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1

Design of porous polymeric scaffolds by gas foaming of heterogeneous blends.  

PubMed

One of the challenges in tissue engineering scaffold design is the realization of structures with a pre-defined multi-scaled porous network. Along this line, this study aimed at the design of porous scaffolds with controlled porosity and pore size distribution from blends of poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) and thermoplastic gelatin (TG), a thermoplastic natural material obtained by de novo thermoplasticization of gelatin. PCL/TG blends with composition in the range from 40/60 to 60/40 (w/w) were prepared by melt mixing process. The multi-phase microstructures of these blends were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and dynamic mechanical analysis. Furthermore, in order to prepare open porous scaffolds for cell culture and tissue replacement, the TG and PCL were selectively extracted from the blends by the appropriate combination of solvent and extraction parameters. Finally, with the proposed combination of gas foaming and selective polymer extraction technologies, PCL and TG porous materials with multi-scaled and highly interconnected porosities were designed as novel scaffolds for new-tissue regeneration. PMID:19430895

Salerno, A; Oliviero, M; Di Maio, E; Iannace, S; Netti, P A

2009-05-09

2

Gas foamed open porous biodegradable polymeric microspheres.  

PubMed

Highly open porous biodegradable polymeric microspheres were fabricated for use as injectable scaffold microcarriers for cell delivery. A modified water-in-oil-in-water (W1/O/W2) double emulsion solvent evaporation method was employed for producing the microspheres. The incorporation of an effervescent salt, ammonium bicarbonate, in the primary W1 droplets spontaneously produced carbon dioxide and ammonia gas bubbles during the solvent evaporation process, which not only stabilized the primary emulsion, but also created well inter-connected pores in the resultant microspheres. The porous microspheres fabricated under various gas foaming conditions were characterized. The surface pores became as large as 20 microm in diameter with increasing the concentration of ammonium bicarbonate, being sufficient enough for cell infiltration and seeding. These porous scaffold microspheres could be potentially utilized for cultivating cells in a suspension manner and for delivering the seeded cells to the tissue defect site in an injectable manner. PMID:16023197

Kim, Taek Kyoung; Yoon, Jun Jin; Lee, Doo Sung; Park, Tae Gwan

2006-01-01

3

Porous bioactive scaffold of aliphatic polyurethane and hydroxyapatite for tissue regeneration  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, a new hydroxyapatite (HA)\\/polyurethane (PU) composite porous scaffold was developed by in situ polymerization. Aliphatic isophorone diisocyanate as a nontoxic and safe agent was adopted to produce the rigid segment in polyurethane polymerization. Hydroxyapatite powder was compounded in a PU polymer matrix during the polymeric process. The macrostructure and morphology as well as mechanical strength of the

Li Wang; Yubao Li; Yi Zuo; Li Zhang; Qin Zou; Lin Cheng; Hong Jiang

2009-01-01

4

Porous scaffold design for tissue engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

A paradigm shift is taking place in medicine from using synthetic implants and tissue grafts to a tissue engineering approach that uses degradable porous material scaffolds integrated with biological cells or molecules to regenerate tissues. This new paradigm requires scaffolds that balance temporary mechanical function with mass transport to aid biological delivery and tissue regeneration. Little is known quantitatively about

Scott J. Hollister

2005-01-01

5

Porous chitosan scaffolds for tissue engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

The wide array of tissue engineering applications exacerbates the need for biodegradable materials with broad potential. Chitosan, the partially deacetylated derivative of chitin, may be one such material. In this study, we examined the use of chitosan for formation of porous scaffolds of controlled microstructure in several tissue-relevant geometries. Porous chitosan materials were prepared by controlled freezing and lyophilization of

Sundararajan V. Madihally; Howard W. T. Matthew

1999-01-01

6

Producing ORMOSIL scaffolds by femtosecond laser polymerization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Structures with different geometries and sizes were built via direct femtosecond laser writing, starting from new organic/inorganic hybrid monomers based on hybrid methacrylate containing triethoxysilane, in addition to urethane and urea groups. Multifunctional oligomer of urethane dimethacrylate type was chosen as comonomer in polymerization experiments because dimethacrylates give rise to the formation of a polymer network, having a number of favorable properties including biocompatibility and surface nanostructuring. Free standing polymeric structures were designed and created in order to be tested in fibroblast cells culture. Investigations of the cellular adhesion, proliferation, and viability of L929 mouse fibroblasts on free-standing laser processed scaffolds were performed for different scaffold designs.

Matei, A.; Zamfirescu, M.; Radu, C.; Buruiana, E. C.; Buruiana, T.; Mustaciosu, C.; Petcu, I.; Radu, M.; Dinescu, M.

2012-07-01

7

Impregnation of ?-tricalcium phosphate robocast scaffolds by in situ polymerization.  

PubMed

Ring-opening polymerization of ?-caprolactone (?-CL) and L-lactide (LLA) was performed to impregnate ?-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) scaffolds fabricated by robocasting. Concentrated colloidal inks prepared from ?-TCP commercial powders were used to fabricate porous structures consisting of a 3D mesh of interpenetrating rods. ?-CL and LLA were in situ polymerized within the ceramic structure by using a lipase and stannous octanoate, respectively, as catalysts. The results show that both the macropores inside the ceramic mesh and the micropores within the ceramic rods are full of polymer in either case. The mechanical properties of scaffolds impregnated by in situ polymerization (ISP) are significantly increased over those of the bare structures, exhibiting similar values than those obtained by other, more aggressive, impregnation methods such as melt-immersion (MI). ISP using enzymatic catalysts requires a reduced processing temperature which could facilitate the incorporation of growth factors and other drugs into the polymer composition, thus enhancing the bioactivity of the composite scaffold. The implications of these results for the optimization of the mechanical and biological performance of scaffolds for bone tissue engineering applications are discussed. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 101A: 3086-3096, 2013. PMID:23526780

Martínez-Vázquez, Francisco J; Perera, Fidel H; Meulen, Inge van der; Heise, Andreas; Pajares, Antonia; Miranda, Pedro

2013-03-25

8

Bioinspired Strong and Highly Porous Glass Scaffolds  

PubMed Central

The quest for more efficient energy-related technologies is driving the development of porous and high-performance structural materials with exceptional mechanical strength. Natural materials achieve their strength through complex hierarchical designs and anisotropic structures that are extremely difficult to replicate synthetically. We emulate nature’s design by direct-ink-write assembling of glass scaffolds with a periodic pattern, and controlled sintering of the filaments into anisotropic constructs similar to biological materials. The final product is a porous glass scaffold with a compressive strength (136 MPa) comparable to that of cortical bone and a porosity (60%) comparable to that of trabecular bone. The strength of this porous glass scaffold is ~100 times that of polymer scaffolds and 4–5 times that of ceramic and glass scaffolds with comparable porosities reported elsewhere. The ability to create both porous and strong structures opens a new avenue for fabricating scaffolds for a broad array of applications, including tissue engineering, filtration, lightweight composites, and catalyst support.

Saiz, Eduardo; Tomsia, Antoni P.

2011-01-01

9

Biodegradable porous scaffolds for tissue engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three-dimensional scaffolds play an important role in tissue engineering as an adhesive substrate for implanted cells and\\u000a a physical support to guide the formation of new organs. The scaffolds should facilitate cell adhesion, promote cell growth,\\u000a allow the retention of differentiated cell functions, and be biocompatible, biodegradable, highly porous with a large surface-to-volume\\u000a ratio, mechanically strong, and malleable. A number

Tetsuya Tateishi; Guoping Chen; Takashi Ushida

2002-01-01

10

Polymeric Scaffolds for Regenerative Medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regenerative medicine, one of the most exciting and dynamic life science fields, is an emerging biomedical technology for assisting and accelerating the regeneration and repair of lost or damaged organs or body parts. Modern regenerative medicine is increasingly using three-dimensional structured scaffolds because they represent a wide range of morphological and geometric in vivo possibilities that can be tailored for

Moon Suk Kim; Jae Ho Kim; Byoung Hyun Min; Heung Jae Chun; Dong Keun Han; Hai Bang Lee

2011-01-01

11

Highly porous titanium scaffolds for orthopaedic applications.  

PubMed

For many years, the solid metals and their alloys have been widely used for fabrication of the implants replacing hard human tissues or their functions. To improve fixation of solid implants to the surrounding bone tissues, the materials with porous structures have been introduced. By tissue ingrowing into a porous structure of metallic implant, the bonding between the implant and the bone has been obtained. Substantial pore interconnectivity, in metallic implants, allows extensive body fluid transport through the porous implant. This can provoke bone tissue ingrowth, consequently, leading to the development of highly porous metallic implants, which could be used as scaffolds in bone tissue engineering. The goal of this study was to develop and then investigate properties of highly porous titanium structures received from powder metallurgy process. The properties of porous titanium samples, such as microstructure, porosity, Young's modulus, strength, together with permeability and corrosion resistance were investigated. Porous titanium scaffolds with nonhomogeneous distribution of interconnected pores with pore size in the range up to 600 ?m in diameter and a total porosity in the range up to 75% were developed. The relatively high permeability was observed for samples with highest values of porosity. Comparing to cast titanium, the porous titanium was low resistant to corrosion. The mechanical parameters of the investigated samples were similar to those for cancellous bone. The development of high-porous titanium material shows high potential to be modern material for creating a 3D structure for bone regeneration and implant fixation. PMID:20690174

Dabrowski, Bogdan; Swieszkowski, Wojciech; Godlinski, Dirk; Kurzydlowski, Krzysztof J

2010-10-01

12

Electrophoretic deposition of porous hydroxyapatite scaffold.  

PubMed

Bioactive porous hydroxyapatite (HA) scaffold was fabricated using electrophoretic deposition (EPD) technique in the present work. Bulk HA scaffold was achieved by repeated deposition. The green scaffold was sintered at 1200 degrees C to 82% of the theoretical density. Scanning electron microscopy examination and mercury porosimetry measurement have shown that the porosity remains interconnected and a range of pore size from several microns to hundreds of microns was obtained. X-ray diffraction analysis was performed and confirmed that there is no HA decomposition during the sintering process. Mechanical characterization has also shown that the EPD scaffold possesses excellent properties. Cell culturing experiment was carried out and the result shows that the scaffold bioactivity is not only dependent on the interconnectivity of the pores, but also the pore size. PMID:12809779

Ma, J; Wang, C; Peng, K W

2003-09-01

13

Nano/macro porous bioactive glass scaffold  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bioactive glass (BG) and ceramics have been widely studied and developed as implants to replace hard tissues of the musculo-skeletal system, such as bones and teeth. Recently, instead of using bulk materials, which usually do not degrade rapidly enough and may remain in the human body for a long time, the idea of bioscaffold for tissue regeneration has generated much interest. An ideal bioscaffold is a porous material that would not only provide a three-dimensional structure for the regeneration of natural tissue, but also degrade gradually and, eventually be replaced by the natural tissue completely. Among various material choices the nano-macro dual porous BG appears as the most promising candidate for bioscaffold applications. Here macropores facilitate tissue growth while nanopores control degradation and enhance cell response. The surface area, which controls the degradation of scaffold can also be tuned by changing the nanopore size. However, fabrication of such 3D structure with desirable nano and macro pores has remained challenging. In this dissertation, sol-gel process combined with spinodal decomposition or polymer sponge replication method has been developed to fabricate the nano-macro porous BG scaffolds. Macropores up to 100microm are created by freezing polymer induced spinodal structure through sol-gel transition, while larger macropores (>200um) of predetermined size are obtained by the polymer sponge replication technique. The size of nanopores, which are inherent to the sol-gel method of glass fabrication, has been tailored using several approaches: Before gel point, small nanopores are generated using acid catalyst that leads to weakly-branched polymer-like network. On the other hand, larger nanopores are created with the base-catalyzed gel with highly-branched cluster-like structure. After the gel point, the nanostructure can be further modified by manipulating the sintering temperature and/or the ammonia concentration used in the solvent exchange process. Although both techniques lower the surface area of BG scaffolds, the temperature-dependent sintering process closes nanopores through densification, while the concentration-dependent solvent exchange process enlarges nanopores through Ostwald-ripening type coarsening. Therefore, nanopore size and surface area of BG scaffold are independently controlled using these methods. In vitro cell and in vivo animal tissue responses have been investigated to evaluate the performance of the nano-macro porous BG scaffold. The cells are found to migrate and penetrate deep into the 3D nano-macro porous structure, while exhibiting excellent adhesion to the bioscaffold surface. Importantly, the new tissue with both blood vessels and collagen fibers is formed deep inside the implanted scaffolds without obvious inflammatory reaction. Furthermore, our observations show biological benefits of the nanopores in the BG scaffold. In comparison to BG scaffold without nanopores, cells migrate and penetrate into nano-macro dual-porous BG scaffold faster and deeper mainly because of the increase of surface area. To study the effect of nanopore topography, we fabricated BG scaffolds with the same surface area but different nanopore sizes. It is found that the initial cell attachment is significantly enhanced on the BG scaffold with the same surface area but smaller nanopores size, indicating that the nanopore topography strongly influences the performance of BG scaffold. In conclusion, the present results demonstrate most clearly the usefulness of our nano-macro dual-porous BG as a novel and superior 3D bioscaffold for regenerative medicine and hard tissue engineering.

Wang, Shaojie

14

Porous scaffold architecture guides tissue formation.  

PubMed

Critical-sized bone defect regeneration is a remaining clinical concern. Numerous scaffold-based strategies are currently being investigated to enable in vivo bone defect healing. However, a deeper understanding of how a scaffold influences the tissue formation process and how this compares to endogenous bone formation or to regular fracture healing is missing. It is hypothesized that the porous scaffold architecture can serve as a guiding substrate to enable the formation of a structured fibrous network as a prerequirement for later bone formation. An ovine, tibial, 30-mm critical-sized defect is used as a model system to better understand the effect of the scaffold architecture on cell organization, fibrous tissue, and mineralized tissue formation mechanisms in vivo. Tissue regeneration patterns within two geometrically distinct macroscopic regions of a specific scaffold design, the scaffold wall and the endosteal cavity, are compared with tissue formation in an empty defect (negative control) and with cortical bone (positive control). Histology, backscattered electron imaging, scanning small-angle X-ray scattering, and nanoindentation are used to assess the morphology of fibrous and mineralized tissue, to measure the average mineral particle thickness and the degree of alignment, and to map the local elastic indentation modulus. The scaffold proves to function as a guiding substrate to the tissue formation process. It enables the arrangement of a structured fibrous tissue across the entire defect, which acts as a secondary supporting network for cells. Mineralization can then initiate along the fibrous network, resulting in bone ingrowth into a critical-sized defect, although not in complete bridging of the defect. The fibrous network morphology, which in turn is guided by the scaffold architecture, influences the microstructure of the newly formed bone. These results allow a deeper understanding of the mode of mineral tissue formation and the way this is influenced by the scaffold architecture. © 2012 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. PMID:22407823

Cipitria, Amaia; Lange, Claudia; Schell, Hanna; Wagermaier, Wolfgang; Reichert, Johannes C; Hutmacher, Dietmar W; Fratzl, Peter; Duda, Georg N

2012-06-01

15

Release Behavior and Biological Activity of Recombinant Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein2 from Porous PLGA Scaffold  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility of using the poly-(DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) scaffold as a carrier for controlled recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) delivery was assessed. PLGA rhBMP-2-loaded scaffolds were fabricated by emulsion polymerization and freeze-dried; a porous morphology was observed by scanning electron microscopy. The in vitro release of rhBMP-2 from the polymer was assessed using high performance liquid chromatography. An initial

Huiyong Zhu; Qiuliang Wu; Jianzhong Shentu; Huiming Wang; Yingqian Hu; Kangjie Zhu; Jianhua Liu

2005-01-01

16

Additive manufacturing of wet-spun polymeric scaffolds for bone tissue engineering.  

PubMed

An Additive Manufacturing technique for the fabrication of three-dimensional polymeric scaffolds, based on wet-spinning of poly(?-caprolactone) (PCL) or PCL/hydroxyapatite (HA) solutions, was developed. The processing conditions to fabricate scaffolds with a layer-by-layer approach were optimized by studying their influence on fibres morphology and alignment. Two different scaffold architectures were designed and fabricated by tuning inter-fibre distance and fibres staggering. The developed scaffolds showed good reproducibility of the internal architecture characterized by highly porous, aligned fibres with an average diameter in the range 200-250 ?m. Mechanical characterization showed that the architecture and HA loading influenced the scaffold compressive modulus and strength. Cell culture experiments employing MC3T3-E1 preosteoblast cell line showed good cell adhesion, proliferation, alkaline phosphatase activity and bone mineralization on the developed scaffolds. PMID:22767245

Puppi, Dario; Mota, Carlos; Gazzarri, Matteo; Dinucci, Dinuccio; Gloria, Antonio; Myrzabekova, Mairam; Ambrosio, Luigi; Chiellini, Federica

2012-12-01

17

Preparation of bioactive porous HA/PCL composite scaffolds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Porous hydroxyapatite (HA) bioceramic scaffold has been widely attracted the attention to act as a three-dimensional (3D) template for cell adhesion, proliferation, differentiation and thus promoting bone and cartilage regeneration because of its osteoinduction. However, the porous bioceramic scaffold is fragile so that it is not suitable to be applied in clinic for bone repair or replacement. Therefore, it is significant to improve the mechanical property of porous HA bioceramics while the interconnected structure is maintained for tissue ingrowth in vivo. In the present research, a porous composite scaffold composed of HA scaffold and polycaprolactone (PCL) lining was fabricated by the method of polymer impregnating to produce HA scaffold coated with PCL lining. Subsequently, the composite scaffolds were deposited with biomimetic coating for improving the bioactivity. The HA/PCL composite scaffolds with improved mechanical property and bioactivity is expected to be a promising bone substitute in tissue engineering applications.

Zhao, J.; Guo, L. Y.; Yang, X. B.; Weng, J.

2008-12-01

18

Mechanical Improvements to Reinforced Porous Silk Scaffolds  

PubMed Central

Load bearing porous biodegradable scaffolds are required to engineer functional tissues such as bone. Mechanical improvements to porogen leached scaffolds prepared from silk proteins were systematically studied through the addition of silk particles in combination with silk solution concentration, exploiting interfacial compatibility between the two components. Solvent solutions of silk up to 32 w/v% were successfully prepared in hexafluoroisopropanaol (HFIP) for the study. The mechanical properties of the reinforced silk scaffolds correlated to the material density and matched by a power law relationship, independent of the ratio of silk particles to matrix. These results were similar to the relationships previously shown for cancellous bone. The mechanism behind the increased mechanical properties was a densification effect, and not the effect of including stiffer silk particles into the softer silk continuous matrix. A continuous interface between the silk matrix and the silk particles, as well as homogeneous distribution of the silk particles within the matrix were observed. Furthermore, we note that the roughness of the pore walls was controllable by varying the ratio of particles matrix, providing a route to control topography. The rate of proteolytic hydrolysis of the scaffolds decreased with increase in mass of silk used in the matrix and with increasing silk particle content.

Gil, Eun Seok; Kluge, Jonathan A.; Rockwood, Danielle N.; Rajkhowa, Rangam; Wang, Lijing; Wang, Xungai; Kaplan, David L

2012-01-01

19

Hierarchical porous polymer scaffolds from block copolymers.  

PubMed

Hierarchical porous polymer materials are of increasing importance because of their potential application in catalysis, separation technology, or bioengineering. Examples for their synthesis exist, but there is a need for a facile yet versatile conceptual approach to such hierarchical scaffolds and quantitative characterization of their nonperiodic pore systems. Here, we introduce a synthesis method combining well-established concepts of macroscale spinodal decomposition and nanoscale block copolymer self-assembly with porosity formation on both length scales via rinsing with protic solvents. We used scanning electron microscopy, small-angle x-ray scattering, transmission electron tomography, and nanoscale x-ray computed tomography for quantitative pore-structure characterization. The method was demonstrated for AB- and ABC-type block copolymers, and resulting materials were used as scaffolds for calcite crystal growth. PMID:23908232

Sai, Hiroaki; Tan, Kwan Wee; Hur, Kahyun; Asenath-Smith, Emily; Hovden, Robert; Jiang, Yi; Riccio, Mark; Muller, David A; Elser, Veit; Estroff, Lara A; Gruner, Sol M; Wiesner, Ulrich

2013-08-01

20

Cellular materials as porous scaffolds for tissue engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major goal of tissue engineering is to synthesize or regenerate tissues and organs. Today, this is done by providing a synthetic porous scaffold, or matrix, which mimics the body's own extracellular matrix, onto which cells attach, multiply, migrate and function. Porous scaffolds are currently being developed for regeneration of skin, cartilage, bone, nerve and liver. The microstructures of many

T. M. Freyman; I. V. Yannas; L. J. Gibson

2001-01-01

21

Development of biodegradable porous scaffolds for tissue engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three-dimensional biodegradable porous scaffolds play an important role in tissue engineering. A new method of preparing porous scaffolds composed of synthetic biodegradable polymers was developed by combining porogen leaching and freeze-drying techniques using preprepared ice particulates as the porogen material. The pore structures of the polymer sponges could be manipulated by controlling processing variables such as the size and weight

Guoping Chen; Takashi Ushida; Tetsuya Tateishi

2001-01-01

22

[Preparation of porous Ti metal composite scaffold with bioactivity].  

PubMed

In this work, the titanium powder was used for preparing highly interconnected porous scaffolds by impregnating polymer method. Subsequently, the electrochemical method and the biomimetic mineralization method were adopted to deposit calcium phosphate coatings on the sintered scaffold which was supposed to improve the scaffold bioactivity. The experimental results show, with the use of the two methods, the scaffolds are successfully covered by the deposition of the nano-net structure calcium phosphate coating, and they hold their three dimensional interconnected porous structures. Therefore, this kind of bioactive composite scaffold with such mechanical strength as that of woven bone should be a promising bone graft in clinical applications. PMID:19813613

Zhao, Jing; Lu, Xiong; Wang, Jianxin; Weng, Jie

2009-08-01

23

Beneficial effect of hydrophilized porous polymer scaffolds in tissue-engineered cartilage formation.  

PubMed

Three dimensional (3D) porous poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) scaffolds were fabricated using a modified gas foaming method whose effervescent porogens were a mixture of sodium bicarbonate and citric acid. To improve chondrocyte adhesion, the scaffolds were then hydrophilized through oxygen plasma treatment and in situ graft polymerization of acrylic acid (AA). When the physical properties of AA-grafted scaffolds were examined, the porosity and pore size were 87 approximately 93% and 100 approximately 300 microm, respectively. The pore sizes were highly dependent on the varying ratios (w/w) between porogen and polymer solution. Influenced by their pore sizes, the compressive moduli of scaffolds significantly decreased with increasing pore size. The altered surface characteristics were clearly reflected in the reduced water contact angles that meant a significant hydrophilization with the modified polymer surface. Electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA) and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometer (ToF-SIMS) also confirmed the altered surface chemistry. When chondrocytes were seeded onto the AA-grafted PLLA scaffolds, cell adhesion and proliferation were substantially improved as compared to the unmodified scaffolds. The benefit of the modified scaffolds was clear in the gene expressions of collagen type II that was significantly upregulated after 4-week culture. Safranin-O staining also identified greater glycosaminoglycan (GAG) deposition in the modified scaffold. The AA-grafted porous polymer scaffolds were effective for cell adhesion and differentiation, making them a suitable platform for tissue-engineered cartilage. PMID:17973245

Ju, Young Min; Park, Kwideok; Son, Jun Sik; Kim, Jae-Jin; Rhie, Jong-Won; Han, Dong Keun

2008-04-01

24

Porous Allograft Bone Scaffolds: Doping with Strontium  

PubMed Central

Strontium (Sr) can promote the process of bone formation. To improve bioactivity, porous allograft bone scaffolds (ABS) were doped with Sr and the mechanical strength and bioactivity of the scaffolds were evaluated. Sr-doped ABS were prepared using the ion exchange method. The density and distribution of Sr in bone scaffolds were investigated by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Controlled release of strontium ions was measured and mechanical strength was evaluated by a compressive strength test. The bioactivity of Sr-doped ABS was investigated by a simulated body fluid (SBF) assay, cytotoxicity testing, and an in vivo implantation experiment. The Sr molar concentration [Sr/(Sr+Ca)] in ABS surpassed 5% and Sr was distributed nearly evenly. XPS analyses suggest that Sr combined with oxygen and carbonate radicals. Released Sr ions were detected in the immersion solution at higher concentration than calcium ions until day 30. The compressive strength of the Sr-doped ABS did not change significantly. The bioactivity of Sr-doped material, as measured by the in vitro SBF immersion method, was superior to that of the Sr-free freeze-dried bone and the Sr-doped material did not show cytotoxicity compared with Sr-free culture medium. The rate of bone mineral deposition for Sr-doped ABS was faster than that of the control at 4 weeks (3.28±0.23 µm/day vs. 2.60±0.20 µm/day; p<0.05). Sr can be evenly doped into porous ABS at relevant concentrations to create highly active bone substitutes.

Zhao, Yantao; Guo, Dagang; Hou, Shuxun; Zhong, Hongbin; Yan, Jun; Zhang, Chunli; Zhou, Ying

2013-01-01

25

Porous allograft bone scaffolds: doping with strontium.  

PubMed

Strontium (Sr) can promote the process of bone formation. To improve bioactivity, porous allograft bone scaffolds (ABS) were doped with Sr and the mechanical strength and bioactivity of the scaffolds were evaluated. Sr-doped ABS were prepared using the ion exchange method. The density and distribution of Sr in bone scaffolds were investigated by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Controlled release of strontium ions was measured and mechanical strength was evaluated by a compressive strength test. The bioactivity of Sr-doped ABS was investigated by a simulated body fluid (SBF) assay, cytotoxicity testing, and an in vivo implantation experiment. The Sr molar concentration [Sr/(Sr+Ca)] in ABS surpassed 5% and Sr was distributed nearly evenly. XPS analyses suggest that Sr combined with oxygen and carbonate radicals. Released Sr ions were detected in the immersion solution at higher concentration than calcium ions until day 30. The compressive strength of the Sr-doped ABS did not change significantly. The bioactivity of Sr-doped material, as measured by the in vitro SBF immersion method, was superior to that of the Sr-free freeze-dried bone and the Sr-doped material did not show cytotoxicity compared with Sr-free culture medium. The rate of bone mineral deposition for Sr-doped ABS was faster than that of the control at 4 weeks (3.28 ± 0.23 µm/day vs. 2.60 ± 0.20 µm/day; p<0.05). Sr can be evenly doped into porous ABS at relevant concentrations to create highly active bone substitutes. PMID:23922703

Zhao, Yantao; Guo, Dagang; Hou, Shuxun; Zhong, Hongbin; Yan, Jun; Zhang, Chunli; Zhou, Ying

2013-07-26

26

Preparation and characterization of nano-hydroxyapatite/silk fibroin porous scaffolds.  

PubMed

Novel tissue engineering scaffold materials of nano-hydroxyapatite (nHA)/silk fibroin (SF) biocomposite were prepared by freeze-drying. The needle-like nHA crystals of about 10 nm in diameter by 50-80 nm in length, which were uniformly distributed in the porous nHA/SF scaffolds, were prepared by a co-precipitation method with a size. The as-prepared nHA/SF scaffolds showed good homogeneity, interconnected pores and high porosity. XRD and FT-IR analysis suggested that the silk fibroin was in beta-sheet structure, which usually provides outstanding mechanical properties for silk materials. In this work, composite scaffolds containing as high as 70% (w/w) nHA were prepared, which had excellent compressive modulus and strength, higher than the scaffolds at low nHA content level and other porous biodegradable polymeric scaffolds often considered in bone-related tissue engineering reported previously. The cell compatibility of composite scaffolds was evaluated through cell viability by MTT assay. All these results indicated that these nHA/SF scaffold materials may be a promising biomaterial for bone tissue engineering. PMID:18325234

Liu, Lin; Liu, Jinying; Wang, Mingqi; Min, Sijia; Cai, Yurong; Zhu, Liangjun; Yao, Juming

2008-01-01

27

Flow-Induced Stress Distribution in Porous Scaffolds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flow-induced stresses help the differentiation and proliferation of mesenchymal cells cultured in porous scaffolds within perfusion bioreactors. The distribution of stresses in a scaffold is thus important for understanding the tissue growth process in such reactors. Computational results for flow through Poly-L-Lactic Acid porous scaffolds that have been produced with salt-leaching techniques, and for scaffolds that have been constructed with nonwoven fibers, indicate that the probability density function (pdf) of the wall stress, when normalized with the mean and the standard deviation of the pdf, appears to follow a single type of pdf. The scaffolds were imaged with micro-CT and the simulations were run with lattice Boltzmann methods. The parameters of the distribution can be obtained using Darcy's law and the Blake-Kozeny-Carman equation. Experimental results available in the literature appear to corroborate the computational findings, leading to the conclusion that stresses in high-porosity porous materials follow a single distribution.

Papavassiliou, Dimitrios; Voronov, Roman; Vangordon, Samuel; Sikavitsas, Vassilios

2010-11-01

28

Preparation and characterization of bimodal porous poly(?-benzyl-L-glutamate) scaffolds for bone tissue engineering.  

PubMed

An ideal scaffold in bone tissue-engineering strategy should provide biomimetic extracellular matrix-like architecture and biological properties. Poly(?-benzyl-L-glutamate) (PBLG) has been a popular model polypeptide for various potential biomedical applications due to its good biocompatibility and biodegradability. This study developed novel bimodal porous PBLG polypeptide scaffolds via a combination of biotemplating method and in situ ring-opening polymerization of ?-benzyl-L-gIutamate N-carboxyanhydride (BLG-NCA). The PBLG scaffolds were characterized by proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and mechanical test. The results showed that the semi-crystalline PBLG scaffolds exhibited an anisotropic porous structure composed of honeycomb-like channels (100-200?m in diameter) and micropores (5-20?m), with a very high porosity of 97.4±1.6%. The compressive modulus and glass transition temperature were 402.8±20.6 kPa and 20.2°C, respectively. The in vitro biocompatibility evaluation with MC3T3-E1 cells using SEM, fluorescent staining and MTT assay revealed that the PBLG scaffolds had good biocompatibility and favored cell attachment, spread and proliferation. Therefore, the bimodal porous polypeptide scaffolds are promising for bone tissue engineering. PMID:24094164

Qian, Junmin; Yong, Xueqing; Xu, Weijun; Jin, Xinxia

2013-07-19

29

Preparation and characterization of a novel porous titanium scaffold with 3D hierarchical porous structures.  

PubMed

This study aims to prepare a novel porous titanium (Ti) scaffold in order to improve the biocompatibility of the metallic implants. Porous Ti was produced by a Liquid foaming method and subsequent chemical treatments. It was found that the scaffold had three-dimensionally hierarchical porous structures with pore size ranging from nanometer to micrometer scale, and it also had activated surface. Mechanical test results showed that the scaffold also has sufficient compressive strength to meet the requirements of implantation. Protein adsorption results indicated that the novel scaffolds significantly enhanced the protein adsorption. PMID:21431352

Chen, Yuejun; Feng, Bo; Zhu, Yaping; Weng, Jie; Wang, Jianxin; Lu, Xiong

2011-03-23

30

Novel biodegradable porous scaffold applied to skin regeneration.  

PubMed

Skin wound healing is an important lifesaving issue for massive lesions. A novel porous scaffold with collagen, hyaluronic acid and gelatin was developed for skin wound repair. The swelling ratio of this developed scaffold was assayed by water absorption capacity and showed a value of over 20 g water/g dried scaffold. The scaffold was then degraded in time- and dose-dependent manners by three enzymes: lysozyme, hyaluronidase and collagenase I. The average pore diameter of the scaffold was 132.5±8.4 µm measured from SEM images. With human skin cells growing for 7 days, the SEM images showed surface fractures on the scaffold due to enzymatic digestion, indicating the biodegradable properties of this scaffold. To simulate skin distribution, the human epidermal keratinocytes, melanocytes and dermal fibroblasts were seeded on the porous scaffold and the cross-section immunofluorescent staining demonstrated normal human skin layer distributions. The collagen amount was also quantified after skin cells seeding and presented an amount 50% higher than those seeded on culture wells. The in vivo histological results showed that the scaffold ameliorated wound healing, including decreasing neutrophil infiltrates and thickening newly generated skin compared to the group without treatments. PMID:23762223

Wang, Hui-Min; Chou, Yi-Ting; Wen, Zhi-Hong; Wang, Zhao-Ren; Chen, Chun-Hong; Ho, Mei-Ling

2013-06-10

31

Porous shape memory alloy scaffolds for biomedical applications: a review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interest in using porous shape memory alloy (SMA) scaffolds as implant materials has been growing in recent years due to the combination of their unique mechanical and functional properties, i.e. shape memory effect and superelasticity, low elastic modulus combined with new bone tissue ingrowth ability and vascularization. These attractive properties are of great benefit to the healing process for implant applications. This paper reviews current state-of-the art on the processing, porous characteristics and mechanical properties of porous SMAs for biomedical applications, with special focus on the most widely used SMA nickel-titanium (NiTi), including (i) microstructural features, mechanical and functional properties of NiTi SMAs; (ii) main processing methods for the fabrication of porous NiTi SMAs and their mechanical properties and (iii) new-generation Ni-free, biocompatible porous SMA scaffolds.

Wen, C. E.; Xiong, J. Y.; Li, Y. C.; Hodgson, P. D.

2010-05-01

32

Tensile behavior of porous scaffolds made from poly(para phenylene) - biomed 2013.  

PubMed

The goal of this study was to fabricate and mechanically characterize a high-strength porous polymer scaffold for potential use as an orthopedic device. Poly(para-phenylene) (PPP) is an excellent candidate due to its exceptional strength and stiffness and relative inertness, but has never been explicitly investigated for use as a biomedical device. PPP has strength values 3 to 10 times higher and an elastic modulus nearly an order of magnitude higher than traditional polymers such as poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), polycaprolactone (PCL), ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE), and polyurethane (PU) and is significantly stronger and stiffer than polyetheretherketone (PEEK). By utilizing PPP we can overcome the mechanical limitations of traditional porous polymeric scaffolds since the outstanding stiffness of PPP allows for a highly porous structure appropriate for osteointegration that can match the stiffness of bone (100-250 MPa), while maintaining suitable mechanical properties for soft-tissue fixation. Porous samples were manufactured by powder sintering followed by particle leaching. The pore volume fraction was systematically varied from 50?80 vol% for a pore sizes from150-500 µm, as indicated by previous studies for optimal osteointegration. The tensile modulus of the porous samples was compared to the rule of mixtures, and closely matches foam theory up to 70 vol%. The experimental modulus for 70 vol% porous samples matches the stiffness of bone and contains pore sizes optimal for osteointegration. PMID:23686195

Dirienzo, Amy L; Yakacki, Christopher M; Safranski, David L; Frick, Carl P

2013-01-01

33

Design of a bioresorbable polymeric scaffold for osteoblast culture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bioresorbable polymeric scaffolds were designed for the purpose of growing rat osteosarcoma cells (ROS 17/2.8) using the compression molding method. The material used in the construction of the scaffolds was a mixture of polycaprolactone (PCL), Hydroxyapatite (HA), Glycerin (GL) and salt (NaCl) for porosity. The concentration of the several materials utilized, was determined by volume. Past research at the University of Massachusetts Lowell (UML) has successfully utilized the compression molding method for the construction of scaffolds, but was unable to accomplish the goal of long term cell survival and complete cellular proliferation throughout a three dimensional scaffold. This research investigated various concentrations of the materials and molding temperatures used for the manufacture of scaffolds in order to improve the scaffold design and address those issues. The design of the scaffold using the compression molding process is detailed in the Method and Materials section of this thesis. The porogen (salt) used for porosity was suspected as a possible source of contamination causing cell apoptosis in past studies. This research addressed the issues for cell survival and proliferation throughout a three dimensional scaffold. The leaching of the salt was one major design modification. This research successfully used ultrasonic leaching in addition to the passive method. Prior to cell culture, the scaffolds were irradiated to 2.75 Mrad, with cobalt-60 gamma radionuclide. The tissue culture consisted of two trials: (1) cell culture in scaffolds cleaned with passive leaching; (2) cell culture with scaffolds cleaned with ultrasonic leaching. Cell survival and proliferation was accomplished only with the addition of ultrasonic leaching of the scaffolds. Analysis of the scaffolds included Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Nikon light microscopy and x-ray mapping of the calcium, sodium and chloride ion distribution. The cells were analyzed by Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM) and Nikon light microscopy. The high magnification of ESEM up to 60,000 x revealed an unexpected discovery. The osteoblasts appeared to be remodeling the PCL scaffold shown in the last two figures of this research.

Ditaranto, Vincent M., Jr.

34

Controllable delivery of non-viral DNA from porous scaffolds.  

PubMed

The inductive approach to tissue engineering combines three-dimensional porous scaffolds with drug delivery to direct the action of progenitor cells into a functional tissue. We present an approach to fabricate scaffolds capable of controlled, sustained delivery by the assembly and subsequent fusion of drug-loaded microspheres using a gas foaming/particulate leaching process. DNA-loaded microspheres were fabricated from the copolymers of lactide and glycolide (PLG) using a cryogenic double emulsion process. Microspheres were fabricated in four populations with mean diameters ranging from 12.3 microm to 92.5 microm. Scaffolds fabricated by fusion of these microspheres had an interconnected open pore structure, maintained DNA integrity, and exhibited sustained release for 21 days. Control over the release was obtained through manipulating the properties of the polymer, microspheres, and the foaming process. Decreasing the microsphere diameter or the molecular weight of the polymer used for microsphere fabrication led to increased rates of release from the porous scaffold. Additionally, increasing the pressure of CO(2) increased the DNA release rate. The ability to create porous polymer scaffolds capable of controlled release rates may provide a means to enhance and regulate gene transfer within a developing tissue, which will increase their utility in tissue engineering. PMID:12490381

Jang, Jae-Hyung; Shea, Lonnie D

2003-01-01

35

Living Bacterial Sacrificial Porogens to Engineer Decellularized Porous Scaffolds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decellularization and cellularization of organs have emerged as disruptive methods in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Porous hydrogel scaffolds have widespread applications in tissue engineering, regenerative medicine and drug discovery as viable tissue mimics. However, the existing hydrogel fabrication techniques suffer from limited control over pore interconnectivity, density and size, which leads to inefficient nutrient and oxygen transport to cells

Feng Xu; Banupriya Sridharan; Naside Gozde Durmus; Shuqi Wang; Ahmet Sinan Yavuz; Umut Atakan Gurkan; Utkan Demirci; Che John Connon

2011-01-01

36

Living Bacterial Sacrificial Porogens to Engineer Decellularized Porous Scaffolds  

PubMed Central

Decellularization and cellularization of organs have emerged as disruptive methods in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Porous hydrogel scaffolds have widespread applications in tissue engineering, regenerative medicine and drug discovery as viable tissue mimics. However, the existing hydrogel fabrication techniques suffer from limited control over pore interconnectivity, density and size, which leads to inefficient nutrient and oxygen transport to cells embedded in the scaffolds. Here, we demonstrated an innovative approach to develop a new platform for tissue engineered constructs using live bacteria as sacrificial porogens. E.coli were patterned and cultured in an interconnected three-dimensional (3D) hydrogel network. The growing bacteria created interconnected micropores and microchannels. Then, the scafold was decellularized, and bacteria were eliminated from the scaffold through lysing and washing steps. This 3D porous network method combined with bioprinting has the potential to be broadly applicable and compatible with tissue specific applications allowing seeding of stem cells and other cell types.

Xu, Feng; Sridharan, BanuPriya; Durmus, Naside Gozde; Wang, ShuQi; Yavuz, Ahmet Sinan; Gurkan, Umut Atakan; Demirci, Utkan

2011-01-01

37

Synthesis of polymer/inorganic nanocomposite films using highly porous inorganic scaffolds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polymeric/inorganic nanocomposite films have been fabricated through a combination of flame-spray-pyrolysis (FSP) made inorganic scaffold and surface initiated polymerization of cyanoacrylate. The highly porous structure of pristine SnO2 films allows the uptake of cyanoacrylate and the polymerization is surface initiated by the water adsorbed onto the SnO2 surface. Scanning electron microscopy study reveals a nonlinear increase in the composite particle size and the film thickness with polymerization time. The structural change is rather homogeneous throughout the whole layer. The composite is formed mainly by an increase of the particle size and not by just filling the existing pores. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy imaging shows SnO2 nanoparticles embedded in the polymeric matrix, constituting the nanocomposite material. Thermogravimetric analysis indicates that the porosity of the nanocomposite films decreases from 98% to 75%, resulting in a significant enhancement of the hardness of the films. DC conductivity measurements conducted in situ on the nanocomposite layer suggest a gradual increase in the layer resistance, pointing to a loss of connectivity between the SnO2 primary particles as the polymerization proceeds.Polymeric/inorganic nanocomposite films have been fabricated through a combination of flame-spray-pyrolysis (FSP) made inorganic scaffold and surface initiated polymerization of cyanoacrylate. The highly porous structure of pristine SnO2 films allows the uptake of cyanoacrylate and the polymerization is surface initiated by the water adsorbed onto the SnO2 surface. Scanning electron microscopy study reveals a nonlinear increase in the composite particle size and the film thickness with polymerization time. The structural change is rather homogeneous throughout the whole layer. The composite is formed mainly by an increase of the particle size and not by just filling the existing pores. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy imaging shows SnO2 nanoparticles embedded in the polymeric matrix, constituting the nanocomposite material. Thermogravimetric analysis indicates that the porosity of the nanocomposite films decreases from 98% to 75%, resulting in a significant enhancement of the hardness of the films. DC conductivity measurements conducted in situ on the nanocomposite layer suggest a gradual increase in the layer resistance, pointing to a loss of connectivity between the SnO2 primary particles as the polymerization proceeds. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: SEM images and powder XRD patterns. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr12029a

Zhang, Huanjun; Popp, Matthias; Hartwig, Andreas; Mädler, Lutz

2012-03-01

38

Tissue engineering scaffold material of porous nanohydroxyapatite/polyamide 66.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to investigate a porous nanohydroxyapatite/polyamide 66 (n-HA/PA66) scaffold material that was implanted into muscle and tibiae of 16 New Zealand white rabbits to evaluate the biocompatibility and osteogenesis and osteoinductivity of the materials in vivo. The samples were harvested at 2, 4, 12 and 26 weeks respectively, and subjected to histological analysis. At 2 weeks, the experiment showed that osteogenesis was detected in porous n-HA/PA66 composite and the density of new bone formation was similar to the surrounding host bone at 12 weeks. The study indicated that three-dimensional pore structures could facilitate cell adhesion, differentiation and proliferation, and help with fibrovascular and nerve colonization. In conclusion, porous n-HA/PA66 scaffold material could be a good candidate as a bone substitute material used in clinics due to its excellent histocompatibility, osteoconductivity and osteoinductivity. PMID:20517477

Xu, Qian; Lu, Hongyan; Zhang, Jingchao; Lu, Guoyu; Deng, Zhennan; Mo, Anchun

2010-05-13

39

Tissue engineering scaffold material of porous nanohydroxyapatite/polyamide 66  

PubMed Central

The aim of the study was to investigate a porous nanohydroxyapatite/polyamide 66 (n-HA/PA66) scaffold material that was implanted into muscle and tibiae of 16 New Zealand white rabbits to evaluate the biocompatibility and osteogenesis and osteoinductivity of the materials in vivo. The samples were harvested at 2, 4, 12 and 26 weeks respectively, and subjected to histological analysis. At 2 weeks, the experiment showed that osteogenesis was detected in porous n-HA/PA66 composite and the density of new bone formation was similar to the surrounding host bone at 12 weeks. The study indicated that three-dimensional pore structures could facilitate cell adhesion, differentiation and proliferation, and help with fibrovascular and nerve colonization. In conclusion, porous n-HA/PA66 scaffold material could be a good candidate as a bone substitute material used in clinics due to its excellent histocompatibility, osteoconductivity and osteoinductivity.

Xu, Qian; Lu, Hongyan; Zhang, Jingchao; Lu, Guoyu; Deng, Zhennan; Mo, Anchun

2010-01-01

40

Porosity and mechanical properties relationship in PCL porous scaffolds.  

PubMed

Scaffold design plays a pivotal role in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine approaches for creating biological alternatives for implants. The crucial aspect in scaffold design consists of the development of highly porous scaffolds, with strict control of porosity features (porosity degree and pore sizes), continuing to provide an adequate mechanical response, mainly in compressive loading, both in vitro and in vivo conditions. A study was undertaken of three-dimensional (3D) porous scaffolds obtained from poly epsilon-caprolactone solution through the phase inversion/salt leaching technique. In particular, the influence of structural porosity features on mechanical response was investigated to establish the correlation between structural parameters and compressive response. Scaffold porosity features can be controlled by changing the amount and size of the porogen agent used. Mechanical response in compression is consistent with porosity features: elastic modulus calculated in the toe region range (0-0.1 of total strain) shows an increase from 0.24-1.85 MPa coherently, with a reduction in pore volume fraction from 84.9 to 45.7%. Such behavior can be predicted by using analytical models for the determination of the elastic modulus of cellular solids based on the morphological assumption of cubic cell structure (cubic open cell (COC) and cubic closed cells (CCC)). Compressive behavior prediction offered by the proposed models is in agreement with the experimental results in the case of higher pore volume fractions according to the theoretical results of other investigators. PMID:20799184

Guarino, V; Causa, F; Ambrosio, L

41

Porous titanium scaffolds fabricated using a rapid prototyping and powder metallurgy technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the main issues in orthopaedic implant design is the fabrication of scaffolds that closely mimic the biomechanical properties of the surrounding bone. This research reports on a multi-stage rapid prototyping technique that was successfully developed to produce porous titanium scaffolds with fully interconnected pore networks and reproducible porosity and pore size. The scaffolds' porous characteristics were governed by

Garrett E. Ryan; Abhay S. Pandit; Dimitrios P. Apatsidis

2008-01-01

42

Neuronal cell growth on polymeric scaffolds studied by CARS microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For studies of neuronal cell integration and neurite outgrowth in polymeric scaffold materials as a future alternative for the treatment of damages in the neuronal system, we have developed a protocol employing CARS microscopy for imaging of neuronal networks. The benefits of CARS microscopy come here to their best use; (i) the overall three-dimensional (3D) arrangement of multiple cells and their neurites can be visualized without the need for chemical preparations or physical sectioning, potentially affecting the architecture of the soft, fragile scaffolds and (ii) details on the interaction between single cells and scaffold fibrils can be investigated by close-up images at sub-micron resolution. The establishment of biologically more relevant 3D neuronal networks in a soft hydrogel composed of native Extra Cellular Matrix (ECM) components was compared with conventional two-dimensional networks grown on a stiff substrate. Images of cells in the hydrogel scaffold reveal significantly different networking characteristics compared to the 2D networks, raising the question whether the functionality of neurons grown as layers in conventional cultivation dishes represents that of neurons in the central and peripheral nervous systems.

Enejder, Annika; Fink, Helen; Kuhn, Hans-Georg

2012-02-01

43

Three-dimensional printing of porous ceramic scaffolds for bone tissue engineering.  

PubMed

This article reports a new process chain for custom-made three-dimensional (3D) porous ceramic scaffolds for bone replacement with fully interconnected channel network for the repair of osseous defects from trauma or disease. Rapid prototyping and especially 3D printing is well suited to generate complex-shaped porous ceramic matrices directly from powder materials. Anatomical information obtained from a patient can be used to design the implant for a target defect. In the 3D printing technique, a box filled with ceramic powder is printed with a polymer-based binder solution layer by layer. Powder is bonded in wetted regions. Unglued powder can be removed and a ceramic green body remains. We use a modified hydroxyapatite (HA) powder for the fabrication of 3D printed scaffolds due to the safety of HA as biocompatible implantable material and efficacy for bone regeneration. The printed ceramic green bodies are consolidated at a temperature of 1250 degrees C in a high temperature furnace in ambient air. The polymeric binder is pyrolysed during sintering. The resulting scaffolds can be used in tissue engineering of bone implants using patient-derived cells that are seeded onto the scaffolds. This article describes the process chain, beginning from data preparation to 3D printing tests and finally sintering of the scaffold. Prototypes were successfully manufactured and characterized. It was demonstrated that it is possible to manufacture parts with inner channels with a dimension down to 450 microm and wall structures with a thickness down to 330 microm. The mechanical strength of dense test parts is up to 22 MPa. PMID:15981173

Seitz, Hermann; Rieder, Wolfgang; Irsen, Stephan; Leukers, Barbara; Tille, Carsten

2005-08-01

44

Porous 3-D scaffolds from regenerated silk fibroin.  

PubMed

Three fabrication techniques, freeze-drying, salt leaching and gas foaming, were used to form porous three-dimensional silk biomaterial matrixes. Matrixes were characterized for morphological and functional properties related to processing method and conditions. The porosity of the salt leached scaffolds varied between 84 and 98% with a compressive strength up to 175 +/- 3 KPa, and the gas foamed scaffolds had porosities of 87-97% and compressive strength up to 280 +/- 4 KPa. The freeze-dried scaffolds were prepared at different freezing temperatures (-80 and -20 degrees C) and subsequently treated with different concentrations (15 and 25%) and hydrophilicity alcohols. The porosity of these scaffolds was up to 99%, and the maximum compressive strength was 30 +/- 2 KPa. Changes in silk fibroin structure during processing to form the 3D matrixes were determined by FT-IR and XrD. The salt leached and gas foaming techniques produced scaffolds with a useful combination of high compressive strength, interconnected pores, and pore sizes greater than 100 microns in diameter. The results suggest that silk-based 3D matrixes can be formed for utility in biomaterial applications. PMID:15132652

Nazarov, Rina; Jin, Hyoung-Joon; Kaplan, David L

45

Gas-in-liquid foam templating as a method for the production of highly porous scaffolds.  

PubMed

In the present work, a novel synthetic methodology for the preparation of scaffold of biopolymeric nature is described. In particular, a porous gelatin scaffold was prepared by foam templating. The gas phase, nitrogen, was generated by means of the reaction between sulfamic acid and sodium nitrite in situ a concentrated solution of gelatin and in the presence of a suitable polymeric surfactant in association with sodium dodecyl sulfate. The foam was prepared at a temperature of 45 degrees C and then let gel at 5 degrees C. After purification, the physical gel was auto-cross-linked with EDC and freeze-dried. The scaffold synthesized with this technique presents a morphology characterized by voids of spherical symmetry highly interconnected by a plurality of interconnects, and, as a consequence, is particularly suited for cell culturing. In more quantitative terms, voids and interconnects are characterized by an average diameter of 230 and 90 microm, respectively. Preliminary tests of cell culturing demonstrated the suitability of such a scaffold for tissue engineering applications. PMID:19891500

Barbetta, Andrea; Gumiero, Andrea; Pecci, Raffaella; Bedini, Rossella; Dentini, Mariella

2009-12-14

46

3D interconnected porous biomimetic scaffolds: In vitro cell response.  

PubMed

Bone cell response to 3D bioinspired scaffolds was tested on osteoblast culture supernatants and by means of quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Foaming and freeze-drying method was optimized in order to obtain three-dimensional interconnected porous scaffolds of gelatin at different contents of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite (HA). Addition of a non toxic crosslinking agent during foaming stabilized the scaffolds, as confirmed by the slow and relatively low gelatin release in phosphate buffer up to 28 days. Micro-computed tomography reconstructed images showed porous interconnected structures, with interconnected pores displaying average diameter ranging from about 158 to about 71 ?m as the inorganic phase content increases from 0 to 50 wt %. The high values of connectivity (>99%), porosity (> 60%), and percentage of pores with a size in the range 100-300 ?m (>50%) were maintained up to 30 wt % HA, whereas higher content provoked a reduction of these parameters, as well as of the average pore size, and a significant increase of the compressive modulus and collapse strength up to 8 ± 1 and 0.9 ± 0.2 MPa, respectively. Osteoblast cultured on the scaffolds showed good adhesion, proliferation and differentiation. The presence of HA promoted ALP activity, TGF-?1, and osteocalcin production, in agreement with the observed upregulation of ALP, OC, Runx2, and TGF-?1 gene in qPCR analysis, indicating that the composite scaffolds enhanced osteoblast activation and extra-cellular matrix mineralization processes. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 101A: 3560-3570, 2013. PMID:23629945

Panzavolta, Silvia; Torricelli, Paola; Amadori, Sofia; Parrilli, Annapaola; Rubini, Katia; Della Bella, Elena; Fini, Milena; Bigi, Adriana

2013-04-30

47

Novel polymeric nanocomposites and porous materials prepared using organogels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a new method for preparing polymeric nanocomposites and porous materials using self-assembled templates formed by 1,3:2,4-dibenzylidene sorbitol (DBS) organogels. DBS is capable of self-assembling into a 3D nanofibrillar network at relatively low concentrations in some organic solvents to produce organogels. In this study, we induced the formation of such physical cross-linked networks in styrene. Subsequently, we polymerized the styrene in the presence of chemical cross-linkers, divinyl benzene (DVB), with different amounts of DBS using thermal-initiated polymerization. The resulting materials were transparent, homogeneous polystyrene (PS) nanocomposites with both physical and chemical cross-links. The porous polymeric materials were obtained by solvent extraction of the DBS nanofibrils from the PS. Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) measurements show that the amounts of DBS and DVB influenced the specific surface area after the removal of the DBS fibrils.

Lai, Wei-Chi; Tseng, Shen-Chen

2009-11-01

48

Novel polymeric nanocomposites and porous materials prepared using organogels  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a new method for preparing polymeric nanocomposites and porous materials using self-assembled templates formed by 1,3:2,4-dibenzylidene sorbitol (DBS) organogels. DBS is capable of self-assembling into a 3D nanofibrillar network at relatively low concentrations in some organic solvents to produce organogels. In this study, we induced the formation of such physical cross-linked networks in styrene. Subsequently, we polymerized the

Wei-Chi Lai; Shen-Chen Tseng

2009-01-01

49

Fabrication and Dynamic Mechanical Analysis of Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticle\\/Gelatin Porous Scaffolds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of engineered biomaterial scaffolds for hard tissue repair critically depends on the scaffold's internal architecture at various length scales. The pore size, shape, surface morphology, and pore connectivity are among the most important factors that affect the scaffold's mechanical properties and biointegration. Reported in this thesis are the results of the investigation of porous constructs fabricated by a

Hicham Ghossein

2010-01-01

50

Fabrication of 3-D Porous Mg\\/Zn doped Tricalcium Phosphate Bone-Scaffolds via the Fused Deposition Modelling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three dimensionally interconnected porous resorbable beta-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) ceramic scaffolds were developed using the indirect fused deposition modelling process. ?-TCP was doped with Mg and Zn, separately, to improve its sintering kinetics and facilitate fabrication of viable porous scaffolds. Effects of Mg and Zn on sintering kinetics and densification of ?-TCP were studied. Fabricated porous scaffolds were tested for their

Samar Jyoti Kalita; Melissa Ferguson

51

Fabrication and biological characteristics of ?-tricalcium phosphate porous ceramic scaffolds reinforced with calcium phosphate glass  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fabrication process, compressive strength and biocompatibility of porous ?-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) ceramic scaffolds\\u000a reinforced with 45P2O5–22CaO–25Na2O–8MgO bioglass (?-TCP\\/BG) were investigated for their suitability as bone engineering materials. Porous ?-TCP\\/BG scaffolds\\u000a with macropore sizes of 200–500 ?m were prepared by coating porous polyurethane template with ?-TCP\\/BG slurry. The ?-TCP\\/BG\\u000a scaffolds showed interconnected porous structures and exhibited enhanced mechanical properties to those

S. Cai; G. H. Xu; X. Z. Yu; W. J. Zhang; Z. Y. Xiao; K. D. Yao

2009-01-01

52

Preparation of Interconnected Porous Chitosan Scaffolds by Sodium Acetate Particulate Leaching  

Microsoft Academic Search

For tissue-engineering applications, a 3D porous chitosan scaffold was simply prepared from a mixture of acidic chitosan solution and sodium acetate particles as the porogen by a salt-leaching method. Differences in the porous structure in terms of pore morphology and interconnectivity between the salt-leached chitosan scaffold and phase-separated scaffold as the control were examined by using scanning electron microscopy, protein

Jin Ik Lim; Yong-Keun Lee; Jeon-Soo Shin; Kook-Jin Lim

2011-01-01

53

A study on improving mechanical properties of porous HA tissue engineering scaffolds by hot isostatic pressing.  

PubMed

Various interconnected porous hydroxyapatite (HA) ceramic scaffolds are universally used to induct the tissue growth for bone repair and replacement, and serve to support the adhesion, transfer, proliferation and differentiation of cells. Impregnation of polyurethane sponges with a ceramic slurry is adopted to produce highly porous HA ceramic scaffolds with a 3D interconnected structure. However, high porosity always accompanies a decrease in the strength of the HA ceramic scaffolds. Therefore, it is significant to improve the strength of the HA ceramic scaffolds with highly interconnected porosity so that they are more suitable in clinical applications. In this work, highly porous HA ceramic scaffolds are first produced by the polymer impregnation approach, and subsequently further sintered by hot isostatic pressing (HIP). The phase composition, macro- and micro-porous structure, sintering and mechanical properties of the porous HA scaffolds are investigated by x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), nanoindentation analysis and compressive test. The experimental results show that the nanohardness and compressive strength of HIP-sintered porous HA ceramics are higher than those of commonly sintered HA scaffolds. The HIP technique can effectively improve the sintering property and densification of porous HA ceramic scaffolds, so inducing an increase in the compression strength. PMID:18458404

Zhao, Jing; Xiao, Suguang; Lu, Xiong; Wang, Jianxin; Weng, Jie

2006-09-13

54

Porous polymeric materials for hydrogen storage  

DOEpatents

A porous polymer, poly-9,9'-spirobifluorene and its derivatives for storage of H.sub.2 are prepared through a chemical synthesis method. The porous polymers have high specific surface area and narrow pore size distribution. Hydrogen uptake measurements conducted for these polymers determined a higher hydrogen storage capacity at the ambient temperature over that of the benchmark materials. The method of preparing such polymers, includes oxidatively activating solids by CO.sub.2/steam oxidation and supercritical water treatment.

Yu, Luping; Liu, Di-Jia; Yuan, Shengwen; Yang, Junbing

2013-04-02

55

Porous polymeric materials for hydrogen storage  

DOEpatents

Porous polymers, tribenzohexazatriphenylene, poly-9,9'-spirobifluorene, poly-tetraphenyl methane and their derivatives for storage of H.sub.2 prepared through a chemical synthesis method. The porous polymers have high specific surface area and narrow pore size distribution. Hydrogen uptake measurements conducted for these polymers determined a higher hydrogen storage capacity at the ambient temperature over that of the benchmark materials. The method of preparing such polymers, includes oxidatively activating solids by CO.sub.2/steam oxidation and supercritical water treatment.

Yu, Luping (Hoffman Estates, IL); Liu, Di-Jia (Naperville, IL); Yuan, Shengwen (Chicago, IL); Yang, Junbing (Westmont, IL)

2011-12-13

56

Porous polymeric materials for hydrogen storage  

SciTech Connect

Porous polymers, tribenzohexazatriphenylene, poly-9,9'-spirobifluorene, poly-tetraphenyl methane and their derivatives for storage of H.sub.2 prepared through a chemical synthesis method. The porous polymers have high specific surface area and narrow pore size distribution. Hydrogen uptake measurements conducted for these polymers determined a higher hydrogen storage capacity at the ambient temperature over that of the benchmark materials. The method of preparing such polymers, includes oxidatively activating solids by CO.sub.2/steam oxidation and supercritical water treatment.

Yu, Luping (Hoffman Estates, IL); Liu, Di-Jia (Naperville, IL); Yuan, Shengwen (Chicago, IL); Yang, Junbing (Westmont, IL)

2011-12-13

57

Polycaprolactone coated porous tricalcium phosphate scaffolds for controlled release of protein for tissue engineering  

PubMed Central

Polycaprolactone (PCL) was coated on porous tricalcium phosphate (TCP) scaffolds to achieve controlled protein delivery. Porous TCP scaffolds were fabricated using reticulated polyurethane foam as sacrificial scaffold with a porosity of 70–90 vol %. PCL was coated on sintered porous TCP scaffolds by dipping-drying process. The compressive strength of TCP scaffolds increased significantly after PCL coating. The highest strength of 2.41 MPa at a porosity of 70% was obtained for the TCP scaffold coated with 5% PCL solution. Model protein bovine serum albumin (BSA) was encapsulated efficiently within the PCL coating. The amount of BSA encapsulation was controlled by varying proteins’ composition in the PCL coating. The FTIR analysis confirmed that BSA retained its structural conformation and did not show significant denaturization during PCL coating. The release kinetics in phosphate buffer solution indicated that the protein release was controlled and sustained, and primarily dependant on protein concentration encapsulated in the PCL coating.

Xue, Weichang; Bandyopadhyay, Amit; Bose, Susmita

2010-01-01

58

Indirect solid free form fabrication of local and global porous, biomimetic and composite 3D polymer-ceramic scaffolds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Precise control over scaffold material, porosity, and internal pore architecture is essential for tissue engineering. By coupling solid free form (SFF) manufacturing with conventional sponge scaffold fabrication procedures, we have developed methods for casting scaffolds that contain designed and controlled locally porous and globally porous internal architectures. These methods are compatible with numerous bioresorbable and non-resorbable polymers, ceramics, and biologic

J. M Taboas; R. D Maddox; P. H Krebsbach; S. J Hollister

2003-01-01

59

New type of biodegradable porous scaffolds for tissue-engineered articular cartilage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three-dimensional biodegradable porous scaffolds play an important role in tissue engineering. We created double-layered porous scaffolds composed of synthetic biodegradable polymers by combining freeze-drying and porogen leaching techniques to create tissue-engineered articular cartilage. The pore structures had two layers, a leaching side (upper) and a freeze-drying side (lower). The latter had columnar pores to simulate a radial zone, while the

Makoto Kawanishi; Takashi Ushida; Tadashi Kaneko; Hideo Niwa; Toru Fukubayashi; Kozo Nakamura; Hiromi Oda; Sakae Tanaka; Tetsuya Tateishi

2004-01-01

60

Fabrication and Characterization of Waterborne Biodegradable Polyurethanes 3Dimensional Porous Scaffolds for Vascular Tissue Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, a series of 3-D interconnected porous scaffolds with various pore diameters and porosities was fabricated by freeze-drying with non-toxic biodegradable waterborne polyurethane (WBPU) emulsions of different concentration. The structures of these porous scaffolds were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the pore diameters were calculated using CIAS 3.0 software. The pores obtained were 3-D interconnected in

Xia Jiang; Feilong Yu; Zhigao Wang; Jiehua Li; Hong Tan; Mingming Ding; Qiang Fu

2010-01-01

61

Solvent-assisted room-temperature compression molding approach to fabricate porous scaffolds for tissue engineering.  

PubMed

This study investigated the room-temperature compression molding/particle leaching approach to fabricate three-dimensional porous scaffolds for tissue engineering. Scaffolds with anatomical shapes (ear, joint, tube, cylinder) were made from biodegradable poly(D,L-lactide) and poly[(D,L-lactide)-co-glycolide]. The utility of this room-temperature compression approach comes from the effect of solvent assistance, but the tendency for post-molding scaffold shrinkage is a problem unique to this method and is thus examined with emphasis in this paper. Scaffold shrinkage was found to be tolerable under normal fabrication conditions with high salt contents, which is just what the preparation of highly porous scaffolds requires. Furthermore, the resultant porosities after salt leaching were measured as well as the initial scaffold shrinkages after solvent evaporation, and the relation between them was revealed by theoretical analysis and confirmed by comparison with experimental measurements. The pores were interconnected, and porosity can exceed 90%. The effects of porosity on the mechanical properties of porous scaffolds were also investigated. This convenient fabrication approach is a prospective method for the tailoring of porous scaffolds for a variety of possible applications in tissue engineering and tissue reconstruction. PMID:16967479

Jing, Dianying; Wu, Linbo; Ding, Jiandong

2006-09-15

62

Biphasic calcium phosphate nanocomposite porous scaffolds for load-bearing bone tissue engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel biodegradable nanocomposite porous scaffold comprising a ?-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) matrix and hydroxyl apatite (HA) nanofibers was developed and studied for load-bearing bone tissue engineering. HA nanofibers were prepared with a biomimetic precipitation method. The composite scaffolds were fabricated by a method combining the gel casting and polymer sponge techniques. The role of HA nanofibers in enhancing the mechanical

Hassna R. R Ramay; M Zhang

2004-01-01

63

In vivo biocompatibility and vascularization of biodegradable porous polyurethane scaffolds for tissue engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scaffolds for tissue engineering should be biocompatible and stimulate rapid blood vessel ingrowth. Herein, we analyzed in vivo the biocompatibility and vascularization of three novel types of biodegradable porous polyurethane scaffolds. The polyurethane scaffolds, i.e., PU-S, PU-M and PU-F, were implanted into dorsal skinfold chambers of BALB\\/c mice. Using intravital fluorescence microscopy we analyzed vascularization of the implants and venular

M. W. Laschke; A. Strohe; C. Scheuer; D. Eglin; S. Verrier; M. Alini; T. Pohlemann; M. D. Menger

2009-01-01

64

Preparation and characterization of nano-hydroxyapatite\\/silk fibroin porous scaffolds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Novel tissue engineering scaffold materials of nano-hydroxyapatite (nHA)\\/silk fibroin (SF) biocomposite were prepared by freeze-drying. The needle-like nHA crystals of about 10 nm in diameter by 50–80 nm in length, which were uniformly distributed in the porous nHA\\/SF scaffolds, were prepared by a co-precipitation method with a size. The as-prepared nHA\\/SF scaffolds showed good homogeneity, interconnected pores and high porosity.

Lin Liu; Jinying Liu; Mingqi Wang; Sijia Min; Yurong Cai; Liangjun Zhu; Juming Yao

2008-01-01

65

Mechanical properties of highly porous PDLLA\\/Bioglass ® composite foams as scaffolds for bone tissue engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study developed highly porous degradable composites as potential scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. These scaffolds consisted of poly-d,l-lactic acid filled with 2 and 15vol.% of 45S5 Bioglass® particles and were produced via thermally induced solid–liquid phase separation and subsequent solvent sublimation. The scaffolds had a bimodal and anisotropic pore structure, with tubular macro-pores of ?100?m in diameter, and with

J. J. Blaker; V. Maquet; R. Jérôme; A. R. Boccaccini; S. N. Nazhat

2005-01-01

66

Porous titanium scaffolds fabricated using a rapid prototyping and powder metallurgy technique.  

PubMed

One of the main issues in orthopaedic implant design is the fabrication of scaffolds that closely mimic the biomechanical properties of the surrounding bone. This research reports on a multi-stage rapid prototyping technique that was successfully developed to produce porous titanium scaffolds with fully interconnected pore networks and reproducible porosity and pore size. The scaffolds' porous characteristics were governed by a sacrificial wax template, fabricated using a commercial 3D-printer. Powder metallurgy processes were employed to generate the titanium scaffolds by filling around the wax template with titanium slurry. In the attempt to optimise the powder metallurgy technique, variations in slurry concentration, compaction pressure and sintering temperature were investigated. By altering the wax design template, pore sizes ranging from 200 to 400 microm were achieved. Scaffolds with porosities of 66.8 +/- 3.6% revealed compression strengths of 104.4+/-22.5 MPa in the axial direction and 23.5 +/- 9.6 MPa in the transverse direction demonstrating their anisotropic nature. Scaffold topography was characterised using scanning electron microscopy and microcomputed tomography. Three-dimensional reconstruction enabled the main architectural parameters such as pore size, interconnecting porosity, level of anisotropy and level of structural disorder to be determined. The titanium scaffolds were compared to their intended designs, as governed by their sacrificial wax templates. Although discrepancies in architectural parameters existed between the intended and the actual scaffolds, overall the results indicate that the porous titanium scaffolds have the properties to be potentially employed in orthopaedic applications. PMID:18556060

Ryan, Garrett E; Pandit, Abhay S; Apatsidis, Dimitrios P

2008-06-16

67

Kinetics and isotherm of fibronectin adsorption to three-dimensional porous chitosan scaffolds explored by 125I-radiolabelling  

PubMed Central

In this study, 125I-radiolabelling was explored to follow the kinetics and isotherm of fibronectin (FN) adsorption to porous polymeric scaffolds, as well as to assess the elution and exchangeability of pre-adsorbed FN following incubation in serum-containing culture medium. Chitosan (CH) porous scaffolds with two different degrees of acetylation (DA 4% and 15%) were incubated in FN solutions with concentrations ranging from 5 to 50 µg/mL. The kinetic and isotherm of FN adsorption to CH were successfully followed using 125I-FN as a tracer molecule. While on DA 4% the levels of adsorbed FN increased linearly with FN solution concentration, on DA 15% a saturation plateau was attained, and FN adsorbed amounts were significantly lower. These findings were supported by immunofluorescent studies that revealed, for the same FN solution concentration, higher levels of exposed cell-binding domains on DA 4% as compared with DA 15%. Following incubation in serum containing medium, DA 4% also revealed higher ability to exchange pre-adsorbed FN by new FN molecules from serum than DA 15%. In accordance, when assessing the efficacy of passively adsorbed FN to promote endothelial cell (EC) adhesion to CH, ECs were found to adhere at higher levels to DA 4% as compared with DA 15%, 5 µg/mL of FN being already efficient in promoting cell adhesion and cytoskeletal organization on CH with DA 4%. Taken together the results show that protein radiolabelling can be used as an effective tool to study protein adsorption to porous polymeric scaffolds, both from single and complex protein solutions.

Amaral, Isabel F.; Sousa, Susana R.; Neiva, Ismael; Marcos-Silva, Lara; Kirkpatrick, Charles J.; Barbosa, Mario A.; Pego, Ana P.

2013-01-01

68

Immobilization of Yeast Cells with Various Porous Carriers by Radiation-Induced Polymerization.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Yeast cells were immobilized by radiation-induced polymerization in twice. Various kinds of porous polymer carriers were prepared by radiation-induced polymerization of glass-forming monomers at a low temperature. Precultured yeast cells were incubated ae...

T. Fujimura I. Kaetsu

1982-01-01

69

Porous chitosan-hyaluronic acid scaffolds as a mimic of glioblastoma microenvironment ECM.  

PubMed

Cancer therapeutics are developed through extensive screening; however, many therapeutics evaluated with 2D in vitro cultures during pre-clinical trials suffer from lower efficacy in patients. Replicating the in vivo tumor microenvironment in vitro with three-dimensional (3D) porous scaffolds offers the possibility of generating more predictive pre-clinical models to enhance cancer treatment efficacy. We developed a chitosan and hyaluronic acid (HA) polyelectrolyte complex 3D porous scaffold and evaluated its physical properties. Chitosan-HA (C-HA) scaffolds had a highly porous network. C-HA scaffolds were compared to 2D surfaces for in vitro culture of U-118 MG human glioblastoma (GBM) cells. C-HA scaffold cultures promoted tumor spheroid formation and increased stem-like properties of GBM cells as evidenced by the upregulation of CD44, Nestin, Musashi-1, GFAP, and HIF-1? as compared with 2D cultures. Additionally, the invasiveness of GBM cells cultured in C-HA scaffolds was significantly enhanced compared to those grown in 2D cultures. C-HA scaffold cultures were also more resistant to chemotherapy drugs, which corresponded to the increased expression of ABCG2 drug efflux transporter. These findings suggest that C-HA scaffolds offer promise as an in vitro GBM platform for study and screening of novel cancer therapeutics. PMID:24075410

Florczyk, Stephen J; Wang, Kui; Jana, Soumen; Wood, David L; Sytsma, Samara K; Sham, Jonathan G; Kievit, Forrest M; Zhang, Miqin

2013-09-26

70

Effect of porous structure on mechanical properties of C\\/PLA\\/nano-HA composites scaffold  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nonporous and porous C\\/PLA\\/nano-HA composites were fabricated by the process of solvent blending and freeze-drying technique, and the effect of porous structure on the mechanical properties of C\\/PLA\\/nano-HA composites scaffold was investigated and analyzed. The results show that the effects of porous structure on the bending strength, modulus and curves of stress and strain were obvious. Compared with nonporous sample,

Xiao-ling LIAO; Wen-feng XU; Yuan-liang WANG; Bi JIA; Guan-yu ZHOU

2009-01-01

71

Relationship between osseointegration and superelastic biomechanics in porous NiTi scaffolds.  

PubMed

The superelastic nature of bones requires matching biomechanical properties from the ideal artificial biomedical implants in order to provide smooth load transfer and foster the growth of new bone tissues. In this work, we determine the biomechanical characteristics of porous NiTi implants and investigate bone ingrowth under actual load-bearing conditions in vivo. In this systematic and comparative study, porous NiTi, porous Ti, dense NiTi, and dense Ti are implanted into 5 mm diameter holes in the distal part of the femur/tibia of rabbits for 15 weeks. The bone ingrowth and interfacial bonding strength are evaluated by histological analysis and push-out test. The porous NiTi materials bond very well to newly formed bone tissues and the highest average strength of 357 N and best ductility are achieved from the porous NiTi materials. The bonding curve obtained from the NiTi scaffold shows similar superelasticity as natural bones with a deflection of 0.30-0.85 mm thus shielding new bone tissues from large load stress. This is believed to be the reason why new bone tissues can penetrate deeply into the porous NiTi scaffold compared to the one made of porous Ti. Histological analysis reveals that new bone tissues adhere and grow well on the external surfaces as well as exposed areas on the inner pores of the NiTi scaffold. The in vitro study indicates that the surface chemical composition and topography of the porous structure leads to good cytocompatibility. Consequently, osteoblasts proliferate smoothly on the entire implant including the flat surface, embossed region, exposed area of the pores, and interconnected channels. In conjunction with the good cytocompatibility, the superelastic biomechanical properties of the porous NiTi scaffold bodes well for fast formation and ingrowth of new bones, and porous NiTi scaffolds are thus suitable for clinical applications under load-bearing conditions. PMID:20869110

Liu, Xiangmei; Wu, Shuilin; Yeung, Kelvin W K; Chan, Y L; Hu, Tao; Xu, Zushun; Liu, Xuanyong; Chung, Jonathan C Y; Cheung, Kenneth M C; Chu, Paul K

2011-01-01

72

Biodegradable HA-PLA 3-D porous scaffolds: effect of nano-sized filler content on scaffold properties.  

PubMed

Scaffolds comprising poly(lactic acid) and nano-hydroxyapatite (HA) were prepared using the solvent-casting/salt-leaching technique. NaCl was used as the leaching agent. Nano-sized HA was synthesized by a hydrothermal method at 170 degrees C and autogenous pressure. High-resolution TEM imaging revealed that the HA particles were ellipsoidal-shaped with needle-like morphologies. The particles had an average size of approximately 25 nm in width and 150 nm in length with aspect ratios ranging from 6 to 8. As the HA content increased in the scaffold from 0 to 50 wt%, the compression modulus of the scaffolds increased from 4.72+/-1.2 to 9.87+/-1.8 MPa, while the yield strength from 0.29+/-0.03 to 0.44+/-0.01 MPa. Such polymeric scaffolds should be suitable materials for non-load sharing tissue-engineering applications. PMID:16701846

Kothapalli, Chandrasekhar R; Shaw, Montgomery T; Wei, Mei

2005-07-22

73

Enhanced visualization of biodegradable polymeric vascular scaffolds by incorporation of gold, silver and magnetite nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Due to improved tissue regeneration and the enabling of post-operative minimally invasive interventions in the same vessel segment, biodegradable polymeric scaffolds represent a competitive approach to permanent metallic stents in vascular applications. Despite these advantages some challenges, such as the improvement of the scaffold mechanics and enhancement of scaffold visibility during the implantation procedure, are persisting. Therefore, the scope of our studies was to investigate the potential of gold, silver and magnetite nanoparticles incorporated in a polymeric blend of poly(L-lactide)/poly(4-hydroxybutyrate) for image enhancement in X-ray, magnetic resonance or near-infrared imaging. Their impact on mechanical properties of such modified scaffold materials was also evaluated. PMID:22492201

Luderer, Frank; Begerow, Ivonne; Schmidt, Wolfram; Martin, Heiner; Grabow, Niels; Bünger, Carsten M; Schareck, Wolfgang; Schmitz, Klaus-Peter; Sternberg, Katrin

2012-04-05

74

A finite element prediction of strain on cells in a highly porous collagen-glycosaminoglycan scaffold.  

PubMed

Tissue engineering often involves seeding cells into porous scaffolds and subjecting the scaffold to mechanical stimulation. Current experimental techniques have provided a plethora of data regarding cell responses within scaffolds, but the quantitative understanding of the load transfer process within a cell-seeded scaffold is still relatively unknown. The objective of this work was to develop a finite element representation of the transient and heterogeneous nature of a cell-seeded collagen-GAG-scaffold. By undertaking experimental investigation, characteristics such as scaffold architecture and shrinkage, cellular attachment patterns, and cellular dimensions were used to create a finite element model of a cell-seeded porous scaffold. The results demonstrate that a very wide range of microscopic strains act at the cellular level when a sample value of macroscopic (apparent) strain is applied to the collagen-GAG-scaffold. An external uniaxial strain of 10% generated a cellular strain as high as 49%, although the majority experienced less than approximately 5% strain. The finding that the strain on some cells could be higher than the macroscopic strain was unexpected and proves contrary to previous in vitro investigations. These findings indicate a complex system of biophysical stimuli created within the scaffolds and the difficulty of inducing the desired cellular responses from artificial environments. Future in vitro studies could also corroborate the results from this computational prediction to further explore mechanoregulatory mechanisms in tissue engineering. PMID:19045530

Stops, A J F; McMahon, L A; O'Mahoney, D; Prendergast, P J; McHugh, P E

2008-12-01

75

Fabrication of quantum dot-conjugated collagen/hyaluronic acid porous scaffold.  

PubMed

A quantum dot (QD)-conjugated collagen-hyaluronic acid (HA) porous scaffold was combined with our previously reported animal model of mice inferior epigastric flaps and QD infusion to study scaffold angiogenesis. A CdSe/ZnS QD-labeled collagen/HA scaffold was fabricated and examined with a confocal microscope. The degradation rate of the scaffold was inversely related to 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide concentration used in cross-linking. There was no cytotoxicity of the QDs as determined by MTT colorimetric assay. Results of the animal implantation study revealed no difference in acute tissue inflammation between scaffolds with or without QD labeling. To study scaffold angiogenesis, we infused the implanted QD-conjugated collagen/HA scaffold with QD of different fluorescence, which can be simultaneously identified by confocal microscope. By these evaluations, we conclude that QD-conjugated collagen/HA porous scaffold is not different from that without conjugation and can be used in our animal model of scaffold angiogenesis without compromising results. PMID:23154339

Cheng, Hsiu-Ting; Chuang, Er-Yuan; Ma, Hsu; Tsai, Chi-Han; Perng, Cherng-Kang

2012-12-01

76

Rapid prototyped porous titanium coated with calcium phosphate as a scaffold for bone tissue engineering.  

PubMed

High strength porous scaffolds and mesenchymal stem cells are required for bone tissue engineering applications. Porous titanium scaffolds (TiS) with a regular array of interconnected pores of 1000 microm in diameter and a porosity of 50% were produced using a rapid prototyping technique. A calcium phosphate (CaP) coating was applied to these titanium (Ti) scaffolds with an electrodeposition method. Raman spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis showed that the coating consisted of carbonated hydroxyapatite. Cross-sectioned observations by scanning electron microscopy indicated that the coating evenly covered the entire structure with a thickness of approximately 25 microm. The bonding strength of the coating to the substrate was evaluated to be around 25 MPa. Rat bone marrow cells (RBMC) were seeded and cultured on the Ti scaffolds with or without coating. The Alamar Blue assay provided a low initial cell attachment (40%) and cell numbers were similar on both the uncoated and coated Ti scaffolds after 3 days. The Ti scaffolds were subsequently implanted subcutaneously for 4 weeks in syngenic rats. Histology revealed the presence of a mineralized collagen tissue in contact with the implants, but no bone formation. This study demonstrated that porous Ti scaffolds with high strength and defined geometry may be evenly coated with CaP layers and cultured mesenchymal stem cells for bone tissue engineering. PMID:18358527

Lopez-Heredia, Marco A; Sohier, Jerome; Gaillard, Cedric; Quillard, Sophie; Dorget, Michel; Layrolle, Pierre

2008-03-20

77

Fabrication of porous polyvinyl alcohol scaffold for bone tissue engineering via selective laser sintering.  

PubMed

A tetragonal polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) scaffold with 3D orthogonal periodic porous architecture was fabricated via selective laser sintering (SLS) technology. The scaffold was fabricated under the laser power of 8 W, scan speed of 600 mm min(-1), laser spot diameter of 0.8 mm and layer thickness of 0.15 mm. The microstructure analysis showed that the degree of crystallization decreased while the PVA powder melts gradually and fuses together completely with laser power increasing. Thermal decomposition would occur if the laser power was further higher (16 W or higher in the case). The porous architecture was controllable and totally interconnected. The porosity of the fabricated scaffolds was measured to be 67.9 ± 2.7% which satisfies the requirement of micro-pores of the bone scaffolds. Its bioactivity and biocompatibility were also evaluated in vitro as tissue engineering (TE) scaffolds. In vitro adhesion assay showed that the amount of pores increased while the scaffold remains stable and intact after immersion in simulated body fluid for seven days. Moreover, the number of MG-63 cells and the bridge between cells increased with increasing time in cell culture. The present work demonstrates that PVA scaffolds with well-defined porous architectures via SLS technology were designed and fabricated for bone TE. PMID:23385303

Shuai, Cijun; Mao, Zhongzheng; Lu, Haibo; Nie, Yi; Hu, Huanlong; Peng, Shuping

2013-02-06

78

In vitro bioactivity and degradability of ?-tricalcium phosphate porous scaffold fabricated via selective laser sintering.  

PubMed

Porous scaffolds consisting of ?-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) were successfully fabricated via selective laser sintering. The scaffolds had a controlled microstructure and totally interconnected porous structure. The microstructure and mechanical properties were studied. The bioactivity and degradability of scaffolds were evaluated through the simulated body fluid (SBF) cultivation experiment. The formation of a biologically active carbonate apatite layer on the surface after immersion in SBF was demonstrated using scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive X-ray, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Fast nucleation and growth of the carbonate apatite crystals were observed to occur all through the specimen surfaces. The phenomenon was explained in terms of the distribution and dispersion of inorganic phases in the scaffolds and the ionic activity products of the apatite in the SBF. The calculation results of weight loss and Ca/P molar ratio also suggest the good bioactivity and degradability of the scaffolds. These indicate that the ?-TCP porous ceramic scaffold is a potential candidate scaffold for bone tissue engineering. PMID:23600577

Shuai, Cijun; Zhuang, Jingyu; Hu, Huanlong; Peng, Shuping; Liu, Defu; Liu, Jinglin

79

Fabrication and characterization of chitosan\\/gelatin porous scaffolds with predefined internal microstructures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fabrication process for a novel three-dimensional (3D) chitosan\\/gelatin scaffold with predefined multilevel internal architectures and highly porous structures is presented combining solid freeform fabrication (SFF), microreplication and lyophilization techniques. The computer model of the scaffold is designed with biological data such as branching angle in liver vascular cast incorporated. Stereolithography (SL), known as a SFF technique, is utilized to

He Jiankang; Li Dichen; Liu Yaxiong; Yao Bo; Lu Bingheng; Lian Qin

2007-01-01

80

Studies on the porous scaffold made of the nano-HA\\/PA66 composite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Porous scaffolds made of n-HA\\/PA66 composite were fabricated through porogen-leaching technique. The structure, phase and morphology of the scaffolds were investigated by using IR, XRD and SEM, and the physical properties were also studied. The results indicated that the two phases in the composite dispersed uniformly and chemical bonding existed between the two phases. The porosity was proportional to the

Zhang Li; Li Yubao; Wang Xuejiang; Wei Jie; Peng Xuelin

2005-01-01

81

Two-photon polymerization-generated and micromolding-replicated 3D scaffolds for peripheral neural tissue engineering applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we explore the production of well-defined macroscopic scaffolds with two-photon polymerization (2PP) and their use as neural tissue engineering scaffolds. We also demonstrate that these 3D scaffolds can be replicated via soft lithography, which increases production efficiency. Photopolymerizable polylactic acid (PLA) was used to produce scaffolds by 2PP and soft lithography. We assessed the biocompatibility of these

A Koroleva; A A Gill; I Ortega; J W Haycock; S Schlie; S D Gittard; B N Chichkov; F Claeyssens

2012-01-01

82

Label-free magnetic resonance imaging to locate live cells in three-dimensional porous scaffolds.  

PubMed

Porous scaffolds are widely tested materials used for various purposes in tissue engineering. A critical feature of a porous scaffold is its ability to allow cell migration and growth on its inner surface. Up to now, there has not been a method to locate live cells deep inside a material, or in an entire structure, using real-time imaging and a non-destructive technique. Herein, we seek to demonstrate the feasibility of the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique as a method to detect and locate in vitro non-labelled live cells in an entire porous material. Our results show that the use of optimized MRI parameters (4.7 T; repetition time = 3000 ms; echo time = 20 ms; resolution 39 × 39 µm) makes it possible to obtain images of the scaffold structure and to locate live non-labelled cells in the entire material, with a signal intensity higher than that obtained in the culture medium. In the current study, cells are visualized and located in different kinds of porous scaffolds. Moreover, further development of this MRI method might be useful in several three-dimensional biomaterial tests such as cell distribution studies, routine qualitative testing methods and in situ monitoring of cells inside scaffolds. PMID:22442095

Abarrategi, A; Fernandez-Valle, M E; Desmet, T; Castejón, D; Civantos, A; Moreno-Vicente, C; Ramos, V; Sanz-Casado, J V; Martínez-Vázquez, F J; Dubruel, P; Miranda, P; López-Lacomba, J L

2012-03-22

83

Label-free magnetic resonance imaging to locate live cells in three-dimensional porous scaffolds  

PubMed Central

Porous scaffolds are widely tested materials used for various purposes in tissue engineering. A critical feature of a porous scaffold is its ability to allow cell migration and growth on its inner surface. Up to now, there has not been a method to locate live cells deep inside a material, or in an entire structure, using real-time imaging and a non-destructive technique. Herein, we seek to demonstrate the feasibility of the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique as a method to detect and locate in vitro non-labelled live cells in an entire porous material. Our results show that the use of optimized MRI parameters (4.7 T; repetition time = 3000 ms; echo time = 20 ms; resolution 39 × 39 µm) makes it possible to obtain images of the scaffold structure and to locate live non-labelled cells in the entire material, with a signal intensity higher than that obtained in the culture medium. In the current study, cells are visualized and located in different kinds of porous scaffolds. Moreover, further development of this MRI method might be useful in several three-dimensional biomaterial tests such as cell distribution studies, routine qualitative testing methods and in situ monitoring of cells inside scaffolds.

Abarrategi, A.; Fernandez-Valle, M. E.; Desmet, T.; Castejon, D.; Civantos, A.; Moreno-Vicente, C.; Ramos, V.; Sanz-Casado, J. V.; Martinez-Vazquez, F. J.; Dubruel, P.; Miranda, P.; Lopez-Lacomba, J. L.

2012-01-01

84

Degradation and biocompatibility of porous nano-hydroxyapatite/polyurethane composite scaffold for bone tissue engineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Porous scaffold containing 30 wt% nano-hydroxyapatite (n-HA) and 70 wt% polyurethane (PU) from castor oil was prepared by a foaming method and investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared absorption (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. The results show that n-HA particles disperse homogeneously in the PU matrix. The porous scaffold has not only macropores of 100-800 ?m in size but also a lot of micropores on the walls of macropores. The porosity and compressive strength of scaffold are 80% and 271 kPa, respectively. After soaking in simulated body fluid (SBF), hydrolysis and deposition partly occur on the scaffold. The biological evaluation in vitro and in vivo shows that the n-HA/PU scaffold is non-cytotoxic and degradable. The porous structure provides a good microenvironment for cell adherence, growth and proliferation. The n-HA/PU composite scaffold can be satisfied with the basic requirement for tissue engineering, and has the potential to be applied in repair and substitute of human menisci of the knee-joint and articular cartilage.

Dong, Zhihong; Li, Yubao; Zou, Qin

2009-04-01

85

Porous polycaprolactone scaffold for cardiac tissue engineering fabricated by selective laser sintering.  

PubMed

An advanced manufacturing technique, selective laser sintering (SLS), was utilized to fabricate a porous polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffold designed with an automated algorithm in a parametric library system named the "computer-aided system for tissue scaffolds" (CASTS). Tensile stiffness of the sintered PCL strut was in the range of 0.43+/-0.15MPa when a laser power of 3W and scanning speed of 150 in s(-1) was used. A series of compressive mechanical characterizations was performed on the parametric scaffold design and an empirical formula was presented to predict the compressive stiffness of the scaffold as a function of total porosity. In this work, the porosity of the scaffold was selected to be 85%, with micropores (40-100mum) throughout the scaffold. The compressive stiffness of the scaffold was 345kPa. The feasibility of using the scaffold for cardiac tissue engineering was investigated by culturing C2C12 myoblast cells in vitro for 21days. Fluorescence images showed cells were located throughout the scaffold. High density of cells at 1.2x10(6)cellsml(-1) was recorded after 4days of culture. Fusion and differentiation of C2C12 were observed as early as 6days in vitro and was confirmed with myosin heavy chain immunostaining after 11days of cell culture. A steady population of cells was then maintained throughout 21days of culturing. This work demonstrated the feasibility of tailoring the mechanical property of the scaffold for soft tissue engineering using CASTS and SLS. The macroarchitecture of the scaffold can be modified efficiently to fabricate scaffolds with different macropore sizes or changing the elemental cell design in CASTS. Further process and design optimization could be carried out in the future to fabricate scaffolds that match the tensile strength of native myocardium, which is of the order of tens of kPa. PMID:20026436

Yeong, W Y; Sudarmadji, N; Yu, H Y; Chua, C K; Leong, K F; Venkatraman, S S; Boey, Y C F; Tan, L P

2009-12-22

86

Large Scale Laser Two-Photon Polymerization Structuring for Fabrication of Artificial Polymeric Scaffolds for Regenerative Medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a femtosecond Laser Two-Photon Polymerization (LTPP) system of large scale three-dimensional structuring for applications in tissue engineering. The direct laser writing system enables fabrication of artificial polymeric scaffolds over a large area (up to cm in lateral size) with sub-micrometer resolution which could find practical applications in biomedicine and surgery. Yb:KGW femtosecond laser oscillator (Pharos, Light Conversion. Co. Ltd.) is used as an irradiation source (75 fs, 515 nm (frequency doubled), 80 MHz). The sample is mounted on wide range linear motor driven stages having 10 nm sample positioning resolution (XY-ALS130-100, Z-ALS130-50, Aerotech, Inc.). These stages guarantee an overall travelling range of 100 mm into X and Y directions and 50 mm in Z direction and support the linear scanning speed up to 300 mm/s. By moving the sample three-dimensionally the position of laser focus in the photopolymer is changed and one is able to write complex 3D (three-dimensional) structures. An illumination system and CMOS camera enables online process monitoring. Control of all equipment is automated via custom made computer software ``3D-Poli'' specially designed for LTPP applications. Structures can be imported from computer aided design STereoLihography (stl) files or programmed directly. It can be used for rapid LTPP structuring in various photopolymers (SZ2080, AKRE19, PEG-DA-258) which are known to be suitable for bio-applications. Microstructured scaffolds can be produced on different substrates like glass, plastic and metal. In this paper, we present microfabricated polymeric scaffolds over a large area and growing of adult rabbit myogenic stem cells on them. Obtained results show the polymeric scaffolds to be applicable for cell growth practice. It exhibit potential to use it for artificial pericardium in the experimental model in the future.

Malinauskas, M.; Purlys, V.; Žukauskas, A.; Rutkauskas, M.; Danilevi?ius, P.; Paipulas, D.; Bi?kauskait?, G.; Bukelskis, L.; Baltriukien?, D.; Širmenis, R.; Gaidukevi?iut?, A.; Bukelskien?, V.; Gadonas, R.; Sirvydis, V.; Piskarskas, A.

2010-11-01

87

Large Scale Laser Two-Photon Polymerization Structuring for Fabrication of Artificial Polymeric Scaffolds for Regenerative Medicine  

SciTech Connect

We present a femtosecond Laser Two-Photon Polymerization (LTPP) system of large scale three-dimensional structuring for applications in tissue engineering. The direct laser writing system enables fabrication of artificial polymeric scaffolds over a large area (up to cm in lateral size) with sub-micrometer resolution which could find practical applications in biomedicine and surgery. Yb:KGW femtosecond laser oscillator (Pharos, Light Conversion. Co. Ltd.) is used as an irradiation source (75 fs, 515 nm (frequency doubled), 80 MHz). The sample is mounted on wide range linear motor driven stages having 10 nm sample positioning resolution (XY--ALS130-100, Z--ALS130-50, Aerotech, Inc.). These stages guarantee an overall travelling range of 100 mm into X and Y directions and 50 mm in Z direction and support the linear scanning speed up to 300 mm/s. By moving the sample three-dimensionally the position of laser focus in the photopolymer is changed and one is able to write complex 3D (three-dimensional) structures. An illumination system and CMOS camera enables online process monitoring. Control of all equipment is automated via custom made computer software ''3D-Poli'' specially designed for LTPP applications. Structures can be imported from computer aided design STereoLihography (stl) files or programmed directly. It can be used for rapid LTPP structuring in various photopolymers (SZ2080, AKRE19, PEG-DA-258) which are known to be suitable for bio-applications. Microstructured scaffolds can be produced on different substrates like glass, plastic and metal. In this paper, we present microfabricated polymeric scaffolds over a large area and growing of adult rabbit myogenic stem cells on them. Obtained results show the polymeric scaffolds to be applicable for cell growth practice. It exhibit potential to use it for artificial pericardium in the experimental model in the future.

Malinauskas, M.; Purlys, V.; Zukauskas, A.; Rutkauskas, M.; Danilevicius, P.; Paipulas, D.; Bickauskaite, G.; Gadonas, R.; Piskarskas, A. [Vilnius University, Physics Faculty, Department of Quantum Electronics, Laser Research Center, Sauletekio ave. 10, LT-10223 Vilnius (Lithuania); Bukelskis, L.; Baltriukiene, D.; Bukelskiene, V. [Institute of Biochemistry, Vivarium, Mokslininkuo str. 12, LT-08662 Vilnius (Lithuania); Sirmenis, R. [Vilnius University Hospital Santariskiuo Klinikos, Santariskiuo g. 2, LT-08661 Vilnius (Lithuania); Gaidukeviciute, A. [Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser, Foundation for Research and Technology Hellas, Vassilika Vouton, 711 10 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Sirvydis, V. [Vilnius University, Faculty of Medicine, Heart Surgery Center, Santariskiuo 2, LT-08661, Vilnius (Lithuania)

2010-11-10

88

Silver nanoparticle studded porous polyethylene scaffolds: bacteria struggle to grow on them while mammalian cells thrive.  

PubMed

Silver nanoparticle studded scaffolds were prepared by exploiting the Ag(+) ion reducing activity of sophorolipids--a class of 'glycolipids' that cap the ensuing nanoparticles as well. To achieve this, the porous polyethylene scaffolds are subjected to N(2) + H(2) plasma treatment, in the first step. Subsequently the sophorolipids are covalently attached to the amine groups on the polymer surface through simple amide chemistry to yield sophorolipid grafted polymer scaffolds. These are then exposed to Ag(+) ions under appropriate conditions leading to the formation of silver nanoparticles immobilized on the polymer scaffolds. It has been found that while bacteria do not survive on these silver studded scaffolds, CHO-K1 cells thrive on them making them good candidates for tissue engineering and bio-implant applications. PMID:21643585

D'Britto, Virginia; Kapse, Harsha; Babrekar, Harshada; Prabhune, A A; Bhoraskar, S V; Premnath, V; Prasad, B L V

2011-06-03

89

Porous ceramic titanium dioxide scaffolds promote bone formation in rabbit peri-implant cortical defect model.  

PubMed

Titanium oxide (TiO?) scaffolds have previously been reported to exhibit very low mechanical strength. However, we have been able to produce a scaffold that features a high interconnectivity, a porosity of 91% and a compressive strength above 1.2 MPa. This study analyzed the in vivo performance of the porous TiO? scaffolds in a peri-implant cortical defect model in the rabbit. After 8 weeks of healing, morphological microcomputed tomography analyses of the defects treated with the TiO? scaffolds had significantly higher bone volume, bone surface and bone surface-to-volume ratio when compared to sham, both in the cortical and bone marrow compartment. No adverse effects, i.e. tissue necrosis or inflammation as measured by lactate dehydrogenase activity and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis, were observed. Moreover, the scaffold did not hinder bone growth onto the adjacent cortical titanium implant. Histology clearly demonstrated new bone formation in the cortical sections of the defects and the presence of newly formed bone in close proximity to the scaffold surface and the surface of the adjacent Ti implant. Bone-to-material contact between the newly formed bone and the scaffold was observed in the histological sections. Islets of new bone were also present in the marrow compartment albeit in small amounts. In conclusion, the present investigation demonstrates that TiO? scaffolds osseointegrate well and are a suitable scaffold for peri-implant bone healing and growth. PMID:22985740

Haugen, Håvard Jostein; Monjo, Marta; Rubert, Marina; Verket, Anders; Lyngstadaas, Ståle Petter; Ellingsen, Jan Eirik; Rønold, Hans Jacob; Wohlfahrt, Johan Caspar

2012-09-14

90

Rapid aqueous photo-polymerization route to polymer and polymer-composite hydrogel 3D inverted colloidal crystal scaffolds.  

PubMed

Successful regeneration of biological tissues in vitro requires the utilization of three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds that provide a near natural microenvironment for progenitor cells to grow, interact, replicate, and differentiate to form target tissues. In this work, a rapid aqueous photo-polymerization route was developed toward the fabrication of a variety of polymer hydrogel 3D inverted colloidal crystal (ICC) scaffolds having different physical and chemical properties. To demonstrate the versatility of this technique, a variety of polymer hydrogel ICC scaffolds were prepared, including (1) polyacrylamide (pAAM) scaffolds, (2) poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (pHEMA) scaffolds, (3) poly(2-hydroxyethyl acrylate) (pHEA) scaffolds, and composite scaffolds including (4) pAAM-pHEMA scaffolds, (5) pHEMA-pMAETAC [poly(2-methacryloyloxy) trimethyl ammonium] scaffolds, and (6) pHEA-pMEATAC scaffolds. Templates for scaffolds incorporated both uniform sized (104 microm diameter) and nonuniform sized (100 +/- 20 microm diameter) closely packed noncrosslinked poly(methyl methacrylate) beads. Human bone marrow stromal HS-5 cells were cultured on the six different types of scaffolds to demonstrate biocompatibility. Experimental results show that cells can remain viable in these scaffolds for at least 5 weeks. Of the six scaffolds, maximal cell adhesion and proliferation are obtained on the positively charged composite hydrogel pHEMA-pMEATAC and pHEA-pMAETAC scaffolds. PMID:17335022

Liu, Yuanfang; Wang, Shaopeng; Krouse, Justin; Kotov, Nicholas A; Eghtedari, Mohammad; Vargas, Gracie; Motamedi, Massoud

2007-10-01

91

Porous poly(?-caprolactone) scaffolds for load-bearing tissue regeneration: solventless fabrication and characterization.  

PubMed

Three-dimensional interconnected porous poly(?-caprolactone) scaffolds have been prepared by a novel solventless scaffold fabrication approach combining cryomilling and compression molding/porogen leaching techniques. This study investigated the effects of processing parameters on scaffold morphology and properties for tissue regeneration. Specifically, the effects of molding temperature, cryomilling time, and porogen mix were examined. Fifty percentage of porous scaffolds were fabricated with a range of properties: mean pore size from ?40 to 125 ?m, water uptake from ?50 to 86%, compressive modulus from ?45 to 84 MPa, and compressive strength at 10% strain from ?3 to 4 MPa. Addition of 60 wt % NaCl salt resulted in a ?50% increase in porosity in multimodal pore-size structures that depended on the method of NaCl addition. Water uptake ranged from ?61 to 197%, compressive modulus from ?4 to 8.6 MPa, and compressive strength at 10% strain from ?0.36 to 0.40 MPa. Results suggest that this approach provides a controllable strategy for the design and fabrication of 3D interconnected porous biodegradable scaffolds for load-bearing tissue regeneration. PMID:23559444

Allaf, Rula M; Rivero, Iris V; Abidi, Noureddine; Ivanov, Ilia N

2013-04-04

92

Plasmid delivery in vivo from porous tissue-engineering scaffolds: transgene expression and cellular transfection.  

PubMed

Tissue engineering scaffolds capable of sustained plasmid release can promote gene transfer locally and stimulate new tissue formation. We have investigated the scaffold design parameters that influence the extent and duration of transgene expression and have characterized the distribution of transfected cells. Porous scaffolds with encapsulated plasmid were fabricated from poly(lactide-co-glycolide) with a gas foaming procedure, with wet granulation employed to mix the components homogeneously prior to foaming. Wet granulation enhanced plasmid incorporation relative to standard procedures and also enhanced in vivo transgene expression, possibly through the increased loading and maintenance of the scaffold pore structure. The plasmid loading regulated the quantity and duration of transgene expression, with expression for 105 days achieved at the highest dosage. Expression was localized to the implantation site, though the distribution of transfected cells varied with time. Transfected cells were initially observed at the scaffold periphery (day 3), then within the pores and adjacent to the polymer (day 17), and finally throughout the scaffold interior (day 126). Delivery of a plasmid encoding VEGF increased the blood vessel density relative to control. Correlating scaffold design with gene transfer efficiency and tissue formation will facilitate application of plasmid-releasing scaffolds to multiple tissues. PMID:15950542

Jang, Jae-Hyung; Rives, Christopher B; Shea, Lonnie D

2005-09-01

93

In vivo biocompatibility and vascularization of biodegradable porous polyurethane scaffolds for tissue engineering.  

PubMed

Scaffolds for tissue engineering should be biocompatible and stimulate rapid blood vessel ingrowth. Herein, we analyzed in vivo the biocompatibility and vascularization of three novel types of biodegradable porous polyurethane scaffolds. The polyurethane scaffolds, i.e., PU-S, PU-M and PU-F, were implanted into dorsal skinfold chambers of BALB/c mice. Using intravital fluorescence microscopy we analyzed vascularization of the implants and venular leukocyte-endothelial cell interaction in the surrounding host tissue over a 14 day period. Incorporation of the scaffolds was analyzed by histology, and a WST-1 assay was performed to evaluate their cell biocompatibility in vitro. Our results indicate that none of the polyurethane scaffolds was cytotoxic. Accordingly, rolling and adherent leukocytes in venules of the dorsal skinfold chamber were found in a physiological range after scaffold implantation and did not significantly differ between the groups, indicating a good in vivo biocompatibility. However, the three scaffolds induced a weak angiogenic response with a microvessel density of only approximately 47-60 and approximately 3-10cm/cm(2) in the border and centre zones of the scaffolds at day 14 after implantation. Histology demonstrated that the scaffolds were incorporated in a granulation tissue, which exhibited only a few blood vessels and inflammatory cells. In conclusion, PU-S, PU-M and PU-F scaffolds may be used to generate tissue constructs which do not induce a strong inflammatory reaction after implantation into patients. However, the scaffolds should be further modified or conditioned in order to accelerate and improve the process of vascularization. PMID:19286433

Laschke, M W; Strohe, A; Scheuer, C; Eglin, D; Verrier, S; Alini, M; Pohlemann, T; Menger, M D

2009-02-11

94

Bilayer porous scaffold based on poly-(?-caprolactone) nanofibrous membrane and gelatin sponge for favoring cell proliferation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrospun poly-(?-caprolactone) (PCL) nanofibers has been widely used in the medical prosthesis. However, poor hydrophilicity and the lack of natural recognition sites for covalent cell-recognition signal molecules to promote cell attachment have limited its utility as tissue scaffolds. In this study, Bilayer porous scaffolds based on PCL electrospun membranes and gelatin (GE) sponges were fabricated through soft hydrolysis of PCL electrospun followed by grafting gelatin onto the fiber surface, through crosslinking and freeze drying treatment of additional gelatin coat and grafted gelatin surface. GE sponges were stably anchored on PCL membrane surface with the aid of grafted GE molecules. The morphologies of bilayer porous scaffolds were observed through SEM. The contact angle of the scaffolds was 0°, the mechanical properties of scaffolds were measured by tensile test, Young's moduli of PCL scaffolds before and after hydrolysis are 66-77.3 MPa and 62.3-75.4 MPa, respectively. Thus, the bilayer porous scaffolds showed excellent hydrophilic surface and desirable mechanical strength due to the soft hydrolysis and GE coat. The cell culture results showed that the adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells did more favor to adhere and grow on the bilayer porous scaffolds than on PCL electrospun membranes. The better cell affinity of the final bilayer scaffolds not only attributed to the surface chemistry but also the introduction of bilayer porous structure.

Zhou, Zhihua; Zhou, Yang; Chen, Yiwang; Nie, Huarong; Wang, Yang; Li, Fan; Zheng, Yan

2011-12-01

95

Selective laser melting-produced porous titanium scaffolds regenerate bone in critical size cortical bone defects.  

PubMed

Porous titanium scaffolds have good mechanical properties that make them an interesting bone substitute material for large bone defects. These scaffolds can be produced with selective laser melting, which has the advantage of tailoring the structure's architecture. Reducing the strut size reduces the stiffness of the structure and may have a positive effect on bone formation. Two scaffolds with struts of 120-µm (titanium-120) or 230-µm (titanium-230) were studied in a load-bearing critical femoral bone defect in rats. The defect was stabilized with an internal plate and treated with titanium-120, titanium-230, or left empty. In vivo micro-CT scans at 4, 8, and 12 weeks showed more bone in the defects treated with scaffolds. Finally, 18.4?±?7.1?mm(3) (titanium-120, p?=?0.015) and 18.7?±?8.0?mm(3) (titanium-230, p?=?0.012) of bone was formed in those defects, significantly more than in the empty defects (5.8?±?5.1?mm(3) ). Bending tests on the excised femurs after 12 weeks showed that the fusion strength reached 62% (titanium-120) and 45% (titanium-230) of the intact contralateral femurs, but there was no significant difference between the two scaffolds. This study showed that in addition to adequate mechanical support, porous titanium scaffolds facilitate bone formation, which results in high mechanical integrity of the treated large bone defects. PMID:23255164

Van der Stok, Johan; Van der Jagt, Olav P; Amin Yavari, Saber; De Haas, Mirthe F P; Waarsing, Jan H; Jahr, Holger; Van Lieshout, Esther M M; Patka, Peter; Verhaar, Jan A N; Zadpoor, Amir A; Weinans, Harrie

2012-12-19

96

Nanoscale modification of porous gelatin scaffolds with chondroitin sulfate for corneal stromal tissue engineering  

PubMed Central

Recent studies reflect the importance of using naturally occurring biopolymers as three-dimensional corneal keratocyte scaffolds and suggest that the porous structure of gelatin materials may play an important role in controlling nutrient uptake. In the current study, the authors further consider the application of carbodiimide cross-linked porous gelatin as an alternative to collagen for corneal stromal tissue engineering. The authors developed corneal keratocyte scaffolds by nanoscale modification of porous gelatin materials with chondroitin sulfate (CS) using carbodiimide chemistry. Scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed that the amount of covalently incorporated polysaccharide was significantly increased when the CS concentration was increased from 0% to 1.25% (w/v). In addition, as demonstrated by dimethylmethylene blue assays, the CS content in these samples was in the range of 0.078–0.149 nmol per 10 mg scaffold. When compared with their counterparts without CS treatment, various CS-modified porous gelatin membranes exhibited higher levels of water content, light transmittance, and amount of permeated nutrients but possessed lower Young’s modulus and resistance against protease digestion. The hydrophilic and mechanical properties of scaffolds modified with 0.25% CS were comparable with those of native corneas. The samples from this group were biocompatible with the rabbit corneal keratocytes and showed enhanced proliferative and biosynthetic capacity of cultured cells. In summary, the authors found that the nanoscale-level modification has influence on the characteristics and cell-material interactions of CS-containing gelatin hydrogels. Porous membranes with a CS content of 0.112 ± 0.003 nmol per 10 mg scaffold may hold potential for use in corneal stromal tissue engineering.

Lai, Jui-Yang; Li, Ya-Ting; Cho, Ching-Hsien; Yu, Ting-Chun

2012-01-01

97

Fabrication of porous titanium scaffold with controlled porous structure and net-shape using magnesium as spacer.  

PubMed

This paper reports a new approach to fabricating biocompatible porous titanium with controlled pore structure and net-shape. The method is based on using sacrificial Mg particles as space holders to produce compacts that are mechanically stable and machinable. Using magnesium granules and Ti powder, Ti/Mg compacts with transverse rupture strength (~85 MPa) sufficient for machining were fabricated by warm compaction, and a complex-shape Ti scaffold was eventually produced by removal of Mg granules from the net-shape compact. The pores with the average size of 132-262 ?m were well distributed and interconnected. Due to anisotropy and alignment of the pores the compressive strength varied with the direction of compression. In the case of pores aligned with the direction of compression, the compressive strength values (59-280 MPa) high enough for applications in load bearing implants were achieved. To verify the possibility of controlled net-shape, conventional machining process was performed on Ti/Mg compact. Compact with screw shape and porous Ti scaffold with hemispherical cup shape were fabricated by the results. Finally, it was demonstrated by cell tests using MC3T3-E1 cell line that the porous Ti scaffolds fabricated by this technique are biocompatible. PMID:23623100

Kim, Sung Won; Jung, Hyun-Do; Kang, Min-Ho; Kim, Hyoun-Ee; Koh, Young-Hag; Estrin, Yuri

2013-03-14

98

Chronic label-free volumetric photoacoustic microscopy of melanoma cells in three-dimensional porous scaffolds.  

PubMed

Visualizing cells in three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds has been one of the major challenges in tissue engineering. Most current imaging modalities either suffer from poor penetration depth or require exogenous contrast agents. Here, we demonstrate photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) of the spatial distribution and temporal proliferation of cells inside three-dimensional porous scaffolds with thicknesses over 1 mm. Specifically, we evaluated the effects of seeding and culture methods on the spatial distribution of melanoma cells. Spatial distribution of the cells in the scaffold was well-resolved in PAM images. Moreover, the number of cells in the scaffold was quantitatively measured from the as-obtained volumetric information. The cell proliferation profile obtained from PAM correlated well with what was obtained using the traditional 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. PMID:20727581

Zhang, Yu; Cai, Xin; Choi, Sung-Wook; Kim, Chulhong; Wang, Lihong V; Xia, Younan

2010-08-19

99

Chronic Label-free Volumetric Photoacoustic Microscopy of Melanoma Cells in Three-Dimensional Porous Scaffolds  

PubMed Central

Visualizing cells in three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds has been one of the major challenges in tissue engineering. Most current imaging modalities either suffer from poor penetration depth or require exogenous contrast agents. Here, we demonstrate photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) of the spatial distribution and temporal proliferation of cells inside three-dimensional porous scaffolds with thicknesses over 1 mm. Specifically, we evaluated the effects of seeding and culture methods on the spatial distribution of melanoma cells. Spatial distribution of the cells in the scaffold was well-resolved in PAM images. Moreover, the number of cells in the scaffold was quantitatively measured from the as-obtained volumetric information. The cell proliferation profile obtained from PAM correlated well with what was obtained using the traditional 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay.

Zhang, Yu; Cai, Xin; Choi, Sung-Wook; Kim, Chulhong; Wang, Lihong V.; Xia, Younan

2010-01-01

100

[Formation of porous biodegradable scaffolds for tissue engineering].  

PubMed

This newly-emerging field uses tissue-specific cells in a three-dimensional organization, provided by a scaffolding material, to return functionality of the organ. For these applications, the choice of scaffolding material is crucial to the success of the technique. In addition to the chemical properties of the material, physical properties such as surface area for cell attachment are essential. Various methods of creating pores in these materials to increase surface area are reviewed here. Scaffolds formed using the different techniques, which include fiber bonding, solvent casting/particulate leaching, gas foaming and phase separation, are compared on the basis of porosity, pore size, and promotion of tissue growth. PMID:11951503

Hao, Baoqing; Yin, Guangfu; She, Liming; Jiang, Xiaobo; Zheng, Changqiong

2002-01-01

101

Correlation between properties and microstructure of laser sintered porous ?-tricalcium phosphate bone scaffolds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A porous ?-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) bioceramic scaffold was successfully prepared with our homemade selective laser sintering system. Microstructure observation by a scanning electron microscope showed that the grains grew from 0.21 to 1.32 ?m with the decrease of laser scanning speed from 250 to 50 mm min-1. The mechanical properties increased mainly due to the improved apparent density when the laser scanning speed decreased to 150 mm min-1. When the scanning speed was further decreased, the grain size became larger and the mechanical properties severely decreased. The highest Vickers hardness and fracture toughness of the scaffold were 3.59 GPa and 1.16 MPa m1/2, respectively, when laser power was 11 W, spot size was 1 mm in diameter, layer thickness was 0.1-0.2 mm and laser scanning speed was 150 mm min-1. The biocompatibility of these scaffolds was assessed in vitro with MG63 osteoblast-like cells and human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. The results showed that all the prepared scaffolds are suitable for cell attachment and differentiation. Moreover, the smaller the grain size, the better the cell biocompatibility. The porous scaffold with a grain size of 0.71 ?m was immersed in a simulated body fluid for different days to assess the bioactivity. The surface of the scaffold was covered by a bone-like apatite layer, which indicated that the ?-TCP scaffold possesses good bioactivity. These discoveries demonstrated the evolution rule between grain microstructure and the properties that give a useful reference for the fabrication of ?-TCP bone scaffolds.

Shuai, Cijun; Feng, Pei; Zhang, Liyang; Gao, Chengde; Hu, Huanlong; Peng, Shuping; Min, Anjie

2013-10-01

102

Chondrogenic differentiation of rat MSCs on porous scaffolds of silk fibroin/chitosan blends.  

PubMed

Adult bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells are undifferentiated, multipotential cells and have the potential to differentiate into multiple lineages like bone, cartilage or fat. In this study, polyelectrolyte complex silk fibroin/chitosan blended porous scaffolds were fabricated and examined for its ability to support in vitro chondrogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells. Silk fibroin matrices provide suitable substrate for cell attachment and proliferation while chitosan are promising biomaterial for cartilage repair due to it's structurally resemblance with glycosaminoglycans. We compared the formation of cartilaginous tissue in the silk fibroin/chitosan blended scaffolds with rat mesenchymal stem cells and cultured in vitro for 3 weeks. Additionally, pure silk fibroin scaffolds of non-mulberry silkworm, Antheraea mylitta and mulberry silkworm, Bombyx mori were also utilized for comparative studies. The constructs were analyzed for cell attachment, proliferation, differentiation, histological and immunohistochemical evaluations. Silk fibroin/chitosan blended scaffolds supported the cell attachment and proliferation as indicated by SEM observation, Confocal microscopy and metabolic activities. Alcian Blue and Safranin O histochemistry and expression of collagen II indicated the maintenance of chondrogenic phenotype in the constructs after 3 weeks of culture. Glycosaminoglycans and collagen accumulated in all the scaffolds and was highest in silk fibroin/chitosan blended scaffolds and pure silk fibroin scaffolds of A. mylitta. Chondrogenic differentiation of MSCs in the silk fibroin/chitosan and pure silk fibroin scaffolds was evident by real-time PCR analysis for cartilage-specific ECM gene markers. The results represent silk fibroin/chitosan blended 3D scaffolds as suitable scaffold for mesenchymal stem cells-based cartilage repair. PMID:22261099

Bhardwaj, Nandana; Kundu, Subhas C

2012-01-17

103

Low-pressure foaming: a novel method for the fabrication of porous scaffolds for tissue engineering.  

PubMed

Scaffolds for tissue engineering applications must incorporate porosity for optimal cell seeding, tissue ingrowth, and vascularization, but common fabrication methods for achieving porosity are incompatible with a variety of polymers, limiting widespread use. In this study, porous scaffolds consisting of poly(1,8-octanediol-co-citrate) (POC) containing hydroxyapatite nanocrystals (HA) were fabricated using low-pressure foaming (LPF). LPF is a novel method of fabricating an interconnected, porous scaffold with relative ease. LPF takes advantage of air bubbles that act as pore nucleation sites during a polymer mixing step. Vacuum is applied to expand the nucleation sites into interconnected pores that are stabilized through cross-linking. POC was combined with 20%, 40%, and 60% by weight HA, and the effect of increasing HA particle content on porosity, mechanical properties, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) was evaluated. The effect of the prepolymer viscosity on porosity and the mechanical properties of POC with 40% by weight HA (POC-40HA) were also assessed. POC-40HA scaffolds were also implanted in an osteochondral defect of a rabbit model, and the explants were assessed at 6 weeks using histology. With increasing HA content, the pore size of POC-HA scaffolds can be varied (85 to 1,003 ?m) and controlled to mimic the pore size of native trabecular bone. The compression modulus increased with greater HA content under dry conditions and were retained to a greater extent than with porous scaffolds fabricated using salt-leaching under wet conditions. Furthermore, all POC-HA scaffolds prepared using LPF supported hMSC attachment, and an increase in ALP activity correlated with an increase in HA content. An increase in the prepolymer viscosity resulted in increased compression modulus, greater distance between pores, and less porosity. After 6 weeks in vivo, cell and tissue infiltration was present throughout the scaffold. This study describes a novel method of creating porous osteoconductive POC scaffolds without the need for porogen leaching and provides the groundwork for applying LPF to other elastomers and composites. PMID:21933018

Chung, Eun Ji; Sugimoto, Matthew; Koh, Jason L; Ameer, Guillermo A

2011-12-22

104

Mechanical characterization of injection-molded macro porous bioceramic bone scaffolds.  

PubMed

Bioactive ceramic materials like tricalcium phosphate (TCP) have been emerging as viable material alternatives to the current therapies of bone scaffolding to target fracture healing and osteoporosis. Both material and architectural characteristics play a critical role in the osteoconductive capacity and strength of bone scaffolds. Thus, the objective of this research was to investigate the sintering temperature effect of a cost-effective manufacturing process on the architecture and mechanical properties of a controlled macro porous bioceramic bone scaffold. In this study the physical and mechanical properties of ?-TCP bioceramic scaffolds were investigated as a function of the sintering temperature in the range of 950-1150 °C. Physical properties investigated included bulk dimensions, pore size, and strut thickness; and, compressive mechanical properties were evaluated in air at room temperature and in saline solution at body temperature. Statistically significant increases in apparent elastic modulus were measured for scaffolds sintered at higher temperatures. Structural stiffness for all the specimens was significantly reduced when tested at body temperature in saline solution. These findings support the development of clinically successful bioceramic scaffolds that may stimulate bone regeneration and scaffold integration while providing structural integrity. PMID:22498292

Vivanco, Juan; Aiyangar, Ameet; Araneda, Aldo; Ploeg, Heidi-Lynn

2012-02-16

105

The bone formation in vitro and mandibular defect repair using PLGA porous scaffolds.  

PubMed

Highly porous scaffolds of poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) were prepared by solution-casting/salt-leaching method. The in vitro degradation behavior of PLGA scaffold was investigated by measuring the change of normalized weight, water absorption, pH, and molecular weight during degradation period. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were seeded and cultured in three-dimensional PLGA scaffolds to fabricate in vitro tissue engineering bone, which was investigated by cell morphology, cell number and deposition of mineralized matrix. The proliferation of seeded MSCs and their differentiated function were demonstrated by experimental results. To compare the reconstructive functions of different groups, mandibular defect repair of rabbit was made with PLGA/MSCs tissue engineering bone, control PLGA scaffold, and blank group without scaffold. Histopathologic methods were used to estimate the reconstructive functions. The result suggests that it is feasible to regenerate bone tissue in vitro using PLGA foams with pore size ranging from 100-250 microm as scaffolding for the transplantation of MSCs, and the PLGA/MSCs tissue engineering bone can greatly promote cell growth and have better healing functions for mandibular defect repair. The defect can be completely recuperated after 3 months with PLGA/MSCs tissue engineering bone, and the contrastive experiments show that the defects could not be repaired with blank PLGA scaffold. PLGA/MSCs tissue engineering bone has great potential as appropriate replacement for successful repair of bone defect. PMID:16025492

Ren, Tianbin; Ren, Jie; Jia, Xiaozhen; Pan, Kefeng

2005-09-15

106

Attachment, Proliferation, and Chondroinduction of Mesenchymal Stem Cells on Porous Chitosan-Calcium Phosphate Scaffolds  

PubMed Central

Symptomatic osteochondral lesions occur frequently, but relatively few treatment options are currently available. The purpose of this study was to conduct a preliminary investigation into a new tissue engineering approach to osteochondral regeneration. The concept is a biphasic construct consisting of a porous, osteoconductive chitosan-calcium phosphate scaffold supporting a layer of neocartilage formed by marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. Two experiments were conducted to assess the feasibility of this approach. The first experiment characterized the attachment efficiency and proliferation of primary human marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells seeded relatively sparely onto the scaffold’s surface. The second experiment compared two different methods of creating a biphasic construct using a much higher density of primary porcine marrow stromal cells. About 40% of the sparsely seeded human cells attached and proliferated rapidly. Constructs formed by one of the two experimental techniques exhibited a layer of cartilaginous tissue which only partially covered the scaffold’s surface due to inadequate adhesion between the cells and the scaffold. This study demonstrates some potential for the approach to yield an implantable biphasic construct, but further development is required to improve cell-scaffold adhesion.

Elder, Steven; Gottipati, Anuhya; Zelenka, Hilary; Bumgardner, Joel

2013-01-01

107

Multiscale Homogenization Based Analysis of Polymeric Nanofiber Scaffolds  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper a two scale asymptotic expansion homogenization using a spectral\\/hp finite element approach is used to estimate the mechanical properties of polymeric poly-lactic acid nanofibers. The mechanical properties of the nanofibers are derived hierarchically from the elastic modulus of the crystalline lactic acid monomer and subsequently the mesoscale properties of the shish-kebab fibril is derived by the finite

V. U. Unnikrishnan; G. U. Unnikrishnan; J. N. Reddy

2008-01-01

108

Functionalized ormosil scaffolds processed by direct laser polymerization for application in tissue engineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Synthesized N,N?-(methacryloyloxyethyl triehtoxy silyl propyl carbamoyl-oxyhexyl)-urea hybrid methacrylate was polymerized by direct laser polymerization using femtosecond laser pulses with the aim of using it for subsequent applications in tissue engineering. The as-obtained scaffolds were modified either by low pressure argon plasma treatment or by covering the structures with two different proteins (lysozyme, fibrinogen). For improved adhesion, the proteins were deposited by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation technique. The functionalized structures were tested in mouse fibroblasts culture and the cells morphology, proliferation, and attachment were analyzed.

Matei, A.; Schou, J.; Canulescu, S.; Zamfirescu, M.; Albu, C.; Mitu, B.; Buruiana, E. C.; Buruiana, T.; Mustaciosu, C.; Petcu, I.; Dinescu, M.

2013-08-01

109

The Use of Porous Scaffold as a Tumor Model  

PubMed Central

Background. Human cancer is a three-dimensional (3D) structure consisting of neighboring cells, extracellular matrix, and blood vessels. It is therefore critical to mimic the cancer cells and their surrounding environment during in vitro study. Our aim was to establish a 3D cancer model using a synthetic composite scaffold. Methods. High-density low-volume seeding was used to promote attachment of a non-small-cell lung cancer cell line (NCI-H460) to scaffolds. Growth patterns in 3D culture were compared with those of monolayers. Immunohistochemistry was conducted to compare the expression of Ki67, CD44, and carbonic anhydrase IX. Results. NCI-H460 readily attached to the scaffold without surface pretreatment at a rate of 35% from a load of 1.5 × 106 cells. Most cells grew vertically to form clumps along the surface of the scaffold, and cell morphology resembled tissue origin; 2D cultures exhibited characteristics of adherent epithelial cancer cell lines. Expression patterns of Ki67, CD44, and CA IX varied markedly between 3D and monolayer cultures. Conclusions. The behavior of cancer cells in our 3D model is similar to tumor growth in vivo. This model will provide the basis for future study using 3D cancer culture.

Zhang, Mei; Boughton, Philip; Rose, Barbara; Lee, C. Soon; Hong, Angela M.

2013-01-01

110

Modified PHBV scaffolds by in situ UV polymerization: Structural characteristic, mechanical properties and bone mesenchymal stem cell compatibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ideal scaffold provides an interface for cell adhesion and maintains enough biomechanical support during tissue regeneration. Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) scaffolds with pore sizes ranging from 100 to 500?m and porosity ?90% were prepared by the particulate-leaching method, and then modified by the introduction of polyacrylamide (PAM) on the inner surface of scaffolds using in situ UV polymerization, with the aim

Y. Ke; Y. J. Wang; L. Ren; Q. C. Zhao; W. Huang

2010-01-01

111

Physiologically-Relevant Oxidative Degradation of Oligo(proline)-Crosslinked Polymeric Scaffolds  

PubMed Central

Chronic inflammation-mediated oxidative stress is a common mechanism of implant rejection and failure. Therefore, polymer scaffolds that can degrade slowly in response to this environment may provide a viable platform for implant site-specific, sustained release of immunomodulatory agents over a long time period. In this work, proline oligomers of varying lengths (Pn) were synthesized and exposed to oxidative environments, and their accelerated degradation under oxidative conditions was verified via high performance liquid chromatography and gel permeation chromatography. Next, diblock copolymers of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and poly(?-caprolactone) (PCL) were carboxylated to form 100 kDa terpolymers of 4%PEG-86%PCL-10%cPCL (cPCL = poly(carboxyl-?-caprolactone); i% indicates molar ratio). The polymers were then crosslinked with bi-aminated PEG-Pn-PEG chains—where Pn indicates the length of the proline oligomer flanked by PEG chains. Salt-leaching of the polymeric matrices created scaffolds of macroporous and microporous architecture as observed by scanning electron microscopy. The degradation of scaffolds was accelerated under oxidative conditions, as evidenced by mass loss and differential scanning calorimetry measurements. Immortalized murine bone marrow-derived macrophages were then seeded on the scaffolds, and activated through the addition of ?-interferon and lipopolysaccharide throughout the 9-day study period. This treatment promoted the release of H2O2 by the macrophages, and the degradation of proline-containing scaffolds compared to the control scaffolds. The accelerated degradation was evidenced by increased scaffold porosity, as visualized through scanning electron microscoopy and X-ray microtomography imaging. The current study provides insight into the development of scaffolds that respond to oxidative environments through gradual degradation, for the controlled release of therapeutics targeted to diseases that feature chronic inflammation and oxidative stress.

Yu, Shann S.; Koblin, Rachel L.; Zachman, Angela L.; Perrien, Daniel S.; Hofmeister, Lucas H.; Giorgio, Todd D.; Sung, Hak-Joon

2011-01-01

112

PLLA-collagen and PLLA-gelatin hybrid scaffolds with funnel-like porous structure for skin tissue engineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In skin tissue engineering, a three-dimensional porous scaffold is necessary to support cell adhesion and proliferation and to guide cells moving into the repair area in the wound healing process. Structurally, the porous scaffold should have an open and interconnected porous architecture to facilitate homogenous cell distribution. Moreover, the scaffolds should be mechanically strong to protect deformation during the formation of new skin. In this study, the hybrid scaffolds were prepared by forming funnel-like collagen or gelatin sponge on a woven poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) mesh. The hybrid scaffolds combined the advantages of both collagen or gelatin (good cell-interactions) and PLLA mesh (high mechanical strength). The hybrid scaffolds were used to culture dermal fibroblasts for dermal tissue engineering. The funnel-like porous structure promoted homogeneous cell distribution and extracellular matrix production. The PLLA mesh reinforced the scaffold to avoid deformation. Subcutaneous implantation showed that the PLLA-collagen and PLLA-gelatin scaffolds promoted the regeneration of dermal tissue and epidermis and reduced contraction during the formation of new tissue. These results indicate that funnel-like hybrid scaffolds can be used for skin tissue regeneration.

Lu, Hongxu; Oh, Hwan Hee; Kawazoe, Naoki; Yamagishi, Kozo; Chen, Guoping

2012-12-01

113

Porous chitosan tubular scaffolds with knitted outer wall and controllable inner structure for nerve tissue engineering.  

PubMed

In this study, a novel method was developed to create porous tubular scaffolds with desirable mechanical properties and controllable inner structure from chitosan, for nerve tissue engineering. Chitosan fiber-based yarns were first used to create porous hollow tubes, which served as the outer wall of the scaffolds, through an industrial knitting process. Then, an innovative molding technique was developed and used to produce inner matrices with multiple axially oriented macrochannels and radially interconnected micropores. Acupuncture needles were used as mandrels during molding to improve the safety and controllability of the process. In vitro characterization demonstrated that the scaffolds possessed suitable mechanical strength, porosity, swelling, and biodegradability for applications in nerve tissue engineering. In vitro cell culture experiments showed that differentiated Neuro-2a cells grew along the oriented macrochannels and the interconnected micropores were beneficial for nutrient diffusion and cell ingrowth to the scaffold's interior. Collectively, the well-defined architectural features in addition to the desirable mechanical and biological properties of the scaffolds make them promising for nerve tissue engineering. PMID:16758450

Wang, Aijun; Ao, Qiang; Cao, Wenling; Yu, Mingzhi; He, Qing; Kong, Lijun; Zhang, Ling; Gong, Yandao; Zhang, Xiufang

2006-10-01

114

Microstructure and mechanical properties of bacterial cellulose\\/chitosan porous scaffold  

Microsoft Academic Search

A family of polysaccharide based scaffold materials, bacterial cellulose\\/chitosan (BC\\/CTS) porous scaffolds with various weight\\u000a ratios (from 20\\/80 to 60\\/40 w\\/w%) were prepared by freezing (?30 and ?80 °C) and lyophilization of a mixture of microfibrillated\\u000a BC suspension and chitosan solution. The microfibrillated BC (MFC) was subjected to 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpyperidine-1-oxyl radical\\u000a (TEMPO)-mediated oxidation to introduce surface carboxyl groups before mixing. The integration of

Thi Thi Nge; Masaya Nogi; Hiroyuki Yano; Junji Sugiyama

2010-01-01

115

Vascularisation of porous scaffolds is improved by incorporation of adipose tissue-derived microvascular fragments.  

PubMed

In tissue engineering, the generation of tissue constructs comprising preformed microvessels is a promising strategy to guarantee their adequate vascularisation after implantation. Herein, we analysed whether this may be achieved by seeding porous scaffolds with adipose tissue-derived microvascular fragments. Green fluorescent protein (GFP)-positive microvascular fragments were isolated by enzymatic digestion from epididymal fat pads of male C57BL/6-TgN(ACTB-EGFP)1Osb/J mice. Nano-size hydroxyapatite particles/poly(ester-urethane) scaffolds were seeded with these fragments and implanted into the dorsal skinfold chamber of C57BL/6 wild-type mice to study inosculation and vascularisation of the implants by means of intravital fluorescence microscopy, histology and immunohistochemistry over 2 weeks. Empty scaffolds served as controls. Vital microvascular fragments could be isolated from adipose tissue and seeded onto the scaffolds under dynamic pressure conditions. In the dorsal skinfold chamber, the fragments survived and exhibited a high angiogenic activity, resulting in the formation of GFP-positive microvascular networks within the implants. These networks developed interconnections to the host microvasculature, resulting in a significantly increased functional microvessel density at day 10 and 14 after implantation when compared to controls. Immunohistochemical analyses of vessel-seeded scaffolds revealed that >90 % of the microvessels in the implants' centre and ~60 % of microvessels in the surrounding host tissue were GFP-positive. This indicates that the scaffolds primarily vascularised by external inosculation. These novel findings demonstrate that the vascularisation of implanted porous scaffolds can be improved by incorporation of microvascular fragments. Accordingly, this approach may markedly contribute to the success of future tissue engineering applications in clinical practice. PMID:23007911

Laschke, M W; Kleer, S; Scheuer, C; Schuler, S; Garcia, P; Eglin, D; Alini, M; Menger, M D

2012-09-24

116

Porous PLGA scaffolds for controlled release of naked and polyethyleneimine-complexed DNA.  

PubMed

The ability to precisely control delivery of single or multiple bioactive molecules is critical in tissue engineering, and controlled release of plasmid coding for growth factors and their regulators can give cell-regulated, short-term expression of these therapeutic biomolecules. In this work, porous poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) scaffolds comprising acid-terminated chains of either low (LMW; 10 kDa) or high molecular weight (HMW; 30 kDa) were developed for controlled release of naked or polyethyleneimine (PEI)-complexed DNA. The compressive strength of blank HMW and LMW scaffolds was 6 and 2 MPa, respectively, while the strength of PEI:DNA-containing HMW and LMW scaffolds was 7 and 1 MPa, respectively. LMW scaffolds degraded more quickly than HMW scaffolds, with 80-100% and 15-30% mass loss at 30 days, respectively. Encapsulation of plasmid, particularly PEI-complexed DNA, only modestly affected degradation. Release profiles showed bi- or triphasic patterns, with early burst release of surface-associated DNA, slower diffusion-mediated release, and degradation-related release at later time points. Complexation with PEI tended to a slow release of plasmids, likely because of interaction with the carboxyl groups of PLGA. Culturing rat bone marrow cells on blank PLGA scaffolds in the presence of IGF-I resulted in growth and chondrogenic differentiation of these cells. Porous scaffolds made of PLGA with the appropriate selection of hydrophobicity and molecular weight will allow controlled delivery of naked and condensed plasmid DNA for different tissue engineering applications. PMID:22909549

Ravi, N; Gupta, G; Milbrandt, T A; Puleo, D A

2012-08-22

117

Porous Hydroxyapatite Bioceramic Scaffolds for Drug Delivery and Bone Regeneration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The conventional methods of supplying a patient with pharmacologic active substances suffer from being very poorly selective, so that damage can occurs to the healthy tissues and organs, different from the intended target. In addition, high drug doses can be required to achieve the desired effect. An alternative approach is based on the use of implantable delivery tools, able to release the active substance in a controlled way. In the current research local drug delivery devices containing 8mg of gentamicin sulphate were prepared using custom developed vacuum impregnation technique. In vitro dissolution tests showed that gentamicin release was sustained for 12h. In order to decrease gentamicin release rate, biopolymer coatings were applied and coating structure investigated. The results showed that gentamicin release can be sustained for more than 70h for poly(epsilon-caprolactone) coated calcium phosphate scaffolds. From poly lactic acid and polyvinyl alcohol coated scaffolds gentamicin was released within 20h and 50h, respectively.

Loca, Dagnija; Locs, Janis; Salma, Kristine; Gulbis, Juris; Salma, Ilze; Berzina-Cimdina, Liga

2011-10-01

118

Porous ceramic bone scaffolds for vascularized bone tissue regeneration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydroxyapatite scaffolds with a multi modal porosity designed for use in tissue engineering of vascularized bone graft substitutes\\u000a were prepared by three dimensional printing. Depending on the ratio of coarse (mean particle size 50 ?m) to fine powder (mean\\u000a particle size 4 ?m) in the powder granulate and the sintering temperature total porosity was varied from 30% to 64%. While\\u000a macroscopic pore

Julia Will; Reinhold Melcher; Cornelia Treul; Nahum Travitzky; Ulrich Kneser; Elias Polykandriotis; Raymund Horch; Peter Greil

2008-01-01

119

Hydrophobicity as a design criterion for polymer scaffolds in bone tissue engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Porous polymeric scaffolds play a key role in most tissue-engineering strategies. A series of non-degrading porous scaffolds was prepared, based on bulk-copolymerisation of 1-vinyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NVP) and n-butyl methacrylate (BMA), followed by a particulate-leaching step to generate porosity. Biocompatibility of these scaffolds was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, the scaffold materials were studied using the so-called demineralised bone matrix

Edwin J. P. Jansen; Raymond E. J. Sladek; Hila Bahar; Avinoam Yaffe; Marion J. Gijbels; Roel Kuijer; Sjoerd K. Bulstra; Nick A. Guldemond; Itzhak Binderman; Leo H. Koole

2005-01-01

120

Chitosan/gelatin porous scaffolds containing hyaluronic acid and heparan sulfate for neural tissue engineering.  

PubMed

The novel chitosan (Cs)/gelatin (Gel) porous scaffolds containing hyaluronic acid (HA) and heparan sulfate (HS) were fabricated via freeze-drying technique, and their physicochemical characteristics including pore size, porosity, water absorption, and in vitro degradation and biocompatibility were investigated. It was demonstrated that the Cs/Gel/HA/HS composite scaffolds had highly homogeneous and interconnected pores with porosity above 96% and average pore size ranging from 90 to 140??m and a controllable degradation rate. The scanning electron microscopic images, cell viability assay, and fluorescence microscopy observation revealed that the presence of HA and HS in the scaffolds significantly promoted initial neural stem and progenitor cells (NS/PCs) adhesion and supported long-time growth in three-dimensional environment. Moreover, NS/PCs also maintained mutilineage differentiation potentials with enhanced neuronal differentiation upon induction in the Cs/Gel/HA/HS composite scaffolds in relation to Cs/Gel scaffolds. These results indicated that the Cs/Gel/HA/HS composite scaffolds were suitable for neural cells' adhesion, survival, and growth and could offer new and important options for neural tissue engineering applications. PMID:23647254

Guan, Shui; Zhang, Xiu-Li; Lin, Xiao-Min; Liu, Tian-Qing; Ma, Xue-Hu; Cui, Zhan-Feng

2012-10-15

121

Quantitative analysis of interconnectivity of porous biodegradable scaffolds with micro-computed tomography.  

PubMed

Pore interconnectivity within scaffolds is an important parameter influencing cell migration and tissue ingrowth needed to promote tissue regeneration. Methods for assessment of interconnectivity are usually qualitative, restricted to two-dimensional images, or are destructive. Microcomputed tomography nondestructively provides three-dimensional (3D) images of intact specimens at high spatial resolutions. We describe an image analysis technique for quantitative assessment of scaffold interconnectivity. Scaffolds were made via a particulate leaching process with 75%, 80%, 85%, and 88% volumetric porogen fractions. Specimens were scanned and resulting 3D, digital images were analyzed with a custom algorithm. A series of virtual, idealized scaffolds were also created for illustration of the algorithm's analysis approach and for its validation. The program calculated accessible void fractions over a range of minimum connection sizes. In real specimens, nearly 100% of the porous volume was connected with outside air for connections greater than or equal to 20 microm in their smallest dimension. In scaffolds made with 75% porogen, the accessible void fraction decreased to 78% if only those connections greater than or equal to 260 microm were considered. The relationship between accessible void fraction and connection size varied as a function of porogen content. The interconnectivity parameter described here may have implications for cell migration and tissue growth into scaffolds. PMID:15376269

Moore, Michael J; Jabbari, Esmaiel; Ritman, Erik L; Lu, Lichun; Currier, Bradford L; Windebank, Anthony J; Yaszemski, Michael J

2004-11-01

122

Antibacterial chitosan coating on nano-hydroxyapatite/polyamide66 porous bone scaffold for drug delivery.  

PubMed

This study describes a new drug-loaded coating scaffold applied in infection therapy during bone regeneration. Chitosan (CS) containing antibacterial berberine was coated on a nano-hydroxyapatite/polyamide66 (n-HA/PA66) scaffold to realize bone regeneration together with antimicrobial properties. The porous scaffold was fabricated using the phase-inversion method with a porosity of about 84% and macropore size of 400-600 ?m. The morphology, mechanical properties and drug-release behavior were investigated at different ratios of chitosan to berberine. The results show that the elastic modulus and compressive strength of the coated scaffolds were improved to 35.4 MPa and 1.7 MPa, respectively, about 7 times and 3 times higher than the uncoated scaffolds. After a burst release of berberine within the first 3 h in PBS solution, a continuous berberine release can last 150 h, which is highly dependent on the coating concentration and suitable for antibacterial requirement of orthopaedic surgery. The bactericidal test confirms a strong antibiotic effect of the delivery system and the minimum inhibitory concentration of the drug is 0.02 mg/ml. Moreover, in vitro biological evaluation demonstrates that the coating scaffolds act as a good matrix for MG63 adhesion, crawl, growth and proliferation, suggesting that the antibacterial delivery system has no cytotoxicity. We expect the drug-delivery system to have a potential application in bone regeneration or defect repair. PMID:20566065

Huang, Di; Zuo, Yi; Zou, Qin; Zhang, Li; Li, Jidong; Cheng, Lin; Shen, Juan; Li, Yubao

2010-06-21

123

Fabrication of porous gelatin scaffolds for tissue engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel method which employs water present in swollen hydrogels as a porogen for shape template was suggested for preparing porous materials. Biodegradable hydrogels were prepared through crosslinking of gelatin with glutaraldehyde in aqueous solution, followed by rinsing and washing. After freezing the swollen hydrogels, the ice formed within the hydrogel network was sublimated by freeze-drying. This simple method produced

Hye-Won Kang; Yasuhiko Tabata; Yoshito Ikada

1999-01-01

124

A novel fibrous scaffold composed of electrospun porous poly({varepsilon}-caprolactone) fibers for bone tissue engineering.  

PubMed

In this study, porous poly(?-caprolactone) (PCL) fiber-based fibrous scaffolds are created using a suitable ratio of dimethyl chloride and acetone by using electrospinning. With the porous structure, it induced CaP particles to easily coat on the fibers after immersion in simulated body fluid solution. The morphology of the electrospun membranes was observed using scanning electron microscopic observation. The results showed that the CaP coated successfully, as examined by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopic techniques and mass comparative analysis. The wettability of the coated fibrous scaffolds was tested using contact angle analysis. The in vitro cellular proliferation and cell interaction with fibrous scaffolds were investigated. In addition, the in vivo bone formation capacity of fibrous scaffolds including the non-porous (PCL-DCM), porous (PCL-DCM/Ace) and CaP coating on PCL/DCM-Ace for 2, 4, 8 and 12?h immersed in SBF solution were also investigated. By measuring the in vitro results, we verified that porous PCL fiber-based fibrous scaffold after 12?h of immersion in simulated body fluid (PCL-DCM/Ace-12) was excellent for cell interaction, growth and proliferation. The in vivo analyses showed that the PCL-DCM/Ace-12 fibrous scaffold enabled greater acceleration of bone formation than PCL/DCM and PCL/DCM-Ace fibrous scaffolds. PMID:23075833

Nguyen, Thi-Hiep; Bao, Trinh Quang; Park, Ihho; Lee, Byong-Taek

2012-10-17

125

Tantalum coating on porous Ti6Al4V scaffold using chemical vapor deposition and preliminary biological evaluation.  

PubMed

Porous tantalum (Ta), produced via chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of commercially pure Ta onto a vitreous carbon, is currently available for use in orthopedic applications. However, the relatively high manufacturing cost and the incapability to produce customized implant using medical image data have limited its application to gain widespread acceptance. In this study, Ta film was deposited on porous Ti6Al4V scaffolds using CVD technique. Digital microscopy and scanning electron microscopy indicated that the Ta coating evenly covered the entire scaffold structure. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the coating consisted of ? and ? phases of Ta. Goat mesenchymal stem cells were seeded and cultured on the Ti6Al4V scaffolds with and without coating. The tetrazolium-based colorimetric assay exhibited better cell adhesion and proliferation on Ta-coated scaffolds compared with uncoated scaffolds. The porous scaffolds were subsequently implanted in goats for 12weeks. Histological analysis revealed similar bone formation around the periphery of the coated and uncoated implants, but bone ingrowth is better within the Ta-coated scaffolds. To demonstrate the ability of producing custom implant for clinical applications via this technology, we designed and fabricated a porous Ti6Al4V scaffold with segmental mandibular shape derived from patient computerized tomography data. PMID:23623123

Li, Xiang; Wang, Lin; Yu, Xiaoming; Feng, Yafei; Wang, Chengtao; Yang, Ke; Su, Daniel

2013-03-24

126

Preparation of Porous Scaffolds from Silk Fibroin Extracted from the Silk Gland of Bombyx mori (B. mori).  

PubMed

In order to use a simple and ecofriendly method to prepare porous silk scaffolds, aqueous silk fibroin solution (ASF) was extracted from silk gland of 7-day-old fifth instar larvae of Bombyx mori (B. mori). SDS-page analysis indicated that the obtained fibroin had a molecular weight higher than 200 kDa. The fabrication of porous scaffolds from ASF was achieved by using the freeze-drying method. The pore of porous scaffolds is homogenous and tends to become smaller with an increase in the concentration of ASF. Conversely, the porosity is decreased. The porous scaffolds show impressive compressive strength which can be as high as 6.9 ± 0.4 MPa. Furthermore, ASF has high cell adhesion and growth activity. It also exhibits high ALP activity. This implies that porous scaffolds prepared from ASF have biocompatibility. Therefore, the porous scaffolds prepared in this study have potential application in tissue engineering due to the impressive compressive strength and biocompatibility. PMID:22837725

Yang, Mingying; Shuai, Yajun; He, Wen; Min, Sijia; Zhu, Liangjun

2012-06-21

127

A study of effective diffusivity in porous scaffold by Brownian dynamics simulation.  

PubMed

Brownian dynamics simulation has been employed to study the diffusion behavior of nutrient molecules in a random porous scaffold, which models a realistic one made by a gas-foaming technique. Excluded volume interaction between nutrient and the pore wall is only considered and implemented with reflecting boundary condition. Several effects are investigated, including the medium porosity, the scaffold microstructure and the size ratio of nutrient to pore. It is found that unlike in ordered porous media, the effective nutrient diffusivity in random media depends not only on the porosity, but also on degree of pore interconnection and overlapping, which is affected by the pore number concentration. At a given porosity, the diffusivity may increase noticeably when the pore number concentration becomes high enough. This behavior arises when the porosity is not too large (lower than 80%). PMID:19948343

Zhou, Huai; Chen, Shing Bor; Peng, Jiajie; Wang, Chi-Hwa

2009-11-04

128

Nanoscalar modifications to polymeric tissue engineering scaffolds: Effect on cellular behavior  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polymeric scaffolds provide a surface that can facilitate cell growth and tissue morphogenesis. Of particular interest is the role of nanoscalar features on cell behavior. Nanoscale topographies can be generated on two-dimensional polymeric substrates via reactive ion etching. The magnitude and morphology of the resultant surfaces can be tailored by varying the gas media, etching time and power used. Nanofibrillar surfaces were produced on polyethylene terephthalate films via oxygen-plasma etching. These nanofibrils were dimensionally similar to collagen fibers. Cells cultured on nanofibrillar surfaces were shown to have a disrupted cytoskeleton, lower levels of cell-substrate signaling, reduced strength of adhesion and an inhibition of lipid droplet coalescence. The results suggest that cells can detect nanoscalar surface topographies and alter their function in response to these environmental stimuli. While nanofibrillar surfaces can be considered pseudo-three dimensional, they cannot produce 3-D cell structures. Thus truly three dimensional scaffolds must be fabricated to determine the role of nanoscalar fibers on cell organization and function. Electrospinning was employed to generate 3-D meshes of polycaprolactone, a common biodegradable polymer. These nonwoven meshes were comprised of 500 nm fibers with an average pore size of 5 mum. In addition to forming mats of nonwoven fibers, electrospinning technology can also produce tubular scaffolds. These tubular scaffolds were seeded with human vascular smooth muscle cells and cultured for two days. After 2 days in culture, cells assumed a helical orientation around the lumen of the tube, an architecture which closely mimics natural blood vessels. Thus electrospun scaffolds facilitate the growth and organization of cell populations in a manner which imitates the natural tissue.

Powell, Heather M.

129

High resolution x-ray imaging of dynamic solute transport in cyclically deformed porous tissue scaffolds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective was to develop a method for high-resolution imaging of dynamic solute transport in cyclically deforming porous scaffolds for tissue engineering applications. A flexible cubic scaffold with single cylindrical channel was fabricated from a biodegradable polymer blend using a combined 3D printing and injection molding technique. The scaffold was attached to the bottom of a fluid reservoir mounted underneath a compression apparatus placed inside the X-ray scanner. The scaffold was positioned with the channel axis perpendicular to the X-ray beam. The container was filled with glycerin, and a solution of the contrast agent sodium iodide (NaI) in glycerin was injected into the scaffold channel. Intervals of compression cycles (14.5 +/- 2.1 % compression at 1.0 Hz) were applied to the top face of the scaffold. After each interval the compression was temporarily paused to obtain a two-dimensional image at 20 ?m pixel resolution. A series of images was also obtained without application of the compression cycles to quantify the effect of passive diffusional removal of NaI from the channel. The average NaI concentration in the channel decreased by 82% after 300 cycles (5 min.) of compression, by 40% after 60 min. of passive removal. Spatial profiles of the NaI concentration along the channel axis indicated that compression-induced transport preferentially removed the contrast agent at the pore openings. We conclude that convective transport induced by cyclic mechanical deformation of artificial tissue scaffolds could significantly contribute to the rate and depth of nutrient transport inside the scaffold, as compared to slow diffusive transport alone.

Op Den Buijs, Jorn; Lee, Kee-Won; Jorgensen, Steven M.; Wang, Shanfeng; Yaszemski, Michael J.; Ritman, Erik L.

2008-04-01

130

Evaluation of 3D nano–macro porous bioactive glass scaffold for hard tissue engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, nano–macro dual-porous, three-dimensional (3D) glass structures were developed for use as bioscaffolds for hard\\u000a tissue regeneration, but there have been concerns regarding the interconnectivity and homogeneity of nanopores in the scaffolds,\\u000a as well as the cytotoxicity of the environment deep inside due to limited fluid access. Therefore, mercury porosimetry, nitrogen\\u000a absorption, and TEM have been used to characterize nanopore

S. Wang; M. M. Falk; A. Rashad; M. M. Saad; A. C. Marques; R. M. Almeida; M. K. Marei; H. Jain

2011-01-01

131

Fabrication and characterization of interconnected porous biodegradable poly(?-caprolactone) load bearing scaffolds  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, poly(?-caprolactone) (PCL)\\/poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) (50:50 wt%) immiscible blend was used as a model system\\u000a to investigate the feasibility of a novel solventless fabrication approach that combines cryomilling, compression molding\\u000a and porogen leaching techniques to prepare interconnected porous scaffolds for tissue engineering. PCL was cryomilled with\\u000a PEO to form blend powders. Compression molding was used to consolidate and anneal

Rula M. Allaf; Iris V. Rivero

2011-01-01

132

Combinatorial on-chip study of miniaturized 3D porous scaffolds using a patterned superhydrophobic platform.  

PubMed

One of the main challenges in tissue engineering (TE) is to obtain optimized products, combining biomaterials, cells and soluble factors able to stimulate tissue regeneration. Multiple combinations may be considered by changing the conditions among these three factors. The unpredictable response of each combination requires time-consuming tests. High-throughput methodologies have been proposed to master such complex analyses in TE. Usually, these tests are performed using cells cultured into 2D biomaterials or by dispensing arrays of cell-loaded hydrogels. For the first time an on-chip combinatorial study of 3D miniaturized porous scaffolds is proposed, using a patterned bioinspired superhydrophobic platform. Arrays of biomaterials are dispensed and processed in situ as porous scaffolds with distinct composition, surface characteristics, porosity/pore size, and mechanical properties. On-chip porosity, pore size, and mechanical properties of scaffolds based on chitosan and alginate are assessed by adapting microcomputed tomography equipment and a dynamic mechanical analyzer, as well as cell response after 24 hours. The interactions between cell types of two distinct origins-osteoblast-like and fibroblasts-and the scaffolds modified with fibronectin are studied and validated by comparison with conventional destructive methods (dsDNA quantification and MTS tests). Physical and biological on-chip analyses are coherent with the conventional measures, and conclusions about the most favorable conditions for each cell type are taken. PMID:23169604

Oliveira, Mariana B; Salgado, Christiane L; Song, Wenlong; Mano, João F

2012-11-21

133

Exogenous phytoestrogenic molecule icaritin incorporated into a porous scaffold for enhancing bone defect repair.  

PubMed

This study was designed to develop a bioactive scaffold to enhance bone defect repair in steroid-associated osteonecrosis (SAON). Icaritin, a metabolite of the herb Epimedium, has been identified as an angiogenic and osteogenic phytomolecule. Icaritin was homogenized into poly lactic-co-glycolic acid/tricalcium phosphate (PLGA/TCP) to form an icaritin-releasing porous composite scaffold (PLGA/TCP/icaritin) by fine-spinning technology. In vitro, high performance liquid chromatography was used to determine the release of icaritin during degradation of PLGA/TCP/icaritin. The osteogenic effects of PLGA/TCP/icaritin were evaluated using rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). In vivo, the osteogenic effect of PLGA/TCP/icaritin was determined within a bone tunnel after core decompression in SAON rabbits and angiography within scaffolds was examined in rabbit muscle pouch model. In vitro study confirmed the sustainable release of icaritin from PLGA/TCP/icaritin with the bioactive scaffold promoting the proliferation and osteoblastic differentiation of rat BMSCs. In vivo study showed that PLGA/TCP/icaritin significantly promoted new bone formation within the bone defect after core decompression in SAON rabbits and enhanced neovascularization in the rabbit muscle pouch experiment. In conclusion, PLGA/TCP/icaritin is an innovative local delivery system that demonstrates sustainable release of osteogenic phytomolecule icaritin enhancing bone repair in an SAON rabbit model. The supplement of scaffold materials with bioactive phytomolecule(s) might improve treatment efficiency in challenging orthopedic conditions. PMID:22807243

Wang, Xin-Luan; Xie, Xin-Hui; Zhang, Ge; Chen, Shi-Hui; Yao, Dong; He, Kai; Wang, Xiao-Hong; Yao, Xin-Sheng; Leng, Yang; Fung, Kwok-Pui; Leung, Kwok-Sui; Qin, Ling

2012-07-13

134

Incorporation of PLGA nanoparticles into porous chitosan-gelatin scaffolds: influence on the physical properties and cell behavior.  

PubMed

Bone regeneration can be accelerated by localized delivery of appropriate growth factors/biomolecules. Localized delivery can be achieved by a 2-level system: (i) incorporation of biomolecules within biodegradable particulate carriers (nanoparticles), and (ii) inclusion of such particulate carriers (nanoparticles) into suitable porous scaffolds. In this study, freeze-dried porous chitosan-gelatin scaffolds (CH-G: 1:2 ratio by weight) were embedded with various amounts of poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles, precisely 16.6%, 33.3% and 66.6% (respect to CH-G weight). Scaffolds loaded with PLGA nanoparticles were subjected to physico-mechanical and biological characterizations including morphological analysis, swelling and dissolution tests, mechanical compression tests and cell viability tests. Results showed that incorporation of PLGA nanoparticles into porous crosslinked CH-G scaffolds: (i) changed the micro-architecture of the scaffolds in terms of mean pore diameter and pore size distribution, (ii) reduced the dissolution degree of the scaffolds, and (iii) increased the compressive modulus. On the other hand, the water uptake behavior of CH-G scaffolds containing PLGA nanoparticles significantly decreased. The incorporation of PLGA nanoparticles did not affect the biocompatibility of CH-G scaffolds. PMID:21783141

Nandagiri, Vijay Kumar; Gentile, Piergiorgio; Chiono, Valeria; Tonda-Turo, Chiara; Matsiko, Amos; Ramtoola, Zeibun; Montevecchi, Franco Maria; Ciardelli, Gianluca

2011-05-01

135

Conductive porous scaffolds as potential neural interface materials.  

SciTech Connect

Our overall intent is to develop improved prosthetic devices with the use of nerve interfaces through which transected nerves may grow, such that small groups of nerve fibers come into close contact with electrode sites, each of which is connected to electronics external to the interface. These interfaces must be physically structured to allow nerve fibers to grow through them, either by being porous or by including specific channels for the axons. They must be mechanically compatible with nerves such that they promote growth and do not harm the nervous system, and biocompatible to promote nerve fiber growth and to allow close integration with biological tissue. They must exhibit selective and structured conductivity to allow the connection of electrode sites with external circuitry, and electrical properties must be tuned to enable the transmission of neural signals. Finally, the interfaces must be capable of being physically connected to external circuitry, e.g. through attached wires. We have utilized electrospinning as a tool to create conductive, porous networks of non-woven biocompatible fibers in order to meet the materials requirements for the neural interface. The biocompatible fibers were based on the known biocompatible material poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS) as well as a newer biomaterial developed in our laboratories, poly(butylene fumarate) (PBF). Both of the polymers cannot be electrospun using conventional electrospinning techniques due to their low glass transition temperatures, so in situ crosslinking methodologies were developed to facilitate micro- and nano-fiber formation during electrospinning. The conductivity of the electrospun fiber mats was controlled by controlling the loading with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs). Fabrication, electrical and materials characterization will be discussed along with initial in vivo experimental results.

Hedberg-Dirk, Elizabeth L.; Cicotte, Kirsten N.; Buerger, Stephen P.; Reece, Gregory; Dirk, Shawn M.; Lin, Patrick P.

2011-11-01

136

Flow and nutrient transport through porous scaffolds used for the culture of bone cells in perfusion bioreactors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal is to understand via computation the behavior of the flow inside porous scaffolds that are used in bone tissue bioreactors. Fluid shear is an important stimulatory factor in preosteoblastic cells seeded in scaffolds and cultured under continuous flow perfusion. A Lattice Boltzmann method has been employed to simulate the flow field within porous scaffolds obtained with high resolution micro-CT. Lagrangian methods have also been used to determine the nutrient dispersion inside the scaffolds. The shear stresses calculated inside the scaffold architecture indicate that the shear stresses experienced by cells inside the scaffold can vary by orders of magnitude. This is important when designing scaffolds for bone tissue growth, since osteoblastic cells require to be stimulated by shear for growth. Moreover, cell detachment can occur when the fluid shear is too high, thus, placing a limit on the stresses that a particular scaffold design should allows. The talk will address the methodology, the validation and the correlation of scaffold structure characteristics with the shear stresses and with the rate of mass transfer.

Papavassiliou, Dimitrios; Voronov, Roman; Sikavitsas, Vassilios; Vangordon, Samuel

2009-03-01

137

Synthesis and characterization of porous polymeric low dielectric constant films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports the synthesis and dielectric properties of a porous poly(arylether) material with an ultra-low dielectric constant for interlayer dielectric applications in microelectronics. The porous polymer films were successfully fabricated by a method of organic phase separation and evaporation. A dielectric constant k of 1.8 was achieved for a porous film with an estimated porosity of 40% and average pore size of 3 nm. Electrical and mechanical properties as well as coefficient of thermal expansion for both dense and porous polymer films were measured.

Xu, Yuhuan; Zheng, D. W.; Tsai, Yipin; Tu, K. N.; Zhao, Bin; Liu, Q. Z.; Brongo, Maureen; Ong, Chung Wo; Choy, Chung Loong; Sheng, George T. T.; Tung, C. H.

2001-04-01

138

Regulation of coat protein polymerization by the scaffolding protein of bacteriophage P22  

SciTech Connect

In the morphogenesis of double stranded DNA phages, a precursor protein shell empty of DNA is first assembled and then filled with DNA. The assembly of the correctly dimensioned precursor shell (procapsid) of Salmonella bacteriophage P22 requires the interaction of some 420 coat protein subunits with approx. 200 scaffolding protein subunits to form a double shelled particle with the scaffolding protein on the inside. In the course of DNA packaging, all of the scaffolding protein subunits exit from the procapsid and participate in further rounds of procapsid assembly. To study the mechanism of shell assembly we have purified the coat and scaffolding protein subunits by selective dissociation of isolated procapsids. Both proteins can be obtained as soluble sununits in Tris buffer at near neutral pH. The coat protein sedimented in sucrose gradients as a roughly spherical monomer, while the scaffolding protein sedimented as if it were an elongated monomer. When the two proteins were mixed together in 1.5 M guanidine hydrochloride and dialyzed back to buffer at room temperature, procapsids formed which were very similar in morphology, sedimentation behavior, and protein composition to procapsids formed in vivo. Incubation of either protein alone under the same conditions did not yield any large structures. We interpret these results to mean that the assembly of the shell involves a switching of both proteins from their nonaggregating to their aggregating forms through their mutual interaction. The results are discussed in terms of the general problem of self-regulated assembly and the control of protein polymerization in morphogenesis.

Fuller, M.T.; King, J.

1980-10-01

139

Porous Shape Memory Polymers.  

PubMed

Porous shape memory polymers (SMPs) include foams, scaffolds, meshes, and other polymeric substrates that possess porous three-dimensional macrostructures. Porous SMPs exhibit active structural and volumetric transformations and have driven investigations in fields ranging from biomedical engineering to aerospace engineering to the clothing industry. The present review article examines recent developments in porous SMPs, with focus given to structural and chemical classification, methods of characterization, and applications. We conclude that the current body of literature presents porous SMPs as highly interesting smart materials with potential for industrial use. PMID:23646038

Hearon, Keith; Singhal, Pooja; Horn, John; Small, Ward; Olsovsky, Cory; Maitland, Kristen C; Wilson, Thomas S; Maitland, Duncan J

2013-02-01

140

Porous CaP/silk composite scaffolds to repair femur defects in an osteoporotic model.  

PubMed

The most common complication for patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis is bone-related defects and fractures. While routine medication has a high probability of undesirable side effects, new approaches have aimed to develop regeneration procedures that stimulate new bone formation while reversing bone loss. Recently, we have synthesized a new hybrid CaP/silk scaffold with a CaP-phase distribution and pore architecture better suited to facilitate cell differentiation and bone formation. The aim of the present study was to compare the involved remodeling process and therapeutic effect of porous CaP/silk composite scaffolds upon local implantation into osteoporotic defects. Wistar rats were used to induce postmenopausal osteoporotic model by bilateral ovariectomy. The pure silk and hybrid CaP/silk scaffolds were implanted into critical sized defects created in distal femoral epiphysis. After 14 and 28 days, the in vivo osteogenetic efficiency was evaluated by ?CT analysis, hematoxylin and eosin staining, Safranin O staining, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining, and immunohistochemical assessment. Animals with or without critical-sized defects were used as drill or blank controls, respectively. The osteoporotic defect model was well established with significantly decreased ?CT parameters of BV/TV, Tb.N and increased Tb.Sp, porosity, combined with changes in histological observations. During the healing process, the critical-sized drill control defects failed to regenerate appreciable bone tissue, while more significantly increased bone formation and mineralization with dynamic scaffold degradation and decreased osteoclastic bone resorption could be detected within defects with hybrid CaP/silk scaffolds compared to pure silk scaffolds. PMID:23674058

Cheng, Ning; Dai, Jing; Cheng, Xiangrong; Li, Shu'e; Miron, Richard J; Wu, Tao; Chen, Wenli; Zhang, Yufeng; Shi, Bin

2013-05-15

141

Direct fabrication of high-resolution three-dimensional polymeric scaffolds using electrohydrodynamic hot jet plotting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the direct three-dimensional (3D) fabrication of polymer scaffolds with sub-10 µm structures using electrohydrodynamic jet (EHD-jet) plotting of melted thermoplastic polymers. Traditional extrusion-based fabrication approaches of 3D periodic porous structures are very limited in their resolution, due to the excessive pressure requirement for extruding highly viscous thermoplastic polymers. EHD-jet printing has become a high-resolution alternative to other forms of nozzle deposition-based fabrication approaches by generating micro-scale liquid droplets or a fine jet through the application of a large electrical voltage between the nozzle and the substrate. In this study, we successfully apply EHD-jet plotting technology with melted biodegradable polymer (polycaprolactone, or PCL) for the fabrication of 2D patterns and 3D periodic porous scaffold structures in potential tissue engineering applications. Process conditions (e.g. electrical voltage, pressure, plotting speed) have been thoroughly investigated to achieve reliable jet printing of fine filaments. We have demonstrated for the first time that the EHD-jet plotting process is capable of the fabrication of 3D periodic structures with sub-10 µm resolution, which has great potential in advanced biomedical applications, such as cell alignment and guidance.

Wei, Chuang; Dong, Jingyan

2013-02-01

142

Surface functionalization of 3D glass-ceramic porous scaffolds for enhanced mineralization in vitro  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bone reconstruction after tissue loosening due to traumatic, pathological or surgical causes is in increasing demand. 3D scaffolds are a widely studied solution for supporting new bone growth. Bioactive glass-ceramic porous materials can offer a three-dimensional structure that is able to chemically bond to bone. The ability to surface modify these devices by grafting biologically active molecules represents a challenge, with the aim of stimulating physiological bone regeneration with both inorganic and organic signals. In this research work glass ceramic scaffolds with very high mechanical properties and moderate bioactivity have been functionalized with the enzyme alkaline phosphatase (ALP). The material surface was activated in order to expose hydroxyl groups. The activated surface was further grafted with ALP both via silanization and also via direct grafting to the surface active hydroxyl groups.Enzymatic activity of grafted samples were measured by means of UV-vis spectroscopy before and after ultrasonic washing in TRIS-HCl buffer solution. In vitro inorganic bioactivity was investigated by soaking the scaffolds after the different steps of functionalization in a simulated body fluid (SBF). SEM observations allowed the monitoring of the scaffold morphology and surface chemical composition after soaking in SBF. The presence of ALP enhanced the in vitro inorganic bioactivity of the tested material.

Ferraris, Sara; Vitale-Brovarone, Chiara; Bretcanu, Oana; Cassinelli, Clara; Vernè, Enrica

2013-04-01

143

Modulation of collagen II fiber formation in 3-D porous scaffold environments.  

PubMed

Collagen II, a major extracellular matrix component in cartilaginous tissues, undergoes fibrillogenesis under physiological conditions. The present study explored collagen II fiber formation in solution and in two- (coverslip) and three-dimensional (scaffold) environments under different incubation conditions. These conditions include variations in adsorption buffers, the presence of 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimenthylaminopropyl) carbodiimide/N-hydroxysuccinimide crosslinker and the nature of the material surfaces. We extend our observations of collagen II fiber formation in two dimensions to develop an approach for the formation of a fibrillar collagen II network throughout surface-modified polylactide-co-glycolide porous scaffolds. Morphologically, the collagen II network is similar to that present in native articular cartilage. Biological validation of the resultant optimized functional scaffold, using rat bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells, shows appreciable cell infiltration throughout the scaffold with enhanced cell spreading at 24h post-seeding. This economic and versatile approach is thus believed to have significant potential in cartilage tissue engineering applications. PMID:21439411

Tan, Guak-Kim; Dinnes, Donna Lee M; Cooper-White, Justin J

2011-03-23

144

Preparation and in vitro evaluation of mesoporous hydroxyapatite coated ?-TCP porous scaffolds.  

PubMed

A mesoporous hydroxyapatite (HA) coating was prepared on a ?-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) porous scaffold by a sol-gel dip-coating method using the block copolymer Pluronic F127 (EO106PO70EO106) as the template. For application as a bone graft, in vitro cell response and bone-related protein expression of mesoporous HA coated ?-TCP scaffold were investigated, using the non-mesoporous HA coated scaffold as the control group, to evaluate the influence of the mesoporous structure on the biological properties of HA coating. It was found that the increased surface area of the mesoporous HA coating greatly affected the response of MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts and the expression of proteins. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay recorded a significantly higher expression of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and bone sialoprotein (BSP) in the mesoporous group than those in the control group (*p<0.05) after different incubation periods. The introduction of mesopores enhanced the expression of ALP and BSP in the cells grown on the mesoporous HA coatings, on the premise of maintaining the protein expression in a sequence to ensure the correct temporo-spatial expression in osteogenesis. These results indicated that the mesoporous HA coating would provide a good environment for cell growth, suggesting that it could be used as the coating material for the surface modification of the tissue engineering scaffolds. PMID:24094217

Ye, Xinyu; Cai, Shu; Xu, Guohua; Dou, Ying; Hu, Hongtao; Ye, Xiaojian

2013-08-31

145

In vitro and in vivo evaluations of 3D porous TCP-coated and non-coated alumina scaffolds.  

PubMed

Both tricalcium phosphate (TCP) and alumina have been extensively studied and shown to have high biocompatibility. Tricalcium phosphate has improved biodegradability and a higher solubility than hydroxyapatite. In contrast, alumina (Al(2)O(3)) is almost completely inert at physiological conditions and has been used as a biomaterial due to its wear resistance, high surface finish, and excellent hardness. Thus, the combination of these two implants would result in greater biocompatibility and phenotype maintenance. A polyurethane (PU) foam replica method was employed in this study to coat TCP on an alumina scaffold. The TCP-coated alumina scaffold was then sintered to generate a porous surface morphology. The pore sizes obtained using this approach ranged between 100-600 µm, which is ideal for cellular proliferation. The cytotoxicity, cellular proliferation, differentiation, and ECM deposition on the coated scaffold resulted in longer-term viability of osteogenic markers compared to the non-coated scaffold. Moreover, the osteogenic properties of porous TCP-coated Al(2)O(3) scaffolds were reported in this study using rabbit models. The TCP/Al(2)O( 3) scaffold and control Al(2)O(3) scaffolds were implanted in the rabbit femur. The bone tissue response was analyzed with micro-computed tomography (micro CT) at 12 and 24 weeks after implantation. The porous scaffolds exhibited favorable hard and soft tissue responses at both time points. At 24 weeks, a three-fold increase in bone tissue ingrowth was observed in defects containing TCP-coated Al(2)O(3) scaffolds compared to control Al(2)O(3) scaffolds. PMID:20207781

Kim, Young-Hee; Anirban, Jyoti M; Song, Ho-Yeon; Seo, Hyung-Seok; Lee, Byong-Taek

2010-03-05

146

Biodegradable polymeric microcarriers with controllable porous structure for tissue engineering.  

PubMed

Porous microspheres fabricated by biodegradable polymers show great potential as microcarriers for cell cultivation in tissue engineering. Herein biodegradable poly(DL-lactide) (PLA) was used to fabricate porous microspheres through a modified double emulsion solvent evaporation method. The influence of fabrication parameters, such as the stirring speed of the primary and secondary emulsion, the polymer concentration of the oil phase, and solvent type, as well as the post-hydrolysis treatment of the porous structure of the PLA microspheres are discussed. Good attachment and an active spread of MG-63 cells on the microspheres is observed, which indicates that the PLA microspheres with controllable porous structure are of great potential as cell delivery carriers for tissue engineering. PMID:19821453

Shi, Xudong; Sun, Lei; Jiang, Jian; Zhang, Xiaolin; Ding, Wenjun; Gan, Zhihua

2009-12-01

147

Implantation of a new porous gelatin–siloxane hybrid into a brain lesion as a potential scaffold for tissue regeneration  

Microsoft Academic Search

For brain tissue regeneration, any scaffold for migrated or transplanted stem cells with supportive angiogenesis is important once necrotic brain tissue has formed a cavity after injury such as cerebral ischemia. In this study, a new porous gelatin–siloxane hybrid derived from the integration of gelatin and 3-(glycidoxypropyl) trimethoxysilane was implanted as a three-dimensional scaffold into a defect of the cerebral

Kentaro Deguchi; Kanji Tsuru; Takeshi Hayashi; Mikiro Takaishi; Mitsuyuki Nagahara; Shoko Nagotani; Yoshihide Sehara; Guang Jin; HanZhe Zhang; Satoshi Hayakawa; Mikio Shoji; Masahiro Miyazaki; Akiyoshi Osaka; Nam-Ho Huh; Koji Abe

2006-01-01

148

Stress-strain analysis of porous scaffolds made from titanium alloys synthesized via SLS method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A layer-by-layer selective laser sintering (SLS) technology seems to be greatly promising for solving the plastic surgery problems, particularly those pertaining to the facial reconstruction. Made from titanium-based alloys (titanium or nitinol, i.e. NiTi-intermetallic phase), the porous scaffolds for cranioplasty are an efficient tool for rectifying the face defects and for the dental orthopedic surgery. The progress in the oral surgery and teeth implantation is caused by the problem of an osteointegration on the one hand, and by achievements of the implant synthesis techniques, on the other hand. An important problem thereby is a profound study of the stress-strain behavior of porous implants under the masticatory load or pressure. In the present study the ways for the optimization of the porous implant structural and strength properties as the function of the laser synthesis parameters are described. The finite element approach (ANSYS) was used here for a complex dowel description and numerical simulations. In order to evaluate the processes in the porous implant under the external loading, a CAD 3D model was built for different internal and external configurations of the implant and/or initial shape of powdered particles. The stress-strain dependences were calculated that displayed the irregularity of the stress distribution by the implant volume in the bone tissue. Most of the values are concentrated in places of object contact.

Shishkovsky, I.

2009-09-01

149

Experimental and computational characterization of designed and fabricated 50:50 PLGA porous scaffolds for human trabecular bone applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study utilizes image-based computational methods and indirect solid freeform fabrication (SFF) technique to design\\u000a and fabricate porous scaffolds, and then computationally estimates their elastic modulus and yield stress with experimental\\u000a validation. 50:50 Poly (lactide-co-glycolide acid) (50:50 PLGA) porous scaffolds were designed using an image-based design technique, fabricated using indirect\\u000a SFF technique, and characterized using micro-computed tomography (?-CT) and

Eiji Saito; Heesuk Kang; Juan M. Taboas; Alisha Diggs; Colleen L. Flanagan; Scott J. Hollister

2010-01-01

150

Biodegradable and bioactive porous scaffold structures prepared using fused deposition modeling.  

PubMed

Three-dimensional printing (3DP) refers to a group of additive manufacturing techniques that can be utilized in tissue engineering applications. Fused deposition modeling (FDM) is a 3DP method capable of using common thermoplastic polymers. However, the scope of materials applicable for FDM has not been fully recognized. The purpose of this study was to examine the creation of biodegradable porous scaffold structures using different materials in FDM and to determine the compressive properties and the fibroblast cell response of the structures. To the best of our knowledge, the printability of a poly(?-caprolactone)/bioactive glass (PCL/BAG) composite and L-lactide/?-caprolactone 75/25 mol % copolymer (PLC) was demonstrated for the first time. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images showed BAG particles at the surface of the printed PCL/BAG scaffolds. Compressive testing showed the possibility of altering the compressive stiffness of a scaffold without changing the compressive modulus. Compressive properties were significantly dependent on porosity level and structural geometry. Fibroblast proliferation was significantly higher in polylactide than in PCL or PCL/BAG composite. Optical microscope images and SEM images showed the viability of the cells, which demonstrated the biocompatibility of the structures. PMID:23281260

Korpela, Jyrki; Kokkari, Anne; Korhonen, Harri; Malin, Minna; Närhi, Timo; Seppälä, Jukka

2012-12-20

151

Icariin delivery porous PHBV scaffolds for promoting osteoblast expansion in vitro.  

PubMed

How cells could proliferate quickly and maintain their biological activity by using appropriate scaffolds remains a big challenge for tissue engineering. By integrating icariin, a bioactive ingredient of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) Epimedii herba, with PHBV scaffolds, novel icariin delivery porous PHBV scaffolds (IDPPSs) were fabricated with a combination of the solvent casting and salt leaching techniques. IDPPSs displayed a high porosity, 88.80%, and appropriate mechanical properties which were required for 3-D cell culture. IDPPSs significantly promoted the proliferation of human osteoblast-like MG-63 cells and the pre-osteoblast MC3T3-E1 cells, while IDPPSs containing 0.1% icariin (wt.%) showed the highest effect compared with other samples. Although IDPPSs continuously released icariin to the solution in 28 days, cells attached to IDPPSs received an enhanced growth stimulation compared with which were not physically in contact with IDPPSs. Up-regulated transcription of growth factor genes and extracellular matrix genes, including BMP2, BMP6, BMP7 and BGN, was observed in IDPPS-cultured MG-63 cells, illustrating that enhanced cellular proliferation results from alteration of gene transcription. These results implied the potential commercial use of IDPPSs in tissue engineering. PMID:23706245

Xia, Leilei; Li, Yongsheng; Zhou, Zheng; Dai, Yao; Liu, Hongbo; Liu, Hairong

2013-05-03

152

Modulation of anabolic and catabolic responses via a porous polymer scaffold manufactured using thermally induced phase separation.  

PubMed

We describe two studies encompassing the iterative refinement of a polymer-based rhBMP-2 delivery system for bone tissue engineering. Firstly, we compared the bone-forming capacity of porous poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) scaffolds produced by thermally induced phase separation (TIPS) with non-porous solvent cast poly(D,L-lactic acid) (PDLLA) used previously. Secondly, we examined the potential synergy between rhBMP-2 and local bisphosphonate in the PLGA scaffold system. In vivo ectopic bone formation studies were performed in C57BL6/J mice. Polymer scaffolds containing 0, 5, 10 or 20 µg rhBMP-2 were inserted into the dorsal musculature. At all rhBMP-2 doses, porous PLGA produced significantly higher bone volume (BV, mm3) than the solid PDLLA scaffolds. Next, porous PLGA scaffolds containing 10 µg rhBMP-2 ± 0.2, or 2 µg zoledronic acid (ZA) were inserted into the hind-limb musculature. Co-delivery of local 10 µg rhBMP-2/2 µg ZA significantly augmented bone formation compared with rhBMP-2 alone (400 % BV increase, p < 0.01). Hydroxyapatite microparticle (HAp) addition (2 % w/w) to the 10 µg rhBMP-2/0.2 µg ZA group increased BV (200 %, p < 0.01). We propose that this was due to controlled ZA release of HAp-bound ZA. Consistent with this, elution analyses showed that HAp addition did not alter the rhBMP-2 elution, but delayed ZA release. Moreover, 2 % w/w HAp addition reduced the scaffold's compressive properties, but did not alter ease of surgical handling. In summary, our data show that refinement of the polymer selection and scaffold fabrication can enhance rhBMP-2 induced bone formation in our bone tissue engineering implant, and this can be further optimised by the local co-delivery of ZA/HAp. PMID:23444237

Yu, Nicole Y C; Schindeler, Aaron; Peacock, Lauren; Mikulec, Kathy; Fitzpatrick, Jane; Ruys, Andrew J; Cooper-White, Justin J; Little, David G

2013-02-27

153

Subcritical CO2 sintering of microspheres of different polymeric materials to fabricate scaffolds for tissue engineering.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to use CO2 at sub-critical pressures as a tool to sinter 3D, macroporous, microsphere-based scaffolds for bone and cartilage tissue engineering. Porous scaffolds composed of ~200?m microspheres of either poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) or polycaprolactone (PCL) were prepared using dense phase CO2 sintering, which were seeded with rat bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (rBMSCs), and exposed to either osteogenic (PLGA, PCL) or chondrogenic (PLGA) conditions for 6weeks. Under osteogenic conditions, the PLGA constructs produced over an order of magnitude more calcium than the PCL constructs, whereas the PCL constructs had far superior mechanical and structural integrity (125 times stiffer than PLGA constructs) at week 6, along with twice the cell content of the PLGA constructs. Chondrogenic cell performance was limited in PLGA constructs, perhaps as a result of the polymer degradation rate being too high. The current study represents the first long-term culture of CO2-sintered microsphere-based scaffolds, and has established important thermodynamic differences in sintering between the selected formulations of PLGA and PCL, with the former requiring adjustment of pressure only, and the latter requiring the adjustment of both pressure and temperature. Based on more straightforward sintering conditions and more favorable cell performance, PLGA may be the material of choice for microspheres in a CO2 sintering application, although a different PLGA formulation with the encapsulation of growth factors, extracellular matrix-derived nanoparticles, and/or buffers in the microspheres may be advantageous for achieving a more superior cell performance than observed here. PMID:24094202

Bhamidipati, Manjari; Sridharan, Banupriya; Scurto, Aaron M; Detamore, Michael S

2013-08-15

154

Two-photon polymerization-generated and micromolding-replicated 3D scaffolds for peripheral neural tissue engineering applications.  

PubMed

In this study, we explore the production of well-defined macroscopic scaffolds with two-photon polymerization (2PP) and their use as neural tissue engineering scaffolds. We also demonstrate that these 3D scaffolds can be replicated via soft lithography, which increases production efficiency. Photopolymerizable polylactic acid (PLA) was used to produce scaffolds by 2PP and soft lithography. We assessed the biocompatibility of these scaffolds using an SH-SY5Y human neuronal cell line and primary cultured rat Schwann cells (of direct relevance to the repair of nerve injuries). A Comet assay with SH-SY5Y human neuronal cells revealed minimal DNA damage after washing the photocured material for 7 days in ethanol. Additionally, thin films and 3D scaffolds of the photocured PLA sustained a high degree of Schwann cell purity (99%), enabled proliferation over 7 days and provided a suitable substrate for supporting Schwann cell adhesion such that bi-polar and tri-polar morphologies were observed. Evidence of orthogonally aligned and organized actin thin filaments and the formation of focal contacts were observed for the majority of Schwann cells. In summary, this work supports the use of PLA as a suitable material for supporting Schwann cell growth and in turn use of 3D soft lithography for the synthesis of neural scaffolds in nerve repair. PMID:22522957

Koroleva, A; Gill, A A; Ortega, I; Haycock, J W; Schlie, S; Gittard, S D; Chichkov, B N; Claeyssens, F

2012-04-23

155

Twice-aged porous inorganic oxides, catalysts, and polymerization processes  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a process to make a porous inorganic oxide. It comprises: forming a silica-titania cogel hydrogel; aging the cogel under substantially neutral pH conditions; aging the thus neutral-aged cogel under alkaline pH conditions in an aqueous solution at a sufficient pH, for a sufficient time and at a sufficient temperature to accomplish at least one of decreasing surface area, increasing pore volume, and increasing pore radius of the xerogel; and spray-drying the thus twice-aged cogel to form a xerogel. The process further comprises the step of adding a pore-preserving agent selected from the group consisting of surfactants, organic silicon compounds, and mixtures thereof to the twice-aged cogel. This patent also describes further comprises incorporating a chromium compound in the porous inorganic oxide.

Knudsen, R.D.; McDaniel, M.P.; Boggs, E.A.; Bailey, F.W.

1991-01-01

156

Porous molecularly imprinted polymer membranes and polymeric particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Porous free-standing molecularly imprinted polymer membranes were synthesised by the method of in situ polymerisation using the principle of synthesis of interpenetrating polymer networks and tested in solid-phase extraction of triazine herbicides from aqueous solutions. Atrazine-specific MIP membranes were obtained by the UV-initiated co-polymerisation of methacrylic acid, tri(ethylene glycol) dimethacrylate, and oligourethane acrylate in the presence of a template (atrazine).

T. A. Sergeyeva; O. O. Brovko; E. V. Piletska; S. A. Piletsky; L. A. Goncharova; L. V. Karabanova; L. M. Sergeyeva; A. V. El'skaya

2007-01-01

157

Adipose tissue engineering with human adipose tissue-derived adult stem cells and a novel porous scaffold.  

PubMed

We investigated the effect of a novel porous scaffold composed with water-soluble poly(L-glutamic acid) (PLGA) and chitosan (CS) on the attachment, proliferation, and adipogenic differentiation of human adipose tissue-derived adult stem cells (ADSCs) in vitro and in vivo. Scanning electron microscope and fluorescent Dil labeling were used to reveal the attachment and growth of ADSCs on scaffolds; cell proliferation was detected by DNA assay. The adipogenic differentiation potential of ADSCs on the scaffolds was assayed by Oil-red O staining and further confirmed by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for adipogenic gene markers (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?2, lipoprotein lipase, fatty acid-binding protein, adiponectin). Cell-seeded constructs exposed to adipogenic medium for 2 weeks in vitro were implanted in severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice for 6 weeks. It was shown that ADSCs attached and spread well on scaffolds with good proliferation behaviors and abundance of extracellular matrix deposition. Oil-red O staining and RT-PCR showed adipogenic differentiation potential of ADSCs on scaffolds. Newly formed adipose-like tissue was confirmed in vivo in SCID mice by Oil-red O staining. PLGA/CS porous scaffolds exhibit good compatibility to ADSCs and can be promising biomaterials for adipose tissue engineering. PMID:23090921

Wang, Wei; Cao, Bin; Cui, Lei; Cai, Jinglong; Yin, Jingbo

2012-10-22

158

Magnetic micro-manipulations to probe the local physical properties of porous scaffolds and to confine stem cells.  

PubMed

The in vitro generation of engineered tissue constructs involves the seeding of cells into porous scaffolds. Ongoing challenges are to design scaffolds to meet biochemical and mechanical requirements and to optimize cell seeding in the constructs. In this context, we have developed a simple method based on a magnetic tweezer set-up to manipulate, probe, and position magnetic objects inside a porous scaffold. The magnetic force acting on magnetic objects of various sizes serves as a control parameter to retrieve the local viscosity of the scaffolds internal channels as well as the stiffness of the scaffolds pores. Labeling of human stem cells with iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles makes it possible to perform the same type of measurement with cells as probes and evaluate their own microenvironment. For 18 microm diameter magnetic beads or magnetically labeled stem cells of similar diameter, the viscosity was equivalently equal to 20 mPa s in average. This apparent viscosity was then found to increase with the magnetic probes sizes. The stiffness probed with 100 microm magnetic beads was found in the 50 Pa range, and was lowered by a factor 5 when probed with cells aggregates. The magnetic forces were also successfully applied to the stem cells to enhance the cell seeding process and impose a well defined spatial organization into the scaffold. PMID:19932922

Robert, Damien; Fayol, Delphine; Le Visage, Catherine; Frasca, Guillaume; Brulé, Séverine; Ménager, Christine; Gazeau, Florence; Letourneur, Didier; Wilhelm, Claire

2009-11-24

159

Development of porous HAp and ?-TCP scaffolds by starch consolidation with foaming method and drug-chitosan bilayered scaffold based drug delivery system.  

PubMed

The inability to maintain high concentrations of antibiotic at the site of infection for an extended period of time along with dead space management is still the driving challenge in treatment of osteomyelitis. Porous bioactive ceramics such as hydroxyapatite (HAp) and beta-tri calcium phosphate (?-TCP) were some of the alternatives to be used as local drug delivery system. However, high porosity and high interconnectivity of pores in the scaffolds play a pivotal role in the drug release and bone resorption. Ceftriaxone is a cephalosporin that has lost its clinical popularity. But has recently been reported to exhibit better bactericidal activity in vitro and reduced probability of resistance development, in combination with sulbactam, a ?-lactamase inhibitor. In this article, a novel approach of forming HAp and pure ?-TCP based porous scaffolds by applying together starch consolidation with foaming method was used. For the purpose, pure HAp and ?-TCP were prepared in the laboratory and after thorough characterization (including XRD, FTIR, particle size distribution, etc.) the powders were used for scaffold fabrication. The ability of these scaffolds to release drugs suitably for osteomyelitis was studied in vitro. The results of the study indicated that HAp exhibited better drug release profile than ?-TCP when drug was used alone indicating the high influence of the carrier material. However, this restriction got relaxed when a bilayered scaffold was formed using chitosan along with the drug. SEM studies along with EDAX on the drug-chitosan bilayered scaffold showed closest apposition of this combination to the calcium phosphate surface. PMID:20644982

Kundu, B; Lemos, A; Soundrapandian, C; Sen, P S; Datta, S; Ferreira, J M F; Basu, D

2010-07-20

160

Chondrogenic Differentiation of Adipose-Derived Adult Stem Cells by a Porous Scaffold Derived from Native Articular Cartilage Extracellular Matrix  

PubMed Central

Adipose-derived adult stem cells (ASCs) have the ability to differentiate into a chondrogenic phenotype in response to specific environmental signals such as growth factors or artificial biomaterial scaffolds. In this study, we examined the hypothesis that a porous scaffold derived exclusively from articular cartilage can induce chondrogenesis of ASCs. Human ASCs were seeded on porous scaffolds derived from adult porcine articular cartilage and cultured in standard medium without exogenous growth factors. Chondrogenesis of ASCs seeded within the scaffold was evident by quantitative RT-PCR analysis for cartilage-specific extracellular matrix (ECM) genes. Histological and immunohistochemical examination showed abundant production of cartilage-specific ECM components—particularly, type II collagen—after 4 or 6 weeks of culture. After 6 weeks of culture, the cellular morphology in the ASC-seeded constructs resembled those in native articular cartilage tissue, with rounded cells residing in the glycosaminoglycan-rich regions of the scaffolds. Biphasic mechanical testing showed that the aggregate modulus of the ASC-seeded constructs increased over time, reaching 150?kPa by day 42, more than threefold higher than that of the unseeded controls. These results suggest that a porous scaffold derived from articular cartilage has the ability to induce chondrogenic differentiation of ASCs without exogenous growth factors, with significant synthesis and accumulation of ECM macromolecules, and the development of mechanical properties approaching those of native cartilage. These findings support the potential for a processed cartilage ECM as a biomaterial scaffold for cartilage tissue engineering. Additional in vivo evaluation is necessary to fully recognize the clinical implication of these observations.

Cheng, Nai-Chen; Estes, Bradley T.; Awad, Hani A.

2009-01-01

161

Preparation and characterization of 3D porous ceramic scaffolds based on portland cement for bone tissue engineering.  

PubMed

There is a constant need for bone substitutes. This work was focused on developing a porous substrate based on Portland cement with air-voids introduced by outgassing reaction product from lime and aluminum powder. The structures were obtained through two routes of raw-materials and processing. Water absorption and compressive strength measurements and scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy assays were conducted in order to characterize the porous substrates. The substrates have shown pore size structure compatible with bone tissue colonization. Also, the mechanical strength exhibited by the scaffolds fall in the normal ranges for trabecular bone. These characteristics indicate potential use of the developed porous scaffold for bone tissue engineering which was endorsed by in vitro experiments via cell culture. PMID:18949538

Mansur, Alexandra A P; Mansur, Herman S

2008-10-24

162

Long-term in vivo gene expression via delivery of PEI-DNA condensates from porous polymer scaffolds.  

PubMed

Nonviral delivery vectors are attractive for gene therapy approaches in tissue engineering, but suffer from low transfection efficiency and short-term gene expression. We hypothesized that the sustained delivery of poly(ethylenimine) (PEI)-condensed DNA from three-dimensional biodegradable scaffolds that encourage cell infiltration could greatly enhance gene expression. To test this hypothesis, a PEI-condensed plasmid encoding beta-galactosidase was incorporated into porous poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLG) scaffolds, using a gas foaming process. Four conditions were examined: condensed DNA and uncondensed DNA encapsulated into PLG scaffolds, blank scaffolds, and bolus delivery of condensed DNA in combination with implantation of PLG scaffolds. Implantation of scaffolds incorporating condensed beta-galactosidase plasmid into the subcutaneous tissue of rats resulted in a high level of gene expression for the entire 15-week duration of the experiment, as exemplified by extensive positive staining for beta-galactosidase gene expression observed on the exterior surface and throughout the cross-sections of the explanted scaffolds. No positive staining could be observed for the control conditions either on the exterior surface or in the cross-section at 8- and 15-week time points. In addition, a high percentage (55-60%) of cells within scaffolds incorporating condensed DNA at 15 weeks demonstrated expression of the DNA, confirming the sustained uptake and expression of the encapsulated plasmid DNA. Quantitative analysis of beta-galactosidase gene expression revealed that expression levels in scaffolds incorporating condensed DNA were one order of magnitude higher than those of other conditions at the 2- week time point and nearly two orders of magnitude higher than those of the control conditions at the 8- and 15-week time points. This study demonstrated that the sustained delivery of PEI-condensed plasmid DNA from PLG scaffolds led to an in vivo long-term and high level of gene expression, and this system may find application in areas such as bone tissue engineering. PMID:15916485

Huang, Yen-Chen; Riddle, Kathryn; Rice, Kevin G; Mooney, David J

2005-05-01

163

3D Porous Chitosan-Alginate Scaffolds: New Matrix for Studying Prostate Cancer Cell-Lymphocyte Interactions In Vitro  

PubMed Central

The treatment of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) remains palliative. Immunotherapy offers a potentially effective therapy for CRPC; however, its advancement into the clinic has been slow, in part because of the lack of representative in vitro tumor models that resemble the in vivo tumor microenvironment for studying interactions of CRPC cells with immune cells and other potential therapeutics. This study evaluates the use of 3D porous chitosan-alginate (CA) scaffolds for culturing human prostate cancer (PCa) cells and studying tumor cell interaction with human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) ex vivo. CA scaffolds and Matrigel matrix samples supported in vitro tumor spheroid formation over 15 days of culture, and CA scaffolds supported live cell fluorescence imaging with confocal microscopy using stably transfected PCa cells for 55 days. PCa cells grown in Matrigel matrix and CA scaffolds for 15 days were co-cultured with PBLs for 2 and 6 days in vitro and evaluated with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), immunohistochemistry (IHC), and flow cytometry. Both the Matrigel matrix and CA scaffolds supported interaction of PBLs with PCa tumors, with CA scaffolds providing a more robust platform for subsequent analyses. This study demonstrates the use of 3D natural polymer scaffolds as a tissue culture model for supporting long-term analysis of interaction of prostate cancer tumor cells with immune cells, providing an in vitro platform for rapid immunotherapy development.

Florczyk, Stephen J.; Liu, Gang; Kievit, Forrest M.; Lewis, Allison M.; Wu, Jennifer D.

2013-01-01

164

Evaluation of three-dimensional porous chitosan-alginate scaffolds in rat calvarial defects for bone regeneration applications.  

PubMed

This study investigated the use of three-dimensional porous chitosan-alginate (CA) scaffolds for critical size calvarial defect (diameter, 5.0 mm) repair in Sprague-Dawley rats. CA scaffolds have been used for in vitro culture of many cell types and demonstrated osteogenesis in ectopic locations in vivo, but have yet to be evaluated for functional bone tissue engineering applications. CA scaffolds demonstrated the ability to support undifferentiated mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in culture for 14 days in vitro and promoted spherical morphology. In vivo tests were performed using CA scaffolds and CA scaffolds with treatments including undifferentiated MSCs, bone marrow aspirate, and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) growth factor in comparison to unfilled bone defect used as a control. The samples were analyzed with MicroCT, histology, and immunohistochemical staining at 4 and 16 weeks. Partial defect closure was observed in all experimental groups at 16 weeks, with the greatest defect closure (71.56 ± 19.74%) in the animal group treated with CA scaffolds with BMP-2 (CA + BMP-2). The experimental samples demonstrated osteogenesis in histology and immunohistochemical staining, with the CA + BMP-2 group, showing the greatest level of osteogenesis. Tissue engineered CA scaffolds show promise in reconstruction of critical size bone defects. PMID:23737120

Florczyk, Stephen J; Leung, Matthew; Li, Zhensheng; Huang, Jerry I; Hopper, Richard A; Zhang, Miqin

2013-06-04

165

Adsorption of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) from aqueous solution by porous polymeric adsorbents.  

PubMed

MTBE has emerged as an important water pollutant because of its high mobility, persistence, and toxicity. In this study, a postcrosslinked polymeric adsorbent was prepared by postcrosslinking of a commercial chloromethylated polymer, and a nonpolar porous polymer with comparable surface area and micropore volume to the postcrosslinked polymer was prepared by suspended polymerization. The postcrosslinked polymer, nonpolar porous polymer and chloromethylated polymer were characterized by N2 adsorption, FTIR and XPS analysis. Results showed that postcrosslinking reaction led to the generation of a microporous postcrosslinked polymer with BET surface area 782m2g(-1), average pore width 3.0nm and micropore volume 0.33cm3g(-1). FTIR and XPS analysis indicated the formation of surface oxygen-containing groups on the postcrosslinked polymer. The three polymers were used as adsorbents to remove aqueous methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE). Adsorption of MTBE over the postcrosslinked polymeric adsorbent was found to follow the linear adsorption isotherm, whereas MTBE adsorption onto the nonpolar porous polymer and chloromethylated polymer followed Langmuir adsorption model. Comparison of adsorption capacities of the postcrosslinked polymer, chloromethylated polymer and nonpolar porous polymer revealed that the adsorption of MTBE from aqueous solution is dependent on both pore structure and surface chemistry of polymeric adsorbents, and the high adsorption efficiency of the postcrosslinked polymer towards MTBE is attributed to its high surface area, large micropore volume and moderate hydrophility. The process of MTBE adsorption onto the adsorbents can be well described by pseudo-second-order kinetics, and the rate of adsorption decreased at higher MTBE initial concentration. PMID:18433995

Ji, Biyan; Shao, Fei; Hu, Guanjiu; Zheng, Shourong; Zhang, Qingmei; Xu, Zhaoyi

2008-03-20

166

Preparation and characterization of agglomerated porous hollow silica supports for olefin polymerization catalyst  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self-prepared porous hollow silica (PHS) nanoparticles were agglomerated with an oil (kerosene)–ammonia method and used as a novel support of metallocene catalysts for olefin polymerization. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microcopy (SEM), small-angle X-ray diffraction (SA-XRD) and nitrogen adsorption–desorption were employed to characterize the morphologies and mesostructures of the PHS particles and agglomerated PHS particles. It was found that

Jian-Feng Chen; Ji-Rui Song; Li-Xiong Wen; Hai-Kui Zou; Lei Shao

2007-01-01

167

Solute transport in cyclically deformed porous tissue scaffolds with controlled pore cross-sectional geometries.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of pore geometry on the transport rate and depth after repetitive mechanical deformation of porous scaffolds for tissue engineering applications. Flexible cubic imaging phantoms with pores in the shape of a circular cylinder, elliptic cylinder, and spheroid were fabricated from a biodegradable polymer blend using a combined 3D printing and injection molding technique. The specimens were immersed in fluid and loaded with a solution of a radiopaque solute. The solute distribution was quantified by recording 20 microm pixel-resolution images in an X-ray microimaging scanner at selected time points after intervals of dynamic straining with a mean strain of 8.6+/-1.6% at 1.0 Hz. The results show that application of cyclic strain significantly increases the rate and depth of solute transport, as compared to diffusive transport alone, for all pore shapes. In addition, pore shape, pore size, and the orientation of the pore cross-sectional asymmetry with respect to the direction of strain greatly influence solute transport. Thus, pore geometry can be tailored to increase transport rates and depths in cyclically deformed scaffolds, which is of utmost importance when thick, metabolically functional tissues are to be engineered. PMID:19196145

Den Buijs, Jorn Op; Lu, Lichun; Jorgensen, Steven M; Dragomir-Daescu, Dan; Yaszemski, Michael J; Ritman, Erik L

2009-08-01

168

Solute Transport in Cyclically Deformed Porous Tissue Scaffolds with Controlled Pore Cross-Sectional Geometries  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of pore geometry on the transport rate and depth after repetitive mechanical deformation of porous scaffolds for tissue engineering applications. Flexible cubic imaging phantoms with pores in the shape of a circular cylinder, elliptic cylinder, and spheroid were fabricated from a biodegradable polymer blend using a combined 3D printing and injection molding technique. The specimens were immersed in fluid and loaded with a solution of a radiopaque solute. The solute distribution was quantified by recording 20??m pixel-resolution images in an X-ray microimaging scanner at selected time points after intervals of dynamic straining with a mean strain of 8.6?±?1.6% at 1.0?Hz. The results show that application of cyclic strain significantly increases the rate and depth of solute transport, as compared to diffusive transport alone, for all pore shapes. In addition, pore shape, pore size, and the orientation of the pore cross-sectional asymmetry with respect to the direction of strain greatly influence solute transport. Thus, pore geometry can be tailored to increase transport rates and depths in cyclically deformed scaffolds, which is of utmost importance when thick, metabolically functional tissues are to be engineered.

Op Den Buijs, Jorn; Lu, Lichun; Jorgensen, Steven M.; Dragomir-Daescu, Dan; Yaszemski, Michael J.

2009-01-01

169

Porous collagen-hydroxyapatite scaffolds with mesenchymal stem cells for bone regeneration.  

PubMed

Abstract Current bone grafting materials have significant limitations for repairing maxillofacial and dentoalveolar bone deficiencies. An ideal bone tissue-engineering construct is still lacking. The purpose of the present study was first to synthesize and develop a collagen-hydroxyapatite (Col-HA) composite through controlled in situ mineralization on type I collagen fibrils with nanometer-sized apatite crystals, and then evaluate their biological properties by culturing with mouse and human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). We synthesized Col-HA scaffolds with different Col:HA ratios. Mouse C3H10T1/2 MSCs and human periodontal ligament stem cells (hPDSCs) were cultured with scaffolds for cell proliferation and biocompatibity assays. We found that the porous Col-HA composites have good biocompatibility and biomimetic properties. The Col-HA composites with ratios 80:20 and 50:50 composites supported the attachments and proliferations of mouse MSCs and hPDSCs. These findings indicate that Col-HA compositecomplexes have strong potentials for bone tissue regeneration. PMID:23574526

Ning, Li; Malmstrom, Hans; Ren, Yan-Fang

2013-04-10

170

Fabrication and in vitro degradation of porous fumarate-based polymer/alumoxane nanocomposite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering.  

PubMed

In this work, the fabrication and in vitro degradation of porous fumarate-based/alumoxane nanocomposites were evaluated for their potential as bone tissue engineering scaffolds. The biodegradable polymer poly (propylene fumarate)/propylene fumarate-diacrylate (PPF/PF-DA), a macrocomposite composed of PPF/PF-DA and boehmite microparticles, and a nanocomposite composed of PPF/PF-DA and surface-modified alumoxane nanoparticles were used to fabricate porous scaffolds by photo-crosslinking and salt-leaching. Scaffolds then underwent 12 weeks of in vitro degradation in phosphate buffered saline at 37 degrees C. The presence of boehmite microparticles and alumoxane nanoparticles in the polymer inhibited scaffold shrinkage during crosslinking. Furthermore, the incorporation of alumoxane nanoparticles into the polymer limited salt-leaching, perhaps due to tighter crosslinking within the nanocomposite. Analysis of crosslinking revealed that the acrylate and overall double bond conversions in the nanocomposite were higher than in the PPF/PF-DA polymer alone, though these differences were not significant. During 12 weeks of in vitro degradation, the nanocomposite lost 5.3% +/- 2.4% of its mass but maintained its compressive mechanical properties and porous architecture. The addition of alumoxane nanoparticles into the fumarate-based polymer did not significantly affect the degradation of the nanocomposite compared with the other materials in terms of mass loss, compressive properties, and porous structure. These results demonstrate the feasibility of fabricating degradable nanocomposite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering by photo-crosslinking and salt-leaching mixtures of fumarate-based polymers, alumoxane nanoparticles, and salt microparticles. PMID:18428800

Mistry, Amit S; Cheng, Stacy H; Yeh, Tiffany; Christenson, Elizabeth; Jansen, John A; Mikos, Antonios G

2009-04-01

171

Two-photon polymerization technique for microfabrication of CAD-designed 3D scaffolds from commercially available photosensitive materials.  

PubMed

We report on recent advances in the fabrication of three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine constructs using a two-photon polymerization technique (2PP). 2PP is a novel CAD/CAM technology allowing the fabrication of any computer-designed 3D structure from a photosensitive polymeric material. The flexibility of this technology and the ability to precisely define 3D construct geometry allows issues associated with vascularization and patient-specific tissue fabrication to be directly addressed. The fabrication of reproducible scaffold structures by 2PP is important for systematic studies of cellular processes and better understanding of in vitro tissue formation. In this study, 2PP was applied for the generation of 3D scaffold-like structures, using the photosensitive organic-inorganic hybrid polymer ORMOCER (ORganically MOdified CERamics) and epoxy-based SU8 materials. By comparing the proliferation rates of cells grown on flat material surfaces and under control conditions, it was demonstrated that ORMOCER and SU8 are not cytotoxic. Additional tests show that the DNA strand breaking of GFSHR-17 granulosa cells was not affected by the presence of ORMOCER. Furthermore, gap junction conductance measurements revealed that ORMOCER did not alter the formation of cell-cell junctions, critical for functional tissue growth. The possibilities of seeding 3D structures with cells were analysed. These studies demonstrate the great potential of 2PP technique for the manufacturing of scaffolds with controlled topology and properties. PMID:18265416

Ovsianikov, Aleksandr; Schlie, Sabrina; Ngezahayo, Anaclet; Haverich, Axel; Chichkov, Boris N

172

Fabrication of Porous Ultra-Short Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Nanocomposite Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering  

PubMed Central

We investigated the fabrication of highly porous scaffolds made of three different materials [poly(propylene fumarate (PPF) polymer, an ultra-short single-walled carbon nanotube (US-tube) nanocomposite, and a dodecylated US-tube (F-US-tube) nanocomposite] in order to evaluate the effects of material composition and porosity on scaffold pore structure, mechanical properties, and marrow stromal cell culture. All scaffolds were produced by a thermal-crosslinking particulate-leaching technique at specific porogen contents of 75, 80, 85, and 90 vol%. Scanning electron microcopy, microcomputed tomography, and mercury intrusion porosimetry were used to analyze the pore structures of scaffolds. The porogen content was found to dictate the porosity of scaffolds. There was no significant difference in porosity, pore size, and interconnectivity among the different materials for the same porogen fraction. Nearly 100% of the pore volume was interconnected through 20 ?m or larger connections for all scaffolds. While interconnectivity through larger connections improved with higher porosity, compressive mechanical properties of scaffolds declined at the same time. However, the compressive modulus, offset yield strength, and compressive strength of F-US-tube nanocomposites were higher than or similar to the corresponding properties for the PPF polymer and US-tube nanocomposites for all the porosities examined. As for in vitro osteoconductivity, marrow stromal cells demonstrated equally good cell attachment and proliferation on all scaffolds made of different materials at each porosity. These results indicate that functionalized ultra-short single-walled carbon nanotube nanocomposite scaffolds with tunable porosity and mechanical properties hold great promise for bone tissue engineering applications.

Shi, Xinfeng; Sitharaman, Balaji; Pham, Quynh P.; Liang, Feng; Wu, Katherine; Billups, W. Edward; Wilson, Lon J.; Mikos, Antonios G.

2011-01-01

173

Design and application of chitosan/biphasic calcium phosphate porous scaffolds for bone tissue engineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the restoration of maxillofacial bone tissue, design of novel tissue engineering scaffolds capable of inducing bone remodeling through the delivery of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and an angiogenic growth factor, directly at the site of the defect was investigated in order to replace autogenous cancellous bone grafts with synthetic materials. Porous, three dimensional scaffolds were fabricated by a freeze drying method. In culture media, biphasic calcium phosphate particles within chitosan produced a surface reprecipitate of a composition similar to natural apatite that led to a uniform distribution of cells and mineralized ECM through chemotaxis. Further, the reprecipitation regulated the differentiation pathway and phenotype commitment of stem cells by altering the initial cell attachment morphology and actin cytoskeleton organization. In order to induce neovascularization after implantation, constructs were designed to be loaded with gelatin microspheres that delivered basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), a potent angiogenic factor. In vitro proliferation tests performed on fibroblastic cells showed no detectible loss of bFGF activity when delivered through enzymatic degradation of gelatin. Laser scanning confocal microscopy was used to demonstrate that gelatin microspheres can be injected evenly into cell-scaffold constructs owing to the spongy characteristics of the scaffold. To examine the binding interactions of bFGF with surface bound gelatin, a label free biosensor system, Biomolecular INteraction Detection sensor (BIND) was used. Results confirm that the principal interaction that takes place between bFGF and gelatin is electrostatic. Cell loaded tissue engineered constructs were produced in vitro at clinically relevant sizes and implanted with and without bFGF into a porcine mandibular defect model. Tissue engineered constructs facilitated the healing of mandibular defects only if combined with delivery of bFGF via gelatin microspheres. bFGF release from the constructs improved neovascularization in the defect area and subsequently enhanced new bone formation. Although the rate and extent of bone formation was similar in bFGF group to those in empty defects for the period of the study, existence of woven bone in bFGF group suggests that bone formation is continuing while the lamellar structure in empty defects indicates that bone formation in that group was finalized.

Sendemir-Urkmez, Aylin

174

Olefin polymerization from single site catalysts confined within porous media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Single Site Catalysts (SSCs) have been utilized for olefin polymerization. Altering the metal-ligand architecture in the SSCs, polyolefin properties can be enhanced in a rational manner. This influence of the ligands in the SSC on the property of polyolefins prepared can be referred to as the primary ligand influence. Extending this understanding and subsequent control of the metal-ligand framework to the interaction of SSCs within organic and inorganic supports is vital for the synthesis of polyolefins with tailored properties. The motivation behind this thesis was to explore the support influence on the reactivity of the SSC tethered to a support matrix during ethylene homo and copolymerization. In order to address this question of the support influence on the final polyolefin properties, synthetic routes to covalently bind SSCs on different matrices have been explored. Two distinct supported SSCs have been used to prepare branched polyethylenes. Branched polyethylenes can be prepared by either copolymerization (ethylene and alpha-olefin) or oligomerization/copolymerization processes (ethylene and in situ generated alpha-olefin). Synthetic routes to prepare precursor catalysts to Constrained Geometry Catalysts (CGCs) by silyl elimination chemistry have been developed (Chapter 2). Efficient synthetic protocols to assemble CGCs on aminomethylpolysytrene matrices (Chapter 3) and amine-functionalized mesoporous silica (Chapter 4) are also reported. These supported catalysts, with appropriate cocatalysts have been used to prepare ethylene homo and copolymers, the polymer thermal properties and microstructures were analyzed by various analytical techniques. Branched polyethylenes (LLDPE) can be prepared by copolymerization chemistry. It has been observed is that the influence of the support is seen in the production of lower crystalline forms of high density polyethylene (HDPE, 20--50% crystalline), while homogeneous polymerization of analogous soluble CGCs afford HDPE of higher percent crystallinity (greater than 60% crystalline). High-density polyethylene with crystallinity of 40--60% can be prepared by using cocatalysts tethered to AMPS or silica in conjunction with analogous soluble, homogeneous CGCs (Chapter 6). Preparative methods to assemble piano stool complexes on hydroxy polystyrenes have been designed. These supported catalysts in conjunction with cocatalysts act as both oligomerization and copolymerization catalysts and allow the preparation of branched polyethylenes from ethylene only feed (Chapter 7).

Kasi, Rajeswari M.

175

Three-dimensional porous scaffold allows long-term wild-type cell delivery in dystrophic muscle.  

PubMed

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is caused by the lack of dystrophin; affected muscles are characterized by continuous bouts of muscle degeneration, eventually leading to the exhaustion of the endogenous satellite cell pool. At present, only palliative treatments are available, although several gene and cell therapy-based approaches are being studied. In this study we proposed to overcome the limitations hampering intramuscular cell injection by using a biomaterial-based strategy. In particular, we used a three-dimensional (3D) collagen porous scaffold to deliver myogenic precursor cells (MPCs) in vivo in the mdx murine model of DMD. MPCs, derived from single fibres of wild-type donors, were expanded in vitro, seeded onto collagen scaffolds and implanted into the tibialis anterior muscles of normal and mdx mice. As a control, cells were delivered via direct intramuscular cell injection in the contralateral muscles. Scaffold-delivered MPCs displayed lower apoptosis and higher proliferation than injected cells; in terms of dystrophin restoration, collagen scaffolds yielded better results than direct injections. Importantly, time-course experiments indicated that the scaffolds acted as a cell reservoir, although cell migration was mostly contained within 400 µm from the scaffold-host tissue interface. PMID:20607681

Carnio, Silvia; Serena, Elena; Rossi, Carlo Alberto; De Coppi, Paolo; Elvassore, Nicola; Vitiello, Libero

2011-01-01

176

In vitro cartilage tissue engineering with 3D porous aqueous-derived silk scaffolds and mesenchymal stem cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adult cartilage tissue has limited self-repair capacity, especially in the case of severe damages caused by developmental abnormalities, trauma, or aging-related degeneration like osteoarthritis. Adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have the potential to differentiate into cells of different lineages including bone, cartilage, and fat. In vitro cartilage tissue engineering using autologous MSCs and three-dimensional (3-D) porous scaffolds has the potential

Yongzhong Wang; Ung-Jin Kim; Dominick J. Blasioli; Hyeon-Joo Kim; David L. Kaplan

2005-01-01

177

Three-dimensional Cultures of Rat Pancreatic RIN-5F Cells in Porous PLGA-collagen Hybrid Scaffolds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three-dimensional cultures of pancreatic islet cells in porous scaffolds or hydrogels have been constructed as a biohybrid artificial pancreas. A thin mesh of a PLGA-collagen hybrid was used to culture rat RIN-5F cells. The hybrid mesh was coated with laminin, fibronectin, vitronectin, type IV collagen, and poly(L-lysine) were evaluated and mesh without coating was used as a control. Cell adhered

Naoki Kawazoe; Xiaoting Lin; Tetsuya Tateishi; Guoping Chen

2009-01-01

178

Porous poly( ?-hydroxyacid)\\/Bioglass ® composite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. I: preparation and in vitro characterisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Highly porous composites scaffolds of poly-d,l-lactide (PDLLA) and poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) containing different amounts (10, 25 and 50wt%) of bioactive glass (45S5 Bioglass®) were prepared by thermally induced solid–liquid phase separation (TIPS) and subsequent solvent sublimation. The addition of increasing amounts of Bioglass® into the polymer foams decreased the pore volume. Conversely, the mechanical properties of the polymer materials were improved.

V. Maquet; A. R. Boccaccini; L. Pravata; I. Notingher; R. Jérôme

2004-01-01

179

Selective laser sintering of porous tissue engineering scaffolds from poly(L: -lactide)/carbonated hydroxyapatite nanocomposite microspheres.  

PubMed

This study focuses on the use of bio-nanocomposite microspheres, consisting of carbonated hydroxyapatite (CHAp) nanospheres within a poly(L: -lactide) (PLLA) matrix, to produce tissue engineering (TE) scaffolds using a modified selective laser sintering (SLS) machine. PLLA microspheres and PLLA/CHAp nanocomposite microspheres were prepared by emulsion techniques. The resultant microspheres had a size range of 5-30 microm, suitable for the SLS process. Microstructural analyses revealed that the CHAp nanospheres were embedded throughout the PLLA microsphere, forming a nanocomposite structure. A custom-made miniature sintering platform was installed in a commercial Sinterstation((R)) 2000 SLS machine. This platform allowed the use of small quantities of biomaterials for TE scaffold production. The effects of laser power; scan spacing and part bed temperature were investigated and optimized. Finally, porous scaffolds were successfully fabricated from the PLLA microspheres and PLLA/CHAp nanocomposite microspheres. In particular, the PLLA/CHAp nanocomposite microspheres appeared to be promising for porous bone TE scaffold production using the SLS technique. PMID:17619975

Zhou, Wen You; Lee, Siu Hang; Wang, Min; Cheung, Wai Lam; Ip, Wing Yuk

2007-07-10

180

Hydroxyapatite/polyamide66 porous scaffold with an ethylene vinyl acetate surface layer used for simultaneous substitute and repair of articular cartilage and underlying bone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The repaired process of HA/ polyamide66 porous scaffold with an ethylene vinyl acetate surface layer composite material [(a) TEM photograph of nHA crystals, (b) camera photo of EVA/HA-PA66 composite, (c) schematic diagram of the fabrication process, (d, f) SEM micrographs of HA-PA66 scaffold]. Highlights • EVA is used for substitute and repair of articular cartilage. • Wettability, friction and wear properties of the surface of EVA were studied. • Bilayered structure of EVA layer and nHA-PA66 porous scaffold was designed. • Articular cartilage and underlying bone were repaired simultaneously.

Luo, Xiaobing; Zhang, Li; Morsi, Yos; Zou, Qin; Wang, Yanying; Gao, Shibo; Li, Yubao

2011-09-01

181

Strut size and surface area effects on long-term in vivo degradation in computer designed poly(L-lactic acid) three-dimensional porous scaffolds.  

PubMed

Current developments in computer-aided design (CAD) and solid free-form fabrication (SFF) techniques enable fabrication of scaffolds with precisely designed architectures and mechanical properties. The present study demonstrates the effect of precisely designed three-dimensional scaffold architectures on in vivo degradation. Specifically, three types of porous poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) scaffolds with variable pore sizes, strut sizes, porosities, and surface areas fabricated by indirect SFF. In addition, one experimental group of PLLA solid cylinders was fabricated. The scaffolds and cylinders were subcutaneously implanted into mice for 6, 12 and 21 weeks. The solid cylinders exhibited a faster percentage mass loss than all porous scaffolds. Among the porous scaffolds the group with the largest strut size lost percentage mass faster than the other two groups. Strong correlations between surface area and percentage mass loss were found at 12 (R(2)=0.681) and 21 (R(2)=0.671) weeks. Scaffold porosity, however, was not significantly correlated with degradation rate. Changes in molecular weight and crystallinity also resulted in changes in the chemical structures due to degradation, and the solid cylinders had faster crystallization due to more advanced degradation than the porous scaffolds. Scaffold compressive moduli decreased with degradation, but the resulting modulus was still within the lower range of human trabecular bone even after 21 weeks. The loss in compressive moduli, however, was a complex function of both degradation and the initial scaffold architecture. This study suggests that CAD and fabrication, within a given material, can significantly influence scaffold degradation profiles. PMID:22446030

Saito, Eiji; Liu, Yifei; Migneco, Francesco; Hollister, Scott J

2012-03-20

182

Bioactive porous ceramics via polymeric sponge method: the effect of preparation conditions on physical properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydroxyapatite (HA) porous materials for artifical human cancellous bone applications have been prepared via polymeric sponge method. Suspensions of the nanostructured hydroxyapatite powders were prepared with a fixed amount of distilled water and HA loading. After soaking cellulosic sponges into the suspension, the sponges were dried and then subjected to heat-treatment at 600°C, followed by sintering at 1250°C for 1 h. No alteration in structure found after sintering. The effect of sintering rate on the physical properties was also investigated in the study on two samples prepared based on a HA loading of 44% in the starting slurry. The study found that the average apparent density of the porous bodies were 2.03 g/cm3 and 1.69 g/cm3 with porosites of 36 and 46 % for the faster and the slower sintering, respectively. Morphological evaluation of the porous bodies shown that both the samples contained macropores of 200-500 ?m diameter, which fulfill the minimum pore size of 100 ?m as medically required. Excellent pore interconnectivity was found in all the samples. The measurement of compressive strength provided the values of 10.0 and 4.3 MPa for the faster and the slower sintering, respectively. It was also shown that the difference in sintering rate influenced the crystallinity of porous HA obtained.

Sopyan, I.; Kaur, J.; Ramesh, S.; Hamdi, M.

2007-10-01

183

An ultra-sensitive microfluidic immunoassay using living radical polymerization and porous polymer monoliths.  

SciTech Connect

We present a platform that combines patterned photopolymerized polymer monoliths with living radical polymerization (LRP) to develop a low cost microfluidic based immunoassay capable of sensitive (low to sub pM) and rapid (<30 minute) detection of protein in 100 {micro}L sample. The introduction of LRP functionality to the porous monolith allows one step grafting of functionalized affinity probes from the monolith surface while the composition of the hydrophilic graft chain reduces non-specific interactions and helps to significantly improve the limit of detection.

Abhyankar, Vinay V.; Singh, Anup K.; Hatch, Anson V.

2010-07-01

184

Production, characterisation, and cytocompatibility of porous titanium-based particulate scaffolds.  

PubMed

Despite its non-matching mechanical properties titanium remains the preferred metal implant material in orthopaedics. As a consequence in some cases stress shielding effect occurs, leading to implant loosening, osteopenia, and finally revision surgery. Porous metal scaffolds to allow easier specialised cells ingrowth with mechanical properties closer to the ones of bone can overcome this problem. This should improve healing processes, implant integration, and dynamic strength of implants retaining. Three Ti-6Al-4V materials were metal injection moulded and tailored porosities were effectively achieved. After microstructural and mechanical characterisation, two different primary cells of mesenchymal origin (human umbilical cord perivascular cells and human bone derived cells which revealed to be two pertinent models) as well as one cell line originated from primary osteogenic sarcoma, Saos-2, were bestowed to investigate cell-material interaction on genomic and proteome levels. Biological examinations disclosed that no material has negative impact on early adhesion, proliferation or cell viability. An efficient cell ingrowth into material with an average porosity of 25-50 ?m was proved. PMID:23807315

Luthringer, B J C; Ali, F; Akaichi, H; Feyerabend, F; Ebel, T; Willumeit, R

2013-06-27

185

Fabrication of porous particulate for the scaffold by applying solution spraying method.  

PubMed

A simple and novel method--in the form of solution spraying--was developed to fabricate biodegradable, porous poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) particulates for scaffold. PLLA pellets were dissolved in an organic solvent. Then, 5 % PLLA-dioxane solution was sprayed using an air-assisted atomizer with a nozzle diameter of 2.5 mm at an air flow rate of 15 L/min. After the sprayed solution solidified in liquid nitrogen, spherical particulates with median diameter of 225microm were obtained. Morphology of sprayed products could be altered by varying the fabrication conditions. When nozzle diameter was reduced to 1.5 mm, sprayed products became fibrous. When the concentration of PLLA-dioxane solution was increased, the diameter of particulates increased too. On the other hand, when air flow rate was increased, the diameter of particulates decreased. Likewise, solidification conditions also affected the morphology of sprayed products, such that they were either thin film-like or in particulate form. Based on the results of the present study, we concluded that PLLA particulates of varying morphologies could be obtained by adjusting the fabrication conditions. PMID:15881212

Tamasaki, Hideki; Sohmura, Taiji; Teraoka, Fumio; Yamamoto, Takehiro; Hirose, Yousuke; Takahashi, Junzo; Niwa, Hitoshi

2005-03-01

186

Preparation of porous 45S5 Bioglass-derived glass-ceramic scaffolds by using rice husk as a porogen additive.  

PubMed

Bioactive glass is currently regarded as the most biocompatible material in the bone regeneration field because of its bioactivity, osteoconductivity and even osteoinductivity. In the present work porous glass-ceramic scaffolds, which were prepared from the 45S5 Bioglass by foaming with rice husks and sintering at 1050 degrees C for 1 h, have been developed. The produced scaffolds were characterized for their morphology, properties and bioactivity. Micrographs taken using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) were used for analysis of macropores, mesopores and micropores, respectively. The bioactivity of the porous glass-ceramic scaffolds was investigated using simulated body fluid (SBF) and characterized by SEM, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). A great potential scaffold that provides sufficient mechanical support temporarily while maintaining bioactivity, and that can biodegrade at later stages is achievable with the developed 45S5 Bioglass-derived scaffolds. PMID:19160020

Wu, Shih-Ching; Hsu, Hsueh-Chuan; Hsiao, Sheng-Hung; Ho, Wen-Fu

2009-01-22

187

Two-photon polymerization of polyethylene glycol diacrylate scaffolds with riboflavin and triethanolamine used as a water-soluble photoinitiator.  

PubMed

Aim: In this study, the suitability of a mixture containing riboflavin (vitamin B2) and triethanolamine (TEOHA) as a novel biocompatible photoinitiator for two-photon polymerization (2PP) processing was investigated. Materials & methods: Polyethylene glycol diacrylate was crosslinked using Irgacure(®) 369, Irgacure 2959 or a riboflavin-TEOHA mixture; biocompatibility of the photopolymer extract solutions was subsequently assessed via endothelial cell proliferation assay, endothelial cell viability assay and single-cell gel electrophoresis (comet) assay. Use of a riboflavin-TEOHA mixture as a photoinitiator for 2PP processing of a tissue engineering scaffold and subsequent seeding of this scaffold with GM-7373 bovine aortic endothelial cells was also demonstrated. Results: The riboflavin-TEOHA mixture was found to produce much more biocompatible scaffolds than those produced with Irgacure 369 or Irgacure 2959. Conclusion: The results suggest that riboflavin is a promising component of photoinitiators for 2PP fabrication of tissue engineering scaffolds and other medically relevant structures (e.g., biomicroelectromechanical systems). PMID:24147528

Nguyen, Alexander K; Gittard, Shaun D; Koroleva, Anastasia; Schlie, Sabrina; Gaidukeviciute, Arune; Chichkov, Boris N; Narayan, Roger J

2013-11-01

188

Femtosecond laser two-photon polymerization of three-dimensional scaffolds for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent studies have shown that mechanical factors can direct stem cell fate in vitro, even in the absence of biochemical factors. Two-photon laser polymerization was applied here to fabricate ultra-precise 3D micro-scaffolds with different architectures and pore sizes able to structurally interact with cells at the single-cell scale. Our experiments have shown that randomly seeded mesenchymal stem cells systematically colonize the internal volumes of 3D scaffolds and proliferate, while showing a roundish morphology. Even if stem cell mechanobiology is a very complex field, this study shows how mechanical interactions studied in a 3D micro-architecture at a single cell scale may influence stem cells response.

Aprile, V.; Eaton, S. M.; Laganà, M.; Cerullo, G.; Raimondi, M. T.; Osellame, R.

2012-02-01

189

Fabrication of Novel Porous Chitosan Matrices as Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Three dimensional (3-D) scaffolds with appropriate mechanical properties play a significant role in scaffold-based tissue engineering. Chitosan, a natural polymer obtained from chitin, which forms a major component of crustacean exoskeleton, is a potentia...

C. M. Pilane C. T. Laurencin T. Jiang

2005-01-01

190

Biodegradable and bioactive porous polymer\\/inorganic composite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biodegradable polymers and bioactive ceramics are being combined in a variety of composite materials for tissue engineering scaffolds. Materials and fabrication routes for three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds with interconnected high porosities suitable for bone tissue engineering are reviewed. Different polymer and ceramic compositions applied and their impact on biodegradability and bioactivity of the scaffolds are discussed, including in vitro and in

K. Rezwan; Q. Z. Chen; J. J. Blaker; Aldo Roberto Boccaccini

2006-01-01

191

Preparation of porous hydroxyapatite scaffolds by combination of the gel-casting and polymer sponge methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new technique of combining the gel-casting and polymer sponge methods is introduced in this study to prepare macroporous hydroxyapatite scaffolds, which provides a better control over the microstructures of scaffolds and enhances their mechanical properties. With this technique, we were able to produce scaffolds with mechanical and structural properties that cannot be attained by either the polymer sponge or

Hassna Rehman Ramay; Miqin Zhang

2003-01-01

192

Selective separation of lambdacyhalothrin by porous/magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers prepared by Pickering emulsion polymerization.  

PubMed

Porous/magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers (PM-MIPs) were prepared by Pickering emulsion polymerization. The reaction was carried out in an oil/water emulsion using magnetic halloysite nanotubes as the stabilizer instead of a toxic surfactant. In the oil phase, the imprinting process was conducted by radical polymerization of functional and cross-linked monomers, and porogen chloroform generated steam under the high reaction temperature, which resulted in some pores decorated with easily accessible molecular binding sites within the as-made PM-MIPs. The characterization demonstrated that the PM-MIPs were porous and magnetic inorganic-polymer composite microparticles with magnetic sensitivity (Ms = 0.7448 emu/g), thermal stability (below 473 K) and magnetic stability (over the pH range of 2.0-8.0). The PM-MIPs were used as a sorbent for the selective binding of lambdacyhalothrin (LC) and rapidly separated under an external magnetic field. The Freundlich isotherm model gave a good fit to the experimental data. The adsorption kinetics of the PM-MIPs was well described by pseudo-second-order kinetics, indicating that the chemical process could be the rate-limiting step in the adsorption of LC. The selective recognition experiments exhibited the outstanding selective adsorption effect of the PM-MIPs for target LC. Moreover, the PM-MIPs regeneration without significant loss in adsorption capacity was demonstrated by at least four repeated cycles. PMID:23894024

Hang, Hui; Li, Chunxiang; Pan, Jianming; Li, Linzi; Dai, Jiangdong; Dai, Xiaohui; Yu, Ping; Feng, Yonghai

2013-08-27

193

Conceptual design of large surface area porous polymeric hybrid media based on polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane precursors: preparation, tailoring of porous properties, and internal surface functionalization.  

PubMed

We report on the preparation of hybrid, organic-inorganic porous materials derived from polyhedral oligomeric vinylsilsesquioxanes (vinylPOSS) via a single-step molding process. The monolithic, large surface area materials are studied with a particular focus on morphology and porous properties. Radical vinyl polymerization of the nanometer-sized POSS building blocks is therefore utilized via a thermally initiated route and in porogenic diluents such as tetrahydrofuran and polyethylene glycols of varying composition. Careful choice of these porogenic solvents and proper choice of initiator concentration lead to highly porous monolithic building entities which show a rigid, 3D-adhered, porous structure, macroscopically adapting the shape of a given mold. The described materials reflect Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface areas of 700 m2/g or more and maximum tunable mesopore volumes of up to 2 cm3/g. Experimental investigations demonstrate the option to tailor nanoporosity and macroporosity in the single-step free-radical polymerization process. While studies on the influence of the used porogenic solvents reveal tuneability of pore sizes due to the unique pore formation process, tailored existence of residual vinyl groups allows facile postpolymerization modification of the highly porous, large surface area hybrid materials exploited via thiol-ene "click" chemistry. Our developed, simply realizable preparation process explores a new route to derive porous organic-inorganic hybrid adsorbents for a wide variety of applications such as extraction, separation science, and catalysis. PMID:23489022

Alves, Filipa; Scholder, Pascal; Nischang, Ivo

2013-04-01

194

Conceptual Design of Large Surface Area Porous Polymeric Hybrid Media Based on Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxane Precursors: Preparation, Tailoring of Porous Properties, and Internal Surface Functionalization  

PubMed Central

We report on the preparation of hybrid, organic–inorganic porous materials derived from polyhedral oligomeric vinylsilsesquioxanes (vinylPOSS) via a single-step molding process. The monolithic, large surface area materials are studied with a particular focus on morphology and porous properties. Radical vinyl polymerization of the nanometer-sized POSS building blocks is therefore utilized via a thermally initiated route and in porogenic diluents such as tetrahydrofuran and polyethylene glycols of varying composition. Careful choice of these porogenic solvents and proper choice of initiator concentration lead to highly porous monolithic building entities which show a rigid, 3D-adhered, porous structure, macroscopically adapting the shape of a given mold. The described materials reflect Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface areas of 700 m2/g or more and maximum tunable mesopore volumes of up to 2 cm3/g. Experimental investigations demonstrate the option to tailor nanoporosity and macroporosity in the single-step free-radical polymerization process. While studies on the influence of the used porogenic solvents reveal tuneability of pore sizes due to the unique pore formation process, tailored existence of residual vinyl groups allows facile postpolymerization modification of the highly porous, large surface area hybrid materials exploited via thiol–ene “click” chemistry. Our developed, simply realizable preparation process explores a new route to derive porous organic–inorganic hybrid adsorbents for a wide variety of applications such as extraction, separation science, and catalysis.

2013-01-01

195

Pore size reduction in directional crystallization processing of porous polymeric membranes.  

PubMed

Although various prep technologies of porous polymeric materials have evolved, the versatile control of pore morphology still remains as the most demanding subject. Herein, we applied the engineering principles of crystal habit by directional crystallization to the fabrication of porous PVDF (polyvinylidene fluoride) membranes. Pores of low tortuosity and relatively high porosity (80-90%) were successfully fabricated by the directional crystallization of DMSO (dimethyl sulfoxide) under a temperature gradient imposed by the controlled movement of a sample toward a liquid nitrogen reservoir followed by subsequent solvent removal. Pore size was controlled across a wide range by mixing DMSO with dioxane. Notably, nanoporous structures could be prepared at a 1:1 mixing ratio, in which the multi-step crystallization of solvents restricted by highly concentrated solutes enabled the preparation of nanomembranes. The homogeneous dispersion of TiO2 nanoparticles into PVDF, which are often used to improve hydrophilicity and antifouling performance, was easily achieved by this method. This novel prep technology based on the directional crystallization of solvent mixtures is a potentially viable solution to the limitations of current porous materials research. PMID:23755679

Kim, Byoung Soo; Lee, Jonghwi

2013-03-01

196

In vitro and in vivo evaluation of biodegradable, open-porous scaffolds made of sintered magnesium W4 short fibres.  

PubMed

A cytocompatible and biocompatible, degradable, open-porous, mechanically adaptable metal scaffold made of magnesium alloy W4 melt-extracted short fibres was fabricated by liquid phase sintering. Cylindrical samples (3×5mm) of sintered W4 short fibres were evaluated under in vitro (L929, HOB, eudiometer, weight loss) and in vivo conditions (rabbits: 6 and 12weeks). The in vitro corrosion environment (e.g., temperature, flow, composition of corrosion solution, exposure time) significantly influenced the corrosion rates of W4 scaffolds compared with corrosion in vivo. Corrosion rates under cell culture conditions for 72h varied from 1.05 to 3.43mmy(-1) depending on the media composition. Corrosion rates measured in eudiometric systems for 24h were ?24-27 times higher (3.88-4.43mmy(-1)) than corrosion in vivo after 6weeks (0.16mmy(-1)). Moreover, it was found that the cell culture media composition significantly influences the ionic composition of the extract by selectively dissolving ions from W4 samples or their corrosion products. A pilot in vivo study for 6 and 12weeks demonstrated active bone remodelling, no foreign body reaction and no clinical observation of gas formation during W4 scaffold implantation. Long-term in vivo studies need to be conducted to prove complete degradation of the W4 scaffold and total replacement by the host tissue. PMID:23542554

Bobe, K; Willbold, E; Morgenthal, I; Andersen, O; Studnitzky, T; Nellesen, J; Tillmann, W; Vogt, C; Vano, K; Witte, F

2013-03-28

197

Microfabrication of complex porous tissue engineering scaffolds using 3D projection stereolithography  

PubMed Central

The success of tissue engineering will rely on the ability to generate complex, cell seeded three-dimensional (3D) structures. Therefore, methods that can be used to precisely engineer the architecture and topography of scaffolding materials will represent a critical aspect of functional tissue engineering. Previous approaches for 3D scaffold fabrication based on top-down and process driven methods are often not adequate to produce complex structures due to the lack of control on scaffold architecture, porosity, and cellular interactions. The proposed projection stereolithography (PSL) platform can be used to design intricate 3D tissue scaffolds that can be engineered to mimic the microarchitecture of tissues, based on computer aided design (CAD). The PSL system was developed, programmed and optimized to fabricate 3D scaffolds using gelatin methacrylate (GelMA). Variation of the structure and prepolymer concentration enabled tailoring the mechanical properties of the scaffolds. A dynamic cell seeding method was utilized to improve the coverage of the scaffold throughout its thickness. The results demonstrated that the interconnectivity of pores allowed for uniform human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) distribution and proliferation in the scaffolds, leading to high cell density and confluency at the end of the culture period. Moreover, immunohistochemistry results showed that cells seeded on the scaffold maintained their endothelial phenotype, demonstrating the biological functionality of the microfabricated GelMA scaffolds.

Gauvin, Robert; Chen, Ying-Chieh; Lee, Jin Woo; Soman, Pranav; Zorlutuna, Pinar; Nichol, Jason W.; Bae, Hojae; Chen, Shaochen; Khademhosseini, Ali

2013-01-01

198

Microfabrication of complex porous tissue engineering scaffolds using 3D projection stereolithography.  

PubMed

The success of tissue engineering will rely on the ability to generate complex, cell seeded three-dimensional (3D) structures. Therefore, methods that can be used to precisely engineer the architecture and topography of scaffolding materials will represent a critical aspect of functional tissue engineering. Previous approaches for 3D scaffold fabrication based on top-down and process driven methods are often not adequate to produce complex structures due to the lack of control on scaffold architecture, porosity, and cellular interactions. The proposed projection stereolithography (PSL) platform can be used to design intricate 3D tissue scaffolds that can be engineered to mimic the microarchitecture of tissues, based on computer aided design (CAD). The PSL system was developed, programmed and optimized to fabricate 3D scaffolds using gelatin methacrylate (GelMA). Variation of the structure and prepolymer concentration enabled tailoring the mechanical properties of the scaffolds. A dynamic cell seeding method was utilized to improve the coverage of the scaffold throughout its thickness. The results demonstrated that the interconnectivity of pores allowed for uniform human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) distribution and proliferation in the scaffolds, leading to high cell density and confluency at the end of the culture period. Moreover, immunohistochemistry results showed that cells seeded on the scaffold maintained their endothelial phenotype, demonstrating the biological functionality of the microfabricated GelMA scaffolds. PMID:22365811

Gauvin, Robert; Chen, Ying-Chieh; Lee, Jin Woo; Soman, Pranav; Zorlutuna, Pinar; Nichol, Jason W; Bae, Hojae; Chen, Shaochen; Khademhosseini, Ali

2012-02-25

199

Bioactive porous scaffolds for tissue engineering applications: investigation on the degradation process by Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy.  

PubMed

Bioactive glasses in the Na2 O-K2 O-MgO-CaO-B2 O3 -P2 O5 -SiO2 system characterized by an unusually large working range were used for the production of fiber porous scaffolds. In vitro tests were carried out by immersing the scaffolds in simulated body fluid (SBF) solution; soaking time and glass composition effects on the degradation of the material are the principal subject of this investigation. Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used as the main investigative methods. The study demonstrates the importance of the network modifiers and, in particular, of the amount of alkaline and al-kaline earths in the different stages of the material degradation and in the development of the hydroxyl-carbonate-apatite (HCA) layer. PMID:20799209

Moimas, L; De Rosa, G; Sergo, V; Schmid, C

200

Load-adaptive scaffold architecturing: a bioinspired approach to the design of porous additively manufactured scaffolds with optimized mechanical properties.  

PubMed

Computer-Aided Tissue Engineering (CATE) is based on a set of additive manufacturing techniques for the fabrication of patient-specific scaffolds, with geometries obtained from medical imaging. One of the main issues regarding the application of CATE concerns the definition of the internal architecture of the fabricated scaffolds, which, in turn, influences their porosity and mechanical strength. The present study envisages an innovative strategy for the fabrication of highly optimized structures, based on the a priori finite element analysis (FEA) of the physiological load set at the implant site. The resulting scaffold micro-architecture does not follow a regular geometrical pattern; on the contrary, it is based on the results of a numerical study. The algorithm was applied to a solid free-form fabrication process, using poly(?-caprolactone) as the starting material for the processing of additive manufactured structures. A simple and intuitive geometry was chosen as a proof-of-principle application, on which finite element simulations and mechanical testing were performed. Then, to demonstrate the capability in creating mechanically biomimetic structures, the proximal femur subjected to physiological loading conditions was considered and a construct fitting a femur head portion was designed and manufactured. PMID:22109804

Rainer, Alberto; Giannitelli, Sara M; Accoto, Dino; De Porcellinis, Stefano; Guglielmelli, Eugenio; Trombetta, Marcella

2011-11-23

201

Improvement of porous beta-TCP scaffolds with rhBMP-2 chitosan carrier film for bone tissue application.  

PubMed

Ceramic materials are osteoconductive matrices extensively used in bone tissue engineering approaches. The performance of these types of biomaterials can be greatly enhanced by the incorporation of bioactive agents and materials. It is previously reported that chitosan is a biocompatible, biodegradable material that enhances bone formation. In the other hand, bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) is a well-known osteoinductive factor. In this work we coated porous beta-tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP) scaffolds with recombinant human BMP-2 (rhBMP-2) carrier chitosan films and studied how they could modify the ceramic physicochemical properties, cellular response, and in vivo bone generation. Initial beta-TCP disks with an average diameter of 5.78 mm, 2.9 mm thickness, and 53% porosity were coated with a chitosan film. These coating properties were studied by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform-infrared analysis, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). Treatment modified the scaffold porous distribution and increased the average hardness. The biocompatibility did not seem to be altered. In addition, adhered C2C12 cells expressed alkaline phosphatase activity, related to cell differentiation toward osteogenic lineage, due to the incorporation of rhBMP-2. On the other hand, in vivo observations showed new bone formation 3 weeks after surgery, a much shorter time than control beta-TCP ceramics. These results suggest that developed coating improved porous beta-TCP scaffold for bone tissue applications and added osteoinductive properties. PMID:18491953

Abarrategi, Ander; Moreno-Vicente, Carolina; Ramos, Viviana; Aranaz, Inmaculada; Sanz Casado, José Vicente; López-Lacomba, José Luís

2008-08-01

202

Fabrication of porous polycaprolactone/hydroxyapatite (PCL/HA) blend scaffolds using a 3D plotting system for bone tissue engineering.  

PubMed

For tissue engineering and regeneration, a porous scaffold with interconnected networks is needed to guide cell attachment and growth/ingrowth in three-dimensional (3D) structure. Using a rapid prototyping (RP) technique, we designed and fabricated 3D plotting system and three types of scaffolds: those from polycaprolactone (PCL), those from PCL and hydroxyapatite (HA), and those from PCL/HA and with a shifted pattern structure (PCL/HA/SP scaffold). Shifted pattern structure was fabricated to increase the cell attachment/adhesion. The PCL/HA/SP scaffold had a lower compressive modulus than PCL and PCL/HA scaffold. However, it has a better cell attachment than the scaffolds without a shifted pattern. MTT assay and alkaline phosphatase activity results for the PCL/HA/SP scaffolds were significantly enhanced compared to the results for the PCL and PCL/HA scaffolds. According to their degree of cell proliferation/differentiation, the scaffolds were in the following order: PCL/HA/SP > PCL/HA > PCL. These 3D scaffolds will be applicable for tissue engineering based on unique plotting system. PMID:21170553

Park, Su A; Lee, Su Hee; Kim, Wan Doo

2010-12-18

203

Thermal-crosslinked porous chitosan scaffolds for soft tissue engineering applications.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of using a steam autoclave process for sterilization and simultaneously thermal-crosslinking of lyophilized chitosan scaffolds. This process is of great interest in biomaterial development due to its simplicity and low toxicity. The steam autoclave process had no significant effect on the average pore diameter (~70 ?m) and overall porosity (>80%) of the resultant chitosan scaffolds, while the sterilized scaffolds possessed more homogenous pore size distribution. The sterilized chitosan scaffolds exhibited an enhanced compressive modulus (109.8 kPa) and comparable equilibrium swelling ratio (23.3). The resultant chitosan scaffolds could be used directly for in vitro cell culture without extra sterilization. The data of in vitro studies demonstrated that the scaffolds facilitated cell attachment and proliferation, indicating great potential for soft tissue engineering applications. PMID:23910277

Ji, Chengdong; Shi, Jeffrey

2013-05-13

204

Electrospun nanofibrous polymeric scaffold with targeted drug release profiles for potential application as wound dressing.  

PubMed

We have successfully fabricated a dual drug release electrospun scaffold containing an anesthetic, lidocaine, and an antibiotic, mupirocin. Two drugs with different lipophilicities were electrospun from a poly-l-lactic acid (PLLA) solution with a dual spinneret electrospinning apparatus into a single scaffold. The release of the drugs from the scaffold showed different profiles for the two drugs. Lidocaine hydrochloride exhibited an initial burst release (80% release within an hour) followed by a plateau after the first few hours. Mupirocin exhibited only a 5% release in the first hour before experiencing a more sustained release to provide antibacterial action for over 72 h. For comparative purposes, both drugs were spun from a single spinneret and evaluated to determine their release profiles. The scaffold maintained its antibiotic activity throughout the processes of electrospinning and gas sterilization and supported cell viability. It has been reported in the literature that interactions between polymer and drug are known to govern the pattern of drug release from electrospun scaffolds. Here, it was found that the presence of the two drugs in the same polymer matrix altered the release kinetics of at least one drug. Based on the release profiles obtained, the dual spinneret technique was the preferred method of scaffold fabrication over the single spinneret technique to obtain a prototype wound healing device. PMID:18771719

Thakur, R A; Florek, C A; Kohn, J; Michniak, B B

2008-08-15

205

Surface modification of porous polymeric membranes by RF-plasma treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polymeric membranes can be modified by surface treatment with glow discharge created by non-polymerizable gases, with low power radio-frequency (rf) plasma. The purpose of this work is to study the influence of the exposure time, the supplied power and the nature of the gas on the permeability of the treated membranes. Asymmetric porous substrates of polysulfone (PSf) were used and their surfaces were modified with inorganic gas plasma (ammonia). Three rf power levels, respectively 5, 10 and 15 W were used. Treatment time ranged from 1 to 50 min. The chemical and structural characterization of the membranes before and after the surface modification was done by means of Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The permeated flow of pure gases (N2 and CO2) was measured using conventional gas permeation cell at room temperature.

Castro Vidaurre, E. F.; Achete, C. A.; Simão, R. A.; Habert, A. C.

2001-04-01

206

The Effect of Plasma Surface Treatment on a Porous Green Ceramic Film with Polymeric Binder Materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To reduce time and energy during thermal binder removal in the ceramic process, plasma surface treatment was applied before the lamination process. The adhesion strength in the lamination films was enhanced by oxidative plasma treatment of the porous green ceramic film with polymeric binding materials. The oxygen plasma characteristics were investigated through experimental parameters and weight loss analysis. The experimental results revealed the need for parameter analysis, including gas material, process time, flow rate, and discharge power, and supported a mechanism consisting of competing ablation and deposition processes. The weight loss analysis was conducted for cyclic plasma treatment rather than continuous plasma treatment for the purpose of improving the film's permeability by suppressing deposition of the ablated species. The cyclic plasma treatment improved the permeability compared to the continuous plasma treatment.

Jeong, Woo Yun

2013-06-01

207

Novel Modeling Approach to Generate a Polymeric Nanofiber Scaffold for Salivary Gland Cells  

PubMed Central

Background Electrospun nanofibers have been utilized in many biomedical applications as biomimetics of extracellular matrix proteins that promote self-organization of cells into 3D tissue constructs. As progress towards an artificial salivary gland tissue construct, we prepared nanofiber scaffolds using PLGA, a biodegradable and biocompatible material. Method of Approach We used electrospinning to prepare nanofiber scaffolds using PLGA with both DMF and HFIP as solvents. Using a design of experiment (DOE) approach, system and process parameters were optimized concurrently and their effects on the diameter of the resulting fibers were computed into a single model. A transfer function was used to reproducibly produce nanofibers of a defined diameter, which was confirmed by SEM. The mouse salivary gland epithelial cell line, SIMS, was seeded on the nanofiber scaffolds, and morphology, cell proliferation, and viability were assayed. Results Varying two or more parameters simultaneously yielded trends diverging from the linear response predicted by previous studies. Comparison of two solvents revealed that the diameter of PLGA nanofibers generated using HFIP is less sensitive to changes in the system and process parameters than are fibers generated using DMF. Inclusion of NaCl reduced morphological inconsistencies and minimized process variability. The resulting nanofiber scaffolds supported attachment, survival and cell proliferation of a mouse salivary gland epithelial cell line. In comparison with glass and flat PLGA films, the nanofibers promoted self-organization of the salivary gland cells into 3D cell clusters, or aggregates. Conclusions These data indicate that nanofiber scaffolds promote salivary gland cell organization, and suggest that a nanofiber scaffold could provide a platform for engineering of an artificial salivary gland tissue construct. This study additionally provides a method for efficient production of nanofiber scaffolds for general application in tissue engineering.

Jean-Gilles, Riffard; Soscia, David; Sequeira, Sharon; Melfi, Michael; Gadre, Anand; Castracane, James; Larsen, Melinda

2011-01-01

208

In vivo acute and humoral response to three-dimensional porous soy protein scaffolds.  

PubMed

Increasing interest in using soy biomaterials for tissue engineering applications has prompted investigation into the in vivo biocompatibility of soy implants. In this study, the biocompatibility of soy protein scaffolds fabricated using freeze-drying and 3-D printing was assessed using a subcutaneous implant model in BALB/c mice. The main objectives of this study were: (1) to compare soy protein with bovine collagen, a well-characterized natural protein implant, by implanting scaffolds of the same protein weight, and (2) to observe the effects of soy scaffold microstructure and amount of protein loading, which also alters the degradation properties, on the acute and humoral immune responses towards soy. Results showed that freeze-dried soy scaffolds fully degraded after 14days, whereas collagen scaffolds (of the same protein weight) remained intact for 56days. Furthermore, Masson's trichrome staining showed little evidence of damage or fibrosis at the soy implant site. Scaffolds of higher soy protein content, however, were still present after 56days. H&E staining revealed that macrophage infiltration was hindered in the denser bioplotted soy scaffolds, causing slower degradation. Analysis of soy-specific antibodies in mouse serum after implantation revealed levels of IgG1 that correlated with higher scaffold weight and protein density. However, no soy-specific IgE was detected, indicating the absence of an allergic response to the soy implants. These results demonstrate that soy protein could be an acceptable biocompatible implant for tissue regeneration, and that scaffold porosity, soy protein density and scaffold degradation rate significantly affect the acute and humoral immune response. PMID:23851173

Chien, Karen B; Aguado, Brian A; Bryce, Paul J; Shah, Ramille N

2013-07-12

209

Synthesis of porous zirconia spheres for HPLC by polymerization-induced colloid aggregation (PICA)  

SciTech Connect

Porous, spherical zirconia particles with a narrow particle size distribution, which are useful as chromatographic packing materials for high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), were synthesized by polymerization-induced colloid aggregation (PICA) first described by Iler and McQueston (US Patent 4,010,242, 1977.) and the effects of a number of crucial processing variables were examined. In this method, an aqueous zirconia sol consisting of 700 [angstrom] (mean diameter) particles is mixed with urea and formaldehyde polymer adsorbs onto the ZrO[sub 2] colloids, entraining the colloids in the precipitation of the polymer gel and thus alloying the colloids to aggregate. Features of the aggregation process are elucidated from responses of the process to variations in temperature, reaction mixture composition, and solvent polarity. Results suggest that the aggregation process resembles those reported for the bridging flocculation of colloids by adsorbed polymers. Porous zirconia particles obtained after polymer combustion and sintering of the aggregates are 3.5 [mu]m in diameter with a surface area of 13 m[sup 2]/g, a porosity of 29% and pores ranging from <50 to 350 [angstrom] in diameter. The particles are strong enough to withstand the packing of a HPLC column.

Sun, L.; Annen, M.J.; Lorenzano-Porras, F.; Carr, P.W.; McCormick, A.V. (Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States))

1994-03-15

210

Bone morphogenic protein-2 (BMP-2) loaded hybrid coating on porous hydroxyapatite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering.  

PubMed

In this study, a silica xerogel-chitosan hybrid is utilized as a coating material to incorporate bone morphogenic protein-2 (BMP-2) on a porous hydroxyapatite (HA) scaffold for bone tissue engineering. BMP-2 is known as a therapeutic agent for improving bone regeneration and repair. Silica xerogel-chitosan hybrids have been used for the delivery of a growth factor as well as osteoconductive coatings. The biological properties of the hybrid coating incorporated with BMP-2 were evaluated in terms of the BMP-2 release behavior, osteoblastic cellular responses and in vivo performance. BMP-2 was continuously released from the hybrid coating layer on the porous HA scaffold for up to 6 weeks. The hybrid coating containing BMP-2 showed significantly enhanced osteoblastic cell responses in comparison with the hybrid coating and HA substrate. Consequently, new bone formation was significantly increased within the hybrid coating containing BMP-2. These results reveal that the hybrid coating containing BMP-2 has the potential to be used as a bone implant, whose osteogenic properties are promoted by the release of BMP-2 in a controlled manner for a prolonged period of time. PMID:23344924

Jun, Shin-Hee; Lee, Eun-Jung; Jang, Tae-Sik; Kim, Hyoun-Ee; Jang, Jun-Hyeog; Koh, Young-Hag

2013-01-24

211

Effects of Osteoblast-Like Cell Seeding on Mechanical Properties of Porous Composite Scaffolds  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Recently, much attention has been paid to the application of tissue engineering technology to bone regeneration. Bio-polymers\\u000a such as collagen and bioactive ceramics such as hydroxyapatite and tricalcium phosphates are used as raw materials for the\\u000a scaffolds for in vitro regeneration of bone tissue. These materials have been used to develop the scaffolds independently\\u000a but also polymer-ceramics or polymer-polymer composites

Takaaki Arahira; Mitsugu Todo

212

Porous hydroxyapatite/gelatine scaffolds with ice-designed channel-like porosity for biomedical applications.  

PubMed

A cryogenic process, including freeze-casting and drying has been performed to obtain hydroxyapatite (HA) scaffolds (approx. diameter 10 mm, height 20 mm) with completely lamellar morphology due to preferentially aligned channel-like pores. Changing the process parameters that influence the cold transmission efficiency from the bottom to the top of the poured HA slurry, lamellar ice crystals with different thickness grew throughout the samples. After sintering, scaffolds with porosity features nearly resembling the ice ones were obtained. The interconnection of pores and the ability of the scaffolds to be rapidly penetrated by synthetic body fluid has been proven. Biohybrid HA/gel composites were prepared, infiltrating HA lamellar scaffolds (45-55 vol.% of porosity) with a 10wt.% solution of gelatine. Colouring genipine was used to cross-link gelatine and clearly show the distribution of the protein in the composite. The compressive mechanical properties of lamellar scaffolds improved with the addition of gelatine: the strength increased up to 5-6 times, while the elastic modulus and strain approximately doubled. The effectiveness of the cross-linkage has been preliminarily verified following scaffold degradation in synthetic body fluid. PMID:18579459

Landi, Elena; Valentini, Federica; Tampieri, Anna

2008-06-06

213

Uncultured marrow mononuclear cells delivered within fibrin glue hydrogels to porous scaffolds enhance bone regeneration within critical-sized rat cranial defects  

Microsoft Academic Search

For bone tissue engineering, the benefits of incorporating mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into porous scaffolds are well established. There is, however, little consensus on the effects of or need for MSC handling ex vivo. Culture and expansion of MSCs adds length and cost, and likely increases risk associated with treatment. We evaluated the effect of using uncultured bone marrow mononuclear

James Douglas Kretlow; Patrick Paul Spicer; John Jansen; Charles A Vacanti; F. Kurtis Kasper; Antonios G. Mikos

2010-01-01

214

Hard tissue formation in a porous HA\\/TCP ceramic scaffold loaded with stromal cells derived from dental pulp and bone marrow  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to compare the ability of hard tissue regeneration of four types of stem cells or precursors under both in vitro and in vivo situations. Primary cultures of rat bone marrow, rat dental pulp, human bone marrow, and human dental pulp cells were seeded onto a porous ceramic scaffold material, and then either cultured in

Weibo Zhang; X. Frank Walboomers; Juliette van den Dolder; John A. Jansen

2008-01-01

215

Uncultured marrow mononuclear cells delivered within fibrin glue hydrogels to porous scaffolds enhance bone regeneration within critical-sized rat cranial defects.  

PubMed

For bone tissue engineering, the benefits of incorporating mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into porous scaffolds are well established. There is, however, little consensus on the effects of or need for MSC handling ex vivo. Culture and expansion of MSCs adds length and cost, and likely increases risk associated with treatment. We evaluated the effect of using uncultured bone marrow mononuclear cells (bmMNCs) encapsulated within fibrin glue hydrogels and seeded into porous scaffolds to regenerate bone over 12 weeks in an 8-mm-diameter, critical-sized rat cranial defect. A full factorial experimental design was used to evaluate bone formation within model poly(L-lactic acid) and corraline hydroxyapatite scaffolds with or without platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and bmMNCs. Mechanical push-out testing, microcomputed tomographical analyses, and histology were performed. PRP showed no benefit for bone formation. Cell-laden poly(L-lactic acid) scaffolds without PRP required significantly greater force to displace from surrounding tissues than control (cell-free) scaffolds, but no differences were observed during push-out testing of coral scaffolds. For bone volume formation as analyzed by microcomputed tomography, significant positive overall effects were observed with bmMNC incorporation. These data suggest that bmMNCs may provide therapeutic advantages in bone tissue engineering applications without the need for culture, expansion, and purification. PMID:20715884

Kretlow, James D; Spicer, Patrick P; Jansen, John A; Vacanti, Charles A; Kasper, F Kurtis; Mikos, Antonios G

2010-10-12

216

Challenges in the characterization of plasma-processed three-dimensional polymeric scaffolds for biomedical applications.  

PubMed

Low-temperature plasmas offer a versatile method for delivering tailored functionality to a range of materials. Despite the vast array of choices offered by plasma processing techniques, there remain a significant number of hurdles that must be overcome to allow this methodology to realize its full potential in the area of biocompatible materials. Challenges include issues associated with analytical characterization, material structure, plasma processing, and uniform composition following treatment. Specific examples and solutions are presented utilizing results from analyses of three-dimensional (3D) poly(?-caprolactone) scaffolds treated with different plasma surface modification strategies that illustrate these challenges well. Notably, many of these strategies result in 3D scaffolds that are extremely hydrophilic and that enhance human Saos-2 osteoblast cell growth and proliferation, which are promising results for applications including tissue engineering and advanced biomedical devices. PMID:24028344

Fisher, Ellen R

2013-09-12

217

Polymeric scaffold aided stem cell therapeutics for cardiac muscle repair and regeneration.  

PubMed

The constantly expanding repository of novel polymers and stem cells has opened up new vistas in the field of cardiac tissue engineering. Successful regeneration of the complex cardiac tissue mainly centres on the appropriate scaffold material with topographical features that mimic the native environment. The integration of stem cells on these scaffolds is expected to enhance the regeneration potential. This review elaborates on the interplay of these vital factors in achieving the functional cardiac tissue. The recent advances in polymers, nanocomposites, and stem cells from different sources are highlighted. Special emphasis is laid on the clinical trials involving stem cells and the state-of-the-art materials to obtain a balanced perspective on the translational potential of this strategy. PMID:23982911

Lakshmanan, Rajesh; Krishnan, Uma Maheswari; Sethuraman, Swaminathan

2013-08-25

218

Fabrication of porous polymeric matrix drug delivery devices using the selective laser sintering technique.  

PubMed

New techniques in solid freeform fabrication (SFF) have prompted research into methods of manufacturing and controlling porosity. The strategy of this research is to integrate computer aided design (CAD) and the SFF technique of selective laser sintering (SLS) to fabricate porous polymeric matrix drug delivery devices (DDDs). This study focuses on the control of the porosity of a matrix by manipulating the SLS process parameters of laser beam power and scan speed. Methylene blue dye is used as a drug model to infiltrate the matrices via a degassing method; visual inspection of dye penetration into the matrices is carried out. Most notably, the laser power matrices show a two-stage penetration process. The matrices are sectioned along the XZ planes and viewed under scanning electron microscope (SEM). The morphologies of the samples reveal a general increase in channel widths as laser power decreases and scan speed increases. The fractional release profiles of the matrices are determined by allowing the dye to diffuse out in vitro within a controlled environment. The results show that laser power and scan speed matrices deliver the dye for 8-9 days and have an evenly distributed profile. Mercury porosimetry is used to analyse the porosity of the matrices. Laser power matrices show a linear relationship between porosity and variation in parameter values. However, the same relationship for scan speed matrices turns out to be rather inconsistent. Relationships between the SLS parameters and the experimental results are developed using the fractional release rate equation for the infinite slab porous matrix DDD as a basis for correlation. PMID:11382078

Leong, K F; Phua, K K; Chua, C K; Du, Z H; Teo, K O

2001-01-01

219

Three-dimensional spheroids of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells are potent initiators of blood vessel formation in porous polyurethane scaffolds.  

PubMed

Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (adMSCs) exhibit a high angiogenic activity. Accordingly, their incorporation into tissue constructs represents a promising vascularization strategy in tissue engineering. In the present study, we analyzed whether the efficacy of this approach can be improved by seeding adMSCs as three-dimensional spheroids onto porous scaffolds. Green fluorescent protein (GFP)-positive adMSCs expressing CD13, CD73, CD90 and CD117 were isolated from C57BL/6-TgN(ACTB-EGFP)1Osb/J mice for the generation of spheroids using the liquid overlay technique. Porous polyurethane scaffolds were seeded with these spheroids or a comparable number of individual adMSCs and implanted into the dorsal skinfold chamber of C57BL/6 wild-type mice. The vascularization of the implants was analyzed and compared to non-seeded scaffolds by means of intravital fluorescence microscopy and immunohistochemistry. The adMSC spheroids exhibited a homogeneous diameter of ~270?m and could easily be incorporated into the scaffolds by dynamic seeding. After implantation, they induced a strong angiogenic host tissue response, resulting in an improved scaffold vascularization with a significantly higher functional microvessel density when compared to non-seeded scaffolds and scaffolds seeded with individual adMSCs. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed that a high fraction of ~40% of all microvessels within the center of spheroid-seeded scaffolds developed from GFP-positive adMSCs. These vessels inosculated with ingrowing GFP-negative vessels of the host. This indicates that adMSC spheroids serve as individual vascularization units, promoting the simultaneous development of new microvascular networks at different locations inside implanted tissue constructs. Thus, adMSC spheroids may be used to increase the efficacy of MSC-based vascularization strategies in future tissue engineering applications. PMID:23415749

Laschke, M W; Schank, T E; Scheuer, C; Kleer, S; Schuler, S; Metzger, W; Eglin, D; Alini, M; Menger, M D

2013-02-13

220

Synthesis of porous poly(styrene-co-acrylic acid) microspheres through one-step soap-free emulsion polymerization: whys and wherefores.  

PubMed

Synthesis of porous poly(styrene-co-acrylic acid) (PS-co-PAA) microspheres through one-step soap-free emulsion polymerization is reported. Various porous PS-co-PAA microspheres with the particle size ranging from 150 to 240 nm and with the pore size ranging from 4 to 25 nm are fabricated. The porous structure of the microspheres is confirmed by the transmission electron microscopy measurement and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis. The reason for synthesis of the porous PS-co-PAA microspheres is discussed, and the phase separation between the encapsulated hydrophilic poly(acrylic acid) segment and the hydrophobic polystyrene domain within the PS-co-PAA microspheres is ascribed to the pore formation. The present synthesis of the porous PS-co-PAA microspheres is anticipated to be a new and convenient way to fabricate porous polymeric particles. PMID:22137857

Yan, Rui; Zhang, Yaoyao; Wang, Xiaohui; Xu, Jianxiong; Wang, Da; Zhang, Wangqing

2011-11-16

221

Finite element analysis on the biomechanical stability of open porous titanium scaffolds for large segmental bone defects under physiological load conditions.  

PubMed

Repairing large segmental defects in long bones caused by fracture, tumour or infection is still a challenging problem in orthopaedic surgery. Artificial materials, i.e. titanium and its alloys performed well in clinical applications, are plenary available, and can be manufactured in a wide range of scaffold designs. Although the mechanical properties are determined, studies about the biomechanical behaviour under physiological loading conditions are rare. The goal of our numerical study was to determine the suitability of open-porous titanium scaffolds to act as bone scaffolds. Hence, the mechanical stability of fourteen different scaffold designs was characterized under both axial compression and biomechanical loading within a large segmental distal femoral defect of 30mm. This defect was stabilized with an osteosynthesis plate and physiological hip reaction forces as well as additional muscle forces were implemented to the femoral bone. Material properties of titanium scaffolds were evaluated from experimental testing. Scaffold porosity was varied between 64 and 80%. Furthermore, the amount of material was reduced up to 50%. Uniaxial compression testing revealed a structural modulus for the scaffolds between 3.5GPa and 19.1GPa depending on porosity and material consumption. The biomechanical testing showed defect gap alterations between 0.03mm and 0.22mm for the applied scaffolds and 0.09mm for the intact bone. Our results revealed that minimizing the amount of material of the inner core has a smaller influence than increasing the porosity when the scaffolds are loaded under biomechanical loading. Furthermore, an advanced scaffold design was found acting similar as the intact bone. PMID:22809675

Wieding, Jan; Souffrant, Robert; Mittelmeier, Wolfram; Bader, Rainer

2012-07-17

222

A study on the effect of degradation media on the physical and mechanical properties of porous PLGA 85/15 scaffolds.  

PubMed

This study investigates the effect of PLGA 85/15 scaffold on the cell growth and viability of a cell line, and the degradation of the scaffold in different media. The cell line used was human promyelocytic leukemia cells (HL-60). Three different media were considered: distilled water, a phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solution, and HL-60 cell line. Porous PLGA 85/15 scaffolds were prepared with an optimized gas foaming/salt leaching technique using a NaCl/polymer mass ratio of five, a saturation pressure of 5.52 MPa and a saturation time of 12 h. The cell growth and viability were not impaired by the presence of the scaffold. The mass change of the scaffold due to degradation over the period was varied only by 4% across all three media. The average macropore size and molecular weight decreased as the degradation time increased in each medium. The scaffolds maintained mechanical and structural integrity throughout the study in all three media over the degradation period studied, and the change of Young's modulus of the scaffold under wet condition was not significant. Overall, PBS solution most strongly affected physical and mechanical properties, followed by dH(2)O and HL-60 cells. The distinct variations of the scaffold's properties using different media, demonstrated the importance of carefully selecting the medium to perform in vitro studies. The medium must replicate the actual environment where the scaffold would be used, to represent accurately the changes in properties that the scaffold would be undergoing. PMID:19637372

Perron, Josee K; Naguib, Hani E; Daka, Joseph; Chawla, Attar; Wilkins, Ruth

2009-11-01

223

Relationship between osseointegration and superelastic biomechanics in porous NiTi scaffolds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The superelastic nature of bones requires matching biomechanical properties from the ideal artificial biomedical implants in order to provide smooth load transfer and foster the growth of new bone tissues. In this work, we determine the biomechanical characteristics of porous NiTi implants and investigate bone ingrowth under actual load-bearing conditions in vivo. In this systematic and comparative study, porous NiTi,

Xiangmei Liu; Shuilin Wu; Kelvin W. K. Yeung; Y. L. Chan; Tao Hu; Zushun Xu; Xuanyong Liu; Jonathan C. Y. Chung; Kenneth M. C. Cheung; Paul K. Chu

2011-01-01

224

Comparative Study of Bone Repair Using Porous Hydroxyapatite/ ?-Tricalcium Phosphate and Xenograft Scaffold in Rabbits with Tibia Defect  

PubMed Central

Background: Bone tissue engineering requires materials that are biocompatible, mechanically suited for bone function, integrated with the host skeleton, and support osteoinduction of the implanted cells for new bone formation. The aim of this study was to compare the osteogenic potential of xenograft with hydroxyapatite/?- tricalcium phosphate (HA/?-TCP) scaffold. Methods: New Zealand rabbits (n = 9) were divided into 3 groups. Osteoblast cells were originally isolated from rabbit iliac crest and cultured in DMEM/F12. After creating a critical-sized defect (2 × 3 cm) in rabbit tibia bone, the defect was filled with an implant of HA/TCP with osteoblasts and xenograft in the hole of left (as control) and right tibia, respectively. The new bone formation and the development of bone union within the defect were evaluated by x-ray images and eosine and hematoxylin staining at 4, 8, and 12 weeks post-operation. Results: The bone partially formed in both groups was filled with osteoblast cultured on porous implants at 4 weeks. Over time, progressive bone regeneration was observed inside the pores. Moreover, a progressive vascular ingrowth and progressive integration with the host bone were obvious in xenograft when compared to HA/?-TCP. A good integration between the xenograft implants and the bone was observed radiographically and confirmed by histological section. Conclusion: The result showed that the bone defect can be repaired using both synthetic and xenograft implants. However, the xenograft showed a better osteointegration as compared to HA/?-TCP scaffold.

Bagher, Zohreh; Rajaei, Farzad; Shokrgozar, Mohammadali

2012-01-01

225

Novel cell immobilization method utilizing centrifugal force to achieve high-density hepatocyte culture in porous scaffold.  

PubMed

Cell seeding is one of the key procedures in the construction of tissue-engineered organs. In our previous efforts to create a bioartificial liver, high-density cultures of hepatocytes (>1 x 10(7) cells/1 cm(3)-substrate) and long-term maintenance of metabolic function were achieved with a packed-bed reactor utilizing porous poly(vinyl formal) (PVF) resin as a scaffold. However, a low seeding efficiency of about 30% remains a major obstacle to the scaleup of the reactor. In the present study, a new cell seeding method, centrifugal cell immobilization (CCI), which is based on alternating centrifugation and resuspension, was used to achieve high-density seeding and improve the seeding efficiency. Using the CCI method, the maximum density of the immobilized hepatocytes reached 3.8 x 10(7) cells/1 cm(3)-PVF, and the seeding efficiency was improved to about 43% after a relatively short immobilization process (about 15 min). Moreover, further improvement of the seeding efficiency was obtained by serial immobilization procedures. Thus, we concluded that this method is useful and effective for seeding cells into 3-dimensional scaffolds. PMID:11255191

Yang, T H; Miyoshi, H; Ohshima, N

2001-06-01

226

Endocultivation: 3D printed customized porous scaffolds for heterotopic bond induction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of computer assisted designed (CAD) synthetic hydroxyapatite and tricalciumphosphate blocks to serve as precise scaffolds for intramuscular bone induction in a rat model. A central channel to allow for vessel pedicle or nerve integration was added. Natural bovine hydroxyapatite blocks served as controls to evaluate and compare biocompatibility of the

Stephan T. Becker; Hendrik Bolte; Oliver Krapf; Hermann Seitz; Timothy Douglas; Sureshan Sivananthan; Jörg Wiltfang; Eugene Sherry; Patrick H. Warnke

2009-01-01

227

Endocultivation: 3D printed customized porous scaffolds for heterotopic bone induction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of computer assisted designed (CAD) synthetic hydroxyapatite and tricalciumphosphate blocks to serve as precise scaffolds for intramuscular bone induction in a rat model. A central channel to allow for vessel pedicle or nerve integration was added. Natural bovine hydroxyapatite blocks served as controls to evaluate and compare biocompatibility of the

Stephan T. Becker; Hendrik Bolte; Oliver Krapf; Hermann Seitz; Timothy Douglas; Sureshan Sivananthan; Jörg Wiltfang; Eugene Sherry; Patrick H. Warnke

2009-01-01

228

Modeling porous scaffold microstructure by a reaction-diffusion system and its degradation by hydrolysis.  

PubMed

One of the most important areas of Tissue Engineering is the research about bone regeneration and the replacement of its function. To meet this requirement, scaffolds have been developed to allow the cell migration, the growth of bone tissue, the transport of growth factors and nutrients and the renovation of the mechanical properties of bone. Scaffolds are made of different biomaterials and manufactured using various techniques that, in some cases, do not allow full control over the size and orientation of the pores that characterize the scaffold microstructure. From this perspective, we propose a novel hypothesis that a reaction-diffusion system can be used to design the geometrical specifications of the bone matrix. The validation of this hypothesis is performed by simulations of the reaction-diffusion system in a representative tridimensional unit cell, coupled with a model of scaffold degradation by hydrolysis. The results show the possibility that a Reaction-Diffusion system can control features such as the percentage of porosity, trabecular size, orientation, and interconnectivity of pores. PMID:22136697

Garzón-Alvarado, Diego A; Velasco, Marco A; Narváez-Tovar, Carlos A

2011-11-30

229

Three-dimensional culture of mouse bone marrow cells on stroma formed within a porous scaffold: influence of scaffold shape and cryopreservation of the stromal layer on expansion of haematopoietic progenitor cells.  

PubMed

This study's primary goal was to develop an effective ex vivo expansion method for haematopoietic cells. 3D culture of mouse bone marrow cells was performed in porous scaffolds using a sheet or cube shape. Bone marrow cells were cultured on bone marrow-derived stromal layers formed within the scaffolds and the effect of scaffold shape on the expansion of haematopoietic cells was examined. In some experiments, stromal layers within cubic scaffolds were frozen and then used to culture bone marrow cells after thawing. Results show that after comparison, total cell density and expansion of haematopoietic cells were greater in cultures using the cubic scaffold, suggesting that it was superior to the sheet-like scaffold for expanding haematopoietic cells. When cryopreserved stroma was used, it effectively supported the expansion of haematopoietic cells, and a greater expansion of haematopoietic cells [(erythroid and haematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs)] was achieved than in cultures with stromal cells that had not been cryopreserved. Expansion of cells using cryopreserved stroma had several other advantages such as a shorter culture period than the conventional method, a stable supply of stromal cells, and ease of handling and scaling up. As a result, this is an attractive method for ex vivo expansion of haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and HPCs for clinical use. PMID:22081538

Miyoshi, Hirotoshi; Ohshima, Norio; Sato, Chiaki

2011-11-14

230

Density Gradient Multilayered Polymerization (DGMP): A Novel Technique for Creating Multi-compartment, Customizable Scaffolds for Tissue Engineering  

PubMed Central

Complex tissue culture matrices, in which types and concentrations of biological stimuli (e.g. growth factors, inhibitors, or small molecules) or matrix structure (e.g. composition, concentration, or stiffness of the matrix) vary over space, would enable a wide range of investigations concerning how these variables affect cell differentiation, migration, and other phenomena. The major challenge in creating layered matrices is maintaining the structural integrity of layer interfaces without diffusion of individual components from each layer1. Current methodologies to achieve this include photopatterning2-3, lithography4, sequential functionalization5, freeze drying6, microfluidics7, or centrifugation8, many of which require sophisticated instrumentation and technical skills. Others rely on sequential attachment of individual layers, which may lead to delamination of layers9. DGMP overcomes these issues by using an inert density modifier such as iodixanol to create layers of varying densities10. Since the density modifier can be mixed with any prepolymer or bioactive molecule, DGMP allows each scaffold layer to be customized. Simply varying the concentration of the density modifier prevents mixing of adjacent layers while they remain aqueous. Subsequent single step polymerization gives rise to a structurally continuous multilayered scaffold, in which each layer has distinct chemical and mechanical properties. The density modifier can be easily removed with sufficient rinsing without perturbation of the individual layers or their components. This technique is therefore well suited for creating hydrogels of various sizes, shapes, and materials. A protocol for fabricating a 2D-polyethylene glycol (PEG) gel, in which alternating layers incorporate RGDS-350, is outlined below. We use PEG because it is biocompatible and inert. RGDS, a cell adhesion peptide11, is used to demonstrate spatial restriction of a biological cue, and the conjugation of a fluorophore (Alexa Fluor 350) enables us to visually distinguish various layers. This procedure can be adapted for other materials (e.g. collagen, hyaluronan, etc.) and can be extended to fabricate 3D gels with some modifications10.

Joshi-Barr, Shivanjali; Karpiak, Jerome V.; Ner, Yogesh; Wen, Jessica H.; Engler, Adam J.; Almutairi, Adah

2013-01-01

231

Polymeric scaffolds prepared via Thermally Induced Phase Separation (TIPS): tuning of structure and morphology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scaffolds suitable for tissue engineering applications were prepared by Thermally Induced Phase Separation (TIPS) starting from a ternary solution PLLA/dioxane/water. The experimental protocol consisted of three consecutive steps, a first quench from the homogeneous solution to an appropriate demixing temperature (within the metastable region), a holding stage for a given residence time and a final quench from the demixing temperature to a low temperature (within the unstable region). A large variety of morphologies, in terms of average pore size and interconnection, were obtained upon modifying the demixing time and temperature, owing to the interplay of nucleation and growth processes during the residence in the metastable state. An interesting combination of micro and macro-porosity was observed for long residence times in the metastable state (above 30 min at 35°C).

Pavia, F. Carfì; La Carrubba, V.; Brucato, V.; Piccarolo, S.

2007-04-01

232

Preparation and characterization of porous alginate scaffolds containing various amounts of octacalcium phosphate (OCP) crystals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was designed to investigate whether the amount of octacalcium phosphate (OCP) affects the characteristics\\u000a of alginate (Alg)\\/OCP scaffolds regarding the pore formation and its distribution, and the thermodynamic stability from OCP\\u000a to hydroxyapatite (HA) in an in vitro physiological environment. Alg\\/OCP composites with weight ratios of 100\\/0, 75\\/25, 50\\/50,\\u000a and 25\\/75 were prepared through mixing the ground

Naru Shiraishi; Takahisa Anada; Yoshitomo Honda; Taisuke Masuda; Keiichi Sasaki; Osamu Suzuki

2010-01-01

233

Highly porous bioresorbable scaffolds with controlled release of bioactive agents for tissue-regeneration applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Highly porous poly(dl-lactic-co-glycolic acid) films with controlled release of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) as a model protein have been successfully developed and studied. These films, which are prepared by freeze-drying inverted emulsions, are designed for use in tissue-regeneration applications. The effects of the emulsion’s formulation and host polymer’s characteristics on the film’s microstructure and HRP release profile over 4weeks were investigated.

Orly Grinberg; Itzhak Binderman; Hila Bahar; Meital Zilberman

2010-01-01

234

Porous silicon-based scaffolds for tissue engineering and other biomedical applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work describes the formation of porous composite materials based on a combination of bioactive mesoporous silicon and bioerodible polymers such as poly-caprolactone (PCL). The fabrication of a range of composites prepared by both salt leaching and microemulsion techniques are discussed. Particular attention to the influence of Si content in the composite on in vitro calcification assays are assessed. For each system, cytotoxicity and cellular proliferation are explicitly evaluated through fibroblast cell culture assays.

Coffer, Jeffery L.; Whitehead, Melanie A.; Nagesha, Dattatri K.; Mukherjee, Priyabrata; Akkaraju, Giridhar; Totolici, Mihaela; Saffie, Roghieh S.; Canham, Leigh T.

2005-06-01

235

Simulation of Cell Seeding Within a Three-Dimensional Porous Scaffold: A Fluid-Particle Analysis  

PubMed Central

Cell seeding is a critical step in tissue engineering. A high number of cells evenly distributed in scaffolds after seeding are associated with a more functional tissue culture. Furthermore, high cell densities have shown the possibility to reduce culture time or increase the formation of tissue. Experimentally, it is difficult to predict the cell-seeding process. In this study, a new methodology to simulate the cell-seeding process under perfusion conditions is proposed. The cells are treated as spherical particles dragged by the fluid media, where the physical parameters are computed through a Lagrangian formulation. The methodology proposed enables to define the kinetics of cell seeding continuously over time. An exponential relationship was found to optimize the seeding time and the number of cells seeded in the scaffold. The cell distribution and cell efficiency predicted using this methodology were similar to the experimental results of Melchels et al. One of the main advantages of this method is to be able to determine the three-dimensional position of all the seeded cells and to, therefore, better know the initial conditions for further cell proliferation and differentiation studies. This study opens up the field of numerical predictions related to the interactions between biomaterials, cells, and dynamics media.

Olivares, Andy L.

2012-01-01

236

Computer-Aided Process Planning for the Layered Fabrication of Porous Scaffold Matrices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rapid Prototyping (RP) technology promises to have a tremendous impact on the design and fabrication of porous tissue replacement structures for applications in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. The layer-by-layer fabrication technology enables the design of patient-specific medical implants and complex structures for diseased tissue replacement strategies. Combined with advancements in imaging modalities and bio-modeling software, physicians can engage themselves in advanced solutions for craniofacial and mandibular reconstruction. For example, prior to the advancement of RP technologies, solid titanium parts used as implants for mandibular reconstruction were fashioned out of molding or CNC-based machining processes (Fig. 3.1). Titanium implants built using this process are often heavy, leading to increased patient discomfort. In addition, the Young's modulus of titanium is almost five times that of healthy cortical bone resulting in stress shielding effects [1,2]. With the advent of CAD/CAM-based tools, the virtual reconstruction of the implants has resulted in significant design improvements. The new generation of implants can be porous, enabling the in-growth of healthy bone tissue for additional implant fixation and stabilization. Newer implants would conform to the external shape of the defect site that is intended to be filled in. More importantly, the effective elastic modulus of the implant can be designed to match that of surrounding tissue. Ideally, the weight of the implant can be designed to equal the weight of the tissue that is being replaced resulting in increased patient comfort. Currently, such porous structures for reconstruction can only be fabricated using RP-based metal fabrication technologies such as Electron Beam Melting (EBM), Selective Laser Sintering (SLS®), and 3D™ Printing processes.

Starly, Binil

237

Evaluation of a new press-fit in situ setting composite porous scaffold for cancellous bone repair: towards a "surgeon-friendly" bone filler?  

PubMed

In this study, a composite porous material obtained by coating a poly(ester urethane) foam with a calcium phosphate cement is proposed as novel cancellous bone filler with easy handling, in situ hardening and press-fitting properties. The coating can be applied to the foam in the surgical theater, allowing refinement of scaffold shape to the needs of the ongoing surgery. An innovative experiment was developed in order to determine the setting curve of the composite scaffold as well as the time of manipulation available to the surgeon without risk of material damage. This composite material is soft and can be press-fit in a cavity without damaging the scaffold in the first 5 min after coating application. The composite scaffold hardens quickly (22 min) and, once the cement has set, its compressive strength and fracture energy are increased by over an order of magnitude as compared to the initial poly(ester urethane) foam. This set of interesting properties makes calcium phosphate cement-coated elastomeric scaffolds a new promising strategy for cancellous bone filling. PMID:20230921

Peroglio, M; Gremillard, L; Eglin, D; Lezuo, P; Alini, M; Chevalier, J

2010-03-15

238

HA/nylon 6,6 porous scaffolds fabricated by salt-leaching/solvent casting technique: effect of nano-sized filler content on scaffold properties  

PubMed Central

Nanohydroxyapatite (n-HA)/nylon 6,6 composite scaffolds were produced by means of the salt-leaching/solvent casting technique. NaCl with a distinct range size was used with the aim of optimizing the pore network. Composite powders with different n-HA contents (40%, 60%) for scaffold fabrication were synthesized and tested. The composite scaffolds thus obtained were characterized for their microstructure, mechanical stability and strength, and bioactivity. The microstructure of the composite scaffolds possessed a well-developed interconnected porosity with approximate optimal pore size ranging from 200 to 500 ?m, ideal for bone regeneration and vascularization. The mechanical properties of the composite scaffolds were evaluated by compressive strength and modulus tests, and the results confirmed their similarity to cortical bone. To characterize bioactivity, the composite scaffolds were immersed in simulated body fluid for different lengths of time and results monitored by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis to determine formation of an apatite layer on the scaffold surface.

Mehrabanian, Mehran; Nasr-Esfahani, Mojtaba

2011-01-01

239

Scaffold development using selective laser sintering of polyetheretherketone-hydroxyapatite biocomposite blends.  

PubMed

In tissue engineering (TE), temporary three-dimensional scaffolds are essential to guide cell proliferation and to maintain native phenotypes in regenerating biologic tissues or organs. To create the scaffolds, rapid prototyping (RP) techniques are emerging as fabrication techniques of choice as they are capable of overcoming many of the limitations encountered with conventional manual-based fabrication processes. In this research, RP fabrication of solvent free porous polymeric and composite scaffolds was investigated. Biomaterials such as polyetheretherketone (PEEK) and hydroxyapatite (HA) were experimentally processed on a commercial selective laser sintering (SLS) RP system. The SLS technique is highly advantageous as it provides good user control over the microstructures of created scaffolds by adjusting the SLS process parameters. Different weight percentage (wt%) compositions of physically mixed PEEK/HA powder blends were sintered to assess their suitability for SLS processing. Microstructural assessments of the scaffolds were conducted using electron microscopy. The results ascertained the potential of SLS-fabricated TE scaffolds. PMID:12895584

Tan, K H; Chua, C K; Leong, K F; Cheah, C M; Cheang, P; Abu Bakar, M S; Cha, S W

2003-08-01

240

Bioactive glass-based composites for the production of dense sintered bodies and porous scaffolds.  

PubMed

Recently several attempts have been made to combine calcium phosphates, such as ?-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) and, most of all, hydroxyapatite (HA), with bioactive glasses of different composition, in order to develop composites with improved biological and mechanical performance. Unfortunately, the production of such systems usually implies a high-temperature treatment (up to 1300 °C), which may result in several drawbacks, including crystallization of the original glass, decomposition of the calcium phosphate phase and/or reactions between the constituent phases, with non-trivial consequences in terms of microstructure, bioactivity and mechanical properties of the final samples. In the present contribution, novel binary composites have been obtained by sintering a bioactive glass, characterized by a low tendency to crystallize, with the addition of HA or ?-TCP as the second phase. In particular, the composites have been treated at a relatively low temperature (818 °C and 830 °C, depending on the sample), thus preserving the amorphous structure of the glass and minimizing the interaction between the constituent phases. The effects of the glass composition, calcium phosphate nature and processing conditions on the composite microstructure, mechanical properties and in vitro bioactivity have been systematically discussed. To conclude, a feasibility study to obtain scaffolds for bone tissue regeneration has been proposed. PMID:23498242

Bellucci, D; Sola, A; Cannillo, V

2013-01-21

241

Mechanical and microstructural properties of polycaprolactone scaffolds with one-dimensional, two-dimensional, and three-dimensional orthogonally oriented porous architectures produced by selective laser sintering.  

PubMed

This article reports on the experimental determination and finite element modeling of tensile and compressive mechanical properties of solid polycaprolactone (PCL) and of porous PCL scaffolds with one-dimensional, two-dimensional and three-dimensional orthogonal, periodic porous architectures produced by selective laser sintering (SLS). PCL scaffolds were built using optimum processing parameters, ensuring scaffolds with nearly full density (>95%) in the designed solid regions and with excellent geometric and dimensional control (within 3-8% of design). The tensile strength of bulk PCL ranged from 10.5 to 16.1 MPa, its modulus ranged from 343.9 to 364.3 MPa, and the tensile yield strength ranged from 8.2 to 10.1 MPa. These values are consistent with reported literature values for PCL processed through various manufacturing methods. Across porosity ranged from 56.87% to 83.3%, the tensile strength ranged from 4.5 to 1.1 MPa, the tensile modulus ranged from 140.5 to 35.5 MPa, and the yield strength ranged from 3.2 to 0.76 MPa. The compressive strength of bulk PCL was 38.7 MPa, the compressive modulus ranged from 297.8 to 317.1 MPa, and the compressive yield strength ranged from 10.3 to 12.5 MPa. Across porosity ranged from 51.1% to 80.9%, the compressive strength ranged from 10.0 to 0.6 MPa, the compressive modulus ranged from 14.9 to 12.1 MPa, and the compressive yield strength ranged from 4.25 to 0.42 MPa. These values, while being in the lower range of reported values for trabecular bone, are the highest reported for PCL scaffolds produced by SLS and are among the highest reported for similar PCL scaffolds produced through other layered manufacturing techniques. Finite element analysis showed good agreement between experimental and computed effective tensile and compressive moduli. Thus, the construction of bone tissue engineering scaffolds endowed with oriented porous architectures and with predictable mechanical properties through SLS is demonstrated. PMID:20144914

Eshraghi, Shaun; Das, Suman

2010-02-08

242

Immobilization of cell adhesive RGD peptide onto the surface of highly porous biodegradable polymer scaffolds fabricated by a gas foaming/salt leaching method.  

PubMed

A cell adhesive peptide moiety, Gly-Arg-Gly-Asp-Tyr (GRGDY), was immobilized onto the surface of highly porous biodegradable polymer scaffolds for enhancing cell adhesion and function. A carboxyl terminal end of poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) was functionalized with a primary amine group by conjugating hexaethylene glycol-diamine. The PLGA-NH2 was blended with PLGA in varying ratios to prepare films by solvent casting or to fabricate porous scaffolds by a gas foaming/salt leaching method. Under hydrating conditions, the activated GRGDY could be directly immobilized to the surface exposed amine groups of the PLGA-NH2 blend films or scaffolds. For the PLGA blend films, the surface density of GRGDY, surface wettability change, and cell adhesion behaviors were characterized. The extent of cell adhesion was substantially enhanced by increasing the blend ratio of PLGA-NH2 to PLGA. The level of an alkaline phosphatase activity, measured as a degree of cell differentiation, was also enhanced as a result of the introduction of cell adhesive peptides. PMID:15159077

Yoon, Jun Jin; Song, Soon Ho; Lee, Doo Sung; Park, Tae Gwan

2004-11-01

243

A three-phase, fully resorbable, polyester/calcium phosphate scaffold for bone tissue engineering: Evolution of scaffold design.  

PubMed

Bone tissue engineering strategies are fundamentally based upon porous scaffold materials that serve as a support for ingrowth of host cells and/or provide a substrate for exogenously delivered cells. Here we report the application of a surface calcium phosphate (CaP) mineral layer to a macroporous polymeric/CaP composite biomaterial, with a macroporous interconnectivity, and its subsequent in vivo evaluation in a rodent femoral defect. The application of the mineral layer eliminates the fibrous tissue encapsulation and foreign body giant cell response commonly seen at the interface of polymeric materials, yet retains the unique characteristics of the parent material as being macroporous, completely biodegradable and possessing a high degree of interconnectivity. This represents the third generation of this scaffold material, incorporating iterative changes to the scaffold design in response to both materials and biological design criteria to produce a material with enhanced in vitro and in vivo performance. PMID:17166580

Lickorish, D; Guan, L; Davies, J E

2006-12-12

244

Solventless Fabrication of Porous-on-Porous Materials.  

PubMed

Here we fabricate patterned porous polymer membranes on porous substrates by a combination of physical masking and chemical vapor deposition. This all-dry technique eliminates solvent-related issues and allows for the fabrication of hierarchical porous-on-porous structures with a wide range of chemical compositions and shapes. The porous polymer membranes are made by operating at unconventional processing conditions to simultaneously deposit and polymerize monomer. The solid monomer serves as a porogen and creates microstructures around which polymer forms. Membranes with thicknesses ranging from a few hundred micrometers to a millimeter are fabricated on porous paper substrates. The resolution of the patterning process and the structure of the resulting membranes are analyzed as a function of the deposition time. It was found that the patterned membranes exhibit a tapered structure and the dimensions are in good agreement with the dimensions of the mask. One potential application of these patterned polymer membranes is demonstrated for the selective separation of analytes for diagnostic applications on paper-based microfluidic devices. The ability to pattern porous-on-porous structures can be useful for the development of hierarchical membranes for water purification and gas separation, and for sensing, patterned tissue scaffolding, and other lab-on-a-chip applications. PMID:24073753

Kwong, Philip; Seidel, Scott; Gupta, Malancha

2013-09-27

245

Porous graphitic carbon nitride synthesized via direct polymerization of urea for efficient sunlight-driven photocatalytic hydrogen production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Energy captured directly from sunlight provides an attractive approach towards fulfilling the need for green energy resources on the terawatt scale with minimal environmental impact. Collecting and storing solar energy into fuel through photocatalyzed water splitting to generate hydrogen in a cost-effective way is desirable. To achieve this goal, low cost and environmentally benign urea was used to synthesize the metal-free photocatalyst graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4). A porous structure is achieved via one-step polymerization of the single precursor. The porous structure with increased BET surface area and pore volume shows a much higher hydrogen production rate under simulated sunlight irradiation than thiourea-derived and dicyanamide-derived g-C3N4. The presence of an oxygen atom is presumed to play a key role in adjusting the textural properties. Further improvement of the photocatalytic function can be expected with after-treatment due to its rich chemistry in functionalization.Energy captured directly from sunlight provides an attractive approach towards fulfilling the need for green energy resources on the terawatt scale with minimal environmental impact. Collecting and storing solar energy into fuel through photocatalyzed water splitting to generate hydrogen in a cost-effective way is desirable. To achieve this goal, low cost and environmentally benign urea was used to synthesize the metal-free photocatalyst graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4). A porous structure is achieved via one-step polymerization of the single precursor. The porous structure with increased BET surface area and pore volume shows a much higher hydrogen production rate under simulated sunlight irradiation than thiourea-derived and dicyanamide-derived g-C3N4. The presence of an oxygen atom is presumed to play a key role in adjusting the textural properties. Further improvement of the photocatalytic function can be expected with after-treatment due to its rich chemistry in functionalization. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Methods for preparing and characterizing UCN, TCN and DCN samples. Methods for examining the photocatalytic hydrogen production. FTIR, XPS, and digital photos of three products are shown in Fig. S1-6. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr30948c

Zhang, Yuewei; Liu, Jinghai; Wu, Guan; Chen, Wei

2012-08-01

246

Freeze casting of hydroxyapatite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although extensive efforts have been put into the development of porous scaffolds for bone regeneration, with encouraging results, all porous materials have a common limitation: the inherent lack of strength associated with porosity. Hence, the development of porous hydroxyapatite scaffolds has been hindered to non-load bearing applications. We report here how freeze casting can be applied to synthesize porous scaffolds

Sylvain Deville; Eduardo Saiz; Antoni P. Tomsia

2006-01-01

247

A Porous Hydroxyapatite\\/Gelatin Nanocomposite Scaffold for Bone Tissue Repair: In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, a nano-structured scaffold was designed for bone repair using hydroxapatite and gelatin as its main components. The scaffold was prepared via layer solvent casting combined with freeze-drying and lamination techniques and characterized by the commonly used bulk techniques. The biocompatibility and osteoconductivity of this scaffold and its capacity to promote bone healing were also evaluated. Osteoblast-like cells

Mahmoud Azami; Shima Tavakol; Ali Samadikuchaksaraei; Mehran Solati Hashjin; Nafiseh Baheiraei; Mehdi Kamali; Mohammad Reza Nourani

2012-01-01

248

Effect of biomimetic 3D environment of an injectable polymeric scaffold on MG63 osteoblastic-cell response  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solid PLGA microspheres were fabricated and characterized in terms of their in vitro degradation behaviour. Microsphere scaffolds were then modified covalently by P-15 (GTPGPQGIAGQRGVV) to obtain a 3D bioactive collagen surrogate matrix for bone filling applications. These scaffolds were characterized for surface topography, hydrophilicity and evaluated for their effect on osteoblastic activity of MG-63 cell line vis-a-vis 2D monolayer culture.AFM

Shalini Verma; Neeraj Kumar

2010-01-01

249

Vertical ridge augmentation of the atrophic posterior mandible with custom-made, computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing porous hydroxyapatite scaffolds.  

PubMed

The present study describes a new protocol for the manufacturing of custom-made hydroxyapatite scaffolds using computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM), to augment posterior mandibular bone and minimize surgery when severe atrophy is present. Computed tomographic images of an atrophic posterior mandible were acquired and modified into a 3-dimensional (3D) reconstruction model. This model was transferred as a stereolithographic file to a CAD program, where virtual 3D reconstructions of the alveolar ridge were performed, drawing 2 anatomically shaped, custom-made scaffolds. Computer-aided-manufacturing software generated a set of tool-paths for manufacture on a computer-numerical-control milling machine into the exact shape of the 3D projects. Clinically sized, anatomically shaped scaffolds were generated from commercially available porous hydroxyapatite blocks. The custom-made scaffolds well matched the shape of the bone defects and could be easily implanted during surgery. This matching of the shape helped to reduce the time for the operation and contributed to the good healing of the defects. At the 6-month recall, a newly formed and well-integrated bone was observed, completely filling the mandibular posterior defects, and implants were placed, with good primary stability. At the 1-year follow-up examination, the implant-supported restorations showed a good functional and esthetic integration. Although this is an interim report, this study demonstrates that anatomically shaped custom-made scaffolds can be fabricated by combining computed tomographic scans and CAD/CAM techniques. Further studies are needed to confirm these results. PMID:23714896

Figliuzzi, Michele; Mangano, Francesco Guido; Fortunato, Leonzio; De Fazio, Rossella; Macchi, Aldo; Iezzi, Giovanna; Piattelli, Adriano; Mangano, Carlo

2013-05-01

250

In vitro biocompatibility of schwann cells on surfaces of biocompatible polymeric electrospun fibrous and solution-cast film scaffolds.  

PubMed

The in vitro responses of Schwann cells (RT4-D6P2T, a schwannoma cell line derived from a chemically induced rat peripheral neurotumor) on various types of electrospun fibrous scaffolds of some commercially available biocompatible and biodegradable polymers, i.e., poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB), poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV), polycaprolactone (PCL), poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA), and chitosan (CS), were reported in comparison with those of the cells on corresponding solution-cast film scaffolds as well as on a tissue-culture polystyrene plate (TCPS), used as the positive control. At 24 h after cell seeding, the viability of the attached cells on the various substrates could be ranked as follows: PCL film > TCPS > PCL fibrous > PLLA fibrous > PHBV film > CS fibrous approximately CS film approximately PLLA film > PHB film > PHBV fibrous > PHB fibrous. At day 3 of cell culture, the viability of the proliferated cells on the various substrates could be ranked as follows: TCPS > PHBV film > PLLA film > PCL film > PLLA fibrous > PHB film approximately PCL fibrous > CS fibrous > CS film > PHB fibrous > PHBV fibrous. At approximately 8 h after cell seeding, the cells on the flat surfaces of all of the film scaffolds and that of the PCL nanofibrous scaffold appeared in their characteristic spindle shape, while those on the surfaces of the PHB, PHBV, and PLLA macrofibrous scaffolds also appeared in their characteristic spindle shape, but with the cells being able to penetrate to the inner side of the scaffolds. PMID:17429941

Sangsanoh, Pakakrong; Waleetorncheepsawat, Suchada; Suwantong, Orawan; Wutticharoenmongkol, Patcharaporn; Weeranantanapan, Oratai; Chuenjitbuntaworn, Boontharika; Cheepsunthorn, Poonlarp; Pavasant, Prasit; Supaphol, Pitt

2007-04-13

251

Three-Dimensional Culture of Human Periodontal Ligament Cells on Highly Porous Polyglycolic Acid Scaffolds in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Periodontal tissue engineering represents a possible approach to regenerate the human periodontal ligament (PDL) around dental implants. The aim of this study was to observe the morphological and biological property of the human periodontal ligament cells that were three-dimensional (3D) cultured onto PGA scaffolds in vitro. The human periodontal ligament cells were seeded and cultured onto PGA 3D scaffolds, and

Yining Wang; Haibin Xia; Yan Zhao; Tao Jiang

2005-01-01

252

Mechanical regulation of cellular adhesion onto honeycomb-patterned porous scaffolds by altering the elasticity of material surfaces.  

PubMed

In this report, we show the preparation of honeycomb scaffolds for cell culturing by using "breath figure" method, and we found that their mechanical and topographical properties strongly affect the adhesion of fibroblasts. By photo-cross-linking of the poly(1,2-butadiene), the hardness of the honeycomb scaffold can be successfully controlled without any surface chemical changes, and detail modulus values of scaffolds were measured by atomic force microscopy. We found that only small numbers of the cells adhered on the softer honeycomb scaffolds, which has even higher modulus value than conventional gels, comparing with flat films and a hard honeycomb scaffold. These results indicate that the elastomeric honeycomb substrates are useful for evaluating the effect of the mechanical signal-derived geometry on the transduction system of cells. PMID:23510479

Kawano, Takahito; Nakamichi, Yuki; Fujinami, So; Nakajima, Ken; Yabu, Hiroshi; Shimomura, Masatsugu

2013-03-28

253

Porous carbon nanotube electrodes supported by natural polymeric membranes for PEMFC  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new type of porous multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) electrode with a macroporous networking inner-structure was prepared. First, the MWCNTs were homogeneously introduced inside and outside of a bacterial cellulose membrane with a 3D inter-connected network structure using ultrasound treatment and vacuum filtration in order to form the GDL. Second, the CL was formed on the surface of the GDL

Young Soo Yun; Hyeonseong Bak; Hyoung-Joon Jin

2010-01-01

254

A new approach based on injection moulding to produce biodegradable starch-based polymeric scaffolds: morphology, mechanical and degradation behaviour  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the present challenges in polymer scaffold processing is the\\u000d\\u000a Fabrication of three-dimensional (3D) architectures with an adequate\\u000d\\u000a mechanical performance to be used in the tissue engineering of hard\\u000d\\u000a tissues. This paper describes a preliminary study on the development of\\u000d\\u000a a new method to produce biodegradable scaffolds from a range of\\u000d\\u000a corn-starch-based polymers. In some cases, hydroxlapatite was also

M. E. Gomes; A. S. Ribeiro; P. B. Malafaya; R. L. Reis; A. M. Cunha

2001-01-01

255

Role of poly(lactide-co-glycolide) particle size on gas-foamed scaffolds.  

PubMed

Macroporous polymeric scaffolds are frequently used in tissue engineering to allow for cell seeding and host cell invasion of the scaffold following implantation. The process of gas foaming/particulate leaching (GF/PL) is one method to form porous three dimensional scaffolds from particulate poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLG). The current study was designed to test the hypothesis that the size of the polymer particles used in this process will control the properties of the scaffolds. Scaffolds were prepared from PLG particles of various sizes (less than 75 microm, 75-106 microm, 106-250 microm and 250-425 microm) and subsequently analyzed. Scaffolds formed from large particles (250-425 microm) displayed significantly decreased compressive moduli, as compared to scaffolds fabricated from smaller particles. In addition, these scaffolds have a pore structure that is less interconnected and contains closed pores. Analysis of tissue in-growth, utilizing a novel computer-aided method, demonstrated that scaffolds formed from smaller particle sizes (less than 106 microm) have significantly more tissue penetration than those formed from larger particle sizes (greater than 106 microm). These results indicate that using small PLG particles (less than 106 microm) leads to high elastic moduli, provides a more interconnected pore structure and promotes greater tissue penetration into the scaffolds in vivo. PMID:15696800

Riddle, Kathryn W; Mooney, David J

2004-01-01

256

Dimensional Ridge Preservation with a Novel Highly Porous TiO2 Scaffold: An Experimental Study in Minipigs  

PubMed Central

Despite being considered noncritical size defects, extraction sockets often require the use of bone grafts or bone graft substitutes in order to facilitate a stable implant site with an aesthetically pleasing mucosal architecture and prosthetic reconstruction. In the present study, the effect of novel TiO2 scaffolds on dimensional ridge preservation was evaluated following their placement into surgically modified extraction sockets in the premolar region of minipig mandibles. After six weeks of healing, the scaffolds were wellintegrated in the alveolar bone, and the convex shape of the alveolar crest was preserved. The scaffolds were found to partially preserve the dimensions of the native buccal and lingual bone walls adjacent to the defect site. A tendency towards more pronounced vertical ridge resorption, particularly in the buccal bone wall of the nongrafted alveoli, indicates that the TiO2 scaffold may be used for suppressing the loss of bone that normally follows tooth extraction.

Tiainen, Hanna; Verket, Anders; Haugen, Havard J.; Lyngstadaas, S. Petter; Wohlfahrt, Johan Caspar

2012-01-01

257

Separations using biological carriers immobilized in porous polymeric and sol-gel template synthesized nanotubular membranes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The overall goal of the dissertation was to use immobilized biological carriers in membranes to separate compounds as challenging as enantiomers. The membranes were prepared by a process called 'template synthesis'. Template synthesis has been used to synthesize semiconductor nanostructures and also membranes which do the enantioseparation by a process called facilitated transport. The immobilized proteins act as carriers facilitating the transport of the substrate molecules through the membrane. The apoenzymes are enzymes devoid of cofactor. Apoenzymes will possess the molecular recognition site for the substrate but will not catalyze the reaction. Apoenzymes immobilized in the pores of porous polycarbonate membrane was used as a carrier. The ends of the pores were closed with porous polypyrrole. Compounds as interesting as enantiomers were separated with these membranes. Template synthesis has been extended to the synthesis of many important semiconductor oxide naostructures like TiO2, SiO2, ZnO, Co3O4 and MnO2. These structures were made by dipping the alumina template membrane in the sol and heating. Ti0 2 tubules and fibers were obtained by this method. The fibers were used to study photocatalysis reaction of organic compounds in sunlight. Proteins were immobilized within the inner surface of the tubules using Sn chemistry. Bovine serum albumn (BSA) immobilized within the different diameter tubules showed varying degree of facilitation with phenylalanine. The membranes also show interesting switching of selectivity from L to D depending on the tube size and feed concentration.

Lakshmi, Brinda B.

258

Porous and strong bioactive glass (13-93) scaffolds prepared by unidirectional freezing of camphene-based suspensions.  

PubMed

Scaffolds of 13-93 bioactive glass (6Na(2)O, 12K(2)O, 5MgO, 20CaO, 4P(2)O(5), 53SiO(2); wt.%) with an oriented pore architecture were formed by unidirectional freezing of camphene-based suspensions, followed by thermal annealing of the frozen constructs to grow the camphene crystals. After sublimation of the camphene, the constructs were sintered (1 h at 700°C) to produce a dense glass phase with oriented macropores. The objective of this work was to study how constant freezing rates (1-7°C min(-1)) during the freezing step influenced the pore orientation and mechanical response of the scaffolds. When compared to scaffolds prepared by freezing the suspensions on a substrate kept at a constant temperature of 3°C (time-dependent freezing rate), higher freezing rates resulted in better pore orientation, a more homogeneous microstructure and a marked improvement in the mechanical response of the scaffolds in compression. Scaffolds fabricated using a constant freezing rate of 7°C min(-1) (porosity=50±4%; average pore diameter=100 ?m), had a compressive strength of 47±5 MPa and an elastic modulus of 11±3 GPa (in the orientation direction). In comparison, scaffolds prepared by freezing on the constant-temperature substrate had strength and modulus values of 35±11 MPa and 8±3 GPa, respectively. These oriented bioactive glass scaffolds prepared by the constant freezing rate route could potentially be used for the repair of defects in load-bearing bones, such as segmental defects in the long bones. PMID:21855661

Liu, Xin; Rahaman, Mohamed N; Fu, Qiang; Tomsia, Antoni P

2011-08-05

259

In situ polymerization into porous ceramics: a novel route to tough biomimetic materials.  

PubMed

A hydroxyapatite-based biomimetic composite, which is henceforth referred to as a synthetic bony material with high toughness characteristics, was prepared. It was obtained from a hydroxyapatite (HAp) skeleton with a relative porosity fraction of approximately 32 vol %, prepared by cold-isostatic-press compaction, followed by a sintering process, leading to a hydroxyapatite structure containing percolated submicrometer porosity channels. The percolated pores were infiltrated with a liquid mixture of epsilon-caprolactam monomer and an initiator, before homogeneous in situ polymerization to 6-nylon within the fully percolated pore structure was induced thermally. The final composite consisted of a dense interpenetrated hydroxyapatite/6-nylon network in a fraction approximately 68/30 vol %. The work of fracture value of the hybrid composite was found to be comparable with those found in two natural materials (bovine femur and nacre), which were also investigated under the same testing conditions. PMID:15348565

Pezzotti, G; Asmus, S M F; Ferroni, L P; Miki, S

2002-08-01

260

In Vitro Biocompatibility of Schwann Cells on Surfaces of Biocompatible Polymeric Electrospun Fibrous and Solution-Cast Film Scaffolds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The in vitro responses of Schwann cells (RT4-D6P2T, a schwannoma cell line derived from a chemically induced rat peripheral neurotumor) on various types of electrospun fibrous scaffolds of some commercially available biocompatible and biodegradable polymers, i.e., poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB), poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3- hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV), polycaprolactone (PCL), poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA), and chitosan (CS), were reported in comparison with those of the cells on corresponding

Pakakrong Sangsanoh; Suchada Waleetorncheepsawat; Orawan Suwantong; Patcharaporn Wutticharoenmongkol; Oratai Weeranantanapan; Boontharika Chuenjitbuntaworn; Poonlarp Cheepsunthorn; Prasit Pavasant; Pitt Supaphol

2007-01-01

261

Constitutive models for a poly(e-caprolactone) scaffold.  

PubMed

We investigate material models for a porous, polymeric scaffold used for bone. The material was made by co-extruding poly(e-caprolactone) (PCL), a biodegradable polyester, and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO). The water soluble PEO was removed resulting in a porous scaffold. The stress-strain curve in compression was fit with a phenomenological model in hyperbolic form. This material model will be useful for designers for quasi-static analysis as it provides a simple form that can easily be used in finite element models. The ASTM D-1621 standard recommends using a secant modulus based on 10% strain. The resulting modulus has a smaller scatter in its value compared to the coefficients of the hyperbolic model, and it is therefore easier to compare material processing differences and ensure quality of the scaffold. A third material model was constructed from images of the microstructure. Each pixel of the micrographs was represented with a brick finite element and assigned the Young's modulus of bulk PCL or a value of 0 for a pore. A compressive strain was imposed on the model and the resulting stresses were calculated. The elastic constants of the scaffold were then computed using Hooke's law for a linear-elastic isotropic material. The model was able to predict the small strain Young's modulus measured in the experiments to within one standard deviation. Thus, by knowing the microstructure of the scaffold, its bulk properties can be predicted from the material properties of the constituents. PMID:15133966

Quinn, T P; Oreskovic, T L; McCowan, C N; Washburn, N R

2004-01-01

262

Modification of the bulk properties of the porous poly(lactide-co-glycolide) scaffold by irradiation with a cyclotron ion beam with high energy for its application in tissue engineering.  

PubMed

Understanding the bulk properties of a prefabricated scaffold for handling and degradation during cell culture may be advantageous to its application in tissue engineering. Modification of the bulk properties of the porous poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) scaffold was performed by irradiation with a high energy cyclotron proton ion beam. The porous PLGA scaffolds were fabricated in advance by the gas-foaming method by employing ammonium bicarbonate particles as porogens. Irradiation with ion beams was performed with 40 MeV for 3, 6 and 9 min on the scaffolds at a distance of 30 cm from the beam exit to the scaffold surface. The bulk area of the ion beam-treated PLGA scaffold apparently demonstrated no color changes when observed with a digital camera. The chemical structures of the untreated samples seemed to be kept well when analyzed by both Fourier transformed infrared but a subtle change was observed in its x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results of in vitro tissue culture with smooth muscle cells for up to 4 weeks also demonstrated no significant difference in terms of its handling stability during cell culture and cellular behavior between the untreated PLGA scaffolds and the ion beam-treated ones. However, significant changes were observed in its molecular weight as measured by gel permeation chromatography, indicating a significant reduction of its molecular weights. These results of in vitro tests and GPC measurements indicated that while bulk modification of the scaffold was processed, its handling was stable during in vitro cell culture for up to 4 weeks. PMID:19584424

Woo, Jung Hoon; Kim, Do Yeon; Jo, Seong Yeun; Kang, Hyunki; Noh, Insup

2009-07-08

263

Fabrication of TiO2 nanotubes on porous titanium scaffold and biocompatibility evaluation in vitro and in vivo.  

PubMed

Porous titanium was modified by anodic oxidation and heat treatment method. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction examinations revealed that the modified surface of porous titanium was covered by anatase nanotubes. In vitro, the bioactivity of specimens before and after modification was evaluated by immersing into the double-concentration simulated body fluid for 7 days. The porous titanium specimens were implanted into the femurs of dogs for 3 months. The osteointegration of the implants was investigated by push-out test and histological examination. The results showed that the porous titanium with anatase nanotubes has the superior ability of apatite formation and a higher push-out force when compared with the other implants. The histological analysis indicated that the implant with anatase nanotubes had excellent ability to facilitate the osteointegration in vivo. PMID:22791689

Fan, Xingping; Feng, Bo; Liu, Zhiyuan; Tan, Jing; Zhi, Wei; Lu, Xiong; Wang, Jianxin; Weng, Jie

2012-07-13

264

Three-dimensional culture of mouse bone marrow cells within a porous polymer scaffold: effects of oxygen concentration and stromal layer on expansion of haematopoietic progenitor cells.  

PubMed

To establish an ex vivo expansion method of haematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) and erythroid cells, three-dimensional (3D) cultures of mouse bone marrow cells were performed, employing a porous polyvinyl formal (PVF) resin as a scaffold. In these cultures, the effects of oxygen concentration and co-cultures with stromal cells on the expansion of HPCs and erythroid cells were investigated. When bone marrow cells were cultured under 3D conditions, HPCs and erythroid cells expanded without supplementation of exogenous cytokines, irrespective of the presence of stromal cells. On the contrary, slight expansion of HPCs or erythroid cells was observed in monolayer cultures as controls, indicating that the 3D cultures using the PVF scaffold were far better in expanding HPCs and erythroid cells than the monolayer cultures. Under hypoxic conditions, bone marrow stromal cells allowed for a 3D culture of erythroid cells and HPCs at higher cell densities compared to cultures without stromal cells, and the duration of the expansion of HPCs and erythroid cells after initiating the 3D co-cultures was prolonged. The number of these cells increased throughout the culture period up to 3 weeks under hypoxic conditions, although the number decreased after 2 weeks under normoxic conditions. In conclusion, the 3D co-culture method of haematopoietic cells with stromal cells under hypoxic conditions was confirmed to be effective in expanding HPCs and erythroid cells, and this method seemed to be useful for developing an ex vivo expansion method for haematopoietic cells. PMID:20653040

Miyoshi, Hirotoshi; Murao, Mariko; Ohshima, Norio; Tun, Thein

2011-02-01

265

Microwave sintering and in vitro study of defect-free stable porous multilayered HAp-ZrO2 artificial bone scaffold  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Continuously porous hydroxyapatite (HAp)/t-ZrO2 composites containing concentric laminated frames and microchanneled bodies were fabricated by an extrusion process. To investigate the mechanical properties of HAp/t-ZrO2 composites, the porous composites were sintered at different temperatures using a microwave furnace. The microstructure was designed to imitate that of natural bone, particularly small bone, with both cortical and spongy bone sections. Each microchannel was separated by alternating lamina of HAp, HAp-(t-ZrO2) and t-ZrO2. HAp and ZrO2 phases existed on the surface of the microchannel and the core zone to increase the biocompatibility and mechanical properties of the HAp-ZrO2 artificial bone. The sintering behavior was evaluated and the optimum sintering temperature was found to be 1400 °C, which produced a stable scaffold. The material characteristics, such as the microstructure, crystal structure and compressive strength, were evaluated in detail for different sintering temperatures. A detailed in vitro study was carried out using MTT assay, western blot analysis, gene expression by polymerase chain reaction and laser confocal image analysis of cell proliferation. The results confirmed that HAp-ZrO2 performs as an artificial bone, showing excellent cell growth, attachment and proliferation behavior using osteoblast-like MG63 cells.

Jang, Dong-Woo; Nguyen, Thi-Hiep; Sarkar, Swapan Kumar; Lee, Byong-Taek

2012-06-01

266

Fast and continuous preparation of high polymerization degree cellulose nanofibrils and their three-dimensional macroporous scaffold fabrication.  

PubMed

C6-carboxy-cellulose with a carboxylate content of 0.8 mmol g(-1) was obtained by oxidation of once-dried cellulose, using the 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidinyl-1-oxyl (TEMPO)/NaClO/NaClO2 system at pH 6.8 and 60 °C for 16 h. This method, with the addition of reagents in the order TEMPO, NaClO and NaClO2, was 38 h faster than a previously published method. Individualized cellulose nanofibrils with a width of 3-5 nm and a length of several hundred nanometers were prepared by homogenizing the C6-carboxy-cellulose-water suspension. Macroporous cellulose nanofibril/poly(vinyl alcohol) scaffolds with interconnected large pores of 20-100 ?m diameter and small pores of 2-10 ?m diameter were fabricated. The cellulose nanofilaments formed nanofibrous structures on the surface of the PVA wall, which was similar to that of the collagen skeleton of the extracellular matrix. NIH/3T3 cells were cultured in the scaffolds for 4 weeks, SEM observation showed that the cells were anchored and clustered on the cellulose nanofilaments, forming spherical colonies. The extracellular matrix (ECM) was filled with mineralized particles. PMID:23412536

Song, Jiankang; Tang, Aimin; Liu, Tingting; Wang, Jufang

2013-03-21

267

Mechanical and biodegradable properties of porous titanium filled with poly-L-lactic acid by modified in situ polymerization technique.  

PubMed

Porous titanium (pTi) can possess a low Young's modulus equal to that of human bone, depending on its porosity. However, the mechanical strength of pTi deteriorates greatly with increasing porosity. On the other hand, certain medical polymers exhibit biofunctionalities, which are not possessed intrinsically by metallic materials. Therefore, a biodegradable medical polymer, poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA), was used to fill in the pTi pores using a modified in-situ polymerization technique. The mechanical and biodegradable properties of pTi filled with PLLA (pTi/PLLA) as fabricated by this technique and the effects of the PLLA filling were evaluated in this study. The pTi pores are almost completely filled with PLLA by the developed process (i.e., technique). The tensile strength and tensile Young's modulus of pTi barely changes with the PLLA filling. However, the PLLA filling improves the compressive 0.2% proof stress of pTi having any porosity and increases the compressive Young's modulus of pTi having relatively high porosity. This difference between the tensile and compressive properties of pTi/PLLA is considered to be caused by the differing resistances of PLLA in the pores to tensile and compressive deformations. The PLLA filled into the pTi pores degrades during immersion in Hanks' solution at 310 K. The weight loss due to PLLA degradation increases with increasing immersion time. However, the rate of weight loss of pTi/PLLA during immersion decreases with increasing immersion time. Hydroxyapatite formation is observed on the surface of pTi/PLLA after immersion for ?8 weeks. The decrease in the weight-loss rate may be caused by weight gain due to hydroxyapatite formation and/or the decrease in contact area with Hanks' solution caused by its formation on the surface of pTi/PLLA. PMID:21783129

Nakai, Masaaki; Niinomi, Mitsuo; Ishii, Daisuke

2011-04-15

268

Functionalized ultra-porous titania nanofiber membranes as nuclear waste separation and sequestration scaffolds for nuclear fuels recycle.  

SciTech Connect

Advanced nuclear fuel cycle concept is interested in reducing separations to a simplified, one-step process if possible. This will benefit from the development of a one-step universal getter and sequestration material so as a simplified, universal waste form was proposed in this project. We have developed a technique combining a modified sol-gel chemistry and electrospinning for producing ultra-porous ceramic nanofiber membranes with controllable diameters and porous structures as the separation/sequestration materials. These ceramic nanofiber materials have been determined to have high porosity, permeability, loading capacity, and stability in extreme conditions. These porous fiber membranes were functionalized with silver nanoparticles and nanocrystal metal organic frameworks (MOFs) to introduce specific sites to capture gas species that are released during spent nuclear fuel reprocessing. Encapsulation into a durable waste form of ceramic composition was also demonstrated.

Liu, Haiqing; Bell, Nelson Simmons; Cipiti, Benjamin B.; Lewis, Tom Goslee,; Sava, Dorina Florentina; Nenoff, Tina Maria

2012-09-01

269

Effect of silicon level on rate, quality and progression of bone healing within silicate-substituted porous hydroxyapatite scaffolds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The osseous response to silicon (Si) level (0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8 and 1.5wt% Si) within 5 batches of matched porosity silicate-substituted hydroxyapatite (SA) scaffold was assessed by implantation of 4.6mm diameter cylinders in the femoral intercondylar notch of New Zealand White rabbits for periods of 1, 3, 6 and 12 weeks. Histological evaluation and histomorphometric quantification of bone ingrowth and

Karin A. Hing; Peter A. Revell; Nigel Smith; Thomas Buckland

2006-01-01

270

A Bi-Layered Elastomeric Scaffold for Tissue Engineering of Small-Diameter Vascular Grafts  

PubMed Central

A major barrier in the development of a clinically-useful small-diameter tissue engineered vascular graft (TEVG) is the scaffold component. Scaffold requirements include matching the mechanical and structural properties with those of native vessels and optimizing the microenvironment to foster cell integration, adhesion, and growth. We have developed a small-diameter, bi-layered, biodegradable, elastomeric scaffold based on a synthetic, biodegradable elastomer. The scaffold incorporates a highly porous inner layer, allowing cell integration and growth, and an external, fibrous reinforcing layer deposited by electrospinning. Scaffold morphology and mechanical properties were assessed, quantified, and compared to those of native vessels. Scaffolds were then seeded with adult stem cells via a rotational vacuum seeding device to obtain a TEVG, cultured in dynamic conditions for 7 days, and evaluated for cellularity. The scaffold showed a firm integration of the two polymeric layers with no delaminations. Mechanical properties were physiologically-consistent showing anisotropy, elastic modulus (1.4±0.4 MPa), and ultimate tensile stress (8.3±1.7 MPa) comparable with native vessels. Compliance and suture retention force were 4.6±0.5×10?4 mmHg?1 and 3.4±0.3 N, respectively. Seeding resulted in a rapid, uniform, bulk integration of cells, with a seeding efficiency of 92±1%. The scaffolds maintained a high level of cellular density throughout dynamic culture. This approach, combining artery-like mechanical properties and a rapid and efficient cellularization, might contribute to the future clinical translation of TEVGs.

Soletti, Lorenzo; Hong, Yi; Guan, Jianjun; Stankus, John J.; El-Kurdi, Mohammed S.; Wagner, William R.; Vorp, David A.

2011-01-01

271

Bioactive scaffolds mimicking natural dentin structure.  

PubMed

Organic scaffolds of poly(ethyl methacrylate-co-hydroxyethyl acrylate) [P(EMA-co-HEA)] 70/30 wt % ratio, with varying proportions of silica SiO(2) from 0 to 20 wt % and aligned tubular pores, were prepared using a fiber-templating fabrication method, with the aim of mimicking structure and properties of the mineralized tissue of natural dentin. Precursors of the copolymer and silica were simultaneously polymerized in a sol-gel process within the fiber template, which was eventually eliminated to generate homogeneously distributed parallel micrometer-sized pores in the material. Scaffolds of PEMA and PHEA were obtained by the same approach. The scaffolds were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. The specific volume was determined by Archimedes' method and the porosity calculated from the geometry. The mechanical properties were analyzed in tensile and compressive modes. The bioactivity of the scaffolds with 15 wt % SiO(2) was tested by immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF) for 7 days followed by immersion in 2x SBF for 7 days. These scaffolds were afterwards characterized by SEM, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and compression assays. Percentages of silica above 10 wt % reinforced mechanically the copolymer, evidenced by the hindrance of the long range motions of the organic chains, altered shrinkage and swelling, and meanwhile conferred bioactivity to its surface. These tubular porous structures, which resemble natural dentin with regard to its structure and properties and induce the precipitation of apatite on their surfaces in vitro, are expected to facilitate the integration in the host mineralized tissue, to stimulate cell growth and to be useful as guiding scaffolds for in vivo dentin regeneration. PMID:19072987

Lluch, A Vallés; Fernández, A Campillo; Ferrer, G Gallego; Pradas, M Monleón

2009-07-01

272

Soluble starch scaffolds with uniaxial aligned channel structure for in situ synthesis of hierarchically porous silica ceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hierarchically porous silica ceramics with unidirectionally aligned channel morphology have been synthesized by in situ mineralization of soluble starch monolith. The procedure followed two steps. First, soluble starch monoliths with well-defined uniaxial macroporous structure were prepared by unidirectional solidification process of starch hydrosol or starch hydrogel. Second, such an as-prepared artificial monolith, used as template, was soaked into a surfactant-templated

Yumin Zhang; Luyang Hu; Jiecai Han; Zehui Jiang; Yufeng Zhou

2010-01-01

273

Antitumor activity of docetaxel-loaded polymeric nanoparticles fabricated by Shirasu porous glass membrane-emulsification technique.  

PubMed

Docetaxel (DTX) has excellent efficiency against a wide spectrum of cancers. However, the current clinical formulation has limited its usage, as it causes some severe side effects. Various polymeric nanoparticles have thus been developed as alternative formulations of DTX, but they have been mostly fabricated on a laboratory scale. Previously, we synthesized a novel copolymer, poly(lactide)-D-?-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (PLA-TPGS), and found that it exhibited great potential in drug delivery with improved properties. In this study, we applied the Shirasu porous glass (SPG) membrane-emulsification technique to prepare the DTX-loaded PLA-TPGS nanoparticles on a pilot scale. The effect of several formulation variables on the DTX-loaded nanoparticle properties, including particle size, zeta potential, and drug-encapsulation efficiency, were investigated based on surfactant type and concentration in the aqueous phase, organic/aqueous phase volumetric ratio, membrane-pore size, transmembrane cycles, and operation pressure. The DTX-loaded nanoparticles were obtained with sizes of 306.8 ± 5.5 nm and 334.1 ± 2.7 nm (mean value ± standard deviation), and drug-encapsulation efficiency of 81.8% ± 4.5% and 64.5% ± 2.7% for PLA-TPGS and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles, respectively. In vivo pharmacokinetic study exhibited a significant advantage of PLA-TPGS nanoparticles over PLGA nanoparticles and Taxotere. Drug-loaded PLA-TPGS nanoparticles exhibited 1.78-, 6.34- and 3.35-fold higher values for area under the curve, half-life, and mean residence time, respectively, compared with those of PLGA nanoparticles, and 2.23-, 13.2-, 8.51-fold higher than those of Taxotere, respectively. In vivo real-time distribution of nanoparticles was measured on tumor-bearing mice by near-infrared fluorescence imaging, which demonstrated that the PLA-TPGS nanoparticles achieved much higher concentration and longer retention in tumors than PLGA nanoparticles after intravenous injection. This is consistent with the pharmacokinetic behavior of the nanoparticles. The tumor-inhibitory effect of DTX-loaded nanoparticles was observed in vivo in an H22 tumor-bearing mice model via intravenous administration. This indicated that PLA-TPGS nanoparticles are a feasible drug-delivery formulation with a pilot fabrication technique and have superior pharmacokinetic and anticancer effects compared to the commercially available Taxotere. PMID:23935362

Yu, Yunni; Tan, Songwei; Zhao, Shuang; Zhuang, Xiangting; Song, Qingle; Wang, Yuliang; Zhou, Qin; Zhang, Zhiping

2013-07-29

274

PLDLA/PCL-T Scaffold for Meniscus Tissue Engineering.  

PubMed

The inability of the avascular region of the meniscus to regenerate has led to the use of tissue engineering to treat meniscal injuries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of fibrochondrocytes preseeded on PLDLA/PCL-T [poly(L-co-D,L-lactic acid)/poly(caprolactone-triol)] scaffolds to stimulate regeneration of the whole meniscus. Porous PLDLA/PCL-T (90/10) scaffolds were obtained by solvent casting and particulate leaching. Compressive modulus of 9.5±1.0?MPa and maximum stress of 4.7±0.9?MPa were evaluated. Fibrochondrocytes from rabbit menisci were isolated, seeded directly on the scaffolds, and cultured for 21 days. New Zealand rabbits underwent total meniscectomy, after which implants consisting of cell-free scaffolds or cell-seeded scaffolds were introduced into the medial knee meniscus; the negative control group consisted of rabbits that received no implant. Macroscopic and histological evaluations of the neomeniscus were performed 12 and 24 weeks after implantation. The polymer scaffold implants adapted well to surrounding tissues, without apparent rejection, infection, or chronic inflammatory response. Fibrocartilaginous tissue with mature collagen fibers was observed predominantly in implants with seeded scaffolds compared to cell-free implants after 24 weeks. Similar results were not observed in the control group. Articular cartilage was preserved in the polymeric implants and showed higher chondrocyte cell number than the control group. These findings show that the PLDLA/PCL-T 90/10 scaffold has potential for orthopedic applications since this material allowed the formation of fibrocartilaginous tissue, a structure of crucial importance for repairing injuries to joints, including replacement of the meniscus and the protection of articular cartilage from degeneration. PMID:23593566

Esposito, Andrea Rodrigues; Moda, Marlon; Cattani, Silvia Mara de Melo; de Santana, Gracy Mara; Barbieri, Juliana Abreu; Munhoz, Monique Moron; Cardoso, Túlio Pereira; Barbo, Maria Lourdes Peris; Russo, Teresa; D'Amora, Ugo; Gloria, Antonio; Ambrosio, Luigi; Duek, Eliana Aparecida de Rezende

2013-04-01

275

A biodegradable polymeric system for peptide-protein delivery assembled with porous microspheres and nanoparticles, using an adsorption/infiltration process.  

PubMed

A biodegradable polymeric system is proposed for formulating peptides and proteins. The systems were assembled through the adsorption of biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles onto porous, biodegradable microspheres by an adsorption/infiltration process with the use of an immersion method. The peptide drug is not involved in the manufacturing of the nanoparticles or in obtaining the microspheres; thus, contact with the organic solvent, interfaces, and shear forces required for the process are prevented during drug loading. Leuprolide acetate was used as the model peptide, and poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) was used as the biodegradable polymer. Leuprolide was adsorbed onto different amounts of PLGA nanoparticles (25 mg/mL, 50 mg/mL, 75 mg/mL, and 100 mg/mL) in a first stage; then, these were infiltrated into porous PLGA microspheres (100 mg) by dipping the structures into a microsphere suspension. In this way, the leuprolide was adsorbed onto both surfaces (ie, nanoparticles and microspheres). Scanning electron microscopy studies revealed the formation of a nanoparticle film on the porous microsphere surface that becomes more continuous as the amount of infiltrated nanoparticles increases. The adsorption efficiency and release rate are dependent on the amount of adsorbed nanoparticles. As expected, a greater adsorption efficiency (~95%) and a slower release rate were seen (~20% of released leuprolide in 12 hours) when a larger amount of nanoparticles was adsorbed (100 mg/mL of nanoparticles). Leuprolide acetate begins to be released immediately when there are no infiltrated nanoparticles, and 90% of the peptide is released in the first 12 hours. In contrast, the systems assembled in this study released less than 44% of the loaded drug during the same period of time. The observed release profiles denoted a Fickian diffusion that fit Higuchi's model (t(1/2)). The manufacturing process presented here may be useful as a potential alternative for formulating injectable depots for sensitive hydrophilic drugs such as peptides and proteins, among others. PMID:23788833

Alcalá-Alcalá, Sergio; Urbán-Morlán, Zaida; Aguilar-Rosas, Irene; Quintanar-Guerrero, David

2013-06-10

276

Bone regeneration in a rabbit critical-sized calvarial model using tyrosine-derived polycarbonate scaffolds.  

PubMed

Porous three-dimensional tyrosine-derived polycarbonate (TyrPC) scaffolds with a bimodal pore distribution were fabricated to mimic bone architecture using a combination of salt-leaching and phase separation techniques. TyrPC scaffolds degraded in register with bone regeneration during the 6-week study period and compressive moduli of the scaffolds were maintained >0.5 MPa at 6 weeks of incubation in PBS at 37 °C. The TyrPC scaffolds either unsupplemented or supplemented with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) were implanted in a rabbit calvarial critical-sized defect (CSD) model and the TyrPC scaffolds treated with rhBMP-2 or TyrPC coated with calcium phosphate scaffold alone promoted bone regeneration in a rabbit calvarial CSD at 6 weeks postimplantation. A synthetic TyrPC polymeric scaffold either without a biological supplement or with a minimal dose of rhBMP-2 induced bone regeneration comparable to a commercially available bone graft substitute in a nonrodent CSD animal model. PMID:22220747

Kim, Jinku; Magno, Maria Hanshella R; Waters, Heather; Doll, Bruce A; McBride, Sean; Alvarez, Pedro; Darr, Aniq; Vasanji, Amit; Kohn, Joachim; Hollinger, Jeffrey O

2012-02-08

277

Facile preparation of Chaetomorpha antennina based porous polysaccharide–PMMA hybrid material by radical polymerization under microwave irradiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hybrid material was prepared from the hot water soluble sulphated polysaccharide of the green seaweed Chaetomorpha antennina (CMsps) and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) by radical polymerization in aqueous medium under microwave irradiation. An insoluble\\u000a material was formed with the progress of the polymerization. The product was characterized by the IR spectrum and elemental\\u000a analysis, as well as by acid hydrolysis

Gayatri Prasad; Kamalesh Prasad; Ramavatar Meena; A. K. Siddhanta

2009-01-01

278

Application of an in-situ thermo-polymerized porous polymer: creation of an on-column frit for a packed capillary HPLC column.  

PubMed

A 3-mm length of a porous monolithic polymer was prepared in a 0.32-mm inner-diameter fused-silica capillary by an in-situ thermo-polymerization method and used as an on-column frit for a packed capillary HPLC column. The on-column frit can resist high pressure up to 400 bar. A 5-microm packing material was packed in the capillary with the on-column frit by a slurry method. At pressure driving mode, separation of samples was performed using the capillary HPLC column. The in-situ frit preparation method has the advantages of easy preparation, easy control of the location of the frit and a mild preparing reaction condition. PMID:17372384

Ma, Jiping; Ding, Mingyu; Xu, Yan; Chen, Lingxin

2007-03-01

279

Reinforcing bioceramic scaffolds with in situ synthesized ?-polycaprolactone coatings.  

PubMed

In situ ring-opening polymerization of ?-caprolactone (?-CL) was performed to coat ?-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) scaffolds fabricated by robocasting in order to enhance their mechanical performance while preserving the predesigned macropore architecture. Concentrated colloidal inks prepared from ?-TCP commercial powders were used to fabricate porous structures consisting of a three-dimensional mesh of interpenetrating rods. Then, ?-CL was in situ polymerized within the ceramic structure using a lipase as catalyst and toluene as solvent, to obtain a highly homogeneous coating and full impregnation of in-rod microporosity. The strength and toughness of scaffolds coated by ?-polycaprolactone (?-PCL) were significantly increased (twofold and fivefold increase, respectively) over those of the bare structures. Enhancement of both properties is associated to the healing of preexisting microdefects in the bioceramic rods. These enhancements are compared to results from previous work on fully impregnated structures. The implications of the results for the optimization of the mechanical and biological performance of scaffolds for bone tissue engineering applications are discussed. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 101A: 3551-3559, 2013. PMID:23629876

Martínez-Vázquez, Francisco J; Miranda, Pedro; Guiberteau, Fernando; Pajares, Antonia

2013-04-30

280

Development of biomedical porous titanium filled with medical polymer by in-situ polymerization of monomer solution infiltrated into pores  

Microsoft Academic Search

Porous metallic materials can have a low Young’s modulus, which is approximately equal to that of human bone, by controlling the porosity. On the other hand, certain medical polymers exhibit biofunctionalities that are not intrinsically present in metallic materials. Therefore, a composite consisting of these materials is expected to possess both these advantages for biomedical applications. However, in the case

Masaaki Nakai; Mitsuo Niinomi; Toshikazu Akahori; Harumi Tsutsumi; Shinichi Itsuno; Naoki Haraguchi; Yoshinori Itoh; Tadashi Ogasawara; Takashi Onishi; Taku Shindoh

2010-01-01

281

Osteogenesis and angiogenesis induced by porous ?-CaSiO(3)/PDLGA composite scaffold via activation of AMPK/ERK1/2 and PI3K/Akt pathways.  

PubMed

As a potential bioactive material, ?-calcium silicate (?-CS) has attracted particular attention in the field of bone regeneration. In this study, porous ?-CS/Poly-D,L-Lactide-Glycolide (PDLGA) composite scaffolds were developed with the goals of controlling the degradation rate and improving the mechanical and biological properties. The compressive strength and toughness were significantly enhanced by PDLGA modification of porous ?-CS ceramic scaffolds. The effects of the ionic extract from ?-CS/PDLGA composite scaffolds on osteogenic differentiation of rat bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (rBMSCs), proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and the related mechanisms were investigated. It was shown that bioactive ions from ?-CS/PDLGA scaffolds could enhance cell viability, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, calcium mineral deposition, and mRNA expression levels of osteoblast-related genes of rBMSCs without addition of extra osteogenic reagents. The activation in AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), extracellular signal-related kinases (ERK) 1/2 and RUNX-2 were observed in rBMSCs cultured in the extract of ?-CS/PDLGA, and these effects could be blocked by AMPK inhibitor Compound C. The extracts of ?-CS/PDLGA composites stimulated HUVECs proliferation that was associated with phosphorylation of protein kinase B (Akt) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) as well as an increase in nitric oxide (NO) production and secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The inductions were abolished by the addition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor LY294002. The composite scaffolds were implanted in critical sized rabbit femur defects (6 × 10 mm) for 4, 12 and 20 weeks with ?-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) as controls. Sequential histological evaluations and radiographs revealed that ?-CS/PDLGA dramatically stimulated new bone formation and angiogenesis. The biodegradation rate of the ?-CS/PDLGA scaffolds was lower than that of ?-TCP at each time point examined, and matched the new bone formation rates. These data suggest that ?-CS/PDLGA could promote bone regeneration in vivo, which might be ascribed to the enhanced osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and increased angiogenic activity of endothelial cells (ECs). PMID:23069715

Wang, Chen; Lin, Kaili; Chang, Jiang; Sun, Jiao

2012-10-12

282

High-precision flexible fabrication of tissue engineering scaffolds using distinct polymers.  

PubMed

Three-dimensional porous structures using biodegradable materials with excellent biocompatibility are critically important for tissue engineering applications. We present a multi-nozzle-based versatile deposition approach to flexibly construct porous tissue engineering scaffolds using distinct polymeric biomaterials such as thermoplastic and photo-crosslinkable polymers. We first describe the development of the deposition system and fabrication of scaffolds from two types of biodegradable polymers using this system. The thermoplastic sample is semi-crystalline poly(?-caprolactone) (PCL) that can be processed at a temperature higher than its melting point and solidifies at room temperature. The photo-crosslinkable one is polypropylene fumarate (PPF) that has to be dissolved in a reactive solvent as a resin for being cured into solid structures. Besides the direct fabrication of thermoplastic PCL scaffolds, we specifically develop a layer molding approach for the fabrication of crosslinkable polymers, which traditionally can only be fabricated by stereolithography. In this approach, a thermoplastic supporting material (paraffin wax) is first deposited to make a mold for each specific layer, and then PPF is deposited on demand to fill the mold and cured by the UV light. The supporting material can be removed to produce a porous scaffold of crosslinked PPF. Both PCL and crosslinked PPF scaffolds fabricated using the developed system have been characterized in terms of compressive mechanical properties, morphology, pore size and porosity. Mouse MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblastic cell studies on the fabricated scaffolds have been performed to demonstrate their capability of supporting cell proliferation and ingrowth, aiming for bone tissue engineering applications. PMID:22635324

Wei, Chuang; Cai, Lei; Sonawane, Bhushan; Wang, Shanfeng; Dong, Jingyan

2012-05-25

283

Osteogenic differentiation of dura mater stem cells cultured in vitro on three-dimensional porous scaffolds of poly(epsilon-caprolactone) fabricated via co-extrusion and gas foaming.  

PubMed

A novel scaffold fabrication method utilizing both polymer blend extrusion and gas foaming techniques to control pore size distribution is presented. Seventy-five per cent of all pores produced using polymer blend extrusion alone were less than 50microm. Introducing a gas technique provided better control of pore size distribution, expanding the range from 0-50 to 0-350microm. Varying sintering time, annealing temperature and foaming pressure also helped to reduce the percentage of pore sizes below 50microm. Scaffolds chosen for in vitro cellular studies had a pore size distribution of 0-300microm, average pore size 66+/-17microm, 0.54+/-0.02% porosity and 98% interconnectivity, measured by micro-computed tomography (microCT) analysis. The ability of the scaffolds to support osteogenic differentiation for subsequent cranial defect repair was evaluated by static and dynamic (0.035+/-0.006ms(-1) terminal velocity) cultivation with dura mater stem cells (DSCs). In vitro studies showed minimal increases in proliferation over 28 days in culture in osteogenic media. Alkaline phosphatase expression remained constant throughout the study. Moderate increases in matrix deposition, as assessed by histochemical staining and microCT analysis, occurred at later time points, days 21 and 28. Although constructs cultured dynamically showed greater mineralization than static conditions, these trends were not significant. It remains unclear whether bioreactor culture of DSCs is advantageous for bone tissue engineering applications. However, these studies show that polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffolds alone, without the addition of other co-polymers or ceramics, support long-term attachment and mineralization of DSCs throughout the entire porous scaffold. PMID:18434267

Petrie Aronin, C E; Cooper, J A; Sefcik, L S; Tholpady, S S; Ogle, R C; Botchwey, E A

2008-03-18

284

In vivo biocompatibility and biodegradation of 3D-printed porous scaffolds based on a hydroxyl-functionalized poly(?-caprolactone).  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vivo biodegradation and biocompatibility of three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds based on a hydroxyl-functionalized polyester (poly(hydroxymethylglycolide-co-?-caprolactone), PHMGCL), which has enhanced hydrophilicity, increased degradation rate, and improved cell-material interactions as compared to its counterpart poly(?-caprolactone), PCL. In this study, 3D scaffolds based on this polymer (PHMGCL, HMG:CL 8:92) were prepared by means of fiber deposition (melt-plotting). The biodegradation and tissue biocompatibility of PHMGCL and PCL scaffolds after subcutaneous implantation in Balb/c mice were investigated. At 4 and 12 weeks post implantation, the scaffolds were retrieved and evaluated for extent of degradation by measuring the residual weight of the scaffolds, thermal properties (DSC), and morphology (SEM) whereas the polymer was analyzed for both its composition ((1)H NMR) and molecular weight (GPC). The scaffolds with infiltrated tissues were harvested, fixed, stained and histologically analyzed. The in vitro enzymatic degradation of these scaffolds was also investigated in lipase solutions. It was shown that PHMGCL 3D-scaffolds lost more than 60% of their weight within 3 months of implantation while PCL scaffolds showed no weight loss in this time frame. The molecular weight (M(w)) of PHMGCL decreased from 46.9 kDa before implantation to 23.2 kDa after 3 months of implantation, while the molecular weight of PCL was unchanged in this period. (1)H NMR analysis showed that the degradation of PHMGCL was characterized by a loss of HMG units. In vitro enzymatic degradation showed that PHMGCL scaffolds were degraded within 50 h, while the degradation time for PCL scaffolds of similar structure was 72 h. A normal foreign body response to both scaffold types characterized by the presence of macrophages, lymphocytes, and fibrosis was observed with a more rapid onset in PHMGCL scaffolds. The extent of tissue-scaffold interactions as well as vascularization was shown to be higher for PHMGCL scaffolds compared to PCL ones. Therefore, the fast degradable PHMGCL which showed good biocompatibility is a promising biomaterial for tissue engineering applications. PMID:22436798

Seyednejad, Hajar; Gawlitta, Debby; Kuiper, Raoul V; de Bruin, Alain; van Nostrum, Cornelus F; Vermonden, Tina; Dhert, Wouter J A; Hennink, Wim E

2012-03-20

285

A new polymeric photosensitizer for dye-sensitized solar cell with porous TiO 2 from forest carbon resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of new lignin derivatives (lignophenols) containing phenol, p-cresol, catechol, resorcinol and pyrogallol synthesized from Hinoki (Chamaecyparis obtusa) and Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziessi) as softwood and beech (Fagas crenata) as hardwood was investigated as sensitizers for a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSCs) of porous TiO2 under the irradiation of 150W Xe lamp. For example, LPs–DSSCs of hinoki-ligno-p-cresol, directly derived from

Mitsuru Aoyagi; Masamitsu Funaoka

2004-01-01

286

Computer Simulation of Scaffold Degradation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scaffolds are porous biocompatible materials with suitable microarchitectures that are designed to allow for cell adhesion, growth and proliferation. They are used in combination with cells in regenerative medicine to promote tissue regeneration by means of a controlled deposition of natural extracellular matrix by the hosted cells therein. This healing process is in many cases accompanied by scaffold degradation up to its total disappearance when the scaffold is made of a biodegradable material. This work presents a computational model that simulates the degradation of scaffolds. The model works with three-dimensional microstructures, which have been previously discretised into small cubic homogeneous elements, called voxels. The model simulates the evolution of the degradation of the scaffold using a Monte Carlo algorithm, which takes into account the curvature of the surface of the fibres. The simulation results obtained in this study are in good agreement with empirical degradation measurements performed by mass loss on scaffolds after exposure to an etching alkaline solution.

Erkizia, G.; Rainer, A.; De Juan-Pardo, E. M.; Aldazabal, J.

2010-11-01

287

RhBMP-2-loaded calcium silicate/calcium phosphate cement scaffold with hierarchically porous structure for enhanced bone tissue regeneration.  

PubMed

Calcium phosphate cement scaffold (CPC) has been widely used as bone graft substitutes, but undesirable osteoinductivity and slow degradability greatly hamper their clinic application. To address these problems, a recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2)-loaded calcium silicate/calcium phosphate cement scaffold (CSPC) with hierarchical pores was developed in this study. The CSPC scaffold with both interconnected macropores on the order of 200-500 ?m and micropores of 2-5 ?m was synthesized from CPC and calcium silicate (CS) by a NaCl particulate-leaching method. In vitro cell culture with C2C12 model cells, in vivo ectopic bone formation and rabbit femur cavity defect repair were performed to evaluate the osteogeneic capacity of the CSPC/rhBMP-2 scaffold. CPC, CSPC and CPC/rhBMP-2 scaffolds were parallelly investigated for comparison. The results demonstrated that the hierarchical macro/microporous structure, whether in presence of CS or rhBMP-2, highly favored the adhesion of C2C12 cells and bone in-growth into the CPC-based scaffolds. But, in comparison to the CPC-based scaffolds with CS or rhBMP-2 alone, the CSPC/rhBMP-2 scaffold strongly promoted osteogenic differentiation in vitro and osteogenetic efficacy in vivo. Further studies demonstrated that Si ions derived from CSPC contributed mainly to maintain the conformation of rhBMP-2 and thus stimulate the synergistic action of CS and rhBMP-2 in osteogenic differentiation and osteoinductivity. Additionally, the incorporation of CS was also beneficial for the dissolution of the scaffold. Those results suggest that the CSPC has superior properties for incorporation of rhBMP-2 and our developed CSPC/rhBMP-2 scaffold have great potential for future use in bone tissue regeneration. PMID:24044997

Zhang, Jing; Zhou, Huanjun; Yang, Kai; Yuan, Yuan; Liu, Changsheng

2013-09-14

288

Hydroxyapatite-reinforced collagen tissue engineering scaffolds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scaffolds have been fabricated from a wide variety of materials and most have showed some success, either as bone graft substitutes or as tissue engineering scaffolds. However, all current scaffold compositions and architectures suffer from one or more flaws including poor mechanical properties, lack of biological response, nondegradability, or a scaffold architecture not conducive to osteointegration. Biomimetic approaches to scaffold design using the two main components of bone tissue, collagen and hydroxyapatite, resulted in scaffolds with superior biological properties but relatively poor mechanical properties and scaffold architecture. It was hypothesized that by optimizing scaffold composition and architecture, HA-collagen bone tissue engineering scaffolds could provide both an excellent biological response along with improved structural properties. The mechanical properties of freeze-dried HA-collagen scaffolds, the most common type of porous HA-collagen material, were first shown to be increased by the addition of HA reinforcements, but scaffold stiffness still fell far short of the desired range. Based on limitations inherent in the freeze-dried process, a new type of leached-porogen scaffold fabrication process was developed. Proof-of-concept scaffolds demonstrated the feasibility of producing leached-porogen HA-collagen materials, and the scaffold architecture was optimized though careful selection of porogen particle size and shape along with an improved crosslinking technique. The final scaffolds exhibited substantially increased compressive modulus compared to previous types HA-collagen scaffolds, while the porosity, pore size, and scaffold permeability were tailored to be suitable for bone tissue ingrowth. An in vitro study demonstrated the capacity of the leached-porogen scaffolds to serve as a substrate for the differentiation of osteoblasts and subsequent production of new bone tissue. The new leached-porogen scaffold HA-collagen scaffolds were shown to have potential as a highly tailorable bone tissue engineering scaffold with a unique combination of biological, mechanical, and structural properties.

Kane, Robert J.

289

Dexamethasone-loaded scaffolds prepared by supercritical-assisted phase inversion.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the possibility of preparing dexamethasone-loaded starch-based porous matrices in a one-step process. Supercritical phase inversion technique was used to prepare composite scaffolds of dexamethasone and a polymeric blend of starch and poly(l-lactic acid) (SPLA) for tissue engineering purposes. Dexamethasone is used in osteogenic media to direct the differentiation of stem cells towards the osteogenic lineage. Samples with different drug concentrations (5-15 wt.% polymer) were prepared at 200bar and 55 degrees C. The presence of dexamethasone did not affect the porosity or interconnectivity of the polymeric matrices. Water uptake and degradation studies were also performed on SPLA scaffolds. We conclude that SPLA matrices prepared by supercritical phase inversion have a swelling degree of nearly 90% and the material presents a weight loss of approximately 25% after 21days in solution. Furthermore, in vitro drug release studies were carried out and the results show that a sustained release of dexamethasone was achieved over 21days. The fitting of the power law to the experimental data demonstrated that drug release is governed by an anomalous transport, i.e., both the drug diffusion and the swelling of the matrix influence the release of dexamethasone out of the scaffold. The kinetic constant was also determined. This study reports the feasibility of using supercritical fluid technology to process in one step a porous matrix loaded with a pharmaceutical agent for tissue engineering purposes. PMID:19328753

Duarte, Ana Rita C; Mano, João F; Reis, Rui L

2009-02-07

290

Active scaffolds for on-demand drug and cell delivery.  

PubMed

Porous biomaterials have been widely used as scaffolds in tissue engineering and cell-based therapies. The release of biological agents from conventional porous scaffolds is typically governed by molecular diffusion, material degradation, and cell migration, which do not allow for dynamic external regulation. We present a new active porous scaffold that can be remotely controlled by a magnetic field to deliver various biological agents on demand. The active porous scaffold, in the form of a macroporous ferrogel, gives a large deformation and volume change of over 70% under a moderate magnetic field. The deformation and volume variation allows a new mechanism to trigger and enhance the release of various drugs including mitoxantrone, plasmid DNA, and a chemokine from the scaffold. The porous scaffold can also act as a depot of various cells, whose release can be controlled by external magnetic fields. PMID:21149682

Zhao, Xuanhe; Kim, Jaeyun; Cezar, Christine A; Huebsch, Nathaniel; Lee, Kangwon; Bouhadir, Kamal; Mooney, David J

2010-12-13

291

Micro-structured polymer scaffolds fabricated by direct laser writing for tissue engineering.  

PubMed

This work presents the latest results on direct laser writing of polymeric materials for tissue engineering applications. A femtosecond Yb:KGW laser (300 fs, 200 kHz, 515 nm) was used as a light source for non-linear lithography. Fabrication was implemented in various photosensitive polymeric materials, such as: hybrid organic-inorganic sol-gel based on silicon-zirconium oxides, commercial ORMOCER® class photoresins. These materials were structured via multi-photon polymerization technique with submicron resolution. Porous three-dimensional scaffolds for artificial tissue engineering were fabricated with constructed system and were up to several millimeters in overall size with 10 to 100 ?m internal pores. Biocompatibility of the used materials was tested in primary rabbit muscle-derived stem cell culture in vitro and using laboratory rats in vivo. This interdisciplinary study suggests that proposed technique and materials are suitable for tissue engineering applications. PMID:23224166

Danilevicius, Paulius; Rekstyte, Sima; Balciunas, Evaldas; Kraniauskas, Antanas; Jarasiene, Rasa; Sirmenis, Raimondas; Baltriukiene, Daiva; Bukelskiene, Virginija; Gadonas, Roaldas; Malinauskas, Mangirdas

2012-08-01

292

Fabrication of a multi-layer three-dimensional scaffold with controlled porous micro-architecture for application in small intestine tissue engineering.  

PubMed

Various methods can be employed to fabricate scaffolds with characteristics that promote cell-to-material interaction. This report examines the use of a novel technique combining compression molding with particulate leaching to create a unique multi-layered scaffold with differential porosities and pore sizes that provides a high level of control to influence cell behavior. These cell behavioral responses were primarily characterized by bridging and penetration of two cell types (epithelial and smooth muscle cells) on the scaffold in vitro. Larger pore sizes corresponded to an increase in pore penetration, and a decrease in pore bridging. In addition, smaller cells (epithelial) penetrated further into the scaffold than larger cells (smooth muscle cells). In vivo evaluation of a multi-layered scaffold was well tolerated for 75 d in a rodent model. This data shows the ability of the components of multi-layered scaffolds to influence cell behavior, and demonstrates the potential for these scaffolds to promote desired tissue outcomes in vivo. PMID:23563499

Knight, Toyin; Basu, Joydeep; Rivera, Elias A; Spencer, Thomas; Jain, Deepak; Payne, Richard

2013-04-05

293

Porous poly(D,L-lactic acid) foams with tunable structure and mechanical anisotropy prepared by supercritical carbon dioxide.  

PubMed

The design and tunability of tissue scaffolds, such as pore size and geometry, is crucial to the success of an engineered tissue replacement. Moreover, the mechanical nature of a tissue scaffold should display properties similar to the tissue of interest; therefore, tunability of the foam mechanical properties is desirable. Polymeric foams prepared using supercritical carbon dioxide as a blowing agent has emerged in recent years as a promising technique to prepare porous scaffolds. While a number of groups have reported on the tailoring of scaffold morphologies by using gas foaming techniques, few have considered the effects of such processing conditions on the physical and mechanical anisotropy achieved. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the tunability of the structure and mechanical anisotropy of foams prepared using a variety of different gas foaming conditions. Porous poly(D,L lactic acid) foams were prepared by the systematic adjustment of processing conditions, namely pressure, temperature and venting time, resulting in an extensive range of scaffold morphologies. Characterization of sample anisotropy was achieved by mechanical evaluation of foam specimens both longitudinal and transverse to the foaming direction. The obtained mechanical properties demonstrated a strong dependence of the processing conditions on mechanical anisotropy and performance. Furthermore, results indicate that factors other than pore geometry may be necessary to define the mechanical behavior of the foam specimens. The favorable compressive moduli, coupled with large degrees of anisotropy, suggests these foams may have suitable application as scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. PMID:21953772

Floren, Michael; Spilimbergo, Sara; Motta, Antonella; Migliaresi, Claudio

2011-09-27

294

Effectual drug-releasing porous scaffolds from 1,6-diisocyanatohexane-extended poly(1,4-butylene succinate) for bone tissue regeneration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tooth extraction induces residual ridge resorption which impairs function and aesthetic of dental prostheses. This study aimed at developing new bone scaffolds to be used in a tooth socket for preserving bone mass from the residual ridge resorption. Scaffolds were fabricated from poly(1,4-butylene succinate) extended with 1,6-diisocyanatohexane (PBSu–DCH) by solvent casting and particulate leaching technique. Four different weight ratios of

Parintorn Hariraksapitak; Orawan Suwantong; Prasit Pavasant; Pitt Supaphol

2008-01-01

295

Immobilization of an esterase inhibitor on a porous hollow-fiber membrane by radiation-induced graft polymerization for developing a diagnostic tool for feline kidney diseases.  

PubMed

Removal of the major urinary protein, cauxin, a carboxylesterase, from cat urine is essential for distinguishing between physiological and abnormal proteinuria by a urine dipstick. We have previously developed a material for removing cauxin by using lens culinaris agglutinin (LCA) lectin which targets the N-linked oligosaccharides present in cauxin. To improve the affinity and specificity toward cauxin, we immobilized 1,1,1-trifluoro-3-(2-sulfanylethylsulfanyl) propane-2-one, an inhibitor of esterases, to a polymer chain grafted on to a porous hollow-fiber membrane by applying radiation-induced graft polymerization. Normal male urine was forced to permeate through the pores rimmed by the ligand-immobilized polymer chain. Cauxin could not be detected in the effluent from the membrane. The residence time of the urine across a membrane thickness of 1 mm was set at 7 s. The respective dynamic and equilibrium binding capacities of the membrane for cauxin were 2 and 3 mg/g. The developed cauxin-affinity membrane material was more effective for diagnosing cat kidney diseases than the LCA lectin tip. PMID:24096669

Matsuno, Shinya; Umeno, Daisuke; Miyazaki, Masao; Suzuta, Yasuyuki; Saito, Kyoichi; Yamashita, Tetsuro

2013-10-07

296

Investigation of neovascularization in three-dimensional porous scaffolds in vivo by a combination of multiscale photoacoustic microscopy and optical coherence tomography.  

PubMed

It is a grand challenge to visualize and assess in vivo neovascularization in a three-dimensional (3D) scaffold noninvasively, together with high spatial resolution and deep penetration depth. Here we used multiscale photoacoustic microscopy (PAM), including acoustic-resolution PAM (AR-PAM) and optical-resolution PAM (OR-PAM), to chronically monitor neovascularization in an inverse opal scaffold implanted in a mouse model up to 6 weeks by taking advantage of the optical absorption contrast intrinsic to hemoglobin molecules in red blood cells. By combining with optical coherence tomography (OCT) based on optical scattering contrast, we also demonstrated the capability to simultaneously image and analyze the vasculature and the scaffold in the same mouse. The hybrid system containing OR-PAM and OCT offered a fine lateral resolution of ?5 ?m and a penetration depth of ?1 mm into the scaffold/tissue construct. AR-PAM further extended the penetration depth up to ?3 mm at a lateral resolution of ?45 ?m. By quantifying the 3D PAM data, we further examined the effect of pore size (200 vs. 80 ?m) of a scaffold on neovascularization. The data collected from PAM were consistent with those obtained from traditional invasive, labor-intensive histologic analyses. PMID:22838500

Cai, Xin; Zhang, Yu; Li, Li; Choi, Sung-Wook; MacEwan, Matthew R; Yao, Junjie; Kim, Chulhong; Xia, Younan; Wang, Lihong V

2012-09-07

297

Tissue engineering bone-ligament complexes using fiber-guiding scaffolds.  

PubMed

Regeneration of bone-ligament complexes destroyed due to disease or injury is a clinical challenge due to complex topologies and tissue integration required for functional restoration. Attempts to reconstruct soft-hard tissue interfaces have met with limited clinical success. In this investigation, we manufactured biomimetic fiber-guiding scaffolds using solid free-form fabrication methods that custom fit complex anatomical defects to guide functionally-oriented ligamentous fibers in vivo. Compared to traditional, amorphous or random-porous polymeric scaffolds, the use of perpendicularly oriented micro-channels provides better guidance for cellular processes anchoring ligaments between two distinct mineralized structures. These structures withstood biomechanical loading to restore large osseous defects. Cell transplantation using hybrid scaffolding constructs with guidance channels resulted in predictable oriented fiber architecture, greater control of tissue infiltration, and better organization of ligament interface than random scaffold architectures. These findings demonstrate that fiber-guiding scaffolds drive neogenesis of triphasic bone-ligament integration for a variety of clinical scenarios. PMID:21993234

Park, Chan Ho; Rios, Hector F; Jin, Qiming; Sugai, James V; Padial-Molina, Miguel; Taut, Andrei D; Flanagan, Colleen L; Hollister, Scott J; Giannobile, William V

2011-10-10

298

Tissue engineering bone-ligament complexes using fiber-guiding scaffolds  

PubMed Central

Regeneration of bone-ligament complexes destroyed due to disease or injury is a clinical challenge due to complex topologies and tissue integration required for functional restoration. Attempts to reconstruct soft-hard tissue interfaces have met with limited clinical success. In this investigation, we manufactured biomimetic fiber-guiding scaffolds using solid free-form fabrication methods that custom fit complex anatomical defects to guide functionally-oriented ligamentous fibers in vivo. Compared to traditional, amorphous or random-porous polymeric scaffolds, the use of perpendicularly oriented microchannels provides better guidance for cellular processes anchoring ligaments between two distinct mineralized structures. These structures withstood biomechanical loading to restore large osseous defects. Cell transplantation using hybrid scaffolding constructs with guidance channels resulted in predictable oriented fiber architecture, greater control of tissue infiltration, and better organization of ligament interface than random scaffold architectures. These findings demonstrate that fiber-guiding scaffolds drive neogenesis of triphasic bone-ligament integration for a variety of clinical scenarios.

Park, Chan Ho; Rios, Hector F.; Jin, Qiming; Sugai, James V.; Padial-Molina, Miguel; Taut, Andrei D.; Flanagan, Colleen L.; Hollister, Scott J.; Giannobile, William V.

2011-01-01

299

Assessment of a new biomimetic scaffold and its effects on bone formation by OCT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ultimate target of bone tissue engineering is to generate functional load bearing bone. By nature, the porous volume in the trabecular bone is occupied by osseous medulla. The natural bone matrix consists of hydroxyapatite (HA) crystals precipitated along the collagen type I fibres. The mineral phase renders bone strength while collagen provides flexibility. Without mineral component, bone is very flexible and can not bear loads, whereas it is brittle in the case of mineral phase without the collagen presence. In this study, we designed and prepared a new type of scaffold which mimics the features of natural bone. The scaffold consists of three different components, a biphasic polymeric base composed of two different biodegradable polymers prepared by using dual porogen approach and bioactive agents, i.e., collagen and HA particles which are distributed throughout the matrix only in the pore surfaces. Interaction of the bioactive scaffolds possessing very high porosity and interconnected pore structures with cells were investigated in a prolonged culture period by using an osteoblastic cell line. The mineral HA particles have a slight different refractive index from the other elements such as polymeric scaffolds and cell/matrix in a tissue engineering constructs, exhibiting brighter images in OCT. Thus, OCT renders a convenient means to assess the morphology and architecture of the blank biomimetic scaffolds. This study also takes a close observation of OCT images for the cultured cell-scaffold constructs in order to assess neo-formed minerals and matrix. The OCT assessments have been compared with the results from confocal and SEM analysis.

Yang, Ying; Aydin, Halil M.; Piskin, Erhan; El Haj, Alicia J.

2009-02-01

300

Towards porous polymer monoliths for the efficient, retention-independent performance in the isocratic separation of small molecules by means of nano-liquid chromatography.  

PubMed

We have investigated the free-radical copolymerization dynamics of styrene and divinylbenzene in the presence of micro- and macro-porogenic diluents in 100 ?m I.D. sized molds under conditions of slow thermal initiation leading to (macro)porous poly(styrene-co-divinylbenzene) monolithic scaffolds. These specifically designed experiments allowed the quantitative determination of monomer specific conversion against polymerization time to derive the porous polymer scaffold composition at each desirable copolymerization stage after phase separation. This was carried out over a time scale of 3h up to 48 h polymerization time, enabling the efficient and repeatable termination of the polymerization reactions. In parallel, the porous and hydrodynamic properties of the derived monolithic columns were thoroughly studied in isocratic nano-LC mode for the reversed-phase separation of a homologous series of small retained molecules. At the optimized initiator concentration, polymerization temperature and time, the macroporous poly(styrene-co-divinylbenzene) monoliths show a permanent mesoporous pore space, which was readily observable by electron microscopy and indicated by nitrogen adsorption experiments. Under these conditions, we consistently find a polymer scaffold composition which suggests a high degree of cross-linking and thus minimum amount of gel porosity. These columns reveal a retention-insensitive plate height in the separation of small retained molecules which only slightly decreases at increased linear mobile phase velocity. As the polymerization progresses, a build-up of less-densely cross-linked material occurs, which is directly reflected in the observed consistent increase in retention and plate heights. This leads to a significant deterioration in overall isocratic separation performance. The decrease in performance is ascribed in particular to the increased mass transfer resistance governing the monoliths' performance over the whole linear chromatographic flow velocity range at polymerization times significantly higher than that of phase separation. The performance of the optimized monoliths only becomes limited by fluid dispersion due to the poorly structured macroporous pore space. PMID:20980011

Nischang, Ivo; Teasdale, Ian; Brüggemann, Oliver

2010-10-07

301

An osteogenic grafting complex combining human periosteal sheets with a porous poly(l-lactic acid) membrane scaffold: Biocompatibility, biodegradability, and cell fate in vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this in vitro study, novel porous poly(l-lactic acid) membranes were developed to improve periosteal sheets by promoting initial adhesion of periosteal tissue segments and stimulating the formation of a viable multilayered cellular sheet. The biocompatibility, biodegradability, and osteogenicity were evaluated using human periosteal tissue segments cultured on porous poly(l-lactic acid) membranes; the periosteal sheets were osteogen induced and were

Tomoyuki Kawase; Takaaki Tanaka; Takayuki Nishimoto; Kazuhiro Okuda; Masaki Nagata; Douglas M Burns; Hiromasa Yoshie

2012-01-01

302

[Differentiation of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells of bone marrow into cells of cartilage tissue by culturing in three-demential OPLA scaffolds].  

PubMed

Bone marrow multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells represent a perspective material for engineering of human three-dimensional transplants of cartilage tissue. We are demonstrated the opportunity of the directed differentiation of BM MMSC in cells of cartilage tissue by culturing them in three-dimensional scaffolds, presented by polymer OPLA in medium with inductors of chondrogenesis. For loading cells in porous scaffolds used method which essence consist in saturation of polymeric blocks by cellular suspension with the subsequent centrifugal force of cells in scaffolds and culturing of engineering constructs for 28 days in chondrogenic medium. Histological analysis derived in vitro of three-dimensional transplants showed uniform distribution of cells in the matrix with morphologically distinct chondrocytes-like cells of hyaline cartilage. Immunohistochemical analysis detected aggrecan and collagen type II within the extracellular matrix. Preclinical the researches lead on a livestock of immunodeficient mice have shown not toxicity of the engineering constructs. PMID:17918338

Tepliashin, A S; Korzhikova, S V; Sharifullina, S Z; Rostovskaia, M S; Chupikova, N I; Vasiunina, N Iu; Andronova, N V; Treshchalina, E M; Savchenkova, I P

2007-01-01

303

Pre-mineralisation of starch/polycrapolactone bone tissue engineering scaffolds by a calcium-silicate-based process.  

PubMed

This work describes a new methodology to produce bioactive coatings on the surface of starch-based biodegradable polymers or other degradable polymeric biomaterials. As an alternative to the more typical bioactive glass precursors, a calcium silicate gel is being employed as a nucleating agent, for inducing the biomimetic formation of a calcium-phosphate (Ca-P) layer. The method has the advantage of being able to coat efficiently both compact materials and porous 3-D architectures aimed at being used on tissue replacement applications and as bone tissue engineering scaffolds. This treatment is also very effective in reducing the incubation periods, being possible to observe the formation of an apatite-like layer, only after 12 h of immersion in a simulated body fluid (SBF). The apatite coatings formed on the compact surfaces or along the fibres of a fibre mesh scaffold structure made from a starch/polycrapolactone blend (SPCL) were analysed and compared in terms of morphology, chemical composition and structure. After the first days of SBF immersion, the apatite-like films exhibit the typical cauliflower like morphology. With increasing immersion times, these films exhibited a partially amorphous nature and the Ca/P ratios became very closer to the value attributed to hydroxyapatite (1.67). It was possible to fully pre-mineralise the SPCL scaffolds and simultaneously to keep the porous morphology of the fibre-bonded scaffold. PMID:15332631

Oliveira, A L; Reis, R L

2004-04-01

304

Novel Antibacterial Nanofibrous PLLA Scaffolds  

PubMed Central

In order to achieve high local bioactivity and low systemic side effects of antibiotics in the treatment of dental, periodontal and bone infections, a localized and temporally controlled delivery system is crucial. In this study, a three-dimensional (3D) porous tissue engineering scaffold was developed with the ability to release antibiotics in a controlled fashion for long-term inhibition of bacterial growth. The highly soluble antibiotic drug, Doxycycline (DOXY), was successfully incorporated into PLGA nanospheres using a modified water-in-oil-in-oil (w/o/o) emulsion method. The PLGA nanospheres (NS) were then incorporated into prefabricated nanofibrous PLLA scaffolds with a well interconnected macroporous structure. The release kinetics of DOXY from four different PLGA NS formulations on a PLLA scaffold was investigated. DOXY could be released from the NS-scaffolds in a locally and temporally controlled manner. The DOXY release is controlled by DOXY diffusion out of the NS and is strongly dependent upon the physical and chemical properties of the PLGA. While PLGA50-6.5K, PLGA50-64K, and PLGA75-113K NS-scaffolds discharge DOXY rapidly with a high initial burst release, PLGA85-142K NS-scaffold can extend the release of DOXY to longer than 6 weeks with a low initial burst release. Compared to NS alone, the NS incorporated on a 3-D scaffold had significantly reduced the initial burst release. In vitro antibacterial tests of PLGA85 NS-scaffold demonstrated its ability to inhibit common bacterial growth (S.aureus and E.coli) for a prolonged duration. The successful incorporation of DOXY onto 3-D scaffolds and its controlled release from scaffolds extends the usage of nano-fibrous scaffolds from the delivery of large molecules such as growth factors to the delivery of small hydrophilic drugs, allowing for a broader application and a more complex tissue engineering strategy.

Feng, Kai; Sun, Hongli; Bradley, Mark A.; Dupler, Ellen J.; Giannobile, William V.; Ma, Peter X.

2010-01-01

305

Electrospun Fibrous Scaffolds with Multi-scale and Photopatterned Porositya  

PubMed Central

The structural and mechanical properties of tissue engineered environments are crucial for successful cellular growth and tissue repair. Electrospinning is gaining wide attention for the fabrication of tissue engineered scaffolds, but the small pore sizes of these scaffolds limit cell infiltration and construct vascularization. To address this problem, we have combined electrospinning with photopatterning to create multi-scale porous scaffolds. This process retains the fibrous nature of the scaffolds and permits enhanced cellular infiltration and vascularization when compared to unpatterned scaffolds. This is the first time that photopatterning has been utilized with electrospun scaffolds and is only now possible with the electrospinning of reactive macromers.

Sundararaghavan, Harini G.; Metter, Robert B.

2011-01-01

306

Recent advances in bone tissue engineering scaffolds  

PubMed Central

Bone disorders are of significant concern due to increase in the median age of our population. Traditionally, bone grafts have been used to restore damaged bone. Synthetic biomaterials are now being used as bone graft substitutes. These biomaterials were initially selected for structural restoration based on their biomechanical properties. Later scaffolds were engineered to be bioactive or bioresorbable to enhance tissue growth. Now scaffolds are designed to induce bone formation and vascularization. These scaffolds are often porous, biodegradable materials that harbor different growth factors, drugs, genes or stem cells. In this review, we highlight recent advances in bone scaffolds and discuss aspects that still need to be improved.

Bose, Susmita; Roy, Mangal; Bandyopadhyay, Amit

2012-01-01

307

Biodegradable parallel and porous HSPG\\/collagen scaffolds for the in vitro culture of NSCs for the spinal cord tissue engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current challenge in spinal cord tissue engineering which is used in the spinal cord injury is to produce an implantable scaffold\\u000a capable of bridging the nerve gaps which will produce results similar to autograft without requiring autologous donor tissue.\\u000a Blending heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG) with collagen resulted in increased hydrophilicity, high porosity (89%), improved\\u000a mechanical properties and suitable pore sizes

Yansong WangChangwei; Changwei Zhou; Meng Yao; Ying Li; Yugang Liu; Wei Zheng

308

Porous Chitosan Scaffolds with Embedded Hyaluronic Acid/Chitosan/Plasmid-DNA Nanoparticles Encoding TGF-?1 Induce DNA Controlled Release, Transfected Chondrocytes, and Promoted Cell Proliferation  

PubMed Central

Cartilage defects resulting from traumatic injury or degenerative diseases have very limited spontaneous healing ability. Recent progress in tissue engineering and local therapeutic gene delivery systems has led to promising new strategies for successful regeneration of hyaline cartilage. In the present study, tissue engineering and local therapeutic gene delivery systems are combined with the design of a novel gene-activated matrix (GAM) embedded with hybrid hyaluronic acid(HA)/chitosan(CS)/plasmid-DNA nanoparticles encoding transforming growth factor (TGF)-?1. A chitosan scaffold functioned as the three-dimensional carrier for the nanoparticles. Results demonstrated that scaffold-entrapped plasmid DNA was released in a sustained and steady manner over 120 days, and was effectively protected in the HA/CS/pDNA nanoparticles. Culture results demonstrated that chondrocytes grown in the novel GAM were highly proliferative and capable of filling scaffold micropores with cells and extracellular matrix. Confocal laser scanning microscopy indicated that chondrocytes seeded in the GAM expressed exogenous transgenes labeled with green fluorescent protein. ELISA results demonstrated detectable TGF-?1 expression in the supernatant of GAM cultures, which peaked at the sixth day of culture and afterwards showed a moderate decline. Histological results and biochemical assays confirmed promotion of chondrocyte proliferation. Cell culture indicated no affects on phenotypic expression of ECM molecules, such as GAG. The results of this study indicate the suitability of this novel GAM for enhanced in vitro cartilage tissue engineering.

Dai, Yuhu; Wu, Gang; Zhao, Huiqing; Zhang, Fucheng

2013-01-01

309

Porous chitosan scaffolds with embedded hyaluronic acid/chitosan/plasmid-DNA nanoparticles encoding TGF-?1 induce DNA controlled release, transfected chondrocytes, and promoted cell proliferation.  

PubMed

Cartilage defects resulting from traumatic injury or degenerative diseases have very limited spontaneous healing ability. Recent progress in tissue engineering and local therapeutic gene delivery systems has led to promising new strategies for successful regeneration of hyaline cartilage. In the present study, tissue engineering and local therapeutic gene delivery systems are combined with the design of a novel gene-activated matrix (GAM) embedded with hybrid hyaluronic acid(HA)/chitosan(CS)/plasmid-DNA nanoparticles encoding transforming growth factor (TGF)-?1. A chitosan scaffold functioned as the three-dimensional carrier for the nanoparticles. Results demonstrated that scaffold-entrapped plasmid DNA was released in a sustained and steady manner over 120 days, and was effectively protected in the HA/CS/pDNA nanoparticles. Culture results demonstrated that chondrocytes grown in the novel GAM were highly proliferative and capable of filling scaffold micropores with cells and extracellular matrix. Confocal laser scanning microscopy indicated that chondrocytes seeded in the GAM expressed exogenous transgenes labeled with green fluorescent protein. ELISA results demonstrated detectable TGF-?1 expression in the supernatant of GAM cultures, which peaked at the sixth day of culture and afterwards showed a moderate decline. Histological results and biochemical assays confirmed promotion of chondrocyte proliferation. Cell culture indicated no affects on phenotypic expression of ECM molecules, such as GAG. The results of this study indicate the suitability of this novel GAM for enhanced in vitro cartilage tissue engineering. PMID:23894564

Lu, Huading; Lv, Lulu; Dai, Yuhu; Wu, Gang; Zhao, Huiqing; Zhang, Fucheng

2013-07-23

310

Method for making a bio-compatible scaffold  

DOEpatents

A method for forming a three-dimensional, biocompatible, porous scaffold structure using a solid freeform fabrication technique (referred to herein as robocasting) that can be used as a medical implant into a living organism, such as a human or other mammal. Imaging technology and analysis is first used to determine the three-dimensional design required for the medical implant, such as a bone implant or graft, fashioned as a three-dimensional, biocompatible scaffold structure. The robocasting technique is used to either directly produce the three-dimensional, porous scaffold structure or to produce an over-sized three-dimensional, porous scaffold lattice which can be machined to produce the designed three-dimensional, porous scaffold structure for implantation.

Cesarano, III, Joseph (Albuquerque, NM); Stuecker, John N. (Albuquerque, NM); Dellinger, Jennifer G. (Champaigne, IL); Jamison, Russell D. (Urbana, IL)

2006-01-31

311

Enhancing Osteoconduction of PLLA-Based Nanocomposite Scaffolds for Bone Regeneration Using Different Biomimetic Signals to MSCs.  

PubMed

In bone engineering, the adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal stromal cells rely on signaling from chemico-physical structure of the substrate, therefore prompting the design of mimetic "extracellular matrix"-like scaffolds. In this study, three-dimensional porous poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA)-based scaffolds have been mixed with different components, including single walled carbon nanotubes (CNT), micro-hydroxyapatite particles (HA), and BMP2, and treated with plasma (PT), to obtain four different nanocomposites: PLLA + CNT, PLLA + CNTHA, PLLA + CNT + HA + BMP2 and PLLA + CNT + HA + PT. Adult bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) were derived from the femur of orthopaedic patients, seeded on the scaffolds and cultured under osteogenic induction up to differentiation and mineralization. The release of specific metabolites and temporal gene expression profiles of marrow-derived osteoprogenitors were analyzed at definite time points, relevant to in vitro culture as well as in vivo differentiation. As a result, the role of the different biomimetic components added to the PLLA matrix was deciphered, with BMP2-added scaffolds showing the highest biomimetic activity on cells differentiating to mature osteoblasts. The modification of a polymeric scaffold with reinforcing components which also work as biomimetic cues for cells can effectively direct osteoprogenitor cells differentiation, so as to shorten the time required for mineralization. PMID:22408463

Ciapetti, Gabriela; Granchi, Donatella; Devescovi, Valentina; Baglio, Serena R; Leonardi, Elisa; Martini, Desirèe; Jurado, Maria Jesus; Olalde, Beatriz; Armentano, Ilaria; Kenny, Josè M; Walboomers, Frank X; Alava, Josè Inaki; Baldini, Nicola

2012-02-22

312

The development of a three-dimensional scaffold for ex vivo biomimicry of human acute myeloid leukaemia.  

PubMed

Acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) is a cancer of haematopoietic cells that develops in three-dimensional (3-D) bone marrow niches in vivo. The study of AML has been hampered by lack of appropriate ex vivo models that mimic this microenvironment. We hypothesised that fabrication and optimisation of suitable biomimetic scaffolds for culturing leukaemic cells ex vivo might facilitate the study of AML in its native 3-D niche. We evaluated the growth of three leukaemia subtype-specific cell lines, K-562, HL60 and Kasumi-6, on highly porous scaffolds fabricated from biodegradable and non-biodegradable polymeric materials, such as poly (L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), polyurethane (PU), poly (methyl-methacrylate), poly (D, L-lactade), poly (caprolactone), and polystyrene. Our results show that PLGA and PU supported the best seeding efficiency and leukaemic growth. Furthermore, the PLGA and PU scaffolds were coated with extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, collagen type I (62.5 or 125 microg/ml) and fibronectin (25 or 50 microg/ml) to provide biorecognition signals. The 3 leukaemia subtype-specific lines grew best on PU scaffolds coated with 62.5 microg/ml collagen type I over 6 weeks in the absence of exogenous growth factors. In conclusion, PU-collagen scaffolds may provide a practical model to study the biology and treatment of primary AML in an ex vivo mimicry. PMID:20015543

Blanco, Teresa Mortera; Mantalaris, Athanasios; Bismarck, Alexander; Panoskaltsis, Nicki

2009-12-16

313

Functional electrospun poly (lactic acid) scaffolds for biomedical applications: experimental conditions, degradation and biocompatibility study.  

PubMed

The electrospinning technique is a method used to produce nano and microfibers using the influence of electrostatic forces. Porous three dimensional networks of continuous and interconnected fibers as scaffolds were obtained from a poly (lactic acid) solution. The concentration of the polymeric solution, 12.5% m/w, as well as the conditions of voltage (V = 11kV) and tip-metallic collector distance (H = 13cm) were established to develop these scaffolds through the electrospinning process. The characteristics of the scaffolds, such as fiber diameter, sintering and the biomimetics of the characteristics of a native extra cellular matrix were verified by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The orientation induced in the material as a consequence of the electrospinning forces was studied by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD).The same techniques were used to study the hydrolytic degradation of samples in a ringer solution (pH = 7-7.4 at 37 degrees C) for 12 weeks and showed evidences of superficial degradation on the microfibers. The suitability of these scaffolds for tissue engineering was studied through the primary cell culture of chondrocytes, by observing adhesion and cellular proliferation developed during 14 days of assay. PMID:24015478

Hidalgo, Idalba A; Sojot, Felipe; Arvelo, Francisco; Sabino, Marcos A

2013-06-01

314

Resorbable glass-ceramic phosphate-based scaffolds for bone tissue engineering: synthesis, properties, and in vitro effects on human marrow stromal cells.  

PubMed

Highly porous bioresorbable glass-ceramic scaffolds were prepared via sponge replication method by using an open-cell polyurethane foam as a template and phosphate-based glass powders. The glass, belonging to the P2O5-SiO2-CaO-MgO-Na2O-K2O system, was synthesized by a melting-quenching route, ground, and sieved to obtain powders with a grain size of less than 30??m. A slurry containing glass powders, polyvinyl alcohol, and water was prepared to coat the polymeric template. The removal of the polymer and the sintering of the glass powders were performed by a thermal treatment, in order to obtain an inorganic replica of the template structure. The structure and properties of the scaffold were investigated from structural, morphological, and mechanical viewpoints by means of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, density measurements, image analysis, and compressive tests. The scaffolds exhibited a trabecular architecture that closely mimics the structure of a natural spongy bone. The solubility of the porous structures was assessed by soaking the samples in acellular simulated body fluid (SBF) and Tris-HCl for different time frames and then by assessing the scaffold weight loss. As far as the test in SBF is concerned, the nucleation of hydroxyapatite on the scaffold trabeculae demonstrates the bioactivity of the material. Biological tests were carried out using human bone marrow stromal cells to test the osteoconductivity of the material. The cells adhered to the scaffold struts and were metabolically active; it was found that cell differentiation over proliferation occurred. Therefore, the produced scaffolds, being biocompatible, bioactive, resorbable, and structurally similar to a spongy bone, can be proposed as interesting candidates for bone grafting. PMID:20566654

Vitale-Brovarone, Chiara; Ciapetti, Gabriela; Leonardi, Elisa; Baldini, Nicola; Bretcanu, Oana; Verné, Enrica; Baino, Francesco

2010-06-21

315

Scaffolding and Metacognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper proposes an expanded conception of scaffolding with four key elements: (1) scaffolding agency--expert, reciprocal, and self-scaffolding; (2) scaffolding domain--conceptual and heuristic scaffolding; (3) the identification of self-scaffolding with metacognition; and (4) the identification of six zones of scaffolding activity; each zone…

Holton, Derek; Clarke, David

2006-01-01

316

Characterization of porous poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) sponges fabricated by supercritical CO2 gas-foaming method as a scaffold for three-dimensional growth of Hep3B cells.  

PubMed

This study presents the application of the porous poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) sponges fabricated from an organic solvent free supercritical gas foaming technique. Two formulations of PLGA sponges with different co-polymer compositions (85:15 and 50:50) were fabricated as novel scaffolds to guide human hepatoma cell line, Hep3B cell growth in vitro. The PLGA sponges showed desirable biodegradability and exhibited uniform pore size distribution with moderate interconnectivity. It was observed in this study that cells cultured on PLGA sponges showed lower proliferation rate as compared to the control during 14 days of culture as measured by using total DNA and methylthiazol tetrazolium (MTT) assays. However, the cells cultured on the sponges tended to aggregate to form cell islets which were able to express better hepatic functions. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) results showed that the cell-sponge constructs secreted 1.5-3.0 times more albumin than the control when normalized to cellular content. In a similar fashion, its detoxification ability was also predominantly higher than that of the control as indicated by the ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) results. By comparing the cells growing on the two formulations of PLGA sponges, it was found that the PLGA 85:15 sponge exhibited better conductive and desirable environment for hep3B cells as justified by better cell infiltration, higher proliferation and hepatic function than the PLGA 50:50 sponge. PMID:18551526

Zhu, Xin Hao; Lee, Lai Yeng; Jackson, Jie Sheng Hong; Tong, Yen Wah; Wang, Chi-Hwa

2008-08-01

317

Synovex Plus implants coated with a polymeric, porous film improve performance of beef steers and heifers fed in confinement for up to 200 days.  

PubMed

Synovex Plus (SP) is a product that delivers 28 mg of estradiol benzoate (EB) and 200 mg of trenbolone acetate (TBA). We studied the impact of a polymeric, porous coating on SP implants (CSP) to prolong release of EB and TBA, and stimulate feedlot performance of feedlot cattle for an extended period. In an explant study, 30 steers were implanted with SP in one ear and CSP in the contralateral ear. Cattle (n = 6/d) were necropsied 40, 81, 120, 160, and 200 d after treatment, and remaining EB and TBA were quantified. Linear regression of EB and TBA remaining as a function of time for each treatment were computed. Rates of EB and TBA depletion from SP were -0.1980 (r(2) = 0.9994) and -1.7073 mg/d (r(2) = 0.9644), respectively, and for CSP rates of EB and TBA depletion were -0.1049 (r(2) = 0.9123) and -0.9466 mg/d (r(2) = 0.9297), respectively. The effect of treatment on depletion rates of each analyte were significant (P < 0.05). Data also showed EB and TBA were delivered from CSP at least 200 d but were delivered from SP about 120 d. Multisite trials with beef-type steers (4 sites) and heifers (4 sites) evaluated feedlot performance and carcass characteristics in response to a CSP implant or when sham implanted (SC). A randomized complete block design with 9 blocks and 2 treatments was used per site within animal gender. Across sites, steers (n = 342, BW = 297 kg) were fed finishing rations for 190 to 202 d (mean 198 d) and heifers (n = 342, BW = 289 kg) were fed finishing rations for 191 to 201 d (mean 198 d). Cattle were harvested and carcasses evaluated. Data were pooled across sites within gender for statistical analysis. Steers and heifers treated with CSP yielded greater (P ? 0.003) ADG, DMI, and G:F than SC steers and heifers. Mean BW differences between CSP and SC continued to increase throughout the study, indicating CSP stimulated growth of steers and heifers for 198 d. Mean carcass weights of CSP steers (P = 0.005) and heifers (P = 0.004) were greater than those of SP steers and heifers by 26.2 and 20.6 kg, respectively. The LM area was larger (P < 0.001) in CSP steers and heifers than SC cattle. Marbling decreased with CSP treatment (P ? 0.031), which caused reductions (P ? 0.006) in proportions of carcasses grading Prime or Choice. Evidence from these studies showed that a single administration of CSP increased feedlot cattle performance for at least 198 d, compared with SC, and may reduce the need to reimplant cattle. PMID:23100600

Cleale, R M; Bechtol, D T; Drouillard, J S; Edmonds, J D; Edmonds, M; Hunsaker, B D; Kraft, L A; Lawrence, T E; Brewbaker, S; Waite, A R

2012-10-16

318

A porous photocurable elastomer for cell encapsulation and culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Encapsulating cells within a polymer matrix creates a three-dimensional (3D) scaffold that may more accurately represent the native microenvironment and cell organization. Here we report a porous scaffold prepared from a photocurable elastomer, poly(glycerolco-sebacate)-acrylate (PGSA). The scaffold porosity, swelling, mass loss, toxicity and mechanical properties, suggest that porous PGSA could be used to support the growth and differentiation of encapsulated

Sharon Gerecht; Seth A. Townsend; Heather Pressler; Han Zhu; Christiaan L. E. Nijst; Joost P. Bruggeman; Jason W. Nichol; Robert Langer

2007-01-01

319

Novel antibacterial nanofibrous PLLA scaffolds  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to achieve high local bioactivity and low systemic side effects of antibiotics in the treatment of dental, periodontal and bone infections, a localized and temporally controlled delivery system is crucial. In this study, a three-dimensional (3-D) porous tissue engineering scaffold was developed with the ability to release antibiotics in a controlled fashion for long-term inhibition of bacterial growth.

Kai Feng; Hongli Sun; Mark A. Bradley; Ellen J. Dupler; William V. Giannobile; Peter X. Ma

2010-01-01

320

Nanofibrous Scaffolds for Dental and Craniofacial Applications  

PubMed Central

Tissue-engineering solutions often harness biomimetic materials to support cells for functional tissue regeneration. Three-dimensional scaffolds can create a multi-scale environment capable of facilitating cell adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation. One such multi-scale scaffold incorporates nanofibrous features to mimic the extracellular matrix along with a porous network for the regeneration of a variety of tissues. This review will discuss nanofibrous scaffold synthesis/fabrication, biological effects of nanofibers, their tissue- engineering applications in bone, cartilage, enamel, dentin, and periodontium, patient-specific scaffolds, and incorporated growth factor delivery systems. Nanofibrous scaffolds cannot only further the field of craniofacial regeneration but also advance technology for tissue-engineered replacements in many physiological systems.

Gupte, M.J.; Ma, P.X.

2012-01-01

321

Computational design of drainage systems for vascularized scaffolds  

Microsoft Academic Search

This computational study analyzes how to design a drainage system for porous scaffolds so that the scaffolds can be vascularized and perfused without collapse of the vessel lumens. We postulate that vascular transmural pressure – the difference between lumenal and interstitial pressures – must exceed a threshold value to avoid collapse. Model geometries consisted of hexagonal arrays of open channels

James G. Truslow; Gavrielle M. Price; Joe Tien

2009-01-01

322

Scaffold fabrication by indirect three-dimensional printing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three-dimensional printing (3DP) has been employed to fabricate porous scaffolds by inkjet printing liquid binder droplets onto particulate matter. Direct 3DP, where the final scaffold materials are utilized during the actual 3DP process, imposes several limitations on the final scaffold structure. This study describes an indirect 3DP protocol, where molds are printed and the final materials are cast into the

Min Lee; James C. Y. Dunn; Benjamin M. Wu

2005-01-01

323

Fabrication of porous microtent structures toward an in vitro endothelium model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports the fabrication of compliant and permeable thin films with controlled curvature preferable to serve as engineering scaffolds for the production of in vivo like vascular endothelial constructs. A simple fabrication process was developed to fabricate three-dimensional ‘tent’ like microstructures by combining electrospinning and microfabrication. In particular, the ‘microtents’ were created by electrospinning mechanically flexible poly(etherurethane)urea(PEUU) polymer on a microstructured collecting substrate. The shape of the ‘microtents’ can be tuned by adjusting the geometries of microstructures on the collecting substrate and the operational parameters of electrospinning. Mechanical characterization showed the nonlinear mechanical behavior of porous polymeric thin films is similar to those of soft tissues, indicating that these thin films may serve as scaffolds for mimicking local mechanical environment of vascular tissues. Human endothelial cells were successfully cultured on the concave side of the porous thin film, constituting an endothelium model in vitro. This work addresses the need for engineered tissue scaffolds that can mimic both morphological and mechanical environments of natural vascular endothelium. The coupled effects of mechanical, structural and biochemical factors on vascular endothelium can thus be investigated.

Kim, Bongsu; Zhang, Xu; Borteh, Hassan; Li, Zhenqing; Guan, Jianjun; Zhao, Yi

2012-08-01

324

Layered PLG Scaffolds for In Vivo Plasmid Delivery  

PubMed Central

Gene delivery from tissue engineering scaffolds can induce localized expression of tissue inductive factors to direct the function of progenitor cells, either endogenous or transplanted. In this report, we developed a layering approach for fabricating scaffolds with encapsulated plasmid, and investigated in vivo gene transfer following implantation into intraperitoneal fat, a widely used site for cell transplantation. Porous poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLG) scaffolds were fabricated using a gas foaming method, in which a non-porous layer containing plasmid was inserted between two porous polymer layers. The layered scaffold design decouples the scaffold structural requirements from its function as a drug delivery vehicle, and significantly increased the plasmid incorporation efficiency relative to scaffolds formed without layers. For multiple plasmid doses (200, 400, and 800 µg), transgene expression levels peaked during the first few days and then declined over a period of 1–2 weeks. Transfected cells were observed both in the surrounding adipose tissue and within the scaffold interior. Macrophages were identified as an abundantly transfected cell type. Scaffolds delivering plasmid encoding fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) stimulated a 40% increase in the total vascular volume fraction relative to controls at 2 weeks. Scaffold-based gene delivery systems capable of localized transgene expression provide a platform for inductive and cell transplantation approaches in regenerative medicine.

Rives, Christopher B.; des Rieux, Anne; Zelivyanskaya, Marina; Stock, Stuart R.; Lowe, William L.; Shea, Lonnie D.

2008-01-01

325

Layered PLG scaffolds for in vivo plasmid delivery.  

PubMed

Gene delivery from tissue engineering scaffolds can induce localized expression of tissue inductive factors to direct the function of progenitor cells, either endogenous or transplanted. In this report, we developed a layering approach for fabricating scaffolds with encapsulated plasmid, and investigated in vivo gene transfer following implantation into intraperitoneal fat, a widely used site for cell transplantation. Porous poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLG) scaffolds were fabricated using a gas foaming method, in which a non-porous layer containing plasmid was inserted between two porous polymer layers. The layered scaffold design decouples the scaffold structural requirements from its function as a drug delivery vehicle, and significantly increased the plasmid incorporation efficiency relative to scaffolds formed without layers. For multiple plasmid doses (200, 400, and 800mug), transgene expression levels peaked during the first few days and then declined over a period of 1-2 weeks. Transfected cells were observed both in the surrounding adipose tissue and within the scaffold interior. Macrophages were identified as an abundantly transfected cell type. Scaffolds delivering plasmid encoding fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) stimulated a 40% increase in the total vascular volume fraction relative to controls at 2 weeks. Scaffold-based gene delivery systems capable of localized transgene expression provide a platform for inductive and cell transplantation approaches in regenerative medicine. PMID:18929408

Rives, Christopher B; des Rieux, Anne; Zelivyanskaya, Marina; Stock, Stuart R; Lowe, William L; Shea, Lonnie D

2008-10-17

326

Integrating novel technologies to fabricate smart scaffolds.  

PubMed

Tissue engineering aims at restoring or regenerating a damaged tissue by combining cells, derived from a patient biopsy, with a 3D porous matrix functioning as a scaffold. After isolation and eventual in vitro expansion, cells are seeded on the 3D scaffolds and implanted directly or at a later stage in the patient's body. 3D scaffolds need to satisfy a number of requirements: (i) biocompatibility, (ii) biodegradability and/or bioresorbability, (iii) suitable mechanical properties, (iv) adequate physicochemical properties to direct cell-material interactions matching the tissue to be replaced and (v) ease in regaining the original shape of the damaged tissue and the integration with the surrounding environment. Still, it appears to be a challenge to satisfy all the aforementioned requisites with the biomaterials and the scaffold fabrication technologies nowadays available. 3D scaffolds can be fabricated with various techniques, among which rapid prototyping and electrospinning seem to be the most promising. Rapid prototyping technologies allow manufacturing scaffolds with a controlled, completely accessible pore network--determinant for nutrient supply and diffusion--in a CAD/CAM fashion. Electrospinning (ESP) allows mimicking the extracellular matrix (ECM) environment of the cells and can provide fibrous scaffolds with instructive surface properties to direct cell faith into the proper lineage. Yet, these fabrication methods have some disadvantages if considered alone. This review aims at summarizing conventional and novel scaffold fabrication techniques and the biomaterials used for tissue engineering and drug-delivery applications. A new trend seems to emerge in the field of scaffold design where different scaffolds fabrication technologies and different biomaterials are combined to provide cells with mechanical, physicochemical and biological cues at the macro-, micro- and nano-scale. If merged together, these integrated technologies may lead to the generation of a new set of 3D scaffolds that satisfies all of the scaffolds' requirements for tissue-engineering applications and may contribute to their success in a long-term scenario. PMID:18419938

Moroni, L; de Wijn, J R; van Blitterswijk, C A

2008-01-01

327

Tissue growth into three-dimensional composite scaffolds with controlled micro-features and nanotopographical surfaces.  

PubMed

Controlling topographic features at all length scales is of great importance for the interaction of cells with tissue regenerative materials. We utilized an indirect three-dimensional printing method to fabricate polymeric scaffolds with pre-defined and controlled external and internal architecture that had an interconnected structure with macro- (400-500 ?m) and micro- (?25 ?m) porosity. Polycaprolactone (PCL) was used as model system to study the kinetics of tissue growth within porous scaffolds. The surface of the scaffolds was decorated with TiO2 and bioactive glass (BG) nanoparticles to the better match to nanoarchitecture of extracellular matrix (ECM). Micrometric BG particles were also used to reveal the effect of particle size on the cell behavior. Observation of tissue growth and enzyme activity on two-dimensional (2D) films and three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds showed effects of nanoparticle inclusion and of surface curvature on the cellular adhesion, proliferation, and kinetics of preosteoblastic cells (MC3T3-E1) tissue growth into the pore channels. It was found that the presence of nanoparticles in the substrate impaired cellular adhesion and proliferation in 3D structures. Evaluation of alkaline phosphate activity showed that the presence of the hard particles affects differentiation of the cells on 2D films. Notwithstanding, the effect of particles on cell differentiation was not as strong as that seen by the curvature of the substrate. We observed different effects of nanofeatures on 2D structures with those of 3D scaffolds, which influence the cell proliferation and differentiation for non-load-bearing applications in bone regenerative medicine. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 101A:2796-2807, 2013. PMID:23463703

Tamjid, Elnaz; Simchi, Arash; Dunlop, John W C; Fratzl, Peter; Bagheri, Reza; Vossoughi, Manouchehr

2013-03-05

328

Material model measurements and predictions for a random pore poly(epsilon-caprolactone) scaffold.  

PubMed

We investigated material models for a polymeric scaffold used for bone. The material was made by co-extruding poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL), a biodegradable polyester, and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO). The water soluble PEO was removed resulting in a porous scaffold. The stress-strain curve in compression was fit with a phenomenological model in hyperbolic form. This material model will be useful for designers for quasi-static analysis as it provides a simple form that can easily be used in finite element models. The ASTM D-1621 standard recommends using a secant modulus based on 10% strain. The resulting modulus has a smaller scatter in its value compared with the coefficients of the hyperbolic model, and it is therefore easier to compare differences in material processing and ensure quality of the scaffold. A prediction of the small-strain elastic modulus was constructed from images of the microstructure. Each pixel of the micrographs was represented with a brick finite element and assigned the Young's modulus of bulk PCL or a value of 0 for a pore. A compressive strain was imposed on the model and the resulting stresses were calculated. The elastic constants of the scaffold were then computed with Hooke's law for a linear-elastic isotropic material. The model was able to predict the small-strain elastic modulus measured in the experiments to within one standard deviation. Thus, by knowing the microstructure of the scaffold, its bulk properties can be predicted from the material properties of the constituents. PMID:17106897

Quinn, T P; Oreskovic, T L; Landis, F A; Washburn, N R

2007-07-01

329

Fabrication and characterization of a biomimetic composite scaffold for bone defect repair.  

PubMed

For successful bone tissue engineering, scaffolds with tailored properties are a basic requirement. The combination of different available materials not only appears to be desirable but also very challenging. In this study, a composite material consisting of hydroxyapatite and collagen was produced by a biomimetic precipitation method and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermogravimetry (TGA). Subsequently, a suspension-quick-freezing and lyophilization method was used to incorporate the hydroxyapatite into a polymeric matrix consisting of collagen and chitosan. Before physicochemical characterization, the highly porous scaffolds were consolidated by a dehydrothermal treatment (DHT). The main attention was focused on the particle size of hydroxyapatite, which should be in the nanometer range. This is relevant to achieve a homogeneous resorption of the material by osteoclasts. Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) were used to evaluate the outcome. The results suggest a successful polymeric embedding of nanoscaled hydroxyapatite particles into the matrix of the spongy construct. (c) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res, 2010. PMID:20186731

Nitzsche, H; Lochmann, A; Metz, H; Hauser, A; Syrowatka, F; Hempel, E; Müller, T; Thurn-Albrecht, T; Mäder, K

2010-07-01

330

Laser microstructured biodegradable scaffolds.  

PubMed

Abstract The two-photon polymerization technique (2PP) uses non-linear absorption of femtosecond laser pulses to selectively polymerize photosensitive materials. 2PP has the ability to fabricate structures with a resolution from tens of micrometers down to hundreds of nanometers. Three-dimensional microstructuring by the 2PP technique provides many interesting possibilities for biomedical applications. This microstructuring technique is suitable with many biocompatible polymeric materials, such as polyethylene glycol, polylactic acid, polycaprolactone, gelatin, zirconium-based hybrids, and others. The process of fabrication does not require clean room conditions and does not use hazard chemicals or high temperatures. The most beneficial property of 2PP is that it is capable of producing especially complex three-dimensional (3-D) structures, including devices with overhangs, without using any supportive structure. The flexibility in controlling geometries and feature sizes and the possibility to fabricate structures without the addition of new material layers makes this technique particularly appealing for fabrication of 3-D scaffolds for tissue engineering. PMID:23729598

Koroleva, Anastasia; Kufelt, Olga; Schlie-Wolter, Sabrina; Hinze, Ulf; Chichkov, Boris

2013-10-01

331

Poly(dopamine) coating of scaffolds for articular cartilage tissue engineering.  

PubMed

A surface modification technique based on poly(dopamine) deposition developed from oxidative polymerization of dopamine is known to promote cell adhesion to several cell-resistant substrates. In this study this technique was applied to articular cartilage tissue engineering. The adhesion and proliferation of rabbit chondrocytes were evaluated on poly(dopamine)-coated polymer films, such as polycaprolactone, poly(L-lactide), poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) and polyurethane, biodegradable polymers that are commonly used in tissue engineering. Cell adhesion was significantly increased by merely 15 s of dopamine incubation, and 4 min incubation was enough to reach maximal cell adhesion, a 1.35-2.69-fold increase compared with that on the untreated substrates. Cells also grew much faster on the poly(dopamine)-coated substrates than on untreated substrates. The increase in cell affinity for poly(dopamine)-coated substrates was demonstrated via enhancement of the immobilization of serum adhesive proteins such as fibronectin. When the poly(dopamine)-coating technique was applied to three-dimensional (3-D) polyurethane scaffolds, the proliferation of chondrocytes and the secretion of glycosaminoglycans were increased compared with untreated scaffolds. Our results show that the deposition of a poly(dopamine) layer on 3-D porous scaffolds is a simple and promising strategy for articular cartilage tissue engineering, and may be applied to other types of tissue engineering. PMID:21839186

Tsai, Wei-Bor; Chen, Wen-Tung; Chien, Hsiu-Wen; Kuo, Wei-Hsuan; Wang, Meng-Jiy

2011-08-03

332

Annulus fibrosus tissue engineering using lamellar silk scaffolds.  

PubMed

Degeneration of the intervertebral disc (IVD) represents a significant muscular skeletal disease. Recently, scaffolds composed of synthetic, natural and hybrid biomaterials have been investigated as options to restore the IVD; however, they lack the hallmark lamellar morphological features of annulus fibrosus (AF) tissue. The goal of regenerating the disc is to achieve anatomical morphology as well as restoration of mechanical and biological function. In this study, two types of scaffold morphology formed from silk fibroin were investigated towards the goal of AF tissue restoration. The first design mimics the lamellar features of the IVD that are associated with the AF region. The second is a porous spongy scaffold that serves as a control. Toroidal scaffolds were formed from the lamellar and porous silk material systems to generate structures with an outer diameter of 8 mm, inner diameter of 3.5 mm and a height of 3 mm. The inter-lamellar spacing in the lamellar scaffold was 150-250 µm and the average pore sizes in the porous scaffolds were 100-250 µm. The scaffolds were seeded with porcine AF cells and, after growth over defined time frames in vitro, histology, biochemical assays, mechanical testing and gene expression indicated that the lamellar scaffold generated results that were more favourable in terms of ECM expression and tissue function than the porous scaffold for AF tissue. Further, the seeded porcine AF cells supported the native shape of AF tissue in the lamellar silk scaffolds. The lamellar silk scaffolds were effective in the formation of AF-like tissue in vitro. PMID:22311816

Park, Sang-Hyug; Gil, Eun Seok; Mandal, Biman B; Cho, Hongsik; Kluge, Jonathan A; Min, Byoung-Hyun; Kaplan, David L

2012-02-06

333

Silk fibroin-based scaffolds for bone regeneration.  

PubMed

Porous scaffolds were prepared using regenerated Bombyx mori silk fibroin dissolved in water or hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP). The effects of these two preparations on the formation and growth of new bone on implantation into the rabbit femoral epicondyle was examined. The aqueous-based fibroin (A-F) scaffold exhibited significantly greater osteoconductivity as judged by bone volume, bone mineral content, and bone mineral density at the implant site than the HFIP-based fibroin (HFIP-F) scaffold. Micro-CT analyses showed that the morphology of the newly formed bone differed significantly in the two types of silk fibroin scaffold. After 4 weeks of implantation, new trabecular bone was seen inside the pores of the A-F scaffold implant while the HFIP-F scaffold only contained necrotic cells. No trabecular bone was seen within the pores of the latter scaffolds, although the pores of these did contain giant cells and granulation tissue. PMID:23125151

Kuboyama, Noboru; Kiba, Hideo; Arai, Kiyoshi; Uchida, Ryoichiro; Tanimoto, Yasuhiro; Bhawal, Ujjal K; Abiko, Yoshimitsu; Miyamoto, Sayaka; Knight, David; Asakura, Tetsuo; Nishiyama, Norihiro

2012-11-02

334

Supercritical fluid technologies and tissue engineering scaffolds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supercritical fluid (SCF) processing methods possess advantages over standard processing methods for the production of scaffolds for use in tissue engineering. Advantages include the absence of organic solvents, the ability to incorporate delicate biologicals without loss of activity, and control over the morphology of an internal porous architecture. This review describes SCF processing methods of relevance to tissue engineering and

Robin A. Quirk; Richard M. France; Kevin M. Shakesheff; Steven M. Howdle

2004-01-01

335

Optimization of tyrosine-derived polycarbonate terpolymers for bone regeneration scaffolds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tyrosine-derived polycarbonates (TyrPC) are a versatile class of polymers highly suitable for bone tissue engineering. Among the tyrosine-derived polycarbonates, poly(DTE carbonate) has an FDA masterfile that documents its biocompatibility and non-toxicity and has shown potential utility in orthopedics due to its osteoconductive properties and strength. DTE stands for desaminotyrosyl-tyrosine ethyl ester and is the most commonly used tyrosine-derived monomer. However, in vitro degradation studies showed that poly(DTE carbonate) did not completely resorb even after four years of incubation in phosphate buffered saline. Thus for bone regeneration, which only requires a temporary implant until the bone heals, poly(DTE carbonate) would not be the best choice. The goal of the present research was to optimize a scaffold composition for bone regeneration that is based on desaminotyrosyl-tyrosine alkyl ester (DTR), desaminotyrosyl-tyrosine (DT) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). Five areas of research were presented: (1) synthesis and characterization of a focused library of TyrPC terpolymers; (2) evaluation of the effects of how small changes on the composition affected the mechanism and kinetics of polymer degradation and erosion; (3) fabrication of bioactive three-dimensional porous scaffold constructs for bone regeneration; (4) assessment of osteogenic properties in vitro using pre-osteoblasts; and (5) evaluation of bone regeneration potential, with or without recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2), in vivo using a critical sized defect (CSD) rabbit calvaria (cranium) model. Small changes in the composition, such as changing the R group of DTR from ethyl to methyl, varying the mole percentages of DT and PEG, and using a different PEG block length, affected the overall properties of these polymers. Porous scaffolds were prepared by a combination of solvent casting, porogen leaching and phase separation techniques. Calcium phosphate was coated on the surface post-fabrication. The scaffolds displayed (i) a bimodal pore architecture with micropores (< 20 mum) and macropores (200 -- 400 mum), (ii) a highly interconnected and open pore structure, and (iii) a highly organized microstructure. These scaffolds supported robust cell attachment and promoted osteogenic differentiation of pre-osteoblasts. This is the first report that a synthetic polymeric scaffold either without a biological supplement or with a minimal dose of rhBMP-2 induced comparable bone regeneration to a commercially available bone substitute in a non-rodent CSD animal model.

Resurreccion-Magno, Maria Hanshella C.

336

Radiation-induced graft polymerization and sulfonation of glycidyl methacrylate on to porous hollow-fiber membranes with different pore sizes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An epoxy group containing monomer, glycidyl methacrylate, was grafted on to a porous hollow-fiber membrane, made of polyethylene, whose different pore sizes ranged from 0.2 to 0.5 ?m. The resulting epoxy group was converted into a sulfonic acid group as a cation-exchange group to capture metal ions. The porous network was retained after grafting and subsequent sulfonation because the poly-GMA chains invaded the polymer matrix. An increase in the SO3H group density of the graft chain decreased the permeability of pure water because the graft chains expanded toward the pore interior due to their mutual electrostatic repulsion. The ion-exchange adsorption of Pb ions during the permeation of a Pb(NO3)2 solution through the pores edged by the cation-exchange graft chains was observed with a negligible diffusional mass-transfer resistance.

Kim, M.; Saito, K.

2000-02-01

337

Effect of polycaprolactone scaffold permeability on bone regeneration in vivo.  

PubMed

Successful bone tissue engineering depends on the scaffold's ability to allow nutrient diffusion to and waste removal from the regeneration site, as well as provide an appropriate mechanical environment. Since bone is highly vascularized, scaffolds that provide greater mass transport may support increased bone regeneration. Permeability encompasses the salient features of three-dimensional porous scaffold architecture effects on scaffold mass transport. We hypothesized that higher permeability scaffolds will enhance bone regeneration for a given cell seeding density. We manufactured poly-?-caprolactone scaffolds, designed to have the same internal pore design and either a low permeability (0.688×10(-7)m(4)/N-s) or a high permeability (3.991×10(-7)m(4)/N-s), respectively. Scaffolds were seeded with bone morphogenic protein-7-transduced human gingival fibroblasts and implanted subcutaneously in immune-compromised mice for 4 and 8 weeks. Micro-CT evaluation showed better bone penetration into high permeability scaffolds, with blood vessel infiltration visible at 4 weeks. Compression testing showed that scaffold design had more influence on elastic modulus than time point did and that bone tissue infiltration increased the mechanical properties of the high permeability scaffolds at 8 weeks. These results suggest that for polycaprolactone, a more permeable scaffold with regular architecture is best for in vivo bone regeneration. This finding is an important step toward the end goal of optimizing a scaffold for bone tissue engineering. PMID:21395465

Mitsak, Anna G; Kemppainen, Jessica M; Harris, Matthew T; Hollister, Scott J

2011-04-27

338

Chitosan scaffolds containing silicon dioxide and zirconia nano particles for bone tissue engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

A scaffold harboring the desired features such as biodegradation, biocompatibility, porous structure could serve as template for bone tissue engineering. In the present study, chitosan (CS), nano-scaled silicon dioxide (Si) and zirconia (Zr) were combined by freeze drying technique to fabricate a bio-composite scaffold. The bio-composite scaffold (CS\\/Si\\/Zr) was characterized by SEM, XRD and FT-IR studies. The scaffold possessed a

Soumitri Pattnaik; Sricharan Nethala; Anjali Tripathi; Sekaran Saravanan; Ambigapathi Moorthi; Nagarajan Selvamurugan

2011-01-01

339

Immobilization of enzymes to porous-bead polymers and silica gels activated by graft polymerization of 2,3-epoxypropyl methacrylate.  

PubMed

Three types of organic polymers and bead-shape silica gels were activated by graft polymerization of 2,3-epoxypropyl methacrylate; in some cases, epoxide groups on the support surface were modified to NH2 groups. Eight active matrices so obtained were assessed as supports for immobilized enzymes using peroxidase, glucoamylase and urease. The immobilization yield of protein and specific activities of enzymes were better with supports containing NH2 groups than with those containing epoxide spacer arms. Maximum enzyme immobilization and storage stabilities were obtained with silica-gel beads activated by graft polymerization of 2,3-epoxypropyl methacrylate. With all eight matrices tested, the immobilized enzymes showed good stability with not less than 82% of the original activity persisting after 28 days. The developed matrices have potential for use in process-scale biotechnological operations. PMID:1369257

Wójcik, A; Lobarzewski, J; B?aszczy?ska, T

1990-01-01

340

Engineering tumors with 3D scaffolds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microenvironmental conditions control tumorigenesis and biomimetic culture systems that allow for in vitro and in vivo tumor modeling may greatly aid studies of cancer cells' dependency on these conditions. We engineered three-dimensional (3D) human tumor models using carcinoma cells in polymeric scaffolds that recreated microenvironmental characteristics representative of tumors in vivo. Strikingly, the angiogenic characteristics of tumor cells were dramatically

Claudia Fischbach; Ruth Chen; Takuya Matsumoto; Tobias Schmelzle; Joan S Brugge; Peter J Polverini; David J Mooney

2007-01-01

341

Protein incorporation within Ti scaffold for bone ingrowth using Sol-gel SiO2 as a slow release carrier.  

PubMed

Porous titanium structures hold considerable promise as scaffolds for bone ingrowth in load bearing locations provided they are made osteoinductive by incorporation of bone growth factors. The purpose of the present research was to incorporate soybean trypsin inhibitor (STI) imitating growth factor into a porous Ti scaffold using sol-gel silica as a slow-release protein carrier. Alcohol-free TMOS-based sols (of pH 2 or 5) with dissolved STI were injected into Ti wire scaffolds yielding SiO(2) coating on the wire struts and SiO(2) beads entrapped in-between the wires. The formation of well-polymerized nanoporous SiO(2) was confirmed by FTIR, solid-state NMR, N(2) adsorption/desorption isotherms and BET analysis. In-vitro dissolution of silica and STI release in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) at 37 degrees C were measured by ICP-AES and Bradford assay, respectively. The biochemical activity of released STI protein was assessed by enzymatic assay. STI release was found to follow an attractive pattern of rapid release during the first 5 days followed by steady slow release for over one month. Despite certain conformational changes induced by the encapsulation procedure (detected by Circular Dichroism), the released STI retained most of its biological activity, especially when silica sol was prepared at the high protein-friendly pH = 5. PMID:17619961

Reiner, Tal; Kababya, Shifra; Gotman, Irena

2007-07-10

342

Engineering Polymeric Scaffolds for Bone Grafts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Orthopedic injuries resulting from trauma or improper development often require surgical intervention to restore natural tissue function. Currently, over one million operations are performed annually for the surgical reconstruction of bone [50]. The well-known limitations associated with autografts, allografts, and bone cements have led to the investigation of synthetic polymers as support matrices for bone tissue engineering. Polymers are long-chain

Martha W. Betz; Diana M. Yoon; John P. Fisher

343

Variation of flow-induced stresses within scaffolds used in bone tissue engineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bone tissue engineering is often based on seeding adult stem cells on porous scaffolds and subsequently placing these scaffolds in flow perfusion bioreactors to stimulate cell differentiation and cell growth. In the present study, the distribution of stresses in structured porous scaffolds under flow is investigated by calculating the probability density function of flow-induced stresses in different scaffold geometries with simulations. The physical reason for the development of particular stress distributions is further explored, and it is found that the direction of flow relative to the internal architecture of the porous scaffold is important for stress distributions. When the flow direction is random relative to the configuration of the geometric elements making up the scaffold, it is found that a common distribution, such as the one suggested by Voronov et al. (Appl. Phys. Let., 2010, 97:024101), can be used to describe the stress distribution.

Papavassiliou, Dimitrios; Pham, Ngoc; Voronov, Roman; Sikavitsas, Vassilios

2011-11-01

344

Microporous Nanofibrous Fibrin-based Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering  

PubMed Central

The fibrotic response of the body to synthetic polymers limits their success in tissue engineering and other applications. Though porous polymers have demonstrated improved healing, difficulty in controlling their pore sizes and pore interconnections has clouded the understanding of this phenomenon. In this study, a novel method to fabricate natural polymer/calcium phosphate composite scaffolds with tightly controllable pore size, pore interconnection, and calcium phosphate deposition was developed. Microporous, nanofibrous fibrin scaffolds were fabricated using sphere-templating methods. Composite scaffolds were created by solution deposition of calcium phosphate on fibrin surfaces or by direct incorporation of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite (nHA). The SEM results showed that fibrin scaffolds exhibited a highly porous and interconnected structure. Osteoblast-like cells, obtained from murine calvaria, attached, spread and showed a polygonal morphology on the surface of the biomaterial. Multiple cell layers and fibrillar matrix deposition were observed. Moreover, cells seeded on mineralized fibrin scaffolds exhibited significantly higher alkaline phosphatase activity as well as osteoblast marker gene expression compared to fibrin scaffolds and nHA incorporated fibrin scaffolds (0.25 g and 0.5 g). All types of scaffolds were degraded both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, these scaffolds promoted bone formation in a mouse calvarial defect model and the bone formation was enhanced by addition of rhBMP-2.

Osathanon, Thanaphum; Linnes, Michael L.; Rajachar, Rupak M.; Ratner, Buddy D.; Somerman, Martha J.; Giachelli, Cecilia M.

2008-01-01

345

Biological response to pre-mineralized starch based scaffolds for bone tissue engineering.  

PubMed

It is known that calcium-phosphate (Ca-P) coatings are able not only to improve the bone bonding behaviour of polymeric materials, but at the same time play a positive role on enhancing cell adhesion and inducing the differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells. Recently an innovative biomimetic methodology, in which a sodium silicate gel was used as a nucleative agent, was proposed as an alternative to the currently available biomimetic coating methodologies. This methodology is especially adequate for coating biodegradable porous scaffolds. In the present work we evaluated the influence of the referred to treatment on the mechanical properties of 50/50 (wt%) blend of corn starch/ethylene-vinyl alcohol (SEVA-C) based scaffolds. These Ca-P coated scaffolds presented a compressive modulus of 224.6 +/- 20.6 and a compressive strength of 24.2 +/- 2.20. Cytotoxicity evaluation was performed according ISO/EN 10993 part 5 guidelines and showed that the biomimetic treatment did not have any deleterious effect on L929 cells and did not inhibit cell growth. Direct contact assays were done by using a cell line of human osteoblast like cells (SaOS-2). 3 x 10(5) cells were seeded per scaffold and allowed to grow for two weeks at 37( composite function)C in a humidified atmosphere containing 5% CO(2). Total protein quantification and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation showed that cells were able to grow in the pre-mineralized scaffolds. Furthermore cell viability assays (MTS test) also show that cells remain viable after two weeks in culture. Finally, protein expression studies showed that after two weeks osteopontin and collagen type I were being expressed by SaOS-2 cells seeded on the pre-mineralized scaffolds. Moreover, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity was higher in the supernatants collected from the pre-mineralized samples, when compared to the control samples (non Ca-P coated). This may indicate that a faster mineralization of the ECM produced on the pre-mineralized samples was occurring. Consequently, biomimetic pre-mineralization of starch based scaffolds can be a useful route for applying these materials on bone tissue engineering. PMID:15744619

Salgado, A J; Figueiredo, J E; Coutinho, O P; Reis, R L

2005-03-01

346

Concentrated Collagen-Chondroitin Sulfate Scaffolds for Tissue Engineering Applications  

PubMed Central

Collagen-chondroitin sulfate biomaterial scaffolds have been used in a number of tissue engineered products under development or in the clinics. In this paper, we describe a new approach based on centrifugation for obtaining highly concentrated yet porous collagen scaffolds. Water uptake, chondroitin sulfate retention, morphology, mechanical properties and tissue engineering potential of the concentrated scaffolds were investigated. Our results show that the new approach can lead to scaffolds containing four times as much collagen as that in conventional unconcentrated scaffolds. Further, water uptake in the concentrated scaffolds was significantly greater while chondroitin sulfate retention in the concentrated scaffolds was unaffected. The value of mean pore diameter in the concentrated scaffolds was smaller than that in the unconcentrated scaffolds and the walls of the pores in the former comprised of a continuous sheet of collagen. The mechanical properties measured as moduli of elasticity in compression and tension were improved by as much as 30 times in the concentrated scaffolds. In addition, our tissue culture results with human mesenchymal stem cells and foreskin keratinocytes show that the new scaffolds can be used for cartilage and skin tissue engineering applications.

Liang, Wan-Hsiang; Kienitz, Brian L.; Penick, Kitsie J.; Welter, Jean F.; Zawodzinski, Thomas A.; Baskaran, Harihara

2010-01-01

347

Fabrication of combinatorial polymer scaffold libraries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have designed a novel combinatorial research platform to help accelerate tissue engineering research. Combinatorial methods combine many samples into a single specimen to enable accelerated experimentation and discovery. The platform for fabricating combinatorial polymer scaffold libraries can be used to rapidly identify scaffold formulations that maximize tissue formation. Many approaches for screening cell-biomaterial interactions utilize a two-dimensional format such as a film or surface to present test substrates to cells. However, cells in vivo exist in a three-dimensional milieu of extracellular matrix and cells in vitro behave more naturally when cultured in a three-dimensional environment than when cultured on a two-dimensional surface. Thus, we have designed a method for fabricating combinatorial biomaterial libraries where the materials are presented to cells in the form of three-dimensional, porous, salt-leached, polymer scaffolds. Many scaffold variations and compositions can be screened in a single experiment so that optimal scaffold formulations for tissue formation can be rapidly identified. In summary, we have developed a platform technology for fabricating combinatorial polymer scaffold libraries that can be used to screen cell response to materials in a three-dimensional, scaffold format.

Simon, Carl G.; Stephens, Jean S.; Dorsey, Shauna M.; Becker, Matthew L.

2007-07-01

348

Reinforced nanohydroxyapatite/polyamide66 scaffolds by chitosan coating for bone tissue engineering.  

PubMed

High porosity of scaffold is always accompanied by poor mechanical property; the aim of this study was to enhance the strength and modulus of the highly porous scaffold of nanohydroxyapatite/polyamide66 (n-HA/PA66) by coating chitosan (CS) and to investigate the effect of CS content on the scaffold physical properties and cytological properties. The results show that CS coating can reinforce the scaffold effectively. The compress modulus and strength of the CS coated n-HA/PA66 scaffolds are improved to 32.71 and 2.38 MPa, respectively, being about six times and five times of those of the uncoated scaffolds. Meanwhile, the scaffolds still exhibit a highly interconnected porous structure and the porosity is approximate about 78%, slightly lower than the value (84%) of uncoated scaffold. The cytological properties of scaffolds were also studied in vitro by cocultured with osteoblast-like MG63 cells. The cytological experiments demonstrate that the reinforced scaffolds display favorable cytocompatibility and have no significant difference with the uncoated n-HA/PA66 scaffolds. The CS reinforced n-HA/PA66 scaffolds can meet the basic mechanical requirement of bone tissue engineering scaffold, presenting a potential for biomedical application in bone reconstruction and repair. PMID:21953937

Huang, Di; Zuo, Yi; Zou, Qin; Wang, Yanying; Gao, Shibo; Wang, Xiaoyan; Liu, Haohuai; Li, Yubao

2011-09-26

349

Application of collagen-chitosan/fibrin glue asymmetric scaffolds in skin tissue engineering*  

PubMed Central

To create a scaffold that is suitable for the construction of tissue-engineered skin, a novel asymmetric porous scaffold with different pore sizes on either side was prepared by combining a collagen-chitosan porous membrane with fibrin glue. Tissue-engineered skin was fabricated using this asymmetric scaffold, fibroblasts, and a human keratinocyte line (HaCaT). Epidermal cells could be seen growing easily and achieved confluence on the fibrin glue on the upper surface of the scaffold. Scanning electron microscopy showed typical shuttle-like fibroblasts adhering to the wall of the scaffold and fluorescence microscopy showed them growing in the dermal layer of the scaffold. The constructed composite skin substitute had a histological structure similar to that of normal skin tissue after three weeks of culture. The results of our study suggest that the asymmetric scaffold is a promising biologically functional material for skin tissue engineering, with prospects for clinical applications.

Han, Chun-mao; Zhang, Li-ping; Sun, Jin-zhang; Shi, Hai-fei; Zhou, Jie; Gao, Chang-you

2010-01-01

350

Chitosan scaffolds containing silicon dioxide and zirconia nano particles for bone tissue engineering.  

PubMed

A scaffold harboring the desired features such as biodegradation, biocompatibility, porous structure could serve as template for bone tissue engineering. In the present study, chitosan (CS), nano-scaled silicon dioxide (Si) and zirconia (Zr) were combined by freeze drying technique to fabricate a bio-composite scaffold. The bio-composite scaffold (CS/Si/Zr) was characterized by SEM, XRD and FT-IR studies. The scaffold possessed a porous nature with pore dimensions suitable for cell infiltration and colonization. The presence of zirconia in the CS/Si/Zr scaffold decreased swelling and increased biodegradation, protein adsorption and bio-mineralization properties. The CS/Si/Zr scaffold was also found to be non-toxic to rat osteoprogenitor cells. Thus, we suggest that CS/Si/Zr bio-composite scaffold is a potential candidate to be used for bone tissue engineering. PMID:21968009

Pattnaik, Soumitri; Nethala, Sricharan; Tripathi, Anjali; Saravanan, Sekaran; Moorthi, Ambigapathi; Selvamurugan, Nagarajan

2011-09-29

351

Mathematically defined tissue engineering scaffold architectures prepared by stereolithography.  

PubMed

The technologies employed for the preparation of conventional tissue engineering scaffolds restrict the materials choice and the extent to which the architecture can be designed. Here we show the versatility of stereolithography with respect to materials and freedom of design. Porous scaffolds are designed with computer software and built with either a poly(D,L-lactide)-based resin or a poly(D,L-lactide-co-epsilon-caprolactone)-based resin. Characterisation of the scaffolds by micro-computed tomography shows excellent reproduction of the designs. The mechanical properties are evaluated in compression, and show good agreement with finite element predictions. The mechanical properties of scaffolds can be controlled by the combination of material and scaffold pore architecture. The presented technology and materials enable an accurate preparation of tissue engineering scaffolds with a large freedom of design, and properties ranging from rigid and strong to highly flexible and elastic. PMID:20579724

Melchels, Ferry P W; Bertoldi, Katia; Gabbrielli, Ruggero; Velders, Aldrik H; Feijen, Jan; Grijpma, Dirk W

2010-06-26

352

The Role of EPS in Microhydrology and Transport Processes Affecting Microbial Activity in Unsaturated Porous Media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extra-cellular Polymeric Substances (EPS) refers to biopolymers excreted and surrounding soil bacterial cells (and other biota) forming the scaffolding for colonies and serving a wide array of transport, nutrient entrapment, and mechanical functions. In essence, EPS is a porous matrix through which aqueous, gaseous and nutrient fluxes flow to supply the embedded bacterial cells. The large water holding capacity and retarded water loss rates of EPS dampens rapid fluctuations in hydration status of host porous medium which sustain higher diffusion fluxes than in surrounding porous medium, and shelters microbial cells from effect of rapid desiccation or rewetting. The morphology of EPS changes from an open well-hydrated bioweb to dense and highly cross-linked structure under dry conditions. Such morphological changes are accompanied by enhanced mechanical strength and retardation of water loss that provide additional time for physiological adaptation to desiccation. Additional capacitance results from the disparity in dynamic hydrological properties between EPS and soil that promotes water entrapment in EPS during rapid drainage. EPS may also trap dissolved nutrients that may be unevenly distributed and irregularly supplied in unsaturated environments, thereby increasing nutrient availability in the microhabitat and offsetting decreased supply by diffusion during drying. The remarkable transport and mechanical properties of EPS makes it an important stabilizing agent for soil aggregation and even minute amounts of EPS may significantly alter macroscopic hydrological properties of host porous medium.

Or, D.; Phutane, S.

2005-12-01

353

A MicroScale Surface-Structured PCL Scaffold Fabricated by a 3D Plotter and a Chemical Blowing Agent  

Microsoft Academic Search

To study cell responses, polymeric scaffolds with a controllable pore size and porosity have been fabricated using rapid-prototyping methods. However, the scaffolds fabricated by rapid prototyping have very smooth surfaces, which tend to discourage initial cell attachment. Initial cell attachment, migration, differentiation and proliferation are strongly dependent on the chemical and physical characteristics of the scaffold surface. In this study,

Hyeon Yoon; Geun Hyung Kim; Young Ho Koh

2010-01-01

354

Sustained release of vascular endothelial growth factor from mineralized poly(lactide-co-glycolide) scaffolds for tissue engineering.  

PubMed

Strategies to engineer bone tissue have focused on either: (1) the use of scaffolds for osteogenic cell transplantation or as conductive substrates for guided bone regeneration; or (2) release of inductive bioactive factors from these scaffold materials. This study describes an approach to add an inductive component to an osteoconductive scaffold for bone tissue engineering. We report the release of bioactive vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) from a mineralized, porous, degradable polymer scaffold. Three dimensional, porous scaffolds of the copolymer 85 : 15 poly(lactide-co-glycolide) were fabricated by including the growth factor into a gas foaming/particulate leaching process. The scaffold was then mineralized via incubation in a simulated body fluid. Growth of a bone-like mineral film on the inner pore surfaces of the porous scaffold is confirmed by mass increase measurements and quantification of phosphate content within scaffolds. Release of 125I-labeled VEGF was tracked over a 15 day period to determine release kinetics from the mineralized scaffolds. Sustained release from the mineralized scaffolds was achieved, and growth of the mineral film had only a minor effect on the release kinetics from the scaffolds. The VEGF released from the mineralized and non-mineralized scaffolds was over 70% active for up to 12 days following mineralization treatment, and the growth of mineral had little effect on total scaffold porosity. PMID:11071602

Murphy, W L; Peters, M C; Kohn, D H; Mooney, D J

2000-12-01

355

Porosity and cell preseeding influence electrospun scaffold maturation and meniscus integration in vitro.  

PubMed

Electrospinning generates fibrous scaffolds ideal for engineering soft orthopedic tissues. By modifying the electrospinning process, scaffolds with different structural organization and content can be generated. For example, fibers can be aligned in a single direction, or the porosity of the scaffold can be modified through the use of multi-jet electrospinning and the removal of sacrificial fibers. In this work, we investigated the role of fiber alignment and scaffold porosity on construct maturation and integration within in vitro meniscus defects. Further, we explored the effect of preseeding expanded meniscus fibrochondrocytes (MFCs) onto the scaffold at a high density before in vitro repair. Our results demonstrate that highly porous electropun scaffolds integrate better with a native tissue and mature to a greater extent than low-porosity scaffolds, while scaffold alignment does not influence integration or maturation. The addition of expanded MFCs to scaffolds before in vitro repair improved integration with the native tissue, but did not influence maturation. In contrast, preculture of these same scaffolds for 1 month before repair decreased integration with the native tissue, but resulted in a more mature scaffold compared to implantation of cellular scaffolds or acellular scaffolds. This work will inform scaffold selection in future in vivo studies by identifying the ideal scaffold and seeding methods for meniscus tissue engineering. PMID:22994398

Ionescu, Lara C; Mauck, Robert L

2012-11-30

356

Porous polymer media  

DOEpatents

Highly crosslinked monolithic porous polymer materials for chromatographic applications. By using solvent compositions that provide not only for polymerization of acrylate monomers in such a fashion that a porous polymer network is formed prior to phase separation but also for exchanging the polymerization solvent for a running buffer using electroosmotic flow, the need for high pressure purging is eliminated. The polymer materials have been shown to be an effective capillary electrochromatographic separations medium at lower field strengths than conventional polymer media. Further, because of their highly crosslinked nature these polymer materials are structurally stable in a wide range of organic and aqueous solvents and over a pH range of 2-12.

Shepodd, Timothy J. (Livermore, CA)

2002-01-01

357

A hierarchically graded bioactive scaffold bonded to titanium substrates for attachment to bone.  

PubMed

In this paper we report a Ti-based, hierarchical porous scaffold anchored to Ti substrates, prepared by synthesizing hydroxyapatite--calcium carbonate-Ti three--layer spheres and combining a modified plasma spraying process and an anodic oxidation treatment. The hierarchical porous scaffolds were composed of 100-350 ?m interconnecting macropores, 0.2-90 ?m pores and ~100 nm nanopores with >70% porosity. At the same time, the scaffolds also had the graded structures constructed by bioactive TiO(x) in surface transforming to metallurgy-bondable Ti in bottom. Mechanical property tests demonstrated that the porous scaffolds had similar Young's modulus with natural bone and strong bonding strength with the Ti substrates. The simulate body fluid immersion showed that bone-like apatite layer could form rapidly at scaffold surface. The in vitro cell incubation demonstrated that the porous scaffolds had good cellular compatibility and could correctly regulate cascade gene expression of primary osteoblasts. The intramuscular implantations indicated the porous scaffolds had high osteoinductivity and the bone implantations demonstrated that the scaffolds could facilitate new bone growth and have strong bonding strength with surrounding bone. PMID:21764439

Fu, Qingshan; Hong, Youliang; Liu, Xiaoguang; Fan, Hongsong; Zhang, Xingdong

2011-07-18

358

Engineered channels enhance cellular density in perfused scaffolds.  

PubMed

Scaffold-based tissue engineering provides cells with an engineered matrix to enhance and direct cell attachment, proliferation and differentiation. One critical limitation to current tissue engineering approaches is the inability to create densely populated constructs thicker than a few 100 ?m. We hypothesized that development of porous, channeled scaffolds would increase cell density and uniformity of their spatial distribution through scaffold channel perfusion. Patterned polyurethane sheets were fabricated using a sprayed phase separation technique and laminated together to form 1.5 mm thick channeled scaffolds. Hydraulic permeability testing confirmed the presence of functional channels throughout the multilaminate construct. A continuous flow bioreactor was used to perfuse the construct with medium during the culture period. Cross-sectional cell densities and spatial uniformities were measured in channeled and nonchanneled scaffolds under different seeding and culture conditions. Channeled scaffolds were found to have higher densities of human mesenchymal stem cells than nonchanneled samples. Perfused scaffolds had more uniform spatial distribution of cells within the scaffold compared to statically cultured scaffolds. In conclusion, we have shown the channeled scaffolds to be a promising approach toward creating thick tissue-engineered constructs. PMID:21745609

Kennedy, J P; McCandless, S P; Rauf, A; Williams, L M; Hillam, J; Hitchcock, R W

2011-06-28

359

Mineralization Potential of Electrospun PDO-Hydroxyapatite-Fibrinogen Blended Scaffolds.  

PubMed

The current bone autograft procedure for cleft palate repair presents several disadvantages such as limited availability, additional invasive surgery, and donor site morbidity. The present preliminary study evaluates the mineralization potential of electrospun polydioxanone:nano-hydroxyapatite?:?fibrinogen (PDO?:?nHA?:?Fg) blended scaffolds in different simulated body fluids (SBF). Scaffolds were fabricated by blending PDO?:?nHA?:?Fg in the following percent by weight ratios: 100?:?0?:?0, 50?:?25?:?25, 50?:?50?:?0, 50?:?0?:?50, 0?:?0?:?100, and 0?:?50?:?50. Samples were immersed in (conventional (c), revised (r), ionic (i), and modified (m)) SBF for 5 and 14 days to induce mineralization. Scaffolds were characterized before and after mineralization via scanning electron microscopy, Alizarin Red-based assay, and modified burnout test. The addition of Fg resulted in scaffolds with smaller fiber diameters. Fg containing scaffolds also induced sheet-like mineralization while individual fiber mineralization was noticed in its absence. Mineralized electrospun Fg scaffolds without PDO were not mechanically stable after 5 days in SBF, but had superior mineralization capabilities which produced a thick bone-like mineral (BLM) layer throughout the scaffolds. 50?:?50?:?0 scaffolds incubated in either r-SBF for 5 days or c-SBF for 14 days produced scaffolds with high mineral content and individual-mineralized fibers. These mineralized scaffolds were still porous and will be further optimized as an effective bone substitute in future studies. PMID:22956956

Rodriguez, Isaac A; Madurantakam, Parthasarathy A; McCool, Jennifer M; Sell, Scott A; Yang, Hu; Moon, Peter C; Bowlin, Gary L

2012-08-16

360

Mineralization Potential of Electrospun PDO-Hydroxyapatite-Fibrinogen Blended Scaffolds  

PubMed Central

The current bone autograft procedure for cleft palate repair presents several disadvantages such as limited availability, additional invasive surgery, and donor site morbidity. The present preliminary study evaluates the mineralization potential of electrospun polydioxanone:nano-hydroxyapatite?:?fibrinogen (PDO?:?nHA?:?Fg) blended scaffolds in different simulated body fluids (SBF). Scaffolds were fabricated by blending PDO?:?nHA?:?Fg in the following percent by weight ratios: 100?:?0?:?0, 50?:?25?:?25, 50?:?50?:?0, 50?:?0?:?50, 0?:?0?:?100, and 0?:?50?:?50. Samples were immersed in (conventional (c), revised (r), ionic (i), and modified (m)) SBF for 5 and 14 days to induce mineralization. Scaffolds were characterized before and after mineralization via scanning electron microscopy, Alizarin Red-based assay, and modified burnout test. The addition of Fg resulted in scaffolds with smaller fiber diameters. Fg containing scaffolds also induced sheet-like mineralization while individual fiber mineralization was noticed in its absence. Mineralized electrospun Fg scaffolds without PDO were not mechanically stable after 5 days in SBF, but had superior mineralization capabilities which produced a thick bone-like mineral (BLM) layer throughout the scaffolds. 50?:?50?:?0 scaffolds incubated in either r-SBF for 5 days or c-SBF for 14 days produced scaffolds with high mineral content and individual-mineralized fibers. These mineralized scaffolds were still porous and will be further optimized as an effective bone substitute in future studies.

Rodriguez, Isaac A.; Madurantakam, Parthasarathy A.; McCool, Jennifer M.; Sell, Scott A.; Yang, Hu; Moon, Peter C.; Bowlin, Gary L.

2012-01-01

361

Co-immobilization of cyclohexanone monooxygenase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase onto polyethylenimine-porous agarose polymeric composite using ? irradiation to use in biotechnological processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The co-immobilization of cyclohexanone monooxygenase (CHMO) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) was optimized by completely coating, via covalent immobilization, the surface aldehyde groups of porous agarose (glyoxyl-agarose) with amine groups of polyethylenimine (PEI). The highest immobilization efficiency (˜87%) (activity of enzyme per amount of immobilized enzyme) was obtained with a CHMO/G6PDH ratio 2:1. The effects of different ratios of the support to the amount of enzymes (CHMO:G6PDH=2:1), the optimum incubation pH and the incubation time on the enzymatic activity of the enzymes were determined and found to be 5:1, 8.5 and 30 min, respectively. Subjecting the co-immobilized enzymes to doses of ?-radiation (5-100 kGy) resulted in complete loss in the activity of the free enzymes at a dose of 40 kGy, while the co-immobilized ones showed relatively high resistance to ?-radiation up to a dose of 50 kGy.

Atia, K. S.

2005-06-01

362

Surface modified electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds for nerve tissue engineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of biodegradable polymeric scaffolds with surface properties that dominate interactions between the material and biological environment is of great interest in biomedical applications. In this regard, poly-?-caprolactone (PCL) nanofibrous scaffolds were fabricated by an electrospinning process and surface modified by a simple plasma treatment process for enhancing the Schwann cell adhesion, proliferation and interactions with nanofibers necessary for nerve tissue formation. The hydrophilicity of surface modified PCL nanofibrous scaffolds (p-PCL) was evaluated by contact angle and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies. Naturally derived polymers such as collagen are frequently used for the fabrication of biocomposite PCL/collagen scaffolds, though the feasibility of procuring large amounts of natural materials for clinical applications remains a concern, along with their cost and mechanical stability. The proliferation of Schwann cells on p-PCL nanofibrous scaffolds showed a 17% increase in cell proliferation compared to those on PCL/collagen nanofibrous scaffolds after 8 days of cell culture. Schwann cells were found to attach and proliferate on surface modified PCL nanofibrous scaffolds expressing bipolar elongations, retaining their normal morphology. The results of our study showed that plasma treated PCL nanofibrous scaffolds are a cost-effective material compared to PCL/collagen scaffolds, and can potentially serve as an ideal tissue engineered scaffold, especially for peripheral nerve regeneration.

Prabhakaran, Molamma P.; Venugopal, J.; Chan, Casey K.; Ramakrishna, S.

2008-11-01

363

Maintaining cell depth viability: on the efficacy of a trimodal scaffold pore architecture and dynamic rotational culturing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tissue-engineering scaffold-based strategies have suffered from limited cell depth viability when cultured in vitro with viable\\u000a cells typically existing at the fluid-scaffold interface. This is primarily believed to be due to the lack of nutrient delivery\\u000a into and waste removal from the inner regions of the scaffold construct. This work focused on the assessment of a hydroxyapatite\\u000a multi-domain porous scaffold

Conor Timothy Buckley; Kevin Unai O’Kelly

2010-01-01

364

Premixed macroporous calcium phosphate cement scaffold  

PubMed Central

Calcium phosphate cement (CPC) sets in situ to form resorbable hydroxyapatite and is promising for orthopaedic applications. However, it requires on-site powder-liquid mixing during surgery, which prolongs surgical time and raises concerns of inhomogeneous mixing. The objective of this study was to develop a premixed CPC scaffold with macropores suitable for tissue ingrowth. To avoid the on-site powder-liquid mixing, the CPC paste was mixed in advance and did not set in storage; it set only after placement in a physiological solution. Using 30% and 40% mass fractions of mannitol porogen, the premixed CPC scaffold with fibers had flexural strength (mean ± sd; n = 5) of (3.9 ± 1.4) MPa and (1.8 ± 0.8) MPa, respectively. The scaffold porosity reached (68.6 ± 0.7)% and (74.7 ± 1.2)%, respectively. Osteoblast cells colonized in the surface macropores of the scaffold and attached to the hydroxyapatite crystals. Cell viability values for the premixed CPC scaffold was not significantly different from that of a conventional non-premixed CPC known to be biocompatible (P > 0.1). In conclusion, using fast-dissolving porogen and slow-dissolving fibers, a premixed macroporous CPC scaffold was developed with strength approaching the reported strengths of sintered porous hydroxyapatite implants and cancellous bone, and non-cytotoxicity similar to a biocompatible non-premixed CPC.

Carey, Lisa E.; Simon, Carl G.

2009-01-01

365

Three-dimensional chitosan-nanohydroxyapatite composite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe the structure of biodegradable chitosan-nanohydroxyapatite (nHA) composites scaffolds and their interaction with pre-osteoblasts for bone tissue engineering. The scaffolds were fabricated via freezing and lyophilization. The nanocomposite scaffolds were characterized by a highly porous structure and pore size of ˜50-125 ?m, irrespective of nHA content. The observed significant enhancement in the biological response of pre-osteoblast on nanocomposite scaffolds expressed in terms of cell attachment, proliferation, and widespread morphology in relation to pure chitosan points toward their potential use as scaffold material for bone regeneration.

Thein-Han, W. W.; Misra, R. D. K.

2009-09-01

366

The morphology of anisotropic 3D-printed hydroxyapatite scaffolds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds with tailored pores ranging from the nanometer to millimeter scale can support the reconstruction of centimeter-sized osseous defects. Three-dimensional-printing processes permit the voxel-wise fabrication of scaffolds. The present study rests upon 3D-printing with nano-porous hydroxyapatite granulates. The cylindrical design refers to a hollow bone with higher density at the periphery. The millimeter-wide central channel follows the symmetry

Fabienne C. Fierz; Felix Beckmann; Marius Huser; Stephan H. Irsen; Barbara Leukers; Frank Witte; Özer Degistirici; Adrian Andronache; Michael Thie; Bert Müller

2008-01-01

367

A novel composite scaffold for cardiac tissue engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  One approach to the engineering of functional cardiac tissue for basic studies and potential clinical use involves bioreactor\\u000a cultivation of dissociated cells on a biomaterial scaffold. Our objective was to develop a scaffold that is (1) highly porous\\u000a with large intereconnected pores (to facilitate mass transport), (2) hydrophilic (to enhance cell attachment), (3) structurally\\u000a stable (to withstand the shearing forces

Milica Radisic; Jeong Ok Lim; Bong Hyun Chang; Gordana Vunjak-Novakovic

2005-01-01

368

Intervertebral Disk Tissue Engineering Using Biphasic Silk Composite Scaffolds  

PubMed Central

Scaffolds composed of synthetic, natural, and hybrid materials have been investigated as options to restore intervertebral disk (IVD) tissue function. These systems fall short of the lamellar features of the native annulus fibrosus (AF) tissue or focus only on the nucleus pulposus (NP) tissue. However, successful regeneration of the entire IVD requires a combination approach to restore functions of both the AF and NP. To address this need, a biphasic biomaterial structure was generated by using silk protein for the AF and fibrin/hyaluronic acid (HA) gels for the NP. Two cell types, porcine AF cells and chondrocytes, were utilized. For the AF tissue, two types of scaffold morphologies, lamellar and porous, were studied with the porous system serving as a control. Toroidal scaffolds formed out of the lamellar, and porous silk materials were used to generate structures with an outer diameter of 8?mm, inner diameter of 3.5?mm, and a height of 3?mm (the interlamellar distance in the lamellar scaffold was 150–250??m, and the average pore sizes in the porous scaffolds were 100–250??m). The scaffolds were seeded with porcine AF cells to form AF tissue, whereas porcine chondrocytes were encapsulated in fibrin/HA hydrogels for the NP tissue and embedded in the center of the toroidal disk. Histology, biochemical assays, and gene expression indicated that the lamellar scaffolds supported AF-like tissue over 2 weeks. Porcine chondrocytes formed the NP phenotype within the hydrogel after 4 weeks of culture with the AF tissue that had been previously cultured for 2 weeks, for a total of 6 weeks of cultivation. This biphasic scaffold simulating in combination of both AF and NP tissues was effective in the formation of the total IVD in vitro.

Park, Sang-Hyug; Gil, Eun Seok; Cho, Hongsik; Mandal, Biman B.; Tien, Lee W.; Min, Byoung-Hyun

2012-01-01

369

3-D scaffolds a new tool to fight cancer  

Cancer.gov

Porous polymer scaffolds fabricated to support the growth of biological tissue for implantation may hold the potential to greatly accelerate the development of cancer therapeutics. Researchers at Rice University, the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center in Houston, and Mount Sinai Medical Center in New York reported this week that three-dimensional scaffolds used to culture Ewing’s sarcoma cells were effective at mimicking the environment in which such tumors develop.

370

Protein-imprinted polysiloxane scaffolds  

PubMed Central

Molecular imprinting is a technique used to create specific recognition sites on the surface of materials. Although widely developed for chromatographic separation of small molecules, this approach has not been adequately investigated for biomaterial applications. Thus, the objective of these experiments was to explore the potential of molecular imprinting for creating biomaterials that preferentially bind specific proteins. Macroporous polysiloxane (silica) scaffolds were imprinted with either lysozyme or RNase A using sol–gel processing. The quantity of surface-accessible protein, which was related to the number of potential binding sites, was varied by changing the amount of protein loaded into the sol. Up to 62% of loaded protein was accessible. The amount of protein per unit surface area ranged from 0.3 ?g m?2 for low loading of RNase to 152 ?g m?2 for high loading of lysozyme. Protein-imprinted scaffolds were then evaluated for their ability to preferentially recognize the template biomolecule when incubated in mixtures containing both the imprinted protein and a competitor protein of comparable size (approximately 14 kD). In solutions containing a single protein, up to 3.6 times more template bound compared with the competitor. Furthermore, in solutions containing equal amounts of both molecules, the porous scaffolds bound up to three times more template than the competitor protein, which is a level of preferential binding similar to values reported in the molecular imprinting literature for both organic and inorganic materials.

Lee, K.; Itharaju, R.R.; Puleo, D.A.

2007-01-01

371

Permeability analysis of scaffolds for bone tissue engineering.  

PubMed

Porous artificial bone substitutes, especially bone scaffolds coupled with osteobiologics, have been developed as an alternative to the traditional bone grafts. The bone scaffold should have a set of properties to provide mechanical support and simultaneously promote tissue regeneration. Among these properties, scaffold permeability is a determinant factor as it plays a major role in the ability for cells to penetrate the porous media and for nutrients to diffuse. Thus, the aim of this work is to characterize the permeability of the scaffold microstructure, using both computational and experimental methods. Computationally, permeability was estimated by homogenization methods applied to the problem of a fluid flow through a porous media. These homogenized permeability properties are compared with those obtained experimentally. For this purpose a simple experimental setup was used to test scaffolds built using Solid Free Form techniques. The obtained results show a linear correlation between the computational and the experimental permeability. Also, this study showed that permeability encompasses the influence of both porosity and pore size on mass transport, thus indicating its importance as a design parameter. This work indicates that the mathematical approach used to determine permeability may be useful as a scaffold design tool. PMID:22365847

Dias, M R; Fernandes, P R; Guedes, J M; Hollister, S J

2012-02-24

372

The Mechanical Properties of Bone Tissue Engineering Scaffold Fabricating Via Selective Laser Sintering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Performance of bone tissue depends on porous scaffold microstructures with specific porosity characteristics that influence\\u000a the behavior of the ingrown cells. The mechanical properties of porous tissue scaffolds are important for their biomechanical\\u000a tissue engineering application. In this study, the composite materials powder was developed for the selective laser sintering\\u000a process, and the parameters of selective laser sintering were optimized.

Liulan Lin; Aili Tong; Huicun Zhang; Qingxi Hu; Minglun Fang

2007-01-01

373

Tailoring PLLA scaffolds for tissue engineering applications: Morphologies for 2D and 3D cell cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

PLLA scaffold suitable for dermis regeneration were realized by Thermally Induced Phase Separation (TIPS) starting from a\\u000a ternary solution PLLA\\/dioxane\\/water. The reconstruction of a complex tissues as the dermis implies the use of different cellular\\u000a types (coculture), with different growth behaviour (2D vs. 3D). The scaffolds present an homogeneous porous surface to allow\\u000a the keratinocytes 2D growth and a porous

F. Carfì Pavia; V. La Carrubba; V. Brucato; G. Ghersi

2009-01-01

374

Salt-leached silk scaffolds with tunable mechanical properties.  

PubMed

Substrate mechanical properties have remarkable influences on cell behavior and tissue regeneration. Although salt-leached silk scaffolds have been used in tissue engineering, applications in softer tissue regeneration can be encumbered with excessive stiffness. In the present study, silk-bound water interactions were regulated by controlling processing to allow the preparation of salt-leached porous scaffolds with tunable mechanical properties. Increasing silk-bound water interactions resulted in reduced silk II (?-sheet crystal) formation during salt-leaching, which resulted in a modulus decrease in the scaffolds. The microstructures as well as degradation behavior were also changed, implying that this water control and salt-leaching approach can be used to achieve tunable mechanical properties. Considering the utility of silk in various fields of biomedicine, the results point to a new approach to generate silk scaffolds with controllable properties to better mimic soft tissues by combining scaffold preparation methods and silk self-assembly in aqueous solutions. PMID:23016499

Yao, Danyu; Dong, Sen; Lu, Qiang; Hu, Xiao; Kaplan, David L; Zhang, Bingbo; Zhu, Hesun

2012-10-11

375

The Design of Scaffolds for Use in Tissue Engineering. Part I. Traditional Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

In tissue engineering, a highly porous artificial extracellular matrix or scaffold is required to accommodate mammalian cells and guide their growth and tissue regeneration in three dimensions. However, existing three-dimensional scaffolds for tissue engineering proved less than ideal for actual applications, not only because they lack mechanical strength, but they also do not guarantee interconnected channels. In this paper, the

Shoufeng Yang; Kah-Fai Leong; Zhaohui Du; Chee-Kai Chua

2001-01-01

376

Fabrication of low temperature macroporous hydroxyapatite scaffolds by foaming and hydrolysis of an ?-TCP paste  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of the new technologies of bone tissue engineering requires the production of bioresorbable macroporous scaffolds. Calcium phosphate cements are good candidate materials for the development of these scaffolds, as an alternative to the traditional porous sintered ceramics. In this work a novel two-step method, based in the foaming of an ?-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) cement paste and its subsequent

A Almirall; G Larrecq; J. A Delgado; S Mart??nez; J. A Planell; M. P Ginebra

2004-01-01

377

Scaffold design and fabrication technologies for engineering tissues — state of the art and future perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today, tissue engineers are attempting to engineer virtually every human tissue. Potential tissue-engineered products include cartilage, bone, heart valves, nerves, muscle, bladder, liver, etc. Tissue engineering techniques generally require the use of a porous scaffold, which serves as a threedimensional template for initial cell attachment and subsequent tissue formation both in vitro and in vivo. The scaffold provides the necessary

Dietmar W. Hutmacher

2001-01-01

378

Microporous nanofibrous fibrin-based scaffolds for craniofacial bone tissue engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fibrotic response of the body to synthetic polymers limits their success in tissue engineering and other applications. Though porous polymers have demonstrated improved healing, difficulty in controlling their pore sizes and pore interconnections has clouded the understanding of this phenomenon. In this study, a novel method to fabricate natural polymer\\/calcium phosphate composite scaffolds and immobilized alkaline phosphatase fibrin scaffolds

Thanaphum Osathanon

2009-01-01

379