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Sample records for portneuf river idaho

  1. LOWER PORTNEUF RIVER, IDAHO - WATER QUALITY STATUS REPORT, 1977

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper describes the results of a 12 month, bi-weekly water quality sampling program on the Lower Portneuf River, Idaho (17040208). Samples were collected at 7 river stations, 5 effluents, and a major stream. The results indicate that Marsh Creek, a major tributary draining...

  2. ASSESSMENT OF POSSIBLE EFFECTS OF POCATELLO'S TREATED WASTEWATER ON THE BIOLOGY AND CHEMISTRY OF THE PORTNEUF RIVER, IDAHO. 1989

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes results of a study to determine possible effects of Pocatellos Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) on the Portneuf River, Idaho (17040208). The scope of this report includes data collected on water chemistry, macroinvertebrates, and fish during fall 1988 and ...

  3. Evaluation of a combined macrophyte-epiphyte bioassay for assessing nutrient enrichment in the Portneuf River, Idaho, USA.

    PubMed

    Ray, Andrew M; Mebane, Christopher A; Raben, Flint; Irvine, Kathryn M; Marcarelli, Amy M

    2014-07-01

    We describe and evaluate a laboratory bioassay that uses Lemna minor L. and attached epiphytes to characterize the status of ambient and nutrient-enriched water from the Portneuf River, Idaho. Specifically, we measured morphological (number of fronds, longest surface axis, and root length) and population-level (number of plants and dry mass) responses of L. minor and community-level (ash-free dry mass [AFDM] and chlorophyll a [Chl a]) responses of epiphytes to nutrient enrichment. Overall, measures of macrophyte biomass and abundance increased with increasing concentrations of dissolved phosphorus (P) and responded more predictably to nutrient enrichment than morphological measures. Epiphyte AFDM and Chl a were also greatest in P-enriched water; enrichments of N alone produced no measurable epiphytic response. The epiphyte biomass response did not directly mirror macrophyte biomass responses, illustrating the value of a combined macrophyte-epiphyte assay to more fully evaluate nutrient management strategies. Finally, the most P-enriched waters not only supported greater standing stocks of macrophyte and epiphytes but also had significantly higher water column dissolved oxygen and dissolved organic carbon concentrations and a lower pH. Advantages of this macrophyte-epiphyte bioassay over more traditional single-species assays include the use of a more realistic level of biological organization, a relatively short assay schedule (~10 days), and the inclusion of multiple biological response and water-quality measures. PMID:24549944

  4. Evaluation of a combined macrophyte–epiphyte bioassay for assessing nutrient enrichment in the Portneuf River, Idaho, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ray, Andrew M.; Mebane, Christopher A.; Raben, Flint; Irvine, Kathryn M.; Marcarelli, Amy M.

    2014-01-01

    We describe and evaluate a laboratory bioassay that uses Lemna minor L. and attached epiphytes to characterize the status of ambient and nutrient-enriched water from the Portneuf River, Idaho, USA. Specifically, we measured morphological (number of fronds, longest surface axis, root length) and population-level (number of plants, dry mass) responses of L. minor, and community-level (ash free dry mass [AFDM] and chlorophyll a [chl a]) responses of epiphytes to nutrient enrichment. Overall, measures of macrophyte biomass and abundance increased with increasing concentrations of dissolved phosphorus (P) and responded more predictably to nutrient enrichment than morphological measures. Epiphyte AFDM and chl a were also greatest in P enriched-water; enrichments of N alone produced no measurable epiphytic response. The epiphyte biomass response did not directly mirror macrophyte biomass responses, illustrating the value of a combined macrophyte-epiphyte assay to more fully evaluate nutrient management strategies. Finally, the most P-enriched waters not only supported greater standing stocks of macrophyte and epiphytes, but also had significantly higher water column dissolved oxygen and dissolved organic carbon concentrations and a lower pH. Advantages of this macrophyte-epiphyte bioassay over more traditional single species assays include the use of a more realistic level of biological organization, a relatively short assay schedule (~10 days), and the inclusion of multiple biological response and water quality measures.

  5. PORTNEUF VALLEY, IDAHO PM-10 DISPERSION MODEL INCLUDING SECONDARY CHEMICAL FORMATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A dispersion modeling effort for the Portneuf Valley, Pocatello, Idaho PM-10 attainment demonstration is underway. The model will treat the secondary chemical formation process, primarily sulfate and nitrate formation under both the aqueous and gas phases. The model will simul...

  6. SOURCE APPORTIONMENT OF SECONDARY SULFATE IN PORTNEUF VALLEY, IDAHO PM-10 NONATTAINMENT AREA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Region 10 will use Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) modeling in a effort to apportion secondary sulfate that significantly contributes to the total PM-10 mass observed on ambient filters in the Pocatello, Idaho area. This study will investigate whether it is reasonable to apportion ...

  7. WATER QUALITY STATUS REPORT, CROOKED RIVER, IDAHO COUNTY IDAHO, 1987

    EPA Science Inventory

    Crooked River (17060305), a primary anadromous fisheries resource, is located approximately 120 miles southeast of Lewiston, Idaho. Dredging operations between 1936 and 1948 left large piles of gravel in the natural watercourse, causing the river to meander. Impoundments of wat...

  8. Raptor ecology of Raft River Valley, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Thurow, T.L.; White, C.M.; Howard, R.P.; Sullivan, J.F.

    1980-09-01

    Raptor data were gathered in the 988-km/sup 2/ Raft River Valley in southcentral Idaho while conducting a tolerance study on the nesting Ferruginous Hawk (Buteo regalis) near the Department of Energy's Raft River Geothermal Site. Prior research from 1972 to 1977 on the nesting activity of the Ferruginous Hawk population provided a historical information base. These data are combined with new Ferruginous Hawk data collected between 1978 and 1980 to give a continuous 9-year breeding survey. Information on the distribution, density, and production of the other raptor species found in the study area during 1978 and 1979 is also provided.

  9. KOOTENAI RIVER, BOUNDARY COUNTY, IDAHO - WATER QUALITY STATUS REPORT, 1977

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Kootenai River (17010104) is a major tributary to the Columbia River, draining southern British Columbia, northwestern Montana, and portions of northern Idaho. One-third of the river lies in the United States, its source and mouth are in Canada. The vast majority of the dra...

  10. ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT FOR THE MIDDLE SNAKE RIVER, IDAHO

    EPA Science Inventory

    An ecological risk assessment was completed for the Middle Snake River, Idaho. In this assessment, mathematical simulations and field observations were used to analyze exposure and ecological effects and to estimate risk.

    The Middle Snake River which refers to a 100 km stret...

  11. WEISER RIVER STUDY, ADAMS AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES, IDAHO, 1979

    EPA Science Inventory

    During the 1979 water year, a water quality study was conducted on the Weiser and Little Weiser Rivers (17050124) in Washington and Adams Counties, Idaho. The study was completed to obtain background information on effluent limitations for the cities of Cambridge and Council and...

  12. BEAR RIVER BASIN, IDAHO - WATER QUALITY INVESTIGATION, 1974

    EPA Science Inventory

    The quality of the waters in the Bear River Basin, Idaho (160102) was surveyed from August 27 to August 29, 1974. The purposes of the survey were to determine point and non-point source loading, to determine whether water quality has improved since the adoption of the 1958 Enfor...

  13. CUB RIVER, FRANKLIN COUNTY, IDAHO - WATER QUALITY SUMMARY, 1979

    EPA Science Inventory

    In Water Year 1979, a water quality study was conducted on the Cub River in Franklin County, Idaho (16010202) to determine the present condition of the stream and to assess the impact of the Del Monte Corporation vegetable processing discharge. The study involved approximately m...

  14. SALMON RIVER BREAKS PRIMITIVE AREA AND VICINITY, IDAHO.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kiilsgaard, Thor H.; Tuchek, Ernest T.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Salmon River Breaks Primitive Area and vicinity in Idaho confirmed a substantiated gold resource potential in placer deposits along the Salmon River but determined that large-scale mining of the deposits probably would not be feasible. Except for demonstrated fluorspar resources at the Big Squaw Creek deposit, no other mineral resources were found in the area. The geologic environment, geochemical findings, and geophysical data all suggest little likelihood for the occurrence of additional mineral resources in the area. No energy resources were identified in this study.

  15. Hydrothermal injection experiments at the Raft River KGRA, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Downs, W.F.; McAtee, R.E.; Capuano, R.M.; Sill, W.

    1982-12-14

    The optimal development and management of a geothermal resource requires a knowledge of the hydrological characteristics of the reservoir. Reservoir engineering analysis techniques for permeable aquifers have been undergoing development for several decades but little attention has been paid to fracture-dominated systems. A program to test the ability of Huff-Puff tests to help characterize a fracture-dominated reservoir is presented. Several series of these injection (Huff)-backflow (Puff) tests were conducted at the Raft River KGRA in Southern Idaho. These test series are described and preliminary results and interpretations are discussed.

  16. Steelhead Supplementation in Idaho Rivers : 2001 Project Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Byrne, Alan

    2002-03-01

    In 2001, Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) continued an assessment of the Sawtooth Hatchery steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss stock to reestablish natural populations in Beaver and Frenchman creeks in the upper Salmon River. Crews stocked both streams with 20 pair of hatchery adults, and I estimated the potential smolt production from the 2000 adult outplants. n the Red River drainage, IDFG stocked Dworshak hatchery stock fingerlings and smolts from 1993 to 1999 to assess which life stage produces more progeny when the adults return to spawn. In 2001, IDFG operated the Red River weir to trap adults that returned from these stockings, but none were caught from either group. Wild steelhead populations in the Lochsa and Selway river drainages were assessed and the chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha escapement was enumerated in Fish Creek. I estimated that 75 wild adult steelhead and 122 adult chinook salmon returned to Fish Creek in 2001. I estimated that slightly more than 30,000 juvenile steelhead migrated out of Fish Creek. This is the largest number of steelhead to migrate out of Fish Creek in a single year since I began estimating the yearly migration in 1994. Juvenile steelhead densities in Lochsa and Selway tributaries were somewhat higher in 2001 than those observed in 2000. Crews from IDFG collected over 4,800 fin samples from wild steelhead in 74 streams of the Clearwater, Snake, and Salmon river drainages and from five hatchery stocks during the summer of 2000 for a DNA analysis to assess Idaho's steelhead stock structure. The DNA analysis was subcontracted to Dr. Jennifer Nielsen, Alaska Biological Science Center, Anchorage. Her lab developed protocols to use for the analysis in 2001 and is continuing to analyze the samples. Dr. Nielsen plans to have the complete set of wild and hatchery stocks analyzed in 2002.

  17. Salmon Supplementation Studies in Idaho Rivers; Idaho Supplementation Studies, 1992 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Arnsberg, Billy D.

    1993-02-02

    This is the first annual summary of results for chinook salmon supplementation studies in Idaho Rivers conducted by the Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Management. The Nez Perce Tribe has coordinated chinook salmon supplementation research activities with the Bonneville Power Administration, Idaho Department of Fish and Game, U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, National Marine Fisheries Service, U. S. Forest Service, and the Shoshone Bannock Tribe. The project is a cooperative effort involving members of the Idaho Supplementation Technical Advisory Committee (ISTAC). This project has also been extensively coordinated with the Supplementation Technical Work Group (STWG) which identified specific research needs and integrated and coordinated supplementation research activities through development of a five year work plan. In this study we are assessing what strategies, both brood stock and release stage, are best for supplementing natural or depleted spring and summer chinook populations and what effect supplementation has on these populations. This research should identify which of the supplementation strategies employed are beneficial in terms of increasing adult returns and the ability of these returns to sustain themselves. Biological evaluation points will be parr density, survival to Lower Granite Dam, adult return to weirs, redd counts and presmolt and smolt yield from both treatment and control streams. Genetic monitoring of treatment and control populations will also occur. The supplementation research study has the following objectives: (1) Monitor and evaluate the effect of supplementation on presmolt and smolt numbers and spawning escapements of naturally produced salmon. (2) Monitor and evaluate changes in natural productivity and genetic composition of target and adjacent populations following supplementation. (3) Determine which supplementation strategies (brood stock and release stage) provide the quickest and highest response in natural

  18. Iodine-129 in the Snake River Plain aquifer at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mann, L.J.; Chew, E.W.; Morton, J.S.; Randolph, R.B.

    1988-01-01

    From 1953 to 1983, an estimated 0.01 to 0.136 Ci (curies)/year of iodine-129 were contained in wastewater generated by the ICPP (Idaho Chemical Processing Plant) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The wastewater was directly discharged to the Snake River Plain aquifer through a deep disposal well until February 9, 1984, when the well was replaced by an unlined infiltration pond; a second pond was put into use on October 17, 1985. For 1984-86, the annual amount of iodine-129 in wastewater discharged to the ponds ranged from 0.0064 to 0.039 Ci. In August 1986, iodine-129 concentrations in water from 35 wells near the ICPP ranged from less than the reporting level to 3.6 +or-0.4 pCi/L (picocuries/L). By comparison, in April 1977 the water from 20 wells contained a maximum of 27 +or-1 pCi/L of iodine-129; in 1981, the maximum concentration in water from 32 wells was 41 +or-2 pCi/L. The average concentrations of iodine-129 in water from 18 wells that were sampled in 1977, 1981 and 1986 were 4.0, 6.7 and 1.3 pCi/L, respectively. The marked decrease in the iodine-129 concentration from 1981 to 1986 is the result of three factors: (1) The amount of iodine-129 disposed annually; (2) a change from the routine use of the disposal well to the infiltration ponds; and (3) a dilution of the iodine-129 in the aquifer by recharge from the Big Lost River. (USGS)

  19. Salmon Supplementation Studies in Idaho Rivers; Idaho Supplementation Studies, 2000-2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Beasley, Chris; Tabor, R.A.; Kinzer, Ryan

    2003-04-01

    This report summarizes brood year 1999 juvenile production and emigration data and adult return information for 2000 for streams studied by the Nez Perce Tribe for the cooperative Idaho Salmon Supplementation Studies in Idaho Rivers (ISS) project. In order to provide inclusive juvenile data for brood year 1999, we include data on parr, presmolt, smolt and yearling captures. Therefore, our reporting period includes juvenile data collected from April 2000 through June 2001 for parr, presmolts, and smolts and through June 2002 for brood year 1999 yearling emigrants. Data presented in this report include; fish outplant data for treatment streams, snorkel and screw trap estimates of juvenile fish abundance, juvenile emigration profiles, juvenile survival estimates to Lower Granite Dam (LGJ), redd counts, and carcass data. There were no brood year 1999 treatments in Legendary Bear or Fishing Creek. As in previous years, snorkeling methods provided highly variable population estimates. Alternatively, rotary screw traps operated in Lake Creek and the Secesh River provided more precise estimates of juvenile abundance by life history type. Juvenile fish emigration in Lake Creek and the Secesh River peaked during July and August. Juveniles produced in this watershed emigrated primarily at age zero, and apparently reared in downstream habitats before detection as age one or older fish at the Snake and Columbia River dams. Over the course of the ISS study, PIT tag data suggest that smolts typically exhibit the highest relative survival to Lower Granite Dam (LGJ) compared to presmolts and parr, although we observed the opposite trend for brood year 1999 juvenile emigrants from the Secesh River. SURPH2 survival estimates for brood year 1999 Lake Creek parr, presmolt, and smolt PIT tag groups to (LGJ) were 27%, 39%, and 49% respectively, and 14%, 12%, and 5% for the Secesh River. In 2000, we counted 41 redds in Legendary Bear Creek, 4 in Fishing Creek, 5 in Slate Creek, 153 in the

  20. Evaluate Status of Pacific Lamprey in the Clearwater River and Salmon River Drainages, Idaho, 2009 Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Cochnauer, Tim; Claire, Christopher

    2009-05-07

    Pacific lamprey Lampetra tridentata have received little attention in fishery science until recently, even though abundance has declined significantly along with other anadromous fish species in Idaho. Pacific lamprey in Idaho have to navigate over eight lower Snake River and Columbia River hydroelectric facilities for migration downstream as juveniles to the Pacific Ocean and again as adults migrating upstream to their freshwater spawning grounds in Idaho. The number of adult Pacific lamprey annually entering the Snake River basin at Ice Harbor Dam has declined from an average of over 18,000 during 1962-1969 to fewer than 600 during 1998-2006. Based on potential accessible streams and adult escapement over Lower Granite Dam on the lower Snake River, we estimate that no more than 200 Pacific lamprey adult spawners annually utilize the Clearwater River drainage in Idaho for spawning. We utilized electrofishing in 2000-2006 to capture, enumerate, and obtain biological information regarding rearing Pacific lamprey ammocoetes and macropthalmia to determine the distribution and status of the species in the Clearwater River drainage, Idaho. Present distribution in the Clearwater River drainage is limited to the lower sections of the Lochsa and Selway rivers, the Middle Fork Clearwater River, the mainstem Clearwater River, the South Fork Clearwater River, and the lower 7.5 km of the Red River. In 2006, younger age classes were absent from the Red River.

  1. Thermal springs in the Salmon River basin, central Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Young, H.W.; Lewis, R.E.

    1982-02-01

    The Salmon River basin within the study area occupies an area of approximately 13,000 square miles in central Idaho. Geologic units in the basin are igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks; however, granitic rocks of the Idaho batholith are predominant. Water from thermal springs ranges in temperature from 20.5/sup 0/ to 94.0/sup 0/ Celsius. The waters are slightly alkaline and are generally a sodium carbonate or bicarbonate type. Dissolved-solids concentrations are variable and range from 103 to 839 milligrams per liter. Estimated reservoir temperatures determined from the silicic acid-corrected silica, sodium-potassium-calcium, and sulfate-water isotope geothermometers range from 30/sup 0/ to 184/sup 0/ Celsius. Tritium concentrations in sampled thermal waters are near zero and indicate the waters are at least 100 years old. Stable-isotope data indicate it is unlikely that a single hot-water reservoir supplies hot springs in the basin. Thermal springs discharged at least 15,800 acre-feet of water in 1980. Associated convective heat flux is 2.7 x 10/sup 7/ calories per second.

  2. Steelhead Supplementation in Idaho Rivers, 2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Byrne, Alan

    2001-01-01

    In 2000, we continued our assessment of the Sawtooth Hatchery steelhead stock to reestablish natural populations in Beaver and Frenchman creeks in the upper Salmon River. We stocked both streams with 15 pair of hatchery adults and estimated the potential smolt production from the 1999 outplant. I estimated that about nine smolts per female could be produced in both streams from the 1999 outplant. The smolt-to-adult return would need to exceed 20% to return two adults at this level of production. In the Red River drainage, we stocked Dworshak hatchery stock fingerlings and smolts, from 1993 to 1999, to assess which life-stage produces more progeny when the adults return to spawn. In 2000, we operated the Red River weir to trap adults that returned from these stockings, but none were caught from either group. We continued to monitor wild steelhead populations in the Lochsa and Selway river drainages. We estimated that 26 wild adult steelhead returned to Fish Creek. This is the lowest adult escapement we have documented (when the weir was intact all spring) since we began monitoring Fish Creek in 1992. I estimated that nearly 25,000 juvenile steelhead migrated out of Fish Creek this year. Juvenile steelhead densities in Lochsa and Selway tributaries were similar to those observed in 1999. In 2000, we obtained funding for a DNA analysis to assess Idaho's steelhead stock structure. We collected fin samples from wild steelhead in 70 streams of the Clearwater, Snake, and Salmon River drainages and from our five hatchery stocks. The DNA analysis was subcontracted to Dr. Jennifer Nielsen, Alaska Biological Science Center, Anchorage, and will be completed in 2001.

  3. Discovery of a Balkan fresh-water fauna in the Idaho formation of Snake River Valley, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dall, W.H.

    1925-01-01

    In 1866 Gabb described Melania taylori and Lithasia antiqua "from a fresh-water deposit on Snake River, Idaho Territory, on the road from Fort Boise to the Owyhee mining country. Collected by A. Taylor." He states that a small bivalve, perhaps a Sphaerium, was associated with them.

  4. Depth to water, 1991, in the Rathdrum Prairie, Idaho; Spokane River valley, Washington; Moscow-Lewiston-Grangeville area, Idaho; and selected intermontane valleys, east-central Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berenbrock, Charles E.; Bassick, M.D.; Rogers, T.L.; Garcia, S.P.

    1995-01-01

    This map report illustrates digitally generated depth-to-water zones for the Rathdrum Prairie in Idaho; part of the Spokane River Valley in eastern Washington; and the intermontane valleys of the upper Big Wood, Big Lost, Pahsimeroi, Little Lost, and Lemhi Rivers and Birch Creek in Idaho. Depth to water is 400 to 500 feet below land surface in the northern part of Rathdrum Prairie, 100 to 200 feet below land surface at the Idaho-Washington State line, and 0 to 250 feet below land surface in the Spokane area. Depth to water in the intermontane valleys in east-central Idaho is least (usually less than 50 feet) near streams and increases toward valley margins where mountain-front alluvial fans have formed. Depths to water shown in the Moscow-Lewiston-Grangeville area in Idaho are limited to point data at individual wells because most of the water levels measured were not representative of levels in the uppermost aquifer but of levels in deeper aquifers.

  5. POTLATCH RIVER, LATAH, CLEARWATER, AND NEZ PERCE COUNTIES, IDAHO - PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION REPORT, 1994

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Latah Soil and Water Conservation District requested assistance from the Soil Conservation Service in the development of appropriate criteria for prioritizing subwatersheds in the Potlatch River Basin, Idaho (17060306) for the implementation of a long term watershed treatment...

  6. Final Technical Resource Confirmation Testing at the Raft River Geothermal Project, Cassia County, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Glaspey, Douglas J.

    2008-01-30

    Incorporates the results of flow tests for geothermal production and injection wells in the Raft River geothermal field in southern Idaho. Interference testing was also accomplished across the wellfield.

  7. Evaluate Status of Pacific Lamprey in the Clearwater River Drainage, Idaho, Annual Report 2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Cochnauer, Tim; Claire, Christopher

    2003-10-01

    In 2002 Idaho Department of Fish and Game continued investigation into the status of Pacific lamprey populations in Idaho's Clearwater River drainage. Trapping, electrofishing, and spawning ground redd surveys were used to determine Pacific lamprey distribution, life history strategies, and habitat requirements in the South Fork Clearwater River, Lochsa River, Selway River, and Middle Fork Clearwater River subbasins. Five-hundred forty-one ammocoetes were captured electroshocking 70 sites in the South Fork Clearwater River, Lochsa River, Selway River, Middle Fork Clearwater River, Clearwater River, and their tributaries in 2002. Habitat utilization surveys in Red River support previous work indicating Pacific lamprey ammocoete densities are greater in lateral scour pool habitats compared to riffles and rapids. Presence-absence survey findings in 2002 augmented 2000 and 2001 indicating Pacific lamprey macrothalmia and ammocoetes are not numerous or widely distributed. Pacific lamprey distribution was confined to the lower reaches of Red River below rkm 8.0, the South Fork Clearwater River, Lochsa River (Ginger Creek to mouth), Selway River (Race Creek to mouth), Middle Fork Clearwater River, and the Clearwater River (downstream to Potlatch River).

  8. LOWER COEUR D'ALENE RIVER, IDAHO. A MANAGEMENT ANALYSIS OF BLM LANDS, 1990

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study was intended to provide guidance to BLM for future management of the Lower Coeur dAlene River area, Idaho (17010301, 17010303), giving full consideration to the potential environmental and human health issues in the river and its lateral lakes caused by the presence of...

  9. LIMNOLOGY OF THE LOWER SNAKE RIVER RESERVOIRS IN IDAHO AND WASHINGTON

    EPA Science Inventory

    This interim report highlights research completed in 1975 and 1976 on the joint Washington State University-University of Idaho limnological study on the lower Snake River (17050201, 170601). The objective of this study was to describe the aquatic ecology of the Snake River just...

  10. WATER QUALITY STATUS REPORT, LOWER WEISER RIVER, WASHINGTON COUNTY, IDAHO, 1983 - 1984

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Lower Weiser River, Crane Creek to the mouth at Weiser (17050124), Washington County, Idaho and its tributaries and selected irrigation inflows were the subject of a water quality survey for one year during 1983-84. The Weiser River contributes nearly 260,000 tons of annual ...

  11. POTLATCH RIVER WATERSHED, LATAH, CLEARWATER, AND NEZ PERCE COUNTIES, IDAHO - BENEFICIAL USE RECONNAISSANCE PROJECT, 1994

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study was conducted during the 1994 summer to determine the beneficial uses and status of those uses in the Potlatch River watershed, Idaho (17060306). Data were collected on the mainstem, East Fork and West Fork Potlatch River, Little Potlatch and Middle Potlatch Creeks, B...

  12. Salmon Supplementation Studies in Idaho Rivers (Idaho Supplementation Studies) : Experimental Design, 1991 Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Bowles, Edward C.; Leitzinger, Eric J.

    1991-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to help determine the utility of supplementation as a potential recovery tool for decimated stocks of spring and summer chinook salmon in Idaho. The goals are to assess the use of hatchery chinook to restore or augment natural populations, and to evaluate the effects of supplementation on the survival and fitness of existing natural populations.

  13. Stratigraphy of the unsaturated zone and the Snake River Plain aquifer at and near the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, S.R.; Liszewski, M.J.

    1997-08-01

    The unsaturated zone and the Snake River Plain aquifer at and near the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) are made up of at least 178 basalt-flow groups, 103 sedimentary interbeds, 6 andesite-flow groups, and 4 rhyolite domes. Stratigraphic units identified in 333 wells in this 890-mile{sup 2} area include 121 basalt-flow groups, 102 sedimentary interbeds, 6 andesite-flow groups, and 1 rhyolite dome. Stratigraphic units were identified and correlated using the data from numerous outcrops and 26 continuous cores and 328 natural-gamma logs available in December 1993. Basalt flows make up about 85% of the volume of deposits underlying the area.

  14. Preliminary delineation of natural geochemical reactions, Snake River Plain aquifer system, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and vicinity, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Knobel, L.L.; Bartholomay, R.C.; Orr, B.R.

    1997-05-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, is conducting a study to determine the natural geochemistry of the Snake River Plain aquifer system at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), Idaho. As part of this study, a group of geochemical reactions that partially control the natural chemistry of ground water at the INEL were identified. Mineralogy of the aquifer matrix was determined using X-ray diffraction and thin-section analysis and theoretical stabilities of the minerals were used to identify potential solid-phase reactants and products of the reactions. The reactants and products that have an important contribution to the natural geochemistry include labradorite, olivine, pyroxene, smectite, calcite, ferric oxyhydroxide, and several silica phases. To further identify the reactions, analyses of 22 representative water samples from sites tapping the Snake River Plain aquifer system were used to determine the thermodynamic condition of the ground water relative to the minerals in the framework of the aquifer system. Principal reactions modifying the natural geochemical system include congruent dissolution of olivine, diopside, amorphous silica, and anhydrite; incongruent dissolution of labradorite with calcium montmorillonite as a residual product; precipitation of calcite and ferric oxyhydroxide; and oxidation of ferrous iron to ferric iron. Cation exchange reactions retard the downward movement of heavy, multivalent waste constituents where infiltration ponds are used for waste disposal.

  15. THE CHANNELS AND WATERS OF THE UPPER SALMON RIVER AREA, IDAHO. (HYDROLOGIC EVALUATION OF THE UPPER SALMON RIVER AREA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The upper 1,800 square miles of the Salmon River drainage basin (17060201) in south-central Idaho is an area of great scenic beauty and little-disturbed natural environment. Proper development and use of this land and its natural resources are contingent on a multifaceted and de...

  16. Compilation of references on geology and hydrology of the Snake River drainage basin above Weiser, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bassick, M.D.

    1986-01-01

    More than 1,100 references concerning geology and hydrology of the Snake River drainage basin above Weiser, Idaho, are compiled as part of the U.S. Geological Survey 's RASA (Regional Aquifer-System Analysis) study of the Snake River Plain. The list of references is intended as a primary source of information for investigators concerned with previous studies in the basin. Reference numbers correlate with a key-word index to help the user select and locate desired references. (USGS)

  17. Ecological relevance of current water quality assessment unit designations in impaired rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Layhee, Megan J.; Sepulveda, Adam; Ray, Andrew; Mladenka, Greg; Van Every, Lynn

    2016-01-01

    Managers often nest sections of water bodies together into assessment units (AUs) to monitor and assess water quality criteria. Ideally, AUs represent an extent of waters with similar ecological, watershed, habitat and land-use conditions and no overlapping characteristics with other waters. In the United States, AUs are typically based on political or hydrologic boundaries rather than on ecologically relevant features, so it can be difficult to detect changes in impairment status. Our goals were to evaluate if current AU designation criteria of an impaired water body in southeastern Idaho, USA that, like many U.S. waters, has three-quarters of its mainstem length divided into two AUs. We focused our evaluation in southeastern Idaho's Portneuf River, an impaired river and three-quarters of the river is divided into two AUs. We described biological and environmental conditions at multiple reaches within each AU. We used these data to (1) test if variability at the reach-scale is greater within or among AUs and, (2) to evaluate alternate AU boundaries based on multivariate analyses of reach-scale data. We found that some biological conditions had greater variability within an AU than between AUs. Multivariate analyses identified alternative, 2- and 3-group, AUs that reduced this variability. Our results suggest that the current AU designations in the mainstem Portneuf River contain ecologically distinct sections of river and that the existing AU boundaries should be reconsidered in light of the ecological conditions measured at the reach scale. Variation in biological integrity within designated AUs may complicate water quality and biological assessments, influence management decisions or affect where monitoring or mitigation resources are directed.

  18. Ecological relevance of current water quality assessment unit designations in impaired rivers.

    PubMed

    Layhee, Megan; Sepulveda, Adam; Ray, Andrew; Mladenka, Greg; Van Every, Lynn

    2015-12-01

    Managers often nest sections of water bodies together into assessment units (AUs) to monitor and assess water quality criteria. Ideally, AUs represent an extent of waters with similar ecological, watershed, habitat and land-use conditions and no overlapping characteristics with other waters. In the United States, AUs are typically based on political or hydrologic boundaries rather than on ecologically relevant features, so it can be difficult to detect changes in impairment status. Our goals were to evaluate if current AU designation criteria of an impaired water body in southeastern Idaho, USA that, like many U.S. waters, has three-quarters of its mainstem length divided into two AUs. We focused our evaluation in southeastern Idaho's Portneuf River, an impaired river and three-quarters of the river is divided into two AUs. We described biological and environmental conditions at multiple reaches within each AU. We used these data to (1) test if variability at the reach-scale is greater within or among AUs and, (2) to evaluate alternate AU boundaries based on multivariate analyses of reach-scale data. We found that some biological conditions had greater variability within an AU than between AUs. Multivariate analyses identified alternative, 2- and 3-group, AUs that reduced this variability. Our results suggest that the current AU designations in the mainstem Portneuf River contain ecologically distinct sections of river and that the existing AU boundaries should be reconsidered in light of the ecological conditions measured at the reach scale. Variation in biological integrity within designated AUs may complicate water quality and biological assessments, influence management decisions or affect where monitoring or mitigation resources are directed. PMID:26210354

  19. LIGHTNING CREEK, PACK RIVER, AND SAND CREEK, BONNER COUNTY, IDAHO - WATER QUALITY SUMMARY, 1978

    EPA Science Inventory

    In Water Year 1978, water quality studies were conducted on Lightning Creek, Pack River, and Sand Creek in Bonner County, Idaho (17010214, 17010213) to determine the present status of the streams. Water quality in Lightning Creek was generally very high. No violations of standa...

  20. Evaluation of VICAR software capability for land information support system needs. [Elk River quadrangle, Idaho

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yao, S. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    A preliminary evaluation of the processing capability of the VICAR software for land information support system needs is presented. The geometric and radiometric properties of four sets of LANDSAT data taken over the Elk River, Idaho quadrangle were compared. Storage of data sets, the means of location, pixel resolution, and radiometric and geometric characteristics are described. Recommended modifications of VICAR programs are presented.

  1. SOUTH FORK COEUR D'ALENE RIVER, NORTHERN IDAHO. DISTRIBUTION OF HEAVY METAL LOADINGS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this study is to determine the current distribution of metals loadings to the South Fork Coeur dAlene River, Idaho (17010301, 17010303). Water quality and flow data obtained from EPA Region 10 for September 1986 and September 1987 are used to determine loadings du...

  2. A REEXAMINATION OF THE COEUR D'ALENE RIVER, IDAHO, 1971

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Protection Agency has periodically examined the quality of the Coeur dAlene River, Idaho (17010301, 17010303) to determine the effects of mine and mill wastes. This examination was conducted on September 22 and 23, 1971 as a supplement to the examination and re...

  3. DIEL DISSOLVED OXYGEN MONITORING OF THE SPOKANE RIVER DURING EXTREME LOW FLOW. KOOTENAI COUNTY, IDAHO, 1992

    EPA Science Inventory

    Diel monitoring of dissolved oxygen and temperature was conducted on an impounded and free-flowing reach of the Spokane River, in north Idaho (17010303) on 2 occasions during an extreme low flow event in water year 1992. The objective was to document excursions from water qualit...

  4. LOWER BLACKFOOT RIVER, BINGHAM COUNTY, IDAHO - WATER QUALITY STATUS REPORT, 1987

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Lower Blackfoot River, Idaho (17040207) was identified in the Agricultural Pollution Abatement Plans as a second priority stream segment for the reduction of agriculture related pollutants. From November 19, 1986 to July 6, 1987 a water quality study was done to observe the ...

  5. Evaluation of total phosphorus mass balance in the lower Boise River and selected tributaries, southwestern Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Etheridge, Alexandra B.

    2013-01-01

    he U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with Idaho Department of Environmental Quality, developed spreadsheet mass-balance models for total phosphorus using results from three synoptic sampling periods conducted in the lower Boise River watershed during August and October 2012, and March 2013. The modeling reach spanned 46.4 river miles (RM) along the Boise River from Veteran’s Memorial Parkway in Boise, Idaho (RM 50.2), to Parma, Idaho (RM 3.8). The USGS collected water-quality samples and measured streamflow at 14 main-stem Boise River sites, two Boise River north channel sites, two sites on the Snake River upstream and downstream of its confluence with the Boise River, and 17 tributary and return-flow sites. Additional samples were collected from treated effluent at six wastewater treatment plants and two fish hatcheries. The Idaho Department of Water Resources quantified diversion flows in the modeling reach. Total phosphorus mass-balance models were useful tools for evaluating sources of phosphorus in the Boise River during each sampling period. The timing of synoptic sampling allowed the USGS to evaluate phosphorus inputs to and outputs from the Boise River during irrigation season, shortly after irrigation ended, and soon before irrigation resumed. Results from the synoptic sampling periods showed important differences in surface-water and groundwater distribution and phosphorus loading. In late August 2012, substantial streamflow gains to the Boise River occurred from Middleton (RM 31.4) downstream to Parma (RM 3.8). Mass-balance model results indicated that point and nonpoint sources (including groundwater) contributed phosphorus loads to the Boise River during irrigation season. Groundwater exchange within the Boise River in October 2012 and March 2013 was not as considerable as that measured in August 2012. However, groundwater discharge to agricultural tributaries and drains during non-irrigation season was a large source of discharge and

  6. Evaluate Status of Pacific Lamprey in the Clearwater River Drainage, Idaho: Annual Report 2001.

    SciTech Connect

    Cochnauer, Tim; Claire, Christopher

    2002-12-01

    Recent decline of Pacific lamprey Lampetra tridentata adult migrants to the Snake River drainage has focused attention on the species. Adult Pacific lamprey counted passing Ice Harbor Dam fishway averaged 18,158 during 1962-69 and 361 during 1993-2000. Human resource manipulations in the Snake River and Clearwater River drainages have altered ecosystem habitat in the last 120 years, likely impacting the productive potential of Pacific lamprey habitat. Timber harvest, stream impoundment, road construction, grazing, mining, and community development have dominated habitat alteration in the Clearwater River system and Snake River corridor. Hydroelectric projects in the Snake River corridor impact juvenile/larval Pacific lamprey outmigrants and returning adults. Juvenile and larval lamprey outmigrants potentially pass through turbines, turbine bypass/collection systems, and over spillway structures at the four lower Snake River hydroelectric dams. Clearwater River drainage hydroelectric facilities have impacted Pacific lamprey populations to an unknown degree. The Pacific Power and Light Dam on the Clearwater River in Lewiston, Idaho, restricted chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha passage in the 1927-1940 period, altering the migration route of outmigrating Pacific lamprey juveniles/larvae and upstream adult migrants (1927-1972). Dworshak Dam, completed in 1972, eliminated Pacific lamprey spawning and rearing in the North Fork Clearwater River drainage. Construction of the Harpster hydroelectric dam on the South Fork of the Clearwater River resulted in obstructed fish passage 1949-1963. Through Bonneville Power Administration support, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game continued investigation into the status of Pacific lamprey populations in Idaho's Clearwater River drainage in 2001. Trapping, electrofishing, and spawning ground redd surveys were used to determine Pacific lamprey distribution, life history strategies, and habitat requirements in the South Fork

  7. Iodine-129 in the Snake River Plain aquifer at and near the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho, 1990-91

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mann, L.J.; Beasley, T.M.

    1994-01-01

    From 1953 to 1990, an estimated 0.56 to 1.18 curies of iodine-129 were contained in wastewater generated by the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The waste- water was discharged directly to the Snake River Plain aquifer through a deep disposal well prior to February 1984 and through unlined disposal ponds in 1984-90. The wastewater did not contain measurable concentrations of iodine-129 in 1989-90. Samples were collected from 51 wells that obtain water from the Snake River Plain aquifer and 1 well that obtains water from a perched ground-water zone. The samples were analyzed for iodine-129 using an accelerator mass spectrometer which is two to six orders of magnitude more sensitive than neutron- activation methods. Therefore, iodine-129 was detectable in samples from a larger number of wells distributed over a larger area than previously was possible. Ground-water flow velocities calculated using iodine-129 data are estimated to be at least 6 feet per day. These velocities compare favorably with those of 4 to 10 feet per day calculated from tritium data and tracer studies at wells down- gradient from the ICPP. In 1990-91, concentrations of iodine-129 in water samples from wells that obtain water from the Snake River Plain aquifer ranged from less than 0.0000006+0.0000002 to 3.82.+0.19 picocuries per liter (pCi/L). The mean concentration in water from 18 wells was 0.81+0.19 pCi/L as compared with 1.30+0.26 pCi/L in 1986. The decrease in the iodine-l29 concentrations from 1986 to 1990-91 chiefly was the result of a decrease in the amount of iodine-129 disposed of annually, and changes in disposal techniques.

  8. Evaluation of seepage and discharge uncertainty in the middle Snake River, southwestern Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, Molly S.; Williams, Marshall L.; Evetts, David M.; Vidmar, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the State of Idaho, Idaho Power Company, and the Idaho Department of Water Resources, evaluated seasonal seepage gains and losses in selected reaches of the middle Snake River, Idaho, during November 2012 and July 2013, and uncertainty in measured and computed discharge at four Idaho Power Company streamgages. Results from this investigation will be used by resource managers in developing a protocol to calculate and report Adjusted Average Daily Flow at the Idaho Power Company streamgage on the Snake River below Swan Falls Dam, near Murphy, Idaho, which is the measurement point for distributing water to owners of hydropower and minimum flow water rights in the middle Snake River. The evaluated reaches of the Snake River were from King Hill to Murphy, Idaho, for the seepage studies and downstream of Lower Salmon Falls Dam to Murphy, Idaho, for evaluations of discharge uncertainty. Computed seepage was greater than cumulative measurement uncertainty for subreaches along the middle Snake River during November 2012, the non-irrigation season, but not during July 2013, the irrigation season. During the November 2012 seepage study, the subreach between King Hill and C J Strike Dam had a meaningful (greater than cumulative measurement uncertainty) seepage gain of 415 cubic feet per second (ft3/s), and the subreach between Loveridge Bridge and C J Strike Dam had a meaningful seepage gain of 217 ft3/s. The meaningful seepage gain measured in the November 2012 seepage study was expected on the basis of several small seeps and springs present along the subreach, regional groundwater table contour maps, and results of regional groundwater flow model simulations. Computed seepage along the subreach from C J Strike Dam to Murphy was less than cumulative measurement uncertainty during November 2012 and July 2013; therefore, seepage cannot be quantified with certainty along this subreach. For the uncertainty evaluation, average

  9. Evaluate Status of Pacific Lamprey in the Clearwater River Drainage, Idaho : Annual Report 2000.

    SciTech Connect

    Cochnauer, Tim; Claire, Christopher

    2000-01-01

    Recent decline of Pacific lamprey Lampetra tridentata adult migrants to the Snake River drainage has focused attention on the species. Adult returns in 1995-1999 were more than ten magnitudes less than returns in the early 1960's. Human activities in the Snake River and Clearwater River drainages have altered ecosystem habitat in the last 100 years and likely the productive potential of Pacific lamprey habitat. Logging, stream impoundment, road construction, grazing, mining, and community development have dominated habitat alteration in the Clearwater River system and Snake River corridor. Hydroelectric projects in the Snake River corridor impact juvenile Pacific lamprey outmigrants and returning adults. Juvenile lamprey outmigrants potentially pass through turbines, turbine bypass and collection systems, and spillway structures at lower Snake River hydroelectric dams. Clearwater River drainage hydroelectric facilities including the Pacific Power and Light Dam on the Clearwater River in Lewiston, Idaho, impacted Pacific lamprey populations, however, the degree of impact is unknown (1920's-early 1970's). Hydroelectric dam construction (Harpster Dam) on the South Fork of the Clearwater River resulted in obstructed salmonid passage in the mid-1900's. Habitat alterations in the Snake River basin and Clearwater River drainage have had numerous negative effects on salmon Oncorhynchus spp. and steelhead trout O. mykiss populations (wild fish), but the magnitude of impacts on lamprey productivity and survival is unknown. Thorough understanding of Pacific lamprey habitat use and life history processes is needed to facilitate management and restoration of the species. Through Bonneville Power Administration support, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game began investigation into the status of Pacific lamprey populations in Idaho's Clearwater River drainage in 2000. Trapping, electrofishing, and spawning ground redd surveys were used to determine where Pacific lamprey persist

  10. PALOUSE RIVER STUDY, LETAH COUNTY, IDAHO, WATER YEAR 1979

    EPA Science Inventory

    During water year 1979, a water quality study was conducted on the Palouse River in Latah County (17060108) to determine the present water quality status of the river at Princeton and to obtain background information for the development of effluent limitations for the Hampton-Pr...

  11. BOISE RIVER STUDY IN ADA COUNTY IDAHO, 1978

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of present point sources on the river and to obtain background information to develop effluent limitations for the City of Boise wastewater treatment facilities. The study was conducted on the Boise River (Ada County, ID) from L...

  12. Sediment transport in the lower Snake and Clearwater River Basins, Idaho and Washington, 2008–11

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Gregory M.; Fosness, Ryan L.; Wood, Molly S.

    2013-01-01

    Sedimentation is an ongoing maintenance problem for reservoirs, limiting reservoir storage capacity and navigation. Because Lower Granite Reservoir in Washington is the most upstream of the four U.S. Army Corps of Engineers reservoirs on the lower Snake River, it receives and retains the largest amount of sediment. In 2008, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, the U.S. Geological Survey began a study to quantify sediment transport to Lower Granite Reservoir. Samples of suspended sediment and bedload were collected from streamgaging stations on the Snake River near Anatone, Washington, and the Clearwater River at Spalding, Idaho. Both streamgages were equipped with an acoustic Doppler velocity meter to evaluate the efficacy of acoustic backscatter for estimating suspended-sediment concentrations and transport. In 2009, sediment sampling was extended to 10 additional locations in tributary watersheds to help identify the dominant source areas for sediment delivery to Lower Granite Reservoir. Suspended-sediment samples were collected 9–15 times per year at each location to encompass a range of streamflow conditions and to capture significant hydrologic events such as peak snowmelt runoff and rain-on-snow. Bedload samples were collected at a subset of stations where the stream conditions were conducive for sampling, and when streamflow was sufficiently high for bedload transport. At most sampling locations, the concentration of suspended sediment varied by 3–5 orders of magnitude with concentrations directly correlated to streamflow. The largest median concentrations of suspended sediment (100 and 94 mg/L) were in samples collected from stations on the Palouse River at Hooper, Washington, and the Salmon River at White Bird, Idaho, respectively. The smallest median concentrations were in samples collected from the Selway River near Lowell, Idaho (11 mg/L), the Lochsa River near Lowell, Idaho (11 mg/L), the Clearwater River at Orofino, Idaho (13 mg

  13. Bathymetric surveys of the Kootenai River near Bonners Ferry, Idaho, water year 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fosness, Ryan L.

    2013-01-01

    In 2009, the Kootenai Tribe of Idaho released and implemented the Kootenai River Habitat Restoration Master Plan. This plan aimed to restore, enhance, and maintain the Kootenai River habitat and landscape to support and sustain habitat conditions for aquatic species and animal populations. In support of these restoration efforts, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Kootenai Tribe of Idaho, conducted high-resolution multibeam echosounder bathymetric surveys in May, June, and July 2011, as a baseline bathymetric monitoring survey on the Kootenai River near Bonners Ferry, Idaho. Three channel patterns or reaches exist in the study area—braided, meander, and a transitional zone connecting the braided and meander reaches. Bathymetric data were collected at three study areas in 2011 to provide: (1) surveys in unmapped portions of the meander reach; (2) monitoring of the presence and extent of sand along planned lines within a section of the meander reach; and (3) monitoring aggradation and degradation of the channel bed at specific cross sections within the braided reach and transitional zone. The bathymetric data will be used to update and verify flow models, calibrate and verify sediment transport modeling efforts, and aid in the biological assessment in support of the Kootenai River Habitat Restoration Master Plan. The data and planned lines for each study reach were produced in ASCII XYZ format supported by most geospatial software.

  14. Mercury cycling in the Hells Canyon Complex of the Snake River, Idaho and Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Gregory M.; Naymik, Jesse; Krabbenhoft, David P.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Aiken, George R.; Marvin-DiPasquale, Mark C.; Harris, Reed C.; Myers, Ralph

    2016-01-01

    The Hells Canyon Complex (HCC) is a hydroelectric project built and operated by the Idaho Power Company (IPC) that consists of three dams on the Snake River along the Oregon and Idaho border (fig. 1). The dams have resulted in the creation of Brownlee, Oxbow, and Hells Canyon Reservoirs, which have a combined storage capacity of more than 1.5 million acre-feet and span about 90 miles of the Snake River. The Snake River upstream of and through the HCC historically has been impaired by water-quality issues related to excessive contributions of nutrients, algae, sediment, and other pollutants. In addition, historical data collected since the 1960s from the Snake River and tributaries near the HCC have documented high concentrations of mercury in fish tissue and sediment (Harris and Beals, 2013). Data collected from more recent investigations within the HCC continue to indicate elevated concentrations of mercury and methylmercury in the water column, bottom sediments, and biota (Clark and Maret, 1998; Essig, 2010; Fosness and others, 2013). As a result, Brownlee and Hells Canyon Reservoirs are listed as impaired for mercury by the State of Idaho, and the Snake River from the Oregon and Idaho border through the HCC downstream to the Oregon and Washington border is listed as impaired for mercury by the State of Oregon.

  15. Estimation of hydraulic properties and development of a layered conceptual model for the Snake River plain aquifer at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Frederick, D.B.; Johnson, G.S.

    1996-02-01

    The Idaho INEL Oversight Program, in association with the University of Idaho, Idaho Geological Survey, Boise State University, and Idaho State University, developed a research program to determine the hydraulic properties of the Snake River Plain aquifer and characterize the vertical distribution of contaminants. A straddle-packer was deployed in four observation wells near the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Pressure transducers mounted in the straddle-packer assembly were used to monitor the response of the Snake River Plain aquifer to pumping at the ICPP production wells, located 2600 to 4200 feet from the observation wells. The time-drawdown data from these tests were used to evaluate various conceptual models of the aquifer. Aquifer properties were estimated by matching time-drawdown data to type curves for partially penetrating wells in an unconfined aquifer. This approach assumes a homogeneous and isotropic aquifer. The hydraulic properties of the aquifer obtained from the type curve analyses were: (1) Storativity = 3 x 10{sup -5}, (2) Specific Yield = 0.01, (3) Transmissivity = 740 ft{sup 2}/min, (4) Anisotropy (Kv:Kh)= 1:360.

  16. Steelhead Supplementation in Idaho Rivers, 1993-1999 Summary Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Byrne, Alan

    2001-02-01

    The Steelhead Supplementation Study has conducted field experiments since 1993 that assess the ability of hatchery stocks to reestablish natural populations. We have stocked hatchery adult steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss trapped at Sawtooth Fish Hatchery in Beaver Creek yearly and Frenchman creeks when enough fish were available. We stocked Dworshak Hatchery stock fingerlings in the South Fork Red River from 1993 to 1996 and smolts in Red River from 1996 to 1999. Although results from all experiments are not complete, preliminary findings indicate that these hatchery stocks will not reestablish natural steelhead populations. We focused most of our effort on monitoring and evaluating wild steelhead stocks. We operated a temporary weir to estimate the wild steelhead escapement in Fish Creek, a tributary of the Lochsa River. We snorkeled streams to monitor juvenile steelhead abundance, captured and tagged steelhead with Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tags, and recorded stream temperatures in the Clearwater and Salmon River drainages. We operated screw traps in five to ten streams each year. We have documented growth rates in Fish and Gedney creeks, age of parr in Fish Creek, Gedney Creek, Lick Creek, and Rapid River, and documented parr and smolt migration characteristics. This report summarizes our effort during the years 1993 to 1999.

  17. Sediment cores and chemistry for the Kootenai River White Sturgeon Habitat Restoration Project, Boundary County, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barton, Gary J.; Weakland, Rhonda J.; Fosness, Ryan L.; Cox, Stephen E.; Williams, Marshall L.

    2012-01-01

    The Kootenai Tribe of Idaho, in cooperation with local, State, Federal, and Canadian agency co-managers and scientists, is assessing the feasibility of a Kootenai River habitat restoration project in Boundary County, Idaho. This project is oriented toward recovery of the endangered Kootenai River white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) population, and simultaneously targets habitat-based recovery of other native river biota. Projects currently (2010) under consideration include modifying the channel and flood plain, installing in-stream structures, and creating wetlands to improve the physical and biological functions of the ecosystem. River restoration is a complex undertaking that requires a thorough understanding of the river. To assist in evaluating the feasibility of this endeavor, the U.S. Geological Survey collected and analyzed the physical and chemical nature of sediment cores collected at 24 locations in the river. Core depths ranged from 4.6 to 15.2 meters; 21 cores reached a depth of 15.2 meters. The sediment was screened for the presence of chemical constituents that could have harmful effects if released during restoration activities. The analysis shows that concentrations of harmful chemical constituents do not exceed guideline limits that were published by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers in 2006.

  18. Results of the 2004 GPS Study of Extension Rates in the Eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chadwick, J.; Payne, S.

    2004-12-01

    Previous investigators suggest the eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) is extending by dike intrusion, which enables it to keep pace with SW-NE extension that is occurring in the surrounding Basin and Range Province. Northwest-trending, linear eruptive fissures and aligned volcanic vents within ESRP volcanic rift zones provide observational evidence for dike intrusion in the ESRP as recent as 2000 yrs ago. To assess the amount of extension occurring in the ESRP, a campaign GPS survey was conducted in April of 2004 by Idaho State University and the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. Twenty benchmarks located within the ESRP and adjacent northwest Basin and Range (Lost River and Beaverhead Ranges, Idaho) were each occupied for 48 to 96 hours using Trimble 4000 dual frequency GPS receivers supplied by UNAVCO. The University of Utah occupied these same benchmarks in 1995 and 2000, resulting in three occupations over nine years. Preliminary results suggest that benchmarks on the ESRP consistently moved southwest relative to a fixed North American reference, and rates systematically increased from northeast (near Rexburg, Idaho) to southwest (near Twin Falls, Idaho) for the nine year time period. Benchmarks in the adjacent northwest Basin and Range also moved southwest at comparable rates, and an increase in displacement rate from NE to SW is also apparent, although it is not as systematic. The preliminary results suggest the strain measured over nine years is similar in the ESRP and adjacent northwest Basin and Range, and thus, no differential movement is indicated. To supplement the GPS results, an interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) study of the ESRP is also underway using European Resource Satellite (ERS-1 and ERS-2) images. The anticipated results of the InSAR study will provide more spatially detailed and coherent information about differential movements within the ESRP, beyond what is shown by the GPS study.

  19. Iodine-129 in the Snake River Plain Aquifer at and Near the Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho, 2003 and 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartholomay, Roy C.

    2009-01-01

    From 1953 to 1988, wastewater containing approximately 0.94 curies of iodine-129 (129I) was generated at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in southeastern Idaho. Almost all of this wastewater was discharged at or near the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) on the INL site. Most of the wastewater was discharged directly into the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer through a deep disposal well until 1984; however, some wastewater also was discharged into unlined infiltration ponds or leaked from distribution systems below the INTEC. In 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, collected samples for 129I from 36 wells used to monitor the Snake River Plain aquifer, and from one well used to monitor a perched zone at the INTEC. Concentrations of 129I in the aquifer ranged from 0.0000066 +- 0.0000002 to 0.72 +- 0.051 picocuries per liter (pCi/L). Many wells within a 3-mile radius of the INTEC showed decreases of as much as one order of magnitude in concentration from samples collected during 1990-91, and all of the samples had concentrations less than the Environmental Protection Agency's Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) of 1 pCi/L. The average concentration of 129I in 19 wells sampled during both collection periods decreased from 0.975 pCi/L in 1990-91 to 0.249 pCi/L in 2003. These decreases are attributed to the discontinuation of disposal of 129I in wastewater after 1988 and to dilution and dispersion in the aquifer. Although water from wells sampled in 2003 near the INTEC showed decreases in concentrations of 129I compared with data collected in 1990-91, some wells south and east of the Central Facilities Area, near the site boundary, and south of the INL showed slight increases. These slight increases may be related to variable discharge rates of wastewater that eventually moved to these well locations as a mass of water from a particular disposal period. In 2007, the USGS collected samples for

  20. Winter foraging ecology of bald eagles on a regulated river in southwest Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kaltenecker, Gregory S.; Steenhof, Karen; Bechard, Marc J.; Munger, James C.

    1998-01-01

    We studied Bald Eagle foraging ecology on the South Fork Boise River,Idaho, during the winters of 1990-92. We compared habitat variables at 29 foraging sites, 94 perch sites, and 131 random sites.Habitat variables included river habitat (pool, riffle, run), distance to the nearest change in river habitat, distance to nearest available perch, number and species of surrounding perches, and average river depth and flow. Eagles foraged more at pools than expected, and closer( (15 m) to changes in river habitat than expected. Where eagles foraged at riffles, those riffles were slower than riffles where they perched or riffles that were available at random. Where eagles foraged at runs, those runs were shallower than runs at either perch or random sites. Eagles perched less at riffles and more at sites where trees were available than expected. Changes in river habitat represent habitat edges where river depth and flow change, making fish more vulnerable to eagle predation. Fish are more susceptible to predation at shallower river depths and slower flows. Slower river flows may be related to decreased surface turbulence, which also increases vulnerability of fish to aerial predation.

  1. Bimodal basalt-rhyolite magmatism in the central and western Snake River Plain, Idaho and Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCurry, M.; Bonnichsen, B.; White, C.; Godchaux, M.M.; Hughes, S.S.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this trip is to examine Miocene to Pleistocene basalt and rhyolite flows, ignimbrites and hypabyssal intrusions in a transect from the western Snake River Plain graben across the older part of the Snake River Plain "hot-spot-track." The earlier, dominantly explosive rhyolitic phase of volcanism will be examined primarily in the Cassia Mountains, near Twin Falls, Idaho. The second day of the field trip will focus on the Graveyard Point intrusion, a strongly differentiated diabase sill in easternmost Oregon. This late Tertiary sill is well exposed from floor to roof in sections up to 150 m thick, and is an example of the type of solidified shallow magma chamber that may be present beneath some Snake River Plain basalt volcanoes. The field trip will conclude with an examination of the diverse styles of effusive and explosive basaltic volcanism in the central and western Snake River Plain.

  2. LOWER COEUR D'ALENE RIVER, IDAHO. TOXICITY AND BIOAVAILABILITY STUDIES OF LEAD AND OTHER ELEMENTS, 1989

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study was done following reported high waterfowl deaths and illnesses in the Coeur dAlene River and Lake system, Idaho (17010301, 17010303). Abundant evidence documents extensive contamination of the Lower Coeur dAlene River drainage with mining and milling wastes. The dep...

  3. 78 FR 4377 - Idaho Panhandle National Forests, Coeur d'Alene River Ranger District, Shoshone County, ID...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-22

    ... Forest Service Idaho Panhandle National Forests, Coeur d'Alene River Ranger District, Shoshone County, ID... written comments to the Coeur d'Alene River Ranger District, Attn: Project Leader Lauren Goschke, 2502 E Sherman Avenue, Coeur d'Alene, ID 83814. Comments may also be sent via email to...

  4. Characterization of Surface-Water/Ground-Water Interaction Along the Spokane River, Idaho and Washington

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldwell, R. R.; Bowers, C. L.; Hein, K. L.

    2002-12-01

    Historical mining in the Coeur d'Alene River basin of northern Idaho has resulted in elevated concentrations of some trace metals (particularly Cd, Pb, and Zn) in water and sediments of Coeur d'Alene Lake and downstream in the Spokane River. On average during 1999 and 2000, about 20,000 kg/yr of whole-water lead (particulate plus dissolved), 2,100 kg/yr of whole-water cadmium, and 450,000 kg/yr of whole-water zinc flowed out of Coeur d'Alene Lake into the Spokane River. These elevated trace-metal concentrations in the Spokane River have raised concerns about potential contamination of ground water in the underlying Spokane Valley/Rathdrum Prairie aquifer, the primary source of drinking water for the city of Spokane and surrounding areas. A study conducted as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program examined the interaction of the river and aquifer using hydrologic and chemical data along a losing reach of the Spokane River. The river and ground water were extensively monitored over a range of hydrologic conditions at 3 stream gages and 25 monitoring wells (including 18 wells installed for this study) ranging from 8 to 1,000 m from the river. River stage, ground-water level, water temperature, and specific conductance were measured hourly to biweekly, and water samples were collected 8 times. Additional regional ground-water data were collected from more than 190 wells within 5 km of the study reach. Hydrologic and chemical data indicate that the Spokane River recharges the Spokane Valley/Rathdrum Prairie aquifer along a 35-km reach between Coeur d'Alene Lake and Spokane. Ground-water levels in near-river (<125 m from the river) wells responded rapidly to variations in river stage and indicated the presence of an unsaturated zone beneath the river and a ground-water flow gradient away from the river. Chemical data indicated that river recharge may influence ground-water chemistry as far as 900 m from the river. The chemistry and

  5. Paleomagnetism of Cougar Point Tuff XII, Snake River Plane Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, E. D.; Finn, D. R.; Coe, R. S.; Rea-Downing, G. H.; Branney, M. J.; Knott, T.; Reichow, M. K.

    2014-12-01

    Yellowstone hotspot center migration during the mid-Miocene northeast along the Snake River Plain (SRP) resulted in a succession of explosive caldera-forming super-eruptions, often involving 1000's of km3 of ejecta and covering 10,000's of km2. The frequency and volume of the rhyolitic eruptions in the SRP are of both academic and societal interest, yet remain poorly known. Identification and correlation of individual eruption deposits are critical for evaluating eruption volumes and frequency over time and the relationship with climate and tectonics. Rhyolitic ash-flow deposits flank both the northern and southern margins of the SRP, but have not been successfully correlated because of their similarity in both outcrop appearance and chemical composition. Paleomagnetic correlation using the stable magnetic remanence direction has the advantage of very high temporal resolution, on the order of centuries because of the geologically rapid rate of geomagnetic secular variation and the high accuracy in which extrusive volcanic rocks may record the instantaneous direction of the magnetic field. The strength of a paleomagnetic correlation increases with the rarity of the field direction recorded by the ash flow. Here we demonstrate correlation of SRP ignimbrites by sampling the Cougar Point Tuff (CPT) Xll at three widely spaced (~25 km) locations. The transitional polarity recorded by titanomagnetite in CPT Xll enables a strong paleomagnetic correlation. CPT Xll, however, is weakly magnetized because it was erupted during a polarity transition of Earth's magnetic field, and therefore is more susceptible to magnetic overprinting. Nonetheless, careful alternating-field demagnetization coupled with line- fit and great-circle analysis, yields well-constrained directions of stable remanence. Gyroremanent magnetization, a spurious component produced by demagnetization at the higher field steps, is dealt with satisfactorily by taking small alternating-field steps and by

  6. Thermal springs in the Payette River basin, west-central Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, R.E.; Young, H.W.

    1980-10-01

    The Payette River basin, characterized by steep, rugged mountains and narrow river valleys, occupies an area of about 3300 square miles in west-central Idaho. Predominant rock types in the basin include granitic rocks of the Idaho batholith and basalt flows of the Columbia River Basalt Group. Waters from thermal springs in the basin, temperatures of which range from 34/sup 0/ to 86/sup 0/ Celsius, are sodium bicarbonate type and are slightly alkaline. Dissolved-solids concentrations range from 173 to 470 milligrams per liter. Reservoir temperatures determined from the sodium-potassium-calcium, silicic acid-corrected silica, and sulfate-water isotope geothermometers range from 53/sup 0/ to 143/sup 0/ Celsius. Tritium, present in concentrations between 0 and 2 tritium units, indicate that sampled thermal waters are at least 100 years and possibly more than 1000 years old. Stable-isotope data indicate it is unlikely any of the nonthermal waters sampled are representative of precipitation that recharges the thermal springs in the basin. Thermal springs discharged about 5700 acre-feet of water in 1979. Associated convective heat flux is 1.1 x 10/sup 7/ calories per second.

  7. Assessing cumulative impacts to elk and mule deer in the Salmon River Basin, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    O'Neil, T.A.; Witmer, G.W.

    1988-01-01

    In this paper, we illustrate the method, using the potential for cumulative impacts to elk and mule deer from multiple hydroelectric development in the Salmon River Basin of Idaho. We attempted to incorporate knowledge of elk and mule deer habitat needs into a paradigm to assess cumulative impacts and aid in the regulatory decision making process. Undoubtedly, other methods could be developed based on different needs or constraints, but we offer this technique as a means to further refine cumulative impact assessment. Our approach is divided into three phases: analysis, evaluation, and documentation. 36 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Iodine-129 in the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer at and near the Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho, 2010-12

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartholomay, Roy C.

    2013-01-01

    From 1953 to 1988, approximately 0.941 curies of iodine-129 (129I) were contained in wastewater generated at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) with almost all of this wastewater discharged at or near the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC). Most of the wastewater containing 129I was discharged directly into the eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) aquifer through a deep disposal well until 1984; lesser quantities also were discharged into unlined infiltration ponds or leaked from distribution systems below the INTEC. During 2010–12, the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy collected groundwater samples for 129I from 62 wells in the ESRP aquifer to track concentration trends and changes for the carcinogenic radionuclide that has a 15.7 million-year half-life. Concentrations of 129I in the aquifer ranged from 0.0000013±0.0000005 to 1.02±0.04 picocuries per liter (pCi/L), and generally decreased in wells near the INTEC, relative to previous sampling events. The average concentration of 129I in groundwater from 15 wells sampled during four different sample periods decreased from 1.15 pCi/L in 1990–91 to 0.173 pCi/L in 2011–12. All but two wells within a 3-mile radius of the INTEC showed decreases in concentration, and all but one sample had concentrations less than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminant level of 1 pCi/L. These decreases are attributed to the discontinuation of disposal of 129I in wastewater and to dilution and dispersion in the aquifer. The decreases in 129I concentrations, in areas around INTEC where concentrations increased between 2003 and 2007, were attributed to less recharge near INTEC either from less flow in the Big Lost River or from less local snowmelt and anthropogenic sources. Although wells near INTEC sampled in 2011–12 showed decreases in 129I concentrations compared with previously collected data, some wells south and east of the Central Facilities Area

  9. Seismic imaging through volcanic rocks of the Snake River Plain, Idaho for the ICDP Project Hotspot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liberty, L. M.; Schmitt, D. R.; Shervais, J. W.

    2011-12-01

    New high-resolution downhole and surface seismic reflection data tied to drill holes related to the Snake River Geothermal Drilling Project (ICDP Project Hotspot) provide insights into seismic imaging in volcanic terranes. The downhole data at the Kimberly and Kimama drill sites in southern Idaho show low seismic attenuation and large seismic velocity contrasts at volcanic flow boundaries. These lithologic and seismic boundaries tie to reflections in both borehole and surface seismic images. The Kimberly site drilled through 1,958 m of mostly rhyolite, with thin sedimentary interbeds throughout the section. Sedimentary interbeds at depth correspond with slow velocity zones that relate to reflections on surface seismic profiles. The reflection observed on 360-channel vibroseis seismic profiles that relates to a flow boundary at 300-400 m depth increases in depth with increasing elevation away from the Kimberly drill site, suggesting flow volumes may be estimated with surface seismic methods. The Kimama site drilled through 1,912 m of mostly basalt with sedimentary interbeds at depth. Downhole and surface vibroseis seismic results here also suggest seismic reflection methods are useful to image flow boundaries. Ongoing drilling at a third site in Mountain Home, Idaho will tie lithologies and measured physical properties to surface seismic data. These seismic data show key lithologic boundaries related to Quaternary basalts, lake sediments related to paleo Lake Idaho, and underlying Tertiary basalts. Ongoing analysis should help clarify the limits and capabilities of surface seismic imaging in volcanic terranes.

  10. Hydrologic conditions and distribution of selected radiochemical and chemical constituents in water, Snake River Plain aquifer, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho, 1992 through 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Bartholomay, R.C.; Tucker, B.J.; Ackerman, D.J.; Liszewski, M.J.

    1997-04-01

    Radiochemical and chemical wastewater discharged since 1952 to infiltration ponds and disposal wells at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) has affected water quality in the Snake River Plain aquifer. The US Geological Survey, in cooperation with the US Department of Energy, maintains a monitoring network at the INEL to determine hydrologic trends and to delineate the movement of radiochemical and chemical wastes in the aquifer. This report presents an analysis of water-level and water-quality data collected from the Snake River Plain aquifer during 1992--95.

  11. Cosmogenic 3He and 21Ne age of the Big Lost River flood, Snake River Plain, Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerling, Thure E.; Poreda, Robert J.; Rathburn, Sara L.

    1994-03-01

    The Big Lost River flood in southeastern Idaho occurred 20,500 calibrated yr B.P., on the basis of dates derived from cosmogenic 3He and 21Ne measurements of samples from flood-deposited boulders and from scour features. This date corresponds to a date of 16,90014C yr B.P. and is close in age to several other cataclysmic flood events in western North America; it may mark evidence for widespread warming at the end of the Pleistocene in western North America. The Big Lost River flood was smaller than some other late Pleistocene floods, such as the Bonnevi1le flood and the Missoula floods; thus, some samples exposed after the flood had significant amounts of cosmogenic 3He and 21Ne that was acquired before the flood occurred.

  12. Geothermal alteration of basaltic core from the Snake River Plain, Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sant, Christopher J.

    The Snake River Plain is located in the southern part of the state of Idaho. The eastern plain, on which this study focuses, is a trail of volcanics from the Yellowstone hotspot. Three exploratory geothermal wells were drilled on the Snake River Plain. This project analyzes basaltic core from the first well at Kimama, north of Burley, Idaho. The objectives of this project are to establish zones of geothermal alteration and analyze the potential for geothermal power production using sub-aquifer resources on the axial volcanic zone of the Snake River Plain. Thirty samples from 1,912 m of core were sampled and analyzed for clay content and composition using X-ray diffraction. Observations from core samples and geophysical logs are also used to establish alteration zones. Mineralogical data, geophysical log data and physical characteristics of the core suggest that the base of the Snake River Plain aquifer at the axial zone is located 960 m below the surface, much deeper than previously suspected. Swelling smectite clay clogs pore spaces and reduces porosity and permeability to create a natural base to the aquifer. Increased temperatures favor the formation of smectite clay and other secondary minerals to the bottom of the hole. Below 960 m the core shows signs of alteration including color change, formation of clay, and filling of other secondary minerals in vesicles and fractured zones of the core. The smectite clay observed is Fe-rich clay that is authigenic in some places. Geothermal power generation may be feasible using a low temperature hot water geothermal system if thermal fluids can be attained near the bottom of the Kimama well.

  13. Probable hydrologic effects of a hypothetical failure of Mackay Dam on the Big Lost River Valley from Mackay, Idaho to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Druffel, Leroy; Stiltner, Gloria J.; Keefer, Thomas N.

    1979-01-01

    Mackay Dam is an irrigation reservoir on the Big Lost River, Idaho, approximately 7.2 kilometers northwest of Mackay, Idaho. Consequences of possible rupture of the dam have long concerned the residents of the river valley. The presence of reactors and of a management complex for nuclear wastes on the reservation of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), near the river , give additional cause for concern over the consequences of a rupture of Mackay Dam. The objective of this report is to calculate and route the flood wave resulting from the hypothetical failure of Mackay Dam downstream to the INEL. Both a full and a 50 percent partial breach of this dam are investigated. Two techniques are used to develop the dam-break model. The method of characteristics is used to propagate the shock wave after the dam fails. The linear implicit finite-difference solution is used to route the flood wave after the shock wave has dissipated. The time of travel of the flood wave, duration of flooding, and magnitude of the flood are determined for eight selected sites from Mackay Dam, Idaho, through the INEL diversion. At 4.2 kilometers above the INEL diversion, peak discharges of 1,550.2 and 1,275 cubic meters per second and peak flood elevations of 1,550.3 and 1,550.2 meters were calculated for the full and partial breach, respectively. Flood discharges and flood peaks were not compared for the area downstream of the diversion because of the lack of detailed flood plain geometry. (Kosco-USGS)

  14. Salmon Supplementation Studies in Idaho Rivers, 1999-2000 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Kohler, Andy; Taki, Doug; Teton, Angelo

    2001-11-01

    As part of the Idaho Supplementation Studies, fisheries crews from the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes have been snorkeling tributaries of the Salmon River to estimate chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) parr abundance; conducting surveys of spawning adult chinook salmon to determine the number of redds constructed and collect carcass information; operating a rotary screw trap on the East Fork Salmon River and West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River to enumerate and PIT-tag emigrating juvenile chinook salmon; and collecting and PIT-tagging juvenile chinook salmon on tributaries of the Salmon River. The Tribes work in the following six tributaries of the Salmon River: Bear Valley Creek, East Fork Salmon River, Herd Creek, South Fork Salmon River, Valley Creek, and West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River. Snorkeling was used to obtain parr population estimates for ISS streams from 1992 to 1997. However, using the relatively vigorous methods described in the ISS experimental design to estimate summer chinook parr populations, results on a project-wide basis showed extraordinarily large confidence intervals and coefficients of variation. ISS cooperators modified their sampling design over a few years to reduce the variation around parr population estimates without success. Consequently, in 1998 snorkeling to obtain parr population estimates was discontinued and only General Parr Monitoring (GPM) sites are snorkeled. The number of redds observed in SBT-ISS streams has continued to decline as determined by five year cycles. Relatively weak strongholds continue to occur in the South Fork Salmon River and Bear Valley Creek. A rotary screw trap was operated on the West Fork Yankee Fork during the spring and fall of 1999 and the spring of 2000 to monitor juvenile chinook migration. A screw trap was also operated on the East Fork of the Salmon River during the spring and fall from 1993 to 1997 and 1999 (fall only) to 2000. Significant supplementation treatments have occurred in the South

  15. Adult Chinook Salmon Abundance Monitoring in the Secesh River and Lake Creek, Idaho, 2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Faurot, Dave; Kucera, Paul A.

    2001-05-01

    Underwater time-lapse video technology has been used to monitor adult spring and summer chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) escapement into the Secesh River and Lake Creek, Idaho, since 1998. Underwater time-lapse videography is a passive methodology that does not trap or handle this Endangered Species Act listed species. Secesh River chinook salmon represent a wild spawning aggregate that has not been directly supplemented with hatchery fish. The Secesh River is also a control population under the Idaho Salmon Supplementation study. This project has demonstrated the successful application of underwater video adult salmon abundance monitoring technology in Lake Creek in 1998 and 1999. Emphasis of the project in 2000 was to determine if the temporary fish counting station could be installed early enough to successfully estimate adult spring and summer chinook salmon abundance in the Secesh River (a larger stream). Snow pack in the drainage was 93% of the average during the winter of 1999/2000, providing an opportunity to test the temporary count station structure. The temporary fish counting station was not the appropriate technology to determine adult salmon spawner abundance in the Secesh River. Due to its temporary nature it could not be installed early enough, due to high stream discharge, to capture the first upstream migrating salmon. A more permanent structure used with underwater video, or other technology needs to be utilized for accurate salmon escapement monitoring in the Secesh River. A minimum of 813 adult chinook salmon spawners migrated upstream past the Secesh River fish counting station to spawning areas in the Secesh River drainage. Of these fish, more than 324 migrated upstream into Lake Creek. The first upstream migrating adult chinook salmon passed the Secesh River and Lake Creek sites prior to operation of the fish counting stations on June 22. This was 17 and 19 days earlier than the first fish arrival at Lake Creek in 1998 and 1999

  16. A statistical model for estimating stream temperatures in the Salmon and Clearwater River basins, central Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Donato, Mary M.

    2002-01-01

    A water-quality standard for temperature is critical for the protection of threatened and endangered salmonids, which need cold, clean water to sustain life. The Idaho Department of Environmental Quality has established temperature standards to protect salmonids, yet little is known about the normal range of temperatures of most Idaho streams. A single temperature standard for all streams does not take into account the natural temperature variation of streams or the existence of naturally warm waters. To address these issues and to help the Idaho Department of Environmental Quality revise the existing State temperature standards for aquatic life, temperature data from more than 200 streams and rivers in the salmon and Clearwater River Basins were collected. From these data, a statistical model was developed for estimating stream temperatures on the basis of subbasin and site characteristics and climatic factors. Stream temperatures were monitored hourly for approximately 58 days during July, August, and September 2000 at relatively undisturbed sites in subbasins in the Salmon and Clearwater River Basins in central Idaho. The monitored subbasins vary widely in size, elevation, drainage area, vegetation cover, and other characteristics. The resulting data were analyzed for statistical correlations with subbasin and site characteristics to establish the most important factors affecting stream temperature. Maximum daily average stream temperatures were strongly correlated with elevation and total upstream drainage area; weaker correlations were noted with stream depth and width and aver-age subbasin slope. Stream temperatures also were correlated with certain types of vegetation cover, but these variables were not significant in the final model. The model takes into account seasonal temperature fluctuations, site elevation, total drainage area, average subbasin slope, and the deviation of daily average air temperature from a 30-year normal daily average air temperature

  17. Electrofishing effort required to estimate biotic condition in Southern Idaho Rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maret, T.R.; Ott, D.S.; Herlihy, A.T.

    2007-01-01

    An important issue surrounding biomonitoring in large rivers is the minimum sampling effort required to collect an adequate number of fish for accurate and precise determinations of biotic condition. During the summer of 2002, we sampled 15 randomly selected large-river sites in southern Idaho to evaluate the effects of sampling effort on an index of biotic integrity (IBI). Boat electrofishing was used to collect sample populations of fish in river reaches representing 40 and 100 times the mean channel width (MCW; wetted channel) at base flow. Minimum sampling effort was assessed by comparing the relation between reach length sampled and change in IBI score. Thirty-two species of fish in the families Catostomidae, Centrarchidae, Cottidae, Cyprinidae, Ictaluridae, Percidae, and Salmonidae were collected. Of these, 12 alien species were collected at 80% (12 of 15) of the sample sites; alien species represented about 38% of all species (N = 32) collected during the study. A total of 60% (9 of 15) of the sample sites had poor IBI scores. A minimum reach length of about 36 times MCW was determined to be sufficient for collecting an adequate number of fish for estimating biotic condition based on an IBI score. For most sites, this equates to collecting 275 fish at a site. Results may be applicable to other semiarid, fifth-order through seventh-order rivers sampled during summer low-flow conditions. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2007.

  18. Hydrologic conditions and distribution of selected radiochemical and chemical constituents in water, Snake River Plain aquifer, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho, 1989 through 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Bartholomay, R.C.; Orr, B.R.; Liszewski, M.J.; Jensen, R.G.

    1995-08-01

    Radiochemical and chemical wastewater discharged since 1952 to infiltration ponds and disposal wells at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) has affected water quality in the Snake River Plain aquifer. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, maintains a continuous monitoring network at the INEL to determine hydrologic trends and to delineate the movement of radiochemical and chemical wastes in the aquifer. This report presents an analysis of water-level and water-quality data collected from the Snake River Plain aquifer during 1989-91. Water in the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer moves principally through fractures and interflow zones in basalt, generally flows southwestward, and eventually discharges at springs along the Snake River. The aquifer is recharged principally from irrigation water, infiltration of streamflow, and ground-water inflow from adjoining mountain drainage basins. Water levels in wells throughout the INEL generally declined during 1989-91 due to drought. Detectable concentrations of radiochemical constituents in water samples from wells in the Snake River Plain aquifer at the INEL decreased or remained constant during 1989-91. Decreased concentrations are attributed to reduced rates of radioactive-waste disposal, sorption processes, radioactive decay, and changes in waste-disposal practices. Detectable concentrations of chemical constituents in water from the Snake River Plain aquifer at the INEL were variable during 1989-91. Sodium and chloride concentrations in the southern part of the INEL increased slightly during 1989-91 because of increased waste-disposal rates and a lack of recharge from the Big Lost River. Plumes of 1,1,1-trichloroethane have developed near the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant and the Radioactive Waste Management Complex as a result of waste disposal practices.

  19. Reevalution of background iodine-129 concentrations in water from the Snake River Plain Aquifer, Idaho, 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cecil, L. DeWayne; Hall, L. Flint; Green, Jaromy R.

    2003-01-01

    Background concentrations of iodine-129 (129I, half-life = 15.7 million years) resulting from natural production in the earth?s atmosphere, in situ production in the earth by spontaneous fission of uranium-238(238U), and fallout from nuclear weapons tests conducted in the 1950s and 1960s were reevaluated on the basis of 52 analyses of ground- and surface-water samples collected from the eastern Snake River Plain in southeastern Idaho. The background concentration estimated using the results of a subset of 30 ground-water samples analyzed in this reevaluation is 5.4 attocuries per liter (aCi/L; 1 aCi = 10-18 curies) and the 95-percent nonparametric confidence interval is 5.2 to 10.0 aCi/L. In a previous study, a background 129I concentration was estimated on the basis of analyses of water samples from 16 sites on or tributary to the eastern Snake River Plain. At the 99-percent confidence level, background concentrations of 129I in that study were less than or equal to 8.2 aCi/L. During 1993?94, 34 water samples from 32 additional sites were analyzed for 129I to better establish the background concentrations in surface and ground water from the eastern Snake River Plain that is presumed to be unaffected by wastedisposal practices at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Surface water contained larger 129I concentrations than water from springs and wells contained. Because surface water is more likely to be affected by anthropogenic fallout and evapotranspiration, background 129I concentrations were estimated in the current research using the laboratory results of ground-water samples that were assumed to be unaffected by INEEL disposal practices.

  20. Preliminary geological interpretation and lithologic log of the exploratory geothermal test well (INEL-1), Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doherty, David J.; McBroome, Lisa Ann; Kuntz, Mel A.

    1979-01-01

    A 10,365 ft (3,159 m) geothermal test well was drilled in the spring of 1979 at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho: The majority of rock types encountered in the borehole are of volcanic origin. An upper section above 2,445 ft (745 m) consists of basaltic lava flows and interbedded .sediments of alluvial, lacustrine, and volcanic origin. A lower section below 2,445 ft (745 m) consists exclusively of rhyolitic welded ash-flow tuffs, air-fall ash deposits, nonwelded ash-flow ruffs, and volcaniclastic sediments. The lithology and thickness of the rhyolitic rocks suggest that they are part of an intracaldera fill.

  1. KILLARNEY LAKE, COEUR D'ALENE RIVER SYSTEM IDAHO - PILOT SAMPLING FOR HEAVY METALS IN FISH FLESH, 1990

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study sampled largemouth bass, northern pike, black crappie, brown bullhead, and yellow perch from Killarney Lake, a lateral lake on the Coeur dAlene River in northern Idaho (17010301, 17010303) and analyzed edible flesh for concentrations of zinc, lead, mercury, cadmium, co...

  2. Selected well and ground-water chemistry data for the Boise River Valley, southwestern Idaho, 1990-95

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parliman, D.J.; Boyle, Linda; Nicholls, Sabrina

    1996-01-01

    Water samples were collected from 903 wells in the Boise River Valley, Idaho, from January 1990 through December 1995. Selected well information and analyses of 1,357 water samples are presented. Analyses include physical properties ad concentrations of nutrients, bacteria, major ions, selected trace elements, radon-222, volatile organic compounds, and pesticides.

  3. WATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF THE UPPER SNAKE RIVER BASIN, IDAHO AND WESTERN WYOMING - ENVIRONMENTAL SETTING, 1980-92.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Data summarized in this report are used in companion reports to help define the relations among land use, water use, water quality, and biological conditions. The upper Snake River Basin (1704) is located in southeastern Idaho and northwestern Wyoming and includes small parts of...

  4. Water-quality conditions near the confluence of the Snake and Boise Rivers, Canyon County, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, Molly S.; Etheridge, Alexandra

    2011-01-01

    Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) have been established under authority of the Federal Clean Water Act for the Snake River-Hells Canyon reach, on the border of Idaho and Oregon, to improve water quality and preserve beneficial uses such as public consumption, recreation, and aquatic habitat. The TMDL sets targets for seasonal average and annual maximum concentrations of chlorophyll-a at 14 and 30 micrograms per liter, respectively. To attain these conditions, the maximum total phosphorus concentration at the mouth of the Boise River in Idaho, a tributary to the Snake River, has been set at 0.07 milligrams per liter. However, interactions among chlorophyll-a, nutrients, and other key water-quality parameters that may affect beneficial uses in the Snake and Boise Rivers are unknown. In addition, contributions of nutrients and chlorophyll-a loads from the Boise River to the Snake River have not been fully characterized. To evaluate seasonal trends and relations among nutrients and other water-quality parameters in the Boise and Snake Rivers, a comprehensive monitoring program was conducted near their confluence in water years (WY) 2009 and 2010. The study also provided information on the relative contribution of nutrient and sediment loads from the Boise River to the Snake River, which has an effect on water-quality conditions in downstream reservoirs. State and site-specific water-quality standards, in addition to those that relate to the Snake River-Hells Canyon TMDL, have been established to protect beneficial uses in both rivers. Measured water-quality conditions in WY2009 and WY2010 exceeded these targets at one or more sites for the following constituents: water temperature, total phosphorus concentrations, total phosphorus loads, dissolved oxygen concentration, pH, and chlorophyll-a concentrations (WY2009 only). All measured total phosphorus concentrations in the Boise River near Parma exceeded the seasonal target of 0.07 milligram per liter. Data collected

  5. Deep Geothermal Reservoir Temperatures in the Eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho using Multicomponent Geothermometry

    SciTech Connect

    Ghanashyam Neupane; Earl D. Mattson; Travis L. McLing; Carl D. Palmer; Robert W. Smith; Thomas R. Wood

    2014-02-01

    The U.S. Geological survey has estimated that there are up to 4,900 MWe of undiscovered geothermal resources and 92,000 MWe of enhanced geothermal potential within the state of Idaho. Of particular interest are the resources of the Eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) which was formed by volcanic activity associated with the relative movement of the Yellowstone Hot Spot across the state of Idaho. This region is characterized by a high geothermal gradient and thermal springs occurring along the margins of the ESRP. Masking much of the deep thermal potential of the ESRP is a regionally extensive and productive cold-water aquifer. We have undertaken a study to infer the temperature of the geothermal system hidden beneath the cold-water aquifer of the ESRP. Our approach is to estimate reservoir temperatures from measured water compositions using an inverse modeling technique (RTEst) that calculates the temperature at which multiple minerals are simultaneously at equilibrium while explicitly accounting for the possible loss of volatile constituents (e.g., CO2), boiling and/or water mixing. In the initial stages of this study, we apply the RTEst model to water compositions measured from a limited number of wells and thermal springs to estimate the regionally extensive geothermal system in the ESRP.

  6. Types of phreatomagmatic volcanoes in the western Snake River Plain, Idaho, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Godchaux, M.M.; Bonnichsen, B.; Jenks, M.D.

    1992-01-01

    The western Snake River Plain graben in southwestern Idaho includes a large hydrovolcanic field which was produced in late Miocene to Pleistocene time by the interaction of rising basaltic magmas with the waters and water-saturated deposits of an enormous freshwater lake, Lake Idaho. The phreatomagmatic volcanoes in this field may be grouped into three types: emergent, subaqueous and subaerial. Emergent volcanoes, which began erupting under water and built up above the lake level, are relatively large and symmetrical, are dominated by bedded tuffs and late magmatic deposits, and are excellent indicators of water depth at the time of the eruption. Subaqueous volcanoes, which never built up above the lake level, are relatively small and asymmetrical, are dominated by basal massive deposits, and are potentially useful in discriminating between deep- and very-deep-water settings. Subaerial volcanoes, which were formed when magmas intercepted buried aquifers and interacted explosively with water, are small tuff rings and maars with variable shapes, are composed of subequal (although variable) proportions of basal massive deposits, bedded tuffs and late magmatic deposits, and are useful in determining the stratigraphic successions underlying them. ?? 1992.

  7. The Geology of East Butte, a Rhyolitic Volcanic Dome on the Eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bretches, J. E.; King, J. S.

    1985-01-01

    East Butte is a prominent volcanic dome located on the eastern Snake River Plain. It is situated 51 km west of Idaho Fallls in the southeast corner of the Idaho National Engineering facility. East Butte rises 350 meters above the Quaternary basalt flows which encircle its 2.4 kilometer diameter base. Its maximum elevation is 2003 meters above sea level. East Butte is composed dominantly of rhyolite. Armstrong and others (1975) determined a K-Ar age of 0.6 +/- m.y. for a rhyolite sample from East Butte. Detailed geologic mapping revealed East Butte to be a single, large cumulo-dome composed dominantly of rhyolite. Major element geochemical analyses indicate that the rhyolite of East Butte is mildly peralkaline (molecular excess of Na2O and K2O over Al2O3 and compositionally homogeneous. Color variations in the East Butte rhyolite result from varying amounts of chemical and physical weathering and to the degree of devitrification that the glass in the groundmass of the rhyolite underwent.

  8. Hydrochemistry of selected parameters at the Raft River KGRA, Cassia County, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, D.L.; Ralston, D.R.; Allman, D.W.

    1981-01-01

    Low to moderate temperature (< 150/sup 0/C) geothermal fluids are being developed in the southern Raft River Valley of Idaho. Five deep geothermal wells ranging in depth from 4911 feet to 6543 feet (1490 to 1980 meters) and two intermediate depth (3858 feet or 1170 meters) injection wells have been drilled within the Raft River KGRA. Several shallower (1423-500 feet or 430-150 meters) wells have also been constructed to monitor the environmental effects of geothermal development of the shallower aquifer systems. Sampling of water from wells within the KGRA has been conducted since the onset of the project in 1974. Five analytical laboratories have conducted analyses on waters from the KGRA. Charge-balance error calculations conducted on the data produced from these laboratories indicated that data from three laboratories were reliable while two were not. A method of equating all data was established by using linear regression analyses on sets of paired data from various laboratories. The chemical data collected from the deep geothermal wells indicates that a two reservoir system exists within the Raft River KGRA. Each reservoir is associated with a major structural feature. These features are known as the Bridge Fault System (BFS) and the Narrows Structure (NS).

  9. Bedrock erosion in the lower Big Wood River channel, southcentral Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Maley, T.S.; Oberlindacher, P. )

    1993-04-01

    The Big Wood River, which is fed from the mountains to the north of the Snake River Plain, cuts through 0.8 m.y. old basalt in an area north and east of Shoshone, Idaho. The basalt channel carved by the Big Wood River exhibits remarkable and unusual bedrock erosional features. Approximately 10,000 years ago, nearby Black Butte shield volcano erupted basaltic lave which rerouted the Big Wood River. At the time the new river channel formed 10,000 years ago, alpine glaciers in the mountains were also beginning to melt. High flows of water from the melting glaciers during the next few thousand years carried large sediment loads and were instrumental in developing the spectacular potholes now found in the channel. Most of the scouring agents are pebbles and cobbles derived from quartzite, granitic, and gneissic rocks. As potholes began to develop, they were closely spaced and generally less than 1 m apart. However, as the potholes enlarged and expanded both horizontally and vertically, they coalesced with one another. The merging process occurred when the walls of two or more adjacent potholes were breached by the outward expansion of each pothole. The deeper of the two potholes captured the pebbles of the adjacent pothole. When pebbles are captured, pothole growth is terminated and the more shallow pothole was gradually cannibalized. All of the features within the channel are overprinted with a strong asymmetry caused by the current-driven pebbles against the upstream side of the features. Consequently, the upstream side of the features tends to be smooth, convex and rounded; whereas, the downstream side tends to be concave with the leading edge of the feature pointing in the downstream direction.

  10. Effects of Climate Change on White-Water Recreation on the Salmon River, Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mickelson, K. E.; Hamlet, A. F.

    2008-12-01

    White-water recreation on the Salmon River generates tens of millions of dollars each summer for central Idaho's economy. This tourism revenue is highly dependent on a healthy snowpack melting throughout the summer to meet minimum streamflow requirements for the rafting industry. A number of previous studies have shown that in a warming climate this vital snowpack will diminish and so will summer streamflows. In areas such as the Middle Fork of the Salmon River this will result in less streamflow in July and August, which are the critical months for the rafting industry. Current estimates approximate that eight percent of scheduled trips are canceled due to low summer streamflows. In this study we project future impacts to white-water recreation in the Salmon River basin, associated with an ensemble of climate change scenarios. The University of Washington's Climate Impacts Group has statistically downscaled 20 GCMs A1B and B1 climate change scenarios from the IPCC 2007 Report. We use these forcings to run the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) land-surface model to determine future streamflows for the Pacific Northwest. To verify the likelihood of non-boatable days in the future due to low summer streamflows, we compare this suite of projected results for the Salmon River streamflow to historical streamflows for the Middle Fork and Main Fork Salmon. Preliminary analysis shows a two degree Celsius increase could result in a twenty-five percent cancellation of future Middle Fork trips as a result of low summer streamflows. On the Middle Fork section alone this translates into a two million dollar loss in annual revenue generation for the rafting industry, with impacts stretching deeper into the economy. We also discuss additional costs to the users, the tourist economy and potential analysis for other river systems.

  11. Chemical analyses of ground water related to geothermal investigations in the Teton River area, eastern Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crosthwaite, E.G.

    1979-01-01

    Water samples from 31 wells and springs in eastern Idaho and western Wyoming were collected to help evaluate the potential geothermal resources in the Teton River area. Water analyses included anions and cations, oxygen-18, deuterium, and several minor elements. Actual temperature of the thermal waters ranged from 23 to 49C. Estimated aquifer temperatures, as derived from geochemical thermometers, ranged from 45 to 145C based on sodium-potassium-calcium ratios. Using the cation thermometer, two analyses indicated aquifer temperatures lower than actual measured temperatures. Using a mixing model method, estimated temperatures ranged from 205 to 320C, the higher being of questionable value. The different methods used showed little correlation. Based on isotope data, the warm waters may be of local meteoric origin and not heated enough to react significantly with aquifer rocks; or, they originated as precipitation at high altitude and great distance from the area. (Woodard-USGS)

  12. Digital Map of Surficial Geology, Wetlands, and Deepwater Habitats, Coeur d'Alene River Valley, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bookstrom, Arthur A.; Box, Stephen E.; Jackson, Berne L.; Brandt, Theodore R.; Derkey, Pamela D.; Munts, Steven R.

    1999-01-01

    The Coeur d'Alene (CdA) River channel and its floodplain in north Idaho are mostly covered by metal-enriched sediments, partially derived from upstream mining, milling and smelting wastes. Relative to uncontaminated sediments of the region, metal-enriched sediments are highly enriched in silver, lead, zinc, arsenic, antimony and mercury, copper, cadmium, manganese, and iron. Widespread distribution of metal-enriched sediments has resulted from over a century of mining in the CdA mining district (upstream), poor mine-waste containment practices during the first 80 years of mining, and an ongoing series of over-bank floods. Previously deposited metal-enriched sediments continue to be eroded and transported down-valley and onto the floodplain during floods. The centerpiece of this report is a Digital Map Surficial Geology, Wetlands and Deepwater Habitats of the Coeur d'Alene (CdA) River valley (sheets 1 and 2). The map covers the river, its floodplain, and adjacent hills, from the confluence of the North and South Forks of the CdA River to its mouth and delta front on CdA Lake, 43 linear km (26 mi) to the southwest (river distance 58 km or 36 mi). Also included are the following derivative theme maps: 1. Wetland System Map; 2. Wetland Class Map; 3. Wetland Subclass Map; 4. Floodplain Map; 5. Water Regime Map; 6. Sediment-Type Map; 7. Redox Map; 8. pH Map; and 9. Agricultural Land Map. The CdA River is braided and has a cobble-gravel bottom from the confluence to Cataldo Flats, 8 linear km (5 mi) down-valley. Erosional remnants of up to four alluvial terraces are present locally, and all are within the floodplain, as defined by the area flooded in February of 1996. High-water (overflow) channels and partly filled channel scars braid across some alluvial terraces, toward down-valley marshes and (or) oxbow ponds, which drain back to the river. Near Cataldo Flats, the river gradient flattens, and the river coalesces into a single channel with a large friction

  13. Can superior natural amenities create high-quality employment opportunities? The case of nonconsumptive river recreation in central Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKean, J.R.; Johnson, D.M.; Johnson, R.L.; Taylor, R.G.

    2005-01-01

    Central Idaho has superior environmental amenities, as evidenced by exceptionally high-value tourism, such as guided whitewater rafting. The focus of our study concerns the attainment of high-quality jobs in a high-quality natural environment. We estimate cumulative wage rate effects unique to nonconsumptive river recreation in central Idaho for comparison with other sectors. The cumulative effects are based on a detailed survey of recreation spending and a modified synthesized input-output model. Cumulative wage rate effects support using the abundance of environmental amenities to expand and attract high-wage, environmentally sensitive firms, as opposed to expanded tourism to improve employment quality. Copyright ?? 2005 Taylor & Francis Inc.

  14. Geology and geomorphology of Bear Lake Valley and upper Bear River, Utah and Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reheis, M.C.; Laabs, B.J.C.; Kaufman, D.S.

    2009-01-01

    Bear Lake, on the Idaho-Utah border, lies in a fault-bounded valley through which the Bear River flows en route to the Great Salt Lake. Surficial deposits in the Bear Lake drainage basin provide a geologic context for interpretation of cores from Bear Lake deposits. In addition to groundwater discharge, Bear Lake received water and sediment from its own small drainage basin and sometimes from the Bear River and its glaciated headwaters. The lake basin interacts with the river in complex ways that are modulated by climatically induced lake-level changes, by the distribution of active Quaternary faults, and by the migration of the river across its fluvial fan north of the present lake. The upper Bear River flows northward for ???150 km from its headwaters in the northwestern Uinta Mountains, generally following the strike of regional Laramide and late Cenozoic structures. These structures likely also control the flow paths of groundwater that feeds Bear Lake, and groundwater-fed streams are the largest source of water when the lake is isolated from the Bear River. The present configuration of the Bear River with respect to Bear Lake Valley may not have been established until the late Pliocene. The absence of Uinta Range-derived quartzites in fluvial gravel on the crest of the Bear Lake Plateau east of Bear Lake suggests that the present headwaters were not part of the drainage basin in the late Tertiary. Newly mapped glacial deposits in the Bear River Range west of Bear Lake indicate several advances of valley glaciers that were probably coeval with glaciations in the Uinta Mountains. Much of the meltwater from these glaciers may have reached Bear Lake via groundwater pathways through infiltration in the karst terrain of the Bear River Range. At times during the Pleistocene, the Bear River flowed into Bear Lake and water level rose to the valley threshold at Nounan narrows. This threshold has been modified by aggradation, downcutting, and tectonics. Maximum lake

  15. Use of multidimensional modeling to evaluate a channel restoration design for the Kootenai River, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Logan, B.L.; McDonald, R.R.; Nelson, J.M.; Kinzel, P.J.; Barton, G.J.

    2011-01-01

    River channel construction projects aimed at restoring or improving degraded waterways have become common but have been variously successful. In this report a methodology is proposed to evaluate channel designs before channels are built by using multidimensional modeling and analysis. This approach allows detailed analysis of water-surface profiles, sediment transport, and aquatic habitat that may result if the design is implemented. The method presented here addresses the need to model a range of potential stream-discharge and channel-roughness conditions to best assess the function of the design channel for a suite of possible conditions. This methodology is demonstrated by using a preliminary channel-restoration design proposed for a part of the Kootenai River in northern Idaho designated as critical habitat for the endangered white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and evaluating the design on the basis of simulations with the Flow and Sediment Transport with Morphologic Evolution of Channels (FaSTMECH) model. This evaluation indicated substantial problems with the preliminary design because boundary conditions used in the design were inconsistent with best estimates of future conditions. As a result, simulated water-surface levels did not meet target levels that corresponded to the designed bankfull surfaces; therefore, the flood plain would not function as intended. Sediment-transport analyses indicated that both the current channel of the Kootenai River and the design channel are largely unable to move the bed material through the reach at bankfull discharge. Therefore, sediment delivered to the design channel would likely be deposited within the reach instead of passing through it as planned. Consequently, the design channel geometry would adjust through time. Despite these issues, the design channel would provide more aquatic habitat suitable for spawning white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) at lower discharges than is currently available in the

  16. Irrigated acreage and other land uses on the Snake River Plain, Idaho and eastern Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindholm, Gerald F.; Goodell, S.A.

    1986-01-01

    Prompted by the need for a current, accurate, and repeatable delineation of irrigated acreage on the Snake River Plain, the U.S. Geological Survey entered into a cooperative agreement with the Idaho Department of Water Resources Image Analysis Facility and the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation to delineate 1980 land use form Landsat data. Irrigated acreage data were needed as input to groundwater flow models developed by the U.S. Geological Survey in a study of the regional aquifer system underlying the Snake River Plain. Single-date digital multispectral scanner data analyzed to delineate land-use classes. Source of irrigation water (surface water, ground water, and combined) was determined from county maps of 1975 water-related land use, data from previous investigations, and field checking. Surface-water diversions for irrigation on the Snake River Plain began in the 1840's. With the stimulus of Federal aid authorized by the Desert Land Act, Carey Act, and Reclamation Act, irrigated area increased rapidly in the early 1900's. By 1929, 2.2 million acres were irrigated. Ground water became and important source of irrigation water after World War II. In 1980, about 3.1 million acres of the Snake River Plain were irrigate: 2.0 million acres with surface water, 1.0 million with ground water, and 0.1 million with combined surface and ground water. About 5.2 million acres (half of the plain) are undeveloped rangeland, 1.0 million acres (one-tenth) are classified as barren. The remaining land is a mixture of dryland agriculture, water bodies, wetland, forests, and urban areas.

  17. Salmon Supplementation Studies in Idaho Rivers, 1996-1998 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Reighn, Christopher A.; Lewis, Bert; Taki, Doug

    1999-06-01

    Information contained in this report summarizes the work that has been done by the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes Fisheries Department under BPA Project No. 89-098-3, Contract Number 92-BI-49450. Relevant data generated by the Shoshone-Bannock Tribe will be collated with other ISS cooperator data collected from the Salmon and Clearwater rivers and tributary streams. A summary of data presented in this report and an initial project-wide level supplementation evaluation will be available in the ISS 5 year report that is currently in progress. The Shoshone-Bannock Tribal Fisheries Department is responsible for monitoring a variety of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) production parameters as part of the Idaho Supplementation Studies (BPA Project No. 89-098-3, Contract Number 92-BI-49450). Parameters include parr abundance in tributaries to the upper Salmon River; adult chinook salmon spawner abundance, redd counts, and carcass collection. A rotary screw trap is operated on the East Fork Salmon River and West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River to enumerate and PIT-tag chinook smolts. These traps are also used to monitor parr movement, and collect individuals for the State and Tribal chinook salmon captive rearing program. The SBT monitors fisheries parameters in the following six tributaries of the Salmon River: Bear Valley Creek, East Fork Salmon River, Herd Creek, South Fork Salmon River, Valley Creek, and West Fork Yankee Fork. Chinook populations in all SBT-ISS monitored streams continue to decline. The South Fork Salmon River and Bear Valley Creek have the strongest remaining populations. Snorkel survey methodology was used to obtain parr population estimates for ISS streams from 1992 to 1997. Confidence intervals for the parr population estimates were large, especially when the populations were low. In 1998, based on ISS cooperator agreement, snorkeling to obtain parr population estimates was ceased due to the large confidence intervals. A rotary screw trap was

  18. Geohydrology of the regional aquifer system, western Snake River plain, southwestern Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newton, G.D.

    1989-01-01

    A three dimensional groundwater flow model was developed to simulate steady state and nonsteady-state hydrologic conditions of the regional aquifer system in the western Snake River Plain of Idaho. Water budget analysis showed that groundwater recharge was about 1,400,000 acre-ft in 1980; groundwater pumpage was estimated to be 300,000 acre-ft. Two mass water level measurements were made in March and August 1980 to define the water table in the regional system. The model was discretized into 25 rows, 72 columns, and 3 layers. Each cell represented 4 sq mi. The model was calibrated to 1980 hydrologic conditions. Calibrated transmissivity of layer 1 (500 ft thick) ranged from 1,500 to 21,500 sq ft/day. Calibrated specific yield of unconfined aquifers was 0.10 and calibrated storage coefficient of confined aquifers ranged from 0.0004 to 0.007. The calibrated model was verified by simulating monthly water-level fluctuations for 1980. Simulated water levels matched measured levels in the Boise River Valley, but the match in other areas was poor. (USGS)

  19. Geology and geophysics of the southern Raft River Valley geothermal area, Idaho, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Paul L.; Mabey, Don R.; Zohdy, Adel A.R.; Hans, Ackerman; Hoover, Donald B.; Pierce, Kenneth L.; Oriel, Steven S.

    1976-01-01

    The Raft River valley, near the boundary of the Snake River plain with the Basin and Range province, is a north-trending late Cenozoic downwarp bounded by faults on the west, south, and east. Pleistocene alluvium and Miocene-Pliocene tuffaceous sediments, conglomerate, and felsic volcanic rocks aggregate 2 km in thickness. Large gravity, magnetic, and total field resistivity highs probably indicate a buried igneous mass that is too old to serve as a heat source. Differing seismic velocities relate to known or inferred structures and to a suspected shallow zone of warm water. Resistivity anomalies reflect differences of both composition and degree of alteration of Cenozoic rocks. Resistivity soundings show a 2 to 5 ohm·m unit with a thickness of 1 km beneath a large part of the valley, and the unit may indicate partly hot water and partly clayey sediments. Observed self-potential anomalies are believed to indicate zones where warm water rises toward the surface. Boiling wells at Bridge, Idaho are near the intersection of north-northeast normal faults which have moved as recently as the late (?) Pleistocene, and an east-northeast structure, probably a right-lateral fault. Deep circulation of ground water in this region of relatively high heat flow and upwelling along faults is the probable cause of the thermal anomaly.

  20. Geothermal resource analysis in the Big Wood River Valley, Blaine County, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Street, L.V.

    1990-10-01

    A geochemical investigation of both thermal and nonthermal springs in the Wood River area was conducted to determine possible flowpaths, ages of the waters, and environmental implications. Seven thermal springs and five cold springs were sampled for major cations and anions along with arsenic, lithium, boron, deuterium and oxygen-18. Eight rocks, representative of outcrops at or near the thermal occurrences were sampled and analyzed for major and trace elements. The Wood River area hydrothermal springs are dilute Na-HCO{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2} type waters. Calculated reservoir temperatures do not exceed 100{degree}C, except for Magic Hot Springs Landing well (108{degree}C with Mg correction). The isotope data suggest that the thermal water is not derived from present-day precipitation, but from precipitation when the climate was much colder and wetter. Intrusive igneous rocks of the Idaho batholith have reacted with the hydrothermal fluids at depth. The co-location of the thermal springs and mining districts suggests that the structures acting as conduits for the present-day hydrothermal fluids were also active during the emplacement of the ore bodies.

  1. Geochronology and Geomorphology of the Pioneer Archaeological Site (10BT676), Upper Snake River Plain, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Keene, Joshua L.

    2015-04-01

    The Pioneer site in southeastern Idaho, an open-air, stratified, multi-component archaeological locality on the upper Snake River Plain, provides an ideal situation for understanding the geomorphic history of the Big Lost River drainage system. We conducted a block excavation with the goal of understanding the geochronological context of both cultural and geomorphological components at the site. The results of this study show a sequence of five soil formation episodes forming three terraces beginning prior to 7200 cal yr BP and lasting until the historic period, preserving one cultural component dated to ~3800 cal yr BP and multiple components dating to the last 800 cal yr BP. In addition, periods of deposition and stability at Pioneer indicate climate fluctuation during the middle Holocene (~7200-3800 cal yr BP), minimal deposition during the late Holocene, and a period of increased deposition potentially linked to the Little Ice Age. In addition, evidence for a high-energy erosion event dated to ~3800 cal yr BP suggest a catastrophic flood event during the middle Holocene that may correlate with volcanic activity at the Craters of the Moon lava fields to the northwest. This study provides a model for the study of alluvial terrace formations in arid environments and their potential to preserve stratified archaeological deposits.

  2. Straddle-packer aquifer test analyses of the Snake River Plain aquifer at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, G.S.; Frederick, D.B.

    1997-01-01

    The State of Idaho INEL Oversight Program, with the University of Idaho, Idaho State University, Boise State University, and the Idaho Geologic Survey, used a straddle-packer system to investigate vertical variations in characteristics of the Snake River Plain aquifer at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory in southeast Idaho. Sixteen single-well aquifer tests were conducted on.isolated intervals in three observation wells. Each of these wells has approximately 200 feet of open borehole below the water table, penetrating the E through G and I basalt flow groups and interbedded sediments of the Snake River Plain aquifer. The success of the aquifer tests was limited by the inability to induce measurable drawdown in several zones. Time-drawdown data from aquifer tests were matched to type curves for 8 of the 16 zones tested. A single aquifer test at the water table exhibited greater curvature than those at depth. The increased degree of curvature suggests an unconfined response and resulted in an estimate of specific yield of 0.03. Aquifer tests below the water table generally yielded time-drawdown graphs with a rapid initial response followed by constant drawdown throughout the duration of the tests; up to several hours in length. The rapid initial response implies that the aquifer responds as a confined system during brief pumping periods. The nearly constant drawdown suggests a secondary source of water, probably vertical flow from overlying and underlying aquifer layers. Three analytical models were applied for comparison to the conceptual model and to provide estimates of aquifer properties. This, Hantush-Jacob leaky aquifer, and the Moench double-porosity fractured rock models were fit to time-drawdown data. The leaky aquifer type curves of Hantush and Jacob generally provided the best match to observed drawdown. A specific capacity regression equation was also used to estimate hydraulic conductivity.

  3. Mapping the response of riparian vegetation to possible flow reductions in the Snake River, Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter Johnson, W.; Dixon, Mark D.; Simons, Robert; Jenson, Susan; Larson, Kevin

    1995-09-01

    This study was initiated to determine the general effects of potential flow reductions in the middle Snake River (Swan Falls Dam downstream to the Idaho-Oregon border) on its riparian vegetation. Considerable water from the river is currently used to irrigate the adjacent Snake River Plain, and increased demand for water in the future is likely. The problem was subdivided into several research components including: field investigation of the existing riparian vegetation and river environment, hydrological modeling to calculate the effects of one flow scenario on hydrological regime, and integration of vegetation and hydrological modeling results with a Geographic Information System (GIs) to map the riverbed, island, and bank conditions under the scenario flow. Field work was conducted in summer 1990. Riparian vegetation along 40 U.S. Geological Survey cross-sections was sampled at approximately 1.25 mile intervals within the 50 mile long study area. Cross-section and flow data were provided by the U.S. Geological. Survey. GIs mapping of land/water cover using ARC/INFO was based on 1987 aerial photographs. Riverbed contour maps were produced by linking cross-section data, topographic contouring software ( ANUDEM), and GIs. The maps were used to spatially display shallow areas in the channel likely to become vegetated under reduced flow conditions. The scenario would reduce flow by approximately 20% (160 MAF) and lower the river an average of 0.5 ft. The scenario flow could cause a drop in the elevation of the riparian zone comparable to the drop in mean river level and expansion of the lower riparian zone into shallow areas of the channel. The GIs maps showed that the shallow areas of the channel more likely to become vegetated under the scenario flow are located in wide reaches near islands. Some possible ecological consequences of the scenario flow include a greater area of riparian habitat, reduced flow velocity and sedimentation in shallow channels leading to

  4. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL WATER QUALITY OF THE SPOKANE RIVER OUTLET REACH OF LAKE COEUR D'ALENE, KOOTENAI COUNTY, IDAHO. 1990 AND 1991

    EPA Science Inventory

    The University of Idaho conducted a water quality study on the Spokane River outlet arm of Lake Coeur dAlene (17010305, 17010303) from June 1990 through September 1991. Objectives of the study were: to characterize baseline river water quality; to determine seasonal river water ...

  5. Discharge and sediment loads in the Boise River drainage basin, Idaho 1939-40

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Love, S.K.; Benedict, Paul Charles

    1948-01-01

    The Boise River project is a highly developed agricultural area comprising some 520 square miles of valley and bench lands in southwestern Idaho. Water for irrigation is obtained from the Boise River and its tributaries which are regulated by storage in Arrow Rock and Deer Flat reservoirs. Distribution of water to the farms is effected by 27 principal canals and several small farm laterals which divert directly from the river. The- New York Canal, which is the largest, not only supplies water to smaller canals and farm laterals, but also is used to fill Deer Flat Reservoir near Nampa from which water is furnished to farms in the lower valley. During the past 15 years maintenance costs in a number of those canals have increased due to deposition of sediment in them and in the river channel itself below the mouth of Moore Creek. Interest in determining the runoff and sediment loads from certain areas in the Boise River drainage basin led to an investigation by the Flood Control Coordinating Committee of the Department of Agriculture. Measurements of daily discharge and sediments loads were made by the Geological Survey at 13 stations in the drainage basin during the 18-month period ended June 30, 1940. The stations were on streams in areas having different kinds of vegetative cover and subjected to different kinds of land-use practice. Data obtained during the investigation furnish a basis for certain comparisons of runoff and sediment loads from several areas arid for several periods of time. Runoff measured at stations on the. Boise River near Twin Springs and on Moore Creek near Arrow Rock was smaller during 1939 than during 1940 and was below the average annual runoff for the period of available record. Runoff measured at the other stations on the project also was smaller during 1939 than during 1940 and probably did not exceed the average for the previous 25 years. The sediment loads measured during the spring runoff in 1939 were smaller at most stations than

  6. Steelhead Supplementation Studies; Steelhead Supplementation in Idaho Rivers, Annual Report 2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Byrne, Alan

    2003-03-01

    The Steelhead Supplementation Study (SSS) has two broad objectives: (1) investigate the feasibility of supplementing depressed wild and natural steelhead populations using hatchery populations, and (2) describe the basic life history and genetic characteristics of wild and natural steelhead populations in the Salmon and Clearwater Basins. Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) personnel stocked adult steelhead from Sawtooth Fish Hatchery into Frenchman and Beaver creeks and estimated the number of age-1 parr produced from the outplants since 1993. On May 2, 2002, both Beaver and Frenchman creeks were stocked with hatchery adult steelhead. A SSS crew snorkeled the creeks in August 2002 to estimate the abundance of age-1 parr from brood year (BY) 2001. I estimated that the yield of age-1 parr per female stocked in 2001 was 7.3 and 6.7 in Beaver and Frenchman creeks, respectively. SSS crews stocked Dworshak hatchery stock fingerlings and smolts from 1993 to 1999 in the Red River drainage to assess which life stage produces more progeny when the adults return to spawn. In 2002, Clearwater Fish Hatchery personnel operated the Red River weir to trap adults that returned from these stockings. Twelve PIT-tagged adults from the smolt releases and one PIT-tagged adult from fingerling releases were detected during their migration up the mainstem Columbia and Snake rivers, but none from either group were caught at the weir. The primary focus of the study has been monitoring and collecting life history information from wild steelhead populations. An adult weir has been operated annually since 1992 in Fish Creek, a tributary of the Lochsa River. The weir was damaged by a rain-on-snow event in April 2002 and although the weir remained intact, some adults were able to swim undetected through the weir. Despite damage to the weir, trap tenders captured 167 adult steelhead, the most fish since 1993. The maximum likelihood estimate of adult steelhead escapement was 242. A screw trap

  7. Characteristics and origin of Earth-mounds on the Eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Tullis, J.A.

    1995-09-01

    Earth-mounds are common features on the Eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho. The mounds are typically round or oval in plan view, <0.5 m in height, and from 8 to 14 m in diameter. They are found on flat and sloped surfaces, and appear less frequently in lowland areas. The mounds have formed on deposits of multiple sedimentary environments. Those studied included alluvial gravel terraces along the Big Lost River (late Pleistocene/early Holocene age), alluvial fan segments on the flanks of the Lost River Range (Bull Lake and Pinedale age equivalents), and loess/slopewash sediments overlying basalt flows. Backhoe trenches were dug to allow characterization of stratigraphy and soil development. Each mound has features unique to the depositional and pedogenic history of the site; however, there are common elements to all mounds that are linked to the history of mound formation. Each mound has a {open_quotes}floor{close_quotes} of a sediment or basement rock of significantly different hydraulic conductivity than the overlying sediment. These paleosurfaces are overlain by finer-grained sediments, typically loess or flood-overbank deposits. Mounds formed in environments where a sufficient thickness of fine-grained sediment held pore water in a system open to the migration to a freezing front. Heaving of the sediment occurred by the growth of ice lenses. Mound formation occurred at the end of the Late Pleistocene or early in the Holocene, and was followed by pedogenesis. Soils in the mounds were subsequently altered by bioturbation, buried by eolian deposition, and eroded by slopewash runoff. These secondary processes played a significant role in maintaining or increasing the mound/intermound relief.

  8. Hydrologic Conditions and Distribution of Selected Constituents in Water, Snake River Plain Aquifer, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho, 1996 through 1998

    SciTech Connect

    R. C. Bartholomay; B. J. Tucker; L. C. Davis; M. R. Greene

    2000-09-01

    Radiochemical and chemical wastewater discharged since 1952 to infiltration ponds and disposal wells at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) has affected water quality in the Snake River Plain aquifer. The US Geological Survey, in cooperation with the US Department of Energy, maintains a monitoring network at the INEEL to determine hydrologic trends and to delineate the movement to radiochemical and chemical wastes in the aquifer. This report presents an analysis of water-level and water-quality data collected from the Snake River Plain aquifer during 1996-98. Detectable concentrations of radiochemical constituents in water samples from wells in the Snake River Plain aquifer at the INEEL decreased or remained constant during 1996-98. Decreased concentrations are attributed to reduced rates of radioactive-waste disposal, sorption process, radioactive decay, and changes in waste-disposal practices. Detectable concentrations of chemical constituents in water from the Snake River Plain aquifer at the INEEL were variable during 1996-98.

  9. Assessment of fish assemblages and minimum sampling effort required to determine botic integrity of large rivers in southern Idaho, 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maret, Terry R.; Ott, D.S.

    2004-01-01

    width was determined to be sufficient for collecting an adequate number of fish to estimate species richness and evaluate biotic integrity. At most sites, about 250 fish were needed to effectively represent 95 percent of the species present. Fifty-three percent of the sites assessed, using an IBI developed specifically for large Idaho rivers, received scores of less than 50, indicating poor biotic integrity.

  10. Water-quality assessment of the upper Snake River basin, Idaho and western Wyoming; environmental setting, 1980-92

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maupin, Molly A.

    1995-01-01

    Idaho leads the Nation in trout production for commercial sale. Combined mean annual discharges from 12 aquacultural facilities in the basin (1985-90) were about 787,000 acre-feet. These facilities are clustered in a reach of the Snake River between Milner Dam and King Hill where ground-water discharge is from many seeps and springs that provide sufficient quantities of good-quality water. Other facilities that release effluent to the Snake River include 13 municipal wastewater treatment plants and 3 industrial facilities.

  11. Seismic baseline and induction studies: Roosevelt Hot Springs, Utah and Raft River, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Zandt, G.; McPherson, L.; Schaff, S.; Olsen, S.

    1982-05-01

    Local seismic networks were established at the Roosevelt Hot Springs geothermal area, utah and at Raft River geothermal area, Idaho to monitor the background seismicity prior to initiation of geothermal power production. The Raft River study area is currently seismically quiet down to the level of approximately magnitude one. The Roosevelt Hot Springs area has low-level seismic activity for M/sub L/ greater than about two; however, microearthquake (M/sub L/ less than or equal to 2) swarms appear to be relatively common. One swarm occurred adjacent to the Roosevelt geothermal area during the summer of 1981. From June 27 to August 28, 1044 microearthquakes (M/sub L/ less than or equal to 1.5) were recorded from which 686 earthquakes were located and analysed. The main cluster of microearthquakes was located about 2 km east of the production field at a depth of about 5 km. A few small events were located in the production field at shallow depths (< 2 km). Three of the four largest earthquakes in the swarm (M/sub L/ 1.5-2.0) were located 4 to 5 km further east along a n-NW trend beneath the flank of the adjacent Mineral Mountains. Focal mechanism solutions indicate primarily normal faulting due to the regional E-W extension which characterizes this portion of the eastern Basin and Range province. Hence, the Mineral Mountain swarm appears to be a natural release of tectonic stress in this area. Nevertheless, the occurrence of natural earthquake swarms indicates a potential for induced seismicity at Roosevelt Hot Springs after major production operations are initiated.

  12. First Results from HOTSPOT: The Snake River Plain Scientific Drilling Project, Idaho, U.S.A.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shervais, J. W.; Schmitt, D. R.; Nielson, D.; Evans, J. P.; Christiansen, E. H.; Morgan, L.; Shanks, W. C. Pat; Prokopenko, A. A.; Lachmar, T.; Liberty, L. M.; Blackwell, D. D.; Glen, J. M.; Champion, L. D.; Potter, K. E.; Kessler, J. A.

    2013-03-01

    HOTSPOT is an international collaborative effort to understand the volcanic history of the Snake River Plain (SRP). The SRP overlies a thermal anomaly, the Yellowstone-Snake River hotspot, that is thought to represent a deep-seated mantle plume under North America. The primary goal of this project is to document the volcanic and stratigraphic history of the SRP, which represents the surface expression of this hotspot, and to understand how it affected the evolution of continental crust and mantle. An additional goal is to evaluate the geothermal potential of southern Idaho. Project HOTSPOT has completed three drill holes. (1) The Kimama site is located along the central volcanic axis of the SRP; our goal here was to sample a long-term record of basaltic volcanism in the wake of the SRP hotspot. (2) The Kimberly site is located near the margin of the plain; our goal here was to sample a record of high-temperature rhyolite volcanism associated with the underlying plume. This site was chosen to form a nominally continuous record of volcanism when paired with the Kimama site. (3) The Mountain Home site is located in the western plain; our goal here was to sample the Pliocene-Pleistocene transition in lake sediments at this site and to sample older basalts that underlie the sediments. We report here on our initial results for each site, and on some of the geophysical logging studies carried out as part of this project. doi:10.2204/iodp.sd.15.06.2013

  13. DATA RECOVERY EFFORTS AT IDAHO NATIONAL LABORATORY, OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY, AND SAVANNAH RIVER NATIONAL LABORATORY

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Metcalf; Saleem Salaymeh; Michael Ehinger

    2010-07-01

    Abstract was already submitted. Could not find the previous number. Would be fine with attaching/update of old number. Abstract Below: Modern nuclear facilities will have significant process monitoring capability for their operators. These systems will also be used for domestic safeguards applications, which has led to research over new diversion-detection algorithms. Curiously missing from these efforts are verification and validation data sets. A tri-laboratory project to locate the existing data sets and recover their data has yielded three major potential sources of data. The first is recovery of the process monitoring data of the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, which now has a distributable package for algorithm developers. The second data set is extensive sampling and process data from Savannah River National Laboratory’s F- and H-canyon sites. Finally, high fidelity data from the start-up tests at the Barnwell Reprocessing Facility is in recovery. This paper details the data sets and compares their relative attributes.

  14. Assessing riparian shade for the Lemhi River, Idaho using LiDAR: A point cloud analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spaete, L.; Glenn, N. F.; Shrestha, R.; Shumar, M. L.; Mitchell, J.

    2012-12-01

    Riparian vegetation plays a crucial role in shading streams by reducing the amount of incoming solar insolation that would otherwise reach the water surface, negatively affecting water temperature and photosynthetic organisms within the water column. Unlike incoming solar insolation, riparian shade can be manipulated by adding or removing riparian vegetation, making it attractive for restoration as well as thermal credit trading programs. Before riparian shade can be evaluated in such trading programs, the existing riparian vegetation needs to be quantified. Several studies have investigated the utility of LiDAR derived canopy height models for estimating riparian shade, however, few to no studies have used point cloud data as a direct model input in order to improve the riparian shade estimates. Using point cloud data increases spatial resolution and the ability to extract vegetation shape information without losses due to interpolation/rasterization. In this study, we assessed the ability of LiDAR point cloud data to estimate riparian shade for 32 km of the Lemhi River in north central Idaho. Riparian shade quantification of the point cloud and canopy height models are compared to shade values calculated using established models in practice.

  15. Use of surrogate technologies to estimate suspended sediment in the Clearwater River, Idaho, and Snake River, Washington, 2008-10

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, Molly S.; Teasdale, Gregg N.

    2013-01-01

    Elevated levels of fluvial sediment can reduce the biological productivity of aquatic systems, impair freshwater quality, decrease reservoir storage capacity, and decrease the capacity of hydraulic structures. The need to measure fluvial sediment has led to the development of sediment surrogate technologies, particularly in locations where streamflow alone is not a good estimator of sediment load because of regulated flow, load hysteresis, episodic sediment sources, and non-equilibrium sediment transport. An effective surrogate technology is low maintenance and sturdy over a range of hydrologic conditions, and measured variables can be modeled to estimate suspended-sediment concentration (SSC), load, and duration of elevated levels on a real-time basis. Among the most promising techniques is the measurement of acoustic backscatter strength using acoustic Doppler velocity meters (ADVMs) deployed in rivers. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Walla Walla District, evaluated the use of acoustic backscatter, turbidity, laser diffraction, and streamflow as surrogates for estimating real-time SSC and loads in the Clearwater and Snake Rivers, which adjoin in Lewiston, Idaho, and flow into Lower Granite Reservoir. The study was conducted from May 2008 to September 2010 and is part of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Lower Snake River Programmatic Sediment Management Plan to identify and manage sediment sources in basins draining into lower Snake River reservoirs. Commercially available acoustic instruments have shown great promise in sediment surrogate studies because they require little maintenance and measure profiles of the surrogate parameter across a sampling volume rather than at a single point. The strength of acoustic backscatter theoretically increases as more particles are suspended in the water to reflect the acoustic pulse emitted by the ADVM. ADVMs of different frequencies (0.5, 1.5, and 3 Megahertz) were tested to

  16. Hydrogeologic framework of the Wood River Valley aquifer system, south-central Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartolino, James R.; Adkins, Candice B.

    2012-01-01

    The Wood River Valley contains most of the population of Blaine County and the cities of Sun Valley, Ketchum, Hailey, and Bellevue. This mountain valley is underlain by the alluvial Wood River Valley aquifer system, which consists primarily of a single unconfined aquifer that underlies the entire valley, an underlying confined aquifer that is present only in the southernmost valley, and the confining unit that separates them. The entire population of the area depends on groundwater for domestic supply, either from domestic or municipal-supply wells, and rapid population growth since the 1970s has caused concern about the long-term sustainability of the groundwater resource. As part of an ongoing U.S. Geological Survey effort to characterize the groundwater resources of the Wood River Valley, this report describes the hydrogeologic framework of the Wood River Valley aquifer system. Although most of the Wood River Valley aquifer system is composed of Quaternary-age sediments and basalts of the Wood River Valley and its tributaries, older igneous, sedimentary, or metamorphic rocks that underlie these Quaternary deposits also are used for water supply. It is unclear to what extent these rocks are hydraulically connected to the main part of Wood River Valley aquifer system and thus whether they constitute separate aquifers. Paleozoic sedimentary rocks in and near the study area that produce water to wells and springs are the Phi Kappa and Trail Creek Formations (Ordovician and Silurian), the Milligen Formation (Devonian), and the Sun Valley Group including the Wood River Formation (Pennsylvanian-Permian) and the Dollarhide Formation (Permian). These sedimentary rocks are intruded by granitic rocks of the Late Cretaceous Idaho batholith. Eocene Challis Volcanic Group rocks overlie all of the older rocks (except where removed by erosion). Miocene Idavada Volcanics are found in the southern part of the study area. Most of these rocks have been folded, faulted, and

  17. Water resources in the Big Lost River Basin, south-central Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crosthwaite, E.G.; Thomas, C.A.; Dyer, K.L.

    1970-01-01

    The Big Lost River basin occupies about 1,400 square miles in south-central Idaho and drains to the Snake River Plain. The economy in the area is based on irrigation agriculture and stockraising. The basin is underlain by a diverse-assemblage of rocks which range, in age from Precambrian to Holocene. The assemblage is divided into five groups on the basis of their hydrologic characteristics. Carbonate rocks, noncarbonate rocks, cemented alluvial deposits, unconsolidated alluvial deposits, and basalt. The principal aquifer is unconsolidated alluvial fill that is several thousand feet thick in the main valley. The carbonate rocks are the major bedrock aquifer. They absorb a significant amount of precipitation and, in places, are very permeable as evidenced by large springs discharging from or near exposures of carbonate rocks. Only the alluvium, carbonate rock and locally the basalt yield significant amounts of water. A total of about 67,000 acres is irrigated with water diverted from the Big Lost River. The annual flow of the river is highly variable and water-supply deficiencies are common. About 1 out of every 2 years is considered a drought year. In the period 1955-68, about 175 irrigation wells were drilled to provide a supplemental water supply to land irrigated from the canal system and to irrigate an additional 8,500 acres of new land. Average. annual precipitation ranged from 8 inches on the valley floor to about 50 inches at some higher elevations during the base period 1944-68. The estimated water yield of the Big Lost River basin averaged 650 cfs (cubic feet per second) for the base period. Of this amount, 150 cfs was transpired by crops, 75 cfs left the basin as streamflow, and 425 cfs left as ground-water flow. A map of precipitation and estimated values of evapotranspiration were used to construct a water-yield map. A distinctive feature of the Big Lost River basin, is the large interchange of water from surface streams into the ground and from the

  18. Additions and corrections to the bibliography of geologic studies, Columbia Plateau (Columbia River Besalt) and adjacent Areas, in Idaho, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Strowd, W.

    1980-01-01

    This bibliography is an update to Idaho Bureau of Mines and Geology Open-File Report 78-6, Bibliography of Geological Studies, Columbia Plateau (Columbia River Basalt Group) and adjacent areas in Idaho (also known as Rockwell Hanford Operations' contractor report RHO-BWI-C-44). To keep the original document current, this additions and corrections report was prepared for the Basalt Waste Isolation Project of Rockwell Hanford Operations. This update is supplementary; therefore, references cited in the original document have not been included here. What is included are materials that have become available since the original publication and pertinent literature that had originally been overlooked. Accompany this updated bubliography are index maps that show locations of geologic studies and geochemical petrographic, remanent paleomagnetic, and radiometric age-dated sites within the Columbia River Basalt Group field within Idaho; also identified are archeological sites, test wells, mines, quarries, and other types of excavations. References on the index maps are keyed to the bibliography and cover the Spokane, Pullman, Hamilton, Grangeville, Elk City, Baker, Boise, and Jordan Valley Army Map Service two-degree quadrangles.

  19. Antioxidant Capacity and Stilbene Contents of Wines Produced in the Snake River Valley of Idaho

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Forty-two Idaho cultivated and produced wines were examined in this study. The samples examined were made up of four monovarietal wines (12 Cabernet Sauvignon, 9 Merlot, 7 Riesling, 14 Chardonnay). Wine samples represented twelve wineries that source their fruit from vineyards located within Idaho's...

  20. Geologic map and profiles of the north wall of the Snake River Canyon, Pasadena Valley and Ticeska quadrangles, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Covington, H.R.; Weaver, Jean N.

    1990-01-01

    The Snake River Plain is a broad, arcuate region of low relief that extends more than 300 mi across southern Idaho. The Snake River enters the plain near Idaho Falls and flows westward along the southern margin of the eastern Snake River Plain (fig. 1), a position mainly determined by the basaltic lava flows that erupted near the axis of the plain. The highly productive Snake River Plain aquifer north of the Snaked River underlies the most of the eastern plain. The aquifer is composed of basaltic ricks that are interbedded with fluvial and lacustrine sedimentary rocks. The top of the aquifer (water table) is typically less than 500 ft below the land surface, but is deeper than 1,000 ft in few areas. The Snake River had excavated a canyon into the nearly flat-lying basaltic and sedimentary rocks of the eastern Snake River Plain between Milner Dam and King Hill (fig. 2), a distance of almost 90 mi. For much of its length the canyon intersects the Snake River Plain aquifer, which discharges from the north canyon wall as springs of variable size, spacing, and altitude. Geologic controls on springs are of importance because nearly 60 percent of the aquifer's discharge occurs as spring flow along this reach of the canyon. This report is one of several that describes the geologic occurrence of springs along the northern wall of the Snake River canyon from Milner Dam to King Hill. To understand the local geologic controls on springs, the Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey initiated a geologic mapping project as part of their Snake River Plain Regional Aquifer System-Analysis Program. Objectives of the project were (1) to prepare a geologic map of a strip of land immediately north of the Snake River canyon, (2) to map the geology of the north canyon wall in profile, (3) to locate spring occurrences along the north side of the Snake River between Milner Dam and King Hill, and (4) to estimate spring discharge from the north wall of the canyon.

  1. wrv: An R Package for Groundwater Flow Model Construction, Wood River Valley Aquifer System, Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, J. C.

    2014-12-01

    Groundwater models are one of the main tools used in the hydrogeological sciences to assess resources and to simulate possible effects from future water demands and changes in climate. The hydrological inputs to groundwater models can be numerous and can vary in both time and space. Difficulties associated with model construction are often related to extensive datasets and cumbersome data processing tasks. To mitigate these difficulties, a graphical user interface (GUI) is often employed to aid the input of data for creating models. Unfortunately, GUI software presents an obstacle to reproducibility, a cornerstone of research. The considerable effort required to document processing steps in a GUI program, and the rapid obsoleteness of these steps with subsequent versions of the software, has prompted modelers to explicitly write down processing steps as source code to make them 'easily' reproducible. This research describes the R package wrv, a collection of datasets and functions for pre- and post-processing the numerical groundwater flow model of the Wood River Valley aquifer system, south-central Idaho. R largely facilitates reproducible modeling with the package vignette; a document that is a combination of content and source code. The code is run when the vignette is built, and all data analysis output (such as figures and tables) is created on the fly and inserted into the final document. The wrv package includes two vignettes that explain and run steps that (1) create package datasets from raw data files located on a publicly accessible repository, and (2) create and run the groundwater flow model. MODFLOW-USG, the numerical groundwater model used in this study, is executed from the vignette, and model output is returned for exploratory analyses. The ability of R to perform all processing steps in a single workflow is attributed to its comprehensive list of features; that include geographic information system and time series functionality.

  2. Lead exposure and poisoning of songbirds using the Coeur d'Alene River Basin, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, James A.; Audet, Daniel; Spears, Brian L.; Healy, Kate A.; Brazzle, Roy E.; Hoffman, David J.; Dailey, Anne; Beyer, W. Nelson

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have found widespread Pb poisoning of waterfowl in the Coeur d'Alene River Basin in northern Idaho, USA, which has been contaminated by mining and smelting activities. We studied the exposure of ground-feeding songbirds to Pb, sampling 204 American robins (Turdus migratorius), song sparrows (Melospiza melodia), and Swainson's thrushes (Catharus ustulatus) throughout the basin. These songbirds had mean blood Pb concentrations (mg/kg, dry weight) of less than 0.19 at a reference area (25 mg Pb/kg soil), 1.09 at moderately contaminated sites (170 to 1300 mg Pb/kg soil), and 2.06 at highly contaminated sites (2000 to 5000 mg Pb/kg soil). Based on guidelines for evaluating blood Pb in birds, 6% of robins from the highly contaminated sites had background concentrations, 24% were subclinically poisoned, 52% were clinically poisoned, and 18% were severely clinically poisoned with Pb. Blood Pb concentrations were lower in song sparrows than in robins and lowest in Swainson's thrushes. More than half of the robins and song sparrows from all contaminated sites and more than half of the Swainson's thrushes from highly contaminated sites showed at least 50% inhibition of the activity of the enzyme δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), commonly used as a measure of exposure to Pb. The highest hepatic Pb concentration of 61 mg/kg (dry weight) was detected in a song sparrow. Using Al as a marker for soil in songbird ingesta, we estimated average soil ingestion rates as 20% in robins, 17% in song sparrows, and 0.7% in Swainson's thrushes. Soil Pb in ingesta accounted for almost all of the songbirds' exposure to Pb. Based on these results, it is recommended that ecological risk assessments of ground-feeding songbirds at contaminated sites include soil ingestion as a pathway of exposure to Pb.

  3. Lead exposure and poisoning of songbirds using the Coeur d'Alene River Basin, Idaho, USA.

    PubMed

    Hansen, James A; Audet, Daniel; Spears, Brian L; Healy, Kate A; Brazzle, Roy E; Hoffman, David J; Dailey, Anne; Beyer, W Nelson

    2011-10-01

    Previous studies have found widespread Pb poisoning of waterfowl in the Coeur d'Alene River Basin in northern Idaho, USA, which has been contaminated by mining and smelting activities. We studied the exposure of ground-feeding songbirds to Pb, sampling 204 American robins (Turdus migratorius), song sparrows (Melospiza melodia), and Swainson's thrushes (Catharus ustulatus) throughout the basin. These songbirds had mean blood Pb concentrations (mg/kg, dry weight) of less than 0.19 at a reference area (25 mg Pb/kg soil), 1.09 at moderately contaminated sites (170 to 1300 mg Pb/kg soil), and 2.06 at highly contaminated sites (2000 to 5000 mg Pb/kg soil). Based on guidelines for evaluating blood Pb in birds, 6% of robins from the highly contaminated sites had background concentrations, 24% were subclinically poisoned, 52% were clinically poisoned, and 18% were severely clinically poisoned with Pb. Blood Pb concentrations were lower in song sparrows than in robins and lowest in Swainson's thrushes. More than half of the robins and song sparrows from all contaminated sites and more than half of the Swainson's thrushes from highly contaminated sites showed at least 50% inhibition of the activity of the enzyme δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), commonly used as a measure of exposure to Pb. The highest hepatic Pb concentration of 61 mg/kg (dry weight) was detected in a song sparrow. Using Al as a marker for soil in songbird ingesta, we estimated average soil ingestion rates as 20% in robins, 17% in song sparrows, and 0.7% in Swainson's thrushes. Soil Pb in ingesta accounted for almost all of the songbirds' exposure to Pb. Based on these results, it is recommended that ecological risk assessments of ground-feeding songbirds at contaminated sites include soil ingestion as a pathway of exposure to Pb. PMID:21538831

  4. Heat flow and seismicity patterns in the vicinity of the eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Blackwell, D.D. Kelley, S.A.; Steele, J.L. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1993-04-01

    New heat flow data and thermal modeling are used to calculate crustal temperatures in and adjacent to the eastern Snake River Plain (SRP). The estimated crustal temperature are then used to investigate the relationship between crustal strength and the observed parabolic pattern of seismicity around the SRP. Heat flow below the SRP aquifer in deep wells on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) site near the northern margin of the SRP is 107 [plus minus] 15 mWm[sup [minus]2]. Heat flow values from deep wells on both the northern and southern margins of the eastern SRP average 100 [plus minus] 15 mWm[sup [minus]2]. 2-D finite-difference thermal models were developed to fit seismic and heat flow data in the vicinity of the SRP. The models have a shallow silicic magma chamber that is as wide as the SRP. The silicic chamber is underlain by mafic heat sources in the middle to lower crust and in the upper mantle. The heat flow data are best fit by models with deep heat sources that are wider than the SRP. These results are consistent with the presence of young basaltic centers that have been observed outside the SRP. The temperature from the authors thermal models were used to calculate strength envelopes for the crust in the SRP/Basin and Range region. The weakest part of the crust is along the edge of the Basin and Range, where it is heated by the SRP; thus the boundary to the two provinces may be a zone of weak coupling. Their modeling indicates that it is difficult to explain the earthquake pattern in the vicinity of the SRP as a thermomechanical effect related to the passage of the Yellowstone hot spot.

  5. Geologic map and profiles of the north wall of the Snake River Canyon, Bliss, Hagerman, and Tuttle quadrangles, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Covington, H.R.; Weaver, Jean N.

    1990-01-01

    The Snake River Plain is a broad, arcuate region of low relief that extends more than 300 mi across southern Idaho. The Snake River enters the plain near Idaho Falls and flows westward along the southern margin of the eastern Snake River Plain (fig. 1), a position mainly determined by the basaltic lava flows that erupted near the axis of the plain. The highly productive Snake River Plain aquifer north of the Snake River underlies most of the eastern plain. The aquifer is composed of basaltic rocks that are interbedded with fluvial and lacustrine sedimentary rocks. The top of the aquifer (water table) is typically less than 500 ft below the land surface, but is deeper than 1,000 ft in a few areas. The Snake River has excavated a canyon into the nearly flat-lying basaltic and sedimentary rocks of the eastern Snake River Plain between Milner Dam and King Hill (fig. 2), a distance of almost 90 mi. For much of its length the canyon wall as springs of variable size, spacing, and altitude. Geologic controls on springs are of importance because nearly 60 percent of the aquifer's discharge occurs as spring flow along this reach of the canyon. This report is one of several that describes the geologic occurrence of springs along the northern wall of the Snake River canyon from Milner Dam to King Hill (fig. 1). To understand the local geologic controls on springs, the Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey initiated a geologic mapping project as part of their Snake River Plain Regional Aquifer System-Analysis Program. Objectives of the project were (1) to prepare a geologic map of a strip of land immediately north of the Snake River canyon, (2) to map the geology of the north canyon wall in profile, (3) to locate spring occurrences along the north side of the Snake River between Milner Dam and King Hill, and (4) to estimate spring discharge from the north wall of the canyon.

  6. Project HOTSPOT: Borehole geophysics log interpretation from the Snake River Plain, Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, M. D.; Schmitt, D. R.; Chen, X.; Shervais, J. W.; Liberty, L. M.; Potter, K. E.; Kessler, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    The Snake River Plain (SRP), Idaho, hosts potential geothermal resources due to elevated groundwater temperatures associated with the thermal anomaly Yellowstone-Snake River hotspot. Project HOTSPOT has coordinated international institutions and organizations to understand subsurface stratigraphy and assess geothermal potential. Over 5.9km of core were drilled from three boreholes within the SRP in an attempt to acquire continuous core documenting the volcanic and sedimentary record of the hotspot: (1) Kimama, (2) Kimberely, and (3) Mountain Home. The most eastern drill hole is Kimama located along the central volcanic axis of the SRP and documents basaltic volcanism. The Kimberely drill hole was selected to document continuous volcanism when analysed in conjunction with the Kimama drill hole and is located near the margin of the plain. The Mountain Home drill hole is located along the western plain and documents older basalts overlain by sediment. A suite of ground and borehole geophysical surveys were carried out within the SRP between 2010 and 2012. The borehole geophysics logs included gamma ray (spectral and natural), neutron hydrogen index, electrical resistivity, magnetic susceptibility, ultrasonic borehole televiewer imaging, full waveform sonic, and vertical seismic profile. The borehole geophysics logs were qualitatively assessed through visual interpretation of lithological horizons and quantitatively through physical property specialized software and digital signal processing automated filtering process to identify step functions and high frequency anomalies. Preliminary results were published by Schmitt et al. (2012), Potter et al. (2012), and Shervais et al. (2013). The results are continuously being enhanced as more information is qualitatively and quantitatively delineated from the borehole geophysics logs. Each drill hole encounters three principal units: massive basalt flows, rhyolite, and sediments. Basalt has a low to moderate porosity and is

  7. Seismic Reflection Project Near the Southern Terminations of the Lost River and Lemhi Faults, Eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    S. M. Jackson; G. S. Carpenter; R. P. Smith; J. L. Casper

    2006-10-01

    Thirteen seismic reflection lines were processed and interpreted to determine the southern terminations of the Lost River and Lemhi faults along the northwest boundary of the eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP). The southernmost terminations of the Arco and Howe segments were determined to support characterization of the Lost River and Lemhi fault sources, respectively, for the INL probabilistic seismic hazard analysis. Keywords:Keywords are required forExternal Release Review*Keywords  Keywords *Contacts (Type and Name are required for each row) Type ofContactContact Name  POC Editor RecordFour commercial seismic reflection lines (Arco lines 81-1 and 81-2; Howe lines 81-3 and 82-2) were obtained from the Montana Power Company. The seismic data were collected in the early 1980’s using a Vibroseis source with station and shot point locations that resulted in 12-fold data. Arco lines 81?1 and 81?2 and Howe lines 81?3 and 82?2 are located within the basins adjacent to the Arco and Howe segments, respectively. Seven seismic lines (Arco lines A1, A2, A3, and A4 and Howe lines H1, H2, and H3) were acquired by EG&G Idaho, Inc. Geosciences for this study using multiple impacts with an accelerated weight drop source. Station and shot point locations yielded 12-fold data. The seismic reflection lines are oriented perpendicular to and at locations along the projected extensions of the Arco and Howe fault segments within the ESRP. Two seismic lines (Arco line S2 and Howe line S4) were obtained from Sierra Geophysics. In 1984, they acquired seismic reflection data using an accelerated weight drop source with station and shot point locations that yielded 6-fold data. The two seismic reflection lines are oriented perpendicular to and at locations along the projected extensions of the Arco and Howe fault segments within the ESRP. In 1992 for this study, Geotrace Technologies Inc. processed all of the seismic reflection data using industry standard processing techniques. The

  8. Spawning Success of Hatchery Spring Chinook Salmon Outplanted as Adults in the Clearwater River Basin, Idaho, 2001.

    SciTech Connect

    Cramer, Steven P.; Ackerman, Nichlaus; Witty, Kenneth L.

    2002-04-16

    The study described in this report evaluated spawning distribution, overlap with naturally-arriving spawners, and pre-spawning mortality of spring chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, outplanted as adults in the Clearwater River Subbasin in 2001. Returns of spring chinook salmon to Snake River Basin hatcheries and acclimation facilities in 2001 exceeded needs for hatchery production goals in Idaho. Consequently, management agencies including the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS), Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) and Nez Perce Tribe (NPT) agreed to outplant chinook salmon adults as an adaptive management strategy for using hatchery adults. Adult outplants were made in streams or stream sections that have been typically underseeded with spawners. This strategy anticipated that outplanted hatchery chinook salmon would spawn successfully near the areas where they were planted, and would increase natural production. Outplanting of adult spring chinook salmon from hatcheries is likely to be proposed in years when run sizes are similar to those of the 2001 run. Careful monitoring of results from this year's outplanting can be used to guide decisions and methods for future adult outplanting. Numbers of spring chinook salmon outplanted was based on hatchery run size, hatchery needs, and available spawning habitat. Hatcheries involved in outplanting in the Clearwater Basin included Dworshak National Fish Hatchery, Kooskia National Fish Hatchery, Clearwater Anadromous Fish Hatchery, and Rapid River Fish Hatchery. The NPT, IDFG, FWS, and the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) agreed upon outplant locations and a range of numbers of spring chinook salmon to be outplanted (Table 1). Outplanting occurred mainly in the Selway River Subbasin, but additional outplants were made in tributaries to the South Fork Clearwater River and the Lochsa River (Table 1). Actual outplanting activities were carried out primarily by the NPT with supplemental outplanting done

  9. Climatic and Tectonic Controls on Alluvial Fan Evolution: The Lost River Range, Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, R. J.; Pierce, J. L.; Sharp, W. D.; Pierce, K. L.

    2006-12-01

    colluvial fault wedge date at 68+/-2 ka, suggesting that either faulting occurred soon after Qfo2 stabilized or that soil carbonate coats were recycled into the colluvial wedge from the faulted surface. Further studies in the Lost River Range will assess the timing of fan deposition, surface stabilization and fault activity since the late Pleistocene using coupled application of Optically Stimulated Thermoluminescence (OSL) dating of loess and fine-sands, and 230Th/U-dating of pedogenic carbonate formed within well- exposed fan stratigraphy. Defining intervals of erosion, deposition and stability within the context of regional records of Quaternary climate change will yield new insights into the interplay between faulting, climate change and alluvial fan deposition and incision in semi-arid environments. [1] Pierce, K.L., Scott, W.E., 1982. Idaho Mines &Geol. Bull. 26. [2] Patterson, S.J., 2006. M.S. Thesis, Montana State University

  10. Stratigraphy of the unsaturated zone and uppermost part of the Snake River Plain aquifer at test area north, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, S.R.; Bowers, B.

    1995-06-01

    A complex sequence of basalt flows and sedimentary interbeds underlies Test Area North (TAN) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory in eastern Idaho. Wells drilled to depths of at least 500 feet penetrate 10 basalt-flow groups and 5 to 10 sedimentary interbeds that range in age from about 940,000 to 1.4 million years. Each basalt-flow group consists of one or more basalt flows from a brief, single or compound eruption. All basalt flows of each group erupted from the same vent, and have similar ages, paleomagnetic properties, potassium contents, and natural-gamma emissions. Sedimentary interbeds consist of fluvial, lacustrine, and eolian deposits of clay, silt, sand, and gravel that accumulated for hundreds to hundreds of thousands of years during periods of volcanic quiescence. Basalt and sediment are elevated by hundreds of feet with respect to rocks of equivalent age south and cast of the area, a relation that is attributed to past uplift at TAN. Basalt and sediment are unsaturated to a depth of about 200 feet below land surface. Rocks below this depth are saturated and make up the Snake River Plain aquifer. The effective base of the aquifer is at a depth of 885 feet below land surface. Detailed stratigraphic relations for the lowermost part of the aquifer in the depth interval from 500 to 885 feet were not determined because of insufficient data. The stratigraphy of basalt-flow groups and sedimentary interbeds in the upper 500 feet of the unsaturated zone and aquifer was determined from natural-gamma logs, lithologic logs, and well cores. Basalt cores were evaluated for potassium-argon ages, paleomagnetic properties, petrographic characteristics, and chemical composition. Stratigraphic control was provided by differences in ages, paleomagnetic properties, potassium content, and natural-gamma emissions of basalt-flow groups and sedimentary interbeds.

  11. Cottus schitsuumsh, a new species of sculpin (Scorpaeniformes: Cottidae) in the Columbia River basin, Idaho-Montana, USA.

    PubMed

    Lemoine, Michael; Young, Michael K; Mckelvey, Kevin S; Eby, Lisa; Pilgrim, Kristine L; Schwartz, Michael K

    2014-01-01

    Fishes of the genus Cottus have long been taxonomically challenging because of morphological similarities among species and their tendency to hybridize, and a number of undescribed species may remain in this genus. We used a combination of genetic and morphological methods to delineate and describe Cottus schitsuumsh, Cedar Sculpin, a new species, from the upper Columbia River basin, Idaho-Montana, USA. Although historically confused with the Shorthead Sculpin (C. confusus), the genetic distance between C. schitsuumsh and C. confusus (4.84-6.29%) suggests these species are distant relatives. Moreover, the two species can be differentiated on the basis of lateral-line pores on the caudal peduncle, head width, and interpelvic width. Cottus schitsuumsh is also distinct from all other Cottus in this region in having a single small, skin-covered, preopercular spine. Haplotypes of mtDNA cytochrome oxidase c subunit 1 of C. schitsuumsh differed from all other members of the genus at three positions, had interspecific genetic distances typical for congeneric fishes (1.61-2.74% to nearest neighbors), and were monophyletic in maximum-likelihood trees. Microsatellite analyses confirmed these taxonomic groupings for species potentially sympatric with C. schitsuumsh and that fish used in morphological comparisons were unlikely to be introgressed. Its irregular distribution, in the Spokane River basin in Idaho and portions of the Clark Fork River basin in Montana, may have resulted from human-assisted translocation. PMID:24869819

  12. Multiscale Genetic Structure of Yellowstone Cutthroat Trout in the Upper Snake River Basin.

    SciTech Connect

    Cegelski, Christine C.; Campbell, Matthew R.

    2006-05-30

    Populations of Yellowstone cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarkii bouvierii have declined throughout their native range as a result of habitat fragmentation, overharvest, and introductions of nonnative trout that have hybridized with or displaced native populations. The degree to which these factors have impacted the current genetic population structure of Yellowstone cutthroat trout populations is of primary interest for their conservation. In this study, we examined the genetic diversity and genetic population structure of Yellowstone cutthroat trout in Idaho and Nevada with data from six polymorphic microsatellite loci. A total of 1,392 samples were analyzed from 45 sample locations throughout 11 major river drainages. We found that levels of genetic diversity and genetic differentiation varied extensively. The Salt River drainage, which is representative of the least impacted migration corridors in Idaho, had the highest levels of genetic diversity and low levels of genetic differentiation. High levels of genetic differentiation were observed at similar or smaller geographic scales in the Portneuf River, Raft River, and Teton River drainages, which are more altered by anthropogenic disturbances. Results suggested that Yellowstone cutthroat trout are naturally structured at the major river drainage level but that habitat fragmentation has altered this structuring. Connectivity should be restored via habitat restoration whenever possible to minimize losses in genetic diversity and to preserve historical processes of gene flow, life history variation, and metapopulation dynamics. However, alternative strategies for management and conservation should also be considered in areas where there is a strong likelihood of nonnative invasions or extensive habitat fragmentation that cannot be easily ameliorated.

  13. Groundwater resources of the Wood River Valley, Idaho--A groundwater-flow model for resource management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartolino, James; Vincent, Sean

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in collaboration with the Idaho Department of Water Resources (IDWR), will use the current understanding of the Wood River Valley aquifer system to construct a MODFLOW numerical groundwater-flow model to simulate potential anthropogenic and climatic effects on groundwater and surface-water resources. This model will serve as a tool for water rights administration and water-resource management and planning. The study will be conducted over a 3-year period from late 2012 until model and report completion in 2015.

  14. Seismic hazards astride the boundary between the eastern Snake River Plain and northern Basin and Range Province Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, I.G.; Hemphill-Haley, M.A.; Sawyer, T.L. ); Coppersmith, K.J.; Youngs, R.R. ); Smith, R.P.; Jackson, S.M.; Hackett, W.R. ); Silva, W.J.; Stark, C.M. ); Knuepfer, P.L.K. . Dept. of Geological Sciences); Bruhn, R.L.; Wu, D. . Dept. of Geology and Geophysics)

    1993-04-01

    The occurrence of the damaging 1983 M[sub w] 6.8 Borah Peak, Idaho earthquake, which ruptured a central segment of the Lost River fault, has increased the awareness of seismic hazards in this portion of the Northern Basin and Range Province (NBR). As a result, comprehensive deterministic and probabilistic seismic hazard analyses were performed for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) which is located within the eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) but adjacent to the NBR. In this region, the most significant seismic sources are three late-Quaternary NBR normal faults, the Lost River, Lemhi and Beaverhead faults, and ESRP volcanic zones. For each source, the maximum earthquake, source geometry, recurrence and their uncertainties were estimated and incorporated into the probabilistic analysis through the use of logic trees. Recent paleoseismic trenching of the Lost River and Lemhi faults and volcanic mapping in the ESRP provided much of the data necessary to characterize the most significant seismic sources. Issues such as fault segmentation, temporal clustering, the nature of fault termination, and the maximum magnitude and recurrence of volcanic zone earthquakes were evaluated in the hazard analyses. Deterministic and probabilistic ground motions were computed using both empirical and stochastic approaches. In the deterministic analysis, the southern segments of the Lemhi fault controlled the hazard at the INEL due to their proximity and potential to generate M[sub w] [approximately]7 earthquakes. In the estimation of deterministic ground motions, potential rupture scenarios were evaluated for a Lemhi earthquake. In the probabilistic analysis, the hazard is dominated by the ESRP random earthquake, and the Lemhi and Lost River faults. The difference in the results of the two analyses points out the uncertainties in assessing seismic hazards due to random earthquakes and in regions of large but infrequent earthquakes.

  15. Feeding response by northern squawfish to a hatchery release of juvenile salmonids in the Clearwater River, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shively, R.S.; Poe, T.P.; Sauter, S.T.

    1996-01-01

    We collected gut contents from northern squawfish Ptychocheilus oregonensis captured in the Clearwater River, Idaho, 0–6 km from its confluence with the Snake River, following the release of 1.1 million yearling chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha from the Dworshak National Fish Hatchery. Before the hatchery release, northern squawfish gut contents (by weight) in the study area were 38% crayfish Pacifastacus spp., 26% insects, 19% nonsalmonid fish, and 16% wheat kernels Triticum spp. Juvenile salmonids constituted 54% of gut contents about 24 h after the hatchery release, 78% after 5 d, and 86% after 7 d. The mean number of salmonids per gut (1.2) after release was higher than typically seen in guts from northern squawfish collected in mid-reservoir areas away from hydroelectric dams on the Snake and Columbia rivers. Length-frequency distributions of juvenile salmonids eaten and those captured in a scoop trap 4 km upstream of the study area indicated that northern squawfish were selectively feeding on the smaller individuals. We attribute the high rates of predation in the study area to the artificially high density of juvenile salmonids resulting from the hatchery release and to the physical characteristics of the study area in which the river changed from free flowing to impounded. Our results suggest that northern squawfish can quickly exploit hatchery releases of juvenile salmonids away from release sites in the Columbia River basin.

  16. Chemical Constituents in Groundwater from Multiple Zones in the Eastern Snake River Plain Aquifer at the Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho, 2005-08

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartholomay, Roy C.; Twining, Brian V.

    2010-01-01

    From 2005 to 2008, the U.S. Geological Survey's Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Project office, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, collected water-quality samples from multiple water-bearing zones in the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer. Water samples were collected from six monitoring wells completed in about 350-700 feet of the upper part of the aquifer, and the samples were analyzed for major ions, selected trace elements, nutrients, selected radiochemical constituents, and selected stable isotopes. Each well was equipped with a multilevel monitoring system containing four to seven sampling ports that were each isolated by permanent packer systems. The sampling ports were installed in aquifer zones that were highly transmissive and that represented the water chemistry of the top four to five model layers of a steady-state and transient groundwater-flow model. The model's water chemistry and particle-tracking simulations are being used to better define movement of wastewater constituents in the aquifer. The results of the water chemistry analyses indicated that, in each of four separate wells, one zone of water differed markedly from the other zones in the well. In four wells, one zone to as many as five zones contained radiochemical constituents that originated from wastewater disposal at selected laboratory facilities. The multilevel sampling systems are defining the vertical distribution of wastewater constituents in the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer and the concentrations of wastewater constituents in deeper zones in wells Middle 2051, USGS 132, and USGS 103 support the concept of groundwater flow deepening in the southwestern part of the INL.

  17. Eocene extension in Idaho generated massive sediment floods into Franciscan trench and into Tyee, Great Valley, and Green River basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dumitru, Trevor A.; Ernst, W.G.; Wright, James E.; Wooden, Joseph L.; Wells, Ray E.; Farmer, Lucia P.; Kent, Adam J.R.; Graham, Stephan A.

    2013-01-01

    The Franciscan Complex accretionary prism was assembled during an ∼165-m.y.-long period of subduction of Pacific Ocean plates beneath the western margin of the North American plate. In such fossil subduction complexes, it is generally difficult to reconstruct details of the accretion of continent-derived sediments and to evaluate the factors that controlled accretion. New detrital zircon U-Pb ages indicate that much of the major Coastal belt subunit of the Franciscan Complex represents a massive, relatively brief, surge of near-trench deposition and accretion during Eocene time (ca. 53–49 Ma). Sediments were sourced mainly from the distant Idaho Batholith region rather than the nearby Sierra Nevada. Idaho detritus also fed the Great Valley forearc basin of California (ca. 53–37 Ma), the Tyee forearc basin of coastal Oregon (49 to ca. 36 Ma), and the greater Green River lake basin of Wyoming (50–47 Ma). Plutonism in the Idaho Batholith spanned 98–53 Ma in a contractional setting; it was abruptly superseded by major extension in the Bitterroot, Anaconda, Clearwater, and Priest River metamorphic core complexes (53–40 Ma) and by major volcanism in the Challis volcanic field (51–43 Ma). This extensional tectonism apparently deformed and uplifted a broad region, shedding voluminous sediments toward depocenters to the west and southeast. In the Franciscan Coastal belt, the major increase in sediment input apparently triggered a pulse of massive accretion, a pulse ultimately controlled by continental tectonism far within the interior of the North American plate, rather than by some tectonic event along the plate boundary itself.

  18. Analytical results and sample locality map of stream-sediment, heavy-mineral-concentrate, and rock samples from the Bruneau River, Jarbidge River, and Sheep Creek West Wilderness Study Areas, Owyhee County, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, M.S.; Bradley, L.A.; Gent, C.A.; King, H.D.

    1989-01-01

    A U.S. Geological Survey report is presented giving the analytical results and sample locality map of stream-sediment, heavy-mineral-concentrate, and rock samples from the Bruneau River, Jarbidge River, and Sheep Creek West Wilderness Study Areas, Owyhee County, Idaho.

  19. Power resources of Snake River between Huntington, Oregon and Lewiston, Idaho: Chapter C in Contributions to the hydrology of the United States, 1923-1924

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoyt, William Glenn

    1925-01-01

    Thousands of people are familiar with that part of Snake River where it flows for more than 300 miles in a general westward course across the plains of southern Idaho, but few have traversed the river where it flows northward and for 200 miles forms the boundary between Idaho and Oregon and for 30 miles the boundary between Idaho and Washington. Below the mining town of Homestead, Oreg., which is the end of a branch line of the Oregon Short Line Railroad, Snake River finds its way through the mountain ranges that seem to block its way to Columbia River in a canyon which, though not so well known, so majestic, nor so kaleidoscopic in color, is in some respects worthy of comparison with the Grand Canyon of the Colorado, for at some places it is deeper and narrower than the Grand Canyon at El Tovar. The Snake, unlike the Colorado, can be reached at many points through the valleys of tributary streams, and the early prospectors no doubt thoroughly explored all parts of the canyon. To traverse the river between Homestead, Oreg., and Lewiston, Idaho, is, however, a difficult undertaking and there are only a few records of boat journeys through the entire stretch. It has long been known that this portion of Snake River contains large potential water powers, but until recently no detailed surveys or examinations covering the entire stretch of the river had been made to determine their location or extent. A railroad has been proposed between Homestead and Lewiston which would provide a direct connection between the railroad systems of northern and southern Idaho. One function of the Geological Survey is to determine the possible interface between transportation routes on land and potential water-power development, and the information set forth in this paper has a bearing on that problem.

  20. Steady-state and transient models of groundwater flow and advective transport, Eastern Snake River Plain aquifer, Idaho National Laboratory and vicinity, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ackerman, Daniel J.; Rousseau, Joseph P.; Rattray, Gordon W.; Fisher, Jason C.

    2010-01-01

    Three-dimensional steady-state and transient models of groundwater flow and advective transport in the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer were developed by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy. The steady-state and transient flow models cover an area of 1,940 square miles that includes most of the 890 square miles of the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). A 50-year history of waste disposal at the INL has resulted in measurable concentrations of waste contaminants in the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer. Model results can be used in numerical simulations to evaluate the movement of contaminants in the aquifer. Saturated flow in the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer was simulated using the MODFLOW-2000 groundwater flow model. Steady-state flow was simulated to represent conditions in 1980 with average streamflow infiltration from 1966-80 for the Big Lost River, the major variable inflow to the system. The transient flow model simulates groundwater flow between 1980 and 1995, a period that included a 5-year wet cycle (1982-86) followed by an 8-year dry cycle (1987-94). Specified flows into or out of the active model grid define the conditions on all boundaries except the southwest (outflow) boundary, which is simulated with head-dependent flow. In the transient flow model, streamflow infiltration was the major stress, and was variable in time and location. The models were calibrated by adjusting aquifer hydraulic properties to match simulated and observed heads or head differences using the parameter-estimation program incorporated in MODFLOW-2000. Various summary, regression, and inferential statistics, in addition to comparisons of model properties and simulated head to measured properties and head, were used to evaluate the model calibration. Model parameters estimated for the steady-state calibration included hydraulic conductivity for seven of nine hydrogeologic zones and a global value of vertical anisotropy. Parameters

  1. Additional mineral resources assessment of the Battle Creek, Bruneau River, Deep Creek-Owyhee River, Jarbidge River, Juniper Creek, Little Owyhee River, North Fork Owyhee River, Owyhee River Canyon, South Fork Owyhee River, Upper Deep Creek, and Yatahoney Creek Wilderness Study Areas, Owyhee County, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diggles, Michael F.; Berger, Byron R.; Vander Meulen, Dean B.; Minor, Scott A.; Ach, Jay A.; Sawlan, Michael G.

    1989-01-01

    From 1984 to 1986, studies were conducted to assess the potential for undiscovered mineral resources in wilderness study areas on the Owyhee Plateau. The results of these studies have been published in a series of U.S. Geological Survey Bulletins. Since that time, low-grade, high-tonnage epithermal hot-spring gold-silver deposits have been recognized in the region north of the wilderness study areas. The recognition that this mineral-deposit model is applicable in the region, coupled with new data that has become available to the U.S. Geological Survey, reinterpretation of existing geochemical data, and known-deposit data suggest that similar deposits may be present elsewhere on the Owyhee Plateau. This report is an additional assessment of the Battle Creek, Bruneau River, Deep Creek-Owyhee River, Jarbidge River, Juniper Creek, Little Owyhee River, North Fork Owyhee River, Owyhee River Canyon, South Fork Owyhee River (ID-016-053), Upper Deep Creek, and Yatahoney Creek Wilderness Study Areas in Idaho Wilderness Study Areas in Idaho in light of those new data.

  2. Physiographic factors defining the Snake River Valley AVA; beyond "Vin de Idaho"

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beginning in 1971 with the first plantings of wine grapes, the wine and wine grape industry in southwest Idaho have grown to become significant contributors to the state economy with an annual impact of $75 million. With around 1600 acres under cultivation in 50 vineyards producing at least 24 varie...

  3. Cutthroat trout avoidance of metals and conditions characteristic of a mining waste site: Coeur d'Alene River, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodward, D.F.; Goldstein, J.N.; Farag, A.M.; Brumbaugh, W.G.

    1997-01-01

    The South Fork basin of the Coeur d'Alene River, Idaho has been an area of heavy mining activity since the 1880s. The mining operations have resulted in elevated concentrations of metals in surface water, most notably cadmium, lead, zinc, and, to a lesser extent, copper. The metals affected surface water quality downstream in the Coeur d'Alene basin and are suspected to be one of the primary reasons for the reduction in populations of native westslope cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi. The avoidance response of a surrogate species, Snake River cutthroat trout O. clarki (unnamed subspecies), was evaluated against conditions simulating those in the Coeur d'Alene River basin. Cutthroat trout avoided a metals mixture of these concentrations: Cd (0.30 ??g/L), Cu (6.0 ??g/L), Pb (0.6 ??g/L), and Zn (28 ??g/L). The avoidance response to either Cu or Zn alone was similar to the avoidance response to the mixture, suggesting that avoidance to the mixture was due to these metals. After acclimation to Zn at 55 ??g/L for 90 d, cutthroat trout detected and preferred a lower Zn concentration of 28 ??g/L. The lowest Zn concentrations avoided (28 ??g/L) were 1/6 to 1/78 the Zn concentrations measured in the South Fork and lower Coeur d'Alene River basins. Avoidance of metals-contaminated habitats by cutthroat trout may be, in part, responsible for reduced fish populations.

  4. Geological Studies of the Salmon River Suture Zone and Adjoining Areas, West-Central Idaho and Eastern Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuntz, Mel A., (Edited By); Snee, Lawrence W.

    2007-01-01

    The papers in this volume describe petrologic, structural, and geochemical studies related to geographic areas adjacent to and including the Salmon River suture zone. We therefore start this volume by defining and giving a general description of that suture zone. The western margin of the North American continent was the setting for complex terrane accretion and large-scale terrane translation during Late Cretaceous and Eocene time. In western Idaho, the boundary that separates the Paleozoic-Mesozoic accreted oceanic, island-arc rocks on the west from Precambrian continental metamorphic and sedimentary rocks on the east is called the Salmon River suture zone (SRSZ). Readers will note that the term 'Salmon River suture zone' is used in the title of this volume and in the text of several of the papers and the term 'western Idaho suture zone' is used in several other papers in this volume. Both terms refer to the same geologic feature and reflect historical usage and custom; thus no attempt has been made by the editors to impose or demand a single term by the various authors of this volume. The suture zone is marked by strong lithologic and chemical differences. Rocks adjacent to the suture zone are characterized by high-grade metamorphism and much structural deformation. In addition, the zone was the locus of emplacement of plutons ranging in composition from tonalite to monzogranite during and after the final stages of accretion of the oceanic terrane to the North American continent. The contents of this paper consists of seven chapters.

  5. Timing and development of the Heise volcanic field, Snake River Plain, Idaho, western USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morgan, L.A.; McIntosh, W.C.

    2005-01-01

    The Snake River Plain (SRP) developed over the last 16 Ma as a bimodal volcanic province in response to the southwest movement of the North American plate over a fixed melting anomaly. Volcanism along the SRP is dominated by eruptions of explosive high-silica rhyolites and represents some of the largest eruptions known. Basaltic eruptions represent the final stages of volcanism, forming a thin cap above voluminous rhyolitic deposits. Volcanism progressed, generally from west to east, along the plain episodically in successive volcanic fields comprised of nested caldera complexes with major caldera-forming eruptions within a particular field separated by ca. 0.5-1 Ma, similar to, and in continuation with, the present-day Yellowstone Plateau volcanic field. Passage of the North American plate over the melting anomaly at a particular point in time and space was accompanied by uplift, regional tectonism, massive explosive eruptions, and caldera subsidence, and followed by basaltic volcanism and general subsidence. The Heise volcan ic field in the eastern SRP, Idaho, represents an adjacent and slightly older field immediately to the southwest of the Yellowstone Plateau volcanic field. Five large-volume (>0.5 km3) rhyolitic ignimbrites constitute a time-stratigraphic framework of late Miocene to early Pliocene volcanism for the study region. Field relations and high-precision 40Ar/39Ar age determinations establish that four of these regional ignimbrites were erupted from the Heise volcanic field and form the framework of the Heise Group. These are the Blacktail Creek Tuff (6.62 ?? 0.03 Ma), Walcott Tuff (6.27 ?? 0.04 Ma), Conant Creek Tuff (5.51 ?? 0.13 Ma), and Kilgore Tuff (4.45 ?? 0.05 Ma; all errors reported at ?? 2??). The fifth widespread ignimbrite in the regions is the Arbon Valley Tuff Member of the Starlight Formation (10.21 ?? 0.03 Ma), which erupted from a caldera source outside of the Heise volcanic field. These results establish the Conant Creek Tuff as a

  6. Tritium concentrations in flow from selected springs that discharge to the Snake River, Twin Falls-Hagerman area, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mann, L.J.

    1989-01-01

    Concern has been expressed that some of the approximately 30,900 curies of tritium disposed to the Snake River Plain aquifer from 1952 to 1988 at the INEL (Idaho National Engineering Laboratory) have migrated to springs discharging to the Snake River in the Twin Falls-Hagerman area. To document tritium concentrations in springflow, 17 springs were sampled in November 1988 and 19 springs were sampled in March 1989. Tritium concentrations were less than the minimum detectable concentration of 0.5 pCi/mL (picocuries/mL) in November 1988 and less than the minimum detectable concentration of 0.2 pCi/mL in March 1989; the minimum detectable concentration was smaller in March 1989 owing to a longer counting time in the liquid scintillation system. The maximum contaminant level of tritium in drinking water as established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is 20 pCi/mL. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency sample analyses indicate that the tritium concentration has decreased in the Snake River near Buhl since the 1970's. In 1974-79, tritium concentrations were less than 0.3 +/-0.2 pCi/mL in 3 of 20 samples; in 1983-88, 17 of 23 samples contained less than 0.3 +/-0.2 pCi/mL of tritium; the minimum detectable concentration is 0.2 pCi/mL. On the basis of decreasing tritium concentrations in the Snake River, their correlation to cessation of atmospheric weapons tests tritium concentrations in springflow less than the minimum detectable concentration, and the distribution of tritium in groundwater at the INEL, aqueous disposal of tritium at the INEL has had no measurable effect on tritium concentrations in springflow from the Snake River Plain aquifer and in the Snake River near Buhl. (USGS)

  7. An update of hydrologic conditions and distribution of selected constituents in water, Snake River Plain aquifer, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho, Emphasis 1999-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Linda C.

    2006-01-01

    Radiochemical and chemical wastewater discharged since 1952 to infiltration ponds, evaporation ponds, and disposal wells at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has affected water quality in the Snake River Plain aquifer underlying the INL. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, maintains ground-water monitoring networks at the INL to determine hydrologic trends, and to delineate the movement of radiochemical and chemical wastes in the aquifer. This report presents an analysis of water-level and water-quality data collected from wells in the USGS ground-water monitoring networks during 1999-2001. Water in the Snake River Plain aquifer moves principally through fractures and interflow zones in basalt, generally flows southwestward, and eventually discharges at springs along the Snake River. The aquifer is recharged principally from infiltration of irrigation water, infiltration of streamflow, ground-water inflow from adjoining mountain drainage basins, and infiltration of precipitation. Water levels in wells rose in the northern and west-central parts of the INL by 1 to 3 feet, and declined in the southwestern parts of the INL by up to 4 feet during 1999-2001. Detectable concentrations of radiochemical constituents in water samples from wells in the Snake River Plain aquifer at the INL generally decreased or remained constant during 1999-2001. Decreases in concentrations were attributed to decreased rates of radioactive-waste disposal, radioactive decay, changes in waste-disposal methods, and dilution from recharge. Tritium concentrations in water samples decreased as much as 8.3 picocuries per milliliter (pCi/mL) during 1999-2001, ranging from 0.43?0.14 to 13.6?0.6 pCi/mL in October 2001. Tritium concentrations in five wells near the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) increased a few picocuries per milliliter from October 2000 to October 2001. Strontium-90 concentrations decreased or remained

  8. 77 FR 73976 - Nez Perce-Clearwater National Forests; Idaho; Crooked River Valley Rehabilitation Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-12

    ... from the road surface, and often floods during spring runoff. Crooked River Road 233 prism is within... The current Road 233 prism is within the bankfull floodplain of Crooked River for much of its...

  9. PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL, AND BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE BOISE RIVER FROM VETERANS MEMORIAL PARKWAY, BOISE TO STAR, IDAHO, OCTOBER 1987 TO MARCH 1987

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemical and physical data were collected at 6 sites and biological data at 5 sites on the Boise River between Veterans Memorial Parkway in Boise and Star, Idaho (17050114), from October 1987 to March 1988. Data were collected to determine whether trace elements from effluents d...

  10. A LITERATURE SEARCH TO DETERMINE THE BASE-LINE CONDITIONS AND EFFECTS OF POLLUTION ON THE BIG WOOD RIVER AND MAGIC RESERVOIR, IDAHO. 1977

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report examines existing information concerning the ecology of Magic Reservoir and Big Wood River, Idaho (17040219) to determine the background conditions and effects of pollution on these ecosystems. The area is a popular attraction for outdoor recreationists, which has st...

  11. Geologic Controls of Hydraulic Conductivity in the Snake River Plain Aquifer At and Near the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    S. R. Anderson; M. A. Kuntz; L. C. Davis

    1999-02-01

    The effective hydraulic conductivity of basalt and interbedded sediment that compose the Snake River Plain aquifer at and near the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) ranges from about 1.0x10 -2 to 3.2x10 4 feet per day (ft/d). This six-order-of-magnitude range of hydraulic conductivity was estimated from single-well aquifer tests in 114 wells, and is attributed mainly to the physical characteristics and distribution of basalt flows and dikes. Hydraulic conductivity is greatest in thin pahoehoe flows and near-vent volcanic deposits. Hydraulic conductivity is least in flows and deposits cut by dikes. Estimates of hydraulic conductivity at and near the INEEL are similar to those measured in similar volcanic settings in Hawaii. The largest variety of rock types and the greatest range of hydraulic conductivity are in volcanic rift zones, which are characterized by numerous aligned volcanic vents and fissures related to underlying dikes. Three broad categories of hydraulic conductivity corresponding to six general types of geologic controls can be inferred from the distribution of wells and vent corridors. Hydraulic conductivity of basalt flows probably is increased by localized fissures and coarse mixtures of interbedded sediment, scoria, and basalt rubble. Hydraulic conductivity of basalt flows is decreased locally by abundant alteration minerals of probable hydrothermal origin. Hydraulic conductivity varies as much as six orders of magnitude in a single vent corridor and varies from three to five orders of magnitude within distances of 500 to 1,000 feet. Abrupt changes in hydraulic conductivity over short distances suggest the presence of preferential pathways and local barriers that may greatly affect the movement of ground water and the dispersion of radioactive and chemical wastes downgradient from points of waste disposal.

  12. WATER QUALITY INVESTIGATIONS OF SNAKE RIVER AND PRINCIPAL TRIBUTARIES FROM WALTERS FERRY TO WEISER, IDAHO. 1971

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stream surveys conducted from 18 October to 10 November 1971 revealed that water upstream of the Boise River was relatively unpolluted, however, bacterial standards were violated. In the reach of the Snake River between the mouth of the Boise River and Weiser (170501), gross vio...

  13. Salmon Supplementation Studies in Idaho Rivers; Field Activities Conducted on Clear and Pete King Creeks, 2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Bretz, Justin K.; Olson, Jill M.

    2003-03-01

    In 2002 the Idaho Fisheries Resource Office continued working as a cooperator on the Salmon Supplementation Studies in Idaho Rivers (ISS) project on Pete King and Clear creeks. Data relating to supplementation treatment releases, juvenile sampling, juvenile PIT tagging, broodstock spawning and rearing, spawning ground surveys, and snorkel surveys were used to evaluate the project data points and augment past data. Supplementation treatments included the release of 51,329 left ventral-clipped smolts into Clear Creek (750 were PIT tagged), and 12,000 unmarked coded-wire tagged parr into Pete King Creek (998 were PIT tagged). Using juvenile collection methods, Idaho Fisheries Resource Office staff PIT tagged and released 579 naturally produced spring chinook juveniles in Clear Creek, and 54 on Pete King Creek, for minimum survival estimates to Lower Granite Dam. For Clear Creek, minimum survival estimates to Lower Granite Dam of hatchery produced supplementation and naturally produced PIT tagged smolts, were 36.0%, and 53.1%, respectively. For Pete King Creek, minimum survival estimates to Lower Granite Dam, of hatchery produced supplementation smolts and naturally produced smolts PIT tagged as parr and presmolts, were 18.8%, and 8.3%, respectively. Adults collected for broodstock in 2002 represented the final adult broodstock group collected for the ISS project. Twenty-six ventral clipped, and 28 natural adult spring chinook were transported above the weir. Monitoring and evaluation of spawning success was continued on Clear and Pete King creeks. A total of 69 redds were counted and 79 carcasses were recovered on Clear Creek. Two redds were observed and no carcasses were collected on Pete King Creek.

  14. Salmon Supplementation Studies in Idaho Rivers; Field Activities Conducted on Clear and Pete King Creeks, 2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Gass, Carrie; Olson, Jim M.

    2004-11-01

    In 2001 the Idaho Fisheries Resource Office continued as a cooperator on the Salmon Supplementation Studies in Idaho Rivers (ISS) project on Pete King and Clear creeks. Data relating to supplementation treatment releases, juvenile sampling, juvenile PIT tagging, brood stock spawning and rearing, spawning ground surveys, and snorkel surveys were used to evaluate project data points and augment past data. Due to low adult spring Chinook returns to Kooskia National Fish Hatchery (KNFH) in brood year 1999 there was no smolt supplementation treatment release into Clear Creek in 2001. A 17,014 spring Chinook parr supplementation treatment (containing 1000 PIT tags) was released into Pete King Creek on July 24, 2001. On Clear Creek, there were 412 naturally produced spring Chinook parr PIT tagged and released. Using juvenile collection methods, Idaho Fisheries Resource Office staff PIT tagged and released 320 naturally produced spring Chinook pre-smolts on Clear Creek, and 16 natural pre-smolts on Pete King Creek, for minimum survival estimates to Lower Granite Dam. There were no PIT tag detections of brood year 1999 smolts from Clear or Pete King creeks. A total of 2261 adult spring Chinook were collected at KNFH. Forty-three females were used for supplementation brood stock, and 45 supplementation (ventral fin-clip), and 45 natural (unmarked) adults were released upstream of KNFH to spawn naturally. Spatial and temporal distribution of 37 adults released above the KNFH weir was determined through the use of radio telemetry. On Clear Creek, a total of 166 redds (8.2 redds/km) were observed and data was collected from 195 carcasses. Seventeen completed redds (2.1 redds/km) were found, and data was collected data from six carcasses on Pete King Creek.

  15. Physical Volcanology and Geochemistry of the Brown's Creek Rhyolite Lava in the Western Snake River Plain, Idaho.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steenberg, L.; Gruber, B.; Boroughs, S.; Wolff, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Brown's Creek rhyolite (BCR), ~70 km south of Boise, Idaho, erupted during a period of widespread rhyolitic volcanism in southwestern Idaho during the middle Miocene. However, the Brown's Creek unit has several characteristics that are unusual relative to near contemporaneous units in the Central Snake Rive Plain (CSRP) and units in the Western Snake River Plain (WSRP). The BCR can contain up to 40% phenocrysts, with some feldspar and quartz crystals in excess of 2 cm in diameter. A proximal vent location is particularly well exposed in the BCR, and appears as an elongated topographic "dome" with pervasive, chaotic and steep flow banding, ramp structures, and breccias. Evidence of dome building activity is also represented by a matrix supported deposit of ash and poorly sorted, angular, rhyolite clasts up to boulder size; which crops out in a small area near the vent. The BCR is among numerous units in the CSRP and WSRP that show evidence of interaction with ancient Lake Idaho (e.g. silicification, opalized zones, pepperites, etc), but the unconformity with the sedimentary rocks of the lake and its feeder streams, is extremely well preserved in the Brown's Creek rhyolite. Geochemically, the Brown's Creek rhyolite shows greater compositional variation in comparison to other individual units in the region. This variation (e.g. Ba/Sr and Zr/Nb) may be a result of variable crystal cargo in hand samples, but could potentially represent a zoned magma body, which is also extremely rare in the CSRP or WSRP. A limited number of samples have trace element concentrations/ratios (e.g. Rb, U, and Th) that may indicate the presence of a second unit underlying the dominant outcrops of BCR, but Nb/Ta ratios are relatively invariant across the entire BCR suite; if there are two units in the BCR, their sources are the same or very similar.

  16. An update of hydrologic conditions and distribution of selected constituents in water, Snake River Plain aquifer and perched groundwater zones, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho, emphasis 2006-08

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Linda C.

    2010-01-01

    Since 1952, radiochemical and chemical wastewater discharged to infiltration ponds (also called percolation ponds), evaporation ponds, and disposal wells at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has affected water quality in the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer and perched groundwater zones underlying the INL. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, maintains groundwater monitoring networks at the INL to determine hydrologic trends, and to delineate the movement of radiochemical and chemical wastes in the aquifer and in perched groundwater zones. This report presents an analysis of water-level and water-quality data collected from aquifer and perched groundwater wells in the USGS groundwater monitoring networks during 2006-08. Water in the Snake River Plain aquifer primarily moves through fractures and interflow zones in basalt, generally flows southwestward, and eventually discharges at springs along the Snake River. The aquifer primarily is recharged from infiltration of irrigation water, infiltration of streamflow, groundwater inflow from adjoining mountain drainage basins, and infiltration of precipitation. From March-May 2005 to March-May 2008, water levels in wells generally remained constant or rose slightly in the southwestern corner of the INL. Water levels declined in the central and northern parts of the INL. The declines ranged from about 1 to 3 feet in the central part of the INL, to as much as 9 feet in the northern part of the INL. Water levels in perched groundwater wells around the Advanced Test Reactor Complex (ATRC) also declined. Detectable concentrations of radiochemical constituents in water samples from wells in the Snake River Plain aquifer at the INL generally decreased or remained constant during 2006-08. Decreases in concentrations were attributed to decreased rates of radioactive-waste disposal, radioactive decay, changes in waste-disposal methods, and dilution from recharge and underflow. In April

  17. Large-volume, low-δ18O rhyolites of the central Snake River Plain, Idaho, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boroughs, Scott; Wolff, John; Bonnichsen, Bill; Godchaux, Martha; Larson, Peter

    2005-01-01

    The Miocene Bruneau-Jarbidge and adjacent volcanic fields of the central Snake River Plain, southwest Idaho, are dominated by high-temperature rhyolitic tuffs and lavas having an aggregate volume estimated as 7000 km3. Samples from units representing at least 50% of this volume are strongly depleted in 18O, with magmatic feldspar δ18OVSMOW (Vienna standard mean ocean water) values between −1.4‰ and 3.8‰. The magnitude of the 18O depletion and the complete lack of any rhyolites with normal values (7‰–10‰) combine to suggest that assimilation or melting of a caldera block altered by near- contemporaneous hydrothermal activity is unlikely. Instead, we envisage generation of the high-temperature rhyolites by shallow melting of Idaho Batholith rocks, under the influence of the Yellowstone hotspot, affected by Eocene meteoric-hydrothermal events. The seeming worldwide scarcity of strongly 18O-depleted rhyolites may simply reflect a similar scarcity of suitable crustal protoliths.

  18. Geophysical logging studies in the Snake River Plain Aquifer at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory: Wells 44, 45, and 46

    SciTech Connect

    Morin, R.H.; Paillet, F.L.; Taylor, T.A.; Barrash, W.

    1993-05-01

    A geophysical logging program was undertaken to vertically profile changes in the hydrology and hydrochemistry of the Snake River Plain aquifer underlies the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Field investigations were concentrated within an area west of the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) in three wells that penetrated the upper 190 feet of the aquifer. The logs obtained in these wells consisted of temperature, caliper, nuclear (neutron porosity and gamma-gama density), natural gamma, borehole televiewer, gamma spectral, and thermal flowmeter (with and without pumping). The nuclear, caliper, and televiewer logs are used to delineate individual basalt flows or flow units and to recognize breaks between flows or flow units at interflow contact zones and sedimentary interbeds. The temperature logs and flowmeter measurements obtained under ambient hydraulic head conditions identified upward fluid-circulation patterns in the three wells. Gamma-spectral analyses performed at several depths in each well showed that the predominant source of gamma radiation in the formation at this site originates mainly from potassium ({sup 40}K). However, {sup 137}Cesium was detected at 32 feet below land surface in well 45. An empirical investigation of the effect of source-receiver spacing on the response of the neutron-porosity logging tool was attempted in an effort to understand the conditions under which this tool might be applied to large-diameter boreholes in-unsaturated formations.

  19. Irrigated acreage in the Bear River Basin as of the 1975 growing season. [Idaho, Utah, and Wyoming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ridd, M. K.; Jaynes, R. A.; Landgraf, K. F.; Clark, L. D., Jr. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    The irrigated cropland in the Bear River Basin as of the 1975 growing season was inventoried from satellite imagery. LANDSAT color infrared images (scale 1:125,000) were examined for early, mid, and late summer dates, and acreage was estimated by use of township/section overlays. The total basin acreage was estimated to be 573,435 acres, with individual state totals as follows: Idaho 234,370 acres; Utah 265,505 acres; and Wyoming 73,560 acres. As anticipated, wetland areas intermingled among cropland appears to have produced an over-estimation of irrigated acreage. According to a 2% random sample of test sites evaluated by personnel from the Soil Conservation Service such basin-wide over-estimation is 7.5%; individual counties deviate significantly from the basin-wide figure, depending on the relative amount of wetland areas intermingled with cropland.

  20. Detection of aspen-conifer forest mixes from LANDSAT digital data. [Utah-Idaho Bear River Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaynes, R. A.; Merola, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    Aspen, conifer and mixed aspen/conifer forests were mapped for a 15-quadrangle study area in the Utah-Idaho Bear River Range using LANDSAT multispectral scanner data. Digital classification and statistical analysis of LANDSAT data allowed the identification of six groups of signatures which reflect different types of aspen/conifer forest mixing. Photo interpretations of the print symbols suggest that such classes are indicative of mid to late seral aspen forests. Digital print map overlays and acreage calculations were prepared for the study area quadrangles. Further field verification is needed to acquire additional information about the nature of the forests. Single date LANDSAT analysis should be a cost effective means to index aspen forests which are at least in the mid seral phase of conifer invasion. Since aspen canopies tend to obscure understory conifers for early seral forests, a second date analysis, using data taken when aspens are leafless, could provide information about early seral aspen forests.

  1. Detection of aspen/conifer forest mixes from multitemporal Landsat digital data. [Utah-Idaho Bear River Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merola, J. A.; Jaynes, R. A.; Harniss, R. O.

    1984-01-01

    Aspen, conifer and mixed aspen/conifer forests were mapped for a 15-quadrangle study area in the Utah-Idaho Bear River Range using Landsat multispectral scanner data. Digital classification and statistical analysis of Landsat data allowed the identification of six groups of signatures which reflect different types of aspen/conifer forest mixing. Photo interpretations of the print symbols suggest that such classes are indicative of mid to late seral aspen forests. Digital print map overlayes and acreage calculations were prepared for the study area quadrangles. Further field verification is needed to acquire additional information about the nature of the forests. Single data Landsat analysis should be a cost effective means to index aspen forests which are at least in the mid seral phase of conifer invasion. Since aspen canopies tend to obscure understory conifers for early seral forests, a second data analysis, using data taken when aspens are leafless, could provide information about early seral aspen forests.

  2. Escapement Monitoring of Adult Chinook Salmon in the Secesh River and Lake Creek, Idaho, 1999 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Faurot, Dave; Kucera, Paul A.

    2001-04-01

    Underwater time-lapse video technology was used to monitor adult spring and summer chinook salmon abundance in spawning areas in Lake Creek and the Secesh River, Idaho, in 1999. This technique is a passive methodology that does not trap or handle this Endangered Species Act listed species. This was the third year of testing the remote application of this methodology in the Secesh River drainage. Secesh River chinook salmon represent a wild salmon spawning aggregate that has not been directly supplemented with hatchery fish. Adult chinook salmon spawner abundance was estimated in Lake Creek with the remote time-lapse video application. Adult spawner escapement into Lake Creek in 1999 was 67 salmon. Significant upstream and downstream spawner movement affected the ability to determine the number of fish that contributed to the spawning population. The first passage on Lake Creek was recorded on July 11, two days after installation of the fish counting station. Peak net upstream adult movement occurred at the Lake Creek site on July 20, peak of total movement activity was August 19 with the last fish observed on August 26. A minimum of 133 adult chinook salmon migrated upstream past the Secesh River fish counting station to spawning areas in the Secesh River drainage. The first upstream migrating adult chinook salmon passed the Secesh River site prior to the July 15 installation of the fish counting station. Peak net upstream adult movement at the Secesh River site occurred July 19, peak of total movement was August 15, 17 and 18 and the last fish passed on September 10. Migrating salmon in the Secesh River and Lake Creek exhibited two behaviorally distinct segments of fish movement. Mainly upstream only, movement characterized the first segment. The second segment consisted of upstream and downstream movement with very little net upstream movement. Estimated abundance was compared to single and multiple-pass redd count surveys within the drainage. There were

  3. Age of irrigation water in ground water from the Eastern Snake River Plain Aquifer, south-central Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plummer, L.N.; Rupert, M.G.; Busenberg, E.; Schlosser, P.

    2000-01-01

    Stable isotope data (2H and 18O) were used in conjunction with chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) and tritium/helium-3 (3H/3He) data to determine the fraction and age of irrigation water in ground water mixtures from farmed parts of the Eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) Aquifer in south-central Idaho. Two groups of waters were recognized: (1) regional background water, unaffected by irrigation and fertilizer application, and (2) mixtures of irrigation water from the Snake River with regional background water. New data are presented comparing CFC and 3H/3He dating of water recharged through deep fractured basalt, and dating of young fractions in ground water mixtures. The 3H/3He ages of irrigation water in most mixtures ranged from about zero to eight years. The CFC ages of irrigation water in mixtures ranged from values near those based on 3H/3He dating to values biased older than the 3H/3He ages by as much as eight to 10 years. Unsaturated zone air had CFC-12 and CFC-113 concentrations that were 60% to 95%, and 50% to 90%, respectively, of modern air concentrations and were consistently contaminated with CFC-11. Irrigation water diverted from the Snake River was contaminated with CFC-11 but near solubility equilibrium with CFC-12 and CFC-113. The dating indicates ground water velocities of 5 to 8 m/d for water along the top of the ESRP Aquifer near the southwestern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Many of the regional background waters contain excess terrigenic helium with a 3He/4He isotope ratio of 7 x 10-6 to 11 x 10-6 (R/Ra = 5 to 8) and could not be dated. Ratios of CFC data indicate that some rangeland water may contain as much as 5% to 30% young water (ages of less than or equal to two to 11.5 years) mixed with old regional background water. The relatively low residence times of ground water in irrigated parts of the ESRP Aquifer and the dilution with low-NO3 irrigation water from the Snake River lower the potential for

  4. Geologic map and profile of the north wall of the Snake River Canyon, Eden, Murtaugh, Milner Butte, and Milner quadrangles, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Covington, H.R.; Weaver, Jean N.

    1990-01-01

    The Snake River Plain is a broad, arcuate region of low relief that extends more than 300 mi across southern Idaho. The Snake River enters the plain near Idaho Falls and flows westward along the southern margin of the eastern Snake River Plain (fig 1), a position mainly determined by the basaltic lava flows that erupted near the axis of the plain. The highly productive Snake River Plain aquifer (water table) is typically less than 500 ft below the land surface, but us deeper than 1,000 ft in a few areas. The Snake River has excavated a canyon into the nearly flat lying basaltic and sedimentary rocks of the  eastern Snake River Plain between Milner Dam and King Hill (fig. 2), a distance of almost 90 mi. For much of its length the canyon intersects the Snake River Plain aquifer, which discharges form the northern canyon wall as springs of variable size, spacing and altitude. Geologic controls on wprings are of importance because nearly 60 percent of the aquifer's discharge occurs as spring flow along this reach of the canyon. This report is one of the several that describes the geologic occurrence of the springs along the northern wall of the Snake River canyone from Milner Dam to King Hill. 

  5. Results of 2001 Groundwater Sampling in Support of Conditional No Longer Contained-In Determination for the Snake River Plain Aquifer in the Vicinity of the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center

    SciTech Connect

    Meachum, T.R.

    2002-04-26

    This report summarizes the results of sampling five groundwater monitoring wells in the vicinity of the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory in 2001. Information on general sampling practices, quality assurance practices, parameter concentrations, representativeness of sampling results, and cumulative cancer risk are presented. The information is provided to support a conditional No Longer Contained-In Determination for the Snake River Plain Aquifer in the vicinity of the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center.

  6. New storage on Snake River for irrigation use above Milner, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crandall, Lynn

    1955-01-01

    With Palisades reservoir in operation there will be many years when the available water supply on Snake River above Milner will be fully utilized by storage in the then existing reservoirs under their established priority rights. Surplus water spilling to waste in past years is shown by the record of flow at the Milner gaging station on Snake River as follows.

  7. Water resources data, Idaho, 2002; Volume 2. Upper Columbia River basin and Snake River basin below King Hill

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brennan, T.S.; Lehmann, A.K.; Campbell, A.M.; O'Dell, I.; Beattie, S.E.

    2003-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2002 water year for Idaho consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; discharge of irrigation diversions; and water levels and water quality of groundwater. The two volumes of this report contain discharge records for 196 stream-gaging stations and 15 irrigation diversions; stage only records for 5 stream-gaging stations; stage only for 6 lakes and reservoirs; contents only for 13 lakes and reservoirs; water-quality for 78 stream-gaging stations and partial record sites, 3 lakes sites, and 383 groundwater wells; and water levels for 425 observation network wells and 900 special project wells. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data collection program and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Idaho, adjacent States, and Canada.

  8. Data summary report on short-term turbidity monitoring of pipeline river crossings in the Moyie River, Boundary County, Idaho: PGT-PG&E Pipeline Expansion Project

    SciTech Connect

    Gowdy, M.J.; Smits, M.P.; Wilkey, P.L.; Miller, S.F.

    1994-03-01

    A water-quality monitoring program was implemented for Bechtel Corporation to measure the short-term increases in turbidity in the Moyie River caused by construction activities of the Pacific Gas Transmission-Pacific Gas & Electric Pipeline Expansion Project. Construction of the buried, 42-in.-diameter, steel pipeline, during the summer of 1992, involved eight wet crossings of the Moyie River along the 13-mi section of pipeline immediately south of the Canadian-United States border in Boundary County, Idaho. This report summarizes the sampling and analysis protocol used and gives the results and observations for each of the eight crossings. The data obtained from this monitoring program, in addition to satisfying regulatory requirements for the Pipeline Expansion Project, will contribute to an ongoing long-term study of the Moyie River crossings being performed for the Gas Research Institute by Argonne National Laboratory. The purpose of this document is strictly limited to reporting the results of the monitoring program. Interpretation of the data is not within the scope of this report.

  9. Water resources data, Idaho, 2002; Volume 1. Great Basin and Snake River basin above King Hill

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brennan, T.S.; Lehmann, A.K.; Campbell, A.M.; O'Dell, I.; Beattie, S.E.

    2003-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2002 water year for Idaho consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; discharge of irrigation diversions; and water levels and water quality of groundwater. The two volumes of this report contain discharge records for 196 stream-gaging stations and 15 irrigation diversions; stage only records for 5 stream-gaging stations; stage only for 6 lakes and reservoirs; contents only for 13 lakes and reservoirs; water-quality for 78 stream-gaging stations and partial record sites, 3 lakes sites, and 383 groundwater wells; and water levels for 425 observation network wells and 900 special project wells. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data collection program and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Idaho, adjacent States, and Canada.

  10. Lead exposure in passerines inhabiting lead-contaminated floodplains in the Coeur d'Alene River Basin, Idaho, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, G.D.; Kern, J.W.; Strickland, M.D.; McDonald, L.L. ); Audet, D.J.; LeCaptain, L.J. ); Hoffman, D.J. )

    1999-06-01

    Blood collected from song sparrows (Melospiza melodia) and American robins (Turdus migratorius) captured with mist nets in a lead-contaminated (assessment) area and nearby uncontaminated (reference) areas within the Coeur d'Alene Basin in northern Idaho was analyzed for [delta]-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity (ALAD) and hematocrit levels, and livers were analyzed for lead. Mean ALAD inhibition in the assessment area was 51% in song sparrows and 75% in American robins. The proportion of the sampled population with ALAD inhibition > 50% was calculated to be 43% for song sparrows and 83% for American robins. Assessment area hematocrit values for song sparrows and American robins were lower than in reference areas; however, differences were not statistically significant. Significantly higher levels of lead (wet weight) were found in livers from song sparrows captured on the assessment area ([bar x] = 1.93 ppm) than on reference areas. Study results indicate that 43% of the song sparrows and 83% of the American robins inhabiting the floodplain along the Coeur d'Alene River in the assessment area are being exposed to lead at levels sufficient to inhibit ALAD by > 50%. Variability in lead exposure indicators was attributed to high variability in environmental lead concentrations in the Coeur d'Alene River Basin.

  11. Thrust segment from the Antler orogeny identified north of the Snake River Plain, south-central Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Skipp, B. )

    1993-04-01

    A small segment of folded thrust fault places silicified, cleaved, folded, graptolite-bearing black mudstone, sandstone, and minor granule conglomerate of the Ordovician Phi Kappa Formation over unnamed cleaved, yellow, calcareous siltstone and silty limestone of Devonian to Silurian age in the Long Canyon area near Fish Creek Reservoir, within a kilometer of the north-central margin of the Snake River Plain. The thrust fault and rocks of both hanging wall and footwall are overlain by sandy limestone and pebble conglomerate of the Middle Pennsylvanian Hailey Member of the Wood River Formation along a locally faulted unconformable contact. Thus, the age of the thrust is bracketed as post-Devonian and pre-Middle Pennsylvanian, a period that encompasses the Antler orogeny. The Long Canyon thrust fault is the first direct evidence of contraction within rocks of the postulated Mississippian Antler highland in western Idaho. Indirect evidence such as penetrative axial plane cleavage in Devonian argillites of the Milligen Formation, not present in younger argillites, has been recognized for several years. The entire sequence of Ordovician through Pennsylvanian rocks constitutes the southernmost exposure of the hanging wall of the Mesozoic Pioneer thrust fault system. In this area, the footwall of the Pioneer thrust comprises Silurian through Devonian platform carbonate rocks overlain unconformably by Mississippian orogenic detritus derived from the western Antler highland.

  12. Verification of Precipitation Enhancement due to Winter Orographic Cloud Seeding in the Payette River Basin of Western Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holbrook, V. P.; Kunkel, M. L.; Blestrud, D.

    2013-12-01

    The Idaho Power Company (IPCo) is a hydroelectric based utility serving eastern Oregon and most of southern Idaho. Snowpack is critical to IPCo operations and the company has invested in a winter orographic cloud seeding program for the Payette, Boise, and Upper Snake River basins to augment the snowpack. IPCo and the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) are in the middle of a two-year study to determine precipitation enhancement due to winter orographic cloud seeding in the Payette River basin. NCAR developed a cloud seeding module, as an enhancement to the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model, that inputs silver iodide released from both ground based and/or aircraft generators. The cloud seeding module then increases the precipitation as a function of the cloud seeding. The WRF model used for this program is run at the University of Arizona with a resolution of 1.8 kilometers using Thompson microphysics and Mellor-Yamada-Janic boundary layer scheme. Two different types of verification schemes to determine precipitation enhancement is being used for this program; model versus model and model versus precipitation gauges. In the model versus model method, a control model run uses NCAR developed criteria to identify the best times to operate cloud or airborne seeding generators and also establishes the baseline precipitation. The model is then rerun with the cloud seeding module turned on for the time periods determined by the control run. The precipitation enhancement due to cloud seeding is then the difference in precipitation between the control and seeding model runs. The second verification method is to use the model forecast precipitation in the seeded and non-seeded areas, compare against observed precipitation (from mainly SNOTEL gauges), and determine the precipitation enhancement due to cloud seeding. Up to 15 SNOTEL gauges in or near the Payette River basin along with 14 IPCo high resolution rain gauges will be used with this target

  13. Numerical Model of Channel and Aquatic Habitat Response to Sediment Pulses in Mountain Rivers of Central Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewicki, M.; Buffington, J. M.; Thurow, R. F.; Isaak, D. J.

    2006-12-01

    Mountain rivers in central Idaho receive pulsed sediment inputs from a variety of mass wasting processes (side-slope landslides, rockfalls, and tributary debris flows). Tributary debris flows and hyperconcentrated flows are particularly common due to winter "rain-on-snow" events and summer thunderstorms, the effects of which are amplified by frequent wildfire and resultant changes in vegetation, soil characteristics, and basin hydrology. Tributary confluences in the study area are commonly characterized by debris fans built by these repeated sediment pulses, providing long-term controls on channel slope, hydraulics and sediment transport capacity in the mainstem channel network. These long-term impacts are magnified during debris-flow events, which deliver additional sediment and wood debris to the fan and may block the mainstem river. These changes in physical conditions also influence local and downstream habitat for aquatic species, and can impact local human infrastructure (roads, bridges). Here, we conduct numerical simulations using a modified version of Cui's [2005] network routing model to examine bedload transport and debris-fan evolution in medium- sized watersheds (65-570 km2) of south-central Idaho. We test and calibrate the model using data from a series of postfire debris-flow events that occurred from 2003-4. We investigate model sensitivity to different controlling factors (location of the pulse within the stream network, volume of the pulse, and size distribution of the input material). We predict that on decadal time scales, sediment pulses cause a local coarsening of the channel bed in the vicinity of the sediment input, and a wave of downstream fining over several kilometers of the river (as long as the pulse material is not coarser than the stream bed itself). The grain-size distribution of the pulse influences its rate of erosion, the rate and magnitude of downstream fining, and the time required for system recovery. The effects of textural

  14. Multilevel Groundwater Monitoring of Hydraulic Head and Temperature in the Eastern Snake River Plain Aquifer, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho, 2007 to 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, J. C.; Twining, B. V.

    2010-12-01

    During 2007 and 2008, the U.S. Geological Survey’s Idaho National Laboratory Project Office, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, collected quarterly depth-discrete measurements of fluid pressure and temperature in six boreholes located in the fractured basalts and interbedded sediments of the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer. Each borehole was instrumented with a multilevel monitoring system consisting of a series of valved measurement ports, packer bladders, casing segments, and couplers. Hydraulic heads (head) and groundwater temperatures were monitored in 86 hydraulically-isolated depth intervals located from 448.0 to 1,377.6 ft below land surface. The calculation of head is most sensitive to fluid pressure and the altitude of the pressure transducer at each port coupling, and it is least sensitive to barometric pressure and fluid temperature. An analysis of errors associated with the head calculation determined the accuracy of an individual head measurement to be ±2.3 ft. Many of the sources of measurement error are diminished, however, for differences between closely-spaced readings of head; therefore, a ±0.1 ft measurement accuracy was assumed for vertical head differences (and gradients) calculated between adjacent monitoring zones. The repeatability of head measurements was evaluated using the maximum head difference between paired ports; a mean difference of 0.04 ft showed excellent agreement between measurements for the 0- to 500-psia pressure transducer used in this study. Vertical head and temperature profiles were unique to each borehole, and they were characteristic of the heterogeneity and anisotropy of the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer. The vertical hydraulic gradients within each borehole remained relatively constant over time, with minimum Pearson correlation coefficients between head profiles ranging from 0.72 at the USGS 103 borehole to 1.00 at boreholes USGS 133 and MIDDLE 2051. Major inflections in the head profiles

  15. The availability of water in the Little Lost River Basin, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clebsch, Alfred, Jr.; Waite, H.A.; Decker, S.O.

    1974-01-01

    The Little Lost River basin, an elongated, northwest trending structurally formed intermontane valley, drains an area of about 900 square miles into a closed depression near the northwestern edge of the Snake River Plain. Runoff from snowmelt and rainfall on the Lost River Range on the west and the Lemhi Range on the east maintains the flow of the Little Lost River, and recharges the ground-water reservoir, Both mountain ranges are complexly faulted and are underlain by a variety of rocks, dominantly limestone, of Paleozoic age The principal aquifers are highly transmissive alluvial fill in the middle and upper valley and alluvial fill interfingered with basalt in the southernmost part of the valley.

  16. HENRY'S FORK AND SNAKE RIVER BASIN, IDAHO - WATER QUALITY REPORT, 1973

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reported problems in the Henrys Fork and Snake River Basin (17040202, 17040203, 17040201) include bacteria levels exceeding water quality standards, dissolved oxygen standards violations, and excessive algal blooms resulting in aesthetic problems and contributing to DO depression...

  17. Lead in hawks, falcons and owls downstream from a mining site on the Coeur d'Alene River, Idaho.

    PubMed

    Henny, C J; Blus, L J; Hoffman, D J; Grove, R A

    1994-02-01

    Mining and smelting at Kellogg-Smelterville, Idaho, resulted in high concentrations of lead in Coeur d'Alene (CDA) River sediments and the floodplain downstream, where American Kestrels (Falco sparverius), Northern Harriers (Circus cyaneus), Red-tailed Hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), Great Horned Owls (Bubo virginianus), and Western Screech-owls (Otus kennicotti) nested. Nestling American Kestrels contained significantly higher (P=0.0012) blood lead concentrations along the CDA River (0.24 µg/g, wet wt) than the nearby reference area (0.087 µg/g). A 35% inhibition of blood δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) in nestling Northern Harriers (P=0.0001), 55% in nestling American Kestrels (P=0.0001) and 81% in adult American Kestrels (P=0.0004) provided additional evidence of lead exposure in the CDA River population. In nestling American Kestrels and Northern Harriers, ALAD activity was negatively correlated with lead in blood. An earlier report on Ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) showed slightly less inhibition of ALAD than in American Kestrels, but no significant reduction in hemoglobin or hematocrit and no negative influence on production rates. The adult and nestling American Kestrels along the CDA River contained about twice as much blood lead as Ospreys during the same years (adult 0.46 vs. 0.20 µg/g, and nestling 0.24 vs. 0.09 µg/g), but adults showed a 7.5% reduction in hemoglobin (P=0.0356) and nestlings an 8.2% reduction in hemoglobin (P=0.0353) and a 5.8% reduction in hematocrit (P=0.0482). We did not observe raptor deaths related to lead, and although the production rate for American Kestrels was slightly lower along the CDA River, we found no significant negative relation between productivity and lead. Limited data on the other raptors provide evidence of exposure to lead along the CDA River. Several traits of raptors apparently reduce their potential for accumulating critical levels of lead which is primarily stored in bones of prey species. PMID:24221348

  18. Lead in hawks, falcons and owls downstream from a mining site on the Coeur D'Alene river, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henny, C.J.; Blus, L.J.; Hoffman, D.J.; Grove, R.A.

    1994-01-01

    Mining and smelting at Kellogg-Smelterville, Idaho, resulted in high concentrations of lead in Coeur d'Alene (CDA) River sediments and the floodplain downstream, where American Kestrels (Falco sparverius), Northern Harriers (Circus cyaneus), Red-tailed Hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), Great Horned Owls (Bubo virginianus), and Western Screech-owls (Otus kennicotti) nested. Nestling American Kestrels contained significantly higher (P=0.0012) blood lead concentrations along the CDA River (0.24 ?g/g, wet wt) than the nearby reference area (0.087 ?g/g). A 35% inhibition of blood *-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) in nestling Northern Harriers (P=0.0001), 55% in nestling American Kestrels (P=0.0001) and 81% in adult American Kestrels (P=0.0004) provided additional evidence of lead exposure in the CDA River population. In nestling American Kestrels and Northern Harriers, ALAD activity was negatively correlated with lead in blood. An earlier report on Ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) showed slightly less inhibition of ALAD than in American Kestrels, but no significant reduction in hemoglobin or hematocrit and no negative influence on production rates. The adult and nestling American Kestrels along the CDA River contained about twice as much blood lead as Ospreys during the same years (adult 0.46 vs. 0.20 ?g/g, and nestling 0.24 vs. 0.09 ?g/g), but adults showed a 7.5% reduction in hemoglobin (P=0.0356) and nestlings an 8.2% reduction in hemoglobin (P=0.0353) and a 5.8% reduction in hematocrit (P=0.0482). We did not observe raptor deaths related to lead, and although the production rate for American Kestrels was slightly lower along the CDA River, we found no significant negative relation between productivity and lead. Limited data on the other raptors provide evidence of exposure to lead along the CDA River. Several traits of raptors apparently reduce their potential for accumulating critical levels of lead which is primarily stored in bones of prey species.

  19. Anthropogenic Impacts of Recreational Use on Sandbars in Hells Canyon on the Snake River, Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morehead, M. D.

    2014-12-01

    Sandbars along large rivers are important cultural, recreational, and natural resources. In modern, historic and prehistoric times the sandbars have been used for camping, hunting, fishing and recreational activities. Sandbars are a dynamic geomorphic unit of the river system that stores and exchanges sand with the main river channel. Both natural and anthropogenic changes to river systems affect the size, shape and dynamics of sandbars. During high spring flows, the Snake River can resupply and build the sand bars. During the lower flows of the summer and fall the sand is redistributed to lower levels by natural and anthropogenic forces, where it can be remobilized by the river and exported from the bar. During the summer and fall high use season many people camp and recreate on the bars and redistribute the sand. This study utilizes change detection from repeat high resolution terrestrial LiDAR scanning surveys to study the impacts humans have on the sandbars in Hells Canyon. Nearly a decade of annual LiDAR and Bathymetric surveys were used to place these recreational impacts into the context of overall sandbar dynamics.

  20. Depth to water in the eastern Snake River Plain and surrounding tributary valleys, southwestern Idaho and eastern Oregon, calculated using water levels from 1980 to 1988

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maupin, Molly A.

    1992-01-01

    The vulnerability of ground water to contamination in Idaho is being assessed by the IDHW/DEQ (Idaho Department of Health and Welfare, Division of Environmental Quality), using a modified version of the Environmental Orotection Agency DRASTIC methods (Allers and others, 1985). The project was designed as a technique to: (1) Assign priorities for development of ground-water management and monitoring programs; (2) build support for, and public awareness of, vulnerability or ground water to contamination; (3) assist in the development of regulatory programs; and (4) provide access to technical data through the use of a GIS (geographic information system) (C. Grantha,, Idaho Department of Health and Welfare, written commun., 1989). A digital representation of first-encountered water below land surface is an important element in evaluating vulnerability of ground water to contamination. Depth-to-water values were developed using existing data and computer software to construct a GIS data set to be combined with a sols data set developed by the SCS (Soil Conservation Service) and IDHW/WQB (Idaho Department of Health and Welfare/Water Quality Bureau), and a recharge data set developed by the IDWR/RSF (Idaho Department of Water Resources/Remote Sensing Facility). The USGS (U.S. Geological Survey) developed digital depth-to-water values for eleven 1:100,000-scale quadrangles on the eastern Snake River Plain and surrounding tributary valleys.

  1. Depth to water in the western Snake River Plain and surrounding tributary valleys, southwestern Idaho and eastern Oregon, calculated using water levels from 1980 to 1988

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maupin, Molly A.

    1991-01-01

    The vulnerability of ground water to contamination in Idaho is being assessed by the ISHW/DEQ (Idaho Department of Health and Welfare, Division of Environmental Quality), using a modified version of the Environmental Protection Agency DRASTIC methods (Allers and others, 1985). The project was designed as a technique to: (1) Assign priorities for development of ground-water management and monitoring programs; (2) build support for, and public awareness of, vulnerability of ground water to contamination; (3) assist in the development of regulatory programs; and (4) provide access to technical data through the use of a GIS (geographic information system) (C. Grantham, Idaho Department of Health and Welfare, written commun., 1989). Digital representation of first-encountered water below land surface is an important element in evaluating vulnerability of ground water to contamination. Depth-to-water values were developed using existing data and computer software to construct a GIS data set to be combined with a soils data set developed by the SCS (Soul Conservation Service) and the IDHW/WQB (Idaho Department of Health and Welfare/Water Quality Bureau), and a recharge data set developed by the IDWR/RSF (idaho Department of Water Resources/Remote Sensing Facility). The USGS (U.S. Geological Survey) has developed digital depth-to-water values for eleven 1:100,00-scale quadrangles on the eastern Snake River Plain and surrounding tributary valleys.

  2. Dietary effects of metals-contaminated invertebrates from the Coeur d'Alene River, Idaho, on cutthroat trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farag, A.M.; Woodward, D.F.; Brumbaugh, W.; Goldstein, J.N.; MacConnell, E.; Hogstrand, C.; Barrows, F.T.

    1999-01-01

    Benthic macroinvertebrates with elevated concentrations of metals were collected from the Coeur d'Alene (CDA) River, Idaho, pasteurized, and fed to cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarki in the laboratory from start of feeding until 90 d posthatch. Invertebrates were collected from two sites known to contain elevated concentrations of metals: near Pinehurst in the South Fork of the CDA River and at Cataldo, approximately 5 km below the confluence of the South Fork and the North Fork. Invertebrates collected from a relatively clean site in the North Fork were used as a reference diet. We performed measurements of fish health that indicate reduced fitness of fish fed the South Fork and Cataldo diets. Effects measured were reduced feeding activity, increased number of macrophage aggregates and hyperplasia of cells in the kidney, degeneration of mucosal epithelium in the pyloric caecae, and metallothionein induction. These effects would likely reduce growth and survival of fish in the wild. Vacuolization of glial cells were also observed in fish fed the Cataldo diet. Metals in the water often exacerbated the histological effects observed. Although the invertebrates collected near Cataldo had lower concentrations of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) than the invertebrates from the South Fork, fish fed the Cataldo diet had equally high or higher concentrations of all metals except as by day 44. The Cataldo diet also caused the most deleterious effects on survival and growth. These findings are especially important for early life stage fish, whose diet consists wholly of benthic macroinvertebrates. Therefore, fish feeding on invertebrates in the CDA River below the Bunker Hill smelting complex are at risk of reduced fitness.

  3. Effects of municipal wastewater discharges on aquatic communities, Boise River, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frenzel, S.A.

    1990-01-01

    Aquatic communities in the Boise River were examined from October 1987 to March 1988 to determine whether they were adversely affected by trace elements in effluents from two Boise wastewater treatment facilities. Trace-element concentrations in the Boise River were less than or near analytical-detection levels and were less than chronic toxicity criteria when detectable. Insect communities colonizing artificial substrates upstream and downstream from the wastewater treatment facilities were strongly associated, and coefficients of community loss indicated that effluents had benign enriching effects. The distributions of trace-element-intolerant mayflies indicated that trace-element concentrations in effluents did not adversely affect intolerant organisms in the Boise River. Condition factor of whitefish was significantly increased downstream from the Lander Street wastewater treatment facility and was significantly decreased downstream from the West Boise wastewater treatment facility.

  4. Effects of municipal wastewater discharges on aquatic communities, Boise River, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Frenzel, S.A. )

    1990-04-01

    Aquatic communities in the Boise River were examined from October 1987 to March 1988 to determine whether they were adversely affected by trace elements in effluents from two Boise wastewater treatment facilities. Trace-element concentrations in the Boise River were less than or near analytical-detection levels and were less than chronic toxicity criteria when detectable. Insect communities colonizing artificial substrates upstream and downstream from the wastewater treatment facilities were strongly associated, and coefficients of community loss indicated that effluents had benign enriching effects. The distributions of trace-element-intolerant mayflies indicated that trace-element concentrations in effluents did not adversely affect intolerant organisms in the Boise River. Condition factor of whitefish was significantly decreased downstream from the West Boise wastewater treatment facility.

  5. Enhanced Geothermal System Potential for Sites on the Eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Robert K Podgorney; Thomas R. Wood; Travis L McLing; Gregory Mines; Mitchell A Plummer; Michael McCurry; Ahmad Ghassemi; John Welhan; Joseph Moore; Jerry Fairley; Rachel Wood

    2013-09-01

    The Snake River volcanic province overlies a thermal anomaly that extends deep into the mantle and represents one of the highest heat flow provinces in North America (Blackwell and Richards, 2004). This makes the Snake River Plain (SRP) one of the most under-developed and potentially highest producing geothermal districts in the United States. Elevated heat flow is typically highest along the margins of the topographic SRP and lowest along the axis of the plain, where thermal gradients are suppressed by the Snake River aquifer. Beneath this aquifer, however, thermal gradients rise again and may tap even higher heat flows associated with the intrusion of mafic magmas into the mid-crustal sill complex (e.g., Blackwell, 1989).

  6. Evidence for Right-lateral Shear Along the Northwest Margin of the Eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payne, S. J.; McCaffrey, R.; King, R. W.

    2007-12-01

    Previous investigators have proposed that extension within the eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) is accommodated by intrusion of dikes at a rate similar to the rate of extension in the surrounding Basin and Range. This hypothesis is primarily based on the lack of strike-slip offset along the northwest physiographic boundary of the ESRP, the lack of seismicity within the ESRP relative to the surrounding active Basin and Range, and the presence of NW-trending volcanic rift zones within the ESRP. The ESRP is a 400-km long region within the track of the Yellowstone Hotspot that extends from southern Idaho northeast into northwestern Wyoming. GPS data compiled for this study are used to test this hypothesis. Several institutions including the Idaho National Laboratory, National Geodetic Survey, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, and University of Utah observed GPS stations from 1994 to 2007 within the ESRP and surrounding region. The GPS velocities show the average orientation of horizontal GPS velocities in the adjacent northwest Basin and Range region is similar to the average orientation for the ESRP (N113°W vs N91°W, respectively), but the average magnitude of horizontal GPS velocities in the Basin and Range (1.4 ± 0.3 mm/yr) is less than that for the ESRP (2.2 ± 0.3 mm/yr). Additionally, the adjacent northwest Basin and Range extends at about 9 x 10-9 /yr with most of the deformation localized along three NW-trending normal faults (Lost River, Lemhi, and Beaverhead). In contrast, the ESRP extends at a rate that is an order of magnitude lower than the adjacent northwest Basin and Range and we see little indication of extension along the Great Rift or other volcanic rift zones over the 400 km length. The GPS differential motion along the region of the ESRP adjacent to the northwest Basin and Range indicates a NE-trending zone of right-lateral shear. Preliminary inversions of GPS velocities, earthquakes, faults, and volcanic features indicate this zone of right

  7. ANATOMY OF A RIVER, AN EVALUATION OF WATER REQUIREMENTS FOR THE HELL'S CANYON REACH OF THE SNAKE RIVER, IDAHO, 1973

    EPA Science Inventory

    This evaluation began in March 1973, involving more than 30 state and federal agencies and private entities. 79 specialists monitored the effects of 5 controlled flows on the biological community and mans use of the Middle Snake River (17060103, 17060101). The total program inv...

  8. BACTERIOLOGY AND ALGAL ASSAYS, LOWER SNAKE RIVER RESERVOIRS, IDAHO AND WASHINGTON, 1977

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this portion of the study is to determine 1) the overall water quality of the impoundment area, and 2) to determine the effect of impoundment on bacterial water quality. Data from the pre-impoundment study indicated that the Snake and Clearwater Rivers (17060103) ...

  9. LOWER BOISE RIVER DRAINS, WATER QUALITY STATUS, CANYON COUNTY, IDAHO, 1983

    EPA Science Inventory

    A water quality monitoring program was established on the irrigation drainage system in the Lower Boise River Valley (17050114) as part of a 208 project to develop a pollution abatement plan for agricultural lands. The 208 project area encompassed irrigated lands along the Boise...

  10. NON POINT SOURCE BASIN STATUS EVALUATION, LOWER SNAKE RIVER BASIN, IDAHO, JULY 1976

    EPA Science Inventory

    Region 10 has developed a nonpoint source assessment approach to assist EPA planners, land agencies, and state and local agencies in identifying probable nonpoint sources and determining their effect upon the fishable-swimmable aspect of Regional streams and rivers. Generally th...

  11. LOWER PAYETTE RIVER, IDAHO AGRICULTURE IRRIGATION WATER RETURN STUDY AND GROUND WATER EVALUATION, 1992-1993

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report covers the final 17 miles of the Payette River (17050112) and 32,000 acres of irrigated cropland referred to as the Lower Payette State Agricultural Water Quality Project. An in-depth surface and ground water monitoring effort was initiated in June 1992 and completed...

  12. MIDDLE SNAKE RIVER, IDAHO WATER QUALITY STUDY, PHASE I. 1990-1991

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water quality samples from 55 stations in the Middle Snake River (17060103, 17060101) for the period June 1990 through July 1991 were successfully obtained and field and laboratory data entered into the database. Weekly sampling on aquaculture facilities, and biweekly sampling o...

  13. Streamflow gains and losses in the lower Boise River basin, Idaho, 1996-97

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berenbrock, Charles

    1999-01-01

    Study results indicate that additional seepage runs are needed on irrigation canals and creeks, the Boise River, and the New York Canal. Piezometers installed at different depths are needed to better define vertical ground-water movement and gradients. Additional work is needed to determine how seepage in canals and streams relates to environmental characteristics.

  14. Characterize and Quantify Residual Steelhead in the Clearwater River, Idaho, 1999-2000 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Brostrom, Jody K.

    2006-08-01

    During 1999-2002 we determined whether size at release and release site influenced emigration success and survival of hatchery steelhead smolts raised at Dworshak National Fish Hatchery and released into the Clearwater River drainage. We marked 4,500 smolts each year with Passive Integrated Transponder Tags (PIT-tags) which enabled us to track emigration and estimate survival through mainstem Snake and Columbia river dams. Hatchery steelhead raised in System I freshwater were significantly smaller than those raised in warmer System II re-use water (196 mm, 206 mm, 198 mm and 201 mm System I; 215 mm, 213 mm, 206 mm and 209 mm System II). However, there was no significant difference in detection rates to mainstem observation sites between the two groups (65%, 58%, 78% and 55% System I; 69%, 59%, 74% and 53% System II). Survival estimates to Lower Granite Dam were also not significant between the two groups (72%, 81%, 80% and 77% System I; 77%, 79%, 77%, and 72% System II). Smolts less than 180 mm FL were less likely to be detected than larger smolts. Hatchery steelhead smolts released into Clear Creek, the South Fork Clearwater River and the Clearwater River at Dworshak National Fish Hatchery had significantly different lengths each year, but there was no discernible pattern due to random egg takes and rearing systems. Detection rates to mainstem observation sites for smolts released into Clear Creek were significantly less than the other two groups in all years except 2002 (62%, 57%, 71%, and 57% Clear Creek; 68%, 63%, 73% and 61% South Fork Clearwater River; 70%, 59%, 78% and 55% Clearwater River). However, survival rates to Lower Granite Dam were not significantly different (73%, 65%, 78%, and 77% Clear Creek; 79%, 72%, 79% and 76% South Fork Clearwater River; 81%, 76%, 80% and 83% Clearwater River). Similar to the size at release group, smolts less than 180 mm FL were less likely to get detected than larger smolts. Smolts from both size at release and release

  15. CROOKED RIVER, IDAHO STREAM SURVEY AND IN-SITU TOXICITY RESULTS, 1986

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes results from an investigation of Crooked River (17060305) and adjacent dredge ponds. Chemical and physical water quality parameters and in-situ toxicity were characterized for 9 sites throughout the reach. The work was conducted at the request of ID Depar...

  16. Devitrification Dating: A Pilot Study with Basalts from the Eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sears, D. W. G.; Hughes, S. S.

    2015-12-01

    The devitrification of glass in geological systems is of interest for many reasons. One means of quantitatively tracking the process is to measure the thermoluminescence (TL) sensitivity of the samples, i.e. the light produced by a sample as it is heated in the laboratory after exposure to a standard radiation dose, the natural TL signal having been previously removed. As crystallization occurs, the TL signal increases as luminescent crystals form in the glass. Kinetic studies of the devitrification of glass in basalts suggest that it the process takes many millions of years suggesting that TL sensitivity might be able to date lavas over this time-range. We collected five samples of basalt flows at the Craters of the Moon, Idaho, and surrounding areas as part of the FINESSE team, a member of SSERVI. Radiocarbon and Ar-Ar ages are 6500, 6600, 57,000, 116,000, and 120,000 years. After grinding to ~200 mm grains, 4 mg aliquots were placed in a TL rig and heated to 500oC to remove their natural TL signal. They were then irradiated with a 150 mCi 90Sr beta source for 3 minutes and the TL induced was measured. The TL counts obtained for these samples, in order of increasing age, are 150±25, 88.3±10, 153±53, 616±160, 533±76, the uncertainty being based on triplicate measurements. These data yield a relationship between TL sensitivity and age of Age = 232 x TL sensitivity - 1.638 x 104 with an R2 = 0.97. Many factors that influence the rate of devitrification need to be addressed before a quantitative method of dating, independent of isotopic methods, can be claimed. The composition of the glass, the amount of water in the basalt, and storage temperature, are all important factors. However, this small pilot study is encouraging and will be extended by further measurements of basalts from Idaho and Hawai'i before deciding whether it is worth investigating the complicating factors.

  17. Basic data from five core holes in the Raft River geothermal area, Cassia County, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crosthwaite, E. G., (compiler)

    1976-01-01

    meters) were completed in the area (Crosthwaite, 1974), and the Aerojet Nuclear Company, under the auspices of the U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration, was planning some deep drilling 4,000 to 6,000 feet (1,200 to 1,800 meters) (fig. 1). The purpose of the core drilling was to provide information to test geophysical interpretations of the subsurface structure and lithology and to provide hydrologic and geologic data on the shallow part of the geothermal system. Samples of the core were made available to several divisions and branches of the Geological Survey and to people and agencies outside the Survey. This report presents the basic data from the core holes that had been collected to September 1, 1975, and includes lithologic and geophysical well logs, chemical analyses of water (table 1), and laboratory analyses of cores (table 2) that were completed as of the above date. The data were collected by the Idaho District office, Hydrologic Laboratory, Borehole Geophysics Research Project, and Drilling, Sampling, and Testing Section, all of the Water Resources Division, and the Branch of Central Environmental Geology of the Geologic Divison.

  18. Integrated geophysical studies of the Fort Worth Basin (Texas), Harney Basin (Oregon), and Snake River Plain (Idaho)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khatiwada, Murari

    Geophysical methods such as seismic, gravity, magnetics, electric, and electromagnetics are capable of identifying subsurface features but each has a different spatial resolution. Although, each of these methods are stand-alone tools and have produced wonderful and reliable results for decades to solve geological problems, integrating geophysical results from these different methods with geological and geospatial data, adds an extra dimension towards solving geological problems. Integration techniques also involve comparing and contrasting the structural and tectonic evolution of geological features from different tectonic and geographic provinces. I employed 3D and 2D seismic data, passive seismic data, and gravity and magnetic data in three studies and integrated these results with geological, and geospatial data. Seismic processing, and interpretation, as well as filtering techniques applied to the potential filed data produced many insightful results. Integrated forward models played an important role in the interpretation process. The three chapters in this dissertation are stand-alone separate scientific papers. Each of these chapters used integrated geophysical methods to identify the subsurface features and tectonic evolution of the study areas. The study areas lie in the southeast Fort Worth Basin, Texas, Harney Basin, Oregon, and Snake River Plain, Idaho. The Fort Worth Basin is one of the most fully developed shale gas fields in North America. With the shallow Barnett Shale play in place, the Precambrian basement remains largely unknown in many places with limited published work on the basement structures underlying the Lower Paleozoic strata. In this research, I show how the basement structures relate to overlying Paleozoic reservoirs in the Barnett Shale and Ellenburger Group. I used high quality, wide-azimuth, 3D seismic data near the southeast fringe of the Fort Worth Basin. The seismic results were integrated with gravity, magnetic, well log, and

  19. Integrated geophysical studies of the Fort Worth Basin (Texas), Harney Basin (Oregon), and Snake River Plain (Idaho)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khatiwada, Murari

    Geophysical methods such as seismic, gravity, magnetics, electric, and electromagnetics are capable of identifying subsurface features but each has a different spatial resolution. Although, each of these methods are stand-alone tools and have produced wonderful and reliable results for decades to solve geological problems, integrating geophysical results from these different methods with geological and geospatial data, adds an extra dimension towards solving geological problems. Integration techniques also involve comparing and contrasting the structural and tectonic evolution of geological features from different tectonic and geographic provinces. I employed 3D and 2D seismic data, passive seismic data, and gravity and magnetic data in three studies and integrated these results with geological, and geospatial data. Seismic processing, and interpretation, as well as filtering techniques applied to the potential filed data produced many insightful results. Integrated forward models played an important role in the interpretation process. The three chapters in this dissertation are stand-alone separate scientific papers. Each of these chapters used integrated geophysical methods to identify the subsurface features and tectonic evolution of the study areas. The study areas lie in the southeast Fort Worth Basin, Texas, Harney Basin, Oregon, and Snake River Plain, Idaho. The Fort Worth Basin is one of the most fully developed shale gas fields in North America. With the shallow Barnett Shale play in place, the Precambrian basement remains largely unknown in many places with limited published work on the basement structures underlying the Lower Paleozoic strata. In this research, I show how the basement structures relate to overlying Paleozoic reservoirs in the Barnett Shale and Ellenburger Group. I used high quality, wide-azimuth, 3D seismic data near the southeast fringe of the Fort Worth Basin. The seismic results were integrated with gravity, magnetic, well log, and

  20. Characterize and Quantify Residual Steelhead in the Clearwater River, Idaho, 1999 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Bigelow, Patricia E.; Larsen, Chris A.

    2003-03-01

    Although sample sizes were small during the 1999 field season, we were able to verify at least some residual steelhead survive the winter to persist in the Clearwater River. Hatchery steelhead were found in low numbers migrating up tributaries of the Clearwater River where wild A-run steelhead spawn. Data from this first year did not indicate differences in survival due to size, release site, or rearing system for steelhead reared at Dworshak National Fish Hatchery. This information needs to be compared over several (at least three) years for meaningful analysis. Final analysis will also include influences of water flow and temperature in emigration success. Based on one year of data, the majority of steelhead which do not emigrate during the first couple of weeks after release, are unlikely to emigrate at all.

  1. Lead exposure in passerines inhabiting lead-contaminated floodplains in the Coeur d'Alene River Basin, Idaho, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, G.D.; Audet, D.J.; Kern, J.W.; LeCaptain, L.J.; Strickland, M.D.; Hoffman, D.J.; McDonald, L.L.

    1999-01-01

    Blood collected from song sparrows (Melospiza melodia) and American robins (Turdus migratorius) captured with mist nets in a lead-contaminated (assessment) area and nearby uncontaminated (reference) areas within the Coeur d'Alene Basin in northern Idaho was analyzed for d-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity (ALAD) and hematocrit levels, and livers were analyzed for lead. Mean ALAD inhibition in the assessment area was 51% in song sparrows and 75% in American robins. The proportion of the sampled population with ALAD inhibition >50% was calculated to be 43% for song sparrows and 83% for American robins. Assessment area hematocrit values for song sparrows (0 = 39.9) and American robins (0 = 39.5) were lower than in reference areas (0 = 42.4 for song sparrows and 40.2 for American robins); however, differences were not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Significantly higher levels of lead (wet weight) were found in livers from song sparrows captured on the assessment area (0 = 1.93 ppm) than on reference areas (0 = 0.10 ppm) (p = 0.0079). Study results indicate that 43% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 12.9-77.5%) of the song sparrows and 83% (95% CI = 41.8-99.2%) of the American robins inhabiting the floodplain along the Coeur d'Alene River in the assessment area are being exposed to lead at levels sufficient to inhibit ALAD by > 50%. Variability in lead exposure indicators was attributed to high variability in environmental lead concentrations in the Coeur d'Alene River Basin.

  2. Fish assemblages and environmental variables associated with hard-rock mining in the Coeur d'Alene River basin, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maret, Terry R.; MacCoy, Dorene E.

    2002-01-01

    As part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water Quality Assessment Program, fish assemblages, environmental variables, and associated mine densities were evaluated at 18 test and reference sites during the summer of 2000 in the Coeur d'Alene and St. Regis river basins in Idaho and Montana. Multimetric and multivariate analyses were used to examine patterns in fish assemblages and the associated environmental variables representing a gradient of mining intensity. The concentrations of cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) in water and streambed sediment found at test sites in watersheds where production mine densities were at least 0.2 mines/km2 (in a 500-m stream buffer) were significantly higher than the concentrations found at reference sites. Many of these metal concentrations exceeded Ambient Water Quality Criteria (AWQC) and the Canadian Probable Effect Level guidelines for streambed sediment. Regression analysis identified significant relationships between the production mine densities and the sum of Cd, Pb, and Zn concentrations in water and streambed sediment (r2 = 0.69 and 0.66, respectively; P < 0.01). Zinc was identified as the primary metal contaminant in both water and streambed sediment. Eighteen fish species in the families Salmonidae, Cottidae, Cyprinidae, Catostomidae, Centrarchidae, and Ictaluridae were collected. Principal components analysis of 11 fish metrics identified two distinct groups of sites corresponding to the reference and test sites, predominantly on the basis of the inverse relationship between percent cottids and percent salmonids (r = -0.64; P < 0.05). Streams located downstream from the areas of intensive hard-rock mining in the Coeur d'Alene River basin contained fewer native fish and lower abundances as a result of metal enrichment, not physical habitat degradation. Typically, salmonids were the predominant species at test sites where Zn concentrations exceeded the acute AWQC. Cottids were absent at these sites, which

  3. The 1988 INEL (Idaho National Engineering Laboratory) microearthquake survey near the western edge of the eastern Snake River Plain

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, S.M.; Anderson, D.M.; Carpenter, G.S.; Gilbert, H.K.; Martin, S.M.; Permann, P.J.

    1989-08-01

    A network of seventeen analog recording seismograph, spaced approximately 2 km apart, were operated from May to November, 1988 near the western edge of the eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) to record small magnitude microearthquakes. Two three-component digital seismographs were also installed to record the microearthquake activity for analysis of earthquake source parameters and any regional earthquakes for possible analysis of the localized site and crustal effects of the ESRP on earthquake ground motions. We determined near-surface crustal velocities for this area that were slightly lower than the near-surface crustal velocities presently used in routine locations of events recorded by the INEL Seismic Network from five 100 lb surface blasts. During the survey period, only two earthquakes were located near the network area. One of the events occurred in May and was recorded by four of the portable seismic stations and two of the permanent INEL Seismic Network stations. It had a coda magnitude (M{sub c}) of approximately 0.3. The other event was recorded by seventeen portable analog stations and three of the permanent INEL Seismic Network stations. We located this microearthquake, M{sub c}=0.5, about 2 km west of Howe, Idaho, off of the ESRP. We determined an unconstrained focal mechanism for this event, which could be interpreted as normal faulting striking N 44{degree} W or strike-slip faulting on a plane striking either N 44{degree} W or N 47{degree} E. 26 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Review of potential interactions between stocked rainbow trout and listed Snake River sockeye salmon in Pettit Lake Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Teuscher, D.

    1996-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if hatchery rainbow trout compete with or prey on juvenile Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka in Pettit Lake, Idaho. In 1995, a total of 8,570 age-0 sockeye and 4,000 hatchery rainbow trout were released in Pettit Lake. After releasing the fish, gillnets were set in the pelagic and littoral zones to collected diet and spatial distribution data. Interactions were assessed monthly from June 1995 through March 1996. Competition for food was discounted based on extremely low diet overlap results observed throughout the sample period. Conversely, predation interactions were more significant. A total of 119 rainbow trout stomachs were analyzed, two contained O. nerka. The predation was limited to one sample period, but when extrapolated to the whole rainbow trout populations results in significant losses. Total consumption of O. nerka by rainbow trout ranged from an estimated 10 to 23% of initial stocking numbers. Predation results contradict earlier findings that stocked rainbow trout do not prey on wild kokanee or sockeye in the Sawtooth Lakes. The contradiction may be explained by a combination of poorly adapted hatchery sockeye and a littoral release site that forced spatial overlap that was not occurring in the wild populations. Releasing sockeye in the pelagic zone may have reduced or eliminated predation losses to rainbow trout.

  5. Biotic integrity of the Boise River upstream and downstream from two municipal wastewater treatment facilities, Boise, Idaho, 1995-96

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mullins, William H.

    1999-01-01

    Aquatic biological communities were used to assess the biotic integrity of the Boise River upstream and downstream from the Lander Street and West Boise municipal wastewater treatment facilities (WTFs) in Boise, Idaho. Samples of epilithic periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrates, and fish were collected in late February and early March 1995, in late October 1996, and in early December 1996. Epilithic periphyton biomass, expressed as chlorophyll-a and ash-free dry weight, declined substantially between 1995 and 1996. Chlorophyll-a concentrations were higher at sites downstream from WTFs in both years, but differences in concentrations between sites upstream and downstream from WTFs were not statistically significant. High withinsite variance suggests that greater sampling intensity would improve statistical comparison. Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI) scores calculated for benthic macroinvertebrates were higher for the sites upstream from WTFs in 1995 and were the same for all sites in 1996. Similarly, IBI scores calculated for fish were higher for the sites upstream from WTFs in 1995, were higher for the site upstream from the Lander Street WTF in 1996, and were the same for sites upstream and downstream from the West Boise WTF in 1996. Two species of sculpin (Cottus) were abundant at the site upstream from both WTFs but were absent at all other sites downstream from WTFs in 1995 and composed only 2 percent of the total number of fish collected downstream from the Lander Street WTF in 1996.

  6. Influences of body size and environmental factors on autumn downstream migration of bull trout in the Boise River, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Monnot, L.; Dunham, J.B.; Hoem, T.; Koetsier, P.

    2008-01-01

    Many fishes migrate extensively through stream networks, yet patterns are commonly described only in terms of the origin and destination of migration (e.g., between natal and feeding habitats). To better understand patterns of migration in bull trout,Salvelinus confluentus we studied the influences of body size (total length [TL]) and environmental factors (stream temperature and discharge) on migrations in the Boise River basin, Idaho. During the autumns of 2001-2003, we tracked the downstream migrations of 174 radio-tagged bull trout ranging in size from 21 to 73 cm TL. The results indicated that large bull trout (>30 cm) were more likely than small fish to migrate rapidly downstream after spawning in headwater streams in early autumn. Large bull trout also had a higher probability of arriving at the current terminus of migration in the system, Arrowrock Reservoir. The rate of migration by small bull trout was more variable and individuals were less likely to move into Arrowrock Reservoir. The rate of downstream migration by all fish was slower when stream discharge was greater. Temperature was not associated with the rate of migration. These findings indicate that fish size and environmentally related changes in behavior have important influences on patterns of migration. In a broader context, these results and other recent work suggest, at least in some cases, that commonly used classifications of migratory behavior may not accurately reflect the full range of behaviors and variability among individuals (or life stages) and environmental conditions. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  7. Radiocarbon studies of latest Pleistocene and Holocene lava flows of the Snake River Plain, Idaho: Data, lessons, interpretations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuntz, M.A.; Spiker, E. C.; Rubin, M.; Champion, D.E.; Lefebvre, R.H.

    1986-01-01

    Latest Pleistocene-Holocene basaltic lava fields of the Snake River Plain, Idaho, have been dated by the radiocarbon method. Backhoe excavations beneath lava flows typically yielded carbon-bearing, charred eolian sediment. This material provided most of the samples for this study; the sediment typically contains less than 0.2% carbon. Charcoal fragments were obtained from tree molds but only from a few backhoe excavations. Contamination of the charred sediments and charcoal by younger carbon components is extensive; the effects of contamination were mitigated but appropriate pretreatment of samples using acid and alkali leaches. Twenty of the more than 60 lava flows of the Craters of the Moon lava field have been dated; their ages range from about 15,000 to about 2000 yr B.P. The ages permit assignment of the flows to eight distinct eruptive periods with an average recurrence interval of about 2000 yr. The seven other latest Pleistocene-Holocene lava fields were all emplaced in short eruptive bursts. Their 14C ages (yr B.P.) are: Kings Bowl (2222?? 100), Wapi (2270 ?? 50), Hells Half Acre (5200 ?? 150), Shoshone (10,130 ?? 350), North Robbers and South Robbers (11.980 ?? 300), and Cerro Grande (13,380 ?? 350). ?? 1986.

  8. A comparative evaluation of conceptual models for the Snake River Plain aquifer at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, INEL

    SciTech Connect

    Prahl, C.J.

    1992-01-01

    Geologic and hydrologic data collected by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) are used to evaluate the existing ground water monitoring well network completed in the upper portion of the Snake River Plain aquifer (SRPA) beneath the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). The USGS data analyzed and compared in this study include: (a) lithologic, geophysical, and stratigraphic information, including the conceptual geologic models intrawell, ground water flow measurement (Tracejector tests) and (c) dedicated, submersible, sampling group elevations. Qualitative evaluation of these data indicate that the upper portion of the SRPA is both heterogeneous and anisotropic at the scale of the ICPP monitoring well network. Tracejector test results indicate that the hydraulic interconnection and spatial configuration of water-producing zones is extremely complex within the upper portion of the SRPA. The majority of ICPP monitoring wells currently are equipped to sample ground water only the upper lithostratigraphic intervals of the SRPA, primarily basalt flow groups E, EF, and F. Depth-specific hydrogeochemical sampling and analysis are necessary to determine if ground water quality varies significantly between the various lithostratigraphic units adjacent to individual sampling pumps.

  9. Ground water in the Raft River Basin, Idaho, with special reference to irrigation use, 1956-60

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mundorff, Maurice John; Sisco, H.G.

    1963-01-01

    In the Raft River basin in south-central Idaho, ground-water withdrawals for irrigation have more than doubled since 1955, when data were compiled for a comprehensive report on the area. The present report summerizes data on the ground-water use and changes in the water regimen during the intervening 5 years. Water levels have declined 10 to 20 feet in the areas of heaviest pumping and 3 to 5 feet throughout the remainder of the area. These water-level declines are related to increased ground-water pumpage and below-normal precipitation in the basin. The total pumpage during the 1960 irrigation season is estimated to be about 127,000 acre-feet, of which about half was consumed by crops or evaporated. The remainder returned to the aquifer. Irrigation development is acting to reduce the amount of underflow out of the basin. The water table can be lowered considerably more before underflow from the basin would be reduced substantially.

  10. Radiocarbon studies of latest Pleistocene and Holocene lava flows of the Snake River Plain, Idaho: Data, lessons, interpretations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuntz, Mel A.; Spiker, Elliott C.; Rubin, Meyer; Champion, Duane E.; Lefebvre, Richard H.

    1986-03-01

    Latest Pleistocene-Holocene basaltic lava fields of the Snake River Plain, Idaho, have been dated by the radiocarbon method. Backhoe excavations beneath lava flows typically yielded carbon-bearing, charred eolian sediment. This material provided most of the samples for this study; the sediment typically contains less than 0.2% carbon. Charcoal fragments were obtained from tree molds but only from a few backhoe excavations. Contamination of the charred sediments and charcoal by younger carbon components is extensive; the effects of contamination were mitigated but appropriate pretreatment of samples using acid and alkali leaches. Twenty of the more than 60 lava flows of the Craters of the Moon lava field have been dated; their ages range from about 15,000 to about 2000 yr B.P. The ages permit assignment of the flows to eight distinct eruptive periods with an average recurrence interval of about 2000 yr. The seven other latest Pleistocene-Holocene lava fields were all emplaced in short eruptive bursts. Their 14C ages (yr B.P.) are: Kings Bowl (2222± 100), Wapi (2270 ± 50), Hells Half Acre (5200 ± 150), Shoshone (10,130 ± 350), North Robbers and South Robbers (11.980 ± 300), and Cerro Grande (13,380 ± 350).

  11. Lead-rich sediments, Coeur d'Alene River Valley, Idaho: area, volume, tonnage, and lead content

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bookstrom, Arthur A.; Box, Stephen E.; Campbell, Julie K.; Foster, Kathryn I.; Jackson, Berne L.

    2001-01-01

    In north Idaho, downstream from the Coeur d?Alene (CdA) silver-lead-zinc mining district, lead-rich sediments, containing at least 1,000 ppm of lead, cover approximately 61 km2 (or 73 percent) of the 84-km2 floor of the CdA River valley, from the confluence of its North and South Forks to the top of its delta-front slope, in CdA Lake. Concentrations of lead (Pb) in surface sediments range from 15 to about 38,500 ppm, and average 3,370 ppm, which is 112 times the mean background concentration (30 ppm) of Pb in uncontaminated sediments of the CdA and St. Joe River valleys. Most of the highest concentrations of Pb are in sediments within or near the river channel, or near the base of the stratigraphic section of Pb-rich sediments. Ranges of Pb concentration in Pb-rich sediments gradually decrease with increasing distance from the river and its distributaries. Ranges of thickness of Pb-rich sediments generally decrease abruptly with increasing distance from the river, from about 3 + 3 m in the river channel to about 1 + 1m on upland riverbanks, levees and sand splays, to about 0.3 + 0.3 m in back-levee marshes and lateral lakes. Thickness of Pb-rich dredge spoils (removed from the river and deposited on Cataldo-Mission Flats) is mostly in the range 4 + 4 m, thinning away from an outfall zone north and west of the river, near the formerly dredged channel reach near Cataldo Landing. We attribute lateral variation in ranges of thickness and Pb content of Pb-rich sediments to the dynamic balance between decreasing floodwater flow velocity with increasing distance from the river and the quantity, size, density, and Pb content of particles mobilized, transported, and deposited. We present alternative median- and mean-based estimates of the volume of Pbrich sediments, their wet and dry tonnage, and their tonnage of contained Pb. We calculate separate pairs of estimates for 23 Estimation Units, each of which corresponds to a major depositional environment, divided into down

  12. Pleistocene cataclysmic flooding along the Big Lost River, east central Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rathburn, Sara L.

    1993-12-01

    Relationships between cataclysmic flood-generated landforms and flood hydraulics were investigated along Box Canyon, an 11 km long bedrock gorge of the lower Big Lost River. Geomorphic mapping along Box Canyon indicates that a cataclysmic flood completely inundated the gorge, resulting in large-scale erosional and depositional features on the adjacent basalt upland. Step-backwater hydraulic modeling indicates that a discharge of 60,000 m 3 s -1 was required to produce the geologic paleostage evidence. Maximum stream power per unit area of bed locally attained values of 26,000 W m -2 during the peak, ranking the Big Lost River flood third, in terms of power, behind the famous Missoula and Bonneville floods. The spatial distribution of unit stream power indicates that bedrock erosion and boulder deposition on the basalt upland adjacent to Box Canyon were governed primarily by decreasing unit stream power and/or fluctuating unit stream power gradients. A preliminary depositional threshold for the largest flood boulders defines a lower limit of flood power required to sustain boulder transport along this bedrock fluvial system. Ultimately, hydrodynamic controls on Box Canyon flood erosion and deposition derive from the irregular volcanic rift topography of the eastern Snake River Plain. Outburst floods from a glacial lake in headwater regions during the late Pleistocene may have induced the torrential discharges within Box Canyon.

  13. Characterize and Quantify Residual Steelhead in the Clearwater River, Idaho, 2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Brostrom, Jody K.

    2003-03-01

    We tagged 4,513 hatchery steelhead from Dworshak National Fish Hatchery (NFH), with Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tags to evaluate factors contributing to residualism. Steelhead from typical growth ponds (System I) averaged eight mm less and traveled two days faster to Lower Granite Dam than those in faster growth ponds (System II). The mean detection rates of steelhead by rearing system were 57.4%, 55.9%, and 57.8% for System I, System II, and System III. Steelhead released into Clear Creek, South Fork Clearwater River and directly from Dworshak NFH had detection rates of 55.0%, 59.1%, and 57.8%, respectively. Overall detection rate for all release sites, rearing systems and egg takes was 54.1%. We PIT tagged an additional 270 hatchery steelhead in the North Fork and mainstem Clearwater rivers and the adult ladder at Dworshak National Fish Hatchery between May 15 and October 29. In the four tributaries sampled, no hatchery steelhead were captured or observed. A total of 51 code d-wire tags were recovered; 3 were released at Dworshak NFH in 2001 and 47 in 2002. One fish was released at Clear Creek. Although sample sizes were small, we were able to verify that at least 33 residual steelhead tagged in 2001 persisted in the Clearwater River during winter and were detected at downstream dams in 2002. Final analysis will include influences of water flow and temperature in emigration success.

  14. Characterize and Quantify Residual Steelhead in the Clearwater River, Idaho, 2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, Chris A.; Bigelow, Patricia E.; Faler, Michael P.

    2003-03-01

    We tagged 4,507 hatchery steelhead from Dworshak National Fish Hatchery (NFH), with Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tags to evaluate factors contributing to residualism. Steelhead lengths from typical growth ponds (System I) averaged 7mm less than those in faster growth ponds (System II) and travel times were 2 days faster. Steelhead were released into Clear Creek, South Fork Clearwater River, and from Dworshak NFH, and detection rates were 54.8%, 60.0% and 58.8%, respectively. The mean detection rates of steelhead analyzed by rearing system were, 51.5%, 59.8%, and 61.8% for System III, System I, and System II, respectively. We PIT tagged an additional 1,302 hatchery steelhead in the North Fork and mainstem Clearwater rivers between April 10 and August 28. Only 73 of these PIT-tagged steelhead were detected at a downstream dam and none were detected after June 14. In the 4 tributaries sampled, 77 steelhead were PIT tagged and released, 35.1% of which were detected emigrating downstream. Steelhead which were sacrificed for coded-wire tag information were also checked for sexual maturity. A total of 302 coded-wire tags were recovered; 87 from the Clearwater River, 119 from the North Fork Clearwater River, 80 from the Dworshak NFH adult return ladder, and 77 from the 4 tributaries. The precocious rate in males was 83.3% to 1.5% in females and the gender ratio was 79.8% males to 20.2% females. Although sample sizes were small, we were able to verify that at least one residual steelhead survived the winter to persist in the Clearwater River. Based on this years data, the majority of steelhead, which do not emigrate during the first couple of weeks after release, are unlikely to emigrate. Final analysis will also include influences of water flow and temperature in emigration success. This information needs to be compared over several years (at least three) for meaningful analysis.

  15. Late Holocene hydroclimate change inferred from δ18O of lake sediments, Lost River Range, Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krueger, C. R.; Finney, B. P.; Shapley, M.

    2012-12-01

    High-resolution paleohydrological records are needed to assess the frequency and magnitude of past droughts in Idaho and the northern Rocky Mountain region, but are scarce in this semi-arid region. Sediments from Lost Keys Pond (LKP) can be used to reconstruct hydroclimate. LKP is closed to surface outflow and is therefore sensitive to precipitation minus evaporation; surface water is enriched in δ18O compared to the local meteoric waters. In summer 2011 several sediment cores were collected from LKP using a square rod piston corer; the focus of this analysis is an 82-cm Bolivia core. This core contains thinly banded to laminated, authigenic carbonate mud, a recorder of lake δ18O at the time of deposition. This core was sampled for δ18O and /δ13C at 0.5 cm intervals, and the <20 um fraction was isolated to avoid any detrital carbonate. Based on the current age model, sampling at this interval records sub-decadal (5-10 year) hydroclimate variability. The δ18O signal recovered has 5‰ variability over the length of the record, including several major fluctuations in last 1,000 years. During this period, several major dry and wet periods have been recorded occurring over multidecadal timescales, with a trend toward increasing aridity. The δ18O and δ13C records in the lowest decimeter are divergent and mirror each other, above this interval isotopic records have strong covariance. This pattern may be indicative of a change from surface outflow to no surface outflow conditions. The age model is being refined to better assess how this record correlates with other regional records, and ultimately improve our understanding of past atmospheric circulation.

  16. Characterize and Quantify Residual Steelhead in the Clearwater River, Idaho, 2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, Chris A.; Faler, Michael P.

    2003-03-01

    We tagged 4,505 hatchery steelhead from Dworshak National Fish Hatchery (NFH), with Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tags to evaluate factors contributing to residualism. Steelhead lengths from typical growth ponds (System I) averaged 8 mm less than those in System II and travel times were two days faster. Steelhead were released into Clear Creek, South Fork Clearwater River and directly from Dworshak NFH; detection rates were 75.7%, 77.9%, and 76.4%, respectively. The mean detection rates of steelhead by rearing system were 75.8%, 78.4%, and 74.7% for System I, System II, and System III. We PIT tagged an additional 1,131 hatchery steelhead in the North Fork and mainstem Clearwater rivers between April 9 and September 19. In the four tributaries sampled, 85 steelhead were PIT tagged and released, 57.6% were detected emigrating downstream. A total of 149 coded-wire tags were recovered; 18 were tagged at Dworshak NFH in 2000 and two in 1999. Additionally, 20 were released from the Clearwater Fish Hatchery and nine were released in Oregon. Although sample sizes were small, we were able to verify that at least 52 residual steelhead survived the winter to persist in the Clearwater River. These 52 steelhead were PIT tagged in 2000 and detected at Lower Granite Dam emigrating in 2001. Based on this years data, the majority of steelhead, which do not emigrate during the first couple of weeks after release, are unlikely to emigrate. Final analysis will also include influences of water flow and temperature in emigration success. This information needs to be compared over several years for meaningful analysis.

  17. Bimodal magmatism, basaltic volcanic styles, tectonics, and geomorphic processes of the eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hughes, S.S.; Smith, R.P.; Hackett, W.R.; McCurry, M.; Anderson, S.R.; Ferdock, G.C.

    1997-01-01

    Geology presented in this field guide covers a wide spectrum of internal and surficial processes of the eastern Snake River Plain, one of the largest components of the combined late Cenozoic igneous provinces of the western United States. Focus is on widespread Quaternary basaltic plains volcanism that produced coalescent shields and complex eruptive centers that yielded compositionally evolved magmas. The guide is constructed in several parts beginning with discussion sections that provide an overview of the geology followed by road directions, with explanations, for specific locations. The geology overview briefly summarizes the collective knowledge gained, and petrologic implications made, over the past few decades. The field guide covers plains volcanism, lava flow emplacement, basaltic shield growth, phreatomagmatic eruptions, and complex and evolved eruptive centers. Locations and explanations are also provided for the hydrogeology, groundwater contamination, and environmental issues such as range fires and cataclysmic floods associated with the region.

  18. Geothermal Systems In The Snake River Plain Idaho Characterized By The Hotspot Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielson, D. L.; Delahunty, C.; Shervais, J. W.

    2012-12-01

    The Snake River Plain (SRP) is potentially the largest geothermal province in the world. It is postulated that the SRP results from passage of the North American Plate over the Yellowstone mantle plume. This has resulted in felsic, caldera-related volcanism followed by voluminous eruptions of basalt. Compilations of subsurface temperature data demonstrate the masking effect of the Snake River Aquifer. As a consequence, here has been little serious geothermal exploration within the center of the plain; although there are numerous examples of low-temperature fluids, as well as the Raft River geothermal system, on the southern flanks of the SRP. Project Hotspot was designed to investigate the geothermal potential of the SRP through the coring and subsequent scientific evaluation of three holes, each representing a different geothermal environment. These are located at Kimama, north of Burley, in the center of the plain; at Kimberly near Twin Falls on the southern margin of the plain; and at Mountain Home Air Force base in the central part of the western SRP. Both the Kimberly and Mountain Home sites are located in areas that have warm wells and hot springs, whereas, the Kimama site has neither surface nor subsurface thermal manifestations. All of the sites studied here were sampled using slim hole coring techniques in conjunction with a bottom hole temperature probe developed by DOSECC. Our first hole at Kimama in the center of the eastern SRP was cored to a depth of 1,912 m. Temperature measurements showed the SRP fresh water aquifer extends to a depth of 965 m and masks the underlying high temperature gradient of 74.5oC/Km. The core hole at Kimberly reached a depth of 1,959 m and demonstrated a large low-temperature resource of >50oC below 800 m. A core hole at Mountain Home AFB in the eastern SRP reached a depth of 1,821 m and demonstrated the presence of an intermediate- to high-temperature artesian resource that has a clear magmatic association, with measured

  19. Gas Bubble Trauma Monitoring in the Clearwater River Drainage, Idaho 1998.

    SciTech Connect

    Cochnauer, Tim

    1998-12-01

    Select portions of the Clearwater and North Fork of the Clearwater rivers were electroshocked to estimate the incidence of gas bubble trauma (GBT) occurring in resident fish populations for the spring and summer months of 1998. The study area was divided into four sections and sampled weekly during periods of spill and non-spill from Dworshak Dam. Five thousand five hundred and forty one fish, representing 22 different species, were captured and examined for GBT. Two fish were detected with signs of GBT; exhibiting the lowest incidence of GBT in the last four years (0.04%). Reduced discharge and lower levels of total dissolved gases may have resulted in lower incidence of GBT in the 1998 monitoring period.

  20. Aquifer-test results, direction of ground-water flow, and 1984-90 annual ground-water pumpage for irrigation, lower Big Lost River Valley, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bassick, M.D.; Jones, M.L.

    1992-01-01

    The study area (see index map of Idaho), part of the Big Lost River drainage basin, is at the northern side of the eastern Snake River Plain. The lower Big Lost River Valley extends from the confluence of Antelope Creek and the Big Lost River to about 4 mi south of Arco and encompasses about 145 mi2 (see map showing water-level contours). The study area is about 18 mi long and, at its narrowest, 4 mi wide. Arco, Butte City, and Moore, with populations of 1,016, 59, and 190, respectively, in 1990, are the only incorporated towns. The entire study area, except the extreme northwestern part, is in Butte City. The study area boundary is where alluvium and colluvium pinch out and abut against the White Knob Mountains (chiefly undifferentiated sedimentary rock with lesser amounts of volcanic rock) on the west and the Lost River Range (chiefly sedimentary rock) on the east. Gravel and sand in the valley fill compose the main aquifer. The southern boundary is approximately where Big Lost River valley fill intercalates with or abuts against basalt of the Snake River Group. Spring ground-water levels and flow in the Big Lost River depend primarily on temperature and the amount and timing of precipitation within the entire drainage basin. Periods of abundant water supply and water shortages are, therefore, related to the amount of annual precipitation. Surface reservoir capacity in the valley (Mackay Reservoir, about 20 mi northwest of Moore) is only 20 percent of the average annual flow of the Big Lost River (Crosthwaite and others, 1970, p. 3). Stored surface water is generally unavailable for carryover from years of abundant water supply to help relieve drought conditions in subsequent years. Many farmers have drilled irrigation wells to supplement surface-water supplies and to increase irrigated acreage. Average annual flow of the Big Lost River below Mackay Reservoir near Mackay (gaging station 13127000, not shown) in water years 1905, 1913-14, and 1920-90 was about 224

  1. Streamflow monitoring and statistics for development of water rights claims for Wild and Scenic Rivers, Owyhee Canyonlands Wilderness, Idaho, 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, Molly S.; Fosness, Ryan L.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), collected streamflow data in 2012 and estimated streamflow statistics for stream segments designated "Wild," "Scenic," or "Recreational" under the National Wild and Scenic Rivers System in the Owyhee Canyonlands Wilderness in southwestern Idaho. The streamflow statistics were used by BLM to develop and file a draft, federal reserved water right claim in autumn 2012 to protect federally designated "outstanding remarkable values" in the stream segments. BLM determined that the daily mean streamflow equaled or exceeded 20 and 80 percent of the time during bimonthly periods (two periods per month) and the bankfull streamflow are important streamflow thresholds for maintaining outstanding remarkable values. Prior to this study, streamflow statistics estimated using available datasets and tools for the Owyhee Canyonlands Wilderness were inaccurate for use in the water rights claim. Streamflow measurements were made at varying intervals during February–September 2012 at 14 monitoring sites; 2 of the monitoring sites were equipped with telemetered streamgaging equipment. Synthetic streamflow records were created for 11 of the 14 monitoring sites using a partial‑record method or a drainage-area-ratio method. Streamflow records were obtained directly from an operating, long-term streamgage at one monitoring site, and from discontinued streamgages at two monitoring sites. For 10 sites analyzed using the partial-record method, discrete measurements were related to daily mean streamflow at a nearby, telemetered “index” streamgage. Resulting regression equations were used to estimate daily mean and annual peak streamflow at the monitoring sites during the full period of record for the index sites. A synthetic streamflow record for Sheep Creek was developed using a drainage-area-ratio method, because measured streamflows did not relate well to any index site to allow use of the partial

  2. Age dating ground water by use of chlorofluorocarbons (CCl{sub 3}F and CCl{sub 2}F{sub 2}), and distribution of chlorofluorocarbons in the unsaturated zone, Snake River Plain aquifer, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Busenberg, E.; Weeks, E.P.; Plummer, L.N.; Bartholomay, R.C.

    1993-04-01

    Detectable concentrations of chlorofluorocarbons (CFC`s) were observed in ground water and unsaturated-zone air at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and vicinity. The recharge ages of waters were determined to be from 4 to more than 50 years on the basis of CFC concentrations and other environmental data; most ground waters have ages of 14 to 30 years. These results indicate that young ground water was added at various locations to the older regional ground water (greater than 50 years) within and outside the INEL boundaries. The wells drilled into the Snake River Plain aquifer at INEL sampled mainly this local recharge. The Big Lost River, Birch Creek, the Little Lost River, and the Mud Lake-Terreton area appear to be major sources of recharge of the Snake River Plain aquifer at INEL. An average recharge temperature of 9.7{plus_minus}1.3{degrees}C (degrees Celsius) was calculated from dissolved nitrogen and argon concentrations in the ground waters, a temperature that is similar to the mean annual soil temperature of 9{degrees}C measured at INEL. This similarity indicates that the aquifer was recharged at INEL and not at higher elevations that would have cooler soil temperatures than INEL. Soil-gas concentrations at Test Area North (TAN) are explained by diffusion theory.

  3. Evaluation of well-purging effects on water-quality results for samples collected from the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer underlying the Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knobel, LeRoy L.

    2006-01-01

    This report presents qualitative and quantitative comparisons of water-quality data from the Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho, to determine if the change from purging three wellbore volumes to one wellbore volume has a discernible effect on the comparability of the data. Historical water-quality data for 30 wells were visually compared to water-quality data collected after purging only 1 wellbore volume from the same wells. Of the 322 qualitatively examined constituent plots, 97.5 percent met 1 or more of the criteria established for determining data comparability. A simple statistical equation to determine if water-quality data collected from 28 wells at the INL with long purge times (after pumping 1 and 3 wellbore volumes of water) were statistically the same at the 95-percent confidence level indicated that 97.9 percent of 379 constituent pairs were equivalent. Comparability of water-quality data determined from both the qualitative (97.5 percent comparable) and quantitative (97.9 percent comparable) evaluations after purging 1 and 3 wellbore volumes of water indicates that the change from purging 3 to 1 wellbore volumes had no discernible effect on comparability of water-quality data at the INL. However, the qualitative evaluation was limited because only October-November 2003 data were available for comparison to historical data. This report was prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy.

  4. Oxygen and strontium isotopic studies of basaltic lavas from the Snake River plain, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leeman, William P.; Whelan, Joseph F.

    1983-01-01

    The Snake Creek-Williams Canyon pluton of the southern Snake Range crops out over an area of about 30 km2, about 60 km southeast of Ely, Nev. This Jurassic intrusion displays large and systematic chemical and mineralogical zonation over a horizontal distance of 5 km. Major-element variations compare closely with Dalyls average andesite-dacite-rhyolite over an SiO2 range of 63 to 76 percent. For various reasons it was originally thought that assimilation played a dominant role in development of the Snake Creek-Williams Canyon pluton. However, based on modeling of more recently obtained trace element and isotopic data, we have concluded that the zonation is the result of in-situ fractional crystallization, with little assimilation at the level of crystallization. This report summarizes data available for each of the mineral species present in the zoned intrusion. Special attention has been paid to trends We present oxygen and strontium isotopic data for olivine tholeiites, evolved (that is, differentiated and (or) contaminated) lavas, rhyolites, and crustal- derived xenoliths from the Snake River Plain. These data show that the olivine tholeiites are fairly uniform in d80 (5.1 to 6.2) and 87Sr/86Sr (0.7056 to 0.7076) and reveal no correlation between these ratios. The tholeiites are considered representative of mantle-derived magmas that have not interacted significantly with crustal material or meteoric water. The evolved lavas display a wider range in d 80 (5.6 to 7.6) and 87Sr/86Sr (0.708 to 0.717) with positive correlations between these ratios in some suites but not in others. Crustal xenoliths have high and variable 8?Sr/86Sr (0.715 to 0.830) and d80 values that vary widely (6.7 to 9.2) and are a few permil greater than d80 values of the Snake River basalts. Thus, isotopic data for the evolved lavas are permissive of small degrees of contamination by crustal rocks similar to the most d80-depleted xenoliths. The d80 enrichments in some evolved lavas also are

  5. Patterns of hybridization of nonnative cutthroat trout and hatchery rainbow trout with native redband trout in the Boise River, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neville, Helen M.; Dunham, Jason B.

    2011-01-01

    Hybridization is one of the greatest threats to native fishes. Threats from hybridization are particularly important for native trout species as stocking of nonnative trout has been widespread within the ranges of native species, thus increasing the potential for hybridization. While many studies have documented hybridization between native cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarkii and nonnative rainbow trout O. mykiss, fewer have focused on this issue in native rainbow trout despite widespread threats from introductions of both nonnative cutthroat trout and hatchery rainbow trout. Here, we describe the current genetic (i.e., hybridization) status of native redband trout O. mykiss gairdneri populations in the upper Boise River, Idaho. Interspecific hybridization was widespread (detected at 14 of the 41 sampled locations), but high levels of hybridization between nonnative cutthroat trout and redband trout were detected in only a few streams. Intraspecific hybridization was considerably more widespread (almost 40% of sampled locations), and several local populations of native redband trout have been almost completely replaced with hatchery coastal rainbow trout O. mykiss irideus; other populations exist as hybrid swarms, some are in the process of being actively invaded, and some are maintaining genetic characteristics of native populations. The persistence of some redband trout populations with high genetic integrity provides some opportunity to conserve native genomes, but our findings also highlight the complex decisions facing managers today. Effective management strategies in this system may include analysis of the specific attributes of each site and population to evaluate the relative risks posed by isolation versus maintaining connectivity, identifying potential sites for control or eradication of nonnative trout, and long-term monitoring of the genetic integrity of remaining redband trout populations to track changes in their status.

  6. Geodetic Measurements and Numerical Modeling of Deformation at Raft River Geothermal Field, Idaho, U.S.A.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, S. T.; Feigl, K. L.; Moore, J.; Plummer, M. A.; Warren, I.

    2015-12-01

    To measure time-dependent deformation at the Raft River geothermal field in Cassia County in Southwestern Idaho, we analyze interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) data acquired between 2006 and 2015 by several satellite missions, including: Envisat, ALOS, TerraSAR-X, and TanDEM-X. The resulting time-series analysis indicates that the deformation began in late 2007, shortly after a 13-megawatt geothermal power plant began commercial production. The rate of deformation appears to be decreasing over time since 2008. The resulting maps of deformation show primarily uplift with some subsidence. The uplift signal is located in an ~8-km-by-5-km area centered near three injection wells that recycle produced brine into the Salt Lake formation, which consists of Miocene-Pliocene lacustrine deposits, volcanic tuffs, and lava flows. Subsidence occurs in an adjacent ~4-km-by-4-km area to the northwest. These two signatures remain in the same location in all of the well-correlated interferometric pairs since 2008. Although all production wells are also located inside the area experiencing uplift, most of them are close to the boundary that separates the two areas, and likely associated with the steeply dipping Bridge Fault zone. We explore the relative roles of thermal (T), and hydrological (H) processes on mechanical deformation (M). To do so, we use finite element based numerical models to calculate the time-dependent deformation field due to thermal contraction/expansion of rock (T-M coupling), and changes in pore pressure (H-M coupling).

  7. Application of a parameter-estimation technique to modeling the regional aquifer underlying the eastern Snake River plain, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garabedian, Stephen P.

    1986-01-01

    A nonlinear, least-squares regression technique for the estimation of ground-water flow model parameters was applied to the regional aquifer underlying the eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho. The technique uses a computer program to simulate two-dimensional, steady-state ground-water flow. Hydrologic data for the 1980 water year were used to calculate recharge rates, boundary fluxes, and spring discharges. Ground-water use was estimated from irrigated land maps and crop consumptive-use figures. These estimates of ground-water withdrawal, recharge rates, and boundary flux, along with leakance, were used as known values in the model calibration of transmissivity. Leakance values were adjusted between regression solutions by comparing model-calculated to measured spring discharges. In other simulations, recharge and leakance also were calibrated as prior-information regression parameters, which limits the variation of these parameters using a normalized standard error of estimate. Results from a best-fit model indicate a wide areal range in transmissivity from about 0.05 to 44 feet squared per second and in leakance from about 2.2x10 -9 to 6.0 x 10 -8 feet per second per foot. Along with parameter values, model statistics also were calculated, including the coefficient of correlation between calculated and observed head (0.996), the standard error of the estimates for head (40 feet), and the parameter coefficients of variation (about 10-40 percent). Additional boundary flux was added in some areas during calibration to achieve proper fit to ground-water flow directions. Model fit improved significantly when areas that violated model assumptions were removed. It also improved slightly when y-direction (northwest-southeast) transmissivity values were larger than x-direction (northeast-southwest) transmissivity values. The model was most sensitive to changes in recharge, and in some areas, to changes in transmissivity, particularly near the spring discharge area from

  8. Stream-Sediment Geochemistry in Mining-Impacted Drainages of the Yankee Fork of the Salmon River, Custer County, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frost, Thomas P.; Box, Stephen E.

    2009-01-01

    This reconnaissance study was undertaken at the request of the USDA Forest Service, Region 4, to assess the geochemistry, in particular the mercury and selenium contents, of mining-impacted sediments in the Yankee Fork of the Salmon River in Custer County Idaho. The Yankee Fork has been the site of hard-rock and placer mining, primarily for gold and silver, starting in the 1880s. Major dredge placer mining from the 1930s to 1950s in the Yankee Fork disturbed about a 10-kilometer reach. Mercury was commonly used in early hard-rock mining and placer operations for amalgamation and recovery of gold. During the late 1970s, feasibility studies were done on cyanide-heap leach recovery of gold from low-grade ores of the Sunbeam and related deposits. In the mid-1990s a major open-pit bulk-vat leach operation was started at the Grouse Creek Mine. This operation shut down when gold values proved to be lower than expected. Mercury in stream sediments in the Yankee Fork ranges from below 0.02 ppm to 7 ppm, with the highest values associated with old mill locations and lode and placer mines. Selenium ranges from below the detection limit for this study of 0.2 ppm to 4 ppm in Yankee Fork sediment samples. The generally elevated selenium content in the sediment samples reflect the generally high selenium contents in the volcanic rocks that underlie the Yankee Fork and the presence of gold and silver selenides in some of the veins that were exploited in the early phases of mining.

  9. Digital classification of Landsat data for vegetation and land-cover mapping in the Blackfoot River watershed, southeastern Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pettinger, L.R.

    1982-01-01

    This paper documents the procedures, results, and final products of a digital analysis of Landsat data used to produce a vegetation and landcover map of the Blackfoot River watershed in southeastern Idaho. Resource classes were identified at two levels of detail: generalized Level I classes (for example, forest land and wetland) and detailed Levels II and III classes (for example, conifer forest, aspen, wet meadow, and riparian hardwoods). Training set statistics were derived using a modified clustering approach. Environmental stratification that separated uplands from lowlands improved discrimination between resource classes having similar spectral signatures. Digital classification was performed using a maximum likelihood algorithm. Classification accuracy was determined on a single-pixel basis from a random sample of 25-pixel blocks. These blocks were transferred to small-scale color-infrared aerial photographs, and the image area corresponding to each pixel was interpreted. Classification accuracy, expressed as percent agreement of digital classification and photo-interpretation results, was 83.0:t 2.1 percent (0.95 probability level) for generalized (Level I) classes and 52.2:t 2.8 percent (0.95 probability level) for detailed (Levels II and III) classes. After the classified images were geometrically corrected, two types of maps were produced of Level I and Levels II and III resource classes: color-coded maps at a 1:250,000 scale, and flatbed-plotter overlays at a 1:24,000 scale. The overlays are more useful because of their larger scale, familiar format to users, and compatibility with other types of topographic and thematic maps of the same scale.

  10. Hydrology and digital simulation of the regional aquifer system, eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garabedian, S.P.

    1992-01-01

    The transient model was used to simulate aquifer changes from 1981 to 2010 in response to three hypothetical development alternatives: (1) Continuation of 1980 hydrologic conditions, (2) increased pumpage, and (3) increased recharge. Simulation of continued 1980 hydrologic conditions for 30 years indicated that head declines of 2 to 8 feet might be expected in the central part of the plain. The magnitude of simulated head declines was con- sistent with head declines measured during the 1980 water year. Larger declines were calculated along model boundaries, but these changes may have resulted from underestimation of tribu- tary drainage-basin underflow and inadequate aquifer definition. Simulation of increased ground-water pumpage (an additional 2,400 cubic feet per second) for 30 years indicated head declines of 10 to 50 feet in the central part of the plain. These relatively large head declines were accompanied by increased simulated river leakage of 50 percent and decreased spring discharge of 20 percent. The effect of increased recharge (800 cubic feet per sec- ond) for 30 years was a rise in simulated heads of 0 to 5 feet in the central part of the plain.

  11. Patterns of fish assemblage structure and habitat use among main- and side-channel environments in the lower Kootenai River, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watkins, Carson J.; Stevens, Bryan S.; Quist, Michael; Shepard, Bradley B.; Ireland, Susan C.

    2015-01-01

    The lower Kootenai River, Idaho, was sampled during the summers of 2012 and 2013 to evaluate its fish assemblage structure at seven sites within main- and side-channel habitats where large-scale habitat rehabilitation was undertaken. Understanding the current patterns of fish assemblage structure and their relationships with habitat is important for evaluating the effects of past and future rehabilitation projects on the river. Species-specific habitat associations were modeled, and the variables that best explained the occurrence and relative abundance of fish were identified in order to guide future habitat rehabilitation so that it benefits native species. The results indicated that the side-channel habitats supported higher species richness than the main-channel habitats and that nonnative fishes were closely associated with newly rehabilitated habitats. This research provides valuable insight on the current fish assemblages in the Kootenai River and the assemblage-level responses that may occur as a result of future rehabilitation activities.

  12. Tests of ground-penetrating radar and induced polarization for mapping fluvial mine tailings on the floor of the Couer d'Alene River, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Campbell, David L.; Wynn, Jefferey C.; Box, Stephen E.; Bookstrom, Arthur A.; Horton, Robert J.

    1997-01-01

    In order to investigate sequences of toxic mine tailings that have settled in the bed of the Coeur d'Alene River, Idaho, (see figure 1) we improvised ways to make geophysical measurements on the river floor. To make ground penetrating radar (GPR) profiles, we mounted borehole antennas on a skid that was towed along the river bottom. To make induced polarization (IP) profiles, we devised a bottom streamer from a garden hose, lead strips, PVC standoffs, and insulated wire. Each approach worked and provided uniquely different information about the buried toxic sediments. GPR showed shallow stratigraphy, but did not directly detect the presence of contaminating metals. IP showed a zone of high chargeability that is probably due to pockets of relatively higher metal content. Neither method was able to define the base of the fluvial tailings section, at least in part because the IP streamer was deliberately designed to sample only the top three meters of sediments to maximize horizontal resolution.

  13. Geology of the Arco-Big Southern Butte area, eastern Snake River Plain, and volcanic hazards to the radioactive waste management complex, and other waste storage and reactor facilities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuntz, Mel A.; Kork, John O.

    1978-01-01

    The Arco-Big Southern Butte area of the eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho, includes a volcanic rift zone and more than 70 Holocene and late Quaternary basalt volcanoes. The Arco volcanic rift zone extends southeast for 50 km from Arco to about 10 km southeast of Big Southern Butte. The rift zone is the locus of extensional faults, graben, fissure basaltic volcanic vents, several rhyolite domes at Big Southern Butte, and a ferrolatite volcano at Cedar Butte. Limited radiometric age data and geological field criteria suggest that all volcanism in the area is younger than 700,000 years; at least 67 separate basaltic eruptions are estimated to have occurred within the last 200,000 years. The average volcanic recurrence interval for the Arco-Big Southern Butte area is approximately one eruption per 3,000 years. Radioactive waste storage and reactor facilities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory may be subject to potential volcanic hazards. The geologic history and inferred past volcanic events in the Arco-Big Southern Butte area provide a basis for assessing the volcanic hazard. It is recommended that a radiometric age-dating study be performed on rocks in cored drill holes to provide a more precise estimate of the eruption recurrence interval for the region surrounding and including the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. It is also recommended that several geophysical monitoring systems (dry tilt and seismic) be installed to provide adequate warning of future volcanic eruptions.

  14. Quality of the ground water in basalt of the Columbia River group, Washington, Oregon, and Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newcomb, Reuben Clair

    1972-01-01

    The ground water within the 50,000-square-mile area of the layered basalt of the Columbia River Group is a generally uniform bicarbonate water having calcium and sodium in nearly equal amounts as the principal cations. water contains a relatively large amount of silica. The 525 chemical analyses indicate that the prevalent ground water is of two related kinds--a calcium and a sodium water. The sodium water is more common beneath the floors of the main synclinal valleys; the calcium water, elsewhere. In addition to the prevalent type, five special types form a small part of the ground water; four of these are natural and one is artificial. The four natural special types are: (1) calcium sodium chloride waters that rise from underlying sedimentary rocks west of the Cascade Range, (2) mineralized water at or near warm or hot springs, (3) water having unusual ion concentrations, especially of chloride, near sedimentary rocks intercalated at the edges of the basalt, and (4) more mineralized water near one locality of excess carbon dioxide. The one artificial kind of special ground water has resulted from unintentional artificial recharge incidental to irrigation in parts of central Washington. The solids dissolved in the ground water have been picked up on the surface, within the overburden, and from minerals and glasses within the basalt. Evidence for the removal of ions from solution is confined to calcium and magnesium, only small amounts of which are present in some of the sodium-rich water. Minor constituents, such as the heavy metals, alkali metals, and alkali earths, occur in the ground water in trace, or small, amounts. The natural radioactivity of the ground waters is very low. Except for a few of the saline calcium sodium chloride waters and a few occurrences of excessive nitrate, the ground water generally meets the common standards of water good for most ordinary uses, but some of it can be improved by treatment. The water is clear and colorless and has a

  15. Statistical tables and charts showing geochemical variation in the Mesoproterozoic Big Creek, Apple Creek, and Gunsight formations, Lemhi group, Salmon River Mountains and Lemhi Range, central Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindsey, David A.; Tysdal, Russell G.; Taggart, Joseph E., Jr.

    2002-01-01

    The principal purpose of this report is to provide a reference archive for results of a statistical analysis of geochemical data for metasedimentary rocks of Mesoproterozoic age of the Salmon River Mountains and Lemhi Range, central Idaho. Descriptions of geochemical data sets, statistical methods, rationale for interpretations, and references to the literature are provided. Three methods of analysis are used: R-mode factor analysis of major oxide and trace element data for identifying petrochemical processes, analysis of variance for effects of rock type and stratigraphic position on chemical composition, and major-oxide ratio plots for comparison with the chemical composition of common clastic sedimentary rocks.

  16. Reliability and longitudinal change of detrital-zircon age spectra in the Snake River system, Idaho and Wyoming: An example of reproducing the bumpy barcode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Link, Paul Karl; Fanning, C. Mark; Beranek, Luke P.

    2005-12-01

    Detrital-zircon age-spectra effectively define provenance in Holocene and Neogene fluvial sands from the Snake River system of the northern Rockies, U.S.A. SHRIMP U-Pb dates have been measured for forty-six samples (about 2700 zircon grains) of fluvial and aeolian sediment. The detrital-zircon age distributions are repeatable and demonstrate predictable longitudinal variation. By lumping multiple samples to attain populations of several hundred grains, we recognize distinctive, provenance-defining zircon-age distributions or "barcodes," for fluvial sedimentary systems of several scales, within the upper and middle Snake River system. Our detrital-zircon studies effectively define the geochronology of the northern Rocky Mountains. The composite detrital-zircon grain distribution of the middle Snake River consists of major populations of Neogene, Eocene, and Cretaceous magmatic grains plus intermediate and small grain populations of multiply recycled Grenville (˜950 to 1300 Ma) grains and Yavapai-Mazatzal province grains (˜1600 to 1800 Ma) recycled through the upper Belt Supergroup and Cretaceous sandstones. A wide range of older Paleoproterozoic and Archean grains are also present. The best-case scenario for using detrital-zircon populations to isolate provenance is when there is a point-source pluton with known age, that is only found in one location or drainage. We find three such zircon age-populations in fluvial sediments downstream from the point-source plutons: Ordovician in the southern Beaverhead Mountains, Jurassic in northern Nevada, and Oligocene in the Albion Mountains core complex of southern Idaho. Large detrital-zircon age-populations derived from regionally well-defined, magmatic or recycled sedimentary, sources also serve to delimit the provenance of Neogene fluvial systems. In the Snake River system, defining populations include those derived from Cretaceous Atlanta lobe of the Idaho batholith (80 to 100 Ma), Eocene Challis Volcanic Group and

  17. Metal Transport, Heavy Metal Speciation and Microbial Fixation Through Fluvial Subenvironments, Lower Coeur D'Alene River Valley, Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooper, R. L.; Mahoney, J. B.

    2001-12-01

    The lower Coeur d'Alene River Valley of northern Idaho is the site of extensive lead and zinc contamination resulting from both direct riverine tailings disposal and flood remobilization of contaminated sediments derived from the Coeur d'Alene mining district upstream. Variations in the hydrologic regime, redox conditions, porosity/permeability, organic content and microbial activity results in complicated metal transport pathways. Documentation of these pathways is a prerequisite to effective remediation, and requires accurate analysis of lateral and vertical variations. An analytical approach combining sequential extraction, electron microscopy, and microanalysis provides a comprehensive assessment of particulate speciation in this complex hydrologic system. Rigorously controlled sample preparation and a new sequential extraction protocol provide unprecedented insight into the role of metal sequestration in fluvial subenvironments. Four subenvironments were investigated: bedload, overbank (levee), marsh, and lacustrine. Periodic floods remobilize primary ore minerals and secondary minerals from upstream tailings (primarily oxyhydroxides, sulfides and carbonates). The bedload in the lower valley is a reducing environment and acts as a sink for detrital carbonates and sulfides moving downstream. In addition, authigenic/biogenic Fe, Pb and Zn sulfides and phosphates are common in bedload sediments near the sediment/water interface. Flood redistribution of oxide, sulfide and carbonate phases results in periodic contaminant recharge generating a complex system of metal dissolution, mobilization, migration and precipitation. In levee environments, authigenic sulfides from flood scouring are quickly oxidized resulting in development of oxide coated grain surfaces. Stability of detrital minerals on the levee is variable depending on sediment permeability, grain size and mineralogy resulting in a complex stratigraphy of oxide zones mottled with zones dominated by detrital

  18. Movement of bull trout in the upper Jarbidge River watershed, Idaho and Nevada, 2008-09--A supplement to Open-File Report 2010-1033

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Munz, Carrie S.; Allen, M. Brady; Connolly, Patrick J.

    2011-01-01

    We monitored bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in 2008 and 2009 as a continuation of our work in 2006 and 2007, which involved the tagging of 1,536 bull trout with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags in the East Fork Jarbidge River and West Fork Jarbidge River and their tributaries in northeastern Nevada and southern Idaho. We installed PIT tag interrogation systems (PTISs) at established locations soon after ice-out, and maintained the PTISs in order to collect information on bull trout movements through December of each year. We observed a marked increase of movement in 2008 and 2009. Bull trout tagged in the uppermost portions of the East Fork Jarbidge River at altitudes greater than 2,100 meters moved to the confluence of the East Fork Jarbidge River and West Fork Jarbidge River in summer and autumn. Ten bull trout tagged upstream of the confluence of Pine Creek and the West Fork Jarbidge River moved downstream and then upstream in the East Fork Jarbidge River, and then past the PTIS at Murphy Hot Springs (river kilometer [rkm] 4.1). Two of these fish ascended Dave Creek, a tributary of the East Fork Jarbidge River, past the PTIS at rkm 0.4. One bull trout that was tagged at rkm 11 in Dave Creek on June 28, 2007 moved downstream to the confluence of the East Fork Jarbidge River and West Fork Jarbidge River (rkm 0) on July 28, 2007, and it was then detected in the West Fork Jarbidge River moving past our PTIS at rkm 15 on May 4, 2008. Combined, the extent and types of bull trout movements observed indicated that the primarily age-1 and age-2 bull trout that we tagged in 2006 and 2007 showed increased movement with age and evidence of a substantial amount of fluvial life history. The movements suggest strong connectivity between spawning areas and downstream mainstem areas, as well as between the East Fork Jarbidge River and West Fork Jarbidge River.

  19. Analysis of steady-state flow and advective transport in the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer system, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ackerman, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    Quantitative estimates of ground-water flow directions and traveltimes for advective flow were developed for the regional aquifer system of the eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho. The work included: (1) descriptions of compartments in the aquifer that function as intermediate and regional flow systems, (2) descriptions of pathlines for flow originating at or near the water table, and (3) quantitative estimates of traveltimes for advective transport originating at or near the water table. A particle-tracking postprocessing program was used to compute pathlines on the basis of output from an existing three-dimensional steady-state flow model. The flow model uses 1980 conditions to approximate average annual conditions for 1950-80. The advective transport model required additional information about the nature of flow across model boundaries, aquifer thickness, and porosity. Porosity of two types of basalt strata has been reported for more than 1,500 individual cores from test holes, wells, and outcrops near the south side of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The central 80 percent of samples had porosities of 0.08 to 0.25, the central 50 percent of samples, O. 11 to 0.21. Calibration of the model involved choosing a value for porosity that yielded the best solution. Two radiologic contaminants, iodine-129 and tritium, both introduced to the flow system about 40 years ago, are relatively conservative tracers. Iodine- 129 was considered to be more useful because of a lower analytical detection limit, longer half-life, and longer flow path. The calibration value for porosity was 0.21. Most flow in the aquifer is contained within a regional-scale compartment and follows paths that discharge to the Snake River downstream from Milner Dam. Two intermediate-scale compartments exist along the southeast side of the aquifer and near Mud Lake.One intermediate-scale compartment along the southeast side of the aquifer discharges to the Snake River near American Fails

  20. High-precision provenance determination using detrital-zircon ages and petrography of Quaternary sands on the eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Geslin, J.K.; Link, P.K.; Fanning, C.M.

    1999-04-01

    The Big Lost trough is an upper Pliocene to Holocene sedimentary basin containing volcanic sills in the northeastern Snake River Plain, Idaho. The basin receives sediment primarily from Basin and Range fluvial systems of the Big Lost River, Little Lost River, and Birch Creek. The Big Lost trough contains a >200-m-thick succession of lacustrine, fluvial, eolian, and playa sediments, recording high-frequency Quaternary climatic fluctuations interbedded with basalt flows. Alternating deposition of clay-rich lacustrine sediments and sandy fluvial and eolian sediments in the central part of the basin was in response to the interaction of fluvial and eolian systems with Pleistocene Lake Terreton. The source areas for modern sands from the fluvial systems can be differentiated by using both petrography and U/Pb age spectra from detrital-zircon populations. Provenance data from subsurface sands indicate that the Big Lost trough was supplied with sand largely deposited by the Big Lost River, with local redeposition by eolian processes, similar to the modern depositional system. Provenance and stratigraphic data suggest that during Pleistocene wet climate cycles, the center of the basin was dominated by lacustrine sedimentation; during dry climate cycles, the base level dropped, the Big Lost River prograded across the basin, and the eolian system became active. At least seven climate oscillations are recorded in strata deposited between {approximately}140 and {approximately}1250 ka.

  1. Estimated 100-year peak flows and flow volumes in the Big Lost River and Birch Creek at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Kjelstrom, L.C.; Berenbrock, C.

    1996-12-31

    The purpose of this report is to provide estimates of the 100-year peak flows and flow volumes that could enter the INEL area from the Big Lost River and Brich Creek are needed as input data for models that will be used to delineate the extent of the 100-year flood plain at the INEL. The methods, procedures and assumptions used to estimate the 100-year peak flows and flow volumes are described in this report.

  2. Monitoring recharge in areas of seasonally frozen ground in the Columbia Plateau and Snake River Plain, Idaho, Oregon, and Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mastin, Mark; Josberger, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Seasonally frozen ground occurs over approximately one‑third of the contiguous United States, causing increased winter runoff. Frozen ground generally rejects potential groundwater recharge. Nearly all recharge from precipitation in semi-arid regions such as the Columbia Plateau and the Snake River Plain in Idaho, Oregon, and Washington, occurs between October and March, when precipitation is most abundant and seasonally frozen ground is commonplace. The temporal and spatial distribution of frozen ground is expected to change as the climate warms. It is difficult to predict the distribution of frozen ground, however, because of the complex ways ground freezes and the way that snow cover thermally insulates soil, by keeping it frozen longer than it would be if it was not snow covered or, more commonly, keeping the soil thawed during freezing weather. A combination of satellite remote sensing and ground truth measurements was used with some success to investigate seasonally frozen ground at local to regional scales. The frozen-ground/snow-cover algorithm from the National Snow and Ice Data Center, combined with the 21-year record of passive microwave observations from the Special Sensor Microwave Imager onboard a Defense Meteorological Satellite Program satellite, provided a unique time series of frozen ground. Periodically repeating this methodology and analyzing for trends can be a means to monitor possible regional changes to frozen ground that could occur with a warming climate. The Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System watershed model constructed for the upper Crab Creek Basin in the Columbia Plateau and Reynolds Creek basin on the eastern side of the Snake River Plain simulated recharge and frozen ground for several future climate scenarios. Frozen ground was simulated with the Continuous Frozen Ground Index, which is influenced by air temperature and snow cover. Model simulation results showed a decreased occurrence of frozen ground that coincided with

  3. Analysis of data on nutrients and organic compounds in ground water in the upper Snake River basin, Idaho and western Wyoming, 1980-91

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rupert, Michael G.

    1994-01-01

    Nutrient and organic compound data from the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency STORET data bases provided information for development of a preliminary conceptual model of spatial and temporal ground-water quality in the upper Snake River Basin. Nitrite plus nitrate (as nitrogen; hereafter referred to as nitrate) concentrations exceeded the Federal drinking-water regulation of 10 milligrams per liter in three areas in Idaho" the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, the area north of Pocatello (Fort Hall area), and the area surrounding Burley. Water from many wells in the Twin Falls area also contained elevated (greater than two milligrams per liter) nitrate concentrations. Water from domestic wells contained the highest median nitrate concentrations; water from industrial and public supply wells contained the lowest. Nitrate concentrations decreased with increasing well depth, increasing depth to water (unsaturated thickness), and increasing depth below water table (saturated thickness). Kjeldahl nitrogen concentrations decreased with increasing well depth and depth below water table. The relation between kjeldahl nitrogen concentrations and depth to water was poor. Nitrate and total phosphorus concentrations in water from wells were correlated among three hydrogeomorphic regions in the upper Snake River Basin, Concentrations of nitrate were statistically higher in the eastern Snake River Plain and local aquifers than in the tributary valleys. There was no statistical difference in total phosphorus concentrations among the three hydrogeomorphic regions. Nitrate and total phosphorus concentrations were correlated with land-use classifications developed using the Geographic Information Retrieval and Analysis System. Concentrations of nitrate were statistically higher in area of agricultural land than in areas of rangeland. There was no statistical difference in concentrations between rangeland and urban land and between urban land

  4. Scaling the Geomorphic and Ecological Consequences of Contemporary Climate Change Within the Salmon River Watershed, Central Idaho: A View From Taylor Ranch Field Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosby, B. T.; Baxter, C. V.

    2008-12-01

    Established in 1970 by the University of Idaho, Taylor Ranch Field Station is located in the Frank Church Wilderness of No Return, along Big Creek, a 1445 km2 tributary to the Middle Fork of the Salmon River. The field station has provided a stable center for terrestrial and aquatic ecological studies within the Salmon River for almost 40 years. Dr. Wayne Minshall began monitoring aquatic ecology indices at numerous sites in the Salmon River basin in the late 1970's. This rare continuum of roughly 30 years of field data can be coupled with publically available hydrologic, geomorphic and meteorological data sets to reveal a rich record of how recent demonstrable changes in climate have affected this wilderness watershed. As a consequence of improved access and automated and telemetered sensors of water quality and quantity, contemporary studies continue through out the watershed at an increasing temporal and spatial resolution. The impetuous is upon current researchers to understand both the role of the basin as a major water source to the Snake and Columbia River systems and also the function of the basin as ideal habitat for threatened native fish. Beyond these applied questions that directly impact management decisions, the pristine nature of much of the Salmon River basin also favors studies of fundamental feedbacks between the physical and biological systems. These interdisciplinary studies are augmented by increasing collections of high resolution spatial data sets such as Hyperspectral Imagery, Distributed Sensor Networks and LiDAR topography. We present a study that explicitly examines the feedbacks between wildfire, sediment production, basin hydrology and aquatic ecosystem function. Because the tributaries to the Salmon River span discrete ranges in elevation across the snow- to rainfall-dominated hydrologic regimes, these studies reveal how sensitive different portions of the Salmon River system are to projected changes in temperature. Depending on the

  5. Updated one-dimensional hydraulic model of the Kootenai River, Idaho-A supplement to Scientific Investigations Report 2005-5110

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Czuba, Christiana R.; Barton, Gary J.

    2011-01-01

    The Kootenai Tribe of Idaho, in cooperation with local, State, Federal, and Canadian agency co-managers and scientists, is assessing the feasibility of a Kootenai River habitat restoration project in Boundary County, Idaho. The restoration project is focused on recovery of the endangered Kootenai River white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) population, and simultaneously targets habitat-based recovery of other native river biota. River restoration is a complex undertaking that requires a thorough understanding of the river and floodplain landscape prior to restoration efforts. To assist in evaluating the feasibility of this endeavor, the U.S. Geological Survey developed an updated one-dimensional hydraulic model of the Kootenai River in Idaho between river miles (RMs) 105.6 and 171.9 to characterize the current hydraulic conditions. A previously calibrated model of the study area, based on channel geometry data collected during 2002 and 2003, was the basis for this updated model. New high-resolution bathymetric surveys conducted in the study reach between RMs 138 and 161.4 provided additional detail of channel morphology. A light detection and ranging (LIDAR) survey was flown in the Kootenai River valley in 2005 between RMs 105.6 and 159.5 to characterize the floodplain topography. Six temporary gaging stations installed in 2006-08 between RMs 154.1 and 161.2, combined with five permanent gaging stations in the study reach, provided discharge and water-surface elevations for model calibration and verification. Measured discharges ranging from about 4,800 to 63,000 cubic feet per second (ft3/s) were simulated for calibration events, and calibrated water-surface elevations ranged from about 1,745 to 1,820 feet (ft) throughout the extent of the model. Calibration was considered acceptable when the simulated and measured water-surface elevations at gaging stations differed by less than (+/-)0.15 ft. Model verification consisted of simulating 10 additional events with

  6. A Journey of Surprises: Rivers Reveal Their Secrets to Idaho Students Researching Water Quality through Rigorous Scientific Inquiry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boss, Suzie

    2002-01-01

    Idaho secondary students learn the scientific method through outdoor environmental projects related to water quality monitoring. A program trains teachers to design project-based learning and provides extensive followup support. Five-day summer workshops immerse teachers in the types of projects they will orchestrate with their own students.…

  7. Geochemical Evolution of Groundwater in the Medicine Lodge Creek Drainage Basin with Implications for the Eastern Snake River Plain Aquifer, Eastern Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginsbach, M. L.; Rattray, G. W.; McCurry, M. O.; Welhan, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    The eastern Snake River Plain aquifer (ESRPA) is an unconfined, continuous aquifer located in a northeast-trending structural basin filled with basaltic lava flows and sedimentary interbeds in eastern Idaho. The ESPRA is not an inert transport system, as it acts as both a sink and source for solutes found in the water. More than 90% of the water recharged naturally to the ESRPA is from the surrounding mountain drainage basins. Consequently, in order to understand the natural geochemistry of water within the ESRPA, the chemistry of the groundwater from the mountain drainage basins must be characterized and the processes that control the chemistry need to be understood. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy and Idaho State University, has been studying these mountain drainage basins to help understand the movement of waste solutes in the ESRPA at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in eastern Idaho. This study focuses on the Medicine Lodge Creek drainage basin, which originates in the Beaverhead Mountains, extends onto the eastern Snake River Plain, and contributes recharge to the ESRPA beneath the INL as underflow along the northeastern INL boundary. Water and rock samples taken from the Medicine Lodge Creek drainage basin were analyzed to better understand water/rock interactions occurring in this system and to define the groundwater geochemistry of this drainage basin. Water samples were collected at 10 locations in the drainage basin during June 2012: 6 groundwater wells used for agricultural irrigation or domestic use and 4 springs. These water samples were analyzed for major ions, nutrients, trace metals, isotopes, and dissolved gasses. Samples of rock representative of the basalt, rhyolite, and sediments that occur within the drainage basin also were collected. These samples were analyzed using x-ray diffraction and petrographic study to determine the mineralogical constituents of the rock and the presence and

  8. Effect of activities at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory on the water quality of the Snake River Plain aquifer in the Magic Valley study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartholomay, Roy C.

    1998-01-01

    Radiochemical and chemical constituents in wastewater generated at facilities of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) (figure 1) have been discharged to waste-disposal ponds and wells since the early 1950 s. Public concern has been expressed that some of these constituents could migrate through the Snake River Plain aquifer to the Snake River in the Twin Falls-Hagerman area Because of these concerns the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requested that the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conduct three studies to gain a greater understanding of the chemical quality of water in the aquifer. One study described a one-time sampling effort for radionuclides, trace elements, and organic compounds in the eastern part of the A&B Irrigation District in Minidoka County (Mann and Knobel, 1990). Another ongoing study involves sampling for tritium from 19 springs on the north side of the Snake River in the Twin Falls-Hagerman area (Mann, 1989; Mann and Low, 1994). A third study an ongoing annual sampling effort in the area between the southern boundary of the INEEL and Hagerman (figure 1) (hereafter referred to as the Magic Valley study area), is being conducted with the Idaho Department of Water Resources in cooperation with the DOE. Data for a variety of radiochemical and chemical constituents from this study have been published by Wegner and Campbell (1991); Bartholomay, Edwards, and Campbell (1992, 1993, 1994a, 1994b); and Bartholomay, Williams, and Campbell (1995, 1996, 1997b). Data discussed in this fact sheet were taken from these reports. An evaluation of data collected during the first four years of this study (Bartholomay Williams, and Campbell, 1997a) showed no pattern of water-quality change for radionuclide data as concentrations randomly increased or decreased. The inorganic constituent data showed no statistical change between sample rounds.

  9. Time-dependent inversion of three-component GPS time series for steady and transient effects of the Yellowstone Hotspot on the Snake River Plain, Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payne, S. J.; McCaffrey, R.; King, R. W.

    2009-12-01

    Crustal deformation in the Northern Basin and Range and Snake River Plain results from extension overprinted by volcanism associated with the Yellowstone Hotspot. The Snake River Plain is a seismically quiet, low-relief physiographic feature that extends from eastern Oregon through southern Idaho and into northwestern Wyoming. The Northern Basin and Range surrounds the Snake River Plain and is distinguished by its higher elevations, higher rates of seismicity, and active normal faulting. Horizontal GPS velocities indicate the strain rate in the Snake River Plain is an order of magnitude lower than in the Northern Basin and Range and that a zone of right-lateral shear extends along the northern Snake River Plain boundary to accommodate the different strain rates. The 2004-2009 inflation of the Yellowstone caldera and subsidence adjacent to northern caldera rim resulting from magma intrusion and withdrawal are transient effects embedded in GPS velocities and may impact interpretations of regional kinematics. We invert continuous GPS time series from Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) along with survey-mode GPS site time series to estimate simultaneously the long-term steady motions and short-term transient magma intrusion in the Snake River Plain and Northern Basin and Range. We model the magma intrusion as Mogi sources beneath the Yellowstone caldera at shallow depths. The steady motions are described by crustal block rotations and strain rates that together predict spatially smooth variations in surface velocities. We estimate fault locking and block rotations that have been corrected for transient motions resulting from magma intrusion. From this we estimate that the magmatic deformation outside of the caldera at distances of 160-180 km, where we observe the largest differential strain rates, contributes less than about 0.3 mm/yr to the overall velocities and does not contribute to the difference in strain rates currently observed.

  10. Availability of ground water for large-scale use in the Malad Valley-Bear River areas of southeastern Idaho: an initial assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burnham, W.L.; Harder, A.H.; Dion, N.P.

    1969-01-01

    Five areas within the Bear River drainage of southeastern Idaho offer potential for further development of ground water--the valley north of Bear Lake, north of Soda Springs, Gem Valley, Cache Valley in Idaho, and Malad Valley in Idaho. Saturated deposits north of Bear Lake are too fine-textured to yield large quantities to wells; the areas north of Soda Springs and in Gem Valley would provide large yields, but at the expense of current beneficial discharge. Northern Cache Valley has small areas of high yield in the northwestern part, but total annual yield would be only about 20,000 acre-feet and seasonal water-level fluctuation would be large. Malad Valley contains a large aquifer system within valley fill underlying about 75 square miles. The aquifer system is several hundred feet thick, and contains about 1.8 million acre-feet of water in storage in the top 300 feet of saturated thickness. Average annual recharge to the valley-fill aquifer is about 64,000 acre-feet. Lowering of the water level 100 feet uniformly over the valley area would theoretically yield about 300,000 acre-feet from storage and salvage a present-day large nonbeneficial discharge. Sufficient water to irrigate all lands in a planned project near Samaria could be pumped with a maximum 200-foot pumping lift and then delivered by gravity flow. Such pumping would cause water-level lowering of a few feet to a few tens of feet in present artesian areas, and would cause many present-day artesian wells to cease flowing at land surface. Chemical-quality problems in Malad Valley seem not to be sufficient to prohibit development and use of the ground-water resource.