Central

Docetaxel (DTX) has excellent efficiency against a wide spectrum of cancers. However, the current clinical formulation has limited its usage, as it causes some severe side effects. Various polymeric nanoparticles have thus been developed as alternative formulations of DTX, but they have been mostly fabricated on a laboratory scale. Previously, we synthesized a novel copolymer, poly(lactide)-D-?-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (PLA-TPGS), and found that it exhibited great potential in drug delivery with improved properties. In this study, we applied the Shirasu porous glass (SPG) membrane-emulsification technique to prepare the DTX-loaded PLA-TPGS nanoparticles on a pilot scale. The effect of several formulation variables on the DTX-loaded nanoparticle properties, including particle size, zeta potential, and drug-encapsulation efficiency, were investigated based on surfactant type and concentration in the aqueous phase, organic/aqueous phase volumetric ratio, membrane-pore size, transmembrane cycles, and operation pressure. The DTX-loaded nanoparticles were obtained with sizes of 306.8 ± 5.5 nm and 334.1 ± 2.7 nm (mean value ± standard deviation), and drug-encapsulation efficiency of 81.8% ± 4.5% and 64.5% ± 2.7% for PLA-TPGS and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles, respectively. In vivo pharmacokinetic study exhibited a significant advantage of PLA-TPGS nanoparticles over PLGA nanoparticles and Taxotere. Drug-loaded PLA-TPGS nanoparticles exhibited 1.78-, 6.34- and 3.35-fold higher values for area under the curve, half-life, and mean residence time, respectively, compared with those of PLGA nanoparticles, and 2.23-, 13.2-, 8.51-fold higher than those of Taxotere, respectively. In vivo real-time distribution of nanoparticles was measured on tumor-bearing mice by near-infrared fluorescence imaging, which demonstrated that the PLA-TPGS nanoparticles achieved much higher concentration and longer retention in tumors than PLGA nanoparticles after intravenous injection. This is consistent with the pharmacokinetic behavior of the nanoparticles. The tumor-inhibitory effect of DTX-loaded nanoparticles was observed in vivo in an H22 tumor-bearing mice model via intravenous administration. This indicated that PLA-TPGS nanoparticles are a feasible drug-delivery formulation with a pilot fabrication technique and have superior pharmacokinetic and anticancer effects compared to the commercially available Taxotere. PMID:23935362

Yu, Yunni; Tan, Songwei; Zhao, Shuang; Zhuang, Xiangting; Song, Qingle; Wang, Yuliang; Zhou, Qin; Zhang, Zhiping

2013-01-01

190

A biodegradable polymeric system for peptide-protein delivery assembled with porous microspheres and nanoparticles, using an adsorption/infiltration process.  

PubMed

A biodegradable polymeric system is proposed for formulating peptides and proteins. The systems were assembled through the adsorption of biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles onto porous, biodegradable microspheres by an adsorption/infiltration process with the use of an immersion method. The peptide drug is not involved in the manufacturing of the nanoparticles or in obtaining the microspheres; thus, contact with the organic solvent, interfaces, and shear forces required for the process are prevented during drug loading. Leuprolide acetate was used as the model peptide, and poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) was used as the biodegradable polymer. Leuprolide was adsorbed onto different amounts of PLGA nanoparticles (25 mg/mL, 50 mg/mL, 75 mg/mL, and 100 mg/mL) in a first stage; then, these were infiltrated into porous PLGA microspheres (100 mg) by dipping the structures into a microsphere suspension. In this way, the leuprolide was adsorbed onto both surfaces (ie, nanoparticles and microspheres). Scanning electron microscopy studies revealed the formation of a nanoparticle film on the porous microsphere surface that becomes more continuous as the amount of infiltrated nanoparticles increases. The adsorption efficiency and release rate are dependent on the amount of adsorbed nanoparticles. As expected, a greater adsorption efficiency (~95%) and a slower release rate were seen (~20% of released leuprolide in 12 hours) when a larger amount of nanoparticles was adsorbed (100 mg/mL of nanoparticles). Leuprolide acetate begins to be released immediately when there are no infiltrated nanoparticles, and 90% of the peptide is released in the first 12 hours. In contrast, the systems assembled in this study released less than 44% of the loaded drug during the same period of time. The observed release profiles denoted a Fickian diffusion that fit Higuchi's model (t(1/2)). The manufacturing process presented here may be useful as a potential alternative for formulating injectable depots for sensitive hydrophilic drugs such as peptides and proteins, among others. PMID:23788833

Alcalá-Alcalá, Sergio; Urbán-Morlán, Zaida; Aguilar-Rosas, Irene; Quintanar-Guerrero, David

2013-01-01

191

Development of a new pre-vascularized tissue-engineered construct using pre-differentiated rADSCs, arteriovenous vascular bundle and porous nano-hydroxyapatide-polyamide 66 scaffold  

PubMed Central

Background Development of a pre-vascularized tissue-engineered construct with intrinsic vascular system for cell growth and tissue formation still faces many difficulties due to the complexity of the vascular network of natural bone tissue. The present study was to design and form a new vascularized tissue-engineered construct using pre-differentiated rADSCs, arteriovenous vascular bundle and porous nHA-PA 66 scaffold. Methods rADSCs were pre-differentiated to endothelial cells (rADSCs-Endo) and then incorporated in nHA-PA 66 scaffolds in vitro. Subsequently, in vivo experiments were carried out according to the following groups: Group A (rADSCs-Endo/nHA-PA 66 scaffold with arteriovenous vascular bundle), Group B (rADSCs/nHA-PA 66 scaffold with arteriovenous vascular bundle); Group C (nHA-PA66 scaffold with arteriovenous vascular bundle), Group D (nHA-PA 66 scaffold only). The vessel density and vessel diameter were measured based on histological and immunohistochemical evaluation, furthermore, the VEGF-C, FGF-2 and BMP-2 protein expressions were also evaluated by western blot analysis. Results The results of in vivo experiments showed that the vessel density and vessel diameter in group A were significantly higher than the other three groups. Between Group B and C, no statistical difference was observed at each time point. In accordance with the results, there were dramatically higher expressions of VEGF-C and FGF-2 protein in Group A than that of Group B, C and D at 2 or 4 weeks. Statistical differences were not observed in VEGF-C and FGF-2 expression between Group B and C. BMP-2 was not expressed in any group at each time point. Conclusions Compared with muscular wrapping method, arteriovenous vascular bundle implantation could promote vascularization of the scaffold; and the angiogenesis of the scaffold was significantly accelerated when pre-differentiated rADSCs (endothelial differentiation) were added. These positive results implicate the combination of pre-differentiated rADSCs (endothelial differentiation) and arteriovenous vascular bundle may achieve rapidly angiogenesis of biomaterial scaffold. PMID:24209783

2013-01-01

192

A highly porous NiO/polyaniline composite film prepared by combining chemical bath deposition and electro-polymerization and its electrochromic performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A highly porous NiO/polyaniline (PANI) composite film was prepared on ITO glass by combining the chemical bath deposition and electro-polymerization methods, successively. The porous NiO film acts as a template for the preferential growth of PANI along NiO flakes, and the NiO/PANI composite film has an intercrossing net-like morphology. The electrochromic performance of the NiO/PANI composite film was investigated in 1 M LiClO4+1 mM HClO4/propylene carbonate (PC) by means of transmittance, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and chronoamperometry (CA) measurements. The NiO/PANI thin film exhibits a noticeable electrochromism with reversible color changes from transparent yellow to purple and presents quite good transmittance modulation with a variation of transmittance up to 56% at 550 nm. The porous NiO/polyaniline (PANI) composite film also shows good reaction kinetics with fast switching speed, and the response time for oxidation and reduction is 90 and 110 ms, respectively.

Xia, X. H.; Tu, J. P.; Zhang, J.; Wang, X. L.; Zhang, W. K.; Huang, H.

2008-11-01

193

A highly porous NiO/polyaniline composite film prepared by combining chemical bath deposition and electro-polymerization and its electrochromic performance.  

PubMed

A highly porous NiO/polyaniline (PANI) composite film was prepared on ITO glass by combining the chemical bath deposition and electro-polymerization methods, successively. The porous NiO film acts as a template for the preferential growth of PANI along NiO flakes, and the NiO/PANI composite film has an intercrossing net-like morphology. The electrochromic performance of the NiO/PANI composite film was investigated in 1 M LiClO(4)+1 mM HClO(4)/propylene carbonate (PC) by means of transmittance, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and chronoamperometry (CA) measurements. The NiO/PANI thin film exhibits a noticeable electrochromism with reversible color changes from transparent yellow to purple and presents quite good transmittance modulation with a variation of transmittance up to 56% at 550 nm. The porous NiO/polyaniline (PANI) composite film also shows good reaction kinetics with fast switching speed, and the response time for oxidation and reduction is 90 and 110 ms, respectively. PMID:21836256

Xia, X H; Tu, J P; Zhang, J; Wang, X L; Zhang, W K; Huang, H

2008-11-19

194

Enhanced survival and function of islet-like clusters differentiated from adipose stem cells on a three-dimensional natural polymeric scaffold: an in vitro study.  

PubMed

Autologous adipose stem cells owing to its pluripotent nature offer a valuable source for pancreatic beta cell replacement in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. However, maintaining longevity and functionality of stem cell-derived islet-like cells for long-term in vitro culture is challenging. Signaling interaction between islets and surrounding extracellular matrix (ECM) is an important factor for islet survival and function. Tissue engineering strategy to use scaffolds as substitute for ECM is a key to the problem. In the present study, we fabricated a three-dimensional (3D) biodegradable scaffold comprised of natural polymers dextran and gelatin (DEXGEL) for differentiation of adipose stem cells to islet-like clusters (ILCs). Adipose stem cells derived from subcutaneous fat of New Zealand white rabbits were differentiated to ILCs on DEXGEL scaffold and two-dimensional (2D) culture plates via three stage protocol using cocktail of growth factors. The ILCs differentiated on DEXGEL scaffold exhibited characteristic islet morphology, and expressed islet-specific hormones (insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin). The insulin secretion in response to glucose challenge and viability of ILCs on DEXGEL scaffold were significantly higher in comparison to ILCs on 2D culture. Our results demonstrated for the first time that DEXGEL scaffold simulated an extracellular environment for effective differentiation of rabbit adipose stem cells to ILCs. PMID:24359126

Aloysious, Neena; Nair, Prabha D

2014-05-01

195

Hydroxyapatite-reinforced collagen tissue engineering scaffolds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scaffolds have been fabricated from a wide variety of materials and most have showed some success, either as bone graft substitutes or as tissue engineering scaffolds. However, all current scaffold compositions and architectures suffer from one or more flaws including poor mechanical properties, lack of biological response, nondegradability, or a scaffold architecture not conducive to osteointegration. Biomimetic approaches to scaffold design using the two main components of bone tissue, collagen and hydroxyapatite, resulted in scaffolds with superior biological properties but relatively poor mechanical properties and scaffold architecture. It was hypothesized that by optimizing scaffold composition and architecture, HA-collagen bone tissue engineering scaffolds could provide both an excellent biological response along with improved structural properties. The mechanical properties of freeze-dried HA-collagen scaffolds, the most common type of porous HA-collagen material, were first shown to be increased by the addition of HA reinforcements, but scaffold stiffness still fell far short of the desired range. Based on limitations inherent in the freeze-dried process, a new type of leached-porogen scaffold fabrication process was developed. Proof-of-concept scaffolds demonstrated the feasibility of producing leached-porogen HA-collagen materials, and the scaffold architecture was optimized though careful selection of porogen particle size and shape along with an improved crosslinking technique. The final scaffolds exhibited substantially increased compressive modulus compared to previous types HA-collagen scaffolds, while the porosity, pore size, and scaffold permeability were tailored to be suitable for bone tissue ingrowth. An in vitro study demonstrated the capacity of the leached-porogen scaffolds to serve as a substrate for the differentiation of osteoblasts and subsequent production of new bone tissue. The new leached-porogen scaffold HA-collagen scaffolds were shown to have potential as a highly tailorable bone tissue engineering scaffold with a unique combination of biological, mechanical, and structural properties.

Kane, Robert J.

196

Synthesis and Characterization of Suspension Polymerized StyreneDivinylbenzene Porous Microsphere Using as Slow-Release-Active Carrier 1 1 Supported by Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong Province (No.05006556)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional porous microspheres used for the slow release carrier of actives in cosmetics or pharmaceuticals were prepared by modified suspension polymerization of styrene (ST) with divinylbenzene (DVB) in the presence of toluene, cyclohexanol and heptane as porogenic diluents. The use of ultrasonic dispersion decreases the beads' size and improves the uniformity. The effects of the porogen mixture, DVB content and

Lu LI; Jiang CHENG; Xiufang WEN; Pihui PI; Zhuoru YANG

2006-01-01

197

Biodegradable fumarate-based polyHIPEs as tissue engineering scaffolds.  

PubMed

PolyHIPEs show great promise as tissue engineering scaffolds due to the tremendous control of pore size and interconnectivity afforded by this technique. Highly porous, fully biodegradable scaffolds were prepared by polymerization of the continuous phase of high internal phase emulsions (HIPEs) containing the macromer poly(propylene fumarate) (PPF) and the cross-linker propylene fumarate diacrylate (PFDA). Toluene was used as a diluent to reduce the viscosity of the organic phase to enable HIPE formation. A range of polyHIPE scaffolds of different pore sizes and morphologies were generated by varying the diluent concentration (40-60 wt %), cross-linker concentration (25-75 wt %), and macromer molecular weight ( M n = 800-1000 g/mol). Although some formulations resulted in macroporous monoliths (pore diameter >500 microm), the majority of the polyHIPEs studied were rigid, microporous monoliths with average pore diameters in the range 10-300 microm. Gravimetric analysis confirmed the porosity of the microporous monoliths as 80-89% with most scaffolds above 84%. These studies demonstrate that emulsion templating can be used to generate rigid, biodegradable scaffolds with highly interconnected pores suitable for tissue engineering scaffolds. PMID:17979240

Christenson, Elizabeth M; Soofi, Wafa; Holm, Jennifer L; Cameron, Neil R; Mikos, Antonios G

2007-12-01

198

Poly(L-lactic acid) nanocylinders as nanofibrous structures for macroporous gelatin scaffolds.  

PubMed

Electrospun Nanofiber sheets have been shown to mimic the structure of extracellular matrix (ECM). Although these nanofibers have shown great potential for use as tissue engineering scaffolds, it is difficult for the electrospun nanofiber based sheets to be shaped into the desired three-dimensional structure. In this study, poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA), a biodegradable and biocompatible polyester, was electrospun to produce nanofibers that were treated with an amino group containing base in order to fabricate polymeric nanocylinders. The aspect ratio of the PLLA nanocylinders was tunable by varying the aminolysis time and density of the amino group containing base. The effects of changes in nanofibrous morphology of the PLLA nanocylinders/macro-porous gelatin scaffolds on cell adhesion and proliferation were evaluated. The results revealed different cell morphology, adhesion, and proliferation in the nanocylinders composite gelatin scaffold versus gelatin scaffold alone. Confocal laser scanning microscopy observation showed more spreading and a more flattened cell morphology after NIH3T3 cells were cultured on PLLA nanocylinders/gelatin scaffolds for 10 hours and 4 days. These results indicate that the gelatin/PLLA nanocylinder composite is a promising way to fabricate 3D nanofibrous scaffolds that accelerates cell adhesion and proliferation for tissue engineering. PMID:22121718

Lee, Jung Bok; Jeong, Sung In; Bae, Min Su; Heo, Dong Nyoung; Heo, Jung Sun; Hwang, Yu-Shik; Lee, Hyeon-Woo; Kwon, Il Keun

2011-07-01

199

Biologically improved nanofibrous scaffolds for cardiac tissue engineering.  

PubMed

Nanofibrous structure developed by electrospinning technology provides attractive extracellular matrix conditions for the anchorage, migration and differentiation of stem cells, including those responsible for regenerative medicine. Recently, biocomposite nanofibers consisting of two or more polymeric blends are electrospun more tidily in order to obtain scaffolds with desired functional and mechanical properties depending on their applications. The study focuses on one such an attempt of using copolymer Poly(l-lactic acid)-co-poly (?-caprolactone) (PLACL), silk fibroin (SF) and Aloe Vera (AV) for fabricating biocomposite nanofibrous scaffolds for cardiac tissue engineering. SEM micrographs of fabricated electrospun PLACL, PLACL/SF and PLACL/SF/AV nanofibrous scaffolds are porous, beadless, uniform nanofibers with interconnected pores and obtained fibre diameter in the range of 459±22nm, 202±12nm and 188±16nm respectively. PLACL, PLACL/SF and PLACL/SF/AV electrospun mats obtained at room temperature with an elastic modulus of 14.1±0.7, 9.96±2.5 and 7.0±0.9MPa respectively. PLACL/SF/AV nanofibers have more desirable properties to act as flexible cell supporting scaffolds compared to PLACL for the repair of myocardial infarction (MI). The PLACL/SF and PLACL/SF/AV nanofibers had a contact angle of 51±12° compared to that of 133±15° of PLACL alone. Cardiac cell proliferation was increased by 21% in PLACL/SF/AV nanofibers compared to PLACL by day 6 and further increased to 42% by day 9. Confocal analysis for cardiac expression proteins myosin and connexin 43 was observed better by day 9 compared to all other nanofibrous scaffolds. The results proved that the fabricated PLACL/SF/AV nanofibrous scaffolds have good potentiality for the regeneration of infarcted myocardium in cardiac tissue engineering. PMID:25280706

Bhaarathy, V; Venugopal, J; Gandhimathi, C; Ponpandian, N; Mangalaraj, D; Ramakrishna, S

2014-11-01

200

Biodegradable porous sheet-like scaffolds for soft-tissue engineering using a combined particulate leaching of salt particles and magnetic sugar particles.  

PubMed

Scaffolds serving as artificial extracellular matrixes (ECMs) play a pivotal role in the process of tissue regeneration by providing optimal cellular environments for penetration, ingrowth, and vascularization. Stacks of sheet-like scaffold can be engineered to become artificial ECMs, suggesting a great potential for achieving complex 3-D tissue regeneration to support cell survival and growth. In this study, we proposed and investigated a combined particulate leaching of magnetic sugar particles (MSPs) and salt particles for the development of a sheet-like scaffold. MSPs were fabricated by encapsulating NdFeB particles inside sugar spheres and were controlled using magnetic fields as a porogen to control pore size, pore structure and pore density while fabricating the scaffold. We studied the influence of the strength of the magnetic fields in controlling the coating thickness of the unmagnetized MSPs during the fabrication of the sheet-like scaffolds. The experimental relationship between magnetic flux density and the thickness of the MSP layer was illustrated. Furthermore, we investigated the infiltration capacity of different concentrations of poly(L-lactide-co-?-caprolactone) (PLCL) as a scaffold material on MSP clusters. Following polymer casting and removal of the sugar template, spherical pores were generated inside the scaffolds. Cultivation of NIH/3T3 fibroblasts on the fabricated scaffold proves that the proposed method can be applied in the cell sheet fabrication. PMID:23462200

Hu, Chengzhi; Tercero, Carlos; Ikeda, Seiichi; Nakajima, Masahiro; Tajima, Hirotaka; Shen, Yajing; Fukuda, Toshio; Arai, Fumihito

2013-07-01

201

Plasma-induced polymerization as a tool for surface functionalization of polymer scaffolds for bone tissue engineering: An in vitro study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A commonly applied strategy in the field of tissue engineering (TE) is\\u000d\\u000a the use of temporary three-dimensional scaffolds for supporting and\\u000d\\u000a guiding tissue formation in various in vitro strategies and in vivo\\u000d\\u000a regeneration approaches. The interactions of these scaffolds with highly\\u000d\\u000a sensitive bioentities such as living cells and tissues primarily occur\\u000d\\u000a through the material surface. Hence, surface chemistry and topological

Paula M. Lopez-Perez; Ricardo M. P. da Silva; Rui A. Sousa; Iva Pashkuleva; Rui L. Reis

2010-01-01

202

A biodegradable polymeric system for peptide-protein delivery assembled with porous microspheres and nanoparticles, using an adsorption/infiltration process  

PubMed Central

A biodegradable polymeric system is proposed for formulating peptides and proteins. The systems were assembled through the adsorption of biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles onto porous, biodegradable microspheres by an adsorption/infiltration process with the use of an immersion method. The peptide drug is not involved in the manufacturing of the nanoparticles or in obtaining the microspheres; thus, contact with the organic solvent, interfaces, and shear forces required for the process are prevented during drug loading. Leuprolide acetate was used as the model peptide, and poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) was used as the biodegradable polymer. Leuprolide was adsorbed onto different amounts of PLGA nanoparticles (25 mg/mL, 50 mg/mL, 75 mg/mL, and 100 mg/mL) in a first stage; then, these were infiltrated into porous PLGA microspheres (100 mg) by dipping the structures into a microsphere suspension. In this way, the leuprolide was adsorbed onto both surfaces (ie, nanoparticles and microspheres). Scanning electron microscopy studies revealed the formation of a nanoparticle film on the porous microsphere surface that becomes more continuous as the amount of infiltrated nanoparticles increases. The adsorption efficiency and release rate are dependent on the amount of adsorbed nanoparticles. As expected, a greater adsorption efficiency (~95%) and a slower release rate were seen (~20% of released leuprolide in 12 hours) when a larger amount of nanoparticles was adsorbed (100 mg/mL of nanoparticles). Leuprolide acetate begins to be released immediately when there are no infiltrated nanoparticles, and 90% of the peptide is released in the first 12 hours. In contrast, the systems assembled in this study released less than 44% of the loaded drug during the same period of time. The observed release profiles denoted a Fickian diffusion that fit Higuchi’s model (t1/2). The manufacturing process presented here may be useful as a potential alternative for formulating injectable depots for sensitive hydrophilic drugs such as peptides and proteins, among others. PMID:23788833

Alcala-Alcala, Sergio; Urban-Morlan, Zaida; Aguilar-Rosas, Irene; Quintanar-Guerrero, David

2013-01-01

203

Poly(lactide-co-glycolide acid)/biphasic calcium phosphate composite coating on a porous scaffold to deliver simvastatin for bone tissue engineering.  

PubMed

In this study, simvastatin (SIM) drug incorporated poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolide) (PLGA)/biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) composite material (SPB) was coated on the BCP/ZrO2 (SPB-BCP/ZrO2) scaffold to enhance the mechanical and bioactive properties of the BCP/ZrO2 scaffold for bone engineering applications. The composite coating was prepared by combining different ratios of PLGA and BCP (1:2, 1:1, 2:1). After completion of the coating process, the compressive strength of the scaffolds was shown to increase with an increase in PLGA concentration from 8.5?±?0.52?MPa for the SPB1-BCP/ZrO2 (1:2) to 11?±?0.65?MPa for SPB3-BCP/ZrO2 (2:1) scaffolds when PLGA concentration was increased. Furthermore, the increase of PLGA in the coating composition corresponds to a decrease in porosity, degradation rate and weight loss of the scaffolds after 4 weeks. SIM release study demonstrated sustained release of the drug for the three kinds of scaffolds with improved biocompatibility. The increase of PLGA concentration also resulted in a lower release rate of SIM. Thus, the lower release rate of SIM brought upon by the increase of PLGA concentration further enhanced the performance of the scaffold in vitro making it a promising approach in the field of bone tissue regeneration. PMID:23815378

Sadiasa, Alexander; Kim, Min Sung; Lee, Byong Taek

2013-09-01

204

Fabrication of a multi-layer three-dimensional scaffold with controlled porous micro-architecture for application in small intestine tissue engineering  

PubMed Central

Various methods can be employed to fabricate scaffolds with characteristics that promote cell-to-material interaction. This report examines the use of a novel technique combining compression molding with particulate leaching to create a unique multi-layered scaffold with differential porosities and pore sizes that provides a high level of control to influence cell behavior. These cell behavioral responses were primarily characterized by bridging and penetration of two cell types (epithelial and smooth muscle cells) on the scaffold in vitro. Larger pore sizes corresponded to an increase in pore penetration, and a decrease in pore bridging. In addition, smaller cells (epithelial) penetrated further into the scaffold than larger cells (smooth muscle cells). In vivo evaluation of a multi-layered scaffold was well tolerated for 75 d in a rodent model. This data shows the ability of the components of multi-layered scaffolds to influence cell behavior, and demonstrates the potential for these scaffolds to promote desired tissue outcomes in vivo. PMID:23563499

Knight, Toyin; Basu, Joydeep; Rivera, Elias A.; Spencer, Thomas; Jain, Deepak; Payne, Richard

2013-01-01

205

Scaffolds in tissue engineering bone and cartilage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Musculoskeletal tissue, bone and cartilage are under extensive investigation in tissue engineering research. A number of biodegradable and bioresorbable materials, as well as scaffold designs, have been experimentally and\\/or clinically studied. Ideally, a scaffold should have the following characteristics: (i) three-dimensional and highly porous with an interconnected pore network for cell growth and flow transport of nutrients and metabolic waste;

Dietmar W. Hutmacher

2000-01-01

206

Biomimetic hollow scaffolds for long bone replacement  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tissue engineering focuses on synthesis or regeneration of tissues and organs. The hierarchical structure of nearly all porous scaffolds on the macro, micro- and nanometer scales resembles that of engineering foams dedicated for technical applications, but differ from the complex architecture of long bone. A major obstacle of scaffold architecture in tissue regeneration is the limited cell infiltration as

Bert Müller; Hans Deyhle; Fabienne C. Fierz; Stephan H. Irsen; Jin Y. Yoon; Shpend Mushkolaj; Oliver Boss; Elke Vorndran; Uwe Gburek; Özer Degistirici; Michael Thie; Barbara Leukers; Felix Beckmann; Frank Witte

2009-01-01

207

Nano/microfibrous polymeric constructs loaded with bioactive agents and designed for tissue engineering applications: a review.  

PubMed

Nano/microfibrous polymeric constructs present various inherent advantages, such as highly porous architecture and high surface to volume ratio, making them attractive for tissue engineering purposes. Electrospinning is the most preferred technique for the fabrication of polymeric nanofibrous assemblies that can mimic the physical functions of native extracellular matrix greatly favoring cells attachment and thus influencing their morphology and activities. Different approaches have been developed to apply polymeric microfiber fabrication techniques (e.g. wet-spinning) for the obtainment of scaffolds with a three-dimensional network of micropores suitable for effective cells migration. Progress in additive manufacturing technology has led to the development of complex scaffold's shapes and microfibrous structures with a high degree of automation, good accuracy and reproducibility. Various loading methods, such as direct blending, coaxial electrospinning and microparticles incorporation, are enabling to develop customized strategies for the biofunctionalization of nano/microfibrous scaffolds with a tailored kinetics of release of different bioactive agents, ranging from small molecules, such as antibiotics, to protein drugs, such as growth factors, and even cells. Recent activities on the combination of different processing techniques and loading methods for the obtainment of biofunctionalized polymeric constructs with a complex multiscale structure open new possibilities for the development of biomimetic scaffolds endowed with a hierarchical architecture and a sophisticated release kinetics of different bioactive agents. This review is aimed at summarizing current advances in technologies and methods for manufacturing nano/microfibrous polymeric constructs suitable as tissue engineering scaffolds, and for their combination with different bioactive agents to promote tissue regeneration and therapeutic effects. PMID:24678016

Puppi, Dario; Zhang, Xuanmiao; Yang, Likai; Chiellini, Federica; Sun, Xun; Chiellini, Emo

2014-10-01

208

Elastin-Coated Biodegradable Photopolymer Scaffolds for Tissue Engineering Applications  

PubMed Central

One of the main open issues in modern vascular surgery is the nonbiodegradability of implants used for stent interventions, which can lead to small caliber-related thrombosis and neointimal hyperplasia. Some new, resorbable polymeric materials have been proposed to substitute traditional stainless-steel stents, but so far they were affected by poor mechanical properties and low biocompatibility. In this respect, a new material, polypropylene fumarate (PPF), may be considered as a promising candidate to implement the development of next generation stents, due to its complete biodegradability, and excellent mechanical properties and the ease to be precisely patterned. Besides all these benefits, PPF has not been tested yet for vascular prosthesis, mainly because it proved to be almost inert, while the ability to elicit a specific biological function would be of paramount importance in such critical surgery applications. Here, we propose a biomimetic functionalization process, aimed at obtaining specific bioactivation and thus improved cell-polymer interaction. Porous PPF-based scaffolds produced by deep-UV photocuring were coated by elastin and the functionalized scaffolds were extensively characterized, revealing a stable bound between the protein and the polymer surface. Both 3T3 and HUVEC cell lines were used for in vitro tests displaying an enhancement of cells adhesion and proliferation on the functionalized scaffolds. PMID:25405204

Barenghi, Rossella; Beke, Szabolcs; Gavazzo, Paola; Farkas, Balázs; Scaglione, Silvia

2014-01-01

209

Novel Antibacterial Nanofibrous PLLA Scaffolds  

PubMed Central

In order to achieve high local bioactivity and low systemic side effects of antibiotics in the treatment of dental, periodontal and bone infections, a localized and temporally controlled delivery system is crucial. In this study, a three-dimensional (3D) porous tissue engineering scaffold was developed with the ability to release antibiotics in a controlled fashion for long-term inhibition of bacterial growth. The highly soluble antibiotic drug, Doxycycline (DOXY), was successfully incorporated into PLGA nanospheres using a modified water-in-oil-in-oil (w/o/o) emulsion method. The PLGA nanospheres (NS) were then incorporated into prefabricated nanofibrous PLLA scaffolds with a well interconnected macroporous structure. The release kinetics of DOXY from four different PLGA NS formulations on a PLLA scaffold was investigated. DOXY could be released from the NS-scaffolds in a locally and temporally controlled manner. The DOXY release is controlled by DOXY diffusion out of the NS and is strongly dependent upon the physical and chemical properties of the PLGA. While PLGA50-6.5K, PLGA50-64K, and PLGA75-113K NS-scaffolds discharge DOXY rapidly with a high initial burst release, PLGA85-142K NS-scaffold can extend the release of DOXY to longer than 6 weeks with a low initial burst release. Compared to NS alone, the NS incorporated on a 3-D scaffold had significantly reduced the initial burst release. In vitro antibacterial tests of PLGA85 NS-scaffold demonstrated its ability to inhibit common bacterial growth (S.aureus and E.coli) for a prolonged duration. The successful incorporation of DOXY onto 3-D scaffolds and its controlled release from scaffolds extends the usage of nano-fibrous scaffolds from the delivery of large molecules such as growth factors to the delivery of small hydrophilic drugs, allowing for a broader application and a more complex tissue engineering strategy. PMID:20570700

Feng, Kai; Sun, Hongli; Bradley, Mark A.; Dupler, Ellen J.; Giannobile, William V.; Ma, Peter X.

2010-01-01

210

Polymeric nanoporous materials fabricated with supercritical CO2 and CO2-expanded liquids.  

PubMed

Both academia and industries have put great efforts into developing non-destructive technologies for the fabrication of polymeric nanoporous materials. Such non-destructive technologies developed with supercritical CO2 (scCO2) and CO2-expanded liquids (CXLs) have been attracting more and more attention because they have been demonstrated to be green and effective media for porous polymer preparation and processing. In this tutorial review, we present several such new technologies with scCO2 and CXLs, which have the capacity to prepare polymeric nanoporous materials with unique morphologies. The fabricated nanoporous polymers have significantly improved the performance of polymeric monoliths and films, and have found wide applications as templates, antireflection coatings, low-k materials, tissue engineering scaffolds and filtration membranes. This tutorial review also introduces the associated characterization methods, including the imaging, scattering and physisorption techniques. PMID:25032751

Zhang, Aijuan; Zhang, Qingkun; Bai, Hua; Li, Lei; Li, Jun

2014-09-22

211

Recent advances in bone tissue engineering scaffolds  

PubMed Central

Bone disorders are of significant concern due to increase in the median age of our population. Traditionally, bone grafts have been used to restore damaged bone. Synthetic biomaterials are now being used as bone graft substitutes. These biomaterials were initially selected for structural restoration based on their biomechanical properties. Later scaffolds were engineered to be bioactive or bioresorbable to enhance tissue growth. Now scaffolds are designed to induce bone formation and vascularization. These scaffolds are often porous, biodegradable materials that harbor different growth factors, drugs, genes or stem cells. In this review, we highlight recent advances in bone scaffolds and discuss aspects that still need to be improved. PMID:22939815

Bose, Susmita; Roy, Mangal; Bandyopadhyay, Amit

2012-01-01

212

Lysis of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria by antibacterial porous polymeric monolith formed in microfluidic biochips for sample preparation.  

PubMed

Bacterial cell lysis is demonstrated using polymeric microfluidic biochips operating via a hybrid mechanical shearing/contact killing mechanism. These biochips are fabricated from a cross-linked poly(methyl methacrylate) (X-PMMA) substrate by well-controlled, high-throughput laser micromachining. The unreacted double bonds at the surface of X-PMMA provide covalent bonding for the formation of a porous polymeric monolith (PPM), thus contributing to the mechanical stability of the biochip and eliminating the need for surface treatment. The lysis efficiency of these biochips was tested for gram-positive (Enterococcus saccharolyticus and Bacillus subtilis) and gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas fluorescens) and confirmed by off-chip PCR without further purification. The influence of the flow rate when pumping the bacterial suspension through the PPM, and of the hydrophobic-hydrophilic balance on the cell lysis efficiency was investigated at a cell concentration of 10(5) CFU/mL. It was shown that the contribution of contact killing to cell lysis was more important than that of mechanical shearing in the PPM. The biochip showed better lysis efficiency than the off-chip chemical, mechanical, and thermal lysis techniques used in this work. The biochip also acts as a filter that isolates cell debris and allows PCR-amplifiable DNA to pass through. The system performs more efficient lysis for gram-negative than for gram-positive bacteria. The biochip does not require chemical/enzymatic reagents, power consumption, or complicated design and fabrication processes, which makes it an attractive on-chip lysis device that can be used in sample preparation for genetics and point-of-care diagnostics. The biochips were reused for 20 lysis cycles without any evidence of physical damage to the PPM, significant performance degradation, or DNA carryover when they were back-flushed between cycles. The biochips efficiently lysed both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria in about 35 min per lysis and PPM regeneration cycle. PMID:25059724

Aly, Mohamed Aly Saad; Gauthier, Mario; Yeow, John

2014-09-01

213

Acrylic-acid-functionalized PolyHIPE scaffolds for use in 3D cell culture.  

PubMed

This study describes the development of a functional porous polymer for use as a scaffold to support 3D hepatocyte culture. A high internal phase emulsion (HIPE) is prepared containing the monomers styrene (STY), divinylbenzene (DVB), and 2-ethylhexyl acrylate (EHA) in the external oil phase and the monomer acrylic acid (Aa) in the internal aqueous phase. Upon thermal polymerization with azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN), the resulting porous polymer (polyHIPE) is found to have an open-cell morphology and a porosity of 89%, both suitable characteristics for 3D cell scaffold applications. X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy reveals that the polyHIPE surface contained 7.5% carboxylic acid functionality, providing a useful substrate for subsequent surface modifications and bio-conjugations. Initial bio-compatibility assessments with human hepatocytes show that the acid functionality does not have any detrimental effect on cell adhesion. It is therefore believed that this material can be a useful precursor scaffold towards 3D substrates that offer tailored surface functionality for enhanced cell adhesion. PMID:24243821

Hayward, Adam S; Sano, Naoko; Przyborski, Stefan A; Cameron, Neil R

2013-12-01

214

Method for making a bio-compatible scaffold  

DOEpatents

A method for forming a three-dimensional, biocompatible, porous scaffold structure using a solid freeform fabrication technique (referred to herein as robocasting) that can be used as a medical implant into a living organism, such as a human or other mammal. Imaging technology and analysis is first used to determine the three-dimensional design required for the medical implant, such as a bone implant or graft, fashioned as a three-dimensional, biocompatible scaffold structure. The robocasting technique is used to either directly produce the three-dimensional, porous scaffold structure or to produce an over-sized three-dimensional, porous scaffold lattice which can be machined to produce the designed three-dimensional, porous scaffold structure for implantation.

Cesarano, III, Joseph (Albuquerque, NM); Stuecker, John N. (Albuquerque, NM); Dellinger, Jennifer G. (Champaigne, IL); Jamison, Russell D. (Urbana, IL)

2006-01-31

215

Porous chitosan scaffolds with embedded hyaluronic acid/chitosan/plasmid-DNA nanoparticles encoding TGF-?1 induce DNA controlled release, transfected chondrocytes, and promoted cell proliferation.  

PubMed

Cartilage defects resulting from traumatic injury or degenerative diseases have very limited spontaneous healing ability. Recent progress in tissue engineering and local therapeutic gene delivery systems has led to promising new strategies for successful regeneration of hyaline cartilage. In the present study, tissue engineering and local therapeutic gene delivery systems are combined with the design of a novel gene-activated matrix (GAM) embedded with hybrid hyaluronic acid(HA)/chitosan(CS)/plasmid-DNA nanoparticles encoding transforming growth factor (TGF)-?1. A chitosan scaffold functioned as the three-dimensional carrier for the nanoparticles. Results demonstrated that scaffold-entrapped plasmid DNA was released in a sustained and steady manner over 120 days, and was effectively protected in the HA/CS/pDNA nanoparticles. Culture results demonstrated that chondrocytes grown in the novel GAM were highly proliferative and capable of filling scaffold micropores with cells and extracellular matrix. Confocal laser scanning microscopy indicated that chondrocytes seeded in the GAM expressed exogenous transgenes labeled with green fluorescent protein. ELISA results demonstrated detectable TGF-?1 expression in the supernatant of GAM cultures, which peaked at the sixth day of culture and afterwards showed a moderate decline. Histological results and biochemical assays confirmed promotion of chondrocyte proliferation. Cell culture indicated no affects on phenotypic expression of ECM molecules, such as GAG. The results of this study indicate the suitability of this novel GAM for enhanced in vitro cartilage tissue engineering. PMID:23894564

Lu, Huading; Lv, Lulu; Dai, Yuhu; Wu, Gang; Zhao, Huiqing; Zhang, Fucheng

2013-01-01

216

Galactose-Functionalized PolyHIPE Scaffolds for Use in Routine Three Dimensional Culture of Mammalian Hepatocytes  

PubMed Central

Three-dimensional (3D) cell culture is regarded as a more physiologically relevant method of growing cells in the laboratory compared to traditional monolayer cultures. Recently, the application of polystyrene-based scaffolds produced using polyHIPE technology (porous polymers derived from high internal phase emulsions) for routine 3D cell culture applications has generated very promising results in terms of improved replication of native cellular function in the laboratory. These materials, which are now available as commercial scaffolds, are superior to many other 3D cell substrates due to their high porosity, controllable morphology, and suitable mechanical strength. However, until now there have been no reports describing the surface-modification of these materials for enhanced cell adhesion and function. This study, therefore, describes the surface functionalization of these materials with galactose, a carbohydrate known to specifically bind to hepatocytes via the asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR), to further improve hepatocyte adhesion and function when growing on the scaffold. We first modify a typical polystyrene-based polyHIPE to produce a cell culture scaffold carrying pendent activated-ester functionality. This was achieved via the incorporation of pentafluorophenyl acrylate (PFPA) into the initial styrene (STY) emulsion, which upon polymerization formed a polyHIPE with a porosity of 92% and an average void diameter of 33 ?m. Histological analysis showed that this polyHIPE was a suitable 3D scaffold for hepatocyte cell culture. Galactose-functionalized scaffolds were then prepared by attaching 2?-aminoethyl-?-d-galactopyranoside to this PFPA functionalized polyHIPE via displacement of the labile pentafluorophenyl group, to yield scaffolds with approximately ca. 7–9% surface carbohydrate. Experiments with primary rat hepatocytes showed that cellular albumin synthesis was greatly enhanced during the initial adhesion/settlement period of cells on the galactose-functionalized material, suggesting that the surface carbohydrates are accessible and selective to cells entering the scaffold. This porous polymer scaffold could, therefore, have important application as a 3D scaffold that offers enhanced hepatocyte adhesion and functionality. PMID:24180291

2013-01-01

217

Galactose-functionalized polyHIPE scaffolds for use in routine three dimensional culture of mammalian hepatocytes.  

PubMed

Three-dimensional (3D) cell culture is regarded as a more physiologically relevant method of growing cells in the laboratory compared to traditional monolayer cultures. Recently, the application of polystyrene-based scaffolds produced using polyHIPE technology (porous polymers derived from high internal phase emulsions) for routine 3D cell culture applications has generated very promising results in terms of improved replication of native cellular function in the laboratory. These materials, which are now available as commercial scaffolds, are superior to many other 3D cell substrates due to their high porosity, controllable morphology, and suitable mechanical strength. However, until now there have been no reports describing the surface-modification of these materials for enhanced cell adhesion and function. This study, therefore, describes the surface functionalization of these materials with galactose, a carbohydrate known to specifically bind to hepatocytes via the asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR), to further improve hepatocyte adhesion and function when growing on the scaffold. We first modify a typical polystyrene-based polyHIPE to produce a cell culture scaffold carrying pendent activated-ester functionality. This was achieved via the incorporation of pentafluorophenyl acrylate (PFPA) into the initial styrene (STY) emulsion, which upon polymerization formed a polyHIPE with a porosity of 92% and an average void diameter of 33 ?m. Histological analysis showed that this polyHIPE was a suitable 3D scaffold for hepatocyte cell culture. Galactose-functionalized scaffolds were then prepared by attaching 2'-aminoethyl-?-D-galactopyranoside to this PFPA functionalized polyHIPE via displacement of the labile pentafluorophenyl group, to yield scaffolds with approximately ca. 7-9% surface carbohydrate. Experiments with primary rat hepatocytes showed that cellular albumin synthesis was greatly enhanced during the initial adhesion/settlement period of cells on the galactose-functionalized material, suggesting that the surface carbohydrates are accessible and selective to cells entering the scaffold. This porous polymer scaffold could, therefore, have important application as a 3D scaffold that offers enhanced hepatocyte adhesion and functionality. PMID:24180291

Hayward, Adam S; Eissa, Ahmed M; Maltman, Daniel J; Sano, Naoko; Przyborski, Stefan A; Cameron, Neil R

2013-12-01

218

The Crystallization Behavior of Porous PLA Prepared by Modified Solvent Casting/Particulate Leaching Technique for Potential Use of Tissue Engineering Scaffold  

E-print Network

The porous PLA foams potential for tissue engineering usage are prepared by a modified solvent casting/particulate leaching method with different crystallinity. Since in typical method the porogens are solved in the solution and flow with the polymers during the casting and the crystallinity behavior of PLA chains in the limited space cannot be tracked, in this work the processing is modified by diffusing the PLA solution into a steady salt stack. With a thermal treatment before leaching while maintaining the stable structure of the porogens stack, the crystallinity of porous foams is made possible to control. The characterizations indicate the crystallization of porous foams is in a manner of lower crystallibility than the bulk materials. Pores and caves of around 250{\\mu}m size are obtained in samples with different crystallinity. The macro-structures are not much impaired by the crystallization nevertheless the morphological effect of the heating process is still obvious.

Ran Huang; Xiaomin Zhu; Haiyan Tu; Ajun Wan

2014-04-14

219

Composites for delivery of therapeutics: combining melt electrospun scaffolds with loaded electrosprayed microparticles.  

PubMed

A novel strategy is reported to produce biodegradable microfiber-scaffolds layered with high densities of microparticles encapsulating a model protein. Direct electrospraying on highly porous melt electrospun scaffolds provides a reproducible scaffold coating throughout the entire architecture. The burst release of protein is significantly reduced due to the immobilization of microparticles on the surface of the scaffold and release mechanisms are dependent on protein-polymer interactions. The composite scaffolds have a positive biological effect in contact with precursor osteoblast cells up to 18 days in culture. The scaffold design achieved with the techniques presented here endorses these new composite scaffolds as promising templates for growth factor delivery. PMID:24106032

Bock, Nathalie; Woodruff, Maria A; Steck, Roland; Hutmacher, Dietmar W; Farrugia, Brooke L; Dargaville, Tim R

2014-02-01

220

One-step fabrication and high photocatalytic activity of porous graphitic carbon nitride/graphene oxide hybrid by direct polymerization of cyanamide without templates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Graphene oxide modified porous g-C3N4 (porous g-C3N4/GO) had been synthesized by means of one-step calcination of cyanamide for efficient photocatalysis under visible light irradiation (? > 400 nm). We expect that the photocatalytic activity of this hybrid photocatalyst could be enhanced by the efficient visible light absorption due to the porous structure and efficient photo generated charge separation at the heterojunction formed between porous g-C3N4 and GO. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images demonstrated that the as prepared photocatalyst is composed of GO and porous g-C3N4. The UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectrum shows that optical absorption of porous g-C3N4/GO is more intensive than for pristine g-C3N4. The enhanced generation of photocurrent under visible light irradiation (? > 400 nm) is observed for the porous g-C3N4/GO. The results of photocatalytic experiments reveal that the pseudofirst-order kinetic constant of photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB) using the porous g-C3N4/GO is 6 times higher than that of pristine g-C3N4.

Yu, Qingbo; Guo, Shuai; Li, Xianhua; Zhang, Mingxu

2014-10-01

221

Structural and fluid transport characterization of bio-scaffolds based on 3D imaging data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bio-scaffolds which are most commonly open celled porous structures are increasingly used for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Numerical studies exploring the influence of architecture on structural and flow characteristics of porous media have been carried out but these studies almost exclusively assume an idealized repeating unit cell approach. However, most of the traditional techniques employed to manufacture bio-scaffolds do

B. Notarberardino; P. G. Young; G. R. Tabor; L. Hao; I. G. Turner; A. Harkara

2009-01-01

222

Laser microstructured biodegradable scaffolds.  

PubMed

The two-photon polymerization technique (2PP) uses non-linear absorption of femtosecond laser pulses to selectively polymerize photosensitive materials. 2PP has the ability to fabricate structures with a resolution from tens of micrometers down to hundreds of nanometers. Three-dimensional microstructuring by the 2PP technique provides many interesting possibilities for biomedical applications. This microstructuring technique is suitable with many biocompatible polymeric materials, such as polyethylene glycol, polylactic acid, polycaprolactone, gelatin, zirconium-based hybrids, and others. The process of fabrication does not require clean room conditions and does not use hazard chemicals or high temperatures. The most beneficial property of 2PP is that it is capable of producing especially complex three-dimensional (3-D) structures, including devices with overhangs, without using any supportive structure. The flexibility in controlling geometries and feature sizes and the possibility to fabricate structures without the addition of new material layers makes this technique particularly appealing for fabrication of 3-D scaffolds for tissue engineering. PMID:23729598

Koroleva, Anastasia; Kufelt, Olga; Schlie-Wolter, Sabrina; Hinze, Ulf; Chichkov, Boris

2013-10-01

223

Modeling of powder particle heat transfer process in selective laser sintering for fabricating tissue engineering scaffolds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Tissue engineering (TE) involves biological, medical and engineering expertise and a current engineering challenge is to provide good TE scaffolds. These highly porous 3D scaffolds primarily serve as temporal holding devices for cells that facilitate structural and functional tissue unit formation of the newly transplanted cells. One method used successfully to produce scaffolds is that of rapid prototyping.

Florencia Edith Wiria; Kah Fai Leong; Chee Kai Chua

2010-01-01

224

Material model measurements and predictions for a random pore poly(epsilon-caprolactone) scaffold.  

PubMed

We investigated material models for a polymeric scaffold used for bone. The material was made by co-extruding poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL), a biodegradable polyester, and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO). The water soluble PEO was removed resulting in a porous scaffold. The stress-strain curve in compression was fit with a phenomenological model in hyperbolic form. This material model will be useful for designers for quasi-static analysis as it provides a simple form that can easily be used in finite element models. The ASTM D-1621 standard recommends using a secant modulus based on 10% strain. The resulting modulus has a smaller scatter in its value compared with the coefficients of the hyperbolic model, and it is therefore easier to compare differences in material processing and ensure quality of the scaffold. A prediction of the small-strain elastic modulus was constructed from images of the microstructure. Each pixel of the micrographs was represented with a brick finite element and assigned the Young's modulus of bulk PCL or a value of 0 for a pore. A compressive strain was imposed on the model and the resulting stresses were calculated. The elastic constants of the scaffold were then computed with Hooke's law for a linear-elastic isotropic material. The model was able to predict the small-strain elastic modulus measured in the experiments to within one standard deviation. Thus, by knowing the microstructure of the scaffold, its bulk properties can be predicted from the material properties of the constituents. PMID:17106897

Quinn, T P; Oreskovic, T L; Landis, F A; Washburn, N R

2007-07-01

225

Meniscal scaffolds.  

PubMed

There are two scaffold products designed for meniscal reconstruction or substitution of partial meniscal defects that are currently available in the Europe: the collagen meniscal implant (CMI; Ivy Sports Medicine, Gräfelfing, Germany) and the polymer scaffold (PS; Actifit, Orteq Bioengineering, London, United Kingdom). The CMI has demonstrated improved clinical outcomes compared with baseline in patients with chronic postmeniscectomy symptoms with follow-up ranging from 5 to more than 10 years. There are also several comparative studies that report improved clinical scores in patients with chronic medial meniscus symptoms treated with CMI versus repeat partial meniscectomy, and a lower reoperation rate. Recently, PS insertion was shown to result in improved clinical outcomes in patients with chronic postmeniscectomy symptoms of the medial or lateral meniscus at short-term follow-up. However, there is currently no medium- or long-term data available for the PS. The use of meniscal scaffolds in the acute setting has not been found to result in improved outcomes in most studies. The authors' surgical indications for meniscal scaffold implantation, preferred surgical technique, and postoperative rehabilitation protocol are described. PMID:25172967

Myers, Kevin R; Sgaglione, Nicholas A; Goodwillie, Andrew D

2014-12-01

226

Synovex Plus implants coated with a polymeric, porous film improve performance of beef steers and heifers fed in confinement for up to 200 days.  

PubMed

Synovex Plus (SP) is a product that delivers 28 mg of estradiol benzoate (EB) and 200 mg of trenbolone acetate (TBA). We studied the impact of a polymeric, porous coating on SP implants (CSP) to prolong release of EB and TBA, and stimulate feedlot performance of feedlot cattle for an extended period. In an explant study, 30 steers were implanted with SP in one ear and CSP in the contralateral ear. Cattle (n = 6/d) were necropsied 40, 81, 120, 160, and 200 d after treatment, and remaining EB and TBA were quantified. Linear regression of EB and TBA remaining as a function of time for each treatment were computed. Rates of EB and TBA depletion from SP were -0.1980 (r(2) = 0.9994) and -1.7073 mg/d (r(2) = 0.9644), respectively, and for CSP rates of EB and TBA depletion were -0.1049 (r(2) = 0.9123) and -0.9466 mg/d (r(2) = 0.9297), respectively. The effect of treatment on depletion rates of each analyte were significant (P < 0.05). Data also showed EB and TBA were delivered from CSP at least 200 d but were delivered from SP about 120 d. Multisite trials with beef-type steers (4 sites) and heifers (4 sites) evaluated feedlot performance and carcass characteristics in response to a CSP implant or when sham implanted (SC). A randomized complete block design with 9 blocks and 2 treatments was used per site within animal gender. Across sites, steers (n = 342, BW = 297 kg) were fed finishing rations for 190 to 202 d (mean 198 d) and heifers (n = 342, BW = 289 kg) were fed finishing rations for 191 to 201 d (mean 198 d). Cattle were harvested and carcasses evaluated. Data were pooled across sites within gender for statistical analysis. Steers and heifers treated with CSP yielded greater (P ? 0.003) ADG, DMI, and G:F than SC steers and heifers. Mean BW differences between CSP and SC continued to increase throughout the study, indicating CSP stimulated growth of steers and heifers for 198 d. Mean carcass weights of CSP steers (P = 0.005) and heifers (P = 0.004) were greater than those of SP steers and heifers by 26.2 and 20.6 kg, respectively. The LM area was larger (P < 0.001) in CSP steers and heifers than SC cattle. Marbling decreased with CSP treatment (P ? 0.031), which caused reductions (P ? 0.006) in proportions of carcasses grading Prime or Choice. Evidence from these studies showed that a single administration of CSP increased feedlot cattle performance for at least 198 d, compared with SC, and may reduce the need to reimplant cattle. PMID:23100600

Cleale, R M; Bechtol, D T; Drouillard, J S; Edmonds, J D; Edmonds, M; Hunsaker, B D; Kraft, L A; Lawrence, T E; Brewbaker, S; Waite, A R

2012-12-01

227

Development of 3D PPF\\/DEF scaffolds using micro-stereolithography and surface modification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poly(propylene fumarate) (PPF) is an ultraviolet-curable and biodegradable polymer with potential applications for bone regeneration.\\u000a In this study, we designed and fabricated three-dimensional (3D) porous scaffolds based on a PPF polymer network using micro-stereolithography\\u000a (MSTL). The 3D scaffold was well fabricated with a highly interconnected porous structure and porosity of 65%. These results\\u000a provide a new scaffold fabrication method for

Phung Xuan Lan; Jin Woo Lee; Young-Joon Seol; Dong-Woo Cho

2009-01-01

228

ECM Inspired Coating of Embroidered 3D Scaffolds Enhances Calvaria Bone Regeneration  

PubMed Central

Resorbable polymeric implants and surface coatings are an emerging technology to treat bone defects and increase bone formation. This approach is of special interest in anatomical regions like the calvaria since adults lose the capacity to heal large calvarial defects. The present study assesses the potential of extracellular matrix inspired, embroidered polycaprolactone-co-lactide (PCL) scaffolds for the treatment of 13?mm full thickness calvarial bone defects in rabbits. Moreover the influence of a collagen/chondroitin sulfate (coll I/cs) coating of PCL scaffolds was evaluated. Defect areas filled with autologous bone and empty defects served as reference. The healing process was monitored over 6 months by combining a novel ultrasonographic method, radiographic imaging, biomechanical testing, and histology. The PCL coll I/cs treated group reached 68% new bone volume compared to the autologous group (100%) and the biomechanical stability of the defect area was similar to that of the gold standard. Histological investigations revealed a significantly more homogenous bone distribution over the whole defect area in the PCL coll I/cs group compared to the noncoated group. The bioactive, coll I/cs coated, highly porous, 3-dimensional PCL scaffold acted as a guide rail for new skull bone formation along and into the implant. PMID:25013767

Rentsch, C.; Rentsch, B.; Heinemann, S.; Bernhardt, R.; Bischoff, B.; Forster, Y.; Scharnweber, D.; Rammelt, S.

2014-01-01

229

ECM inspired coating of embroidered 3D scaffolds enhances calvaria bone regeneration.  

PubMed

Resorbable polymeric implants and surface coatings are an emerging technology to treat bone defects and increase bone formation. This approach is of special interest in anatomical regions like the calvaria since adults lose the capacity to heal large calvarial defects. The present study assesses the potential of extracellular matrix inspired, embroidered polycaprolactone-co-lactide (PCL) scaffolds for the treatment of 13?mm full thickness calvarial bone defects in rabbits. Moreover the influence of a collagen/chondroitin sulfate (coll I/cs) coating of PCL scaffolds was evaluated. Defect areas filled with autologous bone and empty defects served as reference. The healing process was monitored over 6 months by combining a novel ultrasonographic method, radiographic imaging, biomechanical testing, and histology. The PCL coll I/cs treated group reached 68% new bone volume compared to the autologous group (100%) and the biomechanical stability of the defect area was similar to that of the gold standard. Histological investigations revealed a significantly more homogenous bone distribution over the whole defect area in the PCL coll I/cs group compared to the noncoated group. The bioactive, coll I/cs coated, highly porous, 3-dimensional PCL scaffold acted as a guide rail for new skull bone formation along and into the implant. PMID:25013767

Rentsch, C; Rentsch, B; Heinemann, S; Bernhardt, R; Bischoff, B; Förster, Y; Scharnweber, D; Rammelt, S

2014-01-01

230

Annulus fibrosus tissue engineering using lamellar silk scaffolds  

PubMed Central

Degeneration of the intervertebral disc (IVD) represents a significant muscular skeletal disease. Recently, scaffolds composed of synthetic, natural and hybrid biomaterials have been investigated as options to restore the IVD; however, they lack the hallmark lamellar morphological features of annulus fibrosus (AF) tissue. The goal of regenerating disc is to achieve anatomic morphology as well as restoration of mechanical and biological function. In this study, two types of scaffold morphologies formed from silk fibroin were investigated towards the goal of AF tissue restoration. The first design mimics the lamellar features of the IVD that is associated with the AF region. The second is a porous spongy scaffold that serves as a control. Toroidal scaffolds were formed from the lamellar and porous silk material systems to generate structures with an outer diameter of 8 mm, inner diameter of 3.5 mm and a height of 3 mm. The inter-lamellar spacing in the lamellar scaffold was 150~250 ?m and the average pore sizes in the porous scaffolds were 100~250 ?m. The scaffolds were seeded with porcine AF cells and, after growth over defined time frames in vitro, histology, biochemical assays, mechanical testing and gene expression indicated that the lamellar scaffold generated results that were more favorable in terms of ECM expression and tissue function than the porous scaffold for AF tissue. Further, the seeded porcine AF cells supported the native shape of AF tissue in the lamellar silk scaffolds. The lamellar silk scaffolds were effective in the formation of AF-like tissue in vitro. PMID:22311816

Park, Sang-Hyug; Gil, Eun Seok; Mandal, Biman B.; Cho, Hong Sik; Kluge, Jonathan A.; Min, Byoung-Hyun; Kaplan, David L.

2012-01-01

231

Porous Materials Porous Materials  

E-print Network

1 Porous Materials x Porous Materials · Physical properties * Characteristic impedance p = p 0 e -jk xa- = vej[ ] p x - j ; Zc= p ve = c ka 0k = c 1-j #12;2 Porous Materials · Specific acoustic impedance Porous Materials · Finite thickness ­ blocked p e + -jk (x-d)a p e - jk (x-d)a d x #12

Berlin,Technische Universität

232

Engineering Polymeric Scaffolds for Bone Grafts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Orthopedic injuries resulting from trauma or improper development often require surgical intervention to restore natural tissue function. Currently, over one million operations are performed annually for the surgical reconstruction of bone [50]. The well-known limitations associated with autografts, allografts, and bone cements have led to the investigation of synthetic polymers as support matrices for bone tissue engineering. Polymers are long-chain

Martha W. Betz; Diana M. Yoon; John P. Fisher

233

Increased porosity of electrospun hybrid scaffolds improved bladder tissue regeneration.  

PubMed

The object of this study was to investigate the role of scaffold porosity on tissue ingrowth using hybrid scaffolds consisting of bladder acellular matrix and electrospun poly (lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microfibers that mimic the morphological characteristics of the bladder wall in vitro and in vivo. We compared single-spun (SS) PLGA scaffolds with more porous cospun (CS) scaffolds (PLGA and polyethylene glycol). Scaffolds were characterized by scanning electron microscopy. Bladder smooth muscle cells (SMCs) were seeded, and proliferation and histological assays were performed. Sixteen rats were subjected to augmentation cystoplasty with seeded SS or CS scaffolds, morphological, and histological studies were performed 2 and 4 weeks after implantation. The porosities of SS and CS scaffolds were 73.1?±?2.9% and 80.9?±?1.5%, respectively. The in vitro evaluation revealed significantly deeper cell migration into CS scaffolds. The in vivo evaluation showed significant shrinkage of SS scaffolds (p?=?0.019). The histological analysis revealed a bladder wall-like structure with urothelial lining and SMC infiltration in both groups. The microvessel density was significantly increased in the CS scaffolds (p < 0.001). Increasing the porosity of electrospun hybrid scaffolds is an effective strategy to enhance cell proliferation and distribution in vitro and tissue ingrowth in vivo. PMID:23893914

Horst, Maya; Milleret, Vincent; Nötzli, Sarah; Madduri, Srinivas; Sulser, Tullio; Gobet, Rita; Eberli, Daniel

2014-07-01

234

Seamless vascularized large-diameter tubular collagen scaffolds reinforced with polymer knittings for esophageal regenerative medicine.  

PubMed

A clinical demand exists for alternatives to repair the esophagus in case of congenital defects, cancer, or trauma. A seamless biocompatible off-the-shelf large-diameter tubular scaffold, which is accessible for vascularization, could set the stage for regenerative medicine of the esophagus. The use of seamless scaffolds eliminates the error-prone tubularization step, which is necessary when emanating from flat scaffolds. In this study, we developed and characterized three different types of seamless tubular scaffolds, and evaluated in vivo tissue compatibility, including vascularization by omental wrapping. Scaffolds (luminal Ø ? 1.5 cm) were constructed using freezing, lyophilizing, and cross-linking techniques and included (1) single-layered porous collagen scaffold, (2) dual-layered (porous+dense) collagen scaffold, and (3) hybrid scaffold (collagen+incorporated polycaprolacton knitting). The latter had an ultimate tensile strength comparable to a porcine esophagus. To induce rapid vascularization, scaffolds were implanted in the omentum of sheep using a wrapping technique. After 6 weeks of biocompatibility, vascularization, calcification, and hypoxia were evaluated using immunohistochemistry. Scaffolds were biocompatible, and cellular influx and ingrowth of blood vessels were observed throughout the whole scaffold. No calcification was observed, and slight hypoxic conditions were detected only in the direct vicinity of the polymer knitting. It is concluded that seamless large-diameter tubular collagen-based scaffolds can be constructed and vascularized in vivo. Such scaffolds provide novel tools for esophageal reconstruction. PMID:24099067

Hoogenkamp, Henk R; Koens, Martin J W; Geutjes, Paul J; Ainoedhofer, Herwig; Wanten, Geert; Tiemessen, Dorien M; Hilborn, Jöns; Gupta, Bhuvanesh; Feitz, Wouter F J; Daamen, Willeke F; Saxena, Amulya K; Oosterwijk, Egbert; van Kuppevelt, Toin H

2014-05-01

235

Highly porous chemically modified carbon cryogels and their coherent nanocomposites for energy applications  

E-print Network

the pores, porous media for natural gas (methane) storage at reduced pressure, and scaffolds for hydride the pores, porous media for natural gas (m intimately associated with current energy and environmental issues. Modern society is built upon cars

Cao, Guozhong

236

Chitosan scaffolds containing silicon dioxide and zirconia nano particles for bone tissue engineering.  

PubMed

A scaffold harboring the desired features such as biodegradation, biocompatibility, porous structure could serve as template for bone tissue engineering. In the present study, chitosan (CS), nano-scaled silicon dioxide (Si) and zirconia (Zr) were combined by freeze drying technique to fabricate a bio-composite scaffold. The bio-composite scaffold (CS/Si/Zr) was characterized by SEM, XRD and FT-IR studies. The scaffold possessed a porous nature with pore dimensions suitable for cell infiltration and colonization. The presence of zirconia in the CS/Si/Zr scaffold decreased swelling and increased biodegradation, protein adsorption and bio-mineralization properties. The CS/Si/Zr scaffold was also found to be non-toxic to rat osteoprogenitor cells. Thus, we suggest that CS/Si/Zr bio-composite scaffold is a potential candidate to be used for bone tissue engineering. PMID:21968009

Pattnaik, Soumitri; Nethala, Sricharan; Tripathi, Anjali; Saravanan, Sekaran; Moorthi, Ambigapathi; Selvamurugan, Nagarajan

2011-12-01

237

Porosity and Cell Preseeding Influence Electrospun Scaffold Maturation and Meniscus Integration In Vitro  

PubMed Central

Electrospinning generates fibrous scaffolds ideal for engineering soft orthopedic tissues. By modifying the electrospinning process, scaffolds with different structural organization and content can be generated. For example, fibers can be aligned in a single direction, or the porosity of the scaffold can be modified through the use of multi-jet electrospinning and the removal of sacrificial fibers. In this work, we investigated the role of fiber alignment and scaffold porosity on construct maturation and integration within in vitro meniscus defects. Further, we explored the effect of preseeding expanded meniscus fibrochondrocytes (MFCs) onto the scaffold at a high density before in vitro repair. Our results demonstrate that highly porous electropun scaffolds integrate better with a native tissue and mature to a greater extent than low-porosity scaffolds, while scaffold alignment does not influence integration or maturation. The addition of expanded MFCs to scaffolds before in vitro repair improved integration with the native tissue, but did not influence maturation. In contrast, preculture of these same scaffolds for 1 month before repair decreased integration with the native tissue, but resulted in a more mature scaffold compared to implantation of cellular scaffolds or acellular scaffolds. This work will inform scaffold selection in future in vivo studies by identifying the ideal scaffold and seeding methods for meniscus tissue engineering. PMID:22994398

Ionescu, Lara C.

2013-01-01

238

Surface modified electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds for nerve tissue engineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of biodegradable polymeric scaffolds with surface properties that dominate interactions between the material and biological environment is of great interest in biomedical applications. In this regard, poly-?-caprolactone (PCL) nanofibrous scaffolds were fabricated by an electrospinning process and surface modified by a simple plasma treatment process for enhancing the Schwann cell adhesion, proliferation and interactions with nanofibers necessary for nerve tissue formation. The hydrophilicity of surface modified PCL nanofibrous scaffolds (p-PCL) was evaluated by contact angle and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies. Naturally derived polymers such as collagen are frequently used for the fabrication of biocomposite PCL/collagen scaffolds, though the feasibility of procuring large amounts of natural materials for clinical applications remains a concern, along with their cost and mechanical stability. The proliferation of Schwann cells on p-PCL nanofibrous scaffolds showed a 17% increase in cell proliferation compared to those on PCL/collagen nanofibrous scaffolds after 8 days of cell culture. Schwann cells were found to attach and proliferate on surface modified PCL nanofibrous scaffolds expressing bipolar elongations, retaining their normal morphology. The results of our study showed that plasma treated PCL nanofibrous scaffolds are a cost-effective material compared to PCL/collagen scaffolds, and can potentially serve as an ideal tissue engineered scaffold, especially for peripheral nerve regeneration.

Prabhakaran, Molamma P.; Venugopal, J.; Chan, Casey K.; Ramakrishna, S.

2008-11-01

239

Mineralization Potential of Electrospun PDO-Hydroxyapatite-Fibrinogen Blended Scaffolds  

PubMed Central

The current bone autograft procedure for cleft palate repair presents several disadvantages such as limited availability, additional invasive surgery, and donor site morbidity. The present preliminary study evaluates the mineralization potential of electrospun polydioxanone:nano-hydroxyapatite?:?fibrinogen (PDO?:?nHA?:?Fg) blended scaffolds in different simulated body fluids (SBF). Scaffolds were fabricated by blending PDO?:?nHA?:?Fg in the following percent by weight ratios: 100?:?0?:?0, 50?:?25?:?25, 50?:?50?:?0, 50?:?0?:?50, 0?:?0?:?100, and 0?:?50?:?50. Samples were immersed in (conventional (c), revised (r), ionic (i), and modified (m)) SBF for 5 and 14 days to induce mineralization. Scaffolds were characterized before and after mineralization via scanning electron microscopy, Alizarin Red-based assay, and modified burnout test. The addition of Fg resulted in scaffolds with smaller fiber diameters. Fg containing scaffolds also induced sheet-like mineralization while individual fiber mineralization was noticed in its absence. Mineralized electrospun Fg scaffolds without PDO were not mechanically stable after 5 days in SBF, but had superior mineralization capabilities which produced a thick bone-like mineral (BLM) layer throughout the scaffolds. 50?:?50?:?0 scaffolds incubated in either r-SBF for 5 days or c-SBF for 14 days produced scaffolds with high mineral content and individual-mineralized fibers. These mineralized scaffolds were still porous and will be further optimized as an effective bone substitute in future studies. PMID:22956956

Rodriguez, Isaac A.; Madurantakam, Parthasarathy A.; McCool, Jennifer M.; Sell, Scott A.; Yang, Hu; Moon, Peter C.; Bowlin, Gary L.

2012-01-01

240

Soy Protein Scaffold Biomaterials for Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Developing functional biomaterials using highly processable materials with tailorable physical and bioactive properties is an ongoing challenge in tissue engineering. Soy protein is an abundant, natural resource with potential use for regenerative medicine applications. Preliminary studies show that soy protein can be physically modified and fabricated into various biocompatible constructs. However, optimized soy protein structures for tissue regeneration (i.e. 3D porous scaffolds) have not yet been designed. Furthermore, little work has established the in vivo biocompatibility of implanted soy protein and the benefit of using soy over other proteins including FDA-approved bovine collagen. In this work, freeze-drying and 3D printing fabrication processes were developed using commercially available soy protein to create porous scaffolds that improve cell growth and infiltration compared to other soy biomaterials previously reported. Characterization of scaffold structure, porosity, and mechanical/degradation properties was performed. In addition, the behavior of human mesenchymal stem cells seeded on various designed soy scaffolds was analyzed. Biological characterization of the cell-seeded scaffolds was performed to assess feasibility for use in liver tissue regeneration. The acute and humoral response of soy scaffolds implanted in an in vivo mouse subcutaneous model was also investigated. All fabricated soy scaffolds were modified using thermal, chemical, and enzymatic crosslinking to change properties and cell growth behavior. 3D printing allowed for control of scaffold pore size and geometry. Scaffold structure, porosity, and degradation rate significantly altered the in vivo response. Freeze-dried soy scaffolds had similar biocompatibility as freeze-dried collagen scaffolds of the same protein content. However, the soy scaffolds degraded at a much faster rate, minimizing immunogenicity. Interestingly, subcutaneously implanted soy scaffolds affected blood glucose and insulin sensitivity levels. Furthermore, soy scaffolds implanted in the intraperitoneal cavity attached to adjacent liver tissue with no abnormalities. In vitro, soy scaffolds supported hMSC viability and transdifferentiation into hepatocyte-like cells. These results support the use of soy scaffolds for liver tissue engineering and for treating metabolic diseases. Based on achievable structural and mechanical properties, as well as systemic effects of ingested and degraded soy proteins, soy protein scaffolds may serve as new multifunctional biomaterials for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.

Chien, Karen B.

241

Maintaining cell depth viability: on the efficacy of a trimodal scaffold pore architecture and dynamic rotational culturing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tissue-engineering scaffold-based strategies have suffered from limited cell depth viability when cultured in vitro with viable\\u000a cells typically existing at the fluid-scaffold interface. This is primarily believed to be due to the lack of nutrient delivery\\u000a into and waste removal from the inner regions of the scaffold construct. This work focused on the assessment of a hydroxyapatite\\u000a multi-domain porous scaffold

Conor Timothy Buckley; Kevin Unai O’Kelly

2010-01-01

242

Gelatin-PMVE/MA composite scaffold promotes expansion of embryonic stem cells.  

PubMed

We introduce a new composite scaffold of gelatin and polymethyl vinyl ether-alt-maleic anhydride (PMVE/MA) for expansion of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) in an in vitro environment. To optimize the scaffold, we prepared a gelatin scaffold (G) and three composite scaffolds namely GP-1, GP-2, and GP-3 with varying PMVE/MA concentrations (0.2-1%) and characterized them by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), swelling study, compression testing and FTIR. SEM micrographs revealed interconnected porous structure in all the scaffolds. The permissible hemolysis ratio and activation of platelets by scaffolds confirmed the hemocompatibility of scaffolds. Initial biocompatibility assessment of scaffolds was conducted using hepatocarcinoma (Hep G2) cells and adhesion, proliferation and infiltration of Hep G2 cells in depth of scaffolds were observed, proving the scaffold's biocompatibility. Further Oct4B2 mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs), which harbor a green fluorescence protein transgene under regulatory control of the Oct4 promotor, were examined for expansion on scaffolds with MTT assay. The GP-2 scaffold demonstrated the best cell proliferation and was further explored for ESC adherence and infiltration in depth (SEM and confocal), and pluripotent state of mESCs was assessed with the expression of Oct4-GFP and stage-specific embryonic antigen-1 (SSEA-1). This study reports the first demonstration of biocompatibility of gelatin-PMVE/MA composite scaffold and presents this scaffold as a promising candidate for embryonic stem cell based tissue engineering. PMID:24582239

Chhabra, Hemlata; Gupta, Priyanka; Verma, Paul J; Jadhav, Sameer; Bellare, Jayesh R

2014-04-01

243

Hemocompatible surface of electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds by ATRP modification.  

PubMed

The electrospun scaffolds are potential application in vascular tissue engineering since they can mimic the nano-sized dimension of natural extracellular matrix (ECM). We prepared a fibrous scaffold from polycarbonateurethane (PCU) by electrospinning technology. In order to improve the hydrophilicity and hemocompatibility of the fibrous scaffold, poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate (PEGMA) was grafted onto the fiber surface by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP) method. Although SI-ATRP has been developed and used for surface modification for many years, there are only few studies about the modification of electrospun fiber by this method. The modified fibrous scaffolds were characterized by SEM, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The scaffold morphology showed no significant difference when PEGMA was grafted onto the scaffold surface. Based on the water contact angle measurement, the surface hydrophilicity of the scaffold surface was improved significantly after grafting hydrophilic PEGMA (P=0.0012). The modified surface showed effective resistance for platelet adhesion compared with the unmodified surface. Activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) of the PCU-g-PEGMA scaffold was much longer than that of the unmodified PCU scaffold. The cyto-compatibility of electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds was tested by human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The images of 7-day cultured cells on the scaffold surface were observed by SEM. The modified scaffolds showed high tendency to induce cell adhesion. Moreover, the cells reached out pseudopodia along the fibrous direction and formed a continuous monolayer. Hemolysis test showed that the grafted chains of PEGMA reduced blood coagulation. These results indicated that the modified electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds were potential application as artificial blood vessels. PMID:23910260

Yuan, Wenjie; Feng, Yakai; Wang, Heyun; Yang, Dazhi; An, Bo; Zhang, Wencheng; Khan, Musammir; Guo, Jintang

2013-10-01

244

Surface modification of polycaprolactone scaffolds fabricated via selective laser sintering for cartilage tissue engineering.  

PubMed

Surface modified porous polycaprolactone scaffolds fabricated via rapid prototyping techniques were evaluated for cartilage tissue engineering purposes. Polycaprolactone scaffolds manufactured by selective laser sintering (SLS) were surface modified through immersion coating with either gelatin or collagen. Three groups of scaffolds were created and compared for both mechanical and biological properties. Surface modification with collagen or gelatin improved the hydrophilicity, water uptake and mechanical strength of the pristine scaffold. From microscopic observations and biochemical analysis, collagen-modified scaffold was the best for cartilage tissue engineering in terms of cell proliferation and extracellular matrix production. Chondrocytes/collagen-modified scaffold constructs were implanted subdermally in the dorsal spaces of female nude mice. Histological and immunohistochemical staining of the retrieved implants after 8 weeks revealed enhanced cartilage tissue formation. We conclude that collagen surface modification through immersion coating on SLS-manufactured scaffolds is a feasible scaffold for cartilage tissue engineering in craniofacial reconstruction. PMID:24857507

Chen, Chih-Hao; Lee, Ming-Yih; Shyu, Victor Bong-Hang; Chen, Yi-Chieh; Chen, Chien-Tzung; Chen, Jyh-Ping

2014-07-01

245

Composite scaffolds of mesoporous bioactive glass and polyamide for bone repair  

PubMed Central

A bone-implanted porous scaffold of mesoporous bioglass/polyamide composite (m-BPC) was fabricated, and its biological properties were investigated. The results indicate that the m-BPC scaffold contained open and interconnected macropores ranging 400–500 ?m, and exhibited a porosity of 76%. The attachment ratio of MG-63 cells on m-BPC was higher than polyamide scaffolds at 4 hours, and the cells with normal phenotype extended well when cultured with m-BPC and polyamide scaffolds. When the m-BPC scaffolds were implanted into bone defects of rabbit thighbone, histological evaluation confirmed that the m-BPC scaffolds exhibited excellent biocompatibility and osteoconductivity, and more effective osteogenesis than the polyamide scaffolds in vivo. The results indicate that the m-BPC scaffolds improved the efficiency of new bone regeneration and, thus, have clinical potential for bone repair. PMID:22679367

Su, Jiacan; Cao, Liehu; Yu, Baoqing; Song, Shaojun; Liu, Xinwei; Wang, Zhiwei; Li, Ming

2012-01-01

246

The morphology of anisotropic 3D-printed hydroxyapatite scaffolds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds with tailored pores ranging from the nanometer to millimeter scale can support the reconstruction of centimeter-sized osseous defects. Three-dimensional-printing processes permit the voxel-wise fabrication of scaffolds. The present study rests upon 3D-printing with nano-porous hydroxyapatite granulates. The cylindrical design refers to a hollow bone with higher density at the periphery. The millimeter-wide central channel follows the symmetry

Fabienne C. Fierz; Felix Beckmann; Marius Huser; Stephan H. Irsen; Barbara Leukers; Frank Witte; Özer Degistirici; Adrian Andronache; Michael Thie; Bert Müller

2008-01-01

247

3-D scaffolds a new tool to fight cancer  

Cancer.gov

Porous polymer scaffolds fabricated to support the growth of biological tissue for implantation may hold the potential to greatly accelerate the development of cancer therapeutics. Researchers at Rice University, the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center in Houston, and Mount Sinai Medical Center in New York reported this week that three-dimensional scaffolds used to culture Ewing’s sarcoma cells were effective at mimicking the environment in which such tumors develop.

248

The Role of EPS in Microhydrology and Transport Processes Affecting Microbial Activity in Unsaturated Porous Media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extra-cellular Polymeric Substances (EPS) refers to biopolymers excreted and surrounding soil bacterial cells (and other biota) forming the scaffolding for colonies and serving a wide array of transport, nutrient entrapment, and mechanical functions. In essence, EPS is a porous matrix through which aqueous, gaseous and nutrient fluxes flow to supply the embedded bacterial cells. The large water holding capacity and retarded water loss rates of EPS dampens rapid fluctuations in hydration status of host porous medium which sustain higher diffusion fluxes than in surrounding porous medium, and shelters microbial cells from effect of rapid desiccation or rewetting. The morphology of EPS changes from an open well-hydrated bioweb to dense and highly cross-linked structure under dry conditions. Such morphological changes are accompanied by enhanced mechanical strength and retardation of water loss that provide additional time for physiological adaptation to desiccation. Additional capacitance results from the disparity in dynamic hydrological properties between EPS and soil that promotes water entrapment in EPS during rapid drainage. EPS may also trap dissolved nutrients that may be unevenly distributed and irregularly supplied in unsaturated environments, thereby increasing nutrient availability in the microhabitat and offsetting decreased supply by diffusion during drying. The remarkable transport and mechanical properties of EPS makes it an important stabilizing agent for soil aggregation and even minute amounts of EPS may significantly alter macroscopic hydrological properties of host porous medium.

Or, D.; Phutane, S.

2005-12-01

249

Neural stem cell differentiation in collagen scaffolds for retinal tissue engineering  

E-print Network

Rat neural stem cells (NSCs) were cultured in monolayer or in porous collagen scaffolds and exposed to neurogenic or non-neurogenic medium to determine the effects on neural differentiation and neurite growth. Nestin, ...

Ueda, Erica (Erica Ann)

2008-01-01

250

Human endothelial cell growth on mussel-inspired nanofiber scaffold for vascular tissue engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

The endothelialization of prosthetic scaffolds is considered to be an effective strategy to improve the effectiveness of small-diameter vascular grafts. We report the development of a nanofibrous scaffold that has a polymeric core and a shell mimicking mussel adhesive for enhanced attachment, proliferation, and phenotypic maintenance of human endothelial cells. Polycaprolactone (PCL) was chosen as a core material because of

Sook Hee Ku; Chan Beum Park

2010-01-01

251

Fused deposition modeling of novel scaffold architectures for tissue engineering applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fused deposition modeling, a rapid prototyping technology, was used to produce novel scaffolds with honeycomb-like pattern, fully interconnected channel network, and controllable porosity and channel size. A bioresorbable polymer poly(e-caprolactone) (PCL) was developed as a filament modeling material to produce porous scaffolds, made of layers of directionally aligned microfilaments, using this computer-controlled extrusion and deposition process. The PCL scaffolds were

Iwan Zeina; Dietmar W. Hutmacher; Kim Cheng Tan; Swee Hin Teoh

252

A novel bioactive three-dimensional ?-tricalcium phosphate\\/chitosan scaffold for periodontal tissue engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of suitable bioactive three-dimensional scaffold for the promotion of cellular proliferation and differentiation\\u000a is critical in periodontal tissue engineering. In this study,porous ?-tricalcium phosphate\\/chitosan composite scaffolds were\\u000a prepared through a freeze-drying method. These scaffolds were evaluated by analysis of microscopic structure, porosity, and\\u000a cytocompatibility. The gene expression of bone sialoprotein (BSP) and cementum attachment protein (CAP) was detected

Feng LiaoYangyang ChenZubing Li; Yangyang Chen; Zubing Li; Yining Wang; Bin Shi; Zhongcheng Gong; Xiangrong Cheng

2010-01-01

253

Scaffold development using 3D printing with a starch-based polymer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapid prototyping (RP) techniques have been utilised by tissue engineers to produce three-dimensional (3D) porous scaffolds. RP technologies allow the design and fabrication of complex scaffold geometries with a fully interconnected pore network. Three-dimensional printing (3DP) technique was used to fabricate scaffolds with a novel micro- and macro-architecture. In this study, a unique blend of starch-based polymer powders (cornstarch, dextran

C. X. F Lam; X. M Mo; S. H Teoh; D. W Hutmacher

2002-01-01

254

Structural evaluation of scaffolds prototypes produced by three-dimensional printing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fabrication of porous scaffolds with complex architectures represents a challenge in tissue engineering. Recent studies\\u000a have shown that it is possible to construct tissue-engineered bone repair scaffolds with tight pore size distributions and\\u000a controlled geometries using 3D printing techniques. In this context, this work aims to evaluate the 3D printing process in\\u000a order to study its potential for scaffold

Miguel Castilho; Ines Pires; Barbara Gouveia; Jorge Rodrigues

255

Manufacture of layered collagen/chitosan-polycaprolactone scaffolds with biomimetic microarchitecture.  

PubMed

Chitosan-polycaprolactone (CH-PCL) copolymers with various PCL percentages less than 45 wt% were synthesized. Different CH-PCLs were respectively blended with Type-II collagen at prescribed ratios to fabricate a type of layered porous scaffolds with some biomimetic features while using sodium tripolyphosphate as a crosslinker. The compositions of different layers inside scaffolds were designed in a way so that from the top layer to the bottom layer collagen content changed in a degressive trend contrary to that of chitosan. A combinatorial processing technique involving adjustable temperature gradients, collimated photothermal heating and freeze-drying was used to construct desired microstructures of scaffolds. The resultant scaffolds had highly interconnected porous layers with a layer thickness of around 1mm and porous interface zones without visual clefts. Results obtained from SEM observations and measurements of pore parameters and swelling properties as well as mechanical examinations confirmed that graded average pore-size and porosity, gradient swelling index and oriented compressive modulus for certain scaffolds were synchronously achieved. In addition, certain evaluations of cell-scaffold constructs indicated that the achieved scaffolds were able to well support the growth of seeded chondrocytes. The optimized collagen/CH-PCL scaffolds are partially similar to articular cartilage extracellular matrix in composition, porous microarchitecture, water content and compressive mechanical properties, suggesting that they have promising potential for applications in articular cartilage repair. PMID:24121078

Zhu, Youjia; Wan, Ying; Zhang, Jun; Yin, Dengke; Cheng, Wenze

2014-01-01

256

Synthesis of functional hybrid silica scaffolds with controllable hierarchical porosity by dynamic templating.  

PubMed

We report a facile one-pot synthesis of hierarchically porous scaffolds, with independent control over nanoparticle mesoporosity and scaffold macroporosity. Our technique combines the chemistry of mesoporous silica nanoparticles with the control afforded by dynamic templating of surfactant mesophases. These materials are readily functionalizable and allow controllable spatial variation in macroporosity. PMID:22466999

Ganai, Anal Kr; Kumari, Sushma; Sharma, Kamendra P; Panda, Chakadola; Kumaraswamy, Guruswamy; Gupta, Sayam Sen

2012-05-28

257

Electrospun polyurethane scaffolds for proliferation and neuronal differentiation of human embryonic stem cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adult central nervous system (CNS) tissue has a limited capacity to recover after trauma or disease. Hence, tissue engineering scaffolds intended for CNS repair and rehabilitation have been subject to intense research effort. Electrospun porous scaffolds, mimicking the natural three-dimensional environment of the in vivo extracellular matrix (ECM) and providing physical support, have been identified as promising candidates for CNS

Björn Carlberg; Mathilda Zetterström Axell; Ulf Nannmark; Johan Liu; H. Georg Kuhn

2009-01-01

258

Computational design of drainage systems for vascularized scaffolds James G. Truslow, Gavrielle M. Price, Joe Tien*  

E-print Network

Computational design of drainage systems for vascularized scaffolds James G. Truslow, Gavrielle M Available online 29 May 2009 Keywords: Microvascular tissue engineering Drainage Collapse Scaffold Perfusion Computational model a b s t r a c t This computational study analyzes how to design a drainage system for porous

Tien, Joe

259

Integrated system for 3D assembly of bio-scaffolds and cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tissue engineering is a rapidly growing field with the aim of developing replacement tissues and organs for patients. An important aspect to the success of regenerated tissue is in the seeding of cells into structured porous scaffolds. This paper reports on an integrated system that is capable of printing bio-scaffold structures and automating the process of cell seeding. The two

Michael Lang; Wenhui Wang; XiaoQi Chen; Tim Woodfield

2010-01-01

260

Osteoblast attachment to hydroxyapatite micro-tube scaffolds.  

PubMed

Tissue engineering offers a novel route for repairing damaged or diseased tissue by incorporating the patient's own healthy cells or donated cells into temporary scaffolds that act as a matrix for cell cultivation. Tissue scaffolds that are biocompatible and are porous with interconnected porous channels for cell ingrowth with a suitable degradation rate would be advantageous. In this study hydroxyapatite micro-tubes produced using the biomimetic coating technique will be pressed into a tissue scaffold. A compaction and sintering study will be done to observe appropriate pressure and heat treatment to produce a mechanically stable scaffold material. The ideal pressure was found to be 2.5 MPa where the tube-like structure was maintained, high porosity was achieved and suitable strength was possible. Sintering between 1,000 and 1,100 °C was found to produce good results. The average porosity for the chosen pressure of 2.5 MPa was 68%. The scaffold was observed with SEM, micro tomography (micro-CT), chemical analysis and degradation testing. Porous channels were established using micro-CT where the porous channels were roughly 100 µm. Chemical analysis showed constant release of calcium and phosphorous, and far below toxic levels of heavy metals from the die. Degradation testing showed high degradation compared to tested commercially available materials. Cell culturing was done on the scaffold to characterise the biological performance of the scaffolds. Cell culturing was done in a 7 and 24 day cell culture to examine cell morphology and cell ingrowth. The results showed cell ingrowth into a micro-tube and cell orientation in a longitudinal direction. SEM, confocal microscopy and histology were employed as characterisation tools for observing cell ingrowth. PMID:24728743

Kolos, E C; Ruys, A J

2014-07-01

261

Bioinspired porous membranes containing polymer nanoparticles for wound healing.  

PubMed

Skin damages covering a surface larger than 4 cm(2) require a regenerative strategy based on the use of appropriate wound dressing supports to facilitate the rapid tissue replacement and efficient self-healing of the lost or damaged tissue. In the present work, A novel biomimetic approach is proposed for the design of a therapeutic porous construct made of poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) fabricated by thermally induced phase separation (TIPS). Biomimicry of ECM was achieved by immobilization of type I collagen through a two-step plasma treatment for wound healing. Anti-inflammatory (indomethacin)-containing polymeric nanoparticles (nps) were loaded within the porous membranes in order to minimize undesired cell response caused by post-operative inflammation. The biological response to the scaffold was analyzed by using human keratinocytes cell cultures. In this work, a promising biomimetic construct for wound healing and soft tissue regeneration with drug-release properties was fabricated since it shows (i) proper porosity, pore size, and mechanical properties, (ii) biomimicry of ECM, and (iii) therapeutic potential. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 102A: 4394-4405, 2014. PMID:24522948

Ferreira, Ana M; Mattu, Clara; Ranzato, Elia; Ciardelli, Gianluca

2014-12-01

262

Photochemical Disinfection of Escherichia coli in the Presence of Natural Aquatic Sensitizers: Influence of Solution Chemistry and Extracellular Polymeric Substances  

E-print Network

coli transport in porous media: Influence of cell strain,Influence of extracellular polymeric substances on Pseudomonas aeruginosa transport and deposition profiles in porous media.Influence of extracellular polymeric substances on Pseudomonas aeruginosa transport and deposition profiles in porous media.

Gong, Amy Shin Hwei

2011-01-01

263

Improved cell activity on biodegradable photopolymer scaffolds using titanate nanotube coatings.  

PubMed

The development of bioactive materials is in the premise of tissue engineering. For several years, surface functionalization of scaffolds has been one of the most promising approaches to stimulate cellular activity and finally improve implant success. Herein, we describe the development of a bioactive composite scaffold composed of a biodegradable photopolymer scaffold and titanate nanotubes (TNTs). The biodegradable photopolymer scaffolds were fabricated by applying mask-projection excimer laser photocuring at 308nm. TNTs were synthesized and then spin-coated on the porous scaffolds. Upon culturing fibroblast cells on scaffolds, we found that nanotubes coating affects cell viability and proliferation demonstrating that TNT coatings enhance cell growth on the scaffolds by further improving their surface topography. PMID:25280677

Beke, S; Barenghi, R; Farkas, B; Romano, I; K?rösi, L; Scaglione, S; Brandi, F

2014-11-01

264

Equine articular chondrocytes on MACT scaffolds for cartilage defect treatment.  

PubMed

Treatment of cartilage defects poses challenging problems in human and veterinary medicine, especially in horses. This study examines the suitability of applying scaffold materials similar to those used for human cartilage regeneration on equine chondrocytes. Chondrocytes gained from biopsies of the talocrural joint of three horses were propagated in 2D culture and grown on two different scaffold materials, hyaluronan (HYAFF®) and collagen (BioGide®), and evaluated by light and electron microscopy. The equine chondrocytes developed well in both types of materials. They were vital and physiologically highly active. On the surface of the scaffolds, they formed cell multilayers. Inside the hyaluronan web, the chondrocytes were regularly distributed and spanned the large scaffold fibre distances by producing their own matrix sheath. Half-circle-like depressions occasionally found in the cell membrane were probably related to movement on the flexible matrix sheath. Inside the dense collagen scaffold, only single cells were found. They passed through the scaffold strands by cell shape adaptation. This study showed that the examined scaffold materials can be used for equine chondrocyte cultivation. Chondrocytes tend to form multilayers on the surface of both, very dense and very porous scaffolds, and have strategies to span between and move in large gaps. PMID:23323689

Nürnberger, S; Meyer, C; Ponomarev, I; Barnewitz, D; Resinger, C; Klepal, W; Albrecht, C; Marlovits, S

2013-10-01

265

Delivery of VEGF using collagen-coated polycaprolactone scaffolds stimulates angiogenesis.  

PubMed

Establishing sufficient vascularization in scaffold remains a challenge for tissue-engineering. To improve angiogenesis, we incorporated vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in collagen-coating over the porous polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffolds. The release kinetics of loaded VEGF from collagen-coated PCL (col-PCL) scaffolds was same as from scaffolds without the collagen. The bioactivity of VEGF delivered by the col-PCL scaffolds was confirmed by human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) proliferation and chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay. The col-PCL scaffolds were implanted subcutaneously in mice for 7 and 14 days. At day 7, vascularization within scaffolds loaded with VEGF was superior to that in the scaffolds without VEGF. However, the vessel connectivity to host circulatory system was incomplete and restricted to the scaffold edges. At day 14, blood vessels in scaffolds reached density similar to the subcutaneous tissue and were perfusable throughout the implant thickness. Prewashing the scaffolds with saline to remove the unbound growth factor decreased the initial burst release and sustained the VEGF-mediated angiogenesis in vivo. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that physically adsorbed VEGF stimulated angiogenesis in collagen-coated PCL scaffolds. PMID:22213643

Singh, Shivani; Wu, Benjamin M; Dunn, James C Y

2012-03-01

266

Cell Population Kinetics of Collagen Scaffolds in Ex Vivo Oral Wound Repair  

PubMed Central

Biodegradable collagen scaffolds are used clinically for oral soft tissue augmentation to support wound healing. This study sought to provide a novel ex vivo model for analyzing healing kinetics and gene expression of primary human gingival fibroblasts (hGF) within collagen scaffolds. Sponge type and gel type scaffolds with and without platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF) were assessed in an hGF containing matrix. Morphology was evaluated with scanning electron microscopy, and hGF metabolic activity using MTT. We quantitated the population kinetics within the scaffolds based on cell density and distance from the scaffold border of DiI-labled hGFs over a two-week observation period. Gene expression was evaluated with gene array and qPCR. The sponge type scaffolds showed a porous morphology. Absolute cell number and distance was higher in sponge type scaffolds when compared to gel type scaffolds, in particular during the first week of observation. PDGF incorporated scaffolds increased cell numbers, distance, and formazan formation in the MTT assay. Gene expression dynamics revealed the induction of key genes associated with the generation of oral tissue. DKK1, CYR61, CTGF, TGFBR1 levels were increased and integrin ITGA2 levels were decreased in the sponge type scaffolds compared to the gel type scaffold. The results suggest that this novel model of oral wound healing provides insights into population kinetics and gene expression dynamics of biodegradable scaffolds. PMID:25397671

Agis, Hermann; Collins, Amy; Taut, Andrei D.; Jin, Qiming; Kruger, Laura; Görlach, Christoph; Giannobile, William V.

2014-01-01

267

Biomimetic hybrid scaffolds for engineering human tooth-ligament interfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major clinical challenge in the reconstruction of large oral and craniofacial defects is the neogenesis of osseous and ligamentous interfacial structures. Currently, oral regenerative medicine strategies are unpredictable for repair of tooth-supporting tissues destroyed as a consequence of trauma, chronic infection or surgical resection. Here, we demonstrate multi-scale computational design and fabrication of composite hybrid polymeric scaffolds for targeted

Chan Ho Park; Hector F. Rios; Qiming Jin; Megan E. Bland; Colleen L. Flanagan; Scott J. Hollister; William V. Giannobile

2010-01-01

268

Multimodal ultrasound-photoacoustic imaging of tissue engineering scaffolds and blood oxygen saturation in and around the scaffolds.  

PubMed

Preclinical, noninvasive imaging of tissue engineering polymeric scaffold structure and/or the physiological processes such as blood oxygenation remains a challenge. In vitro or ex vivo, the widely used scaffold characterization modalities such as porosimetry, electron or optical microscopy, and X-ray microcomputed tomography have limitations or disadvantages-some are invasive or destructive, others have limited tissue penetration (few hundred micrometers) and/or show poor contrast under physiological conditions. Postmortem histological analysis, the most robust technique for the evaluation of neovascularization is obviously not appropriate for acquiring physiological or longitudinal data. In this study, we have explored the potential of ultrasound (US)-coregistered photoacoustic (PA) imaging as a noninvasive multimodal imaging modality to overcome some of the above challenges and/or provide complementary information. US-PA imaging was employed to characterize poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) polymer scaffolds or single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT)-incorporated PLGA (SWCNT-PLGA) polymer scaffolds as well as blood oxygen saturation within and around the scaffolds. Ex vivo, PLGA and SWCNT-PLGA scaffolds were placed at 0.5, 2, and 6 mm depths in chicken breast tissues. PLGA scaffolds could be localized with US imaging, but generate no PA signal (excitation wavelengths 680 and 780 nm). SWCNT-PLGA scaffolds generated strong PA signals at both wavelengths due to the presence of the SWCNTs and could be localized with both US and PA imaging depths between 0.5-6 mm (lateral resolution = 90 ?m, axial resolution = 40 ?m). In vivo, PLGA and SWCNT-PLGA scaffolds were implanted in subcutaneous pockets at 2 mm depth in rats, and imaged at 7 and 14 days postsurgery. The anatomical position of both the scaffolds could be determined from the US images. Only SWCNT-PLGA scaffolds could be easily detected in the US-PA images. SWCNT-PLGA scaffolds had significant four times higher PA signal intensity compared with the surrounding tissue and PLGA scaffolds. In vivo blood oxygen saturation maps around and within the PLGA scaffolds could be obtained by PA imaging. There was no significant difference in oxygen saturation for the PLGA scaffolds at the two time points. The blood oxygen saturation maps complemented the histological analysis of neovascularization of the PLGA scaffolds. PMID:24107069

Talukdar, Yahfi; Avti, Pramod; Sun, John; Sitharaman, Balaji

2014-05-01

269

Bio-mimetic hollow scaffolds for long bone replacement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The tissue engineering focuses on synthesis or regeneration of tissues and organs. The hierarchical structure of nearly all porous scaffolds on the macro, micro- and nanometer scales resembles that of engineering foams dedicated for technical applications, but differ from the complex architecture of long bone. A major obstacle of scaffold architecture in tissue regeneration is the limited cell infiltration as the result of the engineering approaches. The biological cells seeded on the three-dimensional constructs are finally only located on the scaffold's periphery. This paper reports on the successful realization of calcium phosphate scaffolds with an anatomical architecture similar to long bones. Two base materials, namely nano-porous spray-dried hydroxyapatite hollow spheres and tri-calcium phosphate powder, were used to manufacture cylindrically shaped, 3D-printed scaffolds with micro-passages and one central macro-canal following the general architecture of long bones. The macro-canal is built for the surgical placement of nerves or larger blood vessels. The micro-passages allow for cell migration and capillary formation through the entire scaffold. Finally, the nanoporosity is essential for the molecule transport crucial for signaling, any cell nutrition and waste removal.

Müller, Bert; Deyhle, Hans; Fierz, Fabienne C.; Irsen, Stephan H.; Yoon, Jin Y.; Mushkolaj, Shpend; Boss, Oliver; Vorndran, Elke; Gburek, Uwe; Degistirici, Özer; Thie, Michael; Leukers, Barbara; Beckmann, Felix; Witte, Frank

2009-08-01

270

Two Photon Polymerization of Ormosils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, 3D structures of hybrid polymers—ORMOSILS (organically modified silicates) were produced via Two Photon Polymerization (2PP) of hybrid methacrylates based on silane derivates. Synthetic routes have been used to obtain series of hybrid monomers, their structure and purity being checked by NMR Spectroscopy and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. Two photon polymerization method (a relatively new technology which allows fast micro and nano processing of three-dimensional structures with application in medical devices, tissue scaffolds, photonic crystals etc) was used for monomers processing. As laser a Ti: Sapphire laser was used, with 200 fs pulse duration and 2 kHz repetition rate, emitting at 775 nm. A parametric study on the influence of the processing parameters (laser fluence, laser scanning velocity, photo initiator) on the written structures was carried out. The as prepared polymeric scaffolds were tested in mesenchymal stem cells and fibroblasts cell cultures, with the aim of further obtaining bone and dermal grafts. Cells morphology, proliferation, adhesion and alignment were analyzed for different experimental conditions.

Matei, A.; Zamfirescu, M.; Jipa, F.; Luculescu, C.; Dinescu, M.; Buruiana, E. C.; Buruiana, T.; Sima, L. E.; Petrescu, S. M.

2010-10-01

271

Enhancement of neurite outgrowth in neuron cancer stem cells by growth on 3-D collagen scaffolds  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Neuron cancer stem cells (NCSCs) behave high multiply of growth on collagen scaffold. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Enhancement of NCSCs neurite outgrowth on porous collagen scaffold. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 3-D collagen culture of NCSCs shows an advance differentiation than 2-D culture. -- Abstract: Collagen is one component of the extracellular matrix that has been widely used for constructive remodeling to facilitate cell growth and differentiation. The 3-D distribution and growth of cells within the porous scaffold suggest a clinical significance for nerve tissue engineering. In the current study, we investigated proliferation and differentiation of neuron cancer stem cells (NCSCs) on a 3-D porous collagen scaffold that mimics the natural extracellular matrix. We first generated green fluorescence protein (GFP) expressing NCSCs using a lentiviral system to instantly monitor the transitions of morphological changes during growth on the 3-D scaffold. We found that proliferation of GFP-NCSCs increased, and a single cell mass rapidly grew with unrestricted expansion between days 3 and 9 in culture. Moreover, immunostaining with neuronal nuclei (NeuN) revealed that NCSCs grown on the 3-D collagen scaffold significantly enhanced neurite outgrowth. Our findings confirmed that the 80 {mu}m porous collagen scaffold could enhance attachment, viability and differentiation of the cancer neural stem cells. This result could provide a new application for nerve tissue engineering and nerve regeneration.

Chen, Chih-Hao [Department of Electrical Engineering, I-Shou University, Taiwan, ROC (China) [Department of Electrical Engineering, I-Shou University, Taiwan, ROC (China); Neurosurgery, Department of Surgery, Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Taiwan, ROC (China); Department of Biomedical Engineering, I-Shou University, Taiwan, ROC (China); Kuo, Shyh Ming [Department of Biomedical Engineering, I-Shou University, Taiwan, ROC (China)] [Department of Biomedical Engineering, I-Shou University, Taiwan, ROC (China); Liu, Guei-Sheung [Centre for Eye Research Australia, University of Melbourne (Australia)] [Centre for Eye Research Australia, University of Melbourne (Australia); Chen, Wan-Nan U. [Department of Biological Science and Technology, I-Shou University, Taiwan, ROC (China)] [Department of Biological Science and Technology, I-Shou University, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chuang, Chin-Wen [Department of Electrical Engineering, I-Shou University, Taiwan, ROC (China)] [Department of Electrical Engineering, I-Shou University, Taiwan, ROC (China); Liu, Li-Feng, E-mail: liulf@isu.edu.tw [Department of Biological Science and Technology, I-Shou University, Taiwan, ROC (China)] [Department of Biological Science and Technology, I-Shou University, Taiwan, ROC (China)

2012-11-09

272

Fabrication and characterization of hydrophilic poly(lactic- co-glycolic acid)\\/poly(vinyl alcohol) blend cell scaffolds by melt-molding particulate-leaching method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Porous PLGA\\/PVA scaffolds were fabricated by blending poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) to improve the hydrophilicity and cell compatibility of the scaffolds for tissue engineering applications. PLGA\\/PVA blend scaffolds with different PVA compositions up to 20wt% were fabricated by a melt-molding particulate-leaching method (non-solvent method). The prepared scaffolds were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), mercury intrusion porosimetry,

Se Heang Oh; Soung Gon Kang; Eun Seok Kim; Sang Ho Cho; Jin Ho Lee

2003-01-01

273

Polymeric nitrogen  

SciTech Connect

The equilibrium phase boundary between single-bonded, threefold-coordinated polymeric forms of nitrogen, and the observed, triple-bonded diatomic phases, is predicted to occur at relatively low (50[plus minus]15 GPa) pressure. This conclusion is based on extensive local-density-functional total-energy calculations for polymeric structures (including that of black phosphorus, and another with all [ital gauche] dihedral angles) and diatomic structures (including that of the observed high-pressure [var epsilon]-N[sub 2] phase). We believe the diatomic phase of nitrogen, observed up to 180 GPa and room temperature, to be metastable at these conditions, and that such hysteresis enhances the prospects for the existence of a metastable polymeric form of nitrogen at ambient conditions. In this regard, we show that the black-phosphorus and cubic [ital gauche] polymeric forms of nitrogen would encounter significant barriers along high-symmetry paths to dimerization at atmospheric pressure.

Mailhiot, C.; Yang, L.H.; McMahan, A.K. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, University of California, Livermore, California 94551 (United States))

1992-12-01

274

Micropatterning electrospun scaffolds to create intrinsic vascular networks.  

PubMed

Sufficient vascularization is critical to sustaining viable tissue-engineered (TE) constructs after implantation. Despite significant progress, current approaches lack suturability, porosity, and biodegradability, which hinders rapid perfusion and remodeling in vivo. Consequently, TE vascular networks capable of direct anastomosis to host vasculature and immediate perfusion upon implantation still remain elusive. Here, a hybrid fabrication method is presented for micropatterning fibrous scaffolds that are suturable, porous, and biodegradable. Fused deposition modeling offers an inexpensive and automated approach to creating sacrificial templates with vascular-like branching. By electrospinning around these poly(vinyl alcohol) templates and dissolving them in water, microvascular patterns were transferred to fibrous scaffolds. Results indicated that these scaffolds have sufficient suture retention strength to permit direct anastomosis in future studies. Vascularization of these scaffolds is demonstrated by in vitro endothelialization and perfusion. PMID:25142314

Jeffries, Eric M; Nakamura, Shintaro; Lee, Kee-Won; Clampffer, Jimmy; Ijima, Hiroyuki; Wang, Yadong

2014-11-01

275

Tailoring the porosity and morphology of gelatin-methacrylate polyHIPE scaffolds for tissue engineering applications.  

PubMed

Gelatin is a natural protein with many desirable properties for application as a biomaterial, including scaffolding for tissue engineering. In this work gelatin A with a molecular weight in the range 50-100 kg mol-1 was modified with methacrylic anhydride and processed into a concentrated oil-in-water emulsion. Polymerization of the continuous phase gave rise to a polyHIPE, a porous material possessing a highly interconnected, trabecular morphology. In the paper, we focused on the goal of obtaining matrixes characterized by suitable sizes of both voids and interconnects, to allow an in depth colonization from transplanted cells. In this respect, we investigated the role of the volume percentage of the dispersed phase and the effect of additives. It was established that high pore volumes (>or=90%) are to be preferred, because they allow the production of solid foams characterized by average void and interconnect diameters of approximately 20 and 10 microm, respectively. These values are still inadequate for the intended application of these scaffolds but represent a good starting point for further improvements. These were achieved through the use of additives, namely sodium chloride and dimethyl sulfoxide, which partially destabilized the precursor emulsion and allowed a solid foam to be obtained with void and interconnect diameters in the range of 30-150 microm and 10-50 microm, respectively. PMID:16343011

Barbetta, Andrea; Dentini, Mariella; Zannoni, Elisabetta M; De Stefano, Maria E

2005-12-20

276

Sol-gel method to fabricate CaP scaffolds by robocasting for tissue engineering.  

PubMed

Highly porous calcium phosphate (CaP) scaffolds for bone-tissue engineering were fabricated by combining a robocasting process with a sol-gel synthesis that mixed Calcium Nitrate Tetrahydrate and Triethyl Phosphite precursors in an aqueous medium. The resulting gels were used to print scaffolds by robocasting without the use of binder to increase the viscosity of the paste. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed that the process yielded hydroxyapatite and ?-tricalcium phosphate biphasic composite powders. Thus, the scaffold composition after crystallization of the amorphous structure could be easily modified by varying the initial Ca/P ratio during synthesis. The compressive strengths of the scaffolds are ~6 MPa, which is in the range of human cancellous bone (2-12 MPa). These highly porous scaffolds (~73 vol% porosity) are composed of macro-pores of ~260 ?m in size; such porosity is expected to enable bone ingrowth into the scaffold for bone repair applications. The chemistry, porosity, and surface topography of such scaffolds can also be modified by the process parameters to favor bone formation. The studied sol-gel process can be used to coat these scaffolds by dip-coating, which induces a significant enhancement of mechanical properties. This can adjust scaffold properties such as composition and surface morphology, which consequently may improve their performances. PMID:22311079

Houmard, Manuel; Fu, Qiang; Saiz, Eduardo; Tomsia, Antoni P

2012-04-01

277

Influence of Architecture of ?-Tricalcium Phosphate Scaffolds on Biological Performance in Repairing Segmental Bone Defects  

PubMed Central

Background Although three-dimensional (3D) ?-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) scaffolds serve as promising bone graft substitutes for the segmental bone defect treatment, no consensus has been achieved regarding their optimal 3D architecture. Methods In this study, we has systematically compared four types of ?-TCP bone graft substitutes with different 3D architectures, including two types of porous scaffolds, one type of tubular scaffolds and one type of solid scaffolds, for their efficacy in treating segmental bone defect in a rabbit model. Results Our study has demonstrated that when compared to the traditional porous and solid scaffolds, tubular scaffolds promoted significantly higher amount of new bone formation in the defect regions as shown by X-ray, micro CT examinations and histological analysis, restored much greater mechanical properties of the damaged bone evidenced by the biomechanical testing, and eventually achieved the complete union of segmental defect. Moreover, the implantation of tubular scaffolds enhanced the neo-vascularization at the defect region with higher bone metabolic activities than others, as indicated by the bone scintigraphy assay. Conclusions This study has further the current knowledge regarding the profound influence of overall 3D architecture of ?-TCP scaffolds on their in vivo defect healing performance and illuminated the promising potential use of tubular scaffolds as effective bone graft substitute in treating large segmental bone defects. PMID:23185494

Ma, Zhen-Sheng; Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Zhi-Yong; Lei, Wei

2012-01-01

278

Hydrogels to modulate lentivirus delivery in vivo from microporous tissue engineering scaffolds  

PubMed Central

Numerous strategies to induce tissue regeneration employ scaffolds to create space and present biological cues that promote development. In this report, microporous scaffolds that provide structural support were filled with hydrogels to regulate cell adhesion and migration and were investigated as delivery vehicles for gene therapy vectors in vivo. Porous scaffolds were filled with either lentivirus-entrapped collagen or fibrin hydrogels, both of which support cell adhesion yet have varied rates for degradation and cell infiltration. Empty scaffolds and alginate hydrogels were employed as controls, with the latter not supporting cell infiltration. Hydrogel-filled scaffolds retained the lentivirus more effectively than empty scaffolds, and transgene expression was observed for all scaffold conditions. Empty and fibrin-filled scaffolds had maximal transgene expression in vivo, followed by collagen and alginate, with similar levels. Transduced macrophages and dendritic cells were initially present at the scaffold boundary and adjacent tissue and within the scaffold at later time points for all but the alginate condition. At days 3 and 7, expression was also imaged throughout the spleen and thymus, which may result from cell migration from the implant. These studies demonstrate that hydrogels can modulate gene delivery from scaffolds used in cell transplantation and regenerative medicine. PMID:22229129

Aviles, Misael O.

2011-01-01

279

Bone regeneration by using scaffold based on mineralized recombinant collagen.  

PubMed

Bone regeneration was achieved in the 15-mm segmental defect model in the radius of rabbit by using the scaffold based on mineralized recombinant collagen for the first time. The recombinant collagen was recombinant human-like type I collagen, which was produced by cloning a partial cDNA that was reversed by mRNA from human collagen alpha1(I) and transferred to E. coli. The scaffold material nano-hydroxyapatite/recombinant human-like collagen/poly(lactic acid) (nHA/RHLC/PLA) was developed by biomimetic synthesis. Thermo gravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy were applied to exhibit that the scaffold showed some features of natural bone both in main component and hierarchical microstructure. The percentages of organic phase and inorganic phase of nHA/RHLC were similar to that of natural bone. The three-dimensional porous scaffold materials mimic the microstructure of cancellous bone. In the implantation experiment, the segmental defect was healed 24 weeks after surgery, and the implanted composite was completely substituted by new bone tissue. The results of the implantation experiment were very comparable with that of the scaffold based on mineralized animal-sourced collagen. It is concluded that the scaffold based on mineralized recombinant collagen maintains the advantages of mineralized animal-sourced collagen, while avoids potential virus-dangers. The scaffold is a promising material for bone tissue engineering. PMID:18161820

Wang, Y; Cui, F Z; Hu, K; Zhu, X D; Fan, D D

2008-07-01

280

Degradable amorphous scaffolds with enhanced mechanical properties and homogeneous cell distribution produced by a three-dimensional fiber deposition method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanical properties of amorphous, degradable, and highly porous poly(lactide-co-caprolactone) structures have been improved by using a 3D fiber deposition (3DF) method. Two designs of 3DF scaffolds, with 45° and 90° layer rotation, were printed and compared with scaffolds produced by a salt-leaching method. The scaffolds had a porosity range from 64% to 82% and a high interconnectivity, measured by

Yang Sun; Anna Finne-Wistrand; Christine Albertsson; Zhe Xing; Kamal Mustafa; Wim J. Hendrikson; Dirk W. Grijpma; Lorenzo Moroni

2012-01-01

281

In vitro evaluation of chitosan\\/poly(lactic acid-glycolic acid) sintered microsphere scaffolds for bone tissue engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

A three-dimensional (3-D) scaffold is one of the major components in many tissue engineering approaches. We developed novel 3-D chitosan\\/poly(lactic acid-glycolic acid) (PLAGA) composite porous scaffolds by sintering together composite chitosan\\/PLAGA microspheres for bone tissue engineering applications. Pore sizes, pore volume, and mechanical properties of the scaffolds can be manipulated by controlling fabrication parameters, including sintering temperature and sintering time.

Tao Jiang; Wafa I. Abdel-Fattah; Cato T. Laurencin

2006-01-01

282

Polymeric Particles for the Removal of Endocrine Disruptors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endocrine disruptors (EDs) have threatened our daily life severely through drinking water, cosmetics, foodstuff, and drugs. Various treatment processes for removal of EDs are studied in recent years, including membrane filtration, advanced oxidation process, biological treatment and adsorption. In this present paper, the progress of researches on various polymeric particles used as adsorbents of EDs including porous polymeric particles, hybrid

Shudong Sun; Jingyun Hunag; Changsheng Zhao

2011-01-01

283

A Novel Biomimetic Polymer Scaffold Design Enhances Bone Ingrowth  

PubMed Central

There has been recent interest in treating large bone defects with polymer scaffolds because current modalities such as autographs and allographs have limitations. Additionally, polymer scaffolds are utilized in tissue engineering applications to implant and anchor tissues in place, promoting integration with surrounding native tissue. In both applications, rapid and increased bone growth is crucial to the success of the implant. Recent studies have shown that mimicking native bone tissue morphology leads to increased osteoblastic phenotype and more rapid mineralization. The purpose of this study was to compare bone ingrowth into polymer scaffolds created with a biomimetic porous architecture to those with a simple porous design. The biomimetic architecture was designed from the inverse structure of native trabecular bone and manufactured using solid free form fabrication. Histology and ?CT analysis demonstrated a 500-600% increase in bone growth into and adjacent to the biomimetic scaffold at five months post-op. This is in agreement with previous studies in which biomimetic approaches accelerated bone formation. It also supports the applicability of polymer scaffolds for the treatment of large tissue defects when implanting tissue-engineering constructs. PMID:19051300

Geffre, Chris P; Margolis, David S; Ruth, John T; DeYoung, Donald W; Tellis, Brandi C; Szivek, John A

2009-01-01

284

Solvent-free polymer/bioceramic scaffolds for bone tissue engineering: fabrication, analysis, and cell growth.  

PubMed

This study examines the potential use of porous polycaprolactone (PCL) and polycaprolocatone/hydroxyapatite (PCL/HA) scaffolds fabricated through melt molding and porogen leaching for bone tissue engineering. While eliminating organic solvents is desirable, the process steps proposed in this study for uniformly dispersing HA particles (~5??m in size) within the scaffold can also contribute to homogeneous properties for these porous composites. Poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) was chosen as a porogen due to its similar density and melting point as PCL. Pore size of the scaffold was controlled by limiting the size of PCL and PEO particles used in fabrication. The percent of HA in the fabricated scaffolds was quantified by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Mechanical testing was used to compare the modulus of the scaffolds to that of bone, and the pore size distribution was examined with microcomputed tomography (?CT). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to examine the effect on scaffold morphology caused by the addition of HA particles. Both ?CT and SEM results showed that HA could be incorporated into PCL scaffolds without negatively affecting scaffold morphology or pore formation. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and elemental mapping demonstrated a uniform distribution of HA within PCL/HA scaffolds. Murine calvaria-derived MC3T3-E1 cells were used to determine whether cells could attach on scaffolds and grow for up to 21 days. SEM images revealed an increase in cell attachment with the incorporation of HA into the scaffolds. Similarly, DNA content analysis showed a higher cell adhesion to PCL/HA scaffolds. PMID:25178801

Minton, Joshua; Janney, Cara; Akbarzadeh, Rosa; Focke, Carlie; Subramanian, Aswati; Smith, Tyler; McKinney, Joseph; Liu, Junyi; Schmitz, James; James, Paul F; Yousefi, Azizeh-Mitra

2014-11-01

285

Spray-assisted layer-by-layer assembly on hyaluronic acid scaffolds for skin tissue engineering.  

PubMed

Tissue engineering approaches for the development of a single epidermal-dermal scaffold to treat full-thickness skin defects have been limited by difficulties in the fabrication of a bilayer scaffold combining the specific properties of the epidermis and the dermis. Here we present an innovative approach to developing a scaffold that holds promise for skin tissue engineering. We utilize the spray-assisted layer-by-layer assembly technique to deposit a polyelectrolyte multilayer film composed of hyaluronic acid and poly-l-lysine (the epidermal component) on a porous hyaluronic acid scaffold (the dermal component), in a rapid and controlled manner. The multilayer film promotes cell adhesion, contributing to regeneration of the epidermal barrier functions of skin. While human keratinocytes attached and proliferated on the coated porous scaffolds, they did not invade the porous dermal component, thus leaving room for seeding of relevant fibroblast cell types in this scaffold. This scaffold therefore holds promise for co-culture of different cells, which may be useful for treatment of full-thickness skin defects as well as other tissue engineering applications. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 103A: 330-340, 2015. PMID:24659574

Monteiro, Isa P; Shukla, Anita; Marques, Alexandra P; Reis, Rui L; Hammond, Paula T

2015-01-01

286

Olefin polymerization  

SciTech Connect

A process is described for producing high density and high flexural modulus olfin polymers comprising polymerizing the olefins in the presence of a catalyst composition. The composition comprises a chromium compound on a xerogel base comprising at least one of iron phosphate and iron polyphosphate and at least one of aluminium phosphate and aluminium polyphosphate.

McDaniel, M.P.

1986-11-11

287

Novel Polypyrrole-Coated Polylactide Scaffolds Enhance Adipose Stem Cell Proliferation and Early Osteogenic Differentiation  

PubMed Central

An electrically conductive polypyrrole (PPy) doped with a bioactive agent is an emerging functional biomaterial for tissue engineering. We therefore used chondroitin sulfate (CS)-doped PPy coating to modify initially electrically insulating polylactide resulting in novel osteogenic scaffolds. In situ chemical oxidative polymerization was used to obtain electrically conductive PPy coating on poly-96L/4D-lactide (PLA) nonwoven scaffolds. The coated scaffolds were characterized and their electrical conductivity was evaluated in hydrolysis. The ability of the coated and conductive scaffolds to enhance proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human adipose stem cells (hASCs) under electrical stimulation (ES) in three-dimensional (3D) geometry was compared to the noncoated PLA scaffolds. Electrical conductivity of PPy-coated PLA scaffolds (PLA-PPy) was evident at the beginning of hydrolysis, but decreased during the first week of incubation due to de-doping. PLA-PPy scaffolds enhanced hASC proliferation significantly compared to the plain PLA scaffolds at 7 and 14 days. Furthermore, the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of the hASCs was generally higher in PLA-PPy seeded scaffolds, but due to patient variation, no statistical significance could be determined. ES did not have a significant effect on hASCs. This study highlights the potential of novel PPy-coated PLA scaffolds in bone tissue engineering. PMID:23126228

Pelto, Jani; Bjorninen, Miina; Palli, Aliisa; Talvitie, Elina; Hyttinen, Jari; Mannerstrom, Bettina; Suuronen Seppanen, Riitta; Kellomaki, Minna; Miettinen, Susanna; Haimi, Suvi

2013-01-01

288

Understanding anisotropy and architecture in ice-templated biopolymer scaffolds  

E-print Network

porous skeleton is left which mirrors the ice structure. Thus, the scaffold architecture produced is limited to structures which can be created by ice nucleation and growth. Scaffold architecture is directly related to where and when ice nucleation occurs... rate of the slurry and the nucleation temperature varied at the top and base. The cooling rate remained relatively constant at the base of the slurry, roughly -0.58 °C/min and -0.55 °C/min for 1 wt% and 0.5 wt% respectively. However, at the top...

Pawelec, K. A.; Husmann, A.; Best, Serena Michelle; Cameron, Ruth Elizabeth

2014-04-01

289

A Novel Albumin-Based Tissue Scaffold for Autogenic Tissue Engineering Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tissue scaffolds provide a framework for living tissue regeneration. However, traditional tissue scaffolds are exogenous, composed of metals, ceramics, polymers, and animal tissues, and have a defined biocompatibility and application. This study presents a new method for obtaining a tissue scaffold from blood albumin, the major protein in mammalian blood. Human, bovine, and porcine albumin was polymerised into albumin polymers by microbial transglutaminase and was then cast by freeze-drying-based moulding to form albumin tissue scaffolds. Scanning electron microscopy and material testing analyses revealed that the albumin tissue scaffold possesses an extremely porous structure, moderate mechanical strength, and resilience. Using a culture of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) as a model, we showed that MSCs can be seeded and grown in the albumin tissue scaffold. Furthermore, the albumin tissue scaffold can support the long-term osteogenic differentiation of MSCs. These results show that the albumin tissue scaffold exhibits favourable material properties and good compatibility with cells. We propose that this novel tissue scaffold can satisfy essential needs in tissue engineering as a general-purpose substrate. The use of this scaffold could lead to the development of new methods of artificial fabrication of autogenic tissue substitutes.

Li, Pei-Shan; -Liang Lee, I.; Yu, Wei-Lin; Sun, Jui-Sheng; Jane, Wann-Neng; Shen, Hsin-Hsin

2014-07-01

290

Three-Dimensional Scaffolds for Tissue Engineering Applications: Role of Porosity and Pore Size  

PubMed Central

Tissue engineering applications commonly encompass the use of three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds to provide a suitable microenvironment for the incorporation of cells or growth factors to regenerate damaged tissues or organs. These scaffolds serve to mimic the actual in vivo microenvironment where cells interact and behave according to the mechanical cues obtained from the surrounding 3D environment. Hence, the material properties of the scaffolds are vital in determining cellular response and fate. These 3D scaffolds are generally highly porous with interconnected pore networks to facilitate nutrient and oxygen diffusion and waste removal. This review focuses on the various fabrication techniques (e.g., conventional and rapid prototyping methods) that have been employed to fabricate 3D scaffolds of different pore sizes and porosity. The different pore size and porosity measurement methods will also be discussed. Scaffolds with graded porosity have also been studied for their ability to better represent the actual in vivo situation where cells are exposed to layers of different tissues with varying properties. In addition, the ability of pore size and porosity of scaffolds to direct cellular responses and alter the mechanical properties of scaffolds will be reviewed, followed by a look at nature's own scaffold, the extracellular matrix. Overall, the limitations of current scaffold fabrication approaches for tissue engineering applications and some novel and promising alternatives will be highlighted. PMID:23672709

Loh, Qiu Li

2013-01-01

291

A novel albumin-based tissue scaffold for autogenic tissue engineering applications.  

PubMed

Tissue scaffolds provide a framework for living tissue regeneration. However, traditional tissue scaffolds are exogenous, composed of metals, ceramics, polymers, and animal tissues, and have a defined biocompatibility and application. This study presents a new method for obtaining a tissue scaffold from blood albumin, the major protein in mammalian blood. Human, bovine, and porcine albumin was polymerised into albumin polymers by microbial transglutaminase and was then cast by freeze-drying-based moulding to form albumin tissue scaffolds. Scanning electron microscopy and material testing analyses revealed that the albumin tissue scaffold possesses an extremely porous structure, moderate mechanical strength, and resilience. Using a culture of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) as a model, we showed that MSCs can be seeded and grown in the albumin tissue scaffold. Furthermore, the albumin tissue scaffold can support the long-term osteogenic differentiation of MSCs. These results show that the albumin tissue scaffold exhibits favourable material properties and good compatibility with cells. We propose that this novel tissue scaffold can satisfy essential needs in tissue engineering as a general-purpose substrate. The use of this scaffold could lead to the development of new methods of artificial fabrication of autogenic tissue substitutes. PMID:25034369

Li, Pei-Shan; Lee, I-Liang; Yu, Wei-Lin; Sun, Jui-Sheng; Jane, Wann-Neng; Shen, Hsin-Hsin

2014-01-01

292

A Novel Albumin-Based Tissue Scaffold for Autogenic Tissue Engineering Applications  

PubMed Central

Tissue scaffolds provide a framework for living tissue regeneration. However, traditional tissue scaffolds are exogenous, composed of metals, ceramics, polymers, and animal tissues, and have a defined biocompatibility and application. This study presents a new method for obtaining a tissue scaffold from blood albumin, the major protein in mammalian blood. Human, bovine, and porcine albumin was polymerised into albumin polymers by microbial transglutaminase and was then cast by freeze-drying-based moulding to form albumin tissue scaffolds. Scanning electron microscopy and material testing analyses revealed that the albumin tissue scaffold possesses an extremely porous structure, moderate mechanical strength, and resilience. Using a culture of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) as a model, we showed that MSCs can be seeded and grown in the albumin tissue scaffold. Furthermore, the albumin tissue scaffold can support the long-term osteogenic differentiation of MSCs. These results show that the albumin tissue scaffold exhibits favourable material properties and good compatibility with cells. We propose that this novel tissue scaffold can satisfy essential needs in tissue engineering as a general-purpose substrate. The use of this scaffold could lead to the development of new methods of artificial fabrication of autogenic tissue substitutes. PMID:25034369

Li, Pei-Shan; -Liang Lee, I.; Yu, Wei-Lin; Sun, Jui-Sheng; Jane, Wann-Neng; Shen, Hsin-Hsin

2014-01-01

293

Fabrication and in vitro biocompatibility of biomorphic PLGA/nHA composite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering.  

PubMed

In this study, biomorphic poly(dl-lactic-co-glycolic acid)/nano-hydroxyapatite (PLGA/nHA) composite scaffolds were successfully prepared using cane as a template. The porous morphology, phase, compression characteristics and in vitro biocompatibility of the PLGA/nHA composite scaffolds and biomorphic PLGA scaffolds as control were investigated. The results showed that the biomorphic scaffolds preserved the original honeycomb-like architecture of cane and exhibited a bimodal porous structure. The average channel diameter and micropore size of the PLGA/nHA composite scaffolds were 164 ± 52 ?m and 13 ± 8 ?m, respectively, with a porosity of 89.3 ± 1.4%. The incorporation of nHA into PLGA decreased the degree of crystallinity of PLGA, and significantly improved the compressive modulus of biomorphic scaffolds. The in vitro biocompatibility evaluation with MC3T3-E1 cells demonstrated that the biomorphic PLGA/nHA composite scaffolds could better support cell attachment, proliferation and differentiation than the biomorphic PLGA scaffolds. The localization depth of MC3T3-E1 cells within the channels of the biomorphic PLGA/nHA composite scaffolds could reach approximately 400 ?m. The results suggested that the biomorphic PLGA/nHA composite scaffolds were promising candidates for bone tissue engineering. PMID:24433891

Qian, Junmin; Xu, Weijun; Yong, Xueqing; Jin, Xinxia; Zhang, Wei

2014-03-01

294

Woven silk fabric-reinforced silk nanofibrous scaffolds for regenerating load-bearing soft tissues.  

PubMed

Although three-dimensional (3-D) porous regenerated silk scaffolds with outstanding biocompatibility, biodegradability and low inflammatory reactions have promising application in different tissue regeneration, the mechanical properties of regenerated scaffolds, especially suture retention strength, must be further improved to satisfy the requirements of clinical applications. This study presents woven silk fabric-reinforced silk nanofibrous scaffolds aimed at dermal tissue engineering. To improve the mechanical properties, silk scaffolds prepared by lyophilization were reinforced with degummed woven silk fabrics. The ultimate tensile strength, elongation at break and suture retention strength of the scaffolds were significantly improved, providing suitable mechanical properties strong enough for clinical applications. The stiffness and degradation behaviors were then further regulated by different after-treatment processes, making the scaffolds more suitable for dermal tissue regeneration. The in vitro cell culture results indicated that these scaffolds maintained their excellent biocompatibility after being reinforced with woven silk fabrics. Without sacrifice of porous structure and biocompatibility, the fabric-reinforced scaffolds with better mechanical properties could facilitate future clinical applications of silk as matrices in skin repair. PMID:24090985

Han, F; Liu, S; Liu, X; Pei, Y; Bai, S; Zhao, H; Lu, Q; Ma, F; Kaplan, D L; Zhu, H

2014-02-01

295

Crosslinked, porous, polyacrylate beads  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Uniformly-shaped, porous, round beads are prepared by the co-polymerization of an acrylic monomer and a cross-linking agent in the presence of 0.05 to 5% by weight of an aqueous soluble polymer such as polyethylene oxide. Cross-linking proceeds at high temperature above about 50.degree. C or at a lower temperature with irradiation. Beads of even shape and even size distribution of less than 2 micron diameter are formed. The beads will find use as adsorbents in chromatography and as markers for studies of cell surface receptors.

Rembaum, Alan (Inventor); Yen, Shiao-Ping S. (Inventor); Dreyer, William J. (Inventor)

1977-01-01

296

Crosslinked, porous, polyacrylate beads  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Uniformly-shaped, porous, round beads are prepared by the co-polymerization of an acrylic monomer and a cross-linking agent in the presence of 0.05 to 5% by weight of an aqueous soluble polymer such as polyethylene oxide. Cross-linking proceeds at high temperature above about 50.degree.C or at a lower temperature with irradiation. Beads of even shape and even size distribution of less than 2 micron diameter are formed. The beads will find use as adsorbents in chromatography and as markers for studies of cell surface receptors.

Rembaum, Alan (Inventor); Yen, Shiao-Ping Siao (Inventor); Dreyer, William J. (Inventor)

1976-01-01

297

Small, porous polyacrylate beads  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Uniformly-shaped, porous, round beads are prepared by the co-polymerization of an acrylic monomer and a cross-linking agent in the presence of 0.05 to 5% by weight of an aqueous soluble polymer such as polyethylene oxide. Cross-linking proceeds at high temperature above about 50.degree.C or at a lower temperature with irradiation. Beads of even shape and even size distribution of less than 2 micron diameter are formed. The beads will find use as adsorbents in chromatography and as markers for studies of cell surface receptors.

Rembaum, Alan (Inventor); Yen, Shiao-Ping Siao (Inventor); Dreyer, William J. (Inventor)

1976-01-01

298

Poly (l-lactide-co-caprolactone) scaffolds enhanced with poly (?-hydroxybutyrate-co-?-hydroxyvalerate) microspheres for cartilage regeneration.  

PubMed

Biodegradable polymers, either as porous scaffolds or microspheres, have been investigated broadly for cartilage tissue engineering. A combination of these two forms of materials could potentially maximize their benefits. In this study, porous poly (l-lactide-co-?-caprolactone) (PLCL) scaffolds were integrated with poly (?-hydroxybutyrate-co-?-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) microspheres to enhance the mechanical properties of the scaffolds as well as to potentially regulate cell behavior through altering surface topography. PHBV microspheres fabricated with an emulsion solvent evaporation method were incorporated into PLCL scaffolds (0%, 20%, 40% and 50% W/W). Compressive modulus, surface topography and porosity of the composite scaffolds were evaluated, and in vitro and in vivo chondrogenesis within the chondrocyte-laden scaffolds was investigated by examining proliferation of chondrocytes and the deposition of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) and type II collagen. The results showed significant enhancement of the compressive modulus of the scaffolds incorporated with PHBV microspheres, while Young's modulus of the scaffolds with 50% PHBV incorporation was 3.3 times higher than PLCL scaffolds alone. The porosity of the composite scaffolds was kept constant for all levels of PHBV incorporation. Though the PLCL scaffolds incorporated with microspheres showed no significant effects on adhesion at 6 h as well as in vitro cartilage formation and proliferation of the chondrocytes at both 2 weeks and 4 weeks, total contents of GAG and type II collagen excreted increased significantly with time. The chondrocyte-laden scaffolds formed cartilage-like tissues at 4 and 8 weeks after implantation in nude mice, with increased staining density of type II collagen and GAG over time. In conclusion, incorporation of PHBV microspheres not only enhanced the compressive modulus of PLCL scaffolds, but could also serve as scaffolding structures for cartilaginous tissue formation. PMID:23385654

Li, Chao; Zhang, Jingjing; Li, Yijiang; Moran, Shamus; Khang, Gilson; Ge, Zigang

2013-04-01

299

Imaging studies of peripheral nerve regeneration induced by porous collagen biomaterials  

E-print Network

There is urgent need to develop treatments for inducing regeneration in injured organs. Porous collagen-based scaffolds have been utilized clinically to induce regeneration in skin and peripheral nerves, however still there ...

Tzeranis, Dimitrios Spyridon

2013-01-01

300

Cryopreservation of Cell/Scaffold Tissue-Engineered Constructs  

PubMed Central

The aim of this work was to study the effect of cryopreservation over the functionality of tissue-engineered constructs, analyzing the survival and viability of cells seeded, cultured, and cryopreserved onto 3D scaffolds. Further, it also evaluated the effect of cryopreservation over the properties of the scaffold material itself since these are critical for the engineering of most tissues and in particular, tissues such as bone. For this purpose, porous scaffolds, namely fiber meshes based on a starch and poly(caprolactone) blend were seeded with goat bone marrow stem cells (GBMSCs) and cryopreserved for 7 days. Discs of the same material seeded with GBMSCs were also used as controls. After this period, these samples were analyzed and compared to samples collected before the cryopreservation process. The obtained results demonstrate that it is possible to maintain cell viability and scaffolds properties upon cryopreservation of tissue-engineered constructs based on starch scaffolds and goat bone marrow mesenchymal cells using standard cryopreservation methods. In addition, the outcomes of this study suggest that the greater porosity and interconnectivity of scaffolds favor the retention of cellular content and cellular viability during cryopreservation processes, when compared with nonporous discs. These findings indicate that it might be possible to prepare off-the-shelf engineered tissue substitutes and preserve them to be immediately available upon request for patients' needs. PMID:22676448

Costa, Pedro F.; Dias, Ana F.; Reis, Rui L.

2012-01-01

301

Multiscale Photoacoustic Microscopy of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube-Incorporated Tissue Engineering Scaffolds  

PubMed Central

Three-dimensional polymeric scaffolds provide structural support and function as substrates for cells and bioactive molecules necessary for tissue regeneration. Noninvasive real-time imaging of scaffolds and/or the process of tissue formation within the scaffold remains a challenge. Microcomputed tomography, the widely used technique to characterize polymeric scaffolds, shows poor contrast for scaffolds immersed in biological fluids, thereby limiting its utilities under physiological conditions. In this article, multiscale photoacoustic microscopy (PAM), consisting of both acoustic-resolution PAM (AR-PAM) and optical-resolution PAM (OR-PAM), was employed to image and characterize single-walled carbon-nanotube (SWNT)–incorporated poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) polymer scaffolds immersed in biological buffer. SWNTs were incorporated to reinforce the mechanical properties of the scaffolds, and to enhance the photoacoustic signal from the scaffolds. By choosing excitation wavelengths of 570 and 638?nm, multiscale PAM could spectroscopically differentiate the photoacoustic signals generated from blood and from carbon-nanotube-incorporated scaffolds. OR-PAM, providing a fine lateral resolution of 2.6??m with an adequate tissue penetration of 660??m, successfully quantified the average porosity and pore size of the scaffolds to be 86.5%±1.2% and 153±15??m in diameter, respectively. AR-PAM further extended the tissue penetration to 2?mm at the expense of lateral resolution (45??m). Our results suggest that PAM is a promising tool for noninvasive real-time imaging and monitoring of tissue engineering scaffolds in vitro, and in vivo under physiological conditions. PMID:22082018

Cai, Xin; Paratala, Bhavna S.; Hu, Song

2012-01-01

302

Scaffolds in Tendon Tissue Engineering  

PubMed Central

Tissue engineering techniques using novel scaffold materials offer potential alternatives for managing tendon disorders. Tissue engineering strategies to improve tendon repair healing include the use of scaffolds, growth factors, cell seeding, or a combination of these approaches. Scaffolds have been the most common strategy investigated to date. Available scaffolds for tendon repair include both biological scaffolds, obtained from mammalian tissues, and synthetic scaffolds, manufactured from chemical compounds. Preliminary studies support the idea that scaffolds can provide an alternative for tendon augmentation with an enormous therapeutic potential. However, available data are lacking to allow definitive conclusion on the use of scaffolds for tendon augmentation. We review the current basic science and clinical understanding in the field of scaffolds and tissue engineering for tendon repair. PMID:22190961

Longo, Umile Giuseppe; Lamberti, Alfredo; Petrillo, Stefano; Maffulli, Nicola; Denaro, Vincenzo

2012-01-01

303

Heparinized collagen scaffolds with and without growth factors for the repair of diaphragmatic hernia  

PubMed Central

A regenerative medicine approach to restore the morphology and function of the diaphragm in congenital diaphragmatic hernia is especially challenging because of the position and flat nature of this organ, allowing cell ingrowth primarily from the perimeter. Use of porous collagen scaffolds for the closure of surgically created diaphragmatic defects in rats has been shown feasible, but better ingrowth of cells, specifically blood vessels and muscle cells, is warranted. To stimulate this process, heparin, a glycosaminoglycan involved in growth factor binding, was covalently bound to porous collagenous scaffolds (14%), with or without vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF; 0.4 µg/mg scaffold), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF; 0.5 µg/mg scaffold) or a combination of VEGF + HGF (0.2 + 0.5 µg/mg scaffold). All components were located primarily at the outside of scaffolds. Scaffolds were implanted in the diaphragm of rats and evaluated after 2 and 12 weeks. No herniations or eventrations were observed, and in several cases, growth factor-substituted scaffolds showed macroscopically visible blood vessels at the lung site. The addition of heparin led to an accelerated ingrowth of blood vessels at 2 weeks. In all scaffold types, giant cells and immune cells were present primarily at the liver side of the scaffold, and immune cells and individual macrophages at the lung side; these cell types decreased in number from week 2 to week 12. The addition of growth factors did not influence cellular response to the scaffolds, indicating that further optimization with respect to dosage and release profile is needed. PMID:23867845

Brouwer, Katrien M; Wijnen, Rene M; Reijnen, Daphne; Hafmans, Theo G; Daamen, Willeke F; van Kuppevelt, Toin H

2013-01-01

304

Formulation and characterization of silk sericin-PVA scaffold crosslinked with genipin.  

PubMed

A porous-three-dimensional scaffold shows several advantages in terms of tissue engineering since it can provide a framework for cells to attach, proliferate and form an extracellular matrix. Sericin, a by-product from the silk industry, can form a three-dimensional scaffold with PVA after freeze-drying but has a fragile structure. Glycerin (as a plasticizer) and genipin (a crosslinking agent) are necessary to make a strong and stable matrix. Our objective was to investigate the properties of a three-dimensional silk sericin and PVA scaffold with and without glycerin and genipin at various concentrations. SEM showed that adding glycerin into scaffold gave better uniformity and porosity. Smaller pore sizes and better uniformity were found as the concentration of genipin in the scaffold increased. The results of FTIR indicated that glycerin retained a high moisture content and had a major effect at 3286 cm(-1), indicating the presence of water molecule in the matrix structure. Adding genipin into the scaffold resulted in a higher degree of crosslinking or fewer free ?-amino groups, as shown by the decrease in the stretching (=C-H) peak and absorption peaks around 1370-1650 cm(-1), respectively. The sericin/PVA scaffold had a low water sorption capacity, but adding glycerin significantly increased this property. Genipin further enhanced the moisture absorption capacity of the scaffold and extended the time taken to reach equilibrium. After immersing the sericin/PVA scaffold into purified water, the scaffold completely dissolved within an hour, whereas the scaffolds containing glycerin or glycerin with 0.1% genipin swelled 8 and 11 times, respectively, compared with the initial stage after 6h of immersion. In terms of mechanical properties, the sericin/PVA/glycerin scaffold exhibited a similar compressive strength to the scaffold with a high genipin concentration, whereas a low concentration of genipin softened and reduced the compressive strength of the scaffold. A small amount of sericin was released from the scaffold and a higher concentration of genipin, resulting in less protein leaching compared to non-crosslinked sericin/PVA. The fraction of protein released from the sericin/PVA/glycerin scaffold was about 4%, with values of about 1 and 0.04% in the case of scaffolds with 0.01 and 0.1% genipin, respectively. All results indicated that the composition of the scaffolds had a significant effect on their physical properties, and that can easily be tuned to obtain scaffolds suitable for biological applications. PMID:20804781

Aramwit, Pornanong; Siritientong, Tippawan; Kanokpanont, Sorada; Srichana, Teerapol

2010-12-01

305

Three-dimensional culture of rat calvarial osteoblasts in porous biodegradable polymers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neonatal rat calvarial osteoblasts were cultured in 90% porous, 75:25 poly(dl-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) foam scaffolds for up to 56 days to examine the effects of the cell seeding density, scaffold pore size, and foam thickness on the proliferation and function of the cells in this three-dimensional environment. Osteoblasts were seeded at either 11.1×105 or 22.1×105cells per cm2 onto PLGA scaffolds

Susan L. Ishaug-Riley; Genevieve M. Crane-Kruger; Michael J. Yaszemski; Antonios G. Mikos

1998-01-01

306

Biomaterials 27 (2006) 47754782 Development and characterization of a porous micro-patterned  

E-print Network

that have shown promise in vitro by recapitulating native vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) behavior-porous scaffolds, indicating no loss in cellular organization on PLGA-leached scaffolds. In contrast, cells seeded smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). The cells in these layers are oriented at different angles in alternating

307

Evaluation of Osteoconductive Scaffolds in the Canine Femoral Multi-Defect Model  

PubMed Central

Treatment of large segmental bone defects remains an unsolved clinical challenge, despite a wide array of existing bone graft materials. This project was designed to rapidly assess and compare promising biodegradable osteoconductive scaffolds for use in the systematic development of new bone regeneration methodologies that combine scaffolds, sources of osteogenic cells, and bioactive scaffold modifications. Promising biomaterials and scaffold fabrication methods were identified in laboratories at Rutgers, MIT, Integra Life Sciences, and Mayo Clinic. Scaffolds were fabricated from various materials, including poly(L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA), poly(L-lactide-co-?-caprolactone) (PLCL), tyrosine-derived polycarbonate (TyrPC), and poly(propylene fumarate) (PPF). Highly porous three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds were fabricated by 3D printing, laser stereolithography, or solvent casting followed by porogen leaching. The canine femoral multi-defect model was used to systematically compare scaffold performance and enable selection of the most promising substrate(s) on which to add cell sourcing options and bioactive surface modifications. Mineralized cancellous allograft (MCA) was used to provide a comparative reference to the current clinical standard for osteoconductive scaffolds. Percent bone volume within the defect was assessed 4 weeks after implantation using both MicroCT and limited histomorphometry. Bone formed at the periphery of all scaffolds with varying levels of radial ingrowth. MCA produced a rapid and advanced stage of bone formation and remodeling throughout the defect in 4 weeks, greatly exceeding the performance of all polymer scaffolds. Two scaffold constructs, TyrPCPL/TCP and PPF4SLA/HAPLGA Dip, proved to be significantly better than alternative PLGA and PLCL scaffolds, justifying further development. MCA remains the current standard for osteoconductive scaffolds. PMID:23215980

Luangphakdy, Viviane; Walker, Esteban; Shinohara, Kentaro; Pan, Hui; Hefferan, Theresa; Bauer, Thomas W.; Stockdale, Linda; Saini, Sunil; Dadsetan, Mahrokh; Runge, M. Brett; Vasanji, Amit; Griffith, Linda; Yaszemski, Michael

2013-01-01

308

Scaffold percolative efficiency: in vitro evaluation of the structural criterion for electrospun mats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fibrous scaffolds of engineered structures can be chosen as promising porous environments when an approved criterion validates\\u000a their applicability for a specific medical purpose. For such biomaterials, this paper sought to investigate various structural\\u000a characteristics in order to determine whether they are appropriate descriptors. A number of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) scaffolds\\u000a were electrospun; each of which possessed a distinguished architecture when their

Ashkan Heidarkhan Tehrani; Ali Zadhoush; Saeed Karbasi; Hojjat Sadeghi-Aliabadi

2010-01-01

309

The optimization of hybrid scaffold fabrication process in precision deposition system using design of experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent tissue engineering field, it is being reported that the fabrication of three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds having high\\u000a porous and controlled internal\\/external architectures can give potential contributions in cell adhesion, proliferation and\\u000a differentiation. To fabricate these scaffolds, various rapid prototyping technologies are being applied to. The rapid prototyping\\u000a technology has made it possible to fabricate solid free-form 3D microstructures in

Jong Young Kim; Dong-Woo Cho

2009-01-01

310

Nano-Fibrous Tissue Engineering Scaffolds Capable of Growth Factor Delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tissue engineering aims at constructing biological substitutes to repair damaged tissues. Three-dimensional (3D) porous scaffolds\\u000a are commonly utilized to define the 3D geometry of tissue engineering constructs and provide adequate pore space and surface\\u000a to support cell attachment, migration, proliferation, differentiation and neo tissue genesis. Biomimetic 3D scaffolds provide\\u000a synthetic microenvironments that mimic the natural regeneration microenvironments and promote tissue

Jiang Hu; Peter X. Ma

2011-01-01

311

Microstructure and Properties of Polyhydroxybutyrate-Chitosan-Nanohydroxyapatite Composite Scaffolds  

PubMed Central

Polyhydroxybutyrate-chitosan-hydroxyapatite (PHB-CHT-HAP) composite scaffolds were prepared by the precipitation of biopolymer-nanohydroxyapatite suspensions and following lyophilisation. The propylene carbonate and acetic acid were used as the polyhydroxybutyrate and chitosan solvents, respectively. The high porous microstructure was observed in composites and the macroporosity of scaffolds (pore sizes up to 100??m) rose with the chitosan content. It was found the reduction in both the PHB melting (70°C) and thermal degradation temperatures of polyhydroxybutyrate and chitosan biopolymers in composites, which confirms the mutual ineraction between polymers and the decrease of PHB lamellar thickness. No preferential preconcentration of individual biopolymers was verified in composites, and the compressive strengths of macroporous PHB-CHT-HAP scaffolds were approximately 2.5?MPa. The high toxic fluorinated cosolvents were avoided from the preparation process. PMID:22547987

Medvecky, L.

2012-01-01

312

Direct polymerization of proteins.  

PubMed

We report the synthesis of active polymers of superfolder green fluorescent protein (sfGFP) in one step using Click chemistry. Up to six copies of the non-natural amino acids (nnAAs) p-azido-l-phenylalanine (pAzF) or p-propargyloxy-l-phenylalanine (pPaF) were site-specifically inserted into sfGFP by cell-free protein synthesis (CFPS). sfGFP containing two or three copies of these nnAAs were coupled by copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition to synthesize linear or branched protein polymers, respectively. The protein polymers retained ?63% of their specific activity (i.e., fluorescence) after coupling. Polymerization of a concentrated solution of triply substituted sfGFP resulted in fluorescent macromolecular particles. Our method can be generalized to synthesize polymers of a protein or copolymers of any two or more proteins, and the conjugation sites can be determined exactly by standard genetic manipulation. Polymers of proteins and small molecules can also be created with this technology to make a new class of scaffolds or biomaterials. PMID:24200191

Albayrak, Cem; Swartz, James R

2014-06-20

313

Nanofiber scaffold electrodes based on PEDOT for cell stimulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electronically conductive and electrochemically active 3D-scaffolds based on electrospun poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) nano-fibers are reported. Vapour phase polymerization was employed to achieve an uniform and conformal coating of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with tosylate (PEDOT:tosylate) on the nano-fibers. The PEDOT coatings had a large impact on the wettability, turning the hydrophobic PET fibers super-hydrophilic. SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells were grown on the PEDOT

Maria H. Bolin; Karl Svennersten; Xiangjun Wang; Ioannis S. Chronakis; Agneta Richter-Dahlfors; Edwin W. H. Jager; Magnus Berggren

2009-01-01

314

Polymeric nanofibers in tissue engineering.  

PubMed

Polymeric nanofibers can be produced using methods such as electrospinning, phase separation, and self-assembly, and the fiber composition, diameter, alignment, degradation, and mechanical properties can be tailored to the intended application. Nanofibers possess unique advantages for tissue engineering. The small diameter closely matches that of extracellular matrix fibers, and the relatively large surface area is beneficial for cell attachment and bioactive factor loading. This review will update the reader on the aspects of nanofiber fabrication and characterization important to tissue engineering, including control of porous structure, cell infiltration, and fiber degradation. Bioactive factor loading will be discussed with specific relevance to tissue engineering. Finally, applications of polymeric nanofibers in the fields of bone, cartilage, ligament and tendon, cardiovascular, and neural tissue engineering will be reviewed. PMID:21699434

Dahlin, Rebecca L; Kasper, F Kurtis; Mikos, Antonios G

2011-10-01

315

Microsphere-Based Seamless Scaffolds Containing Macroscopic Gradients of Encapsulated Factors for Tissue Engineering  

PubMed Central

Spatial and temporal control of bioactive signals in three-dimensional (3D) tissue engineering scaffolds is greatly desired. Coupled together, these attributes may mimic and maintain complex signal patterns, such as those observed during axonal regeneration or neovascularization. Seamless polymer constructs may provide a route to achieve spatial control of signal distribution. In this study, a novel microparticle-based scaffold fabrication technique is introduced as a method to create 3D scaffolds with spatial control over model dyes using uniform poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) microspheres. Uniform microspheres were produced using the Precision Particle Fabrication technique. Scaffolds were assembled by flowing microsphere suspensions into a cylindrical glass mold, and then microspheres were physically attached to form a continuous scaffold using ethanol treatment. An ethanol soak of 1?h was found to be optimum for improved mechanical characteristics. Morphological and physical characterization of the scaffolds revealed that microsphere matrices were porous (41.1?±?2.1%) and well connected, and their compressive stiffness ranged from 142 to 306?kPa. Culturing chondrocytes on the scaffolds revealed the compatibility of these substrates with cell attachment and viability. In addition, bilayered, multilayered, and gradient scaffolds were fabricated, exhibiting excellent spatial control and resolution. Such novel scaffolds can serve as sustained delivery devices of heterogeneous signals in a continuous and seamless manner, and may be particularly useful in future interfacial tissue engineering investigations. PMID:18795865

Singh, Milind; Morris, Casey P.; Ellis, Ryan J.; Detamore, Michael S.

2008-01-01

316

Cartilage tissue engineering with silk scaffolds and human articular chondrocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adult cartilage tissue has poor capability of self-repair, especially in case of severe cartilage damage due to trauma or age-related degeneration. Autologous cell-based tissue engineering using three-dimensional (3-D) porous scaffolds has provided an option for the repair of full thickness defects in adult cartilage tissue. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and chondrocytes are the two major cell sources for cartilage tissue

Yongzhong Wang; Dominick J. Blasioli; Hyeon-Joo Kim; Hyun Suk Kim; David L. Kaplan

2006-01-01

317

The influence of stereolithographic scaffold architecture and composition on osteogenic signal expression with rat bone marrow stromal cells.  

PubMed

Scaffold design parameters, especially physical construction factors such as mechanical stiffness of substrate materials, pore size of 3D porous scaffolds, and channel geometry, are known to influence the osteogenic signal expression and subsequent differentiation of a transplanted cell population. In this study of photocrosslinked poly(propylene fumarate) (PPF) and diethyl fumarate (DEF) scaffolds, the effect of DEF incorporation ratio and pore size on the osteogenic signal expression of rat bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) was investigated. Results demonstrated that DEF concentrations and pore sizes that led to increased scaffold mechanical stiffness also upregulated osteogenic signal expression, including bone morphogenic protein-2 (BMP-2), fibroblast growth factors-2 (FGF-2), transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and Runx2 transcriptional factor. Similar scaffold fabrication parameters supported rapid BMSC osteoblastic differentiation, as demonstrated by increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and osteocalcin expression. When scaffolds with random architecture, fabricated by porogen leaching, were compared to those with controlled architecture, fabricated by stereolithography (SLA), results showed that SLA scaffolds with the highly permeable and porous channels also have significantly higher expression of FGF-2, TGF-?1, and VEGF. Subsequent ALP expression and osteopontin secretion were also significantly increased in SLA scaffolds. Based upon these results, we conclude that scaffold properties provided by additive manufacturing techniques such as SLA fabrication, particularly increased mechanical stiffness and high permeability, may stimulate dramatic BMSC responses that promote rapid bone tissue regeneration. PMID:21396709

Kim, Kyobum; Dean, David; Wallace, Jonathan; Breithaupt, Rob; Mikos, Antonios G; Fisher, John P

2011-05-01

318

Biotemplated syntheses of macroporous materials for bone tissue engineering scaffolds and experiments in vitro and vivo.  

PubMed

The macroporous materials were prepared from the transformation of cuttlebone as biotemplates under hydrothermal reactions and characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric/differential thermal analyses (TG-DTA), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Cell experimental results showed that the prepared materials as bone tissue engineering scaffolds or fillers had fine biocompatibility suitable for adhesion and proliferation of the hMSCs (human marrow mesenchymal stem cells). Histological analyses were carried out by implanting the scaffolds into a rabbit femur, where the bioresorption, degradation, and biological activity of the scaffolds were observed in the animal body. The prepared scaffolds kept the original three-dimensional frameworks with the ordered porous structures, which made for blood circulation, nutrition supply, and the cells implantation. The biotemplated syntheses could provide a new effective approach to prepare the bone tissue engineering scaffold materials. PMID:23742223

Li, Xing; Zhao, Yayun; Bing, Yue; Li, Yaping; Gan, Ning; Guo, Zhiyong; Peng, Zhaoxiang; Zhu, Yabin

2013-06-26

319

Ionene modified small polymeric beads  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Linear ionene polyquaternary cationic polymeric segments are bonded by means of the Menshutkin reaction (quaternization) to biocompatible, extremely small, porous particles containing halide or tertiary amine sites which are centers for attachment of the segments. The modified beads in the form of emulsions or suspensions offer a large, positively-charged surface area capable of irreversibly binding polyanions such as heparin, DNA, RNA or bile acids to remove them from solution or of reversibly binding monoanions such as penicillin, pesticides, sex attractants and the like for slow release from the suspension.

Rembaum, Alan (Inventor)

1977-01-01

320

Borophosphate glass-ceramic scaffolds by a sodium silicate bonding process  

Microsoft Academic Search

A borophosphate glass with the mol% composition 25Na2O-25CaO-5P2O3-45B2O5 was melted. The crystalline phase rheanite crystallized spontaneously during cooling the sample. Porous glass-ceramic scaffolds were prepared by bonding glass particles with size distributions in the range of approximately 100–500?m by 0.1M Na2SiO3 solutions. The scaffolds porosities were 40~60% and their compressive strengths were 0.1~0.4MPa. The conversion of the binding scaffolds to

Wen Liang; Yifan Tu; Huanjun Zhou; Changsheng Liu; Christian Rüssel

2011-01-01

321

The effects of different crossing-linking conditions of genipin on type I collagen scaffolds: an in vitro evaluation.  

PubMed

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the properties of fabricating rat tail type I collagen scaffolds cross-linked with genipin under different conditions. The porous genipin cross-linked scaffolds are obtained through a two step freeze-drying process. To find out the optimal cross-link condition, we used different genipin concentrations and various cross-linked temperatures to prepare the scaffolds in this study. The morphologies of the scaffolds were characterized by scanning electron microscope, and the mechanical properties of the scaffolds were evaluated under dynamic compression. Additionally, the cross-linking degree was assessed by ninhydrin assay. To investigate the swelling ratio and the in vitro degradation of the collagen scaffold, the tests were also carried out by immersion of the scaffolds in a PBS solution or digestion in a type I collagenase respectively. The morphologies of the non-cross-linked scaffolds presented a lattice-like structure while the cross-linked ones displayed a sheet-like framework. The morphology of the genipin cross-linked scaffolds could be significantly changed by either increasing genipin concentration or the temperature. The swelling ratio of each cross-linked scaffold was much lower than that of the control (non-cross-linked).The ninhydrin assay demonstrated that the higher temperature and genipin concentration could obviously increase the cross-linking efficiency. The in vitro degradation studies indicated that genipin cross-linking can effectively elevate the biostability of the scaffolds. The biocompatibility and cytotoxicity of the scaffolds was evaluated by culturing rat chondrocytes on the scaffold in vitro and by MTT. The results of MTT and the fact that the chondrocytes adhered well to the scaffolds demonstrated that genipin cross-linked scaffolds possessed an excellent biocompatibility and low cytotoxicity. Based on these results, 0.3 % genipin concentrations and 37 °C cross-linked temperatures are recommended. PMID:24442821

Zhang, Xiujie; Chen, Xueying; Yang, Ting; Zhang, Naili; Dong, Li; Ma, Shaoying; Liu, Xiaoming; Zhou, Mo; Li, Baoxing

2014-12-01

322

Honeycomb-structured films by multifunctional amphiphilic biodegradable copolymers: surface morphology control and biomedical application as scaffolds for cell growth.  

PubMed

Recently, fabrication of functional porous polymer films with patterned surface structures at the scale from nanometer to micrometer has been attracting increasing interests in material science and nanobiotechnology. In this work, we present new preparation of two series of multifunctional amphiphilic copolymers and preparation of their microporous thin films on solid substrates. First, diblock dendritic poly(l-lysine)-b-poly(l-lactide)s and triblock dendritic poly(l-lysine)-b-poly(l-lactide)-b-dendritic poly(l-lysine)s (C1-C6) were synthesized through 4-dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP)-catalyzed living ring-opening polymerization of (l-)-lactide with (l-)-lysine dendron initiators, and their structures were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer (NMR), gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization Fourier-transformed mass spectra (MALDI-FTMS). Employing the breath-figure (BF) fabrication strategy, thin films of the synthesized amphiphiles (C1-C6) were drop-cast, and their surface topologies were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), and the effects of new amphiphile structure and drop-casting parameters of amphiphile concentration, humidity and temperature on self-assembly of ordered porous surface were studied. Furthermore, the influence of surface energy of drop-casting substrates was additionally investigated. With a human cervical epithelial carcinoma cell line (HeLa), cytotoxicity of the prepared honeycomb-structured films by new amphiphile C6 was evaluated by thiazoyl-blue-tetrazolium-bromide (MTT) assay, and HeLa cell growth behavior with microporous amphiphile films as the scaffolds was also examined. It was found that tunable micropore diameter sizes and well ordered surface topologies of BF films could be achieved for the new prepared amphiphiles, and utilization of the honeycomb-like microporous films as scaffolds indicated favorable enhancement in cell proliferation. Therefore, the honeycomb-structured films by these biocompatible multifunctional amphiphiles may provide new materials as 3D-scaffold materials for potential application in tissue engineering and regeneration. PMID:21699231

Zhu, Yingdan; Sheng, Ruilong; Luo, Ting; Li, Hui; Sun, Jingjing; Chen, Shengdian; Sun, Wenyan; Cao, Amin

2011-07-01

323

Indirect rapid prototyping of biphasic calcium phosphate scaffolds as bone substitutes: influence of phase composition, macroporosity and pore geometry on mechanical properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

While various materials have been developed for bone substitute and bone tissue engineering applications over the last decades,\\u000a processing techniques meeting the high demands of scaffold shaping are still under development. Individually adapted and mechanically\\u000a optimised scaffolds can be derived from calcium phosphate (CaP-) ceramics via rapid prototyping (RP). In this study, porous\\u000a ceramic scaffolds with a periodic pattern of

M. Schumacher; U. Deisinger; R. Detsch; G. Ziegler

2010-01-01

324

A casting based process to fabricate 3D alginate scaffolds and to investigate the influence of heat transfer on pore architecture during fabrication  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fabrication of 3-dimensional (3D) tissue scaffolds is a competitive approach to engineered tissues. An ideal tissue scaffold must be highly porous, biocompatible, biodegradable, easily processed and cost-effective, and have adequate mechanical properties. A casting based process has been developed in this study to fabricate 3D alginate tissue scaffolds. The alginate\\/calcium gluconate hydrogel was quenched in a glass mold and

W. M. Parks; Y. B. Guo

2008-01-01

325

bFGF-containing electrospun gelatin scaffolds with controlled nano-architectural features for directed angiogenesis  

PubMed Central

Current therapeutic angiogenesis strategies are focused on the development of biologically responsive scaffolds that can deliver multiple angiogenic cytokines and/or cells in ischemic regions. Herein, we report on a novel electrospinning approach to fabricate cytokine-containing nanofibrous scaffolds with tunable architecture to promote angiogenesis. Fiber diameter and uniformity were controlled by varying the concentration of the polymeric (i.e. gelatin) solution, the feed rate, needle to collector distance, and electric field potential between the collector plate and injection needle. Scaffold fiber orientation (random vs. aligned) was achieved by alternating the polarity of two parallel electrodes placed on the collector plate thus dictating fiber deposition patterns. Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) was physically immobilized within the gelatin scaffolds at variable concentrations and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were seeded on the top of the scaffolds. Cell proliferation and migration was assessed as a function of growth factor loading and scaffold architecture. HUVECs successfully adhered onto gelatin B scaffolds and cell proliferation was directly proportional to the loading concentrations of the growth factor (0–100 bFGF ng/mL). Fiber orientation had a pronounced effect on cell morphology and orientation. Cells were spread along the fibers of the electrospun scaffolds with the aligned orientation and developed a spindle-like morphology parallel to the scaffold's fibers. In contrast, cells seeded onto the scaffolds with random fiber orientation, did not demonstrate any directionality and appeared to have a rounder shape. Capillary formation (i.e. sprouts length and number of sprouts per bead), assessed in a 3-D in vitro angiogenesis assay, was a function of bFGF loading concentration (0 ng, 50 ng and 100 ng per scaffold) for both types of electrospun scaffolds (i.e. with aligned or random fiber orientation). PMID:22200610

Montero, Ramon B.; Vial, Ximena; Nguyen, Dat Tat; Farhand, Sepehr; Reardon, Mark; Pham, Si M.; Tsechpenakis, Gavriil; Andreopoulos, Fotios M.

2011-01-01

326

Facile fabrication of poly(L-lactic acid)-grafted hydroxyapatite/poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) scaffolds by pickering high internal phase emulsion templates.  

PubMed

Porous scaffolds consisting of bioactive inorganic nanoparticles and biodegradable polymers have gained much interest in bone tissue engineering. We report here a facile approach to fabricating poly(l-lactic acid)-grafted hydroxyapatite (g-HAp)/poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanocomposite (NC) porous scaffolds by solvent evaporation of Pickering high internal phase emulsion (HIPE) templates, where g-HAp nanoparticles act as particulate stabilizers. The resultant porous scaffolds exhibit an open and rough pore structure. The pore structure and mechanical properties of the scaffolds can be tuned readily by varying the g-HAp nanoparticle concentration and internal phase volume fraction of the emulsion templates. With increasing the g-HAp concentration or decreasing the internal phase volume fraction, the pore size and the porosity decrease, while the Young's modulus and the compressive stress enhance. Moreover, the in vitro mineralization tests show that the bioactivity of the scaffolds increases with increasing the g-HAp concentration. Furthermore, the anti-inflammatory drug ibuprofen (IBU) is loaded into the scaffolds, and the drug release studies indicate that the loaded-IBU exhibits a sustained release profile. Finally, in vitro cell culture assays prove that the scaffolds are biocompatible because of supporting adhesion, spreading, and proliferation of mouse bone mesenchymal stem cells. All the results indicate that the solvent evaporation based on Pickering HIPE templates is a promising alternative method to fabricate NC porous scaffolds for potential bone tissue engineering applications. PMID:25243730

Hu, Yang; Gu, Xiaoyu; Yang, Yu; Huang, Jian; Hu, Meng; Chen, Weike; Tong, Zhen; Wang, Chaoyang

2014-10-01

327

Fabrication of a calcium phosphate scaffold with a three dimensional channel network and its application to perfusion culture of stem cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to adopt rapid prototyping (RP) technology to fabricate self-hardening calcium phosphate composite (CPC) scaffolds with a controlled internal channel network to facilitate nutrient supplying and cell growth using RP technique and investigate their in vitro performance. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Porous scaffolds should possess branched channels to ensure uniform cell feeding and even flow

Shanglong Xu; Dichen Li; Bingheng Lu; Yiping Tang; Chaofeng Wang; Zhen Wang

2007-01-01

328

Gene delivery from polymer scaffolds for tissue engineering.  

PubMed

The combination of gene therapy with tissue engineering offers the potential to direct progenitor cell proliferation and differentiation into functional tissue replacements. Many approaches to engineering tissue replacements feature a polymer scaffold to create and maintain a space, support cell adhesion, and organize tissue formation. Polymer scaffolds, either natural, synthetic, or a combination of the two, have also been adapted to serve as delivery vehicles for viral and nonviral vectors, which can induce the expression of tissue inductive factors. Gene delivery is a versatile approach, capable of targeting any cellular process through localized expression of tissue inductive factors. The design and application of tissue engineering scaffolds for localized gene transfer are reviewed. Scaffolds are designed either to release the vector into the local tissue environment or maintain the vector at the polymer surface, which is regulated by the effective affinity of the vector for the polymer. Polymeric delivery can enhance gene transfer locally, promote and extend transgene expression, avoid vector distribution to distant tissues, and reduce the immune response to the vector. Scaffolds capable of controlled DNA delivery can provide a fundamental tool for directing progenitor cell function, which has applications with the engineering of numerous types of tissue. The utility of this approach will increase with the development of design parameters that correlate release and transgene expression, and with continued research into the biology of tissue formation. PMID:16293016

Jang, Jae-Hyung; Houchin, Tiffany L; Shea, Lonnie D

2004-09-01

329

Enhancing the bioactivity of Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) scaffold with a nano-hydroxyapatite coating for the treatment of segmental bone defect in a rabbit model  

PubMed Central

Purpose Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) is excellent as a scaffolding matrix due to feasibility of processing and tunable biodegradability, yet the virgin scaffolds lack osteoconduction and osteoinduction. In this study, nano-hydroxyapatite (nHA) was coated on the interior surfaces of PLGA scaffolds in order to facilitate in vivo bone defect restoration using biomimetic ceramics while keeping the polyester skeleton of the scaffolds. Methods PLGA porous scaffolds were prepared and surface modification was carried out by incubation in modified simulated body fluids. The nHA coated PLGA scaffolds were compared to the virgin PLGA scaffolds both in vitro and in vivo. Viability and proliferation rate of bone marrow stromal cells of rabbits were examined. The constructs of scaffolds and autogenous bone marrow stromal cells were implanted into the segmental bone defect in the rabbit model, and the bone regeneration effects were observed. Results In contrast to the relative smooth pore surface of the virgin PLGA scaffold, a biomimetic hierarchical nanostructure was found on the surface of the interior pores of the nHA coated PLGA scaffolds by scanning electron microscopy. Both the viability and proliferation rate of the cells seeded in nHA coated PLGA scaffolds were higher than those in PLGA scaffolds. For bone defect repairing, the radius defects had, after 12 weeks implantation of nHA coated PLGA scaffolds, completely recuperated with significantly better bone formation than in the group of virgin PLGA scaffolds, as shown by X-ray, Micro-computerized tomography and histological examinations. Conclusion nHA coating on the interior pore surfaces can significantly improve the bioactivity of PLGA porous scaffolds. PMID:23690683

Wang, De-Xin; He, Yao; Bi, Long; Qu, Ze-Hua; Zou, Ji-Wei; Pan, Zhen; Fan, Jun-Jun; Chen, Liang; Dong, Xin; Liu, Xiang-Nan; Pei, Guo-Xian; Ding, Jian-Dong

2013-01-01

330

Antibacterial and wound healing analysis of gelatin/zeolite scaffolds.  

PubMed

In this article, gelatin/copper activated faujasites (CAF) composite scaffolds were fabricated by lyophilisation technique for promoting partial thickness wound healing. The optimised scaffold with 0.5% (w/w) of CAF, G (0.5%), demonstrated pore size in the range of 10-350 ?m. Agar disc diffusion tests verified the antibacterial role of G (0.5%) and further supported that bacterial lysis was due to copper released from the core of CAF embedded in the gelatin matrix. The change in morphology of bacteria as a function of CAF content in gelatin scaffold was studied using SEM analysis. The confocal images revealed the increase in mortality rate of bacteria with increase in concentration of incorporated CAF in gelatin matrix. Proficient oxygen supply to needy cells is a continuing hurdle faced by tissue engineering scaffolds. The dissolved oxygen measurements revealed that CAF embedded in the scaffold were capable of increasing oxygen supply and thereby promote cell proliferation. Also, G (0.5%) exhibited highest cell viability on NIH 3T3 fibroblast cells which was mainly attributed to the highly porous architecture and its ability to enhance oxygen supply to cells. In vivo studies conducted on Sprague Dawley rats revealed the ability of G (0.5%) to promote skin regeneration in 20 days. Thus, the obtained data suggest that G (0.5%) is an ideal candidate for wound healing applications. PMID:24362063

Ninan, Neethu; Muthiah, Muthunarayanan; Bt Yahaya, Nur Aliza; Park, In-Kyu; Elain, Anne; Wong, Tin Wui; Thomas, Sabu; Grohens, Yves

2014-03-01

331

Fabrication of Bioceramic Bone Scaffolds for Tissue Engineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, microhydroxyapatite and nanosilica sol were used as the raw materials for fabrication of bioceramic bone scaffold using selective laser sintering technology in a self-developed 3D Printing apparatus. When the fluidity of ceramic slurry is matched with suitable laser processing parameters, a controlled pore size of porous bone scaffold can be fabricated under a lower laser energy. Results shown that the fabricated scaffolds have a bending strength of 14.1 MPa, a compressive strength of 24 MPa, a surface roughness of 725 nm, a pore size of 750 ?m, an apparent porosity of 32%, and a optical density of 1.8. Results indicate that the mechanical strength of the scaffold can be improved after heat treatment at 1200 °C for 2 h, while simultaneously increasing surface roughness conducive to osteoprogenitor cell adhesion. MTT method and SEM observations confirmed that bone scaffolds fabricated under the optimal manufacturing process possess suitable biocompatibility and mechanical properties, allowing smooth adhesion and proliferation of osteoblast-like cells. Therefore, they have great potential for development in the field of tissue engineering.

Liu, Fwu-Hsing

2014-07-01

332

Fabrication of Bioceramic Bone Scaffolds for Tissue Engineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, microhydroxyapatite and nanosilica sol were used as the raw materials for fabrication of bioceramic bone scaffold using selective laser sintering technology in a self-developed 3D Printing apparatus. When the fluidity of ceramic slurry is matched with suitable laser processing parameters, a controlled pore size of porous bone scaffold can be fabricated under a lower laser energy. Results shown that the fabricated scaffolds have a bending strength of 14.1 MPa, a compressive strength of 24 MPa, a surface roughness of 725 nm, a pore size of 750 ?m, an apparent porosity of 32%, and a optical density of 1.8. Results indicate that the mechanical strength of the scaffold can be improved after heat treatment at 1200 °C for 2 h, while simultaneously increasing surface roughness conducive to osteoprogenitor cell adhesion. MTT method and SEM observations confirmed that bone scaffolds fabricated under the optimal manufacturing process possess suitable biocompatibility and mechanical properties, allowing smooth adhesion and proliferation of osteoblast-like cells. Therefore, they have great potential for development in the field of tissue engineering.

Liu, Fwu-Hsing

2014-10-01

333

A simultaneous process of 3D magnesium phosphate scaffold fabrication and bioactive substance loading for hard tissue regeneration.  

PubMed

A novel room temperature process was developed to produce a 3D porous magnesium phosphate (MgP) scaffold with high drug load/release efficiency for use in hard tissue regeneration through a combination of a paste extruding deposition (PED) system and cement chemistry. MgP scaffolds were prepared using a two-step process. The first step was fabrication of the 3D porous scaffold green body to control both the morphology and pore structure using a PED system without hardening. The second step was cementation, which was carried out by immersing the scaffold green body in the binder solution for hardening instead of the typical sintering process in ceramic scaffold fabrication. Separation of the manufacturing process and cement reaction was important to secure enough time to fabricate a 3D scaffold with various sizes and architectures under homogeneous extruding conditions. Because the whole process is carried out at room temperature, the bioactive molecules, which are easily denatured by heat, may apply to scaffolds during the process. Lysozyme was selected as a model bioactive substance to demonstrate the efficiency of this process; this was directly mixed into MgP powder to introduce homogeneous distribution in the scaffold. The extruding paste for the PED system was prepared using the MgP-lysozyme blended powder as starting materials. That is, both 3D scaffold fabrication and functionalization of the scaffold with bioactive substances could be carried out simultaneously. This process significantly enhanced both drug loading efficiency and release performance compared to the typical sintering process, where the drug is generally loaded by adsorption after heat treatment. The MgP scaffold developed in this study satisfied the required conditions for scaffolding in hard tissue regeneration in an ideal manner, including 3 dimensionally well-interconnected pore structures, favorable mechanical properties, biodegradability, good cell affinity and in vitro biocompatibility; thus, it has excellent potential for application in the field of biomaterials. PMID:24433911

Lee, Jongman; Farag, Mohammad Mahmoud; Park, Eui Kyun; Lim, Jiwon; Yun, Hui-Suk

2014-03-01

334

Evaluation of tubular poly(trimethylene carbonate) tissue engineering scaffolds in a circulating pulsatile flow system.  

PubMed

Tubular scaffolds (internal diameter approximately 3 mm and wall thickness approximately 0.8 mm) with a porosity of approximately 83% and an average pore size of 116 µm were prepared from flexible poly(trimethylene carbonate) (PTMC) polymer by dip-coating and particulate leaching methods. PTMC is a flexible and biocompatible polymer that crosslinks upon irradiation; porous network structures were obtained by irradiating the specimens in vacuum at 25 kGy before leaching soluble salt particles. To assess the suitability of these scaffolds in dynamic cell culturing for cardiovascular tissue engineering, the scaffolds were coated with a thin (0.1 to 0.2 mm) non-porous PTMC layer and its performance was evaluated in a closed pulsatile flow system (PFS). For this, the PFS was operated at physiological conditions at liquid flows of 1.56 ml/s with pressures varying from 80-120 mmHg at a frequency of 70 pulsations per minute. The mechanical properties of these coated porous PTMC scaffolds were not significantly different than non-coated scaffolds. Typical tensile strengths in the radial direction were 0.15 MPa, initial stiffness values were close to 1.4 MPa. Their creep resistance in cyclic deformation experiments was excellent. In the pulsatile flow setup, the distention rates of these flexible and elastic scaffolds were approximately 0.10% per mmHg, which is comparable to that of a porcine carotid artery (0.11% per mmHg). The compliance and stiffness index values were close to those of natural arteries.?In long-term deformation studies, where the scaffolds were subjected to physiological pulsatile pressures for one week, the morphology and mechanical properties of the PTMC scaffolds did not change. This suggests their suitability for application in a dynamic cell culture bioreactor. PMID:21374572

Song, Yan; Wennink, Jos W H; Poot, Andre A; Vermes, Istvan; Feijen, Jan; Grijpma, Dirk W

2011-02-01

335

Investigation of the mechanical properties and porosity relationships in fused deposition modelling-fabricated porous structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the mechanical properties and porosity relationships in fused deposition modelling (FDM) fabricated porous structures. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Porous structures of numerous build architectures aimed at tissue engineering (TE) application were fabricated using the FDM. The employment of FDM to fabricate these non-random constructs offers many advantages over conventional scaffold fabrication techniques

Ker Chin Ang; Kah Fai Leong; Chee Kai Chua; Margam Chandrasekaran

2006-01-01

336

Sol-gel assisted fabrication of collagen hydrolysate composite scaffold: a novel therapeutic alternative to the traditional collagen scaffold.  

PubMed

Collagen is one of the most widely used biomaterial for various biomedical applications. In this Research Article, we present a novel approach of using collagen hydrolysate, smaller fragments of collagen, as an alternative to traditionally used collagen scaffold. Collagen hydrolysate composite scaffold (CHCS) was fabricated with sol-gel transition procedure using tetraethoxysilane as the silica precursor. CHCS exhibits porous morphology with pore sizes varying between 380 and 780 ?m. Incorporation of silica conferred CHCS with controlled biodegradation and better water uptake capacity. Notably, 3T3 fibroblast proliferation was seen to be significantly better under CHCS treatment when compared to treatment with collagen scaffold. Additionally, CHCS showed excellent antimicrobial activity against the wound pathogens Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, and Escherichia coli due to the inherited antimicrobial activity of collagen hydrolysate. In vivo wound healing experiments with full thickness excision wounds in rat model demonstrated that wounds treated with CHCS showed accelerated healing when compared to wounds treated with collagen scaffold. These findings indicate that the CHCS scaffold from collagen fragments would be an effective and affordable alternative to the traditionally used collagen structural biomaterials. PMID:25105509

Ramadass, Satiesh Kumar; Perumal, Sathiamurthi; Gopinath, Arun; Nisal, Anuya; Subramanian, Saravanan; Madhan, Balaraman

2014-09-10

337

The influence of prefreezing temperature on pore structure in freeze-dried beta-TCP scaffolds.  

PubMed

A combined method of tricalcium phosphate (TCP) scaffold production, which comprised negative mold and scaffold fabrication, was reported in this study. The negative mold structure was designed by computer and fabricated by fused deposition modeling (FDM) technology, while the TCP scaffold was produced by freeze-drying technology under different prefreezing temperatures of -10 degrees C, -30 degrees C, and -86 degrees C and thermal treatment to get beta-TCP. The scaffold structure was evaluated with X-ray, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), compressive mechanical testing, and micro-computerized tomography (micro-CT). The cell-scaffold interaction was studied by culturing dog bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) on the scaffolds and assessing differentiated BMSC function by measuring cellular alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. The results showed good interconnectivity and good pore distribution with the pore size ranging from 50 to 250 microm and compressive modulus of 1.18 MPa at a prefreezing temperatures of -10 degrees C. In vitro cell culture results indicated that the porous scaffolds were not toxic to bone cells. These results demonstrate that rapid prototyping and freeze-drying technologies for creating beta-TCP scaffolds are promising for bone tissue engineering. PMID:23516955

Lin, Liulan; Wang, Zhikun; Zhou, Liping; Hu, Qingxi; Fang, Minglun

2013-01-01

338

Minimally invasive approach to the repair of injured skeletal muscle with a shape-memory scaffold.  

PubMed

Repair of injured skeletal muscle by cell therapies has been limited by poor survival of injected cells. Use of a carrier scaffold delivering cells locally, may enhance in vivo cell survival, and promote skeletal muscle regeneration. Biomaterial scaffolds are often implanted into muscle tissue through invasive surgeries, which can result in trauma that delays healing. Minimally invasive approaches to scaffold implantation are thought to minimize these adverse effects. This hypothesis was addressed in the context of a severe mouse skeletal muscle injury model. A degradable, shape-memory alginate scaffold that was highly porous and compressible was delivered by minimally invasive surgical techniques to injured tibialis anterior muscle. The scaffold controlled was quickly rehydrated in situ with autologous myoblasts and growth factors (either insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) alone or IGF-1 with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)). The implanted scaffolds delivering myoblasts and IGF-1 significantly reduced scar formation, enhanced cell engraftment, and improved muscle contractile function. The addition of VEGF to the scaffold further improved functional recovery likely through increased angiogenesis. Thus, the delivery of myoblasts and dual local release of VEGF and IGF-1 from degradable scaffolds implanted through a minimally invasive procedure effectively promoted the functional regeneration of injured skeletal muscle. PMID:24769909

Wang, Lin; Cao, Lan; Shansky, Janet; Wang, Zheng; Mooney, David; Vandenburgh, Herman

2014-08-01

339

Precision Extruding Deposition for Freeform Fabrication of PCL and PCL-HA Tissue Scaffolds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Computer-aided tissue engineering approach was used to develop a novel Precision Extrusion Deposition (PED) process to directly fabricate Polycaprolactone (PCL) and composite PCL/Hydroxyapatite (PCL-HA) tissue scaffolds. The process optimization was carried out to fabricate both PCL and PCL-HA (25% concentration by weight of HA) with a controlled pore size and internal pore structure of the 0°/90° pattern. Two groups of scaffolds having 60 and 70% porosity and with pore sizes of 450 and 750 microns, respectively, were evaluated for their morphology and compressive properties using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and mechanical testing. The surface modification with plasma was conducted on PCL scaffold to increase the cellular attachment and proliferation. Our results suggested that inclusion of HA significantly increased the compressive modulus from 59 to 84 MPa for 60% porous scaffolds and from 30 to 76 MPa for 70% porous scaffolds. In vitro cell-scaffolds interaction study was carried out using primary fetal bovine osteoblasts to assess the feasibility of scaffolds for bone tissue engineering application. In addition, the results in surface hydrophilicity and roughness show that plasma surface modification can increase the hydrophilicity while introducing the nano-scale surface roughness on PCL surface. The cell proliferation and differentiation were calculated by Alamar Blue assay and by determining alkaline phosphatase activity. The osteoblasts were able to migrate and proliferate over the cultured time for both PCL as well as PCL-HA scaffolds. Our study demonstrated the viability of the PED process to the fabricate PCL and PCL-HA composite scaffolds having necessary mechanical property, structural integrity, controlled pore size and pore interconnectivity desired for bone tissue engineering.

Shor, L.; Yildirim, E. D.; Güçeri, S.; Sun, W.

340

Preparation of poly(ethylene glycol)/polylactide hybrid fibrous scaffolds for bone tissue engineering  

PubMed Central

Polylactide (PLA) electrospun fibers have been reported as a scaffold for bone tissue engineering application, however, the great hydrophobicity limits its broad application. In this study, the hybrid amphiphilic poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)/hydrophobic PLA fibrous scaffolds exhibited improved morphology with regular and continuous fibers compared to corresponding blank PLA fiber mats. The prepared PEG/PLA fibrous scaffolds favored mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) attachment and proliferation by providing an interconnected porous extracellular environment. Meanwhile, MSCs can penetrate into the fibrous scaffold through the interstitial pores and integrate well with the surrounding fibers, which is very important for favorable application in tissue engineering. More importantly, the electrospun hybrid PEG/PLA fibrous scaffolds can enhance MSCs to differentiate into bone-associated cells by comprehensively evaluating the representative markers of the osteogenic procedure with messenger ribonucleic acid quantitation and protein analysis. MSCs on the PEG/PLA fibrous scaffolds presented better differentiation potential with higher messenger ribonucleic acid expression of the earliest osteogenic marker Cbfa-1 and mid-stage osteogenic marker Col I. The significantly higher alkaline phosphatase activity of the PEG/PLA fibrous scaffolds indicated that these can enhance the differentiation of MSCs into osteoblast-like cells. Furthermore, the higher messenger ribonucleic acid level of the late osteogenic differentiation markers OCN (osteocalcin) and OPN (osteopontin), accompanied by the positive Alizarin red S staining, showed better maturation of osteogenic induction on the PEG/PLA fibrous scaffolds at the mineralization stage of differentiation. After transplantation into the thigh muscle pouches of rats, and evaluating the inflammatory cells surrounding the scaffolds and the physiological characteristics of the surrounding tissues, the PEG/PLA scaffolds presented good biocompatibility. Based on the good cellular response and excellent osteogenic potential in vitro, as well as the biocompatibility with the surrounding tissues in vivo, the electrospun PEG/PLA fibrous scaffolds could be one of the most promising candidates in bone tissue engineering. PMID:22163160

Ni, PeiYan; Fu, ShaoZhi; Fan, Min; Guo, Gang; Shi, Shuai; Peng, JinRong; Luo, Feng; Qian, ZhiYong

2011-01-01

341

Bi-layered calcium phosphate cement-based composite scaffold mimicking natural bone structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, a core/shell bi-layered calcium phosphate cement (CPC)-based composite scaffold with adjustable compressive strength, which mimicked the structure of natural cortical/cancellous bone, was fabricated. The dense tubular CPC shell was prepared by isostatic pressing CPC powder with a specially designed mould. A porous CPC core with unidirectional lamellar pore structure was fabricated inside the cavity of dense tubular CPC shell by unidirectional freeze casting, followed by infiltration of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) and immobilization of collagen. The compressive strength of bi-layered CPC-based composite scaffold can be controlled by varying thickness ratio of dense layer to porous layer. Compared to the scaffold without dense shell, the pore interconnection of bi-layered scaffold was not obviously compromised because of its high unidirectional interconnectivity but poor three dimensional interconnectivity. The in vitro results showed that the rat bone marrow stromal cells attached and proliferated well on the bi-layered CPC-based composite scaffold. This novel bi-layered CPC-based composite scaffold is promising for bone repair.

He, Fupo; Ye, Jiandong

2013-08-01

342

Experimental and clinical performance of porous tantalum in orthopedic surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Porous tantalum, a new low modulus metal with a characteristic appearance similar to cancellous bone, is currently available for use in several orthopedic applications (hip and knee arthroplasty, spine surgery, and bone graft substitute). The open-cell structure of repeating dodecahedrons is produced via carbon vapor deposition\\/infiltration of commercially pure tantalum onto a vitreous carbon scaffolding. This transition metal maintains several

Brett Russell Levine; Scott Sporer; Robert A. Poggie; Craig J. Della Valle; Joshua J. Jacobs

2006-01-01

343

Enhanced in vitro osteoblast differentiation on TiO2 scaffold coated with alginate hydrogel containing simvastatin  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to develop a three-dimensional porous bone graft material as vehicle for simvastatin delivery and to investigate its effect on primary human osteoblasts from three donors. Highly porous titanium dioxide (TiO2) scaffolds were submerged into simvastatin containing alginate solution. Microstructure of scaffolds, visualized by scanning electron microscopy and micro-computed tomography, revealed an evenly distributed alginate layer covering the surface of TiO2 scaffold struts. Progressive and sustained simvastatin release was observed for up to 19 days. No cytotoxic effects on osteoblasts were observed by scaffolds with simvastatin when compared to scaffolds without simvastatin. Expression of osteoblast markers (collagen type I alpha 1, alkaline phosphatase, bone morphogenetic protein 2, osteoprotegerin, vascular endothelial growth factor A and osteocalcin) was quantified using real-time reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction. Secretion of osteoprotegerin, vascular endothelial growth factor A and osteocalcin was analysed by multiplex immunoassay (Luminex). The relative expression and secretion of osteocalcin was significantly increased by cells cultured on scaffolds with 10 µM simvastatin when compared to scaffolds without simvastatin after 21 days. In addition, secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor A was significantly enhanced from cells cultured on scaffolds with both 10 nM and 10 µM simvastatin when compared to scaffolds without simvastatin at day 21. In conclusion, the results indicate that simvastatin-coated TiO2 scaffolds can support a sustained release of simvastatin and induce osteoblast differentiation. The combination of the physical properties of TiO2 scaffolds with the osteogenic effect of simvastatin may represent a new strategy for bone regeneration in defects where immediate load is wanted or unavailable. PMID:24555011

Pullisaar, Helen; Tiainen, Hanna; Landin, Maria A; Lyngstadaas, Stale P; Reseland, Janne E; ?strup, Esben

2013-01-01

344

Acrylate-silica polymer nanocomposites obtained by sol-gel reactions. Structure, properties and scaffold preparation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The manuscript deals with the development and characterization of hybrid materials based on poly(hydroxyethyl acrylate) (hereafter PHEA) reinforced by the inclusion of an amorphous silica phase. Both phases were simultaneously synthesized: the organic phase underwent a free radical polymerization reaction induced by the small addition of a thermal initiator (benzoyl peroxide); besides, silica (SiO2) was polymerized by an acid catalyzed sol-gel reaction of the silicon alkoxide tetraethoxysilane (hereafter TEOS). The sol-gel reaction conditions where silicon dioxide is formed influence the final silica structure: degree of condensation, linear versus branched intermediate species, average size, and so on. Some of the key parameters to control SiO2 topology on sol-gel derived composites include the catalyst nature used to increase the alkoxide reactivity (as well as its amount, pH), the available water to hydrolyze the silica precursor (referred to the stoichiometric amount needed to fully hydrolyze one molecule of TEOS) and ratio between the organic and inorganic phases on the final hybrid. The former (catalyst) and the second (water) conditions were fixed so as to synthesize materials with silica average sizes around tens of nanometres (nanocomposites); the latter, the relative ratio between organic and inorganic phases, was systematically changed. Besides, it is introduced a methodology to prepare a new kind of scaffolds made by nanocomposites whose pore morphology consists of a cylindrical channel mesh, which are perpendicular between themselves. The procedure is based on the well-known method of intermediate templates, this time prepared by a stack of woven fabrics which are first pressed and afterwards sintered. After the filling of the holes left inside the template by the monomeric solution and subsequent thermal polymerization, templates are removed by the selective solvent of the material it is made up. A suitable template preparation is found to be crucial, since the sintering of localized points between neighbour fabrics gives rise to transversal holes which make that porous structure three-dimensionally interconnected. Porosity values equal 60%.

Rodriguez Hernandez, Jose Carlos

345

Microporous nanofibrous fibrin-based scaffolds for craniofacial bone tissue engineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fibrotic response of the body to synthetic polymers limits their success in tissue engineering and other applications. Though porous polymers have demonstrated improved healing, difficulty in controlling their pore sizes and pore interconnections has clouded the understanding of this phenomenon. In this study, a novel method to fabricate natural polymer/calcium phosphate composite scaffolds and immobilized alkaline phosphatase fibrin scaffolds with tightly controllable pore size, pore interconnection has been investigated. Microporous, nanofibrous fibrin scaffolds (FS) were fabricated using sphere-templating method. Calcium phosphate/fibrin composite scaffolds were created by solution deposition of calcium phosphate on fibrin surfaces or by direct incorporation of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite (nHA). The SEM results showed that fibrin scaffolds exhibited a highly porous and interconnected structure. Osteoblast-like cells, obtained from murine calvaria, attached, spread and showed a polygonal morphology on the surface of the biomaterial. Multiple cell layers and fibrillar matrix deposition were observed. Moreover, cells seeded on mineralized fibrin scaffolds (MFS) exhibited significantly higher alkaline phosphatase activity as well as osteoblast marker gene expression compared to FS and nHA incorporated fibrin scaffolds (nHA/FS). These fibrin-based scaffolds were degraded both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, these scaffolds promoted bone formation in a mouse calvarial defect model and the bone formation was enhanced by addition of rhBMP-2. The second approach was to immobilize alkaline phosphatase (ALP) on fibrin scaffolds. ALP enzyme was covalently immobilized on the microporous nanofibrous fibrin scaffolds using 1-ethyl-3-(dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC). The SEM results demonstrated mineral deposition on immobilized ALP fibrin scaffolds (ALP/FS) when incubated in medium supplemented with beta-glycerophosphate, suggesting that the immobilized ALP enzyme was active. Mineral deposition was also observed in cells seeded on immobilized ALP/FS. Furthermore, cells seeded on immobilized ALP/FS exhibited higher osteoblast marker gene expression compared to those on control FS. Upon implantation in mouse calvarial defect, the immobilized ALP/FS treated group had slightly higher bone volume in the defect compared to empty defect control and FS alone. In conclusion, the enhanced biological responses both in vitro and in vivo demonstrated the potential application of these novel microporous nanofibrous fibrin-based scaffolds for bone tissue engineering.

Osathanon, Thanaphum

346

Fabrication of poly-DL-lactide/polyethylene glycol scaffolds using the gas foaming technique.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to prepare poly-DL-lactide/polyethylene glycol (PDLLA/PEG) blends to improve medium absorption and cell proliferation in the three-dimensional (3-D) structure of their scaffolds. Carbon dioxide (CO2) was used as a foaming agent to create porosity in these blends. The results of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy demonstrated that the blends were homogeneous mixtures of PDLLA and PEG. The peak shifts at 1092 and 1744 cm(-1) confirmed the presence of molecular interactions between these two compounds. Increasing the PEG weight ratio enhanced the relative crystallinity and hydrophilicity. The PDLLA/PEG blends (especially 80/20 and 70/30 weight ratios) exhibited linear degradation profiles over an incubation time of 8 weeks. The mechanical properties of PDLLA/PEG blends having less than 30 wt.% PEG were suitable for the fabrication of porous scaffolds. Increasing the concentration of PEG to above 50% resulted in blends that were brittle and had low mechanical integrity. Highly porous scaffolds with controllable pore size were produced for 30 wt.% PEG samples using the gas foaming technique at temperatures between 25 and 55 °C and pressures between 60 and 160 bar. The average pore diameters achieved by gas foaming process were between 15 and 150 ?m, and had an average porosity of 84%. The medium uptake and degradation rate of fabricated PDLLA/PEG scaffolds were increased compared with neat PDLLA film due to the presence of PEG and porosity. The porous scaffolds also demonstrated a lower modulus of elasticity and a higher elongation at break compared to the non-porous film. The fabricated PDLLA/PEG scaffolds have high potential for various tissue-engineering applications. PMID:21996623

Ji, Chengdong; Annabi, Nasim; Hosseinkhani, Maryam; Sivaloganathan, Sobana; Dehghani, Fariba

2012-02-01

347

Scaffolding in Technology-Enhanced Science Education  

E-print Network

This dissertation focuses on the effectiveness of scaffolding in technology-enhanced science learning environments, and specifically the relative merits of computer- and teacher-based scaffolding in science inquiry. Scaffolding is an instructional...

Wu, Hui-Ling

2011-08-08

348

Synthesis, characterization, and biological evaluation of gelatin-based scaffolds  

E-print Network

This thesis presents the development of entropy-elastic gelatin based networks in the form of films or scaffolds. The materials have good prospects for biomedical applications, especially in the context of bone regeneration. Entropy-elastic gelatin based hydrogel films with varying crosslinking densities were prepared with tailored mechanical properties. Gelatin was covalently crosslinked in water above its sol gel transition, which suppressed the gelatin chain helicity. Amorphous films were prepared with tailorable degrees of swelling and wet state Young's modulus. The knowledge gained with this bulk material was transferred to the integrated process of foaming and crosslinking to obtain porous gelatin-based scaffolds. A gelatin solution was foamed in the presence of saponin and the resulting foam was fixed by chemical crosslinking with a diisocyanate. The scaffolds were analyzed in the dry state by micro computed tomography (\\mu CT, porosity: 65\\pm 11-73\\pm 14 vol.-%), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM, pore size: 117\\pm 28-166 \\pm 32 \\mu m). After equilibration with water, the scaffolds were form-stable and displayed shape recovery after removal of mechanical loads. The composition dependent compression moduli (Ec: 10 50 kPa) were comparable to the bulk micromechanical Young's moduli, which were measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The hydrolytic degradation profile could be adjusted, and a controlled decrease of mechanical properties was observed. The scaffold cytotoxicity and immunologic responses were analyzed in vitro. Indirect eluate tests were carried out with L929 cells so that fully cytocompatible scaffolds were obtained. Furthermore, the material immune response was investigated in vitro. Minimal material endotoxin contamination was successfully achieved (<0.5 EU/mL) by using low-endotoxin gelatin and performing all synthetic steps in cleanroom.

Giuseppe Tronci

2011-01-09

349

Skeletal Muscle Regeneration on Protein-Grafted and Microchannel-Patterned Scaffold for Hypopharyngeal Tissue Engineering  

PubMed Central

In the field of tissue engineering, polymeric materials with high biocompatibility like polylactic acid and polyglycolic acid have been widely used for fabricating living constructs. For hypopharynx tissue engineering, skeletal muscle is one important functional part of the whole organ, which assembles the unidirectionally aligned myotubes. In this study, a polyurethane (PU) scaffold with microchannel patterns was used to provide aligning guidance for the seeded human myoblasts. Due to the low hydrophilicity of PU, the scaffold was grafted with silk fibroin (PU-SF) or gelatin (PU-Gel) to improve its cell adhesion properties. Scaffolds were observed to degrade slowly over time, and their mechanical properties and hydrophilicities were improved through the surface grafting. Also, the myoblasts seeded on PU-SF had the higher proliferative rate and better differentiation compared with those on the control or PU-Gel. Our results demonstrate that polyurethane scaffolds seeded with myoblasts hold promise to guide hypopharynx muscle regeneration. PMID:24175281

Shen, Zhisen; Guo, Shanshan; Ye, Dong; Chen, Jingjing; Kang, Cheng; Qiu, Shejie; Lu, Dakai; Li, Qun; Xu, Kunjie; Lv, Jingjing

2013-01-01

350

Combining micro computed tomography and three-dimensional registration to evaluate local strains in shape memory scaffolds.  

PubMed

Appropriate mechanical stimulation of bony tissue enhances osseointegration of load-bearing implants. Uniaxial compression of porous implants locally results in tensile and compressive strains. Their experimental determination is the objective of this study. Selective laser melting is applied to produce open-porous NiTi scaffolds of cubic units. To measure displacement and strain fields within the compressed scaffold, the authors took advantage of synchrotron radiation-based micro computed tomography during temperature increase and non-rigid three-dimensional data registration. Uniaxial scaffold compression of 6% led to local compressive and tensile strains of up to 15%. The experiments validate modeling by means of the finite element method. Increasing the temperature during the tomography experiment from 15 to 37°C at a rate of 4 K h(-1), one can locally identify the phase transition from martensite to austenite. It starts at ? 24°C on the scaffolds bottom, proceeds up towards the top and terminates at ? 34°C on the periphery of the scaffold. The results allow not only design optimization of the scaffold architecture, but also estimation of maximal displacements before cracks are initiated and of optimized mechanical stimuli around porous metallic load-bearing implants within the physiological temperature range. PMID:24257506

Bormann, Therese; Schulz, Georg; Deyhle, Hans; Beckmann, Felix; de Wild, Michael; Küffer, Jürg; Münch, Christoph; Hoffmann, Waldemar; Müller, Bert

2014-02-01

351

A novel bone scaffold design approach based on shape function and all-hexahedral mesh refinement.  

PubMed

Tissue engineering is the application of interdisciplinary knowledge in the building and repairing of tissues. Generally, an engineered tissue is a combination of living cells and a support structure called a scaffold. The scaffold provides support for bone-producing cells and can be used to heal or replace a defective bone. In this chapter, a novel bone scaffold design approach based on shape function and an all-hexahedral mesh refinement method is presented. Based on the shape function in the finite element method, an all-hexahedral mesh is used to design a porous bone scaffold. First, the individual pore based on the subdivided individual element is modeled; then, the Boolean operation union among the pores is used to generate the whole pore model of TE bone scaffold; finally, the bone scaffold which contains various irregular pores can be modeled by the Boolean operation difference between the solid model and the whole pore model. From the SEM images, the pore size distribution in the native bone is not randomly distributed and there are gradients for pore size distribution. Therefore, a control approach for pore size distribution in the bone scaffold based on the hexahedral mesh refinement is also proposed in this chapter. A well-defined pore size distribution can be achieved based on the fact that a hexahedral element size distribution can be obtained through an all-hexahedral mesh refinement and the pore morphology and size are under the control of the hexahedral element. The designed bone scaffold can be converted to a universal 3D file format (such as STL or STEP) which could be used for rapid prototyping (RP). Finally, 3D printing (Spectrum Z510), a type of RP system, is adopted to fabricate these bone scaffolds. The successfully fabricated scaffolds validate the novel computer-aided design approach in this research. PMID:22692603

Cai, Shengyong; Xi, Juntong; Chua, Chee Kai

2012-01-01

352

Laser fabrication of three-dimensional CAD scaffolds from photosensitive gelatin for applications in tissue engineering.  

PubMed

In the present work, 3D CAD scaffolds for tissue engineering applications were developed starting from methacrylamide-modified gelatin (GelMOD) using two-photon polymerization (2PP). The scaffolds were cross-linked employing the biocompatible photoinitiator Irgacure 2959. Because gelatin is derived from collagen (i.e., the main constituent of the ECM), the developed materials mimic the cellular microenvironment from a chemical point of view. In addition, by applying the 2PP technique, structural properties of the cellular microenvironment can also be mimicked. Furthermore, in vitro degradation assays indicated that the enzymatic degradation capability of gelatin is preserved for the methacrylamide-modified derivative. An in depth morphological analysis of the 2PP-fabricated scaffolds demonstrated that the parameters of the CAD model are reproduced with great precision, including the ridge-like surface topography on the order of 1.5 ?m. The developed scaffolds showed an excellent stability in culture medium. In a final part of the present work, the suitability of the developed scaffolds for tissue engineering applications was verified. The results indicated that the applied materials are suitable to support porcine mesenchymal stem cell adhesion and subsequent proliferation. Upon applying osteogenic stimulation, the seeded cells differentiated into the anticipated lineage. Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis showed the induced calcification of the scaffolds. The results clearly indicate that 2PP is capable of manufacturing precisely constructed 3D tissue engineering scaffolds using photosensitive polymers as starting material. PMID:21366287

Ovsianikov, Aleksandr; Deiwick, Andrea; Van Vlierberghe, Sandra; Dubruel, Peter; Möller, Lena; Dräger, Gerald; Chichkov, Boris

2011-04-11

353

A preliminary study of acoustic propagation in thick foam tissue scaffolds composed of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)  

E-print Network

The exclusive ability of acoustic waves to probe the structural, mechanical and fluidic properties of foams may offer novel approaches to characterise the porous scaffolds employed in tissue engineering. Motivated by this we conduct a preliminary investigation into the acoustic properties of a typical biopolymer and the feasibility of acoustic propagation within a foam scaffold thereof. Focussing on poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid), we use a pulse-echo method to determine the longitudinal speed of sound, whose temperature-dependence reveals the glass transition of the polymer. Finally, we demonstrate the first topographic and tomographic acoustic images of polymer foam tissue scaffolds.

N. G. Parker; M. L. Mather; S. P. Morgan; M. J. W. Povey

2010-02-26

354

A preliminary study of acoustic propagation in thick foam tissue scaffolds composed of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)  

E-print Network

The exclusive ability of acoustic waves to probe the structural, mechanical and fluidic properties of foams may offer novel approaches to characterise the porous scaffolds employed in tissue engineering. Motivated by this we conduct a preliminary investigation into the acoustic properties of a typical biopolymer and the feasibility of acoustic propagation within a foam scaffold thereof. Focussing on poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid), we use a pulse-echo method to determine the longitudinal speed of sound, whose temperature-dependence reveals the glass transition of the polymer. Finally, we demonstrate the first topographic and tomographic acoustic images of polymer foam tissue scaffolds.

Parker, N G; Morgan, S P; Povey, M J W

2010-01-01

355

A cell leakproof PLGA-collagen hybrid scaffold for cartilage tissue engineering.  

PubMed

A cell leakproof porous poly(DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)-collagen hybrid scaffold was prepared by wrapping the surfaces of a collagen sponge except the top surface for cell seeding with a bi-layered PLGA mesh. The PLGA-collagen hybrid scaffold had a structure consisting of a central collagen sponge formed inside a bi-layered PLGA mesh cup. The hybrid scaffold showed high mechanical strength. The cell seeding efficiency was 90.0% when human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were seeded in the hybrid scaffold. The central collagen sponge provided enough space for cell loading and supported cell adhesion, while the bi-layered PLGA mesh cup protected against cell leakage and provided high mechanical strength for the collagen sponge to maintain its shape during cell culture. The MSCs in the hybrid scaffolds showed round cell morphology after 4 weeks culture in chondrogenic induction medium. Immunostaining demonstrated that type II collagen and cartilaginous proteoglycan were detected in the extracellular matrices. Gene expression analyses by real-time PCR showed that the genes encoding type II collagen, aggrecan, and SOX9 were upregulated. These results indicated that the MSCs differentiated and formed cartilage-like tissue when being cultured in the cell leakproof PLGA-collagen hybrid scaffold. The cell leakproof PLGA-collagen hybrid scaffolds should be useful for applications in cartilage tissue engineering. PMID:20039440

Kawazoe, Naoki; Inoue, Chieko; Tateishi, Tetsuya; Chen, Guoping

2010-01-01

356

Melt-electrospun polycaprolactone strontium-substituted bioactive glass scaffolds for bone regeneration.  

PubMed

Polycaprolactone (PCL) is a resorbable polymer used extensively in bone tissue engineering owing to good structural properties and processability. Strontium-substituted bioactive glass (SrBG) has the ability to promote osteogenesis and may be incorporated into scaffolds intended for bone repair. Here, we describe for the first time, the development of a PCL-SrBG composite scaffold incorporating 10% (weight) of SrBG particles into PCL bulk, produced by the technique of melt electrospinning. We show that we are able to reproducibly manufacture composite scaffolds with an interconnected porous structure and, furthermore, these scaffolds were demonstrated to be noncytotoxic in vitro. Ions present in the SrBG component were shown to dissolve into cell culture media and promoted precipitation of a calcium phosphate layer on the scaffold surface which in turn led to noticeably enhanced alkaline phosphatase activity in MC3T3-E1 cells compared to PLC-only scaffolds. These results suggest that melt-electrospun PCL-SrBG composite scaffolds show potential to become effective bone graft substitutes. PMID:24133006

Ren, Jiongyu; Blackwood, Keith A; Doustgani, Amir; Poh, Patrina P; Steck, Roland; Stevens, Molly M; Woodruff, Maria A

2014-09-01

357

Poly(lactide-co-glycolide)/titania composite microsphere-sintered scaffolds for bone tissue engineering applications.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to synthesize and characterize novel three-dimensional porous scaffolds made of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)/nano-TiO(2)-particle composite microspheres for potential bone repair applications. The introduction of TiO(2) component has been proven capable of largely enhancing mechanical properties of PLGA/TiO(2) microsphere-sintered scaffold ("PLGA/TiO(2)-SMS"). In addition, composite nano-TiO(2) additives are capable of inducing an increased arrest of adhesive proteins from the environment, which benefits cell attachment onto the scaffolds. Osteoblast proliferation and maturation were evaluated by MTT assay, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and bony calcification assay. The results indicate that osteoblasts cultured on the composite scaffolds with different TiO(2) content (0, 0.1, and 0.3 g/1 g PLGA) display increased cell proliferation compared with pure PLGA scaffold. When cultured on composite scaffolds, osteoblasts also exhibit significantly enhanced ALP activity and higher calcium secretion, with respect to those on the pure PLGA scaffolds. Taken together, PLGA/TiO(2)-SMSs deserve attention utilizing for potential bone-repairing therapeutics. PMID:20091906

Wang, Yingjun; Shi, Xuetao; Ren, Li; Yao, Yongchang; Zhang, Feng; Wang, Dong-An

2010-04-01

358

PCL-coated hydroxyapatite scaffold derived from cuttlefish bone: morphology, mechanical properties and bioactivity.  

PubMed

In the present study, poly(?-caprolactone)-coated hydroxyapatite scaffold derived from cuttlefish bone was prepared. Hydrothermal transformation of aragonitic cuttlefish bone into hydroxyapatite (HAp) was performed at 200°C retaining the cuttlebone architecture. The HAp scaffold was coated with a poly(?-caprolactone) (PCL) using vacuum impregnation technique. The compositional and morphological properties of HAp and PCL-coated HAp scaffolds were studied by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. Bioactivity was tested by immersion in Hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS) and mechanical tests were performed at compression. The results showed that PCL-coated HAp (HAp/PCL) scaffold resulted in a material with improved mechanical properties that keep the original interconnected porous structure indispensable for tissue growth and vascularization. The compressive strength (0.88MPa) and the elastic modulus (15.5MPa) are within the lower range of properties reported for human trabecular bones. The in vitro mineralization of calcium phosphate (CP) that produces the bone-like apatite was observed on both the pure HAp scaffold and the HAp/PCL composite scaffold. The prepared bioactive scaffold with enhanced mechanical properties is a good candidate for bone tissue engineering applications. PMID:24268280

Milovac, Dajana; Gallego Ferrer, Gloria; Ivankovic, Marica; Ivankovic, Hrvoje

2014-01-01

359

Freeze-cast hydroxyapatite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering applications.  

PubMed

Freeze casting of aqueous suspensions was investigated as a method for preparing porous hydroxyapatite (HA) scaffolds for eventual application to bone tissue engineering. Suspensions of HA particles (10-20 volume percent) were frozen unidirectionally in a cylindrical mold placed on a cold steel substrate (-20 degrees C). After sublimation of the ice, sintering for 3 h at 1350 degrees C produced constructs with dense HA lamellae, with porosity of approximately 50%, and inter-lamellar pore widths of 5-30 microm. These constructs had compressive strengths of 12 +/- 1 MPa and 5 +/- 1 MPa in the directions parallel and perpendicular to the freezing direction, respectively. Manipulation of the microstructure was achieved by modifying the solvent composition of the suspension used for freeze casting. The use of water-glycerol mixtures (20 wt% glycerol) resulted in the production of constructs with finer pores (1-10 microm) and a larger number of dendritic growth connecting the HA lamellae, and higher strength. On the other hand, the use of water-dioxane mixtures (60 wt% dioxane) resulted in a cellular-type microstructure with larger pores (90-110 microm). The mechanical response showed high strain tolerance (5-10% at the maximum stress), high strain for failure (>20%) and sensitivity to the loading rate. The favorable mechanical behavior of the porous constructs, coupled with the ability to modify their microstructure, indicates the potential of the present freeze casting route for the production of porous scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. PMID:18458369

Fu, Qiang; Rahaman, Mohamed N; Dogan, Fatih; Bal, B Sonny

2008-06-01

360

Design and Fabrication of a Biodegradable, Covalently Crosslinked Shape-Memory Alginate Scaffold for Cell and Growth Factor Delivery  

PubMed Central

The successful use of transplanted cells and/or growth factors for tissue repair is limited by a significant cell loss and/or rapid growth factor diffusion soon after implantation. Highly porous alginate scaffolds formed with covalent crosslinking have been used to improve cell survival and growth factor release kinetics, but require open-wound surgical procedures for insertion and have not previously been designed to readily degrade in vivo. In this study, a biodegradable, partially crosslinked alginate scaffold with shape-memory properties was fabricated for minimally invasive surgical applications. A mixture of high and low molecular weight partially oxidized alginate modified with RGD peptides was covalently crosslinked using carbodiimide chemistry. The scaffold was compressible 11-fold and returned to its original shape when rehydrated. Scaffold degradation properties in vitro indicated ?85% mass loss by 28 days. The greater than 90% porous scaffolds released the recombinant growth factor insulin-like growth factor-1 over several days in vitro and allowed skeletal muscle cell survival, proliferation, and migration from the scaffold over a 28-day period. The compressible scaffold thus has the potential to be delivered by a minimally invasive technique, and when rehydrated in vivo with cells and/or growth factors, could serve as a temporary delivery vehicle for tissue repair. PMID:22646518

Wang, Lin; Shansky, Janet; Borselli, Cristina; Mooney, David

2012-01-01

361

A Scaffold Makes the Switch  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Protein kinase cascades are a reoccurring feature of signal transduction pathways. Recent investigations have focused on how kinase-scaffolding proteins help to convert a graded stimulus into a switch-like or binary response. New findings reveal that the graded-to-binary conversion can be turned on or off, depending on the location of the scaffold within the cell.

Henrik G. Dohlman (Chapel Hill;University of North Carolina REV)

2008-10-21

362

Characterization of blended PLGA:PEG scaffolds for bone regeneration applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biodegradable PLGAs have been widely investigated for use as tissue engineering devices, however, limitations include: insufficient porosity, low mechanical strength, immunogenicity, heterogeneous degradation, and low cell affinity. This research investigated the potential advantages of fabricating scaffolds by blending PLGA with PEG to deliver rhBMP-2 for bone regeneration applications. The manufacturing process was found to be the most significant factor influencing the thermo-mechanical properties of the scaffolds regardless of the concentration and molecular weight of PEG used. Blended PLGA:PEG scaffolds fabricated using compression, heat-molding, and high molecular weight PEGs (10 and 20 kDa) had sufficient mechanical strength for bone scaffolding applications as shown by a compressive modulus comparable to trabecular bone. Thermal properties of the scaffolds showed that amorphous solid-state miscibility was not responsible for changes in mechanical strength, however changes in melting temperatures was dependent on fabrication method. We demonstrated the ability to use blending and fabrication processes to design biodegradable scaffolds for a range of biomedical applications. Combinations of initial processes were used to design strong and uniform devices that demonstrated minimal in vitro immune response. With high moduli and plastic deformation the modified, compressed scaffolds showed significant promise for use as bone regenerating devices. The adhesion of macrophages to PLGA scaffolds was dependent upon method of fabrication as well as blending with PEG. The presence of PEG in the polymeric scaffolds reduced macrophage attachment in all blends compared to PLGA controls. We established that the modified compression method produced scaffolds demonstrating mechanical strength similar to bone as well as reduced macrophage attachment. To further characterize the modified compression method, in vitro degradation as well as preosteoblast attachment and differentiation in the presence of rhBMP-2-containing scaffolds was studied. The degradation rate of PLGA scaffolds was slowed significantly during weeks 1 and 2 by blending PLGA with PEG, attributable to reduced acid-catalyzed degradation. Upon incubation with preosteoblasts, the PLGA:BMP formulation was the only scaffold to demonstrate increased ALP activity. We showed that PEG and rhBMP-2 inclusion in PLGA scaffolds was able to alter degradation rate, thermo-mechanical properties, preosteoblast attachment, and preosteoblast ALP production.

Forcino, Rachel Graves

363

Polymerization of perfluorobutadiene  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Diisopropyl peroxydicarbonate dissolved in liquid perfluorobutadiene is conducted in a sealed vessel at the autogenous pressure of polymerization. Reaction temperature, ratio of catalyst to monomer, and amount of agitation determine degree of polymerization and product yield.

Newman, J.; Toy, M. S.

1970-01-01

364

Ring opening metathesis polymerization  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article intends to provide the reader with a basic knowledge of Ring Opening Metathesis Polymerization. Some historic background, mechanistic aspects, living polymerization, as well as current catalyst development and new applications are discussed.

Marcelo E. Piotti

1999-01-01

365

Classification of Scaffold Hopping Approaches  

PubMed Central

The general goal of drug discovery is to identify novel compounds that are active against a preselected biological target with acceptable pharmacological properties defined by marketed drugs. Scaffold hopping has been widely applied by medicinal chemists to discover equipotent compounds with novel backbones that have improved properties. In this review, scaffold hopping is classified into four major categories, namely heterocycle replacements, ring opening or closure, peptidomimetics, and topology-based hopping. The structural diversity of original and final scaffolds with respect to each category will be reviewed. The advantages and limitations of small, medium, and large-step scaffold hopping will also be discussed. Software that is frequently used to facilitate different kinds of scaffold hopping methods will be summarized. PMID:22056715

Sun, Hongmao; Tawa, Gregory; Wallqvist, Anders

2012-01-01

366

The Scaffold Tree ? Visualization of the Scaffold Universe by Hierarchical Scaffold Classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hierarchical classification of chemical scaffolds (molecular framework, which is obtained by pruning all terminal side chains) has been introduced. The molecular frameworks form the leaf nodes in the hierarchy trees. By an iterative removal of rings, scaffolds forming the higher levels in the hierarchy tree are obtained. Prioritization rules ensure that less characteristic, peripheral rings are removed first. All

Ansgar Schuffenhauer; Peter Ertl; Silvio Roggo; Stefan Wetzel; Marcus A. Koch; Herbert Waldmann

2007-01-01

367

Artificial neural network for modeling the elastic modulus of electrospun polycaprolactone/gelatin scaffolds.  

PubMed

Scaffolds for tissue engineering (TE) require the consideration of multiple aspects, including polymeric composition and the structure and mechanical properties of the scaffolds, in order to mimic the native extracellular matrix of the tissue. Electrospun fibers are frequently utilized in TE due to their tunable physical, chemical, and mechanical properties and porosity. The mechanical properties of electrospun scaffolds made from specific polymers are highly dependent on the processing parameters, which can therefore be tuned for particular applications. Fiber diameter and orientation along with polymeric composition are the major factors that determine the elastic modulus of electrospun nano- and microfibers. Here we have developed a neural network model to investigate the simultaneous effects of composition, fiber diameter and fiber orientation of electrospun polycaprolactone/gelatin mats on the elastic modulus of the scaffolds under ambient and simulated physiological conditions. The model generated might assist bioengineers to fabricate electrospun scaffolds with defined fiber diameters, orientations and constituents, thereby replicating the mechanical properties of the native target tissue. PMID:24075888

Vatankhah, Elham; Semnani, Dariush; Prabhakaran, Molamma P; Tadayon, Mahdi; Razavi, Shahnaz; Ramakrishna, Seeram

2014-02-01

368

Fused deposition modeling of novel scaffold architectures for tissue engineering applications.  

PubMed

Fused deposition modeling, a rapid prototyping technology, was used to produce novel scaffolds with honeycomb-like pattern, fully interconnected channel network, and controllable porosity and channel size. A bioresorbable polymer poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) was developed as a filament modeling material to produce porous scaffolds, made of layers of directionally aligned microfilaments, using this computer-controlled extrusion and deposition process. The PCL scaffolds were produced with a range of channel size 160-700 microm, filament diameter 260-370 microm and porosity 48-77%, and regular geometrical honeycomb pores, depending on the processing parameters. The scaffolds of different porosity also exhibited a pattern of compressive stress-strain behavior characteristic of porous solids under such loading. The compressive stiffness ranged from 4 to 77 MPa, yield strength from 0.4 to 3.6 MPa and yield strain from 4% to 28%. Analysis of the measured data shows a high correlation between the scaffold porosity and the compressive properties based on a power-law relationship. PMID:11791921

Zein, Iwan; Hutmacher, Dietmar W; Tan, Kim Cheng; Teoh, Swee Hin

2002-02-01

369

Ice-templated structures for biomedical tissue repair: From physics to final scaffolds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ice-templating techniques, including freeze-drying and freeze casting, are extremely versatile and can be used with a variety of materials systems. The process relies on the freezing of a water based solution. During freezing, ice nucleates within the solution and concentrates the solute in the regions between the growing crystals. Once the ice is removed via sublimation, the solute remains in a porous structure, which is a negative of the ice. As the final structure of the ice relies on the freezing of the solution, the variables which influence ice nucleation and growth alter the structure of ice-templated scaffolds. Nucleation, the initial step of freezing, can be altered by the type and concentration of solutes within the solution, as well as the set cooling rate before freezing. After nucleation, crystal growth and annealing processes, such as Ostwald ripening, determine the features of the final scaffold. Both crystal growth and annealing are sensitive to many factors including the set freezing temperature and solutes. The porous structures created using ice-templating allow scaffolds to be used for many diverse applications, from microfluidics to biomedical tissue engineering. Within the field of tissue engineering, scaffold structure can influence cellular behavior, and is thus critical for determining the biological stimulus supplied by the scaffold. The research focusing on controlling the ice-templated structure serves as a model for how other ice-templating systems might be tailored, to expand the applications of ice-templated structures to their full potential.

Pawelec, K. M.; Husmann, A.; Best, S. M.; Cameron, R. E.

2014-06-01

370

Co-Extrusion of Biocompatible Polymers for Scaffolds With Co- Continuous Morphology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A methodology for the preparation of porous scaffolds for tissue engineering using co-extrusion is presented. Poly(espilon-caprolactone) is blended with poly(ethylene oxide) in a twin-screw extruder to form a two-phase material with micron-sized domains. Selective dissolution of the poly(ethylene oxide) with water results in a porous material. A range of blend volume fractions results in co-continuous networks of polymer and void spaces. Annealing studies demonstrate that the characteristic pore size may be increased to larger than 100 microns. The mechanical properties of the scaffolds are characterized by a compressive modulus on the order of 1 MPa at low strains but displaying a marked strain-dependence. The results of osteoblast seeding suggest it is possible to use co-extrusion to prepare polymer scaffolds without the introduction of toxic contaminants. Polymer co-extrusion is amenable to both laboratory- and industrial-scale production of scaffolds for tissue engineering and only requires rheological characterization of the blend components. This method leads to scaffolds that have continuous void space and controlled characteristic length scales without the use of potentially toxic organic solvents.

Washburn, N. R.; Simon, C. G.; Tona, Alex; Elgendy, Hoda; Karim, Alamgir; Amis, Eric

2006-11-01

371

Porous hollow membrane sheet for tissue engineering applications.  

PubMed

In spite of the present advances in the scaffolds fabrication and bioreactor systems, the ability to create functional thick tissue masses in vitro is still a great tissue engineering challenge. To overcome this problem, the fabrication of a capillary bed, for nutrient supply to and waste product removal from the tissue engineering construct as it grows, is essential. However, the technical construction of a capillary-like architecture is complex and challenging. This study reports, for the very first time, a simple method to design and fabricate a porous hollow membrane sheet (PHMsh) to provide both a capillary bed and a scaffold to support tissue growth. The PHMsh composed of a flexible porous sheet involving parallel porous channels and can be used as flat-, rolled-, or sandwiched-shape scaffold. The PHMsh was fabricated from poly(epsilon-caprolactone) polymer solution using solvent casting methods (i.e., immersion precipitation and air casting). Optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used for the morphological analyses. The PHMsh was surface treated using n-hepthylamine plasma polymer (HApp) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed successful surface coating. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and fibroblast cells were used to evaluate the capability of PHMsh toward cell adhesion. The HApp coating enhanced both HUVEC and fibroblast cells adhesion. The obtained preliminary results demonstrated the successful fabrication of the PHMsh, with potential application for tissue engineering scaffolds, particularly in large tissue mass generation under perfusion systems in vitro, which is our future research direction. PMID:19768796

Hadjizadeh, Afra; Mohebbi-Kalhori, Davod

2010-06-01

372

Characterization of the Degradation Mechanisms of Lysine-derived Aliphatic Poly(ester urethane) Scaffolds  

PubMed Central

Characterization of the degradation mechanism of polymeric scaffolds and delivery systems for regenerative medicine is essential to assess their clinical applicability. Key performance criteria include induction of a minimal, transient inflammatory response and controlled degradation to soluble non-cytotoxic breakdown products that are cleared from the body by physiological processes. Scaffolds fabricated from biodegradable poly(ester urethane)s (PEURs) undergo controlled degradation to non-cytotoxic breakdown products and support the ingrowth of new tissue in preclinical models of tissue regeneration. While previous studies have shown that PEUR scaffolds prepared from lysine-derived polyisocyanates degrade faster under in vivo compared to in vitro conditions, the degradation mechanism is not well understood. In this study, we have shown that PEUR scaffolds prepared from lysine triisocyanate (LTI) or a trimer of hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDIt) undergo hydrolytic, esterolytic, and oxidative degradation. Hydrolysis of ester bonds to yield ?-hydroxy acids is the dominant mechanism in buffer, and esterolytic media modestly increase the degradation rate. While HDIt scaffolds show a modest (<20%) increase in degradation rate in oxidative medium, LTI scaffolds degrade six times faster in oxidative medium. Furthermore, the in vitro rate of degradation of LTI scaffolds in oxidative medium approximates the in vivo rate in rat excisional wounds, and histological sections show macrophages expressing myeloperoxidase at the material surface. While recent preclinical studies have underscored the potential of injectable PEUR scaffolds and delivery systems for tissue regeneration, this promising class of biomaterials has a limited regulatory history. Elucidation of the macrophage-mediated oxidative mechanism by which LTI scaffolds degrade in vivo provides key insights into the ultimate fate of these materials when injected into the body. PMID:20864156

Hafeman, Andrea E.; Zienkiewicz, Katarzyna J.; Zachman, Angela L.; Sung, Hak-Joon; Nanney, Lillian B.; Davidson, Jeffrey M.; Guelcher, Scott A.

2010-01-01

373

Development of a Multi-Functional Biopolymer Scaffold for Neural Tissue Engineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spinal cord injury (SCI) affects approximately 270,000 people in the U.S., with approximately 12,000 new cases occurring every year. Several strategies have been investigated to enhance axonal regeneration after SCI, however, the resulting growth can be random and disorganized. Bioengineered scaffolds provide a physical substrate for the guidance of regenerating axons towards their targets, and can be produced by freeze casting. This technique involves the controlled directional solidification of an aqueous solution or suspension, resulting in a linearly aligned porous structure caused by ice templating. In this thesis, freeze casting was used to create novel porous chitosan-alginate (C/A) scaffolds with longitudinally aligned channels and a compressive modulus (5.08 ± 0.61 kPa) comparable to that of native spinal cord tissue. These C/A scaffolds supported the viability, attachment, and directionally oriented growth of chick dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurites in vitro, with surface adsorptions of polycations and laminin promoting significantly longer neurite growth than the uncoated scaffolds (p<0.001). In order to integrate therapeutic biomolecules within the scaffolds for sustained release, alginate and chitosan microcapsules produced by spray drying were used to encapsulate brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), and the enzyme chondroitinase ABC (chABC) prior to scaffold incorporation. BDNF and NT-3 were released from the C/A scaffolds in a sustained manner for 8 weeks in vitro, while chABC was released for up to 35 days. However, up to 85% of biomolecules emained entrapped within the scaffold walls, due to limitation of diffusion by the scaffold wall mesh size. Release of bioactive chABC and neurotrophins from the multifunctional scaffolds promoted the growth of DRG neurites through an in vitro barrier of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans, a main inhibitory component of the growth-inhibiting glial scar in the injured spinal cord. The present data suggest these multi-functional scaffolds are suitable for use and future testing in vivo as a combination strategy for spinal cord repair due to their ability to promote the directionally oriented growth of neurites and their ability to provide the sustained release of therapeutic bioactive molecules for the stimulation of axonal growth through the glial scar.

Francis, Nicola Louise

374

Surface transformations of Bioglass 45S5 during scaffold synthesis for bone tissue engineering.  

PubMed

In physiological fluid, a layer of hydroxycarbonate apatite, similar to bone mineral, develops on the surface of Bioglass 45S5. Collagen from the surrounding tissue is adsorbed on this layer that attracts osteoblasts, and favors bone regrowth. Bioglass is therefore an osteoinductive material. Still, due to its brittleness, the glass alone cannot be used to heal large bone defects. To overcome this issue, Bioglass is used to form a composite scaffold with poly(D,L-lactide) (PDLLA), a biodegradable polymer. The goal of this work is to understand Bioglass reactivity throughout scaffold fabrication via a low-temperature route, the solvent casting and particulate leaching technique. Changes in Bioglass (especially its surface) are susceptible to occur both while in contact with the processing fluids and potentially through a reaction with the surrounding polymeric matrix. Here we analyzed the surface changes of three different Bioglass samples: (i) as-received, (ii) treated in solutions that parallel those used in scaffold fabrication, and (iii) extracted from the scaffolds. We showed that extracted, just like treated, Bioglass deviates from the as-received, but to a larger extent. X-ray photoelectron and infrared spectroscopy support the theory that Bioglass surface was modified not just through contact with the solutions in scaffold fabrication, but upon an interaction with the polymeric matrix. The polymer network slows down the Na(+)/H(+) exchange between Bioglass and water used to leach salt particles to create pores within the scaffold. Changes in surface properties affect the bioactivity of Bioglass and thus of the composite scaffolds, and are therefore critical to identify. PMID:23305513

Abdollahi, Sara; Ma, Alvin Chih Chien; Cerruti, Marta

2013-02-01

375

Nano-structured polymer scaffolds for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine  

PubMed Central

The structural features of tissue engineering scaffolds affect cell response and must be engineered to support cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation. The scaffold acts as an interim synthetic extracellular matrix (ECM) that cells interact prior to forming new tissue. In this review, bone tissue engineering is used as the primary example because of our group’s focus and for the sake of brevity. We focus on nano-fibrous scaffolds and the incorporation of other components including other nanofeatures into the scaffold structure. Since the ECM is comprised in large part of collagen fibers, between 50–500 nm in diameter, well-designed nano-fibrous scaffolds mimic this structure. Our group has developed a novel thermally-induced phase separation (TIPS) process in which a solution of biodegradable polymer is cast into a porous scaffold, resulting in a nano-fibrous pore-wall structure. These nano-scale fibers have a diameter (50–500 nm) comparable to those collagen fibers found in the ECM. This process can then be combined with a porogen leaching technique, also developed by our group, to engineer an interconnected pore structure that promotes cell migration and tissue ingrowth in three dimensions. To improve upon efforts to incorporate a ceramic component into polymer scaffolds by mixing, our group has also developed a technique where apatite crystals are grown onto biodegradable polymer scaffolds by soaking them in simulated body fluid (SBF). By changing the polymer used, the concentration of ions in the SBF and by varying the treatment time, the size and distribution of these crystals is varied. Work is currently being done to improve the distribution of these crystals throughout three-dimensional scaffolds and to create nano-scale apatite deposits that better mimic those found in the ECM. In both nano-fibrous and composite scaffolds, cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation improved when compared to control scaffolds. Additionally, composite scaffolds showed a decrease in incidence of apoptosis when compared to polymer control in bone tissue engineering. Nanoparticles have been integrated into the nano-structured scaffolds to deliver biologically active molecules such as growth and differentiation factors to regulate cell behavior for optimal tissue regeneration. PMID:20049793

Smith, I.O.; Liu, X.H.; Smith, L.A.; Ma, P.X.

2009-01-01