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1

Toughening of porous bioceramic scaffolds by bioresorbable polymeric coatings.  

PubMed

The mechanical properties of poly(c-caprolactone) (PCL)-coated porous bioceramic scaffolds made of calcium phosphates were studied and analysed using a statistical experimental design and Taguchi methods. In this study, both the flexural strength of the coated scaffolds and the amount of deposited PCL were considered as the measured responses. A statistical experimental design using the analysis of means and orthogonal array was applied to optimize these responses. The removal technique of excess polymer solution, the concentration of PCL in the solution, a heat treatment temperature, and the number of times that the scaffolds were dipped in the solution were chosen as the significant processing variables. The removal technique of excess polymer solution and the number of times that the scaffolds were dipped in the solution showed the major effects on the flexural strength, while the technique for removal of excess polymer solution was found to have the major effect on the mass of the deposited PCL. The optimal conditions for achieving the maximal flexural strength of the coated scaffolds at the minimal amount of the deposited PCL were determined and tested. High-quality porous bioresorbable scaffolds with approximately 19 MPa flexural strength and approximately 0.4g of the total (PCL coating+calcium phosphates) mass with dimensions of 8.5 mm diameter and 13 mm width were manufactured as a result. PMID:19499836

Dorozhkin, S; Ajaal, T

2009-05-01

2

Porous alumina scaffold produced by sol-gel combined polymeric sponge method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sol gel is a novel method used to produce high purity alumina with nanometric scale. In this study, three-dimensional porous alumina scaffold was produced using sol-gel polymeric sponge method. Briefly, sol gel alumina was prepared by evaporation and polymeric sponge cut to designated sizes were immersed in the sol gel followed by sintering at 1250 and 1550°C. In order to study the cell interaction, the porous alumina scaffold was sterilized using autoclave prior to Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells (HMSCs) seeding on the scaffold and the cell proliferation was assessed by alamarBlue® assay. SEM results showed that during the 21 day period, HMSCs were able to attach on the scaffold surface and the interconnecting pores while maintaining its proliferation. These findings suggested the potential use of the porous alumina produced as a scaffold for implantation procedure.

Hasmaliza, M.; Fazliah, M. N.; Shafinaz, R. J.

2012-09-01

3

Three-dimensional porous biodegradable polymeric scaffolds fabricated with biodegradable hydrogel porogens.  

PubMed

We have developed a new fabrication technique to create three-dimensional (3D) porous poly(epsilon-caprolactone fumarate) (PCLF) scaffolds using hydrogel microparticle porogens, as an alternative to overcome certain limitations of traditional scaffold fabrication techniques such as a salt leaching method. Both natural hydrogel, gelatin, and synthetic hydrogel, poly(ethylene glycol) sebacic acid diacrylate, were used as porogens to fabricate 3D porous PCLF scaffolds. Hydrogel microparticles were prepared by a single emulsion technique with the particle size in the range of 100-500 microm after equilibrium in water. The pore size distribution, porosity, pore interconnectivity, and spatial pore heterogeneity of the 3D PCLF scaffolds were assessed using micro-computed tomography and imaging analysis. Scaffolds fabricated with the hydrogel porogens had higher porosity and pore interconnectivity as well as more homogeneous spatial pore distribution, compared to the scaffolds made from the salt leaching process. Compressive moduli of the scaffolds were also measured and showed that lower porosity yielded greater modulus of the scaffolds. Overall, the new fabrication technology using hydrogel porogens may be beneficial for certain tissue engineering applications. PMID:19216632

Kim, Jinku; Yaszemski, Michael J; Lu, Lichun

2009-12-01

4

Glycerol-Mediated Nanostructure Modification Leading to Improved Transparency of Porous Polymeric Scaffolds for High Performance 3D Cell Imaging.  

PubMed

Glycerol is among the most commonly used optical clearing agents for tissues clearance largely due to refractive index (RI) matching between glycerol and the submerged tissues. Here we applied glycerol as structure modifier at both macroscopic (as porogen) and nanoscopic (as nanostructure ameliorant) scales to fabricate transparent porous scaffolds made from poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) as well as other widely used biomaterials (e.g., PLGA, PA, or gelatin), whose nanostructures, in the scale of light wavelength, dominantly improved the optical transmittance of the scaffolds even when immersed in RI mismatched medium (e.g., culture medium or water). We further exploited the clearing mechanisms based on Mie scattering theory, illustrating that conformational changes of polymer chains induced by solvent effects of glycerol enhanced the anisotropy (i.e., directional alignment) of the nanostructures, leading to reduced crystallinity and scattering of the resulted PEG scaffolds. Our findings represent the first and systematic demonstration with both experimental and theoretical evidence in effectively clearing porous polymeric scaffolds by mechanisms other than RI matching, which could tackle the limitations of current optical imaging of cells cultured within three-dimensional (3D) opaque porous scaffolds, such as poor visibility, low spatial resolution, and small penetration depth. PMID:24884229

Zhao, Shan; Shen, Zhiyuan; Wang, Jingyu; Li, Xiaokang; Zeng, Yang; Wang, Bingjie; He, Yonghong; Du, Yanan

2014-07-14

5

Gas anti-solvent precipitation assisted salt leaching for generation of micro- and nano-porous wall in bio-polymeric 3D scaffolds.  

PubMed

The mass transport through biocompatible and biodegradable polymeric 3D porous scaffolds may be depleted by non-porous impermeable internal walls. As consequence the concentration of metabolites and growth factors within the scaffold may be heterogeneous leading to different cell fate depending on spatial cell location, and in some cases it may compromise cell survival. In this work, we fabricated polymeric scaffolds with micro- and nano-scale porosity by developing a new technique that couples two conventional scaffold production methods: solvent casting-salt leaching and gas antisolvent precipitation. 10-15 w/w solutions of a hyaluronic benzyl esters (HYAFF11) and poly-(lactic acid) (PLA) were used to fill packed beds of 0.177-0.425 mm NaCl crystals. The polymer precipitation in micro and nano-porous structures between the salt crystals was induced by high-pressure gas, then its flushing extracted the residual solvent. The salt was removed by water-wash. Morphological analysis by scanning electron microscopy showed a uniform porosity (~70%) and a high interconnectivity between porous. The polymeric walls were porous themselves counting for 30% of the total porosity. This wall porosity did not lead to a remarkable change in compressive modulus, deformation, and rupture pressure. Scaffold biocompatibility was tested with murine muscle cell line C2C12 for 4 and 7 days. Viability analysis and histology showed that micro- and nano-porous scaffolds are biocompatible and suitable for 3D cell culture promoting cell adhesion on the polymeric wall and allowing their proliferation in layers. Micro- and nano-scale porosities enhance cell migration and growth in the inner part of the scaffold. PMID:24364970

Flaibani, Marina; Elvassore, Nicola

2012-08-01

6

A new method for the production of gelatin microparticles for controlled protein release from porous polymeric scaffolds.  

PubMed

Tissue engineering using scaffolds and growth factors is a crucial approach in bone regeneration and repair. The combination of bioactive agents carrying microparticles with porous scaffolds can be an efficient solution when controlled release of bio-signalling molecules is required. The present study was based on a recent approach using a biodegradable scaffold and protein-loaded microparticles produced in an innovative manner in which protein loss is minimized during the loading process. Bovine serum albumin (BSA)-loaded gelatin microparticles were obtained by grinding freeze-dried membranes of gelatin and BSA. Porous scaffolds (250-355 µm pore size) produced from a polyactide (PLLA) and polycaprolactone (PCL) blend by salt leaching/supercritical CO? methods were used for the experiments. Gelatin microparticles containing three different BSA amounts were incorporated into the porous scaffolds by using a surfactant. In vitro release profiles showed up to 90% protein loading efficiency. This novel method appears to be an effective approach for producing particles that can minimize protein loss during the loading process. PMID:22499408

Ozkizilcik, Asya; Tuzlakoglu, Kadriye

2014-03-01

7

Porous Collagen Scaffold Reinforced with Surfaced Activated PLLA Nanoparticles  

PubMed Central

Porous collagen scaffold is integrated with surface activated PLLA nanoparticles fabricated by lyophilizing and crosslinking via EDC treatment. In order to prepare surface-modified PLLA nanoparticles, PLLA was firstly grafted with poly (acrylic acid) (PAA) through surface-initiated polymerization of acrylic acid. Nanoparticles of average diameter 316?nm and zeta potential ?39.88?mV were obtained from the such-treated PLLA by dialysis method. Porous collagen scaffold were fabricated by mixing PLLA nanoparticles with collagen solution, freeze drying, and crosslinking with EDC. SEM observation revealed that nanoparticles were homogeneously dispersed in collagen matrix, forming interconnected porous structure with pore size ranging from 150 to 200??m, irrespective of the amount of nanoparticles. The porosity of the scaffolds kept almost unchanged with the increment of the nanoparticles, whereas the mechanical property was obviously improved, and the degradation was effectively retarded. In vitro L929 mouse fibroblast cells seeding and culture studies revealed that cells infiltrated into the scaffolds and were distributed homogeneously. Compared with the pure collagen sponge, the number of cells in hybrid scaffolds greatly increased with the increment of incorporated nanoparticles. These results manifested that the surface-activated PLLA nanoparticles effectively reinforced the porous collagen scaffold and promoted the cells penetrating into the scaffold, and proliferation.

Xu, Cancan; Lu, Wei; Bian, Shaoquan; Liang, Jie; Fan, Yujiang; Zhang, Xingdong

2012-01-01

8

Porous collagen scaffold reinforced with surfaced activated PLLA nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Porous collagen scaffold is integrated with surface activated PLLA nanoparticles fabricated by lyophilizing and crosslinking via EDC treatment. In order to prepare surface-modified PLLA nanoparticles, PLLA was firstly grafted with poly (acrylic acid) (PAA) through surface-initiated polymerization of acrylic acid. Nanoparticles of average diameter 316 nm and zeta potential -39.88 mV were obtained from the such-treated PLLA by dialysis method. Porous collagen scaffold were fabricated by mixing PLLA nanoparticles with collagen solution, freeze drying, and crosslinking with EDC. SEM observation revealed that nanoparticles were homogeneously dispersed in collagen matrix, forming interconnected porous structure with pore size ranging from 150 to 200 ?m, irrespective of the amount of nanoparticles. The porosity of the scaffolds kept almost unchanged with the increment of the nanoparticles, whereas the mechanical property was obviously improved, and the degradation was effectively retarded. In vitro L929 mouse fibroblast cells seeding and culture studies revealed that cells infiltrated into the scaffolds and were distributed homogeneously. Compared with the pure collagen sponge, the number of cells in hybrid scaffolds greatly increased with the increment of incorporated nanoparticles. These results manifested that the surface-activated PLLA nanoparticles effectively reinforced the porous collagen scaffold and promoted the cells penetrating into the scaffold, and proliferation. PMID:22448137

Xu, Cancan; Lu, Wei; Bian, Shaoquan; Liang, Jie; Fan, Yujiang; Zhang, Xingdong

2012-01-01

9

Bioinspired Strong and Highly Porous Glass Scaffolds  

PubMed Central

The quest for more efficient energy-related technologies is driving the development of porous and high-performance structural materials with exceptional mechanical strength. Natural materials achieve their strength through complex hierarchical designs and anisotropic structures that are extremely difficult to replicate synthetically. We emulate nature’s design by direct-ink-write assembling of glass scaffolds with a periodic pattern, and controlled sintering of the filaments into anisotropic constructs similar to biological materials. The final product is a porous glass scaffold with a compressive strength (136 MPa) comparable to that of cortical bone and a porosity (60%) comparable to that of trabecular bone. The strength of this porous glass scaffold is ~100 times that of polymer scaffolds and 4–5 times that of ceramic and glass scaffolds with comparable porosities reported elsewhere. The ability to create both porous and strong structures opens a new avenue for fabricating scaffolds for a broad array of applications, including tissue engineering, filtration, lightweight composites, and catalyst support.

Saiz, Eduardo; Tomsia, Antoni P.

2011-01-01

10

Polymeric Scaffolds for Regenerative Medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regenerative medicine, one of the most exciting and dynamic life science fields, is an emerging biomedical technology for assisting and accelerating the regeneration and repair of lost or damaged organs or body parts. Modern regenerative medicine is increasingly using three-dimensional structured scaffolds because they represent a wide range of morphological and geometric in vivo possibilities that can be tailored for

Moon Suk Kim; Jae Ho Kim; Byoung Hyun Min; Heung Jae Chun; Dong Keun Han; Hai Bang Lee

2011-01-01

11

Porous polymers by controlling phase separation during vapor deposition polymerization.  

PubMed

A template-free method is described to fabricate continuous-phase, porous polymer films by simultaneous phase separation during vapor deposition polymerization. The technique involves concurrent polymerization, crosslinking, and phase separation of condensed species and reaction products. Deposited films form open-cell, macroporous structures consisting of crosslinked and glassy poly(glycidyl methacrylate). By limiting phase separation during vapor phase deposition, spatially dependent morphologies, such as layered morphologies, can be grown. Results show that combining vapor deposition polymerization with phase separation establishes morphological control, which may be applied to applications including cellular scaffolds, thin cushions and vibration dampers, and membranes for separations. PMID:24123386

Tao, Ran; Anthamatten, Mitchell

2013-11-01

12

Highly porous titanium scaffolds for orthopaedic applications.  

PubMed

For many years, the solid metals and their alloys have been widely used for fabrication of the implants replacing hard human tissues or their functions. To improve fixation of solid implants to the surrounding bone tissues, the materials with porous structures have been introduced. By tissue ingrowing into a porous structure of metallic implant, the bonding between the implant and the bone has been obtained. Substantial pore interconnectivity, in metallic implants, allows extensive body fluid transport through the porous implant. This can provoke bone tissue ingrowth, consequently, leading to the development of highly porous metallic implants, which could be used as scaffolds in bone tissue engineering. The goal of this study was to develop and then investigate properties of highly porous titanium structures received from powder metallurgy process. The properties of porous titanium samples, such as microstructure, porosity, Young's modulus, strength, together with permeability and corrosion resistance were investigated. Porous titanium scaffolds with nonhomogeneous distribution of interconnected pores with pore size in the range up to 600 ?m in diameter and a total porosity in the range up to 75% were developed. The relatively high permeability was observed for samples with highest values of porosity. Comparing to cast titanium, the porous titanium was low resistant to corrosion. The mechanical parameters of the investigated samples were similar to those for cancellous bone. The development of high-porous titanium material shows high potential to be modern material for creating a 3D structure for bone regeneration and implant fixation. PMID:20690174

Dabrowski, Bogdan; Swieszkowski, Wojciech; Godlinski, Dirk; Kurzydlowski, Krzysztof J

2010-10-01

13

Nano/macro porous bioactive glass scaffold  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bioactive glass (BG) and ceramics have been widely studied and developed as implants to replace hard tissues of the musculo-skeletal system, such as bones and teeth. Recently, instead of using bulk materials, which usually do not degrade rapidly enough and may remain in the human body for a long time, the idea of bioscaffold for tissue regeneration has generated much interest. An ideal bioscaffold is a porous material that would not only provide a three-dimensional structure for the regeneration of natural tissue, but also degrade gradually and, eventually be replaced by the natural tissue completely. Among various material choices the nano-macro dual porous BG appears as the most promising candidate for bioscaffold applications. Here macropores facilitate tissue growth while nanopores control degradation and enhance cell response. The surface area, which controls the degradation of scaffold can also be tuned by changing the nanopore size. However, fabrication of such 3D structure with desirable nano and macro pores has remained challenging. In this dissertation, sol-gel process combined with spinodal decomposition or polymer sponge replication method has been developed to fabricate the nano-macro porous BG scaffolds. Macropores up to 100microm are created by freezing polymer induced spinodal structure through sol-gel transition, while larger macropores (>200um) of predetermined size are obtained by the polymer sponge replication technique. The size of nanopores, which are inherent to the sol-gel method of glass fabrication, has been tailored using several approaches: Before gel point, small nanopores are generated using acid catalyst that leads to weakly-branched polymer-like network. On the other hand, larger nanopores are created with the base-catalyzed gel with highly-branched cluster-like structure. After the gel point, the nanostructure can be further modified by manipulating the sintering temperature and/or the ammonia concentration used in the solvent exchange process. Although both techniques lower the surface area of BG scaffolds, the temperature-dependent sintering process closes nanopores through densification, while the concentration-dependent solvent exchange process enlarges nanopores through Ostwald-ripening type coarsening. Therefore, nanopore size and surface area of BG scaffold are independently controlled using these methods. In vitro cell and in vivo animal tissue responses have been investigated to evaluate the performance of the nano-macro porous BG scaffold. The cells are found to migrate and penetrate deep into the 3D nano-macro porous structure, while exhibiting excellent adhesion to the bioscaffold surface. Importantly, the new tissue with both blood vessels and collagen fibers is formed deep inside the implanted scaffolds without obvious inflammatory reaction. Furthermore, our observations show biological benefits of the nanopores in the BG scaffold. In comparison to BG scaffold without nanopores, cells migrate and penetrate into nano-macro dual-porous BG scaffold faster and deeper mainly because of the increase of surface area. To study the effect of nanopore topography, we fabricated BG scaffolds with the same surface area but different nanopore sizes. It is found that the initial cell attachment is significantly enhanced on the BG scaffold with the same surface area but smaller nanopores size, indicating that the nanopore topography strongly influences the performance of BG scaffold. In conclusion, the present results demonstrate most clearly the usefulness of our nano-macro dual-porous BG as a novel and superior 3D bioscaffold for regenerative medicine and hard tissue engineering.

Wang, Shaojie

14

Porous ceramic scaffolds with complex architectures  

SciTech Connect

This work compares two novel techniques for the fabrication of ceramic scaffolds for bone tissue engineering with complex porosity: robocasting and freeze casting. Both techniques are based on the preparation of concentrated ceramic suspensions with suitable properties for the process. In robocasting, the computer-guided deposition of the suspensions is used to build porous materials with designed three dimensional (3-D) geometries and microstructures. Freeze casting uses ice crystals as a template to form porous lamellar ceramic materials. Preliminary results on the compressive strengths of the materials are also reported.

Saiz, Eduardo; Munch, Etienne; Franco, Jaime; Deville, Sylvain; Hunger, Phillip; Saiz, Eduardo; Tomsia, Antoni P.

2008-03-15

15

Additive manufacturing of wet-spun polymeric scaffolds for bone tissue engineering.  

PubMed

An Additive Manufacturing technique for the fabrication of three-dimensional polymeric scaffolds, based on wet-spinning of poly(?-caprolactone) (PCL) or PCL/hydroxyapatite (HA) solutions, was developed. The processing conditions to fabricate scaffolds with a layer-by-layer approach were optimized by studying their influence on fibres morphology and alignment. Two different scaffold architectures were designed and fabricated by tuning inter-fibre distance and fibres staggering. The developed scaffolds showed good reproducibility of the internal architecture characterized by highly porous, aligned fibres with an average diameter in the range 200-250 ?m. Mechanical characterization showed that the architecture and HA loading influenced the scaffold compressive modulus and strength. Cell culture experiments employing MC3T3-E1 preosteoblast cell line showed good cell adhesion, proliferation, alkaline phosphatase activity and bone mineralization on the developed scaffolds. PMID:22767245

Puppi, Dario; Mota, Carlos; Gazzarri, Matteo; Dinucci, Dinuccio; Gloria, Antonio; Myrzabekova, Mairam; Ambrosio, Luigi; Chiellini, Federica

2012-12-01

16

Photografting of poly(hydroxylethyl acrylate) onto porous polyurethane scaffolds to improve their endothelial cell compatibility.  

PubMed

In order to improve the cytocompatibility of polyurethane (PU) porous scaffolds obtained by thermally-induced phase separation, poly(hydroxylethyl acrylate) (PHEA) was covalently immobilized by grafting copolymerization of HEA by photo-oxidation of the scaffolds and initiation of UV light. FT-IR-ATR spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) characterizations confirmed the occurrence of the grafting co-polymerization of HEA on the porous PU scaffolds. The measurement of water absorption demonstrated the improvement of the hydrophilicity after grafting with PHEA. The results obtained in a human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) culture proved that the porous PU scaffold modified with the hydrophilic PHEA had better cytocompatibility than the control. The influence of surface pore size on the HUVEC growth behavior was assessed regarding cell anchorage, proliferation and viability, as well as morphology. An overall increase of cell number and viability with the decrease of the surface pore size was found. PMID:14661871

Gao, Changyou; Hu, Xiaohong; Hong, Yi; Guan, Jianjun; Shen, Jiacong

2003-01-01

17

Rapid Engineering of Three-Dimensional, Multicellular Tissues With Polymeric Scaffolds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A process has been developed for the rapid tissue engineering of multicellular-tissue-equivalent assemblies by the controlled enzymatic degradation of polymeric beads in a low-fluid-shear bioreactor. In this process, the porous polymeric beads serve as temporary scaffolds to support the assemblies of cells in a tissuelike 3D configuration during the critical initial growth phases of attachment of anchorage-dependent cells, aggregation of the cells, and formation of a 3D extracellular matrix. Once the cells are assembled into a 3D array and enmeshed in a structural supportive 3D extracellular matrix (ECM), the polymeric scaffolds can be degraded in the low-fluid-shear environment of the NASA-designed bioreactor. The natural 3D tissuelike assembly, devoid of any artificial support structure, is maintained in the low-shear bioreactor environment by the newly formed natural cellular/ECM. The elimination of the artificial scaffold allows normal tissue structure and function.

Gonda, Steve R.; Jordan, Jacqueline; Fraga, Denise N.

2007-01-01

18

Mechanical improvements to reinforced porous silk scaffolds.  

PubMed

Load-bearing porous biodegradable scaffolds are required to engineer functional tissues such as bone. Mechanical improvements to porogen leached scaffolds prepared from silk proteins were systematically studied through the addition of silk particles in combination with silk solution concentration, exploiting interfacial compatibility between the two components. Solvent solutions of silk up to 32 w/v % were successfully prepared in hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP) for the study. The mechanical properties of the reinforced silk scaffolds correlated to the material density and matched by a power law relationship, independent of the ratio of silk particles to matrix. These results were similar to the relationships previously shown for cancellous bone. From these data we conclude that the increased mechanical properties were due to a densification effect and not due to the inclusion of stiffer silk particles into the softer silk matrix. A continuous interface between the silk matrix and the silk particles, as well as homogeneous distribution of the silk particles within the matrix was observed. Furthermore, we note that the roughness of the pore walls was controllable by varying the ratio of the particles matrix, providing a route to control topography. The rate of proteolytic hydrolysis of the scaffolds decreased with increase in mass of silk used in the matrix and with increasing silk particle content. PMID:21793193

Gil, Eun Seok; Kluge, Jonathan A; Rockwood, Danielle N; Rajkhowa, Rangam; Wang, Lijing; Wang, Xungai; Kaplan, David L

2011-10-01

19

Mechanical Improvements to Reinforced Porous Silk Scaffolds  

PubMed Central

Load bearing porous biodegradable scaffolds are required to engineer functional tissues such as bone. Mechanical improvements to porogen leached scaffolds prepared from silk proteins were systematically studied through the addition of silk particles in combination with silk solution concentration, exploiting interfacial compatibility between the two components. Solvent solutions of silk up to 32 w/v% were successfully prepared in hexafluoroisopropanaol (HFIP) for the study. The mechanical properties of the reinforced silk scaffolds correlated to the material density and matched by a power law relationship, independent of the ratio of silk particles to matrix. These results were similar to the relationships previously shown for cancellous bone. The mechanism behind the increased mechanical properties was a densification effect, and not the effect of including stiffer silk particles into the softer silk continuous matrix. A continuous interface between the silk matrix and the silk particles, as well as homogeneous distribution of the silk particles within the matrix were observed. Furthermore, we note that the roughness of the pore walls was controllable by varying the ratio of particles matrix, providing a route to control topography. The rate of proteolytic hydrolysis of the scaffolds decreased with increase in mass of silk used in the matrix and with increasing silk particle content.

Gil, Eun Seok; Kluge, Jonathan A.; Rockwood, Danielle N.; Rajkhowa, Rangam; Wang, Lijing; Wang, Xungai; Kaplan, David L

2012-01-01

20

Hierarchical porous polymer scaffolds from block copolymers.  

PubMed

Hierarchical porous polymer materials are of increasing importance because of their potential application in catalysis, separation technology, or bioengineering. Examples for their synthesis exist, but there is a need for a facile yet versatile conceptual approach to such hierarchical scaffolds and quantitative characterization of their nonperiodic pore systems. Here, we introduce a synthesis method combining well-established concepts of macroscale spinodal decomposition and nanoscale block copolymer self-assembly with porosity formation on both length scales via rinsing with protic solvents. We used scanning electron microscopy, small-angle x-ray scattering, transmission electron tomography, and nanoscale x-ray computed tomography for quantitative pore-structure characterization. The method was demonstrated for AB- and ABC-type block copolymers, and resulting materials were used as scaffolds for calcite crystal growth. PMID:23908232

Sai, Hiroaki; Tan, Kwan Wee; Hur, Kahyun; Asenath-Smith, Emily; Hovden, Robert; Jiang, Yi; Riccio, Mark; Muller, David A; Elser, Veit; Estroff, Lara A; Gruner, Sol M; Wiesner, Ulrich

2013-08-01

21

Characterisation of hard and soft porous materials and tissue scaffolds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tissue engineering offers novel opportunities for repairing damaged or diseased tissues and organs by incorporating the patients' own healthy cells or donor cells into porous biocompatible materials used as tissue scaffolds. Along with other properties, porous structure of tissue scaffolds is essential to ensure normal cell functioning providing them with nutrients, oxygen and optimal growth conditions and removing waste products.

SV Mikhalovsky; LI Mikhalovska; PE Tomlins; PV Grant; P Vadgama; SL James

22

Evaluation of phytochemical-incorporated porous polymeric sponges for bone tissue engineering: a novel perspective.  

PubMed

Porous polymeric scaffolds are extensively studied for delivery of bone growth factors. Since phytochemicals are known to produce changes in cell signalling and other metabolic pathways, osteogenic phytochemicals, that is, extracts of Cissus quadrangularis and Butea monosperma, are incorporated into sulphonated poly(aryl ether ketone) sponges. The results have shown that the scaffolds with phytochemicals enhanced the proliferation and alkaline phosphatase activity of the cells compared to cells treated on scaffolds without phytochemicals. Hence, these phytochemicals can be evaluated to augment, if not substitute the use of bone morphogenetic proteins in scaffolds. PMID:23736994

Raghavan, Ravi N; Somanathan, N; Sastry, Thottapalli P

2013-08-01

23

Porous Allograft Bone Scaffolds: Doping with Strontium  

PubMed Central

Strontium (Sr) can promote the process of bone formation. To improve bioactivity, porous allograft bone scaffolds (ABS) were doped with Sr and the mechanical strength and bioactivity of the scaffolds were evaluated. Sr-doped ABS were prepared using the ion exchange method. The density and distribution of Sr in bone scaffolds were investigated by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Controlled release of strontium ions was measured and mechanical strength was evaluated by a compressive strength test. The bioactivity of Sr-doped ABS was investigated by a simulated body fluid (SBF) assay, cytotoxicity testing, and an in vivo implantation experiment. The Sr molar concentration [Sr/(Sr+Ca)] in ABS surpassed 5% and Sr was distributed nearly evenly. XPS analyses suggest that Sr combined with oxygen and carbonate radicals. Released Sr ions were detected in the immersion solution at higher concentration than calcium ions until day 30. The compressive strength of the Sr-doped ABS did not change significantly. The bioactivity of Sr-doped material, as measured by the in vitro SBF immersion method, was superior to that of the Sr-free freeze-dried bone and the Sr-doped material did not show cytotoxicity compared with Sr-free culture medium. The rate of bone mineral deposition for Sr-doped ABS was faster than that of the control at 4 weeks (3.28±0.23 µm/day vs. 2.60±0.20 µm/day; p<0.05). Sr can be evenly doped into porous ABS at relevant concentrations to create highly active bone substitutes.

Zhao, Yantao; Guo, Dagang; Hou, Shuxun; Zhong, Hongbin; Yan, Jun; Zhang, Chunli; Zhou, Ying

2013-01-01

24

Porous allograft bone scaffolds: doping with strontium.  

PubMed

Strontium (Sr) can promote the process of bone formation. To improve bioactivity, porous allograft bone scaffolds (ABS) were doped with Sr and the mechanical strength and bioactivity of the scaffolds were evaluated. Sr-doped ABS were prepared using the ion exchange method. The density and distribution of Sr in bone scaffolds were investigated by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Controlled release of strontium ions was measured and mechanical strength was evaluated by a compressive strength test. The bioactivity of Sr-doped ABS was investigated by a simulated body fluid (SBF) assay, cytotoxicity testing, and an in vivo implantation experiment. The Sr molar concentration [Sr/(Sr+Ca)] in ABS surpassed 5% and Sr was distributed nearly evenly. XPS analyses suggest that Sr combined with oxygen and carbonate radicals. Released Sr ions were detected in the immersion solution at higher concentration than calcium ions until day 30. The compressive strength of the Sr-doped ABS did not change significantly. The bioactivity of Sr-doped material, as measured by the in vitro SBF immersion method, was superior to that of the Sr-free freeze-dried bone and the Sr-doped material did not show cytotoxicity compared with Sr-free culture medium. The rate of bone mineral deposition for Sr-doped ABS was faster than that of the control at 4 weeks (3.28 ± 0.23 µm/day vs. 2.60 ± 0.20 µm/day; p<0.05). Sr can be evenly doped into porous ABS at relevant concentrations to create highly active bone substitutes. PMID:23922703

Zhao, Yantao; Guo, Dagang; Hou, Shuxun; Zhong, Hongbin; Yan, Jun; Zhang, Chunli; Zhou, Ying

2013-01-01

25

Flow-Induced Stress Distribution in Porous Scaffolds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flow-induced stresses help the differentiation and proliferation of mesenchymal cells cultured in porous scaffolds within perfusion bioreactors. The distribution of stresses in a scaffold is thus important for understanding the tissue growth process in such reactors. Computational results for flow through Poly-L-Lactic Acid porous scaffolds that have been produced with salt-leaching techniques, and for scaffolds that have been constructed with nonwoven fibers, indicate that the probability density function (pdf) of the wall stress, when normalized with the mean and the standard deviation of the pdf, appears to follow a single type of pdf. The scaffolds were imaged with micro-CT and the simulations were run with lattice Boltzmann methods. The parameters of the distribution can be obtained using Darcy's law and the Blake-Kozeny-Carman equation. Experimental results available in the literature appear to corroborate the computational findings, leading to the conclusion that stresses in high-porosity porous materials follow a single distribution.

Papavassiliou, Dimitrios; Voronov, Roman; Vangordon, Samuel; Sikavitsas, Vassilios

2010-11-01

26

Dielectric characterization of hepatocytes in suspension and embedded into two different polymeric scaffolds.  

PubMed

The dielectric and conductometric properties of hepatocytes in two different environments (in aqueous suspension and embedded into polymeric scaffolds) have been investigated in the frequency range from 1 kHz to 2 GHz, where the interfacial electrical polarization gives rise to marked dielectric relaxation effects. We analyzed the dielectric behavior of hepatocytes in complete medium aqueous suspensions in the light of effective medium approximation for heterogeneous systems and hepatocytes cultured into two different highly porous and interconnected polymeric structures. In the former case, we have evaluated the passive electrical parameters associated with both the plasmatic and nuclear membrane, finding a general agreement with the values reported elsewhere, based on a partially different analysis of the experimental spectra. In the latter case, we have evaluated the cell growth into two different polymeric scaffolds made of alginate and gelatin with a similar pore distribution and similar inter-connectivity. Based on a qualitative analysis of the dielectric spectra, we were able to provide evidence that alginate scaffolds allow an overall survival of cells better than gelatin scaffold can do. These indications, confirmed by biological tests on cell viability, suggest that hepatocytes embedded in alginate scaffolds are able to perform liver specific functions even over on extended period of time. PMID:23107949

Massimi, M; Stampella, A; Devirgiliis, L Conti; Rizzitelli, G; Barbetta, A; Dentini, M; Cametti, C

2013-02-01

27

Porous Biodegradable Metals for Hard Tissue Scaffolds: A Review  

PubMed Central

Scaffolds have been utilized in tissue regeneration to facilitate the formation and maturation of new tissues or organs where a balance between temporary mechanical support and mass transport (degradation and cell growth) is ideally achieved. Polymers have been widely chosen as tissue scaffolding material having a good combination of biodegradability, biocompatibility, and porous structure. Metals that can degrade in physiological environment, namely, biodegradable metals, are proposed as potential materials for hard tissue scaffolding where biodegradable polymers are often considered as having poor mechanical properties. Biodegradable metal scaffolds have showed interesting mechanical property that was close to that of human bone with tailored degradation behaviour. The current promising fabrication technique for making scaffolds, such as computation-aided solid free-form method, can be easily applied to metals. With further optimization in topologically ordered porosity design exploiting material property and fabrication technique, porous biodegradable metals could be the potential materials for making hard tissue scaffolds.

Yusop, A. H.; Bakir, A. A.; Shaharom, N. A.; Abdul Kadir, M. R.; Hermawan, H.

2012-01-01

28

Novel Biodegradable Porous Scaffold Applied to Skin Regeneration  

PubMed Central

Skin wound healing is an important lifesaving issue for massive lesions. A novel porous scaffold with collagen, hyaluronic acid and gelatin was developed for skin wound repair. The swelling ratio of this developed scaffold was assayed by water absorption capacity and showed a value of over 20 g water/g dried scaffold. The scaffold was then degraded in time- and dose-dependent manners by three enzymes: lysozyme, hyaluronidase and collagenase I. The average pore diameter of the scaffold was 132.5±8.4 µm measured from SEM images. With human skin cells growing for 7 days, the SEM images showed surface fractures on the scaffold due to enzymatic digestion, indicating the biodegradable properties of this scaffold. To simulate skin distribution, the human epidermal keratinocytes, melanocytes and dermal fibroblasts were seeded on the porous scaffold and the cross-section immunofluorescent staining demonstrated normal human skin layer distributions. The collagen amount was also quantified after skin cells seeding and presented an amount 50% higher than those seeded on culture wells. The in vivo histological results showed that the scaffold ameliorated wound healing, including decreasing neutrophil infiltrates and thickening newly generated skin compared to the group without treatments.

Wang, Hui-Min; Chou, Yi-Ting; Wen, Zhi-Hong; Wang, Zhao-Ren; Chen, Chun-Hong; Ho, Mei-Ling

2013-01-01

29

Porous hydroxyapatite scaffold with three-dimensional localized drug delivery system using biodegradable microspheres.  

PubMed

In this study, ionic immobilization of dexamethasone (DEX)-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres was performed on the hydroxyapatite (HAp) scaffold surfaces. It was hypothesized that in vivo bone regeneration could be enhanced with HAp scaffolds containing DEX-loaded PLGA microspheres compared to the use of HAp scaffolds alone. In vitro drug release from the encapsulated microspheres was measured prior to the implantation in the femur defects of beagle dogs. It was observed that porous, interconnected HAp scaffolds as well as DEX-loaded PLGA microspheres were successfully fabricated in this study. Additionally, PEI was successfully coated on PLGA microsphere surfaces, resulting in a net positive-charged surface. With such modification of the PLGA microsphere surfaces, DEX-loaded PLGA microspheres were immobilized on the negatively charged HAp scaffold surfaces. Release profile of DEX over a 4week immersion study indicated an initial burst release followed by a sustained release. In vivo evaluation of the defects filled with DEX-loaded HAp scaffolds indicated enhanced volume and quality of new bone formation when compared to defects that were either unfilled or filled with HAp scaffolds alone. This innovative platform for bioactive molecule delivery more potently induced osteogenesis in vivo, which may be exploited in implantable bone graft substitutes for stem cell therapy or improved in vivo performance. It was thus concluded that various bioactive molecules for bone regeneration might be efficiently incorporated with calcium phosphate-based bioceramics using biodegradable polymeric microspheres. PMID:21420453

Son, Jun Sik; Appleford, Mark; Ong, Joo L; Wenke, Joseph C; Kim, Jong Min; Choi, Seok Hwa; Oh, Daniel S

2011-07-30

30

Development of porous scaffolds for bone tissue engineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In bone tissue engineering, biodegradable scaffolds are used as a temporary biological and mechanical support for new tissue growth. A scaffold must have good biocompatibility, controllable degradation rate, and enough mechanical strength to support bone cell attachment, differentiation, and proliferation as it gradually degrades and finally is completely replaced by new bone tissues. Biological studies and clinical practices have established that a three-dimensional interconnected porous structure is necessary to allow cell attachment, proliferation, and differentiation, and to provide pathways for biofluids. However, the mechanical strength of a material generally decreases as increasing porosity. The conflicting interests between biological and mechanical requirements thus pose a challenge in developing porous scaffolds for load-bearing bone tissue engineering. Two types of ceramic scaffolds, (1) Hydroxaypatite and (2) Hydroxaypatite/tricalcium phosphate, are prepared in this study utilizing a novel technique that combines the gel casting and polymer sponge methods. This technique provides better control over material microstructure and can produce scaffolds with enhanced mechanical toughness and strength. The hydroxyapatite scaffolds prepared by this technique have an open, uniform and interconnected porous structure (˜porosity = 76%) with compressive modulus of 7 GPa, comparable to that of cortical bone, and compressive strength of 5 MPa, comparable to that of cancellous bone. The second type of ceramic scaffold is a biphasic nano composite with tricalcium phosphate as the main matrix reinforced with hydroxyapatite (HA) nano-fibers. The porous scaffold attained a compressive strength of 9.6 MPa (˜porosity = 73%), comparable to the high-end value of cancellous bone. The toughness of the scaffold increased from 1.00 to 1.72 kN/m (˜porosity = 73%), as the addition of HA nano-fibers increased up to 5 wt.%. Polymer scaffolds are prepared using a solid-liquid phase separation technique with a polyelectrolyte complex of chitosan and alginate as scaffolding material. These scaffolds were used to study sustained delivery of a model protein. The effect of size of ceramic in polymer matrix on mechanical and biological properties of scaffold is also examined by using both nano- and micron-sized ceramic particles.

Ramay, Hassna Rehman

31

Modeling of porous scaffold deformation induced by medium perfusion.  

PubMed

In this study, we tested the possibility of calculating permeability of porous scaffolds utilized in soft tissue engineering using pore size and shape. We validated the results using experimental measured pressure drop and simulations with the inclusion of structural deformation. We prepared Polycaprolactone (PCL) and Chitosan-Gelatin (CG) scaffolds by salt leaching and freeze drying technique, respectively. Micrographs were assessed for pore characteristics and mechanical properties. Porosity for both scaffolds was nearly same but the permeability varied 10-fold. Elastic moduli were 600 and 9 kPa for PCL and CG scaffolds, respectively, while Poisson's ratio was 0.3 for PCL scaffolds and ?1.0 for CG scaffolds. A flow-through bioreactor accommodating a 10 cm diameter and 0.2 cm thick scaffold was used to determine the pressure-drop at various flow rates. Additionally, computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations were performed by coupling fluid flow, described by Brinkman equation, with structural mechanics using a dynamic mesh. The experimentally obtained pressure drop matched the simulation results of PCL scaffolds. Simulations were extended to a broad range of permeabilities (10(-10) m(2) to 10(-14) m(2) ), elastic moduli (10-100,000 kPa) and Poisson's ratio (0.1-0.49). The results showed significant deviation in pressure drop due to scaffold deformation compared to rigid scaffold at permeabilities near healthy tissues. Also, considering the scaffold as a nonrigid structure altered the shear stress profile. In summary, scaffold permeability can be calculated using scaffold pore characteristics and deformation could be predicted using CFD simulation. These relationships could potentially be used in monitoring tissue regeneration noninvasively via pressure drop. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 102B: 737-748, 2014. PMID:24259467

Podichetty, Jagdeep T; Madihally, Sundararajan V

2014-05-01

32

Cell-derived matrix coatings for polymeric scaffolds.  

PubMed

Cells in culture deposit a complex extracellular matrix that remains intact following decellularization and possesses the capacity to modulate cell phenotype. The direct application of such decellularized matrices (DMs) to 3D substrates is problematic, as transport issues influence the homogeneous deposition, decellularization, and modification of DM surface coatings. In an attempt to address this shortcoming, we hypothesized that DMs deposited by human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) could be transferred to the surface of polymeric scaffolds while maintaining their capacity to direct cell fate. The ability of the transferred DM (tDM)-coated scaffolds to enhance the osteogenic differentiation of undifferentiated and osteogenically induced MSCs under osteogenic conditions in vitro was confirmed. tDM-coated scaffolds increased MSC expression of osteogenic marker genes (BGLAP, IBSP) and intracellular alkaline phosphatase production. In addition, undifferentiated MSCs deposited significantly more calcium when seeded onto tDM-coated scaffolds compared with control scaffolds. MSC-seeded tDM-coated scaffolds subcutaneously implanted in nude rats displayed significantly higher blood vessel density after 2 weeks compared with cells on uncoated scaffolds, but we did not observe significant differences in mineral deposition after 8 weeks. These data demonstrate that DM-coatings produced in 2D culture can be successfully transferred to 3D substrates and retain their capacity to modulate cell phenotype. PMID:22651377

Decaris, Martin L; Binder, Bernard Y; Soicher, Matthew A; Bhat, Archana; Leach, J Kent

2012-10-01

33

Design of a bioresorbable polymeric scaffold for osteoblast culture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bioresorbable polymeric scaffolds were designed for the purpose of growing rat osteosarcoma cells (ROS 17/2.8) using the compression molding method. The material used in the construction of the scaffolds was a mixture of polycaprolactone (PCL), Hydroxyapatite (HA), Glycerin (GL) and salt (NaCl) for porosity. The concentration of the several materials utilized, was determined by volume. Past research at the University of Massachusetts Lowell (UML) has successfully utilized the compression molding method for the construction of scaffolds, but was unable to accomplish the goal of long term cell survival and complete cellular proliferation throughout a three dimensional scaffold. This research investigated various concentrations of the materials and molding temperatures used for the manufacture of scaffolds in order to improve the scaffold design and address those issues. The design of the scaffold using the compression molding process is detailed in the Method and Materials section of this thesis. The porogen (salt) used for porosity was suspected as a possible source of contamination causing cell apoptosis in past studies. This research addressed the issues for cell survival and proliferation throughout a three dimensional scaffold. The leaching of the salt was one major design modification. This research successfully used ultrasonic leaching in addition to the passive method. Prior to cell culture, the scaffolds were irradiated to 2.75 Mrad, with cobalt-60 gamma radionuclide. The tissue culture consisted of two trials: (1) cell culture in scaffolds cleaned with passive leaching; (2) cell culture with scaffolds cleaned with ultrasonic leaching. Cell survival and proliferation was accomplished only with the addition of ultrasonic leaching of the scaffolds. Analysis of the scaffolds included Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Nikon light microscopy and x-ray mapping of the calcium, sodium and chloride ion distribution. The cells were analyzed by Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM) and Nikon light microscopy. The high magnification of ESEM up to 60,000 x revealed an unexpected discovery. The osteoblasts appeared to be remodeling the PCL scaffold shown in the last two figures of this research.

Ditaranto, Vincent M., Jr.

34

Solvent/Non-Solvent Sintering: A Novel Route to Create Porous Microsphere Scaffolds For Tissue Regeneration  

PubMed Central

Solvent/non-solvent sintering creates porous polymeric microsphere scaffolds suitable for tissue engineering purposes with control over the resulting porosity, average pore diameter and mechanical properties. Five different biodegradable biocompatible polyphosphazenes exhibiting glass transition temperatures from ?8°C to 41oC and poly(lactide-co-glycolide), (PLAGA) a degradable polymer used in a number of biomedical settings, were examined to study the versatility of the process and benchmark the process to heat sintering. Parameters such as: solvent/non-solvent sintering solution composition and submersion time effect the sintering process. PLAGA microsphere scaffolds fabricated with solvent/non-solvent sintering exhibited an interconnected porosity and pore size of 31.9% and 179.1µm respectively which was analogous to that of conventional heat sintered PLAGA microsphere scaffolds. Biodegradable polyphosphazene microsphere scaffolds exhibited a maximum interconnected porosity of 37.6% and a maximum compressive modulus of 94.3MPa. Solvent/non-solvent sintering is an effective strategy for sintering polymeric microspheres, with a broad spectrum of glass transition temperatures, under ambient conditions making it an excellent fabrication route for developing tissue engineering scaffolds and drug delivery vehicles.

Brown, Justin L.; Nair, Lakshmi S.; Laurencin, Cato T.

2009-01-01

35

Tensile behavior of porous scaffolds made from poly(para phenylene) - biomed 2013.  

PubMed

The goal of this study was to fabricate and mechanically characterize a high-strength porous polymer scaffold for potential use as an orthopedic device. Poly(para-phenylene) (PPP) is an excellent candidate due to its exceptional strength and stiffness and relative inertness, but has never been explicitly investigated for use as a biomedical device. PPP has strength values 3 to 10 times higher and an elastic modulus nearly an order of magnitude higher than traditional polymers such as poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), polycaprolactone (PCL), ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE), and polyurethane (PU) and is significantly stronger and stiffer than polyetheretherketone (PEEK). By utilizing PPP we can overcome the mechanical limitations of traditional porous polymeric scaffolds since the outstanding stiffness of PPP allows for a highly porous structure appropriate for osteointegration that can match the stiffness of bone (100-250 MPa), while maintaining suitable mechanical properties for soft-tissue fixation. Porous samples were manufactured by powder sintering followed by particle leaching. The pore volume fraction was systematically varied from 50?80 vol% for a pore sizes from150-500 µm, as indicated by previous studies for optimal osteointegration. The tensile modulus of the porous samples was compared to the rule of mixtures, and closely matches foam theory up to 70 vol%. The experimental modulus for 70 vol% porous samples matches the stiffness of bone and contains pore sizes optimal for osteointegration. PMID:23686195

Dirienzo, Amy L; Yakacki, Christopher M; Safranski, David L; Frick, Carl P

2013-01-01

36

Silk porous scaffolds with nanofibrous microstructures and tunable properties.  

PubMed

Scaffold biomaterials derived from silk fibroin have been widely used in tissue engineering. However, mimicking the nanofibrous structures of the extracellular matrix (ECM) for achieving better biocompatibility remains a challenge. Here, we design a mild self-assembly approach to prepare nanofibrous scaffolds from silk fibroin solution. Silk nanofibers were self-assembled by slowly concentrating process in aqueous solution without any cross-linker or toxic solvent and then were further fabricated into porous scaffolds with pore size of about 200-250?m through lyophilization, mimicking nano and micro structures of ECM. Gradient water/methanol annealing treatments were used to control the secondary structures, mechanical properties, and degradation behaviors of the scaffolds, which would be critical for different tissue regeneration applications. With salt-leached silk scaffold as control, the ECM-mimetic scaffolds with different secondary structures were used to culture the amniotic fluid-derived stem cells in vitro to confirm their biocompatibility. All the ECM-mimetic scaffolds with different secondary structures represented better cell growth and proliferation compared to the salt-leached scaffold, confirming the critical influence of ECM-mimetic structure on biocompatibility. Although further studies such as cell differentiation behaviours are still necessary for clarifying the influence of microstructures and secondary conformational compositions, our study provides promising scaffold candidate that is suitable for different tissue regenerations. PMID:24892562

Lu, Guozhong; Liu, Shanshan; Lin, Shasha; Kaplan, David L; Lu, Qiang

2014-08-01

37

Nanostructured polymeric scaffolds for orthopaedic regenerative engineering.  

PubMed

Successful regeneration necessitates the development of three-dimensional (3-D) tissue-inducing scaffolds that mimic the hierarchical architecture of native tissue extracellular matrix (ECM). Cells in nature recognize and interact with the surface topography they are exposed to via ECM proteins. The interaction of cells with nanotopographical features such as pores, ridges, groves, fibers, nodes, and their combinations has proven to be an important signaling modality in controlling cellular processes. Integrating nanotopographical cues is especially important in engineering complex tissues that have multiple cell types and require precisely defined cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions on the nanoscale. Thus, in a regenerative engineering approach, nanoscale materials/scaffolds play a paramount role in controlling cell fate and the consequent regenerative capacity. Advances in nanotechnology have generated a new toolbox for the fabrication of tissue-specific nanostructured scaffolds. For example, biodegradable polymers such as polyesters, polyphosphazenes, polymer blends and composites can be electrospun into ECM-mimicking matrices composed of nanofibers, which provide high surface area for cell attachment, growth, and differentiation. This review provides the fundamental guidelines for the design and development of nanostructured scaffolds for the regeneration of various tissue types in human upper and lower extremities such as skin, ligament, tendon, and bone. Examples focusing on the collective work of our laboratory in those areas are discussed to demonstrate the regenerative efficacy of this approach. Furthermore, preliminary strategies and significant challenges to integrate these individual tissues into one complex organ through regenerative engineering-based integrated graft systems are also discussed. PMID:22275722

Deng, Meng; James, Roshan; Laurencin, Cato T; Kumbar, Sangamesh G

2012-03-01

38

Porous shape memory alloy scaffolds for biomedical applications: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interest in using porous shape memory alloy (SMA) scaffolds as implant materials has been growing in recent years due to the combination of their unique mechanical and functional properties, i.e. shape memory effect and superelasticity, low elastic modulus combined with new bone tissue ingrowth ability and vascularization. These attractive properties are of great benefit to the healing process for

C E Wen; J Y Xiong; Y C Li; P D Hodgson

2010-01-01

39

Living Bacterial Sacrificial Porogens to Engineer Decellularized Porous Scaffolds  

PubMed Central

Decellularization and cellularization of organs have emerged as disruptive methods in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Porous hydrogel scaffolds have widespread applications in tissue engineering, regenerative medicine and drug discovery as viable tissue mimics. However, the existing hydrogel fabrication techniques suffer from limited control over pore interconnectivity, density and size, which leads to inefficient nutrient and oxygen transport to cells embedded in the scaffolds. Here, we demonstrated an innovative approach to develop a new platform for tissue engineered constructs using live bacteria as sacrificial porogens. E.coli were patterned and cultured in an interconnected three-dimensional (3D) hydrogel network. The growing bacteria created interconnected micropores and microchannels. Then, the scafold was decellularized, and bacteria were eliminated from the scaffold through lysing and washing steps. This 3D porous network method combined with bioprinting has the potential to be broadly applicable and compatible with tissue specific applications allowing seeding of stem cells and other cell types.

Xu, Feng; Sridharan, BanuPriya; Durmus, Naside Gozde; Wang, ShuQi; Yavuz, Ahmet Sinan; Gurkan, Umut Atakan; Demirci, Utkan

2011-01-01

40

Tissue engineering scaffold material of porous nanohydroxyapatite/polyamide 66  

PubMed Central

The aim of the study was to investigate a porous nanohydroxyapatite/polyamide 66 (n-HA/PA66) scaffold material that was implanted into muscle and tibiae of 16 New Zealand white rabbits to evaluate the biocompatibility and osteogenesis and osteoinductivity of the materials in vivo. The samples were harvested at 2, 4, 12 and 26 weeks respectively, and subjected to histological analysis. At 2 weeks, the experiment showed that osteogenesis was detected in porous n-HA/PA66 composite and the density of new bone formation was similar to the surrounding host bone at 12 weeks. The study indicated that three-dimensional pore structures could facilitate cell adhesion, differentiation and proliferation, and help with fibrovascular and nerve colonization. In conclusion, porous n-HA/PA66 scaffold material could be a good candidate as a bone substitute material used in clinics due to its excellent histocompatibility, osteoconductivity and osteoinductivity.

Xu, Qian; Lu, Hongyan; Zhang, Jingchao; Lu, Guoyu; Deng, Zhennan; Mo, Anchun

2010-01-01

41

3D interconnected porous biomimetic scaffolds: In vitro cell response.  

PubMed

Bone cell response to 3D bioinspired scaffolds was tested on osteoblast culture supernatants and by means of quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Foaming and freeze-drying method was optimized in order to obtain three-dimensional interconnected porous scaffolds of gelatin at different contents of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite (HA). Addition of a non toxic crosslinking agent during foaming stabilized the scaffolds, as confirmed by the slow and relatively low gelatin release in phosphate buffer up to 28 days. Micro-computed tomography reconstructed images showed porous interconnected structures, with interconnected pores displaying average diameter ranging from about 158 to about 71 ?m as the inorganic phase content increases from 0 to 50 wt %. The high values of connectivity (>99%), porosity (> 60%), and percentage of pores with a size in the range 100-300 ?m (>50%) were maintained up to 30 wt % HA, whereas higher content provoked a reduction of these parameters, as well as of the average pore size, and a significant increase of the compressive modulus and collapse strength up to 8 ± 1 and 0.9 ± 0.2 MPa, respectively. Osteoblast cultured on the scaffolds showed good adhesion, proliferation and differentiation. The presence of HA promoted ALP activity, TGF-?1, and osteocalcin production, in agreement with the observed upregulation of ALP, OC, Runx2, and TGF-?1 gene in qPCR analysis, indicating that the composite scaffolds enhanced osteoblast activation and extra-cellular matrix mineralization processes. PMID:23629945

Panzavolta, Silvia; Torricelli, Paola; Amadori, Sofia; Parrilli, Annapaola; Rubini, Katia; della Bella, Elena; Fini, Milena; Bigi, Adriana

2013-12-01

42

Influence of processing parameters on pore structure of 3D porous chitosan-alginate polyelectrolyte complex scaffolds.  

PubMed

Fabrication of porous polymeric scaffolds with controlled structure can be challenging. In this study, we investigated the influence of key experimental parameters on the structures and mechanical properties of resultant porous chitosan-alginate (CA) polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) scaffolds, and on proliferation of MG-63 osteoblast-like cells, targeted at bone tissue engineering. We demonstrated that the porous structure is largely affected by the solution viscosity, which can be regulated by the acetic acid and alginate concentrations. We found that the CA PEC solutions with viscosity below 300 Pa.s yielded scaffolds of uniform pore structure and that more neutral pH promoted more complete complexation of chitosan and alginate, yielding stiffer scaffolds. CA PEC scaffolds produced from solutions with viscosities below 300 Pa.s also showed enhanced cell proliferation compared with other samples. By controlling the key experimental parameters identified in this study, CA PEC scaffolds of different structures can be made to suit various tissue engineering applications. PMID:21721118

Florczyk, Stephen J; Kim, Dae-Joon; Wood, David L; Zhang, Miqin

2011-09-15

43

Neuronal cell growth on polymeric scaffolds studied by CARS microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For studies of neuronal cell integration and neurite outgrowth in polymeric scaffold materials as a future alternative for the treatment of damages in the neuronal system, we have developed a protocol employing CARS microscopy for imaging of neuronal networks. The benefits of CARS microscopy come here to their best use; (i) the overall three-dimensional (3D) arrangement of multiple cells and their neurites can be visualized without the need for chemical preparations or physical sectioning, potentially affecting the architecture of the soft, fragile scaffolds and (ii) details on the interaction between single cells and scaffold fibrils can be investigated by close-up images at sub-micron resolution. The establishment of biologically more relevant 3D neuronal networks in a soft hydrogel composed of native Extra Cellular Matrix (ECM) components was compared with conventional two-dimensional networks grown on a stiff substrate. Images of cells in the hydrogel scaffold reveal significantly different networking characteristics compared to the 2D networks, raising the question whether the functionality of neurons grown as layers in conventional cultivation dishes represents that of neurons in the central and peripheral nervous systems.

Enejder, Annika; Fink, Helen; Kuhn, Hans-Georg

2012-02-01

44

Ultra-porous titanium oxide scaffold with high compressive strength  

Microsoft Academic Search

Highly porous and well interconnected titanium dioxide (TiO2) scaffolds with compressive strength above 2.5 MPa were fabricated without compromising the desired pore architectural characteristics,\\u000a such as high porosity, appropriate pore size, surface-to-volume ratio, and interconnectivity. Processing parameters and pore\\u000a architectural characteristics were investigated in order to identify the key processing steps and morphological properties\\u000a that contributed to the enhanced strength of

Hanna Tiainen; S. Petter Lyngstadaas; Jan Eirik Ellingsen; Håvard J. Haugen

2010-01-01

45

Ultra-porous titanium oxide scaffold with high compressive strength  

PubMed Central

Highly porous and well interconnected titanium dioxide (TiO2) scaffolds with compressive strength above 2.5 MPa were fabricated without compromising the desired pore architectural characteristics, such as high porosity, appropriate pore size, surface-to-volume ratio, and interconnectivity. Processing parameters and pore architectural characteristics were investigated in order to identify the key processing steps and morphological properties that contributed to the enhanced strength of the scaffolds. Cleaning of the TiO2 raw powder removed phosphates but introduced sodium into the powder, which was suggested to decrease the slurry stability. Strong correlation was found between compressive strength and both replication times and solid content in the ceramic slurry. Increase in the solid content resulted in more favourable sponge loading, which was achieved due to the more suitable rheological properties of the ceramic slurry. Repeated replication process induced only negligible changes in the pore architectural parameters indicating a reduced flaw size in the scaffold struts. The fabricated TiO2 scaffolds show great promise as load-bearing bone scaffolds for applications where moderate mechanical support is required.

Tiainen, Hanna; Lyngstadaas, S. Petter; Ellingsen, Jan Eirik

2010-01-01

46

Three-dimensional printing of porous ceramic scaffolds for bone tissue engineering.  

PubMed

This article reports a new process chain for custom-made three-dimensional (3D) porous ceramic scaffolds for bone replacement with fully interconnected channel network for the repair of osseous defects from trauma or disease. Rapid prototyping and especially 3D printing is well suited to generate complex-shaped porous ceramic matrices directly from powder materials. Anatomical information obtained from a patient can be used to design the implant for a target defect. In the 3D printing technique, a box filled with ceramic powder is printed with a polymer-based binder solution layer by layer. Powder is bonded in wetted regions. Unglued powder can be removed and a ceramic green body remains. We use a modified hydroxyapatite (HA) powder for the fabrication of 3D printed scaffolds due to the safety of HA as biocompatible implantable material and efficacy for bone regeneration. The printed ceramic green bodies are consolidated at a temperature of 1250 degrees C in a high temperature furnace in ambient air. The polymeric binder is pyrolysed during sintering. The resulting scaffolds can be used in tissue engineering of bone implants using patient-derived cells that are seeded onto the scaffolds. This article describes the process chain, beginning from data preparation to 3D printing tests and finally sintering of the scaffold. Prototypes were successfully manufactured and characterized. It was demonstrated that it is possible to manufacture parts with inner channels with a dimension down to 450 microm and wall structures with a thickness down to 330 microm. The mechanical strength of dense test parts is up to 22 MPa. PMID:15981173

Seitz, Hermann; Rieder, Wolfgang; Irsen, Stephan; Leukers, Barbara; Tille, Carsten

2005-08-01

47

In vivo biocompatibility and mechanical properties of porous zein scaffolds.  

PubMed

In our previous study, a three-dimensional zein porous scaffold with a compressive Young's modulus of up to 86.6+/-19.9 MPa and a compressive strength of up to 11.8+/-1.7 MPa was prepared, and was suitable for culture of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in vitro. In this study, we examined its tissue compatibility in a rabbit subcutaneous implantation model; histological analysis revealed a good tissue response and degradability. To improve its mechanical property (especially the brittleness), the scaffolds were prepared using the club-shaped mannitol as the porogen, and stearic acid or oleic acid was added. The scaffolds obtained had an interconnected tubular pore structure, 100-380 microm in pore size, and about 80% porosity. The maximum values of the compressive strength and modulus, the tensile strength and modulus, and the flexural strength and modulus were obtained at the lowest porosity, reaching 51.81+/-8.70 and 563.8+/-23.4 MPa; 3.91+/-0.86 and 751.63+/-58.85 MPa; and 17.71+/-3.02 and 514.39+/-19.02 MPa, respectively. Addition of 15% stearic acid or 20% oleic acid did not affect the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of MSCs, and a successful improvement of mechanical properties, especially the brittleness of the zein scaffold could be achieved. PMID:17582490

Wang, Hua-Jie; Gong, Sheng-Ju; Lin, Zhi-Xin; Fu, Jian-Xi; Xue, Song-Tao; Huang, Jing-Chun; Wang, Jin-Ye

2007-09-01

48

Dynamic Mechanical Analysis of Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticle /Gelatin Porous Scaffolds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Porous nanoceramic/polymer scaffolds were fabricated by a freeze-drying process from synthetic nanosized hydroxyapatite / gelatin (nanoHA/Gel) mixtures with nanoHA loading varied from 0 to 50 % by weight. The scaffolds had interconnected porosity up to 90%, pore diameter in the range of 20 -- 300 micron, and pore wall thickness in the range of 3 -- 10 micron. Depending on the nanoHA/Gel mixture preparation routine, the HA nanoparticles either distribute uniformly within the matrix, or form aggregates on the surface of the pore walls. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) of nanoHA/Gel scaffolds revealed the bending and tensile moduli up to 500 MPa and 800 MPa, respectively, when nanoHA loading was around 30% by weight. These moduli increase by a factor of 1.6 after the cross-linking of polymer. NanoHA loading above 50 % by weight results in both moduli above 2 GPa, but the cross-linking reduces them significantly. It has been further shown that the uniform dispersion of nanoHA within the polymer matrix improves the mechanical properties of the scaffolds.

Ghossein, H.; Dranca, I.; Vyazovkin, S.; Stanishevsky, A. V.

2010-03-01

49

Fabrication and properties of porous scaffold of magnesium phosphate/polycaprolactone biocomposite for bone tissue engineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, porous scaffolds made of magnesium phosphate (MP)/polycaprolactone (PCL) biocomposite were developed for bone tissue engineering applications. The composite scaffolds were fabricated by the particulate leaching method using sodium chloride particles as porogen. The obtained scaffold with porosity around 73% presents a porous structure with interconnected open pores. Hydrophilicity of the scaffolds was enhanced by the incorporation of MP component as demonstrated by the water contact angle measurement. The results of the in vitro degradation study show that the MP/PCL composite scaffolds degraded faster than PCL scaffolds in phosphate buffered saline (PBS). In addition, the degradation rate of the scaffolds could be tuned by adjusting the content of MP component in the composite. The results indicate that the MP/PCL composite scaffold has a potential application in bone tissue engineering.

Wu, Fan; Liu, Changsheng; O'Neill, Brian; Wei, Jie; Ngothai, Yung

2012-07-01

50

A study on improving mechanical properties of porous HA tissue engineering scaffolds by hot isostatic pressing.  

PubMed

Various interconnected porous hydroxyapatite (HA) ceramic scaffolds are universally used to induct the tissue growth for bone repair and replacement, and serve to support the adhesion, transfer, proliferation and differentiation of cells. Impregnation of polyurethane sponges with a ceramic slurry is adopted to produce highly porous HA ceramic scaffolds with a 3D interconnected structure. However, high porosity always accompanies a decrease in the strength of the HA ceramic scaffolds. Therefore, it is significant to improve the strength of the HA ceramic scaffolds with highly interconnected porosity so that they are more suitable in clinical applications. In this work, highly porous HA ceramic scaffolds are first produced by the polymer impregnation approach, and subsequently further sintered by hot isostatic pressing (HIP). The phase composition, macro- and micro-porous structure, sintering and mechanical properties of the porous HA scaffolds are investigated by x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), nanoindentation analysis and compressive test. The experimental results show that the nanohardness and compressive strength of HIP-sintered porous HA ceramics are higher than those of commonly sintered HA scaffolds. The HIP technique can effectively improve the sintering property and densification of porous HA ceramic scaffolds, so inducing an increase in the compression strength. PMID:18458404

Zhao, Jing; Xiao, Suguang; Lu, Xiong; Wang, Jianxin; Weng, Jie

2006-12-01

51

Porous polymeric materials for hydrogen storage  

DOEpatents

A porous polymer, poly-9,9'-spirobifluorene and its derivatives for storage of H.sub.2 are prepared through a chemical synthesis method. The porous polymers have high specific surface area and narrow pore size distribution. Hydrogen uptake measurements conducted for these polymers determined a higher hydrogen storage capacity at the ambient temperature over that of the benchmark materials. The method of preparing such polymers, includes oxidatively activating solids by CO.sub.2/steam oxidation and supercritical water treatment.

Yu, Luping; Liu, Di-Jia; Yuan, Shengwen; Yang, Junbing

2013-04-02

52

Preparation and mechanical property of a novel 3D porous magnesium scaffold for bone tissue engineering.  

PubMed

Porous magnesium has been recently recognized as a biodegradable metal for bone substitute applications. A novel porous Mg scaffold with three-dimensional (3D) interconnected pores and with a porosity of 33-54% was produced by the fiber deposition hot pressing (FDHP) technology. The microstructure and morphologies of the porous Mg scaffold were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the effects of porosities on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the porous Mg were investigated. Experimental results indicate that the measured Young's modulus and compressive strength of the Mg scaffold are ranged in 0.10-0.37GPa, and 11.1-30.3MPa, respectively, which are fairly comparable to those of cancellous bone. Such a porous Mg scaffold having a 3D interconnected network structure has the potential to be used in bone tissue engineering. PMID:25063129

Zhang, Xue; Li, Xiao-Wu; Li, Ji-Guang; Sun, Xu-Dong

2014-09-01

53

Porous polymeric materials for hydrogen storage  

DOEpatents

Porous polymers, tribenzohexazatriphenylene, poly-9,9'-spirobifluorene, poly-tetraphenyl methane and their derivatives for storage of H.sub.2 prepared through a chemical synthesis method. The porous polymers have high specific surface area and narrow pore size distribution. Hydrogen uptake measurements conducted for these polymers determined a higher hydrogen storage capacity at the ambient temperature over that of the benchmark materials. The method of preparing such polymers, includes oxidatively activating solids by CO.sub.2/steam oxidation and supercritical water treatment.

Yu, Luping (Hoffman Estates, IL); Liu, Di-Jia (Naperville, IL); Yuan, Shengwen (Chicago, IL); Yang, Junbing (Westmont, IL)

2011-12-13

54

Delivery of growth factors using a smart porous nanocomposite scaffold to repair a mandibular bone defect.  

PubMed

Implantation of a porous scaffold with a large volume into the body in a convenient and safe manner is still a challenging task in the repair of bone defects. In this study, we present a porous smart nanocomposite scaffold with a combination of shape memory function and controlled delivery of growth factors. The shape memory function enables the scaffold with a large volume to be deformed into its temporal architecture with a small volume using hot-compression and can subsequently recover its original shape upon exposure to body temperature after it is implanted in the body. The scaffold consists of chemically cross-linked poly(?-caprolactone) (c-PCL) and hydroxyapatite nanoparticles. The highly interconnected pores of the scaffold were obtained using the sugar leaching method. The shape memory porous scaffold loaded with bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) was also fabricated by coating the calcium alginate layer and BMP-2 on the surface of the pore wall. Under both in vitro and in vivo environmental conditions, the porous scaffold displays good shape memory recovery from the compressed shape with deformed pores of 33 ?m in diameter to recover its porous shape with original pores of 160 ?m in diameter. In vitro cytotoxicity based on the MTT test revealed that the scaffold exhibited good cytocompatibility. The in vivo micro-CT and histomorphometry results demonstrated that the porous scaffold could promote new bone generation in the rabbit mandibular bone defect. Thus, our results indicated that this shape memory porous scaffold demonstrated great potential for application in bone regenerative medicine. PMID:24467335

Liu, Xian; Zhao, Kun; Gong, Tao; Song, Jian; Bao, Chongyun; Luo, En; Weng, Jie; Zhou, Shaobing

2014-03-10

55

Fabrication and Characterization of Waterborne Biodegradable Polyurethanes 3Dimensional Porous Scaffolds for Vascular Tissue Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, a series of 3-D interconnected porous scaffolds with various pore diameters and porosities was fabricated by freeze-drying with non-toxic biodegradable waterborne polyurethane (WBPU) emulsions of different concentration. The structures of these porous scaffolds were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the pore diameters were calculated using CIAS 3.0 software. The pores obtained were 3-D interconnected in

Xia Jiang; Feilong Yu; Zhigao Wang; Jiehua Li; Hong Tan; Mingming Ding; Qiang Fu

2010-01-01

56

Porous silk scaffolds can be used for tissue engineering annulus fibrosus  

PubMed Central

There is no optimal treatment for symptomatic degenerative disc disease which affects millions of people worldwide. One novel approach would be to form a patch or tissue replacement to repair the annulus fibrosus (AF) through which the NP herniates. As the optimal scaffold for this has not been defined the purpose of this study was to determine if porous silk scaffolds would support AF cell attachment and extracellular matrix accumulation and whether chemically decorating the scaffold with RGD peptide, which has been shown to enhance attachment for other cell types, would further improve AF cell attachment and tissue formation. Annulus fibrosus cells were isolated from bovine caudal discs and seeded into porous silk scaffolds. The percent cell attachment was quantified and the cell morphology and distribution within the scaffold was evaluated using scanning electron microscopy. The cell-seeded scaffolds were grown for up to 8 weeks and evaluated for gene expression, histological appearance and matrix accumulation. AF cells attach to porous silk scaffolds, proliferate and synthesize and accumulate extracellular matrix as demonstrated biochemically and histologically. Coupling the silk scaffold with RGD-peptides did not enhance cell attachment nor tissue formation but did affect cell morphology. As well, the cells had higher levels of type II collagen and aggrecan gene expression when compared to cells grown on the non-modified scaffold, a feature more in keeping with cells of the inner annulus. Porous silk is an appropriate scaffold on which to grow AF cells. Coupling RGD peptide to the scaffold appears to influence AF cell phenotype suggesting that it may be possible to select an appropriate scaffold that favours inner annulus versus outer annulus differentiation which will be important for tissue engineering an intervertebral disc.

Chang, G.; Kim, H.-J.; Kaplan, D.; Vunjak-Novakovic, G.

2007-01-01

57

Kinetics and isotherm of fibronectin adsorption to three-dimensional porous chitosan scaffolds explored by ¹²?I-radiolabelling.  

PubMed

In this study, (125)I-radiolabelling was explored to follow the kinetics and isotherm of fibronectin (FN) adsorption to porous polymeric scaffolds, as well as to assess the elution and exchangeability of pre-adsorbed FN following incubation in serum-containing culture medium. Chitosan (CH) porous scaffolds with two different degrees of acetylation (DA 4% and 15%) were incubated in FN solutions with concentrations ranging from 5 to 50 µg/mL. The kinetic and isotherm of FN adsorption to CH were successfully followed using (125)I-FN as a tracer molecule. While on DA 4% the levels of adsorbed FN increased linearly with FN solution concentration, on DA 15% a saturation plateau was attained, and FN adsorbed amounts were significantly lower. These findings were supported by immunofluorescent studies that revealed, for the same FN solution concentration, higher levels of exposed cell-binding domains on DA 4% as compared with DA 15%. Following incubation in serum containing medium, DA 4% also revealed higher ability to exchange pre-adsorbed FN by new FN molecules from serum than DA 15%. In accordance, when assessing the efficacy of passively adsorbed FN to promote endothelial cell (EC) adhesion to CH, ECs were found to adhere at higher levels to DA 4% as compared with DA 15%, 5 µg/mL of FN being already efficient in promoting cell adhesion and cytoskeletal organization on CH with DA 4%. Taken together the results show that protein radiolabelling can be used as an effective tool to study protein adsorption to porous polymeric scaffolds, both from single and complex protein solutions. PMID:23635535

Amaral, Isabel F; Sousa, Susana R; Neiva, Ismael; Marcos-Silva, Lara; Kirkpatrick, Charles J; Barbosa, Mário A; Pêgo, Ana P

2013-01-01

58

Kinetics and isotherm of fibronectin adsorption to three-dimensional porous chitosan scaffolds explored by 125I-radiolabelling  

PubMed Central

In this study, 125I-radiolabelling was explored to follow the kinetics and isotherm of fibronectin (FN) adsorption to porous polymeric scaffolds, as well as to assess the elution and exchangeability of pre-adsorbed FN following incubation in serum-containing culture medium. Chitosan (CH) porous scaffolds with two different degrees of acetylation (DA 4% and 15%) were incubated in FN solutions with concentrations ranging from 5 to 50 µg/mL. The kinetic and isotherm of FN adsorption to CH were successfully followed using 125I-FN as a tracer molecule. While on DA 4% the levels of adsorbed FN increased linearly with FN solution concentration, on DA 15% a saturation plateau was attained, and FN adsorbed amounts were significantly lower. These findings were supported by immunofluorescent studies that revealed, for the same FN solution concentration, higher levels of exposed cell-binding domains on DA 4% as compared with DA 15%. Following incubation in serum containing medium, DA 4% also revealed higher ability to exchange pre-adsorbed FN by new FN molecules from serum than DA 15%. In accordance, when assessing the efficacy of passively adsorbed FN to promote endothelial cell (EC) adhesion to CH, ECs were found to adhere at higher levels to DA 4% as compared with DA 15%, 5 µg/mL of FN being already efficient in promoting cell adhesion and cytoskeletal organization on CH with DA 4%. Taken together the results show that protein radiolabelling can be used as an effective tool to study protein adsorption to porous polymeric scaffolds, both from single and complex protein solutions.

Amaral, Isabel F.; Sousa, Susana R.; Neiva, Ismael; Marcos-Silva, Lara; Kirkpatrick, Charles J.; Barbosa, Mario A.; Pego, Ana P.

2013-01-01

59

PHBV/PAM Scaffolds with Local Oriented Structure through UV Polymerization for Tissue Engineering  

PubMed Central

Locally oriented tissue engineering scaffolds can provoke cellular orientation and direct cell spread and migration, offering an exciting potential way for the regeneration of the complex tissue. Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) scaffolds with locally oriented hydrophilic polyacrylamide (PAM) inside the macropores of the scaffolds were achieved through UV graft polymerization. The interpenetrating PAM chains enabled good interconnectivity of PHBV/PAM scaffolds that presented a lower porosity and minor diameter of pores than PHBV scaffolds. The pores with diameter below 100??m increased to 82.15% of PHBV/PAM scaffolds compared with 31.5% of PHBV scaffolds. PHBV/PAM scaffold showed a much higher compressive elastic modulus than PHBV scaffold due to PAM stuffing. At 5 days of culturing, sheep chondrocytes spread along the similar direction in the macropores of PHBV/PAM scaffolds. The locally oriented PAM chains might guide the attachment and spreading of chondrocytes and direct the formation of microfilaments via contact guidance.

Wang, Yingjun

2014-01-01

60

Porous chitosan scaffold cross-linked by chemical and natural procedure applied to investigate cell regeneration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Porous chitosan scaffold is used for tissue engineering and drug delivery, but is limited as a scaffold material due to its mechanical weakness, which restrains cell adhesion on the surface. In this study, a chemical reagent (citrate) and a natural reagent (genipin) are used as cross-linkers for the formation of chitosan-based films. Nanoindentation technique with a continuous stiffness measurement system is particularly applied on the porous scaffold surface to examine the characteristic modulus and nanohardness of a porous scaffold surface. The characteristic modulus of a genipin-cross-linked chitosan surface is ?2.325 GPa, which is significantly higher than that of an uncross-linked one (?1.292 GPa). The cell-scaffold surface interaction is assessed. The cell morphology and results of an MTS assay of 3T3-fibroblast cells of a genipin-cross-linked chitosan surface indicate that the enhancement of mechanical properties induced cell adhesion and proliferation on the modified porous scaffold surface. The pore size and mechanical properties of porous chitosan film can be tuned for specific applications such as tissue regeneration.

Yao, Chih-Kai; Liao, Jiunn-Der; Chung, Chia-Wei; Sung, Wei-I.; Chang, Nai-Jen

2012-12-01

61

Enhanced visualization of biodegradable polymeric vascular scaffolds by incorporation of gold, silver and magnetite nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Due to improved tissue regeneration and the enabling of post-operative minimally invasive interventions in the same vessel segment, biodegradable polymeric scaffolds represent a competitive approach to permanent metallic stents in vascular applications. Despite these advantages some challenges, such as the improvement of the scaffold mechanics and enhancement of scaffold visibility during the implantation procedure, are persisting. Therefore, the scope of our studies was to investigate the potential of gold, silver and magnetite nanoparticles incorporated in a polymeric blend of poly(L-lactide)/poly(4-hydroxybutyrate) for image enhancement in X-ray, magnetic resonance or near-infrared imaging. Their impact on mechanical properties of such modified scaffold materials was also evaluated. PMID:22492201

Luderer, Frank; Begerow, Ivonne; Schmidt, Wolfram; Martin, Heiner; Grabow, Niels; Bünger, Carsten M; Schareck, Wolfgang; Schmitz, Klaus-Peter; Sternberg, Katrin

2013-08-01

62

Fabrication and characterization of interconnected porous biodegradable poly(?-caprolactone) load bearing scaffolds.  

PubMed

In this study, poly(?-caprolactone) (PCL)/poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) (50:50 wt%) immiscible blend was used as a model system to investigate the feasibility of a novel solventless fabrication approach that combines cryomilling, compression molding and porogen leaching techniques to prepare interconnected porous scaffolds for tissue engineering. PCL was cryomilled with PEO to form blend powders. Compression molding was used to consolidate and anneal the cryomilled powders. Selective dissolution of the PEO with water resulted in interconnected porous scaffolds. Sodium chloride salt (NaCl) was subsequently added to cryomilled powder to increase the porosity of scaffolds. The prepared scaffolds had homogeneous pore structures, a porosity of ~50% which was increased by mixing salt with the blend (~70% for 60% wt% NaCl), and a compressive modulus and strength (? = 10%) of 60 and 2.8 MPa, respectively. The results of the study confirm that this novel approach offers a viable alternative to fabricate scaffolds. PMID:21670998

Allaf, Rula M; Rivero, Iris V

2011-08-01

63

Review: Biodegradable Polymeric Scaffolds. Improvements in Bone Tissue Engineering through Controlled Drug Delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in biology, medicine, and engineering have led to the discovery of new therapeutic\\u000a agents and novel materials for the repair of large bone defects caused by trauma, congenital defects, or\\u000a bone tumors. These repair strategies often utilize degradable polymeric scaffolds for the controlled localized\\u000a delivery of bioactive molecules to stimulate bone ingrowth as the scaffold degrades. Polymer composition,

Theresa A. Holland; Antonios G. Mikos

64

Repair of segmental long bone defect in a rabbit radius nonunion model: comparison of cylindrical porous titanium and hydroxyapatite scaffolds.  

PubMed

A segmental long bone defect in a rabbit radius nonunion model was repaired using cylindrical porous titanium (Ti) and hydroxyapatite (HA) scaffolds. Each scaffold was produced using the same method, namely, a slurry foaming method. Repairing ability was characterized using x-radiographic score 12 and 24 weeks postprocedure; failure load of the radius-ulna construct, under three-point bending, 12 weeks postprocedure; and the percentage of newly formed bone within the implant, 12 and 24 weeks after postprocedure. For each of these parameters, the difference in the results when porous Ti scaffold was used compared with when HA scaffolds were used was not significant; both porous scaffolds showed excellent repairing ability. Because the trabecular bone is a porous tissue, the interconnected porous scaffolds have the advantages of natural bone, and vasculature can grow into the porous structure to accelerate the osteoconduction and osteointegration between the implant and bone. The porous Ti scaffold not only enhanced the bone repair process, similar to porous HA scaffolds, but also has superior biomechanical properties. The present results suggest that porous Ti scaffolds may have promise for use in the clinical setting. PMID:24372398

Zhang, Ming; Wang, Guang-Lin; Zhang, Hong-Fang; Hu, Xu-Dong; Shi, Xiao-Yuan; Li, Sen; Lin, Wei

2014-06-01

65

Biomechanical and biocompatibility characteristics of electrospun polymeric tracheal scaffolds.  

PubMed

The development of tracheal scaffolds fabricated based on electrospinning technique by applying different ratios of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and polyurethane (PU) is introduced here. Prior to clinical implantation, evaluations of biomechanical and morphological properties, as well as biocompatibility and cell adhesion verifications are required and extensively performed on each scaffold type. However, the need for bioreactors and large cell numbers may delay the verification process during the early assessment phase. Hence, we investigated the feasibility of performing biocompatibility verification using static instead of dynamic culture. We performed bioreactor seeding on 3-dimensional (3-D) tracheal scaffolds (PET/PU and PET) and correlated the quantitative and qualitative results with 2-dimensional (2-D) sheets seeded under static conditions. We found that an 8-fold reduction for 2-D static seeding density can essentially provide validation on the qualitative and quantitative evaluations for 3-D scaffolds. In vitro studies revealed that there was notably better cell attachment on PET sheets/scaffolds than with the polyblend. However, the in vivo outcomes of cell seeded PET/PU and PET scaffolds in an orthotopic transplantation model in rodents were similar. They showed that both the scaffold types satisfied biocompatibility requirements and integrated well with the adjacent tissue without any observation of necrosis within 30 days of implantation. PMID:24703872

Ajalloueian, Fatemeh; Lim, Mei Ling; Lemon, Greg; Haag, Johannes C; Gustafsson, Ylva; Sjöqvist, Sebastian; Beltrán-Rodríguez, Antonio; Del Gaudio, Costantino; Baiguera, Silvia; Bianco, Alessandra; Jungebluth, Philipp; Macchiarini, Paolo

2014-07-01

66

A finite element prediction of strain on cells in a highly porous collagen-glycosaminoglycan scaffold.  

PubMed

Tissue engineering often involves seeding cells into porous scaffolds and subjecting the scaffold to mechanical stimulation. Current experimental techniques have provided a plethora of data regarding cell responses within scaffolds, but the quantitative understanding of the load transfer process within a cell-seeded scaffold is still relatively unknown. The objective of this work was to develop a finite element representation of the transient and heterogeneous nature of a cell-seeded collagen-GAG-scaffold. By undertaking experimental investigation, characteristics such as scaffold architecture and shrinkage, cellular attachment patterns, and cellular dimensions were used to create a finite element model of a cell-seeded porous scaffold. The results demonstrate that a very wide range of microscopic strains act at the cellular level when a sample value of macroscopic (apparent) strain is applied to the collagen-GAG-scaffold. An external uniaxial strain of 10% generated a cellular strain as high as 49%, although the majority experienced less than approximately 5% strain. The finding that the strain on some cells could be higher than the macroscopic strain was unexpected and proves contrary to previous in vitro investigations. These findings indicate a complex system of biophysical stimuli created within the scaffolds and the difficulty of inducing the desired cellular responses from artificial environments. Future in vitro studies could also corroborate the results from this computational prediction to further explore mechanoregulatory mechanisms in tissue engineering. PMID:19045530

Stops, A J F; McMahon, L A; O'Mahoney, D; Prendergast, P J; McHugh, P E

2008-12-01

67

Fabrication of highly interconnected porous silk fibroin scaffolds for potential use as vascular grafts.  

PubMed

Silk fibroin (SF) scaffolds have been designed and fabricated for multiple organ engineering owing to SF's remarkable mechanical property, excellent biocompatibility and biodegradability, as well as its low immunogenicity. In this study, an easy-to-adopt and mild approach based on a modified freeze-drying method was developed to fabricate a highly interconnected porous SF scaffold. The physical properties of the SF scaffold, including pore morphology, pore size, porosity and compressive modulus, could be adjusted by the amount of ethanol added, the freezing temperature and the concentration of SF. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy illustrated that treatment of the lyophilized scaffolds with 90% methanol led to a structure transition of SF from silk I (random coil) to silk II (beta-sheet), which stabilized the SF scaffolds in water. We also incorporated heparin during fabrication to obtain a heparin-loaded scaffold which possessed excellent anticoagulant property. The heparin that was incorporated into the SF scaffolds could be released in a sustain manner for approximately 7days, inhibiting the proliferation of human smooth muscle cells within the scaffold in vitro while promoting neovascularization in vivo. We therefore propose that the SF porous scaffold fabricated here may be an attractive candidate for use as a potential vascular graft for implantation based on its high porosity, excellent blood compatibility and mild fabrication process. PMID:24486642

Zhu, Meifeng; Wang, Kai; Mei, Jingjing; Li, Chen; Zhang, Jiamin; Zheng, Wenting; An, Di; Xiao, Nannan; Zhao, Qiang; Kong, Deling; Wang, Lianyong

2014-05-01

68

Poly(lactide-co-glycolide) porous scaffolds for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine  

PubMed Central

Porous scaffolds fabricated from biocompatible and biodegradable polymers play vital roles in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Among various scaffold matrix materials, poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) is a very popular and an important biodegradable polyester owing to its tunable degradation rates, good mechanical properties and processibility, etc. This review highlights the progress on PLGA scaffolds. In the latest decade, some facile fabrication approaches at room temperature were put forward; more appropriate pore structures were designed and achieved; the mechanical properties were investigated both for dry and wet scaffolds; a long time biodegradation of the PLGA scaffold was observed and a three-stage model was established; even the effects of pore size and porosity on in vitro biodegradation were revealed; the PLGA scaffolds have also been implanted into animals, and some tissues have been regenerated in vivo after loading cells including stem cells.

Pan, Zhen; Ding, Jiandong

2012-01-01

69

Biomimetic design and fabrication of porous chitosan–gelatin liver scaffolds with hierarchical channel network.  

PubMed

The presence of a hierarchical channel network in tissue engineering scaffold is essential to construct metabolically demanding liver tissue with thick and complex structures. In this research, chitosan–gelatin (C/G) scaffolds with fine three-dimensional channels were fabricated using indirect solid freeform fabrication and freeze-drying techniques. Fabrication processes were studied to create predesigned hierarchical channel network inside C/G scaffolds and achieve desired porous structure. Static in-vitro cell culture test showed that HepG2 cells attached on both micro-pores and micro-channels in C/G scaffolds successfully. HepG2 proliferated at much higher rates on C/G scaffolds with channel network, compared with those without channels. This approach demonstrated a promising way to engineer liver scaffolds with hierarchical channel network, and may lead to the development of thick and complex liver tissue equivalent in the future. PMID:24121873

Gong, Haibo; Agustin, Jephte; Wootton, David; Zhou, Jack G

2014-01-01

70

A Novel Porous Scaffold Fabrication Technique for Epithelial and Endothelial Tissue Engineering  

PubMed Central

Porous scaffolds have the ability to minimize transport barriers for both two- (2D) and three-dimensional tissue engineering. However, current porous scaffolds may be non-ideal for 2D tissues such as epithelium due to inherent fabrication-based characteristics. While 2D tissues require porosity to support molecular transport, pores must be small enough to prevent cell migration into the scaffold in order to avoid non-epithelial tissue architecture and compromised function. Though electrospun meshes are the most popular porous scaffolds used today, their heterogeneous pore size and intense topography may be poorly-suited for epithelium. Porous scaffolds produced using other methods have similar unavoidable limitations, frequently involving insufficient pore resolution and control, which make them incompatible with 2D tissues. In addition, many of these techniques require an entirely new round of process development in order to change material or pore size. Herein we describe “pore casting,” a fabrication method that produces flat scaffolds with deterministic pore shape, size, and location that can be easily altered to accommodate new materials or pore dimensions. As proof-of-concept, pore-cast poly(?-caprolactone) (PCL) scaffolds were fabricated and compared to electrospun PCL in vitro using canine kidney epithelium, human colon epithelium, and human umbilical vein endothelium. All cell types demonstrated improved morphology and function on pore-cast scaffolds, likely due to reduced topography and universally small pore size. These results suggest that pore casting is an attractive option for creating 2D tissue engineering scaffolds, especially when the application may benefit from well-controlled pore size or architecture.

McHugh, Kevin J.; Tao, Sarah L.; Saint-Geniez, Magali

2014-01-01

71

Biomimetic formation of apatite on the surface of porous gelatin/bioactive glass nanocomposite scaffolds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There have been several attempts to combine bioactive glasses (BaGs) with biodegradable polymers to create a scaffold material with excellent biocompatibility, bioactivity, biodegradability and toughness. In the present study, the nanocomposite scaffolds with compositions based on gelatin (Gel) and BaG nanoparticles in the ternary SiO 2-CaO-P 2O 5 system were prepared. In vitro evaluations of the nanocomposite scaffolds were performed, and for investigating their bioactive capacity these scaffolds were soaked in a simulated body fluid (SBF) at different time intervals. The scaffolds showed significant enhancement in bioactivity within few days of immersion in SBF solution. The apatite formation at the surface of the nanocomposite samples confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) analyses. In vitro experiments with osteoblast cells indicated an appropriate penetration of the cells into the scaffold's pores, and also the continuous increase in cell aggregation on the bioactive scaffolds with increase in the incubation time demonstrated the ability of the scaffolds to support cell growth. The SEM observations revealed that the prepared scaffolds were porous with three dimensional (3D) and interconnected microstructure, pore size was 200-500 ?m and the porosity was 72-86%. The nanocomposite scaffold made from Gel and BaG nanoparticles could be considered as a highly bioactive and potential bone tissue engineering implant.

Mozafari, Masoud; Rabiee, Mohammad; Azami, Mahmoud; Maleknia, Saied

2010-12-01

72

Bone formation in polymeric scaffolds evaluated by proton magnetic resonance microscopy and X-ray microtomography.  

PubMed

Magnetic resonance microscopy (MRM) and X-ray microtomography (XMT) were used to investigate de novo bone formation in porous poly(ethyl methacrylate) (PEMA) scaffolds, prepared by a novel co-extrusion process. PEMA scaffolds were seeded with primary chick calvarial osteoblasts and cultured under static conditions for up to 8 weeks. Bone formation within porous PEMA scaffolds was confirmed by the application of histologic stains to intact PEMA disks. Disks were treated with Alizarin red to visualize calcium deposits and with Sirius red to visualize regions of collagen deposition. DNA analysis confirmed that cells reached confluence on the scaffolds after 7 weeks in static culture. The formation of bone in PEMA scaffolds was investigated with water proton MRM. Quantitative MRM maps of the magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) yielded maps of protein deposition, and magnetic resonance (MR) relaxation times (T1 and T2) yielded maps of mineral deposition. The location of newly formed bone and local mineral concentrations were confirmed by XMT. By comparing MRM and XMT data from selected regions-of-interest in one sample, the inverse relationship between the MR relaxation times and mineral concentration was validated, and calibration curves for estimating the mineral content of cell-seeded PEMA scaffolds from quantitative MRM images were developed. PMID:15162416

Washburn, Newell R; Weir, Michael; Anderson, Paul; Potter, Kimberlee

2004-06-15

73

Large Scale Laser Two-Photon Polymerization Structuring for Fabrication of Artificial Polymeric Scaffolds for Regenerative Medicine  

SciTech Connect

We present a femtosecond Laser Two-Photon Polymerization (LTPP) system of large scale three-dimensional structuring for applications in tissue engineering. The direct laser writing system enables fabrication of artificial polymeric scaffolds over a large area (up to cm in lateral size) with sub-micrometer resolution which could find practical applications in biomedicine and surgery. Yb:KGW femtosecond laser oscillator (Pharos, Light Conversion. Co. Ltd.) is used as an irradiation source (75 fs, 515 nm (frequency doubled), 80 MHz). The sample is mounted on wide range linear motor driven stages having 10 nm sample positioning resolution (XY--ALS130-100, Z--ALS130-50, Aerotech, Inc.). These stages guarantee an overall travelling range of 100 mm into X and Y directions and 50 mm in Z direction and support the linear scanning speed up to 300 mm/s. By moving the sample three-dimensionally the position of laser focus in the photopolymer is changed and one is able to write complex 3D (three-dimensional) structures. An illumination system and CMOS camera enables online process monitoring. Control of all equipment is automated via custom made computer software ''3D-Poli'' specially designed for LTPP applications. Structures can be imported from computer aided design STereoLihography (stl) files or programmed directly. It can be used for rapid LTPP structuring in various photopolymers (SZ2080, AKRE19, PEG-DA-258) which are known to be suitable for bio-applications. Microstructured scaffolds can be produced on different substrates like glass, plastic and metal. In this paper, we present microfabricated polymeric scaffolds over a large area and growing of adult rabbit myogenic stem cells on them. Obtained results show the polymeric scaffolds to be applicable for cell growth practice. It exhibit potential to use it for artificial pericardium in the experimental model in the future.

Malinauskas, M.; Purlys, V.; Zukauskas, A.; Rutkauskas, M.; Danilevicius, P.; Paipulas, D.; Bickauskaite, G.; Gadonas, R.; Piskarskas, A. [Vilnius University, Physics Faculty, Department of Quantum Electronics, Laser Research Center, Sauletekio ave. 10, LT-10223 Vilnius (Lithuania); Bukelskis, L.; Baltriukiene, D.; Bukelskiene, V. [Institute of Biochemistry, Vivarium, Mokslininkuo str. 12, LT-08662 Vilnius (Lithuania); Sirmenis, R. [Vilnius University Hospital Santariskiuo Klinikos, Santariskiuo g. 2, LT-08661 Vilnius (Lithuania); Gaidukeviciute, A. [Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser, Foundation for Research and Technology Hellas, Vassilika Vouton, 711 10 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Sirvydis, V. [Vilnius University, Faculty of Medicine, Heart Surgery Center, Santariskiuo 2, LT-08661, Vilnius (Lithuania)

2010-11-10

74

Large Scale Laser Two-Photon Polymerization Structuring for Fabrication of Artificial Polymeric Scaffolds for Regenerative Medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a femtosecond Laser Two-Photon Polymerization (LTPP) system of large scale three-dimensional structuring for applications in tissue engineering. The direct laser writing system enables fabrication of artificial polymeric scaffolds over a large area (up to cm in lateral size) with sub-micrometer resolution which could find practical applications in biomedicine and surgery. Yb:KGW femtosecond laser oscillator (Pharos, Light Conversion. Co. Ltd.) is used as an irradiation source (75 fs, 515 nm (frequency doubled), 80 MHz). The sample is mounted on wide range linear motor driven stages having 10 nm sample positioning resolution (XY-ALS130-100, Z-ALS130-50, Aerotech, Inc.). These stages guarantee an overall travelling range of 100 mm into X and Y directions and 50 mm in Z direction and support the linear scanning speed up to 300 mm/s. By moving the sample three-dimensionally the position of laser focus in the photopolymer is changed and one is able to write complex 3D (three-dimensional) structures. An illumination system and CMOS camera enables online process monitoring. Control of all equipment is automated via custom made computer software ``3D-Poli'' specially designed for LTPP applications. Structures can be imported from computer aided design STereoLihography (stl) files or programmed directly. It can be used for rapid LTPP structuring in various photopolymers (SZ2080, AKRE19, PEG-DA-258) which are known to be suitable for bio-applications. Microstructured scaffolds can be produced on different substrates like glass, plastic and metal. In this paper, we present microfabricated polymeric scaffolds over a large area and growing of adult rabbit myogenic stem cells on them. Obtained results show the polymeric scaffolds to be applicable for cell growth practice. It exhibit potential to use it for artificial pericardium in the experimental model in the future.

Malinauskas, M.; Purlys, V.; Žukauskas, A.; Rutkauskas, M.; Danilevi?ius, P.; Paipulas, D.; Bi?kauskait?, G.; Bukelskis, L.; Baltriukien?, D.; Širmenis, R.; Gaidukevi?iut?, A.; Bukelskien?, V.; Gadonas, R.; Sirvydis, V.; Piskarskas, A.

2010-11-01

75

Rapid attachment of adipose stromal cells on resorbable polymeric scaffolds facilitates the one-step surgical procedure for cartilage and bone tissue engineering purposes.  

PubMed

The stromal vascular fraction (SVF) of adipose tissue provides an abundant source of mesenchymal stem cells. For clinical application, it would be beneficial to establish treatments in which SVF is obtained, seeded onto a scaffold, and returned into the patient within a single surgical procedure. In this study, we evaluated the suitability of both a macroporous poly(L-lactide-co-caprolactone) and a porous collagen type I/III scaffold for this purpose. Surprisingly, cell attachment was rapid (?10?min) and sequestered the majority of adipose stem cells, as deduced from colony-forming unit assays. Proliferation occurred in both polymeric scaffolds. Upon chondrogenic induction, up-regulation of chondrogenic genes, production of glycosaminoglycans, and accumulation of collagen type II was observed, indicating differentiation of scaffold-attached SVF cells along the chondrogenic lineage. Osteogenic differentiation was achieved in both scaffold types, as visualized by up-regulation of osteogenic genes, increase of alkaline phosphatase production over time, and accumulation of bone sialoprotein and osteonectin. In conclusion, this study identifies both poly(L-lactide-co-caprolactone) and collagen type I/III as promising scaffold materials for rapid attachment of adipose stem cell-like (stromal) cells, enhancing the development of one-step surgical concepts for cartilage and bone tissue engineering. PMID:21246614

Jurgens, Wouter J; Kroeze, Robert Jan; Bank, Ruud A; Ritt, Marco J P F; Helder, Marco N

2011-06-01

76

Development of an indirect solid freeform fabrication process based on microstereolithography for 3D porous scaffolds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scaffold fabrication using solid freeform fabrication (SFF) technology is a hot topic in tissue engineering. Here, we present a new indirect SFF technology based on microstereolithography (MSTL), which has the highest resolution of all SFF methods, to construct a three-dimensional (3D) porous scaffold by combining SFF with molding technology. To realize this indirect method, we investigated and modified a water-soluble

Hyun-Wook Kang; Young-Joon Seol; Dong-Woo Cho

2009-01-01

77

Two-photon polymerization of 3-D zirconium oxide hybrid scaffolds for long-term stem cell growth.  

PubMed

Two-photon polymerization is a technique that involves simultaneous absorption of two photons from a femtosecond laser for selective polymerization of a photosensitive material. In this study, two-photon polymerization was used for layer-by-layer fabrication of 3-D scaffolds composed of an inorganic-organic zirconium oxide hybrid material. Four types of scaffold microarchitectures were created, which exhibit layers of parallel line features at various orientations as well as pores between the line features. Long-term cell culture studies involving human bone marrow stromal cells were conducted using these 3-D scaffolds. Cellular adhesion and proliferation were demonstrated on all of the scaffold types; tissuelike structure was shown to span the pores. This study indicates that two-photon polymerization may be used to create microstructured scaffolds out of an inorganic-organic zirconium oxide hybrid material for use in 3-D tissue culture systems. PMID:24985218

Skoog, Shelby A; Nguyen, Alexander K; Kumar, Girish; Zheng, Jiwen; Goering, Peter L; Koroleva, Anastasia; Chichkov, Boris N; Narayan, Roger J

2014-06-01

78

Porous poly(para-phenylene) scaffolds for load-bearing orthopedic applications.  

PubMed

The focus of this study was to fabricate and investigate the mechanical behavior of porous poly(para-phenylene) (PPP) for potential use as a load-bearing orthopedic biomaterial. PPPs are known to have exceptional mechanical properties due to their aromatic backbone; however, the manufacturing and properties of PPP porous structures have not been previously investigated. Tailored porous structures with either small (150-250µm) or large (420-500µm) pore sizes were manufactured using a powder-sintering/salt-leaching technique. Porosities were systematically varied using 50 to 90vol%. Micro-computed tomography (µCT) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to verify an open-cell structure and investigate pore morphology of the scaffolds. Uniaxial mechanical behavior of solid and porous PPP samples was characterized through tensile and compressive testing. Both modulus and strength decreased with increasing porosity and matched well with foam theory. Porous scaffolds showed a significant decrease in strain-to-failure (<4%) under tensile loading and experienced linear elasticity, plastic deformation, and densification under compressive loading. Over the size ranges tested, pore size did not significantly influence the mechanical behavior of the scaffolds on a consistent basis. These results are discussed in regards to use of porous PPP for orthopedic applications and a prototype porous interbody fusion cage is presented. PMID:24374261

DiRienzo, Amy L; Yakacki, Christopher M; Frensemeier, Mareike; Schneider, Andreas S; Safranski, David L; Hoyt, Anthony J; Frick, Carl P

2014-02-01

79

Polarization of porous hydroxyapatite scaffolds: influence on osteoblast cell proliferation and extracellular matrix production.  

PubMed

Improvements to clinically used biomaterials such as hydroxyapatite (HA) are of potential benefit to the patient. One modification, the addition of surface charges, has been shown to have an important role influencing cell response. In this study, porous HA scaffolds with both positive and negative surface charges were manufactured. The samples were sintered in air to produce porous HA ceramic scaffolds in the form of cylinders 12 mm in height × 7 mm in diameter. These were polarized with a dc voltage of 3 kV/cm. MC3T3E1 cells were placed on either negative or positive ends of the charged (or unpoled control) HA scaffolds. At 7 days, picogreen analysis was performed to analyze the cell number at the negative (4 mm), central (4 mm), and positive (4 mm) portions of the 12 mm cylindrical scaffold. At 4 weeks, micro-CT analysis was performed to quantify the regional volume of mineralized matrix deposition on the 3D scaffold. At 7 days, there were significantly more cells present at the negative end of the scaffold when seeded from the negative end in comparison to the other samples tested. Micro-CT data at 4 weeks correlated with this finding, demonstrating an increase in mineralized matrix at the negatively charged end of the scaffold seeded from the negative end in comparison to the positively charged and unpoled control scaffolds. The results indicate that the charge on HA influences cell activity and that this phenomenon can be translated to a clinically relevant porous scaffold structure. PMID:23650144

Cartmell, S H; Thurstan, S; Gittings, J P; Griffiths, S; Bowen, C R; Turner, I G

2014-04-01

80

Fabrication and characterization of waterborne biodegradable polyurethanes 3-dimensional porous scaffolds for vascular tissue engineering.  

PubMed

In this study, a series of 3-D interconnected porous scaffolds with various pore diameters and porosities was fabricated by freeze-drying with non-toxic biodegradable waterborne polyurethane (WBPU) emulsions of different concentration. The structures of these porous scaffolds were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the pore diameters were calculated using CIAS 3.0 software. The pores obtained were 3-D interconnected in the scaffolds. The scaffolds obtained at different pre-freeze temperatures showed a pore diameter ranging from 2.8 to 99.9 microm with a pre-freezing temperature of -60 degrees C and from 13.1 to 229.1 microm with a pre-freezing temperature of -25 degrees C. The scaffolds fabricated with WBPU emulsions of different concentration at the same pre-freezing temperature (-25 degrees C) had pores with mean pore diameter between 90.8 and 39.6 microm and porosity between 92.0 and 80.0%, depending on the emulsion concentration. The effect of porous structure of the scaffolds on adhesion and proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) cultured in vitro was evaluated using the MTT assay and environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). It was found that the better adhesion and proliferation of HUVECs on 3-D scaffolds of WBPU with relative smaller pore diameter and lower porosity than those on scaffolds with larger pore and higher porosity and film. Our work suggests that fabricating a scaffold with controllable pore diameter and porosity could be a good method to be used in tissue-engineering applications to obtain carriers for cell culture in vitro. PMID:20537246

Jiang, Xia; Yu, Feilong; Wang, Zhigao; Li, Jiehua; Tan, Hong; Ding, Mingming; Fu, Qiang

2010-01-01

81

Degradation and biocompatibility of porous nano-hydroxyapatite/polyurethane composite scaffold for bone tissue engineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Porous scaffold containing 30 wt% nano-hydroxyapatite (n-HA) and 70 wt% polyurethane (PU) from castor oil was prepared by a foaming method and investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared absorption (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. The results show that n-HA particles disperse homogeneously in the PU matrix. The porous scaffold has not only macropores of 100-800 ?m in size but also a lot of micropores on the walls of macropores. The porosity and compressive strength of scaffold are 80% and 271 kPa, respectively. After soaking in simulated body fluid (SBF), hydrolysis and deposition partly occur on the scaffold. The biological evaluation in vitro and in vivo shows that the n-HA/PU scaffold is non-cytotoxic and degradable. The porous structure provides a good microenvironment for cell adherence, growth and proliferation. The n-HA/PU composite scaffold can be satisfied with the basic requirement for tissue engineering, and has the potential to be applied in repair and substitute of human menisci of the knee-joint and articular cartilage.

Dong, Zhihong; Li, Yubao; Zou, Qin

2009-04-01

82

Label-free magnetic resonance imaging to locate live cells in three-dimensional porous scaffolds  

PubMed Central

Porous scaffolds are widely tested materials used for various purposes in tissue engineering. A critical feature of a porous scaffold is its ability to allow cell migration and growth on its inner surface. Up to now, there has not been a method to locate live cells deep inside a material, or in an entire structure, using real-time imaging and a non-destructive technique. Herein, we seek to demonstrate the feasibility of the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique as a method to detect and locate in vitro non-labelled live cells in an entire porous material. Our results show that the use of optimized MRI parameters (4.7 T; repetition time = 3000 ms; echo time = 20 ms; resolution 39 × 39 µm) makes it possible to obtain images of the scaffold structure and to locate live non-labelled cells in the entire material, with a signal intensity higher than that obtained in the culture medium. In the current study, cells are visualized and located in different kinds of porous scaffolds. Moreover, further development of this MRI method might be useful in several three-dimensional biomaterial tests such as cell distribution studies, routine qualitative testing methods and in situ monitoring of cells inside scaffolds.

Abarrategi, A.; Fernandez-Valle, M. E.; Desmet, T.; Castejon, D.; Civantos, A.; Moreno-Vicente, C.; Ramos, V.; Sanz-Casado, J. V.; Martinez-Vazquez, F. J.; Dubruel, P.; Miranda, P.; Lopez-Lacomba, J. L.

2012-01-01

83

Repair of surgically created diaphragmatic defect in rat with use of a crosslinked porous collagen scaffold.  

PubMed

Large defects in congenital diaphragmatic hernia are closed by patch repair, which is associated with a high complication risk and reherniation rate. New treatment modalities are warranted. We evaluated the feasibility of using an acellular biodegradable collagen bioscaffold for a regenerative medicine approach to close a surgically created diaphragmatic defect in a rat model. Scaffold degradation, cellular ingrowth and regeneration of the diaphragm were studied. In 25 rats, a subcostal incision was made and one third of the right hemidiaphragm was resected. Crosslinked porous type I collagen scaffolds (Ø ~ 14 mm) were sutured into the lesion. Rats were sacrificed at 2, 4, 8, 12 or 24 weeks after scaffold implantation. Implants were evaluated macroscopically and (immuno)histologically. Survival after surgery was 88% with no evidence of reherniation. Histological examination showed that the collagen scaffold degraded slowly and new collagen, elastin and mesothelium were deposited. Blood vessels were observed primarily at the outer borders of the scaffold; their number gradually increased in time. Muscle fibres were found on the scaffold covering up to 10% of the defect. Macroscopically, adhesion of the scaffold to the liver was observed. Use of a collagen scaffold to close a surgically created diaphragmatic defect is feasible, with evidence of new tissue formation. The use of crosslinked collagen scaffolds allows targeted modification; e.g. addition of growth factors to further stimulate growth of muscle cells. PMID:22589175

Brouwer, Katrien M; Daamen, Willeke F; Reijnen, Daphne; Verstegen, Ruud H; Lammers, Gerwen; Hafmans, Theo G; Wismans, Ronnie G; van Kuppevelt, Toin H; Wijnen, René M

2013-07-01

84

Silver nanoparticle studded porous polyethylene scaffolds: bacteria struggle to grow on them while mammalian cells thrive  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Silver nanoparticle studded scaffolds were prepared by exploiting the Ag+ ion reducing activity of sophorolipids--a class of `glycolipids' that cap the ensuing nanoparticles as well. To achieve this, the porous polyethylene scaffolds are subjected to N2 + H2 plasma treatment, in the first step. Subsequently the sophorolipids are covalently attached to the amine groups on the polymer surface through simple amide chemistry to yield sophorolipid grafted polymer scaffolds. These are then exposed to Ag+ ions under appropriate conditions leading to the formation of silver nanoparticles immobilized on the polymer scaffolds. It has been found that while bacteria do not survive on these silver studded scaffolds, CHO-K1 cells thrive on them making them good candidates for tissue engineering and bio-implant applications.Silver nanoparticle studded scaffolds were prepared by exploiting the Ag+ ion reducing activity of sophorolipids--a class of `glycolipids' that cap the ensuing nanoparticles as well. To achieve this, the porous polyethylene scaffolds are subjected to N2 + H2 plasma treatment, in the first step. Subsequently the sophorolipids are covalently attached to the amine groups on the polymer surface through simple amide chemistry to yield sophorolipid grafted polymer scaffolds. These are then exposed to Ag+ ions under appropriate conditions leading to the formation of silver nanoparticles immobilized on the polymer scaffolds. It has been found that while bacteria do not survive on these silver studded scaffolds, CHO-K1 cells thrive on them making them good candidates for tissue engineering and bio-implant applications. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: See DOI: 10.1039/c1nr10152d

D'Britto, Virginia; Kapse, Harsha; Babrekar, Harshada; Prabhune, A. A.; Bhoraskar, S. V.; Premnath, V.; Prasad, B. L. V.

2011-07-01

85

Biofunctionalisation of polymeric scaffolds for neural tissue engineering.  

PubMed

Patients who experience injury to the central or peripheral nervous systems invariably suffer from a range of dysfunctions due to the limited ability for repair and reconstruction of damaged neural tissue. Whilst some treatment strategies can provide symptomatic improvement of motor and cognitive function, they fail to repair the injured circuits and rarely offer long-term disease modification. To this end, the biological molecules, used in combination with neural tissue engineering scaffolds, may provide feasible means to repair damaged neural pathways. This review will focus on three promising classes of neural tissue engineering scaffolds, namely hydrogels, electrospun nanofibres and self-assembling peptides. Additionally, the importance and methods for presenting biologically relevant molecules such as, neurotrophins, extracellular matrix proteins and protein-derived sequences that promote neuronal survival, proliferation and neurite outgrowth into the lesion will be discussed. PMID:22492199

Wang, T Y; Forsythe, J S; Parish, C L; Nisbet, D R

2012-11-01

86

Synthesis of versatile thiol-reactive polymer scaffolds via RAFT polymerization.  

PubMed

Well-defined polymer scaffolds convertible to (multi)functional polymer structures via selective and efficient modifications potentially provide an easy, versatile, and useful approach for a wide variety of applications. Considering this, a homopolymer scaffold, poly(pyridyldisulfide ethylmethacrylate) (poly(PDSM)), having pendant groups selectively reactive with thiols, was synthesized by reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization. Soluble polymers with controlled molecular weights and narrow PDIs were generated efficiently. The versatility of the scaffold to generate random co- and ter-polymers combining multiple functionalities with controlled-composition was shown by separate and simultaneous conjugation of different mercapto-compounds, including a tripeptide in one-step. Conversion of water-insoluble scaffold to peptide-containing water-soluble copolymers was observed to yield nanometer-size particles with narrow polydispersity. The overall results suggest that the well-defined PDSM homopolymer scaffold generated via RAFT polymerization can be a versatile building block for generation of new structures having potential for drug delivery applications via a straightforward synthetic approach. PMID:18564875

Wong, Lingjiun; Boyer, Cyrille; Jia, Zhongfan; Zareie, Hadi M; Davis, Thomas P; Bulmus, Volga

2008-07-01

87

Corona-induced graft polymerization for surface modification of porous polyethersulfone membranes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Graft polymerization of acrylic acid (AA) onto porous polyethersulfone (PES) membrane surfaces was developed using corona discharge in atmospheric ambience as an activation process followed by polymerization of AA in aqueous solution. The effects of the corona parameters and graft polymerization conditions on grafting yield (GY) of AA were investigated. The grafting of AA on the PES membranes was confirmed

Li-Ping Zhu; Bao-Ku Zhu; Li Xu; Yong-Xiang Feng; Fu Liu; You-Yi Xu

2007-01-01

88

Engineering porous scaffolds using gas-based techniques.  

PubMed

Scaffolds are used in tissue engineering as a matrix for the seeding and attachment of human cells. The creation of porosity in three-dimensional (3D) structures of scaffolds plays a critical role in cell proliferation, migration, and differentiation into the specific tissue while secreting extracellular matrix components. These pores are used to transfer nutrients and oxygen and remove wastes produced from the cells. The lack of oxygen and nutrient supply impedes the cell migration more than 500?m from the surface. The physical properties of scaffolds such as porosity and pore interconnectivity can improve mass transfer and have a great impact on the cell adhesion and penetration into the scaffolds to form a new tissue. Various techniques such as electrospinning, freeze-drying, and solvent casting/salt leaching have been used to create porosity in scaffolds. The major issues in these methods include lack of 3D structure, control on pore size, and pore interconnectivity. In this review, we provide a brief overview of gas-based techniques that have been developed for creating porosity in scaffolds. PMID:21546240

Dehghani, Fariba; Annabi, Nasim

2011-10-01

89

Temperature-driven processing techniques for manufacturing fully interconnected porous scaffolds in bone tissue engineering.  

PubMed

The development of structures with a predefined multiscale pore network is a major challenge in designing tissue engineering (TE) scaffolds. To address this, several strategies have been investigated to provide biocompatible, biodegradable porous materials that would be suitable for use as scaffolds, and able to guide and facilitate the cell activity involved in the generation of new tissue regeneration. This study seeks to provide an overview of different temperature-driven process technologies for developing scaffolds with tailored porosity, in which pore size distribution is strictly defined and pores are fully interconnected. Here, three-dimensional (3D) porous composite scaffolds based on poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) were fabricated by thermally induced phase separation (TIPS) and by melt co-continuous polymer blending (MCPB). The combination of these processes with a salt leaching technique enables the establishment of bimodal porosity within the polymer network. This feature may be exploited in the development of substrates with fully interconnected pores, which can be used effectively for tissue regeneration. Various combinations of the proposed techniques provide a range of procedures for the preparation of porous scaffolds with an appropriate combination of morphological and mechanical properties to reproduce the requisite features of the extracellular matrix (ECM) of hard tissues such as bone. PMID:21287827

Guarino, V; Ambrosio, L

2010-12-01

90

[Study on the development of Ag-nano-hydroxyapatite/polyamide66 porous scaffolds with surface mineralization].  

PubMed

Bacterial infection after implantation of bone tissue engineering scaffolds is still a serious clinical problem. Ag-nano-hydroxyapatite/polyamide66 (Ag-nHA/PA66) antibacterial composite scaffold were prepared with phase-inversion method in this study. The scaffolds were mineralized in saturated calcium phosphate solution at 37 degrees C for 1 day. The microstructure and the newly formed nano-apatite deposition on the scaffolds before and after mineralization were observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In order to investigate the release behaviors of Ag+, the Ag-nHA/PA66 scaffolds were immersed into 5 ml PBS at 37 degrees C for a different period between 3 h and 168 h before and after mineralization. Then the samples were cultured with E. coli (8099) to test the antibacterial effect of the scaffolds. The results showed that, after mineralization, Ag-nHA/PA66 porous scaffolds still possessed a good inter-connection and a new apatite layer was formed on the surface of the scaffolds. The average macropore size was 626.61 +/- 141.94 microm, the porosity was 76.89 +/- 8.21% and the compressive strength was 2.94 +/- 1.12 MPa. All these physical parameters had no significant difference from those of the un-mineralized scaffolds. The Ag+ release of the scaffolds with and without mineralization was fast within 1 day and then kept slow and stable after 1 day. The antibacterial test confirmed that after mineralization the scaffolds had good antibacterial effects on E. coli. PMID:23469542

Fan, Jianbo; Chang, Shan; Dong, Mina; Huang, Di; Li, Jidong; Jiang, Dianming

2012-12-01

91

Osteoblast-Like Cell Behavior on Porous Scaffolds Based on Poly(styrene) Fibers  

PubMed Central

Scaffolds of nonresorbable biomaterials can represent an interesting alternative for replacing large bone defects in some particular clinical cases with massive bone loss. Poly(styrene) microfibers were prepared by a dry spinning method. They were partially melted to provide 3D porous scaffolds. The quality of the material was assessed by Raman spectroscopy. Surface roughness was determined by atomic force microscopy and vertical interference microscopy. Saos-2 osteoblast-like cells were seeded on the surface of the fibers and left to proliferate. Cell morphology, evaluated by scanning electron microscopy, revealed that they can spread and elongate on the rough microfiber surface. Porous 3D scaffolds made of nonresorbable poly(styrene) fibers are cytocompatible biomaterials mimicking allogenic bone trabeculae and allowing the growth and development of osteoblast-like cells in vitro.

Serafim, Andrada; Mallet, Romain; Pascaretti-Grizon, Florence

2014-01-01

92

Nanoscale modification of porous gelatin scaffolds with chondroitin sulfate for corneal stromal tissue engineering  

PubMed Central

Recent studies reflect the importance of using naturally occurring biopolymers as three-dimensional corneal keratocyte scaffolds and suggest that the porous structure of gelatin materials may play an important role in controlling nutrient uptake. In the current study, the authors further consider the application of carbodiimide cross-linked porous gelatin as an alternative to collagen for corneal stromal tissue engineering. The authors developed corneal keratocyte scaffolds by nanoscale modification of porous gelatin materials with chondroitin sulfate (CS) using carbodiimide chemistry. Scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed that the amount of covalently incorporated polysaccharide was significantly increased when the CS concentration was increased from 0% to 1.25% (w/v). In addition, as demonstrated by dimethylmethylene blue assays, the CS content in these samples was in the range of 0.078–0.149 nmol per 10 mg scaffold. When compared with their counterparts without CS treatment, various CS-modified porous gelatin membranes exhibited higher levels of water content, light transmittance, and amount of permeated nutrients but possessed lower Young’s modulus and resistance against protease digestion. The hydrophilic and mechanical properties of scaffolds modified with 0.25% CS were comparable with those of native corneas. The samples from this group were biocompatible with the rabbit corneal keratocytes and showed enhanced proliferative and biosynthetic capacity of cultured cells. In summary, the authors found that the nanoscale-level modification has influence on the characteristics and cell-material interactions of CS-containing gelatin hydrogels. Porous membranes with a CS content of 0.112 ± 0.003 nmol per 10 mg scaffold may hold potential for use in corneal stromal tissue engineering.

Lai, Jui-Yang; Li, Ya-Ting; Cho, Ching-Hsien; Yu, Ting-Chun

2012-01-01

93

Functionalized ormosil scaffolds processed by direct laser polymerization for application in tissue engineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Synthesized N,N'-(methacryloyloxyethyl triehtoxy silyl propyl carbamoyl-oxyhexyl)-urea hybrid methacrylate was polymerized by direct laser polymerization using femtosecond laser pulses with the aim of using it for subsequent applications in tissue engineering. The as-obtained scaffolds were modified either by low pressure argon plasma treatment or by covering the structures with two different proteins (lysozyme, fibrinogen). For improved adhesion, the proteins were deposited by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation technique. The functionalized structures were tested in mouse fibroblasts culture and the cells morphology, proliferation, and attachment were analyzed.

Matei, A.; Schou, J.; Canulescu, S.; Zamfirescu, M.; Albu, C.; Mitu, B.; Buruiana, E. C.; Buruiana, T.; Mustaciosu, C.; Petcu, I.; Dinescu, M.

2013-08-01

94

Physiologically relevant oxidative degradation of oligo(proline) cross-linked polymeric scaffolds.  

PubMed

Chronic inflammation-mediated oxidative stress is a common mechanism of implant rejection and failure. Therefore, polymer scaffolds that can degrade slowly in response to this environment may provide a viable platform for implant site-specific, sustained release of immunomodulatory agents over a long time period. In this work, proline oligomers of varying lengths (P(n)) were synthesized and exposed to oxidative environments, and their accelerated degradation under oxidative conditions was verified via high performance liquid chromatography and gel permeation chromatography. Next, diblock copolymers of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and poly(?-caprolactone) (PCL) were carboxylated to form 100 kDa terpolymers of 4%PEG-86%PCL-10%cPCL (cPCL = poly(carboxyl-?-caprolactone); i% indicates molar ratio). The polymers were then cross-linked with biaminated PEG-P(n)-PEG chains, where P(n) indicates the length of the proline oligomer flanked by PEG chains. Salt-leaching of the polymeric matrices created scaffolds of macroporous and microporous architecture, as observed by scanning electron microscopy. The degradation of scaffolds was accelerated under oxidative conditions, as evidenced by mass loss and differential scanning calorimetry measurements. Immortalized murine bone-marrow-derived macrophages were then seeded on the scaffolds and activated through the addition of ?-interferon and lipopolysaccharide throughout the 9-day study period. This treatment promoted the release of H(2)O(2) by the macrophages and the degradation of proline-containing scaffolds compared to the control scaffolds. The accelerated degradation was evidenced by increased scaffold porosity, as visualized through scanning electron microscopy and X-ray microtomography imaging. The current study provides insight into the development of scaffolds that respond to oxidative environments through gradual degradation for the controlled release of therapeutics targeted to diseases that feature chronic inflammation and oxidative stress. PMID:22017359

Yu, Shann S; Koblin, Rachel L; Zachman, Angela L; Perrien, Daniel S; Hofmeister, Lucas H; Giorgio, Todd D; Sung, Hak-Joon

2011-12-12

95

Physiologically-Relevant Oxidative Degradation of Oligo(proline)-Crosslinked Polymeric Scaffolds  

PubMed Central

Chronic inflammation-mediated oxidative stress is a common mechanism of implant rejection and failure. Therefore, polymer scaffolds that can degrade slowly in response to this environment may provide a viable platform for implant site-specific, sustained release of immunomodulatory agents over a long time period. In this work, proline oligomers of varying lengths (Pn) were synthesized and exposed to oxidative environments, and their accelerated degradation under oxidative conditions was verified via high performance liquid chromatography and gel permeation chromatography. Next, diblock copolymers of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and poly(?-caprolactone) (PCL) were carboxylated to form 100 kDa terpolymers of 4%PEG-86%PCL-10%cPCL (cPCL = poly(carboxyl-?-caprolactone); i% indicates molar ratio). The polymers were then crosslinked with bi-aminated PEG-Pn-PEG chains—where Pn indicates the length of the proline oligomer flanked by PEG chains. Salt-leaching of the polymeric matrices created scaffolds of macroporous and microporous architecture as observed by scanning electron microscopy. The degradation of scaffolds was accelerated under oxidative conditions, as evidenced by mass loss and differential scanning calorimetry measurements. Immortalized murine bone marrow-derived macrophages were then seeded on the scaffolds, and activated through the addition of ?-interferon and lipopolysaccharide throughout the 9-day study period. This treatment promoted the release of H2O2 by the macrophages, and the degradation of proline-containing scaffolds compared to the control scaffolds. The accelerated degradation was evidenced by increased scaffold porosity, as visualized through scanning electron microscoopy and X-ray microtomography imaging. The current study provides insight into the development of scaffolds that respond to oxidative environments through gradual degradation, for the controlled release of therapeutics targeted to diseases that feature chronic inflammation and oxidative stress.

Yu, Shann S.; Koblin, Rachel L.; Zachman, Angela L.; Perrien, Daniel S.; Hofmeister, Lucas H.; Giorgio, Todd D.; Sung, Hak-Joon

2011-01-01

96

Fabrication of porous titanium scaffold with controlled porous structure and net-shape using magnesium as spacer.  

PubMed

This paper reports a new approach to fabricating biocompatible porous titanium with controlled pore structure and net-shape. The method is based on using sacrificial Mg particles as space holders to produce compacts that are mechanically stable and machinable. Using magnesium granules and Ti powder, Ti/Mg compacts with transverse rupture strength (~85 MPa) sufficient for machining were fabricated by warm compaction, and a complex-shape Ti scaffold was eventually produced by removal of Mg granules from the net-shape compact. The pores with the average size of 132-262 ?m were well distributed and interconnected. Due to anisotropy and alignment of the pores the compressive strength varied with the direction of compression. In the case of pores aligned with the direction of compression, the compressive strength values (59-280 MPa) high enough for applications in load bearing implants were achieved. To verify the possibility of controlled net-shape, conventional machining process was performed on Ti/Mg compact. Compact with screw shape and porous Ti scaffold with hemispherical cup shape were fabricated by the results. Finally, it was demonstrated by cell tests using MC3T3-E1 cell line that the porous Ti scaffolds fabricated by this technique are biocompatible. PMID:23623100

Kim, Sung Won; Jung, Hyun-Do; Kang, Min-Ho; Kim, Hyoun-Ee; Koh, Young-Hag; Estrin, Yuri

2013-07-01

97

Chondrogenic differentiation of rat MSCs on porous scaffolds of silk fibroin/chitosan blends.  

PubMed

Adult bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells are undifferentiated, multipotential cells and have the potential to differentiate into multiple lineages like bone, cartilage or fat. In this study, polyelectrolyte complex silk fibroin/chitosan blended porous scaffolds were fabricated and examined for its ability to support in vitro chondrogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells. Silk fibroin matrices provide suitable substrate for cell attachment and proliferation while chitosan are promising biomaterial for cartilage repair due to it's structurally resemblance with glycosaminoglycans. We compared the formation of cartilaginous tissue in the silk fibroin/chitosan blended scaffolds with rat mesenchymal stem cells and cultured in vitro for 3 weeks. Additionally, pure silk fibroin scaffolds of non-mulberry silkworm, Antheraea mylitta and mulberry silkworm, Bombyx mori were also utilized for comparative studies. The constructs were analyzed for cell attachment, proliferation, differentiation, histological and immunohistochemical evaluations. Silk fibroin/chitosan blended scaffolds supported the cell attachment and proliferation as indicated by SEM observation, Confocal microscopy and metabolic activities. Alcian Blue and Safranin O histochemistry and expression of collagen II indicated the maintenance of chondrogenic phenotype in the constructs after 3 weeks of culture. Glycosaminoglycans and collagen accumulated in all the scaffolds and was highest in silk fibroin/chitosan blended scaffolds and pure silk fibroin scaffolds of A. mylitta. Chondrogenic differentiation of MSCs in the silk fibroin/chitosan and pure silk fibroin scaffolds was evident by real-time PCR analysis for cartilage-specific ECM gene markers. The results represent silk fibroin/chitosan blended 3D scaffolds as suitable scaffold for mesenchymal stem cells-based cartilage repair. PMID:22261099

Bhardwaj, Nandana; Kundu, Subhas C

2012-04-01

98

A polycaprolactone/cuttlefish bone-derived hydroxyapatite composite porous scaffold for bone tissue engineering.  

PubMed

Cuttlefish bone (CB) is an attractive natural biomaterial source to obtain hydroxyapatite (HAp). In this study, a porous polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffold incorporating CB-derived HAp (CB-HAp) powder was fabricated using the solvent casting and particulate leaching method. The presence of CB-HAp in PCL/CB-HAp scaffold was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and porosity analysis showed that the average pore dimension of the fabricated scaffold was approximately 200-300 ?m, with ?85% porosity, and that the compressive modulus increased after addition of CB-HAp powders. In vitro tests such as cell proliferation assay, cytotoxicity analysis, cell attachment observations, and alkaline phosphatase activity assays showed that the PCL/CB-HAp scaffold could improve the proliferation, viability, adherence, and osteoblast differentiation rate of MG-63 cells. When surgically implanted into rabbit calvarial bone defects, consistent with the in vitro results, PCL/CB-HAp scaffold implantation resulted in significantly higher new bone formation than did implantation of PCL alone. These findings suggest that addition of CB-HAp powder to the PCL scaffold can improve cellular response and that the PCL/CB-HAp composite scaffold has great potential for use in bone tissue engineering. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 102B: 943-951, 2014. PMID:24259295

Kim, Beom-Su; Yang, Sun-Sik; Lee, Jun

2014-07-01

99

3D Porous Chitosan Scaffolds Suit Survival and Neural Differentiation of Dental Pulp Stem Cells.  

PubMed

A key aspect of cell replacement therapy in brain injury treatment is construction of a suitable biomaterial scaffold that can effectively carry and transport the therapeutic cells to the target area. In the present study, we created small 3D porous chitosan scaffolds through freeze-drying, and showed that these can support and enhance the differentiation of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) to nerve cells in vitro. The DPSCs were collected from the dental pulp of adult human third molars. At a swelling rate of ~84.33 ± 10.92 %, the scaffold displayed high porosity and interconnectivity of pores, as revealed by SEM. Cell counting kit-8 assay established the biocompatibility of the chitosan scaffold, supporting the growth and survival of DPSCs. The successful neural differentiation of DPSCs was assayed by RT-PCR, western blotting, and immunofluorescence. We found that the scaffold-attached DPSCs showed high expression of Nestin that decreased sharply following induction of differentiation. Exposure to the differentiation media also increased the expression of neural molecular markers Microtubule-associated protein 2, glial fibrillary acidic protein, and 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase. This study demonstrates that the granular 3D chitosan scaffolds are non-cytotoxic, biocompatible, and provide a conducive and favorable micro-environment for attachment, survival, and neural differentiation of DPSCs. These scaffolds have enormous potential to facilitate future advances in treatment of brain injury. PMID:24789753

Feng, Xingmei; Lu, Xiaohui; Huang, Dan; Xing, Jing; Feng, Guijuan; Jin, Guohua; Yi, Xin; Li, Liren; Lu, Yuanzhou; Nie, Dekang; Chen, Xiang; Zhang, Lei; Gu, Zhifeng; Zhang, Xinhua

2014-08-01

100

The Use of Porous Scaffold as a Tumor Model  

PubMed Central

Background. Human cancer is a three-dimensional (3D) structure consisting of neighboring cells, extracellular matrix, and blood vessels. It is therefore critical to mimic the cancer cells and their surrounding environment during in vitro study. Our aim was to establish a 3D cancer model using a synthetic composite scaffold. Methods. High-density low-volume seeding was used to promote attachment of a non-small-cell lung cancer cell line (NCI-H460) to scaffolds. Growth patterns in 3D culture were compared with those of monolayers. Immunohistochemistry was conducted to compare the expression of Ki67, CD44, and carbonic anhydrase IX. Results. NCI-H460 readily attached to the scaffold without surface pretreatment at a rate of 35% from a load of 1.5 × 106 cells. Most cells grew vertically to form clumps along the surface of the scaffold, and cell morphology resembled tissue origin; 2D cultures exhibited characteristics of adherent epithelial cancer cell lines. Expression patterns of Ki67, CD44, and CA IX varied markedly between 3D and monolayer cultures. Conclusions. The behavior of cancer cells in our 3D model is similar to tumor growth in vivo. This model will provide the basis for future study using 3D cancer culture.

Zhang, Mei; Boughton, Philip; Rose, Barbara; Lee, C. Soon; Hong, Angela M.

2013-01-01

101

Label-free Raman monitoring of extracellular matrix formation in three-dimensional polymeric scaffolds.  

PubMed

Monitoring extracellular matrix (ECM) components is one of the key methods used to determine tissue quality in three-dimensional scaffolds for regenerative medicine and clinical purposes. Raman spectroscopy can be used for non-invasive sensing of cellular and ECM biochemistry. We have investigated the use of conventional (confocal and semiconfocal) Raman microspectroscopy and fibre-optic Raman spectroscopy for in vitro monitoring of ECM formation in three-dimensional poly(ethylene oxide terephthalate)-poly(butylene terephthalate) (PEOT/PBT) scaffolds. Chondrocyte-seeded PEOT/PBT scaffolds were analysed for ECM formation by Raman microspectroscopy, biochemical analysis, histology and scanning electron microscopy. ECM deposition in these scaffolds was successfully detected by biochemical and histological analysis and by label-free non-destructive Raman microspectroscopy. In the spectra collected by the conventional Raman set-ups, the Raman bands at 937 and at 1062 cm(-1) which, respectively, correspond to collagen and sulfated glycosaminoglycans could be used as Raman markers for ECM formation in scaffolds. Collagen synthesis was found to be different in single chondrocyte-seeded scaffolds when compared with microaggregate-seeded samples. Normalized band-area ratios for collagen content of single cell-seeded samples gradually decreased during a 21-day culture period, whereas collagen content of the microaggregate-seeded samples significantly increased during this period. Moreover, a fibre-optic Raman set-up allowed for the collection of Raman spectra from multiple pores inside scaffolds in parallel. These fibre-optic measurements could give a representative average of the ECM Raman signal present in tissue-engineered constructs. Results in this study provide proof-of-principle that Raman microspectroscopy is a promising non-invasive tool to monitor ECM production and remodelling in three-dimensional porous cartilage tissue-engineered constructs. PMID:23825118

Kunstar, Aliz; Leferink, Anne M; Okagbare, Paul I; Morris, Michael D; Roessler, Blake J; Otto, Cees; Karperien, Marcel; van Blitterswijk, Clemens A; Moroni, Lorenzo; van Apeldoorn, Aart A

2013-09-01

102

Synthesis, microstructure and mechanical properties of porous Mg--Zn scaffolds.  

PubMed

Magnesium alloys have been intensively studied as biodegradable implant materials, as their mechanical properties render them promising candidates for bone tissue engineering applications. In the present work, porous Mg-4wt% Zn and Mg-6wt% Zn scaffolds were prepared using a powder metallurgy process. The effects of the porosity and Zn content on the microstructure and the mechanical properties of the fabricated scaffolds were studied. The above mentioned fabrication process involved sequential stages of mixing and compression of Mg and Zn powders with carbamide materials as space-holder particles followed by sintering the green compacts at different temperatures below the melting point of Mg. The results indicate that the porous Mg--Zn specimens with a porosity and pore size of approximately 21-36% and 150-400 ?m, respectively, could have enhanced mechanical properties comparable with those of cancellous bone. In addition, an increase in the amount of Zn in the applied alloy gives rise to a significant refinement of magnesium grain size and an improvement in the mechanical properties, such as the compression strength, of the porous Mg--Zn specimens. Furthermore, according to the results, the porous Mg--Zn alloy could be considered one of the most promising scaffold materials for hard tissue regeneration. PMID:23454363

Seyedraoufi, Z S; Mirdamadi, Sh

2013-05-01

103

Microstructure and mechanical properties of bacterial cellulose\\/chitosan porous scaffold  

Microsoft Academic Search

A family of polysaccharide based scaffold materials, bacterial cellulose\\/chitosan (BC\\/CTS) porous scaffolds with various weight\\u000a ratios (from 20\\/80 to 60\\/40 w\\/w%) were prepared by freezing (?30 and ?80 °C) and lyophilization of a mixture of microfibrillated\\u000a BC suspension and chitosan solution. The microfibrillated BC (MFC) was subjected to 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpyperidine-1-oxyl radical\\u000a (TEMPO)-mediated oxidation to introduce surface carboxyl groups before mixing. The integration of

Thi Thi Nge; Masaya Nogi; Hiroyuki Yano; Junji Sugiyama

2010-01-01

104

Porous Hydroxyapatite Bioceramic Scaffolds for Drug Delivery and Bone Regeneration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The conventional methods of supplying a patient with pharmacologic active substances suffer from being very poorly selective, so that damage can occurs to the healthy tissues and organs, different from the intended target. In addition, high drug doses can be required to achieve the desired effect. An alternative approach is based on the use of implantable delivery tools, able to release the active substance in a controlled way. In the current research local drug delivery devices containing 8mg of gentamicin sulphate were prepared using custom developed vacuum impregnation technique. In vitro dissolution tests showed that gentamicin release was sustained for 12h. In order to decrease gentamicin release rate, biopolymer coatings were applied and coating structure investigated. The results showed that gentamicin release can be sustained for more than 70h for poly(epsilon-caprolactone) coated calcium phosphate scaffolds. From poly lactic acid and polyvinyl alcohol coated scaffolds gentamicin was released within 20h and 50h, respectively.

Loca, Dagnija; Locs, Janis; Salma, Kristine; Gulbis, Juris; Salma, Ilze; Berzina-Cimdina, Liga

2011-10-01

105

Effects of surfactants on the microstructure of porous ceramic scaffolds fabricated by foaming for bone tissue engineering  

SciTech Connect

A porous scaffold comprising a {beta}-tricalcium phosphate matrix and bioactive glass powders was fabricated by foaming method and the effects of surfactants as foaming agent on microstructure of scaffolds were investigated. Foaming capacity and foam stability of different surfactants in water firstly were carried out to evaluate their foam properties. The porous structure and pore size distribution of the scaffolds were systematically characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and an optical microscopy connected to an image analyzer. The results showed that the foam stability of surfactant has more remarkable influence on their microstructure such as pore shape, size and interconnectivity than the foaming ability of one. Porous scaffolds fabricated using nonionic surfactant Tween 80 with large foam stability exhibited higher open and total porosities, and fully interconnected porous structure with a pore size of 750-850 {mu}m.

Wang Xi, E-mail: nano-sun@hotmail.com [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, Lushan Road South, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Ruan Jianming [State Key Laboratory for Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Chen Qiyuan [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, Lushan Road South, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China)

2009-06-03

106

Nanoscalar modifications to polymeric tissue engineering scaffolds: Effect on cellular behavior  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polymeric scaffolds provide a surface that can facilitate cell growth and tissue morphogenesis. Of particular interest is the role of nanoscalar features on cell behavior. Nanoscale topographies can be generated on two-dimensional polymeric substrates via reactive ion etching. The magnitude and morphology of the resultant surfaces can be tailored by varying the gas media, etching time and power used. Nanofibrillar surfaces were produced on polyethylene terephthalate films via oxygen-plasma etching. These nanofibrils were dimensionally similar to collagen fibers. Cells cultured on nanofibrillar surfaces were shown to have a disrupted cytoskeleton, lower levels of cell-substrate signaling, reduced strength of adhesion and an inhibition of lipid droplet coalescence. The results suggest that cells can detect nanoscalar surface topographies and alter their function in response to these environmental stimuli. While nanofibrillar surfaces can be considered pseudo-three dimensional, they cannot produce 3-D cell structures. Thus truly three dimensional scaffolds must be fabricated to determine the role of nanoscalar fibers on cell organization and function. Electrospinning was employed to generate 3-D meshes of polycaprolactone, a common biodegradable polymer. These nonwoven meshes were comprised of 500 nm fibers with an average pore size of 5 mum. In addition to forming mats of nonwoven fibers, electrospinning technology can also produce tubular scaffolds. These tubular scaffolds were seeded with human vascular smooth muscle cells and cultured for two days. After 2 days in culture, cells assumed a helical orientation around the lumen of the tube, an architecture which closely mimics natural blood vessels. Thus electrospun scaffolds facilitate the growth and organization of cell populations in a manner which imitates the natural tissue.

Powell, Heather M.

107

Collagen release kinetics of surface functionalized 45S5 Bioglass-based porous scaffolds.  

PubMed

A highly interconnected porous scaffold made from 45S5 Bioglass was fabricated by the polymer replica technique and surface functionalized for protein immobilization. Subsequently rat-tail collagen type I was immobilized on the scaffolds. The protein and ion release rates were determined by UV-vis spectroscopy and ion chromatography, respectively, and the impact on hydroxyapatite (HA) formation on the scaffolds upon immersion in SBF was evaluated. It was discovered that the surface functionalization enhanced the stability of the collagen attachment and stability against the increment of pH in a biological environment, resulting in similar collagen release kinetics in solutions of different pH values. Without the surface modification, collagen release was considerably expedited by the increment of pH in a surrounding solution. It was also found that the collagen immobilization does not effect the formation of carbonated HA on the scaffold surface. The stable collagen attachment to the functionalized scaffold makes this approach potentially suitable for improving cell attachment and thus for enhancing the application potential of the scaffold in tissue engineering. PMID:18067165

Chen, Q Z; Ahmed, I; Knowles, J C; Nazhat, S N; Boccaccini, A R; Rezwan, K

2008-09-15

108

Fabrication of porous ultra-short single-walled carbon nanotube nanocomposite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the fabrication of highly porous scaffolds made of three different materials [poly(propylene fumarate) (PPF) polymer, an ultra-short single-walled carbon nanotube (US-tube) nanocomposite, and a dodecylated US-tube (F-US-tube) nanocomposite] in order to evaluate the effects of material composition and porosity on scaffold pore structure, mechanical properties, and marrow stromal cell culture. All scaffolds were produced by a thermal-crosslinking particulate-leaching

Xinfeng Shi; Balaji Sitharaman; Quynh P. Pham; Feng Liang; Katherine Wu; W. Edward Billups; Lon J. Wilson; Antonios G. Mikos

2007-01-01

109

Tantalum coating on porous Ti6Al4V scaffold using chemical vapor deposition and preliminary biological evaluation.  

PubMed

Porous tantalum (Ta), produced via chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of commercially pure Ta onto a vitreous carbon, is currently available for use in orthopedic applications. However, the relatively high manufacturing cost and the incapability to produce customized implant using medical image data have limited its application to gain widespread acceptance. In this study, Ta film was deposited on porous Ti6Al4V scaffolds using CVD technique. Digital microscopy and scanning electron microscopy indicated that the Ta coating evenly covered the entire scaffold structure. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the coating consisted of ? and ? phases of Ta. Goat mesenchymal stem cells were seeded and cultured on the Ti6Al4V scaffolds with and without coating. The tetrazolium-based colorimetric assay exhibited better cell adhesion and proliferation on Ta-coated scaffolds compared with uncoated scaffolds. The porous scaffolds were subsequently implanted in goats for 12weeks. Histological analysis revealed similar bone formation around the periphery of the coated and uncoated implants, but bone ingrowth is better within the Ta-coated scaffolds. To demonstrate the ability of producing custom implant for clinical applications via this technology, we designed and fabricated a porous Ti6Al4V scaffold with segmental mandibular shape derived from patient computerized tomography data. PMID:23623123

Li, Xiang; Wang, Lin; Yu, Xiaoming; Feng, Yafei; Wang, Chengtao; Yang, Ke; Su, Daniel

2013-07-01

110

Healing of critical-size segmental defects in rat femora using strong porous bioactive glass scaffolds.  

PubMed

The repair of structural bone defects such as segmental defects in the long bones of the limbs is a challenging clinical problem. In this study, the capacity of silicate (13-93) and borate (13-93B3) bioactive glass scaffolds (porosity=47-50%) to heal critical-size segmental defects in rat femurs was evaluated and compared with autografts. Defects were implanted with 13-93 and 13-93B3 scaffolds with a grid-like microstructure (compressive strength=86MPa and 40MPa, respectively), 13-93B3 scaffolds with an oriented microstructure (compressive strength=32MPa) and autografts using intramedullary fixation. Twelve weeks post-implantation, the defects were harvested and evaluated using histomorphometric analysis. The percentage of new bone in the defects implanted with the three groups of glass scaffolds (25-28%) and the total von Kossa-positive area (32-38%) were not significantly different from the autografts (new bone=38%; von Kossa-positive area=40%) (p>0.05). New blood vessel area in the defects implanted with the glass scaffolds (4-8%) and the autografts (5%) showed no significant difference among the four groups. New cartilage formed in the 13-93 grid-like scaffolds (18%) was significantly higher than in 13-93B3 grid-like scaffolds (8%) and in the autografts (8%) (p=0.02). The results indicate that these strong porous bioactive glass scaffolds are promising synthetic implants for structural bone repair. PMID:25063184

Bi, Lianxiang; Zobell, Brett; Liu, Xin; Rahaman, Mohamed N; Bonewald, Lynda F

2014-09-01

111

Direct Ink Writing of Highly Porous and Strong Glass Scaffolds for Load-bearing Bone Defects Repair and Regeneration  

PubMed Central

The quest for synthetic materials to repair load-bearing bone lost because of trauma, cancer, or congenital bone defects requires development of porous and high-performance scaffolds with exceptional mechanical strength. However, the low mechanical strength of porous bioactive ceramic and glass scaffolds, compared with that of human cortical bone, has limited their use for these applications. In the present work, bioactive 6P53B glass scaffolds with superior mechanical strength were fabricated using a direct ink writing technique. The rheological properties of Pluronic® F-127 (referred to hereafter simply as F-127) hydrogel-based inkswere optimized for the printing of features as fine as 30 ?m and of the three-dimensional scaffolds. The mechanical strength and in vitro degradation of the scaffolds were assessed in a simulated body fluid (SBF). The sintered glass scaffolds show a compressive strength (136 ± 22 MPa) comparable to that of human cortical bone (100-150 MPa), while the porosity (60%) is in the range of that of trabecular bone (50-90%).The strength is ~100 times that of polymer scaffolds and 4–5 times that of ceramic and glass scaffolds with comparable porosities. Despite the strength decrease resulting from weight loss during immersion in an SBF, the value (77 MPa) is still far above that of trabecular bone after three weeks. The ability to create both porous and strong structures opens a new avenue for fabricating scaffolds for load-bearing bone defect repair and regeneration.

Fu, Qiang; Saiz, Eduardo; Tomsia, Antoni P.

2011-01-01

112

Preparation, characterization and cytocompatibility of bioactive coatings on porous calcium-silicate-hydrate scaffolds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major goal of this research was to investigate and characterize the deposition of a biomimetic apatite-like coating onto the surface of 3D porous calcium-silicate-hydrate scaffolds with suitable bioactivity for potential application in bone tissue engineering. Basically, Portland cement, water, sand and lime were mixed for preparing the slurry which was poured into molds, and fine aluminum powder was added

Alexandra A. P. Mansur; Herman S. Mansur

2010-01-01

113

Fabrication and characterization of interconnected porous biodegradable poly(?-caprolactone) load bearing scaffolds  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, poly(?-caprolactone) (PCL)\\/poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) (50:50 wt%) immiscible blend was used as a model system\\u000a to investigate the feasibility of a novel solventless fabrication approach that combines cryomilling, compression molding\\u000a and porogen leaching techniques to prepare interconnected porous scaffolds for tissue engineering. PCL was cryomilled with\\u000a PEO to form blend powders. Compression molding was used to consolidate and anneal

Rula M. Allaf; Iris V. Rivero

2011-01-01

114

Stress–strain analysis of porous scaffolds made from titanium alloys synthesized via SLS method  

Microsoft Academic Search

A layer-by-layer selective laser sintering (SLS) technology seems to be greatly promising for solving the plastic surgery problems, particularly those pertaining to the facial reconstruction. Made from titanium-based alloys (titanium or nitinol, i.e. NiTi-intermetallic phase), the porous scaffolds for cranioplasty are an efficient tool for rectifying the face defects and for the dental orthopedic surgery. The progress in the oral

I. Shishkovsky

2009-01-01

115

Porous Silk Scaffolds for Delivery of Growth Factors and Stem Cells to Enhance Bone Regeneration  

PubMed Central

Stem cell-based tissue engineering shows promise for bone regeneration and requires artificial microenvironments to enhance the survival, proliferation and differentiation of the seeded cells. Silk fibroin, as a natural protein polymer, has unique properties for tissue regeneration. The present study aimed to evaluate the influence of porous silk scaffolds on rat bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs) by lenti-GFP tracking both in vitro and in vivo in cranial bone defects. The number of cells seeded within silk scaffolds in rat cranial bone defects increased from 2 days to 2 weeks after implantation, followed by a decrease at eight weeks. Importantly, the implanted cells survived for 8 weeks in vivo and some of the cells might differentiate into endothelial cells and osteoblasts induced by the presence of VEGF and BMP-2 in the scaffolds to promote angiogenesis and osteogenesis. The results demonstrate that porous silk scaffolds provide a suitable niche to maintain long survival and function of the implanted cells for bone regeneration.

Xu, Ling; Zhang, Xiaochen; Wu, Qianju; Zhang, Xiuli; Kaplan, David L.; Jiang, Xinquan

2014-01-01

116

New paradigms in internal architecture design and freeform fabrication of tissue engineering porous scaffolds.  

PubMed

Advanced additive manufacture (AM) techniques are now being developed to fabricate scaffolds with controlled internal pore architectures in the field of tissue engineering. In general, these techniques use a hybrid method which combines computer-aided design (CAD) with computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) tools to design and fabricate complicated three-dimensional (3D) scaffold models. The mathematical descriptions of micro-architectures along with the macro-structures of the 3D scaffold models are limited by current CAD technologies as well as by the difficulty of transferring the designed digital models to standard formats for fabrication. To overcome these difficulties, we have developed an efficient internal pore architecture design system based on triply periodic minimal surface (TPMS) unit cell libraries and associated computational methods to assemble TPMS unit cells into an entire scaffold model. In addition, we have developed a process planning technique based on TPMS internal architecture pattern of unit cells to generate tool paths for freeform fabrication of tissue engineering porous scaffolds. PMID:22721938

Yoo, Dongjin

2012-07-01

117

Design of resorbable porous tubular copolyester scaffolds for use in nerve regeneration.  

PubMed

Copolymers of L,L-lactide (LLA), epsilon-caprolactone (CL), trimethylene carbonate (TMC), or 1,5-dioxepane-2-one (DXO) were used to design porous tubular scaffolds with various mechanical properties, porosities, and numbers of layers in the tube wall. The mechanical properties of the tubular scaffold types showed good suitability for nerve regeneration and other nonload-bearing tissue engineering applications and were easy to handle without damaging the porous structure. A low stannous 2-ethylhexanoate-to-monomer ratio of 1:10000 did not change the tensile properties of the copolymer tubes significantly compared to those of scaffolds made using a Sn(Oct)(2)-to-monomer ratio of 1:600. The adaptability of the immersion coating and porogen leaching technique was demonstrated by creating tubes with different designs. Tubes with different wall layers were created by varying the immersion solutions, and the ease of altering the porosity, pore shape, and pore size was exemplified by using sodium chloride alone or mixed with poly(ethylene glycol) as porogen. PMID:19331401

Plikk, Peter; Målberg, Sofia; Albertsson, Ann-Christine

2009-05-11

118

Porous Scaffolds Support Extrahepatic Human Islet Transplantation, Engraftment and Function in Mice  

PubMed Central

Islet transplantation as a therapy or cure for type 1 diabetes has significant promise but has been limited by islet mass requirements and long-term graft failure. The intrahepatic and intravascular site may be responsible for significant loss of transplanted islets. Nonencapsulating biomaterial scaffolds provide a strategy for architecturally defining and modulating extrahepatic sites beyond the endogenous milieu to enhance islet survival and function. We utilized scaffolds to transplant human islets into the intraperitoneal fat of immunodeficient mice. A smaller human islet mass than previously reported reversed murine diabetes and restored glycemic control at human blood glucose levels. Graft function was highly dependent on the islet number transplanted and directly correlated to islet viability, as determined by the ATP-to-DNA ratio. Islets engrafted and revascularized in host tissue, and glucose tolerance testing indicated performance equivalent to healthy mice. Addition of extracellular matrix, specifically collagen IV, to scaffold surfaces improved graft function compared to serum-supplemented media. Porous scaffolds can facilitate efficient human islet transplantation and provide a platform for modulating the islet microenvironment, in ways not possible with current clinical strategies, to enhance islet engraftment and function.

Gibly, Romie F.; Zhang, Xiaomin; Lowe, William L.; Shea, Lonnie D.

2013-01-01

119

Modeling Vascularized Bone Regeneration Within a Porous Biodegradable CaP Scaffold Loaded with Growth Factors  

PubMed Central

Osteogenetic microenvironment is a complex constitution in which extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules, stem cells and growth factors each interact to direct the coordinate regulation of bone tissue development. Importantly, angiogenesis improvement and revascularization are critical for osteogenesis during bone tissue regeneration processes. In this study, we developed a three-dimensional (3D) multi-scale system model to study cell response to growth factors released from a 3D biodegradable porous calcium phosphate (CaP) scaffold. Our model reconstructed the 3D bone regeneration system and examined the effects of pore size and porosity on bone formation and angiogenesis. The results suggested that scaffold porosity played a more dominant role in affecting bone formation and angiogenesis compared with pore size, while the pore size could be controlled to tailor the growth factor release rate and release fraction. Furthermore, a combination of gradient VEGF with BMP2 and Wnt released from the multi-layer scaffold promoted angiogenesis and bone formation more readily than single growth factors. These results demonstrated that the developed model can be potentially applied to predict vascularized bone regeneration with specific scaffold and growth factors.

Sun, X; Kang, Y; Bao, J; Zhang, Y; Yang, Y; Zhou, X

2013-01-01

120

Controlled Preparation of Porous Scaffolds by Gas Foaming of Heterogeneous Blends  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Blending two different immiscible polymers is one of the most efficient strategies to prepare materials with improved performances. Recently, this multi-phase systems have been used in tissue engineering aiming at the preparation of porous scaffolds for cell culture. In this study, thermoplastic biodegradable and biocompatible multi-phase blends with co-continuous micro-structures have been prepared by melt mixing poly(?-caprolactone) (PCL) with thermoplastic gelatin (TG), a thermoplastic material prepared by mixing gelatin with glycerol. The blend have been prepared by selecting the composition into the 60/40 to 40/60 wt-% PCL-TG range. Dynamic mechanical analysis was performed in order to asses the achievement of an heterogeneous micro-structure while, gravimetric measurements and scanning electron micrograph analysis, performed after the selective extraction of the different phases, were used to evaluate the co-continuity of the different systems prepared. Finally, the PCL/TG blends have been further processed by the gas foaming technique, in order to create porous materials with well controlled open-pore microarchitectures, suitable as 3D porous scaffolds for tissue engineering applications.

Salerno, A.; Oliviero, M.; di Maio, E.; Iannace, S.; Netti, P.

2008-08-01

121

Porous Shape Memory Polymers  

PubMed Central

Porous shape memory polymers (SMPs) include foams, scaffolds, meshes, and other polymeric substrates that possess porous three-dimensional macrostructures. Porous SMPs exhibit active structural and volumetric transformations and have driven investigations in fields ranging from biomedical engineering to aerospace engineering to the clothing industry. The present review article examines recent developments in porous SMPs, with focus given to structural and chemical classification, methods of characterization, and applications. We conclude that the current body of literature presents porous SMPs as highly interesting smart materials with potential for industrial use.

Hearon, Keith; Singhal, Pooja; Horn, John; Small, Ward; Olsovsky, Cory; Maitland, Kristen C.; Wilson, Thomas S.; Maitland, Duncan J.

2013-01-01

122

A viscoelastic chitosan-modified three-dimensional porous poly(L-lactide-co-?-caprolactone) scaffold for cartilage tissue engineering.  

PubMed

Biomaterials have been playing important roles in cartilage regeneration. Although many scaffolds have been reported to enhance cartilage regeneration, none of the scaffolds available are optimal regarding mechanical properties, integration with host cartilage and providing proper micro-environment for chondrocyte attachment, proliferation and differentiation. In the current study, chitosan-modified poly(L-lactide-co-?-caprolactone) (PLCL) scaffolds were fabricated to simulate the main biochemical components of cartilage, as well as their interaction with the aim to endow them with viscoelasticity similar to native cartilage. Porous PLCL scaffolds were fabricated with porogen-leaching, freeze-extraction and freeze-gelation before chitosan was cross-linked. The acquired porous scaffolds had pore sizes ranging from 200 to 500 ?m and about 85% porosity with good interconnection between individual pores. Chitosan was successfully cross-linked to PLCL scaffolds, as validated by ninhydrin staining and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The viscoelasticity of the scaffolds was similar to that of bovine cartilage and they had a relatively good recovery ratio from compression deformation, while the Young's modulus was one order of magnitude less than cartilage. Not only could the chitosan-modified PLCL scaffolds promote cell adhesion and proliferation, but also they could significantly enhance excretion of aggrecan and type-II collagen, as testified by both histology and quantitative PCR, compared with PLCL scaffolds. With the fabrication of biomimetic scaffolds, it is possible to make scaffolds for cartilage tissue engineering, which are not only biocompatible, but also have mechanical properties similar to native cartilage. PMID:21310105

Li, Chao; Wang, Lili; Yang, Zheng; Kim, Gonhyung; Chen, Haifeng; Ge, Zigang

2012-01-01

123

Evaluation of porous poly(lactide- co-glycolide) scaffold surface-modified by irradiation of nitrogen ion beams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increase in cellular interaction of poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) is very important in tissue engineering, in where initial cell adhesion and subsequent proliferation on a scaffold surface determine the fate of, especially, tissue engineering vascular grafts. Surface modification of a porous PLGA scaffold was performed for induction of higher cell adhesion by irradiating nitrogen ion beams with either 1 or 10 keV. Both

Y. J. Choi; M. S. Kim; H. K. Kang; H. S. Park; I. Noh; K. D. Park

2008-01-01

124

Facile fabrication of hierarchical porous resins via high internal phase emulsion and polymeric porogen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To achieve the dual features of fast oil absorption rate and high oil absorbency for the practical application in emergency treatment of spilled chemical pollutants, hierarchical porous resins were synthesized. The polymerization of high internal phase emulsion was applied to fabricate the porous structure for the purpose of high oil absorbency. Polymeric porogens were proposed to adjust the second-order or interconnected pore structure for fast oil absorption rate. SEM revealed the hierarchical porous structure. Molecular weight and dose of polymeric porogen were investigated for the effect on the formation of porous structure and absorption features. Optimized resins have 31.5 g/g or 17.1 g/g absorbency for chloroform and toluene, respectively, and only 5 min is needed to reach their saturation absorption. Besides, the porous resins demonstrated high oil retention under pressure. The absorption/desorption cycling results revealed the high repeatability of recovered resins. All these tests predicted the potential applications of porous resins of this kind particularly in the emergency treatment of oil and chemical pollution.

Ma, Libin; Luo, Xiaogang; Cai, Ning; Xue, Yanan; Zhu, San; Fu, Zhen; Yu, Faquan

2014-06-01

125

Highly aligned porous Ti scaffold coated with bone morphogenetic protein-loaded silica/chitosan hybrid for enhanced bone regeneration.  

PubMed

Porous Ti has been widely investigated for orthopedic and dental applications on account of their ability to promote implant fixation via bone ingrowth into pores. In this study, highly aligned porous Ti scaffolds coated with a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-loaded silica/chitosan hybrid were produced, and their bone regeneration ability was evaluated by in vivo animal experiments. Reverse freeze casting allowed for the creation of highly aligned pores, resulting in a high compressive strength of 254 ± 21 MPa of the scaffolds at a porosity level of ?51 vol %. In addition, a BMP-loaded silica/chitosan hybrid coating layer with a thickness of ?1 ?m was uniformly deposited on the porous Ti scaffold, which enabled the sustained release of the BMP over a prolonged period of time up to 26 days. The cumulative amount of the BMP released was ?4 ?g, which was much higher than that released from the specimen without a hybrid coating layer. In addition, the bone regeneration ability of the porous Ti scaffold with a BMP-loaded silica/chitosan coating layer was examined by in vivo animal testing using a rabbit calvarial defect model and compared with those of the as-produced porous Ti scaffold and porous Ti scaffold with a silica/chitosan coating layer. After 4 weeks of healing, the specimen coated with a BMP-loaded silica/chitosan hybrid showed a much higher bone regeneration volume (?36%) than the as-produced specimen (?15%) (p < 0.005) and even the specimen coated with a silica/chitosan hybrid (?25%) (p < 0.05). © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 102B: 913-921, 2014. PMID:24259198

Jung, Hyun-Do; Yook, Se-Won; Han, Cheol-Min; Jang, Tae-Sik; Kim, Hyoun-Ee; Koh, Young-Hag; Estrin, Yuri

2014-07-01

126

Experimental and computational characterization of designed and fabricated 50:50 PLGA porous scaffolds for human trabecular bone applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study utilizes image-based computational methods and indirect solid freeform fabrication (SFF) technique to design\\u000a and fabricate porous scaffolds, and then computationally estimates their elastic modulus and yield stress with experimental\\u000a validation. 50:50 Poly (lactide-co-glycolide acid) (50:50 PLGA) porous scaffolds were designed using an image-based design technique, fabricated using indirect\\u000a SFF technique, and characterized using micro-computed tomography (?-CT) and

Eiji Saito; Heesuk Kang; Juan M. Taboas; Alisha Diggs; Colleen L. Flanagan; Scott J. Hollister

2010-01-01

127

Stress-strain analysis of porous scaffolds made from titanium alloys synthesized via SLS method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A layer-by-layer selective laser sintering (SLS) technology seems to be greatly promising for solving the plastic surgery problems, particularly those pertaining to the facial reconstruction. Made from titanium-based alloys (titanium or nitinol, i.e. NiTi-intermetallic phase), the porous scaffolds for cranioplasty are an efficient tool for rectifying the face defects and for the dental orthopedic surgery. The progress in the oral surgery and teeth implantation is caused by the problem of an osteointegration on the one hand, and by achievements of the implant synthesis techniques, on the other hand. An important problem thereby is a profound study of the stress-strain behavior of porous implants under the masticatory load or pressure. In the present study the ways for the optimization of the porous implant structural and strength properties as the function of the laser synthesis parameters are described. The finite element approach (ANSYS) was used here for a complex dowel description and numerical simulations. In order to evaluate the processes in the porous implant under the external loading, a CAD 3D model was built for different internal and external configurations of the implant and/or initial shape of powdered particles. The stress-strain dependences were calculated that displayed the irregularity of the stress distribution by the implant volume in the bone tissue. Most of the values are concentrated in places of object contact.

Shishkovsky, I.

2009-09-01

128

Subcritical CO2 sintering of microspheres of different polymeric materials to fabricate scaffolds for tissue engineering.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to use CO2 at sub-critical pressures as a tool to sinter 3D, macroporous, microsphere-based scaffolds for bone and cartilage tissue engineering. Porous scaffolds composed of ~200 ?m microspheres of either poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) or polycaprolactone (PCL) were prepared using dense phase CO2 sintering, which were seeded with rat bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (rBMSCs), and exposed to either osteogenic (PLGA, PCL) or chondrogenic (PLGA) conditions for 6 weeks. Under osteogenic conditions, the PLGA constructs produced over an order of magnitude more calcium than the PCL constructs, whereas the PCL constructs had far superior mechanical and structural integrity (125 times stiffer than PLGA constructs) at week 6, along with twice the cell content of the PLGA constructs. Chondrogenic cell performance was limited in PLGA constructs, perhaps as a result of the polymer degradation rate being too high. The current study represents the first long-term culture of CO2-sintered microsphere-based scaffolds, and has established important thermodynamic differences in sintering between the selected formulations of PLGA and PCL, with the former requiring adjustment of pressure only, and the latter requiring the adjustment of both pressure and temperature. Based on more straightforward sintering conditions and more favorable cell performance, PLGA may be the material of choice for microspheres in a CO2 sintering application, although a different PLGA formulation with the encapsulation of growth factors, extracellular matrix-derived nanoparticles, and/or buffers in the microspheres may be advantageous for achieving a more superior cell performance than observed here. PMID:24094202

Bhamidipati, Manjari; Sridharan, BanuPriya; Scurto, Aaron M; Detamore, Michael S

2013-12-01

129

Reverse freeze casting: a new method for fabricating highly porous titanium scaffolds with aligned large pores.  

PubMed

Highly porous titanium with aligned large pores up to 500 ?m in size, which is suitable for scaffold applications, was successfully fabricated using the reverse freeze casting method. In this process we have newly developed, the Ti powders migrated spontaneously along the pre-aligned camphene boundaries at a temperature of 45.5°C and formed a titanium-camphene mixture with an aligned structure; this was followed by freeze drying and sintering. As the casting time increased from 24 to 48 h, the initial columnar structures turned into lamellar structures, with the porosity decreasing from 69 to 51%. This reduction in porosity caused the compressive yield strength to increase from 121 to 302 MPa, with an elastic modulus of the samples being in the range of 2-5 GPa. In addition, it was demonstrated that reverse freeze casting can also be successfully applied to various other raw powders, suggesting that the method developed in this work opens up new avenues for the production of a range of porous metallic and ceramic scaffolds with highly aligned pores. PMID:22421310

Yook, Se-Won; Jung, Hyun-Do; Park, Chang-Hoon; Shin, Kwan-Ha; Koh, Young-Hag; Estrin, Yuri; Kim, Hyoun-Ee

2012-07-01

130

Promoted dermis healing from full-thickness skin defect by porous silk fibroin scaffolds (PSFSs).  

PubMed

Studies on skin substitutes and dermal scaffolds have been extensively carried out in the past several decades and some commercial products derived from collagen and polymers have been in marketing. Yet little research on silk fibroin based dermal scaffolds and products has been reported so far. In the present study, therefore, porous silk fibroin scaffolds (PSFSs) have been prepared by freeze drying method. The effects of PSFSs on skin recovery from full thickness defect have been examined by histological evaluation with respect to neovascularization, dermal regeneration and infiltration of inflammatory cells. In addition, tissue compatibility between PSFSs and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) sponges (as control) has been semiquantitatively compared by scoring method. The results showed that at day 18 after implantation, new tissues formed in PSFSs whose structure was almost equal to normal skin structure where proportional distribution of functional blood vessels could be found. Furthermore, infiltration of inflammatory cells in PSFSs disappeared within 7 days. By contrast, a variety of interstices, fibrous encapsulization and moderate infiltration of inflammatory cells could be found in PVA sponges at day 18 after implantation. In summary, PSFSs has significantly promoted the skin recovery from full thickness defect, showing fibroin's outstanding tissue compatibility. PMID:21084741

Guan, Guoping; Bai, Lun; Zuo, Baoqi; Li, Mingzhong; Wu, Zhengyu; Li, Yonglin; Wang, Lu

2010-01-01

131

Biodegradable and bioactive porous scaffold structures prepared using fused deposition modeling.  

PubMed

Three-dimensional printing (3DP) refers to a group of additive manufacturing techniques that can be utilized in tissue engineering applications. Fused deposition modeling (FDM) is a 3DP method capable of using common thermoplastic polymers. However, the scope of materials applicable for FDM has not been fully recognized. The purpose of this study was to examine the creation of biodegradable porous scaffold structures using different materials in FDM and to determine the compressive properties and the fibroblast cell response of the structures. To the best of our knowledge, the printability of a poly(?-caprolactone)/bioactive glass (PCL/BAG) composite and L-lactide/?-caprolactone 75/25 mol % copolymer (PLC) was demonstrated for the first time. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images showed BAG particles at the surface of the printed PCL/BAG scaffolds. Compressive testing showed the possibility of altering the compressive stiffness of a scaffold without changing the compressive modulus. Compressive properties were significantly dependent on porosity level and structural geometry. Fibroblast proliferation was significantly higher in polylactide than in PCL or PCL/BAG composite. Optical microscope images and SEM images showed the viability of the cells, which demonstrated the biocompatibility of the structures. PMID:23281260

Korpela, Jyrki; Kokkari, Anne; Korhonen, Harri; Malin, Minna; Närhi, Timo; Seppälä, Jukka

2013-05-01

132

Finalizing the properties of porous scaffolds of aliphatic polyesters through radiation sterilization.  

PubMed

Porous scaffolds made of various L,L-lactide (LLA), 1,5-dioxepane-2-one (DXO) and epsilon-caprolactone (CL) copolymers were sterilized by EB- and gamma-irradiation. Differences in the comonomers, composition and the microstructure of the starting materials were used to influence the degradation mechanism and susceptibility towards irradiation and by this means to achieve sterilized scaffolds with predicted end-properties. The chemical changes and the formation of low-molecular-weight products were determined by SEC, 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), 13C NMR and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The degradation mechanism changed from random chain scission to cross-linking depending on the choice of monomers, the copolymer composition and the monomer sequences. Copolymerization of LLA with small amounts of CL or DXO increased the stability compared to that of the LLA homopolymer. Changing DXO to CL in a LLA copolymer also increased the stability. The type of radiation and the microstructure of the copolymer chains determined which of the monomer sequences were more prone to degrade. The most abundant low-molecular-weight product identified after sterilization was DXO monomer. Traces of LLA and CL monomers were also identified. Modification of the copolyester microstructure changed the degradation mechanism and the susceptibility towards irradiation. This allows the use of radiation sterilization to finalize the scaffold properties. PMID:16846641

Plikk, Peter; Odelius, Karin; Hakkarainen, Minna; Albertsson, A C

2006-11-01

133

Icariin delivery porous PHBV scaffolds for promoting osteoblast expansion in vitro.  

PubMed

How cells could proliferate quickly and maintain their biological activity by using appropriate scaffolds remains a big challenge for tissue engineering. By integrating icariin, a bioactive ingredient of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) Epimedii herba, with PHBV scaffolds, novel icariin delivery porous PHBV scaffolds (IDPPSs) were fabricated with a combination of the solvent casting and salt leaching techniques. IDPPSs displayed a high porosity, 88.80%, and appropriate mechanical properties which were required for 3-D cell culture. IDPPSs significantly promoted the proliferation of human osteoblast-like MG-63 cells and the pre-osteoblast MC3T3-E1 cells, while IDPPSs containing 0.1% icariin (wt.%) showed the highest effect compared with other samples. Although IDPPSs continuously released icariin to the solution in 28 days, cells attached to IDPPSs received an enhanced growth stimulation compared with which were not physically in contact with IDPPSs. Up-regulated transcription of growth factor genes and extracellular matrix genes, including BMP2, BMP6, BMP7 and BGN, was observed in IDPPS-cultured MG-63 cells, illustrating that enhanced cellular proliferation results from alteration of gene transcription. These results implied the potential commercial use of IDPPSs in tissue engineering. PMID:23706245

Xia, Leilei; Li, Yongsheng; Zhou, Zheng; Dai, Yao; Liu, Hongbo; Liu, Hairong

2013-08-01

134

Image analysis of the axonal ingrowth into poly(D,L-lactide) porous scaffolds in relation to the 3-D porous structure.  

PubMed

Porous polymer scaffolds are promising materials for neural tissue engineering because they offer valuable three-dimensional (3-D) supports for the in vitro and in vivo axonal growth and tissue expansion. At the time being, how the in vivo neuronal cell development depends on the scaffold 3-D architecture is unknown. Therefore, scanning electron micrographs of longitudinal sections of porous polylactide scaffolds and immunohistological sections of these scaffolds after implantation and neurofilament staining have been studied by image analysis. Pore orientation and axonal ingrowth have been investigated by spectral analysis on gray level SEM images. Binary image processing has been carried out and the binary images have been studied by spectral analysis in order to estimate the possible effect of the image noise on the real pattern. In addition to axonal orientation, density and length distribution of the regenerated axons into the polymer scaffold have been measured. Dependence of the axonal ingrowth on the 3D-polymer scaffold has been discussed on the basis of the collected data. PMID:12504525

Blacher, S; Maquet, V; Schils, F; Martin, D; Schoenen, J; Moonen, G; Jérôme, R; Pirard, J-P

2003-03-01

135

Surface modification of porous polymeric membranes by RF-plasma treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polymeric membranes can be modified by surface treatment with glow discharge created by non-polymerizable gases, with low power radio-frequency (rf) plasma. The purpose of this work is to study the influence of the exposure time, the supplied power and the nature of the gas on the permeability of the treated membranes. Asymmetric porous substrates of polysulfone (PSf) were used and

E. F. Castro Vidaurre; C. A. Achete; R. A. Simão; A. C. Habert

2001-01-01

136

Bone regeneration in strong porous bioactive glass (13-93) scaffolds with an oriented microstructure implanted in rat calvarial defects  

PubMed Central

There is a need for synthetic bone graft substitutes to repair large bone defects resulting from trauma, malignancy, and congenital diseases. Bioactive glass has attractive properties as a scaffold material but factors that influence its ability to regenerate bone in vivo are not well understood. In the present work, the ability of strong porous scaffolds of 13–93 bioactive glass with an oriented microstructure to regenerate bone was evaluated in vivo using a rat calvarial defect model. Scaffolds with an oriented microstructure of columnar pores (porosity = 50%; pore diameter = 50–150 µm) showed mostly osteoconductive bone regeneration, and new bone formation, normalized to the available pore area (volume) of the scaffolds, increased from 37% at 12 weeks to 55% at 24 weeks. Scaffolds of the same glass with a trabecular microstructure (porosity = 80%; pore width = 100–500 µm), used as the positive control, showed bone regeneration in the pores of 25% and 46% at 12 and 24 weeks, respectively. The brittle mechanical response of the as-fabricated scaffolds changed markedly to an elasto-plastic response in vivo at both implantation times. These results indicate that both groups of 13–93 bioactive glass scaffolds could potentially be used to repair large bone defects, but scaffolds with the oriented microstructure could also be considered for the repair of loaded bone.

Liu, Xin; Rahaman, Mohamed N.; Fu, Qiang

2012-01-01

137

Effects of processing parameters in thermally induced phase separation technique on porous architecture of scaffolds for bone tissue engineering.  

PubMed

Tissue engineering makes use of 3D scaffolds to sustain three-dimensional growth of cells and guide new tissue formation. To meet the multiple requirements for regeneration of biological tissues and organs, a wide range of scaffold fabrication techniques have been developed, aiming to produce porous constructs with the desired pore size range and pore morphology. Among different scaffold fabrication techniques, thermally induced phase separation (TIPS) method has been widely used in recent years because of its potential to produce highly porous scaffolds with interconnected pore morphology. The scaffold architecture can be closely controlled by adjusting the process parameters, including polymer type and concentration, solvent composition, quenching temperature and time, coarsening process, and incorporation of inorganic particles. The objective of this review is to provide information pertaining to the effect of these parameters on the architecture and properties of the scaffolds fabricated by the TIPS technique. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 102B: 1304-1315, 2014. PMID:24425207

Akbarzadeh, Rosa; Yousefi, Azizeh-Mitra

2014-08-01

138

Chondrogenic Differentiation of Adipose-Derived Adult Stem Cells by a Porous Scaffold Derived from Native Articular Cartilage Extracellular Matrix  

PubMed Central

Adipose-derived adult stem cells (ASCs) have the ability to differentiate into a chondrogenic phenotype in response to specific environmental signals such as growth factors or artificial biomaterial scaffolds. In this study, we examined the hypothesis that a porous scaffold derived exclusively from articular cartilage can induce chondrogenesis of ASCs. Human ASCs were seeded on porous scaffolds derived from adult porcine articular cartilage and cultured in standard medium without exogenous growth factors. Chondrogenesis of ASCs seeded within the scaffold was evident by quantitative RT-PCR analysis for cartilage-specific extracellular matrix (ECM) genes. Histological and immunohistochemical examination showed abundant production of cartilage-specific ECM components—particularly, type II collagen—after 4 or 6 weeks of culture. After 6 weeks of culture, the cellular morphology in the ASC-seeded constructs resembled those in native articular cartilage tissue, with rounded cells residing in the glycosaminoglycan-rich regions of the scaffolds. Biphasic mechanical testing showed that the aggregate modulus of the ASC-seeded constructs increased over time, reaching 150?kPa by day 42, more than threefold higher than that of the unseeded controls. These results suggest that a porous scaffold derived from articular cartilage has the ability to induce chondrogenic differentiation of ASCs without exogenous growth factors, with significant synthesis and accumulation of ECM macromolecules, and the development of mechanical properties approaching those of native cartilage. These findings support the potential for a processed cartilage ECM as a biomaterial scaffold for cartilage tissue engineering. Additional in vivo evaluation is necessary to fully recognize the clinical implication of these observations.

Cheng, Nai-Chen; Estes, Bradley T.; Awad, Hani A.

2009-01-01

139

[Preparation and degradation of poly(DL-lactide)/calcium phosphates porous scaffolds].  

PubMed

The porous foams were prepared by the solvent-casting and particulate-leaching technique using poly(DL-lactide) (PDLLA), poly(DL-lactide)/hydroxyapatite (PDLLA/20wt%HA), and poly(DL-lactide)/beta-tricalcium phosphate(PDLLA/20wt% beta-TCP) respectively. Observations by scanning electron microscopy indicated that the HA and beta-TCP were homogeneously dispersed in the polymer matrix, and the pores of the foams are interconnected, resulting in continuous pore structures. The porosity of PDLLA/HA and PDLLA/beta-TCP foams was lower than that of the pure PDLLA foams, but the compression strength was higher than that of the pure PDLLA foams. The results of the degradation in vitro showed that both HA and beta-TCP had significant inhibitory effects on the degradation of PDLLA, especially the HA. It is expected that the composite foams are of use as scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. PMID:15143533

Quan, Daping; Liao, Kairong; Luo, Binghong; Lu, Zejian

2004-04-01

140

The Study on Biocompatibility of Porous nHA/PLGA Composite Scaffolds for Tissue Engineering with Rabbit Chondrocytes In Vitro  

PubMed Central

Objective. To examine the biocompatibility of a novel nanohydroxyapatite/poly[lactic-co-glycolic acid] (nHA/PLGA) composite and evaluate its feasibility as a scaffold for cartilage tissue engineering. Methods. Chondrocytes of fetal rabbit were cultured with nHA/PLGA scaffold in vitro and the cell viability was assessed by MTT assay first. Cells adhering to nHA/PLGA scaffold were then observed by inverted microscope and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The cell cycle profile was analyzed by flow cytometry. Results. The viability of the chondrocytes on the scaffold was not affected by nHA/PLGA comparing with the control group as it was shown by MTT assay. Cells on the surface and in the pores of the scaffold increased in a time-dependent manner. Results obtained from flow cytometry showed that there was no significant difference in cell cycle profiles between the coculture group and control (P > 0.05). Conclusion. The porous nHA/PLGA composite scaffold is a biocompatible and good kind of scaffold for cartilage tissue engineering.

Chen, Lei; Zhu, Wei-Min; Fei, Zhi-Qiang; Chen, Jie-Lin; Xiong, Jian-Yi; Zhang, Ju-Feng; Duan, Li; Huang, Jianghong; Liu, Zhiyong; Wang, Daping; Zeng, Yanjun

2013-01-01

141

Evaluation of three-dimensional porous chitosan-alginate scaffolds in rat calvarial defects for bone regeneration applications.  

PubMed

This study investigated the use of three-dimensional porous chitosan-alginate (CA) scaffolds for critical size calvarial defect (diameter, 5.0 mm) repair in Sprague-Dawley rats. CA scaffolds have been used for in vitro culture of many cell types and demonstrated osteogenesis in ectopic locations in vivo, but have yet to be evaluated for functional bone tissue engineering applications. CA scaffolds demonstrated the ability to support undifferentiated mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in culture for 14 days in vitro and promoted spherical morphology. In vivo tests were performed using CA scaffolds and CA scaffolds with treatments including undifferentiated MSCs, bone marrow aspirate, and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) growth factor in comparison to unfilled bone defect used as a control. The samples were analyzed with MicroCT, histology, and immunohistochemical staining at 4 and 16 weeks. Partial defect closure was observed in all experimental groups at 16 weeks, with the greatest defect closure (71.56 ± 19.74%) in the animal group treated with CA scaffolds with BMP-2 (CA + BMP-2). The experimental samples demonstrated osteogenesis in histology and immunohistochemical staining, with the CA + BMP-2 group, showing the greatest level of osteogenesis. Tissue engineered CA scaffolds show promise in reconstruction of critical size bone defects. PMID:23737120

Florczyk, Stephen J; Leung, Matthew; Li, Zhensheng; Huang, Jerry I; Hopper, Richard A; Zhang, Miqin

2013-10-01

142

Porous biocompatible three-dimensional scaffolds of cellulose microfiber/gelatin composites for cell culture.  

PubMed

Physiological tissues, including brain and other organs, have three-dimensional (3-D) aspects that need to be supported to model them in vitro. Here we report the use of cellulose microfibers combined with cross-linked gelatin to make biocompatible porous microscaffolds for the sustained growth of brain cell and human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) in 3-D structure. Live imaging using confocal microscopy indicated that 3-D microscaffolds composed of gelatin or cellulose fiber/gelatin both supported brain cell adhesion and growth for 16days in vitro. Cellulose microfiber/gelatin composites containing up to 75% cellulose fibers can withstand a higher mechanical load than gelatin alone, and composites also provided linear pathways along which brain cells could grow compared to more clumped cell growth in gelatin alone. Therefore, the bulk cellulose microfiber provides a novel skeleton in this new scaffold material. Cellulose fiber/gelatin scaffold supported hMSCs growth and extracellular matrix formation. hMSCs osteogenic and adipogenic assays indicated that hMSCs cultured in cellulose fiber/gelatin composite preserved the multilineage differentiation potential. As natural, biocompatible components, the combination of gelatin and cellulose microfibers, fabricated into 3-D matrices, may therefore provide optimal porosity and tensile strength for long-term maintenance and observation of cells. PMID:20035906

Xing, Qi; Zhao, Feng; Chen, Si; McNamara, James; Decoster, Mark A; Lvov, Yuri M

2010-06-01

143

[The outlook for the use of polymeric scaffolds in the reconstruction and the regeneration stimulation of traumatic brain injuries].  

PubMed

Neurological disorders and injuries such as ischemic or haemorrhagic strokes or traumatic brain injuries result in the damage of cerebral parenchyma structures and in consequence, the loss of neurological functions. The current clinical strategies for the treatment of the brain nervous tissue disruptions are limited. The aforementioned methods can reduce the tissue degeneration or mitigate the subsequent symptoms, but do not alter the fact that many of the affected people are incapable of returning to the condition before the accident and they need long-lasting rehabilitation. Regenerative strategies based on the cell therapies and the use of polymeric scaffolds seem to be very promising for many patients. Polymer scaffolds may provide an opportunity to enhance the probability of cell therapy success by creating an artificial extracellular matrix which further facilitates cell survival, proliferation, differentiation, and promotes integrity of transplanted as well as endogenous cells. This paper presents selected forms of the polymeric scaffolds, which have been tested for the restoration processes within brain tissue and their potential clinical applications of scaffolds in both the treatment of posttraumatic neuronal loss and the neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:24596044

Lis, Anna; Szarek, Dariusz; Laska, Jadwiga

2013-01-01

144

Fabrication of Porous Ultra-Short Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Nanocomposite Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering  

PubMed Central

We investigated the fabrication of highly porous scaffolds made of three different materials [poly(propylene fumarate (PPF) polymer, an ultra-short single-walled carbon nanotube (US-tube) nanocomposite, and a dodecylated US-tube (F-US-tube) nanocomposite] in order to evaluate the effects of material composition and porosity on scaffold pore structure, mechanical properties, and marrow stromal cell culture. All scaffolds were produced by a thermal-crosslinking particulate-leaching technique at specific porogen contents of 75, 80, 85, and 90 vol%. Scanning electron microcopy, microcomputed tomography, and mercury intrusion porosimetry were used to analyze the pore structures of scaffolds. The porogen content was found to dictate the porosity of scaffolds. There was no significant difference in porosity, pore size, and interconnectivity among the different materials for the same porogen fraction. Nearly 100% of the pore volume was interconnected through 20 ?m or larger connections for all scaffolds. While interconnectivity through larger connections improved with higher porosity, compressive mechanical properties of scaffolds declined at the same time. However, the compressive modulus, offset yield strength, and compressive strength of F-US-tube nanocomposites were higher than or similar to the corresponding properties for the PPF polymer and US-tube nanocomposites for all the porosities examined. As for in vitro osteoconductivity, marrow stromal cells demonstrated equally good cell attachment and proliferation on all scaffolds made of different materials at each porosity. These results indicate that functionalized ultra-short single-walled carbon nanotube nanocomposite scaffolds with tunable porosity and mechanical properties hold great promise for bone tissue engineering applications.

Shi, Xinfeng; Sitharaman, Balaji; Pham, Quynh P.; Liang, Feng; Wu, Katherine; Billups, W. Edward; Wilson, Lon J.; Mikos, Antonios G.

2011-01-01

145

Fabrication of porous ultra-short single-walled carbon nanotube nanocomposite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering.  

PubMed

We investigated the fabrication of highly porous scaffolds made of three different materials [poly(propylene fumarate) (PPF) polymer, an ultra-short single-walled carbon nanotube (US-tube) nanocomposite, and a dodecylated US-tube (F-US-tube) nanocomposite] in order to evaluate the effects of material composition and porosity on scaffold pore structure, mechanical properties, and marrow stromal cell culture. All scaffolds were produced by a thermal-crosslinking particulate-leaching technique at specific porogen contents of 75, 80, 85, and 90 vol%. Scanning electron microcopy, microcomputed tomography, and mercury intrusion porosimetry were used to analyze the pore structures of scaffolds. The porogen content was found to dictate the porosity of scaffolds. There was no significant difference in porosity, pore size, and interconnectivity among the different materials for the same porogen fraction. Nearly 100% of the pore volume was interconnected through 20microm or larger connections for all scaffolds. While interconnectivity through larger connections improved with higher porosity, compressive mechanical properties of scaffolds declined at the same time. However, the compressive modulus, offset yield strength, and compressive strength of F-US-tube nanocomposites were higher than or similar to the corresponding properties for the PPF polymer and US-tube nanocomposites for all the porosities examined. As for in vitro osteoconductivity, marrow stromal cells demonstrated equally good cell attachment and proliferation on all scaffolds made of different materials at each porosity. These results indicate that functionalized ultra-short single-walled carbon nanotube nanocomposite scaffolds with tunable porosity and mechanical properties hold great promise for bone tissue engineering applications. PMID:17576009

Shi, Xinfeng; Sitharaman, Balaji; Pham, Quynh P; Liang, Feng; Wu, Katherine; Edward Billups, W; Wilson, Lon J; Mikos, Antonios G

2007-10-01

146

Hyaluronic acid based materials for scaffolding via two-photon polymerization.  

PubMed

Hydrogels are able to mimic the basic three-dimensional (3D) biological, chemical, and mechanical properties of native tissues. Since hyaluronic acid (HA) is a chief component of human extracellular matrix (ECM), it represents an extremely attractive starting material for the fabrication of scaffolds for tissue engineering. Due to poor mechanical properties of hydrogels, structure fabrication of this material class remains a major challenge. Two-photon polymerization (2PP) is a promising technique for biomedical applications, which allows the fabrication of complex 3D microstructures by moving the laser focus in the volume of a photosensitive material. Chemical modification of hyaluronan allows application of the 2PP technique to this natural material and, thus, precise fabrication of 3D hydrogel constructs. To create materials with tailor-made mechanochemical properties, HA was combined and covalently cross-linked with poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) in situ. 2PP was applied for the fabrication of well elaborated 3D HA and HA-PEGDA microstructures. For enhanced biological adaption, HA was functionalized with human epidermal growth factor. PMID:24432740

Kufelt, Olga; El-Tamer, Ayman; Sehring, Camilla; Schlie-Wolter, Sabrina; Chichkov, Boris N

2014-02-10

147

Design and application of chitosan/biphasic calcium phosphate porous scaffolds for bone tissue engineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the restoration of maxillofacial bone tissue, design of novel tissue engineering scaffolds capable of inducing bone remodeling through the delivery of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and an angiogenic growth factor, directly at the site of the defect was investigated in order to replace autogenous cancellous bone grafts with synthetic materials. Porous, three dimensional scaffolds were fabricated by a freeze drying method. In culture media, biphasic calcium phosphate particles within chitosan produced a surface reprecipitate of a composition similar to natural apatite that led to a uniform distribution of cells and mineralized ECM through chemotaxis. Further, the reprecipitation regulated the differentiation pathway and phenotype commitment of stem cells by altering the initial cell attachment morphology and actin cytoskeleton organization. In order to induce neovascularization after implantation, constructs were designed to be loaded with gelatin microspheres that delivered basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), a potent angiogenic factor. In vitro proliferation tests performed on fibroblastic cells showed no detectible loss of bFGF activity when delivered through enzymatic degradation of gelatin. Laser scanning confocal microscopy was used to demonstrate that gelatin microspheres can be injected evenly into cell-scaffold constructs owing to the spongy characteristics of the scaffold. To examine the binding interactions of bFGF with surface bound gelatin, a label free biosensor system, Biomolecular INteraction Detection sensor (BIND) was used. Results confirm that the principal interaction that takes place between bFGF and gelatin is electrostatic. Cell loaded tissue engineered constructs were produced in vitro at clinically relevant sizes and implanted with and without bFGF into a porcine mandibular defect model. Tissue engineered constructs facilitated the healing of mandibular defects only if combined with delivery of bFGF via gelatin microspheres. bFGF release from the constructs improved neovascularization in the defect area and subsequently enhanced new bone formation. Although the rate and extent of bone formation was similar in bFGF group to those in empty defects for the period of the study, existence of woven bone in bFGF group suggests that bone formation is continuing while the lamellar structure in empty defects indicates that bone formation in that group was finalized.

Sendemir-Urkmez, Aylin

148

Polymeric waveguides using oxidized porous silicon cladding for optical amplification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on a new hybrid approach to realize optical slab waveguides for optical amplification purposes. The structure consists of a dye-doped polymer core (PMMA) deposited over an oxidized porous silicon (PS) cladding layer formed on a silicon wafer. The very low refractive index ( n = 1.16) achievable in the cladding allows obtaining monomodal behavior with high confinement factors ( ?TE = 96%) even for very thin cores (400 nm). Optically excited guided luminescence shows stimulated emission, strong line narrowing and a clear threshold and superlinear behavior with pump energy. By means of the variable stripe length (VSL) technique, values of net optical gain up to 113 dB/cm (constant over 3 mm) and absolute amplification values up to 34 dB have been measured at 694 nm when pumping with 80 mJ/cm 2 energy pulses. These results validate the use of oxidized PS as a cladding layer in silicon photonics.

Navarro-Urrios, D.; Ghulinyan, M.; Bettotti, P.; Rigo, E.; Oton, C. J.; Capuj, N. E.; Lahoz, F.; Martín, I. R.; Pavesi, L.

2009-08-01

149

Numerical optimization of open-porous bone scaffold structures to match the elastic properties of human cortical bone.  

PubMed

Treatment of large segmental bone defects, especially in load bearing areas, is a complex procedure in orthopedic surgery. The usage of additive manufacturing processes enables the creation of customized bone implants with arbitrary open-porous structure satisfying both the mechanical and the biological requirements for a sufficient bone ingrowth. Aim of the present numerical study was to optimize the geometrical parameters of open-porous titanium scaffolds to match the elastic properties of human cortical bone with respect to an adequate pore size. Three different scaffold designs (cubic, diagonal and pyramidal) were numerically investigated by using an optimization approach. Beam elements were used to create the lattice structures of the scaffolds. The design parameters strut diameter and pore size ranged from 0.2 to 1.5mm and from 0 to 3.0mm, respectively. In a first optimization step, the geometrical parameters were varied under uniaxial compression to obtain a structural modulus of 15GPa (Young?s modulus of cortical bone) and a pore size of 800µm was aimed to enable cell ingrowth. Furthermore, the mechanical behavior of the optimized structures under bending and torsion was investigated. Results for bending modulus were between 9.0 and 14.5GPa. In contrast, shear modulus was lowest for cubic and pyramidal design of approximately 1GPa. Here, the diagonal design revealed a modulus of nearly 20GPa. In a second step, large-sized bone scaffolds were created and placed in a biomechanical loading situation within a 30mm segmental femoral defect, stabilized with an osteosynthesis plate and loaded with physiological muscle forces. Strut diameter for the 17 sections of each scaffold was optimized independently in order to match the biomechanical stability of intact bone. For each design, highest strut diameter was found at the dorsal/medial site of the defect and smallest strut diameter in the center. In conclusion, we demonstrated the possibility of providing optimized open-porous scaffolds for bone regeneration by considering both mechanical and biological aspects. Furthermore, the results revealed the need of the investigation and comparison of different load scenarios (compression, bending and torsion) as well as complex biomechanical loading for a profound characterization of different scaffold designs. The usage of a numerical optimization process was proven to be a feasible tool to reduce the amount of the required titanium material without influencing the biomechanical performance of the scaffold negatively. By using fully parameterized models, the optimization approach is adaptable to other scaffold designs and bone defect situations. PMID:24942627

Wieding, Jan; Wolf, Andreas; Bader, Rainer

2014-09-01

150

Degradable porous scaffolds from various L-lactide and trimethylene carbonate copolymers obtained by a simple and effective method.  

PubMed

A simple and effective method of fabricating scaffolds with open pore structures was successfully used on several copolymers. The method, which is straightforward and fast, was developed to overcome problems such as low pore interconnectivity and to achieve thick three-dimensional scaffolds. Copolymers are of particular interest because it is possible to tune their mechanical and degradable properties, and in this work, copolymers of L-lactide (LLA) and trimethylene carbonate (TMC) were synthesized through ring-opening polymerization. The copolymers formed had molecular weights ranging from close to 60000 g/mol to over 300000 g/mol and they were composed of 12-55 molar percentages of TMC and 88-45 molar percentages of LLA. The synthesized copolymers were evaluated as scaffold materials using a combined phase separation and particulate leaching technique, in which sugar templates were used as the leachable porosifiers. Differences in molecular weights, molar compositions, and degrees of crystallinity were all factors that influenced the properties of the prepared scaffolds. The copolymers with high LLA contents and high degrees of crystallinity were best suited for the scaffold fabrication technique used and gave degradable scaffolds with interconnected pores. PMID:19063595

Tyson, Therese; Finne-Wistrand, Anna; Albertsson, Ann-Christine

2009-01-12

151

Porous three-dimensional scaffolds made of mineralised collagen: Preparation and properties of a biomimetic nanocomposite material for tissue engineering of bone  

Microsoft Academic Search

For healing of bone defects and as matrix for tissues engineering, porous scaffolds are required that can be easily pre-seeded with cells in the lab and invaded by tissue after implantation. We have developed porous 3D scaffolds consisting of mineralised collagen type I—a nanocomposite, which mimics the composition of extracellular matrix of healthy bone tissue. The steps of material processing

M. Gelinsky; P. B. Welzel; P. Simon; A. Bernhardt; U. König

2008-01-01

152

Olefin polymerization from single site catalysts confined within porous media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Single Site Catalysts (SSCs) have been utilized for olefin polymerization. Altering the metal-ligand architecture in the SSCs, polyolefin properties can be enhanced in a rational manner. This influence of the ligands in the SSC on the property of polyolefins prepared can be referred to as the primary ligand influence. Extending this understanding and subsequent control of the metal-ligand framework to the interaction of SSCs within organic and inorganic supports is vital for the synthesis of polyolefins with tailored properties. The motivation behind this thesis was to explore the support influence on the reactivity of the SSC tethered to a support matrix during ethylene homo and copolymerization. In order to address this question of the support influence on the final polyolefin properties, synthetic routes to covalently bind SSCs on different matrices have been explored. Two distinct supported SSCs have been used to prepare branched polyethylenes. Branched polyethylenes can be prepared by either copolymerization (ethylene and alpha-olefin) or oligomerization/copolymerization processes (ethylene and in situ generated alpha-olefin). Synthetic routes to prepare precursor catalysts to Constrained Geometry Catalysts (CGCs) by silyl elimination chemistry have been developed (Chapter 2). Efficient synthetic protocols to assemble CGCs on aminomethylpolysytrene matrices (Chapter 3) and amine-functionalized mesoporous silica (Chapter 4) are also reported. These supported catalysts, with appropriate cocatalysts have been used to prepare ethylene homo and copolymers, the polymer thermal properties and microstructures were analyzed by various analytical techniques. Branched polyethylenes (LLDPE) can be prepared by copolymerization chemistry. It has been observed is that the influence of the support is seen in the production of lower crystalline forms of high density polyethylene (HDPE, 20--50% crystalline), while homogeneous polymerization of analogous soluble CGCs afford HDPE of higher percent crystallinity (greater than 60% crystalline). High-density polyethylene with crystallinity of 40--60% can be prepared by using cocatalysts tethered to AMPS or silica in conjunction with analogous soluble, homogeneous CGCs (Chapter 6). Preparative methods to assemble piano stool complexes on hydroxy polystyrenes have been designed. These supported catalysts in conjunction with cocatalysts act as both oligomerization and copolymerization catalysts and allow the preparation of branched polyethylenes from ethylene only feed (Chapter 7).

Kasi, Rajeswari M.

153

Tough and flexible CNT-polymeric hybrid scaffolds for engineering cardiac constructs.  

PubMed

In the past few years, a considerable amount of effort has been devoted toward the development of biomimetic scaffolds for cardiac tissue engineering. However, most of the previous scaffolds have been electrically insulating or lacked the structural and mechanical robustness to engineer cardiac tissue constructs with suitable electrophysiological functions. Here, we developed tough and flexible hybrid scaffolds with enhanced electrical properties composed of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) embedded aligned poly(glycerol sebacate):gelatin (PG) electrospun nanofibers. Incorporation of varying concentrations of CNTs from 0 to 1.5% within the PG nanofibrous scaffolds (CNT-PG scaffolds) notably enhanced fiber alignment and improved the electrical conductivity and toughness of the scaffolds while maintaining the viability, retention, alignment, and contractile activities of cardiomyocytes (CMs) seeded on the scaffolds. The resulting CNT-PG scaffolds resulted in stronger spontaneous and synchronous beating behavior (3.5-fold lower excitation threshold and 2.8-fold higher maximum capture rate) compared to those cultured on PG scaffold. Overall, our findings demonstrated that aligned CNT-PG scaffold exhibited superior mechanical properties with enhanced CM beating properties. It is envisioned that the proposed hybrid scaffolds can be useful for generating cardiac tissue constructs with improved organization and maturation. PMID:24927679

Kharaziha, Mahshid; Shin, Su Ryon; Nikkhah, Mehdi; Topkaya, Seda Nur; Masoumi, Nafiseh; Annabi, Nasim; Dokmeci, Mehmet R; Khademhosseini, Ali

2014-08-01

154

Comprehensive Genetic Analysis of Early Host Body Reactions to the Bioactive and Bio-Inert Porous Scaffolds  

PubMed Central

To design scaffolds for tissue regeneration, details of the host body reaction to the scaffolds must be studied. Host body reactions have been investigated mainly by immunohistological observations for a long time. Despite of recent dramatic development in genetic analysis technologies, genetically comprehensive changes in host body reactions are hardly studied. There is no information about host body reactions that can predict successful tissue regeneration in the future. In the present study, porous polyethylene scaffolds were coated with bioactive collagen or bio-inert poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine-co-n-butyl methacrylate) (PMB) and were implanted subcutaneously and compared the host body reaction to those substrates by normalizing the result using control non-coat polyethylene scaffold. The comprehensive analyses of early host body reactions to the scaffolds were carried out using a DNA microarray assay. Within numerous genes which were expressed differently among these scaffolds, particular genes related to inflammation, wound healing, and angiogenesis were focused upon. Interleukin (IL)-1? and IL-10 are important cytokines in tissue responses to biomaterials because IL-1? promotes both inflammation and wound healing and IL-10 suppresses both of them. IL-1? was up-regulated in the collagen-coated scaffold. Collagen-specifically up-regulated genes contained both M1- and M2-macrophage-related genes. Marked vessel formation in the collagen-coated scaffold was occurred in accordance with the up-regulation of many angiogenesis-inducible factors. The DNA microarray assay provided global information regarding the host body reaction. Interestingly, several up-regulated genes were detected even on the very bio-inert PMB-coated surfaces and those genes include inflammation-suppressive and wound healing-suppressive IL-10, suggesting that not only active tissue response but also the inert response may relates to these genetic regulations.

Ehashi, Tomo; Takemura, Taro; Hanagata, Nobutaka; Minowa, Takashi; Kobayashi, Hisatoshi; Ishihara, Kazuhiko; Yamaoka, Tetsuji

2014-01-01

155

Synthesis of composite gelatin-hyaluronic acid-alginate porous scaffold and evaluation for in vitro stem cell growth and in vivo tissue integration.  

PubMed

Engineering three-dimensional (3-D) porous scaffolds with precise bio-functional properties is one of the most important issues in tissue engineering. In the present study, a three-dimensional gelatin-hyaluronic acid-alginate (GHA) polymeric composite was synthesized by freeze-drying, which was followed by ionic crosslinking using CaCl2, and evaluated for its suitability in bone tissue engineering applications. The obtained matrix showed high porosity (85%), an interconnected pore morphology and a rapid swelling behavior. The rheological analysis of GHA showed a viscoelastic characteristic, which suggested a high load bearing capacity without fractural deformation. The influence of the GHA matrix on cell growth and on modulating the differentiation ability of mesenchymal stem cells was evaluated by different biochemical and immunostaining assays. The monitoring of cells over a period of four weeks showed increased cellular proliferation and osteogenic differentiation without external growth factors, compared with control (supplemented with osteogenic differentiation medium). The in vivo matrix implantation showed higher matrix-tissue integration and cell infiltration as the duration of the implant increased. These results suggest that a porous GHA matrix with suitable mechanical integrity and tissue compatibility is a promising substrate for the osteogenic differentiation of stem cells for bone tissue engineering applications. PMID:24572494

Singh, Deepti; Tripathi, Anuj; Zo, Sunmi; Singh, Dolly; Han, Sung Soo

2014-04-01

156

Preparation of interconnected poly(?-caprolactone) porous scaffolds by a combination of polymer and salt particulate leaching  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines a new technique for the preparation of porous scaffolds by combining selective polymer leaching in a co-continuous blend and salt particulate leaching. In the first step of this technique, a co-continuous blend of two biodegradable polymers, poly(?-caprolactone) (PCL) and polyethylene oxide (PEO), and a certain amount of sodium chloride salt particles are melt blended using a twin

Joël Reignier; Michel A. Huneault

2006-01-01

157

Porous poly( ?-hydroxyacid)\\/Bioglass ® composite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. I: preparation and in vitro characterisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Highly porous composites scaffolds of poly-d,l-lactide (PDLLA) and poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) containing different amounts (10, 25 and 50wt%) of bioactive glass (45S5 Bioglass®) were prepared by thermally induced solid–liquid phase separation (TIPS) and subsequent solvent sublimation. The addition of increasing amounts of Bioglass® into the polymer foams decreased the pore volume. Conversely, the mechanical properties of the polymer materials were improved.

V. Maquet; A. R. Boccaccini; L. Pravata; I. Notingher; R. Jérôme

2004-01-01

158

Adsorption of bovine serum albumin to a polymer brush prepared by atom-transfer radical polymerization in a porous inorganic membrane  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protein adsorption was performed by a polymer brush prepared by atom-transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) to a porous inorganic\\u000a membrane. The porous inorganic membrane, Shirasu Porous Glass made from silica, was modified with a halogen-containing compound\\u000a to bind the active species for the polymerization. Glycidyl methacrylate was polymerized from the halogen compound by ATRP\\u000a for a prescribed time, and subsequently chemically

Hidetaka Kawakita; Hiroyasu Masunaga; Kanako Nomura; Kazuya Uezu; Isamu Akiba; Satoshi Tsuneda

2007-01-01

159

Femtosecond laser two-photon polymerization of three-dimensional scaffolds for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent studies have shown that mechanical factors can direct stem cell fate in vitro, even in the absence of biochemical factors. Two-photon laser polymerization was applied here to fabricate ultra-precise 3D micro-scaffolds with different architectures and pore sizes able to structurally interact with cells at the single-cell scale. Our experiments have shown that randomly seeded mesenchymal stem cells systematically colonize the internal volumes of 3D scaffolds and proliferate, while showing a roundish morphology. Even if stem cell mechanobiology is a very complex field, this study shows how mechanical interactions studied in a 3D micro-architecture at a single cell scale may influence stem cells response.

Aprile, V.; Eaton, S. M.; Laganà, M.; Cerullo, G.; Raimondi, M. T.; Osellame, R.

2012-02-01

160

MgCHA particles dispersion in porous PCL scaffolds: in vitro mineralization and in vivo bone formation.  

PubMed

In this work, we focus on the in vitro and in vivo response of composite scaffolds obtained by incorporating Mg,CO3 -doped hydroxyapatite (HA) particles in poly(?-caprolactone) (PCL) porous matrices. After a complete analysis of chemical and physical properties of synthesized particles (i.e. SEM/EDS, DSC, XRD and FTIR), we demonstrate that the Mg,CO3 doping influences the surface wettability with implications upon cell-material interaction and new bone formation mechanisms. In particular, ion substitution in apatite crystals positively influences the early in vitro cellular response of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs), i.e. adhesion and proliferation, and promotes an extensive mineralization of the scaffold in osteogenic medium, thus conforming to a more faithful reproduction of the native bone environment than undoped HA particles, used as control in PCL matrices. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Mg,CO3 -doped HA in PCL scaffolds support the in vivo cellular response by inducing neo-bone formation as early as 2?months post-implantation, and abundant mature bone tissue at the sixth month, with a lamellar structure and completely formed bone marrow. Together, these results indicate that Mg(2+) and CO3 (2-) ion substitution in HA particles enhances the scaffold properties, providing the right chemical signals to combine with morphological requirements (i.e. pore size, shape and interconnectivity) to drive osteogenic response in scaffold-aided bone regeneration. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:22730225

Guarino, Vincenzo; Scaglione, Silvia; Sandri, Monica; Alvarez-Perez, Marco A; Tampieri, Anna; Quarto, Rodolfo; Ambrosio, Luigi

2014-04-01

161

Porous nano-HA/collagen/PLLA scaffold containing chitosan microspheres for controlled delivery of synthetic peptide derived from BMP-2.  

PubMed

It is advantageous to incorporate controlled growth factor delivery into tissue engineering strategies. The purpose of the present study was to develop a novel tissue engineering scaffold with the capability of controlled releasing BMP-2-derived synthetic peptide. Porous nano-hydroxyapatite/collagen/poly(L-lactic acid)/chitosan microspheres (nHAC/PLLA/CMs) composite scaffolds containing different quantities of chitosan microspheres (CMs) were prepared by a thermally induced phase separation method. Dioxane was used as the solvent for PLLA. Introduction of less than 30% of CMs (on PLLA weight basis) did not remarkably affect the morphology and porosity of the nHAC/PLLA/CMs scaffolds. However, as the microspheres contents increased to 50%, the porosity of the composite decreased rapidly. The compressive modulus of the composite scaffolds increased from 15.4 to 25.5 MPa, while the compressive strength increased from 1.42 to 1.63 MPa as the microspheres contents increased from 0% to 50%. The hydrolytic degradation and synthetic peptide release kinetics in vitro were investigated by incubation in phosphate buffered saline solution (pH 7.4). The results indicated that the degradation rate of the scaffolds was increased with the enhancement of CMs dosage. The synthetic peptide was released in a temporally controlled manner, depending on the degradation of both incorporated chitosan microspheres and PLLA matrix. In vitro bioactivity assay revealed that the encapsulated synthetic peptide was biologically active as evidenced by stimulation of rabbit marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. The successful microspheres-scaffold system offers a new delivery method of growth factors and a novel scaffold design for bone regeneration. PMID:19100794

Niu, Xufeng; Feng, Qingling; Wang, Mingbo; Guo, Xiaodong; Zheng, Qixin

2009-03-01

162

Production, characterisation, and cytocompatibility of porous titanium-based particulate scaffolds.  

PubMed

Despite its non-matching mechanical properties titanium remains the preferred metal implant material in orthopaedics. As a consequence in some cases stress shielding effect occurs, leading to implant loosening, osteopenia, and finally revision surgery. Porous metal scaffolds to allow easier specialised cells ingrowth with mechanical properties closer to the ones of bone can overcome this problem. This should improve healing processes, implant integration, and dynamic strength of implants retaining. Three Ti-6Al-4V materials were metal injection moulded and tailored porosities were effectively achieved. After microstructural and mechanical characterisation, two different primary cells of mesenchymal origin (human umbilical cord perivascular cells and human bone derived cells which revealed to be two pertinent models) as well as one cell line originated from primary osteogenic sarcoma, Saos-2, were bestowed to investigate cell-material interaction on genomic and proteome levels. Biological examinations disclosed that no material has negative impact on early adhesion, proliferation or cell viability. An efficient cell ingrowth into material with an average porosity of 25-50 ?m was proved. PMID:23807315

Luthringer, B J C; Ali, F; Akaichi, H; Feyerabend, F; Ebel, T; Willumeit, R

2013-10-01

163

Image-Based Three-Dimensional Analysis to Characterize the Texture of Porous Scaffolds  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study is to characterize the microstructure of composite scaffolds for bone tissue regeneration containing different ratios of chitosan/gelatin blend and bioactive glasses. Starting from realistic 3D models of the scaffolds reconstructed from micro-CT images, the level of heterogeneity of scaffold architecture is evaluated performing a lacunarity analysis. The results demonstrate that the presence of the bioactive glass component affects not only macroscopic features such as porosity, but mainly scaffold microarchitecture giving rise to structural heterogeneity, which could have an impact on the local cell-scaffold interaction and scaffold performances. The adopted approach allows to investigate the scale-dependent pore distribution within the scaffold and the related structural heterogeneity features, providing a comprehensive characterization of the scaffold texture.

Pennella, Francesco; Gallo, Diego; Ciardelli, Gianluca; Bignardi, Cristina; Audenino, Alberto; Morbiducci, Umberto

2014-01-01

164

The role of energy dissipation of polymeric scaffolds in the mechanobiological modulation of chondrogenic expression.  

PubMed

Mechanical stimulation has been proposed to induce chondrogenesis in cell-seeded scaffolds. However, the effects of mechanical stimuli on engineered cartilage may vary substantially between different scaffolds. This advocates for the need to identify an overarching mechanobiological variable. We hypothesize that energy dissipation of scaffolds subjected to dynamic loading may be used as a mechanobiology variable. The energy dissipation would furnish a general criterion to adjust the mechanical stimulation favoring chondrogenesis in scaffold. Epiphyseal chondro-progenitor cells were then subject to unconfined compression 2 h per day during four days in different scaffolds, which differ only by the level of dissipation they generated while keeping the same loading conditions. Scaffolds with higher dissipation levels upregulated the mRNA of chondrogenic markers. In contrast lower dissipation of scaffolds was associated with downregulation of chondrogenic markers. These results showed that energy dissipation could be considered as a mechanobiology variable in cartilage. This study also indicated that scaffolds with energy dissipation level close to the one of cartilage favors chondrogenic expression when dynamical loading is present. PMID:24331703

Abdel-Sayed, Philippe; Darwiche, Salim E; Kettenberger, Ulrike; Pioletti, Dominique P

2014-02-01

165

Porous aromatic frameworks with anion-templated pore apertures serving as polymeric sieves.  

PubMed

Owing to environmental pollution and energy depletion, efficient separation of energy gases has attracted widespread attention. Low-cost and efficient adsorbents for gas separation are greatly needed. Here we report a family of quaternary pyridinium-type porous aromatic frameworks with tunable channels. After carefully choosing and adjusting the sterically hindered counter ions via a facile ion exchange approach, the pore diameters are tuned at an angstrom scale in the range of 3.4-7?Å. The designed pore sizes may bring benefits to capturing or sieving gas molecules with varied diameters to separate them efficiently by size-exclusive effects. By combining their specific separation properties, a five-component (hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide and methane) gas mixture can be separated completely. The porous aromatic frameworks may hold promise for practical and commercial applications as polymeric sieves. PMID:24963967

Yuan, Ye; Sun, Fuxing; Li, Lina; Cui, Peng; Zhu, Guangshan

2014-01-01

166

An ultra-sensitive microfluidic immunoassay using living radical polymerization and porous polymer monoliths.  

SciTech Connect

We present a platform that combines patterned photopolymerized polymer monoliths with living radical polymerization (LRP) to develop a low cost microfluidic based immunoassay capable of sensitive (low to sub pM) and rapid (<30 minute) detection of protein in 100 {micro}L sample. The introduction of LRP functionality to the porous monolith allows one step grafting of functionalized affinity probes from the monolith surface while the composition of the hydrophilic graft chain reduces non-specific interactions and helps to significantly improve the limit of detection.

Abhyankar, Vinay V.; Singh, Anup K.; Hatch, Anson V.

2010-07-01

167

Molecular imprinted polymeric porous layers in open tubular capillaries for chiral separations.  

PubMed

A new method has been developed for the preparation of molecular imprinted polymers as porous layers in open tubular (MIP-PLOT) capillary column formats for use in chiral separations by capillary liquid chromatography. The synthesis was based on 'in-capillary' ultraviolet (UV) initiated polymerization using light emitting diodes (LEDs) in conjunction with the continuous delivery of the pre-polymerization reagents into the polymerization zone of the capillary using an automated capillary delivery device. The relationships between exposure times, UV-light intensity and polymer layer thickness have been determined, as well as the effects of reagent delivery rate and multiple LED exposures on the layer thickness for various compositions of pre-polymerization mixtures. The polymer surface morphology was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug S-ketoprofen was used as the template for the preparation of the MIP imprinted PLOT coatings. The separation performance with the ketoprofen racemate was investigated by capillary liquid chromatography. In contrast to alternative methods, which require the use of expensive chiral selectors, the described MIP PLOT stationary phases used non-chiral polymer precursors to create enantioselective nano-cavities through molecular self-assembly processes. The described fabrication methods provide a new avenue to tailor-make chiral MIP-PLOT capillary columns for the separation of chiral compounds present in complex or racemic analyte mixtures of chemical and biological origin. PMID:24935267

Kulsing, Chadin; Knob, Radim; Macka, Mirek; Junor, Paul; Boysen, Reinhard I; Hearn, Milton T W

2014-08-01

168

Ingrowth of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells into Porous Silk Particle Reinforced Silk Composite Scaffolds: An In Vitro Study  

PubMed Central

Silk fibroin protein is biodegradable and biocompatible, exhibiting excellent mechanical properties for various biomedical applications. However, porous 3D silk fibroin scaffolds, or silk sponges, usually fall short in matching the initial mechanical requirements for bone tissue engineering. In the present study, silk sponge matrices were reinforced with silk microparticles to generate protein-protein composite scaffolds with desirable mechanical properties for in vitro osteogenic tissue formation. It was found that increasing the silk microparticle loading led to a substantial increase in the scaffold compressive modulus from 0.3 MPa (nonreinforced) to 1.9 MPa for 1:2 (matrix:particle) reinforcement loading by dry mass. Biochemical, gene expression, and histological assays were employed to study the possible effects of increasing composite scaffold stiffness, due to microparticle reinforcement, on in vitro osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). Increasing silk microparticle loading increased the osteogenic capability of hMSCs in the presence of bone morphogenic protein-2 (BMP-2) and other osteogenic factors in static culture for up to six weeks. The calcium adsorption increased dramatically with increasing loading, as observed from biochemical assays, histological staining, and microCT (?CT) analysis. Specifically, calcium content in the scaffolds increased by 0.57, 0.71, and 1.27 mg (per ?g of DNA) from 3 to 6 weeks for matrix to particle dry mass loading ratios of 1:0, 1:1 and 1:2, respectively. In addition, ?CT imaging revealed that at 6 weeks, bone volume fraction increased from 0.78% for nonreinforced to 7.1% and 6.7% for 1:1 and 1:2 loading, respectively. Our results support the hypothesis that scaffold stiffness may strongly influence the 3D in vitro differentiation capabilities of hMSCs, providing a means to improve osteogenic outcomes.

Rockwood, Danielle N.; Gil, Eun Seok; Park, Sang-Hyug; Kluge, Jonathan A.; Grayson, Warren; Bhumiratana, Sarindr; Rajkhowa, Rangam; Wang, Xungai; Kim, Sung Jun; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana; Kaplan, David L

2010-01-01

169

Load-adaptive scaffold architecturing: a bioinspired approach to the design of porous additively manufactured scaffolds with optimized mechanical properties.  

PubMed

Computer-Aided Tissue Engineering (CATE) is based on a set of additive manufacturing techniques for the fabrication of patient-specific scaffolds, with geometries obtained from medical imaging. One of the main issues regarding the application of CATE concerns the definition of the internal architecture of the fabricated scaffolds, which, in turn, influences their porosity and mechanical strength. The present study envisages an innovative strategy for the fabrication of highly optimized structures, based on the a priori finite element analysis (FEA) of the physiological load set at the implant site. The resulting scaffold micro-architecture does not follow a regular geometrical pattern; on the contrary, it is based on the results of a numerical study. The algorithm was applied to a solid free-form fabrication process, using poly(?-caprolactone) as the starting material for the processing of additive manufactured structures. A simple and intuitive geometry was chosen as a proof-of-principle application, on which finite element simulations and mechanical testing were performed. Then, to demonstrate the capability in creating mechanically biomimetic structures, the proximal femur subjected to physiological loading conditions was considered and a construct fitting a femur head portion was designed and manufactured. PMID:22109804

Rainer, Alberto; Giannitelli, Sara M; Accoto, Dino; De Porcellinis, Stefano; Guglielmelli, Eugenio; Trombetta, Marcella

2012-04-01

170

Thirty-minute total synthesis of microfluidic systems and functionalized porous elements via "living" radical photo-polymerization.  

PubMed

A "living" radical photo-polymerization (LRPP) technique is used to rapidly fabricate microfluidic channels and micro-patterned porous polymer monoliths. Surface-initiated LRPP is then used to functionalize porous elements in a robust one-step surface modification process. Assay-ready platforms can be fully realized in less than 30 minutes. An application relevant to clinical diagnostics is presented. PMID:23184830

Abhyankar, Vinay V; Hatch, Anson V

2012-11-01

171

Retention of insulin-like growth factor I bioactivity during the fabrication of sintered polymeric scaffolds.  

PubMed

The use of growth factors in tissue engineering offers an added benefit to cartilage regeneration. Growth factors, such as insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), increase cell proliferation and can therefore decrease the time it takes for cartilage tissue to regrow. In this study, IGF-I was released from poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) scaffolds that were designed to have a decreased burst release often associated with tissue engineering scaffolds. The scaffolds were fabricated from IGF-I-loaded PLGA microspheres prepared by a double emulsion (W1/O/W2) technique. The microspheres were then compressed, sintered at 49 °C and salt leached. The bioactivity of soluble IGF-I was verified after being heat treated at 37, 43, 45, 49 and 60 °C. Additionally, the bioactivity of IGF-I was confirmed after being released from the sintered scaffolds. The triphasic release lasted 120 days resulting in 20%, 55% and 25% of the IGF-I being released during days 1-3, 4-58 and 59-120, respectively. Seeding bone marrow cells directly onto the IGF-I-loaded scaffolds showed an increase in cell proliferation, based on DNA content, leading to increased glycosaminoglycan production. The present results demonstrated that IGF-I remains active after being incorporated into heat-treated scaffolds, further enhancing tissue regeneration possibilities. PMID:24565886

Clark, Amanda; Milbrandt, Todd A; Hilt, J Zach; Puleo, David A

2014-04-01

172

Porous hydroxyapatite scaffold with three-dimensional localized drug delivery system using biodegradable microspheres  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, ionic immobilization of dexamethasone (DEX)-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres was performed on the hydroxyapatite (HAp) scaffold surfaces. It was hypothesized that in vivo bone regeneration could be enhanced with HAp scaffolds containing DEX-loaded PLGA microspheres compared to the use of HAp scaffolds alone. In vitro drug release from the encapsulated microspheres was measured prior to the implantation

Jun Sik Son; Mark Appleford; Joo L. Ong; Joseph C. Wenke; Jong Min Kim; Seok Hwa Choi; Daniel S. Oh

2011-01-01

173

Biomimetic formation of apatite on the surface of porous gelatin\\/bioactive glass nanocomposite scaffolds  

Microsoft Academic Search

There have been several attempts to combine bioactive glasses (BaGs) with biodegradable polymers to create a scaffold material with excellent biocompatibility, bioactivity, biodegradability and toughness. In the present study, the nanocomposite scaffolds with compositions based on gelatin (Gel) and BaG nanoparticles in the ternary SiO2–CaO–P2O5 system were prepared. In vitro evaluations of the nanocomposite scaffolds were performed, and for investigating

Masoud Mozafari; Mohammad Rabiee; Mahmoud Azami; Saied Maleknia

2010-01-01

174

Study on surface modification of porous apatite-wollastonite bioactive glass ceramic scaffold  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chitosan (CS) was used to modify the surface of apatite-wollastonite bioactive glass ceramic (AW GC) scaffold to prepare AW\\/CS composite scaffold. The in vitro bioactivity of the AW\\/CS composite scaffold was investigated by simulated body fluid (SBF) soaking experiment. Cell growth on the surface of the material was evaluated by co-culturing osteogenic marrow stromal cells (MSCs) of rabbits with the

Bin Cao; Dali Zhou; Ming Xue; Guangda Li; Weizhong Yang; Qin Long; Li Ji

2008-01-01

175

Corona-induced graft polymerization for surface modification of porous polyethersulfone membranes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Graft polymerization of acrylic acid (AA) onto porous polyethersulfone (PES) membrane surfaces was developed using corona discharge in atmospheric ambience as an activation process followed by polymerization of AA in aqueous solution. The effects of the corona parameters and graft polymerization conditions on grafting yield (GY) of AA were investigated. The grafting of AA on the PES membranes was confirmed by ATR-FTIR and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. Porosimetry measurements indicate the average pore diameters and porosities of the modified membranes decrease with the increase of the GY. The hydrophilicity and surface wetting properties of the original and modified membranes were evaluated by observing the dynamic changes of water contact angles. It is found that the grafting of AA occurs not only on the membrane surfaces, but also on the pore walls of the cells inside the membrane. The permeability experiments of protein solution reveal that the grafting of PAA endows the modified membranes with enhanced fluxes and anti-fouling properties. The optimized GY of AA is in the range of 150-200 ?g/cm 2. In addition, the tensile experiments show the corona discharge treatment with the power lower than 150 W yields little damage to the mechanical strength of the membranes.

Zhu, Li-Ping; Zhu, Bao-Ku; Xu, Li; Feng, Yong-Xiang; Liu, Fu; Xu, You-Yi

2007-05-01

176

Conceptual Design of Large Surface Area Porous Polymeric Hybrid Media Based on Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxane Precursors: Preparation, Tailoring of Porous Properties, and Internal Surface Functionalization  

PubMed Central

We report on the preparation of hybrid, organic–inorganic porous materials derived from polyhedral oligomeric vinylsilsesquioxanes (vinylPOSS) via a single-step molding process. The monolithic, large surface area materials are studied with a particular focus on morphology and porous properties. Radical vinyl polymerization of the nanometer-sized POSS building blocks is therefore utilized via a thermally initiated route and in porogenic diluents such as tetrahydrofuran and polyethylene glycols of varying composition. Careful choice of these porogenic solvents and proper choice of initiator concentration lead to highly porous monolithic building entities which show a rigid, 3D-adhered, porous structure, macroscopically adapting the shape of a given mold. The described materials reflect Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface areas of 700 m2/g or more and maximum tunable mesopore volumes of up to 2 cm3/g. Experimental investigations demonstrate the option to tailor nanoporosity and macroporosity in the single-step free-radical polymerization process. While studies on the influence of the used porogenic solvents reveal tuneability of pore sizes due to the unique pore formation process, tailored existence of residual vinyl groups allows facile postpolymerization modification of the highly porous, large surface area hybrid materials exploited via thiol–ene “click” chemistry. Our developed, simply realizable preparation process explores a new route to derive porous organic–inorganic hybrid adsorbents for a wide variety of applications such as extraction, separation science, and catalysis.

2013-01-01

177

Fabrication and structural characterization of porous biodegradable poly( dl-lactic- co-glycolic acid) scaffolds with controlled range of pore sizes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biodegradable polymer scaffolds play a major role in the field of tissue engineering as they provide a three-dimensional template to regenerate desirable tissues for different applications. In this study, porous poly(dl-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) scaffolds with four different pore sizes (150–180?m, 180–250?m, 250–280?m and 280–400?m) were fabricated using paraffin-spheres-dissolution technique. Paraffin spheres with the stated size range were bonded into a

Anita W. T. Shum; Jiashen Li; Arthur F. T. Mak

2005-01-01

178

In vivo acute and humoral response to three-dimensional porous soy protein scaffolds.  

PubMed

Increasing interest in using soy biomaterials for tissue engineering applications has prompted investigation into the in vivo biocompatibility of soy implants. In this study, the biocompatibility of soy protein scaffolds fabricated using freeze-drying and 3-D printing was assessed using a subcutaneous implant model in BALB/c mice. The main objectives of this study were: (1) to compare soy protein with bovine collagen, a well-characterized natural protein implant, by implanting scaffolds of the same protein weight, and (2) to observe the effects of soy scaffold microstructure and amount of protein loading, which also alters the degradation properties, on the acute and humoral immune responses towards soy. Results showed that freeze-dried soy scaffolds fully degraded after 14 days, whereas collagen scaffolds (of the same protein weight) remained intact for 56 days. Furthermore, Masson's trichrome staining showed little evidence of damage or fibrosis at the soy implant site. Scaffolds of higher soy protein content, however, were still present after 56 days. H&E staining revealed that macrophage infiltration was hindered in the denser bioplotted soy scaffolds, causing slower degradation. Analysis of soy-specific antibodies in mouse serum after implantation revealed levels of IgG1 that correlated with higher scaffold weight and protein density. However, no soy-specific IgE was detected, indicating the absence of an allergic response to the soy implants. These results demonstrate that soy protein could be an acceptable biocompatible implant for tissue regeneration, and that scaffold porosity, soy protein density and scaffold degradation rate significantly affect the acute and humoral immune response. PMID:23851173

Chien, Karen B; Aguado, Brian A; Bryce, Paul J; Shah, Ramille N

2013-11-01

179

A novel porous bioceramics scaffold by accumulating hydroxyapatite spherulites for large bone tissue engineering in vivo. II. Construct large volume of bone grafts.  

PubMed

In vivo engineering of bone autografts using bioceramic scaffolds with appropriate porous structures is a potential approach to prepare autologous bone grafts for the repair of critical-sized bone defects. This study investigated the evolutionary process of osteogenesis, angiogenesis, and compressive strength of bioceramic scaffolds implanted in two non-osseous sites of dogs: the abdominal cavity and the dorsal muscle. Hydroxyapatite (HA) sphere-accumulated scaffolds with controlled porous structures were prepared and placed in the two sites for up to 6 months. Analyses of retrieved scaffolds found that osteogenesis and angiogenesis were faster in scaffolds implanted in dorsal muscles compared with those placed in abdominal cavities. The abdominal cavity, however, can accommodate larger bone grafts with designed shape. Analyses of scaffolds implanted in abdominal cavities [an environment of a low mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) density] further demonstrated that angiogenesis play critical roles during osteogenesis in the scaffolds, presumably by supplying progenitor cells and/or MSCs as seed cells. This study also examined the relationship between the volume of bone grafts and the physiological environment of in vivo bioreactor. These results provide basic information for the selection of appropriate implanting sites and culture time required to engineer autologous bone grafts for the clinical bone defect repair. Based on these positive results, a pilot study has applied the grafts constructed in canine abdominal cavity to repair segmental bone defect in load-bearing sites (limbs). © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 102A: 2491-2501, 2014. PMID:23946164

Zhi, Wei; Zhang, Cong; Duan, Ke; Li, Xiaohong; Qu, Shuxin; Wang, Jianxin; Zhu, Zhuoli; Huang, Peng; Xia, Tian; Liao, Ga; Weng, Jie

2014-08-01

180

Improvement of the compressive strength of a cuttlefish bone-derived porous hydroxyapatite scaffold via polycaprolactone coating.  

PubMed

Cuttlefish bones (CBs) have emerged as attractive biomaterials because of their porous structure and components that can be converted into hydroxyapatite (HAp) via a hydrothermal reaction. However, their brittleness and low strength restrict their application in bone tissue engineering. Therefore, to improve the compressive strength of the scaffold following hydrothermal conversion to a HAp form of CB (CB-HAp), the scaffold was coated using a polycaprolactone (PCL) polymer at various concentrations. In this study, raw CB was successfully converted into HAp via a hydrothermal reaction. We then evaluated their surface properties and composition by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. The CB-HAp coated with PCL showed improved compressive performance and retained a microporous structure. The compressive strength was significantly increased upon coating with 5 and 10% PCL, by 2.09- and 3.30-fold, respectively, as compared with uncoated CB-HAp. However, coating with 10% PCL resulted in a reduction in porosity. Furthermore, an in vitro biological evaluation demonstrated that MG-63 cells adhered well, proliferated and were able to be differentiated on the PCL-coated CB-HAp scaffold, which was noncytotoxic. These results suggest that a simple coating method is useful to improve the compressive strength of CB-HAp for bone tissue engineering applications. PMID:23661509

Kim, Beom-Su; Kang, Hyo Jin; Lee, Jun

2013-10-01

181

Fabrication of three-dimensional porous scaffolds with controlled filament orientation and large pore size via an improved E-jetting technique.  

PubMed

Biodegradable polymeric scaffolds have been widely used in tissue engineering as a platform for cell proliferation and subsequent tissue regeneration. Conventional microextrusion methods for three-dimensional (3D) scaffold fabrication were limited by their low resolution. Electrospinning, a form of electrohydrodynamic (EHD) printing, is an attractive method due to its capability of fabricating high-resolution scaffolds at the nanometer/micrometer scale level. However, the scaffold was composed of randomly orientated filaments which could not guide the cells in a specific direction. Furthermore, the pores of the electrospun scaffold were small, thus preventing cell infiltration. In this study, an alternative EHD jet printing (E-jetting) technique has been developed and employed to fabricate 3D polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffolds with desired filament orientation and pore size. The effect of PCL solution concentration was evaluated. Results showed that solidified filaments were achieved at concentration >70% (w/v). Uniform filaments of diameter 20 ?m were produced via the E-jetting technique, and X-ray diffraction and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic analyses revealed that there was no physicochemical changes toward PCL. Scaffold with a pore size of 450 ?m and porosity level of 92%, was achieved. A preliminary in vitro study illustrated that live chondrocytes were attaching on the outer and inner surfaces of collagen-coated E-jetted PCL scaffolds. E-jetted scaffolds increased chondrocytes extracellular matrix secretion, and newly formed matrices from chondrocytes contributed significantly to the mechanical strength of the scaffolds. All these results suggested that E-jetting is an alternative scaffold fabrication technique, which has the capability to construct 3D scaffolds with aligned filaments and large pore sizes for tissue engineering applications. PMID:24155124

Li, Jin Lan; Cai, Yan Li; Guo, Yi Lin; Fuh, Jerry Ying Hsi; Sun, Jie; Hong, Geok Soon; Lam, Ruey Na; Wong, Yoke San; Wang, Wilson; Tay, Bee Yen; Thian, Eng San

2014-05-01

182

Characterization of porous collagen\\/hyaluronic acid scaffold modified by 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide cross-linking  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to develop a scaffolding material for tissue regeneration, porous matrices containing collagen and hyaluronic acid were fabricated by freeze drying at –20°C, ?70°C or ?196°C. The fabricated porous membranes were cross-linked using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethyl aminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC) in a range of 1–100mm concentrations for enhancing mechanical stability of the composite matrix. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) views of the matrices

Si-Nae Park; Jong-Chul Park; Hea Ok Kim; Min Jung Song; Hwal Suh

2002-01-01

183

Synthesis of porous zirconia spheres for HPLC by polymerization-induced colloid aggregation (PICA)  

SciTech Connect

Porous, spherical zirconia particles with a narrow particle size distribution, which are useful as chromatographic packing materials for high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), were synthesized by polymerization-induced colloid aggregation (PICA) first described by Iler and McQueston (US Patent 4,010,242, 1977.) and the effects of a number of crucial processing variables were examined. In this method, an aqueous zirconia sol consisting of 700 [angstrom] (mean diameter) particles is mixed with urea and formaldehyde polymer adsorbs onto the ZrO[sub 2] colloids, entraining the colloids in the precipitation of the polymer gel and thus alloying the colloids to aggregate. Features of the aggregation process are elucidated from responses of the process to variations in temperature, reaction mixture composition, and solvent polarity. Results suggest that the aggregation process resembles those reported for the bridging flocculation of colloids by adsorbed polymers. Porous zirconia particles obtained after polymer combustion and sintering of the aggregates are 3.5 [mu]m in diameter with a surface area of 13 m[sup 2]/g, a porosity of 29% and pores ranging from <50 to 350 [angstrom] in diameter. The particles are strong enough to withstand the packing of a HPLC column.

Sun, L.; Annen, M.J.; Lorenzano-Porras, F.; Carr, P.W.; McCormick, A.V. (Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States))

1994-03-15

184

Preparation and characterization of highly porous, biodegradable polyurethane scaffolds for soft tissue applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the engineering of soft tissues, scaffolds with high elastance and strength coupled with controllable biodegradable properties are necessary. To fulfill such design criteria we have previously synthesized two kinds of biodegradable polyurethaneureas, namely poly(ester urethane)urea (PEUU) and poly(ether ester urethane)urea (PEEUU) from polycaprolactone, polycaprolactone-b-polyethylene glycol-b-polycaprolactone, 1,4-diisocyanatobutane and putrescine. PEUU and PEEUU were further fabricated into scaffolds by thermally induced

Jianjun Guan; Kazuro L. Fujimoto; Michael S. Sacks; William R. Wagner

2005-01-01

185

Micro-CT of Porous Apatite Fiber Scaffolds Studied by Projection X-ray Microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydroxyapatite (HAp) has been widely used as a scaffold for repairing fractured bone. For bone regeneration, the crystal structure, crystal orientation, and composition of HAp as well as the morphology of apatite scaffold are considered to be important. The apatite scaffold constructed by single-crystal fibers with pores showed good results for cellular response. Especially, apatite fiber scaffold (AFS) with large pores, 100 to 250 ?m, was found to enhance cell activities such as cell proliferation and differentiation. Here, the three-dimensional (3-D) structure of apatite scaffolds was investigated by means of x-ray computed tomography (x-ray CT) using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) modified projection x-ray microscope. The 3-D structures of apatite fiber scaffolds (AFS) were reconstructed from a series of 180 x-ray projection images taken around a single rotation axis using the Feldkamp-based cone-beam reconstruction method. Extracted cross sections from CT data revealed a network-structure of apatite fibers. The distribution of pores inside the AFS in different preparations was compared.

Moriya, J.; Aizawa, M.; Yoshimura, H.

2011-09-01

186

Grid polymeric scaffolds with polypeptide gel filling as patches for infarcted tissue regeneration.  

PubMed

Scaffolds of poly(ethyl acrylate) (PEA) with interconnected cylindrical orthogonal pores filled with a self-assembling peptide (SAP) gel are here proposed as patches for infarcted tissue regeneration. These combined systems aim to support cell therapy and meet further requirements posed by the application: the three-dimensional architecture of the elastomeric scaffold is expected to lodge the cells of interest in the damaged zone avoiding their death or migration, and at the same time conduct cell behavior and give mechanical support if necessary; the ECM-like polypeptide gel provides a cell-friendly aqueous microenvironment, facilitates diffusion of nutrients and cell wastes and is expected to improve the distribution and viability of the seeded cells within the pores and stimulate angiogenesis. PMID:24111346

Valles-Lluch, A; Arnal-Pastor, M; Martinez-Ramos, C; Vilarino-Feltrer, G; Vikingsson, L; Monleon Pradas, M

2013-01-01

187

Challenges in the characterization of plasma-processed three-dimensional polymeric scaffolds for biomedical applications.  

PubMed

Low-temperature plasmas offer a versatile method for delivering tailored functionality to a range of materials. Despite the vast array of choices offered by plasma processing techniques, there remain a significant number of hurdles that must be overcome to allow this methodology to realize its full potential in the area of biocompatible materials. Challenges include issues associated with analytical characterization, material structure, plasma processing, and uniform composition following treatment. Specific examples and solutions are presented utilizing results from analyses of three-dimensional (3D) poly(?-caprolactone) scaffolds treated with different plasma surface modification strategies that illustrate these challenges well. Notably, many of these strategies result in 3D scaffolds that are extremely hydrophilic and that enhance human Saos-2 osteoblast cell growth and proliferation, which are promising results for applications including tissue engineering and advanced biomedical devices. PMID:24028344

Fisher, Ellen R

2013-10-01

188

Dendritic architectures based on bis-MPA: functional polymeric scaffolds for application-driven research.  

PubMed

Dendritic polymers are highly branched, globular architectures with multiple representations of functional groups. These nanoscale organic frameworks continue to fascinate researchers worldwide and are today under intensive investigation in application-driven research. A large number of potential application areas have been suggested for dendritic polymers, including theranostics, biosensors, optics, adhesives and coatings. The transition from potential to real applications is strongly dictated by their commercial accessibility, scaffolding ability as well as biocompatibility. A dendritic family that fulfills these requirements is based on the 2,2-bismethylolpropionic acid (bis-MPA) monomer. This critical review is the first of its kind to cover most of the research activities generated on aliphatic polyester dendritic architectures based on bis-MPA. It is apparent that these scaffolds will continue to be in the forefront of cutting-edge research as their structural variations are endless including dendrons, dendrimers, hyperbranched polymers, dendritic-linear hybrids and their hybridization with inorganic surfaces. PMID:23628841

Carlmark, Anna; Malmström, Eva; Malkoch, Michael

2013-07-01

189

Evaluation of a new press-fit in situ setting composite porous scaffold for cancellous bone repair: Towards a “surgeon-friendly” bone filler?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, a composite porous material obtained by coating a poly(ester urethane) foam with a calcium phosphate cement is proposed as novel cancellous bone filler with easy handling, in situ hardening and press-fitting properties. The coating can be applied to the foam in the surgical theater, allowing refinement of scaffold shape to the needs of the ongoing surgery. An

M. Peroglio; L. Gremillard; D. Eglin; P. Lezuo; M. Alini; J. Chevalier

2010-01-01

190

Porous surface structure of biocompatible implants and tissue scaffolds base of titanium and nitinol synthesized SLS/M methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objectives of these researches were to investigate the technical fundamentals of synthesizing high-strength biocompatible medical implants and tissue scaffolds made from nitinol or titanium using of Selective Laser Sintering/Melting (SLS/M). In particular, we had been identify the processing parameters and procedures necessary to successfully laser synthesize multi-material and functionally graded implants: the physical and mechanical properties, microstructure, and corrosion behavior of the resulting structures; the shape memory effect in porous layered nitinol structures made using laser synthesis. The comparative morphological and histological results of Selective Laser Sintering of porous titanium and nitinol implants are presented. Studies are conducted also on primary cultures of dermal fibroblasts and mesenchymal stromal human cells of the 4-18 passages. The principle possibility of long cultivating a bone marrow on the porous carrier-incubator from NiTi and titanium in vitro was determined. Sufficient understanding of laser synthesized titanium and nitinol structures to determine their suitability for future use as implants, resulting in superior tissue to implant fixation and minimally invasive surgical procedures, was developed.

Shishkovsky, I.; Sherbakov, V.; Petriv, A.; Kuznetsov, M.; Morozov, Yu.; Volova, L.; Barikov, I.; Fakeev, S.

2007-08-01

191

Mesenchymal stem cell delivery into rat infarcted myocardium using a porous polysaccharide-based scaffold: a quantitative comparison with endocardial injection  

PubMed Central

The use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for tissue regeneration is often hampered by modest engraftment in host tissue. This study was designed to quantitatively compare MSCs engraftment rates after delivery using a polysaccharide-based porous scaffold or endocardial (EC) injection in a rat myocardial infarction model. Cellular engraftment was measured by quantitative RT-PCR using MSCs previously transduced with a lentiviral vector that expresses GFP. The use of a scaffold promoted local cellular engraftment and survival. The number of residual GFP+ cells was greater with the scaffold than after EC injection (9.7% vs 5.1% at 1 month and 16.3% vs 6.1% at 2 months, respectively (n=5)). This concurred with a slight increase in mRNA VEGF level in the scaffold group (p<0.05). Clusters of GFP+ cells were detected in the peri-infarct area, mainly phenotypically consistent with immature MSCs. Functional assessment by echocardiography at 2 months post infarct also showed a trend towards a lower left ventricular dilatation and a reduced fibrosis in the scaffold group in comparison to direct injection group (n=10). These findings demonstrate that using a porous biodegradable scaffold is a promising method to improve cell delivery and engraftment into damaged myocardium.

Le Visage, Catherine; Gournay, Olivier; Benguirat, Najah; Hamidi, Sofiane; Chaussumier, Laetitia; Mougenot, Nathalie; Flanders, James A.; Isnard, Richard; Michel, Jean-Baptiste; Hatem, Stephane N.; Letourneur, Didier; Norol, Francoise

2012-01-01

192

Mesenchymal stem cell delivery into rat infarcted myocardium using a porous polysaccharide-based scaffold: a quantitative comparison with endocardial injection.  

PubMed

The use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for tissue regeneration is often hampered by modest engraftment in host tissue. This study was designed to quantitatively compare MSCs engraftment rates after delivery using a polysaccharide-based porous scaffold or endocardial (EC) injection in a rat myocardial infarction model. Cellular engraftment was measured by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction using MSCs previously transduced with a lentiviral vector that expresses green fluorescent protein (GFP). The use of a scaffold promoted local cellular engraftment and survival. The number of residual GFP(+) cells was greater with the scaffold than after EC injection (9.7% vs. 5.1% at 1 month and 16.3% vs. 6.1% at 2 months, respectively [n=5]). This concurred with a significant increase in mRNA vascular endothelial growth factor level in the scaffold group (p<0.05). Clusters of GFP+ cells were detected in the peri-infarct area, mainly phenotypically consistent with immature MSCs. Functional assessment by echocardiography at 2 months postinfarct also showed a trend toward a lower left ventricular dilatation and a reduced fibrosis in the scaffold group in comparison to direct injection group (n=10). These findings demonstrate that using a porous biodegradable scaffold is a promising method to improve cell delivery and engraftment into damaged myocardium. PMID:21770864

Le Visage, Catherine; Gournay, Olivier; Benguirat, Najah; Hamidi, Sofiane; Chaussumier, Laeticia; Mougenot, Nathalie; Flanders, James A; Isnard, Richard; Michel, Jean-Baptiste; Hatem, Stéphane; Letourneur, Didier; Norol, Françoise

2012-01-01

193

Finite element analysis on the biomechanical stability of open porous titanium scaffolds for large segmental bone defects under physiological load conditions.  

PubMed

Repairing large segmental defects in long bones caused by fracture, tumour or infection is still a challenging problem in orthopaedic surgery. Artificial materials, i.e. titanium and its alloys performed well in clinical applications, are plenary available, and can be manufactured in a wide range of scaffold designs. Although the mechanical properties are determined, studies about the biomechanical behaviour under physiological loading conditions are rare. The goal of our numerical study was to determine the suitability of open-porous titanium scaffolds to act as bone scaffolds. Hence, the mechanical stability of fourteen different scaffold designs was characterized under both axial compression and biomechanical loading within a large segmental distal femoral defect of 30mm. This defect was stabilized with an osteosynthesis plate and physiological hip reaction forces as well as additional muscle forces were implemented to the femoral bone. Material properties of titanium scaffolds were evaluated from experimental testing. Scaffold porosity was varied between 64 and 80%. Furthermore, the amount of material was reduced up to 50%. Uniaxial compression testing revealed a structural modulus for the scaffolds between 3.5GPa and 19.1GPa depending on porosity and material consumption. The biomechanical testing showed defect gap alterations between 0.03mm and 0.22mm for the applied scaffolds and 0.09mm for the intact bone. Our results revealed that minimizing the amount of material of the inner core has a smaller influence than increasing the porosity when the scaffolds are loaded under biomechanical loading. Furthermore, an advanced scaffold design was found acting similar as the intact bone. PMID:22809675

Wieding, Jan; Souffrant, Robert; Mittelmeier, Wolfram; Bader, Rainer

2013-04-01

194

Three-dimensional spheroids of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells are potent initiators of blood vessel formation in porous polyurethane scaffolds.  

PubMed

Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (adMSCs) exhibit a high angiogenic activity. Accordingly, their incorporation into tissue constructs represents a promising vascularization strategy in tissue engineering. In the present study, we analyzed whether the efficacy of this approach can be improved by seeding adMSCs as three-dimensional spheroids onto porous scaffolds. Green fluorescent protein (GFP)-positive adMSCs expressing CD13, CD73, CD90 and CD117 were isolated from C57BL/6-TgN(ACTB-EGFP)1Osb/J mice for the generation of spheroids using the liquid overlay technique. Porous polyurethane scaffolds were seeded with these spheroids or a comparable number of individual adMSCs and implanted into the dorsal skinfold chamber of C57BL/6 wild-type mice. The vascularization of the implants was analyzed and compared to non-seeded scaffolds by means of intravital fluorescence microscopy and immunohistochemistry. The adMSC spheroids exhibited a homogeneous diameter of ~270?m and could easily be incorporated into the scaffolds by dynamic seeding. After implantation, they induced a strong angiogenic host tissue response, resulting in an improved scaffold vascularization with a significantly higher functional microvessel density when compared to non-seeded scaffolds and scaffolds seeded with individual adMSCs. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed that a high fraction of ~40% of all microvessels within the center of spheroid-seeded scaffolds developed from GFP-positive adMSCs. These vessels inosculated with ingrowing GFP-negative vessels of the host. This indicates that adMSC spheroids serve as individual vascularization units, promoting the simultaneous development of new microvascular networks at different locations inside implanted tissue constructs. Thus, adMSC spheroids may be used to increase the efficacy of MSC-based vascularization strategies in future tissue engineering applications. PMID:23415749

Laschke, M W; Schank, T E; Scheuer, C; Kleer, S; Schuler, S; Metzger, W; Eglin, D; Alini, M; Menger, M D

2013-06-01

195

Biomimetic mineralisation of polymeric scaffolds using a combined soaking approach: adaptation with various mineral salts.  

PubMed

Biomimetic strategies which utilise hydrogels have been targeted due to favourable hydrogel characteristics such as the presentation of a large surface area for crystal nucleation within a structured yet responsive scaffold. Chitosan hydrogels were prepared and mineralised using a combined method which involves alternate soaking of the films with precursor solutions, followed by treatment with saturated mineral solution. This method has been shown to be effective for the synthesis of calcium carbonate-chitosan composite materials with tensile strength comparable to nacre. The ratio of organic to inorganic is readily controlled through the presoaking solution concentrations. The ubiquity of this method is shown here with respect to switching out both the anion (CaHPO(4)) and the cation (BaSO(4)). Cation doping is also readily achieved allowing formation of Mg-rich CaCO(3). Poly(acrylic acid) added to (Mg,Ca)CO(3)-chitosan systems induces the formation of two polymorphs (vaterite and calcite) which coexist within the composite material. The mineralised scaffolds were analysed by SEM and powder XRD. The successful mineralisation of chitosan templates with various inorganic compounds shows that this combined approach is widely applicable as a biomimetic approach. PMID:21829842

Munro, Natasha H; McGrath, Kathryn M

2011-09-28

196

Density Gradient Multilayered Polymerization (DGMP): A Novel Technique for Creating Multi-compartment, Customizable Scaffolds for Tissue Engineering  

PubMed Central

Complex tissue culture matrices, in which types and concentrations of biological stimuli (e.g. growth factors, inhibitors, or small molecules) or matrix structure (e.g. composition, concentration, or stiffness of the matrix) vary over space, would enable a wide range of investigations concerning how these variables affect cell differentiation, migration, and other phenomena. The major challenge in creating layered matrices is maintaining the structural integrity of layer interfaces without diffusion of individual components from each layer1. Current methodologies to achieve this include photopatterning2-3, lithography4, sequential functionalization5, freeze drying6, microfluidics7, or centrifugation8, many of which require sophisticated instrumentation and technical skills. Others rely on sequential attachment of individual layers, which may lead to delamination of layers9. DGMP overcomes these issues by using an inert density modifier such as iodixanol to create layers of varying densities10. Since the density modifier can be mixed with any prepolymer or bioactive molecule, DGMP allows each scaffold layer to be customized. Simply varying the concentration of the density modifier prevents mixing of adjacent layers while they remain aqueous. Subsequent single step polymerization gives rise to a structurally continuous multilayered scaffold, in which each layer has distinct chemical and mechanical properties. The density modifier can be easily removed with sufficient rinsing without perturbation of the individual layers or their components. This technique is therefore well suited for creating hydrogels of various sizes, shapes, and materials. A protocol for fabricating a 2D-polyethylene glycol (PEG) gel, in which alternating layers incorporate RGDS-350, is outlined below. We use PEG because it is biocompatible and inert. RGDS, a cell adhesion peptide11, is used to demonstrate spatial restriction of a biological cue, and the conjugation of a fluorophore (Alexa Fluor 350) enables us to visually distinguish various layers. This procedure can be adapted for other materials (e.g. collagen, hyaluronan, etc.) and can be extended to fabricate 3D gels with some modifications10.

Joshi-Barr, Shivanjali; Karpiak, Jerome V.; Ner, Yogesh; Wen, Jessica H.; Engler, Adam J.; Almutairi, Adah

2013-01-01

197

Density gradient multilayered polymerization (DGMP): a novel technique for creating multi-compartment, customizable scaffolds for tissue engineering.  

PubMed

Complex tissue culture matrices, in which types and concentrations of biological stimuli (e.g. growth factors, inhibitors, or small molecules) or matrix structure (e.g. composition, concentration, or stiffness of the matrix) vary over space, would enable a wide range of investigations concerning how these variables affect cell differentiation, migration, and other phenomena. The major challenge in creating layered matrices is maintaining the structural integrity of layer interfaces without diffusion of individual components from each layer. Current methodologies to achieve this include photopatterning, lithography, sequential functionalization5, freeze drying, microfluidics, or centrifugation, many of which require sophisticated instrumentation and technical skills. Others rely on sequential attachment of individual layers, which may lead to delamination of layers. DGMP overcomes these issues by using an inert density modifier such as iodixanol to create layers of varying densities. Since the density modifier can be mixed with any prepolymer or bioactive molecule, DGMP allows each scaffold layer to be customized. Simply varying the concentration of the density modifier prevents mixing of adjacent layers while they remain aqueous. Subsequent single step polymerization gives rise to a structurally continuous multilayered scaffold, in which each layer has distinct chemical and mechanical properties. The density modifier can be easily removed with sufficient rinsing without perturbation of the individual layers or their components. This technique is therefore well suited for creating hydrogels of various sizes, shapes, and materials. A protocol for fabricating a 2D-polyethylene glycol (PEG) gel, in which alternating layers incorporate RGDS-350, is outlined below. We use PEG because it is biocompatible and inert. RGDS, a cell adhesion peptide, is used to demonstrate spatial restriction of a biological cue, and the conjugation of a fluorophore (Alexa Fluor 350) enables us to visually distinguish various layers. This procedure can be adapted for other materials (e.g. collagen, hyaluronan, etc.) and can be extended to fabricate 3D gels with some modifications. PMID:23426045

Joshi-Barr, Shivanjali; Karpiak, Jerome V; Ner, Yogesh; Wen, Jessica H; Engler, Adam J; Almutairi, Adah

2013-01-01

198

Experimental repair of segmental bone defects in rabbits by angiopoietin-1 gene transfected MSCs seeded on porous ?-TCP scaffolds.  

PubMed

Segmental bone defect repair remains a clinical and experimental challenge in tissue engineering with increasing focus on angiogenesis in the bone substitutes. The objective of this study was to investigate the osteogenic effects of angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1) gene transfected bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) seeded on porous ?-TCP scaffolds. This bone substitute (experimental group) and MSCs/?-TCP compounds (control group) were implanted into 15 mm segmental bone defects of the radii of 30 New Zealand white rabbits, with platelet-rich plasma injected at the same time. Bone regeneration and angiogenesis were assessed by Scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray, histology, immunohistology, and biomechanical outcome measurements made on the 2nd, 4th, 8th, and 12th week after the operation. In vitro, the amount of proliferation and differentiation of Ang-1 gene transfected MSCs was found to be gross increased than that of the control groups. In vivo, a significantly increased amount of new bone formation accompanied by active capillary vasculature regeneration was observed in the pores of the scaffolds which had been seeded with Ang-1 gene transfected MSCs, as compared with the control groups. The biomechanical test confirmed the failure load of new born bone was close to normal bone. These results suggest that transfer of gene encoding Ang-1 to MSCs increases their osteogenic properties by enhancing capillary regeneration, thus providing a rich blood supply for new bone formation in segmental bone defects. PMID:22576851

Cao, Le; Liu, Xudong; Liu, Shen; Jiang, Yao; Zhang, Xianlong; Zhang, Changqing; Zeng, Bingfang

2012-07-01

199

Fabrication of Porous Hydroxyapatite-Gelatin Composite Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: engineering new bone tissue with cells and a synthetic extracellular matrix represents a new approach for the regeneration of mineralized tissues compared with the transplantation of bone (autografts or allografts). Methods: in this study, to mimic the mineral and organic component of natural bone, hydroxapatite (HA) and gelatin (GEL) composite scaffolds were prepared. The raw materials were first compounded

Mehdi Kazemzadeh Narbat; Fariba Orang; Mehran Solati Hashtjin; Azadeh Goudarzi

2006-01-01

200

Biocompatibility of a porous alumina ceramic scaffold coated with hydroxyapatite and bioglass.  

PubMed

This study aimed to evaluate the osteointegration and genotoxic potential of a bioactive scaffold, composed of alumina and coated with hydroxyapatite and bioglass, after their implantation in tibias of rats. For this purpose, Wistar rats underwent surgery to induce a tibial bone defect, which was filled with the bioactive scaffolds. Histology analysis (descriptive and morphometry) of the bone tissue and the single-cell gel assay (comet) in multiple organs (blood, liver, and kidney) were used to reach this aim after a period of 30, 60, 90, and 180 days of material implantation. The main findings showed that the incorporation of hydroxyapatite and bioglass in the alumina scaffolds produced a suitable environment for bone ingrowth in the tibial defects and did not demonstrate any genotoxicity in the organs evaluated in all experimental periods. These results clearly indicate that the bioactive scaffolds used in this study present osteogenic potential and still exhibit local and systemic biocompatibility. These findings are promising once they convey important information about the behavior of this novel biomaterial in biological system and highlight its possible clinical application. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 102A: 2072-2078, 2014. PMID:23894045

Kido, Hueliton Wilian; Ribeiro, Daniel Araki; de Oliveira, Poliani; Parizotto, Nivaldo Antônio; Camilo, Claudia Cristiane; Fortulan, Carlos Alberto; Marcantonio, Elcio; da Silva, Victor Hugo Pereira; Muniz Renno, Ana Claudia

2014-07-01

201

Highly porous and mechanically robust polyester poly(ethylene glycol) sponges as implantable scaffolds.  

PubMed

The development of suitable scaffolds plays a significant role in tissue engineering research. Although scaffolds with promising features have been produced via a variety of innovative methods, there are no fully synthetic tissue engineering scaffolds that possess all the desired properties in one three-dimensional construct. Herein, we report the development of novel polyester poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) sponges that display many of the desirable scaffold characteristics. Our novel synthetic approach utilizes acidchloride/alcohol chemistry, whereby the reaction between a hydroxyl end-functionalized 4-arm PEG and sebacoyl chloride resulted in cross-linking and simultaneous hydrogen chloride gas production, which was exploited for the in situ formation of highly interconnected pores. Variation of the fabrication conditions, including the precursor volume and concentration, allowed the pore size and structure as well as the compressive properties to be tailored. The sponges were found to possess excellent elastic properties, preserving their shape even after 80% compressive strain without failure. The benign properties of the sponges were demonstrated in an in vivo subcutaneous rat model, which also revealed uniform infiltration of vascularized tissue by 8weeks and complete degradation of the sponges by 16weeks, with only a minimal inflammatory response being observed over the course of the experiments. PMID:24561711

Ozcelik, Berkay; Blencowe, Anton; Palmer, Jason; Ladewig, Katharina; Stevens, Geoffrey W; Abberton, Keren M; Morrison, Wayne A; Qiao, Greg G

2014-06-01

202

Fabrication of Scaffolds and Micro-Lenses Array in a Negative Photopolymer SZ2080 by Multi-Photon Polymerization and Four-Femtosecond-Beam Interference  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multi-photon polymerization using interference of several laser beams is a promising technique for mass fabrication of 3D periodic micro-structures over large areas, which can be used in micro-biology (artificial scaffolds), photonics (photonics crystals), micro-optics (micro-lenses). While the direct laser writing (DLW) approach is a relatively slow process, use of the interference field can be a significantly faster alternative route of

Evaldas Stankevi?ius; Mangirdas Malinauskas; Gediminas Ra?iukaitis

2011-01-01

203

Direct laser writing and geometrical analysis of scaffolds with designed pore architecture for three-dimensional cell culturing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traditional scaffold fabrication methods used in tissue engineering enable only limited control over essential parameters such as porosity, pore size and pore interconnectivity. In this study, we designed and fabricated five different types of three-dimensionally interconnected, highly porous scaffolds with precise control over the scaffold characteristics. We used two-photon polymerization (2PP) with a commercial polymer-ceramic material (Ormocomp®) for scaffold fabrication. Also for the first time, we analyzed the 2PP fabrication accuracy with respect to scaffold design parameters. Our results showed that the porosity values decreased up to 13% compared to the design specifications due to the fabrication process and the shrinkage of the material. Finally, we showed that our scaffolds supported human adipose stem cell adhesion and proliferation in a six day culture. By precise tuning of scaffold parameters, our design and fabrication method provides a novel approach for studying the effect of scaffold architecture on cell behavior in vitro.

Käpylä, Elli; Aydogan, Dogu Baran; Virjula, Sanni; Vanhatupa, Sari; Miettinen, Susanna; Hyttinen, Jari; Kellomäki, Minna

2012-11-01

204

Polymeric scaffolds prepared via Thermally Induced Phase Separation (TIPS): tuning of structure and morphology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scaffolds suitable for tissue engineering applications were prepared by Thermally Induced Phase Separation (TIPS) starting from a ternary solution PLLA/dioxane/water. The experimental protocol consisted of three consecutive steps, a first quench from the homogeneous solution to an appropriate demixing temperature (within the metastable region), a holding stage for a given residence time and a final quench from the demixing temperature to a low temperature (within the unstable region). A large variety of morphologies, in terms of average pore size and interconnection, were obtained upon modifying the demixing time and temperature, owing to the interplay of nucleation and growth processes during the residence in the metastable state. An interesting combination of micro and macro-porosity was observed for long residence times in the metastable state (above 30 min at 35°C).

Pavia, F. Carfì; La Carrubba, V.; Brucato, V.; Piccarolo, S.

2007-04-01

205

Preparation of functional polyamine scaffolds via Mitsunobu post-polymerization modification reactions.  

PubMed

A Mitsunobu reaction of trifluoroacetamide (TFA amide) and alcohols is used in a postpolymerization modification process. The reaction is conducted on polystyrene (PSt) bearing 20 mol% TFA amide groups with 4-methyl benzyl alcohol in the presence of a N,N,N?,N ?-tetramethylazodicarboxamide and tributylphosphine as mediators. The Mitsunobu reaction on polymer proceeds efficiently, as confirmed by the obvious precipitation generation during the reaction and the conversion of TFA amide moiety reached 88.6% confirmed by 19 F NMR measurement, yielding PSt bearing tertiary TFA amide moieties. The obtained polymers featuring tertiary TFA amide moieties are deprotected in the presence of tetrabutylammonium hydroxide as a base to afford corresponding polymers featuring functionalized polyamine scaffolds with 92.5% conversion. In addition, the precise structural assignment is proven by synthesis and analysis of the model monomeric compounds and the respective model polymers. PMID:24643994

Kakuchi, Ryohei; Theato, Patrick

2014-03-01

206

Polymeric molecular sieve membranes via in situ cross-linking of non-porous polymer membrane templates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-performance polymeric membranes for gas separation are attractive for molecular-level separations in industrial-scale chemical, energyand environmental processes. Molecular sieving materials are widely regarded as the next-generation membranes to simultaneously achieve high permeability and selectivity. However, most polymeric molecular sieve membranes are based on a few solution-processable polymers such as polymers of intrinsic microporosity. Here we report an in situ cross-linking strategy for the preparation of polymeric molecular sieve membranes with hierarchical and tailorable porosity. These membranes demonstrate exceptional performance as molecular sieves with high gas permeabilities and selectivities for smaller gas molecules, such as carbon dioxide and oxygen, over larger molecules such as nitrogen. Hence, these membranes have potential for large-scale gas separations of commercial and environmental relevance. Moreover, this strategy could provide a possible alternative to ‘classical’ methods for the preparation of porous membranes and, in some cases, the only viable synthetic route towards certain membranes.

Qiao, Zhen-An; Chai, Song-Hai; Nelson, Kimberly; Bi, Zhonghe; Chen, Jihua; Mahurin, Shannon M.; Zhu, Xiang; Dai, Sheng

2014-04-01

207

Polymeric molecular sieve membranes via in situ cross-linking of non-porous polymer membrane templates.  

PubMed

High-performance polymeric membranes for gas separation are attractive for molecular-level separations in industrial-scale chemical, energyand environmental processes. Molecular sieving materials are widely regarded as the next-generation membranes to simultaneously achieve high permeability and selectivity. However, most polymeric molecular sieve membranes are based on a few solution-processable polymers such as polymers of intrinsic microporosity. Here we report an in situ cross-linking strategy for the preparation of polymeric molecular sieve membranes with hierarchical and tailorable porosity. These membranes demonstrate exceptional performance as molecular sieves with high gas permeabilities and selectivities for smaller gas molecules, such as carbon dioxide and oxygen, over larger molecules such as nitrogen. Hence, these membranes have potential for large-scale gas separations of commercial and environmental relevance. Moreover, this strategy could provide a possible alternative to 'classical' methods for the preparation of porous membranes and, in some cases, the only viable synthetic route towards certain membranes. PMID:24739439

Qiao, Zhen-An; Chai, Song-Hai; Nelson, Kimberly; Bi, Zhonghe; Chen, Jihua; Mahurin, Shannon M; Zhu, Xiang; Dai, Sheng

2014-01-01

208

Challenges for Nerve Repair Using Chitosan-Siloxane Hybrid Porous Scaffolds  

PubMed Central

The treatment of peripheral nerve injuries remains one of the greatest challenges of neurosurgery, as functional recover is rarely satisfactory in these patients. Recently, biodegradable nerve guides have shown great potential for enhancing nerve regeneration. A major advantage of these nerve guides is that no foreign material remains after the device has fulfilled its task, which spares a second surgical intervention. Recently, we studied peripheral nerve regeneration using chitosan-?-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (chitosan-GPTMS) porous hybrid membranes. In our studies, these porous membranes significantly improved nerve fiber regeneration and functional recovery in rat models of axonotmetic and neurotmetic sciatic nerve injuries. In particular, the number of regenerated myelinated nerve fibers and myelin thickness were significantly higher in rat treated with chitosan porous hybrid membranes, whether or not they were used in combination with mesenchymal stem cells isolated from the Wharton's jelly of the umbilical cord. In this review, we describe our findings on the use of chitosan-GPTMS hybrids for nerve regeneration.

Shirosaki, Yuki; Hayakawa, Satoshi; Osaka, Akiyoshi; Lopes, Maria A.; Santos, Jose D.; Geuna, Stefano; Mauricio, Ana C.

2014-01-01

209

In vitro and in vivo evaluation of porous PCL-PLLA 3D polymer scaffolds fabricated via salt leaching method for bone tissue engineering applications.  

PubMed

Three dimensional porous scaffolds composed of various ratios of polycaprolactone and poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) were prepared using salt leaching method for bone regeneration applications. Surfaces of the scaffolds were visualized using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and the combination of the polymers was confirmed by FT-IR. Addition of PLLA increased the porosity and pore sizes of the scaffolds and also the scaffolds' compressive strength initially. Osteoblast-like cells were used and it was found that the samples' cell biocompatibility was further promoted with the increase in PLLA content as observed via cell proliferation assays using MTT, gene expression with RT-PCR, and micrographs from SEM and confocal microscopy. Samples were then implanted into male rabbits for 2 months, and histological staining and micro-CT histomorphometry show that new bone formations were detected in the site containing the implants of the scaffolds and that bone regeneration was further promoted with the increased concentration of PLLA in the scaffold. PMID:24138179

Sadiasa, Alexander; Nguyen, Thi Hiep; Lee, Byong-Taek

2014-01-01

210

Biomimetic mineralisation of polymeric scaffolds using a combined soaking and Kitano approach.  

PubMed

Chitosan hydrogels are of considerable interest in synthetic biomimetic mineralisation strategies due to their favourable characteristics such as the presentation of a large surface area for crystal nucleation within a structured yet responsive scaffold. Chitosan hydrogels were prepared and subsequently calcium carbonate mineralisation was initiated using a method which combines alternate soaking of the films with precursor solutions followed by treatment with Kitano solution. This combined approach allows for increased extent of mineralisation, inducement of mineralisation uniformly throughout the hydrogel rather than only at the peripheral surface and ready scalability and shape manipulation. The base synthetic system is readily modified through the introduction of additives that manipulate the nucleation and growth of the calcium carbonate. Addition of poly(acrylic acid) inhibits nucleation and induces tangential crystal growth along the internal and external interfaces of the hydrogel. The resulting composite is comprised of stacked overlapping plates of calcium carbonate intercalated with carbohydrate. The method is applicable in combination with a variety of hydrogels including macroporous chitosan, chitosan-alginate bilayers and pure alginate hydrogels. The composite materials were analysed by SEM, XRD, microRaman spectroscopy and mechanical strength testing. PMID:21829841

Munro, Natasha H; Green, David W; Dangerfield, Ashley; McGrath, Kathryn M

2011-09-28

211

The Interconnected Roles of Scaffold Hydrophobicity, Drug Loading and Encapsulation Stability in Polymeric Nanocarriers  

PubMed Central

Polymer-based nanoassemblies have emerged as viable platforms for the encapsulation and delivery of lipophilic molecules. Among the criteria that such carriers must meet, if they are to be effective, are the abilities to efficiently solubilize lipophilic guests within an assembled scaffold and to stably encapsulate the molecular cargo until desired release is achieved through the actions of appropriately chosen stimuli. The former feature, dictated by the inherent loading capacity of a nanocarrier, is well studied and it has been established that slight variations in assembly structure, such as introducing hydrophobic content, can improve miscibility with the lipophilic guests and increase the driving force for encapsulation. However, such clear correlations between assembly properties and the latter feature, nanocarrier encapsulation stability, are not yet established. For this purpose, we have investigated the effects of varying hydrophobic content on the loading parameters and encapsulation stabilities of self-crosslinked polymer nanogels. Through investigating this nanogel series, we have observed a fundamental relationship between nanoassembly structure, loading capacity and encapsulation stability. Furthermore, a combined analysis of data from different loading amounts suggests a model of loading-dependent encapsulation stability that underscores an important correlation between the principal features of noncovalent encapsulation in supramolecular hosts.

Bickerton, Sean; Jiwpanich, Siriporn; Thayumanavan, S.

2012-01-01

212

Sealant for porous fuel cell component frames using polymerization of monomers  

SciTech Connect

A sealed porous plate for use in a fuel cell is described, the porous plate having at least one edge, wherein the sealed porous plate is formed using the steps of: (a) combining a volatile free sealant with a catalyst to form a mixture; (b) impregnating at least one edge of the porous plate with the mixture, wherein the mixture essentially fills the porous void volume of the edge of the porous plate; (c) thermally shocking the mixture to a partially cured state; and (d) post curing the partially cured mixture; whereby the seal is essentially 100% leak-proof.

Singelyn, J.D.; Elmore, D.E.

1993-06-15

213

Porous chitosan scaffolds with surface micropatterning and inner porosity and their effects on Schwann cells.  

PubMed

Chitosan is found to promote the regeneration of peripheral nerve system in our previous studies, whereas the regeneration speed is not satisfied with clinical request. Micropatterning could promote cell orientation and growth, however, the effect of porous chitosan micropatterning on nerve regeneration is rarely reported. In this study, the porous chitosan micropatterning with surface ridge/groove and inner porosity structure was fabricated using a combination of micromodeling and lyophilization method. The morphology and stability of the prepared chitosan micropatterning were evaluated, the regulation of Schwann cells behavior by chitosan micropatterning was evaluated. The results showed that the chitosan micropatterning displayed stripe-like structure with a clear and complete edge. The micropatterning with 30/30 ?m was more stable than 20/20 ?m sample. Schwann cells on chitosan micropatterning showed orientation adhesion and began to grow along a certain direction after culture for 2 h, and displayed the minimal orientation angle and the largest length/width ratio on 30/30 ?m micropatterning after further culture for 3 d and 5 d, indicating the most obvious cell orientation. Moreover, the secretion of nerve growth factor (NGF) demonstrated that the micropatterned chitosan had no negative influence on the physiological function of Schwann cells. Thus, the results indicate that the porous chitosan micropatterning can regulate Schwann cell growth well, which may have potential application in nerve regeneration. The study provides an important basis for constructing porous nerve conduit with micropatterning structure in the inner wall. PMID:25002265

Li, Guicai; Zhao, Xueying; Zhao, Weixin; Zhang, Luzhong; Wang, Caiping; Jiang, Maorong; Gu, Xiaosong; Yang, Yumin

2014-10-01

214

Cell proliferation and migration in silk fibroin 3D scaffolds.  

PubMed

Pore architecture in 3D polymeric scaffolds is known to play a critical role in tissue engineering as it provides the vital framework for the seeded cells to organize into a functioning tissue. In this report, we investigated the effects of different freezing temperature regimes on silk fibroin protein 3D scaffold pore microstructure. The fabricated scaffolds using freeze-dry technique were used as a 3D model to monitor cell proliferation and migration. Pores of 200-250microm diameter were formed by slow cooling at temperatures of -20 and -80 degrees C but were found to be limited in porosity and pore interconnectivity as observed through scanning electron microscopic images. In contrast, highly interconnected pores with 96% porosity were observed when silk solutions were rapidly frozen at -196 degrees C. A detailed study was conducted to assess the affect of pore size, porosity and interconnectivity on human dermal fibroblast cell proliferation and migration on these 3D scaffolds using confocal microscopy. The cells were observed to migrate within the scaffold interconnectivities and were found to reach scaffold periphery within 28 days of culture. Confocal images further confirmed normal cell attachment and alignment of actin filaments within the porous scaffold matrix with well-developed nuclei. This study indicates rapid freeze-drying technique as an alternative method to fabricate highly interconnected porous scaffolds for developing functional 3D silk fibroin matrices for potential tissue engineering, biomedical and biotechnological applications. PMID:19249094

Mandal, Biman B; Kundu, Subhas C

2009-05-01

215

Peptide-Directed Self-Assembly of Functionalized Polymeric Nanoparticles Part I: Design and Self-Assembly of Peptide-Copolymer Conjugates into Nanoparticle Fibers and 3D Scaffolds.  

PubMed

A robust self-assembly of nanoparticles into fibers and 3D scaffolds is designed and fabricated by functionalizing a RAFT-polymerized amphiphilic triblock copolymer with designer ionic complementary peptides so that the assembled core-shell polymeric nanoparticles are directed by peptide assembly into continuous "nanoparticle fibers," ultimately leading to 3D fiber scaffolds. The assembled nanostructure is confirmed by FESEM and optical microscopy. The assembly is not hindered when a protein (insulin) is incorporated within the nanoparticles as an active ingredient. MTS cytotoxicity tests on SW-620 cell lines show that the peptides, copolymers, and peptide-copolymer conjugates are biocompatible. The methodology of self-assembled nanoparticle fibers and 3D scaffolds is intended to combine the advantages of a flexible hydrogel scaffold with the versatility of controlled release nanoparticles to offer unprecedented ability to incorporate desired drug(s) within a self-assembled scaffold system with individual control over the release of each drug. PMID:24610743

Ding, Xiaochu; Janjanam, Jagadeesh; Tiwari, Ashutosh; Thompson, Martin; Heiden, Patricia A

2014-06-01

216

Toward stereoselective lactide polymerization catalysts: cationic zinc complexes supported by a chiral phosphinimine scaffold.  

PubMed

The P-stereogenic phosphinimine ligands (dbf)MePhP?NAr (7: Ar = Dipp; 8: Ar = Mes; dbf = dibenzofuran, Dipp = 2,6-diisopropylphenyl, Mes = 2,4,6-trimethylphenyl) were synthesized as racemates via reactions of the parent phosphines (rac)-(dbf)MePhP (6) with organoazides. The ligands 7 and 8 were protonated by Brønsted acids to afford the aminophosphonium borate salts [(7)-H][BAr(4)] (9: Ar = C(6)F(5); 11: Ar = Ph) and [(8)-H][BAr(4)] (10: Ar = C(6)F(5); 12: Ar = Ph). The protonated ligands 9 and 10 were active toward alkane elimination reactions with diethylzinc and ethyl-[methyl-(S)-lactate]zinc to give the heteroleptic complexes [{(dbf)MePhP?NAr}ZnR][B(C(6)F(5))(4)] (Ar = Dipp, 13: R = Et; 15: R = methyl-(S)-lactate; Ar = Mes, 14: R = Et; 16: R = methyl-(S)-lactate). By contrast, reaction of the tetraphenylborate derivative 11 with diethylzinc yielded a phenyl transfer product, [(dbf)MePhP?NDipp]ZnPh(2) (17). Complex 15 was found to catalyze the ring-opening polymerization of rac-lactide. PMID:21790171

Sun, Hongsui; Ritch, Jamie S; Hayes, Paul G

2011-09-01

217

Production and in vitro characterization of 3D porous scaffolds made of magnesium carbonate apatite (MCA)/anionic collagen using a biomimetic approach.  

PubMed

3D porous scaffolds are relevant biomaterials to bone engineering as they can be used as templates to tissue reconstruction. The aim of the present study was to produce and characterize in vitro 3D magnesium-carbonate apatite/collagen (MCA/col) scaffolds. They were prepared by using biomimetic approach, followed by cross-linking with 0.25% glutaraldehyde solution (GA) and liofilization. Results obtained with Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) confirmed the type-B carbonate substitution, while by X-ray diffraction (XRD), a crystallite size of ~10nm was obtained. Optical and electron microscopy showed that the cylindrical samples exhibited an open-porous morphology, with apatite nanocrystals precipitated on collagen fibrils. The cross-linked 3D scaffolds showed integrity when immersed in culture medium up to 14 days. Also, the immersion of such samples into an acid buffer solution, to mimic the osteoclastic resorption environment, promotes the release of important ions for bone repair, such as calcium, phosphorus and magnesium. Bone cells (SaOs2) adhered, and proliferated on the 3D composite scaffolds, showing that synthesis and the cross-linking processes did not induce cytotoxicity. PMID:23910332

Sader, Marcia S; Martins, Virginia C A; Gomez, Santiago; LeGeros, Racquel Z; Soares, Gloria A

2013-10-01

218

Simulation of Cell Seeding Within a Three-Dimensional Porous Scaffold: A Fluid-Particle Analysis  

PubMed Central

Cell seeding is a critical step in tissue engineering. A high number of cells evenly distributed in scaffolds after seeding are associated with a more functional tissue culture. Furthermore, high cell densities have shown the possibility to reduce culture time or increase the formation of tissue. Experimentally, it is difficult to predict the cell-seeding process. In this study, a new methodology to simulate the cell-seeding process under perfusion conditions is proposed. The cells are treated as spherical particles dragged by the fluid media, where the physical parameters are computed through a Lagrangian formulation. The methodology proposed enables to define the kinetics of cell seeding continuously over time. An exponential relationship was found to optimize the seeding time and the number of cells seeded in the scaffold. The cell distribution and cell efficiency predicted using this methodology were similar to the experimental results of Melchels et al. One of the main advantages of this method is to be able to determine the three-dimensional position of all the seeded cells and to, therefore, better know the initial conditions for further cell proliferation and differentiation studies. This study opens up the field of numerical predictions related to the interactions between biomaterials, cells, and dynamics media.

Olivares, Andy L.

2012-01-01

219

Computer-Aided Process Planning for the Layered Fabrication of Porous Scaffold Matrices  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Rapid Prototyping (RP) technology promises to have a tremendous impact on the design and fabrication of porous tissue replacement\\u000a structures for applications in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. The layer-by-layer fabrication technology enables\\u000a the design of patient-specific medical implants and complex structures for diseased tissue replacement strategies. Combined\\u000a with advancements in imaging modalities and bio-modeling software, physicians can engage themselves

Binil Starly

2010-01-01

220

Porous Tantalum Trabecular Metal Scaffolds in Combination with a Novel Marrow Processing Technique to Replace Autograft  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Introduction. Interbody fusion requires a structural member to carry load while the autograft or osteoinductive agent stimulates bone formation.\\u000a In the present study, we evaluated the potential use of extracted nucleated cells from bone marrow mixed in hyaluronic acid\\u000a gel as an osteoinductive agent, in comparison to Collagraft loaded with nucleated cells or rhBMP-2 in the porous tantalum\\u000a ring, in

Xuenong Zou; Haisheng Li; Lijin Zou; Tina Mygind; Martin Lind; Cody Bünger

221

Fabrication of three-dimensional nano, micro and micro/nano scaffolds of porous poly(lactic acid) by electrospinning and comparison of cell infiltration by Z-stacking/three-dimensional projection technique.  

PubMed

The use of electrospun extracellular matrix (ECM)-mimicking nanofibrous scaffolds for tissue engineering is limited by poor cellular infiltration. The authors hypothesised that cell penetration could be enhanced in scaffolds by using a hierarchical structure where nano fibres are combined with micron-scale fibres while preserving the overall scaffold architecture. To assess this, we fabricated electrospun porous poly(lactic acid) (PLA) scaffolds having nanoscale, microscale and combined micro/nano architecture and evaluated the structural characteristics and biological response in detail. Although the bioactivity was intermediate to that for nanofibre and microfibre scaffold, a unique result of this study was that the micro/nano combined fibrous scaffold showed improved cell infiltration and distribution than the nanofibrous scaffold. Although the cells were found to be lining the scaffold periphery in the case of nanofibrous scaffold, micro/nano scaffolds had cells dispersed throughout the scaffold. Further, as expected, the addition of nanoparticles of hydroxyapatite (nHAp) improved the bioactivity, although it did not play a significant role in cell penetration. Thus, this strategy of creating a three-dimensional (3D) micro/nano architecture that would increase the porosity of the fibrous scaffold and thereby improving the cell penetration, can be utilised for the generation of functional tissue engineered constructs in vitro. PMID:22423866

Shalumon, K T; Chennazhi, K P; Tamura, H; Kawahara, K; Nair, S V; Jayakumar, R

2012-03-01

222

Evaluation of a new press-fit in situ setting composite porous scaffold for cancellous bone repair: towards a "surgeon-friendly" bone filler?  

PubMed

In this study, a composite porous material obtained by coating a poly(ester urethane) foam with a calcium phosphate cement is proposed as novel cancellous bone filler with easy handling, in situ hardening and press-fitting properties. The coating can be applied to the foam in the surgical theater, allowing refinement of scaffold shape to the needs of the ongoing surgery. An innovative experiment was developed in order to determine the setting curve of the composite scaffold as well as the time of manipulation available to the surgeon without risk of material damage. This composite material is soft and can be press-fit in a cavity without damaging the scaffold in the first 5 min after coating application. The composite scaffold hardens quickly (22 min) and, once the cement has set, its compressive strength and fracture energy are increased by over an order of magnitude as compared to the initial poly(ester urethane) foam. This set of interesting properties makes calcium phosphate cement-coated elastomeric scaffolds a new promising strategy for cancellous bone filling. PMID:20230921

Peroglio, M; Gremillard, L; Eglin, D; Lezuo, P; Alini, M; Chevalier, J

2010-09-01

223

Porous methacrylate scaffolds: supercritical fluid fabrication and in vitro chondrocyte responses.  

PubMed

This paper describes a method of foaming a polymer system comprising poly(ethyl methacrylate)/tetrahydrofurfuryl methacrylate (PEMA/THFMA), characterisation of the resulting porosity and use of the foam for chondrocyte culture. The potential for this polymer system to support cartilage repair has been investigated previously, both in vivo and in vitro. PEMA/THFMA foamed created using supercritical carbon dioxide were characterised using scanning electron microscopy, mercury intrusion porosimetry and helium pycnometry. Foams were found to be 82% porous with open porosities of 57%. The mean pore diameter was found to be 99+60 microm. Bovine chondrocytes seeded directly onto the surface of the foamed and unfoamed PEMA/THFMA demonstrated lower proliferation on the foamed material, greater retention of the rounded cell morphology and increased glycosaminoglycan synthesis. In conclusion, this study has shown that a porous PEMA/THFMA system can further enhance the ability of the material to support chondrocytes in vitro. However, further modifications in processing are necessary to determine optimum conditions for cartilage tissue formation. PMID:15020130

Barry, J J A; Gidda, H S; Scotchford, C A; Howdle, S M

2004-08-01

224

Spatial control of bone formation using a porous polymer scaffold co-delivering anabolic rhBMP-2 and anti-resorptive agents.  

PubMed

Current clinical delivery of recombinant human bone morphogenetic proteins (rhBMPs) utilises freeze-dried collagen. Despite effective new bone generation, rhBMP via collagen can be limited by significant complications due to inflammation and uncontrolled bone formation. This study aimed to produce an alternative rhBMP local delivery system to permit more controllable and superior rhBMP-induced bone formation. Cylindrical porous poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) scaffolds were manufactured by thermally-induced phase separation. Scaffolds were encapsulated with anabolic rhBMP-2 (20 µg) ± anti-resorptive agents: zoledronic acid (5 µg ZA), ZA pre-adsorbed onto hydroxyapatite microparticles, (5 µg ZA/2% HA) or IkappaB kinase (IKK) inhibitor (10 µg PS-1145). Scaffolds were inserted in a 6-mm critical-sized femoral defect in Wistar rats, and compared against rhBMP-2 via collagen. The regenerate region was examined at 6 weeks by 3D microCT and descriptive histology. MicroCT and histology revealed rhBMP-induced bone was more restricted in the PLGA scaffolds than collagen scaffolds (-92.3% TV, p < 0.01). The regenerate formed by PLGA + rhBMP-2/ZA/HA showed comparable bone volume to rhBMP-2 via collagen, and bone mineral density was +9.1% higher (p < 0.01). Local adjunct ZA/HA or PS-1145 significantly enhanced PLGA + rhBMP-induced bone formation by +78.2% and +52.0%, respectively (p ? 0.01). Mechanistically, MG-63 human osteoblast-like cells showed cellular invasion and proliferation within PLGA scaffolds. In conclusion, PLGA scaffolds enabled superior spatial control of rhBMP-induced bone formation over clinically-used collagen. The PLGA scaffold has the potential to avoid uncontrollable bone formation-related safety issues and to customise bone shape by scaffold design. Moreover, local treatment with anti-resorptive agents incorporated within the scaffold further augmented rhBMP-induced bone formation. PMID:24488823

Yu, N Y C; Gdalevitch, M; Murphy, C M; Mikulec, K; Peacock, L; Fitzpatrick, J; Cantrill, L C; Ruys, A J; Cooper-White, J J; Little, D G; Schindeler, A

2014-01-01

225

Biomimetic alginate/polyacrylamide porous scaffold supports human mesenchymal stem cell proliferation and chondrogenesis.  

PubMed

We describe the development of alginate/polyacrylamide (ALG/PAAm) porous hydrogels based on interpenetrating polymer network structure for human mesenchymal stem cell proliferation and chondrogenesis. Three ALG/PAAm hydrogels at molar ratios of 10/90, 20/80, and 30/70 were prepared and characterized with enhanced elastic and rubbery mechanical properties, which are similar to native human cartilage tissues. Their elasticity and swelling properties were also studied under different physiological pH conditions. Finally, in vitro tests demonstrated that human mesenchymal stem cells could proliferate on the as-synthesized hydrogels with improved alkaline phosphatase activities. These results suggest that ALG/PAAm hydrogels may be a promising biomaterial for cartilage tissue engineering. PMID:25063162

Guo, Peng; Yuan, Yasheng; Chi, Fanglu

2014-09-01

226

A new method for the preparation of polymeric porous layer open tubular columns for GC application  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new method to prepare polymeric PLOT columns by using in situ polymerization technology is described. The method involves a straightforward in situ polymerization of the monomer. The polymer produced is directly coated on the metal tubing. This eliminates many of the steps needed in conventional polymeric PLOT column preparation. Our method is easy to operate and produces very reproducible columns, as shown previously (T. C. Shen. J. Chromatogr. Sci. 30, 239, 1992). The effects of solvents, tubing pretreatments, initiators and reaction temperatures in the preparation of PLOT columns are studied. Several columns have been developed to separate (1) highly polar compounds, such as water and ammonia or water and HCN, and (2) hydrocarbons and inert gases. A recent improvement has allowed us to produce bonded polymeric PLOT columns. These were studied, and the results are included also.

Shen, T. C.; Wang, M. L.

1995-01-01

227

Stem cell engineered bone with calcium-phosphate coated porous titanium scaffold or silicon hydroxyapatite granules for revision total joint arthroplasty.  

PubMed

Aseptic loosening in total joint replacements (TJRs) is mainly caused by osteolysis which leads to a reduction of the bone stock necessary for implant fixation in revision TJRs. Our aim was to develop bone tissue-engineered constructs based on scaffolds of clinical relevance in revision TJRs to reconstitute the bone stock at revision operations by using a perfusion bioreactor system (PBRS). The hypothesis was that a PBRS will enhance mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) proliferation and osteogenic differentiation and will provide an even distribution of MSCs throughout the scaffolds when compared to static cultures. A PBRS was designed and implemented. Scaffolds, silicon substituted hydroxyapatite granules and calcium-phosphate coated porous TiAl6V4 cylinders, were seeded with MSCs and cultured either in static conditions or in the PBRS at 0.75 mL/min. Statistically significant increased cell proliferation and alkaline phosphatase activity was found in samples cultured in the PBRS. Histology revealed a more even cell distribution in the perfused constructs. SEM showed that cells arranged in sheets. Long cytoplasmic processes attached the cells to the scaffolds. We conclude that a novel tissue engineering approach to address the issue of poor bone stock at revision operations is feasible by using a PBRS. PMID:24519756

García-Gareta, Elena; Hua, Jia; Rayan, Faizal; Blunn, Gordon W

2014-06-01

228

A multistep procedure to prepare pre-vascularized cardiac tissue constructs using adult stem sells, dynamic cell cultures, and porous scaffolds  

PubMed Central

The vascularization of tissue engineered products represents a key issue in regenerative medicine which needs to be addressed before the translation of these protocols to the bedside can be foreseen. Here we propose a multistep procedure to prepare pre-vascularized three-dimensional (3D) cardiac bio-substitutes using dynamic cell cultures and highly porous biocompatible gelatin scaffolds. The strategy adopted exploits the peculiar differentiation potential of two distinct subsets of adult stem cells to obtain human vascularized 3D cardiac tissues. In the first step of the procedure, human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are seeded onto gelatin scaffolds to provide interconnected vessel-like structures, while human cardiomyocyte progenitor cells (hCMPCs) are stimulated in vitro to obtain their commitment toward the cardiac phenotype. The use of a modular bioreactor allows the perfusion of the whole scaffold, providing superior performance in terms of cardiac tissue maturation and cell survival. Both the cell culture on natural-derived polymers and the continuous medium perfusion of the scaffold led to the formation of a densely packaged proto-tissue composed of vascular-like and cardiac-like cells, which might complete maturation process and interconnect with native tissue upon in vivo implantation. In conclusion, the data obtained through the approach here proposed highlight the importance to provide stem cells with complementary signals in vitro able to resemble the complexity of cardiac microenvironment.

Pagliari, Stefania; Tirella, Annalisa; Ahluwalia, Arti; Duim, Sjoerd; Goumans, Marie-Jose; Aoyagi, Takao; Forte, Giancarlo

2014-01-01

229

Effect of biomimetic 3D environment of an injectable polymeric scaffold on MG63 osteoblastic-cell response  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solid PLGA microspheres were fabricated and characterized in terms of their in vitro degradation behaviour. Microsphere scaffolds were then modified covalently by P-15 (GTPGPQGIAGQRGVV) to obtain a 3D bioactive collagen surrogate matrix for bone filling applications. These scaffolds were characterized for surface topography, hydrophilicity and evaluated for their effect on osteoblastic activity of MG-63 cell line vis-a-vis 2D monolayer culture.AFM

Shalini Verma; Neeraj Kumar

2010-01-01

230

Effect of sterilization on structural and material properties of 3-D silk fibroin scaffolds.  

PubMed

The development of porous scaffolds for tissue engineering applications requires the careful choice of properties, as these influence cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation. Sterilization of scaffolds is a prerequisite for in vitro culture as well as for subsequent in vivo implantation. The variety of methods used to provide sterility is as diverse as the possible effects they can have on the structural and material properties of the three-dimensional (3-D) porous structure, especially in polymeric or proteinous scaffold materials. Silk fibroin (SF) has previously been demonstrated to offer exceptional benefits over conventional synthetic and natural biomaterials in generating scaffolds for tissue replacements. This study sought to determine the effect of sterilization methods, such as autoclaving, heat-, ethylene oxide-, ethanol- or antibiotic-antimycotic treatment, on porous 3-D SF scaffolds. In terms of scaffold morphology, topography, crystallinity and short-term cell viability, the different sterilization methods showed only few effects. Nevertheless, mechanical properties were significantly decreased by a factor of two by all methods except for dry autoclaving, which seemed not to affect mechanical properties compared to the native control group. These data suggest that SF scaffolds are in general highly resistant to various sterilization treatments. Nevertheless, care should be taken if initial mechanical properties are of interest. PMID:24013025

Hofmann, Sandra; Stok, Kathryn S; Kohler, Thomas; Meinel, Anne J; Müller, Ralph

2014-01-01

231

Solventless fabrication of porous-on-porous materials.  

PubMed

Here we fabricate patterned porous polymer membranes on porous substrates by a combination of physical masking and chemical vapor deposition. This all-dry technique eliminates solvent-related issues and allows for the fabrication of hierarchical porous-on-porous structures with a wide range of chemical compositions and shapes. The porous polymer membranes are made by operating at unconventional processing conditions to simultaneously deposit and polymerize monomer. The solid monomer serves as a porogen and creates microstructures around which polymer forms. Membranes with thicknesses ranging from a few hundred micrometers to a millimeter are fabricated on porous paper substrates. The resolution of the patterning process and the structure of the resulting membranes are analyzed as a function of the deposition time. It was found that the patterned membranes exhibit a tapered structure and the dimensions are in good agreement with the dimensions of the mask. One potential application of these patterned polymer membranes is demonstrated for the selective separation of analytes for diagnostic applications on paper-based microfluidic devices. The ability to pattern porous-on-porous structures can be useful for the development of hierarchical membranes for water purification and gas separation, and for sensing, patterned tissue scaffolding, and other lab-on-a-chip applications. PMID:24073753

Kwong, Philip; Seidel, Scott; Gupta, Malancha

2013-10-01

232

Fabrication of precise cylindrical three-dimensional tissue engineering scaffolds for in vitro and in vivo bone engineering applications.  

PubMed

It is sometimes necessary to form highly porous polymeric tissue engineering scaffolds into various shapes and sizes. Ideally, in these cases, the three-dimensional morphology should be maintained to the outer margins of the scaffold so as to provide optimum function. Many biodegradable polymeric scaffolds are soft and delicate, however, and their poor physical strength presents a challenge when cutting these materials into the required shapes. We describe a simple device that can be used quickly and accurately to cut cylindrical shapes from such delicate polymeric scaffold materials, which maintain their morphological features to the margins of the shapes produced. We demonstrate that the device can be used to create scaffolds with reproducible dimensions having an SD in mass of less then 6%. The in vitro utility of scaffolds cut with the device was established through demonstrating bone marrow-derived cell invasion into fibrin-filled scaffolds that fit precisely into the wells of 24-well plates. We also demonstrate the in vivo utility of precise cylindrically shaped scaffolds by observing rapid bone invasion into 2.4-mm diameter scaffolds that have been placed into drill hole defects in the distal femur of young rats. When scaffolds are filled with fibrin before implantation as part of a bone tissue engineering strategy, less blood fills the defect site and the fibrin is gradually remodeled and replaced by bone. The ability to cut precise cylindrical scaffolds in the millimeter size range has allowed for the creation of a new small animal model that may prove useful for screening tissue engineering scaffolds for further study. PMID:12826802

Karp, Jeffrey M; Rzeszutek, Kathy; Shoichet, Molly S; Davies, John E

2003-05-01

233

Dimensional Ridge Preservation with a Novel Highly Porous TiO2 Scaffold: An Experimental Study in Minipigs  

PubMed Central

Despite being considered noncritical size defects, extraction sockets often require the use of bone grafts or bone graft substitutes in order to facilitate a stable implant site with an aesthetically pleasing mucosal architecture and prosthetic reconstruction. In the present study, the effect of novel TiO2 scaffolds on dimensional ridge preservation was evaluated following their placement into surgically modified extraction sockets in the premolar region of minipig mandibles. After six weeks of healing, the scaffolds were wellintegrated in the alveolar bone, and the convex shape of the alveolar crest was preserved. The scaffolds were found to partially preserve the dimensions of the native buccal and lingual bone walls adjacent to the defect site. A tendency towards more pronounced vertical ridge resorption, particularly in the buccal bone wall of the nongrafted alveoli, indicates that the TiO2 scaffold may be used for suppressing the loss of bone that normally follows tooth extraction.

Tiainen, Hanna; Verket, Anders; Haugen, Havard J.; Lyngstadaas, S. Petter; Wohlfahrt, Johan Caspar

2012-01-01

234

Mineralized poly(lactic acid) scaffolds loading vascular endothelial growth factor and the in vivo performance in rat subcutaneous model.  

PubMed

The functionalization of degradable polymeric scaffolds with therapeutic molecules such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a key strategy to gain better regenerative ability of damaged bone tissue by stimulating vascularization and tissue perfusion. Here, we combined VEGF with poly(lactic acid) (PLA) porous scaffold, after modifying the PLA surface with calcium phosphate (CaP) mineral. The mineralized PLA scaffold (mPLA) showed more effective loading capacity of VEGF than the PLA without mineralization as well as profiled sustainable release of VEGF for up to a couple of weeks. The VEGF-loaded mPLA scaffold presented significantly improved proliferation of primary endothelial cells for up to 7 days, with respect to the scaffold without the VEGF loading. The performance of the engineered scaffold was assessed after subcutaneous implantation in rats for 4 weeks. Histological results showed favorable tissue compatibility of both the mPLA scaffolds (with and without VEGF loading), as characterized by infiltration of inflammatory cells, formation of fibrous capsule, and ingrowth of fibroblasts into the matrices. Immunohistochemical staining of the von Willebrand Factor revealed significantly improved formation of neo-capillaries in the VEGF-loaded mPLA. Based on this study, the strategy of VEGF loading onto mineralized PLA scaffold is considered beneficial for gaining improved vascularization of the polymeric scaffolds, suggesting potential applications for bone tissue engineering. PMID:23114998

Kim, Joong-Hyun; Kim, Tae-Hyun; Jin, Guang-Zhen; Park, Jeong-Hui; Yun, Ye-Rang; Jang, Jun-Hyeog; Kim, Hae-Won

2013-05-01

235

Design of porous scaffolds for cartilage tissue engineering using a three-dimensional fiber-deposition technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we present and characterize a fiber deposition technique for producing three-dimensional poly(ethylene glycol)-terephthalate—poly(butylene terephthalate) (PEGT\\/PBT) block co-polymer scaffolds with a 100% interconnecting pore network for engineering of articular cartilage. The technique allowed us to “design-in” desired scaffold characteristics layer by layer by accurately controlling the deposition of molten co-polymer fibers from a pressure-driven syringe onto a computer

T. B. F. Woodfield; J. Malda; J. de Wijn; F. Péters; J. Riesle; C. A. van Blitterswijk

2004-01-01

236

Grafting of molecularly imprinted polymer to porous polyethylene filtration membranes by plasma polymerization.  

PubMed

An application of plasma-induced grafting of polyethylene membranes with a thin layer of molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) was presented. High-density polyethylene (HDPE) membranes, "Vyon," were used as a substrate for plasma grafting modification. The herbicide atrazine, one of the most popular targets of the molecular imprinting, was chosen as a template. The parameters of the plasma treatment were optimized in order to achieve a good balance between polymerization and ablation processes. Modified HDPE membranes were characterized, and the presence of the grafted polymeric layer was confirmed based on the observed weight gain, pore size measurements, and infrared spectrometry. Since there was no significant change in the porosity of the modified membranes, it was assumed that only a thin layer of the polymer was introduced on the surface. The experiments on the re-binding of the template atrazine to the membranes modified with MIP and blank polymers were performed. HDPE membranes which were grafted with polymer using continuous plasma polymerization demonstrated the best result which was expressed in an imprinted factor equal to 3, suggesting that molecular imprinting was successfully achieved. PMID:23748644

Cowieson, D; Piletska, E; Moczko, E; Piletsky, S

2013-08-01

237

Chitin Scaffolds in Tissue Engineering  

PubMed Central

Tissue engineering/regeneration is based on the hypothesis that healthy stem/progenitor cells either recruited or delivered to an injured site, can eventually regenerate lost or damaged tissue. Most of the researchers working in tissue engineering and regenerative technology attempt to create tissue replacements by culturing cells onto synthetic porous three-dimensional polymeric scaffolds, which is currently regarded as an ideal approach to enhance functional tissue regeneration by creating and maintaining channels that facilitate progenitor cell migration, proliferation and differentiation. The requirements that must be satisfied by such scaffolds include providing a space with the proper size, shape and porosity for tissue development and permitting cells from the surrounding tissue to migrate into the matrix. Recently, chitin scaffolds have been widely used in tissue engineering due to their non-toxic, biodegradable and biocompatible nature. The advantage of chitin as a tissue engineering biomaterial lies in that it can be easily processed into gel and scaffold forms for a variety of biomedical applications. Moreover, chitin has been shown to enhance some biological activities such as immunological, antibacterial, drug delivery and have been shown to promote better healing at a faster rate and exhibit greater compatibility with humans. This review provides an overview of the current status of tissue engineering/regenerative medicine research using chitin scaffolds for bone, cartilage and wound healing applications. We also outline the key challenges in this field and the most likely directions for future development and we hope that this review will be helpful to the researchers working in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.

Jayakumar, Rangasamy; Chennazhi, Krishna Prasad; Srinivasan, Sowmya; Nair, Shantikumar V.; Furuike, Tetsuya; Tamura, Hiroshi

2011-01-01

238

Morphological and surface compositional changes in poly(lactide-co-glycolide) tissue engineering scaffolds upon radio frequency glow discharge plasma treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chemical functionalisation of polymeric scaffolds with functional groups such as amine could provide optimal conditions for loading of signalling biomolecules over the entire volume of the porous scaffolds. Three-dimensional (both surface and bulk) functionlisation of large volume scaffolds is highly desirable, but preferably without any change to the basic morphological, structural and bulk chemical properties of the scaffolds. In this work, we have carried out and compared treatments of poly(lactide-co-glycolide) tissue engineering scaffolds by two methods, that is, a wet chemical method using ethylenediamine and a glow discharge plasma method using heptylamine as a precursor. The samples thus prepared were analysed by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The plasma treatment generated amide and protonated amine (NH +) groups which were present in the bulk and on the surface of the scaffold. Amination also occurred for the wet chemical treatments but the structural and chemical integrity were adversely affected.

Djordjevic, Ivan; Britcher, Leanne G.; Kumar, Sunil

2008-01-01

239

Hydroxyapatite/polylactide biphasic combination scaffold loaded with dexamethasone for bone regeneration.  

PubMed

This study presents a novel design of a ceramic/polymer biphasic combination scaffold that mimics natural bone structures and is used as a bone graft substitute. To mimic the natural bone structures, the outside cortical-like shells were composed of porous hydroxyapatite (HA) with a hollow interior using a polymeric template-coating technique; the inner trabecular-like core consisted of porous poly(D,L-lactic acid) (PLA) that was loaded with dexamethasone (DEX) and was directly produced using a particle leaching/gas forming technique to create the inner diameter of the HA scaffold. It was observed that the HA and PLA parts of the fabricated HA/PLA biphasic scaffold contained open and interconnected pore structures, and the boundary between both parts was tightly connected without any gaps. It was found that the structure of the combination scaffold was analogous to that of natural bone based on micro-computed tomography analysis. Additionally, the dense, uniform apatite layer was formed on the surface of the HA/PLA biphasic scaffold through a biomimetic process, and DEX was successfully released from the PLA of the biphasic scaffold over a 1-month period. This release caused human embryonic palatal mesenchyme cells to proliferate, differentiate, produce ECM, and form tissue in vitro. Therefore, it was concluded that this functionally graded scaffold is similar to natural bone and represents a potential bone-substitute material. PMID:21954052

Son, Jun-Sik; Kim, Su-Gwan; Oh, Ji-Su; Appleford, Mark; Oh, Sunho; Ong, Joo L; Lee, Kyu-Bok

2011-12-15

240

Scaffold: a novel carrier for cell and drug delivery.  

PubMed

Scaffolds are implants or injects, which are used to deliver cells, drugs, and genes into the body. Different forms of polymeric scaffolds for cell/drug delivery are available: (1) a typical three-dimensional porous matrix, (2) a nanofibrous matrix, (3) a thermosensitive sol-gel transition hydrogel, and (4) a porous microsphere. A scaffold provides a suitable substrate for cell attachment, cell proliferation, differentiated function, and cell migration. Scaffold matrices can be used to achieve drug delivery with high loading and efficiency to specific sites. Biomaterials used for fabrication of scaffold may be natural polymers such as alginate, proteins, collagens, gelatin, fibrins, and albumin, or synthetic polymers such as polyvinyl alcohol and polyglycolide. Bioceramics such as hydroxyapatites and tricalcium phosphates also are used. Techniques used for fabrication of a scaffold include particulate leaching, freeze-drying, supercritical fluid technology, thermally induced phase separation, rapid prototyping, powder compaction, sol-gel, and melt moulding. These techniques allow the preparation of porous structures with regular porosity. Scaffold are used successfully in various fields of tissue engineering such as bone formation, periodontal regeneration, repair of nasal and auricular malformations, cartilage development, as artificial corneas, as heart valves, in tendon repair ,in ligament replacement, and in tumors. They also are used in joint pain inflammation, diabetes, heart disease, osteochondrogenesis, and wound dressings. Their application of late has extended to delivery of drugs and genetic materials, including plasmid DNA, at a controlled rate over a long period of time. In addition, the incorporation of drugs (i.e., inflammatory inhibitors and/or antibiotics) into scaffolds may be used to prevent infection after surgery and other disease for longer duration. Scaffold also can be used to provide adequate signals (e.g., through the use of adhesion peptides and growth factors) to the cells, to induce and maintain them in their desired differentiation stage, and to maintain their survival and growth. The present review gives a detailed account of the need for the development of scaffolds along with the materials used and techniques adopted to manufacture scaffolds for tissue engineering and for prolonged drug delivery. PMID:22356721

Garg, Tarun; Singh, Onkar; Arora, Saahil; Murthy, R

2012-01-01

241

Enhanced chondrogenic responses of articular chondrocytes onto porous silk fibroin scaffolds treated with microwave-induced argon plasma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silk fibroin (SF) as a naturally occurring degradable fibrous protein with unique mechanical properties, excellent biocompatibility and processability has demonstrated strong potential for skeletal tissue engineering. Recent studies has mostly focused on nanofibrous SF (NSF) as a novel chondrogenic scaffold since its structure is very similar to collagen fibrous structure of natural extracellular matrix (ECM). However, less attention has been

Hyun Sook Baek; Young Hwan Park; Chang Seok Ki; Jong-Chul Park; Dong Kyun Rah

2008-01-01

242

Mesenchymal stem cells associated with porous chitosan-gelatin scaffold: a potential strategy for alveolar bone regeneration.  

PubMed

Tissue engineering has emerged as a novel treatment for replacement of lost bone tissue. This study evaluated the effects of a chitosan-gelatin scaffold seeded with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) in the healing process of tooth sockets in rats. BMMSCs isolated from transgenic rats expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) were expanded and seeded on a chitosan-gelatin scaffold. These constructs were cultured for three days and characterized by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersion spectroscopy (EDS). Receptor rats received the implant in the left sockets, after upper first-molar extraction. Right alveoli served as control. Animals were sacrificed at days 5, 21, and 35 post-graft for examination. Morphometry demonstrated increased bone mineralization after 21 and 35 days in transplanted sockets. Migration, differentiation, and fate of eGFP-labeled BMMSCs were monitored by immunohistochemistry. Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining (TRAP) was carried out at 21 days, to identify the involvement of osteoclastic cells in the scaffold resorption. The biomaterial was resorbed by TRAP-negative giant cells in a typical foreign body reaction. Immunohistochemical findings showed that BMMSCs contributed to bone, epithelial, and vascular repair. Together, results indicate that BMMSCs loaded in the chitosan-gelatin scaffold is a strategy for tissue development in bone engineering. PMID:22623117

Miranda, Suzana C C C; Silva, Gerluza A B; Mendes, Renato M; Abreu, Fernando Antônio M; Caliari, Marcelo V; Alves, José B; Goes, Alfredo M

2012-10-01

243

Fast and continuous preparation of high polymerization degree cellulose nanofibrils and their three-dimensional macroporous scaffold fabrication.  

PubMed

C6-carboxy-cellulose with a carboxylate content of 0.8 mmol g(-1) was obtained by oxidation of once-dried cellulose, using the 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidinyl-1-oxyl (TEMPO)/NaClO/NaClO2 system at pH 6.8 and 60 °C for 16 h. This method, with the addition of reagents in the order TEMPO, NaClO and NaClO2, was 38 h faster than a previously published method. Individualized cellulose nanofibrils with a width of 3-5 nm and a length of several hundred nanometers were prepared by homogenizing the C6-carboxy-cellulose-water suspension. Macroporous cellulose nanofibril/poly(vinyl alcohol) scaffolds with interconnected large pores of 20-100 ?m diameter and small pores of 2-10 ?m diameter were fabricated. The cellulose nanofilaments formed nanofibrous structures on the surface of the PVA wall, which was similar to that of the collagen skeleton of the extracellular matrix. NIH/3T3 cells were cultured in the scaffolds for 4 weeks, SEM observation showed that the cells were anchored and clustered on the cellulose nanofilaments, forming spherical colonies. The extracellular matrix (ECM) was filled with mineralized particles. PMID:23412536

Song, Jiankang; Tang, Aimin; Liu, Tingting; Wang, Jufang

2013-03-21

244

Fast and continuous preparation of high polymerization degree cellulose nanofibrils and their three-dimensional macroporous scaffold fabrication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

C6-carboxy-cellulose with a carboxylate content of 0.8 mmol g-1 was obtained by oxidation of once-dried cellulose, using the 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidinyl-1-oxyl (TEMPO)/NaClO/NaClO2 system at pH 6.8 and 60 °C for 16 h. This method, with the addition of reagents in the order TEMPO, NaClO and NaClO2, was 38 h faster than a previously published method. Individualized cellulose nanofibrils with a width of 3-5 nm and a length of several hundred nanometers were prepared by homogenizing the C6-carboxy-cellulose-water suspension. Macroporous cellulose nanofibril/poly(vinyl alcohol) scaffolds with interconnected large pores of 20-100 ?m diameter and small pores of 2-10 ?m diameter were fabricated. The cellulose nanofilaments formed nanofibrous structures on the surface of the PVA wall, which was similar to that of the collagen skeleton of the extracellular matrix. NIH/3T3 cells were cultured in the scaffolds for 4 weeks, SEM observation showed that the cells were anchored and clustered on the cellulose nanofilaments, forming spherical colonies. The extracellular matrix (ECM) was filled with mineralized particles.

Song, Jiankang; Tang, Aimin; Liu, Tingting; Wang, Jufang

2013-02-01

245

3D polylactide-based scaffolds for studying human hepatocarcinoma processes in vitro  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We evaluated the combination of leaching techniques and melt blending of polymers and particles for the preparation of highly interconnected three-dimensional polymeric porous scaffolds for in vitro studies of human hepatocarcinoma processes. More specifically, sodium chloride and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) were used as water-soluble porogens to form porous and solvent-free poly(L,D-lactide) (PLA)-based scaffolds. Several characterization techniques, including porosimetry, image analysis and thermogravimetry, were combined to improve the reliability of measurements and mapping of the size, distribution and microarchitecture of pores. We also investigated the effect of processing, in PLA-based blends, on the simultaneous bulk/surface modifications and pore architectures in the scaffolds, and assessed the effects on human hepatocarcinoma viability and cell adhesion. The influence of PEG molecular weight on the scaffold morphology and cell viability and adhesion were also investigated. Morphological studies indicated that it was possible to obtain scaffolds with well-interconnected pores of assorted sizes. The analysis confirmed that SK-Hep1 cells adhered well to the polymeric support and emitted surface protrusions necessary to grow and differentiate three-dimensional systems. PEGs with higher molecular weight showed the best results in terms of cell adhesion and viability.

Scaffaro, Roberto; Lo Re, Giada; Rigogliuso, Salvatrice; Ghersi, Giulio

2012-08-01

246

Tailoring the morphology of high molecular weight PLLA scaffolds through bioglass addition.  

PubMed

Thermally induced phase separation (TIPS) has proven to be a suitable method for the preparation of porous structures for tissue engineering applications, and particular attention has been paid to increasing the pore size without the use of possible toxic surfactants. Within this context, an alternative method to control the porosity of polymeric scaffolds via the combination with a bioglass is proposed in this work. The addition of a bioactive glass from the 3CaO x P2O5-MgO-SiO2 system enables the porous structure of high molecular weight poly(l-lactic) acid (PLLA) scaffolds prepared by TIPS to be tailored. Bioglass acts as a nucleating catalyst agent of the PLLA matrix, promoting its crystallization, and the glass solubility controls the pore size. A significant increase in the pore size is observed as the bioglass content increases and scaffolds with large pore size (approximately 150 microm) can be prepared. In addition, the bioactive character of the scaffolds is proved by in vitro tests in synthetic plasma. The importance of this approach resides on the combination of the ability to tailor the porosity of polymeric scaffolds via the tunable solubility of bioglasses, without the use of toxic surfactants, leading to a composite structure with suitable properties for bone tissue engineering applications. PMID:20350622

Barroca, N; Daniel-da-Silva, A L; Vilarinho, P M; Fernandes, M H V

2010-09-01

247

Enzymatic mineralization of silk scaffolds.  

PubMed

The present study focuses on the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) mediated formation of apatitic minerals on porous silk fibroin protein (SFP) scaffolds. Porous SFP scaffolds impregnated with different concentrations of ALP are homogeneously mineralized under physiological conditions. The mineral structure is apatite while the structures differ as a function of the ALP concentration. Cellular adhesion, proliferation, and colonization of osteogenic MC3T3 cells improve on the mineralized SFP scaffolds. These findings suggest a simple process to generate mineralized scaffolds that can be used to enhanced bone tissue engineering-related utility. PMID:24610728

Samal, Sangram K; Dash, Mamoni; Declercq, Heidi A; Gheysens, Tom; Dendooven, Jolien; Voort, Pascal Van Der; Cornelissen, Ria; Dubruel, Peter; Kaplan, David L

2014-07-01

248

Effect of silicon level on rate, quality and progression of bone healing within silicate-substituted porous hydroxyapatite scaffolds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The osseous response to silicon (Si) level (0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8 and 1.5wt% Si) within 5 batches of matched porosity silicate-substituted hydroxyapatite (SA) scaffold was assessed by implantation of 4.6mm diameter cylinders in the femoral intercondylar notch of New Zealand White rabbits for periods of 1, 3, 6 and 12 weeks. Histological evaluation and histomorphometric quantification of bone ingrowth and

Karin A. Hing; Peter A. Revell; Nigel Smith; Thomas Buckland

2006-01-01

249

Osteogenic differentiation of human adipose tissue-derived stromal cells (hASCs) in a porous three-dimensional scaffold.  

PubMed

Recent studies have shown that liposuction aspirates from rat, rabbit, mouse, and human sources contain pluripotent adipose tissue-derived stromal cells (ASCs) that can differentiate into various mesodermal cell types, including osteoblasts, myoblasts, chondroblasts, and preadipocytes. To develop a research model for autologous bone tissue engineering, we isolated ASCs from human liposuction aspirates (hASCs) and induced their osteogenic differentiation in three-dimensional poly(dl-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) scaffolds. Human liposuction aspirates were proteolytically digested and centrifuged to obtain hASCs. After primary culture in control media and expansion to three passages, the cells were seeded in two-dimensional plates or three-dimensional PLGA scaffolds and cultured in osteogenic media for 4 weeks. In two-dimensional culture, osteogenesis was assessed by RT-PCR analysis of the osteogenic-specific bone sialoprotein mRNA, by alkaline phosphatase staining, and by von Kossa staining. In three-dimensional culture, osteogenesis was assessed by von Kossa and alizarine red S staining at 1, 2, and 4 weeks following osteogenic induction. hASCs incubated in two-dimensional osteogenic media stained positively for alkaline phosphatase and with von Kossa stain after 2 weeks of differentiation. Expression of the osteogenesis-specific bone sialoprotein gene was detected by RT-PCR after 2 weeks of differentiation. PLGA scaffolds seeded with hASCs showed multiple calcified extracellular matrix nodules by von Kossa and alizarine red S staining after 2 weeks of differentiation. In conclusion, the authors identified an osteogenic potential of hASCs and demonstrated osteogenic differentiation of hASCs into an osteogenic lineage in three-dimensional PLGA scaffolds. PMID:18395007

Lee, Jung Ho; Rhie, Jong Won; Oh, Deuk Young; Ahn, Sang Tae

2008-06-01

250

Porous surface structure of biocompatible implants and tissue scaffolds base of titanium and nitinol synthesized SLS\\/M methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of these researches were to investigate the technical fundamentals of synthesizing high-strength biocompatible medical implants and tissue scaffolds made from nitinol or titanium using of Selective Laser Sintering\\/Melting (SLS\\/M). In particular, we had been identify the processing parameters and procedures necessary to successfully laser synthesize multi-material and functionally graded implants: the physical and mechanical properties, microstructure, and corrosion

I. Shishkovsky; V. Sherbakov; A. Petriv; M. Kuznetsov; Yu. Morozov; L. Volova; I. Barikov; S. Fakeev

2007-01-01

251

Functionalized ultra-porous titania nanofiber membranes as nuclear waste separation and sequestration scaffolds for nuclear fuels recycle.  

SciTech Connect

Advanced nuclear fuel cycle concept is interested in reducing separations to a simplified, one-step process if possible. This will benefit from the development of a one-step universal getter and sequestration material so as a simplified, universal waste form was proposed in this project. We have developed a technique combining a modified sol-gel chemistry and electrospinning for producing ultra-porous ceramic nanofiber membranes with controllable diameters and porous structures as the separation/sequestration materials. These ceramic nanofiber materials have been determined to have high porosity, permeability, loading capacity, and stability in extreme conditions. These porous fiber membranes were functionalized with silver nanoparticles and nanocrystal metal organic frameworks (MOFs) to introduce specific sites to capture gas species that are released during spent nuclear fuel reprocessing. Encapsulation into a durable waste form of ceramic composition was also demonstrated.

Liu, Haiqing; Bell, Nelson Simmons; Cipiti, Benjamin B.; Lewis, Tom Goslee,; Sava, Dorina Florentina; Nenoff, Tina Maria

2012-09-01

252

Bioactive scaffolds mimicking natural dentin structure.  

PubMed

Organic scaffolds of poly(ethyl methacrylate-co-hydroxyethyl acrylate) [P(EMA-co-HEA)] 70/30 wt % ratio, with varying proportions of silica SiO(2) from 0 to 20 wt % and aligned tubular pores, were prepared using a fiber-templating fabrication method, with the aim of mimicking structure and properties of the mineralized tissue of natural dentin. Precursors of the copolymer and silica were simultaneously polymerized in a sol-gel process within the fiber template, which was eventually eliminated to generate homogeneously distributed parallel micrometer-sized pores in the material. Scaffolds of PEMA and PHEA were obtained by the same approach. The scaffolds were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. The specific volume was determined by Archimedes' method and the porosity calculated from the geometry. The mechanical properties were analyzed in tensile and compressive modes. The bioactivity of the scaffolds with 15 wt % SiO(2) was tested by immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF) for 7 days followed by immersion in 2x SBF for 7 days. These scaffolds were afterwards characterized by SEM, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and compression assays. Percentages of silica above 10 wt % reinforced mechanically the copolymer, evidenced by the hindrance of the long range motions of the organic chains, altered shrinkage and swelling, and meanwhile conferred bioactivity to its surface. These tubular porous structures, which resemble natural dentin with regard to its structure and properties and induce the precipitation of apatite on their surfaces in vitro, are expected to facilitate the integration in the host mineralized tissue, to stimulate cell growth and to be useful as guiding scaffolds for in vivo dentin regeneration. PMID:19072987

Lluch, A Vallés; Fernández, A Campillo; Ferrer, G Gallego; Pradas, M Monleón

2009-07-01

253

Dose Effect of Tumor Necrosis Factor-? on In Vitro Osteogenic Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells on Biodegradable Polymeric Microfiber Scaffolds  

PubMed Central

This study presents a first step in the development of a bone tissue engineering strategy to trigger enhanced osteogenesis by modulating inflammation. This work focused on characterizing the effects of the concentration of a pro-inflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?), on osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) grown in a 3D culture system. MSC osteogenic differentiation is typically achieved in vitro through a combination of osteogenic supplements that include the anti-inflammatory corticosteroid dexamethasone. Although simple, the use of dexamethasone is not clinically realistic, and also hampers in vitro studies of the role of inflammatory mediators in wound healing. In this study, MSCs were pre-treated with dexamethasone to induce osteogenic differentiation, and then cultured in biodegradable electrospun poly(?-caprolactone) (PCL) scaffolds, which supported continued MSC osteogenic differentiation in the absence of dexamethasone. Continuous delivery of 0.1 ng/mL of recombinant rat TNF-? suppressed osteogenic differentiation of rat MSCs over 16 days, which was likely the result of residual dexamethasone antagonizing TNF-? signaling. Continuous delivery of a higher dose, 5 ng/mL TNF-?, stimulated osteogenic differentiation for a few days, and 50 ng/mL TNF-? resulted in significant mineralized matrix deposition over the course of the study. These findings suggest that the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-? stimulates osteogenic differentiation of MSCs, an effect that can be blocked by the presence of anti-inflammatory agents like dexamethasone, with significant implications on the interplay between inflammation and tissue regeneration.

Mountziaris, Paschalia M.; Tzouanas, Stephanie; Mikos, Antonios G.

2009-01-01

254

Multifunctional Polymeric Scaffolds for Enhancement of PARACEST Contrast Sensitivity and Performance: The Effects of Random Copolymer Variations.  

PubMed

A DOTA (1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-N,N',N",N'"-tetraacetic acid) tetraamide ligand having a single acrylamide side-chain (M1) was copolymerized with either 2-methylacrylic acid (MAA), 2-(acryloylamino)-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid (AMPS) or N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM) to create a series of linear random copolymers using classical free radical chain polymerization chemistry. The metal ion binding properties of hydrolyzed M1 were investigated by pH potentiometry and the europium (III) complexes of the resulting heteropolymers were evaluated as PARACEST imaging agents. All polymeric agents were found to possess similar intermediate-to-slow water exchange and CEST characteristics as the parent EuDOTA-tetraamide monomer. Consistent with basic multiplexing principles, the highest molecular weight polymer, Eu-DMAA 3.1, also showed the highest CEST sensitivity with a detection limit of 20 ± 2 ?M. The second arylamide component gave polymers with widely different chemical characteristics and CEST properties. In particular, the Eu-DNIPAM 4.0 and Eu-DMAA 4.1 polymers displayed different solubility characteristics as a function of pH or temperature which, in turn, affected the water exchange and CEST properties of the corresponding agents. It was concluded that introduction of hydrophobic groups into the polymer backbone reduces solvent accessibility to the Eu(3+) component, effectively slowing water exchange between the inner-sphere water coordination position at each Eu(3+) center with bulk water. The CEST properties of the heteropolymers when dissolved in plasma suggest that the more hydrophobic characteristics of these polymers could be advantageous for in vivo applications. PMID:20838469

Wu, Yunkou; Zhao, Piyu; Kiefer, Garry E; Sherry, A Dean

2010-08-24

255

Multifunctional Polymeric Scaffolds for Enhancement of PARACEST Contrast Sensitivity and Performance: The Effects of Random Copolymer Variations  

PubMed Central

A DOTA (1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-N,N’,N“,N’”-tetraacetic acid) tetraamide ligand having a single acrylamide side-chain (M1) was copolymerized with either 2-methylacrylic acid (MAA), 2-(acryloylamino)-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid (AMPS) or N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM) to create a series of linear random copolymers using classical free radical chain polymerization chemistry. The metal ion binding properties of hydrolyzed M1 were investigated by pH potentiometry and the europium (III) complexes of the resulting heteropolymers were evaluated as PARACEST imaging agents. All polymeric agents were found to possess similar intermediate-to-slow water exchange and CEST characteristics as the parent EuDOTA-tetraamide monomer. Consistent with basic multiplexing principles, the highest molecular weight polymer, Eu-DMAA 3.1, also showed the highest CEST sensitivity with a detection limit of 20 ± 2 ?M. The second arylamide component gave polymers with widely different chemical characteristics and CEST properties. In particular, the Eu-DNIPAM 4.0 and Eu-DMAA 4.1 polymers displayed different solubility characteristics as a function of pH or temperature which, in turn, affected the water exchange and CEST properties of the corresponding agents. It was concluded that introduction of hydrophobic groups into the polymer backbone reduces solvent accessibility to the Eu3+ component, effectively slowing water exchange between the inner-sphere water coordination position at each Eu3+ center with bulk water. The CEST properties of the heteropolymers when dissolved in plasma suggest that the more hydrophobic characteristics of these polymers could be advantageous for in vivo applications.

Wu, Yunkou; Zhao, Piyu; Kiefer, Garry E.; Sherry, A. Dean

2010-01-01

256

PLDLA/PCL-T Scaffold for Meniscus Tissue Engineering  

PubMed Central

Abstract The inability of the avascular region of the meniscus to regenerate has led to the use of tissue engineering to treat meniscal injuries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of fibrochondrocytes preseeded on PLDLA/PCL-T [poly(L-co-D,L-lactic acid)/poly(caprolactone-triol)] scaffolds to stimulate regeneration of the whole meniscus. Porous PLDLA/PCL-T (90/10) scaffolds were obtained by solvent casting and particulate leaching. Compressive modulus of 9.5±1.0?MPa and maximum stress of 4.7±0.9?MPa were evaluated. Fibrochondrocytes from rabbit menisci were isolated, seeded directly on the scaffolds, and cultured for 21 days. New Zealand rabbits underwent total meniscectomy, after which implants consisting of cell-free scaffolds or cell-seeded scaffolds were introduced into the medial knee meniscus; the negative control group consisted of rabbits that received no implant. Macroscopic and histological evaluations of the neomeniscus were performed 12 and 24 weeks after implantation. The polymer scaffold implants adapted well to surrounding tissues, without apparent rejection, infection, or chronic inflammatory response. Fibrocartilaginous tissue with mature collagen fibers was observed predominantly in implants with seeded scaffolds compared to cell-free implants after 24 weeks. Similar results were not observed in the control group. Articular cartilage was preserved in the polymeric implants and showed higher chondrocyte cell number than the control group. These findings show that the PLDLA/PCL-T 90/10 scaffold has potential for orthopedic applications since this material allowed the formation of fibrocartilaginous tissue, a structure of crucial importance for repairing injuries to joints, including replacement of the meniscus and the protection of articular cartilage from degeneration.

Moda, Marlon; Cattani, Silvia Mara de Melo; de Santana, Gracy Mara; Barbieri, Juliana Abreu; Munhoz, Monique Moron; Cardoso, Tulio Pereira; Barbo, Maria Lourdes Peris; Russo, Teresa; D'Amora, Ugo; Gloria, Antonio; Ambrosio, Luigi; Duek, Eliana Aparecida de Rezende

2013-01-01

257

Antitumor activity of docetaxel-loaded polymeric nanoparticles fabricated by Shirasu porous glass membrane-emulsification technique  

PubMed Central

Docetaxel (DTX) has excellent efficiency against a wide spectrum of cancers. However, the current clinical formulation has limited its usage, as it causes some severe side effects. Various polymeric nanoparticles have thus been developed as alternative formulations of DTX, but they have been mostly fabricated on a laboratory scale. Previously, we synthesized a novel copolymer, poly(lactide)-D-?-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (PLA-TPGS), and found that it exhibited great potential in drug delivery with improved properties. In this study, we applied the Shirasu porous glass (SPG) membrane-emulsification technique to prepare the DTX-loaded PLA-TPGS nanoparticles on a pilot scale. The effect of several formulation variables on the DTX-loaded nanoparticle properties, including particle size, zeta potential, and drug-encapsulation efficiency, were investigated based on surfactant type and concentration in the aqueous phase, organic/aqueous phase volumetric ratio, membrane-pore size, transmembrane cycles, and operation pressure. The DTX-loaded nanoparticles were obtained with sizes of 306.8 ± 5.5 nm and 334.1 ± 2.7 nm (mean value ± standard deviation), and drug-encapsulation efficiency of 81.8% ± 4.5% and 64.5% ± 2.7% for PLA-TPGS and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles, respectively. In vivo pharmacokinetic study exhibited a significant advantage of PLA-TPGS nanoparticles over PLGA nanoparticles and Taxotere. Drug-loaded PLA-TPGS nanoparticles exhibited 1.78-, 6.34- and 3.35-fold higher values for area under the curve, half-life, and mean residence time, respectively, compared with those of PLGA nanoparticles, and 2.23-, 13.2-, 8.51-fold higher than those of Taxotere, respectively. In vivo real-time distribution of nanoparticles was measured on tumor-bearing mice by near-infrared fluorescence imaging, which demonstrated that the PLA-TPGS nanoparticles achieved much higher concentration and longer retention in tumors than PLGA nanoparticles after intravenous injection. This is consistent with the pharmacokinetic behavior of the nanoparticles. The tumor-inhibitory effect of DTX-loaded nanoparticles was observed in vivo in an H22 tumor-bearing mice model via intravenous administration. This indicated that PLA-TPGS nanoparticles are a feasible drug-delivery formulation with a pilot fabrication technique and have superior pharmacokinetic and anticancer effects compared to the commercially available Taxotere.

Yu, Yunni; Tan, Songwei; Zhao, Shuang; Zhuang, Xiangting; Song, Qingle; Wang, Yuliang; Zhou, Qin; Zhang, Zhiping

2013-01-01

258

Effect of geometrical structure on the in vivo quality change of a three-dimensionally perforated porous bone cell scaffold made of apatite/collagen composite.  

PubMed

Biodegradable artificial bone blocks with interconnective pores were prepared using a self-setting apatite/collagen composite cement as a cell scaffold for bone regenerative medicine. The biological behavior of the blocks was tested in rats, and the change in their properties after implantation was measured. One cubic block [10 mm X 10 mm X 10 mm; porous composite (PC)] was obtained from apatite cement (apatite/collagen cement; 80% of apatite:20% of collagen) with 60 interconnecting holes, 500 um in diameter. The other blocks (NC and NN) without holes were obtained from the apatite/collagen and plain apatite cements, respectively. All blocks were implanted in the rats for 56 days. Changes in the amount and density (block mineral mass and block mineral density) of the blocks were evaluated based on dual energy X-ray absorptiometry images, and the order of biodegradation was PC < NC < NN. After implantation, the blocks were removed, and subjected to an X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, Fourier-transformed infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and thermogravimetry (TG). The XRD peaks of all blocks increased significantly. TG revealed that the amount of carbonated apatite also increased with time. However, the organic component of PC depended on the implantation period, consistent with the FT-IR results. Because PC had interconnective macro- and micropores in the apatite/collagen matrices, the results indicated that soft tissue penetrated the block carbonated apatite was generated, bone remodeling was accelerated in the implant. PMID:23165697

Otsuka, Makoto; Nakagawa, Hidenori; Otsuka, Kuniko; Ito, Atsuo; Higuchi, William I

2013-02-01

259

A highly porous NiO/polyaniline composite film prepared by combining chemical bath deposition and electro-polymerization and its electrochromic performance.  

PubMed

A highly porous NiO/polyaniline (PANI) composite film was prepared on ITO glass by combining the chemical bath deposition and electro-polymerization methods, successively. The porous NiO film acts as a template for the preferential growth of PANI along NiO flakes, and the NiO/PANI composite film has an intercrossing net-like morphology. The electrochromic performance of the NiO/PANI composite film was investigated in 1 M LiClO(4)+1 mM HClO(4)/propylene carbonate (PC) by means of transmittance, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and chronoamperometry (CA) measurements. The NiO/PANI thin film exhibits a noticeable electrochromism with reversible color changes from transparent yellow to purple and presents quite good transmittance modulation with a variation of transmittance up to 56% at 550 nm. The porous NiO/polyaniline (PANI) composite film also shows good reaction kinetics with fast switching speed, and the response time for oxidation and reduction is 90 and 110 ms, respectively. PMID:21836256

Xia, X H; Tu, J P; Zhang, J; Wang, X L; Zhang, W K; Huang, H

2008-11-19

260

Unexpected and successful "one-step" formation of porous polymeric particles only by mixing organic solvent and water under "low-energy-input" conditions.  

PubMed

We found that porous particles were unexpectedly obtained in a "one-step" manner only by mixing an organic solvent and water under "low-energy-input" (i.e., low-homogenization-rate) conditions. This phenomenon was attributable to the unexpected formation of the spontaneously formed water-in-oil (w/o) emulsions in the droplets of o/w emulsions. The unexpected formation resulted in the successful formation of water-in-oil-in-water (w/o/w) emulsions instead of o/w emulsions, although the mixed solution containing both an organic solvent and water were simply emulsified in the presence of block copolymers. The present study clarifies the effects of the various preparation conditions on the morphology of unexpected w/o/w emulsions and resulting particles. The porous particles are expected to be suitable drug carriers for pulmonary delivery. The results obtained in the present study show that a newly developed one-step emulsification can be a powerful and facile technique for preparing porous polymeric particles. PMID:24601639

Takami, Taku; Murakami, Yoshihiko

2014-04-01

261

Development of a new pre-vascularized tissue-engineered construct using pre-differentiated rADSCs, arteriovenous vascular bundle and porous nano-hydroxyapatide-polyamide 66 scaffold  

PubMed Central

Background Development of a pre-vascularized tissue-engineered construct with intrinsic vascular system for cell growth and tissue formation still faces many difficulties due to the complexity of the vascular network of natural bone tissue. The present study was to design and form a new vascularized tissue-engineered construct using pre-differentiated rADSCs, arteriovenous vascular bundle and porous nHA-PA 66 scaffold. Methods rADSCs were pre-differentiated to endothelial cells (rADSCs-Endo) and then incorporated in nHA-PA 66 scaffolds in vitro. Subsequently, in vivo experiments were carried out according to the following groups: Group A (rADSCs-Endo/nHA-PA 66 scaffold with arteriovenous vascular bundle), Group B (rADSCs/nHA-PA 66 scaffold with arteriovenous vascular bundle); Group C (nHA-PA66 scaffold with arteriovenous vascular bundle), Group D (nHA-PA 66 scaffold only). The vessel density and vessel diameter were measured based on histological and immunohistochemical evaluation, furthermore, the VEGF-C, FGF-2 and BMP-2 protein expressions were also evaluated by western blot analysis. Results The results of in vivo experiments showed that the vessel density and vessel diameter in group A were significantly higher than the other three groups. Between Group B and C, no statistical difference was observed at each time point. In accordance with the results, there were dramatically higher expressions of VEGF-C and FGF-2 protein in Group A than that of Group B, C and D at 2 or 4 weeks. Statistical differences were not observed in VEGF-C and FGF-2 expression between Group B and C. BMP-2 was not expressed in any group at each time point. Conclusions Compared with muscular wrapping method, arteriovenous vascular bundle implantation could promote vascularization of the scaffold; and the angiogenesis of the scaffold was significantly accelerated when pre-differentiated rADSCs (endothelial differentiation) were added. These positive results implicate the combination of pre-differentiated rADSCs (endothelial differentiation) and arteriovenous vascular bundle may achieve rapidly angiogenesis of biomaterial scaffold.

2013-01-01

262

Controlling microstructure of three-dimensional scaffolds from regenerated silk fibroin by adjusting pH.  

PubMed

For tissue engineering, it is very important to design and control the pore architecture of three-dimensional (3D) polymeric scaffolds, which plays an important role in directing tissue formation and function. In this study, 3D porous silk fibroin scaffolds produced using a freeze drying technique were prepared at pHs ranging from 5 to 9. The effects of pH on the pore microstructure of the silk fibroin scaffold were examined by rheometry, FESEM and FTIR. Different pore structures were formed according to the pH of silk fibroin because silk fibroin exhibits water-like behavior under basic conditions and gel-like behavior under acidic conditions. PMID:22524061

Cho, Se Youn; Heo, Semi; Jin, Hyoung-Joon

2012-01-01

263

Selective Laser Sintering of Polycaprolactone Bone Tissue Engineering Scaffolds.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Present tissue engineering practice requires porous, bioresorbable scaffolds to serve as temporary 3D templates to guide cell attachment, differentiation, and proliferation. Recent research suggests that scaffold material and internal architecture signifi...

B. Partee S. Das S. J. Hollister

2005-01-01

264

Novel bioactive scaffolds incorporating nanogels as potential drug eluting devices.  

PubMed

Big advances are being achieved in the design of new implantable devices with enhanced properties. For example, synthetic porous three-dimensional structures can mimic the architecture of the tissues, and serve as templates for cell seeding. In addition, polymeric nanoparticles are able to provide a programmable and sustained local delivery of different types of biomolecules. In this study novel alternative scaffolds with controlled bioactive properties and architectures are presented. Two complementary approaches are described. Firstly, scaffolds with nanogels as active controlled release devices incorporated inside the three-dimensional structure are obtained using the thermally induced phase separation (TIPS) method. Secondly, a novel coating method using the spraying technique to load these nanometric crosslinked hydrogels on the surface of two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) biodegradable scaffolds is described. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images show the distribution of the nanogels on the surface of different substrates and also inside the porous structure of poly-alpha-hydroxy ester derivative foams. Both of them are compared in terms of manufacturability, dispersion and other processing variables. PMID:20355508

Saez-Martinez, Virginia; Olalde, Beatriz; Juan, Maria Jesus; Jurado, Maria Jesus; Garagorri, Nerea; Obieta, Isabel

2010-04-01

265

Fabrication of biodegradable polymeric nanofibers with covalently attached NO donors.  

PubMed

Many common wound healing aids are created from biodegradable polymeric materials. Often, these materials are unable to induce complete healing in wounds because of their failure to prevent infection and promote cell growth. This study reports the development of therapeutic materials aimed at overcoming these limitations through the release of a naturally occurring antimicrobial agent from a porous, polymeric fiber scaffold. The antimicrobial character was achieved through the release of nitric oxide (NO) while the porous structure was fabricated through electrospinning polymers into nanofibers. Three variations of the polymer poly(lactic-co-glycolic-co-hydroxymethyl propionic acid) (PLGH) modified to include thiol and NO groups were investigated. Fibers of the modified polymers exhibited smooth, bead free morphologies with diameters averaging between 200 and 410 nm. These fibers were deposited in a random manner to create a highly porous fibrous scaffold. The fibers were found to release NO under physiological pH and temperature and have the capacity to release 0.026 to 0.280 mmol NO g(-1). The materials maintained their fibrous morphological structure after this exposure to aqueous conditions. The sustained morphological stability of the fiber structure coupled to their extended NO release gives these materials great potential for use in wound healing materials. PMID:22663769

Wold, Kathryn A; Damodaran, Vinod B; Suazo, Lucas A; Bowen, Richard A; Reynolds, Melissa M

2012-06-27

266

High-precision flexible fabrication of tissue engineering scaffolds using distinct polymers  

SciTech Connect

Three-dimensional porous structures using biodegradable materials with excellent biocompatibility are critically important for tissue engineering applications. We present a multi-nozzle-based versatile deposition approach to flexibly construct porous tissue engineering scaffolds using distinct polymeric biomaterials such as thermoplastic and photo-crosslinkable polymers. We first describe the development of the deposition system and fabrication of scaffolds from two types of biodegradable polymers using this system. The thermoplastic sample is semi-crystalline poly({var_epsilon}-caprolactone) (PCL) that can be processed at a temperature higher than its melting point and solidifies at room temperature. The photo-crosslinkable one is polypropylene fumarate (PPF) that has to be dissolved in a reactive solvent as a resin for being cured into solid structures. Besides the direct fabrication of thermoplastic PCL scaffolds, we specifically develop a layer molding approach for the fabrication of crosslinkable polymers, which traditionally can only be fabricated by stereolithography. In this approach, a thermoplastic supporting material (paraffin wax) is first deposited to make a mold for each specific layer, and then PPF is deposited on demand to fill the mold and cured by the UV light. The supporting material can be removed to produce a porous scaffold of crosslinked PPF. Both PCL and crosslinked PPF scaffolds fabricated using the developed system have been characterized in terms of compressive mechanical properties, morphology, pore size and porosity. Mouse MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblastic cell studies on the fabricated scaffolds have been performed to demonstrate their capability of supporting cell proliferation and ingrowth, aiming for bone tissue engineering applications.

Wei, Chuang [North Carolina State University; Cai, Lei [ORNL; Sonawane, Bhushan [North Carolina State University; Wang, Shanfeng [ORNL; Dong, Jingyan [North Carolina State University

2012-01-01

267

Computer Simulation of Scaffold Degradation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scaffolds are porous biocompatible materials with suitable microarchitectures that are designed to allow for cell adhesion, growth and proliferation. They are used in combination with cells in regenerative medicine to promote tissue regeneration by means of a controlled deposition of natural extracellular matrix by the hosted cells therein. This healing process is in many cases accompanied by scaffold degradation up to its total disappearance when the scaffold is made of a biodegradable material. This work presents a computational model that simulates the degradation of scaffolds. The model works with three-dimensional microstructures, which have been previously discretised into small cubic homogeneous elements, called voxels. The model simulates the evolution of the degradation of the scaffold using a Monte Carlo algorithm, which takes into account the curvature of the surface of the fibres. The simulation results obtained in this study are in good agreement with empirical degradation measurements performed by mass loss on scaffolds after exposure to an etching alkaline solution.

Erkizia, G.; Rainer, A.; De Juan-Pardo, E. M.; Aldazabal, J.

2010-11-01

268

Enhanced survival and function of islet-like clusters differentiated from adipose stem cells on a three-dimensional natural polymeric scaffold: an in vitro study.  

PubMed

Autologous adipose stem cells owing to its pluripotent nature offer a valuable source for pancreatic beta cell replacement in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. However, maintaining longevity and functionality of stem cell-derived islet-like cells for long-term in vitro culture is challenging. Signaling interaction between islets and surrounding extracellular matrix (ECM) is an important factor for islet survival and function. Tissue engineering strategy to use scaffolds as substitute for ECM is a key to the problem. In the present study, we fabricated a three-dimensional (3D) biodegradable scaffold comprised of natural polymers dextran and gelatin (DEXGEL) for differentiation of adipose stem cells to islet-like clusters (ILCs). Adipose stem cells derived from subcutaneous fat of New Zealand white rabbits were differentiated to ILCs on DEXGEL scaffold and two-dimensional (2D) culture plates via three stage protocol using cocktail of growth factors. The ILCs differentiated on DEXGEL scaffold exhibited characteristic islet morphology, and expressed islet-specific hormones (insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin). The insulin secretion in response to glucose challenge and viability of ILCs on DEXGEL scaffold were significantly higher in comparison to ILCs on 2D culture. Our results demonstrated for the first time that DEXGEL scaffold simulated an extracellular environment for effective differentiation of rabbit adipose stem cells to ILCs. PMID:24359126

Aloysious, Neena; Nair, Prabha D

2014-05-01

269

Hydroxyapatite-reinforced collagen tissue engineering scaffolds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scaffolds have been fabricated from a wide variety of materials and most have showed some success, either as bone graft substitutes or as tissue engineering scaffolds. However, all current scaffold compositions and architectures suffer from one or more flaws including poor mechanical properties, lack of biological response, nondegradability, or a scaffold architecture not conducive to osteointegration. Biomimetic approaches to scaffold design using the two main components of bone tissue, collagen and hydroxyapatite, resulted in scaffolds with superior biological properties but relatively poor mechanical properties and scaffold architecture. It was hypothesized that by optimizing scaffold composition and architecture, HA-collagen bone tissue engineering scaffolds could provide both an excellent biological response along with improved structural properties. The mechanical properties of freeze-dried HA-collagen scaffolds, the most common type of porous HA-collagen material, were first shown to be increased by the addition of HA reinforcements, but scaffold stiffness still fell far short of the desired range. Based on limitations inherent in the freeze-dried process, a new type of leached-porogen scaffold fabrication process was developed. Proof-of-concept scaffolds demonstrated the feasibility of producing leached-porogen HA-collagen materials, and the scaffold architecture was optimized though careful selection of porogen particle size and shape along with an improved crosslinking technique. The final scaffolds exhibited substantially increased compressive modulus compared to previous types HA-collagen scaffolds, while the porosity, pore size, and scaffold permeability were tailored to be suitable for bone tissue ingrowth. An in vitro study demonstrated the capacity of the leached-porogen scaffolds to serve as a substrate for the differentiation of osteoblasts and subsequent production of new bone tissue. The new leached-porogen scaffold HA-collagen scaffolds were shown to have potential as a highly tailorable bone tissue engineering scaffold with a unique combination of biological, mechanical, and structural properties.

Kane, Robert J.

270

RhBMP-2-loaded calcium silicate/calcium phosphate cement scaffold with hierarchically porous structure for enhanced bone tissue regeneration.  

PubMed

Calcium phosphate cement scaffold (CPC) has been widely used as bone graft substitutes, but undesirable osteoinductivity and slow degradability greatly hamper their clinic application. To address these problems, a recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2)-loaded calcium silicate/calcium phosphate cement scaffold (CSPC) with hierarchical pores was developed in this study. The CSPC scaffold with both interconnected macropores on the order of 200-500 ?m and micropores of 2-5 ?m was synthesized from CPC and calcium silicate (CS) by a NaCl particulate-leaching method. In vitro cell culture with C2C12 model cells, in vivo ectopic bone formation and rabbit femur cavity defect repair were performed to evaluate the osteogeneic capacity of the CSPC/rhBMP-2 scaffold. CPC, CSPC and CPC/rhBMP-2 scaffolds were parallelly investigated for comparison. The results demonstrated that the hierarchical macro/microporous structure, whether in presence of CS or rhBMP-2, highly favored the adhesion of C2C12 cells and bone in-growth into the CPC-based scaffolds. But, in comparison to the CPC-based scaffolds with CS or rhBMP-2 alone, the CSPC/rhBMP-2 scaffold strongly promoted osteogenic differentiation in vitro and osteogenetic efficacy in vivo. Further studies demonstrated that Si ions derived from CSPC contributed mainly to maintain the conformation of rhBMP-2 and thus stimulate the synergistic action of CS and rhBMP-2 in osteogenic differentiation and osteoinductivity. Additionally, the incorporation of CS was also beneficial for the dissolution of the scaffold. Those results suggest that the CSPC has superior properties for incorporation of rhBMP-2 and our developed CSPC/rhBMP-2 scaffold have great potential for future use in bone tissue regeneration. PMID:24044997

Zhang, Jing; Zhou, Huanjun; Yang, Kai; Yuan, Yuan; Liu, Changsheng

2013-12-01

271

Active scaffolds for on-demand drug and cell delivery  

PubMed Central

Porous biomaterials have been widely used as scaffolds in tissue engineering and cell-based therapies. The release of biological agents from conventional porous scaffolds is typically governed by molecular diffusion, material degradation, and cell migration, which do not allow for dynamic external regulation. We present a new active porous scaffold that can be remotely controlled by a magnetic field to deliver various biological agents on demand. The active porous scaffold, in the form of a macroporous ferrogel, gives a large deformation and volume change of over 70% under a moderate magnetic field. The deformation and volume variation allows a new mechanism to trigger and enhance the release of various drugs including mitoxantrone, plasmid DNA, and a chemokine from the scaffold. The porous scaffold can also act as a depot of various cells, whose release can be controlled by external magnetic fields.

Zhao, Xuanhe; Kim, Jaeyun; Cezar, Christine A.; Huebsch, Nathaniel; Lee, Kangwon; Bouhadir, Kamal; Mooney, David J.

2011-01-01

272

Micro-structured polymer scaffolds fabricated by direct laser writing for tissue engineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work presents the latest results on direct laser writing of polymeric materials for tissue engineering applications. A femtosecond Yb:KGW laser (300 fs, 200 kHz, 515 nm) was used as a light source for non-linear lithography. Fabrication was implemented in various photosensitive polymeric materials, such as: hybrid organic-inorganic sol-gel based on silicon-zirconium oxides, commercial ORMOCER class photoresins. These materials were structured via multi-photon polymerization technique with submicron resolution. Porous three-dimensional scaffolds for artificial tissue engineering were fabricated with constructed system and were up to several millimeters in overall size with 10 to 100 ?m internal pores. Biocompatibility of the used materials was tested in primary rabbit muscle-derived stem cell culture in vitro and using laboratory rats in vivo. This interdisciplinary study suggests that proposed technique and materials are suitable for tissue engineering applications.

Danilevicius, Paulius; Rekstyte, Sima; Balciunas, Evaldas; Kraniauskas, Antanas; Jarasiene, Rasa; Sirmenis, Raimondas; Baltriukiene, Daiva; Bukelskiene, Virginija; Gadonas, Roaldas; Malinauskas, Mangirdas

2012-08-01

273

Fabrication of a multi-layer three-dimensional scaffold with controlled porous micro-architecture for application in small intestine tissue engineering  

PubMed Central

Various methods can be employed to fabricate scaffolds with characteristics that promote cell-to-material interaction. This report examines the use of a novel technique combining compression molding with particulate leaching to create a unique multi-layered scaffold with differential porosities and pore sizes that provides a high level of control to influence cell behavior. These cell behavioral responses were primarily characterized by bridging and penetration of two cell types (epithelial and smooth muscle cells) on the scaffold in vitro. Larger pore sizes corresponded to an increase in pore penetration, and a decrease in pore bridging. In addition, smaller cells (epithelial) penetrated further into the scaffold than larger cells (smooth muscle cells). In vivo evaluation of a multi-layered scaffold was well tolerated for 75 d in a rodent model. This data shows the ability of the components of multi-layered scaffolds to influence cell behavior, and demonstrates the potential for these scaffolds to promote desired tissue outcomes in vivo.

Knight, Toyin; Basu, Joydeep; Rivera, Elias A.; Spencer, Thomas; Jain, Deepak; Payne, Richard

2013-01-01

274

A new polymeric photosensitizer for dye-sensitized solar cell with porous TiO 2 from forest carbon resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of new lignin derivatives (lignophenols) containing phenol, p-cresol, catechol, resorcinol and pyrogallol synthesized from Hinoki (Chamaecyparis obtusa) and Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziessi) as softwood and beech (Fagas crenata) as hardwood was investigated as sensitizers for a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSCs) of porous TiO2 under the irradiation of 150W Xe lamp. For example, LPs–DSSCs of hinoki-ligno-p-cresol, directly derived from

Mitsuru Aoyagi; Masamitsu Funaoka

2004-01-01

275

In situ synthesis of molecularly imprinted nanoparticles in porous support membranes using high-viscosity polymerization solvents.  

PubMed

There is a growing need in membrane separations for novel membrane materials providing selective retention. Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) are promising candidates for membrane functionalization. In this work, a novel approach is described to prepare composite membrane adsorbers incorporating molecularly imprinted microparticles or nanoparticles into commercially available macroporous filtration membranes. The polymerization is carried out in highly viscous polymerization solvents, and the particles are formed in situ in the pores of the support membrane. MIP particle composite membranes selective for terbutylazine were prepared and characterized by scanning electron microscopy and N? porosimetry. By varying the polymerization solvent microparticles or nanoparticles with diameters ranging from several hundred nanometers to 1 µm could be embedded into the support. The permeability of the membranes was in the range of 1000 to 20,000 Lm?² ?hr?¹ ?bar?¹. The imprinted composite membranes showed high MIP/NIP (nonimprinted polymer) selectivity for the template in organic media both in equilibrium-rebinding measurements and in filtration experiments. The solid phase extraction of a mixture of the template, its analogs, and a nonrelated compound demonstrated MIP/NIP selectivity and substance selectivity of the new molecularly imprinted membrane. The synthesis technique offers a potential for the cost-effective production of selective membrane adsorbers with high capacity and high throughput. PMID:22641529

Renkecz, Tibor; László, Krisztina; Horváth, Viola

2012-06-01

276

Use of Micro-Computed Tomography to Nondestructively Characterize Biomineral Coatings on Solid Freeform Fabricated Poly (L-Lactic Acid) and Poly (?-Caprolactone) Scaffolds In Vitro and In Vivo  

PubMed Central

Biomineral coatings have been extensively used to enhance the osteoconductivity of polymeric scaffolds. Numerous porous scaffolds have previously been coated with a bone-like apatite mineral through incubation in simulated body fluid (SBF). However, characterization of the mineral layer formed on scaffolds, including the amount of mineral within the scaffolds, often requires destructive methods. We have developed a method using micro-computed tomography (?-CT) scanning to nondestructively quantify the amount of mineral in vitro and in vivo on biodegradable scaffolds made of poly (L-lactic acid) (PLLA) and poly (?-caprolactone) (PCL). PLLA and PCL scaffolds were fabricated using an indirect solid freeform fabrication (SFF) technique to achieve orthogonally interconnected pore architectures. Biomineral coatings were formed on the fabricated PLLA and PCL scaffolds after incubation in modified SBF (mSBF). Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction confirmed the formation of an apatite-like mineral. The scaffolds were implanted into mouse ectopic sites for 3 and 10 weeks. The presence of a biomineral coating within the porous scaffolds was confirmed through plastic embedding and ?-CT techniques. Tissue mineral content (TMC) and volume of mineral on the scaffold surfaces detected by ?-CT had a strong correlation with the amount of calcium measured by the orthocresolphthalein complex-one (OCPC) method before and after implantation. There was a strong correlation between OCPC pre- and postimplantation and ?-CT measured TMC (R2=0.96 preimplant; R2=0.90 postimplant) and mineral volume (R2=0.96 preimplant; R2=0.89 postimplant). The ?-CT technique showed increases in mineral following implantation, suggesting that ?-CT can be used to nondestructively determine the amount of calcium on coated scaffolds.

Saito, Eiji; Suarez-Gonzalez, Darilis; Rao, Rameshwar R.; Stegemann, Jan P.; Murphy, William L.

2013-01-01

277

Use of micro-computed tomography to nondestructively characterize biomineral coatings on solid freeform fabricated poly (L-lactic acid) and poly ((?-caprolactone) scaffolds in vitro and in vivo.  

PubMed

Biomineral coatings have been extensively used to enhance the osteoconductivity of polymeric scaffolds. Numerous porous scaffolds have previously been coated with a bone-like apatite mineral through incubation in simulated body fluid (SBF). However, characterization of the mineral layer formed on scaffolds, including the amount of mineral within the scaffolds, often requires destructive methods. We have developed a method using micro-computed tomography (?-CT) scanning to nondestructively quantify the amount of mineral in vitro and in vivo on biodegradable scaffolds made of poly (L-lactic acid) (PLLA) and poly (?-caprolactone) (PCL). PLLA and PCL scaffolds were fabricated using an indirect solid freeform fabrication (SFF) technique to achieve orthogonally interconnected pore architectures. Biomineral coatings were formed on the fabricated PLLA and PCL scaffolds after incubation in modified SBF (mSBF). Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction confirmed the formation of an apatite-like mineral. The scaffolds were implanted into mouse ectopic sites for 3 and 10 weeks. The presence of a biomineral coating within the porous scaffolds was confirmed through plastic embedding and ?-CT techniques. Tissue mineral content (TMC) and volume of mineral on the scaffold surfaces detected by ?-CT had a strong correlation with the amount of calcium measured by the orthocresolphthalein complex-one (OCPC) method before and after implantation. There was a strong correlation between OCPC pre- and postimplantation and ?-CT measured TMC (R(2)=0.96 preimplant; R(2)=0.90 postimplant) and mineral volume (R(2)=0.96 preimplant; R(2)=0.89 postimplant). The ?-CT technique showed increases in mineral following implantation, suggesting that ?-CT can be used to nondestructively determine the amount of calcium on coated scaffolds. PMID:23134479

Saito, Eiji; Suarez-Gonzalez, Darilis; Rao, Rameshwar R; Stegemann, Jan P; Murphy, William L; Hollister, Scott J

2013-07-01

278

A bilayered elastomeric scaffold for tissue engineering of small diameter vascular grafts.  

PubMed

A major barrier to the development of a clinically useful small diameter tissue engineered vascular graft (TEVG) is the scaffold component. Scaffold requirements include matching the mechanical and structural properties with those of native vessels and optimizing the microenvironment to foster cell integration, adhesion and growth. We have developed a small diameter, bilayered, biodegradable, elastomeric scaffold based on a synthetic, biodegradable elastomer. The scaffold incorporates a highly porous inner layer, allowing cell integration and growth, and an external, fibrous reinforcing layer deposited by electrospinning. Scaffold morphology and mechanical properties were assessed, quantified and compared with those of native vessels. Scaffolds were then seeded with adult stem cells using a rotational vacuum seeding device to obtain a TEVG, cultured under dynamic conditions for 7 days and evaluated for cellularity. The scaffold showed firm integration of the two polymeric layers with no delamination. Mechanical properties were physiologically consistent, showing anisotropy, an elastic modulus (1.4 + or - 0.4 MPa) and an ultimate tensile stress (8.3 + or - 1.7 MPa) comparable with native vessels. The compliance and suture retention forces were 4.6 + or - 0.5 x 10(-4) mmHg(-1) and 3.4 + or - 0.3N, respectively. Seeding resulted in a rapid, uniform, bulk integration of cells, with a seeding efficiency of 92 + or - 1%. The scaffolds maintained a high level of cellular density throughout dynamic culture. This approach, combining artery-like mechanical properties and a rapid and efficient cellularization, might contribute to the future clinical translation of TEVGs. PMID:19540370

Soletti, Lorenzo; Hong, Yi; Guan, Jianjun; Stankus, John J; El-Kurdi, Mohammed S; Wagner, William R; Vorp, David A

2010-01-01

279

Tissue engineering bone-ligament complexes using fiber-guiding scaffolds.  

PubMed

Regeneration of bone-ligament complexes destroyed due to disease or injury is a clinical challenge due to complex topologies and tissue integration required for functional restoration. Attempts to reconstruct soft-hard tissue interfaces have met with limited clinical success. In this investigation, we manufactured biomimetic fiber-guiding scaffolds using solid free-form fabrication methods that custom fit complex anatomical defects to guide functionally-oriented ligamentous fibers in vivo. Compared to traditional, amorphous or random-porous polymeric scaffolds, the use of perpendicularly oriented micro-channels provides better guidance for cellular processes anchoring ligaments between two distinct mineralized structures. These structures withstood biomechanical loading to restore large osseous defects. Cell transplantation using hybrid scaffolding constructs with guidance channels resulted in predictable oriented fiber architecture, greater control of tissue infiltration, and better organization of ligament interface than random scaffold architectures. These findings demonstrate that fiber-guiding scaffolds drive neogenesis of triphasic bone-ligament integration for a variety of clinical scenarios. PMID:21993234

Park, Chan Ho; Rios, Hector F; Jin, Qiming; Sugai, James V; Padial-Molina, Miguel; Taut, Andrei D; Flanagan, Colleen L; Hollister, Scott J; Giannobile, William V

2012-01-01

280

Assessment of a new biomimetic scaffold and its effects on bone formation by OCT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ultimate target of bone tissue engineering is to generate functional load bearing bone. By nature, the porous volume in the trabecular bone is occupied by osseous medulla. The natural bone matrix consists of hydroxyapatite (HA) crystals precipitated along the collagen type I fibres. The mineral phase renders bone strength while collagen provides flexibility. Without mineral component, bone is very flexible and can not bear loads, whereas it is brittle in the case of mineral phase without the collagen presence. In this study, we designed and prepared a new type of scaffold which mimics the features of natural bone. The scaffold consists of three different components, a biphasic polymeric base composed of two different biodegradable polymers prepared by using dual porogen approach and bioactive agents, i.e., collagen and HA particles which are distributed throughout the matrix only in the pore surfaces. Interaction of the bioactive scaffolds possessing very high porosity and interconnected pore structures with cells were investigated in a prolonged culture period by using an osteoblastic cell line. The mineral HA particles have a slight different refractive index from the other elements such as polymeric scaffolds and cell/matrix in a tissue engineering constructs, exhibiting brighter images in OCT. Thus, OCT renders a convenient means to assess the morphology and architecture of the blank biomimetic scaffolds. This study also takes a close observation of OCT images for the cultured cell-scaffold constructs in order to assess neo-formed minerals and matrix. The OCT assessments have been compared with the results from confocal and SEM analysis.

Yang, Ying; Aydin, Halil M.; Piskin, Erhan; El Haj, Alicia J.

2009-02-01

281

Bone tissue engineering using polycaprolactone scaffolds fabricated via selective laser sintering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycaprolactone (PCL) is a bioresorbable polymer with potential applications for bone and cartilage repair. In this work, porous PCL scaffolds were computationally designed and then fabricated via selective laser sintering (SLS), a rapid prototyping technique. The microstructure and mechanical properties of the fabricated scaffolds were assessed and compared to the designed porous architectures and computationally predicted properties. Scaffolds were then

Jessica M. Williams; Adebisi Adewunmi; Rachel M. Schek; Colleen L. Flanagan; Paul H. Krebsbach; Stephen E. Feinberg; Scott J. Hollister; Suman Das

2005-01-01

282

Hydroxyapatite/polyamide66 porous scaffold with an ethylene vinyl acetate surface layer used for simultaneous substitute and repair of articular cartilage and underlying bone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, tissue scaffold made from polyamide66 (PA66) and hydroxyapatite (HA) was prepared by co-precipitation and thermal-induced phase inversion method, in which biomimetic HA crystals were uniformly distributed in PA66 matrix. The porosity of the scaffold is about 81% and the macropore size is from 50 to 500 ?m. The ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) layer was thermally molded on one surface of HA-PA66 scaffold to develop EVA/HA-PA66 composite for articular cartilage/bone substitute, i.e., upper EVA layer for cartilage substitute and underlying HA-PA66 scaffold for bone bonding and fixation. The physicochemical and mechanical properties of EVA were also investigated. The results indicate that the tensile and compressive strength of EVA is about 4.65 MPa and 9.44 MPa respectively, while its mean friction coefficient is very small, only about 0.23. The cell culture of EVA and HA-PA66 scaffold shows that these materials possess good cytocompatibility. The proposed preparation method is novel and effective, and the EVA/HA-PA66 composite has good potential for simultaneous substitute of articular cartilage and underlying bone.

Luo, Xiaobing; Zhang, Li; Morsi, Yos; Zou, Qin; Wang, Yanying; Gao, Shibo; Li, Yubao

2011-09-01

283

Investigation of Neovascularization in Three-Dimensional Porous Scaffolds In Vivo by a Combination of Multiscale Photoacoustic Microscopy and Optical Coherence Tomography  

PubMed Central

It is a grand challenge to visualize and assess in vivo neovascularization in a three-dimensional (3D) scaffold noninvasively, together with high spatial resolution and deep penetration depth. Here we used multiscale photoacoustic microscopy (PAM), including acoustic-resolution PAM (AR-PAM) and optical-resolution PAM (OR-PAM), to chronically monitor neovascularization in an inverse opal scaffold implanted in a mouse model up to 6 weeks by taking advantage of the optical absorption contrast intrinsic to hemoglobin molecules in red blood cells. By combining with optical coherence tomography (OCT) based on optical scattering contrast, we also demonstrated the capability to simultaneously image and analyze the vasculature and the scaffold in the same mouse. The hybrid system containing OR-PAM and OCT offered a fine lateral resolution of ?5??m and a penetration depth of ?1?mm into the scaffold/tissue construct. AR-PAM further extended the penetration depth up to ?3?mm at a lateral resolution of ?45??m. By quantifying the 3D PAM data, we further examined the effect of pore size (200 vs. 80??m) of a scaffold on neovascularization. The data collected from PAM were consistent with those obtained from traditional invasive, labor-intensive histologic analyses.

Cai, Xin; Zhang, Yu; Li, Li; Choi, Sung-Wook; MacEwan, Matthew R.; Yao, Junjie; Kim, Chulhong

2013-01-01

284

Novel Scaffolds Fabricated Using Oleuropein for Bone Tissue Engineering  

PubMed Central

We investigated the feasibility of oleuropein as a cross-linking agent for fabricating three-dimensional (3D) porous composite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. Human-like collagen (HLC) and nanohydroxyapatite (n-HAp) were used to fabricate the composite scaffold by way of cross-linking. The mechanical tests revealed superior properties for the cross-linked scaffolds compared to the uncross-linked scaffolds. The as-obtained composite scaffold had a 3D porous structure with pores ranging from 120 to 300??m and a porosity of 73.6 ± 2.3%. The cross-linked scaffolds were seeded with MC3T3-E1 Subclone 14 mouse osteoblasts. Fluorescence staining, the Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) indicated that the scaffolds enhanced cell adhesion and proliferation. Our results indicate the potential of these scaffolds for bone tissue engineering.

Fan, Hui; Hui, Junfeng; Duan, Zhiguang; Fan, Daidi; Mi, Yu; Deng, Jianjun; Li, Hui

2014-01-01

285

Novel scaffolds fabricated using oleuropein for bone tissue engineering.  

PubMed

We investigated the feasibility of oleuropein as a cross-linking agent for fabricating three-dimensional (3D) porous composite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. Human-like collagen (HLC) and nanohydroxyapatite (n-HAp) were used to fabricate the composite scaffold by way of cross-linking. The mechanical tests revealed superior properties for the cross-linked scaffolds compared to the uncross-linked scaffolds. The as-obtained composite scaffold had a 3D porous structure with pores ranging from 120 to 300? ? m and a porosity of 73.6 ± 2.3%. The cross-linked scaffolds were seeded with MC3T3-E1 Subclone 14 mouse osteoblasts. Fluorescence staining, the Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) indicated that the scaffolds enhanced cell adhesion and proliferation. Our results indicate the potential of these scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. PMID:24959582

Fan, Hui; Hui, Junfeng; Duan, Zhiguang; Fan, Daidi; Mi, Yu; Deng, Jianjun; Li, Hui

2014-01-01

286

Novel Antibacterial Nanofibrous PLLA Scaffolds  

PubMed Central

In order to achieve high local bioactivity and low systemic side effects of antibiotics in the treatment of dental, periodontal and bone infections, a localized and temporally controlled delivery system is crucial. In this study, a three-dimensional (3D) porous tissue engineering scaffold was developed with the ability to release antibiotics in a controlled fashion for long-term inhibition of bacterial growth. The highly soluble antibiotic drug, Doxycycline (DOXY), was successfully incorporated into PLGA nanospheres using a modified water-in-oil-in-oil (w/o/o) emulsion method. The PLGA nanospheres (NS) were then incorporated into prefabricated nanofibrous PLLA scaffolds with a well interconnected macroporous structure. The release kinetics of DOXY from four different PLGA NS formulations on a PLLA scaffold was investigated. DOXY could be released from the NS-scaffolds in a locally and temporally controlled manner. The DOXY release is controlled by DOXY diffusion out of the NS and is strongly dependent upon the physical and chemical properties of the PLGA. While PLGA50-6.5K, PLGA50-64K, and PLGA75-113K NS-scaffolds discharge DOXY rapidly with a high initial burst release, PLGA85-142K NS-scaffold can extend the release of DOXY to longer than 6 weeks with a low initial burst release. Compared to NS alone, the NS incorporated on a 3-D scaffold had significantly reduced the initial burst release. In vitro antibacterial tests of PLGA85 NS-scaffold demonstrated its ability to inhibit common bacterial growth (S.aureus and E.coli) for a prolonged duration. The successful incorporation of DOXY onto 3-D scaffolds and its controlled release from scaffolds extends the usage of nano-fibrous scaffolds from the delivery of large molecules such as growth factors to the delivery of small hydrophilic drugs, allowing for a broader application and a more complex tissue engineering strategy.

Feng, Kai; Sun, Hongli; Bradley, Mark A.; Dupler, Ellen J.; Giannobile, William V.; Ma, Peter X.

2010-01-01

287

Functionalized carbon nanotube reinforced scaffolds for bone regenerative engineering: fabrication, in vitro and in vivo evaluation.  

PubMed

Designing biodegradable scaffolds with bone-compatible mechanical properties has been a significant challenge in the field of bone tissue engineering and regenerative engineering. The objective of this work is to improve the polymeric scaffold's mechanical strength by compositing it with mechanically superior carbon nanotubes. Poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microsphere scaffolds exhibit mechanical properties in the range of human cancellous bone. On the other hand, carbon nanotubes have outstanding mechanical properties. The aim of this study is to improve further the mechanical strength of PLGA scaffolds such that they may be applicable for a wide range of load-bearing repair and regeneration applications. We have formed composite microspheres of PLGA containing pristine and modified (with hydroxyl (OH), carboxylic acid (COOH)) multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), and fabricated them into three-dimensional porous scaffolds. Results show that by adding only 3% MWCNTs, the compressive strength and modulus was significantly increased (35 MPa, 510.99 MPa) compared to pure PLGA scaffolds (19 MPa and 166.38 MPa). Scanning electron microscopy images showed excellent cell adhesion and proliferation. In vitro studies exhibited good cell viability, proliferation and mineralization. The in vivo study, however, indicated differences in inflammatory response throughout the 12 weeks of implantation, with OH-modified MWCNTs having the least response, followed by unmodified and COOH-modified exhibiting a more pronounced response. Overall, our results show that PLGA scaffolds containing water-dispersible MWCNTs are mechanically stronger and display good cellular and tissue compatibility, and hence are potential candidates for load-bearing bone tissue engineering. PMID:24687391

Mikael, Paiyz E; Amini, Ami R; Basu, Joysurya; Josefina Arellano-Jimenez, M; Laurencin, Cato T; Sanders, Mary M; Barry Carter, C; Nukavarapu, Syam P

2014-06-01

288

Recent advances in bone tissue engineering scaffolds  

PubMed Central

Bone disorders are of significant concern due to increase in the median age of our population. Traditionally, bone grafts have been used to restore damaged bone. Synthetic biomaterials are now being used as bone graft substitutes. These biomaterials were initially selected for structural restoration based on their biomechanical properties. Later scaffolds were engineered to be bioactive or bioresorbable to enhance tissue growth. Now scaffolds are designed to induce bone formation and vascularization. These scaffolds are often porous, biodegradable materials that harbor different growth factors, drugs, genes or stem cells. In this review, we highlight recent advances in bone scaffolds and discuss aspects that still need to be improved.

Bose, Susmita; Roy, Mangal; Bandyopadhyay, Amit

2012-01-01

289

Process to Make Collagen Scaffolds with an Artificial Circulatory System Using Rapid Prototyping.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Tissue engineering aims to produce biological substitutes to restore or repair damaged human tissues or organs. The principle strategy behind tissue engineering involves seeding relevant cell(s) onto porous 3D biodegradable scaffolds. The scaffold acts as...

B. Derby C. Ainsley E. Sachlos J. T. Czernuszka N. Reis

2003-01-01

290

Monodisperse porous poly(vinyl acetate-co-divinylbenzene) particles by single-stage seeded polymerization: a packing material for reversed phase HPLC.  

PubMed

A single-stage swelling and polymerization method was proposed for the synthesis of monodisperse porous poly(vinyl acetate-co-divinylbenzene) [poly(VAc-co-DVB)] particles with different VAc/DVB feed ratios. The particles obtained with the VAc/DVB feed ratio of 50:50 v/v had a narrow pore size distribution exhibiting a sharp peak at 30 nm. Based on this distribution the mean pore size and the specific volume were determined as 12 nm and 1.39 mL/g, respectively. The specific surface area of poly(VAc-co-DVB) particles was found to be 470 m2/g. These properties make poly(VAc-co-DVB) particles a promising support for potential HPLC applications. Poly(vinyl alcohol-co-divinylbenzene) [poly(VA-co-DVB)] particles were then obtained by the basic hydrolysis of poly(VAc-co-DVB) particles. The hydroxyl groups on poly(VA-co-DVB) particles have a suitably reactive functionality for surface grafting or derivatization protocols aiming at synthesizing various HPLC packings. The examination of poly(VA-co-DVB) particles by confocal laser scanning microscopy showed the homogeneous distribution of hydroxyl functionality in the particle interior. As a starting point, the chromatographic performance of plain material, poly(VAc-co-DVB) particles produced with VAc/DVB feed ratio of 50:50 (v/v) was tested by a commonly utilized chromatographic mode, reversed phase chromatography. Poly(VAc-co-DVB) particles were successfully used as packing material in the RP separation of alkylbenzenes with resolutions higher than 1.5. Theoretical plate numbers up to 17 500 plates/m were achieved. No significant change both in the chromatographic resolution and column efficiency was observed with increasing flow rate. The chromatography showed that poly(VAc-co-DVB) particles were a suitable starting material for the synthesis of chromatographic packings for different modes of HPLC. PMID:16833225

Caglayan, Berna; Unsal, Ender; Camli, S Tolga; Tuncel, Murvet; Tuncel, Ali

2006-05-01

291

Ice-microsphere templating to produce highly porous nanocomposite PLA matrix scaffolds with pores selectively lined by bacterial cellulose nano-whiskers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of 3D scaffolds for tissue engineering with provision of a controlled nano-topography remains a significant challenge. Here we have combined an ice-microsphere templating technique with thermally induced phase separation, and by taking advantage of interactions between hydrophilic and hydrophobic phases, lined the pore walls with bacterial cellulose nano-whiskers. The cryogenic technique we have developed not only allows the

J. J. Blaker; K.-Y. Lee; A. Mantalaris; A. Bismarck

2010-01-01

292

Biodegradable parallel and porous HSPG\\/collagen scaffolds for the in vitro culture of NSCs for the spinal cord tissue engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current challenge in spinal cord tissue engineering which is used in the spinal cord injury is to produce an implantable scaffold\\u000a capable of bridging the nerve gaps which will produce results similar to autograft without requiring autologous donor tissue.\\u000a Blending heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG) with collagen resulted in increased hydrophilicity, high porosity (89%), improved\\u000a mechanical properties and suitable pore sizes

Yansong WangChangwei; Changwei Zhou; Meng Yao; Ying Li; Yugang Liu; Wei Zheng

293

Method for making a bio-compatible scaffold  

DOEpatents

A method for forming a three-dimensional, biocompatible, porous scaffold structure using a solid freeform fabrication technique (referred to herein as robocasting) that can be used as a medical implant into a living organism, such as a human or other mammal. Imaging technology and analysis is first used to determine the three-dimensional design required for the medical implant, such as a bone implant or graft, fashioned as a three-dimensional, biocompatible scaffold structure. The robocasting technique is used to either directly produce the three-dimensional, porous scaffold structure or to produce an over-sized three-dimensional, porous scaffold lattice which can be machined to produce the designed three-dimensional, porous scaffold structure for implantation.

Cesarano, III, Joseph (Albuquerque, NM); Stuecker, John N. (Albuquerque, NM); Dellinger, Jennifer G. (Champaigne, IL); Jamison, Russell D. (Urbana, IL)

2006-01-31

294

Porous chitosan scaffolds with embedded hyaluronic acid/chitosan/plasmid-DNA nanoparticles encoding TGF-?1 induce DNA controlled release, transfected chondrocytes, and promoted cell proliferation.  

PubMed

Cartilage defects resulting from traumatic injury or degenerative diseases have very limited spontaneous healing ability. Recent progress in tissue engineering and local therapeutic gene delivery systems has led to promising new strategies for successful regeneration of hyaline cartilage. In the present study, tissue engineering and local therapeutic gene delivery systems are combined with the design of a novel gene-activated matrix (GAM) embedded with hybrid hyaluronic acid(HA)/chitosan(CS)/plasmid-DNA nanoparticles encoding transforming growth factor (TGF)-?1. A chitosan scaffold functioned as the three-dimensional carrier for the nanoparticles. Results demonstrated that scaffold-entrapped plasmid DNA was released in a sustained and steady manner over 120 days, and was effectively protected in the HA/CS/pDNA nanoparticles. Culture results demonstrated that chondrocytes grown in the novel GAM were highly proliferative and capable of filling scaffold micropores with cells and extracellular matrix. Confocal laser scanning microscopy indicated that chondrocytes seeded in the GAM expressed exogenous transgenes labeled with green fluorescent protein. ELISA results demonstrated detectable TGF-?1 expression in the supernatant of GAM cultures, which peaked at the sixth day of culture and afterwards showed a moderate decline. Histological results and biochemical assays confirmed promotion of chondrocyte proliferation. Cell culture indicated no affects on phenotypic expression of ECM molecules, such as GAG. The results of this study indicate the suitability of this novel GAM for enhanced in vitro cartilage tissue engineering. PMID:23894564

Lu, Huading; Lv, Lulu; Dai, Yuhu; Wu, Gang; Zhao, Huiqing; Zhang, Fucheng

2013-01-01

295

The development of a three-dimensional scaffold for ex vivo biomimicry of human acute myeloid leukaemia.  

PubMed

Acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) is a cancer of haematopoietic cells that develops in three-dimensional (3-D) bone marrow niches in vivo. The study of AML has been hampered by lack of appropriate ex vivo models that mimic this microenvironment. We hypothesised that fabrication and optimisation of suitable biomimetic scaffolds for culturing leukaemic cells ex vivo might facilitate the study of AML in its native 3-D niche. We evaluated the growth of three leukaemia subtype-specific cell lines, K-562, HL60 and Kasumi-6, on highly porous scaffolds fabricated from biodegradable and non-biodegradable polymeric materials, such as poly (L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), polyurethane (PU), poly (methyl-methacrylate), poly (D, L-lactade), poly (caprolactone), and polystyrene. Our results show that PLGA and PU supported the best seeding efficiency and leukaemic growth. Furthermore, the PLGA and PU scaffolds were coated with extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, collagen type I (62.5 or 125 microg/ml) and fibronectin (25 or 50 microg/ml) to provide biorecognition signals. The 3 leukaemia subtype-specific lines grew best on PU scaffolds coated with 62.5 microg/ml collagen type I over 6 weeks in the absence of exogenous growth factors. In conclusion, PU-collagen scaffolds may provide a practical model to study the biology and treatment of primary AML in an ex vivo mimicry. PMID:20015543

Blanco, Teresa Mortera; Mantalaris, Athanasios; Bismarck, Alexander; Panoskaltsis, Nicki

2010-03-01

296

Enhancing Osteoconduction of PLLA-Based Nanocomposite Scaffolds for Bone Regeneration Using Different Biomimetic Signals to MSCs.  

PubMed

In bone engineering, the adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal stromal cells rely on signaling from chemico-physical structure of the substrate, therefore prompting the design of mimetic "extracellular matrix"-like scaffolds. In this study, three-dimensional porous poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA)-based scaffolds have been mixed with different components, including single walled carbon nanotubes (CNT), micro-hydroxyapatite particles (HA), and BMP2, and treated with plasma (PT), to obtain four different nanocomposites: PLLA + CNT, PLLA + CNTHA, PLLA + CNT + HA + BMP2 and PLLA + CNT + HA + PT. Adult bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) were derived from the femur of orthopaedic patients, seeded on the scaffolds and cultured under osteogenic induction up to differentiation and mineralization. The release of specific metabolites and temporal gene expression profiles of marrow-derived osteoprogenitors were analyzed at definite time points, relevant to in vitro culture as well as in vivo differentiation. As a result, the role of the different biomimetic components added to the PLLA matrix was deciphered, with BMP2-added scaffolds showing the highest biomimetic activity on cells differentiating to mature osteoblasts. The modification of a polymeric scaffold with reinforcing components which also work as biomimetic cues for cells can effectively direct osteoprogenitor cells differentiation, so as to shorten the time required for mineralization. PMID:22408463

Ciapetti, Gabriela; Granchi, Donatella; Devescovi, Valentina; Baglio, Serena R; Leonardi, Elisa; Martini, Desirèe; Jurado, Maria Jesus; Olalde, Beatriz; Armentano, Ilaria; Kenny, Josè M; Walboomers, Frank X; Alava, Josè Inaki; Baldini, Nicola

2012-01-01

297

Enhancing Osteoconduction of PLLA-Based Nanocomposite Scaffolds for Bone Regeneration Using Different Biomimetic Signals to MSCs  

PubMed Central

In bone engineering, the adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal stromal cells rely on signaling from chemico-physical structure of the substrate, therefore prompting the design of mimetic “extracellular matrix”-like scaffolds. In this study, three-dimensional porous poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA)-based scaffolds have been mixed with different components, including single walled carbon nanotubes (CNT), micro-hydroxyapatite particles (HA), and BMP2, and treated with plasma (PT), to obtain four different nanocomposites: PLLA + CNT, PLLA + CNTHA, PLLA + CNT + HA + BMP2 and PLLA + CNT + HA + PT. Adult bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) were derived from the femur of orthopaedic patients, seeded on the scaffolds and cultured under osteogenic induction up to differentiation and mineralization. The release of specific metabolites and temporal gene expression profiles of marrow-derived osteoprogenitors were analyzed at definite time points, relevant to in vitro culture as well as in vivo differentiation. As a result, the role of the different biomimetic components added to the PLLA matrix was deciphered, with BMP2-added scaffolds showing the highest biomimetic activity on cells differentiating to mature osteoblasts. The modification of a polymeric scaffold with reinforcing components which also work as biomimetic cues for cells can effectively direct osteoprogenitor cells differentiation, so as to shorten the time required for mineralization.

Ciapetti, Gabriela; Granchi, Donatella; Devescovi, Valentina; Baglio, Serena R.; Leonardi, Elisa; Martini, Desiree; Jurado, Maria Jesus; Olalde, Beatriz; Armentano, Ilaria; Kenny, Jose M.; Walboomers, Frank X.; Alava, Jose Inaki; Baldini, Nicola

2012-01-01

298

Galactose-functionalized polyHIPE scaffolds for use in routine three dimensional culture of mammalian hepatocytes.  

PubMed

Three-dimensional (3D) cell culture is regarded as a more physiologically relevant method of growing cells in the laboratory compared to traditional monolayer cultures. Recently, the application of polystyrene-based scaffolds produced using polyHIPE technology (porous polymers derived from high internal phase emulsions) for routine 3D cell culture applications has generated very promising results in terms of improved replication of native cellular function in the laboratory. These materials, which are now available as commercial scaffolds, are superior to many other 3D cell substrates due to their high porosity, controllable morphology, and suitable mechanical strength. However, until now there have been no reports describing the surface-modification of these materials for enhanced cell adhesion and function. This study, therefore, describes the surface functionalization of these materials with galactose, a carbohydrate known to specifically bind to hepatocytes via the asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR), to further improve hepatocyte adhesion and function when growing on the scaffold. We first modify a typical polystyrene-based polyHIPE to produce a cell culture scaffold carrying pendent activated-ester functionality. This was achieved via the incorporation of pentafluorophenyl acrylate (PFPA) into the initial styrene (STY) emulsion, which upon polymerization formed a polyHIPE with a porosity of 92% and an average void diameter of 33 ?m. Histological analysis showed that this polyHIPE was a suitable 3D scaffold for hepatocyte cell culture. Galactose-functionalized scaffolds were then prepared by attaching 2'-aminoethyl-?-D-galactopyranoside to this PFPA functionalized polyHIPE via displacement of the labile pentafluorophenyl group, to yield scaffolds with approximately ca. 7-9% surface carbohydrate. Experiments with primary rat hepatocytes showed that cellular albumin synthesis was greatly enhanced during the initial adhesion/settlement period of cells on the galactose-functionalized material, suggesting that the surface carbohydrates are accessible and selective to cells entering the scaffold. This porous polymer scaffold could, therefore, have important application as a 3D scaffold that offers enhanced hepatocyte adhesion and functionality. PMID:24180291

Hayward, Adam S; Eissa, Ahmed M; Maltman, Daniel J; Sano, Naoko; Przyborski, Stefan A; Cameron, Neil R

2013-12-01

299

3D PLLA/Ibuprofen composite scaffolds obtained by a supercritical fluids assisted process.  

PubMed

The emerging next generation of engineered tissues is based on the development of loaded scaffolds containing bioactive molecules in order to control the cellular function or to interact on the surrounding tissues. Indeed, implantation of engineered biomaterials might cause local inflammation because of the host's immune response; thereby, the use of anti-inflammatory agents, whether steroidal or nonsteroidal is required. One of the most important stages of tissue engineering is the design and the generation of a porous 3D structure, with high porosity, high interconnectivity and homogenous morphology. Various techniques have been reported in the literature for the fabrication of biodegradable scaffolds, but they suffer several limitations. In this study, for the first time, the possibility of generating 3D polymeric scaffolds loaded with an active compound by supercritical freeze extraction process is evaluated; this innovative process combines the advantages of the thermally induced phase separation process and of the supercritical carbon dioxide drying. Poly-L-lactid acid/ibuprofen composite scaffolds characterized by a 3D geometry, micrometric cellular structures and wrinkled pores walls have been obtained; moreover, homogeneous drug distribution and controlled release of the active principle have been assured. PMID:24366467

Cardea, S; Baldino, L; Scognamiglio, M; Reverchon, E

2014-04-01

300

Functional electrospun poly (lactic acid) scaffolds for biomedical applications: experimental conditions, degradation and biocompatibility study.  

PubMed

The electrospinning technique is a method used to produce nano and microfibers using the influence of electrostatic forces. Porous three dimensional networks of continuous and interconnected fibers as scaffolds were obtained from a poly (lactic acid) solution. The concentration of the polymeric solution, 12.5% m/w, as well as the conditions of voltage (V = 11kV) and tip-metallic collector distance (H = 13cm) were established to develop these scaffolds through the electrospinning process. The characteristics of the scaffolds, such as fiber diameter, sintering and the biomimetics of the characteristics of a native extra cellular matrix were verified by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The orientation induced in the material as a consequence of the electrospinning forces was studied by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD).The same techniques were used to study the hydrolytic degradation of samples in a ringer solution (pH = 7-7.4 at 37 degrees C) for 12 weeks and showed evidences of superficial degradation on the microfibers. The suitability of these scaffolds for tissue engineering was studied through the primary cell culture of chondrocytes, by observing adhesion and cellular proliferation developed during 14 days of assay. PMID:24015478

Hidalgo, Idalba A; Sojot, Felipe; Arvelo, Francisco; Sabino, Marcos A

2013-06-01

301

Resorbable glass-ceramic phosphate-based scaffolds for bone tissue engineering: synthesis, properties, and in vitro effects on human marrow stromal cells.  

PubMed

Highly porous bioresorbable glass-ceramic scaffolds were prepared via sponge replication method by using an open-cell polyurethane foam as a template and phosphate-based glass powders. The glass, belonging to the P2O5-SiO2-CaO-MgO-Na2O-K2O system, was synthesized by a melting-quenching route, ground, and sieved to obtain powders with a grain size of less than 30??m. A slurry containing glass powders, polyvinyl alcohol, and water was prepared to coat the polymeric template. The removal of the polymer and the sintering of the glass powders were performed by a thermal treatment, in order to obtain an inorganic replica of the template structure. The structure and properties of the scaffold were investigated from structural, morphological, and mechanical viewpoints by means of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, density measurements, image analysis, and compressive tests. The scaffolds exhibited a trabecular architecture that closely mimics the structure of a natural spongy bone. The solubility of the porous structures was assessed by soaking the samples in acellular simulated body fluid (SBF) and Tris-HCl for different time frames and then by assessing the scaffold weight loss. As far as the test in SBF is concerned, the nucleation of hydroxyapatite on the scaffold trabeculae demonstrates the bioactivity of the material. Biological tests were carried out using human bone marrow stromal cells to test the osteoconductivity of the material. The cells adhered to the scaffold struts and were metabolically active; it was found that cell differentiation over proliferation occurred. Therefore, the produced scaffolds, being biocompatible, bioactive, resorbable, and structurally similar to a spongy bone, can be proposed as interesting candidates for bone grafting. PMID:20566654

Vitale-Brovarone, Chiara; Ciapetti, Gabriela; Leonardi, Elisa; Baldini, Nicola; Bretcanu, Oana; Verné, Enrica; Baino, Francesco

2011-11-01

302

Scaffolding and Metacognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper proposes an expanded conception of scaffolding with four key elements: (1) scaffolding agency--expert, reciprocal, and self-scaffolding; (2) scaffolding domain--conceptual and heuristic scaffolding; (3) the identification of self-scaffolding with metacognition; and (4) the identification of six zones of scaffolding activity; each zone…

Holton, Derek; Clarke, David

2006-01-01

303

Significance of soluble growth factors in the chondrogenic response of human umbilical cord matrix stem cells in a porous three dimensional scaffold.  

PubMed

Stem cell based tissue engineering has emerged as a promising strategy for articular cartilage regeneration. Foetal derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) with their ease of availability, pluripotency and high expansion potential have been demonstrated to be an attractive cell source over adult MSCs. However, there is a need for optimisation of chondrogenic signals to direct the differentiation of these multipotent MSCs to chondrogenic lineage. In this study we have demonstrated the in vitro chondrogenesis of human umbilical cord matrix MSCs in three dimensional PVA-PCL (polyvinyl alcohol-polycaprolactone) scaffolds in the presence of the individual growth factors TGF?1, TGF?3, IGF, BMP2 and their combination with BMP2. Gene expression, histology and immunohistology were evaluated after 28 d culture. The induced cells showed the feature of chondrocytes in their morphology and expression of typical chondrogenic extracellular matrix molecules. Moreover, the real-time PCR assay has shown the expression of gene markers of chondrogenesis, SOX9, collagen type II and aggrecan. The expression of collagen type I and collagen type X was also evaluated. This study has demonstrated the successful chondrogenic induction of human umbilical cord MSCs in 3D scaffolds. Interestingly, the growth factor combination of TGF-?3 and BMP-2 was found to be more effective for chondrogenesis as shown by the real-time PCR studies. The findings of this study suggest the importance of using growth factor combinations for successful chondrogenic differentiation of umbilical cord MSCs. PMID:24213879

Nirmal, Remya S; Nair, Prabha D

2013-01-01

304

Functionalized synthetic biodegradable polymer scaffolds for tissue engineering.  

PubMed

Scaffolds (artificial ECMs) play a pivotal role in the process of regenerating tissues in 3D. Biodegradable synthetic polymers are the most widely used scaffolding materials. However, synthetic polymers usually lack the biological cues found in the natural extracellular matrix. Significant efforts have been made to synthesize biodegradable polymers with functional groups that are used to couple bioactive agents. Presenting bioactive agents on scaffolding surfaces is the most efficient way to elicit desired cell/material interactions. This paper reviews recent advancements in the development of functionalized biodegradable polymer scaffolds for tissue engineering, emphasizing the syntheses of functional biodegradable polymers, and surface modification of polymeric scaffolds. PMID:22396193

Liu, Xiaohua; Holzwarth, Jeremy M; Ma, Peter X

2012-07-01

305

Pressure-dependent variable resistors based on porous polymeric foams with conducting polymer thin films in situ coated on the interior surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pressure-dependent variable resistors were fabricated by coating conducting polymer thin films on the interior surfaces of porous polyurethane (PU) foams with thickness ranging from 1 mm to 5 mm. To coat conducting polymer thin films on the interior surfaces of the porous PU foams, the PU foams were first immersed in 1 M aqueous camphorsulfonic acid (HCSA) solution containing 0.44

Pen-Cheng Wang; Wei-Keng Lin; Sz-Yuan Hung; Hsueh-Ju Lu

2011-01-01

306

Degradation behavior of hydrophilized PLGA scaffolds prepared by melt-molding particulate-leaching method: Comparison with control hydrophobic one  

Microsoft Academic Search

Porous PLGA\\/PVA scaffolds as hydrophilized PLGA scaffolds for tissue engineering applications were fabricated by a novel melt-molding\\u000a particulate leaching method (non-solvent method). The prepared scaffolds exhibited highly porous and open-cellular pore structures\\u000a with almost same surface and interior porosities (pore size, 200–300 ? m; porosity, about 90%). The in vitro degradation behavior of the PLGA and PLGA\\/PVA scaffolds was compared

Se Heang Oh; Soung Gon Kang; Jin Ho Lee

2006-01-01

307

Biocompatibility and biodegradation of polyester and polyfumarate based-scaffolds for bone tissue engineering.  

PubMed

Biodegradable and biocompatible polymeric scaffolds have been recently introduced for tissue regeneration purpose. In the present study we aimed to develop polymeric-based scaffolds for bone regeneration. Two polyesters, poly-beta-propiolactone (PBPL), poly-epsilon-caprolactone (PCPL) and two polyfumarates, polydiisopropyl fumarate (PDIPF), polydicyclohexyl fumarate (PDCF) were chosen to prepare films which can support osteoblastic growth. Scanning electron microscopy and water contact angle were used to characterize the matrices. Biodegradation studies were performed both in PBS buffer and using an in vitro macrophage degradation assay. Mouse calvaria-derived MC3T3E1 cells and UMR106 rat osteosarcoma cell lines were used to perform biocompatibility and cytotoxicity studies. The polyesters, the most hydrophilic polymers studied, showed a rougher and more porous surfaces than the polyfumarates. Under acellular conditions, only PBPL was degraded by hydrolytic mechanisms. However, macrophages performed an active degradation of all polymeric films. Osteoblasts developed well-defined actin fibres without evidence of cytotoxicity when growing on the films. The number of UMR106 osteoblasts that adhered to the PBPL-based film was higher than that of the cells attached to the PECL and polyfumarates (PDIPF and PDCF) matrices. Both UMR106 and MC3T3E1 osteoblastic lines showed protein levels comparable to control conditions, demonstrating that they grew well on all surfaces. However, UMR106 cells showed a significant increase in proliferation on polyester-derived scaffolds (PBPL and PECL). The alkaline phosphatase activity of UMR106, an osteoblastic marker, was significantly higher than that of control plastic dishes. MC3T3E1 cells expressed similar levels of this differentiation marker in all polymeric matrices. We found similar collagen protein content after 48 h culture of UMR106 cells on all surfaces. However, important differences were evident in the MC3T3E1 line. In conclusion, the synthetic polymeric-based scaffold we have developed and studied supports adhesion, growth and differentiation of two osteoblastic cell lines, suggesting that they could be useful in bone tissue regeneration. PMID:18273918

Cortizo, M Susana; Molinuevo, M Silvina; Cortizo, Ana M

2008-01-01

308

Surface Modification of Materials by Plasma Process and UV-induced Grafted Polymerization for Biomedical Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface modification using plasma treated and graft polymerization is versatile process, with systems on the market capable of treating everything from polymer, metal, and ceramic substrates. The major advantage is that the modification is caused no substrate damage or bulk property changes. This is a very effective method to modify the surfaces of biomaterials to achieve desired physical or mechanical properties, or to induce a specific response when the device is placed in the body. They offer attractive possibilities for developing new biomaterials and for improving the performance of existing materials and devices. Hence, in this review, we describe the application of plasma treatment and graft polymerization on biomaterials field. The various applications are discussed in the following: (1) easy stripped-off wound dressing, (2) porous three-dimensional temporary scaffolds, (3) quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) base biosensors, and (4) covalent immobilization of glucose oxidase onto inorganic substrates

Chen, Ko-Shao; Chen, Su-Chen; Lien, Wei-Cheng; Tsai, Jui-Che; Ku, Yuan-An; Lin, Hong-Ru; Lin, Feng-Huei; Wu, Te-Hsing; Chen, Chia-Chieh; Chen, Tim-Mo; Chiou, Shih-Hwa

309

Nanofibrous Scaffolds for Dental and Craniofacial Applications  

PubMed Central

Tissue-engineering solutions often harness biomimetic materials to support cells for functional tissue regeneration. Three-dimensional scaffolds can create a multi-scale environment capable of facilitating cell adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation. One such multi-scale scaffold incorporates nanofibrous features to mimic the extracellular matrix along with a porous network for the regeneration of a variety of tissues. This review will discuss nanofibrous scaffold synthesis/fabrication, biological effects of nanofibers, their tissue- engineering applications in bone, cartilage, enamel, dentin, and periodontium, patient-specific scaffolds, and incorporated growth factor delivery systems. Nanofibrous scaffolds cannot only further the field of craniofacial regeneration but also advance technology for tissue-engineered replacements in many physiological systems.

Gupte, M.J.; Ma, P.X.

2012-01-01

310

Modification Gelatin Scaffold with Carboxymethylcellulose for Dermal Skin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), a derivative of cellulose, blended with biopolymer gelatin scaffolds were studied. The CMC solution was mixed with gelatin solution in various ratios and fabricated to porous structure via freeze drying process. Thermal and chemical crosslinking techniques were used to induce conjugation of free amide and carboxyl groups in protein structures of the different types of scaffold.

Fasai Wiwatwongwana; Somchai Pattana

2011-01-01

311

Platelet-Rich Plasma Favors Proliferation of Canine Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Methacrylate-Endcapped Caprolactone Porous Scaffold Niches  

PubMed Central

Osteoarticular pathologies very often require an implementation therapy to favor regeneration processes of bone, cartilage and/or tendons. Clinical approaches performed on osteoarticular complications in dogs constitute an ideal model for human clinical translational applications. The adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) have already been used to accelerate and facilitate the regenerative process. ASCs can be maintained in vitro and they can be differentiated to osteocytes or chondrocytes offering a good tool for cell replacement therapies in human and veterinary medicine. Although ACSs can be easily obtained from adipose tissue, the amplification process is usually performed by a time consuming process of successive passages. In this work, we use canine ASCs obtained by using a Bioreactor device under GMP cell culture conditions that produces a minimum of 30 million cells within 2 weeks. This method provides a rapid and aseptic method for production of sufficient stem cells with potential further use in clinical applications. We show that plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) treatment positively contributes to viability and proliferation of canine ASCs into caprolactone 2-(methacryloyloxy) ethyl ester (CLMA) scaffolds. This biomaterial does not need additional modifications for cASCs attachment and proliferation. Here we propose a framework based on a combination of approaches that may contribute to increase the therapeutical capability of stem cells by the use of PRGF and compatible biomaterials for bone and connective tissue regeneration.

Rodriguez-Jimenez, Francisco Javier; Valdes-Sanchez, Teresa; Carrillo, Jose M.; Rubio, Monica; Monleon-Prades, Manuel; Garcia-Cruz, Dunia Mercedes; Garcia, Montserrat; Cugat, Ramon; Moreno-Manzano, Victoria

2012-01-01

312

Synovex Plus implants coated with a polymeric, porous film improve performance of beef steers and heifers fed in confinement for up to 200 days.  

PubMed

Synovex Plus (SP) is a product that delivers 28 mg of estradiol benzoate (EB) and 200 mg of trenbolone acetate (TBA). We studied the impact of a polymeric, porous coating on SP implants (CSP) to prolong release of EB and TBA, and stimulate feedlot performance of feedlot cattle for an extended period. In an explant study, 30 steers were implanted with SP in one ear and CSP in the contralateral ear. Cattle (n = 6/d) were necropsied 40, 81, 120, 160, and 200 d after treatment, and remaining EB and TBA were quantified. Linear regression of EB and TBA remaining as a function of time for each treatment were computed. Rates of EB and TBA depletion from SP were -0.1980 (r(2) = 0.9994) and -1.7073 mg/d (r(2) = 0.9644), respectively, and for CSP rates of EB and TBA depletion were -0.1049 (r(2) = 0.9123) and -0.9466 mg/d (r(2) = 0.9297), respectively. The effect of treatment on depletion rates of each analyte were significant (P < 0.05). Data also showed EB and TBA were delivered from CSP at least 200 d but were delivered from SP about 120 d. Multisite trials with beef-type steers (4 sites) and heifers (4 sites) evaluated feedlot performance and carcass characteristics in response to a CSP implant or when sham implanted (SC). A randomized complete block design with 9 blocks and 2 treatments was used per site within animal gender. Across sites, steers (n = 342, BW = 297 kg) were fed finishing rations for 190 to 202 d (mean 198 d) and heifers (n = 342, BW = 289 kg) were fed finishing rations for 191 to 201 d (mean 198 d). Cattle were harvested and carcasses evaluated. Data were pooled across sites within gender for statistical analysis. Steers and heifers treated with CSP yielded greater (P ? 0.003) ADG, DMI, and G:F than SC steers and heifers. Mean BW differences between CSP and SC continued to increase throughout the study, indicating CSP stimulated growth of steers and heifers for 198 d. Mean carcass weights of CSP steers (P = 0.005) and heifers (P = 0.004) were greater than those of SP steers and heifers by 26.2 and 20.6 kg, respectively. The LM area was larger (P < 0.001) in CSP steers and heifers than SC cattle. Marbling decreased with CSP treatment (P ? 0.031), which caused reductions (P ? 0.006) in proportions of carcasses grading Prime or Choice. Evidence from these studies showed that a single administration of CSP increased feedlot cattle performance for at least 198 d, compared with SC, and may reduce the need to reimplant cattle. PMID:23100600

Cleale, R M; Bechtol, D T; Drouillard, J S; Edmonds, J D; Edmonds, M; Hunsaker, B D; Kraft, L A; Lawrence, T E; Brewbaker, S; Waite, A R

2012-12-01

313

Mechanical properties and dual drug delivery application of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) scaffolds fabricated with a poly(?-amino ester) porogen.  

PubMed

Polymeric scaffolds that are biocompatible and biodegradable are widely used for tissue engineering applications. Scaffolds can be further enhanced by enabling the release of one or more drugs to stimulate regeneration or for the treatment of a specific disease or condition. In this study, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres were mixed with poly(?-amino ester) (PBAE) particles to create novel hybrid scaffolds capable of dual release of drug and growth factor. Fast-degrading PBAE particles loaded with the drug ketoprofen acted as porogens that provided a rapid 12h release. The PLGA microspheres were loaded with a growth factor, bone morphogenetic protein 2, and fused together around the porogens to create a slow-degrading matrix that provided sustained release lasting 70days. Drug release was further tailored by varying the amount of porogen added to the scaffold. Bioactivity measurements demonstrated that the scaffold fabrication technique did not damage the drug or protein. The compressive modulus was affected by the amount of porogen added, extending from 50 to 111MPa for loadings from 60 to 40% PBAE, and after 5days of degradation, it decreased to 0.6 to 1.1kPa when the porogen was gone. PLGA containing a quick-degrading porogen can be used to release two drugs while developing a porous microarchitecture for cell ingrowth with in a matrix capable of maintaining a compressive modulus applicable for soft tissue implants. PMID:24424269

Clark, Amanda; Milbrandt, Todd A; Hilt, J Zach; Puleo, David A

2014-05-01

314

Evaluation of Scaffolds based on ?-Tricalcium Phosphate Cements for Tissue Engineering Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth of cells in 3-D porous scaffolds has gained importance in the field of tissue engineering. The scaffolds guide cellular growth, synthesize extracellular matrix and other biolog- ical molecules, and make the formation of tissues and functional organs easier. The aim of this study is to use ?-tricalcium phos- phate cement in order to obtain new types of scaffolds with

Jéferson L. de Moraes Machado; Isabel Cristina Giehl; Nance B. Nardi; Luis A. dos Santos

2011-01-01

315

The in vivo bone formation by mesenchymal stem cells in zein scaffolds  

Microsoft Academic Search

In our previous study, a three-dimensional zein porous scaffold was prepared. This scaffold showed proper mechanical properties, good biocompatibility, and controllable biodegradation. In addition, it allowed blood vessels to form inside in vivo. In the current study, we prepared the complexes of zein scaffolds and rabbit MSCs, and investigated ectopic bone formation in nude mice. Furthermore, we implanted them into

Jinwen Tu; Huajie Wang; Huiwu Li; Kerong Dai; Jinye Wang; Xiaoling Zhang

2009-01-01

316

Application of collagen-chitosan\\/fibrin glue asymmetric scaffolds in skin tissue engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

To create a scaffold that is suitable for the construction of tissue-engineered skin, a novel asymmetric porous scaffold with\\u000a different pore sizes on either side was prepared by combining a collagen-chitosan porous membrane with fibrin glue. Tissue-engineered\\u000a skin was fabricated using this asymmetric scaffold, fibroblasts, and a human keratinocyte line (HaCaT). Epidermal cells could\\u000a be seen growing easily and achieved

Chun-mao Han; Li-ping Zhang; Jin-zhang Sun; Hai-fei Shi; Jie Zhou; Chang-you Gao

2010-01-01

317

In vivo response of porous hydroxyapatite and beta-tricalcium phosphate prepared by aqueous solution combustion method and comparison with bioglass scaffolds.  

PubMed

Pure hydroxyapatite (HAp) and a biphasic calcium phosphate [containing 90% of beta-tri-calcium phosphate (beta-TCP) and 10% HAp] were tailored through an aqueous solution combustion synthesis. Porous struts were prepared using all the powders along with bioglass, a known bioactive material, and subsequently characterized. Sterilized struts were implanted to the lateral side of radius bone of 24 black Bengal goats of either sex, in which a blank hole was left unfilled in a group of six specimens to act as control. The bone formation response of the three implanting materials in vivo has been studied using scanning electron microscope and histological analysis in contrast with positive controls. Push-out tests were used to assess the mechanical strength at the bone-biomaterial interface. It was observed that interfacial response was strongly dependent on combinations of different physical and chemical parameters. The surface of beta-TCP exhibited similar characteristics of bone and was distinct from those of intervening apatite layer of bioglass. Lower bone ingrowth and reduced strength was observed with HAp compared to beta-TCP/bioglass-based implants. Bone formation response of the Ca-P material varied according to the composition of the implanting material, which could be tailored through this novel synthesis. PMID:18161811

Ghosh, Samir K; Nandi, Samit K; Kundu, Biswanath; Datta, Someswar; De, Dipak K; Roy, Sujit K; Basu, Debabrata

2008-07-01

318

ECM Inspired Coating of Embroidered 3D Scaffolds Enhances Calvaria Bone Regeneration  

PubMed Central

Resorbable polymeric implants and surface coatings are an emerging technology to treat bone defects and increase bone formation. This approach is of special interest in anatomical regions like the calvaria since adults lose the capacity to heal large calvarial defects. The present study assesses the potential of extracellular matrix inspired, embroidered polycaprolactone-co-lactide (PCL) scaffolds for the treatment of 13?mm full thickness calvarial bone defects in rabbits. Moreover the influence of a collagen/chondroitin sulfate (coll I/cs) coating of PCL scaffolds was evaluated. Defect areas filled with autologous bone and empty defects served as reference. The healing process was monitored over 6 months by combining a novel ultrasonographic method, radiographic imaging, biomechanical testing, and histology. The PCL coll I/cs treated group reached 68% new bone volume compared to the autologous group (100%) and the biomechanical stability of the defect area was similar to that of the gold standard. Histological investigations revealed a significantly more homogenous bone distribution over the whole defect area in the PCL coll I/cs group compared to the noncoated group. The bioactive, coll I/cs coated, highly porous, 3-dimensional PCL scaffold acted as a guide rail for new skull bone formation along and into the implant.

Rentsch, C.; Rentsch, B.; Heinemann, S.; Bernhardt, R.; Bischoff, B.; Forster, Y.; Scharnweber, D.; Rammelt, S.

2014-01-01

319

Fabrication of porous microtent structures toward an in vitro endothelium model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports the fabrication of compliant and permeable thin films with controlled curvature preferable to serve as engineering scaffolds for the production of in vivo like vascular endothelial constructs. A simple fabrication process was developed to fabricate three-dimensional ‘tent’ like microstructures by combining electrospinning and microfabrication. In particular, the ‘microtents’ were created by electrospinning mechanically flexible poly(etherurethane)urea(PEUU) polymer on a microstructured collecting substrate. The shape of the ‘microtents’ can be tuned by adjusting the geometries of microstructures on the collecting substrate and the operational parameters of electrospinning. Mechanical characterization showed the nonlinear mechanical behavior of porous polymeric thin films is similar to those of soft tissues, indicating that these thin films may serve as scaffolds for mimicking local mechanical environment of vascular tissues. Human endothelial cells were successfully cultured on the concave side of the porous thin film, constituting an endothelium model in vitro. This work addresses the need for engineered tissue scaffolds that can mimic both morphological and mechanical environments of natural vascular endothelium. The coupled effects of mechanical, structural and biochemical factors on vascular endothelium can thus be investigated.

Kim, Bongsu; Zhang, Xu; Borteh, Hassan; Li, Zhenqing; Guan, Jianjun; Zhao, Yi

2012-08-01

320

Silk fibroin-based scaffolds for bone regeneration.  

PubMed

Porous scaffolds were prepared using regenerated Bombyx mori silk fibroin dissolved in water or hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP). The effects of these two preparations on the formation and growth of new bone on implantation into the rabbit femoral epicondyle was examined. The aqueous-based fibroin (A-F) scaffold exhibited significantly greater osteoconductivity as judged by bone volume, bone mineral content, and bone mineral density at the implant site than the HFIP-based fibroin (HFIP-F) scaffold. Micro-CT analyses showed that the morphology of the newly formed bone differed significantly in the two types of silk fibroin scaffold. After 4 weeks of implantation, new trabecular bone was seen inside the pores of the A-F scaffold implant while the HFIP-F scaffold only contained necrotic cells. No trabecular bone was seen within the pores of the latter scaffolds, although the pores of these did contain giant cells and granulation tissue. PMID:23125151

Kuboyama, Noboru; Kiba, Hideo; Arai, Kiyoshi; Uchida, Ryoichiro; Tanimoto, Yasuhiro; Bhawal, Ujjal K; Abiko, Yoshimitsu; Miyamoto, Sayaka; Knight, David; Asakura, Tetsuo; Nishiyama, Norihiro

2013-02-01

321

A PLG/HAp composite scaffold for lentivirus delivery.  

PubMed

Gene delivery from tissue engineering scaffolds provides the opportunity to control the microenvironment by inducing expression of regenerative factors. Hydroxyapatite (HAp) nanoparticles can bind lentivirus, and we investigated the incorporation of HAp into poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLG) scaffolds in order to retain lentivirus added to the scaffold. PLG/HAp scaffolds loaded with lentivirus enhanced transgene expression over 10-fold in vitro relative to scaffolds without HAp. Following in vivo implantation, PLG/HAp scaffolds promoted transgene expression for more than 100 days, with the level and duration enhanced relative to control scaffolds with lentivirus/HAp complexes added to PLG scaffolds. The extent of HAp incorporated into the scaffold influenced transgene expression, in part through its impact on porous architecture. Expression in vivo was localized to PLG/HAp scaffolds, with macrophages the primary cell type transduced at day 3, yet transduction of neutrophils and dendritic cells was also observed. At day 21 in PLG/HAp scaffolds, non-immune cells were transduced to a greater extent than immune cells, a trend that was opposite results from PLG scaffolds. Thus, in addition to retaining the virus, PLG/HAp influenced cell infiltration and preferentially transduced non-immune cells. PMID:23602363

Boehler, R M; Shin, S; Fast, A G; Gower, R M; Shea, L D

2013-07-01

322

Effect of polycaprolactone scaffold permeability on bone regeneration in vivo.  

PubMed

Successful bone tissue engineering depends on the scaffold's ability to allow nutrient diffusion to and waste removal from the regeneration site, as well as provide an appropriate mechanical environment. Since bone is highly vascularized, scaffolds that provide greater mass transport may support increased bone regeneration. Permeability encompasses the salient features of three-dimensional porous scaffold architecture effects on scaffold mass transport. We hypothesized that higher permeability scaffolds will enhance bone regeneration for a given cell seeding density. We manufactured poly-?-caprolactone scaffolds, designed to have the same internal pore design and either a low permeability (0.688×10(-7)m(4)/N-s) or a high permeability (3.991×10(-7)m(4)/N-s), respectively. Scaffolds were seeded with bone morphogenic protein-7-transduced human gingival fibroblasts and implanted subcutaneously in immune-compromised mice for 4 and 8 weeks. Micro-CT evaluation showed better bone penetration into high permeability scaffolds, with blood vessel infiltration visible at 4 weeks. Compression testing showed that scaffold design had more influence on elastic modulus than time point did and that bone tissue infiltration increased the mechanical properties of the high permeability scaffolds at 8 weeks. These results suggest that for polycaprolactone, a more permeable scaffold with regular architecture is best for in vivo bone regeneration. This finding is an important step toward the end goal of optimizing a scaffold for bone tissue engineering. PMID:21395465

Mitsak, Anna G; Kemppainen, Jessica M; Harris, Matthew T; Hollister, Scott J

2011-07-01

323

Optimization of tyrosine-derived polycarbonate terpolymers for bone regeneration scaffolds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tyrosine-derived polycarbonates (TyrPC) are a versatile class of polymers highly suitable for bone tissue engineering. Among the tyrosine-derived polycarbonates, poly(DTE carbonate) has an FDA masterfile that documents its biocompatibility and non-toxicity and has shown potential utility in orthopedics due to its osteoconductive properties and strength. DTE stands for desaminotyrosyl-tyrosine ethyl ester and is the most commonly used tyrosine-derived monomer. However, in vitro degradation studies showed that poly(DTE carbonate) did not completely resorb even after four years of incubation in phosphate buffered saline. Thus for bone regeneration, which only requires a temporary implant until the bone heals, poly(DTE carbonate) would not be the best choice. The goal of the present research was to optimize a scaffold composition for bone regeneration that is based on desaminotyrosyl-tyrosine alkyl ester (DTR), desaminotyrosyl-tyrosine (DT) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). Five areas of research were presented: (1) synthesis and characterization of a focused library of TyrPC terpolymers; (2) evaluation of the effects of how small changes on the composition affected the mechanism and kinetics of polymer degradation and erosion; (3) fabrication of bioactive three-dimensional porous scaffold constructs for bone regeneration; (4) assessment of osteogenic properties in vitro using pre-osteoblasts; and (5) evaluation of bone regeneration potential, with or without recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2), in vivo using a critical sized defect (CSD) rabbit calvaria (cranium) model. Small changes in the composition, such as changing the R group of DTR from ethyl to methyl, varying the mole percentages of DT and PEG, and using a different PEG block length, affected the overall properties of these polymers. Porous scaffolds were prepared by a combination of solvent casting, porogen leaching and phase separation techniques. Calcium phosphate was coated on the surface post-fabrication. The scaffolds displayed (i) a bimodal pore architecture with micropores (< 20 mum) and macropores (200 -- 400 mum), (ii) a highly interconnected and open pore structure, and (iii) a highly organized microstructure. These scaffolds supported robust cell attachment and promoted osteogenic differentiation of pre-osteoblasts. This is the first report that a synthetic polymeric scaffold either without a biological supplement or with a minimal dose of rhBMP-2 induced comparable bone regeneration to a commercially available bone substitute in a non-rodent CSD animal model.

Resurreccion-Magno, Maria Hanshella C.

324

Peripheral nerve morphogenesis induced by scaffold micropatterning  

PubMed Central

Several bioengineering approaches have been proposed for peripheral nervous system repair, with limited results and still open questions about the underlying molecular mechanisms. We assessed the biological processes that occur after the implantation of collagen scaffold with a peculiar porous microstructure of the wall in a rat sciatic nerve transection model compared to commercial collagen conduits and nerve crush injury using functional, histological and genome wide analyses. We demonstrated that within 60 days, our conduit had been completely substituted by a normal nerve. Gene expression analysis documented a precise sequential regulation of known genes involved in angiogenesis, Schwann cells/axons interactions and myelination, together with a selective modulation of key biological pathways for nerve morphogenesis induced by porous matrices. These data suggest that the scaffold’s microstructure profoundly influences cell behaviors and creates an instructive micro-environment to enhance nerve morphogenesis that can be exploited to improve recovery and understand the molecular differences between repair and regeneration.

Memon, Danish; Boneschi, Filippo Martinelli; Madaghiele, Marta; Brambilla, Paola; Del Carro, Ubaldo; Taveggia, Carla; Riva, Nilo; Trimarco, Amelia; Lopez, Ignazio D.; Comi, Giancarlo; Pluchino, Stefano; Martino, Gianvito; Sannino, Alessandro; Quattrini, Angelo

2014-01-01

325

Preparation and characterization of bionic bone structure chitosan/hydroxyapatite scaffold for bone tissue engineering.  

PubMed

Three-dimensional oriented chitosan (CS)/hydroxyapatite (HA) scaffolds were prepared via in situ precipitation method in this research. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images indicated that the scaffolds with acicular nano-HA had the spoke-like, multilayer and porous structure. The SEM of osteoblasts which were polygonal or spindle-shaped on the composite scaffolds after seven-day cell culture showed that the cells grew, adhered, and spread well. The results of X-ray powder diffractometer and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer showed that the mineral particles deposited in the scaffold had phase structure similar to natural bone and confirmed that particles were exactly HA. In vitro biocompatibility evaluation indicated the composite scaffolds showed a higher degree of proliferation of MC3T3-E1 cell compared with the pure CS scaffolds and the CS/HA10 scaffold was the highest one. The CS/HA scaffold also had a higher ratio of adhesion and alkaline phosphate activity value of osteoblasts compared with the pure CS scaffold, and the ratio increased with the increase of HA content. The ALP activity value of composite scaffolds was at least six times of the pure CS scaffolds. The results suggested that the composite scaffolds possessed good biocompatibility. The compressive strength of CS/HA15 increased by 33.07% compared with the pure CS scaffold. This novel porous scaffold with three-dimensional oriented structure might have a potential application in bone tissue engineering. PMID:24053536

Zhang, Jiazhen; Nie, Jingyi; Zhang, Qirong; Li, Youliang; Wang, Zhengke; Hu, Qiaoling

2014-01-01

326

In Vitro Testing Of Polymeric Scaffolds  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Tissue engineering may be defined as the science of persuading the body to heal or repair tissues that do not do so spontaneously.\\u000a This is a relative new and exciting field that has experienced tremendous growth in the past decade. In our current understanding,\\u000a which has developed over the past 10-15 years of research, the most common strategy for tissue

C. Mauliagrawal

327

Engineering Polymeric Scaffolds for Bone Grafts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Orthopedic injuries resulting from trauma or improper development often require surgical intervention to restore natural tissue function. Currently, over one million operations are performed annually for the surgical reconstruction of bone [50]. The well-known limitations associated with autografts, allografts, and bone cements have led to the investigation of synthetic polymers as support matrices for bone tissue engineering. Polymers are long-chain

Martha W. Betz; Diana M. Yoon; John P. Fisher

328

Microstructure and characteristic properties of gelatin/chitosan scaffold prepared by a combined freeze-drying/leaching method.  

PubMed

A combined freeze-drying and particulate leaching method for scaffold synthesis showed an improvement in the horizontal microstructure of the gelatin/chitosan scaffolds. Type and concentration of the cross-linking agent, freezing temperature, concentration of the polymeric solution and gelatin/chitosan weight ratio were the variables affecting the scaffold properties. Assessment of the tensile properties of the scaffolds revealed that for a scaffold with 50% chitosan, glutaraldehyde, as a cross-linking agent, created much tighter polymeric network compared to N,N-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-N'-ethyl carbodiimide (EDC). However, in the case of gelatin scaffolds, EDC was identified as the stronger cross-linker. Compressive behavior of the scaffolds satisfied formulations obtained from the theoretical modeling of the low-density, elastomeric foams. The investigation of the scaffold degradation indicated that the increase in the mechanical strength of the scaffolds would not always reduce their degradation rate. PMID:23910302

Alizadeh, M; Abbasi, F; Khoshfetrat, A B; Ghaleh, H

2013-10-01

329

A new porous plastic fiber probe for ammonia monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel porous plastic fiber probe was developed for detection of dissolved ammonia. This porous plastic fiber sensitive probe was prepared based on the co-polymerization technique. This novel porous fiber probe has been used for determination of dissolved ammonia in aqueous solution when Erythrosin A was used as the fluorescent indicator. The principle and preparation of this novel porous fiber

Zenghong Xie; Liangqia Guo; Xianghua Zheng; Xucong Lin; Guonan Chen

2005-01-01

330

Microporous Nanofibrous Fibrin-based Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering  

PubMed Central

The fibrotic response of the body to synthetic polymers limits their success in tissue engineering and other applications. Though porous polymers have demonstrated improved healing, difficulty in controlling their pore sizes and pore interconnections has clouded the understanding of this phenomenon. In this study, a novel method to fabricate natural polymer/calcium phosphate composite scaffolds with tightly controllable pore size, pore interconnection, and calcium phosphate deposition was developed. Microporous, nanofibrous fibrin scaffolds were fabricated using sphere-templating methods. Composite scaffolds were created by solution deposition of calcium phosphate on fibrin surfaces or by direct incorporation of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite (nHA). The SEM results showed that fibrin scaffolds exhibited a highly porous and interconnected structure. Osteoblast-like cells, obtained from murine calvaria, attached, spread and showed a polygonal morphology on the surface of the biomaterial. Multiple cell layers and fibrillar matrix deposition were observed. Moreover, cells seeded on mineralized fibrin scaffolds exhibited significantly higher alkaline phosphatase activity as well as osteoblast marker gene expression compared to fibrin scaffolds and nHA incorporated fibrin scaffolds (0.25 g and 0.5 g). All types of scaffolds were degraded both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, these scaffolds promoted bone formation in a mouse calvarial defect model and the bone formation was enhanced by addition of rhBMP-2.

Osathanon, Thanaphum; Linnes, Michael L.; Rajachar, Rupak M.; Ratner, Buddy D.; Somerman, Martha J.; Giachelli, Cecilia M.

2008-01-01

331

Preparation and characterization of collagen-hydroxyapatite composite used for bone tissue engineering scaffold.  

PubMed

In this study, highly porous collagen-HA scaffolds were prepared by solid-liquid phase separation method. Microstructure of the composites was characterized by SEM, TEM and XRD. The results show that collagen-HA scaffolds are porous with three-dimension interconnected fiber microstructure, pore sizes are 50-150 microm, and HA particles are dispersed evenly among collagen fiber. Compared with pure collagen, the mechanical property of collagen-HA composite improves significantly. To gain further insight into cell growth throughout 3D scaffolds, the cell proliferation and attachment on the scaffold in vitro was investigated. The collagen-HA composite has good biocompatibility, and adding HA does not affect the histocompatibility of the scaffold materials. The porous collagen-HA composite is suitable as scaffold used for bone tissue engineering. PMID:14672418

Liu, Lingrong; Zhang, Lihai; Ren, Baizhi; Wang, Fujun; Zhang, Qiqing

2003-11-01

332

Presence of pores and hydrogel composition influence tensile properties of scaffolds fabricated from well-defined sphere templates.  

PubMed

Sphere templating is an attractive method to produce porous polymeric scaffolds with well-defined and uniform pore structures for applications in tissue engineering. While high porosity is desired to facilitate cell seeding and enhance nutrient transport, the incorporation of pores will impact gross mechanical properties of tissue scaffolds and will likely be dependent on pore size. The goals of this study were to evaluate the effect of pores, pore diameter, and polymer composition on gross mechanical properties of hydrogels prepared from crosslinked poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (pHEMA). Sphere templates were fabricated from uncrosslinked poly(methyl methacrylate) spheres sieved between 53-63 and 150-180 ?m. Incorporating pores into hydrogels significantly decreased the quasi-static modulus and ultimate tensile stress, but increased the ultimate tensile strain. For pHEMA, decreases in gel crosslinking density and increases in pore diameters followed similar trends. Interestingly, the mechanical properties of porous PEG hydrogels were less sensitive to changes in pore diameter for a given polymer composition. Additionally, pore diameter was shown to affect skeletal myoblast adhesion whereby many cells cultured in porous hydrogels with smaller pores were seen spanning across multiple pores, but lined the inside of larger pores. In summary, incorporation of pores and changes in pore diameter significantly affect the gross mechanical properties, but in a manner that is dependent on gel chemistry, structure, and composition. Together, these findings will help to design better hydrogel scaffolds for applications where gross mechanical properties and porosity are critical. PMID:21210509

Lanasa, Stephanie M; Hoffecker, Ian T; Bryant, Stephanie J

2011-02-01

333

Increased porosity of electrospun hybrid scaffolds improved bladder tissue regeneration.  

PubMed

The object of this study was to investigate the role of scaffold porosity on tissue ingrowth using hybrid scaffolds consisting of bladder acellular matrix and electrospun poly (lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microfibers that mimic the morphological characteristics of the bladder wall in vitro and in vivo. We compared single-spun (SS) PLGA scaffolds with more porous cospun (CS) scaffolds (PLGA and polyethylene glycol). Scaffolds were characterized by scanning electron microscopy. Bladder smooth muscle cells (SMCs) were seeded, and proliferation and histological assays were performed. Sixteen rats were subjected to augmentation cystoplasty with seeded SS or CS scaffolds, morphological, and histological studies were performed 2 and 4 weeks after implantation. The porosities of SS and CS scaffolds were 73.1?±?2.9% and 80.9?±?1.5%, respectively. The in vitro evaluation revealed significantly deeper cell migration into CS scaffolds. The in vivo evaluation showed significant shrinkage of SS scaffolds (p?=?0.019). The histological analysis revealed a bladder wall-like structure with urothelial lining and SMC infiltration in both groups. The microvessel density was significantly increased in the CS scaffolds (p < 0.001). Increasing the porosity of electrospun hybrid scaffolds is an effective strategy to enhance cell proliferation and distribution in vitro and tissue ingrowth in vivo. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 102A: 2116-2124, 2014. PMID:23893914

Horst, Maya; Milleret, Vincent; Nötzli, Sarah; Madduri, Srinivas; Sulser, Tullio; Gobet, Rita; Eberli, Daniel

2014-07-01

334

The influence of scaffold material on chondrocytes in inflammatory conditions  

PubMed Central

Cartilage tissue engineering aims to repair damaged cartilage tissue in arthritic joints. As arthritic joints have significantly higher levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (such as IL-1? and TNF? that cause cartilage destruction, it is critical to engineer stable cartilage in an inflammatory environment. Biomaterial scaffolds constitute an important component of the microenvironment for chondrocytes in engineered cartilage. However, it remains unclear how scaffold material influences the response of chondrocytes seeded in these scaffolds under inflammatory stimuli. Here, we compared the response of articular chondrocytes seeded within three different polymeric scaffolding materials (silk, collagen and polylactic acid (PLA)) to IL-1? and TNF?. These scaffolds have different physical characteristics and yielded significant differences in the expression of genes associated with cartilage matrix production and degradation, cell adhesion and cell death. Silk and collagen scaffolds released pro-inflammatory cytokines faster and had higher uptake water abilities than PLA scaffolds. Correspondingly, chondrocytes cultured in silk and collagen scaffolds maintained higher levels of cartilage matrix than those in PLA, suggesting that these biophysical properties of scaffolds may regulate gene expression and response to inflammatory stimuli in chondrocytes. Based on this study, we concluded that selecting the proper scaffolding material will aid in the engineering of more stable cartilage tissues for cartilage repair; and that silk and collagen are the more optimal scaffolds in supporting the stability of 3D cartilage under inflammatory conditions.

Kwon, Heenam; Sun, Lin; Cairns, Dana M.; Rainbow, Roshni S.; Preda, Rucsanda Carmen; Kaplan, David L.; Zeng, Li

2013-01-01

335

Poly(? - caprolactone) and poly( d,l -lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) scaffolds used in bone tissue engineering prepared by melt compression–particulate leaching method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Porous bioresorbable polymers have been widely used as scaffolds in tissue engineering. Most of the bioresorbable scaffolds\\u000a are aliphatic polyesters and the methods employed to prepare the porous morphology may vary. This work describes and evaluates\\u000a the in vitro degradation of porous and dense scaffolds of poly(?-caprolactone) (PCL) and poly(d,l-lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) (50\\/50) (PLGA50) prepared by particulate leaching-melt compression process.

Samuel H. Barbanti; Arnaldo R. Santos; Cecília A. C. Zavaglia; Eliana A. R. Duek

336

Fabrication of combinatorial polymer scaffold libraries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have designed a novel combinatorial research platform to help accelerate tissue engineering research. Combinatorial methods combine many samples into a single specimen to enable accelerated experimentation and discovery. The platform for fabricating combinatorial polymer scaffold libraries can be used to rapidly identify scaffold formulations that maximize tissue formation. Many approaches for screening cell-biomaterial interactions utilize a two-dimensional format such as a film or surface to present test substrates to cells. However, cells in vivo exist in a three-dimensional milieu of extracellular matrix and cells in vitro behave more naturally when cultured in a three-dimensional environment than when cultured on a two-dimensional surface. Thus, we have designed a method for fabricating combinatorial biomaterial libraries where the materials are presented to cells in the form of three-dimensional, porous, salt-leached, polymer scaffolds. Many scaffold variations and compositions can be screened in a single experiment so that optimal scaffold formulations for tissue formation can be rapidly identified. In summary, we have developed a platform technology for fabricating combinatorial polymer scaffold libraries that can be used to screen cell response to materials in a three-dimensional, scaffold format.

Simon, Carl G.; Stephens, Jean S.; Dorsey, Shauna M.; Becker, Matthew L.

2007-07-01

337

Sodium silicate gel as a precursor for the in vitro nucleation and growth of a bone-like apatite coating in compact and porous polymeric structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present work, a new methodology to produce bioactive coatings on the surface of starch-based biodegradable polymers or other polymeric biomaterials is proposed. A sodium silicate gel is employed as an alternative nucleating agent to the more typical bioactive glasses for inducing the formation of a calcium-phosphate (Ca-P) layer. The method has the advantage of being able to coat

A. L. Oliveira; P. B. Malafaya; R. L. Reis

2003-01-01

338

Mathematically defined tissue engineering scaffold architectures prepared by stereolithography.  

PubMed

The technologies employed for the preparation of conventional tissue engineering scaffolds restrict the materials choice and the extent to which the architecture can be designed. Here we show the versatility of stereolithography with respect to materials and freedom of design. Porous scaffolds are designed with computer software and built with either a poly(D,L-lactide)-based resin or a poly(D,L-lactide-co-epsilon-caprolactone)-based resin. Characterisation of the scaffolds by micro-computed tomography shows excellent reproduction of the designs. The mechanical properties are evaluated in compression, and show good agreement with finite element predictions. The mechanical properties of scaffolds can be controlled by the combination of material and scaffold pore architecture. The presented technology and materials enable an accurate preparation of tissue engineering scaffolds with a large freedom of design, and properties ranging from rigid and strong to highly flexible and elastic. PMID:20579724

Melchels, Ferry P W; Bertoldi, Katia; Gabbrielli, Ruggero; Velders, Aldrik H; Feijen, Jan; Grijpma, Dirk W

2010-09-01

339

Chitosan scaffolds containing silicon dioxide and zirconia nano particles for bone tissue engineering.  

PubMed

A scaffold harboring the desired features such as biodegradation, biocompatibility, porous structure could serve as template for bone tissue engineering. In the present study, chitosan (CS), nano-scaled silicon dioxide (Si) and zirconia (Zr) were combined by freeze drying technique to fabricate a bio-composite scaffold. The bio-composite scaffold (CS/Si/Zr) was characterized by SEM, XRD and FT-IR studies. The scaffold possessed a porous nature with pore dimensions suitable for cell infiltration and colonization. The presence of zirconia in the CS/Si/Zr scaffold decreased swelling and increased biodegradation, protein adsorption and bio-mineralization properties. The CS/Si/Zr scaffold was also found to be non-toxic to rat osteoprogenitor cells. Thus, we suggest that CS/Si/Zr bio-composite scaffold is a potential candidate to be used for bone tissue engineering. PMID:21968009

Pattnaik, Soumitri; Nethala, Sricharan; Tripathi, Anjali; Saravanan, Sekaran; Moorthi, Ambigapathi; Selvamurugan, Nagarajan

2011-12-01

340

Green process to prepare silk fibroin/gelatin biomaterial scaffolds.  

PubMed

A new all-aqueous and green process is described to form three-dimensional porous silk fibroin matrices with control of structural and morphological features. Silk-based scaffolds are prepared using lyophilization. Gelatin is added to the aqueous silk fibroin solution to change the silk fibroin conformation and silk fibroin-water interactions through adjusting the hydrophilic interactions in silk fibroin-gelatin-water systems to restrain the formation of separate sheet like structures in the material, resulting in a more homogenous structure. Water annealing is used to generate insolubility in the silk fibroin-gelatin scaffold system, thereby avoiding the use of organic solvents such as methanol to lock in the beta-sheet structure. The adjusting of the concentration of gelatin, as well as the concentration of silk fibroin, leads to control of morphological and functional properties of the scaffolds. The scaffolds were homogeneous in terms of interconnected pores, with pore sizes ranging from 100 to 600 microm, depending on the concentration of silk fibroin used in the process. At the same time, the morphology of the scaffolds changed from lamellar sheets to porous structures based on the increase in gelatin content. Compared with salt-leaching aqueous-derived scaffolds and hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP)-derived scaffolds, these freeze-dried scaffolds had a lower content of beta-sheet, resulting in more hydrophilic features. Most of gelatin was entrapped in the silk fibroin-gelatin scaffolds, without the burst release in PBS solution. During in vitro cell culture, these silk fibroin-gelatin scaffolds had improved cell-compatibility than salt-leaching silk fibroin scaffolds. This new process provides useful silk fibroin-based scaffold systems for use in tissue engineering. Furthermore, the whole process is green, including all-aqueous, room temperature and pressure, and without the use of toxic chemicals or solvents, offering new ways to load bioactive drugs or growth factors into the process. PMID:19924684

Lu, Qiang; Zhang, Xiaohui; Hu, Xiao; Kaplan, David L

2010-03-10

341

Porosity and Cell Preseeding Influence Electrospun Scaffold Maturation and Meniscus Integration In Vitro  

PubMed Central

Electrospinning generates fibrous scaffolds ideal for engineering soft orthopedic tissues. By modifying the electrospinning process, scaffolds with different structural organization and content can be generated. For example, fibers can be aligned in a single direction, or the porosity of the scaffold can be modified through the use of multi-jet electrospinning and the removal of sacrificial fibers. In this work, we investigated the role of fiber alignment and scaffold porosity on construct maturation and integration within in vitro meniscus defects. Further, we explored the effect of preseeding expanded meniscus fibrochondrocytes (MFCs) onto the scaffold at a high density before in vitro repair. Our results demonstrate that highly porous electropun scaffolds integrate better with a native tissue and mature to a greater extent than low-porosity scaffolds, while scaffold alignment does not influence integration or maturation. The addition of expanded MFCs to scaffolds before in vitro repair improved integration with the native tissue, but did not influence maturation. In contrast, preculture of these same scaffolds for 1 month before repair decreased integration with the native tissue, but resulted in a more mature scaffold compared to implantation of cellular scaffolds or acellular scaffolds. This work will inform scaffold selection in future in vivo studies by identifying the ideal scaffold and seeding methods for meniscus tissue engineering.

Ionescu, Lara C.

2013-01-01

342

Effect of polyurethane scaffold architecture on ingrowth speed and collagen orientation in a subcutaneous rat pocket model.  

PubMed

Clinically used scaffolds are suboptimal in regenerating the highly oriented meniscus fiber structure in full meniscal defects. The objective of this study was to test whether anisotropic porous scaffolds with channels resulted in a more meniscus like matrix organization compared to isotropic porous scaffolds. Isotropic polyurethane scaffolds were made via standard solvent leaching techniques. Anisotropic porous scaffolds with channels were made via modified thermal induced phase separation. Both scaffold types were analyzed with light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and computed nano-tomography. Finally, isotropic and anisotropic scaffolds were bilaterally and subcutaneously implanted on the back of 32 Wistar rats for 1, 4, 8 and 24 weeks to assess tissue ingrowth and matrix organization. Isotropic scaffolds had a pore diameter of 35±14.7 ?m and a degree of anisotropy of 0.18, while anisotropic scaffolds had a channel diameter of 20±6.0 ?m and a degree of anisotropy of 0.39. After implantation full tissue ingrowth was achieved after 8 and 24 weeks for isotropic and anisotropic, respectively. Isotropic scaffolds had a random tissue infiltration with unorganized collagen deposition, whereas anisotropic scaffolds showed tissue infiltration and collagen alignment in the direction of the channels. Anisotropic scaffolds resulted in a matrix organization that resembled the tissue in the vascularized zone of the meniscus, while isotropic scaffolds resembled the tissue in the avascular zone of the meniscus. PMID:23385628

de Mulder, E L W; Hannink, G; Verdonschot, N; Buma, P

2013-04-01

343

Thermally produced biodegradable scaffolds for cartilage tissue engineering.  

PubMed

A novel process was developed to fabricate biodegradable polymer scaffolds for tissue engineering applications, without using organic solvents. Solvent residues in scaffolds fabricated by processes involving organic solvents may damage cells transplanted onto the scaffolds or tissue near the transplantation site. Poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) powder and NaCl particles in a mold were compressed and subsequently heated at 180 degrees C (near the PLLA melting temperature) for 3 min. The heat treatment caused the polymer particles to fuse and form a continuous matrix containing entrapped NaCl particles. After dissolving the NaCl salts, which served as a porogen, porous biodegradable PLLA scaffolds were formed. The scaffold porosity and pore size were controlled by adjusting the NaCl/PLLA weight ratio and the NaCl particle size. The characteristics of the scaffolds were compared to those of scaffolds fabricated using a conventional solvent casting/particulate leaching (SC/PL) process, in terms of pore structure, pore-size distribution, and mechanical properties. A scanning electron microscopic examination showed highly interconnected and open pore structures in the scaffolds fabricated using the thermal process, whereas the SC/PL process yielded scaffolds with less interconnected and closed pore structures. Mercury intrusion porosimetry revealed that the thermally produced scaffolds had a much more uniform distribution of pore sizes than the SC/PL process. The utility of the thermally produced scaffolds was demonstrated by engineering cartilaginous tissues in vivo. In summary, the thermal process developed in this study yields tissue-engineering scaffolds with more favorable characteristics, with respect to, freedom from organic solvents, pore structure, and size distribution than the SC/PL process. Moreover, the thermal process could also be used to fabricate scaffolds from polymers that are insoluble in organic solvents, such as poly(glycolic acid). Cartilage tissue regenerated from thermally produced PLLA scaffold. PMID:15468274

Lee, Soo-Hong; Kim, Byung-Soo; Kim, Soo Hyun; Kang, Sun Woong; Kim, Young Ha

2004-08-01

344

Elastomeric PGS Scaffolds in Arterial Tissue Engineering  

PubMed Central

Cardiovascular disease is one of the leading cause of mortality in the US and especially, coronary artery disease increases with an aging population and increasing obesity1. Currently, bypass surgery using autologous vessels, allografts, and synthetic grafts are known as a commonly used for arterial substitutes2. However, these grafts have limited applications when an inner diameter of arteries is less than 6 mm due to low availability, thrombotic complications, compliance mismatch, and late intimal hyperplasia3,4. To overcome these limitations, tissue engineering has been successfully applied as a promising alternative to develop small-diameter arterial constructs that are nonthrombogenic, robust, and compliant. Several previous studies have developed small-diameter arterial constructs with tri-lamellar structure, excellent mechanical properties and burst pressure comparable to native arteries5,6. While high tensile strength and burst pressure by increasing collagen production from a rigid material or cell sheet scaffold, these constructs still had low elastin production and compliance, which is a major problem to cause graft failure after implantation. Considering these issues, we hypothesized that an elastometric biomaterial combined with mechanical conditioning would provide elasticity and conduct mechanical signals more efficiently to vascular cells, which increase extracellular matrix production and support cellular orientation. The objective of this report is to introduce a fabrication technique of porous tubular scaffolds and a dynamic mechanical conditioning for applying them to arterial tissue engineering. We used a biodegradable elastomer, poly (glycerol sebacate) (PGS)7 for fabricating porous tubular scaffolds from the salt fusion method. Adult primary baboon smooth muscle cells (SMCs) were seeded on the lumen of scaffolds, which cultured in our designed pulsatile flow bioreactor for 3 weeks. PGS scaffolds had consistent thickness and randomly distributed macro- and micro-pores. Mechanical conditioning from pulsatile flow bioreactor supported SMC orientation and enhanced ECM production in scaffolds. These results suggest that elastomeric scaffolds and mechanical conditioning of bioreactor culture may be a promising method for arterial tissue engineering.

Lee, Kee-Won; Wang, Yadong

2011-01-01

345

Elastomeric PGS scaffolds in arterial tissue engineering.  

PubMed

Cardiovascular disease is one of the leading cause of mortality in the US and especially, coronary artery disease increases with an aging population and increasing obesity. Currently, bypass surgery using autologous vessels, allografts, and synthetic grafts are known as a commonly used for arterial substitutes. However, these grafts have limited applications when an inner diameter of arteries is less than 6 mm due to low availability, thrombotic complications, compliance mismatch, and late intimal hyperplasia. To overcome these limitations, tissue engineering has been successfully applied as a promising alternative to develop small-diameter arterial constructs that are nonthrombogenic, robust, and compliant. Several previous studies have developed small-diameter arterial constructs with tri-lamellar structure, excellent mechanical properties and burst pressure comparable to native arteries. While high tensile strength and burst pressure by increasing collagen production from a rigid material or cell sheet scaffold, these constructs still had low elastin production and compliance, which is a major problem to cause graft failure after implantation. Considering these issues, we hypothesized that an elastometric biomaterial combined with mechanical conditioning would provide elasticity and conduct mechanical signals more efficiently to vascular cells, which increase extracellular matrix production and support cellular orientation. The objective of this report is to introduce a fabrication technique of porous tubular scaffolds and a dynamic mechanical conditioning for applying them to arterial tissue engineering. We used a biodegradable elastomer, poly (glycerol sebacate) (PGS) for fabricating porous tubular scaffolds from the salt fusion method. Adult primary baboon smooth muscle cells (SMCs) were seeded on the lumen of scaffolds, which cultured in our designed pulsatile flow bioreactor for 3 weeks. PGS scaffolds had consistent thickness and randomly distributed macro- and micro-pores. Mechanical conditioning from pulsatile flow bioreactor supported SMC orientation and enhanced ECM production in scaffolds. These results suggest that elastomeric scaffolds and mechanical conditioning of bioreactor culture may be a promising method for arterial tissue engineering. PMID:21505410

Lee, Kee-Won; Wang, Yadong

2011-01-01

346

Engineered channels enhance cellular density in perfused scaffolds.  

PubMed

Scaffold-based tissue engineering provides cells with an engineered matrix to enhance and direct cell attachment, proliferation and differentiation. One critical limitation to current tissue engineering approaches is the inability to create densely populated constructs thicker than a few 100 ?m. We hypothesized that development of porous, channeled scaffolds would increase cell density and uniformity of their spatial distribution through scaffold channel perfusion. Patterned polyurethane sheets were fabricated using a sprayed phase separation technique and laminated together to form 1.5 mm thick channeled scaffolds. Hydraulic permeability testing confirmed the presence of functional channels throughout the multilaminate construct. A continuous flow bioreactor was used to perfuse the construct with medium during the culture period. Cross-sectional cell densities and spatial uniformities were measured in channeled and nonchanneled scaffolds under different seeding and culture conditions. Channeled scaffolds were found to have higher densities of human mesenchymal stem cells than nonchanneled samples. Perfused scaffolds had more uniform spatial distribution of cells within the scaffold compared to statically cultured scaffolds. In conclusion, we have shown the channeled scaffolds to be a promising approach toward creating thick tissue-engineered constructs. PMID:21745609

Kennedy, J P; McCandless, S P; Rauf, A; Williams, L M; Hillam, J; Hitchcock, R W

2011-11-01

347

Mineralization Potential of Electrospun PDO-Hydroxyapatite-Fibrinogen Blended Scaffolds  

PubMed Central

The current bone autograft procedure for cleft palate repair presents several disadvantages such as limited availability, additional invasive surgery, and donor site morbidity. The present preliminary study evaluates the mineralization potential of electrospun polydioxanone:nano-hydroxyapatite?:?fibrinogen (PDO?:?nHA?:?Fg) blended scaffolds in different simulated body fluids (SBF). Scaffolds were fabricated by blending PDO?:?nHA?:?Fg in the following percent by weight ratios: 100?:?0?:?0, 50?:?25?:?25, 50?:?50?:?0, 50?:?0?:?50, 0?:?0?:?100, and 0?:?50?:?50. Samples were immersed in (conventional (c), revised (r), ionic (i), and modified (m)) SBF for 5 and 14 days to induce mineralization. Scaffolds were characterized before and after mineralization via scanning electron microscopy, Alizarin Red-based assay, and modified burnout test. The addition of Fg resulted in scaffolds with smaller fiber diameters. Fg containing scaffolds also induced sheet-like mineralization while individual fiber mineralization was noticed in its absence. Mineralized electrospun Fg scaffolds without PDO were not mechanically stable after 5 days in SBF, but had superior mineralization capabilities which produced a thick bone-like mineral (BLM) layer throughout the scaffolds. 50?:?50?:?0 scaffolds incubated in either r-SBF for 5 days or c-SBF for 14 days produced scaffolds with high mineral content and individual-mineralized fibers. These mineralized scaffolds were still porous and will be further optimized as an effective bone substitute in future studies.

Rodriguez, Isaac A.; Madurantakam, Parthasarathy A.; McCool, Jennifer M.; Sell, Scott A.; Yang, Hu; Moon, Peter C.; Bowlin, Gary L.

2012-01-01

348

Surface modified electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds for nerve tissue engineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of biodegradable polymeric scaffolds with surface properties that dominate interactions between the material and biological environment is of great interest in biomedical applications. In this regard, poly-?-caprolactone (PCL) nanofibrous scaffolds were fabricated by an electrospinning process and surface modified by a simple plasma treatment process for enhancing the Schwann cell adhesion, proliferation and interactions with nanofibers necessary for nerve tissue formation. The hydrophilicity of surface modified PCL nanofibrous scaffolds (p-PCL) was evaluated by contact angle and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies. Naturally derived polymers such as collagen are frequently used for the fabrication of biocomposite PCL/collagen scaffolds, though the feasibility of procuring large amounts of natural materials for clinical applications remains a concern, along with their cost and mechanical stability. The proliferation of Schwann cells on p-PCL nanofibrous scaffolds showed a 17% increase in cell proliferation compared to those on PCL/collagen nanofibrous scaffolds after 8 days of cell culture. Schwann cells were found to attach and proliferate on surface modified PCL nanofibrous scaffolds expressing bipolar elongations, retaining their normal morphology. The results of our study showed that plasma treated PCL nanofibrous scaffolds are a cost-effective material compared to PCL/collagen scaffolds, and can potentially serve as an ideal tissue engineered scaffold, especially for peripheral nerve regeneration.

Prabhakaran, Molamma P.; Venugopal, J.; Chan, Casey K.; Ramakrishna, S.

2008-11-01

349

Soy Protein Scaffold Biomaterials for Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Developing functional biomaterials using highly processable materials with tailorable physical and bioactive properties is an ongoing challenge in tissue engineering. Soy protein is an abundant, natural resource with potential use for regenerative medicine applications. Preliminary studies show that soy protein can be physically modified and fabricated into various biocompatible constructs. However, optimized soy protein structures for tissue regeneration (i.e. 3D porous scaffolds) have not yet been designed. Furthermore, little work has established the in vivo biocompatibility of implanted soy protein and the benefit of using soy over other proteins including FDA-approved bovine collagen. In this work, freeze-drying and 3D printing fabrication processes were developed using commercially available soy protein to create porous scaffolds that improve cell growth and infiltration compared to other soy biomaterials previously reported. Characterization of scaffold structure, porosity, and mechanical/degradation properties was performed. In addition, the behavior of human mesenchymal stem cells seeded on various designed soy scaffolds was analyzed. Biological characterization of the cell-seeded scaffolds was performed to assess feasibility for use in liver tissue regeneration. The acute and humoral response of soy scaffolds implanted in an in vivo mouse subcutaneous model was also investigated. All fabricated soy scaffolds were modified using thermal, chemical, and enzymatic crosslinking to change properties and cell growth behavior. 3D printing allowed for control of scaffold pore size and geometry. Scaffold structure, porosity, and degradation rate significantly altered the in vivo response. Freeze-dried soy scaffolds had similar biocompatibility as freeze-dried collagen scaffolds of the same protein content. However, the soy scaffolds degraded at a much faster rate, minimizing immunogenicity. Interestingly, subcutaneously implanted soy scaffolds affected blood glucose and insulin sensitivity levels. Furthermore, soy scaffolds implanted in the intraperitoneal cavity attached to adjacent liver tissue with no abnormalities. In vitro, soy scaffolds supported hMSC viability and transdifferentiation into hepatocyte-like cells. These results support the use of soy scaffolds for liver tissue engineering and for treating metabolic diseases. Based on achievable structural and mechanical properties, as well as systemic effects of ingested and degraded soy proteins, soy protein scaffolds may serve as new multifunctional biomaterials for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.

Chien, Karen B.

350

Premixed macroporous calcium phosphate cement scaffold.  

PubMed

Calcium phosphate cement (CPC) sets in situ to form resorbable hydroxyapatite and is promising for orthopaedic applications. However, it requires on-site powder-liquid mixing during surgery, which prolongs surgical time and raises concerns of inhomogeneous mixing. The objective of this study was to develop a premixed CPC scaffold with macropores suitable for tissue ingrowth. To avoid the on-site powder-liquid mixing, the CPC paste was mixed in advance and did not set in storage; it set only after placement in a physiological solution. Using 30% and 40% mass fractions of mannitol porogen, the premixed CPC scaffold with fibers had flexural strength (mean +/- sd; n = 5) of (3.9 +/- 1.4) MPa and (1.8 +/- 0.8) MPa, respectively. The scaffold porosity reached (68.6 +/- 0.7)% and (74.7 +/- 1.2)%, respectively. Osteoblast cells colonized in the surface macropores of the scaffold and attached to the hydroxyapatite crystals. Cell viability values for the premixed CPC scaffold was not significantly different from that of a conventional non-premixed CPC known to be biocompatible (P > 0.1). In conclusion, using fast-dissolving porogen and slow-dissolving fibers, a premixed macroporous CPC scaffold was developed with strength approaching the reported strengths of sintered porous hydroxyapatite implants and cancellous bone, and non-cytotoxicity similar to a biocompatible non-premixed CPC. PMID:17277972

Xu, Hockin H K; Carey, Lisa E; Simon, Carl G

2007-07-01

351

Characterization of chitosan-gelatin scaffolds for dermal tissue engineering.  

PubMed

Porous scaffolds for dermal tissue engineering were fabricated by freeze-drying a mixture of chitosan and gelatin (CG) solutions. Different crosslinking agents including glutaraldehyde, 1-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-3-ethyl-carbodimide hydrochloride (EDC), and genipin were used to crosslink the scaffolds and improve their biostability. The porous structure and mechanical properties were determined for the scaffolds. The proliferation of human fibroblasts in the scaffolds was analyzed. It was found that EDC crosslinked scaffolds had the greatest amount of cells after four days. EDC crosslinked CG scaffolds had tensile modulus in a dry state and compressive modulus in a wet state similar to commercial collagen wound dressing. They also showed appropriate pore size, high water absorption, and good dimensional stability during cell culture. When human fibroblasts were seeded on acellular porcine dermis (APD), acellular human dermis (AHD), and CG scaffolds for 3D cell culture, they were well-distributed in the centre of the CG scaffolds but stayed only on the superficial layer of APD or AHD after seven days. A gelatin-based bioglue was applied to the CG scaffolds where the keratinocytes were seeded to mimic epidermal structure. After 14 days, the bioglue degraded and keratinocytes grew to form monolayers on the scaffolds. This study showed that CG scaffolds crosslinked by EDC and seeded with human fibroblasts could serve as dermal constructs, while the bioglue coating seeded with keratinocytes could serve as an epidermal construct. Such a combination could help regenerate skin with integrated dermal and epidermal layers and a have potential use in tissue-engineered skin. PMID:22034441

Tseng, Hsiang-Jung; Tsou, Tai-Li; Wang, Hsian-Jenn; Hsu, Shan-Hui

2013-01-01

352

Three-dimensional chitosan-nanohydroxyapatite composite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe the structure of biodegradable chitosan-nanohydroxyapatite (nHA) composites scaffolds and their interaction with pre-osteoblasts for bone tissue engineering. The scaffolds were fabricated via freezing and lyophilization. The nanocomposite scaffolds were characterized by a highly porous structure and pore size of ˜50-125 ?m, irrespective of nHA content. The observed significant enhancement in the biological response of pre-osteoblast on nanocomposite scaffolds expressed in terms of cell attachment, proliferation, and widespread morphology in relation to pure chitosan points toward their potential use as scaffold material for bone regeneration.

Thein-Han, W. W.; Misra, R. D. K.

2009-09-01

353

Surface modification of polycaprolactone scaffolds fabricated via selective laser sintering for cartilage tissue engineering.  

PubMed

Surface modified porous polycaprolactone scaffolds fabricated via rapid prototyping techniques were evaluated for cartilage tissue engineering purposes. Polycaprolactone scaffolds manufactured by selective laser sintering (SLS) were surface modified through immersion coating with either gelatin or collagen. Three groups of scaffolds were created and compared for both mechanical and biological properties. Surface modification with collagen or gelatin improved the hydrophilicity, water uptake and mechanical strength of the pristine scaffold. From microscopic observations and biochemical analysis, collagen-modified scaffold was the best for cartilage tissue engineering in terms of cell proliferation and extracellular matrix production. Chondrocytes/collagen-modified scaffold constructs were implanted subdermally in the dorsal spaces of female nude mice. Histological and immunohistochemical staining of the retrieved implants after 8weeks revealed enhanced cartilage tissue formation. We conclude that collagen surface modification through immersion coating on SLS-manufactured scaffolds is a feasible scaffold for cartilage tissue engineering in craniofacial reconstruction. PMID:24857507

Chen, Chih-Hao; Lee, Ming-Yih; Shyu, Victor Bong-Hang; Chen, Yi-Chieh; Chen, Chien-Tzung; Chen, Jyh-Ping

2014-07-01

354

Composite scaffolds of mesoporous bioactive glass and polyamide for bone repair  

PubMed Central

A bone-implanted porous scaffold of mesoporous bioglass/polyamide composite (m-BPC) was fabricated, and its biological properties were investigated. The results indicate that the m-BPC scaffold contained open and interconnected macropores ranging 400–500 ?m, and exhibited a porosity of 76%. The attachment ratio of MG-63 cells on m-BPC was higher than polyamide scaffolds at 4 hours, and the cells with normal phenotype extended well when cultured with m-BPC and polyamide scaffolds. When the m-BPC scaffolds were implanted into bone defects of rabbit thighbone, histological evaluation confirmed that the m-BPC scaffolds exhibited excellent biocompatibility and osteoconductivity, and more effective osteogenesis than the polyamide scaffolds in vivo. The results indicate that the m-BPC scaffolds improved the efficiency of new bone regeneration and, thus, have clinical potential for bone repair.

Su, Jiacan; Cao, Liehu; Yu, Baoqing; Song, Shaojun; Liu, Xinwei; Wang, Zhiwei; Li, Ming

2012-01-01

355

Composite scaffolds of mesoporous bioactive glass and polyamide for bone repair.  

PubMed

A bone-implanted porous scaffold of mesoporous bioglass/polyamide composite (m-BPC) was fabricated, and its biological properties were investigated. The results indicate that the m-BPC scaffold contained open and interconnected macropores ranging 400-500 ?m, and exhibited a porosity of 76%. The attachment ratio of MG-63 cells on m-BPC was higher than polyamide scaffolds at 4 hours, and the cells with normal phenotype extended well when cultured with m-BPC and polyamide scaffolds. When the m-BPC scaffolds were implanted into bone defects of rabbit thighbone, histological evaluation confirmed that the m-BPC scaffolds exhibited excellent biocompatibility and osteoconductivity, and more effective osteogenesis than the polyamide scaffolds in vivo. The results indicate that the m-BPC scaffolds improved the efficiency of new bone regeneration and, thus, have clinical potential for bone repair. PMID:22679367

Su, Jiacan; Cao, Liehu; Yu, Baoqing; Song, Shaojun; Liu, Xinwei; Wang, Zhiwei; Li, Ming

2012-01-01

356

Intervertebral Disk Tissue Engineering Using Biphasic Silk Composite Scaffolds  

PubMed Central

Scaffolds composed of synthetic, natural, and hybrid materials have been investigated as options to restore intervertebral disk (IVD) tissue function. These systems fall short of the lamellar features of the native annulus fibrosus (AF) tissue or focus only on the nucleus pulposus (NP) tissue. However, successful regeneration of the entire IVD requires a combination approach to restore functions of both the AF and NP. To address this need, a biphasic biomaterial structure was generated by using silk protein for the AF and fibrin/hyaluronic acid (HA) gels for the NP. Two cell types, porcine AF cells and chondrocytes, were utilized. For the AF tissue, two types of scaffold morphologies, lamellar and porous, were studied with the porous system serving as a control. Toroidal scaffolds formed out of the lamellar, and porous silk materials were used to generate structures with an outer diameter of 8?mm, inner diameter of 3.5?mm, and a height of 3?mm (the interlamellar distance in the lamellar scaffold was 150–250??m, and the average pore sizes in the porous scaffolds were 100–250??m). The scaffolds were seeded with porcine AF cells to form AF tissue, whereas porcine chondrocytes were encapsulated in fibrin/HA hydrogels for the NP tissue and embedded in the center of the toroidal disk. Histology, biochemical assays, and gene expression indicated that the lamellar scaffolds supported AF-like tissue over 2 weeks. Porcine chondrocytes formed the NP phenotype within the hydrogel after 4 weeks of culture with the AF tissue that had been previously cultured for 2 weeks, for a total of 6 weeks of cultivation. This biphasic scaffold simulating in combination of both AF and NP tissues was effective in the formation of the total IVD in vitro.

Park, Sang-Hyug; Gil, Eun Seok; Cho, Hongsik; Mandal, Biman B.; Tien, Lee W.; Min, Byoung-Hyun

2012-01-01

357

3-D scaffolds a new tool to fight cancer  

Cancer.gov

Porous polymer scaffolds fabricated to support the growth of biological tissue for implantation may hold the potential to greatly accelerate the development of cancer therapeutics. Researchers at Rice University, the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center in Houston, and Mount Sinai Medical Center in New York reported this week that three-dimensional scaffolds used to culture Ewing’s sarcoma cells were effective at mimicking the environment in which such tumors develop.

358

Hemocompatible surface of electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds by ATRP modification.  

PubMed

The electrospun scaffolds are potential application in vascular tissue engineering since they can mimic the nano-sized dimension of natural extracellular matrix (ECM). We prepared a fibrous scaffold from polycarbonateurethane (PCU) by electrospinning technology. In order to improve the hydrophilicity and hemocompatibility of the fibrous scaffold, poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate (PEGMA) was grafted onto the fiber surface by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP) method. Although SI-ATRP has been developed and used for surface modification for many years, there are only few studies about the modification of electrospun fiber by this method. The modified fibrous scaffolds were characterized by SEM, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The scaffold morphology showed no significant difference when PEGMA was grafted onto the scaffold surface. Based on the water contact angle measurement, the surface hydrophilicity of the scaffold surface was improved significantly after grafting hydrophilic PEGMA (P=0.0012). The modified surface showed effective resistance for platelet adhesion compared with the unmodified surface. Activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) of the PCU-g-PEGMA scaffold was much longer than that of the unmodified PCU scaffold. The cyto-compatibility of electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds was tested by human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The images of 7-day cultured cells on the scaffold surface were observed by SEM. The modified scaffolds showed high tendency to induce cell adhesion. Moreover, the cells reached out pseudopodia along the fibrous direction and formed a continuous monolayer. Hemolysis test showed that the grafted chains of PEGMA reduced blood coagulation. These results indicated that the modified electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds were potential application as artificial blood vessels. PMID:23910260

Yuan, Wenjie; Feng, Yakai; Wang, Heyun; Yang, Dazhi; An, Bo; Zhang, Wencheng; Khan, Musammir; Guo, Jintang

2013-10-01

359

Silent Scaffolds  

PubMed Central

We established a new in vivo arrestin-3-JNK3 interaction assay based on bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) between JNK3-luciferase and Venus-arrestins. We tested the ability of WT arrestin-3 and its 3A mutant that readily binds ?2-adrenergic receptors as well as two mutants impaired in receptor binding, ?7 and KNC, to directly bind JNK3 and to promote JNK3 phosphorylation in cells. Both receptor binding-deficient mutants interact with JNK3 significantly better than WT and 3A arrestin-3. WT arrestin-3 and ?7 mutant robustly promoted JNK3 activation, whereas 3A and KNC mutants did not. Thus, receptor binding, JNK3 interaction, and JNK3 activation are three distinct arrestin functions. We found that the KNC mutant, which tightly binds ASK1, MKK4, and JNK3 without facilitating JNK3 phosphorylation, has a dominant-negative effect, competitively decreasing JNK activation by WT arrestin-3. Thus, KNC is a silent scaffold, a novel type of molecular tool for the suppression of MAPK signaling in living cells.

Breitman, Maya; Kook, Seunghyi; Gimenez, Luis E.; Lizama, Britney N.; Palazzo, Maria C.; Gurevich, Eugenia V.; Gurevich, Vsevolod V.

2012-01-01

360

Tissue Engineered Bone Using Polycaprolactone Scaffolds Made by Selective Laser Sintering.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Polycaprolactone is a bioresorbable polymer that has potential for tissue engineering of bone and cartilage. In this work, we report on the computational design and freeform fabrication of porous polycaprolactone scaffolds using selective laser sintering,...

A. Adewunmi C. L. Flanagan J. M. Williams P. H. Krebsbach R. M. Schek

2005-01-01

361

Computational Design, Freeform Fabrication and Testing of Nylon-6 Tissue Engineering Scaffolds.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Advanced and novel fabrication methods are needed to build complex three-dimensional scaffolds that incorporate multiple functionally graded biomaterials with a porous internal architecture that will enable the simultaneous growth of multiple tissues, tis...

A. Adewunmi C. Flanagan K. Bark S. Das S. J. Hollister

2003-01-01

362

Photo-patterning of porous hydrogels for tissue engineering.  

PubMed

Since pore size and geometry strongly impact cell behavior and in vivo reaction, the ability to create scaffolds with a wide range of pore geometries that can be tailored to suit a particular cell type addresses a key need in tissue engineering. In this contribution, we describe a novel and simple technique to design porous, degradable poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) hydrogel scaffolds with well-defined architectures using a unique photolithography process and optimized polymer chemistry. A sphere-template was used to produce a highly uniform, monodisperse porous structure. To create a patterned and porous hydrogel scaffold, a photomask and initiating light were employed. Open, vertical channels ranging in size from 360+/-25 to 730+/-70 microm were patterned into approximately 700 microm thick hydrogels with pore diameters of 62+/-8 or 147+/-15 microm. Collagen type I was immobilized onto the scaffolds to facilitate cell adhesion. To assess the potential of these novel scaffolds for tissue engineering, a skeletal myoblast cell line (C2C12) was seeded onto scaffolds with 147 microm pores and 730 microm diameter channels, and analyzed by histology and digital volumetric imaging. Cell elongation, cell spreading and fibrillar formation were observed on these novel scaffolds. In summary, 3D architectures can be patterned into porous hydrogels in one step to create a wide range of tissue engineering scaffolds that may be tailored for specific applications. PMID:17397918

Bryant, Stephanie J; Cuy, Janet L; Hauch, Kip D; Ratner, Buddy D

2007-07-01

363

Bioactive scaffolds mimicking natural dentin structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic scaffolds of poly(ethyl methacrylate-co-hydroxyethyl acrylate) (P(EMA- co-HEA)) 70\\/30 wt % ratio, with varying proportions of silica SiO2 from 0 to 20 wt % and aligned tubular pores, were prepared using a fiber-templating fabrication method, with the aim of mimicking structure and properties of the mineralized tissue of natural dentin. Precursors of the copolymer and silica were simultaneously polymerized in

A. Vallés Lluch; A. Campillo Fernández; G. Gallego Ferrer; M. Monleón Pradas

2008-01-01

364

Chitosan/poly(epsilon-caprolactone) blend scaffolds for cartilage repair.  

PubMed

Chitosan (CHT)/poly(?-caprolactone) (PCL) blend 3D fiber-mesh scaffolds were studied as possible support structures for articular cartilage tissue (ACT) repair. Micro-fibers were obtained by wet-spinning of three different polymeric solutions: 100:0 (100CHT), 75:25 (75CHT) and 50:50 (50CHT) wt.% CHT/PCL, using a common solvent solution of 100 vol.% of formic acid. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis showed a homogeneous surface distribution of PCL. PCL was well dispersed throughout the CHT phase as analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The fibers were folded into cylindrical moulds and underwent a thermal treatment to obtain the scaffolds. ?CT analysis revealed an adequate porosity, pore size and interconnectivity for tissue engineering applications. The PCL component led to a higher fiber surface roughness, decreased the scaffolds swelling ratio and increased their compressive mechanical properties. Biological assays were performed after culturing bovine articular chondrocytes up to 21 days. SEM analysis, live-dead and metabolic activity assays showed that cells attached, proliferated, and were metabolically active over all scaffolds formulations. Cartilaginous extracellular matrix (ECM) formation was observed in all formulations. The 75CHT scaffolds supported the most neo-cartilage formation, as demonstrated b