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1

Impregnation of ?-tricalcium phosphate robocast scaffolds by in situ polymerization.  

PubMed

Ring-opening polymerization of ?-caprolactone (?-CL) and L-lactide (LLA) was performed to impregnate ?-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) scaffolds fabricated by robocasting. Concentrated colloidal inks prepared from ?-TCP commercial powders were used to fabricate porous structures consisting of a 3D mesh of interpenetrating rods. ?-CL and LLA were in situ polymerized within the ceramic structure by using a lipase and stannous octanoate, respectively, as catalysts. The results show that both the macropores inside the ceramic mesh and the micropores within the ceramic rods are full of polymer in either case. The mechanical properties of scaffolds impregnated by in situ polymerization (ISP) are significantly increased over those of the bare structures, exhibiting similar values than those obtained by other, more aggressive, impregnation methods such as melt-immersion (MI). ISP using enzymatic catalysts requires a reduced processing temperature which could facilitate the incorporation of growth factors and other drugs into the polymer composition, thus enhancing the bioactivity of the composite scaffold. The implications of these results for the optimization of the mechanical and biological performance of scaffolds for bone tissue engineering applications are discussed. PMID:23526780

Martínez-Vázquez, Francisco J; Perera, Fidel H; van der Meulen, Inge; Heise, Andreas; Pajares, Antonia; Miranda, Pedro

2013-11-01

2

Porous scaffold design for tissue engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

A paradigm shift is taking place in medicine from using synthetic implants and tissue grafts to a tissue engineering approach that uses degradable porous material scaffolds integrated with biological cells or molecules to regenerate tissues. This new paradigm requires scaffolds that balance temporary mechanical function with mass transport to aid biological delivery and tissue regeneration. Little is known quantitatively about

Scott J. Hollister

2005-01-01

3

Porous chitosan scaffolds for tissue engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

The wide array of tissue engineering applications exacerbates the need for biodegradable materials with broad potential. Chitosan, the partially deacetylated derivative of chitin, may be one such material. In this study, we examined the use of chitosan for formation of porous scaffolds of controlled microstructure in several tissue-relevant geometries. Porous chitosan materials were prepared by controlled freezing and lyophilization of

Sundararajan V. Madihally; Howard W. T. Matthew

1999-01-01

4

Polymeric Scaffolds for Regenerative Medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regenerative medicine, one of the most exciting and dynamic life science fields, is an emerging biomedical technology for assisting and accelerating the regeneration and repair of lost or damaged organs or body parts. Modern regenerative medicine is increasingly using three-dimensional structured scaffolds because they represent a wide range of morphological and geometric in vivo possibilities that can be tailored for

Moon Suk Kim; Jae Ho Kim; Byoung Hyun Min; Heung Jae Chun; Dong Keun Han; Hai Bang Lee

2011-01-01

5

Hydroxyapatite\\/poly( ?-caprolactone) composite coatings on hydroxyapatite porous bone scaffold for drug delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydroxyapatite (HA) porous scaffold was coated with HA and polycaprolactone (PCL) composites, and antibiotic drug tetracycline hydrochloride was entrapped within the coating layer. The HA scaffold obtained by a polymeric reticulate method, possessed high porosity (?87%) and controlled pore size (150–200?m). Such a well-developed porous structure facilitated usage in a drug delivery system due to its high surface area and

Hae-Won Kim; Jonathan C. Knowles; Hyoun-Ee Kim

2004-01-01

6

Processing and characterization of porous alumina scaffolds.  

PubMed

Bioceramic materials are used for the reconstruction or replacement of the damaged parts of the human body. In this study an improved procedure is described for producing ceramic scaffolds with controlled porosity. Bioinert alumina ceramic was used to make porous scaffolds by using indirect fused deposition modeling (FDM), a commercially available rapid prototyping (RP) technique. Porous alumina samples were coated with hydroxyapatite (HAp) to increase the biocompatibility of the scaffolds. Initial biological responses of the porous alumina scaffolds were assessed in vitro using rat pituitary tumor cells (PR1). Both porous alumina and HAp coated alumina ceramics provided favorable sites for cell attachments in a physiological solution at 37 degrees C, which suggests that these materials would promote good bonding while used as bone implants in vivo. Based on these preliminary studies, similar tests were performed with human osteosarcoma cells. Cell proliferation studies show that both the ceramic materials can potentially provide a non-toxic surface for bone bonding when implanted in vivo. PMID:15348200

Bose, Susmita; Darsell, Jens; Hosick, Howard L; Yang, Lihua; Sarkar, Dipak K; Bandyopadhyay, Amit

2002-01-01

7

Nano/macro porous bioactive glass scaffold  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bioactive glass (BG) and ceramics have been widely studied and developed as implants to replace hard tissues of the musculo-skeletal system, such as bones and teeth. Recently, instead of using bulk materials, which usually do not degrade rapidly enough and may remain in the human body for a long time, the idea of bioscaffold for tissue regeneration has generated much interest. An ideal bioscaffold is a porous material that would not only provide a three-dimensional structure for the regeneration of natural tissue, but also degrade gradually and, eventually be replaced by the natural tissue completely. Among various material choices the nano-macro dual porous BG appears as the most promising candidate for bioscaffold applications. Here macropores facilitate tissue growth while nanopores control degradation and enhance cell response. The surface area, which controls the degradation of scaffold can also be tuned by changing the nanopore size. However, fabrication of such 3D structure with desirable nano and macro pores has remained challenging. In this dissertation, sol-gel process combined with spinodal decomposition or polymer sponge replication method has been developed to fabricate the nano-macro porous BG scaffolds. Macropores up to 100microm are created by freezing polymer induced spinodal structure through sol-gel transition, while larger macropores (>200um) of predetermined size are obtained by the polymer sponge replication technique. The size of nanopores, which are inherent to the sol-gel method of glass fabrication, has been tailored using several approaches: Before gel point, small nanopores are generated using acid catalyst that leads to weakly-branched polymer-like network. On the other hand, larger nanopores are created with the base-catalyzed gel with highly-branched cluster-like structure. After the gel point, the nanostructure can be further modified by manipulating the sintering temperature and/or the ammonia concentration used in the solvent exchange process. Although both techniques lower the surface area of BG scaffolds, the temperature-dependent sintering process closes nanopores through densification, while the concentration-dependent solvent exchange process enlarges nanopores through Ostwald-ripening type coarsening. Therefore, nanopore size and surface area of BG scaffold are independently controlled using these methods. In vitro cell and in vivo animal tissue responses have been investigated to evaluate the performance of the nano-macro porous BG scaffold. The cells are found to migrate and penetrate deep into the 3D nano-macro porous structure, while exhibiting excellent adhesion to the bioscaffold surface. Importantly, the new tissue with both blood vessels and collagen fibers is formed deep inside the implanted scaffolds without obvious inflammatory reaction. Furthermore, our observations show biological benefits of the nanopores in the BG scaffold. In comparison to BG scaffold without nanopores, cells migrate and penetrate into nano-macro dual-porous BG scaffold faster and deeper mainly because of the increase of surface area. To study the effect of nanopore topography, we fabricated BG scaffolds with the same surface area but different nanopore sizes. It is found that the initial cell attachment is significantly enhanced on the BG scaffold with the same surface area but smaller nanopores size, indicating that the nanopore topography strongly influences the performance of BG scaffold. In conclusion, the present results demonstrate most clearly the usefulness of our nano-macro dual-porous BG as a novel and superior 3D bioscaffold for regenerative medicine and hard tissue engineering.

Wang, Shaojie

8

Porous ceramic scaffolds with complex architectures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work compares two novel techniques for the fabrication of ceramic scaffolds for bone tissue engineering with complex porosity: robocasting and freeze casting. Both techniques are based on the preparation of concentrated ceramic suspensions with suitable properties for the process. In robocasting, the computer-guided deposition of the suspensions is used to build porous materials with designed three dimensional geometries and microstructures. Freeze casting uses ice crystals as a template to form porous lamellar ceramic materials. Preliminary results on the compressive strengths of the materials are also reported.

Munch, E.; Franco, J.; Deville, S.; Hunger, P.; Saiz, E.; Tomsia, A. P.

2008-06-01

9

Rapid Engineering of Three-Dimensional, Multicellular Tissues With Polymeric Scaffolds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A process has been developed for the rapid tissue engineering of multicellular-tissue-equivalent assemblies by the controlled enzymatic degradation of polymeric beads in a low-fluid-shear bioreactor. In this process, the porous polymeric beads serve as temporary scaffolds to support the assemblies of cells in a tissuelike 3D configuration during the critical initial growth phases of attachment of anchorage-dependent cells, aggregation of the cells, and formation of a 3D extracellular matrix. Once the cells are assembled into a 3D array and enmeshed in a structural supportive 3D extracellular matrix (ECM), the polymeric scaffolds can be degraded in the low-fluid-shear environment of the NASA-designed bioreactor. The natural 3D tissuelike assembly, devoid of any artificial support structure, is maintained in the low-shear bioreactor environment by the newly formed natural cellular/ECM. The elimination of the artificial scaffold allows normal tissue structure and function.

Gonda, Steve R.; Jordan, Jacqueline; Fraga, Denise N.

2007-01-01

10

Living Bacterial Sacrificial Porogens to Engineer Decellularized Porous Scaffolds  

E-print Network

Decellularization and cellularization of organs have emerged as disruptive methods in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Porous hydrogel scaffolds have widespread applications in tissue engineering, regenerative ...

Xu, Feng

11

Thermoforming techniques for manufacturing porous scaffolds for application in 3D cell cultivation.  

PubMed

Within the scientific community, there is an increasing demand to apply advanced cell cultivation substrates with increased physiological functionalities for studying spatially defined cellular interactions. Porous polymeric scaffolds are utilized for mimicking an organ-like structure or engineering complex tissues and have become a key element for three-dimensional (3D) cell cultivation in the meantime. As a consequence, efficient 3D scaffold fabrication methods play an important role in modern biotechnology. Here, we present a novel thermoforming procedure for manufacturing porous 3D scaffolds from permeable materials. We address the issue of precise thermoforming of porous polymer foils by using multilayer polymer thermoforming technology. This technology offers a new method for structuring porous polymer foils that are otherwise available for non-porous polymers only. We successfully manufactured 3D scaffolds from solvent casted and phase separated polylactic acid (PLA) foils and investigated their biocompatibility and basic cellular performance. The HepG2 cell culture in PLA scaffold has shown enhanced albumin secretion rate in comparison to a previously reported polycarbonate based scaffold with similar geometry. PMID:25686978

Borowiec, Justyna; Hampl, Jörg; Gebinoga, Michael; Elsarnagawy, Tarek; Elnakady, Yasser A; Fouad, Hassan; Almajhadi, Fahd; Fernekorn, Uta; Weise, Frank; Singh, Sukhdeep; Elsarnagawy, Dief; Schober, Andreas

2015-04-01

12

Conformal encapsulation of three-dimensional, bioresorbable polymeric scaffolds using plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition.  

PubMed

Bioresorbable polymers such as poly(?-caprolactone) (PCL) have a multitude of potential biomaterial applications such as controlled-release drug delivery and regenerative tissue engineering. For such biological applications, the fabrication of porous three-dimensional bioresorbable materials with tunable surface chemistry is critical to maximize their surface-to-volume ratio, mimic the extracellular matrix, and increase drug-loading capacity. Here, two different fluorocarbon (FC) precursors (octofluoropropane (C3F8) and hexafluoropropylene oxide (HFPO)) were used to deposit FC films on PCL scaffolds using plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). These two coating systems were chosen with the intent of modifying the scaffold surfaces to be bio-nonreactive while maintaining desirable bulk properties of the scaffold. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed high-CF2 content films were deposited on both the exterior and interior of PCL scaffolds and that deposition behavior is PECVD system specific. Scanning electron microscopy data confirmed that FC film deposition yielded conformal rather than blanket coatings as the porous scaffold structure was maintained after plasma treatment. Treated scaffolds seeded with human dermal fibroblasts (HDF) demonstrate that the cells do not attach after 72 h and that the scaffolds are noncytotoxic to HDF. This work demonstrates conformal FC coatings can be deposited on 3D polymeric scaffolds using PECVD to fabricate 3D bio-nonreactive materials. PMID:25247481

Hawker, Morgan J; Pegalajar-Jurado, Adoracion; Fisher, Ellen R

2014-10-21

13

Cellular materials as porous scaffolds for tissue engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major goal of tissue engineering is to synthesize or regenerate tissues and organs. Today, this is done by providing a synthetic porous scaffold, or matrix, which mimics the body's own extracellular matrix, onto which cells attach, multiply, migrate and function. Porous scaffolds are currently being developed for regeneration of skin, cartilage, bone, nerve and liver. The microstructures of many

T. M. Freyman; I. V. Yannas; L. J. Gibson

2001-01-01

14

Porous Allograft Bone Scaffolds: Doping with Strontium  

PubMed Central

Strontium (Sr) can promote the process of bone formation. To improve bioactivity, porous allograft bone scaffolds (ABS) were doped with Sr and the mechanical strength and bioactivity of the scaffolds were evaluated. Sr-doped ABS were prepared using the ion exchange method. The density and distribution of Sr in bone scaffolds were investigated by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Controlled release of strontium ions was measured and mechanical strength was evaluated by a compressive strength test. The bioactivity of Sr-doped ABS was investigated by a simulated body fluid (SBF) assay, cytotoxicity testing, and an in vivo implantation experiment. The Sr molar concentration [Sr/(Sr+Ca)] in ABS surpassed 5% and Sr was distributed nearly evenly. XPS analyses suggest that Sr combined with oxygen and carbonate radicals. Released Sr ions were detected in the immersion solution at higher concentration than calcium ions until day 30. The compressive strength of the Sr-doped ABS did not change significantly. The bioactivity of Sr-doped material, as measured by the in vitro SBF immersion method, was superior to that of the Sr-free freeze-dried bone and the Sr-doped material did not show cytotoxicity compared with Sr-free culture medium. The rate of bone mineral deposition for Sr-doped ABS was faster than that of the control at 4 weeks (3.28±0.23 µm/day vs. 2.60±0.20 µm/day; p<0.05). Sr can be evenly doped into porous ABS at relevant concentrations to create highly active bone substitutes. PMID:23922703

Zhao, Yantao; Guo, Dagang; Hou, Shuxun; Zhong, Hongbin; Yan, Jun; Zhang, Chunli; Zhou, Ying

2013-01-01

15

Preparation and characterization of bimodal porous poly(?-benzyl-L-glutamate) scaffolds for bone tissue engineering.  

PubMed

An ideal scaffold in bone tissue-engineering strategy should provide biomimetic extracellular matrix-like architecture and biological properties. Poly(?-benzyl-L-glutamate) (PBLG) has been a popular model polypeptide for various potential biomedical applications due to its good biocompatibility and biodegradability. This study developed novel bimodal porous PBLG polypeptide scaffolds via a combination of biotemplating method and in situ ring-opening polymerization of ?-benzyl-L-gIutamate N-carboxyanhydride (BLG-NCA). The PBLG scaffolds were characterized by proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and mechanical test. The results showed that the semi-crystalline PBLG scaffolds exhibited an anisotropic porous structure composed of honeycomb-like channels (100-200 ?m in diameter) and micropores (5-20 ?m), with a very high porosity of 97.4±1.6%. The compressive modulus and glass transition temperature were 402.8±20.6 kPa and 20.2°C, respectively. The in vitro biocompatibility evaluation with MC3T3-E1 cells using SEM, fluorescent staining and MTT assay revealed that the PBLG scaffolds had good biocompatibility and favored cell attachment, spread and proliferation. Therefore, the bimodal porous polypeptide scaffolds are promising for bone tissue engineering. PMID:24094164

Qian, Junmin; Yong, Xueqing; Xu, Weijun; Jin, Xinxia

2013-12-01

16

Flow-Induced Stress Distribution in Porous Scaffolds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flow-induced stresses help the differentiation and proliferation of mesenchymal cells cultured in porous scaffolds within perfusion bioreactors. The distribution of stresses in a scaffold is thus important for understanding the tissue growth process in such reactors. Computational results for flow through Poly-L-Lactic Acid porous scaffolds that have been produced with salt-leaching techniques, and for scaffolds that have been constructed with nonwoven fibers, indicate that the probability density function (pdf) of the wall stress, when normalized with the mean and the standard deviation of the pdf, appears to follow a single type of pdf. The scaffolds were imaged with micro-CT and the simulations were run with lattice Boltzmann methods. The parameters of the distribution can be obtained using Darcy's law and the Blake-Kozeny-Carman equation. Experimental results available in the literature appear to corroborate the computational findings, leading to the conclusion that stresses in high-porosity porous materials follow a single distribution.

Papavassiliou, Dimitrios; Voronov, Roman; Vangordon, Samuel; Sikavitsas, Vassilios

2010-11-01

17

Porous Biodegradable Metals for Hard Tissue Scaffolds: A Review  

PubMed Central

Scaffolds have been utilized in tissue regeneration to facilitate the formation and maturation of new tissues or organs where a balance between temporary mechanical support and mass transport (degradation and cell growth) is ideally achieved. Polymers have been widely chosen as tissue scaffolding material having a good combination of biodegradability, biocompatibility, and porous structure. Metals that can degrade in physiological environment, namely, biodegradable metals, are proposed as potential materials for hard tissue scaffolding where biodegradable polymers are often considered as having poor mechanical properties. Biodegradable metal scaffolds have showed interesting mechanical property that was close to that of human bone with tailored degradation behaviour. The current promising fabrication technique for making scaffolds, such as computation-aided solid free-form method, can be easily applied to metals. With further optimization in topologically ordered porosity design exploiting material property and fabrication technique, porous biodegradable metals could be the potential materials for making hard tissue scaffolds. PMID:22919393

Yusop, A. H.; Bakir, A. A.; Shaharom, N. A.; Abdul Kadir, M. R.; Hermawan, H.

2012-01-01

18

Novel Biodegradable Porous Scaffold Applied to Skin Regeneration  

PubMed Central

Skin wound healing is an important lifesaving issue for massive lesions. A novel porous scaffold with collagen, hyaluronic acid and gelatin was developed for skin wound repair. The swelling ratio of this developed scaffold was assayed by water absorption capacity and showed a value of over 20 g water/g dried scaffold. The scaffold was then degraded in time- and dose-dependent manners by three enzymes: lysozyme, hyaluronidase and collagenase I. The average pore diameter of the scaffold was 132.5±8.4 µm measured from SEM images. With human skin cells growing for 7 days, the SEM images showed surface fractures on the scaffold due to enzymatic digestion, indicating the biodegradable properties of this scaffold. To simulate skin distribution, the human epidermal keratinocytes, melanocytes and dermal fibroblasts were seeded on the porous scaffold and the cross-section immunofluorescent staining demonstrated normal human skin layer distributions. The collagen amount was also quantified after skin cells seeding and presented an amount 50% higher than those seeded on culture wells. The in vivo histological results showed that the scaffold ameliorated wound healing, including decreasing neutrophil infiltrates and thickening newly generated skin compared to the group without treatments. PMID:23762223

Wang, Hui-Min; Chou, Yi-Ting; Wen, Zhi-Hong; Wang, Zhao-Ren; Chen, Chun-Hong; Ho, Mei-Ling

2013-01-01

19

Modeling of porous scaffold deformation induced by medium perfusion.  

PubMed

In this study, we tested the possibility of calculating permeability of porous scaffolds utilized in soft tissue engineering using pore size and shape. We validated the results using experimental measured pressure drop and simulations with the inclusion of structural deformation. We prepared Polycaprolactone (PCL) and Chitosan-Gelatin (CG) scaffolds by salt leaching and freeze drying technique, respectively. Micrographs were assessed for pore characteristics and mechanical properties. Porosity for both scaffolds was nearly same but the permeability varied 10-fold. Elastic moduli were 600 and 9 kPa for PCL and CG scaffolds, respectively, while Poisson's ratio was 0.3 for PCL scaffolds and ?1.0 for CG scaffolds. A flow-through bioreactor accommodating a 10 cm diameter and 0.2 cm thick scaffold was used to determine the pressure-drop at various flow rates. Additionally, computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations were performed by coupling fluid flow, described by Brinkman equation, with structural mechanics using a dynamic mesh. The experimentally obtained pressure drop matched the simulation results of PCL scaffolds. Simulations were extended to a broad range of permeabilities (10(-10) m(2) to 10(-14) m(2) ), elastic moduli (10-100,000 kPa) and Poisson's ratio (0.1-0.49). The results showed significant deviation in pressure drop due to scaffold deformation compared to rigid scaffold at permeabilities near healthy tissues. Also, considering the scaffold as a nonrigid structure altered the shear stress profile. In summary, scaffold permeability can be calculated using scaffold pore characteristics and deformation could be predicted using CFD simulation. These relationships could potentially be used in monitoring tissue regeneration noninvasively via pressure drop. PMID:24259467

Podichetty, Jagdeep T; Madihally, Sundararajan V

2014-05-01

20

Silk fibroin porous scaffolds for nucleus pulposus tissue engineering.  

PubMed

Intervertebral discs (IVDs) are structurally complex tissue that hold the vertebrae together and provide mobility to spine. The nucleus pulposus (NP) degeneration often results in degenerative IVD disease that is one of the most common causes of back and neck pain. Tissue engineered nucleus pulposus offers an alternative approach to regain the function of the degenerative IVD. The aim of this study is to determine the feasibility of porous silk fibroin (SF) scaffolds fabricated by paraffin-sphere-leaching methods with freeze-drying in the application of nucleus pulposus regeneration. The prepared scaffold possessed high porosity of 92.38±5.12% and pore size of 165.00±8.25?m as well as high pore interconnectivity and appropriate mechanical properties. Rabbit NP cells were seeded and cultured on the SF scaffolds. Scanning electron microscopy, histology, biochemical assays and mechanical tests revealed that the porous scaffolds could provide an appropriate microstructure and environment to support adhesion, proliferation and infiltration of NP cells in vitro as well as the generation of extracellular matrix. The NP cell-scaffold construction could be preliminarily formed after subcutaneously implanted in a nude mice model. In conclusion, The SF porous scaffold offers a potential candidate for tissue engineered NP tissue. PMID:24582244

Zeng, Chao; Yang, Qiang; Zhu, Meifeng; Du, Lilong; Zhang, Jiamin; Ma, Xinlong; Xu, Baoshan; Wang, Lianyong

2014-04-01

21

Bioactive polymeric-ceramic hybrid 3D scaffold for application in bone tissue regeneration.  

PubMed

The regeneration of large bone defects remains a challenging scenario from a therapeutic point of view. In fact, the currently available bone substitutes are often limited by poor tissue integration and severe host inflammatory responses, which eventually lead to surgical removal. In an attempt to address these issues, herein we evaluated the importance of alginate incorporation in the production of improved and tunable ?-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) and hydroxyapatite (HA) three-dimensional (3D) porous scaffolds to be used as temporary templates for bone regeneration. Different bioceramic combinations were tested in order to investigate optimal scaffold architectures. Additionally, 3D ?-TCP/HA vacuum-coated with alginate, presented improved compressive strength, fracture toughness and Young's modulus, to values similar to those of native bone. The hybrid 3D polymeric-bioceramic scaffolds also supported osteoblast adhesion, maturation and proliferation, as demonstrated by fluorescence microscopy. To the best of our knowledge this is the first time that a 3D scaffold produced with this combination of biomaterials is described. Altogether, our results emphasize that this hybrid scaffold presents promising characteristics for its future application in bone regeneration. PMID:23910366

Torres, A L; Gaspar, V M; Serra, I R; Diogo, G S; Fradique, R; Silva, A P; Correia, I J

2013-10-01

22

Silk porous scaffolds with nanofibrous microstructures and tunable properties.  

PubMed

Scaffold biomaterials derived from silk fibroin have been widely used in tissue engineering. However, mimicking the nanofibrous structures of the extracellular matrix (ECM) for achieving better biocompatibility remains a challenge. Here, we design a mild self-assembly approach to prepare nanofibrous scaffolds from silk fibroin solution. Silk nanofibers were self-assembled by slowly concentrating process in aqueous solution without any cross-linker or toxic solvent and then were further fabricated into porous scaffolds with pore size of about 200-250?m through lyophilization, mimicking nano and micro structures of ECM. Gradient water/methanol annealing treatments were used to control the secondary structures, mechanical properties, and degradation behaviors of the scaffolds, which would be critical for different tissue regeneration applications. With salt-leached silk scaffold as control, the ECM-mimetic scaffolds with different secondary structures were used to culture the amniotic fluid-derived stem cells in vitro to confirm their biocompatibility. All the ECM-mimetic scaffolds with different secondary structures represented better cell growth and proliferation compared to the salt-leached scaffold, confirming the critical influence of ECM-mimetic structure on biocompatibility. Although further studies such as cell differentiation behaviours are still necessary for clarifying the influence of microstructures and secondary conformational compositions, our study provides promising scaffold candidate that is suitable for different tissue regenerations. PMID:24892562

Lu, Guozhong; Liu, Shanshan; Lin, Shasha; Kaplan, David L; Lu, Qiang

2014-08-01

23

Porous shape memory alloy scaffolds for biomedical applications: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interest in using porous shape memory alloy (SMA) scaffolds as implant materials has been growing in recent years due to the combination of their unique mechanical and functional properties, i.e. shape memory effect and superelasticity, low elastic modulus combined with new bone tissue ingrowth ability and vascularization. These attractive properties are of great benefit to the healing process for

C. E. Wen; J. Y. Xiong; Y. C. Li; P. D. Hodgson

2010-01-01

24

Behavior of human chondrocytes in engineered porous bacterial cellulose scaffolds.  

PubMed

Regeneration of articular cartilage damage is an area of great interest due to the limited ability of cartilage to self-repair. The latest cartilage repair strategies are dependent on access to biomaterials to which chondrocytes can attach and in which they can migrate and proliferate, producing their own extracellular matrix. In the present study, engineered porous bacterial cellulose (BC) scaffolds were prepared by fermentation of Acetobacter xylinum (A. xylinum) in the presence of slightly fused wax particles with a diameter of 150-300 microm, which were then removed by extrusion. This porous material was evaluated as a scaffold for cartilage regeneration. Articular chondrocytes from young adult patients as well as neonatal articular chondrocytes were seeded with various seeding techniques onto the porous BC scaffolds. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis and confocal microscopy analysis showed that cells entered the pores of the scaffolds and that they increasingly filled out the pores over time. Furthermore, DNA analysis implied that the chondrocytes proliferated within the porous BC. Alcian blue van Gieson staining revealed glycosaminoglycan (GAG) production by chondrocytes in areas where cells were clustered together. With some further development, this novel biomaterial can be a suitable candidate for cartilage regeneration applications. PMID:20694979

Andersson, Jessica; Stenhamre, Hanna; Bäckdahl, Henrik; Gatenholm, Paul

2010-09-15

25

Living Bacterial Sacrificial Porogens to Engineer Decellularized Porous Scaffolds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decellularization and cellularization of organs have emerged as disruptive methods in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Porous hydrogel scaffolds have widespread applications in tissue engineering, regenerative medicine and drug discovery as viable tissue mimics. However, the existing hydrogel fabrication techniques suffer from limited control over pore interconnectivity, density and size, which leads to inefficient nutrient and oxygen transport to cells

Feng Xu; Banupriya Sridharan; Naside Gozde Durmus; Shuqi Wang; Ahmet Sinan Yavuz; Umut Atakan Gurkan; Utkan Demirci; Che John Connon

2011-01-01

26

Living Bacterial Sacrificial Porogens to Engineer Decellularized Porous Scaffolds  

PubMed Central

Decellularization and cellularization of organs have emerged as disruptive methods in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Porous hydrogel scaffolds have widespread applications in tissue engineering, regenerative medicine and drug discovery as viable tissue mimics. However, the existing hydrogel fabrication techniques suffer from limited control over pore interconnectivity, density and size, which leads to inefficient nutrient and oxygen transport to cells embedded in the scaffolds. Here, we demonstrated an innovative approach to develop a new platform for tissue engineered constructs using live bacteria as sacrificial porogens. E.coli were patterned and cultured in an interconnected three-dimensional (3D) hydrogel network. The growing bacteria created interconnected micropores and microchannels. Then, the scafold was decellularized, and bacteria were eliminated from the scaffold through lysing and washing steps. This 3D porous network method combined with bioprinting has the potential to be broadly applicable and compatible with tissue specific applications allowing seeding of stem cells and other cell types. PMID:21552485

Xu, Feng; Sridharan, BanuPriya; Durmus, Naside Gozde; Wang, ShuQi; Yavuz, Ahmet Sinan; Gurkan, Umut Atakan; Demirci, Utkan

2011-01-01

27

Neuronal cell growth on polymeric scaffolds studied by CARS microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For studies of neuronal cell integration and neurite outgrowth in polymeric scaffold materials as a future alternative for the treatment of damages in the neuronal system, we have developed a protocol employing CARS microscopy for imaging of neuronal networks. The benefits of CARS microscopy come here to their best use; (i) the overall three-dimensional (3D) arrangement of multiple cells and their neurites can be visualized without the need for chemical preparations or physical sectioning, potentially affecting the architecture of the soft, fragile scaffolds and (ii) details on the interaction between single cells and scaffold fibrils can be investigated by close-up images at sub-micron resolution. The establishment of biologically more relevant 3D neuronal networks in a soft hydrogel composed of native Extra Cellular Matrix (ECM) components was compared with conventional two-dimensional networks grown on a stiff substrate. Images of cells in the hydrogel scaffold reveal significantly different networking characteristics compared to the 2D networks, raising the question whether the functionality of neurons grown as layers in conventional cultivation dishes represents that of neurons in the central and peripheral nervous systems.

Enejder, Annika; Fink, Helen; Kuhn, Hans-Georg

2012-03-01

28

Slowly degradable porous silk microfabricated scaffolds for vascularized tissue formation  

PubMed Central

There is critical clinical demand for tissue-engineered (TE), three-dimensional (3D) constructs for tissue repair and organ replacements. Current efforts toward this goal are prone to necrosis at the core of larger constructs because of limited oxygen and nutrient diffusion. Therefore, critically sized 3D TE constructs demand an immediate vascular system for sustained tissue function upon implantation. To address this challenge the goal of this project was to develop a strategy to incorporate microchannels into a porous silk TE scaffold that could be fabricated reproducibly using microfabrication and soft lithography. Silk is a suitable biopolymer material for this application because it is mechanically robust, biocompatible, slowly degrades in vivo, and has been used in a variety of TE constructs. We report the fabrication of a silk-based TE scaffold that contains an embedded network of porous microchannels. Enclosed porous microchannels support endothelial lumen formation, a critical step toward development of the vascular niche, while the porous scaffold surrounding the microchannels supports tissue formation, demonstrated using human mesenchymal stem cells. This approach for fabricating vascularized TE constructs is advantageous compared to previous systems, which lack porosity and biodegradability or degrade too rapidly to sustain tissue structure and function. The broader impact of this research will enable the systemic study and development of complex, critically-sized engineered tissues, from regenerative medicine to in vitro tissue models of disease states. PMID:24058328

Wray, Lindsay S.; Tsioris, Konstantinos; Gi, Eun Seok; Omenetto, Fiorenzo G.

2013-01-01

29

Porous nanofibrous PLLA scaffolds for vascular tissue engineering.  

PubMed

Tissue-engineered small-diameter vascular grafts are needed for patients requiring replacement of their injured coronary and below-the-knee vessels. Understanding the interactions between the scaffolds and implanted cells and therefore the phenotype control of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) is critical for constructing functional vascular grafts. In this study, the effect of nanofibrous (NF) poly-L-lactide (PLLA) scaffolds on phenotype control of human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs) was investigated. A tubular NF PLLA scaffold for blood vessel regeneration was fabricated and cell seeding studies showed cell distribution throughout the scaffold. It was found that NF PLLA scaffolds preferentially supported contractile phenotype of HASMCs under the in vitro culture conditions, as evidenced by elevated gene expression level of SMCs contractile markers including smooth muscle myosin heavy chain, smoothelin and myocardin. In vivo subcutaneous implantation studies confirmed HASMCs differentiation in the implants. Taken together, the results showed promising application of the porous NF PLLA scaffolds for reconstruction of tissue-engineered vascular grafts. PMID:20673997

Hu, Jiang; Sun, Xuan; Ma, Haiyun; Xie, Changqing; Chen, Y Eugene; Ma, Peter X

2010-11-01

30

Ultra-porous titanium oxide scaffold with high compressive strength  

PubMed Central

Highly porous and well interconnected titanium dioxide (TiO2) scaffolds with compressive strength above 2.5 MPa were fabricated without compromising the desired pore architectural characteristics, such as high porosity, appropriate pore size, surface-to-volume ratio, and interconnectivity. Processing parameters and pore architectural characteristics were investigated in order to identify the key processing steps and morphological properties that contributed to the enhanced strength of the scaffolds. Cleaning of the TiO2 raw powder removed phosphates but introduced sodium into the powder, which was suggested to decrease the slurry stability. Strong correlation was found between compressive strength and both replication times and solid content in the ceramic slurry. Increase in the solid content resulted in more favourable sponge loading, which was achieved due to the more suitable rheological properties of the ceramic slurry. Repeated replication process induced only negligible changes in the pore architectural parameters indicating a reduced flaw size in the scaffold struts. The fabricated TiO2 scaffolds show great promise as load-bearing bone scaffolds for applications where moderate mechanical support is required. PMID:20711636

Tiainen, Hanna; Lyngstadaas, S. Petter; Ellingsen, Jan Eirik

2010-01-01

31

Porous polymeric structures for tissue engineering prepared by a coagulation, compression moulding and salt leaching technique.  

PubMed

A technique for the preparation of porous polymeric structures involving coagulation, compression moulding and particulate leaching has been developed. The technique combines the advantages of thermal processing methods and particulate leaching. A high molecular weight polymer solution in an organic solvent containing dispersed water-soluble salt particles is precipitated into an excess of non-solvent. The polymer-salt composite is then processed by thermal processing methods into devices of varying shapes and sizes, which can subsequently be extracted to give the desired porous structures. The porosities of the scaffolds could be varied between 70% and 95% by adjusting the polymer to salt ratio and the pore size could be controlled independently by varying the leachable particle size. This versatility provides for the optimisation of scaffolds used in medicine and in tissue engineering. Compared with commonly used porosifying methods such as sintering, compression moulding combined with salt leaching, and freeze-drying, this process allows excellent control over pore size and porosity and yields scaffolds with a much more homogeneous pore morphology. We have prepared porous structures from several relevant polymers in the biomedical field: poly(D,L-lactide), poly(epsilon-caprolactone) and 1000PEOT70PBT30, a segmented poly(ether ester) based on polyethylene oxide and polybutylene terephthalate. PMID:12615484

Hou, Qingpu; Grijpma, Dirk W; Feijen, Jan

2003-05-01

32

Rapid prototyped porous nickel–titanium scaffolds as bone substitutes  

PubMed Central

While calcium phosphate–based ceramics are currently the most widely used materials in bone repair, they generally lack tensile strength for initial load bearing. Bulk titanium is the gold standard of metallic implant materials, but does not match the mechanical properties of the surrounding bone, potentially leading to problems of fixation and bone resorption. As an alternative, nickel–titanium alloys possess a unique combination of mechanical properties including a relatively low elastic modulus, pseudoelasticity, and high damping capacity, matching the properties of bone better than any other metallic material. With the ultimate goal of fabricating porous implants for spinal, orthopedic and dental applications, nickel–titanium substrates were fabricated by means of selective laser melting. The response of human mesenchymal stromal cells to the nickel–titanium substrates was compared to mesenchymal stromal cells cultured on clinically used titanium. Selective laser melted titanium as well as surface-treated nickel–titanium and titanium served as controls. Mesenchymal stromal cells had similar proliferation rates when cultured on selective laser melted nickel–titanium, clinically used titanium, or controls. Osteogenic differentiation was similar for mesenchymal stromal cells cultured on the selected materials, as indicated by similar gene expression levels of bone sialoprotein and osteocalcin. Mesenchymal stromal cells seeded and cultured on porous three-dimensional selective laser melted nickel–titanium scaffolds homogeneously colonized the scaffold, and following osteogenic induction, filled the scaffold’s pore volume with extracellular matrix. The combination of bone-related mechanical properties of selective laser melted nickel–titanium with its cytocompatibility and support of osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stromal cells highlights its potential as a superior bone substitute as compared to clinically used titanium. PMID:25383165

Hoffmann, Waldemar; Bormann, Therese; Rossi, Antonella; Müller, Bert; Schumacher, Ralf; Martin, Ivan; Wendt, David

2014-01-01

33

Porous polymeric materials for hydrogen storage  

DOEpatents

A porous polymer, poly-9,9'-spirobifluorene and its derivatives for storage of H.sub.2 are prepared through a chemical synthesis method. The porous polymers have high specific surface area and narrow pore size distribution. Hydrogen uptake measurements conducted for these polymers determined a higher hydrogen storage capacity at the ambient temperature over that of the benchmark materials. The method of preparing such polymers, includes oxidatively activating solids by CO.sub.2/steam oxidation and supercritical water treatment.

Yu, Luping; Liu, Di-Jia; Yuan, Shengwen; Yang, Junbing

2013-04-02

34

Rapid prototyped porous nickel-titanium scaffolds as bone substitutes.  

PubMed

While calcium phosphate-based ceramics are currently the most widely used materials in bone repair, they generally lack tensile strength for initial load bearing. Bulk titanium is the gold standard of metallic implant materials, but does not match the mechanical properties of the surrounding bone, potentially leading to problems of fixation and bone resorption. As an alternative, nickel-titanium alloys possess a unique combination of mechanical properties including a relatively low elastic modulus, pseudoelasticity, and high damping capacity, matching the properties of bone better than any other metallic material. With the ultimate goal of fabricating porous implants for spinal, orthopedic and dental applications, nickel-titanium substrates were fabricated by means of selective laser melting. The response of human mesenchymal stromal cells to the nickel-titanium substrates was compared to mesenchymal stromal cells cultured on clinically used titanium. Selective laser melted titanium as well as surface-treated nickel-titanium and titanium served as controls. Mesenchymal stromal cells had similar proliferation rates when cultured on selective laser melted nickel-titanium, clinically used titanium, or controls. Osteogenic differentiation was similar for mesenchymal stromal cells cultured on the selected materials, as indicated by similar gene expression levels of bone sialoprotein and osteocalcin. Mesenchymal stromal cells seeded and cultured on porous three-dimensional selective laser melted nickel-titanium scaffolds homogeneously colonized the scaffold, and following osteogenic induction, filled the scaffold's pore volume with extracellular matrix. The combination of bone-related mechanical properties of selective laser melted nickel-titanium with its cytocompatibility and support of osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stromal cells highlights its potential as a superior bone substitute as compared to clinically used titanium. PMID:25383165

Hoffmann, Waldemar; Bormann, Therese; Rossi, Antonella; Müller, Bert; Schumacher, Ralf; Martin, Ivan; de Wild, Michael; Wendt, David

2014-01-01

35

High porous titanium scaffolds showed higher compatibility than lower porous beta-tricalcium phosphate scaffolds for regulating human osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation.  

PubMed

We compared osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation when using beta-tricalcium phosphate (?TCP) and titanium scaffolds by investigating human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and osteoclast progenitor cell activities. hMSCs were cultured for 7, 14, and 21days on titanium scaffolds with 60%, 73%, and 87% porosity and on ?TCP scaffolds with 60% and 75% porosity. Human osteoclast progenitor cells were cultured with osteoblast for 14 and 21days on 87% titanium and 75% ?TCP scaffolds. Viable cell numbers with 60% and 73% titanium were higher than with 87% titanium and ?TCP scaffolds (P<0.05). An 87% titanium scaffold resulted in the highest osteocalcin production with calcification on day 14 (P<0.01) in titanium scaffolds. All titanium scaffolds resulted in higher osteocalcin production on days 7 and 14 compared to ?TCP scaffolds (P<0.01). Osteoblasts cultured on 87% titanium scaffolds suppressed osteoclast differentiation on day 7 but enhanced osteoclast differentiation on day 14 compared to 75% ?TCP scaffolds (P<0.01). These findings concluded that high porosity titanium scaffolds could enhance progression of hMSC/osteoblast differentiation and regulated osteoclast differentiation cooperating with osteoblast differentiation for calcification as compared with lower porous ?TCP. PMID:25686991

Hirota, Makoto; Hayakawa, Tohru; Shima, Takaki; Ametani, Akihiro; Tohnai, Iwai

2015-04-01

36

Porous polymeric materials for hydrogen storage  

DOEpatents

Porous polymers, tribenzohexazatriphenylene, poly-9,9'-spirobifluorene, poly-tetraphenyl methane and their derivatives for storage of H.sub.2 prepared through a chemical synthesis method. The porous polymers have high specific surface area and narrow pore size distribution. Hydrogen uptake measurements conducted for these polymers determined a higher hydrogen storage capacity at the ambient temperature over that of the benchmark materials. The method of preparing such polymers, includes oxidatively activating solids by CO.sub.2/steam oxidation and supercritical water treatment.

Yu, Luping (Hoffman Estates, IL); Liu, Di-Jia (Naperville, IL); Yuan, Shengwen (Chicago, IL); Yang, Junbing (Westmont, IL)

2011-12-13

37

Fabrication and characterization of porous alginate/polyvinyl alcohol hybrid scaffolds for 3D cell culture.  

PubMed

Porous alginate/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) hybrid scaffolds as bioartificial cell scaffolds were fabricated to improve cell compatibility as well as flexibility of the scaffolds. The alginate/PVA hybrid scaffolds with different PVA compositions up to 50 wt% were fabricated by a modified freeze-drying method including the physical cross-linking of PVA and the following chemical cross-linking of alginate. The prepared alginate/PVA hybrid scaffolds were characterized by morphology observations using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the measurements of porosity and average pore sizes and the measurements of compressive strength and modulus. The scaffolds exhibited highly porous, open-cellular pore structures with almost the same surface and cross-sectional porosities (total porosities about 85%, regardless of PVA composition) and the pore sizes from about 290 microm to about 190 microm with increasing PVA composition. The alginate/PVA hybrid scaffolds were more soft and elastic than the control alginate scaffold without significant changes of mechanical strength. The scaffolds were examined for their in vitro cell compatibility by the culture of chondrocytes (human chondrocyte cell line) in the scaffolds and the following analyses by MTT assay and SEM observation. It was observed that the alginate/PVA scaffolds had better cell adhesion and faster growth than the control alginate scaffold. It seems that 30 wt% addition of PVA to alginate in the fabrication of the hybrid scaffolds is desirable for improving their flexibility and cell compatibility. PMID:16128229

Cho, Sang Ho; Oh, Se Heang; Lee, Jin Ho

2005-01-01

38

Delivery of growth factors using a smart porous nanocomposite scaffold to repair a mandibular bone defect.  

PubMed

Implantation of a porous scaffold with a large volume into the body in a convenient and safe manner is still a challenging task in the repair of bone defects. In this study, we present a porous smart nanocomposite scaffold with a combination of shape memory function and controlled delivery of growth factors. The shape memory function enables the scaffold with a large volume to be deformed into its temporal architecture with a small volume using hot-compression and can subsequently recover its original shape upon exposure to body temperature after it is implanted in the body. The scaffold consists of chemically cross-linked poly(?-caprolactone) (c-PCL) and hydroxyapatite nanoparticles. The highly interconnected pores of the scaffold were obtained using the sugar leaching method. The shape memory porous scaffold loaded with bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) was also fabricated by coating the calcium alginate layer and BMP-2 on the surface of the pore wall. Under both in vitro and in vivo environmental conditions, the porous scaffold displays good shape memory recovery from the compressed shape with deformed pores of 33 ?m in diameter to recover its porous shape with original pores of 160 ?m in diameter. In vitro cytotoxicity based on the MTT test revealed that the scaffold exhibited good cytocompatibility. The in vivo micro-CT and histomorphometry results demonstrated that the porous scaffold could promote new bone generation in the rabbit mandibular bone defect. Thus, our results indicated that this shape memory porous scaffold demonstrated great potential for application in bone regenerative medicine. PMID:24467335

Liu, Xian; Zhao, Kun; Gong, Tao; Song, Jian; Bao, Chongyun; Luo, En; Weng, Jie; Zhou, Shaobing

2014-03-10

39

Fabrication and characterization of porous poly(L-lactide) scaffolds using solid-liquid phase separation.  

PubMed

Freeze-extraction, which involves phase separation principle, gave highly porous scaffolds without the time and energy consuming freeze-drying process. The presented method eliminates the problem of formation of surface skin observed in freeze-drying methods. The effects of different freezing temperature (-80 and -24 degrees C), medium (dry ice/ethanol bath and freezer) and polymer concentrations (1, 3, and 5 wt.%) on the scaffold properties were investigated in connection with the porous morphology and physicomechanical characteristics of the final scaffolds. The FESEM micrographs showed porous PLLA scaffolds with ladder-like architecture. The size of the longitudinal pores was in the range of 20-40 microm and the scaffolds had high porosity values ranging from 90% to 98%. Variation in porosity, mechanical resistance, and degree of regularity in the spatial organization of pores were observed when polymer concentration was changed. More open scaffold architecture with enhanced pore interconnectivity was achieved when a dry ice/ethanol bath of -80 degrees C was used. Polymer concentration played an important role in fabricating highly porous scaffolds, with ladder-like architecture only appearing at polymer concentrations of above 3 wt.%. With the freeze-extraction method used here, highly porous and interconnected poly(L-lactide) scaffolds were successfully fabricated, holding great potential for tissue engineering applications. PMID:18219558

Goh, Yan Qi; Ooi, Chui Ping

2008-06-01

40

Mechanical and Biological Performance of Calcium Phosphate Coatings on Porous Bone Scaffold  

Microsoft Academic Search

Composite coatings, consisting of calcium phosphate (CaP) ceramics and phosphate-based glass (P-glass), were obtained on a strong ZrO2 porous scaffold to improve biocompatibility by combining mechanical properties and biological activity. Powder mixtures of hydroxyapatite (HA) and P-glass in vary- ing composition and content were dip-coated on a ZrO2 porous scaffold and heat-treated above 800°C fo r2hi nair. During thermal treatment,

Hae-Won Kim; Jonathan C. Knowles; Hyoun-Ee Kim

2004-01-01

41

Hydroxyapatite porous scaffold engineered with biological polymer hybrid coating for antibiotic Vancomycin release  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to improve hydroxyapatite (HA) porous scaffolds via coating with biological polymer-HA hybrids for use as wound healing and tissue regeneration. Highly porous HA scaffolds, fabricated by a polyurethane foam reticulate method, were coated with hybrid coating solution, consisting of poly(e-caprolactone) (PCL), HA powders, and the antibiotic Vancomycin. The PCL to HA ratio was fixed

Hae-Won Kim; Jonathan C. Knowles; Hyoun-Ee Kim

2005-01-01

42

Researchers are working to design porous polymer scaffolds infused with bioactive factors to enhance tissue regeneration.  

E-print Network

. Porous scaffolds are fabricated by mixing of the microspheres with a porogen, such as salt or sucrose. Quenching of the pressure results in fusion of adjacent microspheres to create an interconnected structure. For scaffolds with a porogen, the constructs are immersed in water to create an interconnected open pore

Shull, Kenneth R.

43

Kinetics and isotherm of fibronectin adsorption to three-dimensional porous chitosan scaffolds explored by 125I-radiolabelling  

PubMed Central

In this study, 125I-radiolabelling was explored to follow the kinetics and isotherm of fibronectin (FN) adsorption to porous polymeric scaffolds, as well as to assess the elution and exchangeability of pre-adsorbed FN following incubation in serum-containing culture medium. Chitosan (CH) porous scaffolds with two different degrees of acetylation (DA 4% and 15%) were incubated in FN solutions with concentrations ranging from 5 to 50 µg/mL. The kinetic and isotherm of FN adsorption to CH were successfully followed using 125I-FN as a tracer molecule. While on DA 4% the levels of adsorbed FN increased linearly with FN solution concentration, on DA 15% a saturation plateau was attained, and FN adsorbed amounts were significantly lower. These findings were supported by immunofluorescent studies that revealed, for the same FN solution concentration, higher levels of exposed cell-binding domains on DA 4% as compared with DA 15%. Following incubation in serum containing medium, DA 4% also revealed higher ability to exchange pre-adsorbed FN by new FN molecules from serum than DA 15%. In accordance, when assessing the efficacy of passively adsorbed FN to promote endothelial cell (EC) adhesion to CH, ECs were found to adhere at higher levels to DA 4% as compared with DA 15%, 5 µg/mL of FN being already efficient in promoting cell adhesion and cytoskeletal organization on CH with DA 4%. Taken together the results show that protein radiolabelling can be used as an effective tool to study protein adsorption to porous polymeric scaffolds, both from single and complex protein solutions. PMID:23635535

Amaral, Isabel F.; Sousa, Susana R.; Neiva, Ismael; Marcos-Silva, Lara; Kirkpatrick, Charles J.; Barbosa, Mário A.; Pêgo, Ana P.

2013-01-01

44

Peracetic acid: a practical agent for sterilizing heat-labile polymeric tissue-engineering scaffolds.  

PubMed

Advanced biomaterials and sophisticated processing technologies aim at fabricating tissue-engineering scaffolds that can predictably interact within a biological environment at the cellular level. Sterilization of such scaffolds is at the core of patient safety and is an important regulatory issue that needs to be addressed before clinical translation. In addition, it is crucial that meticulously engineered micro- and nano- structures are preserved after sterilization. Conventional sterilization methods involving heat, steam, and radiation are not compatible with engineered polymeric systems because of scaffold degradation and loss of architecture. Using electrospun scaffolds made from polycaprolactone, a low melting polymer, and employing spores of Bacillus atrophaeus as biological indicators, we compared ethylene oxide, autoclaving and 80% ethanol to a known chemical sterilant, peracetic acid (PAA), for their ability to sterilize as well as their effects on scaffold properties. PAA diluted in 20% ethanol to 1000 ppm or above sterilized electrospun scaffolds in 15 min at room temperature while maintaining nano-architecture and mechanical properties. Scaffolds treated with PAA at 5000 ppm were rendered hydrophilic, with contact angles reduced to 0°. Therefore, PAA can provide economical, rapid, and effective sterilization of heat-sensitive polymeric electrospun scaffolds that are used in tissue engineering. PMID:24341350

Yoganarasimha, Suyog; Trahan, William R; Best, Al M; Bowlin, Gary L; Kitten, Todd O; Moon, Peter C; Madurantakam, Parthasarathy A

2014-09-01

45

Review: Biodegradable Polymeric Scaffolds. Improvements in Bone Tissue Engineering through Controlled Drug Delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in biology, medicine, and engineering have led to the discovery of new therapeutic\\u000a agents and novel materials for the repair of large bone defects caused by trauma, congenital defects, or\\u000a bone tumors. These repair strategies often utilize degradable polymeric scaffolds for the controlled localized\\u000a delivery of bioactive molecules to stimulate bone ingrowth as the scaffold degrades. Polymer composition,

Theresa A. Holland; Antonios G. Mikos

46

Construction of biocompatible porous tissue scaffold from the decellularized umbilical artery.  

PubMed

The scaffolds prepared from the tissue decellularization conserve the porous 3-D structure and provide an optimal matrix for the tissue regeneration. Since decade, the enzymatic digestion, chemical reagent treatment and mechanical actions such as eversion and abrasion have been used to remove the cells from the intact matrix. In this study, we optimized an enzymatic method to decellularize the umbilical artery to construct a 3-D porous scaffold which is suitable for the culture of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). The scaffold maintained the interconnected porous structure. It remained the similar high water content 95.3±1% compared to 94.9±0.6% in the intact umbilical artery (p>0.05). The decellularization process decreased the stress from 0.24±0.05 mPa to 0.15±0.06 mPa (p<0.05). However the decellularization did not change the strain of the artery (45±15% vs. 53±10%, p>0.05). When the scaffold was transplanted to the subcutaneous tissue in the wild type mice, there were less T cells appeared in the surrounding tissue which meant the decreased the immunogenicity by decellularization. This scaffold also supported the adhesion and proliferation of the MSCs. In this study, we constructed a biological compatible porous scaffold from the decellularized umbilical artery which may provide a suitable scaffold for cell-matrix interaction studies and for tissue engineering. PMID:25538057

Xin, Yi; Wu, Guanghui; Wu, Man; Zhang, Xiaoxia; Velot, Emilie; Decot, Véronique; Cui, Wei; Huang, Yimin; Stoltz, Jean-Francois; Du, Jie; Li, Na

2015-01-01

47

Gelatin porous scaffolds fabricated using a modified gas foaming technique: Characterisation and cytotoxicity assessment.  

PubMed

The current study presents an effective and simple strategy to obtain stable porous scaffolds from gelatin via a gas foaming method. The technique exploits the intrinsic foaming ability of gelatin in the presence of CO2 to obtain a porous structure stabilised with glutaraldehyde. The produced scaffolds were characterised using physical and mechanical characterisation methods. The results showed that gas foaming may allow the tailoring of the 3-dimensional structure of the scaffolds with an interconnected porous structure. To assess the effectiveness of the preparation method in mitigating the potential cytotoxicity risk of using glutaraldehyde as a crosslinker, direct and in-direct cytotoxicity assays were performed at different concentrations of glutaraldehyde. The results indicate the potential of the gas foaming method, in the preparation of viable tissue engineering scaffolds. PMID:25579897

Poursamar, S Ali; Hatami, Javad; Lehner, Alexander N; da Silva, Cláudia L; Ferreira, Frederico Castelo; Antunes, A P M

2015-03-01

48

Porous chitosan-hyaluronic acid scaffolds as a mimic of glioblastoma microenvironment ECM.  

PubMed

Cancer therapeutics are developed through extensive screening; however, many therapeutics evaluated with 2D in vitro cultures during pre-clinical trials suffer from lower efficacy in patients. Replicating the in vivo tumor microenvironment in vitro with three-dimensional (3D) porous scaffolds offers the possibility of generating more predictive pre-clinical models to enhance cancer treatment efficacy. We developed a chitosan and hyaluronic acid (HA) polyelectrolyte complex 3D porous scaffold and evaluated its physical properties. Chitosan-HA (C-HA) scaffolds had a highly porous network. C-HA scaffolds were compared to 2D surfaces for in vitro culture of U-118 MG human glioblastoma (GBM) cells. C-HA scaffold cultures promoted tumor spheroid formation and increased stem-like properties of GBM cells as evidenced by the upregulation of CD44, Nestin, Musashi-1, GFAP, and HIF-1? as compared with 2D cultures. Additionally, the invasiveness of GBM cells cultured in C-HA scaffolds was significantly enhanced compared to those grown in 2D cultures. C-HA scaffold cultures were also more resistant to chemotherapy drugs, which corresponded to the increased expression of ABCG2 drug efflux transporter. These findings suggest that C-HA scaffolds offer promise as an in vitro GBM platform for study and screening of novel cancer therapeutics. PMID:24075410

Florczyk, Stephen J; Wang, Kui; Jana, Soumen; Wood, David L; Sytsma, Samara K; Sham, Jonathan G; Kievit, Forrest M; Zhang, Miqin

2013-12-01

49

Two-photon polymerization-generated and micromolding-replicated 3D scaffolds for peripheral neural tissue engineering applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we explore the production of well-defined macroscopic scaffolds with two-photon polymerization (2PP) and their use as neural tissue engineering scaffolds. We also demonstrate that these 3D scaffolds can be replicated via soft lithography, which increases production efficiency. Photopolymerizable polylactic acid (PLA) was used to produce scaffolds by 2PP and soft lithography. We assessed the biocompatibility of these

A Koroleva; A A Gill; I Ortega; J W Haycock; S Schlie; S D Gittard; B N Chichkov; F Claeyssens

2012-01-01

50

Poly(lactide-co-glycolide) porous scaffolds for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine  

PubMed Central

Porous scaffolds fabricated from biocompatible and biodegradable polymers play vital roles in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Among various scaffold matrix materials, poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) is a very popular and an important biodegradable polyester owing to its tunable degradation rates, good mechanical properties and processibility, etc. This review highlights the progress on PLGA scaffolds. In the latest decade, some facile fabrication approaches at room temperature were put forward; more appropriate pore structures were designed and achieved; the mechanical properties were investigated both for dry and wet scaffolds; a long time biodegradation of the PLGA scaffold was observed and a three-stage model was established; even the effects of pore size and porosity on in vitro biodegradation were revealed; the PLGA scaffolds have also been implanted into animals, and some tissues have been regenerated in vivo after loading cells including stem cells. PMID:23741612

Pan, Zhen; Ding, Jiandong

2012-01-01

51

Incorporation of polymeric microparticles into collagen-hydroxyapatite scaffolds for the delivery of a pro-osteogenic peptide for bone tissue engineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Collagen-hydroxyapatite scaffolds are outstanding materials for bone tissue engineering as they are biocompatible, bioresorbable, osteoconductive, and osteoinductive. The objective of the present work was to assess the potential of increasing their regenerative capacity by functionalising the scaffolds for therapeutic delivery. This was achieved by the utilization of polymeric drug carriers. With this purpose, alginate, chitosan, gelatine, and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microparticles eluting PTHrP 107-111, an osteogenic pentapeptide, were fabricated and tested by incorporating them into the scaffolds. Among them, PLGA microparticles show the most promising characteristics for use as drug delivery devices. Following the incorporation of the microparticles, the scaffolds maintained their interconnected porous structure and the mechanical properties of the materials were not adversely affected. In addition, the microparticles released all their PTHrP 107-111 cargo. Most importantly, the delivered peptide proved to be bioactive and promoted enhanced osteogenesis as assessed by alkaline phosphatase production and osteocalcin and osteopontin gene expression when pre-osteoblastic cells were seeded on the scaffolds. While the focus was on bone repair, the release system described in this study can be used for the delivery of therapeutics for healing and regeneration of a variety of tissue types depending on the type of collagen scaffold chosen.

López-Noriega, Adolfo; Quinlan, Elaine; Celikkin, Nehar; O'Brien, Fergal J.

2015-01-01

52

Investigation of osteoblast cells behavior in polymeric 3D micropatterned scaffolds using digital holographic microscopy.  

PubMed

The effect of micropatterned polymeric scaffolds on the features of the cultured cells at different time intervals after seeding was investigated by digital holographic microscopy. Both parallel and perpendicular walls, with different heights, were fabricated using two-photon lithography on photopolymers. The walls were subsequently coated with polypyrrole-based thin films using the matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation technique. Osteoblast-like cells, MG-63 line, were cultured on these polymeric 3D micropatterned scaffolds. To analyze these scaffolds with/without cultured cells, an inverted digital holographic microscope, which provides 3D images, was used. Information about the samples' refractive indices and heights was obtained from the phase shift introduced in the optical path. Characteristics of cell adhesion, alignment, orientation, and morphology as a function of the wall heights and time from seeding were highlighted. PMID:25090313

Mihailescu, M; Popescu, R C; Matei, A; Acasandrei, A; Paun, I A; Dinescu, M

2014-08-01

53

Development of Composite Porous Scaffolds Based on Collagen and Biodegradable Poly(ester urethane)urea  

PubMed Central

Our objective in this work was to develop a flexible, biodegradable scaffold for cell transplantation that would incorporate a synthetic component for strength and flexibility and type I collagen for enzymatic lability and cytocompatibility. A biodegradable poly(ester urethane)urea was synthesized from poly(caprolactone), 1,4-diisocyanatobutane, and putrescine. Using a thermally induced phase separation process, porous scaffolds were created from a mixture containing this polyurethane and 0%, 10%, 20%, or 30% type I collagen. The resulting scaffolds were found to have open, interconnected pores (from 7 to >100 um) and porosities from 58% to 86% depending on the polyurethane/collagen ratio. The scaffolds were also flexible with breaking strains of 82–443% and tensile strengths of 0.97–4.11 MPa depending on preparation conditions. Scaffold degradation was significantly increased when collagenase was introduced into an incubating buffer in a manner that was dependent on the mass fraction of collagen present in the scaffold. Mass losses could be varied from 15% to 59% over 8 weeks. When culturing umbilical artery smooth muscle cells on these scaffolds higher cell numbers were observed over a 4-week culture period in scaffolds containing collagen. In summary, a strong and flexible scaffold system has been developed that can degrade by both hydrolysis and collagenase degradation pathways, as well as support cell growth. This scaffold possesses properties that would make it attractive for future use in soft tissue applications where such mechanical and biological features would be advantageous. PMID:16826792

Guan, Jianjun; Stankus, John J.; Wagner, William R.

2010-01-01

54

Biomimetic formation of apatite on the surface of porous gelatin/bioactive glass nanocomposite scaffolds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There have been several attempts to combine bioactive glasses (BaGs) with biodegradable polymers to create a scaffold material with excellent biocompatibility, bioactivity, biodegradability and toughness. In the present study, the nanocomposite scaffolds with compositions based on gelatin (Gel) and BaG nanoparticles in the ternary SiO 2-CaO-P 2O 5 system were prepared. In vitro evaluations of the nanocomposite scaffolds were performed, and for investigating their bioactive capacity these scaffolds were soaked in a simulated body fluid (SBF) at different time intervals. The scaffolds showed significant enhancement in bioactivity within few days of immersion in SBF solution. The apatite formation at the surface of the nanocomposite samples confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) analyses. In vitro experiments with osteoblast cells indicated an appropriate penetration of the cells into the scaffold's pores, and also the continuous increase in cell aggregation on the bioactive scaffolds with increase in the incubation time demonstrated the ability of the scaffolds to support cell growth. The SEM observations revealed that the prepared scaffolds were porous with three dimensional (3D) and interconnected microstructure, pore size was 200-500 ?m and the porosity was 72-86%. The nanocomposite scaffold made from Gel and BaG nanoparticles could be considered as a highly bioactive and potential bone tissue engineering implant.

Mozafari, Masoud; Rabiee, Mohammad; Azami, Mahmoud; Maleknia, Saied

2010-12-01

55

Hydrolytic degradation of porous scaffolds for tissue engineering from terpolymer of L-lactide, ?-caprolactone and glycolide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Segmental terpolymer of L-lactide, ?-caprolactone and glycolide have been synthesized by ring-opening polymerization with the use of zirconium acetylacetonate as a biocompatible initiator. Porous scaffolds aimed at tissue engineering have been prepared from resulting terpolymer by solvent casting/particulate leaching technique. Sieved sodium citrate particles of 500-700 ?m size have been used as porogens. The obtained scaffolds have been submitted to degradation in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) at 37 °C for 26 weeks and characterized as a function of incubation time by: Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in the attenuated total reflection mode (FTIR-ATR), nuclear magnetic resonance ( 1H NMR), gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The scaffolds start to degrade immediately after contact with PBS, as demonstrated by decrease in molecular weights ( Mn and Mw). In the first stage (6 weeks in PBS) when the scaffolds are still dimensionally stable, the degradation is generally due to cleavage of ester bonds between glycolidyl (GG) and caproyl (Cap) groups present in chain sequences such as -GGCapCap-, -GGGCap-, as shown by 1H NMR. The analysis of FTIR spectra of the initial scaffolds and after 6 week immersion in PBS reveals a shift of the band attributed to C dbnd6 O vibrations and considerable changes in the shape of the bands attributed to C-O and C-O-C vibrations. These changes are due to chain-scission of polyester bonds in hydrolysis reaction. Subsequently, when the concentration of sequences containing glycol, glycolidyl and caproyl groups decreases, the influence of cleavage of polyester bonds between longer lactyl microblocks on the degradation increases gradually. As a result, two separate polymer fractions are formed.

Pamu?a, El?bieta; Dobrzy?ski, Piotr; Bero, Maciej; Paluszkiewicz, Czes?awa

2005-06-01

56

Bony engineering using time-release porous scaffolds to provide sustained growth factor delivery.  

PubMed

Microporous scaffolds designed to improve bony repair have had limited success; therefore, we sought to evaluate whether time-released porous scaffolds with or without recombinant bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP-2) could enhance stem cell osteoinduction. Custom-made 15/85 hydroxyapatite/?-tricalcium phosphate scaffolds were left empty (E) or filled with rhBMP-2 (E+), calcium sulfate (CS), or CS and rhBMP-2 (CS+). All scaffolds were placed in media and weighed daily. Conditioned supernatant was analyzed for rhBMP-2 and then used to feed human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs). Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell ALP activity, OSTERIX expression, and bone nodule formation were determined. E scaffolds retained 97% (SD, 2%) of the initial weight, whereas CS scaffolds had a near-linear 30% (SD, 3%) decrease over 60 days. E+ scaffolds released 155 (SD, 5) ng of rhBMP-2 (77%) by day 2. In contrast, CS+ scaffolds released only 30 (SD, 2) ng (10%) by day 2, and the remaining rhBMP-2 was released over 20 days. Conditioned media from E+ scaffolds stimulated the highest ALP activity and OSTERIX expression in ACSs on day 2. However, after day 6, media from CS+ scaffolds stimulated the highest ALP activity and OSTERIX expression in ASCs. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells exposed to day 8 CS+-conditioned media produced significantly more bone nodules (10.1 [SD, 1.7] nodules per high-power field) than all other scaffolds. Interestingly, day 8 conditioned media from CS scaffolds simulated significantly more bone nodules than either E or E+ scaffold (P < 0.05 for both). Time-released hydroxyapatite/?-tricalcium phosphate porosity provides sustained growth factor release, enhances ASC osteoinduction, and may result in better in vivo bone formation. PMID:22565873

Szpalski, Caroline; Nguyen, Phuong D; Cretiu Vasiliu, Cornelia E; Chesnoiu-Matei, Ioana; Ricci, John L; Clark, Elizabeth; Smay, James E; Warren, Stephen M

2012-05-01

57

Label-free magnetic resonance imaging to locate live cells in three-dimensional porous scaffolds  

PubMed Central

Porous scaffolds are widely tested materials used for various purposes in tissue engineering. A critical feature of a porous scaffold is its ability to allow cell migration and growth on its inner surface. Up to now, there has not been a method to locate live cells deep inside a material, or in an entire structure, using real-time imaging and a non-destructive technique. Herein, we seek to demonstrate the feasibility of the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique as a method to detect and locate in vitro non-labelled live cells in an entire porous material. Our results show that the use of optimized MRI parameters (4.7 T; repetition time = 3000 ms; echo time = 20 ms; resolution 39 × 39 µm) makes it possible to obtain images of the scaffold structure and to locate live non-labelled cells in the entire material, with a signal intensity higher than that obtained in the culture medium. In the current study, cells are visualized and located in different kinds of porous scaffolds. Moreover, further development of this MRI method might be useful in several three-dimensional biomaterial tests such as cell distribution studies, routine qualitative testing methods and in situ monitoring of cells inside scaffolds. PMID:22442095

Abarrategi, A.; Fernandez-Valle, M. E.; Desmet, T.; Castejón, D.; Civantos, A.; Moreno-Vicente, C.; Ramos, V.; Sanz-Casado, J. V.; Martínez-Vázquez, F. J.; Dubruel, P.; Miranda, P.; López-Lacomba, J. L.

2012-01-01

58

Effective method for multi-scale gradient porous scaffold design and fabrication.  

PubMed

Function-based modeling is a highly flexible porous scaffold design approach for use in tissue engineering. It was recently proposed as a valid tool for constructing cellular structures by providing a compact representation of complex structures. However, current approaches have some limitations with regard to combining multiple function-based substructures. In this short communication, we propose an effective method for combination operations of multiple substructures based on given substructures and boundaries. With this proposed method, a functional gradient porous scaffold (FGPS) with multi-scale substructures could be easily constructed and directly fabricated by using additive manufacturing techniques. PMID:25175242

Yang, Nan; Zhou, Kuntao

2014-10-01

59

Porous ceramic titanium dioxide scaffolds promote bone formation in rabbit peri-implant cortical defect model.  

PubMed

Titanium oxide (TiO?) scaffolds have previously been reported to exhibit very low mechanical strength. However, we have been able to produce a scaffold that features a high interconnectivity, a porosity of 91% and a compressive strength above 1.2 MPa. This study analyzed the in vivo performance of the porous TiO? scaffolds in a peri-implant cortical defect model in the rabbit. After 8 weeks of healing, morphological microcomputed tomography analyses of the defects treated with the TiO? scaffolds had significantly higher bone volume, bone surface and bone surface-to-volume ratio when compared to sham, both in the cortical and bone marrow compartment. No adverse effects, i.e. tissue necrosis or inflammation as measured by lactate dehydrogenase activity and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis, were observed. Moreover, the scaffold did not hinder bone growth onto the adjacent cortical titanium implant. Histology clearly demonstrated new bone formation in the cortical sections of the defects and the presence of newly formed bone in close proximity to the scaffold surface and the surface of the adjacent Ti implant. Bone-to-material contact between the newly formed bone and the scaffold was observed in the histological sections. Islets of new bone were also present in the marrow compartment albeit in small amounts. In conclusion, the present investigation demonstrates that TiO? scaffolds osseointegrate well and are a suitable scaffold for peri-implant bone healing and growth. PMID:22985740

Haugen, Håvard Jostein; Monjo, Marta; Rubert, Marina; Verket, Anders; Lyngstadaas, Ståle Petter; Ellingsen, Jan Eirik; Rønold, Hans Jacob; Wohlfahrt, Johan Caspar

2013-02-01

60

Silver nanoparticle studded porous polyethylene scaffolds: bacteria struggle to grow on them while mammalian cells thrive.  

PubMed

Silver nanoparticle studded scaffolds were prepared by exploiting the Ag(+) ion reducing activity of sophorolipids--a class of 'glycolipids' that cap the ensuing nanoparticles as well. To achieve this, the porous polyethylene scaffolds are subjected to N(2) + H(2) plasma treatment, in the first step. Subsequently the sophorolipids are covalently attached to the amine groups on the polymer surface through simple amide chemistry to yield sophorolipid grafted polymer scaffolds. These are then exposed to Ag(+) ions under appropriate conditions leading to the formation of silver nanoparticles immobilized on the polymer scaffolds. It has been found that while bacteria do not survive on these silver studded scaffolds, CHO-K1 cells thrive on them making them good candidates for tissue engineering and bio-implant applications. PMID:21643585

D'Britto, Virginia; Kapse, Harsha; Babrekar, Harshada; Prabhune, A A; Bhoraskar, S V; Premnath, V; Prasad, B L V

2011-07-01

61

Three-dimensional modeling of angiogenesis in porous biomaterial scaffolds.  

PubMed

Vascularization of biomaterial scaffolds is essential for the successful clinical application of engineered tissues. Experimental studies are often performed to investigate the role of scaffold architecture on vascularized tissue formation. However, experiments are expensive and time-consuming and synthesis protocols often do not allow for independent investigation of specific scaffold properties. Computational models allow for rapid screening of potential material designs with control over scaffold properties that is difficult in laboratory settings. We have developed and tested a three-dimensional agent-based framework for investigating the effect of scaffold pore architecture on angiogenesis. Software agents represent endothelial cells, interacting together and with their micro-environment, leading to the invasion of blood vessels into the scaffold. A rule base, driven by experimental findings, governs the behavior of individual agents. 3D scaffold models with well-defined homogeneous and heterogeneous pore architectures were simulated to investigate the impact of various design parameters. Simulation results indicate that pores of larger size with higher interconnectivity and porosity support rapid and extensive angiogenesis. The developed framework can be used to screen biomaterial scaffold designs for optimal vascularization and investigate complex interactions among invading blood vessels and their micro-environment. PMID:23357368

Mehdizadeh, Hamidreza; Sumo, Sami; Bayrak, Elif S; Brey, Eric M; Cinar, Ali

2013-04-01

62

Adipogenic differentiation of stem cells in three-dimensional porous bacterial nanocellulose scaffolds.  

PubMed

There is an increased interest in developing adipose tissue for in vitro and in vivo applications. Current two-dimensional (2D) cell-culture systems of adipocytes are limited, and new methods to culture adipocytes in three-dimensional (3D) are warranted as a more life-like model to study metabolic diseases such as obesity and diabetes. In this study, we have evaluated different porous bacterial nanocellulose scaffolds for 3D adipose tissue. In an initial pilot study, we compared adipogenic differentiation of mice mesenchymal stem cells from a cell line on 2D and 3D scaffolds of bacterial nanocellulose. The 3D scaffolds were engineered by crosslinking homogenized cellulose fibrils using alginate and freeze drying the mixture to obtain a porous structure. Quenching the scaffolds in liquid nitrogen resulted in smaller pores compared to slower freezing using isopropanol. We found that on 2D surfaces, the cells were scarcely distributed and showed limited formation of lipid droplets, whereas cells grown in macroporous 3D scaffolds contained more cells growing in clusters, containing large lipid droplets. All four types of scaffolds contained a lot of adipocytes, but scaffolds with smaller pores contained larger cell clusters than scaffolds with bigger pores, with viable adipocytes present even 4 weeks after differentiation. Scaffolds with lower alginate fractions retained their pore integrity better. We conclude that 3D culturing of adipocytes in bacterial nanocellulose macroporous scaffolds is a promising method for fabrication of adipose tissue as an in vitro model for adipose biology and metabolic disease. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 103B: 195-203, 2015. PMID:24819827

Krontiras, Panagiotis; Gatenholm, Paul; Hägg, Daniel A

2015-01-01

63

Silver nanoparticle studded porous polyethylene scaffolds: bacteria struggle to grow on them while mammalian cells thrive  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Silver nanoparticle studded scaffolds were prepared by exploiting the Ag+ ion reducing activity of sophorolipids--a class of `glycolipids' that cap the ensuing nanoparticles as well. To achieve this, the porous polyethylene scaffolds are subjected to N2 + H2 plasma treatment, in the first step. Subsequently the sophorolipids are covalently attached to the amine groups on the polymer surface through simple amide chemistry to yield sophorolipid grafted polymer scaffolds. These are then exposed to Ag+ ions under appropriate conditions leading to the formation of silver nanoparticles immobilized on the polymer scaffolds. It has been found that while bacteria do not survive on these silver studded scaffolds, CHO-K1 cells thrive on them making them good candidates for tissue engineering and bio-implant applications.Silver nanoparticle studded scaffolds were prepared by exploiting the Ag+ ion reducing activity of sophorolipids--a class of `glycolipids' that cap the ensuing nanoparticles as well. To achieve this, the porous polyethylene scaffolds are subjected to N2 + H2 plasma treatment, in the first step. Subsequently the sophorolipids are covalently attached to the amine groups on the polymer surface through simple amide chemistry to yield sophorolipid grafted polymer scaffolds. These are then exposed to Ag+ ions under appropriate conditions leading to the formation of silver nanoparticles immobilized on the polymer scaffolds. It has been found that while bacteria do not survive on these silver studded scaffolds, CHO-K1 cells thrive on them making them good candidates for tissue engineering and bio-implant applications. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: See DOI: 10.1039/c1nr10152d

D'Britto, Virginia; Kapse, Harsha; Babrekar, Harshada; Prabhune, A. A.; Bhoraskar, S. V.; Premnath, V.; Prasad, B. L. V.

2011-07-01

64

Repairing a critical-sized bone defect with highly porous modified and unmodified baghdadite scaffolds.  

PubMed

This is the first reported study to prepare highly porous baghdadite (Ca?ZrSi?O?) scaffolds with and without surface modification and investigate their ability to repair critical-sized bone defects in a rabbit radius under normal load. The modification was carried out to improve the mechanical properties of the baghdadite scaffolds (particularly to address their brittleness) by coating their surfaces with a thin layer (?400 nm) of polycaprolactone (PCL)/bioactive glass nanoparticles (nBGs). The ?-tricalcium phosphate/hydroxyapatite (TCP/HA) scaffolds with and without modification were used as the control groups. All of the tested scaffolds had an open and interconnected porous structure with a porosity of ?85% and average pore size of 500 ?m. The scaffolds (six per scaffold type and size of 4 mm × 4 mm × 15 mm) were implanted (press-fit) into the rabbit radial segmental defects for 12 weeks. Micro-computed tomography and histological evaluations were used to determine bone ingrowth, bone quality, and implant integration after 12 weeks of healing. Extensive new bone formation with complete bridging of the radial defect was evident with the baghdadite scaffolds (modified/unmodified) at the periphery and in close proximity to the ceramics within the pores, in contrast to TCP/HA scaffolds (modified/unmodified), where bone tended to grow between the ulna adjacent to the implant edge. Although the modification of the baghdadite scaffolds significantly improved their mechanical properties, it did not show any significant effect on in vivo bone formation. Our findings suggest that baghdadite scaffolds with and without modification can serve as a potential material to repair critical sized bone defects. PMID:22842031

Roohani-Esfahani, S I; Dunstan, C R; Davies, B; Pearce, S; Williams, R; Zreiqat, H

2012-11-01

65

Preparation of porous polymeric membranes from PTFE fine particles  

SciTech Connect

A porous structure comprised of fibrils and nodes (aggregated domain of particles) is prepared from polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) particles through a series of mechanical operations, i.e., extrusion, rolling and uniaxial stretching. The periodic cycle of the structure is controlled by varying the molecular weight of PTFE and conditions of the operations. Connections between the particles which work as the precursor of fibrils are easily formed, and, in particular, promoted by the rolling operation. The molecular-weight-dependency of the tensile stress under the steady stretch is small compared to that applicable in the case of a non-crystalline polymeric system, and the observed activation energy, Ea=7.5 kJ/mol, is only three times as large as the thermal energy ({approximately}3RT). The PTFE particle is so structured that threadlike structure of the connection can easily be pulled out of the crystalline particles.

Kurumada, Ken-ichi; Kitamura, Taketo; Tanigaki, Masataka [Kyoto Univ. (Japan); Harada, Akira [Sumitomo Electric Industries, Osaka (Japan)

1996-12-31

66

Characteristics and osteogenic effect of zirconia porous scaffold coated with ?-TCP/HA  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to evaluate the properties of a porous zirconia scaffold coated with bioactive materials and compare the in vitro cellular behavior of MC3T3-E1 preosteoblastic cells to titanium and zirconia disks and porous zirconia scaffolds. MATERIALS AND METHODS Titanium and zirconia disks were prepared. A porous zirconia scaffold was fabricated with an open cell polyurethane disk foam template. The porous zirconia scaffolds were coated with ?-TCP, HA and a compound of ?-TCP and HA (BCP). The characteristics of the specimens were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive x-ray spectrometer (EDX), and x-ray diffractometry (XRD). The dissolution tests were analyzed by an inductively coupled plasma spectrometer (ICP). The osteogenic effect of MC3T3-E1 cells was assessed via cell counting and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). RESULTS The EDX profiles showed the substrate of zirconia, which was surrounded by the Ca-P layer. In the dissolution test, dissolved Ca2+ ions were observed in the following decreasing order; ?-TCP > BCP > HA (P<.05). In the cellular experiments, the cell proliferation on titanium disks appeared significantly lower in comparison to the other groups after 5 days (P<.05). The zirconia scaffolds had greater values than the zirconia disks (P<.05). The mRNA level of osteocalcin was highest on the non-coated zirconia scaffolds after 7 days. CONCLUSION Zirconia had greater osteoblast cell activity than titanium. The interconnecting pores of the zirconia scaffolds showed enhanced proliferation and cell differentiation. The activity of osteoblast was more affected by microstructure than by coating materials. PMID:25177472

Song, Young-Gyun

2014-01-01

67

Porous ovalbumin scaffolds with tunable properties: A resource-efficient biodegradable material for tissue engineering applications.  

PubMed

Natural materials are promising alternatives to synthetic materials used in tissue engineering applications as they have superior biocompatibility and promote better cell attachment and proliferation. Ovalbumin, a natural polymer found in avian egg white, is an example of a nature-derived material. Despite the availability and reported biocompatibility of ovalbumin, limited research has been carried out to investigate the efficacy of ovalbumin-based scaffolds for adipose tissue engineering applications. Hence, the current study was carried out to investigate the effect of different crosslinkers on ovalbumin scaffold properties as first step towards the development of ovalbumin-based scaffolds for adipose tissue engineering applications. In this study, highly porous three-dimensional scaffolds were fabricated by using three different crosslinkers: glutaraldehyde, 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide and 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether. Results showed that the overall scaffold properties such as morphology, pore size and mechanical properties could be modulated based on the type and concentration of crosslinkers used during the fabrication process. Subsequently, the efficacy of the different scaffolds for supporting cell proliferation was investigated. In vitro degradation was also carried on for the best scaffold based on the mechanical and cellular results. Overall, this study is a demonstration of the viability of ovalbumin-based scaffolds as cell carriers for soft tissue engineering applications. PMID:25158688

Luo, Baiwen; Choong, Cleo

2015-01-01

68

Biological evaluation of porous aliphatic polyurethane/hydroxyapatite composite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering.  

PubMed

Biomaterial scaffolds meant to function as supporting structures to osteogenic cells play a pivotal role in bone tissue engineering. Recently, we synthesized an aliphatic polyurethane (PU) scaffold via a foaming method using non-toxic components. Through this procedure a uniform interconnected porous structure was created. Furthermore, hydroxyapatite (HA) particles were introduced into this process to increase the bioactivity of the PU matrix. To evaluate the biological performances of these PU-based scaffolds, their influence on in vitro cellular behavior and in vivo bone forming capacity of the engineered cell-scaffold constructs was investigated in this study. A simulated body fluid test demonstrated that the incorporation of 40 wt % HA particles significantly promoted the biomineralization ability of the PU scaffolds. Enhanced in vitro proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of the seeded mesenchymal stem cells were also observed on the PU/HA composite. Next, the cell-scaffold constructs were implanted subcutaneously in a nude mice model. After 8 weeks, a considerable amount of vascularized bone tissue with initial marrow stroma development was generated in both PU and PU/HA40 scaffold. In conclusion, the PU/HA composite is a potential scaffold for bone regeneration applications. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A, 2014. PMID:25370308

Yang, Wanxun; Both, Sanne K; Zuo, Yi; Birgani, Zeinab Tahmasebi; Habibovic, Pamela; Li, Yubao; Jansen, John A; Yang, Fang

2014-11-01

69

Porous anodic aluminum oxide scaffolds; formation mechanisms and applications  

E-print Network

Nanoporous anodic aluminium oxide (AAO) can be created with pores that self-assemble into ordered configurations. Nanostructured metal oxides have proven to be very useful as scaffolds for growth of nanowires and nanotubes ...

Oh, Jihun

2010-01-01

70

Porous nanofibrous PLLA scaffolds for vascular tissue engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tissue-engineered small-diameter vascular grafts are needed for patients requiring replacement of their injured coronary and below-the-knee vessels. Understanding the interactions between the scaffolds and implanted cells and therefore the phenotype control of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) is critical for constructing functional vascular grafts. In this study, the effect of nanofibrous (NF) poly-l-lactide (PLLA) scaffolds on phenotype control of human aortic

Jiang Hu; Xuan Sun; Haiyun Ma; Changqing Xie; Y. Eugene Chen; Peter X. Ma

2010-01-01

71

Bilayer porous scaffold based on poly-(?-caprolactone) nanofibrous membrane and gelatin sponge for favoring cell proliferation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrospun poly-(?-caprolactone) (PCL) nanofibers has been widely used in the medical prosthesis. However, poor hydrophilicity and the lack of natural recognition sites for covalent cell-recognition signal molecules to promote cell attachment have limited its utility as tissue scaffolds. In this study, Bilayer porous scaffolds based on PCL electrospun membranes and gelatin (GE) sponges were fabricated through soft hydrolysis of PCL electrospun followed by grafting gelatin onto the fiber surface, through crosslinking and freeze drying treatment of additional gelatin coat and grafted gelatin surface. GE sponges were stably anchored on PCL membrane surface with the aid of grafted GE molecules. The morphologies of bilayer porous scaffolds were observed through SEM. The contact angle of the scaffolds was 0°, the mechanical properties of scaffolds were measured by tensile test, Young's moduli of PCL scaffolds before and after hydrolysis are 66-77.3 MPa and 62.3-75.4 MPa, respectively. Thus, the bilayer porous scaffolds showed excellent hydrophilic surface and desirable mechanical strength due to the soft hydrolysis and GE coat. The cell culture results showed that the adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells did more favor to adhere and grow on the bilayer porous scaffolds than on PCL electrospun membranes. The better cell affinity of the final bilayer scaffolds not only attributed to the surface chemistry but also the introduction of bilayer porous structure.

Zhou, Zhihua; Zhou, Yang; Chen, Yiwang; Nie, Huarong; Wang, Yang; Li, Fan; Zheng, Yan

2011-12-01

72

Processing and characterization of porous structures from chitosan and starch for tissue engineering scaffolds.  

PubMed

Natural biodegradable polymers were processed by different techniques for the production of porous structures for tissue engineering scaffolds. Potato, corn, and sweet potato starches and chitosan, as well as blends of these, were characterized and used in the experiments. The techniques used to produce the porous structures included a novel solvent-exchange phase separation technique and the well-established thermally induced phase separation method. Characterization of the open pore structures was performed by measuring pore size distribution, density, and porosity of the samples. A wide range of pore structures ranging from 1 to 400 microm were obtained. The mechanisms of pore formation are discussed for starch and chitosan scaffolds. Pore morphology in starch scaffolds seemed to be determined by the initial freezing temperature/freezing rate, whereas in chitosan scaffolds the shape and size of pores may have been determined by the processing route used. The mechanical properties of the scaffolds were assessed by indentation tests, showing that the indentation collapse strength depends on the pore geometry and the material type. Bioactivity and degradation of the potential scaffolds were assessed by immersion in simulated body fluid. PMID:17154462

Nakamatsu, Javier; Torres, Fernando G; Troncoso, Omar P; Min-Lin, Yuan; Boccaccini, Aldo R

2006-12-01

73

Chronic Label-free Volumetric Photoacoustic Microscopy of Melanoma Cells in Three-Dimensional Porous Scaffolds  

PubMed Central

Visualizing cells in three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds has been one of the major challenges in tissue engineering. Most current imaging modalities either suffer from poor penetration depth or require exogenous contrast agents. Here, we demonstrate photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) of the spatial distribution and temporal proliferation of cells inside three-dimensional porous scaffolds with thicknesses over 1 mm. Specifically, we evaluated the effects of seeding and culture methods on the spatial distribution of melanoma cells. Spatial distribution of the cells in the scaffold was well-resolved in PAM images. Moreover, the number of cells in the scaffold was quantitatively measured from the as-obtained volumetric information. The cell proliferation profile obtained from PAM correlated well with what was obtained using the traditional 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. PMID:20727581

Zhang, Yu; Cai, Xin; Choi, Sung-Wook; Kim, Chulhong; Wang, Lihong V.; Xia, Younan

2010-01-01

74

Surface modification of biodegradable porous Mg bone scaffold using polycaprolactone/bioactive glass composite.  

PubMed

A reduction in the degradation rate of magnesium (Mg) and its alloys is in high demand to enable these materials to be used in orthopedic applications. For this purpose, in this paper, a biocompatible polymeric layer reinforced with a bioactive ceramic made of polycaprolactone (PCL) and bioactive glass (BG) was applied on the surface of Mg scaffolds using dip-coating technique under low vacuum. The results indicated that the PCL-BG coated Mg scaffolds exhibited noticeably enhanced bioactivity compared to the uncoated scaffold. Moreover, the mechanical integrity of the Mg scaffolds was improved using the PCL-BG coating on the surface. The stable barrier property of the coatings effectively delayed the degradation activity of Mg scaffold substrates. Moreover, the coatings induced the formation of apatite layer on their surface after immersion in the SBF, which can enhance the biological bone in-growth and block the microcracks and pore channels in the coatings, thus prolonging their protective effect. Furthermore, it was shown that a three times increase in the concentration of PCL-BG noticeably improved the characteristics of scaffolds including their degradation resistance and mechanical stability. Since bioactivity, degradation resistance and mechanical integrity of a bone substitute are the key factors for repairing and healing fractured bones, we suggest that PCL-BG is a suitable coating material for surface modification of Mg scaffolds. PMID:25686970

Yazdimamaghani, Mostafa; Razavi, Mehdi; Vashaee, Daryoosh; Tayebi, Lobat

2015-04-01

75

Low-pressure foaming: a novel method for the fabrication of porous scaffolds for tissue engineering.  

PubMed

Scaffolds for tissue engineering applications must incorporate porosity for optimal cell seeding, tissue ingrowth, and vascularization, but common fabrication methods for achieving porosity are incompatible with a variety of polymers, limiting widespread use. In this study, porous scaffolds consisting of poly(1,8-octanediol-co-citrate) (POC) containing hydroxyapatite nanocrystals (HA) were fabricated using low-pressure foaming (LPF). LPF is a novel method of fabricating an interconnected, porous scaffold with relative ease. LPF takes advantage of air bubbles that act as pore nucleation sites during a polymer mixing step. Vacuum is applied to expand the nucleation sites into interconnected pores that are stabilized through cross-linking. POC was combined with 20%, 40%, and 60% by weight HA, and the effect of increasing HA particle content on porosity, mechanical properties, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) was evaluated. The effect of the prepolymer viscosity on porosity and the mechanical properties of POC with 40% by weight HA (POC-40HA) were also assessed. POC-40HA scaffolds were also implanted in an osteochondral defect of a rabbit model, and the explants were assessed at 6 weeks using histology. With increasing HA content, the pore size of POC-HA scaffolds can be varied (85 to 1,003 ?m) and controlled to mimic the pore size of native trabecular bone. The compression modulus increased with greater HA content under dry conditions and were retained to a greater extent than with porous scaffolds fabricated using salt-leaching under wet conditions. Furthermore, all POC-HA scaffolds prepared using LPF supported hMSC attachment, and an increase in ALP activity correlated with an increase in HA content. An increase in the prepolymer viscosity resulted in increased compression modulus, greater distance between pores, and less porosity. After 6 weeks in vivo, cell and tissue infiltration was present throughout the scaffold. This study describes a novel method of creating porous osteoconductive POC scaffolds without the need for porogen leaching and provides the groundwork for applying LPF to other elastomers and composites. PMID:21933018

Chung, Eun Ji; Sugimoto, Matthew; Koh, Jason L; Ameer, Guillermo A

2012-02-01

76

A polycaprolactone/cuttlefish bone-derived hydroxyapatite composite porous scaffold for bone tissue engineering.  

PubMed

Cuttlefish bone (CB) is an attractive natural biomaterial source to obtain hydroxyapatite (HAp). In this study, a porous polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffold incorporating CB-derived HAp (CB-HAp) powder was fabricated using the solvent casting and particulate leaching method. The presence of CB-HAp in PCL/CB-HAp scaffold was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and porosity analysis showed that the average pore dimension of the fabricated scaffold was approximately 200-300 ?m, with ?85% porosity, and that the compressive modulus increased after addition of CB-HAp powders. In vitro tests such as cell proliferation assay, cytotoxicity analysis, cell attachment observations, and alkaline phosphatase activity assays showed that the PCL/CB-HAp scaffold could improve the proliferation, viability, adherence, and osteoblast differentiation rate of MG-63 cells. When surgically implanted into rabbit calvarial bone defects, consistent with the in vitro results, PCL/CB-HAp scaffold implantation resulted in significantly higher new bone formation than did implantation of PCL alone. These findings suggest that addition of CB-HAp powder to the PCL scaffold can improve cellular response and that the PCL/CB-HAp composite scaffold has great potential for use in bone tissue engineering. PMID:24259295

Kim, Beom-Su; Yang, Sun-Sik; Lee, Jun

2014-07-01

77

Label-free Raman monitoring of extracellular matrix formation in three-dimensional polymeric scaffolds  

PubMed Central

Monitoring extracellular matrix (ECM) components is one of the key methods used to determine tissue quality in three-dimensional scaffolds for regenerative medicine and clinical purposes. Raman spectroscopy can be used for non-invasive sensing of cellular and ECM biochemistry. We have investigated the use of conventional (confocal and semiconfocal) Raman microspectroscopy and fibre-optic Raman spectroscopy for in vitro monitoring of ECM formation in three-dimensional poly(ethylene oxide terephthalate)–poly(butylene terephthalate) (PEOT/PBT) scaffolds. Chondrocyte-seeded PEOT/PBT scaffolds were analysed for ECM formation by Raman microspectroscopy, biochemical analysis, histology and scanning electron microscopy. ECM deposition in these scaffolds was successfully detected by biochemical and histological analysis and by label-free non-destructive Raman microspectroscopy. In the spectra collected by the conventional Raman set-ups, the Raman bands at 937 and at 1062 cm?1 which, respectively, correspond to collagen and sulfated glycosaminoglycans could be used as Raman markers for ECM formation in scaffolds. Collagen synthesis was found to be different in single chondrocyte-seeded scaffolds when compared with microaggregate-seeded samples. Normalized band-area ratios for collagen content of single cell-seeded samples gradually decreased during a 21-day culture period, whereas collagen content of the microaggregate-seeded samples significantly increased during this period. Moreover, a fibre-optic Raman set-up allowed for the collection of Raman spectra from multiple pores inside scaffolds in parallel. These fibre-optic measurements could give a representative average of the ECM Raman signal present in tissue-engineered constructs. Results in this study provide proof-of-principle that Raman microspectroscopy is a promising non-invasive tool to monitor ECM production and remodelling in three-dimensional porous cartilage tissue-engineered constructs. PMID:23825118

Kunstar, Aliz; Leferink, Anne M.; Okagbare, Paul I.; Morris, Michael D.; Roessler, Blake J.; Otto, Cees; Karperien, Marcel; van Blitterswijk, Clemens A.; Moroni, Lorenzo; van Apeldoorn, Aart A.

2013-01-01

78

PLLA-collagen and PLLA-gelatin hybrid scaffolds with funnel-like porous structure for skin tissue engineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In skin tissue engineering, a three-dimensional porous scaffold is necessary to support cell adhesion and proliferation and to guide cells moving into the repair area in the wound healing process. Structurally, the porous scaffold should have an open and interconnected porous architecture to facilitate homogenous cell distribution. Moreover, the scaffolds should be mechanically strong to protect deformation during the formation of new skin. In this study, the hybrid scaffolds were prepared by forming funnel-like collagen or gelatin sponge on a woven poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) mesh. The hybrid scaffolds combined the advantages of both collagen or gelatin (good cell-interactions) and PLLA mesh (high mechanical strength). The hybrid scaffolds were used to culture dermal fibroblasts for dermal tissue engineering. The funnel-like porous structure promoted homogeneous cell distribution and extracellular matrix production. The PLLA mesh reinforced the scaffold to avoid deformation. Subcutaneous implantation showed that the PLLA-collagen and PLLA-gelatin scaffolds promoted the regeneration of dermal tissue and epidermis and reduced contraction during the formation of new tissue. These results indicate that funnel-like hybrid scaffolds can be used for skin tissue regeneration.

Lu, Hongxu; Oh, Hwan Hee; Kawazoe, Naoki; Yamagishi, Kozo; Chen, Guoping

2012-12-01

79

The Use of Porous Scaffold as a Tumor Model  

PubMed Central

Background. Human cancer is a three-dimensional (3D) structure consisting of neighboring cells, extracellular matrix, and blood vessels. It is therefore critical to mimic the cancer cells and their surrounding environment during in vitro study. Our aim was to establish a 3D cancer model using a synthetic composite scaffold. Methods. High-density low-volume seeding was used to promote attachment of a non-small-cell lung cancer cell line (NCI-H460) to scaffolds. Growth patterns in 3D culture were compared with those of monolayers. Immunohistochemistry was conducted to compare the expression of Ki67, CD44, and carbonic anhydrase IX. Results. NCI-H460 readily attached to the scaffold without surface pretreatment at a rate of 35% from a load of 1.5 × 106 cells. Most cells grew vertically to form clumps along the surface of the scaffold, and cell morphology resembled tissue origin; 2D cultures exhibited characteristics of adherent epithelial cancer cell lines. Expression patterns of Ki67, CD44, and CA IX varied markedly between 3D and monolayer cultures. Conclusions. The behavior of cancer cells in our 3D model is similar to tumor growth in vivo. This model will provide the basis for future study using 3D cancer culture. PMID:24101930

Zhang, Mei; Boughton, Philip; Rose, Barbara; Lee, C. Soon; Hong, Angela M.

2013-01-01

80

Porous chitosan tubular scaffolds with knitted outer wall and controllable inner structure for nerve tissue engineering.  

PubMed

In this study, a novel method was developed to create porous tubular scaffolds with desirable mechanical properties and controllable inner structure from chitosan, for nerve tissue engineering. Chitosan fiber-based yarns were first used to create porous hollow tubes, which served as the outer wall of the scaffolds, through an industrial knitting process. Then, an innovative molding technique was developed and used to produce inner matrices with multiple axially oriented macrochannels and radially interconnected micropores. Acupuncture needles were used as mandrels during molding to improve the safety and controllability of the process. In vitro characterization demonstrated that the scaffolds possessed suitable mechanical strength, porosity, swelling, and biodegradability for applications in nerve tissue engineering. In vitro cell culture experiments showed that differentiated Neuro-2a cells grew along the oriented macrochannels and the interconnected micropores were beneficial for nutrient diffusion and cell ingrowth to the scaffold's interior. Collectively, the well-defined architectural features in addition to the desirable mechanical and biological properties of the scaffolds make them promising for nerve tissue engineering. PMID:16758450

Wang, Aijun; Ao, Qiang; Cao, Wenling; Yu, Mingzhi; He, Qing; Kong, Lijun; Zhang, Ling; Gong, Yandao; Zhang, Xiufang

2006-10-01

81

Macro-scale Topology Optimization for Controlling Internal Shear Stress in a Porous Scaffold Bioreactor  

E-print Network

Shear stress is an important physical factor that regulates proliferation, migration and morphogenesis. In particular, the homeostasis of blood vessels is dependent on shear stress. To mimic this process ex vivo, efforts have been made to seed scaffolds with vascular and other cell types in the presence of growth factors and under pulsatile flow conditions. However, the resulting bioreactors lack information on shear stress and flow distributions within the scaffold. Consequently, it is difficult to interpret the effects of shear stress on cell function. Such knowledge would enable researchers to improve upon cell culture protocols. Recent work has focused on optimizing the microstructural parameters of the scaffold to fine tune the shear stress. In this study, we have adopted a different approach whereby flows are redirected throughout the bioreactor along channels patterned in the porous scaffold to yield shear stress distributions that are optimized for uniformity centered on a target value. A topology optimization algorithm coupled to computational fluid dynamics simulations was devised to this end. The channel topology in the porous scaffold was varied using a combination of genetic algorithm and fuzzy logic. The method is validated by experiments using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) readouts of the flow field.

K. Youssef; J. J. Mack; M. L. Iruela-Arispe; L. -S. Bouchard

2012-01-09

82

Macro-scale topology optimization for controlling internal shear stress in a porous scaffold bioreactor.  

PubMed

Shear stress is an important physical factor that regulates proliferation, migration, and morphogenesis. In particular, the homeostasis of blood vessels is dependent on shear stress. To mimic this process ex vivo, efforts have been made to seed scaffolds with vascular and other cell types in the presence of growth factors and under pulsatile flow conditions. However, the resulting bioreactors lack information on shear stress and flow distributions within the scaffold. Consequently, it is difficult to interpret the effects of shear stress on cell function. Such knowledge would enable researchers to improve upon cell culture protocols. Recent work has focused on optimizing the microstructural parameters of the scaffold to fine tune the shear stress. In this study, we have adopted a different approach whereby flows are redirected throughout the bioreactor along channels patterned in the porous scaffold to yield shear stress distributions that are optimized for uniformity centered on a target value. A topology optimization algorithm coupled to computational fluid dynamics simulations was devised to this end. The channel topology in the porous scaffold was varied using a combination of genetic algorithm and fuzzy logic. The method is validated by experiments using magnetic resonance imaging readouts of the flow field. PMID:22252902

Youssef, K; Mack, J J; Iruela-Arispe, M L; Bouchard, L-S

2012-07-01

83

Chondrogenic differentiation of human adipose mesenchimal stem cells: influence of a biomimetic gelatin genipin crosslinked porous scaffold.  

PubMed

Human adipose derived stem cells have shown chondrogenic differentiation potential in cartilage tissue engineering in combination with biomimetic materials. In this study, the chondrogenic potential of a porous gelatin based scaffold genipin (GNP) crosslinked was investigated in human mesenchymal stem cells obtained from adipose tissue. Cells were cultured up to 4 weeks on the scaffold and on monolayer, MTT assay was performed to evaluate cell viability, light, and transmission electron microscopy were carried out to demonstrate cell proliferation, scaffold adhesion, and cell colonization inside the porous architecture of the biomaterial. The expression of chondrogenic markers such as SOX9, collagen type II, aggregan, and versican was investigated by Real Time PCR. Results showed an high cell viability, adhesion, and colonization of the scaffold. Real Time PCR data demonstrated an upregulation of all the chondrogenic markers analyzed. In conclusion, 3D gelatin GNP crosslinked porous scaffold provides an improved environment for chondrogenic differentiation of stem cells compared with cell monolayer culture system. PMID:25099470

Focaroli, Stefano; Teti, Gabriella; Salvatore, Viviana; Durante, Sandra; Belmonte, Monica Mattioli; Giardino, Roberto; Mazzotti, Antonio; Bigi, Adriana; Falconi, Mirella

2014-11-01

84

Preparation of porous scaffolds by using freeze-extraction and freeze-gelation methods.  

PubMed

Freeze-fixation and freeze-gelation methods are presented in this paper which can be used to prepare highly porous scaffolds without using the time and energy consuming freeze-drying process. The porous structure was generated during the freeze of a polymer solution, following which either the solvent was extracted by a non-solvent or the polymer was gelled under the freezing condition; thus, the porous structure would not be destructed during the subsequent drying stage. Compared with the freeze-drying method, the presented methods are time and energy-saving, with less residual solvent, and easier to be scaled up. Besides, the problem of formation of surface skin can be resolved and the limitation of using solvent with low boiling point can be lifted by the presented methods. With the freeze-extraction and freeze-gelation methods, porous PLLA, PLGA, chitosan and alginate scaffolds were successfully fabricated. In addition to the presentation of the morphologies of the fabricated scaffolds, preliminary data of cell culture on them are as well included in the present work. PMID:14580916

Ho, Ming-Hua; Kuo, Pei-Yun; Hsieh, Hsyue-Jen; Hsien, Tzu-Yang; Hou, Lein-Tuan; Lai, Juin-Yih; Wang, Da-Ming

2004-01-01

85

An animal experimental study of porous magnesium scaffold degradation and osteogenesis  

PubMed Central

Our objective was to observe the biodegradable and osteogenic properties of magnesium scaffolding under in vivo conditions. Twelve 6-month-old male New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into two groups. The chosen operation site was the femoral condyle on the right side. The experimental group was implanted with porous magnesium scaffolds, while the control group was implanted with hydroxyapatite scaffolds. X-ray and blood tests, which included serum magnesium, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), creatinine (CREA), and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) were performed serially at 1, 2, and 3 weeks, and 1, 2, and 3 months. All rabbits were killed 3 months postoperatively, and the heart, kidney, spleen, and liver were analyzed with hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining. The bone samples were subjected to microcomputed tomography scanning (micro-CT) and hard tissue biopsy. SPSS 13.0 (USA) was used for data analysis, and values of P<0.05 were considered to be significant. Bubbles appeared in the X-ray of the experimental group after 2 weeks, whereas there was no gas in the control group. There were no statistical differences for the serum magnesium concentrations, ALT, BUN, and CREA between the two groups (P>0.05). All HE-stained slices were normal, which suggested good biocompatibility of the scaffold. Micro-CT showed that magnesium scaffolds degraded mainly from the outside to inside, and new bone was ingrown following the degradation of magnesium scaffolds. The hydroxyapatite scaffold was not degraded and had fewer osteoblasts scattered on its surface. There was a significant difference in the new bone formation and scaffold bioabsorption between the two groups (9.29±1.27 vs 1.40±0.49 and 7.80±0.50 vs 0.00±0.00 mm3, respectively; P<0.05). The magnesium scaffold performed well in degradation and osteogenesis, and is a promising material for orthopedics. PMID:25098717

Liu, Y.J.; Yang, Z.Y.; Tan, L.L.; Li, H.; Zhang, Y.Z.

2014-01-01

86

Porous Hydroxyapatite Bioceramic Scaffolds for Drug Delivery and Bone Regeneration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The conventional methods of supplying a patient with pharmacologic active substances suffer from being very poorly selective, so that damage can occurs to the healthy tissues and organs, different from the intended target. In addition, high drug doses can be required to achieve the desired effect. An alternative approach is based on the use of implantable delivery tools, able to release the active substance in a controlled way. In the current research local drug delivery devices containing 8mg of gentamicin sulphate were prepared using custom developed vacuum impregnation technique. In vitro dissolution tests showed that gentamicin release was sustained for 12h. In order to decrease gentamicin release rate, biopolymer coatings were applied and coating structure investigated. The results showed that gentamicin release can be sustained for more than 70h for poly(epsilon-caprolactone) coated calcium phosphate scaffolds. From poly lactic acid and polyvinyl alcohol coated scaffolds gentamicin was released within 20h and 50h, respectively.

Loca, Dagnija; Locs, Janis; Salma, Kristine; Gulbis, Juris; Salma, Ilze; Berzina-Cimdina, Liga

2011-10-01

87

Extracellular matrix formation and mineralization on a phosphate-free porous bioactive glass scaffold using primary human osteoblast (HOB) cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sol–gel derived bioactive glasses of the 70S30C (70mol% SiO2, 30mol% CaO) composition have been foamed to produce 3D bioactive scaffolds with hierarchical interconnected pore morphologies similar to trabecular bone. The aim of this study was to investigate primary human osteoblast response to porous bioactive glass scaffolds. The scaffolds supported osteoblast growth and induced differentiation, within the 3-week culture period, as

Julian R. Jones; Olga Tsigkou; Emily E. Coates; Molly M. Stevens; Julia M. Polak; Larry L. Hench

2007-01-01

88

Tantalum coating on porous Ti6Al4V scaffold using chemical vapor deposition and preliminary biological evaluation.  

PubMed

Porous tantalum (Ta), produced via chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of commercially pure Ta onto a vitreous carbon, is currently available for use in orthopedic applications. However, the relatively high manufacturing cost and the incapability to produce customized implant using medical image data have limited its application to gain widespread acceptance. In this study, Ta film was deposited on porous Ti6Al4V scaffolds using CVD technique. Digital microscopy and scanning electron microscopy indicated that the Ta coating evenly covered the entire scaffold structure. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the coating consisted of ? and ? phases of Ta. Goat mesenchymal stem cells were seeded and cultured on the Ti6Al4V scaffolds with and without coating. The tetrazolium-based colorimetric assay exhibited better cell adhesion and proliferation on Ta-coated scaffolds compared with uncoated scaffolds. The porous scaffolds were subsequently implanted in goats for 12weeks. Histological analysis revealed similar bone formation around the periphery of the coated and uncoated implants, but bone ingrowth is better within the Ta-coated scaffolds. To demonstrate the ability of producing custom implant for clinical applications via this technology, we designed and fabricated a porous Ti6Al4V scaffold with segmental mandibular shape derived from patient computerized tomography data. PMID:23623123

Li, Xiang; Wang, Lin; Yu, Xiaoming; Feng, Yafei; Wang, Chengtao; Yang, Ke; Su, Daniel

2013-07-01

89

IMPEE PhD Opportunity Project title: Patient-specific design of biodegradable porous scaffolds for tissue engineering  

E-print Network

for tissue engineering Supervisor(s): Dr Y. Chen Abstract (200 words max): Scaffolding as a tissue engineering approach has drawn significant attention in bioengineering community in the past two decades. In principle the tissue scaffolds are expected to be porous, biodegradable and able to provide cell

Greenaway, Alan

90

Direct Ink Writing of Highly Porous and Strong Glass Scaffolds for Load-bearing Bone Defects Repair and Regeneration  

PubMed Central

The quest for synthetic materials to repair load-bearing bone lost because of trauma, cancer, or congenital bone defects requires development of porous and high-performance scaffolds with exceptional mechanical strength. However, the low mechanical strength of porous bioactive ceramic and glass scaffolds, compared with that of human cortical bone, has limited their use for these applications. In the present work, bioactive 6P53B glass scaffolds with superior mechanical strength were fabricated using a direct ink writing technique. The rheological properties of Pluronic® F-127 (referred to hereafter simply as F-127) hydrogel-based inkswere optimized for the printing of features as fine as 30 ?m and of the three-dimensional scaffolds. The mechanical strength and in vitro degradation of the scaffolds were assessed in a simulated body fluid (SBF). The sintered glass scaffolds show a compressive strength (136 ± 22 MPa) comparable to that of human cortical bone (100-150 MPa), while the porosity (60%) is in the range of that of trabecular bone (50-90%).The strength is ~100 times that of polymer scaffolds and 4–5 times that of ceramic and glass scaffolds with comparable porosities. Despite the strength decrease resulting from weight loss during immersion in an SBF, the value (77 MPa) is still far above that of trabecular bone after three weeks. The ability to create both porous and strong structures opens a new avenue for fabricating scaffolds for load-bearing bone defect repair and regeneration. PMID:21745606

Fu, Qiang; Saiz, Eduardo; Tomsia, Antoni P.

2011-01-01

91

High resolution x-ray imaging of dynamic solute transport in cyclically deformed porous tissue scaffolds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective was to develop a method for high-resolution imaging of dynamic solute transport in cyclically deforming porous scaffolds for tissue engineering applications. A flexible cubic scaffold with single cylindrical channel was fabricated from a biodegradable polymer blend using a combined 3D printing and injection molding technique. The scaffold was attached to the bottom of a fluid reservoir mounted underneath a compression apparatus placed inside the X-ray scanner. The scaffold was positioned with the channel axis perpendicular to the X-ray beam. The container was filled with glycerin, and a solution of the contrast agent sodium iodide (NaI) in glycerin was injected into the scaffold channel. Intervals of compression cycles (14.5 +/- 2.1 % compression at 1.0 Hz) were applied to the top face of the scaffold. After each interval the compression was temporarily paused to obtain a two-dimensional image at 20 ?m pixel resolution. A series of images was also obtained without application of the compression cycles to quantify the effect of passive diffusional removal of NaI from the channel. The average NaI concentration in the channel decreased by 82% after 300 cycles (5 min.) of compression, by 40% after 60 min. of passive removal. Spatial profiles of the NaI concentration along the channel axis indicated that compression-induced transport preferentially removed the contrast agent at the pore openings. We conclude that convective transport induced by cyclic mechanical deformation of artificial tissue scaffolds could significantly contribute to the rate and depth of nutrient transport inside the scaffold, as compared to slow diffusive transport alone.

Op Den Buijs, Jorn; Lee, Kee-Won; Jorgensen, Steven M.; Wang, Shanfeng; Yaszemski, Michael J.; Ritman, Erik L.

2008-03-01

92

Fabrication of porous gelatin scaffolds for tissue engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel method which employs water present in swollen hydrogels as a porogen for shape template was suggested for preparing porous materials. Biodegradable hydrogels were prepared through crosslinking of gelatin with glutaraldehyde in aqueous solution, followed by rinsing and washing. After freezing the swollen hydrogels, the ice formed within the hydrogel network was sublimated by freeze-drying. This simple method produced

Hye-Won Kang; Yasuhiko Tabata; Yoshito Ikada

1999-01-01

93

Hard-tissue-engineered zirconia porous scaffolds with hydroxyapatite sol-gel and slurry coatings  

Microsoft Academic Search

A zirconia (ZrO2) porous scaffold was coated with a gradient apatite layer to induce osteoconductivity with the use of a combination of sol- gel and powder slurry methods. The ZrO2 was used to impart mechanical strength and the apatite layer was coated for functional biocompatibility. The coating layer, from the outside in, was composed of sol- gel hydroxyapatite (HA)\\/slurry HA\\/slurry

Hae-Won Kim; Hyoun-Ee Kim; Jonathan C. Knowles

2004-01-01

94

Stress–strain analysis of porous scaffolds made from titanium alloys synthesized via SLS method  

Microsoft Academic Search

A layer-by-layer selective laser sintering (SLS) technology seems to be greatly promising for solving the plastic surgery problems, particularly those pertaining to the facial reconstruction. Made from titanium-based alloys (titanium or nitinol, i.e. NiTi-intermetallic phase), the porous scaffolds for cranioplasty are an efficient tool for rectifying the face defects and for the dental orthopedic surgery. The progress in the oral

I. Shishkovsky

2009-01-01

95

Combinatorial on-chip study of miniaturized 3D porous scaffolds using a patterned superhydrophobic platform.  

PubMed

One of the main challenges in tissue engineering (TE) is to obtain optimized products, combining biomaterials, cells and soluble factors able to stimulate tissue regeneration. Multiple combinations may be considered by changing the conditions among these three factors. The unpredictable response of each combination requires time-consuming tests. High-throughput methodologies have been proposed to master such complex analyses in TE. Usually, these tests are performed using cells cultured into 2D biomaterials or by dispensing arrays of cell-loaded hydrogels. For the first time an on-chip combinatorial study of 3D miniaturized porous scaffolds is proposed, using a patterned bioinspired superhydrophobic platform. Arrays of biomaterials are dispensed and processed in situ as porous scaffolds with distinct composition, surface characteristics, porosity/pore size, and mechanical properties. On-chip porosity, pore size, and mechanical properties of scaffolds based on chitosan and alginate are assessed by adapting microcomputed tomography equipment and a dynamic mechanical analyzer, as well as cell response after 24 hours. The interactions between cell types of two distinct origins-osteoblast-like and fibroblasts-and the scaffolds modified with fibronectin are studied and validated by comparison with conventional destructive methods (dsDNA quantification and MTS tests). Physical and biological on-chip analyses are coherent with the conventional measures, and conclusions about the most favorable conditions for each cell type are taken. PMID:23169604

Oliveira, Mariana B; Salgado, Christiane L; Song, Wenlong; Mano, João F

2013-03-11

96

Development and Characterization of Novel Porous 3D Alginate-Cockle Shell Powder Nanobiocomposite Bone Scaffold  

PubMed Central

A novel porous three-dimensional bone scaffold was developed using a natural polymer (alginate/Alg) in combination with a naturally obtained biomineral (nano cockle shell powder/nCP) through lyophilization techniques. The scaffold was developed in varying composition mixture of Alg-nCP and characterized using various evaluation techniques as well as preliminary in vitro studies on MG63 human osteoblast cells. Morphological observations using SEM revealed variations in structures with the use of different Alg-nCP composition ratios. All the developed scaffolds showed a porous structure with pore sizes ideal for facilitating new bone growth; however, not all combination mixtures showed subsequent favorable characteristics to be used for biological applications. Scaffolds produced using the combination mixture of 40% Alg and 60% nCP produced significantly promising results in terms of mechanical strength, degradation rate, and increased cell proliferation rates making it potentially the optimum composition mixture of Alg-nCP with future application prospects. PMID:25110655

Bharatham, B. Hemabarathy; Abu Bakar, Md. Zuki; Perimal, Enoch Kumar; Yusof, Loqman Mohamed; Hamid, Muhajir

2014-01-01

97

Development and characterization of novel porous 3D alginate-cockle shell powder nanobiocomposite bone scaffold.  

PubMed

A novel porous three-dimensional bone scaffold was developed using a natural polymer (alginate/Alg) in combination with a naturally obtained biomineral (nano cockle shell powder/nCP) through lyophilization techniques. The scaffold was developed in varying composition mixture of Alg-nCP and characterized using various evaluation techniques as well as preliminary in vitro studies on MG63 human osteoblast cells. Morphological observations using SEM revealed variations in structures with the use of different Alg-nCP composition ratios. All the developed scaffolds showed a porous structure with pore sizes ideal for facilitating new bone growth; however, not all combination mixtures showed subsequent favorable characteristics to be used for biological applications. Scaffolds produced using the combination mixture of 40% Alg and 60% nCP produced significantly promising results in terms of mechanical strength, degradation rate, and increased cell proliferation rates making it potentially the optimum composition mixture of Alg-nCP with future application prospects. PMID:25110655

Bharatham, B Hemabarathy; Abu Bakar, Md Zuki; Perimal, Enoch Kumar; Yusof, Loqman Mohamed; Hamid, Muhajir

2014-01-01

98

Porous Silk Scaffolds for Delivery of Growth Factors and Stem Cells to Enhance Bone Regeneration  

PubMed Central

Stem cell-based tissue engineering shows promise for bone regeneration and requires artificial microenvironments to enhance the survival, proliferation and differentiation of the seeded cells. Silk fibroin, as a natural protein polymer, has unique properties for tissue regeneration. The present study aimed to evaluate the influence of porous silk scaffolds on rat bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs) by lenti-GFP tracking both in vitro and in vivo in cranial bone defects. The number of cells seeded within silk scaffolds in rat cranial bone defects increased from 2 days to 2 weeks after implantation, followed by a decrease at eight weeks. Importantly, the implanted cells survived for 8 weeks in vivo and some of the cells might differentiate into endothelial cells and osteoblasts induced by the presence of VEGF and BMP-2 in the scaffolds to promote angiogenesis and osteogenesis. The results demonstrate that porous silk scaffolds provide a suitable niche to maintain long survival and function of the implanted cells for bone regeneration. PMID:25050556

Xu, Ling; Zhang, Xiaochen; Wu, Qianju; Zhang, Xiuli; Kaplan, David L.; Jiang, Xinquan

2014-01-01

99

Regulation of coat protein polymerization by the scaffolding protein of bacteriophage P22.  

PubMed Central

In the morphogenesis of double stranded DNA phages, a precursor protein shell empty of DNA is first assembled and then filled with DNA. The assembly of the correctly dimensioned precursor shell (procapsid) of Salmonella bacteriophage P22 requires the interaction of some 420 coat protein subunits with approximately 200 scaffolding protein subunits to form a double shelled particle with the scaffolding protein on the inside. In the course of DNA packaging, all of the scaffolding protein subunits exit from the procapsid and participate in further rounds of procapsid assembly (King and Casjens. 1974. Nature (Lond.). 251:112-119). To study the mechanism of shell assembly we have purified the coat and scaffolding protein subunits by selective dissociation of isolated procapsids. Both proteins can be obtained as soluble subunits in Tris buffer at near neutral pH. The coat protein sedimented in sucrose gradients as a roughly spherical monomer, while the scaffolding protein sedimented as if it were an elongated monomer. When the two proteins were mixed together in 1.5 M guanidine hydrochloride and dialyzed back to buffer at room temperature, procapsids formed which were very similar in morphology, sedimentation behavior, and protein composition to procapsids formed in vivo. Incubation of either protein alone under the same conditions did not yield any large structures. We interpret these results to mean that the assembly of the shell involves a switching of both proteins from their nonaggregating to their aggregating forms through their mutual interaction. The results are discussed in terms of the general problem of self-regulated assembly and the control of protein polymerization in morphogenesis. Images Figure 2 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:7018607

Fuller, M T; King, J

1980-01-01

100

Three-dimensional scaffold containing EGF incorporated biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles for stem cell based tissue engineering applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stem cell-based tissue engineering holds much hope for the development of multifunctional tissues to replace diseased organs.\\u000a The attachment and survival of stem cells on a three-dimensional (3D) scaffold must be enhanced for faster progression of\\u000a stem cell based tissue engineering. This study evaluate the stability of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in 3D porous scaffolds\\u000a composed of a collagen and

Sivasami Pulavendran; Gurunathen Thiyagarajan

2011-01-01

101

Multi-porous electroactive poly(L-lactic acid)/polypyrrole composite micro/nano fibrous scaffolds promote neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells?  

PubMed Central

In this study, poly(L-lactic acid)/ammonium persulfate doped-polypyrrole composite fibrous scaffolds with moderate conductivity were produced by combining electrospinning with in situ polymerization. PC12 cells were cultured on these fibrous scaffolds and their growth following electrical stimulation (0–20.0 ?A stimulus intensity, for 1–4 days) was observed using inverted light microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy coupled with the MTT cell viability test. The results demonstrated that the poly(L-lactic acid)/ammonium persulfate doped-polypyrrole fibrous scaffold was a dual multi-porous micro/nano fibrous scaffold. An electrical stimulation with a current intensity 5.0–10.0 ?A for about 2 days enhanced neuronal growth and neurite outgrowth, while a high current intensity (over 15.0 ?A) suppressed them. These results indicate that electrical stimulation with a moderate current intensity for an optimum time frame can promote neuronal growth and neurite outgrowth in an intensity- and time-dependent manner. PMID:25206369

Yu, Qiaozhen; Xu, Shuiling; Zhang, Kuihua; Shan, Yongming

2013-01-01

102

Flow and nutrient transport through porous scaffolds used for the culture of bone cells in perfusion bioreactors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal is to understand via computation the behavior of the flow inside porous scaffolds that are used in bone tissue bioreactors. Fluid shear is an important stimulatory factor in preosteoblastic cells seeded in scaffolds and cultured under continuous flow perfusion. A Lattice Boltzmann method has been employed to simulate the flow field within porous scaffolds obtained with high resolution micro-CT. Lagrangian methods have also been used to determine the nutrient dispersion inside the scaffolds. The shear stresses calculated inside the scaffold architecture indicate that the shear stresses experienced by cells inside the scaffold can vary by orders of magnitude. This is important when designing scaffolds for bone tissue growth, since osteoblastic cells require to be stimulated by shear for growth. Moreover, cell detachment can occur when the fluid shear is too high, thus, placing a limit on the stresses that a particular scaffold design should allows. The talk will address the methodology, the validation and the correlation of scaffold structure characteristics with the shear stresses and with the rate of mass transfer.

Papavassiliou, Dimitrios; Voronov, Roman; Sikavitsas, Vassilios; Vangordon, Samuel

2009-03-01

103

Enhanced osteoblastic activity and bone regeneration using surface-modified porous bioactive glass scaffolds.  

PubMed

The potential use as a bone substitute material of a three-dimensional bioactive glass fiber scaffold composed of Na(2)O-K(2)O-MgO-CaO-B(2)O(3)-P(2)O(5)-SiO(2) (BG1) was investigated in this work. Scaffolds were pre-treated with simulated body fluid (SBF) to promote the formation of two different bone-like apatite layers on their surfaces. The topography and roughness of the deposited layers were assessed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), while the chemical composition and structure using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Raman spectroscopy, respectively. Based on surface analysis, the bioactive glass surfaces were ranked from smoothest to roughest: 0 SBF (untreated), 1x SBF and 2x SBF. A calcium-deficient carbonated hydroxyapatite (HCA) layer was present on both SBF-treated scaffolds, with higher number and larger bone-like apatite nodule formation in the 2x SBF case. MC3T3-E1 preosteoblasts showed a more flattened morphology and higher cell proliferation on the nontreated scaffolds; whereas, cells were more elongated and had higher osteoblastic activity on SBF-treated samples. In vivo results in a rabbit calvarial bone defect model showed enhanced bone formation with SBF pretreated scaffolds, compared with untreated ones, commercially available Perioglass particles and empty defects. Our findings demonstrate that the formation of a rough HCA layer on bioactive glass porous scaffolds enhanced preosteoblast maturation in vitro, as well as bone formation in vivo. PMID:20694969

San Miguel, Blanca; Kriauciunas, Rytis; Tosatti, Samuele; Ehrbar, Martin; Ghayor, Chafik; Textor, Marcus; Weber, Franz E

2010-09-15

104

Facile fabrication of hierarchical porous resins via high internal phase emulsion and polymeric porogen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To achieve the dual features of fast oil absorption rate and high oil absorbency for the practical application in emergency treatment of spilled chemical pollutants, hierarchical porous resins were synthesized. The polymerization of high internal phase emulsion was applied to fabricate the porous structure for the purpose of high oil absorbency. Polymeric porogens were proposed to adjust the second-order or interconnected pore structure for fast oil absorption rate. SEM revealed the hierarchical porous structure. Molecular weight and dose of polymeric porogen were investigated for the effect on the formation of porous structure and absorption features. Optimized resins have 31.5 g/g or 17.1 g/g absorbency for chloroform and toluene, respectively, and only 5 min is needed to reach their saturation absorption. Besides, the porous resins demonstrated high oil retention under pressure. The absorption/desorption cycling results revealed the high repeatability of recovered resins. All these tests predicted the potential applications of porous resins of this kind particularly in the emergency treatment of oil and chemical pollution.

Ma, Libin; Luo, Xiaogang; Cai, Ning; Xue, Yanan; Zhu, San; Fu, Zhen; Yu, Faquan

2014-06-01

105

Biomechanical stability of novel mechanically adapted open-porous titanium scaffolds in metatarsal bone defects of sheep.  

PubMed

Open-porous titanium scaffolds for large segmental bone defects offer advantages like early weight-bearing and limited risk of implant failure. The objective of this experimental study was to determine the biomechanical behavior of novel open-porous titanium scaffolds with mechanical-adapted properties in vivo. Two types of the custom-made, open-porous scaffolds made of Ti6Al4V (Young's modulus: 6-8 GPa and different pore sizes) were implanted into a 20 mm segmental defect in the mid-diaphysis of the metatarsus of sheep, and were stabilized with an osteosynthesis plate. After 12 and 24 weeks postoperatively, torsional testing was performed on the implanted bone and compared to the contralateral non-treated side. Maximum torque, maximum angle, torsional stiffness, fracture energy, shear modulus and shear stress were investigated. Furthermore, bone mineral density (BMD) of the newly formed bone was determined. Mechanical loading capabilities for both scaffolds were similar and about 50% after 12 weeks (e.g., max. torque of approximately 20 Nm). A further increase after 24 weeks was found for most of the investigated parameters. Results for torsional stiffness and shear modulus as well as bone formation depended on the type of scaffold. Increased BMD after 24 weeks was found for one scaffold type but remained constant for the other one. The present data showed the capability of mechanically adapted open-porous titanium scaffolds to function as bone scaffolds for large segmental defects and the influence of the scaffold's stiffness. A further increase in the biomechanical stability can be assumed for longer observation periods of greater than six months. PMID:25678114

Wieding, Jan; Lindner, Tobias; Bergschmidt, Philipp; Bader, Rainer

2015-04-01

106

3D printing of porous hydroxyapatite scaffolds intended for use in bone tissue engineering applications.  

PubMed

A systematic characterisation of bone tissue scaffolds fabricated via 3D printing from hydroxyapatite (HA) and poly(vinyl)alcohol (PVOH) composite powders is presented. Flowability of HA:PVOH precursor materials was observed to affect mechanical stability, microstructure and porosity of 3D printed scaffolds. Anisotropic behaviour of constructs and part failure at the boundaries of interlayer bonds was highlighted by compressive strength testing. A trade-off between the ability to facilitate removal of PVOH thermal degradation products during sintering and the compressive strength of green parts was revealed. The ultimate compressive strength of 55% porous green scaffolds printed along the Y-axis and dried in a vacuum oven for 6h was 0.88±0.02MPa. Critically, the pores of 3D printed constructs could be user designed, ensuring bulk interconnectivity, and the imperfect packing of powder particles created an inherent surface roughness and non-designed porosity within the scaffold. These features are considered promising since they are known to facilitate osteoconduction and osteointegration in-vivo. Characterisation techniques utilised in this study include two funnel flow tests, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), compressive strength testing and computed tomography (CT). PMID:25492194

Cox, Sophie C; Thornby, John A; Gibbons, Gregory J; Williams, Mark A; Mallick, Kajal K

2015-02-01

107

Preparation and in vitro evaluation of mesoporous hydroxyapatite coated ?-TCP porous scaffolds.  

PubMed

A mesoporous hydroxyapatite (HA) coating was prepared on a ?-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) porous scaffold by a sol-gel dip-coating method using the block copolymer Pluronic F127 (EO106PO70EO106) as the template. For application as a bone graft, in vitro cell response and bone-related protein expression of mesoporous HA coated ?-TCP scaffold were investigated, using the non-mesoporous HA coated scaffold as the control group, to evaluate the influence of the mesoporous structure on the biological properties of HA coating. It was found that the increased surface area of the mesoporous HA coating greatly affected the response of MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts and the expression of proteins. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay recorded a significantly higher expression of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and bone sialoprotein (BSP) in the mesoporous group than those in the control group (*p<0.05) after different incubation periods. The introduction of mesopores enhanced the expression of ALP and BSP in the cells grown on the mesoporous HA coatings, on the premise of maintaining the protein expression in a sequence to ensure the correct temporo-spatial expression in osteogenesis. These results indicated that the mesoporous HA coating would provide a good environment for cell growth, suggesting that it could be used as the coating material for the surface modification of the tissue engineering scaffolds. PMID:24094217

Ye, Xinyu; Cai, Shu; Xu, Guohua; Dou, Ying; Hu, Hongtao; Ye, Xiaojian

2013-12-01

108

Hydrothermal fabrication of hydroxyapatite/chitosan/carbon porous scaffolds for bone tissue engineering.  

PubMed

Porous carbon fiber felts (PCFFs) have great applications in orthopedic surgery because of the strong mechanical strength, low density, high stability, and porous structure, but they are biologically inert. To improve their biological properties, we developed, for the first time, the hydroxyapatite (HA)/chitosan/carbon porous scaffolds (HCCPs). HA/chitosan nanohybrid coatings have been fabricated on PCFFs according to the following stages: (i) deposition of chitosan/calcium phosphate precursors on PCFFs; and (ii) hydrothermal transformation of the calcium phosphate precursors in chitosan matrix into HA nanocrystals. The scanning electron microscopy images indicate that PCFFs are uniformly covered with elongated HA nanoplates and chitosan, and the macropores in PCFFs still remain. Interestingly, the calcium-deficient HA crystals exist as plate-like shapes with thickness of 10-18 nm, width of 30-40 nm, and length of 80-120 nm, which are similar to the biological apatite. The HA in HCCPs is similar to the mineral of natural bone in chemical composition, crystallinity, and morphology. As compared with PCFFs, HCCPs exhibit higher in vitro bioactivity and biocompatibility because of the presence of the HA/chitosan nanohybrid coatings. HCCPs not only promote the formation of bone-like apatite in simulated body fluid, but also improve the adhesion, spreading, and proliferation of human bone marrow stromal cells. Hence, HCCPs have great potentials as scaffold materials for bone tissue engineering and implantation. PMID:24687547

Long, Teng; Liu, Yu-Tai; Tang, Sha; Sun, Jin-Liang; Guo, Ya-Ping; Zhu, Zhen-An

2014-11-01

109

Wear mechanism and tribological characteristics of porous NiTi shape memory alloy for bone scaffold.  

PubMed

The abraded debris might cause osteocytic osteolysis on the interface between implants and bone tissues, thus inducing the subsequent mobilization of implants gradually and finally resulting in the failure of bone implants, which imposes restrictions on the applications of porous NiTi shape memory alloys (SMAs) scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. In this work, the effects of the annealing temperature, applied load, and porosity on the tribological behavior and wear resistance of three-dimensional porous NiTi SMA are investigated systematically. The porous structure and phase transformation during the exothermic process affect the tribological properties and wear mechanism significantly. In general, a larger porosity leads to better tribological resistance but sometimes, SMAs with small porosity possess better wear resistance than ones with higher porosity during the initial sliding stage. It can be ascribed to the better superelasticity of the former at the test temperature. The porous NiTi phase during the exothermic reaction also plays an important role in the wear resistance. Generally, porous NiTi has smaller friction coefficients under high loads due to stress-induced superelasticity. The wear mechanism is discussed based on plastic deformation and microcrack propagation. PMID:23401387

Wu, Shuilin; Liu, Xiangmei; Wu, Guosong; Yeung, Kelvin W K; Zheng, Dong; Chung, C Y; Xu, Z S; Chu, Paul K

2013-09-01

110

Fabrication and Dynamic Mechanical Analysis of Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticle/Gelatin Porous Scaffolds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The application of engineered biomaterial scaffolds for hard tissue repair critically depends on the scaffold's internal architecture at various length scales. The pore size, shape, surface morphology, and pore connectivity are among the most important factors that affect the scaffold's mechanical properties and biointegration. Reported in this thesis are the results of the investigation of porous constructs fabricated by a freeze-drying process from synthetic nanosized hydroxyapatite / gelatin (nanoHA/Gel) dispersions with different nanoHA/Gel ratios (nanoHA loading was varied from 0 to 50 % by weight). The fabricated scaffolds had porosity up to 90% with pore size in the range of 100 - 500 im, and good distribution of HA nanoparticles within the gelatin matrix. Such porosity is considered to be close to optimal to promote a good cell adhesion in the potential applications of prepared constructs. The fabricated scaffolds have been investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), and Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA). Dynamic mechanical analysis of as-fabricated scaffolds revealed that the scaffolds achieved maximum bending and tensile moduli up to 1.28 GPa and 1.5 GPa, respectively, when nanoHA loading was around 30 % by weight. The bending modulus increases by a factor of 1.6, while the Tension modulus increased by a factor of 0.8 after the cross-linking of polymer. Higher nanoHA loading above 50 % by weight results in bending modulus of about 700 MPa and Tension modulus of about 200 MPa only. However, the cross-linking still enhanced the bending up to 1 GPa while it did not affect much the Tension modulus in 50% nanoHA/gelatin constructs. It has been shown that the cross-linking with glutaraldehyde solution improves the morphological structure of the scaffolds, while there was no apparent effect of the cross-linking on the chemical changes in both organic and inorganic content during the processing. The results of this study can be useful for further development of nanoparticulate bioceramic / biopolymer constructs for applications in biomedical field. Keywords: Gelatin, Nano HA, Mechanical, Morphological, Modulus, Crosslinking.

Ghossein, Hicham

111

Fabrication of three-dimensional porous scaffold based on collagen fiber and bioglass for bone tissue engineering.  

PubMed

An ideal scaffold for bone tissue engineering should have interconnected porous structure, good biocompatibility, and mechanical properties well-matched with natural bones. Collagen is the key component in the extracellular matrix (ECM) of natural bones, and plays an important role in bone regeneration. The biological activity of collagen has promoted it to be an advantageous biomaterial for bone tissue engineering; however, the mechanical properties of these scaffolds are insufficient and the porous structures are not stable in the wet state. An effective strategy to solve this problem is to fabricate a hybrid scaffold of biologically derived and synthetic material, which have the necessary bioactivity and mechanical stability needed for bone synthesis. In this work, a three-dimensional macroporous bone scaffold based on collagen (CO) fiber and bioglass (BG) is fabricated by a slurry-dipping technique, and its relevant mechanical and biological properties are evaluated. The CO/BG scaffold is interconnected with a porosity of 81?±?4.6% and pore size of 40-200 ?m. Compared with CO scaffold, water absorption value of CO/BG scaffold decreases greatly from 889% to 52%, which significantly alleviates the swelling behavior of collagen and improves the stability of scaffold structure. The CO/BG scaffold has a compression strength of 5.8?±?1.6 MPa and an elastic modulus of 0.35?±?0.01 Gpa, which are well-matched with the mechanical properties of trabecular bones. In vitro cell assays demonstrate that the CO/BG scaffold has good biocompatibility to facilitate the spreading and proliferation of human bone marrow stromal cells. Hence, the CO/BG scaffold is promising for bone tissue engineering application. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2014. PMID:25430707

Long, Teng; Yang, Jun; Shi, Shan-Shan; Guo, Ya-Ping; Ke, Qin-Fei; Zhu, Zhen-An

2014-11-27

112

Highly aligned porous Ti scaffold coated with bone morphogenetic protein-loaded silica/chitosan hybrid for enhanced bone regeneration.  

PubMed

Porous Ti has been widely investigated for orthopedic and dental applications on account of their ability to promote implant fixation via bone ingrowth into pores. In this study, highly aligned porous Ti scaffolds coated with a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-loaded silica/chitosan hybrid were produced, and their bone regeneration ability was evaluated by in vivo animal experiments. Reverse freeze casting allowed for the creation of highly aligned pores, resulting in a high compressive strength of 254 ± 21 MPa of the scaffolds at a porosity level of ?51 vol %. In addition, a BMP-loaded silica/chitosan hybrid coating layer with a thickness of ?1 ?m was uniformly deposited on the porous Ti scaffold, which enabled the sustained release of the BMP over a prolonged period of time up to 26 days. The cumulative amount of the BMP released was ?4 ?g, which was much higher than that released from the specimen without a hybrid coating layer. In addition, the bone regeneration ability of the porous Ti scaffold with a BMP-loaded silica/chitosan coating layer was examined by in vivo animal testing using a rabbit calvarial defect model and compared with those of the as-produced porous Ti scaffold and porous Ti scaffold with a silica/chitosan coating layer. After 4 weeks of healing, the specimen coated with a BMP-loaded silica/chitosan hybrid showed a much higher bone regeneration volume (?36%) than the as-produced specimen (?15%) (p < 0.005) and even the specimen coated with a silica/chitosan hybrid (?25%) (p < 0.05). PMID:24259198

Jung, Hyun-Do; Yook, Se-Won; Han, Cheol-Min; Jang, Tae-Sik; Kim, Hyoun-Ee; Koh, Young-Hag; Estrin, Yuri

2014-07-01

113

Strategies for the chemical analysis of highly porous bone scaffolds using secondary ion mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Understanding the distribution of critical elements (e.g. silicon and calcium) within silica-based bone scaffolds synthesized by different methods is central to the optimization of these materials. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) has been used to determine this information due to its very high surface sensitivity and its ability to map all the elements and compounds in the periodic table with high spatial resolution. The SIMS image data can also be combined with depth profiles to construct three-dimensional chemical maps. However, the scaffolds have interconnected pore networks, which are very challenging structures for the SIMS technique. To overcome this problem two experimental methodologies have been developed. The first method involved the use of the focused ion beam technique to obtain clear images of the regions of interest and subsequently mark them by introducing fiducial marks; the samples were then analysed using the ToF-SIMS technique to yield the chemical analyses of the regions of interest. The second method involved impregnating the pores using a suitable reagent so that a flat surface could be achieved, and this was followed by secondary ion mapping and 3D chemical imaging with ToF-SIMS. The samples used in this work were sol-gel 70S30C foam and electrospun fibres and calcium-containing silica/gelatin hybrid scaffolds. The results demonstrate the feasibility of both these experimental methodologies and indicate that these methods can provide an opportunity to compare various artificial bone scaffolds, which will be of help in improving scaffold synthesis and processing routes. The techniques are also transferable to many other types of porous material. PMID:24457328

Wang, Daming; Poologasundarampillai, Gowsihan; van den Bergh, Wouter; Chater, Richard J; Kasuga, Toshihiro; Jones, Julian R; McPhail, David S

2014-02-01

114

Two-photon polymerization-generated and micromolding-replicated 3D scaffolds for peripheral neural tissue engineering applications.  

PubMed

In this study, we explore the production of well-defined macroscopic scaffolds with two-photon polymerization (2PP) and their use as neural tissue engineering scaffolds. We also demonstrate that these 3D scaffolds can be replicated via soft lithography, which increases production efficiency. Photopolymerizable polylactic acid (PLA) was used to produce scaffolds by 2PP and soft lithography. We assessed the biocompatibility of these scaffolds using an SH-SY5Y human neuronal cell line and primary cultured rat Schwann cells (of direct relevance to the repair of nerve injuries). A Comet assay with SH-SY5Y human neuronal cells revealed minimal DNA damage after washing the photocured material for 7 days in ethanol. Additionally, thin films and 3D scaffolds of the photocured PLA sustained a high degree of Schwann cell purity (99%), enabled proliferation over 7 days and provided a suitable substrate for supporting Schwann cell adhesion such that bi-polar and tri-polar morphologies were observed. Evidence of orthogonally aligned and organized actin thin filaments and the formation of focal contacts were observed for the majority of Schwann cells. In summary, this work supports the use of PLA as a suitable material for supporting Schwann cell growth and in turn use of 3D soft lithography for the synthesis of neural scaffolds in nerve repair. PMID:22522957

Koroleva, A; Gill, A A; Ortega, I; Haycock, J W; Schlie, S; Gittard, S D; Chichkov, B N; Claeyssens, F

2012-06-01

115

Mechanical and microstructural properties of polycaprolactone scaffolds with one-dimensional, two-dimensional, and three-dimensional orthogonally oriented porous architectures produced by selective laser sintering  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports on the experimental determination and finite element modeling of tensile and compressive mechanical properties of solid polycaprolactone (PCL) and of porous PCL scaffolds with one-dimensional, two-dimensional and three-dimensional orthogonal, periodic porous architectures produced by selective laser sintering (SLS). PCL scaffolds were built using optimum processing parameters, ensuring scaffolds with nearly full density (>95%) in the designed solid

Shaun Eshraghi; Suman Das

2010-01-01

116

Experimental and computational characterization of designed and fabricated 50:50 PLGA porous scaffolds for human trabecular bone applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study utilizes image-based computational methods and indirect solid freeform fabrication (SFF) technique to design\\u000a and fabricate porous scaffolds, and then computationally estimates their elastic modulus and yield stress with experimental\\u000a validation. 50:50 Poly (lactide-co-glycolide acid) (50:50 PLGA) porous scaffolds were designed using an image-based design technique, fabricated using indirect\\u000a SFF technique, and characterized using micro-computed tomography (?-CT) and

Eiji Saito; Heesuk Kang; Juan M. Taboas; Alisha Diggs; Colleen L. Flanagan; Scott J. Hollister

2010-01-01

117

Subcritical CO2 sintering of microspheres of different polymeric materials to fabricate scaffolds for tissue engineering.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to use CO2 at sub-critical pressures as a tool to sinter 3D, macroporous, microsphere-based scaffolds for bone and cartilage tissue engineering. Porous scaffolds composed of ~200 ?m microspheres of either poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) or polycaprolactone (PCL) were prepared using dense phase CO2 sintering, which were seeded with rat bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (rBMSCs), and exposed to either osteogenic (PLGA, PCL) or chondrogenic (PLGA) conditions for 6 weeks. Under osteogenic conditions, the PLGA constructs produced over an order of magnitude more calcium than the PCL constructs, whereas the PCL constructs had far superior mechanical and structural integrity (125 times stiffer than PLGA constructs) at week 6, along with twice the cell content of the PLGA constructs. Chondrogenic cell performance was limited in PLGA constructs, perhaps as a result of the polymer degradation rate being too high. The current study represents the first long-term culture of CO2-sintered microsphere-based scaffolds, and has established important thermodynamic differences in sintering between the selected formulations of PLGA and PCL, with the former requiring adjustment of pressure only, and the latter requiring the adjustment of both pressure and temperature. Based on more straightforward sintering conditions and more favorable cell performance, PLGA may be the material of choice for microspheres in a CO2 sintering application, although a different PLGA formulation with the encapsulation of growth factors, extracellular matrix-derived nanoparticles, and/or buffers in the microspheres may be advantageous for achieving a more superior cell performance than observed here. PMID:24094202

Bhamidipati, Manjari; Sridharan, BanuPriya; Scurto, Aaron M; Detamore, Michael S

2013-12-01

118

A comparison study of different physical treatments on cartilage matrix derived porous scaffolds for tissue engineering applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Native cartilage matrix derived (CMD) scaffolds from various animal and human sources have drawn attention in cartilage tissue engineering due to the demonstrable presence of bioactive components. Different chemical and physical treatments have been employed to enhance the micro-architecture of CMD scaffolds. In this study we have assessed the typical effects of physical cross-linking methods, namely ultraviolet (UV) light, dehydrothermal (DHT) treatment, and combinations of them on bovine articular CMD porous scaffolds with three different matrix concentrations (5%, 15% and 30%) to assess the relative strengths of each treatment. Our findings suggest that UV and UV–DHT treatments on 15% CMD scaffolds can yield architecturally optimal scaffolds for cartilage tissue engineering.

Moradi, Ali; Pramanik, Sumit; Ataollahi, Forough; Khalil, Alizan Abdul; Kamarul, Tunku; Pingguan-Murphy, Belinda

2014-12-01

119

Stress-strain analysis of porous scaffolds made from titanium alloys synthesized via SLS method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A layer-by-layer selective laser sintering (SLS) technology seems to be greatly promising for solving the plastic surgery problems, particularly those pertaining to the facial reconstruction. Made from titanium-based alloys (titanium or nitinol, i.e. NiTi-intermetallic phase), the porous scaffolds for cranioplasty are an efficient tool for rectifying the face defects and for the dental orthopedic surgery. The progress in the oral surgery and teeth implantation is caused by the problem of an osteointegration on the one hand, and by achievements of the implant synthesis techniques, on the other hand. An important problem thereby is a profound study of the stress-strain behavior of porous implants under the masticatory load or pressure. In the present study the ways for the optimization of the porous implant structural and strength properties as the function of the laser synthesis parameters are described. The finite element approach (ANSYS) was used here for a complex dowel description and numerical simulations. In order to evaluate the processes in the porous implant under the external loading, a CAD 3D model was built for different internal and external configurations of the implant and/or initial shape of powdered particles. The stress-strain dependences were calculated that displayed the irregularity of the stress distribution by the implant volume in the bone tissue. Most of the values are concentrated in places of object contact.

Shishkovsky, I.

2009-09-01

120

CONSTITUTIVE MODELS FOR A POLY(e- CAPROLACTONE) SCAFFOLD  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate material models for a porous, polymeric scaffold used for bone. The material was made by co-extruding poly(e-caprolactone) (PCL), a biodegradable polyester, and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO). The water soluble PEO was removed resulting in a porous scaffold. The stress-strain curve in compression was fit with a phenomenological model in hyperbolic form. This material model will be useful for designers

T. P Quinn; T. L. Oreskovic; C. N. McCowan; N. R. Washburn

121

Icariin delivery porous PHBV scaffolds for promoting osteoblast expansion in vitro.  

PubMed

How cells could proliferate quickly and maintain their biological activity by using appropriate scaffolds remains a big challenge for tissue engineering. By integrating icariin, a bioactive ingredient of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) Epimedii herba, with PHBV scaffolds, novel icariin delivery porous PHBV scaffolds (IDPPSs) were fabricated with a combination of the solvent casting and salt leaching techniques. IDPPSs displayed a high porosity, 88.80%, and appropriate mechanical properties which were required for 3-D cell culture. IDPPSs significantly promoted the proliferation of human osteoblast-like MG-63 cells and the pre-osteoblast MC3T3-E1 cells, while IDPPSs containing 0.1% icariin (wt.%) showed the highest effect compared with other samples. Although IDPPSs continuously released icariin to the solution in 28 days, cells attached to IDPPSs received an enhanced growth stimulation compared with which were not physically in contact with IDPPSs. Up-regulated transcription of growth factor genes and extracellular matrix genes, including BMP2, BMP6, BMP7 and BGN, was observed in IDPPS-cultured MG-63 cells, illustrating that enhanced cellular proliferation results from alteration of gene transcription. These results implied the potential commercial use of IDPPSs in tissue engineering. PMID:23706245

Xia, Leilei; Li, Yongsheng; Zhou, Zheng; Dai, Yao; Liu, Hongbo; Liu, Hairong

2013-08-01

122

Biosensors based on porous cellulose nanocrystal-poly(vinyl alcohol) scaffolds.  

PubMed

Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs), which offer a high aspect ratio, large specific surface area, and large number of reactive surface groups, are well suited for the facile immobilization of high density biological probes. We here report functional high surface area scaffolds based on cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and demonstrate that this platform is useful for fluorescence-based sensing schemes. Porous CNC/PVA nanocomposite films with a thickness of 25-70 nm were deposited on glass substrates by dip-coating with an aqueous mixture of the CNCs and PVA, and the porous nanostructure was fixated by heat treatment. In a subsequent step, a portion of the scaffold's hydroxyl surface groups was reacted with 2-(acryloxy)ethyl (3-isocyanato-4-methylphenyl)carbamate to permit the immobilization of thiolated fluorescein-substituted lysine, which was used as a first sensing motif, via nucleophile-based thiol-ene Michael addition. The resulting sensor films exhibit a nearly instantaneous and pronounced change of their fluorescence emission intensity in response to changes in pH. The approach was further extended to the detection of protease activity by immobilizing a Förster-type resonance energy transfer chromophore pair via a labile peptide sequence to the scaffold. This sensing scheme is based on the degradation of the protein linker in the presence of appropriate enzymes, which separate the chromophores and causes a turn-on of the originally quenched fluorescence. Using a standard benchtop spectrometer to monitor the increase in fluorescence intensity, trypsin was detected at a concentration of 250 ?g/mL, i.e., in a concentration that is typical for abnormal proteolytic activity in wound fluids. PMID:24955644

Schyrr, Bastien; Pasche, Stéphanie; Voirin, Guy; Weder, Christoph; Simon, Yoan C; Foster, E Johan

2014-08-13

123

Influences of environmental factors on bacterial extracellular polymeric substances production in porous media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bioclogging of natural porous media occurs frequently under a wide range of conditions. It may influence the performance of permeable reactive barrier and constructed wetland. It is also one of the factors that determine the effect of artificial groundwater recharge and in situ bioremediation process. In this study, a series of percolation column experiments were conducted to simulate bioclogging process in porous media. The predominant bacteria in porous media which induced clogging were identified to be Methylobacterium, Janthinobacterium, Yersinia, Staphylococcus and Acidovorax, most of which had been shown to effectively produce viscous extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). The column in which EPS production was maximized also coincided with the largest reduction in saturated hydraulic conductivity of porous media. In addition, carbon concentration was the most significant factor to affect polysaccharide, protein and EPS secretion, followed by phosphorus concentration and temperature. The coupled effect of carbon and phosphorus concentration was also very important to stimulate polysaccharide and EPS production.

Xia, Lu; Zheng, Xilai; Shao, Haibing; Xin, Jia; Peng, Tao

2014-11-01

124

Bone regeneration in strong porous bioactive glass (13–93) scaffolds with an oriented microstructure implanted in rat calvarial defects  

PubMed Central

There is a need for synthetic bone graft substitutes to repair large bone defects resulting from trauma, malignancy, and congenital diseases. Bioactive glass has attractive properties as a scaffold material but factors that influence its ability to regenerate bone in vivo are not well understood. In the present work, the ability of strong porous scaffolds of 13–93 bioactive glass with an oriented microstructure to regenerate bone was evaluated in vivo using a rat calvarial defect model. Scaffolds with an oriented microstructure of columnar pores (porosity = 50%; pore diameter = 50–150 µm) showed mostly osteoconductive bone regeneration, and new bone formation, normalized to the available pore area (volume) of the scaffolds, increased from 37% at 12 weeks to 55% at 24 weeks. Scaffolds of the same glass with a trabecular microstructure (porosity = 80%; pore width = 100–500 µm), used as the positive control, showed bone regeneration in the pores of 25% and 46% at 12 and 24 weeks, respectively. The brittle mechanical response of the as-fabricated scaffolds changed markedly to an elasto-plastic response in vivo at both implantation times. These results indicate that both groups of 13–93 bioactive glass scaffolds could potentially be used to repair large bone defects, but scaffolds with the oriented microstructure could also be considered for the repair of loaded bone. PMID:22922251

Liu, Xin; Rahaman, Mohamed N.; Fu, Qiang

2012-01-01

125

MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL DELIVERY INTO RAT INFARCTED MYOCARDIUM USING A POROUS POLYSACCHARIDE-BASED SCAFFOLD: A QUANTITATIVE  

E-print Network

.0053 #12;2 ABSTRACT The use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for tissue regeneration is often hampered1 MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL DELIVERY INTO RAT INFARCTED MYOCARDIUM USING A POROUS POLYSACCHARIDE and engraftment into damaged myocardium. KEYWORDS Mesenchymal stem cells, Heart, Polysaccharide, Scaffold

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

126

Porous, Biphasic CaCO3-Calcium Phosphate Biomedical Cement Scaffolds from Calcite (CaCO3) Powder  

E-print Network

Porous, Biphasic CaCO3-Calcium Phosphate Biomedical Cement Scaffolds from Calcite (CaCO3) Powder A. Cuneyt Tas* Department of Biomedical Engineering, Yeditepe University, Istanbul 34755, Turkey Calcite (CaH 3.2 by adding NaOH, to form biphasic, micro-, and macroporous calcite-apatitic calcium phosphate (Ap

Tas, A. Cuneyt

127

The effect of collagen-chitosan porous scaffold thickness on dermal regeneration in a one-stage grafting procedure.  

PubMed

Dermal substitutes are used as dermal regeneration templates to reduce scar formation and improve wound healing. Unlike autografts, dermal substitutes lack normal vascular networks. The increased distance required for diffusion of oxygen and nutrients to the autograft following interpositioning of the substitute dramatically affects graft survival. To evaluate the effect of collagen-chitosan scaffold thickness on dermal regeneration, single-layer collagen-chitosan porous scaffolds of 0.5-, 1- and 2-mm thicknesses were fabricated and used to treat full-thickness wounds in a one-stage grafting procedure in a rat model. Skin-graft viability, wound contraction, histological changes, and wound tensile strength were evaluated. The results indicated that the distance for the diffusion of oxygen and nutrients to the autograft in the 2-mm-thick scaffold provided less support for graft take, which resulted in graft necrosis, extensive inflammatory reaction, marked foreign-body reaction (FBR), rapid scaffold degradation, and abnormal collagen deposition and remodeling. In contrast, the thinner scaffolds, especially of that 0.5-mm thickness, promoted earlier angiogenesis, ensuring skin-graft viability with a mild FBR, and ordered fibroblast infiltration and better collagen remodeling. It can be concluded that collagen-chitosan porous scaffolds with a thickness of <1mm are more suitable for dermal regeneration and can be used as dermal templates for treatment of dermal defects using a one-stage grafting procedure. PMID:24076783

Haifei, Shi; Xingang, Wang; Shoucheng, Wu; Zhengwei, Mao; Chuangang, You; Chunmao, Han

2014-01-01

128

The Study on Biocompatibility of Porous nHA/PLGA Composite Scaffolds for Tissue Engineering with Rabbit Chondrocytes In Vitro  

PubMed Central

Objective. To examine the biocompatibility of a novel nanohydroxyapatite/poly[lactic-co-glycolic acid] (nHA/PLGA) composite and evaluate its feasibility as a scaffold for cartilage tissue engineering. Methods. Chondrocytes of fetal rabbit were cultured with nHA/PLGA scaffold in vitro and the cell viability was assessed by MTT assay first. Cells adhering to nHA/PLGA scaffold were then observed by inverted microscope and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The cell cycle profile was analyzed by flow cytometry. Results. The viability of the chondrocytes on the scaffold was not affected by nHA/PLGA comparing with the control group as it was shown by MTT assay. Cells on the surface and in the pores of the scaffold increased in a time-dependent manner. Results obtained from flow cytometry showed that there was no significant difference in cell cycle profiles between the coculture group and control (P > 0.05). Conclusion. The porous nHA/PLGA composite scaffold is a biocompatible and good kind of scaffold for cartilage tissue engineering. PMID:24380082

Chen, Lei; Zhu, Wei-Min; Fei, Zhi-Qiang; Chen, Jie-Lin; Xiong, Jian-Yi; Zhang, Ju-Feng; Duan, Li; Huang, Jianghong; Liu, Zhiyong; Wang, Daping; Zeng, Yanjun

2013-01-01

129

Hyaluronic acid based materials for scaffolding via two-photon polymerization.  

PubMed

Hydrogels are able to mimic the basic three-dimensional (3D) biological, chemical, and mechanical properties of native tissues. Since hyaluronic acid (HA) is a chief component of human extracellular matrix (ECM), it represents an extremely attractive starting material for the fabrication of scaffolds for tissue engineering. Due to poor mechanical properties of hydrogels, structure fabrication of this material class remains a major challenge. Two-photon polymerization (2PP) is a promising technique for biomedical applications, which allows the fabrication of complex 3D microstructures by moving the laser focus in the volume of a photosensitive material. Chemical modification of hyaluronan allows application of the 2PP technique to this natural material and, thus, precise fabrication of 3D hydrogel constructs. To create materials with tailor-made mechanochemical properties, HA was combined and covalently cross-linked with poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) in situ. 2PP was applied for the fabrication of well elaborated 3D HA and HA-PEGDA microstructures. For enhanced biological adaption, HA was functionalized with human epidermal growth factor. PMID:24432740

Kufelt, Olga; El-Tamer, Ayman; Sehring, Camilla; Schlie-Wolter, Sabrina; Chichkov, Boris N

2014-02-10

130

Porous biocompatible three-dimensional scaffolds of cellulose microfiber/gelatin composites for cell culture.  

PubMed

Physiological tissues, including brain and other organs, have three-dimensional (3-D) aspects that need to be supported to model them in vitro. Here we report the use of cellulose microfibers combined with cross-linked gelatin to make biocompatible porous microscaffolds for the sustained growth of brain cell and human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) in 3-D structure. Live imaging using confocal microscopy indicated that 3-D microscaffolds composed of gelatin or cellulose fiber/gelatin both supported brain cell adhesion and growth for 16days in vitro. Cellulose microfiber/gelatin composites containing up to 75% cellulose fibers can withstand a higher mechanical load than gelatin alone, and composites also provided linear pathways along which brain cells could grow compared to more clumped cell growth in gelatin alone. Therefore, the bulk cellulose microfiber provides a novel skeleton in this new scaffold material. Cellulose fiber/gelatin scaffold supported hMSCs growth and extracellular matrix formation. hMSCs osteogenic and adipogenic assays indicated that hMSCs cultured in cellulose fiber/gelatin composite preserved the multilineage differentiation potential. As natural, biocompatible components, the combination of gelatin and cellulose microfibers, fabricated into 3-D matrices, may therefore provide optimal porosity and tensile strength for long-term maintenance and observation of cells. PMID:20035906

Xing, Qi; Zhao, Feng; Chen, Si; McNamara, James; Decoster, Mark A; Lvov, Yuri M

2010-06-01

131

Effect of ZrO2 addition on the mechanical properties of porous TiO2 bone scaffolds.  

PubMed

This study aimed at the investigation of the effect of zirconium dioxide (ZrO2) addition on the mechanical properties of titanium dioxide (TiO2) bone scaffolds. The highly biocompatible TiO2 has been identified as a promising material for bone scaffolds, whereas the more bioinert ZrO2 is known for its excellent mechanical properties. Ultra-porous TiO2 scaffolds (>89% porosity) were produced using polymer sponge replication with 0-40 wt.% of the TiO2 raw material substituted with ZrO2. Microstructure, chemical composition, and pore architectural features of the prepared ceramic foams were characterised and related to their mechanical strength. Addition of 1 wt.% of ZrO2 led to 16% increase in the mean compressive strength without significant changes in the pore architectural parameters of TiO2 scaffolds. Further ZrO2 additions resulted in reduction of compressive strength in comparison to containing no ZrO2. The appearance of zirconium titanate (ZrTiO4) phase was found to hinder the densification of the ceramic material during sintering resulting in poor intergranular connections and thus significantly reducing the compressive strength of the highly porous ceramic foam scaffolds. PMID:24364936

Tiainen, Hanna; Eder, Georg; Nilsen, Ola; Haugen, Håvard J

2012-08-01

132

Monotonic and cyclic loading behavior of porous scaffolds made from poly(para-phenylene) for orthopedic applications.  

PubMed

Porous poly(para-phenylene) (PPP) scaffolds have tremendous potential as an orthopedic biomaterial; however, the underlying mechanisms controlling the monotonic and cyclic behavior are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to develop a method to integrate micro-computed tomography (?CT), finite-element analysis (FEA), and experimental results to uncover the relationships between the porous structure and mechanical behavior. The ?CT images were taken from porous PPP scaffolds with a porosity of 75vol% and pore size distribution between 420 and 500µm. Representative sections of the image were segmented and converted into finite-element meshes. It was shown through FEA that localized stresses within the microstructure were approximately 100 times higher than the applied global stress during the linear loading regime. Experimental analysis revealed the S-N fatigue curves for fully dense and porous PPP samples were parallel on log-log plots, with the endurance limit for porous samples in tension being approximately 100 times lower than their solid PPP counterparts (0.3-35MPa) due to the extreme stress concentrations caused by the porous microarchitecture. The endurance limit for porous samples in compression was much higher than in tension (1.60MPa). Through optical, laser-scanning, and scanning-electron microscopy it was found that porous tensile samples failed under Mode I fracture in both monotonic and cyclic loading. By comparison, porous compressive samples failed via strut buckling/pore collapse monotonically and by shearing fracture during cyclic loading. Monotonic loading showed that deformation behavior was strongly correlated with pore volume fraction, matching foam theory well; however, fatigue behavior was much more sensitive to local stresses believed to cause crack nucleation. PMID:25460410

Hoyt, Anthony J; Yakacki, Christopher M; Fertig, Ray S; Dana Carpenter, R; Frick, Carl P

2015-01-01

133

Numerical optimization of open-porous bone scaffold structures to match the elastic properties of human cortical bone.  

PubMed

Treatment of large segmental bone defects, especially in load bearing areas, is a complex procedure in orthopedic surgery. The usage of additive manufacturing processes enables the creation of customized bone implants with arbitrary open-porous structure satisfying both the mechanical and the biological requirements for a sufficient bone ingrowth. Aim of the present numerical study was to optimize the geometrical parameters of open-porous titanium scaffolds to match the elastic properties of human cortical bone with respect to an adequate pore size. Three different scaffold designs (cubic, diagonal and pyramidal) were numerically investigated by using an optimization approach. Beam elements were used to create the lattice structures of the scaffolds. The design parameters strut diameter and pore size ranged from 0.2 to 1.5mm and from 0 to 3.0mm, respectively. In a first optimization step, the geometrical parameters were varied under uniaxial compression to obtain a structural modulus of 15GPa (Young?s modulus of cortical bone) and a pore size of 800µm was aimed to enable cell ingrowth. Furthermore, the mechanical behavior of the optimized structures under bending and torsion was investigated. Results for bending modulus were between 9.0 and 14.5GPa. In contrast, shear modulus was lowest for cubic and pyramidal design of approximately 1GPa. Here, the diagonal design revealed a modulus of nearly 20GPa. In a second step, large-sized bone scaffolds were created and placed in a biomechanical loading situation within a 30mm segmental femoral defect, stabilized with an osteosynthesis plate and loaded with physiological muscle forces. Strut diameter for the 17 sections of each scaffold was optimized independently in order to match the biomechanical stability of intact bone. For each design, highest strut diameter was found at the dorsal/medial site of the defect and smallest strut diameter in the center. In conclusion, we demonstrated the possibility of providing optimized open-porous scaffolds for bone regeneration by considering both mechanical and biological aspects. Furthermore, the results revealed the need of the investigation and comparison of different load scenarios (compression, bending and torsion) as well as complex biomechanical loading for a profound characterization of different scaffold designs. The usage of a numerical optimization process was proven to be a feasible tool to reduce the amount of the required titanium material without influencing the biomechanical performance of the scaffold negatively. By using fully parameterized models, the optimization approach is adaptable to other scaffold designs and bone defect situations. PMID:24942627

Wieding, Jan; Wolf, Andreas; Bader, Rainer

2014-09-01

134

Design and application of chitosan/biphasic calcium phosphate porous scaffolds for bone tissue engineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the restoration of maxillofacial bone tissue, design of novel tissue engineering scaffolds capable of inducing bone remodeling through the delivery of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and an angiogenic growth factor, directly at the site of the defect was investigated in order to replace autogenous cancellous bone grafts with synthetic materials. Porous, three dimensional scaffolds were fabricated by a freeze drying method. In culture media, biphasic calcium phosphate particles within chitosan produced a surface reprecipitate of a composition similar to natural apatite that led to a uniform distribution of cells and mineralized ECM through chemotaxis. Further, the reprecipitation regulated the differentiation pathway and phenotype commitment of stem cells by altering the initial cell attachment morphology and actin cytoskeleton organization. In order to induce neovascularization after implantation, constructs were designed to be loaded with gelatin microspheres that delivered basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), a potent angiogenic factor. In vitro proliferation tests performed on fibroblastic cells showed no detectible loss of bFGF activity when delivered through enzymatic degradation of gelatin. Laser scanning confocal microscopy was used to demonstrate that gelatin microspheres can be injected evenly into cell-scaffold constructs owing to the spongy characteristics of the scaffold. To examine the binding interactions of bFGF with surface bound gelatin, a label free biosensor system, Biomolecular INteraction Detection sensor (BIND) was used. Results confirm that the principal interaction that takes place between bFGF and gelatin is electrostatic. Cell loaded tissue engineered constructs were produced in vitro at clinically relevant sizes and implanted with and without bFGF into a porcine mandibular defect model. Tissue engineered constructs facilitated the healing of mandibular defects only if combined with delivery of bFGF via gelatin microspheres. bFGF release from the constructs improved neovascularization in the defect area and subsequently enhanced new bone formation. Although the rate and extent of bone formation was similar in bFGF group to those in empty defects for the period of the study, existence of woven bone in bFGF group suggests that bone formation is continuing while the lamellar structure in empty defects indicates that bone formation in that group was finalized.

Sendemir-Urkmez, Aylin

135

Tough and flexible CNT-polymeric hybrid scaffolds for engineering cardiac constructs.  

PubMed

In the past few years, a considerable amount of effort has been devoted toward the development of biomimetic scaffolds for cardiac tissue engineering. However, most of the previous scaffolds have been electrically insulating or lacked the structural and mechanical robustness to engineer cardiac tissue constructs with suitable electrophysiological functions. Here, we developed tough and flexible hybrid scaffolds with enhanced electrical properties composed of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) embedded aligned poly(glycerol sebacate):gelatin (PG) electrospun nanofibers. Incorporation of varying concentrations of CNTs from 0 to 1.5% within the PG nanofibrous scaffolds (CNT-PG scaffolds) notably enhanced fiber alignment and improved the electrical conductivity and toughness of the scaffolds while maintaining the viability, retention, alignment, and contractile activities of cardiomyocytes (CMs) seeded on the scaffolds. The resulting CNT-PG scaffolds resulted in stronger spontaneous and synchronous beating behavior (3.5-fold lower excitation threshold and 2.8-fold higher maximum capture rate) compared to those cultured on PG scaffold. Overall, our findings demonstrated that aligned CNT-PG scaffold exhibited superior mechanical properties with enhanced CM beating properties. It is envisioned that the proposed hybrid scaffolds can be useful for generating cardiac tissue constructs with improved organization and maturation. PMID:24927679

Kharaziha, Mahshid; Shin, Su Ryon; Nikkhah, Mehdi; Topkaya, Seda Nur; Masoumi, Nafiseh; Annabi, Nasim; Dokmeci, Mehmet R; Khademhosseini, Ali

2014-08-01

136

Fabrication of three-dimensional porous scaffolds of complicated shape for tissue engineering. I. Compression molding based on flexible-rigid combined mold.  

PubMed

A novel method for the fabrication of complexly shaped three-dimensional porous scaffolds has been developed by combining modified compression molding and conventional particulate leaching. The resultant scaffolds of various shapes, including some shaped like auricles, were made of hydrophobic biodegradable and bioresorbable poly(D,L-lactic acid) (PDLLA) and poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA). A polymer-particulate mixture was first prepared by the conventional solvent casting method and then compressively molded in a specially designed flexible-rigid combined mold which facilitates shaping and mold release during the fabrication process. The molding was carried out at a moderate temperature, above the glass transition temperature and below the flow temperature of these amorphous polymers. A porous scaffold was then obtained after particulate leaching. The pores are highly interconnected and uniformly distributed both in the bulk and on the external surface of the scaffolds, and the porosity can exceed 90%. The mechanical properties of the resultant porous scaffolds are satisfactory as determined by measurements of compressive modulus and compressive stress at 10% strain. Good viability of cells seeded in the porous scaffolds was confirmed. This novel fabrication method is promising in tissue engineering because of its ability to produce precise and complexly (anatomically) shaped porous scaffolds. PMID:16144446

Wu, Linbo; Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Junchuan; Ding, Jiandong

2005-01-01

137

A novel bioactive porous bredigite (Ca7MgSi4O16) scaffold with biomimetic apatite layer for bone tissue engineering.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to develop a novel bioactive, degradable and cytocompatible bredigite (Ca(7)MgSi(4)O(16)) scaffold with biomimetic apatite layer for bone tissue engineering. Porous bredigite scaffolds were prepared using polymer sponge method. The bredigite scaffolds with biomimetic apatite layer (BTAP) were obtained by soaking bredigite scaffolds in simulated body fluid (SBF) for 10 days. The porosity and in vitro degradability of BTAP scaffolds were investigated. In addition, osteoblast-like cell morphology, proliferation and differentiation on BTAP scaffolds were evaluated and compared with beta-tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP) scaffolds. The results showed that BTAP scaffolds possessed 90% of porosity. The degradation of BTAP scaffolds was comparable to that of beta-TCP scaffolds. Cells on BTAP scaffolds spread well and presented a higher proliferation rate and differentiation level as compared with those on beta-TCP scaffolds. Our results indicated that BTAP scaffolds were degradable and possessed the function to enhance cell proliferation and differentiation, and might be used as bone tissue engineering materials. PMID:17211720

Wu, Chengtie; Chang, Jiang; Zhai, Wanyin; Ni, Siyu

2007-05-01

138

Comprehensive Genetic Analysis of Early Host Body Reactions to the Bioactive and Bio-Inert Porous Scaffolds  

PubMed Central

To design scaffolds for tissue regeneration, details of the host body reaction to the scaffolds must be studied. Host body reactions have been investigated mainly by immunohistological observations for a long time. Despite of recent dramatic development in genetic analysis technologies, genetically comprehensive changes in host body reactions are hardly studied. There is no information about host body reactions that can predict successful tissue regeneration in the future. In the present study, porous polyethylene scaffolds were coated with bioactive collagen or bio-inert poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine-co-n-butyl methacrylate) (PMB) and were implanted subcutaneously and compared the host body reaction to those substrates by normalizing the result using control non-coat polyethylene scaffold. The comprehensive analyses of early host body reactions to the scaffolds were carried out using a DNA microarray assay. Within numerous genes which were expressed differently among these scaffolds, particular genes related to inflammation, wound healing, and angiogenesis were focused upon. Interleukin (IL)-1? and IL-10 are important cytokines in tissue responses to biomaterials because IL-1? promotes both inflammation and wound healing and IL-10 suppresses both of them. IL-1? was up-regulated in the collagen-coated scaffold. Collagen-specifically up-regulated genes contained both M1- and M2-macrophage-related genes. Marked vessel formation in the collagen-coated scaffold was occurred in accordance with the up-regulation of many angiogenesis-inducible factors. The DNA microarray assay provided global information regarding the host body reaction. Interestingly, several up-regulated genes were detected even on the very bio-inert PMB-coated surfaces and those genes include inflammation-suppressive and wound healing-suppressive IL-10, suggesting that not only active tissue response but also the inert response may relates to these genetic regulations. PMID:24454803

Ehashi, Tomo; Takemura, Taro; Hanagata, Nobutaka; Minowa, Takashi; Kobayashi, Hisatoshi; Ishihara, Kazuhiko; Yamaoka, Tetsuji

2014-01-01

139

Comprehensive genetic analysis of early host body reactions to the bioactive and bio-inert porous scaffolds.  

PubMed

To design scaffolds for tissue regeneration, details of the host body reaction to the scaffolds must be studied. Host body reactions have been investigated mainly by immunohistological observations for a long time. Despite of recent dramatic development in genetic analysis technologies, genetically comprehensive changes in host body reactions are hardly studied. There is no information about host body reactions that can predict successful tissue regeneration in the future. In the present study, porous polyethylene scaffolds were coated with bioactive collagen or bio-inert poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine-co-n-butyl methacrylate) (PMB) and were implanted subcutaneously and compared the host body reaction to those substrates by normalizing the result using control non-coat polyethylene scaffold. The comprehensive analyses of early host body reactions to the scaffolds were carried out using a DNA microarray assay. Within numerous genes which were expressed differently among these scaffolds, particular genes related to inflammation, wound healing, and angiogenesis were focused upon. Interleukin (IL)-1? and IL-10 are important cytokines in tissue responses to biomaterials because IL-1? promotes both inflammation and wound healing and IL-10 suppresses both of them. IL-1? was up-regulated in the collagen-coated scaffold. Collagen-specifically up-regulated genes contained both M1- and M2-macrophage-related genes. Marked vessel formation in the collagen-coated scaffold was occurred in accordance with the up-regulation of many angiogenesis-inducible factors. The DNA microarray assay provided global information regarding the host body reaction. Interestingly, several up-regulated genes were detected even on the very bio-inert PMB-coated surfaces and those genes include inflammation-suppressive and wound healing-suppressive IL-10, suggesting that not only active tissue response but also the inert response may relates to these genetic regulations. PMID:24454803

Ehashi, Tomo; Takemura, Taro; Hanagata, Nobutaka; Minowa, Takashi; Kobayashi, Hisatoshi; Ishihara, Kazuhiko; Yamaoka, Tetsuji

2014-01-01

140

Femtosecond laser two-photon polymerization of three-dimensional scaffolds for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent studies have shown that mechanical factors can direct stem cell fate in vitro, even in the absence of biochemical factors. Two-photon laser polymerization was applied here to fabricate ultra-precise 3D micro-scaffolds with different architectures and pore sizes able to structurally interact with cells at the single-cell scale. Our experiments have shown that randomly seeded mesenchymal stem cells systematically colonize the internal volumes of 3D scaffolds and proliferate, while showing a roundish morphology. Even if stem cell mechanobiology is a very complex field, this study shows how mechanical interactions studied in a 3D micro-architecture at a single cell scale may influence stem cells response.

Aprile, V.; Eaton, S. M.; Laganà, M.; Cerullo, G.; Raimondi, M. T.; Osellame, R.

2012-01-01

141

Porous aromatic frameworks with anion-templated pore apertures serving as polymeric sieves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Owing to environmental pollution and energy depletion, efficient separation of energy gases has attracted widespread attention. Low-cost and efficient adsorbents for gas separation are greatly needed. Here we report a family of quaternary pyridinium-type porous aromatic frameworks with tunable channels. After carefully choosing and adjusting the sterically hindered counter ions via a facile ion exchange approach, the pore diameters are tuned at an angstrom scale in the range of 3.4-7?Å. The designed pore sizes may bring benefits to capturing or sieving gas molecules with varied diameters to separate them efficiently by size-exclusive effects. By combining their specific separation properties, a five-component (hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide and methane) gas mixture can be separated completely. The porous aromatic frameworks may hold promise for practical and commercial applications as polymeric sieves.

Yuan, Ye; Sun, Fuxing; Li, Lina; Cui, Peng; Zhu, Guangshan

2014-06-01

142

Osteogenic differentiation of umbilical cord and adipose derived stem cells onto highly porous 45S5 Bioglass(®) -based scaffolds.  

PubMed

In the context of bone tissue engineering (BTE), combinations of bioactive scaffolds with living cells are investigated to optimally yield functional bone tissue for implantation purposes. Bioactive glasses are a class of highly bioactive, inorganic materials with broad application potential in BTE strategies. The aim of this study was to evaluate bioactive glass (45S5 Bioglass(®) ) samples of composition: 45 SiO2 , 24.5 CaO, 24.5 Na2 O, and 6 P2 O5 (in wt%) as scaffold materials for mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). Pore architecture of the scaffolds as well as cell behavior in the three-dimensional environment was evaluated by several methods. Investigations concerned the osteogenic cell attachment, growth and differentiation of adipose tissue derived MSC (adMSC) compared with MSC from human full term umbilical cord tissues (ucMSC) on porous Bioglass(®) -based scaffolds over a cultivation period of 5 weeks. Differences in lineage-specific osteogenic differentiation of adMSC and ucMSC on Bioglass(®) samples were demonstrated. The investigation led to positive results in terms of cell attachment, proliferation, and differentiation of MSC onto Bioglass(®) -based scaffolds confirming the relevance of these matrices for BTE applications. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A, 2014. PMID:24853477

Detsch, Rainer; Alles, Sonja; Hum, Jasmin; Westenberger, Peter; Sieker, Frank; Heusinger, Dominik; Kasper, Cornelia; Boccaccini, Aldo R

2014-05-22

143

Production, characterisation, and cytocompatibility of porous titanium-based particulate scaffolds.  

PubMed

Despite its non-matching mechanical properties titanium remains the preferred metal implant material in orthopaedics. As a consequence in some cases stress shielding effect occurs, leading to implant loosening, osteopenia, and finally revision surgery. Porous metal scaffolds to allow easier specialised cells ingrowth with mechanical properties closer to the ones of bone can overcome this problem. This should improve healing processes, implant integration, and dynamic strength of implants retaining. Three Ti-6Al-4V materials were metal injection moulded and tailored porosities were effectively achieved. After microstructural and mechanical characterisation, two different primary cells of mesenchymal origin (human umbilical cord perivascular cells and human bone derived cells which revealed to be two pertinent models) as well as one cell line originated from primary osteogenic sarcoma, Saos-2, were bestowed to investigate cell-material interaction on genomic and proteome levels. Biological examinations disclosed that no material has negative impact on early adhesion, proliferation or cell viability. An efficient cell ingrowth into material with an average porosity of 25-50 ?m was proved. PMID:23807315

Luthringer, B J C; Ali, F; Akaichi, H; Feyerabend, F; Ebel, T; Willumeit, R

2013-10-01

144

Image-Based Three-Dimensional Analysis to Characterize the Texture of Porous Scaffolds  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study is to characterize the microstructure of composite scaffolds for bone tissue regeneration containing different ratios of chitosan/gelatin blend and bioactive glasses. Starting from realistic 3D models of the scaffolds reconstructed from micro-CT images, the level of heterogeneity of scaffold architecture is evaluated performing a lacunarity analysis. The results demonstrate that the presence of the bioactive glass component affects not only macroscopic features such as porosity, but mainly scaffold microarchitecture giving rise to structural heterogeneity, which could have an impact on the local cell-scaffold interaction and scaffold performances. The adopted approach allows to investigate the scale-dependent pore distribution within the scaffold and the related structural heterogeneity features, providing a comprehensive characterization of the scaffold texture. PMID:24995272

Pennella, Francesco; Gallo, Diego; Ciardelli, Gianluca; Bignardi, Cristina; Audenino, Alberto; Morbiducci, Umberto

2014-01-01

145

Biodegradable and bioactive porous polymer\\/inorganic composite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biodegradable polymers and bioactive ceramics are being combined in a variety of composite materials for tissue engineering scaffolds. Materials and fabrication routes for three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds with interconnected high porosities suitable for bone tissue engineering are reviewed. Different polymer and ceramic compositions applied and their impact on biodegradability and bioactivity of the scaffolds are discussed, including in vitro and in

K. Rezwan; Q. Z. Chen; J. J. Blaker; Aldo Roberto Boccaccini

2006-01-01

146

Preparation of porous hydroxyapatite scaffolds by combination of the gel-casting and polymer sponge methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new technique of combining the gel-casting and polymer sponge methods is introduced in this study to prepare macroporous hydroxyapatite scaffolds, which provides a better control over the microstructures of scaffolds and enhances their mechanical properties. With this technique, we were able to produce scaffolds with mechanical and structural properties that cannot be attained by either the polymer sponge or

Hassna Rehman Ramay; Miqin Zhang

2003-01-01

147

Ingrowth of human mesenchymal stem cells into porous silk particle reinforced silk composite scaffolds: An in vitro study.  

PubMed

Silk fibroin protein is biodegradable and biocompatible, exhibiting excellent mechanical properties for various biomedical applications. However, porous three-dimensional (3-D) silk fibroin scaffolds, or silk sponges, usually fall short in matching the initial mechanical requirements for bone tissue engineering. In the present study, silk sponge matrices were reinforced with silk microparticles to generate protein-protein composite scaffolds with desirable mechanical properties for in vitro osteogenic tissue formation. It was found that increasing the silk microparticle loading led to a substantial increase in the scaffold compressive modulus from 0.3 MPa (non-reinforced) to 1.9 MPa for 1:2 (matrix:particle) reinforcement loading by dry mass. Biochemical, gene expression, and histological assays were employed to study the possible effects of increasing composite scaffold stiffness, due to microparticle reinforcement, on in vitro osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). Increasing silk microparticle loading increased the osteogenic capability of hMSCs in the presence of bone morphogenic protein-2 (BMP-2) and other osteogenic factors in static culture for up to 6 weeks. The calcium adsorption increased dramatically with increasing loading, as observed from biochemical assays, histological staining, and microcomputer tomography (?CT) analysis. Specifically, calcium content in the scaffolds increased by 0.57, 0.71, and 1.27 mg (per ?g of DNA) from 3 to 6 weeks for matrix to particle dry mass loading ratios of 1:0, 1:1, and 1:2, respectively. In addition, ?CT imaging revealed that at 6 weeks, bone volume fraction increased from 0.78% for non-reinforced to 7.1% and 6.7% for 1:1 and 1:2 loading, respectively. Our results support the hypothesis that scaffold stiffness may strongly influence the 3-D in vitro differentiation capabilities of hMSCs, providing a means to improve osteogenic outcomes. PMID:20656075

Rockwood, Danielle N; Gil, Eun Seok; Park, Sang-Hyug; Kluge, Jonathan A; Grayson, Warren; Bhumiratana, Sarindr; Rajkhowa, Rangam; Wang, Xungai; Kim, Sung Jun; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana; Kaplan, David L

2011-01-01

148

Ingrowth of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells into Porous Silk Particle Reinforced Silk Composite Scaffolds: An In Vitro Study  

PubMed Central

Silk fibroin protein is biodegradable and biocompatible, exhibiting excellent mechanical properties for various biomedical applications. However, porous 3D silk fibroin scaffolds, or silk sponges, usually fall short in matching the initial mechanical requirements for bone tissue engineering. In the present study, silk sponge matrices were reinforced with silk microparticles to generate protein-protein composite scaffolds with desirable mechanical properties for in vitro osteogenic tissue formation. It was found that increasing the silk microparticle loading led to a substantial increase in the scaffold compressive modulus from 0.3 MPa (nonreinforced) to 1.9 MPa for 1:2 (matrix:particle) reinforcement loading by dry mass. Biochemical, gene expression, and histological assays were employed to study the possible effects of increasing composite scaffold stiffness, due to microparticle reinforcement, on in vitro osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). Increasing silk microparticle loading increased the osteogenic capability of hMSCs in the presence of bone morphogenic protein-2 (BMP-2) and other osteogenic factors in static culture for up to six weeks. The calcium adsorption increased dramatically with increasing loading, as observed from biochemical assays, histological staining, and microCT (?CT) analysis. Specifically, calcium content in the scaffolds increased by 0.57, 0.71, and 1.27 mg (per ?g of DNA) from 3 to 6 weeks for matrix to particle dry mass loading ratios of 1:0, 1:1 and 1:2, respectively. In addition, ?CT imaging revealed that at 6 weeks, bone volume fraction increased from 0.78% for nonreinforced to 7.1% and 6.7% for 1:1 and 1:2 loading, respectively. Our results support the hypothesis that scaffold stiffness may strongly influence the 3D in vitro differentiation capabilities of hMSCs, providing a means to improve osteogenic outcomes. PMID:20656075

Rockwood, Danielle N.; Gil, Eun Seok; Park, Sang-Hyug; Kluge, Jonathan A.; Grayson, Warren; Bhumiratana, Sarindr; Rajkhowa, Rangam; Wang, Xungai; Kim, Sung Jun; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana; Kaplan, David L

2010-01-01

149

Mimic of the Green Fluorescent Protein ?-Barrel: Photophysics and Dynamics of Confined Chromophores Defined by a Rigid Porous Scaffold.  

PubMed

Chromophores with a benzylidene imidazolidinone core define the emission profile of commonly used biomarkers such as the green fluorescent protein (GFP) and its analogues. In this communication, artificially engineered porous scaffolds have been shown to mimic the protein ?-barrel structure, maintaining green fluorescence response and conformational rigidity of GFP-like chromophores. In particular, we demonstrated that the emission maximum in our artificial scaffolds is similar to those observed in the spectra of the natural GFP-based systems. To correlate the fluorescence response with a structure and perform a comprehensive analysis of the prepared photoluminescent scaffolds, (13)C cross-polarization magic angle spinning solid-state (CP-MAS) NMR spectroscopy, powder and single-crystal X-ray diffraction, and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy were employed. Quadrupolar spin-echo solid-state (2)H NMR spectroscopy, in combination with theoretical calculations, was implemented to probe low-frequency vibrational dynamics of the confined chromophores, demonstrating conformational restrictions imposed on the coordinatively trapped chromophores. Because of possible tunability of the introduced scaffolds, these studies could foreshadow utilization of the presented approach toward directing a fluorescence response in artificial GFP mimics, modulating a protein microenvironment, and controlling nonradiative pathways through chromophore dynamics. PMID:25654319

Williams, Derek E; Dolgopolova, Ekaterina A; Pellechia, Perry J; Palukoshka, Andrei; Wilson, Thomas J; Tan, Rui; Maier, Josef M; Greytak, Andrew B; Smith, Mark D; Krause, Jeanette A; Shustova, Natalia B

2015-02-18

150

In vitro and in vivo evaluation of biodegradable, open-porous scaffolds made of sintered magnesium W4 short fibres.  

PubMed

A cytocompatible and biocompatible, degradable, open-porous, mechanically adaptable metal scaffold made of magnesium alloy W4 melt-extracted short fibres was fabricated by liquid phase sintering. Cylindrical samples (3×5 mm) of sintered W4 short fibres were evaluated under in vitro (L929, HOB, eudiometer, weight loss) and in vivo conditions (rabbits: 6 and 12 weeks). The in vitro corrosion environment (e.g., temperature, flow, composition of corrosion solution, exposure time) significantly influenced the corrosion rates of W4 scaffolds compared with corrosion in vivo. Corrosion rates under cell culture conditions for 72 h varied from 1.05 to 3.43 mm y(-1) depending on the media composition. Corrosion rates measured in eudiometric systems for 24 h were ~24-27 times higher (3.88-4.43 mm y(-1)) than corrosion in vivo after 6 weeks (0.16 mm y(-1)). Moreover, it was found that the cell culture media composition significantly influences the ionic composition of the extract by selectively dissolving ions from W4 samples or their corrosion products. A pilot in vivo study for 6 and 12 weeks demonstrated active bone remodelling, no foreign body reaction and no clinical observation of gas formation during W4 scaffold implantation. Long-term in vivo studies need to be conducted to prove complete degradation of the W4 scaffold and total replacement by the host tissue. PMID:23542554

Bobe, K; Willbold, E; Morgenthal, I; Andersen, O; Studnitzky, T; Nellesen, J; Tillmann, W; Vogt, C; Vano, K; Witte, F

2013-11-01

151

The generation of biomolecular patterns in highly porous collagen-GAG scaffolds using direct photolithography  

PubMed Central

The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a complex organization of structural proteins found within tissues and organs. Heterogeneous tissues with spatially and temporally modulated properties play an important role in organism physiology. Here we present a benzophenone (BP) based direct, photolithographic approach to spatially pattern solution phase biomolecules within collagen-GAG (CG) scaffolds and demonstrate creation of a wide range of patterns composed of multiple biomolecular species in a manner independent from scaffold fabrication steps. We demonstrate the ability to immobilize biomolecules at surface densities of up to 1000 ligands per square micron on the scaffold strut surface and to depths limited by the penetration depth of the excitation source into the scaffold structure. Importantly, while BP photopatterning does further crosslink the CG scaffold, evidenced by increased mechanical properties and collagen crystallinity, it does not affect scaffold microstructural or compositional properties or negatively influence cell adhesion, viability, or proliferation. We show that covalently photoimmobilized fibronectin within a CG scaffold significantly increases the speed of MC3T3-E1 cell attachment relative to the bare CG scaffold or non-specifically adsorbed fibronectin, suggesting that this approach can be used to improve scaffold bioactivity. Our findings, on the whole, establish the use of direct, BP photolithography as a methodology for covalently incorporating activity-improving biochemical cues within 3D collagen biomaterial scaffolds with spatial control over biomolecular deposition. PMID:21397322

Martin, Teresa A.; Caliari, Steven R.; Williford, Paul D.; Harley, Brendan A.; Bailey, Ryan C.

2014-01-01

152

Pre-osteoblast infiltration and differentiation in highly porous apatite-coated PLLA electrospun scaffolds.  

PubMed

Electrospun polymer/apatite composite scaffolds are promising candidates as functional bone substitutes because of their ability to allow pre-osteoblast attachment, proliferation, and differentiation. However these structures usually lack an adequate pore size to permit sufficient cell migration and colonization of the scaffold. To overcome this limitation, we developed an apatite-coated electrospun PLLA scaffold with varying pore size and porosity by utilizing a three-step water-soluble PEO fiber inclusion, dissolution, and mineralization process. The temporal and spatial dynamics of cell migration into the scaffolds were quantified to determine the effects of enhanced pore size and porosity on cell infiltration. MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblast migration into the scaffolds was found to be a function of both initial PEO content and time. Scaffolds with greater initial PEO content (50% and 75% PEO) had drastically accelerated cell infiltration in addition to enhanced cell distribution throughout the scaffold when compared to scaffolds with lower PEO content (0% and 25% PEO). Furthermore, scaffolds with an apatite substrate significantly upregulated MC3T3-E1 alkaline phosphatase activity, osteocalcin content, and cell-mediated mineralization as compared to PLLA alone. These findings suggest that such a scaffold enhances pre-osteoblast infiltration, colonization, and maturation in vitro and may lead to overall improved bone formation when implanted in vivo. PMID:21195474

Whited, Bryce M; Whitney, Jon R; Hofmann, Matthias C; Xu, Yong; Rylander, Marissa N

2011-03-01

153

The Effect of Plasma Surface Treatment on a Porous Green Ceramic Film with Polymeric Binder Materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To reduce time and energy during thermal binder removal in the ceramic process, plasma surface treatment was applied before the lamination process. The adhesion strength in the lamination films was enhanced by oxidative plasma treatment of the porous green ceramic film with polymeric binding materials. The oxygen plasma characteristics were investigated through experimental parameters and weight loss analysis. The experimental results revealed the need for parameter analysis, including gas material, process time, flow rate, and discharge power, and supported a mechanism consisting of competing ablation and deposition processes. The weight loss analysis was conducted for cyclic plasma treatment rather than continuous plasma treatment for the purpose of improving the film's permeability by suppressing deposition of the ablated species. The cyclic plasma treatment improved the permeability compared to the continuous plasma treatment.

Jeong, Woo Yun

2013-06-01

154

The scale-up of a tissue engineered porous hydroxyapatite polymer composite scaffold for use in bone repair: An ovine femoral condyle defect study.  

PubMed

The development of an osteogenic bone graft substitute has important practical and cost implications in many branches of medicine where bone regeneration is required. Previous in vitro and small animal (murine) in vivo studies highlighted a porous hydroxyapatite/poly (dl-lactic acid) composite scaffold in combination with skeletal stem cells (SSCs) as a potential bone graft substitute candidate. The aim of the current study was to scale up the bone cell-scaffold construct to large animals and examine the potential for repair of a critical-sized defect via an ovine model. SSC seeded scaffolds (and unseeded scaffold controls) were implanted bilaterally into ovine femoral condyle critical defects for 3 months. A parallel in vitro analysis of ovine SSC seeded scaffolds was also performed. Post mortem mechanical indentation testing showed the bone strengths of the defect sites were 20% (controls) and 11% (SSC seeded scaffolds) those of normal cancellous bone (p?scaffolds over the SSC seeded scaffolds (p?=?0.14). Histological examination confirmed these findings, with enhanced quality new bone within the control defects. This study highlights important issues and steps to overcome in scale-up and translation of tissue engineered products. The scaffold demonstrated encouraging results as an osteoconductive matrix; however, further work is required with cellular protocols before any human trials. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A, 2014. PMID:25044983

Tayton, Edward; Purcell, Matthew; Smith, James O; Lanham, Stuart; Howdle, Steven M; Shakesheff, Kevin M; Goodship, Allen; Blunn, Gordon; Fowler, Darren; Dunlop, Douglas G; Oreffo, Richard O C

2014-07-16

155

Preparation of tissue engineering porous scaffold with poly(lactic acid) and polyethylene glycol solution blend by solvent-casting/particulate-leaching  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polyethylene glycol/poly(lactic acid) solution blend is employed as the raw materials to prepare porous scaffold of potential usage in tissue engineering. The solution blend can be naturally introduced in the classical solvent casting/particular leaching technique in porous matrix preparation. The PEG presence is to modify the degradation behavior of scaffolds to fit particular requirements in tissue engineering. The porous matrix of PEG/PLA with various weight ratios are made with pores size ? 250 ? m. The SEM characterizations have been done to investigate the porous morphology of products, the results indicate that though with the clear semi-miscibility feature of PEG/PLA blends, the macro-structure is not significantly affected by the PEG content percentage. The degradation results show an enhanced weight loss rate with the presence of PEG as expected.

Huang, Ran; Zhu, Xiaomin; Zhao, Tingting; Wan, Ajun

2014-12-01

156

Bone Tissue Engineering with Premineralized Silk Scaffolds  

PubMed Central

Silks fibroin biomaterials are being explored as novel protein-based systems for cell and tissue culture. In the present study, biomimetic growth of calcium phosphate on porous silk fibroin polymeric scaffolds was explored to generate organic/inorganic composites as scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. Aqueous-derived silk fibroin scaffolds were prepared with the addition of polyaspartic acid during processing, followed by the controlled deposition of calcium phosphate by exposure to CaCl2 and Na2HPO4. These mineralized protein-composite scaffolds were subsequently seeded with human bone marrow stem cells (hMSC) and cultured in vitro for 6 weeks under osteogenic conditions with or without BMP-2. The extent of osteoconductivity was assessed by cell numbers, alkaline phosphatase and calcium deposition, along with immunohistochemistry for bone related outcomes. The results suggest increased osteoconductive outcomes with an increase in initial content of apatite and BMP-2 in the silk fibroin porous scaffolds. The premineralization of these highly porous silk fibroin protein scaffolds provided enhanced outcomes for the bone tissue engineering. PMID:18387349

Kim, Hyeon Joo; Kim, Ung-Jin; Kim, Hyun Suk; Li, Chunmei; Wada, Masahisa; Leisk, Gary G.; Kaplan, David L.

2009-01-01

157

Bone morphogenic protein-2 (BMP-2) loaded hybrid coating on porous hydroxyapatite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering.  

PubMed

In this study, a silica xerogel-chitosan hybrid is utilized as a coating material to incorporate bone morphogenic protein-2 (BMP-2) on a porous hydroxyapatite (HA) scaffold for bone tissue engineering. BMP-2 is known as a therapeutic agent for improving bone regeneration and repair. Silica xerogel-chitosan hybrids have been used for the delivery of a growth factor as well as osteoconductive coatings. The biological properties of the hybrid coating incorporated with BMP-2 were evaluated in terms of the BMP-2 release behavior, osteoblastic cellular responses and in vivo performance. BMP-2 was continuously released from the hybrid coating layer on the porous HA scaffold for up to 6 weeks. The hybrid coating containing BMP-2 showed significantly enhanced osteoblastic cell responses in comparison with the hybrid coating and HA substrate. Consequently, new bone formation was significantly increased within the hybrid coating containing BMP-2. These results reveal that the hybrid coating containing BMP-2 has the potential to be used as a bone implant, whose osteogenic properties are promoted by the release of BMP-2 in a controlled manner for a prolonged period of time. PMID:23344924

Jun, Shin-Hee; Lee, Eun-Jung; Jang, Tae-Sik; Kim, Hyoun-Ee; Jang, Jun-Hyeog; Koh, Young-Hag

2013-03-01

158

Incorporation of growth factor containing Matrigel promotes vascularization of porous PLGA scaffolds.  

PubMed

In tissue engineering, rapid ingrowth of blood vessels into scaffolds is a major prerequisite for the survival of three-dimensional tissue constructs. In the present study, we investigated whether the vascularization of implanted poly-D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) scaffolds may be accelerated by incorporation of Matrigel. For this purpose, we investigated in the aortic ring assay the proangiogenic properties of growth factor reduced Matrigel (GFRM) and growth factor containing Matrigel (GFCM), which were then incorporated into the pores of PLGA scaffolds. Subsequently, we analyzed vascularization, biocompatibility, and incorporation of these scaffolds during 14 days after implantation into dorsal skinfold chambers of balb/c mice by means of intravital microscopy, histology, and immunohistochemistry. Matrigel-free scaffolds served as controls. In the aortic ring assay, GFCM stimulated the development of a network of tubular vessel structures with a significantly increased sprout area and density when compared with GFRM. Accordingly, GFCM accelerated and improved in vivo the ingrowth of new blood vessels into scaffolds, resulting in the formation of a pericyte-coated vascular network with an increased functional capillary density in comparison to the GFRM and control group. Besides, analysis of leukocyte-endothelial cell interaction in host tissue venules located in close vicinity to the scaffolds showed no marked differences in numbers of rolling and adherent leukocytes between the observation groups, indicating that incorporation of Matrigel did not affect biocompatibility of PLGA scaffolds. These findings demonstrate that the combination of proangiogenic extracellular matrices with solid scaffold biomaterials may represent a novel approach to accelerate adequate vascularization of tissue engineering constructs. PMID:17688245

Laschke, M W; Rücker, M; Jensen, G; Carvalho, C; Mülhaupt, R; Gellrich, N-C; Menger, M D

2008-05-01

159

Preparation and characterization of highly porous, biodegradable polyurethane scaffolds for soft tissue applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the engineering of soft tissues, scaffolds with high elastance and strength coupled with controllable biodegradable properties are necessary. To fulfill such design criteria we have previously synthesized two kinds of biodegradable polyurethaneureas, namely poly(ester urethane)urea (PEUU) and poly(ether ester urethane)urea (PEEUU) from polycaprolactone, polycaprolactone-b-polyethylene glycol-b-polycaprolactone, 1,4-diisocyanatobutane and putrescine. PEUU and PEEUU were further fabricated into scaffolds by thermally induced

Jianjun Guan; Kazuro L. Fujimoto; Michael S. Sacks; William R. Wagner

2005-01-01

160

Density Gradient Multilayered Polymerization (DGMP): A Novel Technique for Creating Multi-compartment, Customizable Scaffolds for Tissue Engineering  

PubMed Central

Complex tissue culture matrices, in which types and concentrations of biological stimuli (e.g. growth factors, inhibitors, or small molecules) or matrix structure (e.g. composition, concentration, or stiffness of the matrix) vary over space, would enable a wide range of investigations concerning how these variables affect cell differentiation, migration, and other phenomena. The major challenge in creating layered matrices is maintaining the structural integrity of layer interfaces without diffusion of individual components from each layer1. Current methodologies to achieve this include photopatterning2-3, lithography4, sequential functionalization5, freeze drying6, microfluidics7, or centrifugation8, many of which require sophisticated instrumentation and technical skills. Others rely on sequential attachment of individual layers, which may lead to delamination of layers9. DGMP overcomes these issues by using an inert density modifier such as iodixanol to create layers of varying densities10. Since the density modifier can be mixed with any prepolymer or bioactive molecule, DGMP allows each scaffold layer to be customized. Simply varying the concentration of the density modifier prevents mixing of adjacent layers while they remain aqueous. Subsequent single step polymerization gives rise to a structurally continuous multilayered scaffold, in which each layer has distinct chemical and mechanical properties. The density modifier can be easily removed with sufficient rinsing without perturbation of the individual layers or their components. This technique is therefore well suited for creating hydrogels of various sizes, shapes, and materials. A protocol for fabricating a 2D-polyethylene glycol (PEG) gel, in which alternating layers incorporate RGDS-350, is outlined below. We use PEG because it is biocompatible and inert. RGDS, a cell adhesion peptide11, is used to demonstrate spatial restriction of a biological cue, and the conjugation of a fluorophore (Alexa Fluor 350) enables us to visually distinguish various layers. This procedure can be adapted for other materials (e.g. collagen, hyaluronan, etc.) and can be extended to fabricate 3D gels with some modifications10. PMID:23426045

Joshi-Barr, Shivanjali; Karpiak, Jerome V.; Ner, Yogesh; Wen, Jessica H.; Engler, Adam J.; Almutairi, Adah

2013-01-01

161

Interpenetrating polymer network hydrogel scaffolds for artificial cornea periphery.  

PubMed

Three-dimensional scaffolds based on inverted colloidal crystals (ICCs) were fabricated from sequentially polymerized interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) hydrogels of poly(ethyleneglycol) and poly(acrylic acid). This high-strength, high-water-content IPN hydrogel may be suitable for use in an artificial cornea application. Development of a highly porous, biointegrable region at the periphery of the artificial cornea device is critical to long-term retention of the implant. The ICC fabrication technique produced scaffolds with well-controlled, tunable pore and channel dimensions. When surface functionalized with extracellular matrix proteins, corneal fibroblasts were successfully cultured on IPN hydrogel scaffolds, demonstrating the feasibility of these gels as materials for the artificial cornea porous periphery. Porous hydrogels with and without cells were visualized non-invasively in the hydrated state using variable-pressure scanning electron microscopy. PMID:25665845

Parke-Houben, Rachel; Fox, Courtney H; Zheng, Luo Luo; Waters, Dale J; Cochran, Jennifer R; Ta, Christopher N; Frank, Curtis W

2015-02-01

162

Biomineralized porous composite scaffolds prepared by chemical synthesis for bone tissue regeneration.  

PubMed

Scaffold design is a key factor in the clinical success of bone tissue engineering grafts. To date, no existing single biomaterial used in bone repair and regeneration fulfils all the requirements for an ideal bone graft. In this study hydroxyapatite/polycaprolactone (HA/PCL) composite scaffolds were prepared by a wet chemical method at room temperature. The physico-chemical properties of the composite materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, while scaffold morphology was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy-dispersive spectroscopy to validate the process used for synthesis. Finally, the response of bone marrow-derived human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) in terms of cell proliferation and differentiation to the osteoblastic phenotype was evaluated using the Alamar blue assay, SEM and alkaline phosphatase activity. Microstructural analysis indicated that the HA particles were distributed homogeneously within the PCL matrix. The biological results revealed that the HA/PCL composite scaffolds are suitable for the proliferation and differentiation of MSCs in vitro, supporting osteogenesis after 15 days. All the results indicate that these scaffolds meet the requirements of materials for bone tissue engineering and could be used for many clinical applications in orthopaedic and maxillofacial surgery. PMID:20417736

Raucci, M G; D'Antò, V; Guarino, V; Sardella, E; Zeppetelli, S; Favia, P; Ambrosio, L

2010-10-01

163

Direct laser writing and geometrical analysis of scaffolds with designed pore architecture for three-dimensional cell culturing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traditional scaffold fabrication methods used in tissue engineering enable only limited control over essential parameters such as porosity, pore size and pore interconnectivity. In this study, we designed and fabricated five different types of three-dimensionally interconnected, highly porous scaffolds with precise control over the scaffold characteristics. We used two-photon polymerization (2PP) with a commercial polymer-ceramic material (Ormocomp®) for scaffold fabrication. Also for the first time, we analyzed the 2PP fabrication accuracy with respect to scaffold design parameters. Our results showed that the porosity values decreased up to 13% compared to the design specifications due to the fabrication process and the shrinkage of the material. Finally, we showed that our scaffolds supported human adipose stem cell adhesion and proliferation in a six day culture. By precise tuning of scaffold parameters, our design and fabrication method provides a novel approach for studying the effect of scaffold architecture on cell behavior in vitro.

Käpylä, Elli; Aydogan, Dogu Baran; Virjula, Sanni; Vanhatupa, Sari; Miettinen, Susanna; Hyttinen, Jari; Kellomäki, Minna

2012-11-01

164

Polymeric scaffolds prepared via Thermally Induced Phase Separation (TIPS): tuning of structure and morphology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scaffolds suitable for tissue engineering applications were prepared by Thermally Induced Phase Separation (TIPS) starting from a ternary solution PLLA/dioxane/water. The experimental protocol consisted of three consecutive steps, a first quench from the homogeneous solution to an appropriate demixing temperature (within the metastable region), a holding stage for a given residence time and a final quench from the demixing temperature to a low temperature (within the unstable region). A large variety of morphologies, in terms of average pore size and interconnection, were obtained upon modifying the demixing time and temperature, owing to the interplay of nucleation and growth processes during the residence in the metastable state. An interesting combination of micro and macro-porosity was observed for long residence times in the metastable state (above 30 min at 35°C).

Pavia, F. Carf?; La Carrubba, V.; Brucato, V.; Piccarolo, S.

2007-04-01

165

Preparation of functional polyamine scaffolds via Mitsunobu post-polymerization modification reactions.  

PubMed

A Mitsunobu reaction of trifluoroacetamide (TFA amide) and alcohols is used in a postpolymerization modification process. The reaction is conducted on polystyrene (PSt) bearing 20 mol% TFA amide groups with 4-methyl benzyl alcohol in the presence of a N,N,N?,N ?-tetramethylazodicarboxamide and tributylphosphine as mediators. The Mitsunobu reaction on polymer proceeds efficiently, as confirmed by the obvious precipitation generation during the reaction and the conversion of TFA amide moiety reached 88.6% confirmed by 19 F NMR measurement, yielding PSt bearing tertiary TFA amide moieties. The obtained polymers featuring tertiary TFA amide moieties are deprotected in the presence of tetrabutylammonium hydroxide as a base to afford corresponding polymers featuring functionalized polyamine scaffolds with 92.5% conversion. In addition, the precise structural assignment is proven by synthesis and analysis of the model monomeric compounds and the respective model polymers. PMID:24643994

Kakuchi, Ryohei; Theato, Patrick

2014-03-01

166

Methods for Producing Scaffold-Free Engineered Cartilage Sheets from Auricular and Articular Chondrocyte Cell Sources and Attachment to Porous Tantalum  

PubMed Central

Abstract Scaffold-free cartilage engineering techniques may provide a simple alternative to traditional methods employing scaffolds. We previously reported auricular chondrocyte-derived constructs for use in an engineered trachea model; however, the construct generation methods were not reported in detail. In this study, methods for cartilage construct generation from auricular and articular cell sources are described in detail, and the resulting constructs are compared for use in a joint resurfacing model. Attachment of cartilage sheets to porous tantalum is also investigated as a potential vehicle for future attachment to subchondral bone. Large scaffold-free cartilage constructs were produced from culture-expanded chondrocytes from skeletally mature rabbits, and redifferentiated in a chemically-defined culture medium. Auricular constructs contained more glycosaminoglycan (39.6±12.7 vs. 9.7±1.9??g/mg wet weight, mean and standard deviation) and collagen (2.7±0.45 vs. 1.1±0.2??g/mg wet weight, mean and standard deviation) than articular constructs. Aggregate modulus was also higher for auricular constructs vs. articular constructs (0.23±0.07 vs. 0.12±0.03?MPa, mean and standard deviation). Attachment of constructs to porous tantalum was achieved by neocartilage ingrowth into tantalum pores. These results demonstrate that large scaffold-free neocartilage constructs can be produced from mature culture-expanded chondrocytes in a chemically-defined medium, and that these constructs can be attached to porous tantalum. PMID:23514898

Mera, Hisashi; Weidenbecher, Mark; Awadallah, Amad; Mansour, Joseph M.; Dennis, James E.

2012-01-01

167

Multiple approaches to predicting oxygen and glucose consumptions by HepG2 cells on porous scaffolds in an axial-flow bioreactor.  

PubMed

In this study, the distribution of oxygen and glucose was evaluated along with consumption by hepatocytes using three different approaches. The methods include (i) Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation, (ii) residence time distribution (RTD) analysis using a step-input coupled with segregation model or dispersion model, and (iii) experimentally determined consumption by HepG2 cells in an open-loop. Chitosan-gelatin (CG) scaffolds prepared by freeze-drying and polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffolds prepared by salt leaching technique were utilized for RTD analyses. The scaffold characteristics were used in CFD simulations i.e. Brinkman's equation for flow through porous medium, structural mechanics for fluid induced scaffold deformation, and advection-diffusion equation coupled with Michaelis-Menten rate equations for nutrient consumption. With the assumption that each hepatocyte behaves like a micro-batch reactor within the scaffold, segregation model was combined with RTD to determine exit concentration. A flow rate of 1?mL/min was used in the bioreactor seeded with 0.6?×?10(6) HepG2 cells/cm(3) on CG scaffolds and oxygen consumption was measured using two flow-through electrodes located at the inlet and outlet. Glucose in the spent growth medium was also analyzed. RTD results showed distribution of nutrients to depend on the surface characteristics of scaffolds. Comparisons of outlet oxygen concentrations between the simulation results, and experimental results showed good agreement with the dispersion model. Outlet oxygen concentrations from segregation model predictions were lower. Doubling the cell density showed a need for increasing the flow rate in CFD simulations. This integrated approach provide a useful strategy in designing bioreactors and monitoring tissue regeneration. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2015;112: 393-404. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25116006

Podichetty, Jagdeep T; Bhaskar, Prasana R; Singarapu, Kumar; Madihally, Sundararajan V

2015-02-01

168

Adhesion, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation of a mouse mesenchymal stem cell line (BMC9) seeded on novel melt-based chitosan/polyester 3D porous scaffolds.  

PubMed

The aim of the present work was to study the biological behavior of a mouse mesenchymal stem cell line when seeded and cultured under osteogenic conditions onto novel processed melt-based chitosan scaffolds. Scaffolds were produced by compression molding, followed by salt leaching. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations and microCT analysis showed the pore sizes ranging between 250 and 500 microm and the interconnectivity of the porous structure. The chitosan-poly(butylenes succinate) scaffolds presented high mechanical properties, similar to the ones of trabecular bone (E1% approximately 75 MPa). Cytotoxicity assays were carried out using standard tests (accordingly to ISO/EN 10993 part 5 guidelines), namely, MTS test with a 24 h extraction period, revealing that L929 cells had similar metabolic activities to that obtained for the negative control. Cell culture studies were conducted using a mouse mesenchymal stem cell line (BMC9). Cells were seeded onto the scaffold and allowed to proliferate for 3 weeks under osteogenic conditions. SEM observations demonstrated that cells were able to proliferate and massively colonize the scaffolds structure. The cell viability assay MTS demonstrated that BMC9 cells were viable after 3 weeks of culture. The cells clearly evidenced a positive differentiation toward the osteogenic lineage, as confirmed by the high ALP activity levels. Moreover, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analysis revealed the presence of Ca and P in the elaborated extracellular matrix (ECM). These combined results indicate that the novel melt-based chitosan/polyester scaffolds support the adhesion, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation of the mouse MSCs and shows adequate physicochemical and biological properties for being used as scaffolds in bone tissue engineering-related strategies. PMID:19230127

Costa-Pinto, Ana Rita; Salgado, António José; Correlo, Vitor Manuel; Sol, Paula; Bhattacharya, Mrinal; Charbord, Pierre; Reis, Rui Luis; Neves, Nuno Meleiro

2008-06-01

169

Polymeric molecular sieve membranes via in situ cross-linking of non-porous polymer membrane templates.  

PubMed

High-performance polymeric membranes for gas separation are attractive for molecular-level separations in industrial-scale chemical, energy and environmental processes. Molecular sieving materials are widely regarded as the next-generation membranes to simultaneously achieve high permeability and selectivity. However, most polymeric molecular sieve membranes are based on a few solution-processable polymers such as polymers of intrinsic microporosity. Here we report an in situ cross-linking strategy for the preparation of polymeric molecular sieve membranes with hierarchical and tailorable porosity. These membranes demonstrate exceptional performance as molecular sieves with high gas permeabilities and selectivities for smaller gas molecules, such as carbon dioxide and oxygen, over larger molecules such as nitrogen. Hence, these membranes have potential for large-scale gas separations of commercial and environmental relevance. Moreover, this strategy could provide a possible alternative to 'classical' methods for the preparation of porous membranes and, in some cases, the only viable synthetic route towards certain membranes. PMID:24739439

Qiao, Zhen-An; Chai, Song-Hai; Nelson, Kimberly; Bi, Zhonghe; Chen, Jihua; Mahurin, Shannon M; Zhu, Xiang; Dai, Sheng

2014-01-01

170

Bioactive glass-based composites for the production of dense sintered bodies and porous scaffolds.  

PubMed

Recently several attempts have been made to combine calcium phosphates, such as ?-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) and, most of all, hydroxyapatite (HA), with bioactive glasses of different composition, in order to develop composites with improved biological and mechanical performance. Unfortunately, the production of such systems usually implies a high-temperature treatment (up to 1300 °C), which may result in several drawbacks, including crystallization of the original glass, decomposition of the calcium phosphate phase and/or reactions between the constituent phases, with non-trivial consequences in terms of microstructure, bioactivity and mechanical properties of the final samples. In the present contribution, novel binary composites have been obtained by sintering a bioactive glass, characterized by a low tendency to crystallize, with the addition of HA or ?-TCP as the second phase. In particular, the composites have been treated at a relatively low temperature (818 °C and 830 °C, depending on the sample), thus preserving the amorphous structure of the glass and minimizing the interaction between the constituent phases. The effects of the glass composition, calcium phosphate nature and processing conditions on the composite microstructure, mechanical properties and in vitro bioactivity have been systematically discussed. To conclude, a feasibility study to obtain scaffolds for bone tissue regeneration has been proposed. PMID:23498242

Bellucci, D; Sola, A; Cannillo, V

2013-05-01

171

Repair of large osteochondral defects in a beagle model with a novel type I collagen/glycosaminoglycan-porous titanium biphasic scaffold.  

PubMed

The limited repair potential of articular cartilage, which hardly heals after injury or debilitating osteoarthritis, is a clinical challenge. The aim of this work was to develop a novel type I collagen (Col)/glycosaminoglycan (GAGs)-porous titanium biphasic scaffold (CGT) and verify its ability to repair osteochondral defects in an animal model with bone marrow stem cells (bMSCs) in the chondral phase. The biphasic scaffold was composed of Col/GAGs as chondral phasic and porous titanium as subchondral phasic. Twenty-four full-thickness defects through the articular cartilage and into the subchondral bone were prepared by drilling into the surface of the femoral patellar groove. Animals were assigned to one of the three groups: 1) CGT with bMSCs (CGTM), 2) only CGT, and 3) no implantation (control). The defect areas were examined grossly, histologically and by micro-CT. The most satisfied cartilage repairing result was in the CGTM group, while CGT alone was better than the control group. Abundant subchondral bone formation was observed in the CGTM and CGT groups but not the control group. Our findings demonstrate that a composite based on a novel biphasic scaffold combined with bMSCs shows a high potential to repair large osteochondral defects in a canine model. PMID:23910301

Duan, Xin; Zhu, Xiangdong; Dong, Xingxing; Yang, Jing; Huang, Fuguo; Cen, Shiqiang; Leung, Frankie; Fan, Hongsong; Xiang, Zhou

2013-10-01

172

Oral: Division of Polymeric Materials: Science & Engineering: Nano-and Micro-Scale Porous Polymer-Based Systems. Synthesis of [Bis(pyridine)salen]ZnII  

E-print Network

Oral: Division of Polymeric Materials: Science & Engineering: Nano- and Micro-Scale Porous Polymer-Based Systems. Synthesis of [Bis(pyridine)salen]ZnII ­based Coordination Polymers and Their Application approaches to construct coordination polymers­especially crystalline polymers (metal-organic frameworks (MOFs

173

A multistep procedure to prepare pre-vascularized cardiac tissue constructs using adult stem sells, dynamic cell cultures, and porous scaffolds  

PubMed Central

The vascularization of tissue engineered products represents a key issue in regenerative medicine which needs to be addressed before the translation of these protocols to the bedside can be foreseen. Here we propose a multistep procedure to prepare pre-vascularized three-dimensional (3D) cardiac bio-substitutes using dynamic cell cultures and highly porous biocompatible gelatin scaffolds. The strategy adopted exploits the peculiar differentiation potential of two distinct subsets of adult stem cells to obtain human vascularized 3D cardiac tissues. In the first step of the procedure, human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are seeded onto gelatin scaffolds to provide interconnected vessel-like structures, while human cardiomyocyte progenitor cells (hCMPCs) are stimulated in vitro to obtain their commitment toward the cardiac phenotype. The use of a modular bioreactor allows the perfusion of the whole scaffold, providing superior performance in terms of cardiac tissue maturation and cell survival. Both the cell culture on natural-derived polymers and the continuous medium perfusion of the scaffold led to the formation of a densely packaged proto-tissue composed of vascular-like and cardiac-like cells, which might complete maturation process and interconnect with native tissue upon in vivo implantation. In conclusion, the data obtained through the approach here proposed highlight the importance to provide stem cells with complementary signals in vitro able to resemble the complexity of cardiac microenvironment. PMID:24917827

Pagliari, Stefania; Tirella, Annalisa; Ahluwalia, Arti; Duim, Sjoerd; Goumans, Marie-Josè; Aoyagi, Takao; Forte, Giancarlo

2014-01-01

174

Effect of different hydroxyapatite incorporation methods on the structural and biological properties of porous collagen scaffolds for bone repair.  

PubMed

Scaffolds which aim to provide an optimised environment to regenerate bone tissue require a balance between mechanical properties and architecture known to be conducive to enable tissue regeneration, such as a high porosity and a suitable pore size. Using freeze-dried collagen-based scaffolds as an analogue of native ECM, we sought to improve the mechanical properties by incorporating hydroxyapatite (HA) in different ways while maintaining a pore architecture sufficient to allow cell infiltration, vascularisation and effective bone regeneration. Specifically we sought to elucidate the effect of different hydroxyapatite incorporation methods on the mechanical, morphological, and cellular response of the resultant collagen-HA scaffolds. The results demonstrated that incorporating either micron-sized (CHA scaffolds) or nano-sized HA particles (CnHA scaffolds) prior to freeze-drying resulted in moderate increases in stiffness (2.2-fold and 6.2-fold, respectively, vs. collagen-glycosaminoglycan scaffolds, P < 0.05, a scaffold known to support osteogenesis), while enabling good cell attachment, and moderate mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-mediated calcium production after 28 days' culture (2.1-fold, P < 0.05, and 1.3-fold, respectively, vs. CG scaffolds). However, coating of collagen scaffolds with a hydroxyapatite precipitate after freeze-drying (CpHA scaffolds) has been shown to be a highly effective method to increase the compressive modulus (26-fold vs. CG controls, P < 0.001) of scaffolds while maintaining a high porosity (~ 98%). The coating of the ligand-dense collagen structure results in a lower cell attachment level (P < 0.05), although it supported greater cell-mediated calcium production (P < 0.0001) compared with other scaffold variants after 28 days' culture. The comparatively good mechanical properties of these high porosity scaffolds is obtained partially through highly crosslinking the scaffolds with both a physical (DHT) and chemical (EDAC) crosslinking treatment. Control of scaffold microstructure was examined via alterations in freezing temperature. It was found that the addition of HA prior to freeze-drying generally reduced the pore size and so the CpHA scaffold fabrication method offered increased control over the resulting scaffolds microstructure. These findings will help guide future design considerations for composite biomaterials and demonstrate that the method of HA incorporation can have profound effects on the resulting scaffold structural and biological response. PMID:25409684

Ryan, Alan J; Gleeson, John P; Matsiko, Amos; Thompson, Emmet M; O'Brien, Fergal J

2014-11-20

175

Label-free optical biosensors based on aptamer-functionalized porous silicon scaffolds.  

PubMed

A proof-of-concept for a label-free and reagentless optical biosensing platform based on nanostructured porous silicon (PSi) and aptamers is presented in this work. Aptamers are oligonucleotides (single-stranded DNA or RNA) that can bind their targets with high affinity and specificity, making them excellent recognition elements for biosensor design. Here we describe the fabrication and characterization of aptamer-conjugated PSi biosensors, where a previously characterized his-tag binding aptamer (6H7) is used as model system. Exposure of the aptamer-functionalized PSi to the target proteins as well as to complex fluids (i.e., bacteria lysates containing target proteins) results in robust and well-defined changes in the PSi optical interference spectrum, ascribed to specific aptamer-protein binding events occurring within the nanoscale pores, monitored in real time. The biosensors show exceptional stability and can be easily regenerated by a short rinsing step for multiple biosensing analyses. This proof-of-concept study demonstrates the possibility of designing highly stable and specific label-free optical PSi biosensors, employing aptamers as capture probes, holding immense potential for application in detection of a broad range of targets, in a simple yet reliable manner. PMID:25551423

Urmann, Katharina; Walter, Johanna-Gabriela; Scheper, Thomas; Segal, Ester

2015-02-01

176

Injectable PolyMIPE Scaffolds for Soft Tissue Regeneration  

PubMed Central

Injury caused by trauma, burns, surgery, or disease often results in soft tissue loss leading to impaired function and permanent disfiguration. Tissue engineering aims to overcome the lack of viable donor tissue by fabricating synthetic scaffolds with the requisite properties and bioactive cues to regenerate these tissues. Biomaterial scaffolds designed to match soft tissue modulus and strength should also retain the elastomeric and fatigue-resistant properties of the tissue. Of particular design importance is the interconnected porous structure of the scaffold needed to support tissue growth by facilitating mass transport. Adequate mass transport is especially true for newly implanted scaffolds that lack vasculature to provide nutrient flux. Common scaffold fabrication strategies often utilize toxic solvents and high temperatures or pressures to achieve the desired porosity. In this study, a polymerized medium internal phase emulsion (polyMIPE) is used to generate an injectable graft that cures to a porous foam at body temperature without toxic solvents. These poly(ester urethane urea) scaffolds possess elastomeric properties with tunable compressive moduli (20–200 kPa) and strengths (4–60 kPa) as well as high recovery after the first conditioning cycle (97–99%). The resultant pore architecture was highly interconnected with large voids (0.5–2 mm) from carbon dioxide generation surrounded by water-templated pores (50–300 ?m). The ability to modulate both scaffold pore architecture and mechanical properties by altering emulsion chemistry was demonstrated. Permeability and form factor were experimentally measured to determine the effects of polyMIPE composition on pore interconnectivity. Finally, initial human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC) cytocompatibility testing supported the use of these candidate scaffolds in regenerative applications. Overall, these injectable polyMIPE foams show strong promise as a biomaterial scaffold for soft tissue repair. PMID:24563552

Moglia, Robert S.; Robinson, Jennifer L.; Muschenborn, Andrea D.; Touchet, Tyler J.; Maitland, Duncan J.; Cosgriff-Hernandez, Elizabeth

2013-01-01

177

Grafting of molecularly imprinted polymer to porous polyethylene filtration membranes by plasma polymerization.  

PubMed

An application of plasma-induced grafting of polyethylene membranes with a thin layer of molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) was presented. High-density polyethylene (HDPE) membranes, "Vyon," were used as a substrate for plasma grafting modification. The herbicide atrazine, one of the most popular targets of the molecular imprinting, was chosen as a template. The parameters of the plasma treatment were optimized in order to achieve a good balance between polymerization and ablation processes. Modified HDPE membranes were characterized, and the presence of the grafted polymeric layer was confirmed based on the observed weight gain, pore size measurements, and infrared spectrometry. Since there was no significant change in the porosity of the modified membranes, it was assumed that only a thin layer of the polymer was introduced on the surface. The experiments on the re-binding of the template atrazine to the membranes modified with MIP and blank polymers were performed. HDPE membranes which were grafted with polymer using continuous plasma polymerization demonstrated the best result which was expressed in an imprinted factor equal to 3, suggesting that molecular imprinting was successfully achieved. PMID:23748644

Cowieson, D; Piletska, E; Moczko, E; Piletsky, S

2013-08-01

178

Percolative Transport and Cluster Diffusion Near and Below the Percolation Threshold of a Porous Polymeric Matrix  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  The purpose of this research was to develop a quantitative mass transport model to describe the release of a drug from a porous inert matrix dosage form near and below the percolation threshold for the system.Methods  Cumulative release profiles were generated for a series of tablets composed of a binary mixture of varying amounts of non-conducting (poly(vinyl stearate)) and conducting (benzoic

Jayne E. Hastedt; James L. Wright

2006-01-01

179

Bone Regeneration of Hydroxyapatite/Alumina Bilayered Scaffold with 3?mm Passage-Like Medullary Canal in Canine Tibia Model  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to evaluate the bone regeneration of hydroxyapatite (HA)/alumina bilayered scaffold with a 3?mm passage-like medullary canal in a beagle tibia model. A porous HA/alumina scaffold was fabricated using a polymeric template-coating technique. HA/alumina scaffold dimensions were 10?mm in outer diameter, 20?mm in length, and with either a 3?mm passage or no passage. A 20?mm segmental defect was induced using an oscillating saw through the diaphysis of the beagle tibia. The defects of six beagles were filled with HA/alumina bilayered scaffolds with a 3?mm passage or without. The segmental defect was fixated using one bone plate and six screws. Bone regeneration within the HA/alumina scaffolds was observed at eight weeks after implantation. The evaluation of bone regeneration within the scaffolds after implantation in a beagle tibia was performed using radiography, computerized tomography (CT), micro-CT, and fluorescence microscopy. New bone successfully formed in the tibia defects treated with 3?mm passage HA/alumina scaffolds compared to without-passage HA/alumina scaffolds. It was concluded that the HA/alumina bilayered scaffold with 3?mm passage-like medullary canal was instrumental in inducing host-scaffold engraftment of the defect as well as distributing the newly formed bone throughout the scaffold at 8 weeks after implantation.

Kim, Jong Min; Son, Jun Sik; Kim, Gonhyung; Choi, Seok Hwa

2015-01-01

180

Active scaffolds for on-demand drug and cell delivery  

E-print Network

Porous biomaterials have been widely used as scaffolds in tissue engineering and cell-based therapies. The release of biological agents from conventional porous scaffolds is typically governed by molecular diffusion, ...

Zhao, Xuanhe

181

Dimensional Ridge Preservation with a Novel Highly Porous TiO2 Scaffold: An Experimental Study in Minipigs  

PubMed Central

Despite being considered noncritical size defects, extraction sockets often require the use of bone grafts or bone graft substitutes in order to facilitate a stable implant site with an aesthetically pleasing mucosal architecture and prosthetic reconstruction. In the present study, the effect of novel TiO2 scaffolds on dimensional ridge preservation was evaluated following their placement into surgically modified extraction sockets in the premolar region of minipig mandibles. After six weeks of healing, the scaffolds were wellintegrated in the alveolar bone, and the convex shape of the alveolar crest was preserved. The scaffolds were found to partially preserve the dimensions of the native buccal and lingual bone walls adjacent to the defect site. A tendency towards more pronounced vertical ridge resorption, particularly in the buccal bone wall of the nongrafted alveoli, indicates that the TiO2 scaffold may be used for suppressing the loss of bone that normally follows tooth extraction. PMID:23091493

Tiainen, Hanna; Verket, Anders; Haugen, Håvard J.; Lyngstadaas, S. Petter; Wohlfahrt, Johan Caspar

2012-01-01

182

Regeneration of full-thickness skin defects using umbilical cord blood stem cells loaded into modified porous scaffolds.  

PubMed

In this study, we have demonstrated the ability of cord blood (CB)-derived unrestricted somatic stem cells (USSCs) and chitosan-modified poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) scaffold to promote skin regeneration. Afterward, the scaffolds were evaluated by structural, microscopic, physical, and mechanical assays and cell culture analyses. Results of structural, physical, and mechanical analyses also showed a good resilience and compliance with movement as a skin graft. Cellular experiments showed a better cell adhesion, growth, and proliferation inside the modified scaffolds compared with unmodified ones. In animal models with histological examinations, all groups, excluding the control group especially the groups treated with stem cells, exhibited the most pronounced effect on wound closure, with the statistically significant improvement in wound healing being seen at postoperative day 21. These data suggest that chitosan-modified PHBV scaffold loaded with CB-derived USSCs could significantly contribute to wound repair and be potentially used in the tissue engineering. PMID:24346243

Zeinali, Reza; Biazar, Esmaeil; Keshel, Saeed Heidari; Tavirani, Mostafa Rezaei; Asadipour, Kamal

2014-01-01

183

Poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone-co-vinyl alcohol), a versatile amphiphilic polymeric scaffold for multivalent probes.  

PubMed

A convenient scaffold based on poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone-co-vinyl alcohol) is proposed for presenting ligands in multivalent format. This amphiphilic polymer supports synthesis of conjugates in both organic and aqueous media, permits enzymatic processing of the ligand precursor, and, finally, offers a choice of formats for evaluation of biological activity either as a soluble inhibitor or as a capture reagent after deposition on a hydrophobic surface or standard microtiter plates. PMID:24099046

Kitov, Pavel I; Kotsuchibashi, Yohei; Paszkiewicz, Eugenia; Wilhelm, Dennis; Narain, Ravin; Bundle, David R

2013-10-18

184

Solvent/Non-Solvent Sintering To Make Microsphere Scaffolds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A solvent/non-solvent sintering technique has been devised for joining polymeric microspheres to make porous matrices for use as drug-delivery devices or scaffolds that could be seeded with cells for growing tissues. Unlike traditional sintering at elevated temperature and pressure, this technique is practiced at room temperature and pressure and, therefore, does not cause thermal degradation of any drug, protein, or other biochemical with which the microspheres might be loaded to impart properties desired in a specific application. Also, properties of scaffolds made by this technique are more reproducible than are properties of comparable scaffolds made by traditional sintering. The technique involves the use of two miscible organic liquids: one that is and one that is not a solvent for the affected polymer. The polymeric microspheres are placed in a mold having the size and shape of the desired scaffold, then the solvent/non-solvent mixture is poured into the mold to fill the void volume between the microspheres, then the liquid mixture is allowed to evaporate. Some of the properties of the resulting scaffold can be tailored through choice of the proportions of the liquids and the diameter of the microspheres.

Laurencin, Cato T.; Brown, Justin L.; Nair, Lakshmi

2011-01-01

185

Unusual sintering behavior of porous chromatographic zirconia produced by polymerization-induced colloid aggregation  

SciTech Connect

The effects of sintering temperature and duration on the pore structure of chromatographic zirconia particles produced by the controlled polymerization-induced aggregation of 1,000 {angstrom} colloids are studied with an eye toward optimally strengthening the aggregates and eliminating small pores while preserving large pores. Nitrogen adsorption and mercury porosimetry are used to estimate the surface area, pore volume, and pore size distribution. Pulsed field gradient NMR measurements of solvent diffusion are used to estimate the diffusion tortuosity of the pore space. Initially of course, the pore volume and surface area decrease significantly, the decrease being more pronounced at higher temperatures. With prolonged sintering, the pore size, pore volume, and surface area change much more slowly, but the diffusion tortuosity seems to be minimized at a sintering temperature and time at which pores are allowed to redistribute so as to optimize large pores. The aggregates synthesized by this aggregation method apparently produce metastable large pores which are not easily collapsed.

Lorenzano-Porras, C.F.; Reeder, D.H.; Annen, M.J.; Carr, P.W.; McCormick, A.V. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

1995-08-01

186

Porous and strong bioactive glass (13–93) scaffolds prepared by unidirectional freezing of camphene-based suspensions  

PubMed Central

Scaffolds of 13–93 bioactive glass (6Na2O, 12K2O, 5MgO, 20CaO, 4P2O5, 53SiO2; wt %) with an oriented pore architecture were formed by unidirectional freezing of camphene-based suspensions, followed by thermal annealing of the frozen constructs to grow the camphene crystals. After sublimation of the camphene, the constructs were sintered (1 h at 700 °C) to produce a dense glass phase with oriented macropores. The objective of this work was to study how constant freezing rates (1–7 °C/min) during the freezing step influenced the pore orientation and mechanical response of the scaffolds. When compared to scaffolds prepared by freezing the suspensions on a substrate kept at a constant temperature of 3 °C (time-dependent freezing rate), higher freezing rates resulted in better pore orientation, a more homogeneous microstructure, and a marked improvement in the mechanical response of the scaffolds in compression. Scaffolds fabricated using a constant freezing rate of 7 °C/min (porosity = 50 ± 4%; average pore diameter = 100 ?m), had a compressive strength of 47 ± 5 MPa and an elastic modulus of 11 ± 3 GPa (in the orientation direction). In comparison, scaffolds prepared by freezing on the constant-temperature substrate had strength and modulus values of 35 ± 11 MPa and 8 ± 3 GPa, respectively. These oriented bioactive glass scaffolds prepared by the constant freezing rate route could potentially be used for the repair of defects in load-bearing bones, such as segmental defects in the long bones. PMID:21855661

Liu, Xin; Rahaman, Mohamed N.; Fu, Qiang; Tomsia, Antoni P.

2011-01-01

187

Fast and continuous preparation of high polymerization degree cellulose nanofibrils and their three-dimensional macroporous scaffold fabrication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

C6-carboxy-cellulose with a carboxylate content of 0.8 mmol g-1 was obtained by oxidation of once-dried cellulose, using the 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidinyl-1-oxyl (TEMPO)/NaClO/NaClO2 system at pH 6.8 and 60 °C for 16 h. This method, with the addition of reagents in the order TEMPO, NaClO and NaClO2, was 38 h faster than a previously published method. Individualized cellulose nanofibrils with a width of 3-5 nm and a length of several hundred nanometers were prepared by homogenizing the C6-carboxy-cellulose-water suspension. Macroporous cellulose nanofibril/poly(vinyl alcohol) scaffolds with interconnected large pores of 20-100 ?m diameter and small pores of 2-10 ?m diameter were fabricated. The cellulose nanofilaments formed nanofibrous structures on the surface of the PVA wall, which was similar to that of the collagen skeleton of the extracellular matrix. NIH/3T3 cells were cultured in the scaffolds for 4 weeks, SEM observation showed that the cells were anchored and clustered on the cellulose nanofilaments, forming spherical colonies. The extracellular matrix (ECM) was filled with mineralized particles.

Song, Jiankang; Tang, Aimin; Liu, Tingting; Wang, Jufang

2013-02-01

188

Influence of extracellular polymeric substances on Pseudomonas aeruginosa transport and deposition profiles in porous media.  

PubMed

The impact of cell surface extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) on bacterial transport and retention profiles was investigated in saturated columns packed with glass beads. Three genetically well-defined isogenic Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains with different EPS secretion capability and EPS composition were used to systematically examine their deposition behavior over a range of solution chemistry. The presence of EPS on nonmucoid strain PA01 and mucoid strain PD0300 significantly increased bacterial adhesion over the EPS deficient PA01 psl pel mutant strain despite their similar surface charge as indicated by the zeta potential measurements. Retained bacterial profiles show the deposition rate coefficients with various shapes and degrees of deviation from those expected from the classic filtration theory. Non-monotonic deviations from the log-linear deposition pattern with the majority of the bacteria retained downgradient of the column inlet were observed when bacterial cells were encapsuled by EPS under both high and low ionic strength conditions. In contrast, the EPS-deficient strain exhibited monotonic deviation from theory only under low ionic strength conditions. The results demonstrate that the non-monotonic deviation from filtration theory observed in this study was driven by steric interactions between extracellular polymers and glass beads. Analysis of the retained polysaccharides (carbohydrates and uronic acids) and protein profiles suggests that bacterial re-entrainment and re-entrapment may have contributed to the downgradient movement of the maximum retained bacteria. The detachment of bacteria may leave behind various constituents of EPS as their "footprints," which can be a valuable tool for tracking the trajectory of bacterial transport. PMID:17265948

Liu, Yang; Yang, Ching-Hong; Li, Jin

2007-01-01

189

Influence of 3D porous galactose containing PVA/gelatin hydrogel scaffolds on three-dimensional spheroidal morphology of hepatocytes.  

PubMed

Three-dimensional liver scaffolds are temporary framework that mimics native ECM architecture and positively influence hepatocyte lodging, proliferation with retention of metabolic activities. The aim of the current study is to develop galactose containing physical cross-linked polyvinyl alcohol/gelatin (P/G 8:2 and 9:1) hydrogel scaffolds via freeze/thaw technique. The 8:2 and 9:1 P/G hydrogels exhibited comparable pore size and porosity (P > 0.05). The tensile strength of the fabricated 8:2 and 9:1 P/G hydrogel scaffolds were found to be in accordance with native human liver. Pore interconnectivity of both the P/G hydrogel scaffolds was confirmed by scanning electron micrographs and liquid displacement method. Further galactose containing hydrogel promoted cell-cell and cell-hydrogel interaction, aiding cellular aggregation leading to spheroids formation compared to void P/G hydrogel by 7 days. Hence, galactose containing P/G hydrogel could be more promising substrate as it showed significantly higher cell proliferation and albumin secretion for 21 days when compared to non-galactose P/G hydrogels (P < 0.05). PMID:25578699

Vasanthan, Kirthanashri S; Subramaniam, Anuradha; Krishnan, Uma Maheswari; Sethuraman, Swaminathan

2015-01-01

190

Protein-releasing polymeric scaffolds induce fibrochondrocytic differentiation of endogenous cells for knee meniscus regeneration in sheep.  

PubMed

Regeneration of complex tissues, such as kidney, liver, and cartilage, continues to be a scientific and translational challenge. Survival of ex vivo cultured, transplanted cells in tissue grafts is among one of the key barriers. Meniscus is a complex tissue consisting of collagen fibers and proteoglycans with gradient phenotypes of fibrocartilage and functions to provide congruence of the knee joint, without which the patient is likely to develop arthritis. Endogenous stem/progenitor cells regenerated the knee meniscus upon spatially released human connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and transforming growth factor-?3 (TGF?3) from a three-dimensional (3D)-printed biomaterial, enabling functional knee recovery. Sequentially applied CTGF and TGF?3 were necessary and sufficient to propel mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells, as a heterogeneous population or as single-cell progenies, into fibrochondrocytes that concurrently synthesized procollagens I and II?. When released from microchannels of 3D-printed, human meniscus scaffolds, CTGF and TGF?3 induced endogenous stem/progenitor cells to differentiate and synthesize zone-specific type I and II collagens. We then replaced sheep meniscus with anatomically correct, 3D-printed scaffolds that incorporated spatially delivered CTGF and TGF?3. Endogenous cells regenerated the meniscus with zone-specific matrix phenotypes: primarily type I collagen in the outer zone, and type II collagen in the inner zone, reminiscent of the native meniscus. Spatiotemporally delivered CTGF and TGF?3 also restored inhomogeneous mechanical properties in the regenerated sheep meniscus. Survival and directed differentiation of endogenous cells in a tissue defect may have implications in the regeneration of complex (heterogeneous) tissues and organs. PMID:25504882

Lee, Chang H; Rodeo, Scott A; Fortier, Lisa Ann; Lu, Chuanyong; Erisken, Cevat; Mao, Jeremy J

2014-12-10

191

Solvent-induced structural dynamics in noninterpenetrating porous coordination polymeric networks.  

PubMed

Three novel soft porous coordination polymer (PCP) or metal-organic framework (MOF) compounds have been synthesized with a new rigid ligand N-(4-pyridyl)-1,4,5,8-naphathalenetetracarboxymonoimide (PNMI) by partial hydrolysis of N,N'-di-(4-pyridyl)-1,4,5,8-naphthalenete-tracarboxydiimide (DPNI) during solvothermal reactions with Zn(II), Cd(II), and Mn(II) salts, and they are [Zn(PNMI)]·2DMA (1·2DMA, 1a), [Cd(PNMI)]·0.5DMA·5H2O (2·0.5DMA·5H2O), and [Mn(PNMI)]·0.75DMF (3·0.75DMF). The structure of 1 is based on paddle-wheel secondary building unit (SBU) with a 3,6-connected rtl net topology, whereas 2 and 3 are isotypical but the M(O2C-C)2 fragments aggregate in one-dimension and the overall connectivity is the same rtl net topology. All these three MOFs have one-dimensional rhombic channels filled with guest molecules. The guest molecules in 1a can be exchanged with EtOH in a single-crystal to single-crystal (SCSC) manner to 1·1.25EtOH·0.375H2O (1b). Further, the guest molecules in 1b can be replaced with ethylene glycol, triethylene glycol and allyl alcohol without destroying its single crystal nature. These guest exchanges are accompanied by reduction in volume of the unit cell up to 16%, as well as the void volume up to 33.1%. Similarly, triethylene glycol (TEGly) selectively exchanges EtOH in a mixture of the above solvents, which might be the result of correct fit of the hydrogen-bonded TEGly dimer in the channel of 1. While activated 1 and 3 exhibit no uptake of N2 and H2 at 1 bar and 77 K and very low uptake of CO2 gas at 1 bar and 196 K, activated 2 shows selective CO2 uptake, 278 cm(2)·g(-1), over N2 and H2 at 1 bar and 196 K, which corresponds to 5.87 molecules of CO2 per formula unit of 2. PMID:23452045

Medishetty, Raghavender; Jung, Daram; Song, Xiaokai; Kim, Dongwook; Lee, Shim Sung; Lah, Myoung Soo; Vittal, Jagadese J

2013-03-18

192

Microwave sintering and in vitro study of defect-free stable porous multilayered HAp-ZrO2 artificial bone scaffold  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Continuously porous hydroxyapatite (HAp)/t-ZrO2 composites containing concentric laminated frames and microchanneled bodies were fabricated by an extrusion process. To investigate the mechanical properties of HAp/t-ZrO2 composites, the porous composites were sintered at different temperatures using a microwave furnace. The microstructure was designed to imitate that of natural bone, particularly small bone, with both cortical and spongy bone sections. Each microchannel was separated by alternating lamina of HAp, HAp-(t-ZrO2) and t-ZrO2. HAp and ZrO2 phases existed on the surface of the microchannel and the core zone to increase the biocompatibility and mechanical properties of the HAp-ZrO2 artificial bone. The sintering behavior was evaluated and the optimum sintering temperature was found to be 1400 °C, which produced a stable scaffold. The material characteristics, such as the microstructure, crystal structure and compressive strength, were evaluated in detail for different sintering temperatures. A detailed in vitro study was carried out using MTT assay, western blot analysis, gene expression by polymerase chain reaction and laser confocal image analysis of cell proliferation. The results confirmed that HAp-ZrO2 performs as an artificial bone, showing excellent cell growth, attachment and proliferation behavior using osteoblast-like MG63 cells.

Jang, Dong-Woo; Nguyen, Thi-Hiep; Sarkar, Swapan Kumar; Lee, Byong-Taek

2012-06-01

193

Functionalized ultra-porous titania nanofiber membranes as nuclear waste separation and sequestration scaffolds for nuclear fuels recycle.  

SciTech Connect

Advanced nuclear fuel cycle concept is interested in reducing separations to a simplified, one-step process if possible. This will benefit from the development of a one-step universal getter and sequestration material so as a simplified, universal waste form was proposed in this project. We have developed a technique combining a modified sol-gel chemistry and electrospinning for producing ultra-porous ceramic nanofiber membranes with controllable diameters and porous structures as the separation/sequestration materials. These ceramic nanofiber materials have been determined to have high porosity, permeability, loading capacity, and stability in extreme conditions. These porous fiber membranes were functionalized with silver nanoparticles and nanocrystal metal organic frameworks (MOFs) to introduce specific sites to capture gas species that are released during spent nuclear fuel reprocessing. Encapsulation into a durable waste form of ceramic composition was also demonstrated.

Liu, Haiqing; Bell, Nelson Simmons; Cipiti, Benjamin B.; Lewis, Tom Goslee,; Sava, Dorina Florentina; Nenoff, Tina Maria

2012-09-01

194

Novel bioactive polyester scaffolds prepared from unsaturated resins based on isosorbide and succinic acid.  

PubMed

In this study new biodegradable materials obtained by crosslinking poly(3-allyloxy-1,2-propylene succinate) (PSAGE) with oligo(isosorbide maleate) (OMIS) and small amount of methyl methacrylate were investigated. The porous scaffolds were obtained in the presence of a foaming system consisted of calcium carbonate/carboxylic acid mixture, creating in situ porous structure during crosslinking of liquid formulations. The maximum crosslinking temperature and setting time, the cured porous materials morphology as well as the effect of their porosity on mechanical properties and hydrolytic degradation process were evaluated. It was found that the kind of carboxylic acid used in the foaming system influenced compressive strength and compressive modulus of porous scaffolds. The MTS cytotoxicity assay was carried out for OMIS using hFOB1.19 cell line. OMIS resin was found to be non-toxic in wide range of concentrations. On the ground of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations and energy X-ray dispersive analysis (EDX) it was found that hydroxyapatite (HA) formation at the scaffolds surfaces within short period of soaking in phosphate buffer solution occurs. After 3h immersion a compact layer of HA was observed at the surface of the samples. The obtained results suggest potential applicability of resulted new porous crosslinked polymeric materials as temporary bone void fillers. PMID:25491802

Smiga-Matuszowicz, Monika; Janicki, Bartosz; Jaszcz, Katarzyna; ?ukaszczyk, Jan; Kaczmarek, Marcin; Lesiak, Marta; Siero?, Aleksander L; Simka, Wojciech; Mierzwi?ski, Maciej; Kusz, Damian

2014-12-01

195

PLDLA/PCL-T Scaffold for Meniscus Tissue Engineering  

PubMed Central

Abstract The inability of the avascular region of the meniscus to regenerate has led to the use of tissue engineering to treat meniscal injuries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of fibrochondrocytes preseeded on PLDLA/PCL-T [poly(L-co-D,L-lactic acid)/poly(caprolactone-triol)] scaffolds to stimulate regeneration of the whole meniscus. Porous PLDLA/PCL-T (90/10) scaffolds were obtained by solvent casting and particulate leaching. Compressive modulus of 9.5±1.0?MPa and maximum stress of 4.7±0.9?MPa were evaluated. Fibrochondrocytes from rabbit menisci were isolated, seeded directly on the scaffolds, and cultured for 21 days. New Zealand rabbits underwent total meniscectomy, after which implants consisting of cell-free scaffolds or cell-seeded scaffolds were introduced into the medial knee meniscus; the negative control group consisted of rabbits that received no implant. Macroscopic and histological evaluations of the neomeniscus were performed 12 and 24 weeks after implantation. The polymer scaffold implants adapted well to surrounding tissues, without apparent rejection, infection, or chronic inflammatory response. Fibrocartilaginous tissue with mature collagen fibers was observed predominantly in implants with seeded scaffolds compared to cell-free implants after 24 weeks. Similar results were not observed in the control group. Articular cartilage was preserved in the polymeric implants and showed higher chondrocyte cell number than the control group. These findings show that the PLDLA/PCL-T 90/10 scaffold has potential for orthopedic applications since this material allowed the formation of fibrocartilaginous tissue, a structure of crucial importance for repairing injuries to joints, including replacement of the meniscus and the protection of articular cartilage from degeneration. PMID:23593566

Moda, Marlon; Cattani, Silvia Mara de Melo; de Santana, Gracy Mara; Barbieri, Juliana Abreu; Munhoz, Monique Moron; Cardoso, Túlio Pereira; Barbo, Maria Lourdes Peris; Russo, Teresa; D'Amora, Ugo; Gloria, Antonio; Ambrosio, Luigi; Duek, Eliana Aparecida de Rezende

2013-01-01

196

Antitumor activity of docetaxel-loaded polymeric nanoparticles fabricated by Shirasu porous glass membrane-emulsification technique  

PubMed Central

Docetaxel (DTX) has excellent efficiency against a wide spectrum of cancers. However, the current clinical formulation has limited its usage, as it causes some severe side effects. Various polymeric nanoparticles have thus been developed as alternative formulations of DTX, but they have been mostly fabricated on a laboratory scale. Previously, we synthesized a novel copolymer, poly(lactide)-D-?-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (PLA-TPGS), and found that it exhibited great potential in drug delivery with improved properties. In this study, we applied the Shirasu porous glass (SPG) membrane-emulsification technique to prepare the DTX-loaded PLA-TPGS nanoparticles on a pilot scale. The effect of several formulation variables on the DTX-loaded nanoparticle properties, including particle size, zeta potential, and drug-encapsulation efficiency, were investigated based on surfactant type and concentration in the aqueous phase, organic/aqueous phase volumetric ratio, membrane-pore size, transmembrane cycles, and operation pressure. The DTX-loaded nanoparticles were obtained with sizes of 306.8 ± 5.5 nm and 334.1 ± 2.7 nm (mean value ± standard deviation), and drug-encapsulation efficiency of 81.8% ± 4.5% and 64.5% ± 2.7% for PLA-TPGS and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles, respectively. In vivo pharmacokinetic study exhibited a significant advantage of PLA-TPGS nanoparticles over PLGA nanoparticles and Taxotere. Drug-loaded PLA-TPGS nanoparticles exhibited 1.78-, 6.34- and 3.35-fold higher values for area under the curve, half-life, and mean residence time, respectively, compared with those of PLGA nanoparticles, and 2.23-, 13.2-, 8.51-fold higher than those of Taxotere, respectively. In vivo real-time distribution of nanoparticles was measured on tumor-bearing mice by near-infrared fluorescence imaging, which demonstrated that the PLA-TPGS nanoparticles achieved much higher concentration and longer retention in tumors than PLGA nanoparticles after intravenous injection. This is consistent with the pharmacokinetic behavior of the nanoparticles. The tumor-inhibitory effect of DTX-loaded nanoparticles was observed in vivo in an H22 tumor-bearing mice model via intravenous administration. This indicated that PLA-TPGS nanoparticles are a feasible drug-delivery formulation with a pilot fabrication technique and have superior pharmacokinetic and anticancer effects compared to the commercially available Taxotere. PMID:23935362

Yu, Yunni; Tan, Songwei; Zhao, Shuang; Zhuang, Xiangting; Song, Qingle; Wang, Yuliang; Zhou, Qin; Zhang, Zhiping

2013-01-01

197

X-ray imaging optimization of 3D tissue engineering scaffolds via combinatorial fabrication methods  

PubMed Central

We have developed a combinatorial method for determining optimum tissue scaffold composition for several X-ray imaging techniques. X-ray radiography and X-ray microcomputed tomography enable non-invasive imaging of implants in vivo and in vitro. However, highly porous polymeric scaffolds do not always possess sufficient X-ray contrast and are therefore difficult to image with X-ray-based techniques. Incorporation of high radiocontrast atoms, such as iodine, into the polymer structure improves X-ray radiopacity but also affects physicochemical properties and material performance. Thus, we have developed a combinatorial library approach to efficiently determine the minimum amount of contrast agent necessary for X-ray-based imaging. The combinatorial approach is demonstrated in a polymer blend scaffold system where X-ray imaging of poly(desaminotyrosyl-tyrosine ethyl ester carbonate) (pDTEc) scaffolds is improved through a controlled composition variation with an iodinated-pDTEc analog (pI2DTEc). The results show that pDTEc scaffolds must include at least 9%, 16%, 38% or 46% pI2DTEc (by mass) to enable effective imaging by microradiography, dental radiography, dental radiography through 0.75 cm of muscle tissue or micro-computed tomography, respectively. Only two scaffold libraries were required to determine these minimum pI2DTEc percentages required for X-ray imaging, which demonstrates the efficiency of this new combinatorial approach for optimizing scaffold formulations. PMID:18242689

Yang, Yanyin; Dorsey, Shauna M.; Becker, Matthew L.; Lin-Gibson, Sheng; Schumacher, Gary E.; Flaim, Glenn M.; Kohn, Joachim; Simon, Carl G.

2010-01-01

198

Functionalizing biodegradable dextran scaffolds using living radical polymerization: new versatile nanoparticles for the delivery of therapeutic molecules.  

PubMed

Conferring biodegradability to nanoparticles is vitally important when nanomedicine applications are being targeted, as this prevents potential problems with bioaccumulation of byproducts after delivery. In this work, dextran has been modified (and rendered hydrophobic) by partial acetalation. A solid state NMR method was first developed to fully characterize the acetalated polymers. In a subsequent synthetic step, RAFT functionality was attached via residual unmodified hydroxyl groups. The RAFT groups were then used in a living free radical polymerization reaction to control the growth of hydrophilic PEG-methacrylate chains, thereby generating amphiphilic comblike polymers. The amphiphilic polymers were then self-assembled in water to form various morphologies, including small vesicles, wormlike rods, and micellar structures, with PEG at the periphery acting as a nonfouling biocompatible polymer layer. The acetalated dextran nanoparticles were designed for potential doxorubicin (DOX) delivery application based on the premise that in the cell compartments (endosome, lysozome) the acetalated dextran would hydrolyze, destroying the nanoparticle structure, releasing the encapsulated DOX. In-vitro studies confirmed minimal cytotoxicity of the (unloaded) nanoparticles, even after 3 days, proving that the hydrolysis products from the acetal groups (methanol and acetone) had no observable cytotoxic effect. An intriguing initial result is reported that in vitro studies of DOX-loaded dextran-nanoparticles (compared to free DOX) revealed an increased differential toxicity toward a cancer cell line when compared to a normal cell line. Efficient accumulation of DOX in a human neuroblastoma cell line (SY-5Y) was confirmed by both confocal microscopy and flow cytometry measurements. Furthermore, the time dependent release of DOX was monitored using fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) in SY-5Y live cells. FLIM revealed bimodal lifetime distributions, showing the accumulation of both DOX-loaded dextran-nanoparticles and subsequent release of DOX in the living cells. From FLIM data analysis, the amount of DOX released in SY-5Y cells was found to increase from 35% to 55% when the incubation time increased from 3 h to 24 h. PMID:23078353

Duong, Hien T T; Hughes, Felicity; Sagnella, Sharon; Kavallaris, Maria; Macmillan, Alexander; Whan, Renee; Hook, James; Davis, Thomas P; Boyer, Cyrille

2012-11-01

199

Maxillary sinus floor elevation using a tissue-engineered bone with rhBMP-2-loaded porous calcium phosphate cement scaffold and bone marrow stromal cells in rabbits.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of maxillary sinus floor elevation by a tissue-engineered bone complex with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2)-loaded porous calcium phosphate cement (CPC) scaffold and bone marrow stromal cells (bMSCs) in rabbits. bMSCs were cultured and osteogenically induced. The osteoblastic differentiation of expanded bMSCs was detected by alkaline phosphatase activity, and calcium deposits in vitro. Thirty-six rabbits were randomly allocated into week 2, 4 and 8 observation groups. At each time point, 24 maxillary sinus floor elevation surgeries in 12 rabbits were performed bilaterally and randomly implanted by (1) CPC materials alone (group A, n = 6), (2) rhBMP-2/CPC composite materials alone (group B, n = 6), (3) CPC/bMSCs complex (group C, n = 6) and (4) rhBMP-2/CPC/bMSCs complex (group D, n = 6). As for maxillary sinus floor elevation, rhBMP-2-loaded CPC could promote new bone formation as compared to CPC, while addition of bMSCs could further enhance its new bone formation and maturity significantly, as detected by histological findings, and fluorochrome labeling. Our data suggested that rhBMP-2/CPC possessed excellent osteoinductive ability, while combining with bMSCs could further promote new bone formation and maturation in maxillary sinus elevation. PMID:21494013

Xia, Lunguo; Xu, Yuanjin; Wei, Jie; Zeng, Deliang; Ye, Dongxia; Liu, Changsheng; Zhang, Zhiyuan; Jiang, Xinquan

2011-01-01

200

Development of a new pre-vascularized tissue-engineered construct using pre-differentiated rADSCs, arteriovenous vascular bundle and porous nano-hydroxyapatide-polyamide 66 scaffold  

PubMed Central

Background Development of a pre-vascularized tissue-engineered construct with intrinsic vascular system for cell growth and tissue formation still faces many difficulties due to the complexity of the vascular network of natural bone tissue. The present study was to design and form a new vascularized tissue-engineered construct using pre-differentiated rADSCs, arteriovenous vascular bundle and porous nHA-PA 66 scaffold. Methods rADSCs were pre-differentiated to endothelial cells (rADSCs-Endo) and then incorporated in nHA-PA 66 scaffolds in vitro. Subsequently, in vivo experiments were carried out according to the following groups: Group A (rADSCs-Endo/nHA-PA 66 scaffold with arteriovenous vascular bundle), Group B (rADSCs/nHA-PA 66 scaffold with arteriovenous vascular bundle); Group C (nHA-PA66 scaffold with arteriovenous vascular bundle), Group D (nHA-PA 66 scaffold only). The vessel density and vessel diameter were measured based on histological and immunohistochemical evaluation, furthermore, the VEGF-C, FGF-2 and BMP-2 protein expressions were also evaluated by western blot analysis. Results The results of in vivo experiments showed that the vessel density and vessel diameter in group A were significantly higher than the other three groups. Between Group B and C, no statistical difference was observed at each time point. In accordance with the results, there were dramatically higher expressions of VEGF-C and FGF-2 protein in Group A than that of Group B, C and D at 2 or 4 weeks. Statistical differences were not observed in VEGF-C and FGF-2 expression between Group B and C. BMP-2 was not expressed in any group at each time point. Conclusions Compared with muscular wrapping method, arteriovenous vascular bundle implantation could promote vascularization of the scaffold; and the angiogenesis of the scaffold was significantly accelerated when pre-differentiated rADSCs (endothelial differentiation) were added. These positive results implicate the combination of pre-differentiated rADSCs (endothelial differentiation) and arteriovenous vascular bundle may achieve rapidly angiogenesis of biomaterial scaffold. PMID:24209783

2013-01-01

201

Reinforcing bioceramic scaffolds with in situ synthesized ?-polycaprolactone coatings.  

PubMed

In situ ring-opening polymerization of ?-caprolactone (?-CL) was performed to coat ?-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) scaffolds fabricated by robocasting in order to enhance their mechanical performance while preserving the predesigned macropore architecture. Concentrated colloidal inks prepared from ?-TCP commercial powders were used to fabricate porous structures consisting of a three-dimensional mesh of interpenetrating rods. Then, ?-CL was in situ polymerized within the ceramic structure using a lipase as catalyst and toluene as solvent, to obtain a highly homogeneous coating and full impregnation of in-rod microporosity. The strength and toughness of scaffolds coated by ?-polycaprolactone (?-PCL) were significantly increased (twofold and fivefold increase, respectively) over those of the bare structures. Enhancement of both properties is associated to the healing of preexisting microdefects in the bioceramic rods. These enhancements are compared to results from previous work on fully impregnated structures. The implications of the results for the optimization of the mechanical and biological performance of scaffolds for bone tissue engineering applications are discussed. PMID:23629876

Martínez-Vázquez, Francisco J; Miranda, Pedro; Guiberteau, Fernando; Pajares, Antonia

2013-12-01

202

An Open Source Image Processing Method to Quantitatively Assess Tissue Growth after Non-Invasive Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Human Bone Marrow Stromal Cell Seeded 3D Polymeric Scaffolds.  

PubMed

Monitoring extracellular matrix (ECM) components is one of the key methods used to determine tissue quality in three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds for regenerative medicine and clinical purposes. This is even more important when multipotent human bone marrow stromal cells (hMSCs) are used, as it could offer a method to understand in real time the dynamics of stromal cell differentiation and eventually steer it into the desired lineage. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a promising tool to overcome the challenge of a limited transparency in opaque 3D scaffolds. Technical limitations of MRI involve non-uniform background intensity leading to fluctuating background signals and therewith complicating quantifications on the retrieved images. We present a post-imaging processing sequence that is able to correct for this non-uniform background intensity. To test the processing sequence we investigated the use of MRI for in vitro monitoring of tissue growth in three-dimensional poly(ethylene oxide terephthalate)-poly(butylene terephthalate) (PEOT/PBT) scaffolds. Results showed that MRI, without the need to use contrast agents, is a promising non-invasive tool to quantitatively monitor ECM production and cell distribution during in vitro culture in 3D porous tissue engineered constructs. PMID:25502022

Leferink, Anne M; Fratila, Raluca M; Koenrades, Maaike A; van Blitterswijk, Clemens A; Velders, Aldrik; Moroni, Lorenzo

2014-01-01

203

An Open Source Image Processing Method to Quantitatively Assess Tissue Growth after Non-Invasive Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Human Bone Marrow Stromal Cell Seeded 3D Polymeric Scaffolds  

PubMed Central

Monitoring extracellular matrix (ECM) components is one of the key methods used to determine tissue quality in three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds for regenerative medicine and clinical purposes. This is even more important when multipotent human bone marrow stromal cells (hMSCs) are used, as it could offer a method to understand in real time the dynamics of stromal cell differentiation and eventually steer it into the desired lineage. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a promising tool to overcome the challenge of a limited transparency in opaque 3D scaffolds. Technical limitations of MRI involve non-uniform background intensity leading to fluctuating background signals and therewith complicating quantifications on the retrieved images. We present a post-imaging processing sequence that is able to correct for this non-uniform background intensity. To test the processing sequence we investigated the use of MRI for in vitro monitoring of tissue growth in three-dimensional poly(ethylene oxide terephthalate)–poly(butylene terephthalate) (PEOT/PBT) scaffolds. Results showed that MRI, without the need to use contrast agents, is a promising non-invasive tool to quantitatively monitor ECM production and cell distribution during in vitro culture in 3D porous tissue engineered constructs. PMID:25502022

Leferink, Anne M.; Fratila, Raluca M.; Koenrades, Maaike A.; van Blitterswijk, Clemens A.; Velders, Aldrik; Moroni, Lorenzo

2014-01-01

204

High-precision flexible fabrication of tissue engineering scaffolds using distinct polymers  

SciTech Connect

Three-dimensional porous structures using biodegradable materials with excellent biocompatibility are critically important for tissue engineering applications. We present a multi-nozzle-based versatile deposition approach to flexibly construct porous tissue engineering scaffolds using distinct polymeric biomaterials such as thermoplastic and photo-crosslinkable polymers. We first describe the development of the deposition system and fabrication of scaffolds from two types of biodegradable polymers using this system. The thermoplastic sample is semi-crystalline poly({var_epsilon}-caprolactone) (PCL) that can be processed at a temperature higher than its melting point and solidifies at room temperature. The photo-crosslinkable one is polypropylene fumarate (PPF) that has to be dissolved in a reactive solvent as a resin for being cured into solid structures. Besides the direct fabrication of thermoplastic PCL scaffolds, we specifically develop a layer molding approach for the fabrication of crosslinkable polymers, which traditionally can only be fabricated by stereolithography. In this approach, a thermoplastic supporting material (paraffin wax) is first deposited to make a mold for each specific layer, and then PPF is deposited on demand to fill the mold and cured by the UV light. The supporting material can be removed to produce a porous scaffold of crosslinked PPF. Both PCL and crosslinked PPF scaffolds fabricated using the developed system have been characterized in terms of compressive mechanical properties, morphology, pore size and porosity. Mouse MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblastic cell studies on the fabricated scaffolds have been performed to demonstrate their capability of supporting cell proliferation and ingrowth, aiming for bone tissue engineering applications.

Wei, Chuang [North Carolina State University; Cai, Lei [ORNL; Sonawane, Bhushan [North Carolina State University; Wang, Shanfeng [ORNL; Dong, Jingyan [North Carolina State University

2012-01-01

205

A biodegradable polymeric system for peptide–protein delivery assembled with porous microspheres and nanoparticles, using an adsorption/infiltration process  

PubMed Central

A biodegradable polymeric system is proposed for formulating peptides and proteins. The systems were assembled through the adsorption of biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles onto porous, biodegradable microspheres by an adsorption/infiltration process with the use of an immersion method. The peptide drug is not involved in the manufacturing of the nanoparticles or in obtaining the microspheres; thus, contact with the organic solvent, interfaces, and shear forces required for the process are prevented during drug loading. Leuprolide acetate was used as the model peptide, and poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) was used as the biodegradable polymer. Leuprolide was adsorbed onto different amounts of PLGA nanoparticles (25 mg/mL, 50 mg/mL, 75 mg/mL, and 100 mg/mL) in a first stage; then, these were infiltrated into porous PLGA microspheres (100 mg) by dipping the structures into a microsphere suspension. In this way, the leuprolide was adsorbed onto both surfaces (ie, nanoparticles and microspheres). Scanning electron microscopy studies revealed the formation of a nanoparticle film on the porous microsphere surface that becomes more continuous as the amount of infiltrated nanoparticles increases. The adsorption efficiency and release rate are dependent on the amount of adsorbed nanoparticles. As expected, a greater adsorption efficiency (~95%) and a slower release rate were seen (~20% of released leuprolide in 12 hours) when a larger amount of nanoparticles was adsorbed (100 mg/mL of nanoparticles). Leuprolide acetate begins to be released immediately when there are no infiltrated nanoparticles, and 90% of the peptide is released in the first 12 hours. In contrast, the systems assembled in this study released less than 44% of the loaded drug during the same period of time. The observed release profiles denoted a Fickian diffusion that fit Higuchi’s model (t1/2). The manufacturing process presented here may be useful as a potential alternative for formulating injectable depots for sensitive hydrophilic drugs such as peptides and proteins, among others. PMID:23788833

Alcalá-Alcalá, Sergio; Urbán-Morlán, Zaida; Aguilar-Rosas, Irene; Quintanar-Guerrero, David

2013-01-01

206

Osteogenesis and angiogenesis induced by porous ?-CaSiO(3)/PDLGA composite scaffold via activation of AMPK/ERK1/2 and PI3K/Akt pathways.  

PubMed

As a potential bioactive material, ?-calcium silicate (?-CS) has attracted particular attention in the field of bone regeneration. In this study, porous ?-CS/Poly-D,L-Lactide-Glycolide (PDLGA) composite scaffolds were developed with the goals of controlling the degradation rate and improving the mechanical and biological properties. The compressive strength and toughness were significantly enhanced by PDLGA modification of porous ?-CS ceramic scaffolds. The effects of the ionic extract from ?-CS/PDLGA composite scaffolds on osteogenic differentiation of rat bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (rBMSCs), proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and the related mechanisms were investigated. It was shown that bioactive ions from ?-CS/PDLGA scaffolds could enhance cell viability, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, calcium mineral deposition, and mRNA expression levels of osteoblast-related genes of rBMSCs without addition of extra osteogenic reagents. The activation in AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), extracellular signal-related kinases (ERK) 1/2 and RUNX-2 were observed in rBMSCs cultured in the extract of ?-CS/PDLGA, and these effects could be blocked by AMPK inhibitor Compound C. The extracts of ?-CS/PDLGA composites stimulated HUVECs proliferation that was associated with phosphorylation of protein kinase B (Akt) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) as well as an increase in nitric oxide (NO) production and secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The inductions were abolished by the addition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor LY294002. The composite scaffolds were implanted in critical sized rabbit femur defects (6 × 10 mm) for 4, 12 and 20 weeks with ?-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) as controls. Sequential histological evaluations and radiographs revealed that ?-CS/PDLGA dramatically stimulated new bone formation and angiogenesis. The biodegradation rate of the ?-CS/PDLGA scaffolds was lower than that of ?-TCP at each time point examined, and matched the new bone formation rates. These data suggest that ?-CS/PDLGA could promote bone regeneration in vivo, which might be ascribed to the enhanced osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and increased angiogenic activity of endothelial cells (ECs). PMID:23069715

Wang, Chen; Lin, Kaili; Chang, Jiang; Sun, Jiao

2013-01-01

207

Micro-structured polymer scaffolds fabricated by direct laser writing for tissue engineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work presents the latest results on direct laser writing of polymeric materials for tissue engineering applications. A femtosecond Yb:KGW laser (300 fs, 200 kHz, 515 nm) was used as a light source for non-linear lithography. Fabrication was implemented in various photosensitive polymeric materials, such as: hybrid organic-inorganic sol-gel based on silicon-zirconium oxides, commercial ORMOCER class photoresins. These materials were structured via multi-photon polymerization technique with submicron resolution. Porous three-dimensional scaffolds for artificial tissue engineering were fabricated with constructed system and were up to several millimeters in overall size with 10 to 100 ?m internal pores. Biocompatibility of the used materials was tested in primary rabbit muscle-derived stem cell culture in vitro and using laboratory rats in vivo. This interdisciplinary study suggests that proposed technique and materials are suitable for tissue engineering applications.

Danilevicius, Paulius; Rekstyte, Sima; Balciunas, Evaldas; Kraniauskas, Antanas; Jarasiene, Rasa; Sirmenis, Raimondas; Baltriukiene, Daiva; Bukelskiene, Virginija; Gadonas, Roaldas; Malinauskas, Mangirdas

2012-08-01

208

Biologically improved nanofibrous scaffolds for cardiac tissue engineering.  

PubMed

Nanofibrous structure developed by electrospinning technology provides attractive extracellular matrix conditions for the anchorage, migration and differentiation of stem cells, including those responsible for regenerative medicine. Recently, biocomposite nanofibers consisting of two or more polymeric blends are electrospun more tidily in order to obtain scaffolds with desired functional and mechanical properties depending on their applications. The study focuses on one such an attempt of using copolymer Poly(l-lactic acid)-co-poly (?-caprolactone) (PLACL), silk fibroin (SF) and Aloe Vera (AV) for fabricating biocomposite nanofibrous scaffolds for cardiac tissue engineering. SEM micrographs of fabricated electrospun PLACL, PLACL/SF and PLACL/SF/AV nanofibrous scaffolds are porous, beadless, uniform nanofibers with interconnected pores and obtained fibre diameter in the range of 459 ± 22 nm, 202 ± 12 nm and 188 ± 16 nm respectively. PLACL, PLACL/SF and PLACL/SF/AV electrospun mats obtained at room temperature with an elastic modulus of 14.1 ± 0.7, 9.96 ± 2.5 and 7.0 ± 0.9 MPa respectively. PLACL/SF/AV nanofibers have more desirable properties to act as flexible cell supporting scaffolds compared to PLACL for the repair of myocardial infarction (MI). The PLACL/SF and PLACL/SF/AV nanofibers had a contact angle of 51 ± 12° compared to that of 133 ± 15° of PLACL alone. Cardiac cell proliferation was increased by 21% in PLACL/SF/AV nanofibers compared to PLACL by day 6 and further increased to 42% by day 9. Confocal analysis for cardiac expression proteins myosin and connexin 43 was observed better by day 9 compared to all other nanofibrous scaffolds. The results proved that the fabricated PLACL/SF/AV nanofibrous scaffolds have good potentiality for the regeneration of infarcted myocardium in cardiac tissue engineering. PMID:25280706

Bhaarathy, V; Venugopal, J; Gandhimathi, C; Ponpandian, N; Mangalaraj, D; Ramakrishna, S

2014-11-01

209

Active scaffolds for on-demand drug and cell delivery  

PubMed Central

Porous biomaterials have been widely used as scaffolds in tissue engineering and cell-based therapies. The release of biological agents from conventional porous scaffolds is typically governed by molecular diffusion, material degradation, and cell migration, which do not allow for dynamic external regulation. We present a new active porous scaffold that can be remotely controlled by a magnetic field to deliver various biological agents on demand. The active porous scaffold, in the form of a macroporous ferrogel, gives a large deformation and volume change of over 70% under a moderate magnetic field. The deformation and volume variation allows a new mechanism to trigger and enhance the release of various drugs including mitoxantrone, plasmid DNA, and a chemokine from the scaffold. The porous scaffold can also act as a depot of various cells, whose release can be controlled by external magnetic fields. PMID:21149682

Zhao, Xuanhe; Kim, Jaeyun; Cezar, Christine A.; Huebsch, Nathaniel; Lee, Kangwon; Bouhadir, Kamal; Mooney, David J.

2011-01-01

210

Porous carbon anodes for a high capacity lithium-ion battery obtained by incorporating silica into benzoxazine during polymerization.  

PubMed

Porous carbon anodes with a controllable Vmes /Vmic ratio were synthesized through the self-assembly of poly(benzoxazine-co-resol) and the simultaneous hydrolysis of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) followed by carbonization and removal of silica. The Vmes /Vmic ratio of the carbon can be controlled in the range of approximately 1.3-32.6 through tuning the amount of TEOS. For lithium-ion battery anodes, a correlation between the electrochemical performance and Vmes /Vmic ratio has been established. A high Vmes /Vmic ratio in porous carbons is favorable for enhancing the accessibility of Li ions to active sites provided by the micropores and for achieving good lithium storage performance. The obtained porous carbon exhibits a high reversible capacity of 660?mAh?g(-1) after 70 cycles at a current density of 100?mA?g(-1) . Moreover, at a high current density of 3000?mA?g(-1) , the capacity still remains at 215?mAh?g(-1) , showing a fast charge-discharge potential. This synthesis method relying on modified benzoxazine chemistry with the hydrolysis of TEOS may provide a new route for the development of mesoporous carbon-based electrode materials. PMID:25428788

Guo, De-Cai; Han, Fei; Lu, An-Hui

2015-01-19

211

Use of Micro-Computed Tomography to Nondestructively Characterize Biomineral Coatings on Solid Freeform Fabricated Poly (L-Lactic Acid) and Poly (?-Caprolactone) Scaffolds In Vitro and In Vivo  

PubMed Central

Biomineral coatings have been extensively used to enhance the osteoconductivity of polymeric scaffolds. Numerous porous scaffolds have previously been coated with a bone-like apatite mineral through incubation in simulated body fluid (SBF). However, characterization of the mineral layer formed on scaffolds, including the amount of mineral within the scaffolds, often requires destructive methods. We have developed a method using micro-computed tomography (?-CT) scanning to nondestructively quantify the amount of mineral in vitro and in vivo on biodegradable scaffolds made of poly (L-lactic acid) (PLLA) and poly (?-caprolactone) (PCL). PLLA and PCL scaffolds were fabricated using an indirect solid freeform fabrication (SFF) technique to achieve orthogonally interconnected pore architectures. Biomineral coatings were formed on the fabricated PLLA and PCL scaffolds after incubation in modified SBF (mSBF). Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction confirmed the formation of an apatite-like mineral. The scaffolds were implanted into mouse ectopic sites for 3 and 10 weeks. The presence of a biomineral coating within the porous scaffolds was confirmed through plastic embedding and ?-CT techniques. Tissue mineral content (TMC) and volume of mineral on the scaffold surfaces detected by ?-CT had a strong correlation with the amount of calcium measured by the orthocresolphthalein complex-one (OCPC) method before and after implantation. There was a strong correlation between OCPC pre- and postimplantation and ?-CT measured TMC (R2=0.96 preimplant; R2=0.90 postimplant) and mineral volume (R2=0.96 preimplant; R2=0.89 postimplant). The ?-CT technique showed increases in mineral following implantation, suggesting that ?-CT can be used to nondestructively determine the amount of calcium on coated scaffolds. PMID:23134479

Saito, Eiji; Suarez-Gonzalez, Darilis; Rao, Rameshwar R.; Stegemann, Jan P.; Murphy, William L.

2013-01-01

212

Degradable Glycine-Based Photo-Polymerizable Polyphosphazenes for Use as Scaffolds for Tissue Regeneration.  

PubMed

Photo-polymerizable scaffolds are designed and prepared via short chain poly(organo)phosphazene building blocks bearing glycine allylester moieties. The polyphosphazene was combined with a trifunctional thiol and divinylester in various ratios, followed by thiol-ene photo-polymerization to obtain porous matrices. Degradation studies under aqueous conditions showed increasing rates in correlation with the polyphosphazene content. Preliminary cell studies show the non-cytotoxic nature of the polymers and their degradation products, as well as the cell adhesion and proliferation of adipose-derived stem cells. PMID:25355036

Rothemund, Sandra; Aigner, Tamara B; Iturmendi, Aitziber; Rigau, Maria; Husár, Branislav; Hildner, Florian; Oberbauer, Eleni; Prambauer, Martina; Olawale, Gbenga; Forstner, Reinhard; Liska, Robert; Schröder, Klaus R; Brüggemann, Oliver; Teasdale, Ian

2014-10-30

213

A Bi-Layered Elastomeric Scaffold for Tissue Engineering of Small-Diameter Vascular Grafts  

PubMed Central

A major barrier in the development of a clinically-useful small-diameter tissue engineered vascular graft (TEVG) is the scaffold component. Scaffold requirements include matching the mechanical and structural properties with those of native vessels and optimizing the microenvironment to foster cell integration, adhesion, and growth. We have developed a small-diameter, bi-layered, biodegradable, elastomeric scaffold based on a synthetic, biodegradable elastomer. The scaffold incorporates a highly porous inner layer, allowing cell integration and growth, and an external, fibrous reinforcing layer deposited by electrospinning. Scaffold morphology and mechanical properties were assessed, quantified, and compared to those of native vessels. Scaffolds were then seeded with adult stem cells via a rotational vacuum seeding device to obtain a TEVG, cultured in dynamic conditions for 7 days, and evaluated for cellularity. The scaffold showed a firm integration of the two polymeric layers with no delaminations. Mechanical properties were physiologically-consistent showing anisotropy, elastic modulus (1.4±0.4 MPa), and ultimate tensile stress (8.3±1.7 MPa) comparable with native vessels. Compliance and suture retention force were 4.6±0.5×10?4 mmHg?1 and 3.4±0.3 N, respectively. Seeding resulted in a rapid, uniform, bulk integration of cells, with a seeding efficiency of 92±1%. The scaffolds maintained a high level of cellular density throughout dynamic culture. This approach, combining artery-like mechanical properties and a rapid and efficient cellularization, might contribute to the future clinical translation of TEVGs. PMID:19540370

Soletti, Lorenzo; Hong, Yi; Guan, Jianjun; Stankus, John J.; El-Kurdi, Mohammed S.; Wagner, William R.; Vorp, David A.

2011-01-01

214

Porous nitrogen-doped carbon microspheres derived from microporous polymeric organic frameworks for high performance electric double-layer capacitors.  

PubMed

This research presents a simple and efficient method to synthesize porous nitrogen-doped carbon microspheres (PNCM) by the carbonization of microporous poly(terephthalaldehyde-pyrrole) organic frameworks (PtpOF). The common KOH activation process is used to tune the porous texture of the PNCM and produce an activated-PNCM (A-PNCM). The PNCM and A-PNCM with specific surface area of 921 and 1303?m(2) ?g(-1) , respectively, are demonstrated as promising candidates for EDLCs. At a current density of 0.5?A?g(-1) , the specific capacitances of the PNCM and A-PNCM are 248 and 282?F?g(-1) , respectively. At the relatively high current density of 20?A?g(-1) , the capacitance remaining is 95 and 154?F?g(-1) , respectively. Capacity retention of the A-PNCM is more than 92?% after 10?000 charge/discharge cycles at a current density of 2?A?g(-1) . PMID:25469994

Han, Jinpeng; Xu, Guiyin; Dou, Hui; MacFarlane, Douglas R

2015-02-01

215

Nano/microfibrous polymeric constructs loaded with bioactive agents and designed for tissue engineering applications: a review.  

PubMed

Nano/microfibrous polymeric constructs present various inherent advantages, such as highly porous architecture and high surface to volume ratio, making them attractive for tissue engineering purposes. Electrospinning is the most preferred technique for the fabrication of polymeric nanofibrous assemblies that can mimic the physical functions of native extracellular matrix greatly favoring cells attachment and thus influencing their morphology and activities. Different approaches have been developed to apply polymeric microfiber fabrication techniques (e.g. wet-spinning) for the obtainment of scaffolds with a three-dimensional network of micropores suitable for effective cells migration. Progress in additive manufacturing technology has led to the development of complex scaffold's shapes and microfibrous structures with a high degree of automation, good accuracy and reproducibility. Various loading methods, such as direct blending, coaxial electrospinning and microparticles incorporation, are enabling to develop customized strategies for the biofunctionalization of nano/microfibrous scaffolds with a tailored kinetics of release of different bioactive agents, ranging from small molecules, such as antibiotics, to protein drugs, such as growth factors, and even cells. Recent activities on the combination of different processing techniques and loading methods for the obtainment of biofunctionalized polymeric constructs with a complex multiscale structure open new possibilities for the development of biomimetic scaffolds endowed with a hierarchical architecture and a sophisticated release kinetics of different bioactive agents. This review is aimed at summarizing current advances in technologies and methods for manufacturing nano/microfibrous polymeric constructs suitable as tissue engineering scaffolds, and for their combination with different bioactive agents to promote tissue regeneration and therapeutic effects. PMID:24678016

Puppi, Dario; Zhang, Xuanmiao; Yang, Likai; Chiellini, Federica; Sun, Xun; Chiellini, Emo

2014-10-01

216

Effectual drug-releasing porous scaffolds from 1,6-diisocyanatohexane-extended poly(1,4-butylene succinate) for bone tissue regeneration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tooth extraction induces residual ridge resorption which impairs function and aesthetic of dental prostheses. This study aimed at developing new bone scaffolds to be used in a tooth socket for preserving bone mass from the residual ridge resorption. Scaffolds were fabricated from poly(1,4-butylene succinate) extended with 1,6-diisocyanatohexane (PBSu–DCH) by solvent casting and particulate leaching technique. Four different weight ratios of

Parintorn Hariraksapitak; Orawan Suwantong; Prasit Pavasant; Pitt Supaphol

2008-01-01

217

Polymeric nanoporous materials fabricated with supercritical CO2 and CO2-expanded liquids.  

PubMed

Both academia and industries have put great efforts into developing non-destructive technologies for the fabrication of polymeric nanoporous materials. Such non-destructive technologies developed with supercritical CO2 (scCO2) and CO2-expanded liquids (CXLs) have been attracting more and more attention because they have been demonstrated to be green and effective media for porous polymer preparation and processing. In this tutorial review, we present several such new technologies with scCO2 and CXLs, which have the capacity to prepare polymeric nanoporous materials with unique morphologies. The fabricated nanoporous polymers have significantly improved the performance of polymeric monoliths and films, and have found wide applications as templates, antireflection coatings, low-k materials, tissue engineering scaffolds and filtration membranes. This tutorial review also introduces the associated characterization methods, including the imaging, scattering and physisorption techniques. PMID:25032751

Zhang, Aijuan; Zhang, Qingkun; Bai, Hua; Li, Lei; Li, Jun

2014-10-21

218

Scaffolds in tissue engineering bone and cartilage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Musculoskeletal tissue, bone and cartilage are under extensive investigation in tissue engineering research. A number of biodegradable and bioresorbable materials, as well as scaffold designs, have been experimentally and\\/or clinically studied. Ideally, a scaffold should have the following characteristics: (i) three-dimensional and highly porous with an interconnected pore network for cell growth and flow transport of nutrients and metabolic waste;

Dietmar W. Hutmacher

2000-01-01

219

Novel Scaffolds Fabricated Using Oleuropein for Bone Tissue Engineering  

PubMed Central

We investigated the feasibility of oleuropein as a cross-linking agent for fabricating three-dimensional (3D) porous composite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. Human-like collagen (HLC) and nanohydroxyapatite (n-HAp) were used to fabricate the composite scaffold by way of cross-linking. The mechanical tests revealed superior properties for the cross-linked scaffolds compared to the uncross-linked scaffolds. The as-obtained composite scaffold had a 3D porous structure with pores ranging from 120 to 300??m and a porosity of 73.6 ± 2.3%. The cross-linked scaffolds were seeded with MC3T3-E1 Subclone 14 mouse osteoblasts. Fluorescence staining, the Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) indicated that the scaffolds enhanced cell adhesion and proliferation. Our results indicate the potential of these scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. PMID:24959582

Fan, Hui; Hui, Junfeng; Duan, Zhiguang; Fan, Daidi; Mi, Yu; Deng, Jianjun; Li, Hui

2014-01-01

220

Lysis of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria by antibacterial porous polymeric monolith formed in microfluidic biochips for sample preparation.  

PubMed

Bacterial cell lysis is demonstrated using polymeric microfluidic biochips operating via a hybrid mechanical shearing/contact killing mechanism. These biochips are fabricated from a cross-linked poly(methyl methacrylate) (X-PMMA) substrate by well-controlled, high-throughput laser micromachining. The unreacted double bonds at the surface of X-PMMA provide covalent bonding for the formation of a porous polymeric monolith (PPM), thus contributing to the mechanical stability of the biochip and eliminating the need for surface treatment. The lysis efficiency of these biochips was tested for gram-positive (Enterococcus saccharolyticus and Bacillus subtilis) and gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas fluorescens) and confirmed by off-chip PCR without further purification. The influence of the flow rate when pumping the bacterial suspension through the PPM, and of the hydrophobic-hydrophilic balance on the cell lysis efficiency was investigated at a cell concentration of 10(5) CFU/mL. It was shown that the contribution of contact killing to cell lysis was more important than that of mechanical shearing in the PPM. The biochip showed better lysis efficiency than the off-chip chemical, mechanical, and thermal lysis techniques used in this work. The biochip also acts as a filter that isolates cell debris and allows PCR-amplifiable DNA to pass through. The system performs more efficient lysis for gram-negative than for gram-positive bacteria. The biochip does not require chemical/enzymatic reagents, power consumption, or complicated design and fabrication processes, which makes it an attractive on-chip lysis device that can be used in sample preparation for genetics and point-of-care diagnostics. The biochips were reused for 20 lysis cycles without any evidence of physical damage to the PPM, significant performance degradation, or DNA carryover when they were back-flushed between cycles. The biochips efficiently lysed both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria in about 35 min per lysis and PPM regeneration cycle. PMID:25059724

Aly, Mohamed Aly Saad; Gauthier, Mario; Yeow, John

2014-09-01

221

Novel Antibacterial Nanofibrous PLLA Scaffolds  

PubMed Central

In order to achieve high local bioactivity and low systemic side effects of antibiotics in the treatment of dental, periodontal and bone infections, a localized and temporally controlled delivery system is crucial. In this study, a three-dimensional (3D) porous tissue engineering scaffold was developed with the ability to release antibiotics in a controlled fashion for long-term inhibition of bacterial growth. The highly soluble antibiotic drug, Doxycycline (DOXY), was successfully incorporated into PLGA nanospheres using a modified water-in-oil-in-oil (w/o/o) emulsion method. The PLGA nanospheres (NS) were then incorporated into prefabricated nanofibrous PLLA scaffolds with a well interconnected macroporous structure. The release kinetics of DOXY from four different PLGA NS formulations on a PLLA scaffold was investigated. DOXY could be released from the NS-scaffolds in a locally and temporally controlled manner. The DOXY release is controlled by DOXY diffusion out of the NS and is strongly dependent upon the physical and chemical properties of the PLGA. While PLGA50-6.5K, PLGA50-64K, and PLGA75-113K NS-scaffolds discharge DOXY rapidly with a high initial burst release, PLGA85-142K NS-scaffold can extend the release of DOXY to longer than 6 weeks with a low initial burst release. Compared to NS alone, the NS incorporated on a 3-D scaffold had significantly reduced the initial burst release. In vitro antibacterial tests of PLGA85 NS-scaffold demonstrated its ability to inhibit common bacterial growth (S.aureus and E.coli) for a prolonged duration. The successful incorporation of DOXY onto 3-D scaffolds and its controlled release from scaffolds extends the usage of nano-fibrous scaffolds from the delivery of large molecules such as growth factors to the delivery of small hydrophilic drugs, allowing for a broader application and a more complex tissue engineering strategy. PMID:20570700

Feng, Kai; Sun, Hongli; Bradley, Mark A.; Dupler, Ellen J.; Giannobile, William V.; Ma, Peter X.

2010-01-01

222

Ice-templated structures for biomedical tissue repair: From physics to final scaffolds  

E-print Network

temperature and solutes. The porous structures created using ice-templating allow scaffolds to be used for many diverse applications, from microfluidics to biomedical tissue engineering. Within the field of tissue engineering, scaffold structure can influence...

Pawelec, K. M.; Husmann, A; Best, Serena Michelle; Cameron, Ruth Elizabeth

2014-04-11

223

Recent advances in bone tissue engineering scaffolds  

PubMed Central

Bone disorders are of significant concern due to increase in the median age of our population. Traditionally, bone grafts have been used to restore damaged bone. Synthetic biomaterials are now being used as bone graft substitutes. These biomaterials were initially selected for structural restoration based on their biomechanical properties. Later scaffolds were engineered to be bioactive or bioresorbable to enhance tissue growth. Now scaffolds are designed to induce bone formation and vascularization. These scaffolds are often porous, biodegradable materials that harbor different growth factors, drugs, genes or stem cells. In this review, we highlight recent advances in bone scaffolds and discuss aspects that still need to be improved. PMID:22939815

Bose, Susmita; Roy, Mangal; Bandyopadhyay, Amit

2012-01-01

224

The development of a three-dimensional scaffold for ex vivo biomimicry of human acute myeloid leukaemia.  

PubMed

Acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) is a cancer of haematopoietic cells that develops in three-dimensional (3-D) bone marrow niches in vivo. The study of AML has been hampered by lack of appropriate ex vivo models that mimic this microenvironment. We hypothesised that fabrication and optimisation of suitable biomimetic scaffolds for culturing leukaemic cells ex vivo might facilitate the study of AML in its native 3-D niche. We evaluated the growth of three leukaemia subtype-specific cell lines, K-562, HL60 and Kasumi-6, on highly porous scaffolds fabricated from biodegradable and non-biodegradable polymeric materials, such as poly (L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), polyurethane (PU), poly (methyl-methacrylate), poly (D, L-lactade), poly (caprolactone), and polystyrene. Our results show that PLGA and PU supported the best seeding efficiency and leukaemic growth. Furthermore, the PLGA and PU scaffolds were coated with extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, collagen type I (62.5 or 125 microg/ml) and fibronectin (25 or 50 microg/ml) to provide biorecognition signals. The 3 leukaemia subtype-specific lines grew best on PU scaffolds coated with 62.5 microg/ml collagen type I over 6 weeks in the absence of exogenous growth factors. In conclusion, PU-collagen scaffolds may provide a practical model to study the biology and treatment of primary AML in an ex vivo mimicry. PMID:20015543

Blanco, Teresa Mortera; Mantalaris, Athanasios; Bismarck, Alexander; Panoskaltsis, Nicki

2010-03-01

225

Enhancing Osteoconduction of PLLA-Based Nanocomposite Scaffolds for Bone Regeneration Using Different Biomimetic Signals to MSCs  

PubMed Central

In bone engineering, the adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal stromal cells rely on signaling from chemico-physical structure of the substrate, therefore prompting the design of mimetic “extracellular matrix”-like scaffolds. In this study, three-dimensional porous poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA)-based scaffolds have been mixed with different components, including single walled carbon nanotubes (CNT), micro-hydroxyapatite particles (HA), and BMP2, and treated with plasma (PT), to obtain four different nanocomposites: PLLA + CNT, PLLA + CNTHA, PLLA + CNT + HA + BMP2 and PLLA + CNT + HA + PT. Adult bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) were derived from the femur of orthopaedic patients, seeded on the scaffolds and cultured under osteogenic induction up to differentiation and mineralization. The release of specific metabolites and temporal gene expression profiles of marrow-derived osteoprogenitors were analyzed at definite time points, relevant to in vitro culture as well as in vivo differentiation. As a result, the role of the different biomimetic components added to the PLLA matrix was deciphered, with BMP2-added scaffolds showing the highest biomimetic activity on cells differentiating to mature osteoblasts. The modification of a polymeric scaffold with reinforcing components which also work as biomimetic cues for cells can effectively direct osteoprogenitor cells differentiation, so as to shorten the time required for mineralization. PMID:22408463

Ciapetti, Gabriela; Granchi, Donatella; Devescovi, Valentina; Baglio, Serena R.; Leonardi, Elisa; Martini, Desirèe; Jurado, Maria Jesus; Olalde, Beatriz; Armentano, Ilaria; Kenny, Josè M.; Walboomers, Frank X.; Alava, Josè Inaki; Baldini, Nicola

2012-01-01

226

Method for making a bio-compatible scaffold  

DOEpatents

A method for forming a three-dimensional, biocompatible, porous scaffold structure using a solid freeform fabrication technique (referred to herein as robocasting) that can be used as a medical implant into a living organism, such as a human or other mammal. Imaging technology and analysis is first used to determine the three-dimensional design required for the medical implant, such as a bone implant or graft, fashioned as a three-dimensional, biocompatible scaffold structure. The robocasting technique is used to either directly produce the three-dimensional, porous scaffold structure or to produce an over-sized three-dimensional, porous scaffold lattice which can be machined to produce the designed three-dimensional, porous scaffold structure for implantation.

Cesarano, III, Joseph (Albuquerque, NM); Stuecker, John N. (Albuquerque, NM); Dellinger, Jennifer G. (Champaigne, IL); Jamison, Russell D. (Urbana, IL)

2006-01-31

227

The Crystallization Behavior of Porous PLA Prepared by Modified Solvent Casting/Particulate Leaching Technique for Potential Use of Tissue Engineering Scaffold  

E-print Network

The porous PLA foams potential for tissue engineering usage are prepared by a modified solvent casting/particulate leaching method with different crystallinity. Since in typical method the porogens are solved in the solution and flow with the polymers during the casting and the crystallinity behavior of PLA chains in the limited space cannot be tracked, in this work the processing is modified by diffusing the PLA solution into a steady salt stack. With a thermal treatment before leaching while maintaining the stable structure of the porogens stack, the crystallinity of porous foams is made possible to control. The characterizations indicate the crystallization of porous foams is in a manner of lower crystallibility than the bulk materials. Pores and caves of around 250{\\mu}m size are obtained in samples with different crystallinity. The macro-structures are not much impaired by the crystallization nevertheless the morphological effect of the heating process is still obvious.

Ran Huang; Xiaomin Zhu; Haiyan Tu; Ajun Wan

2014-04-14

228

Resorbable glass-ceramic phosphate-based scaffolds for bone tissue engineering: synthesis, properties, and in vitro effects on human marrow stromal cells.  

PubMed

Highly porous bioresorbable glass-ceramic scaffolds were prepared via sponge replication method by using an open-cell polyurethane foam as a template and phosphate-based glass powders. The glass, belonging to the P2O5-SiO2-CaO-MgO-Na2O-K2O system, was synthesized by a melting-quenching route, ground, and sieved to obtain powders with a grain size of less than 30??m. A slurry containing glass powders, polyvinyl alcohol, and water was prepared to coat the polymeric template. The removal of the polymer and the sintering of the glass powders were performed by a thermal treatment, in order to obtain an inorganic replica of the template structure. The structure and properties of the scaffold were investigated from structural, morphological, and mechanical viewpoints by means of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, density measurements, image analysis, and compressive tests. The scaffolds exhibited a trabecular architecture that closely mimics the structure of a natural spongy bone. The solubility of the porous structures was assessed by soaking the samples in acellular simulated body fluid (SBF) and Tris-HCl for different time frames and then by assessing the scaffold weight loss. As far as the test in SBF is concerned, the nucleation of hydroxyapatite on the scaffold trabeculae demonstrates the bioactivity of the material. Biological tests were carried out using human bone marrow stromal cells to test the osteoconductivity of the material. The cells adhered to the scaffold struts and were metabolically active; it was found that cell differentiation over proliferation occurred. Therefore, the produced scaffolds, being biocompatible, bioactive, resorbable, and structurally similar to a spongy bone, can be proposed as interesting candidates for bone grafting. PMID:20566654

Vitale-Brovarone, Chiara; Ciapetti, Gabriela; Leonardi, Elisa; Baldini, Nicola; Bretcanu, Oana; Verné, Enrica; Baino, Francesco

2011-11-01

229

Effect of material, process parameters, and simulated body fluids on mechanical properties of 13-93 bioactive glass porous constructs made by selective laser sintering.  

PubMed

The effect of particle size distribution, binder content, processing parameters, and sintering schedule on the microstructure and mechanical properties of porous constructs was investigated. The porous constructs were produced by indirect selective laser sintering (SLS) of 13-93 bioactive glass using stearic acid as a polymeric binder. The binder content and d(50) particle size in the feedstock powders were simultaneously reduced from 22 to 12 wt% and from 20 to 11 ?m, respectively, to identify the minimum binder content required for the SLS fabrication. An average particle size of ?16 ?m with a binder content of 15 wt% significantly reduced post-processing time and improved mechanical properties. Increasing the laser power and scan speed at the energy density of 1 cal/cm² maintained the feature sharpness of the parts during the fabrication of green parts and could almost double the mechanical properties of the sintered parts. Changes in the heating rates, ranging from 0.1 to 2 °C/min, during the post-processing of the fabricated "green" scaffolds showed that the heating rate significantly affects the densification and mechanical properties of the sintered scaffolds. The compressive strength of the scaffolds manufactured with the optimized parameters varied from 41 MPa, for a scaffold with a porosity of ?50%, to 157 MPa, for a dense part. The bioactive scaffolds soaked in simulated body fluids for durations up to 6 weeks were used to evaluate the change in mechanical properties in vitro. PMID:22842272

Kolan, Krishna C R; Leu, Ming C; Hilmas, Gregory E; Velez, Mariano

2012-09-01

230

Surface Modification of Materials by Plasma Process and UV-induced Grafted Polymerization for Biomedical Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface modification using plasma treated and graft polymerization is versatile process, with systems on the market capable of treating everything from polymer, metal, and ceramic substrates. The major advantage is that the modification is caused no substrate damage or bulk property changes. This is a very effective method to modify the surfaces of biomaterials to achieve desired physical or mechanical properties, or to induce a specific response when the device is placed in the body. They offer attractive possibilities for developing new biomaterials and for improving the performance of existing materials and devices. Hence, in this review, we describe the application of plasma treatment and graft polymerization on biomaterials field. The various applications are discussed in the following: (1) easy stripped-off wound dressing, (2) porous three-dimensional temporary scaffolds, (3) quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) base biosensors, and (4) covalent immobilization of glucose oxidase onto inorganic substrates

Chen, Ko-Shao; Chen, Su-Chen; Lien, Wei-Cheng; Tsai, Jui-Che; Ku, Yuan-An; Lin, Hong-Ru; Lin, Feng-Huei; Wu, Te-Hsing; Chen, Chia-Chieh; Chen, Tim-Mo; Chiou, Shih-Hwa

231

Evaluation of biodegradable elastic scaffolds made of anionic polyurethane for cartilage tissue engineering.  

PubMed

Biodegradable polyurethane (PU) was synthesized by a water-based process. The process rendered homogenous PU nanoparticles (NPs). Spongy PU scaffolds in large dimensions were obtained by freeze-drying the PU NP dispersion. The spongy scaffolds were characterized in terms of the porous structure, wettability, mechanical properties, degradation behavior, and degradation products. The capacity as cartilage tissue engineering scaffolds was evaluated by growing chondrocytes and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in the scaffolds. Scaffolds made from the PU dispersion had excellent hydrophilicity, porosity, and water absorption. Examination by micro-computed tomography confirmed that PU scaffolds had good pore interconnectivity. The degradation rate of the scaffolds in phosphate buffered saline was much faster than that in papain solution or in deionized water at 37°C. The biodegradable PU appeared to be degraded via the cleavage of ester linkage The intrinsic elastic property of PU and the gyroid-shape porous structure of the scaffolds may have accounted for the outstanding strain recovery (87%) and elongation behavior (257%) of the PU scaffolds, compared to conventional poly(d,l-lactide) (PLA) scaffolds. Chondrocytes were effectively seeded in PU scaffolds without pre-wetting. They grew better and secreted more glycosaminoglycan in PU scaffolds vs. PLA scaffolds. Human MSCs showed greater chondrogenic gene expression in PU scaffolds than in PLA scaffolds after induction. Based on the favorable hydrophilicity, elasticity, and regeneration capacities, the novel biodegradable PU scaffolds may be superior to the conventional biodegradable scaffolds in cartilage tissue engineering applications. PMID:25460599

Tsai, Meng-Chao; Hung, Kun-Che; Hung, Shih-Chieh; Hsu, Shan-Hui

2014-11-13

232

Significance of soluble growth factors in the chondrogenic response of human umbilical cord matrix stem cells in a porous three dimensional scaffold.  

PubMed

Stem cell based tissue engineering has emerged as a promising strategy for articular cartilage regeneration. Foetal derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) with their ease of availability, pluripotency and high expansion potential have been demonstrated to be an attractive cell source over adult MSCs. However, there is a need for optimisation of chondrogenic signals to direct the differentiation of these multipotent MSCs to chondrogenic lineage. In this study we have demonstrated the in vitro chondrogenesis of human umbilical cord matrix MSCs in three dimensional PVA-PCL (polyvinyl alcohol-polycaprolactone) scaffolds in the presence of the individual growth factors TGF?1, TGF?3, IGF, BMP2 and their combination with BMP2. Gene expression, histology and immunohistology were evaluated after 28 d culture. The induced cells showed the feature of chondrocytes in their morphology and expression of typical chondrogenic extracellular matrix molecules. Moreover, the real-time PCR assay has shown the expression of gene markers of chondrogenesis, SOX9, collagen type II and aggrecan. The expression of collagen type I and collagen type X was also evaluated. This study has demonstrated the successful chondrogenic induction of human umbilical cord MSCs in 3D scaffolds. Interestingly, the growth factor combination of TGF-?3 and BMP-2 was found to be more effective for chondrogenesis as shown by the real-time PCR studies. The findings of this study suggest the importance of using growth factor combinations for successful chondrogenic differentiation of umbilical cord MSCs. PMID:24213879

Nirmal, Remya S; Nair, Prabha D

2013-01-01

233

Effect of hydroxyapatite-containing microspheres embedded into three-dimensional magnesium phosphate scaffolds on the controlled release of lysozyme and in vitro biodegradation  

PubMed Central

The functionality of porous three-dimensional (3D) magnesium phosphate (MgP) scaffold was investigated for the development of a novel protein delivery system and biomimetic bone tissue engineering scaffold. This enhancement can be achieved by incorporation of hydroxyapatite (HA)-containing polymeric microspheres (MSs) into a bulk MgP matrix, and a paste-extruding deposition (PED) system. In this work, the amount of MS and HA was precisely controlled when manufacturing MS-embedded MgP (MS/MgP) composite scaffolds. The main influence was researched in terms of in vitro lysozyme-release, in vitro biodegradation, mechanical properties, and in vitro calcification. The controlled release of lysozyme was indicated, while showing graded release patterns according to HA content. The composite scaffolds degraded gradually with MS content and degradation time. Due to the effect of HA inclusion, the higher HA-containing MS/MgP scaffolds could, not only delay the biodegradation process but also, compensate for the possible loss of mechanical properties. In this regard, it is reasonable to confirm the inverse relationship between biodegradation and corresponding compressive properties. In order to encourage bioactivity and osteoconductivity, the MS/MgP composite scaffolds were subjected to simulated body fluid treatment. Calcium deposition was, in turn, improved with increasing MS and HA content over time. This quantitative result was also proved using morphological and elemental analysis. In summary, a significant transformation of a monolithic MgP scaffold was directed toward a multifunctional bone tissue engineering scaffold equipped with controlled protein delivery, biodegradability, and bioactivity. PMID:25214782

Lee, Jongman; Yun, Hui-suk

2014-01-01

234

Frontispiece: porous nitrogen-doped carbon microspheres derived from microporous polymeric organic frameworks for high performance electric double-layer capacitors.  

PubMed

Energy Storage A simple and efficient method to synthesize porous nitrogen-doped carbon microspheres (PNCM) by the carbonization of microporous poly(terephthalaldehydepyrrole) organic frameworks is presented by H. Dou, D. R. MacFarlane, and co-workers in their Communication on page?2310?ff. The KOH activation process was used to tune the porous texture of the PNCM and produce an activated PNCM (A-PNCM). As electrode materials for supercapacitors, the PNCM and A-PNCM exhibit high specific capacitance, excellent rate performance, and long-term cycling stability. These properties are attributed to the highly developed porous structure, large specific surface area, and nitrogen doping. PMID:25615520

Han, Jinpeng; Xu, Guiyin; Dou, Hui; MacFarlane, Douglas R

2015-02-01

235

Relationship between gelatin concentrations in silk fibroin-based composite scaffolds and adhesion and proliferation of mouse embryo fibroblasts.  

PubMed

Porous scaffolds of silk fibroin and composite porous scaffolds with 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50% gelatin were made by the freezing-thawing method. The relationship between adhesion and proliferation rate mouse embryo fibroblast and the scaffold composition was studied by laser confocal scanning microscopy. Addition of gelatin to the scaffold structure stimulated adhesion and proliferation of mouse embryo fibroblasts; the optimal content of gelatin was 30%. PMID:25403405

Orlova, A A; Kotlyarova, M S; Lavrenov, V S; Volkova, S V; Arkhipova, A Yu

2014-11-01

236

Understanding anisotropy and architecture in ice-templated biopolymer scaffolds  

E-print Network

Biopolymer scaffolds have great therapeutic potential within tissue engineering due to their large interconnected porosity and biocompatibility. Using an ice-templated technique, where collagen is concentrated into a porous network by ice nucleation...

Pawelec, K. A.; Husmann, A.; Best, Serena Michelle; Cameron, Ruth Elizabeth

2014-04-01

237

Development and characterization of a family of shape memory, biocompatible, degradable, porous (co)-polyurethanes via sol-gel chemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In support of the goal of a tissue engineering scaffold that is moldable, biodegradable and has shape-memory, this work explored the space of polyurethane sol-gel formulations and solvents to create a biocompatible, porous xerogel with potential to be such a porous scaffold. The work has resulted in both a process and a sol-gel formulation to effectively create a family of degradable, biocompatible, shape memory, porous, block copolyurethane xerogels from polycaprolactone and castor oil. Formulations of the sol-gel family of potential scaffolds were characterized for their biocompatibility, hydrolytic degradability, porosity, and shape memory. Of the scaffolds tested in this fashion, the most successful supported the attachment and growth of 3T3 fibroblast cells at 72% of the rate of attachment and growth in the standard tissue culture plastic Petri dishes. A method was developed and explained that selects the solvent for creation of a porous xerogel by controlling the phase separation of the polymerizing polyurethane from the reaction solution. This method uses standard polymer solvent swelling and extraction test data. Solvent solutions plotted in the 3-D space of Hansen solubility parameters were used to select solvents that produced porous xerogels from two different polyurethane sol-gel formulations. The process effectively combines a set of methods that search the sol-gel formulation spaces for both shape-memory and porosity. Easily produced dense xerogels from trial sol-gel formulations are sufficient for DSC and initial DMA shape-memory test data, as well as standard solvent swelling and extraction test data to support the search for shape memory and the computation of rankings to select solvent(s) that is most likely to produce a porous xerogel. Accelerated degradation tests on the dense xerogels also produced results useful to guide further testing of the sol-gel formulations. Standard shape-memory research testing only characterizes the free return to shape or the shape memory force with no return from a tensile test. Characterization of the scaffold's compressive shape memory (percent strain recovery under stress) offers a clinical user design data for interactions with body tissue. Standard tensile shape memory ratios were translated to the compressive stress, strain, and temperature cycles used to characterize the shape-memory abilities of the two sol-gel families tested. The advantage of a thermoset polymer's ability to achieve 100% shape memory repeatability is demonstrated. This scaffold's compressive shape memory actuation energy density was above 6.0 KJ/m 3 over a range of recovery strains from 5% to 12%.

Lippincott, Hugh Walker

238

Material model measurements and predictions for a random pore poly(epsilon-caprolactone) scaffold.  

PubMed

We investigated material models for a polymeric scaffold used for bone. The material was made by co-extruding poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL), a biodegradable polyester, and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO). The water soluble PEO was removed resulting in a porous scaffold. The stress-strain curve in compression was fit with a phenomenological model in hyperbolic form. This material model will be useful for designers for quasi-static analysis as it provides a simple form that can easily be used in finite element models. The ASTM D-1621 standard recommends using a secant modulus based on 10% strain. The resulting modulus has a smaller scatter in its value compared with the coefficients of the hyperbolic model, and it is therefore easier to compare differences in material processing and ensure quality of the scaffold. A prediction of the small-strain elastic modulus was constructed from images of the microstructure. Each pixel of the micrographs was represented with a brick finite element and assigned the Young's modulus of bulk PCL or a value of 0 for a pore. A compressive strain was imposed on the model and the resulting stresses were calculated. The elastic constants of the scaffold were then computed with Hooke's law for a linear-elastic isotropic material. The model was able to predict the small-strain elastic modulus measured in the experiments to within one standard deviation. Thus, by knowing the microstructure of the scaffold, its bulk properties can be predicted from the material properties of the constituents. PMID:17106897

Quinn, T P; Oreskovic, T L; Landis, F A; Washburn, N R

2007-07-01

239

Sol-gel derived bioactive glasses with low tendency to crystallize: synthesis, post-sintering bioactivity and possible application for the production of porous scaffolds.  

PubMed

A new sol-gel (SG) method is proposed to produce special bioactive glasses (BG_Ca family) characterized by a low tendency to devitrify. These formulations, derived from 45S5 Bioglass®, are characterized by a high content of CaO (45.6 mol%) and by a partial or complete substitution of sodium oxide with potassium oxide (total amount of alkaline oxides: 4.6 mol%), which increases the crystallization temperature up to 900°C. In this way, it is possible to produce them by SG preserving their amorphous nature, in spite of the calcination at 850°C. The sintering behavior of the obtained SG powders is thoroughly investigated and the properties of the sintered bodies are compared to those of the melt-derived (M) counterparts. Furthermore, the SG glass powders are successfully used to produce scaffolds by means of a modified replication technique based on the combined use of polyurethane sponges and polyethylene particles. Finally, in the view of a potential application for bone tissue engineering, the cytotoxicity of the produced materials is evaluated in vitro. PMID:25175252

Bellucci, Devis; Sola, Antonella; Salvatori, Roberta; Anesi, Alexandre; Chiarini, Luigi; Cannillo, Valeria

2014-10-01

240

Failure mechanisms in fibrous scaffolds.  

PubMed

Polymeric fibrous scaffolds have been considered as replacements for load-bearing soft tissues, because of their ability to mimic the microstructure of natural tissues. Poor toughness of fibrous materials results in failure, which is an issue of importance to both engineering and medical practice. The toughness of fibrous materials depends on the ability of the microstructure to develop toughening mechanisms. However, such toughening mechanisms are still not well understood, because the detailed evolution at the microscopic level is difficult to visualize. A novel and simple method was developed, namely, a sample-taping technique, to examine the detailed failure mechanisms of fibrous microstructures. This technique was compared with in situ fracture testing by scanning electron microscopy. Examination of three types of fibrous networks showed that two different failure modes occurred in fibrous scaffolds. For brittle cracking in gelatin electrospun scaffolds, the random network morphology around the crack tip remained during crack propagation. For ductile failure in polycaprolactone electrospun scaffolds and nonwoven fabrics, the random network deformed via fiber rearrangement, and a large number of fiber bundles formed across the region in front of the notch tip. These fiber bundles not only accommodated mechanical strain, but also resisted crack propagation and thus toughened the fibrous scaffolds. Such understanding provides insight for the production of fibrous materials with enhanced toughness. PMID:23470550

Koh, C T; Strange, D G T; Tonsomboon, K; Oyen, M L

2013-07-01

241

Optimization of tyrosine-derived polycarbonate terpolymers for bone regeneration scaffolds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tyrosine-derived polycarbonates (TyrPC) are a versatile class of polymers highly suitable for bone tissue engineering. Among the tyrosine-derived polycarbonates, poly(DTE carbonate) has an FDA masterfile that documents its biocompatibility and non-toxicity and has shown potential utility in orthopedics due to its osteoconductive properties and strength. DTE stands for desaminotyrosyl-tyrosine ethyl ester and is the most commonly used tyrosine-derived monomer. However, in vitro degradation studies showed that poly(DTE carbonate) did not completely resorb even after four years of incubation in phosphate buffered saline. Thus for bone regeneration, which only requires a temporary implant until the bone heals, poly(DTE carbonate) would not be the best choice. The goal of the present research was to optimize a scaffold composition for bone regeneration that is based on desaminotyrosyl-tyrosine alkyl ester (DTR), desaminotyrosyl-tyrosine (DT) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). Five areas of research were presented: (1) synthesis and characterization of a focused library of TyrPC terpolymers; (2) evaluation of the effects of how small changes on the composition affected the mechanism and kinetics of polymer degradation and erosion; (3) fabrication of bioactive three-dimensional porous scaffold constructs for bone regeneration; (4) assessment of osteogenic properties in vitro using pre-osteoblasts; and (5) evaluation of bone regeneration potential, with or without recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2), in vivo using a critical sized defect (CSD) rabbit calvaria (cranium) model. Small changes in the composition, such as changing the R group of DTR from ethyl to methyl, varying the mole percentages of DT and PEG, and using a different PEG block length, affected the overall properties of these polymers. Porous scaffolds were prepared by a combination of solvent casting, porogen leaching and phase separation techniques. Calcium phosphate was coated on the surface post-fabrication. The scaffolds displayed (i) a bimodal pore architecture with micropores (< 20 mum) and macropores (200 -- 400 mum), (ii) a highly interconnected and open pore structure, and (iii) a highly organized microstructure. These scaffolds supported robust cell attachment and promoted osteogenic differentiation of pre-osteoblasts. This is the first report that a synthetic polymeric scaffold either without a biological supplement or with a minimal dose of rhBMP-2 induced comparable bone regeneration to a commercially available bone substitute in a non-rodent CSD animal model.

Resurreccion-Magno, Maria Hanshella C.

242

Engineering tumors with 3D scaffolds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microenvironmental conditions control tumorigenesis and biomimetic culture systems that allow for in vitro and in vivo tumor modeling may greatly aid studies of cancer cells' dependency on these conditions. We engineered three-dimensional (3D) human tumor models using carcinoma cells in polymeric scaffolds that recreated microenvironmental characteristics representative of tumors in vivo. Strikingly, the angiogenic characteristics of tumor cells were dramatically

Claudia Fischbach; Ruth Chen; Takuya Matsumoto; Tobias Schmelzle; Joan S Brugge; Peter J Polverini; David J Mooney

2007-01-01

243

Effect of Polycaprolactone Scaffold Permeability on Bone Regeneration In Vivo  

PubMed Central

Successful bone tissue engineering depends on the scaffold's ability to allow nutrient diffusion to and waste removal from the regeneration site, as well as provide an appropriate mechanical environment. Since bone is highly vascularized, scaffolds that provide greater mass transport may support increased bone regeneration. Permeability encompasses the salient features of three-dimensional porous scaffold architecture effects on scaffold mass transport. We hypothesized that higher permeability scaffolds will enhance bone regeneration for a given cell seeding density. We manufactured poly-?-caprolactone scaffolds, designed to have the same internal pore design and either a low permeability (0.688×10?7m4/N-s) or a high permeability (3.991×10?7m4/N-s), respectively. Scaffolds were seeded with bone morphogenic protein-7-transduced human gingival fibroblasts and implanted subcutaneously in immune-compromised mice for 4 and 8 weeks. Micro-CT evaluation showed better bone penetration into high permeability scaffolds, with blood vessel infiltration visible at 4 weeks. Compression testing showed that scaffold design had more influence on elastic modulus than time point did and that bone tissue infiltration increased the mechanical properties of the high permeability scaffolds at 8 weeks. These results suggest that for polycaprolactone, a more permeable scaffold with regular architecture is best for in vivo bone regeneration. This finding is an important step toward the end goal of optimizing a scaffold for bone tissue engineering. PMID:21395465

Mitsak, Anna G.; Kemppainen, Jessica M.; Harris, Matthew T.

2011-01-01

244

Jellyfish collagen scaffolds for cartilage tissue engineering.  

PubMed

Porous scaffolds were engineered from refibrillized collagen of the jellyfish Rhopilema esculentum for potential application in cartilage regeneration. The influence of collagen concentration, salinity and temperature on fibril formation was evaluated by turbidity measurements and quantification of fibrillized collagen. The formation of collagen fibrils with a typical banding pattern was confirmed by atomic force microscopy and transmission electron microscopy analysis. Porous scaffolds from jellyfish collagen, refibrillized under optimized conditions, were fabricated by freeze-drying and subsequent chemical cross-linking. Scaffolds possessed an open porosity of 98.2%. The samples were stable under cyclic compression and displayed an elastic behavior. Cytotoxicity tests with human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) did not reveal any cytotoxic effects of the material. Chondrogenic markers SOX9, collagen II and aggrecan were upregulated in direct cultures of hMSCs upon chondrogenic stimulation. The formation of typical extracellular matrix components was further confirmed by quantification of sulfated glycosaminoglycans. PMID:24184178

Hoyer, Birgit; Bernhardt, Anne; Lode, Anja; Heinemann, Sascha; Sewing, Judith; Klinger, Matthias; Notbohm, Holger; Gelinsky, Michael

2014-02-01

245

Peripheral nerve morphogenesis induced by scaffold micropatterning  

PubMed Central

Several bioengineering approaches have been proposed for peripheral nervous system repair, with limited results and still open questions about the underlying molecular mechanisms. We assessed the biological processes that occur after the implantation of collagen scaffold with a peculiar porous microstructure of the wall in a rat sciatic nerve transection model compared to commercial collagen conduits and nerve crush injury using functional, histological and genome wide analyses. We demonstrated that within 60 days, our conduit had been completely substituted by a normal nerve. Gene expression analysis documented a precise sequential regulation of known genes involved in angiogenesis, Schwann cells/axons interactions and myelination, together with a selective modulation of key biological pathways for nerve morphogenesis induced by porous matrices. These data suggest that the scaffold’s microstructure profoundly influences cell behaviors and creates an instructive micro-environment to enhance nerve morphogenesis that can be exploited to improve recovery and understand the molecular differences between repair and regeneration. PMID:24559639

Memon, Danish; Boneschi, Filippo Martinelli; Madaghiele, Marta; Brambilla, Paola; Del Carro, Ubaldo; Taveggia, Carla; Riva, Nilo; Trimarco, Amelia; Lopez, Ignazio D.; Comi, Giancarlo; Pluchino, Stefano; Martino, Gianvito; Sannino, Alessandro; Quattrini, Angelo

2014-01-01

246

Engineering Polymeric Scaffolds for Bone Grafts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Orthopedic injuries resulting from trauma or improper development often require surgical intervention to restore natural tissue function. Currently, over one million operations are performed annually for the surgical reconstruction of bone [50]. The well-known limitations associated with autografts, allografts, and bone cements have led to the investigation of synthetic polymers as support matrices for bone tissue engineering. Polymers are long-chain

Martha W. Betz; Diana M. Yoon; John P. Fisher

247

Variation of flow-induced stresses within scaffolds used in bone tissue engineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bone tissue engineering is often based on seeding adult stem cells on porous scaffolds and subsequently placing these scaffolds in flow perfusion bioreactors to stimulate cell differentiation and cell growth. In the present study, the distribution of stresses in structured porous scaffolds under flow is investigated by calculating the probability density function of flow-induced stresses in different scaffold geometries with simulations. The physical reason for the development of particular stress distributions is further explored, and it is found that the direction of flow relative to the internal architecture of the porous scaffold is important for stress distributions. When the flow direction is random relative to the configuration of the geometric elements making up the scaffold, it is found that a common distribution, such as the one suggested by Voronov et al. (Appl. Phys. Let., 2010, 97:024101), can be used to describe the stress distribution.

Papavassiliou, Dimitrios; Pham, Ngoc; Voronov, Roman; Sikavitsas, Vassilios

2011-11-01

248

The influence of scaffold material on chondrocytes in inflammatory conditions  

PubMed Central

Cartilage tissue engineering aims to repair damaged cartilage tissue in arthritic joints. As arthritic joints have significantly higher levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (such as IL-1? and TNF? that cause cartilage destruction, it is critical to engineer stable cartilage in an inflammatory environment. Biomaterial scaffolds constitute an important component of the microenvironment for chondrocytes in engineered cartilage. However, it remains unclear how scaffold material influences the response of chondrocytes seeded in these scaffolds under inflammatory stimuli. Here, we compared the response of articular chondrocytes seeded within three different polymeric scaffolding materials (silk, collagen and polylactic acid (PLA)) to IL-1? and TNF?. These scaffolds have different physical characteristics and yielded significant differences in the expression of genes associated with cartilage matrix production and degradation, cell adhesion and cell death. Silk and collagen scaffolds released pro-inflammatory cytokines faster and had higher uptake water abilities than PLA scaffolds. Correspondingly, chondrocytes cultured in silk and collagen scaffolds maintained higher levels of cartilage matrix than those in PLA, suggesting that these biophysical properties of scaffolds may regulate gene expression and response to inflammatory stimuli in chondrocytes. Based on this study, we concluded that selecting the proper scaffolding material will aid in the engineering of more stable cartilage tissues for cartilage repair; and that silk and collagen are the more optimal scaffolds in supporting the stability of 3D cartilage under inflammatory conditions. PMID:23333441

Kwon, Heenam; Sun, Lin; Cairns, Dana M.; Rainbow, Roshni S.; Preda, Rucsanda Carmen; Kaplan, David L.; Zeng, Li

2013-01-01

249

The influence of scaffold material on chondrocytes under inflammatory conditions.  

PubMed

Cartilage tissue engineering aims to repair damaged cartilage tissue in arthritic joints. As arthritic joints have significantly higher levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (such as IL-1? and TNF? that cause cartilage destruction, it is critical to engineer stable cartilage in an inflammatory environment. Biomaterial scaffolds constitute an important component of the microenvironment for chondrocytes in engineered cartilage. However, it remains unclear how the scaffold material influences the response of chondrocytes seeded in these scaffolds under inflammatory stimuli. Here we have compared the responses of articular chondrocytes seeded within three different polymeric scaffolding materials (silk, collagen and polylactic acid (PLA)) to IL-1? and TNF?. These scaffolds have different physical characteristics and yielded significant differences in the expression of genes associated with cartilage matrix production and degradation, cell adhesion and cell death. The silk and collagen scaffolds released pro-inflammatory cytokines faster and had higher uptake water abilities than PLA scaffolds. Correspondingly, chondrocytes cultured in silk and collagen scaffolds maintained higher levels of cartilage matrix than those in PLA, suggesting that these biophysical properties of scaffolds may regulate gene expression and the response to inflammatory stimuli in chondrocytes. Based on this study we conclude that selecting the proper scaffold material will aid in the engineering of more stable cartilage tissues for cartilage repair, and that silk and collagen are better scaffolds in terms of supporting the stability of three-dimensional cartilage under inflammatory conditions. PMID:23333441

Kwon, Heenam; Sun, Lin; Cairns, Dana M; Rainbow, Roshni S; Preda, Rucsanda C; Kaplan, David L; Zeng, Li

2013-05-01

250

Microporous Nanofibrous Fibrin-based Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering  

PubMed Central

The fibrotic response of the body to synthetic polymers limits their success in tissue engineering and other applications. Though porous polymers have demonstrated improved healing, difficulty in controlling their pore sizes and pore interconnections has clouded the understanding of this phenomenon. In this study, a novel method to fabricate natural polymer/calcium phosphate composite scaffolds with tightly controllable pore size, pore interconnection, and calcium phosphate deposition was developed. Microporous, nanofibrous fibrin scaffolds were fabricated using sphere-templating methods. Composite scaffolds were created by solution deposition of calcium phosphate on fibrin surfaces or by direct incorporation of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite (nHA). The SEM results showed that fibrin scaffolds exhibited a highly porous and interconnected structure. Osteoblast-like cells, obtained from murine calvaria, attached, spread and showed a polygonal morphology on the surface of the biomaterial. Multiple cell layers and fibrillar matrix deposition were observed. Moreover, cells seeded on mineralized fibrin scaffolds exhibited significantly higher alkaline phosphatase activity as well as osteoblast marker gene expression compared to fibrin scaffolds and nHA incorporated fibrin scaffolds (0.25 g and 0.5 g). All types of scaffolds were degraded both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, these scaffolds promoted bone formation in a mouse calvarial defect model and the bone formation was enhanced by addition of rhBMP-2. PMID:18640716

Osathanon, Thanaphum; Linnes, Michael L.; Rajachar, Rupak M.; Ratner, Buddy D.; Somerman, Martha J.; Giachelli, Cecilia M.

2008-01-01

251

Improving mechanical and biological properties of macroporous HA scaffolds through composite coatings.  

PubMed

Interconnected porous hydroxyapatite (HA) scaffolds are widely used for bone repair and replacement, owing to their ability to support the adhesion, transfer, proliferation and differentiation of cells. In the present study, the polymer impregnation approach was adopted to produce porous HA scaffolds with three-dimensional (3D) porous structures. These scaffolds have an advantage of highly interconnected porosity (approximately 85%) but a drawback of poor mechanical strength. Therefore, the as-prepared HA scaffolds were lined with composite polymer coatings in order to improve the mechanical properties and retain its good bioactivity and biocompatibility at the same time. The composite coatings were based on poly(D,L-lactide) (PDLLA) polymer solutions, and contained single component or combination of HA, calcium sulfate (CS) and chondroitin sulfate (ChS) powders. The effects of composite coatings on scaffold porosity, microstructure, mechanical property, in vitro mineralizing behavior, and cell attachment of the resultant scaffolds were investigated. The results showed that the scaffolds with composite coatings resulted in significant improvement in both mechanical and biological properties while retaining the 3D interconnected porous structure. The in vitro mineralizing behaviors were mainly related to the compositions of CS and ChS powders in the composite coatings. Excellent cell attachments were observed on the pure HA scaffold as well as the three types of composite scaffolds. These composite scaffolds with improved mechanical properties and bioactivities are promising bone substitutes in tissue engineering fields. PMID:19679453

Zhao, J; Lu, X; Duan, K; Guo, L Y; Zhou, S B; Weng, J

2009-11-01

252

Osteochondral tissue regeneration through polymeric delivery of DNA encoding for the SOX trio and RUNX2.  

PubMed

Native osteochondral repair is often inadequate owing to the inherent properties of the tissue, and current clinical repair strategies can result in healing with a limited lifespan and donor site morbidity. This work investigates the use of polymeric gene therapy to address this problem by delivering DNA encoding for transcription factors complexed with the branched poly(ethylenimine)-hyaluronic acid (bPEI-HA) delivery vector via a porous oligo[poly(ethylene glycol) fumarate] hydrogel scaffold. To evaluate the potential of this approach, a bilayered scaffold mimicking native osteochondral tissue organization was loaded with DNA/bPEI-HA complexes. Next, bilayered implants either unloaded or loaded in a spatial fashion with bPEI-HA and DNA encoding for either Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) or SRY (sex determining region Y)-box 5, 6, and 9 (the SOX trio), to generate bone and cartilage tissues respectively, were fabricated and implanted in a rat osteochondral defect. At 6weeks post-implantation, micro-computed tomography analysis and histological scoring were performed on the explants to evaluate the quality and quantity of tissue repair in each group. The incorporation of DNA encoding for RUNX2 in the bone layer of these scaffolds significantly increased bone growth. Additionally, a spatially loaded combination of RUNX2 and SOX trio DNA loading significantly improved healing relative to empty hydrogels or either factor alone. Finally, the results of this study suggest that subchondral bone formation is necessary for correct cartilage healing. PMID:24854956

Needham, Clark J; Shah, Sarita R; Dahlin, Rebecca L; Kinard, Lucas A; Lam, Johnny; Watson, Brendan M; Lu, Steven; Kasper, F Kurtis; Mikos, Antonios G

2014-10-01

253

Seamless vascularized large-diameter tubular collagen scaffolds reinforced with polymer knittings for esophageal regenerative medicine.  

PubMed

A clinical demand exists for alternatives to repair the esophagus in case of congenital defects, cancer, or trauma. A seamless biocompatible off-the-shelf large-diameter tubular scaffold, which is accessible for vascularization, could set the stage for regenerative medicine of the esophagus. The use of seamless scaffolds eliminates the error-prone tubularization step, which is necessary when emanating from flat scaffolds. In this study, we developed and characterized three different types of seamless tubular scaffolds, and evaluated in vivo tissue compatibility, including vascularization by omental wrapping. Scaffolds (luminal Ø ? 1.5 cm) were constructed using freezing, lyophilizing, and cross-linking techniques and included (1) single-layered porous collagen scaffold, (2) dual-layered (porous+dense) collagen scaffold, and (3) hybrid scaffold (collagen+incorporated polycaprolacton knitting). The latter had an ultimate tensile strength comparable to a porcine esophagus. To induce rapid vascularization, scaffolds were implanted in the omentum of sheep using a wrapping technique. After 6 weeks of biocompatibility, vascularization, calcification, and hypoxia were evaluated using immunohistochemistry. Scaffolds were biocompatible, and cellular influx and ingrowth of blood vessels were observed throughout the whole scaffold. No calcification was observed, and slight hypoxic conditions were detected only in the direct vicinity of the polymer knitting. It is concluded that seamless large-diameter tubular collagen-based scaffolds can be constructed and vascularized in vivo. Such scaffolds provide novel tools for esophageal reconstruction. PMID:24099067

Hoogenkamp, Henk R; Koens, Martin J W; Geutjes, Paul J; Ainoedhofer, Herwig; Wanten, Geert; Tiemessen, Dorien M; Hilborn, Jöns; Gupta, Bhuvanesh; Feitz, Wouter F J; Daamen, Willeke F; Saxena, Amulya K; Oosterwijk, Egbert; van Kuppevelt, Toin H

2014-05-01

254

Mechanical properties of calcium phosphate scaffolds fabricated by robocasting.  

PubMed

The mechanical behavior under compressive stresses of beta-tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP) and hydroxyapatite (HA) scaffolds fabricated by direct-write assembly (robocasting) technique is analyzed. Concentrated colloidal inks prepared from beta-TCP and HA commercial powders were used to fabricate porous structures consisting of a 3-D tetragonal mesh of interpenetrating ceramic rods. The compressive strength and elastic modulus of these model scaffolds were determined by uniaxial testing to compare the relative performance of the selected materials. The effect of a 3-week immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF) on the strength of the scaffolds was also analyzed. The results are compared with those reported in the literature for calcium phosphate scaffolds and human bone. The robocast calcium phosphate scaffolds were found to exhibit excellent mechanical performances in terms of strength, especially the HA structures after SBF immersion, indicating a great potential of this type of scaffolds for use in load-bearing bone tissue engineering applications. PMID:17688280

Miranda, Pedro; Pajares, Antonia; Saiz, Eduardo; Tomsia, Antoni P; Guiberteau, Fernando

2008-04-01

255

Porosity and Cell Preseeding Influence Electrospun Scaffold Maturation and Meniscus Integration In Vitro  

PubMed Central

Electrospinning generates fibrous scaffolds ideal for engineering soft orthopedic tissues. By modifying the electrospinning process, scaffolds with different structural organization and content can be generated. For example, fibers can be aligned in a single direction, or the porosity of the scaffold can be modified through the use of multi-jet electrospinning and the removal of sacrificial fibers. In this work, we investigated the role of fiber alignment and scaffold porosity on construct maturation and integration within in vitro meniscus defects. Further, we explored the effect of preseeding expanded meniscus fibrochondrocytes (MFCs) onto the scaffold at a high density before in vitro repair. Our results demonstrate that highly porous electropun scaffolds integrate better with a native tissue and mature to a greater extent than low-porosity scaffolds, while scaffold alignment does not influence integration or maturation. The addition of expanded MFCs to scaffolds before in vitro repair improved integration with the native tissue, but did not influence maturation. In contrast, preculture of these same scaffolds for 1 month before repair decreased integration with the native tissue, but resulted in a more mature scaffold compared to implantation of cellular scaffolds or acellular scaffolds. This work will inform scaffold selection in future in vivo studies by identifying the ideal scaffold and seeding methods for meniscus tissue engineering. PMID:22994398

Ionescu, Lara C.

2013-01-01

256

Green process to prepare silk fibroin/gelatin biomaterial scaffolds.  

PubMed

A new all-aqueous and green process is described to form three-dimensional porous silk fibroin matrices with control of structural and morphological features. Silk-based scaffolds are prepared using lyophilization. Gelatin is added to the aqueous silk fibroin solution to change the silk fibroin conformation and silk fibroin-water interactions through adjusting the hydrophilic interactions in silk fibroin-gelatin-water systems to restrain the formation of separate sheet like structures in the material, resulting in a more homogenous structure. Water annealing is used to generate insolubility in the silk fibroin-gelatin scaffold system, thereby avoiding the use of organic solvents such as methanol to lock in the beta-sheet structure. The adjusting of the concentration of gelatin, as well as the concentration of silk fibroin, leads to control of morphological and functional properties of the scaffolds. The scaffolds were homogeneous in terms of interconnected pores, with pore sizes ranging from 100 to 600 microm, depending on the concentration of silk fibroin used in the process. At the same time, the morphology of the scaffolds changed from lamellar sheets to porous structures based on the increase in gelatin content. Compared with salt-leaching aqueous-derived scaffolds and hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP)-derived scaffolds, these freeze-dried scaffolds had a lower content of beta-sheet, resulting in more hydrophilic features. Most of gelatin was entrapped in the silk fibroin-gelatin scaffolds, without the burst release in PBS solution. During in vitro cell culture, these silk fibroin-gelatin scaffolds had improved cell-compatibility than salt-leaching silk fibroin scaffolds. This new process provides useful silk fibroin-based scaffold systems for use in tissue engineering. Furthermore, the whole process is green, including all-aqueous, room temperature and pressure, and without the use of toxic chemicals or solvents, offering new ways to load bioactive drugs or growth factors into the process. PMID:19924684

Lu, Qiang; Zhang, Xiaohui; Hu, Xiao; Kaplan, David L

2010-03-10

257

Surface modified electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds for nerve tissue engineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of biodegradable polymeric scaffolds with surface properties that dominate interactions between the material and biological environment is of great interest in biomedical applications. In this regard, poly-?-caprolactone (PCL) nanofibrous scaffolds were fabricated by an electrospinning process and surface modified by a simple plasma treatment process for enhancing the Schwann cell adhesion, proliferation and interactions with nanofibers necessary for nerve tissue formation. The hydrophilicity of surface modified PCL nanofibrous scaffolds (p-PCL) was evaluated by contact angle and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies. Naturally derived polymers such as collagen are frequently used for the fabrication of biocomposite PCL/collagen scaffolds, though the feasibility of procuring large amounts of natural materials for clinical applications remains a concern, along with their cost and mechanical stability. The proliferation of Schwann cells on p-PCL nanofibrous scaffolds showed a 17% increase in cell proliferation compared to those on PCL/collagen nanofibrous scaffolds after 8 days of cell culture. Schwann cells were found to attach and proliferate on surface modified PCL nanofibrous scaffolds expressing bipolar elongations, retaining their normal morphology. The results of our study showed that plasma treated PCL nanofibrous scaffolds are a cost-effective material compared to PCL/collagen scaffolds, and can potentially serve as an ideal tissue engineered scaffold, especially for peripheral nerve regeneration.

Prabhakaran, Molamma P.; Venugopal, J.; Chan, Casey K.; Ramakrishna, S.

2008-11-01

258

Direct patterning of mammalian cells onto porous tissue engineering substrates using agarose stamps  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes simple, inexpensive, and potentially generic methodology for generating patterns of mammalian cells on porous scaffolds for tissue engineering using replica printing. Circular patterns (diameter: 200, 700, and 1000?m) of human osteoblasts were transferred directly from topographically patterned agarose stamps onto porous hydroxyapatite scaffolds or onto fibronectin-coated glass slides. The use of hydrogel stamps provided a “wet”, biocompatible

Molly M. Stevens; Michael Mayer; Daniel G. Anderson; Douglas B. Weibel; George M. Whitesides; Robert Langer

2005-01-01

259

Elastomeric PGS Scaffolds in Arterial Tissue Engineering  

PubMed Central

Cardiovascular disease is one of the leading cause of mortality in the US and especially, coronary artery disease increases with an aging population and increasing obesity1. Currently, bypass surgery using autologous vessels, allografts, and synthetic grafts are known as a commonly used for arterial substitutes2. However, these grafts have limited applications when an inner diameter of arteries is less than 6 mm due to low availability, thrombotic complications, compliance mismatch, and late intimal hyperplasia3,4. To overcome these limitations, tissue engineering has been successfully applied as a promising alternative to develop small-diameter arterial constructs that are nonthrombogenic, robust, and compliant. Several previous studies have developed small-diameter arterial constructs with tri-lamellar structure, excellent mechanical properties and burst pressure comparable to native arteries5,6. While high tensile strength and burst pressure by increasing collagen production from a rigid material or cell sheet scaffold, these constructs still had low elastin production and compliance, which is a major problem to cause graft failure after implantation. Considering these issues, we hypothesized that an elastometric biomaterial combined with mechanical conditioning would provide elasticity and conduct mechanical signals more efficiently to vascular cells, which increase extracellular matrix production and support cellular orientation. The objective of this report is to introduce a fabrication technique of porous tubular scaffolds and a dynamic mechanical conditioning for applying them to arterial tissue engineering. We used a biodegradable elastomer, poly (glycerol sebacate) (PGS)7 for fabricating porous tubular scaffolds from the salt fusion method. Adult primary baboon smooth muscle cells (SMCs) were seeded on the lumen of scaffolds, which cultured in our designed pulsatile flow bioreactor for 3 weeks. PGS scaffolds had consistent thickness and randomly distributed macro- and micro-pores. Mechanical conditioning from pulsatile flow bioreactor supported SMC orientation and enhanced ECM production in scaffolds. These results suggest that elastomeric scaffolds and mechanical conditioning of bioreactor culture may be a promising method for arterial tissue engineering. PMID:21505410

Lee, Kee-Won; Wang, Yadong

2011-01-01

260

Soy Protein Scaffold Biomaterials for Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Developing functional biomaterials using highly processable materials with tailorable physical and bioactive properties is an ongoing challenge in tissue engineering. Soy protein is an abundant, natural resource with potential use for regenerative medicine applications. Preliminary studies show that soy protein can be physically modified and fabricated into various biocompatible constructs. However, optimized soy protein structures for tissue regeneration (i.e. 3D porous scaffolds) have not yet been designed. Furthermore, little work has established the in vivo biocompatibility of implanted soy protein and the benefit of using soy over other proteins including FDA-approved bovine collagen. In this work, freeze-drying and 3D printing fabrication processes were developed using commercially available soy protein to create porous scaffolds that improve cell growth and infiltration compared to other soy biomaterials previously reported. Characterization of scaffold structure, porosity, and mechanical/degradation properties was performed. In addition, the behavior of human mesenchymal stem cells seeded on various designed soy scaffolds was analyzed. Biological characterization of the cell-seeded scaffolds was performed to assess feasibility for use in liver tissue regeneration. The acute and humoral response of soy scaffolds implanted in an in vivo mouse subcutaneous model was also investigated. All fabricated soy scaffolds were modified using thermal, chemical, and enzymatic crosslinking to change properties and cell growth behavior. 3D printing allowed for control of scaffold pore size and geometry. Scaffold structure, porosity, and degradation rate significantly altered the in vivo response. Freeze-dried soy scaffolds had similar biocompatibility as freeze-dried collagen scaffolds of the same protein content. However, the soy scaffolds degraded at a much faster rate, minimizing immunogenicity. Interestingly, subcutaneously implanted soy scaffolds affected blood glucose and insulin sensitivity levels. Furthermore, soy scaffolds implanted in the intraperitoneal cavity attached to adjacent liver tissue with no abnormalities. In vitro, soy scaffolds supported hMSC viability and transdifferentiation into hepatocyte-like cells. These results support the use of soy scaffolds for liver tissue engineering and for treating metabolic diseases. Based on achievable structural and mechanical properties, as well as systemic effects of ingested and degraded soy proteins, soy protein scaffolds may serve as new multifunctional biomaterials for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.

Chien, Karen B.

261

Design, construction and mechanical testing of digital 3D anatomical data-based PCL-HA bone tissue engineering scaffold.  

PubMed

The study aims to investigate the techniques of design and construction of CT 3D reconstructional data-based polycaprolactone (PCL)-hydroxyapatite (HA) scaffold. Femoral and lumbar spinal specimens of eight male New Zealand white rabbits were performed CT and laser scanning data-based 3D printing scaffold processing using PCL-HA powder. Each group was performed eight scaffolds. The CAD-based 3D printed porous cylindrical stents were 16 piece × 3 groups, including the orthogonal scaffold, the Pozi-hole scaffold and the triangular hole scaffold. The gross forms, fiber scaffold diameters and porosities of the scaffolds were measured, and the mechanical testing was performed towards eight pieces of the three kinds of cylindrical scaffolds, respectively. The loading force, deformation, maximum-affordable pressure and deformation value were recorded. The pore-connection rate of each scaffold was 100 % within each group, there was no significant difference in the gross parameters and micro-structural parameters of each scaffold when compared with the design values (P > 0.05). There was no significant difference in the loading force, deformation and deformation value under the maximum-affordable pressure of the three different cylinder scaffolds when the load was above 320 N. The combination of CT and CAD reverse technology could accomplish the design and manufacturing of complex bone tissue engineering scaffolds, with no significant difference in the impacts of the microstructures towards the physical properties of different porous scaffolds under large load. PMID:25596860

Yao, Qingqiang; Wei, Bo; Guo, Yang; Jin, Chengzhe; Du, Xiaotao; Yan, Chao; Yan, Junwei; Hu, Wenhao; Xu, Yan; Zhou, Zhi; Wang, Yijin; Wang, Liming

2015-01-01

262

Gelatin-PMVE/MA composite scaffold promotes expansion of embryonic stem cells.  

PubMed

We introduce a new composite scaffold of gelatin and polymethyl vinyl ether-alt-maleic anhydride (PMVE/MA) for expansion of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) in an in vitro environment. To optimize the scaffold, we prepared a gelatin scaffold (G) and three composite scaffolds namely GP-1, GP-2, and GP-3 with varying PMVE/MA concentrations (0.2-1%) and characterized them by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), swelling study, compression testing and FTIR. SEM micrographs revealed interconnected porous structure in all the scaffolds. The permissible hemolysis ratio and activation of platelets by scaffolds confirmed the hemocompatibility of scaffolds. Initial biocompatibility assessment of scaffolds was conducted using hepatocarcinoma (Hep G2) cells and adhesion, proliferation and infiltration of Hep G2 cells in depth of scaffolds were observed, proving the scaffold's biocompatibility. Further Oct4B2 mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs), which harbor a green fluorescence protein transgene under regulatory control of the Oct4 promotor, were examined for expansion on scaffolds with MTT assay. The GP-2 scaffold demonstrated the best cell proliferation and was further explored for ESC adherence and infiltration in depth (SEM and confocal), and pluripotent state of mESCs was assessed with the expression of Oct4-GFP and stage-specific embryonic antigen-1 (SSEA-1). This study reports the first demonstration of biocompatibility of gelatin-PMVE/MA composite scaffold and presents this scaffold as a promising candidate for embryonic stem cell based tissue engineering. PMID:24582239

Chhabra, Hemlata; Gupta, Priyanka; Verma, Paul J; Jadhav, Sameer; Bellare, Jayesh R

2014-04-01

263

Surface modification of polycaprolactone scaffolds fabricated via selective laser sintering for cartilage tissue engineering.  

PubMed

Surface modified porous polycaprolactone scaffolds fabricated via rapid prototyping techniques were evaluated for cartilage tissue engineering purposes. Polycaprolactone scaffolds manufactured by selective laser sintering (SLS) were surface modified through immersion coating with either gelatin or collagen. Three groups of scaffolds were created and compared for both mechanical and biological properties. Surface modification with collagen or gelatin improved the hydrophilicity, water uptake and mechanical strength of the pristine scaffold. From microscopic observations and biochemical analysis, collagen-modified scaffold was the best for cartilage tissue engineering in terms of cell proliferation and extracellular matrix production. Chondrocytes/collagen-modified scaffold constructs were implanted subdermally in the dorsal spaces of female nude mice. Histological and immunohistochemical staining of the retrieved implants after 8 weeks revealed enhanced cartilage tissue formation. We conclude that collagen surface modification through immersion coating on SLS-manufactured scaffolds is a feasible scaffold for cartilage tissue engineering in craniofacial reconstruction. PMID:24857507

Chen, Chih-Hao; Lee, Ming-Yih; Shyu, Victor Bong-Hang; Chen, Yi-Chieh; Chen, Chien-Tzung; Chen, Jyh-Ping

2014-07-01

264

Composite scaffolds of mesoporous bioactive glass and polyamide for bone repair  

PubMed Central

A bone-implanted porous scaffold of mesoporous bioglass/polyamide composite (m-BPC) was fabricated, and its biological properties were investigated. The results indicate that the m-BPC scaffold contained open and interconnected macropores ranging 400–500 ?m, and exhibited a porosity of 76%. The attachment ratio of MG-63 cells on m-BPC was higher than polyamide scaffolds at 4 hours, and the cells with normal phenotype extended well when cultured with m-BPC and polyamide scaffolds. When the m-BPC scaffolds were implanted into bone defects of rabbit thighbone, histological evaluation confirmed that the m-BPC scaffolds exhibited excellent biocompatibility and osteoconductivity, and more effective osteogenesis than the polyamide scaffolds in vivo. The results indicate that the m-BPC scaffolds improved the efficiency of new bone regeneration and, thus, have clinical potential for bone repair. PMID:22679367

Su, Jiacan; Cao, Liehu; Yu, Baoqing; Song, Shaojun; Liu, Xinwei; Wang, Zhiwei; Li, Ming

2012-01-01

265

Co-immobilization of cyclohexanone monooxygenase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase onto polyethylenimine-porous agarose polymeric composite using ? irradiation to use in biotechnological processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The co-immobilization of cyclohexanone monooxygenase (CHMO) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) was optimized by completely coating, via covalent immobilization, the surface aldehyde groups of porous agarose (glyoxyl-agarose) with amine groups of polyethylenimine (PEI). The highest immobilization efficiency (˜87%) (activity of enzyme per amount of immobilized enzyme) was obtained with a CHMO/G6PDH ratio 2:1. The effects of different ratios of the support to the amount of enzymes (CHMO:G6PDH=2:1), the optimum incubation pH and the incubation time on the enzymatic activity of the enzymes were determined and found to be 5:1, 8.5 and 30 min, respectively. Subjecting the co-immobilized enzymes to doses of ?-radiation (5-100 kGy) resulted in complete loss in the activity of the free enzymes at a dose of 40 kGy, while the co-immobilized ones showed relatively high resistance to ?-radiation up to a dose of 50 kGy.

Atia, K. S.

2005-06-01

266

Investigation of potential injectable polymeric biomaterials for bone regeneration  

PubMed Central

This article reviews the potential injectable polymeric biomaterial scaffolds currently being investigated for application in bone tissue regeneration. Two types of injectable biomaterial scaffolds are focused in this review, including injectable microspheres and injectable gels. The injectable microspheres section covers several polymeric materials, including poly(l-lactide-co-glycolide)-PLGA, poly (propylene fumarate), and chitosan. The injectable gel section covers alginate gels, hyaluronan hydrogels, poly(ethylene-glycol)-PEG hydrogels, and PEG-PLGA copolymer hydrogels. This review focuses on the effect of cellular behaviorin vitro andin vivo in terms of material properties of polymers, such as biodegradation, biocompatibility, porosity, microsphere size, and cross-linking nature. Injectable polymeric biomaterials offer a major advantage for orthopedic applications by allowing the ability to use noninvasive or minimally invasive treatment methods. Therefore, combining injectable polymeric biomaterial scaffolds with cells have a significant potential to treat orthopedic bone defects, including spine fusion, and craniofacial and periodontal defects. PMID:23401336

Dreifke, Michael B.; Ebraheim, Nabil A.; Jayasuriya, Ambalangodage C.

2014-01-01

267

Intervertebral Disk Tissue Engineering Using Biphasic Silk Composite Scaffolds  

PubMed Central

Scaffolds composed of synthetic, natural, and hybrid materials have been investigated as options to restore intervertebral disk (IVD) tissue function. These systems fall short of the lamellar features of the native annulus fibrosus (AF) tissue or focus only on the nucleus pulposus (NP) tissue. However, successful regeneration of the entire IVD requires a combination approach to restore functions of both the AF and NP. To address this need, a biphasic biomaterial structure was generated by using silk protein for the AF and fibrin/hyaluronic acid (HA) gels for the NP. Two cell types, porcine AF cells and chondrocytes, were utilized. For the AF tissue, two types of scaffold morphologies, lamellar and porous, were studied with the porous system serving as a control. Toroidal scaffolds formed out of the lamellar, and porous silk materials were used to generate structures with an outer diameter of 8?mm, inner diameter of 3.5?mm, and a height of 3?mm (the interlamellar distance in the lamellar scaffold was 150–250??m, and the average pore sizes in the porous scaffolds were 100–250??m). The scaffolds were seeded with porcine AF cells to form AF tissue, whereas porcine chondrocytes were encapsulated in fibrin/HA hydrogels for the NP tissue and embedded in the center of the toroidal disk. Histology, biochemical assays, and gene expression indicated that the lamellar scaffolds supported AF-like tissue over 2 weeks. Porcine chondrocytes formed the NP phenotype within the hydrogel after 4 weeks of culture with the AF tissue that had been previously cultured for 2 weeks, for a total of 6 weeks of cultivation. This biphasic scaffold simulating in combination of both AF and NP tissues was effective in the formation of the total IVD in vitro. PMID:21919790

Park, Sang-Hyug; Gil, Eun Seok; Cho, Hongsik; Mandal, Biman B.; Tien, Lee W.; Min, Byoung-Hyun

2012-01-01

268

Porous polymer media  

DOEpatents

Highly crosslinked monolithic porous polymer materials for chromatographic applications. By using solvent compositions that provide not only for polymerization of acrylate monomers in such a fashion that a porous polymer network is formed prior to phase separation but also for exchanging the polymerization solvent for a running buffer using electroosmotic flow, the need for high pressure purging is eliminated. The polymer materials have been shown to be an effective capillary electrochromatographic separations medium at lower field strengths than conventional polymer media. Further, because of their highly crosslinked nature these polymer materials are structurally stable in a wide range of organic and aqueous solvents and over a pH range of 2-12.

Shepodd, Timothy J. (Livermore, CA)

2002-01-01

269

Evaluation of the potential of novel PCL-PPDX biodegradable scaffolds as support materials for cartilage tissue engineering.  

PubMed

Cartilage is a specialized tissue represented by a group of particular cells (the chondrocytes) and an abundant extracellular matrix. Because of the reduced regenerative capacity of this tissue, cartilage injuries are often difficult to handle. Nowadays tissue engineering has emerged as a very promising discipline, and biodegradable polymeric scaffolds are widely used as tissue supports. In cartilage injuries, the use of autologous chondrocyte implantation from non-affected cartilage zones has emerged as a very interesting technique, where chondrocytes are expanded in order to obtain a greater number of cells. Nevertheless, it has been reported that chondrocytes in bidimensional cultures suffer a dedifferentiation process. The present study sought, in the first place, to standardize a novel protocol in order to obtain primary cultures of chondrocytes from newborn rabbit hyaline cartilage from the xiphoid process. Second, the potential of porous three-dimensional (3D) biodegradable polymeric matrices as support materials for chondrocytes was evaluated: a novel poly(?-caprolactone)-poly(p-dioxanone) (PCL-PPDX) blend in a 90:10 w:w ratio and poly(?-caprolactone) (PCL). After achieving the standardization, a typical round-shaped chondrocyte morphology and the expression of collagen type II and aggrecan, evaluated by RT-PCR, were observed. Second-passage chondrocytes adhered effectively to these scaffolds, although cell growth at 7 days in culture was significantly less in the PCL-PPDX blend. After 3 weeks of culture on PCL-PPDX or PCL, the cells expressed collagen type II. The present study demonstrates the potential, unknown until now, of PCL-PPDX blend scaffolds in the field of cartilage tissue engineering. PMID:21548137

Chaim, Isaac A; Sabino, Marcos A; Mendt, Mayela; Müller, Alejandro J; Ajami, Diana

2012-04-01

270

Three-Dimensional Scaffolds Offer New Tool to Study Cancer | Physical Sciences in Oncology  

Cancer.gov

Porous polymer scaffolds fabricated to support the growth of biological tissue for implantation may hold the potential to greatly accelerate the development of cancer therapeutics, according to research published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

271

Bioinspired porous membranes containing polymer nanoparticles for wound healing.  

PubMed

Skin damages covering a surface larger than 4 cm(2) require a regenerative strategy based on the use of appropriate wound dressing supports to facilitate the rapid tissue replacement and efficient self-healing of the lost or damaged tissue. In the present work, A novel biomimetic approach is proposed for the design of a therapeutic porous construct made of poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) fabricated by thermally induced phase separation (TIPS). Biomimicry of ECM was achieved by immobilization of type I collagen through a two-step plasma treatment for wound healing. Anti-inflammatory (indomethacin)-containing polymeric nanoparticles (nps) were loaded within the porous membranes in order to minimize undesired cell response caused by post-operative inflammation. The biological response to the scaffold was analyzed by using human keratinocytes cell cultures. In this work, a promising biomimetic construct for wound healing and soft tissue regeneration with drug-release properties was fabricated since it shows (i) proper porosity, pore size, and mechanical properties, (ii) biomimicry of ECM, and (iii) therapeutic potential. PMID:24522948

Ferreira, Ana M; Mattu, Clara; Ranzato, Elia; Ciardelli, Gianluca

2014-12-01

272

Microfluidic devices and methods including porous polymer monoliths  

DOEpatents

Microfluidic devices and methods including porous polymer monoliths are described. Polymerization techniques may be used to generate porous polymer monoliths having pores defined by a liquid component of a fluid mixture. The fluid mixture may contain iniferters and the resulting porous polymer monolith may include surfaces terminated with iniferter species. Capture molecules may then be grafted to the monolith pores.

Hatch, Anson V; Sommer, Gregory J; Singh, Anup K; Wang, Ying-Chih; Abhyankar, Vinay V

2014-04-22

273

Fused deposition modeling of novel scaffold architectures for tissue engineering applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fused deposition modeling, a rapid prototyping technology, was used to produce novel scaffolds with honeycomb-like pattern, fully interconnected channel network, and controllable porosity and channel size. A bioresorbable polymer poly(?-caprolactone) (PCL) was developed as a filament modeling material to produce porous scaffolds, made of layers of directionally aligned microfilaments, using this computer-controlled extrusion and deposition process. The PCL scaffolds were

Iwan Zein; Dietmar W. Hutmacher; Kim Cheng Tan; Swee Hin Teoh

2002-01-01

274

Electrically Conductive Chitosan/Carbon Scaffolds for Cardiac Tissue Engineering  

PubMed Central

In this work, carbon nanofibers were used as doping material to develop a highly conductive chitosan-based composite. Scaffolds based on chitosan only and chitosan/carbon composites were prepared by precipitation. Carbon nanofibers were homogeneously dispersed throughout the chitosan matrix, and the composite scaffold was highly porous with fully interconnected pores. Chitosan/carbon scaffolds had an elastic modulus of 28.1 ± 3.3 KPa, similar to that measured for rat myocardium, and excellent electrical properties, with a conductivity of 0.25 ± 0.09 S/m. The scaffolds were seeded with neonatal rat heart cells and cultured for up to 14 days, without electrical stimulation. After 14 days of culture, the scaffold pores throughout the construct volume were filled with cells. The metabolic activity of cells in chitosan/carbon constructs was significantly higher as compared to cells in chitosan scaffolds. The incorporation of carbon nanofibers also led to increased expression of cardiac-specific genes involved in muscle contraction and electrical coupling. This study demonstrates that the incorporation of carbon nanofibers into porous chitosan scaffolds improved the properties of cardiac tissue constructs, presumably through enhanced transmission of electrical signals between the cells. PMID:24417502

2015-01-01

275

Scaffold design and fabrication technologies for engineering tissues — state of the art and future perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today, tissue engineers are attempting to engineer virtually every human tissue. Potential tissue-engineered products include cartilage, bone, heart valves, nerves, muscle, bladder, liver, etc. Tissue engineering techniques generally require the use of a porous scaffold, which serves as a threedimensional template for initial cell attachment and subsequent tissue formation both in vitro and in vivo. The scaffold provides the necessary

Dietmar W. Hutmacher

2001-01-01

276

The Design of Scaffolds for Use in Tissue Engineering. Part I. Traditional Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

In tissue engineering, a highly porous artificial extracellular matrix or scaffold is required to accommodate mammalian cells and guide their growth and tissue regeneration in three dimensions. However, existing three-dimensional scaffolds for tissue engineering proved less than ideal for actual applications, not only because they lack mechanical strength, but they also do not guarantee interconnected channels. In this paper, the

Shoufeng Yang; Kah-Fai Leong; Zhaohui Du; Chee-Kai Chua

2001-01-01

277

Three-dimensional polycaprolactone scaffold via needleless electrospinning promotes cell proliferation and infiltration.  

PubMed

Electrospinning has been widely used in fabrication of tissue engineering scaffolds. Currently, most of the electrospun nanofibers performed like a conventional two-dimensional (2D) membrane, which hindered their further applications. Moreover, the low production rate of the traditional needle-electrospinning (NE) also limited the commercialization. In this article, disc-electrospinning (DE) was utilized to fabricate a three-dimensional (3D) scaffold consisting of porous macro/nanoscale fibers. The morphology of the porous structure was investigated by scanning electron microscopy images, which showed irregular pores of nanoscale spreading on the surface of DE polycaprolactone (PCL) fibers. Protein adsorption assessment illustrated the porous structure could significantly enhance proteins pickup, which was 55% higher than that of solid fiber scaffolds. Fibroblasts were cultured on the scaffold. The results demonstrated that DE fiber scaffold could enhance initial cell attachment. In the 7 days of culture, fibroblasts grew faster on DE fiber scaffold in comparison with solid fiber, solvent cast (SC) film and TCP. Fibroblasts on DE fibers showed a stretched shape and integrated with the porous surface tightly. Cells were also found to migrate into the DE scaffold up to 800?m. Results supported the use of DE PCL fibers as a 3D tissue engineering scaffold in soft tissue regeneration. PMID:24996758

Li, Dawei; Wu, Tong; He, Nanfei; Wang, Jing; Chen, Weiming; He, Liping; Huang, Chen; Ei-Hamshary, Hany A; Al-Deyab, Salem S; Ke, Qinfei; Mo, Xiumei

2014-09-01

278

Electrospun polyurethane scaffolds for proliferation and neuronal differentiation of human embryonic stem cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adult central nervous system (CNS) tissue has a limited capacity to recover after trauma or disease. Hence, tissue engineering scaffolds intended for CNS repair and rehabilitation have been subject to intense research effort. Electrospun porous scaffolds, mimicking the natural three-dimensional environment of the in vivo extracellular matrix (ECM) and providing physical support, have been identified as promising candidates for CNS

Björn Carlberg; Mathilda Zetterström Axell; Ulf Nannmark; Johan Liu; H. Georg Kuhn

2009-01-01

279

Synthesis and characterization of nanocomposite scaffolds based on triblock copolymer of L-lactide, ?-caprolactone and nano-hydroxyapatite for bone tissue engineering.  

PubMed

The employment of biodegradable polymer scaffolds is one of the main approaches for achieving a tissue engineered construct to reproduce bone tissues, which provide a three dimensional template to regenerate desirable tissues for different applications. The main goal of this study is to design a novel triblock scaffold reinforced with nano-hydroxyapatite (nHA) for hard tissue engineering using gas foaming/salt leaching method with minimum solvent usage. With this end in view, the biodegradable triblock copolymers of l-lactide and ?-caprolactone with different mol% were synthesized by ring-opening polymerization method in the presence of Sn(Oct)2 catalyst as initiator and ethylene glycol as co-initiator. The chemical compositions of biodegradable copolymers were characterized by means of FTIR and NMR. The thermal and crystallization behaviors of copolymers were characterized using TGA and DSC thermograms. Moreover, nano-hydroxyapatite was synthesized by the chemical precipitation process and was thoroughly characterized by FTIR, XRD and TEM. Additionally, the nanocomposites with different contents of nHA were prepared by mixing triblock copolymer with nHA. Mechanical properties of the prepared nanocomposites were evaluated by stress-strain measurements. It was found that the nanocomposite with 30% of nHA showed the optimum result. Therefore, nanocomposite scaffolds with 30% nHA were fabricated by gas foaming/salt leaching method and SEM images were used to observe the microstructure and morphology of nanocomposites and nanocomposite scaffolds before and after cell culture. The in-vitro and cell culture tests were also carried out to further evaluate the biological properties. The results revealed that the porous scaffolds were biocompatible to the osteoblast cells because the cells spread and grew well. The resultant nanocomposites could be considered as good candidates for use in bone tissue engineering. PMID:25063111

Torabinejad, Bahman; Mohammadi-Rovshandeh, Jamshid; Davachi, Seyed Mohammad; Zamanian, Ali

2014-09-01

280

ROMP-Derived cyclooctene-based monolithic polymeric materials reinforced with inorganic nanoparticles for applications in tissue engineering  

PubMed Central

Summary Porous monolithic inorganic/polymeric hybrid materials have been prepared via ring-opening metathesis copolymerization starting from a highly polar monomer, i.e., cis-5-cyclooctene-trans-1,2-diol and a 7-oxanorborn-2-ene-derived cross-linker in the presence of porogenic solvents and two types of inorganic nanoparticles (i.e., CaCO3 and calcium hydroxyapatite, respectively) using the third-generation Grubbs initiator RuCl2(Py)2(IMesH2)(CHPh). The physico-chemical properties of the monolithic materials, such as pore size distribution and microhardness were studied with regard to the nanoparticle type and content. Moreover, the reinforced monoliths were tested for the possible use as scaffold materials in tissue engineering, by carrying out cell cultivation experiments with human adipose tissue-derived stromal cells. PMID:21283558

Weichelt, Franziska; Lenz, Solvig; Tiede, Stefanie; Reinhardt, Ingrid

2010-01-01

281

Biologically inspired growth of hydroxyapatite crystals on bio-organics-defined scaffolds  

SciTech Connect

Graphical abstract: Petal-like crystals were observed to form on the surface of the BG/COL/ChS scaffolds. Highlights: ? Porous scaffolds were prepared using bioglass, collagen and chondroitin sulfate. ? Highly oriented HA crystals were grown on scaffolds using simulated body fluids ? The microstructure and orientation of HA were explained by molecular configuration. - Abstract: Several bio-organics-defined composite scaffolds were prepared using 58s-bioglass (BG), collagen (Col) and chondroitin sulfate (ChS). These scaffolds possess highly porous structure. X-ray diffraction of these scaffolds strongly indicated that hydroxyapatite (HA) crystals formed on their surfaces in simulated body fluids within 3 d, and similar formation process of crystals could be obtained on BG/Col and BG/Col/ChS scaffolds. The morphology and structure of the crystals were further examined by scanning electron microscopy. The results obtained indicate that an apatite with petal-like structure similar to that found on BG/Col scaffolds can be produced on BG/Col/ChS scaffolds through biomimetic synthesis, while that on BG/ChS scaffolds took place differently. The differences could be explained by self-assembly processes and the different macromolecular configurations of the Col and ChS fibrils which self-assemble spontaneously into their fibers. On the other hand, the bio-organics-defined composites have good cell biocompability. The results may be applicable to develop tailored biomaterials for peculiar bone substitute.

Yang, Chunrong, E-mail: milkhoney3@163.com [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Fujian University of Technology, Fuzhou 350108 (China); Li, Yuli; Nan, Kaihui [Eye Hospital, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou 325027 (China)

2013-03-15

282

Validation of a Fluid–Structure Interaction Model of Solute Transport in Pores of Cyclically Deformed Tissue Scaffolds  

PubMed Central

Convection induced by repetitive compression of porous tissue scaffolds enhances solute transport inside the scaffold. Our previous experiments have shown that pore size, shape, and orientation with respect to strain direction greatly influence loading-induced solute transport. The objective of this study was to develop a computational model of deformation-induced solute transport in porous tissue scaffolds, which included the pore geometry of the scaffold. This geometry consisted of a cubic scaffold with single channel in the middle of the scaffold, immersed in a fluid reservoir. Cylindrical pores with circular or elliptic cross section, and spheroid pores were modeled. The scaffold was cyclically compressed from one side, causing fluid motion and dispersion of solute inside the scaffold pore. Scaffold deformation was solved using the finite element method, and fluid flow and solute transport were solved using the finite volume method. The distortion of the scaffold–fluid interface was transferred as a boundary condition to the fluid flow solver. Both convection and diffusion were included in the computations. The solute transport rates in the different scaffold pore geometries agreed well with our previous experimental results obtained with X-ray microimaging. This model will be used to explore transport properties of a spectrum of novel scaffold designs. PMID:20136371

Op Den Buijs, Jorn; Ritman, Erik L.

2010-01-01

283

Cell Population Kinetics of Collagen Scaffolds in Ex Vivo Oral Wound Repair  

PubMed Central

Biodegradable collagen scaffolds are used clinically for oral soft tissue augmentation to support wound healing. This study sought to provide a novel ex vivo model for analyzing healing kinetics and gene expression of primary human gingival fibroblasts (hGF) within collagen scaffolds. Sponge type and gel type scaffolds with and without platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF) were assessed in an hGF containing matrix. Morphology was evaluated with scanning electron microscopy, and hGF metabolic activity using MTT. We quantitated the population kinetics within the scaffolds based on cell density and distance from the scaffold border of DiI-labled hGFs over a two-week observation period. Gene expression was evaluated with gene array and qPCR. The sponge type scaffolds showed a porous morphology. Absolute cell number and distance was higher in sponge type scaffolds when compared to gel type scaffolds, in particular during the first week of observation. PDGF incorporated scaffolds increased cell numbers, distance, and formazan formation in the MTT assay. Gene expression dynamics revealed the induction of key genes associated with the generation of oral tissue. DKK1, CYR61, CTGF, TGFBR1 levels were increased and integrin ITGA2 levels were decreased in the sponge type scaffolds compared to the gel type scaffold. The results suggest that this novel model of oral wound healing provides insights into population kinetics and gene expression dynamics of biodegradable scaffolds. PMID:25397671

Agis, Hermann; Collins, Amy; Taut, Andrei D.; Jin, Qiming; Kruger, Laura; Görlach, Christoph; Giannobile, William V.

2014-01-01

284

Three-dimensional, bioactive, biodegradable, polymerbioactive glass composite scaffolds with  

E-print Network

(3-D), porous composite of polylactide-co-glycolide (PLAGA) and 45S5 bioactive glass (BGThree-dimensional, bioactive, biodegradable, polymer­bioactive glass composite scaffolds, with mechanical properties superior to PLAGA alone. The addition of bioactive glass granules to the PLAGA matrix

Lu, Helen H.

285

Enhancement of neurite outgrowth in neuron cancer stem cells by growth on 3-D collagen scaffolds  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Neuron cancer stem cells (NCSCs) behave high multiply of growth on collagen scaffold. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Enhancement of NCSCs neurite outgrowth on porous collagen scaffold. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 3-D collagen culture of NCSCs shows an advance differentiation than 2-D culture. -- Abstract: Collagen is one component of the extracellular matrix that has been widely used for constructive remodeling to facilitate cell growth and differentiation. The 3-D distribution and growth of cells within the porous scaffold suggest a clinical significance for nerve tissue engineering. In the current study, we investigated proliferation and differentiation of neuron cancer stem cells (NCSCs) on a 3-D porous collagen scaffold that mimics the natural extracellular matrix. We first generated green fluorescence protein (GFP) expressing NCSCs using a lentiviral system to instantly monitor the transitions of morphological changes during growth on the 3-D scaffold. We found that proliferation of GFP-NCSCs increased, and a single cell mass rapidly grew with unrestricted expansion between days 3 and 9 in culture. Moreover, immunostaining with neuronal nuclei (NeuN) revealed that NCSCs grown on the 3-D collagen scaffold significantly enhanced neurite outgrowth. Our findings confirmed that the 80 {mu}m porous collagen scaffold could enhance attachment, viability and differentiation of the cancer neural stem cells. This result could provide a new application for nerve tissue engineering and nerve regeneration.

Chen, Chih-Hao [Department of Electrical Engineering, I-Shou University, Taiwan, ROC (China) [Department of Electrical Engineering, I-Shou University, Taiwan, ROC (China); Neurosurgery, Department of Surgery, Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Taiwan, ROC (China); Department of Biomedical Engineering, I-Shou University, Taiwan, ROC (China); Kuo, Shyh Ming [Department of Biomedical Engineering, I-Shou University, Taiwan, ROC (China)] [Department of Biomedical Engineering, I-Shou University, Taiwan, ROC (China); Liu, Guei-Sheung [Centre for Eye Research Australia, University of Melbourne (Australia)] [Centre for Eye Research Australia, University of Melbourne (Australia); Chen, Wan-Nan U. [Department of Biological Science and Technology, I-Shou University, Taiwan, ROC (China)] [Department of Biological Science and Technology, I-Shou University, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chuang, Chin-Wen [Department of Electrical Engineering, I-Shou University, Taiwan, ROC (China)] [Department of Electrical Engineering, I-Shou University, Taiwan, ROC (China); Liu, Li-Feng, E-mail: liulf@isu.edu.tw [Department of Biological Science and Technology, I-Shou University, Taiwan, ROC (China)] [Department of Biological Science and Technology, I-Shou University, Taiwan, ROC (China)

2012-11-09

286

Bio-mimetic hollow scaffolds for long bone replacement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The tissue engineering focuses on synthesis or regeneration of tissues and organs. The hierarchical structure of nearly all porous scaffolds on the macro, micro- and nanometer scales resembles that of engineering foams dedicated for technical applications, but differ from the complex architecture of long bone. A major obstacle of scaffold architecture in tissue regeneration is the limited cell infiltration as the result of the engineering approaches. The biological cells seeded on the three-dimensional constructs are finally only located on the scaffold's periphery. This paper reports on the successful realization of calcium phosphate scaffolds with an anatomical architecture similar to long bones. Two base materials, namely nano-porous spray-dried hydroxyapatite hollow spheres and tri-calcium phosphate powder, were used to manufacture cylindrically shaped, 3D-printed scaffolds with micro-passages and one central macro-canal following the general architecture of long bones. The macro-canal is built for the surgical placement of nerves or larger blood vessels. The micro-passages allow for cell migration and capillary formation through the entire scaffold. Finally, the nanoporosity is essential for the molecule transport crucial for signaling, any cell nutrition and waste removal.

Müller, Bert; Deyhle, Hans; Fierz, Fabienne C.; Irsen, Stephan H.; Yoon, Jin Y.; Mushkolaj, Shpend; Boss, Oliver; Vorndran, Elke; Gburek, Uwe; Degistirici, Özer; Thie, Michael; Leukers, Barbara; Beckmann, Felix; Witte, Frank

2009-08-01

287

Processing and characterization of innovative scaffolds for bone tissue engineering.  

PubMed

A new protocol, based on a modified replication method, is proposed to obtain bioactive glass scaffolds. The main feature of these samples, named "shell scaffolds", is their external surface that, like a compact and porous shell, provides both high permeability to fluids and mechanical support. In this work, two different scaffolds were prepared using the following slurry components: 59 % water, 29 % 45S5 Bioglass(®) and 12 % polyvinylic binder and 51 % water, 34 % 45S5 Bioglass(®), 10 % polyvinylic binder and 5 % polyethylene. All the proposed samples were characterized by a widespread microporosity and an interconnected macroporosity, with a total porosity of 80 % vol. After immersion in a simulated body fluid (SBF), the scaffolds showed strong ability to develop hydroxyapatite, enhanced by the high specific surface of the porous systems. Moreover preliminary biological evaluations suggested a promising role of the shell scaffolds for applications in bone tissue regeneration. As regards the mechanical behaviour, the shell scaffolds could be easily handled without damages, due to their resistant external surface. More specifically, they possessed suitable mechanical properties for bone regeneration, as proved by compression tests performed before and after immersion in SBF. PMID:22441671

Bellucci, D; Chiellini, F; Ciardelli, G; Gazzarri, M; Gentile, P; Sola, A; Cannillo, V

2012-06-01

288

Scaffold characterization using NLO multimodal microscopy in metrology for regenerative medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Metrology in regenerative medicine aims to develop traceable measurement technologies for characterizing cellular and macromolecule behaviour in regenerative medicine products and processes. One key component in regenerative medicine is using three-dimensional porous scaffolds to guide cells during the regeneration process. The regeneration of specific tissues guided by tissue analogous substrates is dependent on diverse scaffold architectural properties that can be derived quantitatively from scaffolds images. This paper discuss the results obtained with the multimodal NLO microscope recently realized in our laboratory in characterizing 3D tissue engineered (TE) scaffolds colonized from human Mesenchimal stem cells (hMSC), focusing on the study of the three-dimensional metrological parameters.

Mortati, Leonardo; Divieto, Carla; Boffitto, Monica; Sartori, Susanna; Ciardelli, Gianluca; Sassi, Maria Paola

2013-09-01

289

Micropatterning electrospun scaffolds to create intrinsic vascular networks.  

PubMed

Sufficient vascularization is critical to sustaining viable tissue-engineered (TE) constructs after implantation. Despite significant progress, current approaches lack suturability, porosity, and biodegradability, which hinders rapid perfusion and remodeling in vivo. Consequently, TE vascular networks capable of direct anastomosis to host vasculature and immediate perfusion upon implantation still remain elusive. Here, a hybrid fabrication method is presented for micropatterning fibrous scaffolds that are suturable, porous, and biodegradable. Fused deposition modeling offers an inexpensive and automated approach to creating sacrificial templates with vascular-like branching. By electrospinning around these poly(vinyl alcohol) templates and dissolving them in water, microvascular patterns were transferred to fibrous scaffolds. Results indicated that these scaffolds have sufficient suture retention strength to permit direct anastomosis in future studies. Vascularization of these scaffolds is demonstrated by in vitro endothelialization and perfusion. PMID:25142314

Jeffries, Eric M; Nakamura, Shintaro; Lee, Kee-Won; Clampffer, Jimmy; Ijima, Hiroyuki; Wang, Yadong

2014-11-01

290

Development of channeled nanofibrous scaffolds for oriented tissue engineering  

PubMed Central

A tissue-engineering scaffold resembling the characteristic structure of the natural extracellular matrix can often facilitate tissue regeneration. Nerve and tendon are oriented micro-scale sheathed tissue bundles. In this study, a method combining injection molding and thermally induced phase separation techniques was developed to create single- and multiple-channeled nanofibrous (NF) poly(L-lactic acid) scaffolds. The overall shape, the number and arrangement of channels, and the channel wall matrix architecture of the scaffolds were tailored by altering the configuration of the mold assembly and the phase separation conditions. The porosity and mechanical properties of the scaffolds were tailored by varying the concentration of the polymer solution used. The porous NF channel wall matrix provided a beneficial luminal microenvironment that increased protein adsorption and promoted the attachment of PC12 rat neuronal cells and rabbit patellar tendon fibroblast cells, showing potential for neural and tendon tissue regeneration. PMID:22508530

Sun, Chenghui; Jin, Xiaobing; Holzwarth, Jeremy M.; Liu, Xiaohua; Hu, Jiang; Gupte, Melanie J.; Zhao, Yaoming; Ma, Peter X

2013-01-01

291

Biological evaluation of human hair keratin scaffolds for skin wound repair and regeneration.  

PubMed

The cytocompatibility, in vivo biodegradation and wound healing of keratin biomaterials were investigated. For the purposes, three groups of keratin scaffolds were fabricated by freeze-drying reduced solutions at 2 wt.%, 4 wt.% and 8 wt.% keratins extracted from human hairs. These scaffolds exhibited evenly distributed high porous structures with pore size of 120-220 ?m and the porosity >90%. NIH3T3 cells proliferated well on these scaffolds in culture lasting up to 22 days. Confocal micrographs stained with AO visually revealed cell attachment and infiltration as well as scaffold architectural stability. In vivo animal experiments were conducted with 4 wt.% keratin scaffolds. Early degradation of subcutaneously implanted scaffolds occurred at 3 weeks in the outermost surface, in concomitant with inflammatory response. At 5 weeks, the overall porous structure of scaffolds severely deteriorated while the early inflammatory response in the outermost surface obviously subsided. A faster keratin biodegradation was observed in repairing full-thickness skin defects. Compared with the blank control, keratin scaffolds gave rise to more blood vessels at 2 weeks and better complete wound repair at 3 weeks with a thicker epidermis, less contraction and newly formed hair follicles. These preliminary results suggest that human hair keratin scaffolds are promising dermal substitutes for skin regeneration. PMID:25427469

Xu, Songmei; Sang, Lin; Zhang, Yaping; Wang, Xiaoliang; Li, Xudong

2013-03-01

292

Sol-gel method to fabricate CaP scaffolds by robocasting for tissue engineering.  

PubMed

Highly porous calcium phosphate (CaP) scaffolds for bone-tissue engineering were fabricated by combining a robocasting process with a sol-gel synthesis that mixed Calcium Nitrate Tetrahydrate and Triethyl Phosphite precursors in an aqueous medium. The resulting gels were used to print scaffolds by robocasting without the use of binder to increase the viscosity of the paste. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed that the process yielded hydroxyapatite and ?-tricalcium phosphate biphasic composite powders. Thus, the scaffold composition after crystallization of the amorphous structure could be easily modified by varying the initial Ca/P ratio during synthesis. The compressive strengths of the scaffolds are ~6 MPa, which is in the range of human cancellous bone (2-12 MPa). These highly porous scaffolds (~73 vol% porosity) are composed of macro-pores of ~260 ?m in size; such porosity is expected to enable bone ingrowth into the scaffold for bone repair applications. The chemistry, porosity, and surface topography of such scaffolds can also be modified by the process parameters to favor bone formation. The studied sol-gel process can be used to coat these scaffolds by dip-coating, which induces a significant enhancement of mechanical properties. This can adjust scaffold properties such as composition and surface morphology, which consequently may improve their performances. PMID:22311079

Houmard, Manuel; Fu, Qiang; Saiz, Eduardo; Tomsia, Antoni P

2012-04-01

293

PCL-coated hydroxyapatite scaffold derived from cuttlefish bone: in vitro cell culture studies.  

PubMed

In the present study, we examined the potential of using highly porous poly(?-caprolactone) (PCL)-coated hydroxyapatite (HAp) scaffold derived from cuttlefish bone for bone tissue engineering applications. The cell culture studies were performed in vitro with preosteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells in static culture conditions. Comparisons were made with uncoated HAp scaffold. The attachment and spreading of preosteoblasts on scaffolds were observed by Live/Dead staining Kit. The cells grown on the HAp/PCL composite scaffold exhibited greater spreading than cells grown on the HAp scaffold. DNA quantification and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) confirmed a good proliferation of cells on the scaffolds. DNA content on the HAp/PCL scaffold was significantly higher compared to porous HAp scaffolds. The amount of collagen synthesis was determined using a hydroxyproline assay. The osteoblastic differentiation of the cells was evaluated by determining alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and collagen type I secretion. Furthermore, cell spreading and cell proliferation within scaffolds were observed using a fluorescence microscope. PMID:25063118

Milovac, Dajana; Gamboa-Martínez, Tatiana C; Ivankovic, Marica; Gallego Ferrer, Gloria; Ivankovic, Hrvoje

2014-09-01

294

Sol–gel method to fabricate CaP scaffolds by robocasting for tissue engineering  

PubMed Central

Highly porous calcium phosphate (CaP) scaffolds for bone-tissue engineering were fabricated by combining a robocasting process with a sol–gel synthesis that mixed Calcium Nitrate Tetrahydrate and Triethyl Phosphite precursors in an aqueous medium. The resulting gels were used to print scaffolds by robocasting without the use of binder to increase the viscosity of the paste. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed that the process yielded hydroxyapatite and ?-tricalcium phosphate biphasic composite powders. Thus, the scaffold composition after crystallization of the amorphous structure could be easily modified by varying the initial Ca/P ratio during synthesis. The compressive strengths of the scaffolds are ~6 MPa, which is in the range of human cancellous bone (2–12 MPa). These highly porous scaffolds (~73 vol% porosity) are composed of macro-pores of ~260 ?m in size; such porosity is expected to enable bone ingrowth into the scaffold for bone repair applications. The chemistry, porosity, and surface topography of such scaffolds can also be modified by the process parameters to favor bone formation. The studied sol–gel process can be used to coat these scaffolds by dip-coating, which induces a significant enhancement of mechanical properties. This can adjust scaffold properties such as composition and surface morphology, which consequently may improve their performances. PMID:22311079

Fu, Qiang; Saiz, Eduardo; Tomsia, Antoni P.

2012-01-01

295

In vitro assessment of three-dimensionally plotted nagelschmidtite bioceramic scaffolds with varied macropore morphologies.  

PubMed

It is known that porous scaffolds play an important role in bone/periodontal tissue engineering. A new nagelschmidtite (NAGEL, Ca7Si2P2O16) ceramic has recently been prepared which shows excellent apatite mineralization ability and osteo-/cementostimulation properties in vitro. However, up to now porous NAGEL scaffolds have not been developed yet. There has been no systematic study of the effect of macropore morphology of bioceramic scaffolds on their physico-chemical and biological properties. The aim of this study was to prepare NAGEL scaffolds for bone tissue engineering applications. We applied a modified three-dimensional (3-D) plotting method to prepare highly controllable NAGEL scaffolds and investigated the effect of macropore morphology on the physico-chemical and biological properties. The results showed that the macropore size and morphology of 3-D plotted NAGEL scaffolds could be effectively controlled. Compared with ?-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) scaffolds NAGEL scaffolds possess a significantly enhanced compressive strength, a higher modulus and better degradability. Nagel scaffolds with a square pore morphology presented a higher compressive strength, a higher modulus and greater weight loss rate than those with triangular and parallelogram pore morphologies. In addition, all of the NAGEL scaffolds with the three macropore morphologies supported the attachment and proliferation of MC3T3 cells. The proliferation of MC3T3 cells on NAGEL scaffolds with triangular and parallelogram structures was higher than that on ?-TCP scaffolds with the same pore structure. Cells on all three groups of NAGEL scaffolds revealed higher alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity compared with cells on ?-TCP scaffolds, and among the three NAGEL scaffolds groups those with a parallelogram pore structure showed the highest ALP activity. Furthermore, the angiogenic cell experiments showed that the ionic products from NAGEL scaffolds promoted tube formation, expression of pro-angiogenic factors and their receptors on human umbilical vein endothelial (HUVECs) compared with ?-TCP scaffolds, indicating that NAGEL scaffolds possessed improved angiogenesis capacity. Our results suggest that 3-D plotted NAGEL scaffolds are a promising bioactive material for bone tissue engineering by virtue of their highly controllable macropore structure, excellent mechanical strength, degradability and in vitro biological response to osteogenic/angiogenic cells. PMID:24071000

Xu, Mengchi; Zhai, Dong; Chang, Jiang; Wu, Chengtie

2014-01-01

296

In vitro evaluation of alginate/halloysite nanotube composite scaffolds for tissue engineering.  

PubMed

In this study, a series of alginate/halloysite nanotube (HNTs) composite scaffolds were prepared by solution-mixing and freeze-drying method. HNTs are incorporated into alginate to improve both the mechanical and cell-attachment properties of the scaffolds. The interfacial interactions between alginate and HNTs were confirmed by the atomic force microscope (AFM), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and FTIR spectroscopy. The mechanical, morphological, and physico-chemical properties of the composite scaffolds were investigated. The composite scaffolds exhibit significant enhancement in compressive strength and compressive modulus compared with pure alginate scaffold both in dry and wet states. A well-interconnected porous structure with size in the range of 100-200?m and over 96% porosity is found in the composite scaffolds. X-ray diffraction (XRD) result shows that HNTs are uniformly dispersed and partly oriented in the composite scaffolds. The incorporation of HNTs leads to increase in the scaffold density and decrease in the water swelling ratio of alginate. HNTs improve the stability of alginate scaffolds against enzymatic degradation in PBS solution. Thermogravimetrica analysis (TGA) shows that HNTs can improve the thermal stability of the alginate. The mouse fibroblast cells display better attachment to the alginate/HNT composite than those to the pure alginate, suggesting the good cytocompatibility of the composite scaffolds. Alginate/HNT composite scaffolds exhibit great potential for applications in tissue engineering. PMID:25686999

Liu, Mingxian; Dai, Libing; Shi, Huizhe; Xiong, Sheng; Zhou, Changren

2015-04-01

297

Polycaprolactone nanofiber interspersed collagen type-I scaffold for bone regeneration: a unique injectable osteogenic scaffold.  

PubMed

There is an increasing demand for an injectable cell coupled three-dimensional (3D) scaffold to be used as bone fracture augmentation material. To address this demand, a novel injectable osteogenic scaffold called PN-COL was developed using cells, a natural polymer (collagen type-I), and a synthetic polymer (polycaprolactone (PCL)). The injectable nanofibrous PN-COL is created by interspersing PCL nanofibers within pre-osteoblast cell embedded collagen type-I. This simple yet novel and powerful approach provides a great benefit as an injectable bone scaffold over other non-living bone fracture stabilization polymers, such as polymethylmethacrylate and calcium content resin-based materials. The advantages of injectability and the biomimicry of collagen was coupled with the structural support of PCL nanofibers, to create cell encapsulated injectable 3D bone scaffolds with intricate porous internal architecture and high osteoconductivity. The effects of PCL nanofiber inclusion within the cell encapsulated collagen matrix has been evaluated for scaffold size retention and osteocompatibility, as well as for MC3T3-E1 cells osteogenic activity. The structural analysis of novel bioactive material proved that the material is chemically stable enough in an aqueous solution for an extended period of time without using crosslinking reagents, but it is also viscous enough to be injected through a syringe needle. Data from long-term in vitro proliferation and differentiation data suggests that novel PN-COL scaffolds promote the osteoblast proliferation, phenotype expression, and formation of mineralized matrix. This study demonstrates for the first time the feasibility of creating a structurally competent, injectable, cell embedded bone tissue scaffold. Furthermore, the results demonstrate the advantages of mimicking the hierarchical architecture of native bone with nano- and micro-size formation through introducing PCL nanofibers within macron-size collagen fibers and in promoting osteoblast phenotype progression for bone regeneration. PMID:23804651

Baylan, Nuray; Bhat, Samerna; Ditto, Maggie; Lawrence, Joseph G; Lecka-Czernik, Beata; Yildirim-Ayan, Eda

2013-08-01

298

Small, porous polyacrylate beads  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Uniformly-shaped, porous, round beads are prepared by the co-polymerization of an acrylic monomer and a cross-linking agent in the presence of 0.05 to 5% by weight of an aqueous soluble polymer such as polyethylene oxide. Cross-linking proceeds at high temperature above about 50.degree.C or at a lower temperature with irradiation. Beads of even shape and even size distribution of less than 2 micron diameter are formed. The beads will find use as adsorbents in chromatography and as markers for studies of cell surface receptors.

Rembaum, Alan (Inventor); Yen, Shiao-Ping Siao (Inventor); Dreyer, William J. (Inventor)

1976-01-01

299

Crosslinked, porous, polyacrylate beads  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Uniformly-shaped, porous, round beads are prepared by the co-polymerization of an acrylic monomer and a cross-linking agent in the presence of 0.05 to 5% by weight of an aqueous soluble polymer such as polyethylene oxide. Cross-linking proceeds at high temperature above about 50.degree. C or at a lower temperature with irradiation. Beads of even shape and even size distribution of less than 2 micron diameter are formed. The beads will find use as adsorbents in chromatography and as markers for studies of cell surface receptors.

Rembaum, Alan (Inventor); Yen, Shiao-Ping S. (Inventor); Dreyer, William J. (Inventor)

1977-01-01

300

Crosslinked, porous, polyacrylate beads  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Uniformly-shaped, porous, round beads are prepared by the co-polymerization of an acrylic monomer and a cross-linking agent in the presence of 0.05 to 5% by weight of an aqueous soluble polymer such as polyethylene oxide. Cross-linking proceeds at high temperature above about 50.degree.C or at a lower temperature with irradiation. Beads of even shape and even size distribution of less than 2 micron diameter are formed. The beads will find use as adsorbents in chromatography and as markers for studies of cell surface receptors.

Rembaum, Alan (Inventor); Yen, Shiao-Ping Siao (Inventor); Dreyer, William J. (Inventor)

1976-01-01

301

Nanomechanical testing of polymeric nanofibers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biodegradable polymeric nanofibrous scaffold comprises individual nanofibers where their stiffnesses can promote or undermine the various cellular functions as well as structural integrity of the scaffold. As such, there is a need to investigate the nanomechanical properties of these individual nanofibers. However, conducting mechanical tests of individual fibers at the nanometer scale can pose great challenges and difficulties. Here, we present novel techniques to perform nanomechanical testing of individual polymeric nanofibers. For demonstration of the nano tensile tests, polycaprolactone (PCL) nanofibers were produced via electrospinning. These fibers were deposited across two parallel edges of a cardboard frame so that a single nanofiber can be isolated for tensile test using a nano tensile tester. For nanoscale three-point bend test, a Poly (L-lactic acid) (PLLA) nanofiber was suspended across a microsized groove etched on a silicon wafer. An atomic force microscope (AFM) tip was then used to apply a point load on the mid-span of the suspended fiber. Beam bending theory was then used to calculate the elastic modulus of the nanofiber. For nanoindentation test, a PLLA nanofiber was deposited on a mica substrate and an AFM tip used to indent the nanofiber. Modified Hertz theory for normal contact was then used to evaluate the elastic modulus of the nanofiber.

Tan, E. P. S.; Lim, C. T.

2005-04-01

302

Nano-Fibrous Tissue Engineering Scaffolds Capable of Growth Factor Delivery  

PubMed Central

Tissue engineering aims at constructing biological substitutes to repair damaged tissues. Three-dimensional (3D) porous scaffolds are commonly utilized to define the 3D geometry of tissue engineering constructs and provide adequate pore space and surface to support cell attachment, migration, proliferation, differentiation and neo tissue genesis. Biomimetic 3D scaffolds provide synthetic microenvironments that mimic the natural regeneration microenvironments and promote tissue regeneration process. While nano-fibrous (NF) scaffolds are constructed to mimic the architecture of NF extracellular matrix, controlled-release growth factors are incorporated to modulate the regeneration process. The present article summarizes current advances in methods to fabricate NF polymer scaffolds and the technologies to incorporate controlled growth factor delivery systems into 3D scaffolds, followed by examples of accelerated regeneration when the scaffolds with growth factor releasing capacity are applied in animal models. PMID:21234657

Hu, Jiang

2011-01-01

303

A biomimetic three-dimensional woven composite scaffold for functional tissue engineering of cartilage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tissue engineering seeks to repair or regenerate tissues through combinations of implanted cells, biomaterial scaffolds and biologically active molecules. The rapid restoration of tissue biomechanical function remains an important challenge, emphasizing the need to replicate structural and mechanical properties using novel scaffold designs. Here we present a microscale 3D weaving technique to generate anisotropic 3D woven structures as the basis for novel composite scaffolds that are consolidated with a chondrocyte-hydrogel mixture into cartilage tissue constructs. Composite scaffolds show mechanical properties of the same order of magnitude as values for native articular cartilage, as measured by compressive, tensile and shear testing. Moreover, our findings showed that porous composite scaffolds could be engineered with initial properties that reproduce the anisotropy, viscoelasticity and tension-compression nonlinearity of native articular cartilage. Such scaffolds uniquely combine the potential for load-bearing immediately after implantation in vivo with biological support for cell-based tissue regeneration without requiring cultivation in vitro.

Moutos, Franklin T.; Freed, Lisa E.; Guilak, Farshid

2007-02-01

304

Imaging studies of peripheral nerve regeneration induced by porous collagen biomaterials  

E-print Network

There is urgent need to develop treatments for inducing regeneration in injured organs. Porous collagen-based scaffolds have been utilized clinically to induce regeneration in skin and peripheral nerves, however still there ...

Tzeranis, Dimitrios Spyridon

2013-01-01

305

Development of hyaluronic acid-based scaffolds for brain tissue engineering.  

PubMed

Three-dimensional biodegradable porous scaffolds play vital roles in tissue engineering. In this study, a hyaluronic acid-collagen (HA-Coll) sponge with an open porous structure and mechanical behavior comparable to brain tissue was developed. HA-Coll scaffolds with different mixing ratios were prepared by a freeze-drying technique and crosslinked with water-soluble carbodiimide to improve mechanical stability. The pore structure of the samples was evaluated by light and scanning electron microscopy, and the mechanical behavior was analyzed by mechanical compression and tension testing. The degree of crosslinking was determined by the water absorption and trinitrobenzene sulfonic assay, and the HA content was determined by a carbazole assay. The results showed that HA-Coll scaffolds containing an open porous structure with a homogeneous pore size distribution could be fabricated. Certain features of the mechanical properties of HA-Coll scaffolds prepared with a Coll:HA mixing ratio of 1:2, and pure HA sponges, were comparable with brain tissue. Neural stem cells (NSCs) were expanded in number in monolayer culture and then seeded onto the three-dimensional scaffolds in order to investigate the effects of the different types of scaffolds on neurogenic induction of the cells. This study contributes to the understanding of the effects of HA content and crosslink treatment on pore characteristics, and mechanical behavior essential for the design of HA-Coll scaffolds suitable for NSC growth and differentiation for brain tissue engineering. PMID:19403351

Wang, Tzu-Wei; Spector, Myron

2009-09-01

306

Spray-assisted layer-by-layer assembly on hyaluronic acid scaffolds for skin tissue engineering.  

PubMed

Tissue engineering approaches for the development of a single epidermal-dermal scaffold to treat full-thickness skin defects have been limited by difficulties in the fabrication of a bilayer scaffold combining the specific properties of the epidermis and the dermis. Here we present an innovative approach to developing a scaffold that holds promise for skin tissue engineering. We utilize the spray-assisted layer-by-layer assembly technique to deposit a polyelectrolyte multilayer film composed of hyaluronic acid and poly-L-lysine (the epidermal component) on a porous hyaluronic acid scaffold (the dermal component), in a rapid and controlled manner. The multilayer film promotes cell adhesion, contributing to regeneration of the epidermal barrier functions of skin. While human keratinocytes attached and proliferated on the coated porous scaffolds, they did not invade the porous dermal component, thus leaving room for seeding of relevant fibroblast cell types in this scaffold. This scaffold therefore holds promise for co-culture of different cells, which may be useful for treatment of full-thickness skin defects as well as other tissue engineering applications. PMID:24659574

Monteiro, Isa P; Shukla, Anita; Marques, Alexandra P; Reis, Rui L; Hammond, Paula T

2015-01-01

307

Filling Porous Microspheres With Magnetic Material  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

New process produces magnetic microspheres with controllable sizes, compositions, and properties for use in medical diagnostic tests, biological research, and chemical processes. Paramagnetic microspheres also made with process. Porous plastic microspheres prepared by polymerization of monomer in diluent by cross-linking agent. When diluent removed, it leaves tiny pores throughout polymerized spheres. Size and distribution of pores determined by amount and type of diluent and cross-linking agent.

Chang, Manchium; Colvin, Michael S.

1990-01-01

308

Ti6Ta4Sn alloy and subsequent scaffolding for bone tissue engineering.  

PubMed

Porous titanium (Ti) and titanium alloys are promising scaffold biomaterials for bone tissue engineering, because they have the potential to provide new bone tissue ingrowth abilities and low elastic modulus to match that of natural bone. In the present study, a new highly porous Ti6Ta4Sn alloy scaffold with the addition of biocompatible alloying elements (tantalum (Ta) and tin (Sn)) was prepared using a space-holder sintering method. The strength of the Ti6Ta4Sn scaffold with a porosity of 75% was found to be significantly higher than that of a pure Ti scaffold with the same porosity. The elastic modulus of the porous alloy can be customized to match that of human bone by adjusting its porosity. In addition, the porous Ti6Ta4Sn alloy exhibited an interconnected porous structure, which enabled the ingrowth of new bone tissues. Cell culture results revealed that human SaOS(2) osteoblast-like cells grew and spread well on the surfaces of the solid alloy, and throughout the porous scaffold. The surface roughness of the alloy showed a significant effect on the cell behavior, and the optimum surface roughness range for the adhesion of the SaOS(2) cell on the alloy was 0.15 to 0.35 mum. The present study illustrated the feasibility of using the porous Ti6Ta4Sn alloy scaffold as an orthopedic implant material with a special emphasis on its excellent biomechanical properties and in vitro biocompatibility with a high preference by osteoblast-like cells. PMID:19351266

Li, Yuncang; Xiong, Jianyu; Wong, Cynthia S; Hodgson, Peter D; Wen, Cui'e

2009-10-01

309

Bioactive scaffold for bone tissue engineering: An in vivo study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Massive bone loss of the proximal femur is a common problem in revision cases of total hip implants. Allograft is typically used to reconstruct the site for insertion of the new prosthesis. However, for long term fixation and function, it is desirable that the allograft becomes fully replaced by bone tissue and aids in the regeneration of bone to that site. However, allograft use is typically associated with delayed incorporation and poor remodeling. Due to these profound limitations, alternative approaches are needed. Tissue engineering is an attractive approach to designing improved graft materials. By combining osteogenic activity with a resorbable scaffold, bone formation can be stimulated while providing structure and stability to the limb during incorporation and remodeling of the scaffold. Porous, surface modified bioactive ceramic scaffolds (pSMC) have been developed which stimulate the expression of the osteoblastic phenotype and production of bone-like tissue in vitro. The scaffold and two tissue-engineered constructs, osteoprogenitor cells seeded onto scaffolds or cells expanded in culture to form bone tissue on the scaffolds prior to implantation, were investigated in a long bone defect model. The rate of incorporation was assessed. Both tissue-engineered constructs stimulated bone formation and comparable repair at 2 weeks. In a rat femoral window defect model, bone formation increased over time for all groups in concert with scaffold resorption, leading to a 40% increase in bone and 40% reduction of the scaffold in the defect by 12 weeks. Both tissue-engineered constructs enhanced the rate of mechanical repair of long bones due to better bony union with the host cortex. Long bones treated with tissue engineered constructs demonstrated a return in normal torsional properties by 4 weeks as compared to 12 weeks for long bones treated with pSMC. Culture expansion of cells to produce bone tissue in vitro did not accelerate incorporation over the treatment with cells seeded at the time of surgery. Porous, surface modified bioactive ceramic is a promising scaffold material for tissue-engineered bone repair. Bone formation and scaffold resorption act in concert for maintenance and improvement of the structural properties of the long bones over time. As determined histomorphometrically and mechanically, the rate of incorporation of the scaffold was enhanced with the tissue-engineered constructs.

Livingston, Treena Lynne

310

Oxygen consumption, acidification and migration capacity of human primary osteoblasts within a three-dimensional tantalum scaffold.  

PubMed

A major clinical problem within synthetic, large-scaled scaffolds is the insufficient nutrient supply resulting in inhomogeneous cell proliferation and differentiation. The aim of this study was to analyse pH value, oxygen consumption and migration of human osteoblasts within a 3D tantalum scaffold, clinically used for larger bone defects. After 24 h the oxygen concentration within the scaffold decreased significantly and remained low during incubation. Monitoring of the pH value inside the tantalum scaffold showed a slightly acidification under static culture conditions. However, cell migration within the 3D scaffold was detected. Hence, in clinical application it can be assumed that porous tantalum scaffolds can be settled by osteoblasts under critical oxygen and nutrient supply. In general, monitoring of cell migration, oxygen consumption and acidification can be a suitable instrument for creating advanced 3D bone scaffolds. PMID:21744104

Jonitz, Anika; Lochner, Katrin; Lindner, Tobias; Hansmann, Doris; Marrot, Annika; Bader, Rainer

2011-09-01

311

Novel Polypyrrole-Coated Polylactide Scaffolds Enhance Adipose Stem Cell Proliferation and Early Osteogenic Differentiation  

PubMed Central

An electrically conductive polypyrrole (PPy) doped with a bioactive agent is an emerging functional biomaterial for tissue engineering. We therefore used chondroitin sulfate (CS)-doped PPy coating to modify initially electrically insulating polylactide resulting in novel osteogenic scaffolds. In situ chemical oxidative polymerization was used to obtain electrically conductive PPy coating on poly-96L/4D-lactide (PLA) nonwoven scaffolds. The coated scaffolds were characterized and their electrical conductivity was evaluated in hydrolysis. The ability of the coated and conductive scaffolds to enhance proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human adipose stem cells (hASCs) under electrical stimulation (ES) in three-dimensional (3D) geometry was compared to the noncoated PLA scaffolds. Electrical conductivity of PPy-coated PLA scaffolds (PLA-PPy) was evident at the beginning of hydrolysis, but decreased during the first week of incubation due to de-doping. PLA-PPy scaffolds enhanced hASC proliferation significantly compared to the plain PLA scaffolds at 7 and 14 days. Furthermore, the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of the hASCs was generally higher in PLA-PPy seeded scaffolds, but due to patient variation, no statistical significance could be determined. ES did not have a significant effect on hASCs. This study highlights the potential of novel PPy-coated PLA scaffolds in bone tissue engineering. PMID:23126228

Pelto, Jani; Björninen, Miina; Pälli, Aliisa; Talvitie, Elina; Hyttinen, Jari; Mannerström, Bettina; Suuronen Seppanen, Riitta; Kellomäki, Minna; Miettinen, Susanna; Haimi, Suvi

2013-01-01

312

Genipin-cross-linked collagen/chitosan biomimetic scaffolds for articular cartilage tissue engineering applications.  

PubMed

In this study, genipin-cross-linked collagen/chitosan biodegradable porous scaffolds were prepared for articular cartilage regeneration. The influence of chitosan amount and genipin concentration on the scaffolds physicochemical properties was evaluated. The morphologies of the scaffolds were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and cross-linking degree was investigated by ninhydrin assay. Additionally, the mechanical properties of the scaffolds were assessed under dynamic compression. To study the swelling ratio and the biostability of the collagen/chitosan scaffold, in vitro tests were also carried out by immersion of the scaffolds in PBS solution or digestion in collagenase, respectively. The results showed that the morphologies of the scaffolds underwent a fiber-like to a sheet-like structural transition by increasing chitosan amount. Genipin cross-linking remarkably changed the morphologies and pore sizes of the scaffolds when chitosan amount was less than 25%. Either by increasing the chitosan ratio or performing cross-linking treatment, the swelling ratio of the scaffolds can be tailored. The ninhydrin assay demonstrated that the addition of chitosan could obviously increase the cross-linking efficiency. The degradation studies indicated that genipin cross-linking can effectively enhance the biostability of the scaffolds. The biocompatibility of the scaffolds was evaluated by culturing rabbit chondrocytes in vitro. This study demonstrated that a good viability of the chondrocytes seeded on the scaffold was achieved. The SEM analysis has revealed that the chondrocytes adhered well to the surface of the scaffolds and contacted each other. These results suggest that the genipin-cross-linked collagen/chitosan matrix may be a promising formulation for articular cartilage scaffolding. PMID:20648541

Yan, Le-Ping; Wang, Ying-Jun; Ren, Li; Wu, Gang; Caridade, Sofia G; Fan, Jia-Bing; Wang, Ling-Yun; Ji, Pei-Hong; Oliveira, Joaquim M; Oliveira, João T; Mano, João F; Reis, Rui L

2010-11-01

313

A Novel Albumin-Based Tissue Scaffold for Autogenic Tissue Engineering Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tissue scaffolds provide a framework for living tissue regeneration. However, traditional tissue scaffolds are exogenous, composed of metals, ceramics, polymers, and animal tissues, and have a defined biocompatibility and application. This study presents a new method for obtaining a tissue scaffold from blood albumin, the major protein in mammalian blood. Human, bovine, and porcine albumin was polymerised into albumin polymers by microbial transglutaminase and was then cast by freeze-drying-based moulding to form albumin tissue scaffolds. Scanning electron microscopy and material testing analyses revealed that the albumin tissue scaffold possesses an extremely porous structure, moderate mechanical strength, and resilience. Using a culture of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) as a model, we showed that MSCs can be seeded and grown in the albumin tissue scaffold. Furthermore, the albumin tissue scaffold can support the long-term osteogenic differentiation of MSCs. These results show that the albumin tissue scaffold exhibits favourable material properties and good compatibility with cells. We propose that this novel tissue scaffold can satisfy essential needs in tissue engineering as a general-purpose substrate. The use of this scaffold could lead to the development of new methods of artificial fabrication of autogenic tissue substitutes.

Li, Pei-Shan; -Liang Lee, I.; Yu, Wei-Lin; Sun, Jui-Sheng; Jane, Wann-Neng; Shen, Hsin-Hsin

2014-07-01

314

Evaluation of dense polylactic acid/beta-tricalcium phosphate scaffolds for bone tissue engineering.  

PubMed

Advances in biomaterial fabrication have introduced numerous innovations in designing scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. Often, the focus has been on fabricating scaffolds with high and interconnected porosity that would allow for cellular seeding and tissue ingrowth. However, such scaffolds typically lack the mechanical strength to sustain in vivo ambulatory stresses in models of load bearing cortical bone reconstruction. In this study, we investigated the microstructural and mechanical properties of dense PLA and PLA/beta-TCP (85:15) scaffolds fabricated using a rapid volume expansion phase separation technique, which embeds uncoated beta-TCP particles within the porous polymer. PLA scaffolds had a volumetric porosity in the range of 30 to 40%. With the embedding of beta-TCP mineral particles, the porosity of the scaffolds was reduced in half, whereas the ultimate compressive and torsional strength were significantly increased. We also investigated the properties of the scaffolds as delivery vehicles for growth factors in vitro and in vivo. The low-surface porosity resulted in sub optimal retention efficiency of the growth factors, and burst release kinetics reflecting surface coating rather than volumetric entrapment, regardless of the scaffold used. When loaded with BMP2 and VEGF and implanted in the quadriceps muscle, PLA/beta-TCP scaffolds did not induce ectopic mineralization but induced a significant 1.8-fold increase in neo vessel formation. In conclusion, dense PLA/beta-TCP scaffolds can be engineered with enhanced mechanical properties and potentially be exploited for localized therapeutic factor delivery. PMID:20725979

Yanoso-Scholl, Laura; Jacobson, Justin A; Bradica, Gino; Lerner, Amy L; O'Keefe, Regis J; Schwarz, Edward M; Zuscik, Michael J; Awad, Hani A

2010-12-01

315

Three-Dimensional Scaffolds for Tissue Engineering Applications: Role of Porosity and Pore Size  

PubMed Central

Tissue engineering applications commonly encompass the use of three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds to provide a suitable microenvironment for the incorporation of cells or growth factors to regenerate damaged tissues or organs. These scaffolds serve to mimic the actual in vivo microenvironment where cells interact and behave according to the mechanical cues obtained from the surrounding 3D environment. Hence, the material properties of the scaffolds are vital in determining cellular response and fate. These 3D scaffolds are generally highly porous with interconnected pore networks to facilitate nutrient and oxygen diffusion and waste removal. This review focuses on the various fabrication techniques (e.g., conventional and rapid prototyping methods) that have been employed to fabricate 3D scaffolds of different pore sizes and porosity. The different pore size and porosity measurement methods will also be discussed. Scaffolds with graded porosity have also been studied for their ability to better represent the actual in vivo situation where cells are exposed to layers of different tissues with varying properties. In addition, the ability of pore size and porosity of scaffolds to direct cellular responses and alter the mechanical properties of scaffolds will be reviewed, followed by a look at nature's own scaffold, the extracellular matrix. Overall, the limitations of current scaffold fabrication approaches for tissue engineering applications and some novel and promising alternatives will be highlighted. PMID:23672709

Loh, Qiu Li

2013-01-01

316

Nanofibrous architecture of silk fibroin scaffolds prepared with a mild self-assembly process  

PubMed Central

Besides excellent biocompatibility and biodegradability, a useful tissue engineering scaffold should provide suitable macropores and nanofibrous structure, similar to extracellular matrix (ECM), to induce desired cellular activities and to guide tissue regeneration. In the present study, a mild process to prepare porous and nanofibrous silk based scaffolds from aqueous solution is described. Using collagen to control the self-assembly of silk, nanofibrous silk scaffolds were firstly achieved through lyophilization. Water annealing was used to generate insolubility in the silk based scaffolds, thereby avoiding the use of organic solvents. The nano-fibrils formed in the silk-collagen scaffolds had diameters of 20-100 nanometers, similar with native collagen in ECM. The silk-collagen scaffolds dissolved slowly in PBS solution, with about a 28% mass lost after 4 weeks. Following the dissolution or degradation, the nanofibrous structure inside the macropore walls emerged and interacted with cells directly. During in vitro cell culture, the nanofibrous silk-collagen scaffolds containing 7.4% collagen demonstrated significantly improved cell-compatibility when compared with salt-leached silk scaffolds and silk-collagen scaffolds containing 20% collagen that emerged less nano-fibrils. Therefore, this new process provides useful scaffolds for tissue engineering applications. Furthermore, the process involves all-aqueous, room temperature and pressure processing without the use of toxic chemicals or solvents, offering new green chemistry approaches, as well as options to load bioactive drugs or growth factors into process. PMID:20970185

Lu, Qiang; Wang, Xiuli; Lu, Shenzhou; Li, Mingzhong; Kaplan, David L; Zhu, Hesun

2010-01-01

317

CAD-CAM-generated hydroxyapatite scaffold to replace the mandibular condyle in sheep: preliminary results.  

PubMed

In this study, rapid CAD-CAM prototyping of pure hydroxyapatite to replace temporomandibular joint condyles was tested in sheep. Three adult animals were implanted with CAD-CAM-designed porous hydroxyapatite scaffolds as condyle substitutes. The desired scaffold shape was achieved by subtractive automated milling machining (block reduction). Custom-made surgical guides were created by direct metal laser sintering and were used to export the virtual planning of the bone cut lines into the surgical environment. Using the same technique, fixation plates were created and applied to the scaffold pre-operatively to firmly secure the condyles to the bone and to assure primary stability of the hydroxyapatite scaffolds during masticatory function. Four months post-surgery, the sheep were sacrificed. The hydroxyapatite scaffolds were explanted, and histological specimens were prepared. Different histological tissues penetrating the scaffold macropores, the sequence of bone remodeling, new apposition of bone and/or cartilage as a consequence of the different functional anatomic role, and osseointegration at the interface between the scaffold and bone were documented. This animal model was found to be appropriate for testing CAD-CAM customization and the biomechanical properties of porous, pure hydroxyapatite scaffolds used as joint prostheses. PMID:22492196

Ciocca, Leonardo; Donati, Davide; Fantini, Massimiliano; Landi, Elena; Piattelli, Adriano; Iezzi, Giovanna; Tampieri, Anna; Spadari, Alessandro; Romagnoli, Noemi; Scotti, Roberto

2013-08-01

318

Collagen Scaffolds with Controlled Insulin Release and Controlled Pore Structure for Cartilage Tissue Engineering  

PubMed Central

Controlled and local release of growth factors and nutrients from porous scaffolds is important for maintenance of cell survival, proliferation, and promotion of tissue regeneration. The purpose of the present research was to design a controlled release porous collagen-microbead hybrid scaffold with controlled pore structure capable of releasing insulin for application to cartilage tissue regeneration. Collagen-microbead hybrid scaffold was prepared by hybridization of insulin loaded PLGA microbeads with collagen using a freeze-drying technique. The pore structure of the hybrid scaffold was controlled by using preprepared ice particulates having a diameter range of 150–250??m. Hybrid scaffold had a controlled pore structure with pore size equivalent to ice particulates and good interconnection. The microbeads showed an even spatial distribution throughout the pore walls. In vitro insulin release profile from the hybrid scaffold exhibited a zero order release kinetics up to a period of 4 weeks without initial burst release. Culture of bovine articular chondrocytes in the hybrid scaffold demonstrated high bioactivity of the released insulin. The hybrid scaffold facilitated cell seeding and spatial cell distribution and promoted cell proliferation. PMID:24719877

Nanda, Himansu Sekhar; Chen, Shangwu; Zhang, Qin; Kawazoe, Naoki; Chen, Guoping

2014-01-01

319

Ionene modified small polymeric beads  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Linear ionene polyquaternary cationic polymeric segments are bonded by means of the Menshutkin reaction (quaternization) to biocompatible, extremely small, porous particles containing halide or tertiary amine sites which are centers for attachment of the segments. The modified beads in the form of emulsions or suspensions offer a large, positively-charged surface area capable of irreversibly binding polyanions such as heparin, DNA, RNA or bile acids to remove them from solution or of reversibly binding monoanions such as penicillin, pesticides, sex attractants and the like for slow release from the suspension.

Rembaum, Alan (Inventor)

1977-01-01

320

Multiscale Photoacoustic Microscopy of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube-Incorporated Tissue Engineering Scaffolds  

PubMed Central

Three-dimensional polymeric scaffolds provide structural support and function as substrates for cells and bioactive molecules necessary for tissue regeneration. Noninvasive real-time imaging of scaffolds and/or the process of tissue formation within the scaffold remains a challenge. Microcomputed tomography, the widely used technique to characterize polymeric scaffolds, shows poor contrast for scaffolds immersed in biological fluids, thereby limiting its utilities under physiological conditions. In this article, multiscale photoacoustic microscopy (PAM), consisting of both acoustic-resolution PAM (AR-PAM) and optical-resolution PAM (OR-PAM), was employed to image and characterize single-walled carbon-nanotube (SWNT)–incorporated poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) polymer scaffolds immersed in biological buffer. SWNTs were incorporated to reinforce the mechanical properties of the scaffolds, and to enhance the photoacoustic signal from the scaffolds. By choosing excitation wavelengths of 570 and 638?nm, multiscale PAM could spectroscopically differentiate the photoacoustic signals generated from blood and from carbon-nanotube-incorporated scaffolds. OR-PAM, providing a fine lateral resolution of 2.6??m with an adequate tissue penetration of 660??m, successfully quantified the average porosity and pore size of the scaffolds to be 86.5%±1.2% and 153±15??m in diameter, respectively. AR-PAM further extended the tissue penetration to 2?mm at the expense of lateral resolution (45??m). Our results suggest that PAM is a promising tool for noninvasive real-time imaging and monitoring of tissue engineering scaffolds in vitro, and in vivo under physiological conditions. PMID:22082018

Cai, Xin; Paratala, Bhavna S.; Hu, Song

2012-01-01

321

Computational Design of Drainage Systems for Vascularized Scaffolds  

PubMed Central

This computational study analyzes how to design a drainage system for porous scaffolds so that the scaffolds can be vascularized and perfused without collapse of the vessel lumens. We postulate that vascular transmural pressure—the difference between lumenal and interstitial pressures—must exceed a threshold value to avoid collapse. Model geometries consisted of hexagonal arrays of open channels in an isotropic scaffold, in which a small subset of channels was selected for drainage. Fluid flow through the vessels and drainage channel, across the vascular wall, and through the scaffold were governed by Navier-Stokes equations, Starling’s Law of Filtration, and Darcy’s Law, respectively. We found that each drainage channel could maintain a threshold transmural pressure only in nearby vessels, with a radius-of-action dependent on vascular geometry and the hydraulic properties of the vascular wall and scaffold. We illustrate how these results can be applied to microvascular tissue engineering, and suggest that scaffolds be designed with both perfusion and drainage in mind. PMID:19481796

Truslow, James G.; Price, Gavrielle M.; Tien, Joe

2009-01-01

322

A design protocol for tailoring ice-templated scaffold structure.  

PubMed

In this paper, we show, for the first time, the key link between scaffold architecture and latent heat evolution during the production of porous biomedical collagen structures using freeze-drying. Collagen scaffolds are used widely in the biomedical industry for the repair and reconstruction of skeletal tissues and organs. Freeze-drying of collagen slurries is a standard industrial process, and, until now, the literature has sought to characterize the influence of set processing parameters including the freezing protocol and weight percentage of collagen. However, we are able to demonstrate, by monitoring the local thermal events within the slurry during solidification, that nucleation, growth and annealing processes can be controlled, and therefore we are able to control the resulting scaffold architecture. Based on our correlation of thermal profile measurements with scaffold architecture, we hypothesize that there is a link between the fundamental freezing of ice and the structure of scaffolds, which suggests that this concept is applicable not only for collagen but also for ceramics and pharmaceuticals. We present a design protocol of strategies for tailoring the ice-templated scaffold structure. PMID:24402916

Pawelec, K M; Husmann, A; Best, S M; Cameron, R E

2014-03-01

323

A multiscale modeling approach to scaffold design and property prediction.  

PubMed

The optimum scaffold architecture for bone tissue regeneration is a porous structure with a narrow range of pore sizes, pore density, and a high degree of interconnectivity among pores. To achieve such a design, the microstructure of the scaffold material must be optimized in order to satisfy both biological and mechanical function requirements. In this paper, we present a multiscale modeling approach for designing a scaffold with an optimized porosity and mechanical properties made from a two-phase composite of spherical hydroxyapatite (HAp) particles embedded in a collagen matrix. In particular, first-principles computation is used to calculate the elastic properties and theoretical strengths of nanoscaled HAp particles. The constitutive properties of the HAp/collagen composites are subsequently computed as a function of HAp content via FEM-based micromechanical modeling. The constitutive relations of the composite are then utilized to optimize the mechanical properties of a three-dimensional scaffold for either cortical or cancellous bone by varying the pore size, pore density and volume fractions of HAp in the composite. For the pore size, pore density, volume fractions of HAp considered, the scaffold can be designed to match the mechanical properties of cancellous bone, but not those of cortical bone. The optimized scaffold is one with a pore diameter of 1000 microm, a channel diameter of 100 microm, 27% pore density and at least 20% HAp by volume. PMID:20826364

Chan, K S; Liang, W; Francis, W L; Nicolella, D P

2010-11-01

324

Hybrid superporous scaffolds: An application for corneal tissue engineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tissue engineered corneal implants provide an alternative for patients who do not respond favorably to donor corneas. The most common challenge of current artificial corneas is their lack of integration with host tissue that can lead to infection, tissue necrosis (melting) or spontaneous rejection (extrusion). These synthetic devices lack cell adhesion cues to promote host cell ingrowth. In response, natural materials have been investigated as cell adhesive scaffolds. However, these typically require toxic crosslinkers to impart sufficient mechanical strength. We have engineered a hybrid scaffold of natural and synthetic materials by utilizing superporous technology to efficiently incorporate cells and other natural matrix materials in a stable synthetic hydrogel. The superporous hydrogel (SPH) swells rapidly in solution due to large and interconnected pores. Therefore uptake of liquid into the scaffold is very quick, based on capillary action rather than diffusion. Cells, proteins, and other ECM molecules can be incorporated into the superporous hydrogel (SPH) in this simple manner without requiring external forces. To mimic truly 3-D physiological environments, we have embedded cells within type 1 collagen (a ubiquitous stromal matrix protein) prior to uptake by the SPH. This creates a 3-D collagenous microenvironment that enhances cell adhesion while maintaining mechanical integrity. We have also shown that this scaffold enhances cell migration into the scaffold even if cells are not preseeded in the scaffold. This biocompatible, porous, cell-based, tissue engineered cornea will provide a more effective and long term alternative therapy for many patients with corneal blindness.

Kadakia, Arpita

325

Development of poly(lactide-co-glycolide) scaffold-impregnated small intestinal submucosa with pores that stimulate extracellular matrix production in disc regeneration.  

PubMed

The pore size and microstructure of scaffolds influences cell attachment, migration, proliferation and ingrowth, but the optimal pore size of scaffolds for disc tissue formation is not clearly understood. We developed porous poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) scaffolds with various pore sizes for nucleus pulposus (NP) cell cultures and examined the effects of pore size on cell ingrowth and extracellular matrix (ECM) synthesis. High cell density in the small pores of scaffolds promotes collagen synthesis and cell migration through interconnected pores. Scaffolds with large pores exhibited slower cell proliferation and collagen synthesis. Guided by these results, we investigated a novel, biodegradable, synthetic/natural hybrid scaffold composed of PLGA and small intestinal submucosa (SIS) (PLGA-SIS) with the proper pore size for NP regeneration. We tested the morphological and physical properties of PLGA-SIS scaffolds and initial cell attachment and ECM production of NP in scaffolds. The mechanical and degradable properties of the PLGA-SIS scaffold were superior to those of SIS sponge and were similar to the properties of PLGA scaffold. NP cells grown on PLGA-SIS scaffold exhibited higher initial cell adhesion and ECM production than those grown on pure PLGA scaffold in a biological assay. In conclusion, this study suggests that a proper pore size of scaffolds is critical in NP regeneration, and that PLGA-SIS scaffolds with suitable pores might be useful as substrates for tissue-engineered biodiscs. PMID:22689349

Kim, Soon Hee; Song, Jeong Eun; Lee, Dongwon; Khang, Gilson

2014-04-01

326

Synthesis and properties of photocross-linked poly(propylene fumarate) scaffolds.  

PubMed

The photocross-linking of poly(propylene fumarate) (PPF) to form porous scaffolds for bone tissue engineering applications was investigated. PPF was cross-linked using the photoinitiator bis(2,4,6-trimethylbenzoyl) phenylphosphine oxide (BAPO) and exposure to 30 min of long wavelength ultraviolet (UV) light. The porous photocross-linked PPF scaffolds (6.5 mm diameter cylinders) were synthesized by including a NaCl porogen (70, 80, and 90 wt% at cross-linking) prior to photocross-linking. After UV exposure, the samples were placed in water to remove the soluble porogen, revealing the porous PPF scaffold. As porogen leaching has not been used often with cross-linked polymers, and even more rarely with photoinitiated cross-linking, a study of the efficacy of this strategy and the properties of the resulting material was required. Results show that the inclusion of a porogen does not significantly alter the photoinitiation process and the resulting scaffolds are homogeneously cross-linked throughout their diameter. It was also shown that porosity can be generally controlled by porogen content and that scaffolds synthesized with at least 80 wt% porogen possess an interconnected pore structure. Compressive mechanical testing showed scaffold strength to decrease with increasing porogen content. The strongest scaffolds with interconnected pores had an elastic modulus of 2.3+/-0.5 MPa and compressive strength at 1% yield of 0.11+/-0.02 MPa. This work has shown that a photocross-linking/porogen leaching technique is a viable method to form porous scaffolds from photoinitiated materials. PMID:11556743

Fisher, J P; Holland, T A; Dean, D; Engel, P S; Mikos, A G

2001-01-01

327

Nano-Fibrous Tissue Engineering Scaffolds Capable of Growth Factor Delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tissue engineering aims at constructing biological substitutes to repair damaged tissues. Three-dimensional (3D) porous scaffolds\\u000a are commonly utilized to define the 3D geometry of tissue engineering constructs and provide adequate pore space and surface\\u000a to support cell attachment, migration, proliferation, differentiation and neo tissue genesis. Biomimetic 3D scaffolds provide\\u000a synthetic microenvironments that mimic the natural regeneration microenvironments and promote tissue

Jiang Hu; Peter X. Ma

2011-01-01

328

Towards the Development of Smart 3D "gated scaffolds" for on-command delivery.  

PubMed

A new approach towards the design of "gated scaffolds" based on the combination of capped mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) with porous biomaterials is reported. Using this approach, a 3D gelatin-based scaffold able to selectively deliver cargo in the presence of an APase enzyme is prepared and tested. This new design opens up the possibility of developing new smart biomaterials with advanced drug-delivery features. PMID:25079146

Mas, Núria; Arcos, Daniel; Polo, Lorena; Aznar, Elena; Sánchez-Salcedo, Sandra; Sancenón, Félix; García, Ana; Marcos, M Dolores; Baeza, Alejandro; Vallet-Regí, María; Martínez-Máñez, Ramón

2014-12-10

329

Improved biocompatibility of novel poly(L-lactic acid)/?-tricalcium phosphate scaffolds prepared by an organic solvent-free method  

PubMed Central

A porous poly(L-lactic acid)/?-tricalcium phosphate (PLLA/?-TCP) composite scaffold was fabricated using a novel technique comprising powder mixing, compression molding, low-temperature treatment, and particulate leaching without any organic solvent. The effect of this scaffold on osteoblast proliferation and differentiation was evaluated in vitro. The fabricated scaffold had a homogeneously interconnected porous structure with a porosity of 70% and compressive strength of 1.35 MPa. The methylthiazol tetrazolium values and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of osteoblasts seeded on the solvent-free scaffold were significant higher than those of the control. Using real-time PCR, gene expressions of ALP, osteocalcin, and type 1 collagen were shown to be upregulated. As the method does not use any organic solvent, it eliminates problems associated with organic solvent residue and therefore improves the cell compatibility. It has a promising potential for the preparation of porous scaffold for bone tissue engineering. PMID:21760732

Zhao, Xue-Feng; Li, Xiao-Dong; Kang, Yun-Qing; Yuan, Quan

2011-01-01

330

Polymeric Actuators.  

PubMed

Actuators are materials and devices that are able to change their shape in response to changes in environmental conditions and perform mechanical work on nano-, micro-, and macroscales. Among the huge variety of different actuators, polymer-based ones are highly attractive because of a number of properties such as sensitivity to a broad range of stimuli and good mechanical properties. The goal of this review is to provide a general picture of different mechanisms and working principles of polymeric actuators as well as to show a palette of their applications. PMID:25386998

Ionov, Leonid

2014-11-11

331

Evaluation of Osteoconductive Scaffolds in the Canine Femoral Multi-Defect Model  

PubMed Central

Treatment of large segmental bone defects remains an unsolved clinical challenge, despite a wide array of existing bone graft materials. This project was designed to rapidly assess and compare promising biodegradable osteoconductive scaffolds for use in the systematic development of new bone regeneration methodologies that combine scaffolds, sources of osteogenic cells, and bioactive scaffold modifications. Promising biomaterials and scaffold fabrication methods were identified in laboratories at Rutgers, MIT, Integra Life Sciences, and Mayo Clinic. Scaffolds were fabricated from various materials, including poly(L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA), poly(L-lactide-co-?-caprolactone) (PLCL), tyrosine-derived polycarbonate (TyrPC), and poly(propylene fumarate) (PPF). Highly porous three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds were fabricated by 3D printing, laser stereolithography, or solvent casting followed by porogen leaching. The canine femoral multi-defect model was used to systematically compare scaffold performance and enable selection of the most promising substrate(s) on which to add cell sourcing options and bioactive surface modifications. Mineralized cancellous allograft (MCA) was used to provide a comparative reference to the current clinical standard for osteoconductive scaffolds. Percent bone volume within the defect was assessed 4 weeks after implantation using both MicroCT and limited histomorphometry. Bone formed at the periphery of all scaffolds with varying levels of radial ingrowth. MCA produced a rapid and advanced stage of bone formation and remodeling throughout the defect in 4 weeks, greatly exceeding the performance of all polymer scaffolds. Two scaffold constructs, TyrPCPL/TCP and PPF4SLA/HAPLGA Dip, proved to be significantly better than alternative PLGA and PLCL scaffolds, justifying further development. MCA remains the current standard for osteoconductive scaffolds. PMID:23215980

Luangphakdy, Viviane; Walker, Esteban; Shinohara, Kentaro; Pan, Hui; Hefferan, Theresa; Bauer, Thomas W.; Stockdale, Linda; Saini, Sunil; Dadsetan, Mahrokh; Runge, M. Brett; Vasanji, Amit; Griffith, Linda; Yaszemski, Michael

2013-01-01

332

Chemical Sintering Generates Uniform Porous Hyaluronic Acid Hydrogels  

PubMed Central

Implantation of scaffolds for tissue repair has been met with limited success primarily due to the inability to achieve vascularization within the construct. Many strategies have shifted to incorporate pores into these scaffolds to encourage rapid cellular infiltration and subsequent vascular ingrowth. We utilized an efficient chemical sintering technique to create a uniform network of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) microspheres for porous hyaluronic acid hydrogel formation. The porous hydrogels generated from chemical sintering possessed comparable pore uniformity and interconnectivity as the commonly used non- and heat sintering techniques. Moreover, similar cell response to the porous hydrogels generated from each sintering approach was observed in cell viability, spreading, proliferation in vitro, as well as, cellular invasion in vivo. We propose chemical sintering of PMMA microspheres using a dilute acetone solution as an alternative method to generating porous hyaluronic acid hydrogels since it requires equal or ten-fold less processing time as the currently used non-sintering or heat sintering technique, respectively. PMID:24120847

Cam, Cynthia; Segura, Tatiana

2014-01-01

333

Scaffolds in Tendon Tissue Engineering  

PubMed Central

Tissue engineering techniques using novel scaffold materials offer potential alternatives for managing tendon disorders. Tissue engineering strategies to improve tendon repair healing include the use of scaffolds, growth factors, cell seeding, or a combination of these approaches. Scaffolds have been the most common strategy investigated to date. Available scaffolds for tendon repair include both biological scaffolds, obtained from mammalian tissues, and synthetic scaffolds, manufactured from chemical compounds. Preliminary studies support the idea that scaffolds can provide an alternative for tendon augmentation with an enormous therapeutic potential. However, available data are lacking to allow definitive conclusion on the use of scaffolds for tendon augmentation. We review the current basic science and clinical understanding in the field of scaffolds and tissue engineering for tendon repair. PMID:22190961

Longo, Umile Giuseppe; Lamberti, Alfredo; Petrillo, Stefano; Maffulli, Nicola; Denaro, Vincenzo

2012-01-01

334

Nanofiber scaffold electrodes based on PEDOT for cell stimulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electronically conductive and electrochemically active 3D-scaffolds based on electrospun poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) nano-fibers are reported. Vapour phase polymerization was employed to achieve an uniform and conformal coating of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with tosylate (PEDOT:tosylate) on the nano-fibers. The PEDOT coatings had a large impact on the wettability, turning the hydrophobic PET fibers super-hydrophilic. SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells were grown on the PEDOT

Maria H. Bolin; Karl Svennersten; Xiangjun Wang; Ioannis S. Chronakis; Agneta Richter-Dahlfors; Edwin W. H. Jager; Magnus Berggren

2009-01-01

335

The in vitro and in vivo cementogenesis of CaMgSi2 O6 bioceramic scaffolds.  

PubMed

The goal of periodontal tissue engineering is to regenerate alveolar bone, root cementum and periodontal ligament. To achieve this goal, bioactive scaffolds play an important role in inducing in vitro osteogenic/cementogenic gene expression of periodontal ligament cells (PDLCs) and in vivo bone/cementum formation. Diopside (DIOP: CaMgSi2 O6 ) ceramics have shown excellent in vitro bioactivity for potential bone repair application. However, there is no study about DIOP porous scaffolds for periodontal tissue engineering. The aim of this study is to prepare DIOP scaffolds and investigate their in vitro and in vivo osteogenesis/cementogenesis for periodontal regeneration application. DIOP scaffolds with highly porous architecture were prepared and ?-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) scaffolds were used for the control. The interaction of DIOP scaffolds with PDLCs was studied by investigating cell attachment, proliferation and ostegenic/cementogenic differentiation of PDLCs. DIOP scaffolds were implanted into the periodontal defects of beagle dogs to evaluate their in vivo osteogenesis/cementogenesis by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E), tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining, and immunohistochemistry (type I collagen: Col I; cementum attachment protein) analyses. The results have shown that DIOP scaffolds supported the attachment and proliferation of PDLCs. DIOP scaffolds significantly enhanced osteogenesis/cementogenesis-related gene expression (Col 1, Runx2, transforming growth factor beta 1, and bone morphogenetic protein 2) of PDLCs, compared to ?-TCP scaffolds. The in vivo study showed that DIOP scaffolds induced new bone and cementum regeneration of periodontal tissue defects. The rate of new bone and cementum in DIOP scaffolds is comparable to that in conventional ?-TCP scaffolds. Our results indicated that silicate-based DIOP ceramics could not only be used for bone tissue engineering, but also for periodontal tissue engineering due to their excellent in vitro and in vivo osteogeneis/cementogenesis. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A, 2013. PMID:23596060

Zhang, Yufeng; Li, Shue; Wu, Chengtie

2013-04-18

336

Synthesis, Characterization, and Biological Evaluation of Gelatin-based Scaffolds  

E-print Network

This thesis presents the development of entropy-elastic gelatin based networks in the form of films or scaffolds. The materials have good prospects for biomedical applications, especially in the context of bone regeneration. Entropy-elastic gelatin based hydrogel films with varying crosslinking densities were prepared with tailored mechanical properties. Gelatin was covalently crosslinked in water above its sol gel transition, which suppressed the gelatin chain helicity. Amorphous films were prepared with tailorable degrees of swelling and wet state Young's modulus. The knowledge gained with this bulk material was transferred to the integrated process of foaming and crosslinking to obtain porous gelatin-based scaffolds. A gelatin solution was foamed in the presence of saponin and the resulting foam was fixed by chemical crosslinking with a diisocyanate. The scaffolds were analyzed in the dry state by micro computed tomography (\\mu CT, porosity: 65\\pm 11-73\\pm 14 vol.-%), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM,...

Tronci, G

2011-01-01

337

Fabricating microparticles/nanofibers composite and nanofiber scaffold with controllable pore size by rotating multichannel electrospinning.  

PubMed

Polymeric nanofibers fabricated via electrospinning are regarded as promising scaffolds for biomimicking a native extracellular matrix. However, electrospun scaffolds have poor porosity, resulting in cells being unable to infiltrate into the scaffolds but grow only on its surface. In this study, we modified regular electrospinning into rotating multichannel electrospinning (RM-ELSP) to produce microparticles and nanofibers simultaneously. Gelatin nanofibers (0.1-1 microm) and polycaprolactone (PCL) microparticles (0.5-10 microm) were formed and well-mixed. Adjusting the concentration of PCL and/or gelatin, we can fabricate various microparticles/nanofibers composites with different sizes of PCL particles and different diameters of gelatin nanofibers depending on their concentrations (2-10%) during electrospinning. Using PCL particles as a pore generator, we obtained gelatin nanofiber scaffolds with controllable pore size and porosity. Cells adhere and grow into the scaffold easily during in vitro cell culture. PMID:20534198

Huang, Yi-You; Wang, De-Yao; Chang, Lee-Lee; Yang, Ying-Chi

2010-01-01

338

Degradable amorphous scaffolds with enhanced mechanical properties and homogeneous cell distribution produced by a three-dimensional fiber deposition method.  

PubMed

The mechanical properties of amorphous, degradable, and highly porous poly(lactide-co-caprolactone) structures have been improved by using a 3D fiber deposition (3DF) method. Two designs of 3DF scaffolds, with 45° and 90° layer rotation, were printed and compared with scaffolds produced by a salt-leaching method. The scaffolds had a porosity range from 64% to 82% and a high interconnectivity, measured by micro-computer tomography. The 3DF scaffolds had 8-9 times higher compressive stiffness and 3-5 times higher tensile stiffness than the salt-leached scaffolds. There was a distinct decrease in the molecular weight during printing as a consequence of the high temperature. The chain microstructure was, however, not affected; the glass transition temperature and the decomposition temperature were constant. Human OsteoBlast-like cells were cultured in vitro and the cell morphology and distribution were observed by scanning electron microscopy and fluorescence microscopy. The cell distribution on the 3DF scaffolds was more homogeneous than the salt-leached scaffolds, suggesting that 3DF scaffolds are more suitable as porous biomaterials for tissue engineering. These results show that it is possible to design and optimize the properties of amorphous polymer scaffolds. The 3DF method produce amorphous degradable poly(lactide-co-caprolactone) that are strong and particularly suitable for cell proliferation. PMID:22623412

Sun, Yang; Finne-Wistrand, Anna; Albertsson, Ann-Christine; Xing, Zhe; Mustafa, Kamal; Hendrikson, Wim J; Grijpma, Dirk W; Moroni, Lorenzo

2012-10-01

339

Incremental changes in anisotropy induce incremental changes in the material properties of electrospun scaffolds  

PubMed Central

Electrospinning can be used to selectively process a variety of natural and synthetic polymers into highly porous scaffolds composed of nano-to-micron diameter fibers. This process shows great potential as a gateway to the development of physiologically relevant tissue engineering scaffolds. In this study we examine how incremental changes in fiber alignment modulate the material properties of a model scaffold. We prepared electrospun scaffolds of gelatin composed of varying fiber diameters and degrees of anisotropy. The scaffolds were cut into a series of “dog-bone” shaped samples in the longitudinal, perpendicular and transverse orientations and the relative degree of fiber alignment, as measured by the fast Fourier transform (FFT) method, was determined for each sample. We measured peak stress, peak strain and the modulus of elasticity as function of fiber diameter and scaffold anisotropy. Fiber alignment was the variable most closely associated with the regulation of peak stress, peak strain and modulus of elasticity. Incremental changes, as judged by the FFT method, in the proportion of fibers that were aligned along a specific axis induced incremental changes in peak stress in the model scaffolds. These results underscore the critical role that scaffold anisotropy plays in establishing the material properties of an electrospun tissue engineering scaffold and the native extracellular matrix. PMID:17513181

Ayres, Chantal E.; Bowlin, Gary L.; Pizinger, Ryan; Taylor, Leander T.; Keen, Christopher A.; Simpson, David G.

2009-01-01

340

Robotic dispensing of composite scaffolds and in vitro responses of bone marrow stromal cells.  

PubMed

The development of bioactive scaffolds with a designed pore configuration is of particular importance in bone tissue engineering. In this study, bone scaffolds with a controlled pore structure and a bioactive composition were produced using a robotic dispensing technique. A poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) and hydroxyapatite (HA) composite solution (PCL/HA = 1) was constructed into a 3-dimensional (3D) porous scaffold by fiber deposition and layer-by-layer assembly using a computer-aided robocasting machine. The in vitro tissue cell compatibility was examined using rat bone marrow stromal cells (rBMSCs). The adhesion and growth of cells onto the robotic dispensed scaffolds were observed to be limited by applying the conventional cell seeding technique. However, the initially adhered cells were viable on the scaffold surface. The alkaline phosphatase activity of the cells was significantly higher on the HA-PCL than on the PCL and control culture dish, suggesting that the robotic dispensed HA-PCL scaffold should stimulate the osteogenic differentiation of rBMSCs. Moreover, the expression of a series of bone-associated genes, including alkaline phosphatase and collagen type I, was highly up-regulated on the HA-PCL scaffold as compared to that on the pure PCL scaffold. Overall, the robotic dispensed HA-PCL is considered to find potential use as a bioactive 3D scaffold for bone tissue engineering. PMID:19365613

Hong, Seok-Jung; Jeong, Ishik; Noh, Kyung-Tae; Yu, Hye-Sun; Lee, Gil-Su; Kim, Hae-Won

2009-09-01

341

Preparation and biological evaluation of chitosan-collagen-icariin composite scaffolds for neuronal regeneration.  

PubMed

In this study the chitosan/collagen/icariin composite scaffolds for nerve regeneration were produced by blending and crosslinking chitosan with collagen and icariin. The microstructure of the composite scaffolds was observed by scanning electron microscopy. 3-[4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and attachment assays were conducted, respectively, to investigate the biocompatibility of the scaffolds. Cell cultural tests showed that the channel-structured porous scaffolds acted as a positive factor to support connective nerve cell growth. After culture, cells showed a clear flow trend to move close to the composite scaffolds in culture solution, arranging in spiral-like, and aligned parallel to the orientation of the channel structure on the surface of scaffolds. When compared to pure chitosan and chitosan/collagen scaffolds, Schwann cells and PC12 cells on the chitosan/collagen/icariin composite scaffolds exhibited the greatest proliferation and longest average neurite length. These results suggested that the chitosan/collagen/icariin composite scaffolds are potential cell carriers in nerve tissue engineering. PMID:22833221

Yang, Chun Rong; Chen, Jing Di

2013-06-01

342

Microsphere-Based Seamless Scaffolds Containing Macroscopic Gradients of Encapsulated Factors for Tissue Engineering  

PubMed Central

Spatial and temporal control of bioactive signals in three-dimensional (3D) tissue engineering scaffolds is greatly desired. Coupled together, these attributes may mimic and maintain complex signal patterns, such as those observed during axonal regeneration or neovascularization. Seamless polymer constructs may provide a route to achieve spatial control of signal distribution. In this study, a novel microparticle-based scaffold fabrication technique is introduced as a method to create 3D scaffolds with spatial control over model dyes using uniform poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) microspheres. Uniform microspheres were produced using the Precision Particle Fabrication technique. Scaffolds were assembled by flowing microsphere suspensions into a cylindrical glass mold, and then microspheres were physically attached to form a continuous scaffold using ethanol treatment. An ethanol soak of 1?h was found to be optimum for improved mechanical characteristics. Morphological and physical characterization of the scaffolds revealed that microsphere matrices were porous (41.1?±?2.1%) and well connected, and their compressive stiffness ranged from 142 to 306?kPa. Culturing chondrocytes on the scaffolds revealed the compatibility of these substrates with cell attachment and viability. In addition, bilayered, multilayered, and gradient scaffolds were fabricated, exhibiting excellent spatial control and resolution. Such novel scaffolds can serve as sustained delivery devices of heterogeneous signals in a continuous and seamless manner, and may be particularly useful in future interfacial tissue engineering investigations. PMID:18795865

Singh, Milind; Morris, Casey P.; Ellis, Ryan J.; Detamore, Michael S.

2008-01-01

343

Biopolymer-Based Biomaterials as Scaffolds for Tissue Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biopolymers as biomaterials and matrices in tissue engineering offer important options in control\\u000a of structure, morphology and chemistry as reasonable substitutes or mimics of extracellular matrix systems.\\u000a These features also provide for control of material functions such as mechanical properties in gel, fiber\\u000a and porous scaffold formats. The inherent biodegradability of biopolymers is important to help regulate\\u000a the rate and

James Velema; David Kaplan

344

Fabrication and characterization of a rapid prototyped tissue engineering scaffold with embedded multicomponent matrix for controlled drug release  

PubMed Central

Bone tissue engineering implants with sustained local drug delivery provide an opportunity for better postoperative care for bone tumor patients because these implants offer sustained drug release at the tumor site and reduce systemic side effects. A rapid prototyped macroporous polycaprolactone scaffold was embedded with a porous matrix composed of chitosan, nanoclay, and ?-tricalcium phosphate by freeze-drying. This composite scaffold was evaluated on its ability to deliver an anthracycline antibiotic and to promote formation of mineralized matrix in vitro. Scanning electronic microscopy, confocal imaging, and DNA quantification confirmed that immortalized human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC-TERT) cultured in the scaffold showed high cell viability and growth, and good cell infiltration to the pores of the scaffold. Alkaline phosphatase activity and osteocalcin staining showed that the scaffold was osteoinductive. The drug-release kinetics was investigated by loading doxorubicin into the scaffold. The scaffolds comprising nanoclay released up to 45% of the drug for up to 2 months, while the scaffold without nanoclay released 95% of the drug within 4 days. Therefore, this scaffold can fulfill the requirements for both bone tissue engineering and local sustained release of an anticancer drug in vitro. These results suggest that the scaffold can be used clinically in reconstructive surgery after bone tumor resection. Moreover, by changing the composition and amount of individual components, the scaffold can find application in other tissue engineering areas that need local sustained release of drug. PMID:22904634

Chen, Muwan; Le, Dang QS; Hein, San; Li, Pengcheng; Nygaard, Jens V; Kassem, Moustapha; Kjems, Jørgen; Besenbacher, Flemming; Bünger, Cody

2012-01-01

345

A dynamical study of the mechanical stimuli and tissue differentiation within a CaP scaffold based on micro-CT finite element models  

Microsoft Academic Search

The control of the mechanical stimuli transmitted to the cells is critical for the design of functional scaffolds for tissue\\u000a engineering. The objective of this study was to investigate the dynamics of the mechanical stimuli transmitted to the cells\\u000a during tissue differentiation in an irregular morphology scaffold under compressive load and perfusion flow. A calcium phosphate-based\\u000a glass porous scaffold was

Clara Sandino; Damien Lacroix

2011-01-01

346

The effects of different crossing-linking conditions of genipin on type I collagen scaffolds: an in vitro evaluation.  

PubMed

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the properties of fabricating rat tail type I collagen scaffolds cross-linked with genipin under different conditions. The porous genipin cross-linked scaffolds are obtained through a two step freeze-drying process. To find out the optimal cross-link condition, we used different genipin concentrations and various cross-linked temperatures to prepare the scaffolds in this study. The morphologies of the scaffolds were characterized by scanning electron microscope, and the mechanical properties of the scaffolds were evaluated under dynamic compression. Additionally, the cross-linking degree was assessed by ninhydrin assay. To investigate the swelling ratio and the in vitro degradation of the collagen scaffold, the tests were also carried out by immersion of the scaffolds in a PBS solution or digestion in a type I collagenase respectively. The morphologies of the non-cross-linked scaffolds presented a lattice-like structure while the cross-linked ones displayed a sheet-like framework. The morphology of the genipin cross-linked scaffolds could be significantly changed by either increasing genipin concentration or the temperature. The swelling ratio of each cross-linked scaffold was much lower than that of the control (non-cross-linked).The ninhydrin assay demonstrated that the higher temperature and genipin concentration could obviously increase the cross-linking efficiency. The in vitro degradation studies indicated that genipin cross-linking can effectively elevate the biostability of the scaffolds. The biocompatibility and cytotoxicity of the scaffolds was evaluated by culturing rat chondrocytes on the scaffold in vitro and by MTT. The results of MTT and the fact that the chondrocytes adhered well to the scaffolds demonstrated that genipin cross-linked scaffolds possessed an excellent biocompatibility and low cytotoxicity. Based on these results, 0.3 % genipin concentrations and 37 °C cross-linked temperatures are recommended. PMID:24442821

Zhang, Xiujie; Chen, Xueying; Yang, Ting; Zhang, Naili; Dong, Li; Ma, Shaoying; Liu, Xiaoming; Zhou, Mo; Li, Baoxing

2014-12-01

347

Enhancing the bioactivity of Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) scaffold with a nano-hydroxyapatite coating for the treatment of segmental bone defect in a rabbit model  

PubMed Central

Purpose Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) is excellent as a scaffolding matrix due to feasibility of processing and tunable biodegradability, yet the virgin scaffolds lack osteoconduction and osteoinduction. In this study, nano-hydroxyapatite (nHA) was coated on the interior surfaces of PLGA scaffolds in order to facilitate in vivo bone defect restoration using biomimetic ceramics while keeping the polyester skeleton of the scaffolds. Methods PLGA porous scaffolds were prepared and surface modification was carried out by incubation in modified simulated body fluids. The nHA coated PLGA scaffolds were compared to the virgin PLGA scaffolds both in vitro and in vivo. Viability and proliferation rate of bone marrow stromal cells of rabbits were examined. The constructs of scaffolds and autogenous bone marrow stromal cells were implanted into the segmental bone defect in the rabbit model, and the bone regeneration effects were observed. Results In contrast to the relative smooth pore surface of the virgin PLGA scaffold, a biomimetic hierarchical nanostructure was found on the surface of the interior pores of the nHA coated PLGA scaffolds by scanning electron microscopy. Both the viability and proliferation rate of the cells seeded in nHA coated PLGA scaffolds were higher than those in PLGA scaffolds. For bone defect repairing, the radius defects had, after 12 weeks implantation of nHA coated PLGA scaffolds, completely recuperated with significantly better bone formation than in the group of virgin PLGA scaffolds, as shown by X-ray, Micro-computerized tomography and histological examinations. Conclusion nHA coating on the interior pore surfaces can significantly improve the bioactivity of PLGA porous scaffolds. PMID:23690683

Wang, De-Xin; He, Yao; Bi, Long; Qu, Ze-Hua; Zou, Ji-Wei; Pan, Zhen; Fan, Jun-Jun; Chen, Liang; Dong, Xin; Liu, Xiang-Nan; Pei, Guo-Xian; Ding, Jian-Dong

2013-01-01

348

3D printed tricalcium phosphate scaffolds: Effect of SrO and MgO doping on in vivo osteogenesis in a rat distal femoral defect model  

PubMed Central

The presence of interconnected macro pores is important in tissue engineering scaffolds for guided tissue regeneration. This study reports in vivo biological performance of interconnected macro porous tricalcium phosphate (TCP) scaffolds due to the addition of SrO and MgO as dopants in TCP. We have used direct three dimensional printing (3DP) technology for scaffold fabrication followed by microwave sintering. Mechanical strength was evaluated by scaffolds with 500 µm, 750 µm, and 1000 µm interconnected designed pore sizes. Maximum compressive strength of 12.01 ± 1.56 MPa was achieved for 500 µm interconnected designed pore size Sr-Mg doped scaffold. In vivo biological performance of the microwave sintered pure TCP and Sr-Mg doped TCP scaffolds was assessed by implanting 350 µm designed interconnected macro porous scaffolds in rat distal femoral defect. Sintered pore size of these 3D printed scaffolds were 311 ± 5.9 µm and 245 ± 7.5 µm for pure and SrO-MgO doped TCP scaffolds, respectively. These 3D printed scaffolds possessed multiscale porosity, i.e., 3D interconnected designed macro pores along with intrinsic micro pores. Histomorphology and histomorphometric analysis revealed a significant increase in osteoid like new bone formation, and accelerated mineralization inside SrO and MgO doped 3D printed TCP scaffolds as compared to pure TCP scaffolds. An increase in osteocalcin and type I collagen level was also observed in rat blood serum with SrO and MgO doped TCP scaffolds compared to pure TCP scaffolds. Our results show that these 3D printed SrO and MgO doped TCP scaffolds with multiscale porosity contributed to early healing through accelerated osteogenesis. PMID:24729867

Tarafder, Solaiman; Davies, Neal M.; Bandyopadhyay, Amit; Bose, Susmita

2013-01-01

349

Construction of collagen II\\/hyaluronate\\/chondroitin-6-sulfate tri-copolymer scaffold for nucleus pulposus tissue engineering and preliminary analysis of its physico-chemical properties and biocompatibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

To construct a novel scaffold for nucleus pulposus (NP) tissue engineering, The porous type II collagen (CII)\\/hyaluronate\\u000a (HyA)–chondroitin-6-sulfate (6-CS) scaffold was prepared using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-carbodiimide (EDC) and N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) cross-linking system. The physico-chemical properties and biocompatibility of CII\\/HyA–CS scaffolds\\u000a were evaluated. The results suggested CII\\/HyA–CS scaffolds have a highly porous structure (porosity: 94.8 ± 1.5%), high water-binding\\u000a capacity (79.2 ± 2.8%) and significantly improved mechanical

Chang-qing Li; Bo Huang; Gang Luo; Chuan-zhi Zhang; Ying Zhuang; Yue Zhou

2010-01-01

350

A simultaneous process of 3D magnesium phosphate scaffold fabrication and bioactive substance loading for hard tissue regeneration.  

PubMed

A novel room temperature process was developed to produce a 3D porous magnesium phosphate (MgP) scaffold with high drug load/release efficiency for use in hard tissue regeneration through a combination of a paste extruding deposition (PED) system and cement chemistry. MgP scaffolds were prepared using a two-step process. The first step was fabrication of the 3D porous scaffold green body to control both the morphology and pore structure using a PED system without hardening. The second step was cementation, which was carried out by immersing the scaffold green body in the binder solution for hardening instead of the typical sintering process in ceramic scaffold fabrication. Separation of the manufacturing process and cement reaction was important to secure enough time to fabricate a 3D scaffold with various sizes and architectures under homogeneous extruding conditions. Because the whole process is carried out at room temperature, the bioactive molecules, which are easily denatured by heat, may apply to scaffolds during the process. Lysozyme was selected as a model bioactive substance to demonstrate the efficiency of this process; this was directly mixed into MgP powder to introduce homogeneous distribution in the scaffold. The extruding paste for the PED system was prepared using the MgP-lysozyme blended powder as starting materials. That is, both 3D scaffold fabrication and functionalization of the scaffold with bioactive substances could be carried out simultaneously. This process significantly enhanced both drug loading efficiency and release performance compared to the typical sintering process, where the drug is generally loaded by adsorption after heat treatment. The MgP scaffold developed in this study satisfied the required conditions for scaffolding in hard tissue regeneration in an ideal manner, including 3 dimensionally well-interconnected pore structures, favorable mechanical properties, biodegradability, good cell affinity and in vitro biocompatibility; thus, it has excellent potential for application in the field of biomaterials. PMID:24433911

Lee, Jongman; Farag, Mohammad Mahmoud; Park, Eui Kyun; Lim, Jiwon; Yun, Hui-Suk

2014-03-01

351

Fabricating scaffolds by microfluidics  

PubMed Central

In this paper, we demonstrate for the first time the technique to using microfluidics to fabricate tissue engineering scaffolds with uniform pore sizes. We investigate both the bubble generation of the microfluidic device and the application of foam as a tissue engineering scaffold. Our microfluidic device consists of two concentric tapered channels, which are made by micropipettes. Nitrogen gas and aqueous alginate solution with Pluronic® F127 surfactant are pumped through the inner and the outer channels, respectively. We observe rich dynamic patterns of bubbles encapsulated in the liquid droplets. The size of the bubble depends linearly on the gas pressure and inversely on the liquid flow rate. In addition, monodisperse bubbles self-assemble into crystalline structures. The liquid crystalline foams are further processed into open-cell solid foams. The novel foam gel was used as a scaffold to culture chondrocytes. PMID:19693338

Chung, Kuo-yuan; Mishra, Narayan Chandra; Wang, Chen-chi; Lin, Feng-hui; Lin, Keng-hui

2009-01-01

352

Fabrication of Bioceramic Bone Scaffolds for Tissue Engineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, microhydroxyapatite and nanosilica sol were used as the raw materials for fabrication of bioceramic bone scaffold using selective laser sintering technology in a self-developed 3D Printing apparatus. When the fluidity of ceramic slurry is matched with suitable laser processing parameters, a controlled pore size of porous bone scaffold can be fabricated under a lower laser energy. Results shown that the fabricated scaffolds have a bending strength of 14.1 MPa, a compressive strength of 24 MPa, a surface roughness of 725 nm, a pore size of 750 ?m, an apparent porosity of 32%, and a optical density of 1.8. Results indicate that the mechanical strength of the scaffold can be improved after heat treatment at 1200 °C for 2 h, while simultaneously increasing surface roughness conducive to osteoprogenitor cell adhesion. MTT method and SEM observations confirmed that bone scaffolds fabricated under the optimal manufacturing process possess suitable biocompatibility and mechanical properties, allowing smooth adhesion and proliferation of osteoblast-like cells. Therefore, they have great potential for development in the field of tissue engineering.

Liu, Fwu-Hsing

2014-10-01

353

Evaluation of tubular poly(trimethylene carbonate) tissue engineering scaffolds in a circulating pulsatile flow system.  

PubMed

Tubular scaffolds (internal diameter approximately 3 mm and wall thickness approximately 0.8 mm) with a porosity of approximately 83% and an average pore size of 116 µm were prepared from flexible poly(trimethylene carbonate) (PTMC) polymer by dip-coating and particulate leaching methods. PTMC is a flexible and biocompatible polymer that crosslinks upon irradiation; porous network structures were obtained by irradiating the specimens in vacuum at 25 kGy before leaching soluble salt particles. To assess the suitability of these scaffolds in dynamic cell culturing for cardiovascular tissue engineering, the scaffolds were coated with a thin (0.1 to 0.2 mm) non-porous PTMC layer and its performance was evaluated in a closed pulsatile flow system (PFS). For this, the PFS was operated at physiological conditions at liquid flows of 1.56 ml/s with pressures varying from 80-120 mmHg at a frequency of 70 pulsations per minute. The mechanical properties of these coated porous PTMC scaffolds were not significantly different than non-coated scaffolds. Typical tensile strengths in the radial direction were 0.15 MPa, initial stiffness values were close to 1.4 MPa. Their creep resistance in cyclic deformation experiments was excellent. In the pulsatile flow setup, the distention rates of these flexible and elastic scaffolds were approximately 0.10% per mmHg, which is comparable to that of a porcine carotid artery (0.11% per mmHg). The compliance and stiffness index values were close to those of natural arteries.?In long-term deformation studies, where the scaffolds were subjected to physiological pulsatile pressures for one week, the morphology and mechanical properties of the PTMC scaffolds did not change. This suggests their suitability for application in a dynamic cell culture bioreactor. PMID:21374572

Song, Yan; Wennink, Jos W H; Poot, Andre A; Vermes, Istvan; Feijen, Jan; Grijpma, Dirk W

2011-02-01

354

Porous liquids: a promising class of media for gas separation.  

PubMed

A porous liquid containing empty cavities has been successfully fabricated by surface engineering of hollow structures with suitable corona and canopy species. By taking advantage of the liquid-like polymeric matrices as a separation medium and the empty cavities as gas transport pathway, this unique porous liquid can function as a promising candidate for gas separation. Moreover, such a facile synthetic strategy can be further extended to the fabrication of other types of nanostructure-based porous liquid, opening up new opportunities for preparation of porous liquids with attractive properties for specific tasks. PMID:25404583

Zhang, Jinshui; Chai, Song-Hai; Qiao, Zhen-An; Mahurin, Shannon M; Chen, Jihua; Fang, Youxing; Wan, Shun; Nelson, Kimberly; Zhang, Pengfei; Dai, Sheng

2015-01-12

355

Calcium phosphate scaffolds mimicking the gradient architecture of native long bones.  

PubMed

The synthesis of beta-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) scaffolds offering both the macroporous inner structure required for proper in vivo degradation and a non-macroporous outer structure for the enhancement of mechanical properties continues to be a challenge. The hypothesis of this study was to realize biomimetic ?-TCP scaffolds with a macroporous inner structure and a compact outer structure using a lost wax casting technique. The porosity, macropore size, interconnectivity of the inner porous structure, and diameter of the outer compact structure were adjusted to specific values using a three-dimensional wax printer to manufacture the wax molds for the casting process. After the slip casting, the wax was pyrolyzed and the specimens were sintered. The resulting graded ?-TCP scaffolds (porous?+?compact) were characterized and compared with ?-TCP scaffolds with overall apparent macropores (only porous) and samples without macropores (only compact). The porosity and the compressive strength of the only compact, porous?+?compact, and only porous ?-TCP samples were 31.4?±?0.4 vol %, 55.6?±?0.9 vol %, and 66.9?±?0.4 vol % and 192?±?7 MPa, 36?±?2 MPa, and 9?±?1 MPa, respectively. The macropore size was 500 µm and the micropore size was up to 10 µm, both featuring a completely open porous structure. From these results, we conclude that the lost wax casting technique offers an excellent method for the fabrication of ?-TCP scaffolds with an inner macroporous structure and compact outer structure which mimics the cancellous and cortical structure of natural bone. PMID:24307071

Lindner, Markus; Bergmann, Christian; Telle, Rainer; Fischer, Horst

2014-10-01

356

Sol-gel assisted fabrication of collagen hydrolysate composite scaffold: a novel therapeutic alternative to the traditional collagen scaffold.  

PubMed

Collagen is one of the most widely used biomaterial for various biomedical applications. In this Research Article, we present a novel approach of using collagen hydrolysate, smaller fragments of collagen, as an alternative to traditionally used collagen scaffold. Collagen hydrolysate composite scaffold (CHCS) was fabricated with sol-gel transition procedure using tetraethoxysilane as the silica precursor. CHCS exhibits porous morphology with pore sizes varying between 380 and 780 ?m. Incorporation of silica conferred CHCS with controlled biodegradation and better water uptake capacity. Notably, 3T3 fibroblast proliferation was seen to be significantly better under CHCS treatment when compared to treatment with collagen scaffold. Additionally, CHCS showed excellent antimicrobial activity against the wound pathogens Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, and Escherichia coli due to the inherited antimicrobial activity of collagen hydrolysate. In vivo wound healing experiments with full thickness excision wounds in rat model demonstrated that wounds treated with CHCS showed accelerated healing when compared to wounds treated with collagen scaffold. These findings indicate that the CHCS scaffold from collagen fragments would be an effective and affordable alternative to the traditionally used collagen structural biomaterials. PMID:25105509

Ramadass, Satiesh Kumar; Perumal, Sathiamurthi; Gopinath, Arun; Nisal, Anuya; Subramanian, Saravanan; Madhan, Balaraman

2014-09-10

357

Enhanced osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells on poly(l-lactide) nanofibrous scaffolds containing carbon nanomaterials.  

PubMed

Carbon nanomaterials (CNMs), such as carbon nanotube (CNT) and graphene, are highlighted in bone regeneration because of their osteoinductive properties. Their combinations with nanofibrous polymeric scaffolds, which mimic the morphology of natural extracellular matrix of bone, arouse keen interest in bone tissue engineering. To this end, CNM were incorporated into nanofibrous poly(l-lactic acid) scaffolds by thermal-induced phase separation. The CNM-containing composite nanofibrous scaffolds were biologically evaluated by both in vitro co-culture of bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) and in vivo implantation. The nanofibrous structure itself demonstrated significant enhancement in cell adhesion, proliferation and oseogenic differentiation of BMSCs, and with the incorporation of CNM, the composite nanofibrous scaffolds further promoted osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs significantly. Between the two CNMs, graphene showed stronger effect in promoting osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs than CNT. The results of in vivo experiments revealed that the composite nanofibrous scaffolds had both good biocompatibility and strong ability in inducing osteogenesis. CNMs could remarkably enhance the expression of osteogenesis-related proteins as well as the formation of type I collagen. Similarly, the graphene-containing composite nanofibrous scaffolds demonstrated the strongest effect on inducing osteogenesis in vivo. These findings demonstrated that CNM-containing composite nanofibrous scaffolds were obviously more efficient in promoting osteogenesis than pure polymeric scaffolds. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A, 2014. PMID:25046153

Duan, Shun; Yang, Xiaoping; Mei, Fang; Tang, Yan; Li, Xiaoli; Shi, Yuzhou; Mao, Jifu; Zhang, Hongquan; Cai, Qing

2014-07-21

358

Development of Composite Scaffolds for Load-Bearing Segmental Bone Defects  

PubMed Central

The need for a suitable tissue-engineered scaffold that can be used to heal load-bearing segmental bone defects (SBDs) is both immediate and increasing. During the past 30 years, various ceramic and polymer scaffolds have been investigated for this application. More recently, while composite scaffolds built using a combination of ceramics and polymeric materials are being investigated in a greater number, very few products have progressed from laboratory benchtop studies to preclinical testing in animals. This review is based on an exhaustive literature search of various composite scaffolds designed to serve as bone regenerative therapies. We analyzed the benefits and drawbacks of different composite scaffold manufacturing techniques, the properties of commonly used ceramics and polymers, and the properties of currently investigated synthetic composite grafts. To follow, a comprehensive review of in vivo models used to test composite scaffolds in SBDs is detailed to serve as a guide to design appropriate translational studies and to identify the challenges that need to be overcome in scaffold design for successful translation. This includes selecting the animal type, determining the anatomical location within the animals, choosing the correct study duration, and finally, an overview of scaffold performance assessment. PMID:23984363

2013-01-01

359

Highly moldable electrospun clay-like fluffy nanofibers for three-dimensional scaffolds.  

PubMed

The development of three-dimensional polymeric systems capable of mimicking the extracellular matrix is critical for advancing tissue engineering. To achieve these objectives, three-dimensional fibrous scaffolds with "clay"-like properties were successfully developed by coaxially electrospinning polystyrene (PS) and poly(?-caprolactone) (PCL) and selective leaching. As PS is known to be nonbiodegradable and vulnerable to mechanical stress, PS layers present at the outer surface were removed using a "selective leaching" process. The fibrous PCL scaffolds that remained after the leaching step exhibited highly advantageous characteristics as a tissue engineering scaffold, including moldability (i.e., clay-like), flexibility, and three-dimensional structure (i.e., cotton-like). More so, the "clay-like" PCL fibrous scaffolds could be shaped into any desired form, and the microenvironment within the clay scaffolds was highly favorable for cell expansion both in vitro and in vivo. These "electrospun-clay" scaffolds overcome the current limitations of conventional electrospun, sheet-like scaffolds, which are structurally inflexible. Therefore, this work extends the scope of electrospun fibrous scaffolds toward a variety of tissue engineering applications. PMID:24393142

Lee, Slgirim; Cho, Sunghwan; Kim, Minhee; Jin, Gyuhyung; Jeong, Unyong; Jang, Jae-Hyung

2014-01-22

360

Novel chitosan/collagen scaffold containing transforming growth factor-{beta}1 DNA for periodontal tissue engineering  

SciTech Connect

The current rapid progression in tissue engineering and local gene delivery system has enhanced our applications to periodontal tissue engineering. In this study, porous chitosan/collagen scaffolds were prepared through a freeze-drying process, and loaded with plasmid and adenoviral vector encoding human transforming growth factor-{beta}1 (TGF-{beta}1). These scaffolds were evaluated in vitro by analysis of microscopic structure, porosity, and cytocompatibility. Human periodontal ligament cells (HPLCs) were seeded in this scaffold, and gene transfection could be traced by green fluorescent protein (GFP). The expression of type I and type III collagen was detected with RT-PCR, and then these scaffolds were implanted subcutaneously into athymic mice. Results indicated that the pore diameter of the gene-combined scaffolds was lower than that of pure chitosan/collagen scaffold. The scaffold containing Ad-TGF-{beta}1 exhibited the highest proliferation rate, and the expression of type I and type III collagen up-regulated in Ad-TGF-{beta}1 scaffold. After implanted in vivo, EGFP-transfected HPLCs not only proliferated but also recruited surrounding tissue to grow in the scaffold. This study demonstrated the potential of chitosan/collagen scaffold combined Ad-TGF-{beta}1 as a good substrate candidate in periodontal tissue engineering.

Zhang Yufeng [Key Laboratory for Oral Biomedical Engineering Ministry of Education, School of Stomatology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430079 (China); Cheng Xiangrong [Key Laboratory for Oral Biomedical Engineering Ministry of Education, School of Stomatology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430079 (China)]. E-mail: Xiangrongcheng@hotmail.com; Wang Jiawei [Key Laboratory for Oral Biomedical Engineering Ministry of Education, School of Stomatology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430079 (China); Wang Yining [Key Laboratory for Oral Biomedical Engineering Ministry of Education, School of Stomatology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430079 (China); Shi Bin [Key Laboratory for Oral Biomedical Engineering Ministry of Education, School of Stomatology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430079 (China); Huang Cui [Key Laboratory for Oral Biomedical Engineering Ministry of Education, School of Stomatology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430079 (China); Yang Xuechao [Key Laboratory for Oral Biomedical Engineering Ministry of Education, School of Stomatology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430079 (China); Liu Tongjun [Key Laboratory for Oral Biomedical Engineering Ministry of Education, School of Stomatology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430079 (China)

2006-05-26

361

Femtosecond Laser Ablation Enhances Cell Infiltration into Three-Dimensional Electrospun Scaffolds  

PubMed Central

Electrospun scaffolds are used extensively in tissue engineering applications since they offer a cell-friendly microenvironment. However, one major limitation is the dense fibers, small pore size and consequently poor cell infiltration. Here, we employ a femtosecond (FS) laser system to ablate and create microscale features on electrospun poly(L-lactide) (PLLA) nanofibrous scaffolds. Upon determining the ablation parameters, we pattern structured holes of varying diameters of 50, 100, and 200 ?m and spacing of 50 and 200 ?m between adjacent holes on the scaffolds. The elastic moduli of ablated scaffolds decrease with the decrease of spacing and the increase of hole size. Cells seeded on the laser-ablated scaffolds exhibit different morphology but similar proliferation rate when compared with control (non-ablated) scaffold. Furthermore, animal studies indicate that ablated scaffolds facilitate endothelial cell ingrowth as well as drastically increase M2 macrophage and overall cell infiltration. These findings demonstrate that FS laser ablation can be used to increase cell infiltration into nanofibrous scaffolds. Laser ablation not only can create desired features in micrometer length scale but also presents a new approach in the fabrication of three-dimensional porous constructs for tissue engineering. PMID:22522128

Lee, Benjamin Li-Ping; Jeon, Hojeong; Wang, Aijun; Yan, Zhiqiang; Yu, Jian; Grigoropoulos, Costas; Li, Song

2012-01-01

362

Lamellar Spacing in Cuboid Hydroxyapatite Scaffolds Regulates Bone Formation by Human Bone Marrow Stromal Cells  

PubMed Central

Background A major goal in bone engineering is the creation of large volume constructs (scaffolds and stem cells) that bear load. The scaffolds must satisfy two competing requirements—they need be sufficiently porous to allow nutrient flow to maintain cell viability, yet sufficiently dense to bear load. We studied the effect of scaffold macroporosity on bone formation and scaffold strength, for bone formed by human bone marrow stromal cells. Methods Rigid cubical hydroxyapatite/tricalcium phosphate scaffolds were produced by robo-casting. The ceramic line thickness was held constant, but the distance between adjacent lines was either 50, 100, 200, 500, or 1000??m. Cultured human bone marrow stromal cells were combined with the scaffolds in vitro; transplants were placed into the subcutis of immunodeficient mice. Transplants were harvested 9, 18, 23, 38, or 50 weeks later. Bone formation and scaffold strength were analyzed using histology and compression testing. Results Sixty transplants were evaluated. Cortical bone increased with transplant age, and was greatest among 500??m transplants. In contrast, maximum transplant strength was greatest among 200??m transplants. Conclusions Lamellar spacing within scaffolds regulates the extent of bone formation; 500??m yields the most new bone, whereas 200??m yields the strongest transplants. PMID:21294634

Afghani, Shahrzad; Franco, Jaime; Launey, Max; Marshall, Sally; Marshall, Grayson W.; Nissenson, Robert; Lee, Janice; Tomsia, Antoni P.; Saiz, Eduardo

2011-01-01

363

Preparation of foam-like carbon nanotubes/hydroxyapatite composite scaffolds with superparamagnetic properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the foam-like composite scaffolds composed of hydroxyapatite (HA) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were prepared by a new method, where a polymer impregnating method was used for porous HA-based scaffold and a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method was used for the growth of CNTs from the HA-based scaffold. The process produces the CNTs/HA scaffolds that have a foam-like structure with better mechanical property, better microstructure and a high degree of interconnection. A favorable pore size with big pores of 1-2 mm and small pores of 20-300 ?m for osteoconduction and bone ingrowth is presented in these scaffolds. About 2 wt% multi-walled CNTs with the diameter of 60-100 nm are observed to be in situ grown from deficient nano-HA crystallites. Magnetic measurement exhibits these scaffolds are superparamagnetic with a saturation magnetization of 1.14 emu g-1 at a room temperature, benefiting the scaffolds to take up growth factors in vivo, stem cell or other bioactive molecules easily. This new type of CNTs/HA scaffolds is expected to have a promising applications in bone tissue engineering, targeted drug delivery system and other biomedical fields.

Lu, X. Y.; Qiu, T.; Wang, X. F.; Zhang, M.; Gao, X. L.; Li, R. X.; Lu, X.; Weng, J.

2012-12-01

364

Assessment of scaffold porosity: the new route of micro-CT.  

PubMed

A complete morphologic characterization of porous scaffolds for tissue engineering application is fundamental, as the architectural parameters, in particular porosity, strongly affect the mechanical and biological performance of the structures. Therefore, appropriate techniques for this purpose need to be selected. Several techniques for the assessment of scaffold porosity have been proposed, including Scanning Electron Microscopy observation, mercury and liquid extrusion porosimetry, gas pycnometry, and capillary flow porometry. Each of these techniques has several drawbacks and, a combination of different techniques is often required so as to achieve an in depth study of the morphologic properties of the scaffold. A single technique is often limited and suitable only for the assessment of a specific parameter. To overcome this limit, the most attractive option would be a single nondestructive technique, yet capable of providing a comprehensive set of data. It appears that micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) can potentially fulfill this role. Initially developed to characterize the 3D trabecular microarchitecture of bone, its use has been recently exploited by researchers for the morphologic characterization of porous biomaterials, as it enables obtaining a full assessment of the porous structures both in terms of pore size and interconnected porosity. This review aims to explore the use of micro-CT in scaffold characterization, comparing it with other previously developed techniques; we also focus on the contribution of this innovative tool to the development of scaffold-based tissue engineering application. PMID:22139756

Bertoldi, Serena; Farè, Silvia; Tanzi, Maria Cristina

2011-01-01

365

Biomacromolecules electrostatic self-assembly on 3-dimensional tissue engineering scaffold.  

PubMed

A poly(ethylenimine) (PEI) was employed to obtain a stable positively charged surface on a poly(D,L-lactide) (PDL-LA) tissue engineering scaffold. An extracellular matrix (ECM)-like biomacromolecule, gelatin, was selected as polyelectrolyte and deposit alternately with PEI on the activated PDL-LA scaffold via ESA technique. The zeta-potential result showed alternating charge of polyelectrolytes (PEI/gelatin) layering on PDL-LA microspheres. Quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) measurement further verified the gradual deposition of PEI/gelatin on the PDL-LA thin film. The combination of PEI aminolysis and the layer-by-layer technique was then explored to construct gelatin coating onto the 3-D porous PDL-LA scaffold. Scanning electronic microscopy showed that there is no notable difference between modified and unmodified PLA scaffolds, with regard to the porosity, pore diameter, and scaffold integration. The dual-tunnel confocal laser scanning microscopy indicated uniform gelatin distribution on the inner surface of the 3-D porous scaffold. The gradual build-up of protein layer on scaffold was investigated by radioiodination technique. Chondrocyte was chosen to test the cell behavior on modified and unmodified PDL-LA scaffolds. The results of the cell viability, total intracellular protein content, and cell morphology on the PEI/gelatin multilayers modified PDL-LA scaffold showed to promote chondrocyte growth. Comparing conventional coating methods, polyelectrolyte multilayers are easy and stable to prepare. It may be a promising choice for the surface modification of complex biomedical devices. These very flexible systems allow broad medical applications for drug delivery and tissue engineering. PMID:15360308

Zhu, Huiguang; Ji, Jian; Shen, Jiacong

2004-01-01

366

Scaffolds for tissue fabrication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tissue engineering is an interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary field. It has shown great promise in generating living alternatives for harvested tissues and organs for transplantation and reconstructive surgery. Materials and fabrication technologies are critically important for tissue engineering in designing temporary, artificial extracellular matrices (scaffolds), which support three-dimensional tissue formation. This review briefly introduces the concept of tissue engineering, and illustrates

Peter X Ma

2004-01-01

367

Scaffold pore size modulates in vitro osteogenesis of human adipose-derived stem/stromal cells.  

PubMed

Trabecular bone has an interconnected porous structure, which influences cellular responses, biochemical transport and mechanical strength. Appropriately mimicking this structural organization in biomaterial scaffolds can facilitate more robust bone tissue regeneration and integration by providing a native microenvironment to the cells. This study examined the effect of pore size on human adipose-derived stem/stromal cell (ASC) osteogenesis within poly(?-caprolactone) (PCL) scaffolds. Scaffold pore size was controlled by porogen leaching of custom-made paraffin particles with three different size ranges: P200 (< 500 µm), P500 (500-1000 µm), and P1000 (1000-1500 µm). Scaffolds produced by leaching these particles exhibited highly interconnected pores and rough surface structures that were favorable for cell attachment and ingrowth. The osteogenic response of ASCs was evaluated following 3 weeks of in vitro culture using biochemical (ALP, Ca(2+)/DNA content), mechanical (compression test) and histological (H&E and von Kossa staining) analyses. It was observed that while the total number of cells was similar for all scaffolds, the cell distributions and osteogenic properties were affected by the scaffold pore size. ASCs were able to bridge smaller pores and grow uniformly within these scaffolds (P200) while they grew as a layer along the periphery of the largest pores (P1000). The cell-biomaterial interactions specific to the latter case led to enhanced osteogenic responses. The ALP activity and Ca(2+) deposition were doubled in P1000 scaffolds as compared to P200 scaffolds. A significant difference was observed between the compressive strength of unseeded and seeded P1000 scaffolds. Therefore, we demonstrated that the use of scaffolds with pores that are in the range of 1 mm enhances in vitro ASC osteogenesis, which may improve their performance in engineered bone substitutes. PMID:24945873

Huri, Pinar Yilgor; Ozilgen, B Arda; Hutton, Daphne L; Grayson, Warren L

2014-08-01

368

Preparation of poly(ethylene glycol)/polylactide hybrid fibrous scaffolds for bone tissue engineering  

PubMed Central

Polylactide (PLA) electrospun fibers have been reported as a scaffold for bone tissue engineering application, however, the great hydrophobicity limits its broad application. In this study, the hybrid amphiphilic poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)/hydrophobic PLA fibrous scaffolds exhibited improved morphology with regular and continuous fibers compared to corresponding blank PLA fiber mats. The prepared PEG/PLA fibrous scaffolds favored mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) attachment and proliferation by providing an interconnected porous extracellular environment. Meanwhile, MSCs can penetrate into the fibrous scaffold through the interstitial pores and integrate well with the surrounding fibers, which is very important for favorable application in tissue engineering. More importantly, the electrospun hybrid PEG/PLA fibrous scaffolds can enhance MSCs to differentiate into bone-associated cells by comprehensively evaluating the representative markers of the osteogenic procedure with messenger ribonucleic acid quantitation and protein analysis. MSCs on the PEG/PLA fibrous scaffolds presented better differentiation potential with higher messenger ribonucleic acid expression of the earliest osteogenic marker Cbfa-1 and mid-stage osteogenic marker Col I. The significantly higher alkaline phosphatase activity of the PEG/PLA fibrous scaffolds indicated that these can enhance the differentiation of MSCs into osteoblast-like cells. Furthermore, the higher messenger ribonucleic acid level of the late osteogenic differentiation markers OCN (osteocalcin) and OPN (osteopontin), accompanied by the positive Alizarin red S staining, showed better maturation of osteogenic induction on the PEG/PLA fibrous scaffolds at the mineralization stage of differentiation. After transplantation into the thigh muscle pouches of rats, and evaluating the inflammatory cells surrounding the scaffolds and the physiological characteristics of the surrounding tissues, the PEG/PLA scaffolds presented good biocompatibility. Based on the good cellular response and excellent osteogenic potential in vitro, as well as the biocompatibility with the surrounding tissues in vivo, the electrospun PEG/PLA fibrous scaffolds could be one of the most promising candidates in bone tissue engineering. PMID:22163160

Ni, PeiYan; Fu, ShaoZhi; Fan, Min; Guo, Gang; Shi, Shuai; Peng, JinRong; Luo, Feng; Qian, ZhiYong

2011-01-01

369

Controlled Polymerization by Incarceration of Monomers in Nanochannels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Porous Coordination Polymers (PCPs) composed of transition metal ions and bridging organic ligands have been extensively studied. The characteristic features of PCPs are highly regular channel structures, controllable channel sizes approximating molecular dimensions, designable surface potentials and functionality, and flexible frameworks responsive to guest molecules. Owing to these advantages, successful applications of PCPs range from molecular storage and separation to heterogeneous catalysts. In particular, use of their regulated and tunable nanochannels in the field of polymerization has allowed multi-level control of polymerization via control of stereoregularlity, molecular weight, etc. In this chapter, we focus on recent progress in polymerization utilizing the nanochannels of PCPs, and demonstrate why this polymerization system is attractive and promising from the viewpoint of precision control of polymeric structures.

Uemura, Takashi; Kitagawa, Susumu

370

Carbon nanotubes reinforced poly(L-lactide) scaffolds fabricated by thermally induced phase separation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In tissue engineering, porous nanocomposite scaffolds can potentially mimic aspects of the nanoscale architecture of the extra-cellular matrix, as well as enhance the mechanical properties required for successful weight-bearing implants. In this paper, we demonstrate that highly porous thermoplastic poly(L-lactide) nanocomposite scaffolds containing different types of functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The nanocomposite scaffolds were manufactured by a thermally induced phase separation method. This experiment produced an uniform distribution of CNTs throughout the scaffold without obvious aggregations for funtionalized CNTs filled scaffolds by scanning electron microscope observation. The CNTs were frequently located on the pore surface, forming rough, hairy nano-textures. The pore size was reduced with the increasing of CNT loading. Parts of PLLA matrix was induced into nanofibrous structures from solid-walled state, which reduced the crystallinity of the PLLA characterized by DSC measurement. The CNT incorporation significantly improved the compression modulus of the nanocomposite scaffolds, especially the functionalized CNTs. The capacity of protein adsorption is significantly improved when the concentration of the CNTs was higher than 1.0 wt.% and the cell attachment was also enhanced by the addition of CNTs, especially N-CNT.

Ma, Haiyun; Xue, Li

2015-01-01

371

Carbon nanotubes reinforced poly(L-lactide) scaffolds fabricated by thermally induced phase separation.  

PubMed

In tissue engineering, porous nanocomposite scaffolds can potentially mimic aspects of the nanoscale architecture of the extra-cellular matrix, as well as enhance the mechanical properties required for successful weight-bearing implants. In this paper, we demonstrate that highly porous thermoplastic poly(L-lactide) nanocomposite scaffolds containing different types of functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The nanocomposite scaffolds were manufactured by a thermally induced phase separation method. This experiment produced an uniform distribution of CNTs throughout the scaffold without obvious aggregations for funtionalized CNTs filled scaffolds by scanning electron microscope observation. The CNTs were frequently located on the pore surface, forming rough, hairy nano-textures. The pore size was reduced with the increasing of CNT loading. Parts of PLLA matrix was induced into nanofibrous structures from solid-walled state, which reduced the crystallinity of the PLLA characterized by DSC measurement. The CNT incorporation significantly improved the compression modulus of the nanocomposite scaffolds, especially the functionalized CNTs. The capacity of protein adsorption is significantly improved when the concentration of the CNTs was higher than 1.0 wt.% and the cell attachment was also enhanced by the addition of CNTs, especially N-CNT. PMID:25525708

Ma, Haiyun; Xue, Li

2015-01-16

372

Biodegradable borosilicate bioactive glass scaffolds with a trabecular microstructure for bone repair.  

PubMed

Three-dimensional porous scaffolds of a borosilicate bioactive glass (designated 13-93B1), with the composition 6Na2O-8K2O-8MgO-22CaO-18B2O3-36SiO2-2P2O5 (mol%), were prepared using a foam replication technique and evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Immersion of the scaffolds for 30 days in a simulated body fluid in vitro resulted in partial conversion of the glass to a porous hydroxyapatite composed of