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Sample records for portneuf river idaho

  1. LOWER PORTNEUF RIVER, IDAHO - WATER QUALITY STATUS REPORT, 1977

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper describes the results of a 12 month, bi-weekly water quality sampling program on the Lower Portneuf River, Idaho (17040208). Samples were collected at 7 river stations, 5 effluents, and a major stream. The results indicate that Marsh Creek, a major tributary draining...

  2. SELECTED TRIBUTARIES OF THE LOWER PORTNEUF RIVER, BANNOCK COUNTY, IDAHO- WATER QUALITY STATUS REPORT, 1987

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Lower Portneuf River, Idaho (17040208) was identified in the Agricultural Pollution Abatement Plans as a first priority stream segment for the reduction of agriculture related pollutants above Marsh Creek. Below Marsh Creek, it was identified as being moderately affected by ...

  3. UPPER PORTNEUF RIVER, CARIBOU COUNTY, IDAHO - WATER QUALITY STATUS REPORT, 1985

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purposes of this study were to document the water quality status of the Upper Portneuf River, Idaho (17040208), to provide information and education to area farmers and ranchers concerning agricultural non-point sources of pollution, and in combination with the Soil Conservat...

  4. Evaluation of a combined macrophyte–epiphyte bioassay for assessing nutrient enrichment in the Portneuf River, Idaho, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ray, Andrew M.; Mebane, Christopher A.; Raben, Flint; Irvine, Kathryn M.; Marcarelli, Amy M.

    2014-01-01

    We describe and evaluate a laboratory bioassay that uses Lemna minor L. and attached epiphytes to characterize the status of ambient and nutrient-enriched water from the Portneuf River, Idaho, USA. Specifically, we measured morphological (number of fronds, longest surface axis, root length) and population-level (number of plants, dry mass) responses of L. minor, and community-level (ash free dry mass [AFDM] and chlorophyll a [chl a]) responses of epiphytes to nutrient enrichment. Overall, measures of macrophyte biomass and abundance increased with increasing concentrations of dissolved phosphorus (P) and responded more predictably to nutrient enrichment than morphological measures. Epiphyte AFDM and chl a were also greatest in P enriched-water; enrichments of N alone produced no measurable epiphytic response. The epiphyte biomass response did not directly mirror macrophyte biomass responses, illustrating the value of a combined macrophyte-epiphyte assay to more fully evaluate nutrient management strategies. Finally, the most P-enriched waters not only supported greater standing stocks of macrophyte and epiphytes, but also had significantly higher water column dissolved oxygen and dissolved organic carbon concentrations and a lower pH. Advantages of this macrophyte-epiphyte bioassay over more traditional single species assays include the use of a more realistic level of biological organization, a relatively short assay schedule (~10 days), and the inclusion of multiple biological response and water quality measures.

  5. PORTNEUF VALLEY, IDAHO PM-10 DISPERSION MODEL INCLUDING SECONDARY CHEMICAL FORMATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A dispersion modeling effort for the Portneuf Valley, Pocatello, Idaho PM-10 attainment demonstration is underway. The model will treat the secondary chemical formation process, primarily sulfate and nitrate formation under both the aqueous and gas phases. The model will simul...

  6. Late Miocene fanglomerates in lower member of Starlight Formation, northern Portneuf Range, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Sevrin, L.A.

    1987-08-01

    The lower member of the late Miocene Starlight Formation in the northern Portneuf Range, southeastern Idaho, represents sedimentation influenced by both Basin-and Range faulting and eastern Snake River plain (SRP) volcanism. The lower Starlight contains at least 610 m of fanglomerates and thin, interbedded basalt flows. The formations lower half is interpreted as medial alluvial fan facies and consists of coarse tuffaceous heterolithologic conglomerate lenses and sheets, and interbedded immature tuffaceous pebbly lithic arenites. The fine-grained upper half of the member is interpreted as distal-fan facies. The sandy deposits of the distal facies are cut by numerous gravel-filled channels. On the basis of clast assemblages and preservation of fragile rhyolite tuff grains that could not survive long transport distances, these deposits were likely derived from nearby sources. In addition, paleocurrent data indicate a general westerly transport direction. Individual drainage systems apparently controlled sedimentation, as indicated by different clast assemblages at various locations. The dominant clast type in The Cove, southwest of the Blackfoot River, is Eocene andesitic volcanics. In outcrops 20 km south, Paleozoic and lower Mesozoic sedimentary clasts predominate. Chert pebble conglomerate clasts, found only in southern exposures, may have been derived from distant eastern outcrops of Cretaceous conglomerates. Alluvial fan deposits in the lower member of the Starlight Formation developed as a response to early Basin-and-Range uplift. However, they were also influenced by eastern SRP volcanism, as indicated by the presence of tuffaceous sediments and basaltic lava flows. The fan deposits likely originated from a nearby eastern source that is now covered by Tertiary volcanics of the Blackfoot laval field.

  7. Westernmost structures of Idaho-Wyoming Thrust Belt: structural geology of Mt. Putnam and vicinity, northern Portneuf Range, southeastern Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Pogue, K.R.; Link, P.K.

    1984-07-01

    Detailed mapping of Mt. Putnam in the Portneuf Range (Fort Hall Indian Reservation) has revealed the presence of previously unrecognized large-scale overturned folds and thrust faults characteristic of the Idaho-Wyoming overthrust belt. The structure of Mt. Putnam is controlled primarily by a northwest-trending overturned anticline-syncline system that is responsible for the inverted Precambrian Z-Cambrian stratigraphy of the area. Parts of the upper limb of the overturned anticline were sheared off and thrust over more gently dipping strata to the east. This Bear Canyon thrust places Precambrian Z-Cambrian Camelback Mountain Quartzite over the Cambrian-Ordovician carbonate sequence. Mt. Putnam, as well as th rest of the Portneuf Range, is in the upper plate of the Putnam thrust that is exposed 7 km (4 mi) northeast of Mt. Putnam. The thrust is then displaced 5 km (3 mi) to the east by east-trending normal faults interpreted as reactivated tear faults. These faults have created windows through the upper plate Pennsylvanian-Permian Wells Formation, exposing the Ordovician Garden City Formation of the lower plate. South of this offset, the Putnam thrust resumes its southeasterly trend toward the Chesterfield Range and a possible juncture with the Paris thrust. Ten kilometers (6 mi) west of Mt. Putnam in the Bannock Range are younger over older low-angle faults characteristic of the hinterland of the thrust belt. The area of transition between the two structural styles lies in the Pocatello Range north of Inkom, Idaho, and is presently being remapped in detail.

  8. Blackfoot River, Southeastern Idaho

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Sceintists from the U.S. Geological Survey and the Idaho Department of Environmental Quality combined and analyzed data from two separate water-quality monitoring efforts in the upper Blackfoot River of southeastern Idaho. The river receives runoff from 12 phosphate mining opoerations, and waste roc...

  9. Big Wood River, Idaho

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    The Big Wood River flows through communities of the Wood River Valley of south-central Idaho. It is one of eight sites at which the USGS is conducting an ecological assessment during the summer of 2014. Study results will be published in 2015....

  10. Bedload Sampling, Kootenai River, Idaho

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    USGS hydrologic technicians retrieve a bedload sample from the Kootenai River near Bonners Ferry, Idaho. The USGS compared the results of bedload and suspended sediment sampling with data collected from acoustic devices submerged in the river. The results were published in USGS Scientific Inves...

  11. Norrth Fork Big Wood River, Idaho

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    The Big Wood River flows through communities of the Wood River Valley of south-central Idaho. It is one of eight sites at which the USGS is conducting an ecological assessment during the summer of 2014. Study results will be published in 2015....

  12. Pesticide and PCB residues in the upper Snake River ecosystem, Southeastern Idaho, following the collapse of the Teton dam 1976.

    PubMed

    Perry, J A

    1979-01-01

    The Teton Dam in Southeastern Idaho collapsed on June 5, 1976. The resulting flood damaged a large area and caused the release of toxicants into the Snake River. A pesticide recovery team in a helicopter worked the flooded area for three weeks and collected 1,104 containers, about 35% of which contained toxicants. It was estimated that less than 60% of the lost pesticide containers were recovered. This paper addresses the results of a one-time sampling effort designed to determine the magnitude of the chemical contamination. Over 300 samples of fish, plankton, waterfowl, sediments, water, stream drift, aquatic plants, and soil were taken. Pesticide residues were measured as microgram/kg (ppb) wet weight, whole animal basis. Rainbow trout had as much as 1432 micrograms/kg total DDT plus analogs, 66 micrograms/kg dieldrin, and 1010 micrograms/kg PCBs. Utah suckers had up to 1420 micrograms/kg total DDT plus analogs, 32 micrograms/kg dieldrin, and 1800 micrograms/kg PCB. Rocky Mountain whitefish had as much as 2650 micrograms/kg total DDT and analogs, 30 micrograms/kg dieldrin and 1400 micrograms/kg PCBs. These PCB and DDT levels were high, approaching the 2,000 micrograms/kg FDA proposed tolerance, but were below the 5,000 micrograms/kg present tolerance. Dieldrin levels were low and organophosphates were undetectable. An undeveloped area (the Fort Hall Bottoms) showed higher levels of contaminants than did an industrialized area (the lower Portneuf River). This apparent discrepancy remains unexplained. Very little pre-flood data on a whole fish basis were available for comparison (Johnson et al 1977). However, it does not appear that any human health hazard due to pesticide levels exists in this portion of the Snake River. PMID:120135

  13. KOOTENAI RIVER, BOUNDARY COUNTY, IDAHO - WATER QUALITY STATUS REPORT, 1977

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Kootenai River (17010104) is a major tributary to the Columbia River, draining southern British Columbia, northwestern Montana, and portions of northern Idaho. One-third of the river lies in the United States, its source and mouth are in Canada. The vast majority of the dra...

  14. ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT FOR THE MIDDLE SNAKE RIVER, IDAHO

    EPA Science Inventory

    An ecological risk assessment was completed for the Middle Snake River, Idaho. In this assessment, mathematical simulations and field observations were used to analyze exposure and ecological effects and to estimate risk.

    The Middle Snake River which refers to a 100 km stret...

  15. UPPER SNAKE RIVER, MAIN STEM (LAKE WALCOTT TO IDAHO-WYOMING BORDER), IDAHO. WATER QUALITY STATUS REPORT 1977

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study sampled 17 water quality stations in the Upper Snake River, Idaho (1704) on a bi-weekly basis. The area extended from Heise and Rexburg to the Raft River. Two point sources (Idaho Falls and Blackfoot Sewage Treatment Plants) and 2 tributaries (Blackfoot and Raft Rive...

  16. BEAR RIVER BASIN, IDAHO - WATER QUALITY INVESTIGATION, 1974

    EPA Science Inventory

    The quality of the waters in the Bear River Basin, Idaho (160102) was surveyed from August 27 to August 29, 1974. The purposes of the survey were to determine point and non-point source loading, to determine whether water quality has improved since the adoption of the 1958 Enfor...

  17. WEISER RIVER STUDY, ADAMS AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES, IDAHO, 1979

    EPA Science Inventory

    During the 1979 water year, a water quality study was conducted on the Weiser and Little Weiser Rivers (17050124) in Washington and Adams Counties, Idaho. The study was completed to obtain background information on effluent limitations for the cities of Cambridge and Council and...

  18. Streamgage 13317000, Salmon River at White Bird, Idaho

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    U.S. Geological Survey hydrographer Doug Ott inspects the gagehouse at streamgage stations13317000, Salmon River at White Bird, Idaho, May 10, 2013. The flow at the gage was approximately 40,000 cubic feet per second at the time of this photo....

  19. CUB RIVER, FRANKLIN COUNTY, IDAHO - WATER QUALITY SUMMARY, 1979

    EPA Science Inventory

    In Water Year 1979, a water quality study was conducted on the Cub River in Franklin County, Idaho (16010202) to determine the present condition of the stream and to assess the impact of the Del Monte Corporation vegetable processing discharge. The study involved approximately m...

  20. PALOUSE RIVER STUDY, LETAH COUNTY, IDAHO, 1986

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this study was to review the water quality of the Palouse River (17060108) in order to recommend discharge limits for the pending facility upgrade and subsequent NPDES permit. The study determined that the waters of the Palouse River near Potlatch are limited by w...

  1. Reproposal for review report of survey scope, Snake River basin above Weiser, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newell, Thomas R.

    1955-01-01

    This submission applies to the available waters accruing to Snake River between Milner Dam and Weiser, Idaho. For basin upstram see statement by Lynn Crandall, "New storage on Snake River for irrigation use above Milner, Idaho" as filed February 15 at Idaho Falls hearing.

  2. Steelhead Supplementation in Idaho Rivers : 2001 Project Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Byrne, Alan

    2002-03-01

    In 2001, Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) continued an assessment of the Sawtooth Hatchery steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss stock to reestablish natural populations in Beaver and Frenchman creeks in the upper Salmon River. Crews stocked both streams with 20 pair of hatchery adults, and I estimated the potential smolt production from the 2000 adult outplants. n the Red River drainage, IDFG stocked Dworshak hatchery stock fingerlings and smolts from 1993 to 1999 to assess which life stage produces more progeny when the adults return to spawn. In 2001, IDFG operated the Red River weir to trap adults that returned from these stockings, but none were caught from either group. Wild steelhead populations in the Lochsa and Selway river drainages were assessed and the chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha escapement was enumerated in Fish Creek. I estimated that 75 wild adult steelhead and 122 adult chinook salmon returned to Fish Creek in 2001. I estimated that slightly more than 30,000 juvenile steelhead migrated out of Fish Creek. This is the largest number of steelhead to migrate out of Fish Creek in a single year since I began estimating the yearly migration in 1994. Juvenile steelhead densities in Lochsa and Selway tributaries were somewhat higher in 2001 than those observed in 2000. Crews from IDFG collected over 4,800 fin samples from wild steelhead in 74 streams of the Clearwater, Snake, and Salmon river drainages and from five hatchery stocks during the summer of 2000 for a DNA analysis to assess Idaho's steelhead stock structure. The DNA analysis was subcontracted to Dr. Jennifer Nielsen, Alaska Biological Science Center, Anchorage. Her lab developed protocols to use for the analysis in 2001 and is continuing to analyze the samples. Dr. Nielsen plans to have the complete set of wild and hatchery stocks analyzed in 2002.

  3. Salmon Supplementation Studies in Idaho Rivers; Idaho Supplementation Studies, 1992 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Arnsberg, Billy D.

    1993-02-02

    This is the first annual summary of results for chinook salmon supplementation studies in Idaho Rivers conducted by the Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Management. The Nez Perce Tribe has coordinated chinook salmon supplementation research activities with the Bonneville Power Administration, Idaho Department of Fish and Game, U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, National Marine Fisheries Service, U. S. Forest Service, and the Shoshone Bannock Tribe. The project is a cooperative effort involving members of the Idaho Supplementation Technical Advisory Committee (ISTAC). This project has also been extensively coordinated with the Supplementation Technical Work Group (STWG) which identified specific research needs and integrated and coordinated supplementation research activities through development of a five year work plan. In this study we are assessing what strategies, both brood stock and release stage, are best for supplementing natural or depleted spring and summer chinook populations and what effect supplementation has on these populations. This research should identify which of the supplementation strategies employed are beneficial in terms of increasing adult returns and the ability of these returns to sustain themselves. Biological evaluation points will be parr density, survival to Lower Granite Dam, adult return to weirs, redd counts and presmolt and smolt yield from both treatment and control streams. Genetic monitoring of treatment and control populations will also occur. The supplementation research study has the following objectives: (1) Monitor and evaluate the effect of supplementation on presmolt and smolt numbers and spawning escapements of naturally produced salmon. (2) Monitor and evaluate changes in natural productivity and genetic composition of target and adjacent populations following supplementation. (3) Determine which supplementation strategies (brood stock and release stage) provide the quickest and highest response in natural production without adverse effects on productivity. (4) Coordinate supplementation research planning and field evaluation program activities and management recommendations for the Nez Perce Tribe.

  4. Evaluate Status of Pacific Lamprey in the Clearwater River and Salmon River Drainages, Idaho, 2009 Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Cochnauer, Tim; Claire, Christopher

    2009-05-07

    Pacific lamprey Lampetra tridentata have received little attention in fishery science until recently, even though abundance has declined significantly along with other anadromous fish species in Idaho. Pacific lamprey in Idaho have to navigate over eight lower Snake River and Columbia River hydroelectric facilities for migration downstream as juveniles to the Pacific Ocean and again as adults migrating upstream to their freshwater spawning grounds in Idaho. The number of adult Pacific lamprey annually entering the Snake River basin at Ice Harbor Dam has declined from an average of over 18,000 during 1962-1969 to fewer than 600 during 1998-2006. Based on potential accessible streams and adult escapement over Lower Granite Dam on the lower Snake River, we estimate that no more than 200 Pacific lamprey adult spawners annually utilize the Clearwater River drainage in Idaho for spawning. We utilized electrofishing in 2000-2006 to capture, enumerate, and obtain biological information regarding rearing Pacific lamprey ammocoetes and macropthalmia to determine the distribution and status of the species in the Clearwater River drainage, Idaho. Present distribution in the Clearwater River drainage is limited to the lower sections of the Lochsa and Selway rivers, the Middle Fork Clearwater River, the mainstem Clearwater River, the South Fork Clearwater River, and the lower 7.5 km of the Red River. In 2006, younger age classes were absent from the Red River.

  5. Iodine-129 in the Snake River Plain aquifer at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mann, L.J.; Chew, E.W.; Morton, J.S.; Randolph, R.B.

    1988-01-01

    From 1953 to 1983, an estimated 0.01 to 0.136 Ci (curies)/year of iodine-129 were contained in wastewater generated by the ICPP (Idaho Chemical Processing Plant) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The wastewater was directly discharged to the Snake River Plain aquifer through a deep disposal well until February 9, 1984, when the well was replaced by an unlined infiltration pond; a second pond was put into use on October 17, 1985. For 1984-86, the annual amount of iodine-129 in wastewater discharged to the ponds ranged from 0.0064 to 0.039 Ci. In August 1986, iodine-129 concentrations in water from 35 wells near the ICPP ranged from less than the reporting level to 3.6 +or-0.4 pCi/L (picocuries/L). By comparison, in April 1977 the water from 20 wells contained a maximum of 27 +or-1 pCi/L of iodine-129; in 1981, the maximum concentration in water from 32 wells was 41 +or-2 pCi/L. The average concentrations of iodine-129 in water from 18 wells that were sampled in 1977, 1981 and 1986 were 4.0, 6.7 and 1.3 pCi/L, respectively. The marked decrease in the iodine-129 concentration from 1981 to 1986 is the result of three factors: (1) The amount of iodine-129 disposed annually; (2) a change from the routine use of the disposal well to the infiltration ponds; and (3) a dilution of the iodine-129 in the aquifer by recharge from the Big Lost River. (USGS)

  6. Salmon Supplementation Studies in Idaho Rivers; Idaho Supplementation Studies, 2000-2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Beasley, Chris; Tabor, R.A.; Kinzer, Ryan

    2003-04-01

    This report summarizes brood year 1999 juvenile production and emigration data and adult return information for 2000 for streams studied by the Nez Perce Tribe for the cooperative Idaho Salmon Supplementation Studies in Idaho Rivers (ISS) project. In order to provide inclusive juvenile data for brood year 1999, we include data on parr, presmolt, smolt and yearling captures. Therefore, our reporting period includes juvenile data collected from April 2000 through June 2001 for parr, presmolts, and smolts and through June 2002 for brood year 1999 yearling emigrants. Data presented in this report include; fish outplant data for treatment streams, snorkel and screw trap estimates of juvenile fish abundance, juvenile emigration profiles, juvenile survival estimates to Lower Granite Dam (LGJ), redd counts, and carcass data. There were no brood year 1999 treatments in Legendary Bear or Fishing Creek. As in previous years, snorkeling methods provided highly variable population estimates. Alternatively, rotary screw traps operated in Lake Creek and the Secesh River provided more precise estimates of juvenile abundance by life history type. Juvenile fish emigration in Lake Creek and the Secesh River peaked during July and August. Juveniles produced in this watershed emigrated primarily at age zero, and apparently reared in downstream habitats before detection as age one or older fish at the Snake and Columbia River dams. Over the course of the ISS study, PIT tag data suggest that smolts typically exhibit the highest relative survival to Lower Granite Dam (LGJ) compared to presmolts and parr, although we observed the opposite trend for brood year 1999 juvenile emigrants from the Secesh River. SURPH2 survival estimates for brood year 1999 Lake Creek parr, presmolt, and smolt PIT tag groups to (LGJ) were 27%, 39%, and 49% respectively, and 14%, 12%, and 5% for the Secesh River. In 2000, we counted 41 redds in Legendary Bear Creek, 4 in Fishing Creek, 5 in Slate Creek, 153 in the Secesh River, and 180 in Lake Creek. We recovered 19 carcasses (11 natural 8 hatchery) in Legendary Bear Creek, one hatchery carcass in Fishing Creek, zero carcasses in Slate Creek, 82 carcasses (19 of unknown origin and 63 natural) in the Secesh River, and 178 carcasses (2 hatchery 176 natural) from Lake Creek. In 2000 the majority (82%) of carcasses were recovered in index spawning reaches. Preliminary analysis of brood year 1997 PIT tag return data for the Secesh River and Lake Creek yields LGJ to Lower Granite Dam (LGD) juvenile to adult survival rates of, 0.00% for parr, 0.20% for presmolts, and 3.13% for smolts. LGJ to LGD juvenile to adult return rates for brood year 1997 Legendary Bear Creek were 2.98% for naturally produced PIT tagged smolts and 0.89% for PIT tagged supplementation smolts. No adults were detected at LGD from brood year 1997 parr released in Fishing Creek.

  7. Thermal springs in the Salmon River basin, central Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Young, H.W.; Lewis, R.E.

    1982-02-01

    The Salmon River basin within the study area occupies an area of approximately 13,000 square miles in central Idaho. Geologic units in the basin are igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks; however, granitic rocks of the Idaho batholith are predominant. Water from thermal springs ranges in temperature from 20.5/sup 0/ to 94.0/sup 0/ Celsius. The waters are slightly alkaline and are generally a sodium carbonate or bicarbonate type. Dissolved-solids concentrations are variable and range from 103 to 839 milligrams per liter. Estimated reservoir temperatures determined from the silicic acid-corrected silica, sodium-potassium-calcium, and sulfate-water isotope geothermometers range from 30/sup 0/ to 184/sup 0/ Celsius. Tritium concentrations in sampled thermal waters are near zero and indicate the waters are at least 100 years old. Stable-isotope data indicate it is unlikely that a single hot-water reservoir supplies hot springs in the basin. Thermal springs discharged at least 15,800 acre-feet of water in 1980. Associated convective heat flux is 2.7 x 10/sup 7/ calories per second.

  8. Steelhead Supplementation in Idaho Rivers, 2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Byrne, Alan

    2001-01-01

    In 2000, we continued our assessment of the Sawtooth Hatchery steelhead stock to reestablish natural populations in Beaver and Frenchman creeks in the upper Salmon River. We stocked both streams with 15 pair of hatchery adults and estimated the potential smolt production from the 1999 outplant. I estimated that about nine smolts per female could be produced in both streams from the 1999 outplant. The smolt-to-adult return would need to exceed 20% to return two adults at this level of production. In the Red River drainage, we stocked Dworshak hatchery stock fingerlings and smolts, from 1993 to 1999, to assess which life-stage produces more progeny when the adults return to spawn. In 2000, we operated the Red River weir to trap adults that returned from these stockings, but none were caught from either group. We continued to monitor wild steelhead populations in the Lochsa and Selway river drainages. We estimated that 26 wild adult steelhead returned to Fish Creek. This is the lowest adult escapement we have documented (when the weir was intact all spring) since we began monitoring Fish Creek in 1992. I estimated that nearly 25,000 juvenile steelhead migrated out of Fish Creek this year. Juvenile steelhead densities in Lochsa and Selway tributaries were similar to those observed in 1999. In 2000, we obtained funding for a DNA analysis to assess Idaho's steelhead stock structure. We collected fin samples from wild steelhead in 70 streams of the Clearwater, Snake, and Salmon River drainages and from our five hatchery stocks. The DNA analysis was subcontracted to Dr. Jennifer Nielsen, Alaska Biological Science Center, Anchorage, and will be completed in 2001.

  9. Neogene paleogeography of western Snake River plain, Idaho and Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, M.L.; Middleton, L.T.

    1984-04-01

    Analysis of Miocene through Pleistocene siliciclastic and volcaniclastic sequences in the western Snake River Plain of Idaho and Oregon allows detailed paleogeographic reconstruction of sedimentation associated with the development of a rapidly subsiding continental basin. Extensional tectonism was accompanied by voluminous outpourings of basaltic and silicic volcanic material. These in turn were reworked basinward by marginal alluvial fan-braided stream networks into basin-center fluviolacustrine systems. Episodic influxes of both felsic and basaltic tephra are recorded in fossiliferous lacustrine silt and claystones of the Poison Creek and Chalk Hills Formations, radiometrically bracketed between 12.5 to 5 m.y.B.P. Basinward-fining facies indicate deposition in the large lacustrine complex fed by at least 2 major fluvial systems. Complex interfingering of coarse-grained strandline deposits with offshore fine-grained sediments suggests repeated expansion and contraction of the lake system and record the dynamic interplay between basin tectonism and sedimentation.

  10. Discovery of a Balkan fresh-water fauna in the Idaho formation of Snake River Valley, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dall, W.H.

    1925-01-01

    In 1866 Gabb described Melania taylori and Lithasia antiqua "from a fresh-water deposit on Snake River, Idaho Territory, on the road from Fort Boise to the Owyhee mining country. Collected by A. Taylor." He states that a small bivalve, perhaps a Sphaerium, was associated with them.

  11. Depth to water, 1991, in the Rathdrum Prairie, Idaho; Spokane River valley, Washington; Moscow-Lewiston-Grangeville area, Idaho; and selected intermontane valleys, east-central Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berenbrock, Charles E.; Bassick, M.D.; Rogers, T.L.; Garcia, S.P.

    1995-01-01

    This map report illustrates digitally generated depth-to-water zones for the Rathdrum Prairie in Idaho; part of the Spokane River Valley in eastern Washington; and the intermontane valleys of the upper Big Wood, Big Lost, Pahsimeroi, Little Lost, and Lemhi Rivers and Birch Creek in Idaho. Depth to water is 400 to 500 feet below land surface in the northern part of Rathdrum Prairie, 100 to 200 feet below land surface at the Idaho-Washington State line, and 0 to 250 feet below land surface in the Spokane area. Depth to water in the intermontane valleys in east-central Idaho is least (usually less than 50 feet) near streams and increases toward valley margins where mountain-front alluvial fans have formed. Depths to water shown in the Moscow-Lewiston-Grangeville area in Idaho are limited to point data at individual wells because most of the water levels measured were not representative of levels in the uppermost aquifer but of levels in deeper aquifers.

  12. POTLATCH RIVER, LATAH, CLEARWATER, AND NEZ PERCE COUNTIES, IDAHO - PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION REPORT, 1994

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Latah Soil and Water Conservation District requested assistance from the Soil Conservation Service in the development of appropriate criteria for prioritizing subwatersheds in the Potlatch River Basin, Idaho (17060306) for the implementation of a long term watershed treatment...

  13. Final Technical Resource Confirmation Testing at the Raft River Geothermal Project, Cassia County, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Glaspey, Douglas J.

    2008-01-30

    Incorporates the results of flow tests for geothermal production and injection wells in the Raft River geothermal field in southern Idaho. Interference testing was also accomplished across the wellfield.

  14. Evaluate Status of Pacific Lamprey in the Clearwater River Drainage, Idaho, Annual Report 2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Cochnauer, Tim; Claire, Christopher

    2003-10-01

    In 2002 Idaho Department of Fish and Game continued investigation into the status of Pacific lamprey populations in Idaho's Clearwater River drainage. Trapping, electrofishing, and spawning ground redd surveys were used to determine Pacific lamprey distribution, life history strategies, and habitat requirements in the South Fork Clearwater River, Lochsa River, Selway River, and Middle Fork Clearwater River subbasins. Five-hundred forty-one ammocoetes were captured electroshocking 70 sites in the South Fork Clearwater River, Lochsa River, Selway River, Middle Fork Clearwater River, Clearwater River, and their tributaries in 2002. Habitat utilization surveys in Red River support previous work indicating Pacific lamprey ammocoete densities are greater in lateral scour pool habitats compared to riffles and rapids. Presence-absence survey findings in 2002 augmented 2000 and 2001 indicating Pacific lamprey macrothalmia and ammocoetes are not numerous or widely distributed. Pacific lamprey distribution was confined to the lower reaches of Red River below rkm 8.0, the South Fork Clearwater River, Lochsa River (Ginger Creek to mouth), Selway River (Race Creek to mouth), Middle Fork Clearwater River, and the Clearwater River (downstream to Potlatch River).

  15. Monitor well responses at the Raft River, Idaho, Geothermal Site

    SciTech Connect

    Skiba, P.A.; Allman, D.W.

    1984-05-01

    Effects of geothermal fluid production and injection on overlying ground-water aquifers have been studied at the Raft River Geothermal Site in southcentral Idaho. Data collected from 13 monitor wells indicate a complex fractured and porous media controlled ground-water flow system affected by natural recharge and discharge, irrigation withdrawal, and geothermal withdrawal and injection. The monitor wells are completed in aquifers and aquitards overlying the principal geothermal aquifers. Potentiometric heads and water quality are significantly affected by natural upward geothermal leakage via faults and matrix seepage. No significant change in water quality data has been observed, but potentiometric head changes resulted due to geothermal resource testing and utilization. Long-term hydrographs for the wells exhibit three distinct patterns, with superimposed responses due to geothermal pumping and injection. Well hydrographs typical of the Shallow aquifer exhibit effects of natural recharge and irrigation withdrawals. For selected wells, pressure declines due to injection and pressure buildup associated with pumping are observed. The latter effect is presumably due to the elastic deformation of geologic material overlying the stressed aquifers. A second distinct pattern occurs in two wells believed to be hydraulically connected to the underlying Intermediate aquifer via faults. These wells exhibit marked buildup effects due to injection as well as responses typical of the Shallow aquifer. The third pattern is demonstrated by three monitor wells near the principal production wells. This group of wells exhibits no seasonal potentiometric head fluctuations. Fluctuations which do occur are due to injection and pumpage. The three distinct hydrograph patterns are composites of the potentiometric head responses occurring in the various aquifers underlying the Raft River Site.

  16. POTLATCH RIVER WATERSHED, LATAH, CLEARWATER, AND NEZ PERCE COUNTIES, IDAHO - BENEFICIAL USE RECONNAISSANCE PROJECT, 1994

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study was conducted during the 1994 summer to determine the beneficial uses and status of those uses in the Potlatch River watershed, Idaho (17060306). Data were collected on the mainstem, East Fork and West Fork Potlatch River, Little Potlatch and Middle Potlatch Creeks, B...

  17. LOWER COEUR D'ALENE RIVER, IDAHO. A MANAGEMENT ANALYSIS OF BLM LANDS, 1990

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study was intended to provide guidance to BLM for future management of the Lower Coeur dAlene River area, Idaho (17010301, 17010303), giving full consideration to the potential environmental and human health issues in the river and its lateral lakes caused by the presence of...

  18. WATER QUALITY STATUS REPORT, LOWER WEISER RIVER, WASHINGTON COUNTY, IDAHO, 1983 - 1984

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Lower Weiser River, Crane Creek to the mouth at Weiser (17050124), Washington County, Idaho and its tributaries and selected irrigation inflows were the subject of a water quality survey for one year during 1983-84. The Weiser River contributes nearly 260,000 tons of annual ...

  19. LIMNOLOGY OF THE LOWER SNAKE RIVER RESERVOIRS IN IDAHO AND WASHINGTON

    EPA Science Inventory

    This interim report highlights research completed in 1975 and 1976 on the joint Washington State University-University of Idaho limnological study on the lower Snake River (17050201, 170601). The objective of this study was to describe the aquatic ecology of the Snake River just...

  20. Stratigraphy of the unsaturated zone and the Snake River Plain aquifer at and near the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, S.R.; Liszewski, M.J.

    1997-08-01

    The unsaturated zone and the Snake River Plain aquifer at and near the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) are made up of at least 178 basalt-flow groups, 103 sedimentary interbeds, 6 andesite-flow groups, and 4 rhyolite domes. Stratigraphic units identified in 333 wells in this 890-mile{sup 2} area include 121 basalt-flow groups, 102 sedimentary interbeds, 6 andesite-flow groups, and 1 rhyolite dome. Stratigraphic units were identified and correlated using the data from numerous outcrops and 26 continuous cores and 328 natural-gamma logs available in December 1993. Basalt flows make up about 85% of the volume of deposits underlying the area.

  1. THE CHANNELS AND WATERS OF THE UPPER SALMON RIVER AREA, IDAHO. (HYDROLOGIC EVALUATION OF THE UPPER SALMON RIVER AREA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The upper 1,800 square miles of the Salmon River drainage basin (17060201) in south-central Idaho is an area of great scenic beauty and little-disturbed natural environment. Proper development and use of this land and its natural resources are contingent on a multifaceted and de...

  2. Preliminary delineation of natural geochemical reactions, Snake River Plain aquifer system, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and vicinity, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Knobel, L.L.; Bartholomay, R.C.; Orr, B.R.

    1997-05-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, is conducting a study to determine the natural geochemistry of the Snake River Plain aquifer system at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), Idaho. As part of this study, a group of geochemical reactions that partially control the natural chemistry of ground water at the INEL were identified. Mineralogy of the aquifer matrix was determined using X-ray diffraction and thin-section analysis and theoretical stabilities of the minerals were used to identify potential solid-phase reactants and products of the reactions. The reactants and products that have an important contribution to the natural geochemistry include labradorite, olivine, pyroxene, smectite, calcite, ferric oxyhydroxide, and several silica phases. To further identify the reactions, analyses of 22 representative water samples from sites tapping the Snake River Plain aquifer system were used to determine the thermodynamic condition of the ground water relative to the minerals in the framework of the aquifer system. Principal reactions modifying the natural geochemical system include congruent dissolution of olivine, diopside, amorphous silica, and anhydrite; incongruent dissolution of labradorite with calcium montmorillonite as a residual product; precipitation of calcite and ferric oxyhydroxide; and oxidation of ferrous iron to ferric iron. Cation exchange reactions retard the downward movement of heavy, multivalent waste constituents where infiltration ponds are used for waste disposal.

  3. Water-quality data for the Boise River, Boise to Star, Idaho, January to March 1988

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frenzel, S.A.; Hansen, T.F.

    1988-01-01

    Physical and chemical data were collected at six sites and biological data were collected at five sites on the Boise River between Veterans Memorial Parkway in Boise and Star, Idaho, from January to March 1988. Data were collected to determine the effect of sewage effluent from two Boise wastewater treatment facilities on the water and biological quality of the Boise River. Similar data were collected from October to December 1987. Results of all data analyses will be discussed in an interpretive report.

  4. Compilation of references on geology and hydrology of the Snake River drainage basin above Weiser, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bassick, M.D.

    1986-01-01

    More than 1,100 references concerning geology and hydrology of the Snake River drainage basin above Weiser, Idaho, are compiled as part of the U.S. Geological Survey 's RASA (Regional Aquifer-System Analysis) study of the Snake River Plain. The list of references is intended as a primary source of information for investigators concerned with previous studies in the basin. Reference numbers correlate with a key-word index to help the user select and locate desired references. (USGS)

  5. LOWER BLACKFOOT RIVER, BINGHAM COUNTY, IDAHO - WATER QUALITY STATUS REPORT, 1987

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Lower Blackfoot River, Idaho (17040207) was identified in the Agricultural Pollution Abatement Plans as a second priority stream segment for the reduction of agriculture related pollutants. From November 19, 1986 to July 6, 1987 a water quality study was done to observe the ...

  6. DIEL DISSOLVED OXYGEN MONITORING OF THE SPOKANE RIVER DURING EXTREME LOW FLOW. KOOTENAI COUNTY, IDAHO, 1992

    EPA Science Inventory

    Diel monitoring of dissolved oxygen and temperature was conducted on an impounded and free-flowing reach of the Spokane River, in north Idaho (17010303) on 2 occasions during an extreme low flow event in water year 1992. The objective was to document excursions from water qualit...

  7. LIGHTNING CREEK, PACK RIVER, AND SAND CREEK, BONNER COUNTY, IDAHO - WATER QUALITY SUMMARY, 1978

    EPA Science Inventory

    In Water Year 1978, water quality studies were conducted on Lightning Creek, Pack River, and Sand Creek in Bonner County, Idaho (17010214, 17010213) to determine the present status of the streams. Water quality in Lightning Creek was generally very high. No violations of standa...

  8. Evaluation of VICAR software capability for land information support system needs. [Elk River quadrangle, Idaho

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yao, S. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    A preliminary evaluation of the processing capability of the VICAR software for land information support system needs is presented. The geometric and radiometric properties of four sets of LANDSAT data taken over the Elk River, Idaho quadrangle were compared. Storage of data sets, the means of location, pixel resolution, and radiometric and geometric characteristics are described. Recommended modifications of VICAR programs are presented.

  9. SOUTH FORK COEUR D'ALENE RIVER, NORTHERN IDAHO. DISTRIBUTION OF HEAVY METAL LOADINGS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this study is to determine the current distribution of metals loadings to the South Fork Coeur dAlene River, Idaho (17010301, 17010303). Water quality and flow data obtained from EPA Region 10 for September 1986 and September 1987 are used to determine loadings du...

  10. A REEXAMINATION OF THE COEUR D'ALENE RIVER, IDAHO, 1971

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Protection Agency has periodically examined the quality of the Coeur dAlene River, Idaho (17010301, 17010303) to determine the effects of mine and mill wastes. This examination was conducted on September 22 and 23, 1971 as a supplement to the examination and re...

  11. Evaluation of total phosphorus mass balance in the lower Boise River and selected tributaries, southwestern Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Etheridge, Alexandra B.

    2013-01-01

    he U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with Idaho Department of Environmental Quality, developed spreadsheet mass-balance models for total phosphorus using results from three synoptic sampling periods conducted in the lower Boise River watershed during August and October 2012, and March 2013. The modeling reach spanned 46.4 river miles (RM) along the Boise River from Veteran’s Memorial Parkway in Boise, Idaho (RM 50.2), to Parma, Idaho (RM 3.8). The USGS collected water-quality samples and measured streamflow at 14 main-stem Boise River sites, two Boise River north channel sites, two sites on the Snake River upstream and downstream of its confluence with the Boise River, and 17 tributary and return-flow sites. Additional samples were collected from treated effluent at six wastewater treatment plants and two fish hatcheries. The Idaho Department of Water Resources quantified diversion flows in the modeling reach. Total phosphorus mass-balance models were useful tools for evaluating sources of phosphorus in the Boise River during each sampling period. The timing of synoptic sampling allowed the USGS to evaluate phosphorus inputs to and outputs from the Boise River during irrigation season, shortly after irrigation ended, and soon before irrigation resumed. Results from the synoptic sampling periods showed important differences in surface-water and groundwater distribution and phosphorus loading. In late August 2012, substantial streamflow gains to the Boise River occurred from Middleton (RM 31.4) downstream to Parma (RM 3.8). Mass-balance model results indicated that point and nonpoint sources (including groundwater) contributed phosphorus loads to the Boise River during irrigation season. Groundwater exchange within the Boise River in October 2012 and March 2013 was not as considerable as that measured in August 2012. However, groundwater discharge to agricultural tributaries and drains during non-irrigation season was a large source of discharge and phosphorus in the lower Boise River in October 2012 and March 2013. Model results indicate that point sources represent the largest contribution of phosphorus to the Boise River year round, but that reductions in point and nonpoint source phosphorus loads may be necessary to achieve seasonal total phosphorus concentration targets at Parma (RM 3.8) from May 1 through September 30, as set by the 2004 Snake River-Hells Canyon Total Maximum Daily Load document. The mass-balance models do not account for biological or depositional instream processes, but are useful indicators of locations where appreciable phosphorus uptake or release by aquatic plants may occur.

  12. Quarternary paleoecology of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Snake River Plain, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Bright, R.C.; Davis, O.K.

    1982-07-01

    Plant and animal fossils have been recovered from several different types of sediment at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Based on woodrat middens and pollen from cave sediments, the Holocene vegetation history has been one of sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) steppe that became increasingly similar to shadscale (Atriplex spp.) steppe, culminating ca. 7000 years ago. A radiocarbon date on snail shells from ''ancient'' Lake Terreton shows that the basin was filled as recently as 700 years ago. Fossils of aquatic organisms were found in aeolian sediments, indicating that lake and stream sediments may be an important source of the aeolian sediment at the INEL.

  13. Evaluate Status of Pacific Lamprey in the Clearwater River Drainage, Idaho: Annual Report 2001.

    SciTech Connect

    Cochnauer, Tim; Claire, Christopher

    2002-12-01

    Recent decline of Pacific lamprey Lampetra tridentata adult migrants to the Snake River drainage has focused attention on the species. Adult Pacific lamprey counted passing Ice Harbor Dam fishway averaged 18,158 during 1962-69 and 361 during 1993-2000. Human resource manipulations in the Snake River and Clearwater River drainages have altered ecosystem habitat in the last 120 years, likely impacting the productive potential of Pacific lamprey habitat. Timber harvest, stream impoundment, road construction, grazing, mining, and community development have dominated habitat alteration in the Clearwater River system and Snake River corridor. Hydroelectric projects in the Snake River corridor impact juvenile/larval Pacific lamprey outmigrants and returning adults. Juvenile and larval lamprey outmigrants potentially pass through turbines, turbine bypass/collection systems, and over spillway structures at the four lower Snake River hydroelectric dams. Clearwater River drainage hydroelectric facilities have impacted Pacific lamprey populations to an unknown degree. The Pacific Power and Light Dam on the Clearwater River in Lewiston, Idaho, restricted chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha passage in the 1927-1940 period, altering the migration route of outmigrating Pacific lamprey juveniles/larvae and upstream adult migrants (1927-1972). Dworshak Dam, completed in 1972, eliminated Pacific lamprey spawning and rearing in the North Fork Clearwater River drainage. Construction of the Harpster hydroelectric dam on the South Fork of the Clearwater River resulted in obstructed fish passage 1949-1963. Through Bonneville Power Administration support, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game continued investigation into the status of Pacific lamprey populations in Idaho's Clearwater River drainage in 2001. Trapping, electrofishing, and spawning ground redd surveys were used to determine Pacific lamprey distribution, life history strategies, and habitat requirements in the South Fork Clearwater River drainage. Forty-three sites in Red River, South Fork Clearwater River, and their tributaries were electrofished in 2001. Sampling yielded a total of 442 juvenile/larval Pacific lamprey. Findings indicate Pacific lamprey juveniles/larvae are not numerous or widely distributed. Pacific lamprey distribution in the South Fork of the Clearwater River drainage was confined to lower reaches of Red River and the South Fork Clearwater River.

  14. Evaluation of seepage and discharge uncertainty in the middle Snake River, southwestern Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, Molly S.; Williams, Marshall L.; Evetts, David M.; Vidmar, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the State of Idaho, Idaho Power Company, and the Idaho Department of Water Resources, evaluated seasonal seepage gains and losses in selected reaches of the middle Snake River, Idaho, during November 2012 and July 2013, and uncertainty in measured and computed discharge at four Idaho Power Company streamgages. Results from this investigation will be used by resource managers in developing a protocol to calculate and report Adjusted Average Daily Flow at the Idaho Power Company streamgage on the Snake River below Swan Falls Dam, near Murphy, Idaho, which is the measurement point for distributing water to owners of hydropower and minimum flow water rights in the middle Snake River. The evaluated reaches of the Snake River were from King Hill to Murphy, Idaho, for the seepage studies and downstream of Lower Salmon Falls Dam to Murphy, Idaho, for evaluations of discharge uncertainty. Computed seepage was greater than cumulative measurement uncertainty for subreaches along the middle Snake River during November 2012, the non-irrigation season, but not during July 2013, the irrigation season. During the November 2012 seepage study, the subreach between King Hill and C J Strike Dam had a meaningful (greater than cumulative measurement uncertainty) seepage gain of 415 cubic feet per second (ft3/s), and the subreach between Loveridge Bridge and C J Strike Dam had a meaningful seepage gain of 217 ft3/s. The meaningful seepage gain measured in the November 2012 seepage study was expected on the basis of several small seeps and springs present along the subreach, regional groundwater table contour maps, and results of regional groundwater flow model simulations. Computed seepage along the subreach from C J Strike Dam to Murphy was less than cumulative measurement uncertainty during November 2012 and July 2013; therefore, seepage cannot be quantified with certainty along this subreach. For the uncertainty evaluation, average uncertainty in discharge measurements at the four Idaho Power Company streamgages in the study reach ranged from 4.3 percent (Snake River below Lower Salmon Falls Dam) to 7.8 percent (Snake River below C J Strike Dam) for discharges less than 7,000 ft3/s in water years 2007–11. This range in uncertainty constituted most of the total quantifiable uncertainty in computed discharge, represented by prediction intervals calculated from the discharge rating of each streamgage. Uncertainty in computed discharge in the Snake River below Swan Falls Dam near Murphy was 10.1 and 6.0 percent at the Adjusted Average Daily Flow thresholds of 3,900 and 5,600 ft3/s, respectively. All discharge measurements and records computed at streamgages have some level of uncertainty that cannot be entirely eliminated. Knowledge of uncertainty at the Adjusted Average Daily Flow thresholds is useful for developing a measurement and reporting protocol for purposes of distributing water to hydropower and minimum flow water rights in the middle Snake River.

  15. Iodine-129 in the Snake River Plain aquifer at and near the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho, 1990-91

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mann, L.J.; Beasley, T.M.

    1994-01-01

    From 1953 to 1990, an estimated 0.56 to 1.18 curies of iodine-129 were contained in wastewater generated by the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The waste- water was discharged directly to the Snake River Plain aquifer through a deep disposal well prior to February 1984 and through unlined disposal ponds in 1984-90. The wastewater did not contain measurable concentrations of iodine-129 in 1989-90. Samples were collected from 51 wells that obtain water from the Snake River Plain aquifer and 1 well that obtains water from a perched ground-water zone. The samples were analyzed for iodine-129 using an accelerator mass spectrometer which is two to six orders of magnitude more sensitive than neutron- activation methods. Therefore, iodine-129 was detectable in samples from a larger number of wells distributed over a larger area than previously was possible. Ground-water flow velocities calculated using iodine-129 data are estimated to be at least 6 feet per day. These velocities compare favorably with those of 4 to 10 feet per day calculated from tritium data and tracer studies at wells down- gradient from the ICPP. In 1990-91, concentrations of iodine-129 in water samples from wells that obtain water from the Snake River Plain aquifer ranged from less than 0.0000006+0.0000002 to 3.82.+0.19 picocuries per liter (pCi/L). The mean concentration in water from 18 wells was 0.81+0.19 pCi/L as compared with 1.30+0.26 pCi/L in 1986. The decrease in the iodine-l29 concentrations from 1986 to 1990-91 chiefly was the result of a decrease in the amount of iodine-129 disposed of annually, and changes in disposal techniques.

  16. Ecological relevance of current water quality assessment unit designations in impaired rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Layhee, Megan J.; Sepulveda, Adam; Ray, Andrew; Mladenka, Greg; Van Every, Lynn

    2016-01-01

    Managers often nest sections of water bodies together into assessment units (AUs) to monitor and assess water quality criteria. Ideally, AUs represent an extent of waters with similar ecological, watershed, habitat and land-use conditions and no overlapping characteristics with other waters. In the United States, AUs are typically based on political or hydrologic boundaries rather than on ecologically relevant features, so it can be difficult to detect changes in impairment status. Our goals were to evaluate if current AU designation criteria of an impaired water body in southeastern Idaho, USA that, like many U.S. waters, has three-quarters of its mainstem length divided into two AUs. We focused our evaluation in southeastern Idaho's Portneuf River, an impaired river and three-quarters of the river is divided into two AUs. We described biological and environmental conditions at multiple reaches within each AU. We used these data to (1) test if variability at the reach-scale is greater within or among AUs and, (2) to evaluate alternate AU boundaries based on multivariate analyses of reach-scale data. We found that some biological conditions had greater variability within an AU than between AUs. Multivariate analyses identified alternative, 2- and 3-group, AUs that reduced this variability. Our results suggest that the current AU designations in the mainstem Portneuf River contain ecologically distinct sections of river and that the existing AU boundaries should be reconsidered in light of the ecological conditions measured at the reach scale. Variation in biological integrity within designated AUs may complicate water quality and biological assessments, influence management decisions or affect where monitoring or mitigation resources are directed.

  17. Ecological relevance of current water quality assessment unit designations in impaired rivers.

    PubMed

    Layhee, Megan; Sepulveda, Adam; Ray, Andrew; Mladenka, Greg; Van Every, Lynn

    2015-12-01

    Managers often nest sections of water bodies together into assessment units (AUs) to monitor and assess water quality criteria. Ideally, AUs represent an extent of waters with similar ecological, watershed, habitat and land-use conditions and no overlapping characteristics with other waters. In the United States, AUs are typically based on political or hydrologic boundaries rather than on ecologically relevant features, so it can be difficult to detect changes in impairment status. Our goals were to evaluate if current AU designation criteria of an impaired water body in southeastern Idaho, USA that, like many U.S. waters, has three-quarters of its mainstem length divided into two AUs. We focused our evaluation in southeastern Idaho's Portneuf River, an impaired river and three-quarters of the river is divided into two AUs. We described biological and environmental conditions at multiple reaches within each AU. We used these data to (1) test if variability at the reach-scale is greater within or among AUs and, (2) to evaluate alternate AU boundaries based on multivariate analyses of reach-scale data. We found that some biological conditions had greater variability within an AU than between AUs. Multivariate analyses identified alternative, 2- and 3-group, AUs that reduced this variability. Our results suggest that the current AU designations in the mainstem Portneuf River contain ecologically distinct sections of river and that the existing AU boundaries should be reconsidered in light of the ecological conditions measured at the reach scale. Variation in biological integrity within designated AUs may complicate water quality and biological assessments, influence management decisions or affect where monitoring or mitigation resources are directed. PMID:26210354

  18. Evaluate Status of Pacific Lamprey in the Clearwater River Drainage, Idaho : Annual Report 2000.

    SciTech Connect

    Cochnauer, Tim; Claire, Christopher

    2000-01-01

    Recent decline of Pacific lamprey Lampetra tridentata adult migrants to the Snake River drainage has focused attention on the species. Adult returns in 1995-1999 were more than ten magnitudes less than returns in the early 1960's. Human activities in the Snake River and Clearwater River drainages have altered ecosystem habitat in the last 100 years and likely the productive potential of Pacific lamprey habitat. Logging, stream impoundment, road construction, grazing, mining, and community development have dominated habitat alteration in the Clearwater River system and Snake River corridor. Hydroelectric projects in the Snake River corridor impact juvenile Pacific lamprey outmigrants and returning adults. Juvenile lamprey outmigrants potentially pass through turbines, turbine bypass and collection systems, and spillway structures at lower Snake River hydroelectric dams. Clearwater River drainage hydroelectric facilities including the Pacific Power and Light Dam on the Clearwater River in Lewiston, Idaho, impacted Pacific lamprey populations, however, the degree of impact is unknown (1920's-early 1970's). Hydroelectric dam construction (Harpster Dam) on the South Fork of the Clearwater River resulted in obstructed salmonid passage in the mid-1900's. Habitat alterations in the Snake River basin and Clearwater River drainage have had numerous negative effects on salmon Oncorhynchus spp. and steelhead trout O. mykiss populations (wild fish), but the magnitude of impacts on lamprey productivity and survival is unknown. Thorough understanding of Pacific lamprey habitat use and life history processes is needed to facilitate management and restoration of the species. Through Bonneville Power Administration support, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game began investigation into the status of Pacific lamprey populations in Idaho's Clearwater River drainage in 2000. Trapping, electrofishing, and spawning ground redd surveys were used to determine where Pacific lamprey persist in the South Fork of the Clearwater River drainage. Habitat surveys evaluating juvenile habitat use were primarily conducted in the Red River subbasin. Red River subbasin resource manipulations have resulted in elevated stream sediment, stream destabilization, riparian canopy reduction, and water temperature extremes. A total of 262 juvenile Pacific lamprey were captured during the 2000 field season. Sampling in the Red River drainage yielded the largest number of Pacific lamprey juveniles. Preliminary findings indicate Pacific lamprey juveniles, while present, are not numerous or widely distributed. Age of juveniles captured was determined using length frequency.

  19. PALOUSE RIVER STUDY, LETAH COUNTY, IDAHO, WATER YEAR 1979

    EPA Science Inventory

    During water year 1979, a water quality study was conducted on the Palouse River in Latah County (17060108) to determine the present water quality status of the river at Princeton and to obtain background information for the development of effluent limitations for the Hampton-Pr...

  20. BOISE RIVER STUDY IN ADA COUNTY IDAHO, 1978

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of present point sources on the river and to obtain background information to develop effluent limitations for the City of Boise wastewater treatment facilities. The study was conducted on the Boise River (Ada County, ID) from L...

  1. Sediment transport in the lower Snake and Clearwater River Basins, Idaho and Washington, 2008–11

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Gregory M.; Fosness, Ryan L.; Wood, Molly S.

    2013-01-01

    Sedimentation is an ongoing maintenance problem for reservoirs, limiting reservoir storage capacity and navigation. Because Lower Granite Reservoir in Washington is the most upstream of the four U.S. Army Corps of Engineers reservoirs on the lower Snake River, it receives and retains the largest amount of sediment. In 2008, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, the U.S. Geological Survey began a study to quantify sediment transport to Lower Granite Reservoir. Samples of suspended sediment and bedload were collected from streamgaging stations on the Snake River near Anatone, Washington, and the Clearwater River at Spalding, Idaho. Both streamgages were equipped with an acoustic Doppler velocity meter to evaluate the efficacy of acoustic backscatter for estimating suspended-sediment concentrations and transport. In 2009, sediment sampling was extended to 10 additional locations in tributary watersheds to help identify the dominant source areas for sediment delivery to Lower Granite Reservoir. Suspended-sediment samples were collected 9–15 times per year at each location to encompass a range of streamflow conditions and to capture significant hydrologic events such as peak snowmelt runoff and rain-on-snow. Bedload samples were collected at a subset of stations where the stream conditions were conducive for sampling, and when streamflow was sufficiently high for bedload transport. At most sampling locations, the concentration of suspended sediment varied by 3–5 orders of magnitude with concentrations directly correlated to streamflow. The largest median concentrations of suspended sediment (100 and 94 mg/L) were in samples collected from stations on the Palouse River at Hooper, Washington, and the Salmon River at White Bird, Idaho, respectively. The smallest median concentrations were in samples collected from the Selway River near Lowell, Idaho (11 mg/L), the Lochsa River near Lowell, Idaho (11 mg/L), the Clearwater River at Orofino, Idaho (13 mg/L), and the Middle Fork Clearwater River at Kooskia, Idaho (15 mg/L). The largest measured concentrations of suspended sediment (3,300 and 1,400 mg/L) during a rain-on-snow event in January 2011 were from samples collected at the Potlatch River near Spalding, Idaho, and the Palouse River at Hooper, Washington, respectively. Generally, samples collected from agricultural watersheds had a high percentage of silt and clay-sized suspended sediment, whereas samples collected from forested watersheds had a high percentage of sand. During water years 2009–11, Lower Granite Reservoir received about 10 million tons of suspended sediment from the combined loads of the Snake and Clearwater Rivers. The Snake River accounted for about 2.97 million tons per year (about 89 percent) of the total suspended sediment, 1.48 million tons per year (about 90 percent) of the suspended sand, and about 1.52 million tons per year (87 percent) of the suspended silt and clay. Of the suspended sediment transported to Lower Granite Reservoir, the Salmon River accounted for about 51 percent of the total suspended sediment, about 56 percent of the suspended sand, and about 44 percent of the suspended silt and clay. About 6.2 million tons (62 percent) of the sediment contributed to Lower Granite Reservoir during 2009–11 entered during water year 2011, which was characterized by an above average winter snowpack and sustained spring runoff. A comparison of historical data collected from the Snake River near Anatone with data collected during this study indicates that concentrations of total suspended sediment and suspended sand in the Snake River were significantly smaller during water years 1972–79 than during 2008–11. Most of the increased sediment content in the Snake River is attributable to an increase of sand-size material. During 1972–79, sand accounted for an average of 28 percent of the suspended-sediment load; during 2008–11, sand accounted for an average of 48 percent. Historical data from the Clearwater River at Spalding indicates that the concentrations of total suspended sediment collected during 1972–79 were not significantly different from the concentrations measured during this study. However, the suspended-sand concentrations in the Clearwater River were significantly smaller during 1972–79 than during 2008–11. The increase in suspended-sand concentrations in the Snake and Clearwater Rivers are probably attributable to numerous severe forest fires that burned large areas of central Idaho from 1980–2010. Acoustic backscatter from an acoustic Doppler velocity meter proved to be an effective method of estimating suspended-sediment concentration and load for most streamflow conditions in the Snake and Clearwater Rivers. Models based on acoustic backscatter were able to simulate most of the variability in suspended-sediment concentrations in the Clearwater River at Spalding (coefficient of determination [R2]=0.93) and the Snake River near Anatone (R2=0.92). Acoustic backscatter seems to be especially effective for estimating suspended-sediment concentration and load over short (monthly and single storm event) and long (annual) time scales when sediment load is highly variable. However, during high streamflow events acoustic surrogate tools may be unable to capture the contribution of suspended sand moving near the bottom of the water column and thus, underestimate the total load of suspended sediment. At the stations where bedload was collected, the particle-size distribution at low streamflows typically was unimodal with sand comprising the dominant particle size. At higher streamflows and during peak bedload discharge, the particle size typically was bimodal and was comprised primarily of sand and coarse gravel. About 55,000 tons of bedload was discharged from the Snake River to Lower Granite Reservoir during water years 2009–11, about 0.62 percent of the total sediment load delivered by the Snake River. About 9,500 tons of bedload was discharged from the Clearwater River to Lower Granite Reservoir during 2009–11, about 0.83 percent of the total sediment load discharged by the Clearwater River during 2009–11.

  2. Neptunium and Plutonium Sorption to Snake River Plain, Idaho Soil

    SciTech Connect

    Mincher, Bruce Jay; Fox, Robert Vincent; Cooper, David Craig; Groenewold, Gary Steven

    2003-07-01

    The behavior of Np and Pu on soil collected from the subsurface disposal area at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory was investigated by performing short-duration, sorption experiments to measure sorption isotherms. Neptunium sorption can be described with a Freundlich isotherm; however, Pu sorption can only be described in this fashion as a conservative estimate of minimum sorption. Geochemical modeling predictions suggest that initial sorption of Np is controlled predominantly by surface complexation on clay minerals, while Pu is controlled by a competition between complexation with iron oxyhydroxides and the precipitation of hydrolysis products. Longer-term sorption is governed by the transformation of these species to oxide minerals. Solution ionic strength and carbonate alkalinity did not significantly affect Np or Pu soil sorption.

  3. Steelhead Supplementation in Idaho Rivers, 1993-1999 Summary Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Byrne, Alan

    2001-02-01

    The Steelhead Supplementation Study has conducted field experiments since 1993 that assess the ability of hatchery stocks to reestablish natural populations. We have stocked hatchery adult steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss trapped at Sawtooth Fish Hatchery in Beaver Creek yearly and Frenchman creeks when enough fish were available. We stocked Dworshak Hatchery stock fingerlings in the South Fork Red River from 1993 to 1996 and smolts in Red River from 1996 to 1999. Although results from all experiments are not complete, preliminary findings indicate that these hatchery stocks will not reestablish natural steelhead populations. We focused most of our effort on monitoring and evaluating wild steelhead stocks. We operated a temporary weir to estimate the wild steelhead escapement in Fish Creek, a tributary of the Lochsa River. We snorkeled streams to monitor juvenile steelhead abundance, captured and tagged steelhead with Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tags, and recorded stream temperatures in the Clearwater and Salmon River drainages. We operated screw traps in five to ten streams each year. We have documented growth rates in Fish and Gedney creeks, age of parr in Fish Creek, Gedney Creek, Lick Creek, and Rapid River, and documented parr and smolt migration characteristics. This report summarizes our effort during the years 1993 to 1999.

  4. Sediment cores and chemistry for the Kootenai River White Sturgeon Habitat Restoration Project, Boundary County, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barton, Gary J.; Weakland, Rhonda J.; Fosness, Ryan L.; Cox, Stephen E.; Williams, Marshall L.

    2012-01-01

    The Kootenai Tribe of Idaho, in cooperation with local, State, Federal, and Canadian agency co-managers and scientists, is assessing the feasibility of a Kootenai River habitat restoration project in Boundary County, Idaho. This project is oriented toward recovery of the endangered Kootenai River white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) population, and simultaneously targets habitat-based recovery of other native river biota. Projects currently (2010) under consideration include modifying the channel and flood plain, installing in-stream structures, and creating wetlands to improve the physical and biological functions of the ecosystem. River restoration is a complex undertaking that requires a thorough understanding of the river. To assist in evaluating the feasibility of this endeavor, the U.S. Geological Survey collected and analyzed the physical and chemical nature of sediment cores collected at 24 locations in the river. Core depths ranged from 4.6 to 15.2 meters; 21 cores reached a depth of 15.2 meters. The sediment was screened for the presence of chemical constituents that could have harmful effects if released during restoration activities. The analysis shows that concentrations of harmful chemical constituents do not exceed guideline limits that were published by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers in 2006.

  5. Petrophysical characteristics of basalt in the vadose zone, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Knutson, C.F.; Harrison, W.E.; Smith, R.P.

    1989-01-01

    We have used a core characterization system to measure bulk densities, porosities, and permeabilities of basalt lavas from the vadose zone at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). At the INEL, basalt lava flows with intercalated alluvial, aeolian, and lacustrine sediments extend to depths of one kilometer or more. Individual lava flows are generally less than 15 meters thick and commonly have vesicular tops and bottoms with massive basalt in their interiors. Petrophysical characterization is essential to an understanding of fluid movement in the vadose zone and in the saturated zone. Many hundreds of closely spaced permeability/porosity/bulk density measurements have defined the variability of these parameters within and between individual basalt flows. Based on geological logging and porosity/permeability measurements made on many hundred feet of core, we feel that a rather sophisticated and rigorous logging program is necessary to characterize these complex and highly variable basaltic flow units. This paper endeavors to provide a petrophysical/geological conceptual model of the Snake River Plain basalts from the vadose zone under the Radioactive Waste Management Complex area at the INEL. We hope that this model will aid in subsequent geotechnical logging in this portion of the Eastern Snake River Plain. 8 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. WATER QUALITY STATUS REPORT, PALOUSE RIVER, IDAHO, 1975-1976

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Palouse River (17060108) was surveyed during low and high stream flow conditions of September 1975 and April 1976. The purpose of the study was to assist in the development of effluent limitations for point sources and to identify and evaluate nonpoint sources. While water ...

  7. WATER QUALITY STUDY: MIDDLE SNAKE RIVER, IDAHO, 1970

    EPA Science Inventory

    A water quality study of the Middle Snake River (17060103, 17060101, 17050201) was initiated in July 1968 to gather data in support of Department of the interior testimony presented before the Federal Power Commission license application hearings on High Mountain Sheep Dam. Unus...

  8. Water-quality data for the Boise River, Boise to Star, Idaho, October to December 1987

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frenzel, S.A.; Hansen, T.F.

    1988-01-01

    Chemical and physical data were collected at six and biological data at five sites on the Boise River between Veterans Memorial Parkway in Boise and Star, Idaho, from October to December 1987. Data were collected to determine the impact of sewage effluent from two Boise wastewater treatment plants on the water and biological quality of the Boise River. Similar data will be collected from January to March 1988 and will be published in a second noninterpretive report. Results of all data analyses will be discussed in a final interpretive report. (USGS)

  9. Fish communities and related environmental conditions of the lower Boise River, southwestern Idaho, 1974-2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    MacCoy, Dorene E.

    2006-01-01

    Within the last century, the lower Boise River has been transformed from a meandering, braided, gravel-bed river that supported large runs of salmon to a channelized, regulated, urban river that provides flood control and irrigation water to more than 1,200 square miles of land. An understanding of the current status of the river's fish communities and related environmental conditions is important to support the ongoing management of the Boise River. Therefore, fish community data from the U.S. Geological Survey and the Idaho Department of Fish and Game collected since 1974 were analyzed to describe the status of fish communities in the lower Boise River. Each set of data was collected to address different study objectives, but is combined here to provide an overall distribution of fish in the lower Boise River over the last 30 years. Twenty-two species of fish in 7 families have been identified in the lower Boise River-3 salmonidae, trout and whitefish; 2 cottidae, sculpins; 3 catostomidae, suckers; 7 cyprinidae, minnows; 4 centrarchidae, sunfish; 2 ictaluridae, catfish; and 1 cobitidae, loach. Analysis of fish community data using an Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI) for Northwest rivers shows a decrease in the biotic integrity in a downstream direction, with the lowest IBI near the mouth of the Boise River. The number of tolerant and introduced fish were greater in the lower reaches of the river. Changes in land use, habitat, and water quality, as well as regulated streamflow have affected the lower Boise River fish community. IBI scores were negatively correlated with maximum instantaneous water temperature, specific conductance, and suspended sediment; as well as the basin land-use metrics, area of developed land, impervious surface area, and the number of major diversions upstream of a site. Fish communities in the upstream reaches were dominated by piscivorous fish, whereas the downstream reaches were dominated by tolerant, omnivorous fish. The percentage of sculpin in the river decreased in a downstream direction, and sculpin disappear completely at sites downstream of Glenwood Bridge. The sculpin population increased downstream of the Lander wastewater-treatment facility within the last decade, possibly as a result of improved wastewater treatment. The condition of the mountain whitefish (Prosopium williamsoni) throughout the lower Boise River was good and was similar both to the condition of mountain whitefish from least-disturbed rivers in southern Idaho and to the North American standard weight for mountain whitefish.

  10. Bimodal basalt-rhyolite magmatism in the central and western Snake River Plain, Idaho and Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCurry, M.; Bonnichsen, B.; White, C.; Godchaux, M.M.; Hughes, S.S.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this trip is to examine Miocene to Pleistocene basalt and rhyolite flows, ignimbrites and hypabyssal intrusions in a transect from the western Snake River Plain graben across the older part of the Snake River Plain "hot-spot-track." The earlier, dominantly explosive rhyolitic phase of volcanism will be examined primarily in the Cassia Mountains, near Twin Falls, Idaho. The second day of the field trip will focus on the Graveyard Point intrusion, a strongly differentiated diabase sill in easternmost Oregon. This late Tertiary sill is well exposed from floor to roof in sections up to 150 m thick, and is an example of the type of solidified shallow magma chamber that may be present beneath some Snake River Plain basalt volcanoes. The field trip will conclude with an examination of the diverse styles of effusive and explosive basaltic volcanism in the central and western Snake River Plain.

  11. Iodine-129 in the Snake River Plain Aquifer at and Near the Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho, 2003 and 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartholomay, Roy C.

    2009-01-01

    From 1953 to 1988, wastewater containing approximately 0.94 curies of iodine-129 (129I) was generated at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in southeastern Idaho. Almost all of this wastewater was discharged at or near the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) on the INL site. Most of the wastewater was discharged directly into the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer through a deep disposal well until 1984; however, some wastewater also was discharged into unlined infiltration ponds or leaked from distribution systems below the INTEC. In 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, collected samples for 129I from 36 wells used to monitor the Snake River Plain aquifer, and from one well used to monitor a perched zone at the INTEC. Concentrations of 129I in the aquifer ranged from 0.0000066 +- 0.0000002 to 0.72 +- 0.051 picocuries per liter (pCi/L). Many wells within a 3-mile radius of the INTEC showed decreases of as much as one order of magnitude in concentration from samples collected during 1990-91, and all of the samples had concentrations less than the Environmental Protection Agency's Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) of 1 pCi/L. The average concentration of 129I in 19 wells sampled during both collection periods decreased from 0.975 pCi/L in 1990-91 to 0.249 pCi/L in 2003. These decreases are attributed to the discontinuation of disposal of 129I in wastewater after 1988 and to dilution and dispersion in the aquifer. Although water from wells sampled in 2003 near the INTEC showed decreases in concentrations of 129I compared with data collected in 1990-91, some wells south and east of the Central Facilities Area, near the site boundary, and south of the INL showed slight increases. These slight increases may be related to variable discharge rates of wastewater that eventually moved to these well locations as a mass of water from a particular disposal period. In 2007, the USGS collected samples for 129I from 36 wells that are used to monitor the aquifer south of INTEC and from 2 wells that are used to monitor perched zones at INTEC. Concentrations of 129I in the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer ranged from 0.000026 +- 0.000002 to 1.16 +- 0.04 pCi/L, and the concentration at one well exceeded the maximum contaminant level (1 pCi/L) for public drinking water supplies. The average concentration of 19 wells sampled in 2003 and 2007 did not differ; however, slight increases and decreases of concentrations in several areas around the INTEC were evident in the aquifer. The decreases are attributed to the discontinued disposal and to dilution and dispersion in the aquifer. The increases may be due to the movement into the aquifer of remnant perched water below the INTEC. In 2007, the USGS also collected samples from 31 zones in 6 wells equipped with multi-level WestbayTM packer sampling systems to help define the vertical distribution of 129I in the aquifer. Concentrations ranged from 0.000011 +- 0.0000005 to 0.0167 +- 0.0007 pCi/L. For three wells, concentrations of 129I between zones varied one to two orders of magnitude. For two wells, concentrations varied for one zone by more than an order of magnitude from the wells' other zones. Similar concentrations were measured from all five zones sampled in one well. All of the 31 zones had concentrations two or more magnitudes below the maximum contaminant level.

  12. Fault and joint geometry at Raft River Geothermal Area, Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guth, L. R.; Bruhn, R. L.; Beck, S. L.

    1981-07-01

    Raft River geothermal reservoir is formed by fractures in sedimentary strata of the Miocene and Pliocene salt lake formation. The fracturing is most intense at the base of the salt lake formation, along a decollement that dips eastward at less than 50 on top of metamorphosed precambrian and lower paleozoic rocks. Core taken from less than 200 m above the decollement contains two sets of normal faults. The major set of faults dips between 500 and 700. These faults occur as conjugate pairs that are bisected by vertical extension fractures. The second set of faults dips 100 to 200 and may parallel part of the basal decollement or reflect the presence of listric normal faults in the upper plate. Surface joints form two suborthogonal sets that dip vertically. East-northeast-striking joints are most frequent on the limbs of the Jim Sage anticline, a large fold that is associated with the geothermal field.

  13. LOWER COEUR D'ALENE RIVER, IDAHO. TOXICITY AND BIOAVAILABILITY STUDIES OF LEAD AND OTHER ELEMENTS, 1989

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study was done following reported high waterfowl deaths and illnesses in the Coeur dAlene River and Lake system, Idaho (17010301, 17010303). Abundant evidence documents extensive contamination of the Lower Coeur dAlene River drainage with mining and milling wastes. The dep...

  14. Characterization of Surface-Water/Ground-Water Interaction Along the Spokane River, Idaho and Washington

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldwell, R. R.; Bowers, C. L.; Hein, K. L.

    2002-12-01

    Historical mining in the Coeur d'Alene River basin of northern Idaho has resulted in elevated concentrations of some trace metals (particularly Cd, Pb, and Zn) in water and sediments of Coeur d'Alene Lake and downstream in the Spokane River. On average during 1999 and 2000, about 20,000 kg/yr of whole-water lead (particulate plus dissolved), 2,100 kg/yr of whole-water cadmium, and 450,000 kg/yr of whole-water zinc flowed out of Coeur d'Alene Lake into the Spokane River. These elevated trace-metal concentrations in the Spokane River have raised concerns about potential contamination of ground water in the underlying Spokane Valley/Rathdrum Prairie aquifer, the primary source of drinking water for the city of Spokane and surrounding areas. A study conducted as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program examined the interaction of the river and aquifer using hydrologic and chemical data along a losing reach of the Spokane River. The river and ground water were extensively monitored over a range of hydrologic conditions at 3 stream gages and 25 monitoring wells (including 18 wells installed for this study) ranging from 8 to 1,000 m from the river. River stage, ground-water level, water temperature, and specific conductance were measured hourly to biweekly, and water samples were collected 8 times. Additional regional ground-water data were collected from more than 190 wells within 5 km of the study reach. Hydrologic and chemical data indicate that the Spokane River recharges the Spokane Valley/Rathdrum Prairie aquifer along a 35-km reach between Coeur d'Alene Lake and Spokane. Ground-water levels in near-river (<125 m from the river) wells responded rapidly to variations in river stage and indicated the presence of an unsaturated zone beneath the river and a ground-water flow gradient away from the river. Chemical data indicated that river recharge may influence ground-water chemistry as far as 900 m from the river. The chemistry and temperature of river water and ground water from near-river wells were similar and exhibited similar temporal trends, whereas ground water from wells located farther from the river had higher ionic strength and more stable temperature and chemistry. Lag time between variations of water temperature and water chemistry in the river and response of near-river wells may prove useful for estimating ground-water velocity and time of travel of chemical constituents to and through the aquifer. Although concentrations of Cd and Pb were elevated in bed sediment, dissolved (<0.45 um) Cd and Pb were generally less than 1 ug/L in the river and ground water. Dissolved Zn concentrations were similar in near-river wells (17 to 71 ug/L) and the river (22 to 66 ug/L), but were less than detection levels in wells farther from the river. In 1999 and 2000, the dissolved Zn load in the Spokane River decreased by about 72,000 kg/yr, or 17%, within the losing reach from Post Falls to downstream from Spokane. Part of this Zn load likely is transported to and stored in the near-river zone of the aquifer because the Zn is not returned farther downstream near Spokane where the aquifer discharges to the river.

  15. Paleomagnetism of Cougar Point Tuff XII, Snake River Plane Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, E. D.; Finn, D. R.; Coe, R. S.; Rea-Downing, G. H.; Branney, M. J.; Knott, T.; Reichow, M. K.

    2014-12-01

    Yellowstone hotspot center migration during the mid-Miocene northeast along the Snake River Plain (SRP) resulted in a succession of explosive caldera-forming super-eruptions, often involving 1000's of km3 of ejecta and covering 10,000's of km2. The frequency and volume of the rhyolitic eruptions in the SRP are of both academic and societal interest, yet remain poorly known. Identification and correlation of individual eruption deposits are critical for evaluating eruption volumes and frequency over time and the relationship with climate and tectonics. Rhyolitic ash-flow deposits flank both the northern and southern margins of the SRP, but have not been successfully correlated because of their similarity in both outcrop appearance and chemical composition. Paleomagnetic correlation using the stable magnetic remanence direction has the advantage of very high temporal resolution, on the order of centuries because of the geologically rapid rate of geomagnetic secular variation and the high accuracy in which extrusive volcanic rocks may record the instantaneous direction of the magnetic field. The strength of a paleomagnetic correlation increases with the rarity of the field direction recorded by the ash flow. Here we demonstrate correlation of SRP ignimbrites by sampling the Cougar Point Tuff (CPT) Xll at three widely spaced (~25 km) locations. The transitional polarity recorded by titanomagnetite in CPT Xll enables a strong paleomagnetic correlation. CPT Xll, however, is weakly magnetized because it was erupted during a polarity transition of Earth's magnetic field, and therefore is more susceptible to magnetic overprinting. Nonetheless, careful alternating-field demagnetization coupled with line- fit and great-circle analysis, yields well-constrained directions of stable remanence. Gyroremanent magnetization, a spurious component produced by demagnetization at the higher field steps, is dealt with satisfactorily by taking small alternating-field steps and by permuting the order of demagnetization along the three sample axes.

  16. Thermal springs in the Payette River basin, west-central Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, R.E.; Young, H.W.

    1980-10-01

    The Payette River basin, characterized by steep, rugged mountains and narrow river valleys, occupies an area of about 3300 square miles in west-central Idaho. Predominant rock types in the basin include granitic rocks of the Idaho batholith and basalt flows of the Columbia River Basalt Group. Waters from thermal springs in the basin, temperatures of which range from 34/sup 0/ to 86/sup 0/ Celsius, are sodium bicarbonate type and are slightly alkaline. Dissolved-solids concentrations range from 173 to 470 milligrams per liter. Reservoir temperatures determined from the sodium-potassium-calcium, silicic acid-corrected silica, and sulfate-water isotope geothermometers range from 53/sup 0/ to 143/sup 0/ Celsius. Tritium, present in concentrations between 0 and 2 tritium units, indicate that sampled thermal waters are at least 100 years and possibly more than 1000 years old. Stable-isotope data indicate it is unlikely any of the nonthermal waters sampled are representative of precipitation that recharges the thermal springs in the basin. Thermal springs discharged about 5700 acre-feet of water in 1979. Associated convective heat flux is 1.1 x 10/sup 7/ calories per second.

  17. Historical and current perspectives on fish assemblages of the Snake River, Idaho and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maret, T.R.; Mebane, C.A.

    2005-01-01

    The Snake River is the tenth longest river in the United States, extending 1,667 km from its origin in Yellowstone National Park in western Wyoming to its union with the Columbia River at Pasco, Washington. Historically, the main-stem Snake River upstream from the Hells Canyon Complex supported at least 26 native fish species, including anadromous stocks of Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, steelhead O. mykiss, Pacific lamprey Lampetra tridentata, and white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus. Of these anadromous species, only the white sturgeon remains in the Snake River between the Hells Canyon Complex and Shoshone Falls. Today, much of the Snake River has been transformed into a river with numerous impoundments and flow diversions, increased pollutant loads, and elevated water temperatures. Current (1993-2002) fish assemblage collections from 15 sites along the Snake River and Henrys Fork contained 35 fish species, including 16 alien species. Many of these alien species such as catfish (Ictaluridae), carp (Cyprinidae), and sunfish (Centrarchidae) are adapted for warmwater impounded habitats. Currently, the Snake River supports 19 native species. An index of biotic integrity (IBI), developed to evaluate large rivers in the Northwest, was used to evaluate recent (1993-2002) fish collections from the Snake River and Henrys Fork in southern Idaho and western Wyoming. Index of biotic integrity site scores and component metrics revealed a decline in biotic integrity from upstream to downstream in both the Snake River and Henrys Fork. Two distinct groups of sites were evident that correspond to a range of IBI scores-an upper Snake River and Henrys Fork group with relatively high biotic integrity (mean IBI scores of 46-84) and a lower Snake River group with low biotic integrity (mean IBI scores of 10-29). Sites located in the lower Snake River exhibited fish assemblages that reflect poor-quality habitat where coldwater and sensitive species are rare or absent, and where tolerant, less desirable species predominate. Increases in percentages of agricultural land, total number of diversions, and number of constructed channels were strongly associated with these decreasing IBI scores.

  18. Iodine-129 in the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer at and near the Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho, 2010-12

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartholomay, Roy C.

    2013-01-01

    From 1953 to 1988, approximately 0.941 curies of iodine-129 (129I) were contained in wastewater generated at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) with almost all of this wastewater discharged at or near the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC). Most of the wastewater containing 129I was discharged directly into the eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) aquifer through a deep disposal well until 1984; lesser quantities also were discharged into unlined infiltration ponds or leaked from distribution systems below the INTEC. During 2010–12, the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy collected groundwater samples for 129I from 62 wells in the ESRP aquifer to track concentration trends and changes for the carcinogenic radionuclide that has a 15.7 million-year half-life. Concentrations of 129I in the aquifer ranged from 0.0000013±0.0000005 to 1.02±0.04 picocuries per liter (pCi/L), and generally decreased in wells near the INTEC, relative to previous sampling events. The average concentration of 129I in groundwater from 15 wells sampled during four different sample periods decreased from 1.15 pCi/L in 1990–91 to 0.173 pCi/L in 2011–12. All but two wells within a 3-mile radius of the INTEC showed decreases in concentration, and all but one sample had concentrations less than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminant level of 1 pCi/L. These decreases are attributed to the discontinuation of disposal of 129I in wastewater and to dilution and dispersion in the aquifer. The decreases in 129I concentrations, in areas around INTEC where concentrations increased between 2003 and 2007, were attributed to less recharge near INTEC either from less flow in the Big Lost River or from less local snowmelt and anthropogenic sources. Although wells near INTEC sampled in 2011–12 showed decreases in 129I concentrations compared with previously collected data, some wells south and east of the Central Facilities Area, near the site boundary, and south of the INL showed small increases. These slight increases are attributed to variable discharge rates of wastewater that eventually moved to these well locations as a pulse of water from a particular disposal period. Wells sampled for the first time around the Naval Reactors Facility had 129I concentrations slightly greater than background concentrations in the ESRP aquifer. These concentrations are attributed to possible leakage from landfills at the Naval Reactors Facility or seepage from air emission deposits from INTEC, or both. In 2012, the U.S. Geological Survey collected discrete groundwater samples from 25 zones in 11 wells equipped with multilevel monitoring systems to help define the vertical distribution of 129I in the aquifer. Concentrations ranged from 0.000006±0.000004 to 0.082±0.003 pCi/L. Two new wells completed in 2012 showed variability of up to one order of magnitude of concentrations of 129I among various zones. Two other wells showed similar concentrations of 129I in all three zones sampled. Concentrations were well less than the maximum contaminant level in all zones.

  19. Sand deposition in shoreline eddies along five Wild and Scenic Rivers, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andrews, E.D.; Vincent, K.R.

    2007-01-01

    Sand bars deposited along the lateral margin of a river channel are frequently a focus of recreational activities. Sand bars are appealing sites on which to camp, picnic, fish and relax because they are relatively flat, soft, non-cohesive sand, free of vegetation and near the water's edge. The lack of vegetation and cohesion make sand bars easily erodible. Without appreciable deposition of new material, number and size of bars through a given reach of river will decline substantially over a period of years. We studied 63 beaches and their associated eddies located throughout 10 selected reaches within the designated Wild and Scenic River sections of the Lochsa, Selway, Middle Fork Clearwater, Middle Fork Salmon and Salmon Rivers in Idaho to determine the relation of beaches to the frequency and magnitude of streamflows that deposit appreciable quantities of sand. At present, these rivers have been altered little, if at all, by flow regulation, and only the Salmon River has substantial diversion upstream of a study reach. The river reaches studied have an abundance of sand bar beaches of appreciable size, in spite of suspended sand concentrations that rarely exceeded a few hundred milligrams per litre even during the largest floods. Calculated mean annual rates of deposition in an eddy vary from 5.8 to more than 100 cm depending primarily on: (1) the duration of streamflows that inundate the eddy sand bar depositions; (2) the rate of the flow exchange between the channel and an eddy and (3) the concentrations of suspended sand in the primary channel. The annual thickness of sand deposition in an eddy varies greatly from year to year depending on the duration of relatively large streamflows. Maximum annual sand depositions in an eddy are three to nine times the estimated long-term mean values. Relatively large, sustained floods deposit an appreciable portion of total deposition over a period of years. For the period of record, 1930-2002, the seven largest annual depositions, which represent more than 40% of all material deposited over the Lochsa River 21.9 km eddy, occurred in the years with the seven largest instantaneous annual peak floods. Beach area and volume for most beaches, however, are less variable year-to-year than the variation in annual deposition would indicate. Accumulative 10-year weighed deposition rate was computed to estimate the effective variability of beach deposition. Although less variable than the annual deposition, the cumulative 10-year deposition calculated for the longest hydrologic records, 71 years, existing on the Idaho Wild and Scenic Rivers varied by more than an order of magnitude from less than 20 cm to more than 220 cm.

  20. Lu-Hf garnet geochronology of the Salmon River Suture Zone, West-Central Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilford, D. E.; Vervoort, J. D.; Lewis, R.; Tikoff, B.

    2011-12-01

    The Salmon River Suture Zone (SRSZ) in west-central Idaho records the accretion of island arc terranes to North America. It is modified by the Western Idaho Shear Zone (WISZ), a high strain zone within the SRSZ, which defines the present-day boundary between old continental North America and the accreted oceanic assemblages. Timing of the onset of deformation on the WISZ is not well established, primarily due to a poorly constrained metamorphic history. Existing garnet geochronologic studies of units within the SRSZ, using the Sm-Nd isotope system, have provided a framework towards a progressive accretion of arc-derived rocks to North America [1,2]. In this study, we report on the application of the Lu-Hf isotope system to provide ages of garnet growth within the suture zone. This system has the advantage of being insensitive to light rare earth element (LREE)-rich inclusions in garnet, which can complicate Sm-Nd geochronology. Samples were taken from several locations from both along and perpendicular to the suture zone. We report results on two of these samples, within and east of the WISZ. First, a garnet bearing leucocratic layer in a gneissic meta-sedimentary screen near Cascade, Idaho, yields a garnet age of 98 2.0 Ma (2SD). The screen occurs completely within the orthogneisses of the WISZ, and displays similar fabrics and kinematics. Second, a biotite quartzo-feldspathic garnet gneiss from Elk City, Idaho, yields an age 100 2.9 Ma (2SD). This location is ~35 km east of the WISZ, on a sub-parallel deformation zone that was active at the same time. Both samples were single-stage garnet fractions consisting of inclusion-free to inclusion-bearing fragments and whole rock pairs. These ages provide two important implications for the Mesozoic evolution of the western edge of North America. First, transpressional deformation in the WISZ occurred simultaneously with deformation on parallel structures in central Idaho, indicating that a wide zone of deformation occurred on North America (and was intruded and thus obscured by the younger Idaho batholith). Second, deformation on these structures occurred during a limited time interval in the mid-Cretaceous, with peak metamorphism at ~100 Ma. [1] Getty et al., 1993, Contrib. Mineral. Petrol, v. 115, p. 45-57. [2] McKay et al., 2011, GSA Abstr w Prog., 2011 Rocky Mountain-Cordilleran section meeting, Paper No. 26-2.

  1. Hydrologic conditions and distribution of selected radiochemical and chemical constituents in water, Snake River Plain aquifer, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho, 1992 through 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Bartholomay, R.C.; Tucker, B.J.; Ackerman, D.J.; Liszewski, M.J.

    1997-04-01

    Radiochemical and chemical wastewater discharged since 1952 to infiltration ponds and disposal wells at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) has affected water quality in the Snake River Plain aquifer. The US Geological Survey, in cooperation with the US Department of Energy, maintains a monitoring network at the INEL to determine hydrologic trends and to delineate the movement of radiochemical and chemical wastes in the aquifer. This report presents an analysis of water-level and water-quality data collected from the Snake River Plain aquifer during 1992--95.

  2. Salmon Supplementation Studies in Idaho Rivers, 1999-2000 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Kohler, Andy; Taki, Doug; Teton, Angelo

    2001-11-01

    As part of the Idaho Supplementation Studies, fisheries crews from the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes have been snorkeling tributaries of the Salmon River to estimate chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) parr abundance; conducting surveys of spawning adult chinook salmon to determine the number of redds constructed and collect carcass information; operating a rotary screw trap on the East Fork Salmon River and West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River to enumerate and PIT-tag emigrating juvenile chinook salmon; and collecting and PIT-tagging juvenile chinook salmon on tributaries of the Salmon River. The Tribes work in the following six tributaries of the Salmon River: Bear Valley Creek, East Fork Salmon River, Herd Creek, South Fork Salmon River, Valley Creek, and West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River. Snorkeling was used to obtain parr population estimates for ISS streams from 1992 to 1997. However, using the relatively vigorous methods described in the ISS experimental design to estimate summer chinook parr populations, results on a project-wide basis showed extraordinarily large confidence intervals and coefficients of variation. ISS cooperators modified their sampling design over a few years to reduce the variation around parr population estimates without success. Consequently, in 1998 snorkeling to obtain parr population estimates was discontinued and only General Parr Monitoring (GPM) sites are snorkeled. The number of redds observed in SBT-ISS streams has continued to decline as determined by five year cycles. Relatively weak strongholds continue to occur in the South Fork Salmon River and Bear Valley Creek. A rotary screw trap was operated on the West Fork Yankee Fork during the spring and fall of 1999 and the spring of 2000 to monitor juvenile chinook migration. A screw trap was also operated on the East Fork of the Salmon River during the spring and fall from 1993 to 1997 and 1999 (fall only) to 2000. Significant supplementation treatments have occurred in the South Fork Salmon River (IDFG). The East Fork Salmon River received supplementation treatments yearly through 1995. There have been no treatments since 1995, and no significant future treatments from local broodstock are conceivable due to extremely poor escapement. The West Fork Yankee Fork received a single presmolt treatment in 1994. Similarly, no significant future treatments are planned for the WFYF due to extremely poor escapement. However, small scale experimental captive rearing and broodstock techniques are currently being tested with populations from the EFSR and WFYF. Captive rearing/broodstock techniques could potentially provide feedback for evaluation of supplementation. The other three SBT-ISS streams are control streams and do not receive hatchery treatments.

  3. Probable hydrologic effects of a hypothetical failure of Mackay Dam on the Big Lost River Valley from Mackay, Idaho to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Druffel, Leroy; Stiltner, Gloria J.; Keefer, Thomas N.

    1979-01-01

    Mackay Dam is an irrigation reservoir on the Big Lost River, Idaho, approximately 7.2 kilometers northwest of Mackay, Idaho. Consequences of possible rupture of the dam have long concerned the residents of the river valley. The presence of reactors and of a management complex for nuclear wastes on the reservation of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), near the river , give additional cause for concern over the consequences of a rupture of Mackay Dam. The objective of this report is to calculate and route the flood wave resulting from the hypothetical failure of Mackay Dam downstream to the INEL. Both a full and a 50 percent partial breach of this dam are investigated. Two techniques are used to develop the dam-break model. The method of characteristics is used to propagate the shock wave after the dam fails. The linear implicit finite-difference solution is used to route the flood wave after the shock wave has dissipated. The time of travel of the flood wave, duration of flooding, and magnitude of the flood are determined for eight selected sites from Mackay Dam, Idaho, through the INEL diversion. At 4.2 kilometers above the INEL diversion, peak discharges of 1,550.2 and 1,275 cubic meters per second and peak flood elevations of 1,550.3 and 1,550.2 meters were calculated for the full and partial breach, respectively. Flood discharges and flood peaks were not compared for the area downstream of the diversion because of the lack of detailed flood plain geometry. (Kosco-USGS)

  4. Adult Chinook Salmon Abundance Monitoring in the Secesh River and Lake Creek, Idaho, 2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Faurot, Dave; Kucera, Paul A.

    2001-05-01

    Underwater time-lapse video technology has been used to monitor adult spring and summer chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) escapement into the Secesh River and Lake Creek, Idaho, since 1998. Underwater time-lapse videography is a passive methodology that does not trap or handle this Endangered Species Act listed species. Secesh River chinook salmon represent a wild spawning aggregate that has not been directly supplemented with hatchery fish. The Secesh River is also a control population under the Idaho Salmon Supplementation study. This project has demonstrated the successful application of underwater video adult salmon abundance monitoring technology in Lake Creek in 1998 and 1999. Emphasis of the project in 2000 was to determine if the temporary fish counting station could be installed early enough to successfully estimate adult spring and summer chinook salmon abundance in the Secesh River (a larger stream). Snow pack in the drainage was 93% of the average during the winter of 1999/2000, providing an opportunity to test the temporary count station structure. The temporary fish counting station was not the appropriate technology to determine adult salmon spawner abundance in the Secesh River. Due to its temporary nature it could not be installed early enough, due to high stream discharge, to capture the first upstream migrating salmon. A more permanent structure used with underwater video, or other technology needs to be utilized for accurate salmon escapement monitoring in the Secesh River. A minimum of 813 adult chinook salmon spawners migrated upstream past the Secesh River fish counting station to spawning areas in the Secesh River drainage. Of these fish, more than 324 migrated upstream into Lake Creek. The first upstream migrating adult chinook salmon passed the Secesh River and Lake Creek sites prior to operation of the fish counting stations on June 22. This was 17 and 19 days earlier than the first fish arrival at Lake Creek in 1998 and 1999 respectively. Peak net upstream adult movement at the Secesh River site occurred June 28 and at the Lake Creek site on June 27. Peak of total movement was August 16 at Secesh River and August 7 at Lake Creek. The last fish passed through the Lake Creek fish counting station on August 31 and on September 8 at the Secesh River site. Migrating salmon in the Secesh River and Lake Creek exhibited two behaviorally distinct segments of fish movement. The first segment of movement was characterized, mainly, by upstream movement only. The second segment consisted of upstream and downstream movement with very little net upstream movement. The fish counting stations did not impede salmon movements, nor was spawning displaced downstream. Fish moved freely upstream and downstream through the fish counting structures. Fish movement was greatest between the period of 5:00 p.m. and 4:00 a.m. There appeared to be a segment of ''nomadic'' males that moved into and out of the spawning area, apparently seeking other mates to spawn with. The downstream movement of salmon allowed by this fish counting station design may be an important factor affecting reproductive success as male salmon seek other females to spawn with. Traditional weirs operated for broodstock collection do not allow for downstream movement of adults. This methodology has the potential to provide more consistent and accurate salmon spawner abundance information than single-pass and multiple-pass spawning ground surveys. Accurate adult abundance would allow managers to determine if recovery actions were benefiting these salmon spawning aggregates and if recovery goals were being met.

  5. Geophysical logging case history of the Raft River geothermal system, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Applegate, J.K.; Moens, T.A.

    1980-04-01

    Drilling to evaluate the geothermal resource in the Raft River Valley began in 1974 and resulted in the discovery of a geothermal reservoir at a depth of approximately 1523 m (500 ft). Several organizations and companies have been involved in the geophysical logging program. There is no comprehensive report on the geophysical logging, nor has there been a complete interpretation. The objectives of this study are to make an integrated interpretation of the available data and compile a case history. Emphasis has been on developing a simple interpretation scheme from a minimum of data sets. The Raft River geothermal system occurs in the Raft River Valley, which is a portion of the Basin and Range geomorphic province located in south central Idaho, south of the Snake River Plain. The valley is a late Cenozoic structural downwarp bounded by faults on the west, south, and east. The downwarp is filled with Tertiary and Paleozoic sediments, metasediments, and volcanics that overlie Precambrian rocks. The variety of rock types, the presence of alteration products, and the variability of fracturing make reliable interpretations difficult. However, the cross plotting of various parameters has allowed a determination of rock types and an analysis of the degree of alteration and the density of fractures. Thus, one can determine the relevant data necessary to assess a geothermal reservoir in similar rock types and use cross plots to potentially define the producing zones.

  6. A statistical model for estimating stream temperatures in the Salmon and Clearwater River basins, central Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Donato, Mary M.

    2002-01-01

    A water-quality standard for temperature is critical for the protection of threatened and endangered salmonids, which need cold, clean water to sustain life. The Idaho Department of Environmental Quality has established temperature standards to protect salmonids, yet little is known about the normal range of temperatures of most Idaho streams. A single temperature standard for all streams does not take into account the natural temperature variation of streams or the existence of naturally warm waters. To address these issues and to help the Idaho Department of Environmental Quality revise the existing State temperature standards for aquatic life, temperature data from more than 200 streams and rivers in the salmon and Clearwater River Basins were collected. From these data, a statistical model was developed for estimating stream temperatures on the basis of subbasin and site characteristics and climatic factors. Stream temperatures were monitored hourly for approximately 58 days during July, August, and September 2000 at relatively undisturbed sites in subbasins in the Salmon and Clearwater River Basins in central Idaho. The monitored subbasins vary widely in size, elevation, drainage area, vegetation cover, and other characteristics. The resulting data were analyzed for statistical correlations with subbasin and site characteristics to establish the most important factors affecting stream temperature. Maximum daily average stream temperatures were strongly correlated with elevation and total upstream drainage area; weaker correlations were noted with stream depth and width and aver-age subbasin slope. Stream temperatures also were correlated with certain types of vegetation cover, but these variables were not significant in the final model. The model takes into account seasonal temperature fluctuations, site elevation, total drainage area, average subbasin slope, and the deviation of daily average air temperature from a 30-year normal daily average air temperature. The goodness-of-fit of the model varies with day of the year. Overall, temperatures can be estimated with 95-percent confidence to within approximately plus or minus 4 degrees Celsius. The model performed well when tested on independent stream-temperature data previously collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and other agencies. Although the model provides insight into the natural temperature potential of a wide variety of streams and rivers in the Salmon and Clearwater River Basins, it has limitations. It is based on data collected in only one summer, during which temperatures were higher and streamflows were lower than normal. The effects of changes in streamflow on the effectiveness of the model are not known. Because the model is based on data from minimally disturbed or undisturbed streams, it should not be applied to streams known to be significantly affected by human activities such as disturbance of the streambed, diversion and return of water by irrigation ditches, and removal of riparian vegetation. Finally, because the model is based on data from streams in the Salmon and Clearwater River Basins and reflects climatological and landscape characteristics of those basins, it should not be applied to streams outside this region.

  7. Hydrologic conditions and distribution of selected radiochemical and chemical constituents in water, Snake River Plain aquifer, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho, 1989 through 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Bartholomay, R.C.; Orr, B.R.; Liszewski, M.J.; Jensen, R.G.

    1995-08-01

    Radiochemical and chemical wastewater discharged since 1952 to infiltration ponds and disposal wells at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) has affected water quality in the Snake River Plain aquifer. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, maintains a continuous monitoring network at the INEL to determine hydrologic trends and to delineate the movement of radiochemical and chemical wastes in the aquifer. This report presents an analysis of water-level and water-quality data collected from the Snake River Plain aquifer during 1989-91. Water in the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer moves principally through fractures and interflow zones in basalt, generally flows southwestward, and eventually discharges at springs along the Snake River. The aquifer is recharged principally from irrigation water, infiltration of streamflow, and ground-water inflow from adjoining mountain drainage basins. Water levels in wells throughout the INEL generally declined during 1989-91 due to drought. Detectable concentrations of radiochemical constituents in water samples from wells in the Snake River Plain aquifer at the INEL decreased or remained constant during 1989-91. Decreased concentrations are attributed to reduced rates of radioactive-waste disposal, sorption processes, radioactive decay, and changes in waste-disposal practices. Detectable concentrations of chemical constituents in water from the Snake River Plain aquifer at the INEL were variable during 1989-91. Sodium and chloride concentrations in the southern part of the INEL increased slightly during 1989-91 because of increased waste-disposal rates and a lack of recharge from the Big Lost River. Plumes of 1,1,1-trichloroethane have developed near the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant and the Radioactive Waste Management Complex as a result of waste disposal practices.

  8. Reevalution of background iodine-129 concentrations in water from the Snake River Plain Aquifer, Idaho, 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cecil, L. DeWayne; Hall, L. Flint; Green, Jaromy R.

    2003-01-01

    Background concentrations of iodine-129 (129I, half-life = 15.7 million years) resulting from natural production in the earth?s atmosphere, in situ production in the earth by spontaneous fission of uranium-238(238U), and fallout from nuclear weapons tests conducted in the 1950s and 1960s were reevaluated on the basis of 52 analyses of ground- and surface-water samples collected from the eastern Snake River Plain in southeastern Idaho. The background concentration estimated using the results of a subset of 30 ground-water samples analyzed in this reevaluation is 5.4 attocuries per liter (aCi/L; 1 aCi = 10-18 curies) and the 95-percent nonparametric confidence interval is 5.2 to 10.0 aCi/L. In a previous study, a background 129I concentration was estimated on the basis of analyses of water samples from 16 sites on or tributary to the eastern Snake River Plain. At the 99-percent confidence level, background concentrations of 129I in that study were less than or equal to 8.2 aCi/L. During 1993?94, 34 water samples from 32 additional sites were analyzed for 129I to better establish the background concentrations in surface and ground water from the eastern Snake River Plain that is presumed to be unaffected by wastedisposal practices at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Surface water contained larger 129I concentrations than water from springs and wells contained. Because surface water is more likely to be affected by anthropogenic fallout and evapotranspiration, background 129I concentrations were estimated in the current research using the laboratory results of ground-water samples that were assumed to be unaffected by INEEL disposal practices.

  9. Preliminary geological interpretation and lithologic log of the exploratory geothermal test well (INEL-1), Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doherty, David J.; McBroome, Lisa Ann; Kuntz, Mel A.

    1979-01-01

    A 10,365 ft (3,159 m) geothermal test well was drilled in the spring of 1979 at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho: The majority of rock types encountered in the borehole are of volcanic origin. An upper section above 2,445 ft (745 m) consists of basaltic lava flows and interbedded .sediments of alluvial, lacustrine, and volcanic origin. A lower section below 2,445 ft (745 m) consists exclusively of rhyolitic welded ash-flow tuffs, air-fall ash deposits, nonwelded ash-flow ruffs, and volcaniclastic sediments. The lithology and thickness of the rhyolitic rocks suggest that they are part of an intracaldera fill.

  10. WATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF THE UPPER SNAKE RIVER BASIN, IDAHO AND WESTERN WYOMING - ENVIRONMENTAL SETTING, 1980-92.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Data summarized in this report are used in companion reports to help define the relations among land use, water use, water quality, and biological conditions. The upper Snake River Basin (1704) is located in southeastern Idaho and northwestern Wyoming and includes small parts of...

  11. Selected well and ground-water chemistry data for the Boise River Valley, southwestern Idaho, 1990-95

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parliman, D.J.; Boyle, Linda; Nicholls, Sabrina

    1996-01-01

    Water samples were collected from 903 wells in the Boise River Valley, Idaho, from January 1990 through December 1995. Selected well information and analyses of 1,357 water samples are presented. Analyses include physical properties ad concentrations of nutrients, bacteria, major ions, selected trace elements, radon-222, volatile organic compounds, and pesticides.

  12. LITTLE MALAD RIVER DRAINAGE ABOVE DANIELS RESERVOIR, ONEIDA COUNTY, IDAHO - WATER QUALITY STATUS REPORT, 1981-1982

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water quality samples were collected from July 1981 to June 1982 in the Upper Little Malad River Drainage, Idaho (16010204) from tributaries above Daniels Reservoir. Important tributaries are Wright Creek, Dairy Creek, and Little Malad Spring. The major land use in the area is ...

  13. MAJOR SOURCES OF NITROGEN INPUT AND LOSS IN THE UPPER SNAKE RIVER BASIN, IDAHO AND WESTERN WYOMING, 1990.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Total nitrogen input and loss from cattle manure, fertilizer, legume crops, precipitation, and domestic septic systems in the upper Snake River Basin, Idaho and western Wyoming (1704), were estimated by county for water year 1990. The purpose of these estimations was to rank inp...

  14. KILLARNEY LAKE, COEUR D'ALENE RIVER SYSTEM IDAHO - PILOT SAMPLING FOR HEAVY METALS IN FISH FLESH, 1990

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study sampled largemouth bass, northern pike, black crappie, brown bullhead, and yellow perch from Killarney Lake, a lateral lake on the Coeur dAlene River in northern Idaho (17010301, 17010303) and analyzed edible flesh for concentrations of zinc, lead, mercury, cadmium, co...

  15. Stream seepage and groundwater levels, Wood River Valley, south-central Idaho, 2012-13

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartolino, James R.

    2014-01-01

    Stream discharge and water levels in wells were measured at multiple sites in the Wood River Valley, south-central Idaho, in August 2012, October 2012, and March 2013, as a component of data collection for a groundwater-flow model of the Wood River Valley aquifer system. This model is a cooperative and collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey and the Idaho Department of Water Resources. Stream-discharge measurements for determination of seepage were made during several days on three occasions: August 2728, 2012, October 2224, 2012, and March 2728, 2013. Discharge measurements were made at 49 sites in August and October, and 51 sites in March, on the Big Wood River, Silver Creek, their tributaries, and nearby canals. The Big Wood River generally gains flow between the Big Wood River near Ketchum streamgage (13135500) and the Big Wood River at Hailey streamgage (13139510), and loses flow between the Hailey streamgage and the Big Wood River at Stanton Crossing near Bellevue streamgage (13140800). Shorter reaches within these segments may differ in the direction or magnitude of seepage or may be indeterminate because of measurement uncertainty. Additional reaches were measured on Silver Creek, the North Fork Big Wood River, Warm Springs Creek, Trail Creek, and the East Fork Big Wood River. Discharge measurements also were made on the Hiawatha, Cove, District 45, Glendale, and Bypass Canals, and smaller tributaries to the Big Wood River and Silver Creek. Water levels in 93 wells completed in the Wood River Valley aquifer system were measured during October 2224, 2012; these wells are part of a network established by the U.S. Geological Survey in 2006. Maps of the October 2012 water-table altitude in the unconfined aquifer and the potentiometric-surface altitude of the confined aquifer have similar topology to those on maps of October 2006 conditions. Between October 2006 and October 2012, water-table altitude in the unconfined aquifer rose by as much as 1.86 feet in 6 wells and declined by as much as 14.28 feet in 77 wells; average decline was 2.9 feet. A map of changes in the water?table altitude of the unconfined aquifer shows that the largest declines were in tributary canyons and in an area roughly between Baseline and Glendale Roads. From October 2006 to October 2012, the potentiometric-surface altitude in 10 wells completed in the confined aquifer declined between 0.12 and 20.50 feet; average decline was 6.8 feet. A map of changes in the potentiometric-surface altitude of the confined aquifer shows that the largest declines were in the southwestern part of the Bellevue fan. Reduced precipitation prior to the October 2012 water-level measurements likely is partially responsible for 200612 water-table declines in the unconfined aquifer; the relative contribution of precipitation deficit and groundwater withdrawals to the declines is not known. Although the confined aquifer may not receive direct recharge from precipitation or streams, groundwater withdrawal from the confined aquifer induces flow from the unconfined aquifer. Declines in the confined aquifer are likely due to groundwater withdrawals and declines in the water table of the unconfined aquifer. A statistical analysis of five long-term monitoring wells (three completed in the unconfined aquifer, one in the confined aquifer, and one outside the aquifer system boundary) showed statistically significant declining trends in four wells.

  16. Water-quality conditions near the confluence of the Snake and Boise Rivers, Canyon County, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, Molly S.; Etheridge, Alexandra

    2011-01-01

    Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) have been established under authority of the Federal Clean Water Act for the Snake River-Hells Canyon reach, on the border of Idaho and Oregon, to improve water quality and preserve beneficial uses such as public consumption, recreation, and aquatic habitat. The TMDL sets targets for seasonal average and annual maximum concentrations of chlorophyll-a at 14 and 30 micrograms per liter, respectively. To attain these conditions, the maximum total phosphorus concentration at the mouth of the Boise River in Idaho, a tributary to the Snake River, has been set at 0.07 milligrams per liter. However, interactions among chlorophyll-a, nutrients, and other key water-quality parameters that may affect beneficial uses in the Snake and Boise Rivers are unknown. In addition, contributions of nutrients and chlorophyll-a loads from the Boise River to the Snake River have not been fully characterized. To evaluate seasonal trends and relations among nutrients and other water-quality parameters in the Boise and Snake Rivers, a comprehensive monitoring program was conducted near their confluence in water years (WY) 2009 and 2010. The study also provided information on the relative contribution of nutrient and sediment loads from the Boise River to the Snake River, which has an effect on water-quality conditions in downstream reservoirs. State and site-specific water-quality standards, in addition to those that relate to the Snake River-Hells Canyon TMDL, have been established to protect beneficial uses in both rivers. Measured water-quality conditions in WY2009 and WY2010 exceeded these targets at one or more sites for the following constituents: water temperature, total phosphorus concentrations, total phosphorus loads, dissolved oxygen concentration, pH, and chlorophyll-a concentrations (WY2009 only). All measured total phosphorus concentrations in the Boise River near Parma exceeded the seasonal target of 0.07 milligram per liter. Data collected during the study show seasonal differences in all measured parameters. In particular, surprisingly high concentrations of chlorophyll-a were measured at all three main study sites in winter and early spring, likely due to changes in algal populations. Discharge conditions and dissolved orthophosphorus concentrations are key drivers for chlorophyll-a on a seasonal and annual basis on the Snake River. Discharge conditions and upstream periphyton growth are most likely the key drivers for chlorophyll-a in the Boise River. Phytoplankton growth is not limited or driven by nutrient availability in the Boise River. Lower discharges and minimal substrate disturbance in WY2010 in comparison with WY2009 may have caused prolonged and increased periphyton and macrophyte growth and a reduced amount of sloughed algae in suspension in the summer of WY2010. Chlorophyll-a measured in samples commonly is used as an indicator of sestonic algae biomass, but chlorophyll-a concentrations and fluorescence may not be the most appropriate surrogates for algae growth, eutrophication, and associated effects on beneficial uses. Assessment of the effects of algae growth on beneficial uses should evaluate not only sestonic algae, but also benthic algae and macrophytes. Alternatively, continuous monitoring of dissolved oxygen detects the influence of aquatic plant respiration for all types of algae and macrophytes and is likely a more direct measure of effects on beneficial uses such as aquatic habitat. Most measured water-quality parameters in the Snake River were statistically different upstream and downstream of the confluence with the Boise River. Higher concentrations and loads were measured at the downstream site (Snake River at Nyssa) than the upstream site (Snake River near Adrian) for total phosphorus, dissolved orthophosphorus, total nitrogen, dissolved nitrite and nitrate, suspended sediment, and turbidity. Higher dissolved oxygen concentrations and pH were measured at the upstream site (Snake River near Adrian) than the downstream site (Snake River at Nyssa). Contributions from the Boise River measured at Parma do not constitute all of the increase in nutrient and sediment loads in the Snake River between the upstream and downstream sites. Surrogate models were developed using a combination of continuously monitored variables to estimate concentrations of nutrients and suspended sediment when samples were not possible. The surrogate models explained from 66 to 95 percent of the variability in nutrient and suspended sediment concentrations, depending on the site and model. Although the surrogate models could not always represent event-based changes in modeled parameters, they generally were successful in representing seasonal and annual patterns. Over a longer period, the surrogate models could be a useful tool for measuring compliance with state and site-specific water-quality standards and TMDL targets, for representing daily and seasonal variability in constituents, and for assessing effects of phosphorus reduction measures within the watershed.

  17. Deep Geothermal Reservoir Temperatures in the Eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho using Multicomponent Geothermometry

    SciTech Connect

    Ghanashyam Neupane; Earl D. Mattson; Travis L. McLing; Carl D. Palmer; Robert W. Smith; Thomas R. Wood

    2014-02-01

    The U.S. Geological survey has estimated that there are up to 4,900 MWe of undiscovered geothermal resources and 92,000 MWe of enhanced geothermal potential within the state of Idaho. Of particular interest are the resources of the Eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) which was formed by volcanic activity associated with the relative movement of the Yellowstone Hot Spot across the state of Idaho. This region is characterized by a high geothermal gradient and thermal springs occurring along the margins of the ESRP. Masking much of the deep thermal potential of the ESRP is a regionally extensive and productive cold-water aquifer. We have undertaken a study to infer the temperature of the geothermal system hidden beneath the cold-water aquifer of the ESRP. Our approach is to estimate reservoir temperatures from measured water compositions using an inverse modeling technique (RTEst) that calculates the temperature at which multiple minerals are simultaneously at equilibrium while explicitly accounting for the possible loss of volatile constituents (e.g., CO2), boiling and/or water mixing. In the initial stages of this study, we apply the RTEst model to water compositions measured from a limited number of wells and thermal springs to estimate the regionally extensive geothermal system in the ESRP.

  18. The Geology of East Butte, a Rhyolitic Volcanic Dome on the Eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bretches, J. E.; King, J. S.

    1985-01-01

    East Butte is a prominent volcanic dome located on the eastern Snake River Plain. It is situated 51 km west of Idaho Fallls in the southeast corner of the Idaho National Engineering facility. East Butte rises 350 meters above the Quaternary basalt flows which encircle its 2.4 kilometer diameter base. Its maximum elevation is 2003 meters above sea level. East Butte is composed dominantly of rhyolite. Armstrong and others (1975) determined a K-Ar age of 0.6 +/- m.y. for a rhyolite sample from East Butte. Detailed geologic mapping revealed East Butte to be a single, large cumulo-dome composed dominantly of rhyolite. Major element geochemical analyses indicate that the rhyolite of East Butte is mildly peralkaline (molecular excess of Na2O and K2O over Al2O3 and compositionally homogeneous. Color variations in the East Butte rhyolite result from varying amounts of chemical and physical weathering and to the degree of devitrification that the glass in the groundmass of the rhyolite underwent.

  19. Hydrochemistry of selected parameters at the Raft River KGRA, Cassia County, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, D.L.; Ralston, D.R.; Allman, D.W.

    1981-01-01

    Low to moderate temperature (< 150/sup 0/C) geothermal fluids are being developed in the southern Raft River Valley of Idaho. Five deep geothermal wells ranging in depth from 4911 feet to 6543 feet (1490 to 1980 meters) and two intermediate depth (3858 feet or 1170 meters) injection wells have been drilled within the Raft River KGRA. Several shallower (1423-500 feet or 430-150 meters) wells have also been constructed to monitor the environmental effects of geothermal development of the shallower aquifer systems. Sampling of water from wells within the KGRA has been conducted since the onset of the project in 1974. Five analytical laboratories have conducted analyses on waters from the KGRA. Charge-balance error calculations conducted on the data produced from these laboratories indicated that data from three laboratories were reliable while two were not. A method of equating all data was established by using linear regression analyses on sets of paired data from various laboratories. The chemical data collected from the deep geothermal wells indicates that a two reservoir system exists within the Raft River KGRA. Each reservoir is associated with a major structural feature. These features are known as the Bridge Fault System (BFS) and the Narrows Structure (NS).

  20. Bedrock erosion in the lower Big Wood River channel, southcentral Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Maley, T.S.; Oberlindacher, P. )

    1993-04-01

    The Big Wood River, which is fed from the mountains to the north of the Snake River Plain, cuts through 0.8 m.y. old basalt in an area north and east of Shoshone, Idaho. The basalt channel carved by the Big Wood River exhibits remarkable and unusual bedrock erosional features. Approximately 10,000 years ago, nearby Black Butte shield volcano erupted basaltic lave which rerouted the Big Wood River. At the time the new river channel formed 10,000 years ago, alpine glaciers in the mountains were also beginning to melt. High flows of water from the melting glaciers during the next few thousand years carried large sediment loads and were instrumental in developing the spectacular potholes now found in the channel. Most of the scouring agents are pebbles and cobbles derived from quartzite, granitic, and gneissic rocks. As potholes began to develop, they were closely spaced and generally less than 1 m apart. However, as the potholes enlarged and expanded both horizontally and vertically, they coalesced with one another. The merging process occurred when the walls of two or more adjacent potholes were breached by the outward expansion of each pothole. The deeper of the two potholes captured the pebbles of the adjacent pothole. When pebbles are captured, pothole growth is terminated and the more shallow pothole was gradually cannibalized. All of the features within the channel are overprinted with a strong asymmetry caused by the current-driven pebbles against the upstream side of the features. Consequently, the upstream side of the features tends to be smooth, convex and rounded; whereas, the downstream side tends to be concave with the leading edge of the feature pointing in the downstream direction.

  1. Effects of Climate Change on White-Water Recreation on the Salmon River, Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mickelson, K. E.; Hamlet, A. F.

    2008-12-01

    White-water recreation on the Salmon River generates tens of millions of dollars each summer for central Idaho's economy. This tourism revenue is highly dependent on a healthy snowpack melting throughout the summer to meet minimum streamflow requirements for the rafting industry. A number of previous studies have shown that in a warming climate this vital snowpack will diminish and so will summer streamflows. In areas such as the Middle Fork of the Salmon River this will result in less streamflow in July and August, which are the critical months for the rafting industry. Current estimates approximate that eight percent of scheduled trips are canceled due to low summer streamflows. In this study we project future impacts to white-water recreation in the Salmon River basin, associated with an ensemble of climate change scenarios. The University of Washington's Climate Impacts Group has statistically downscaled 20 GCMs A1B and B1 climate change scenarios from the IPCC 2007 Report. We use these forcings to run the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) land-surface model to determine future streamflows for the Pacific Northwest. To verify the likelihood of non-boatable days in the future due to low summer streamflows, we compare this suite of projected results for the Salmon River streamflow to historical streamflows for the Middle Fork and Main Fork Salmon. Preliminary analysis shows a two degree Celsius increase could result in a twenty-five percent cancellation of future Middle Fork trips as a result of low summer streamflows. On the Middle Fork section alone this translates into a two million dollar loss in annual revenue generation for the rafting industry, with impacts stretching deeper into the economy. We also discuss additional costs to the users, the tourist economy and potential analysis for other river systems.

  2. Chemical analyses of ground water related to geothermal investigations in the Teton River area, eastern Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crosthwaite, E.G.

    1979-01-01

    Water samples from 31 wells and springs in eastern Idaho and western Wyoming were collected to help evaluate the potential geothermal resources in the Teton River area. Water analyses included anions and cations, oxygen-18, deuterium, and several minor elements. Actual temperature of the thermal waters ranged from 23 to 49C. Estimated aquifer temperatures, as derived from geochemical thermometers, ranged from 45 to 145C based on sodium-potassium-calcium ratios. Using the cation thermometer, two analyses indicated aquifer temperatures lower than actual measured temperatures. Using a mixing model method, estimated temperatures ranged from 205 to 320C, the higher being of questionable value. The different methods used showed little correlation. Based on isotope data, the warm waters may be of local meteoric origin and not heated enough to react significantly with aquifer rocks; or, they originated as precipitation at high altitude and great distance from the area. (Woodard-USGS)

  3. Mineralogy and grain size of surficial sediment from the Little Lost River and Birch Creek drainages, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartholomay, R.C.; Knobel, L.L.

    1989-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey 's Idaho National Engineering Laboratory project office, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, collected 13 samples of surficial sediments from the Little Lost River and Birch Creek drainages during August 1988 for analysis of grain-size distribution, bulk mineralogy, and clay mineralogy. Samples were collected from five sites in the channel of the Little Lost River, two sites from overbank deposits of the Little Lost River, five sites in the channel of Birch Creek, and one site from an overbank deposit of Birch Creek. Six samples from the Birch Creek channel and overbank deposits had a mean of 7.9 and median of 2.5 weight percent in the less than 0.062 mm fraction. The seven samples from the Little Lost River channel and overbank deposits had a mean of 34.5 and median of 23.8 weight percent for the same size fraction. Mineralogy data indicated that Birch Creek had larger mean percentages of quartz and calcite, and smaller mean percentages of total feldspar and dolomite than the Little Lost River deposits. Illite was the dominant clay mineral present in both drainages, but the Little Lost River deposits contained more smectite, mixed-layer clays, and kaolinite than the Birth Creek deposits. (USGS)

  4. Digital Map of Surficial Geology, Wetlands, and Deepwater Habitats, Coeur d'Alene River Valley, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bookstrom, Arthur A.; Box, Stephen E.; Jackson, Berne L.; Brandt, Theodore R.; Derkey, Pamela D.; Munts, Steven R.

    1999-01-01

    The Coeur d'Alene (CdA) River channel and its floodplain in north Idaho are mostly covered by metal-enriched sediments, partially derived from upstream mining, milling and smelting wastes. Relative to uncontaminated sediments of the region, metal-enriched sediments are highly enriched in silver, lead, zinc, arsenic, antimony and mercury, copper, cadmium, manganese, and iron. Widespread distribution of metal-enriched sediments has resulted from over a century of mining in the CdA mining district (upstream), poor mine-waste containment practices during the first 80 years of mining, and an ongoing series of over-bank floods. Previously deposited metal-enriched sediments continue to be eroded and transported down-valley and onto the floodplain during floods. The centerpiece of this report is a Digital Map Surficial Geology, Wetlands and Deepwater Habitats of the Coeur d'Alene (CdA) River valley (sheets 1 and 2). The map covers the river, its floodplain, and adjacent hills, from the confluence of the North and South Forks of the CdA River to its mouth and delta front on CdA Lake, 43 linear km (26 mi) to the southwest (river distance 58 km or 36 mi). Also included are the following derivative theme maps: 1. Wetland System Map; 2. Wetland Class Map; 3. Wetland Subclass Map; 4. Floodplain Map; 5. Water Regime Map; 6. Sediment-Type Map; 7. Redox Map; 8. pH Map; and 9. Agricultural Land Map. The CdA River is braided and has a cobble-gravel bottom from the confluence to Cataldo Flats, 8 linear km (5 mi) down-valley. Erosional remnants of up to four alluvial terraces are present locally, and all are within the floodplain, as defined by the area flooded in February of 1996. High-water (overflow) channels and partly filled channel scars braid across some alluvial terraces, toward down-valley marshes and (or) oxbow ponds, which drain back to the river. Near Cataldo Flats, the river gradient flattens, and the river coalesces into a single channel with a large friction-dominated central sand bar at Cataldo Landing. Metal-enriched sediments that were dredged from the central sand bar were deposited on Cataldo Flats, to form extensive dredge-spoil deposits. From the central sand bar to CdA Lake, thick deposits of metal-enriched sand partially fill the middle of the pre-mining-era channel along straight reaches, and form point-bars along the inside margins of meander bends. Metal-enriched sand and silt form oxidized bank-wedge deposits along riverside margins of pre-mining-era levees of gray silty mud. Metal-enriched levee sand deposits extend across bank wedges and natural levees, generally thinning and fining away from the river, toward lateral marshes and lakes, where dark gray metal-enriched silt and mud overlie silty peat, deposited before the mining era. Distributary streams and man-made canals locally diverge from the river, connecting it to lateral marshes and lakes, and metal-enriched sand splays locally fan out across the floodplain. At the mouth of the river, a bouyancy-dominated river-mouth bar crests beyond the ends of the emergent levees. Thick delta-front deposits of metal-enriched sand slope from the river-mouth bar to the bottom of CdA Lake.

  5. Can superior natural amenities create high-quality employment opportunities? The case of nonconsumptive river recreation in central Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKean, J.R.; Johnson, D.M.; Johnson, R.L.; Taylor, R.G.

    2005-01-01

    Central Idaho has superior environmental amenities, as evidenced by exceptionally high-value tourism, such as guided whitewater rafting. The focus of our study concerns the attainment of high-quality jobs in a high-quality natural environment. We estimate cumulative wage rate effects unique to nonconsumptive river recreation in central Idaho for comparison with other sectors. The cumulative effects are based on a detailed survey of recreation spending and a modified synthesized input-output model. Cumulative wage rate effects support using the abundance of environmental amenities to expand and attract high-wage, environmentally sensitive firms, as opposed to expanded tourism to improve employment quality. Copyright ?? 2005 Taylor & Francis Inc.

  6. Discharge and sediment loads in the Boise River drainage basin, Idaho 1939-40

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Love, S.K.; Benedict, Paul Charles

    1948-01-01

    The Boise River project is a highly developed agricultural area comprising some 520 square miles of valley and bench lands in southwestern Idaho. Water for irrigation is obtained from the Boise River and its tributaries which are regulated by storage in Arrow Rock and Deer Flat reservoirs. Distribution of water to the farms is effected by 27 principal canals and several small farm laterals which divert directly from the river. The- New York Canal, which is the largest, not only supplies water to smaller canals and farm laterals, but also is used to fill Deer Flat Reservoir near Nampa from which water is furnished to farms in the lower valley. During the past 15 years maintenance costs in a number of those canals have increased due to deposition of sediment in them and in the river channel itself below the mouth of Moore Creek. Interest in determining the runoff and sediment loads from certain areas in the Boise River drainage basin led to an investigation by the Flood Control Coordinating Committee of the Department of Agriculture. Measurements of daily discharge and sediments loads were made by the Geological Survey at 13 stations in the drainage basin during the 18-month period ended June 30, 1940. The stations were on streams in areas having different kinds of vegetative cover and subjected to different kinds of land-use practice. Data obtained during the investigation furnish a basis for certain comparisons of runoff and sediment loads from several areas arid for several periods of time. Runoff measured at stations on the. Boise River near Twin Springs and on Moore Creek near Arrow Rock was smaller during 1939 than during 1940 and was below the average annual runoff for the period of available record. Runoff measured at the other stations on the project also was smaller during 1939 than during 1940 and probably did not exceed the average for the previous 25 years. The sediment loads measured during the spring runoff in 1939 were smaller at most stations than those measured during the spring runoff in 1940. At those stations where the flow was not affected, or only slightly affected, by upstream diversions or by placer-mining operations, the largest sadiment loads per unit of drainage area were measured in Grouse Creek during both 1939 and 1940, amounting to 3,460 and 2,490 tons per square mile, respectively, and the smallest loads per unit of drainage area were measured in Bannock Creek during 1939 and in the Boise River near Twin Springs during 1940, amounting to 14 and 83 tons per square mile, respectively. Size anaylses of a large number of samples of suspended and deposited sediments give an indication of the origin of sediments carried past some of the stations. The analyses show that most of the sediment measured at the five stations in the Moore Creek drainages basin above Idaho City consisted largely of coarse material. They show, also, that the sediment measured at the station on Moore Creek above Thorn Creek consisted almost entirely of fine material during practically the entire period of the investigation. Most of the coarse material passing the stations above Idaho City probably was retained behind the dikes or in the pools usually formed by tailings from dredging operations in the placer-mining area below Idaho City, and much of the fine material measured at the station on Moore Creek above Thorn Creek probably was contributed by placer-mining activity. During the years when the spring runoff is greater than that measured during 1939 and 1940, it is probable that the dikes and pools will be less effective in retaining coarse sediments within the placered area. Records of sediment loads measured in the New York Canal indicate that a negligible amount of sediment was deposited there during 1939, but that in 1940 from 10 to 15 percent of the total load at the gaging station consisted of coarse sediment which was later deposited on the canal bottom. Most of the fine material was doubtless carried through the canal and eventually deposited in diversion ditches and on farm land. Because the sediment carried past the station on Moore Creek above Thorn Creek consisted almost entirely of fine material, it is probable, that a considerable part of the coarse sediment carried in the New York Canal during the 1940 spring runoff period was scoured from the large bed of deposited material in the Boise River above Diversion- Dam, and that the remainder came from Grimes Creek. Arrow Rock Reservoir was not sluiced during the investigation, and it is therefore unlikely that any of the coarse sediment in the New York Canal came from the Boise River above Moore Creek during 1939 and 1940. The average dry weight of 71 samples of deposited sediments collected from several parts of the Boise River drainage basin is about 90 pounds per cubic foot. The average specific gravity of 77 samples of deposited sediments is 2.57.

  7. Geology and geomorphology of Bear Lake Valley and upper Bear River, Utah and Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reheis, M.C.; Laabs, B.J.C.; Kaufman, D.S.

    2009-01-01

    Bear Lake, on the Idaho-Utah border, lies in a fault-bounded valley through which the Bear River flows en route to the Great Salt Lake. Surficial deposits in the Bear Lake drainage basin provide a geologic context for interpretation of cores from Bear Lake deposits. In addition to groundwater discharge, Bear Lake received water and sediment from its own small drainage basin and sometimes from the Bear River and its glaciated headwaters. The lake basin interacts with the river in complex ways that are modulated by climatically induced lake-level changes, by the distribution of active Quaternary faults, and by the migration of the river across its fluvial fan north of the present lake. The upper Bear River flows northward for ???150 km from its headwaters in the northwestern Uinta Mountains, generally following the strike of regional Laramide and late Cenozoic structures. These structures likely also control the flow paths of groundwater that feeds Bear Lake, and groundwater-fed streams are the largest source of water when the lake is isolated from the Bear River. The present configuration of the Bear River with respect to Bear Lake Valley may not have been established until the late Pliocene. The absence of Uinta Range-derived quartzites in fluvial gravel on the crest of the Bear Lake Plateau east of Bear Lake suggests that the present headwaters were not part of the drainage basin in the late Tertiary. Newly mapped glacial deposits in the Bear River Range west of Bear Lake indicate several advances of valley glaciers that were probably coeval with glaciations in the Uinta Mountains. Much of the meltwater from these glaciers may have reached Bear Lake via groundwater pathways through infiltration in the karst terrain of the Bear River Range. At times during the Pleistocene, the Bear River flowed into Bear Lake and water level rose to the valley threshold at Nounan narrows. This threshold has been modified by aggradation, downcutting, and tectonics. Maximum lake levels have decreased from as high as 1830 m to 1806 m above sea level since the early Pleistocene due to episodic downcutting by the Bear River. The oldest exposed lacustrine sediments in Bear Lake Valley are probably of Pliocene age. Several high-lake phases during the early and middle Pleistocene were separated by episodes of fluvial incision. Threshold incision was not constant, however, because lake highstands of as much as 8 m above bedrock threshold level resulted from aggradation and possibly landsliding at least twice during the late-middle and late Pleistocene. Abandoned stream channels within the low-lying, fault-bounded region between Bear Lake and the modern Bear River show that Bear River progressively shifted northward during the Holocene. Several factors including faulting, location of the fluvial fan, and channel migration across the fluvial fan probably interacted to produce these changes in channel position. Late Quaternary slip rates on the east Bear Lake fault zone are estimated by using the water-level history of Bear Lake, assuming little or no displacement on dated deposits on the west side of the valley. Uplifted lacustrine deposits representing Pliocene to middle Pleistocene highstands of Bear Lake on the footwall block of the east Bear Lake fault zone provide dramatic evidence of long-term slip. Slip rates during the late Pleistocene increased from north to south along the east Bear Lake fault zone, consistent with the tectonic geomorphology. In addition, slip rates on the southern section of the fault zone have apparently decreased over the past 50 k.y. Copyright ?? 2009 The Geological Society of America.

  8. Use of multidimensional modeling to evaluate a channel restoration design for the Kootenai River, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Logan, B.L.; McDonald, R.R.; Nelson, J.M.; Kinzel, P.J.; Barton, G.J.

    2011-01-01

    River channel construction projects aimed at restoring or improving degraded waterways have become common but have been variously successful. In this report a methodology is proposed to evaluate channel designs before channels are built by using multidimensional modeling and analysis. This approach allows detailed analysis of water-surface profiles, sediment transport, and aquatic habitat that may result if the design is implemented. The method presented here addresses the need to model a range of potential stream-discharge and channel-roughness conditions to best assess the function of the design channel for a suite of possible conditions. This methodology is demonstrated by using a preliminary channel-restoration design proposed for a part of the Kootenai River in northern Idaho designated as critical habitat for the endangered white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and evaluating the design on the basis of simulations with the Flow and Sediment Transport with Morphologic Evolution of Channels (FaSTMECH) model. This evaluation indicated substantial problems with the preliminary design because boundary conditions used in the design were inconsistent with best estimates of future conditions. As a result, simulated water-surface levels did not meet target levels that corresponded to the designed bankfull surfaces; therefore, the flood plain would not function as intended. Sediment-transport analyses indicated that both the current channel of the Kootenai River and the design channel are largely unable to move the bed material through the reach at bankfull discharge. Therefore, sediment delivered to the design channel would likely be deposited within the reach instead of passing through it as planned. Consequently, the design channel geometry would adjust through time. Despite these issues, the design channel would provide more aquatic habitat suitable for spawning white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) at lower discharges than is currently available in the Kootenai River. The evaluation methodology identified potential problems with the design channel that can be addressed through design modifications to better meet project objectives before channel construction.

  9. Geologic map and profiles of the north wall of the Snake River Canyon, Thousand Springs and Niagara quadrangles, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Covington, H.R.; Weaver, Jean N.

    1991-01-01

    The Snake River Plain is a broad, arcuate region of low relief that extends more than 300 mi across southern Idaho. The Snake River enters the plain near Idaho Falls and flows westward along the southern margin of the eastern Snake River Plain (fig. 1), a position mainly determined by the basaltic lava flows that erupted near the axis of the plain. The highly productive Snake River Plain aquifer north of the Snake River underlies most of the eastern plain. The aquifer is composed of basaltic rocks that are interbedded with fluvial and lacustrine sedimentary rocks. The top of the aquifer (water table) is typically less than 500 ft below the land surface but is deeper than 1,000 ft in a few areas. The Snake River has excavated a canyon into the nearly flat lying basaltic and sedimentary rocks of the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer, which discharges from the northern canyon wall as springs of variable size, spacing, and altitude. Geologic controls on springs are of importance because nearly 60 percent of the aquifer's discharge occurs as spring flow along the describes the geologic occurrence of springs along the northern wall of the Snake River canyon. This report is one of several that describes the geologic occurrence of springs along the northern wall of the Snake River canyon from Milner Dam to King Hill. To understand the local geologic controls on springs, the Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey initiated a geologic mapping project as part of their Snake River Plain Regional Aquifer System-Analysis Program. Objectives of the project were (1) to prepare a geologic map of a strip of land immediately north of the Snake River canyon, (2) to map the geology of the north canyon wall in profile, (3) to locate spring occurrences along the north side of the Snake River between Milner Sam and King Hill, and (4) to estimate spring discharge from the north wall of the canyon.

  10. Salmon Supplementation Studies in Idaho Rivers, 1996-1998 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Reighn, Christopher A.; Lewis, Bert; Taki, Doug

    1999-06-01

    Information contained in this report summarizes the work that has been done by the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes Fisheries Department under BPA Project No. 89-098-3, Contract Number 92-BI-49450. Relevant data generated by the Shoshone-Bannock Tribe will be collated with other ISS cooperator data collected from the Salmon and Clearwater rivers and tributary streams. A summary of data presented in this report and an initial project-wide level supplementation evaluation will be available in the ISS 5 year report that is currently in progress. The Shoshone-Bannock Tribal Fisheries Department is responsible for monitoring a variety of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) production parameters as part of the Idaho Supplementation Studies (BPA Project No. 89-098-3, Contract Number 92-BI-49450). Parameters include parr abundance in tributaries to the upper Salmon River; adult chinook salmon spawner abundance, redd counts, and carcass collection. A rotary screw trap is operated on the East Fork Salmon River and West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River to enumerate and PIT-tag chinook smolts. These traps are also used to monitor parr movement, and collect individuals for the State and Tribal chinook salmon captive rearing program. The SBT monitors fisheries parameters in the following six tributaries of the Salmon River: Bear Valley Creek, East Fork Salmon River, Herd Creek, South Fork Salmon River, Valley Creek, and West Fork Yankee Fork. Chinook populations in all SBT-ISS monitored streams continue to decline. The South Fork Salmon River and Bear Valley Creek have the strongest remaining populations. Snorkel survey methodology was used to obtain parr population estimates for ISS streams from 1992 to 1997. Confidence intervals for the parr population estimates were large, especially when the populations were low. In 1998, based on ISS cooperator agreement, snorkeling to obtain parr population estimates was ceased due to the large confidence intervals. A rotary screw trap was operated on the West Fork Yankee Fork during the spring, summer, and fall of 1998 to monitor juvenile chinook migration. A screw trap was also operated on the East Fork of the Salmon River during the spring and fall from 1993 to 1997. Supplementation treatments have occurred on the South Fork Salmon River (IDFG), the East Fork Salmon River (EFSR), and the West Fork Yankee Fork of the Salmon River (WFYF). The EFSR received supplementation treatments yearly through 1995. There have been no treatments since 1995, and no significant future treatments from local broodstock are planned due to extremely poor escapement. The WFYF received a single presmolt treatment in 1994. There was an egg and adult release treatment in 1998 from the captive rearing program, not part of the original ISS study. Similarly, no significant future treatments are planned for the West Fork Yankee Fork due to extremely poor escapement. However, small scale experimental captive rearing and broodstock techniques are currently being tested with populations from the EFSR and WFYF. Captive rearing/broodstock techniques could potentially provide feedback for evaluation of supplementation. The other three SBT-ISS streams are control streams and do not receive supplementation treatments.

  11. Geology and geophysics of the southern Raft River Valley geothermal area, Idaho, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Paul L.; Mabey, Don R.; Zohdy, Adel A.R.; Hans, Ackerman; Hoover, Donald B.; Pierce, Kenneth L.; Oriel, Steven S.

    1976-01-01

    The Raft River valley, near the boundary of the Snake River plain with the Basin and Range province, is a north-trending late Cenozoic downwarp bounded by faults on the west, south, and east. Pleistocene alluvium and Miocene-Pliocene tuffaceous sediments, conglomerate, and felsic volcanic rocks aggregate 2 km in thickness. Large gravity, magnetic, and total field resistivity highs probably indicate a buried igneous mass that is too old to serve as a heat source. Differing seismic velocities relate to known or inferred structures and to a suspected shallow zone of warm water. Resistivity anomalies reflect differences of both composition and degree of alteration of Cenozoic rocks. Resistivity soundings show a 2 to 5 ohm·m unit with a thickness of 1 km beneath a large part of the valley, and the unit may indicate partly hot water and partly clayey sediments. Observed self-potential anomalies are believed to indicate zones where warm water rises toward the surface. Boiling wells at Bridge, Idaho are near the intersection of north-northeast normal faults which have moved as recently as the late (?) Pleistocene, and an east-northeast structure, probably a right-lateral fault. Deep circulation of ground water in this region of relatively high heat flow and upwelling along faults is the probable cause of the thermal anomaly.

  12. Geochronology and Geomorphology of the Pioneer Archaeological Site (10BT676), Upper Snake River Plain, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Keene, Joshua L.

    2015-04-01

    The Pioneer site in southeastern Idaho, an open-air, stratified, multi-component archaeological locality on the upper Snake River Plain, provides an ideal situation for understanding the geomorphic history of the Big Lost River drainage system. We conducted a block excavation with the goal of understanding the geochronological context of both cultural and geomorphological components at the site. The results of this study show a sequence of five soil formation episodes forming three terraces beginning prior to 7200 cal yr BP and lasting until the historic period, preserving one cultural component dated to ~3800 cal yr BP and multiple components dating to the last 800 cal yr BP. In addition, periods of deposition and stability at Pioneer indicate climate fluctuation during the middle Holocene (~7200-3800 cal yr BP), minimal deposition during the late Holocene, and a period of increased deposition potentially linked to the Little Ice Age. In addition, evidence for a high-energy erosion event dated to ~3800 cal yr BP suggest a catastrophic flood event during the middle Holocene that may correlate with volcanic activity at the Craters of the Moon lava fields to the northwest. This study provides a model for the study of alluvial terrace formations in arid environments and their potential to preserve stratified archaeological deposits.

  13. Geohydrology of the regional aquifer system, western Snake River plain, southwestern Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newton, G.D.

    1989-01-01

    A three dimensional groundwater flow model was developed to simulate steady state and nonsteady-state hydrologic conditions of the regional aquifer system in the western Snake River Plain of Idaho. Water budget analysis showed that groundwater recharge was about 1,400,000 acre-ft in 1980; groundwater pumpage was estimated to be 300,000 acre-ft. Two mass water level measurements were made in March and August 1980 to define the water table in the regional system. The model was discretized into 25 rows, 72 columns, and 3 layers. Each cell represented 4 sq mi. The model was calibrated to 1980 hydrologic conditions. Calibrated transmissivity of layer 1 (500 ft thick) ranged from 1,500 to 21,500 sq ft/day. Calibrated specific yield of unconfined aquifers was 0.10 and calibrated storage coefficient of confined aquifers ranged from 0.0004 to 0.007. The calibrated model was verified by simulating monthly water-level fluctuations for 1980. Simulated water levels matched measured levels in the Boise River Valley, but the match in other areas was poor. (USGS)

  14. Geothermal resource analysis in the Big Wood River Valley, Blaine County, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Street, L.V.

    1990-10-01

    A geochemical investigation of both thermal and nonthermal springs in the Wood River area was conducted to determine possible flowpaths, ages of the waters, and environmental implications. Seven thermal springs and five cold springs were sampled for major cations and anions along with arsenic, lithium, boron, deuterium and oxygen-18. Eight rocks, representative of outcrops at or near the thermal occurrences were sampled and analyzed for major and trace elements. The Wood River area hydrothermal springs are dilute Na-HCO{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2} type waters. Calculated reservoir temperatures do not exceed 100{degree}C, except for Magic Hot Springs Landing well (108{degree}C with Mg correction). The isotope data suggest that the thermal water is not derived from present-day precipitation, but from precipitation when the climate was much colder and wetter. Intrusive igneous rocks of the Idaho batholith have reacted with the hydrothermal fluids at depth. The co-location of the thermal springs and mining districts suggests that the structures acting as conduits for the present-day hydrothermal fluids were also active during the emplacement of the ore bodies.

  15. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL WATER QUALITY OF THE SPOKANE RIVER OUTLET REACH OF LAKE COEUR D'ALENE, KOOTENAI COUNTY, IDAHO. 1990 AND 1991

    EPA Science Inventory

    The University of Idaho conducted a water quality study on the Spokane River outlet arm of Lake Coeur dAlene (17010305, 17010303) from June 1990 through September 1991. Objectives of the study were: to characterize baseline river water quality; to determine seasonal river water ...

  16. Steelhead Supplementation Studies; Steelhead Supplementation in Idaho Rivers, Annual Report 2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Byrne, Alan

    2003-03-01

    The Steelhead Supplementation Study (SSS) has two broad objectives: (1) investigate the feasibility of supplementing depressed wild and natural steelhead populations using hatchery populations, and (2) describe the basic life history and genetic characteristics of wild and natural steelhead populations in the Salmon and Clearwater Basins. Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) personnel stocked adult steelhead from Sawtooth Fish Hatchery into Frenchman and Beaver creeks and estimated the number of age-1 parr produced from the outplants since 1993. On May 2, 2002, both Beaver and Frenchman creeks were stocked with hatchery adult steelhead. A SSS crew snorkeled the creeks in August 2002 to estimate the abundance of age-1 parr from brood year (BY) 2001. I estimated that the yield of age-1 parr per female stocked in 2001 was 7.3 and 6.7 in Beaver and Frenchman creeks, respectively. SSS crews stocked Dworshak hatchery stock fingerlings and smolts from 1993 to 1999 in the Red River drainage to assess which life stage produces more progeny when the adults return to spawn. In 2002, Clearwater Fish Hatchery personnel operated the Red River weir to trap adults that returned from these stockings. Twelve PIT-tagged adults from the smolt releases and one PIT-tagged adult from fingerling releases were detected during their migration up the mainstem Columbia and Snake rivers, but none from either group were caught at the weir. The primary focus of the study has been monitoring and collecting life history information from wild steelhead populations. An adult weir has been operated annually since 1992 in Fish Creek, a tributary of the Lochsa River. The weir was damaged by a rain-on-snow event in April 2002 and although the weir remained intact, some adults were able to swim undetected through the weir. Despite damage to the weir, trap tenders captured 167 adult steelhead, the most fish since 1993. The maximum likelihood estimate of adult steelhead escapement was 242. A screw trap has been operated annually in Fish Creek since 1994 to estimate the number of emigrating parr and smolts. I estimated that 18,687 juvenile steelhead emigrated from Fish Creek in 2002, the lowest number of migrants since 1998. SSS crews snorkeled three streams in the Selway River drainage and 10 streams in the Lochsa River drainage to estimate juvenile steelhead densities. The densities of age-1 steelhead parr declined in all streams compared to the densities observed in 2001. The age-1 densities in Fish Creek and Gedney Creek were the lowest observed since this project began monitoring those populations in 1994. The SSS crews and other cooperators tagged more than 12,000 juvenile steelhead with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags in 2002. In 2002, technicians mounted and aged steelhead scales that were collected from 1998 to 2001. A consensus was reached among technicians for age of steelhead juveniles from Fish Creek. Scales that were collected in other streams were aged by at least one reader; however, before a final age is assigned to these fish, the age needs to be verified by another reader and any age differences among readers resolved. Dr. Jennifer Nielsen, at the U.S. Geological Survey Alaska Biological Science Center, Anchorage continued the microsatellite analysis of the steelhead tissue samples that were collected from Idaho streams in 2000. Two thousand eighteen samples from 40 populations were analyzed. The analysis of the remaining 39 populations is continuing.

  17. Characteristics and origin of Earth-mounds on the Eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Tullis, J.A.

    1995-09-01

    Earth-mounds are common features on the Eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho. The mounds are typically round or oval in plan view, <0.5 m in height, and from 8 to 14 m in diameter. They are found on flat and sloped surfaces, and appear less frequently in lowland areas. The mounds have formed on deposits of multiple sedimentary environments. Those studied included alluvial gravel terraces along the Big Lost River (late Pleistocene/early Holocene age), alluvial fan segments on the flanks of the Lost River Range (Bull Lake and Pinedale age equivalents), and loess/slopewash sediments overlying basalt flows. Backhoe trenches were dug to allow characterization of stratigraphy and soil development. Each mound has features unique to the depositional and pedogenic history of the site; however, there are common elements to all mounds that are linked to the history of mound formation. Each mound has a {open_quotes}floor{close_quotes} of a sediment or basement rock of significantly different hydraulic conductivity than the overlying sediment. These paleosurfaces are overlain by finer-grained sediments, typically loess or flood-overbank deposits. Mounds formed in environments where a sufficient thickness of fine-grained sediment held pore water in a system open to the migration to a freezing front. Heaving of the sediment occurred by the growth of ice lenses. Mound formation occurred at the end of the Late Pleistocene or early in the Holocene, and was followed by pedogenesis. Soils in the mounds were subsequently altered by bioturbation, buried by eolian deposition, and eroded by slopewash runoff. These secondary processes played a significant role in maintaining or increasing the mound/intermound relief.

  18. Assessment of fish assemblages and minimum sampling effort required to determine botic integrity of large rivers in southern Idaho, 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maret, Terry R.; Ott, D.S.

    2004-01-01

    width was determined to be sufficient for collecting an adequate number of fish to estimate species richness and evaluate biotic integrity. At most sites, about 250 fish were needed to effectively represent 95 percent of the species present. Fifty-three percent of the sites assessed, using an IBI developed specifically for large Idaho rivers, received scores of less than 50, indicating poor biotic integrity.

  19. Channel Morphology of the Hells Canyon Reach of the Snake River, Idaho/Oregon Boarder, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buffington, J. M.; Milligan, J. H.; Anderson, K.; Doran, S. E.; Glanzman, R. K.; Miller, S. D.; Parkinson, S.

    2002-12-01

    The Hells Canyon reach of the Snake River extends 103 river miles below Hells Canyon Dam along the Idaho/Oregon boarder. The channel morphology of this reach was evaluated through a variety of data, including bathymetric and LIDAR surveys, aerial photography and low-elevation videography, sediment sampling, and one-dimensional hydraulic modeling using MIKE 11 [DHI, 2001]. Through the canyon, the Snake River is narrowly confined by valley walls and directly coupled to hillslope processes and sediment inputs. Due to the strong valley-wall confinement, the river lacks the floodplain morphology and alluvial character typical of other lowland rivers of comparable gradient (< 0.003) and drainage area (270,000 km2). Much of the river morphology is forced by large-scale geologic and geomorphic controls that significantly reduce the range of fluvial processes and types of channel adjustment found in other lowland alluvial rivers. Nevertheless, the study reach shares some morphologic similarity with rivers of comparable gradient. In particular, the channel has an alluvial bed with a pool-riffle morphology and an average pool spacing of 6 channel widths, typical of self-formed pool-riffle channels. However, 91% of the 175 pools inventoried are either forced by tributary debris fans or bedrock projections, illustrating the influence of external forcing on the observed channel morphology. Moreover, many of the bars are composed of cobble- and boulder-sized material that may be relict deposits from paleofloods: 73% of the 105 sediment samples obtained from bar surfaces are predicted to be immobile (Shields stress < 0.03) during the 1.5-year discharge (a surrogate for bankfull flow), and many of the bar sediments have worn grooves into underlying particles from years of in situ chattering during high flow events. Despite large-scale external controls on channel morphology, downstream hydraulic geometry relationships in the Hells Canyon reach are similar to those reported for floodplain channels of comparable drainage area. Recent investigations by Montgomery and Gran [2001] indicate that typical hydraulic geometry relationships reported for alluvial channels may also apply to bedrock reaches (confined channels with few degrees of freedom, similar to the study reach). Moreover, a state diagram modified from Parker [1990] reveals that data from the Hells Canyon reach plot alongside data from floodplain pool-riffle channels in North America and Britain, but are distinct from other reach-scale channel types (step-pool, cascade, plane-bed) plotted in the same framework. These results support arguments made by Buffington et al. [2002] that different reach-scale channel morphologies arise from mutual adjustment of channel characteristics (width, grain size, bed slope, etc.) to imposed watershed conditions (discharge, sediment supply, valley slope, etc.). Consequently, one would expect that data from a given channel type (e.g., pool-riffle channels) should plot near one another in a regime diagram that relates imposed watershed conditions to channel characteristics, even when some channel characteristics (such as pool frequency or grain size) are forced by external controls or legacy events.

  20. Water-quality assessment of the upper Snake River basin, Idaho and western Wyoming; environmental setting, 1980-92

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maupin, Molly A.

    1995-01-01

    Idaho leads the Nation in trout production for commercial sale. Combined mean annual discharges from 12 aquacultural facilities in the basin (1985-90) were about 787,000 acre-feet. These facilities are clustered in a reach of the Snake River between Milner Dam and King Hill where ground-water discharge is from many seeps and springs that provide sufficient quantities of good-quality water. Other facilities that release effluent to the Snake River include 13 municipal wastewater treatment plants and 3 industrial facilities.

  1. Use of surrogate technologies to estimate suspended sediment in the Clearwater River, Idaho, and Snake River, Washington, 2008-10

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, Molly S.; Teasdale, Gregg N.

    2013-01-01

    Elevated levels of fluvial sediment can reduce the biological productivity of aquatic systems, impair freshwater quality, decrease reservoir storage capacity, and decrease the capacity of hydraulic structures. The need to measure fluvial sediment has led to the development of sediment surrogate technologies, particularly in locations where streamflow alone is not a good estimator of sediment load because of regulated flow, load hysteresis, episodic sediment sources, and non-equilibrium sediment transport. An effective surrogate technology is low maintenance and sturdy over a range of hydrologic conditions, and measured variables can be modeled to estimate suspended-sediment concentration (SSC), load, and duration of elevated levels on a real-time basis. Among the most promising techniques is the measurement of acoustic backscatter strength using acoustic Doppler velocity meters (ADVMs) deployed in rivers. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Walla Walla District, evaluated the use of acoustic backscatter, turbidity, laser diffraction, and streamflow as surrogates for estimating real-time SSC and loads in the Clearwater and Snake Rivers, which adjoin in Lewiston, Idaho, and flow into Lower Granite Reservoir. The study was conducted from May 2008 to September 2010 and is part of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Lower Snake River Programmatic Sediment Management Plan to identify and manage sediment sources in basins draining into lower Snake River reservoirs. Commercially available acoustic instruments have shown great promise in sediment surrogate studies because they require little maintenance and measure profiles of the surrogate parameter across a sampling volume rather than at a single point. The strength of acoustic backscatter theoretically increases as more particles are suspended in the water to reflect the acoustic pulse emitted by the ADVM. ADVMs of different frequencies (0.5, 1.5, and 3 Megahertz) were tested to target various sediment grain sizes. Laser diffraction and turbidity also were tested as surrogate technologies. Models between SSC and surrogate variables were developed using ordinary least-squares regression. Acoustic backscatter using the high frequency ADVM at each site was the best predictor of sediment, explaining 93 and 92 percent of the variability in SSC and matching sediment sample data within +8.6 and +10 percent, on average, at the Clearwater River and Snake River study sites, respectively. Additional surrogate models were developed to estimate sand and fines fractions of suspended sediment based on acoustic backscatter. Acoustic backscatter generally appears to be a better estimator of suspended sediment concentration and load over short (storm event and monthly) and long (annual) time scales than transport curves derived solely from the regression of conventional sediment measurements and streamflow. Changing grain sizes, the presence of organic matter, and aggregation of sediments in the river likely introduce some variability in the model between acoustic backscatter and SSC.

  2. First Results from HOTSPOT: The Snake River Plain Scientific Drilling Project, Idaho, U.S.A.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shervais, J. W.; Schmitt, D. R.; Nielson, D.; Evans, J. P.; Christiansen, E. H.; Morgan, L.; Shanks, W. C. Pat; Prokopenko, A. A.; Lachmar, T.; Liberty, L. M.; Blackwell, D. D.; Glen, J. M.; Champion, L. D.; Potter, K. E.; Kessler, J. A.

    2013-03-01

    HOTSPOT is an international collaborative effort to understand the volcanic history of the Snake River Plain (SRP). The SRP overlies a thermal anomaly, the Yellowstone-Snake River hotspot, that is thought to represent a deep-seated mantle plume under North America. The primary goal of this project is to document the volcanic and stratigraphic history of the SRP, which represents the surface expression of this hotspot, and to understand how it affected the evolution of continental crust and mantle. An additional goal is to evaluate the geothermal potential of southern Idaho. Project HOTSPOT has completed three drill holes. (1) The Kimama site is located along the central volcanic axis of the SRP; our goal here was to sample a long-term record of basaltic volcanism in the wake of the SRP hotspot. (2) The Kimberly site is located near the margin of the plain; our goal here was to sample a record of high-temperature rhyolite volcanism associated with the underlying plume. This site was chosen to form a nominally continuous record of volcanism when paired with the Kimama site. (3) The Mountain Home site is located in the western plain; our goal here was to sample the Pliocene-Pleistocene transition in lake sediments at this site and to sample older basalts that underlie the sediments. We report here on our initial results for each site, and on some of the geophysical logging studies carried out as part of this project. doi:10.2204/iodp.sd.15.06.2013

  3. Seismic baseline and induction studies: Roosevelt Hot Springs, Utah and Raft River, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Zandt, G.; McPherson, L.; Schaff, S.; Olsen, S.

    1982-05-01

    Local seismic networks were established at the Roosevelt Hot Springs geothermal area, utah and at Raft River geothermal area, Idaho to monitor the background seismicity prior to initiation of geothermal power production. The Raft River study area is currently seismically quiet down to the level of approximately magnitude one. The Roosevelt Hot Springs area has low-level seismic activity for M/sub L/ greater than about two; however, microearthquake (M/sub L/ less than or equal to 2) swarms appear to be relatively common. One swarm occurred adjacent to the Roosevelt geothermal area during the summer of 1981. From June 27 to August 28, 1044 microearthquakes (M/sub L/ less than or equal to 1.5) were recorded from which 686 earthquakes were located and analysed. The main cluster of microearthquakes was located about 2 km east of the production field at a depth of about 5 km. A few small events were located in the production field at shallow depths (< 2 km). Three of the four largest earthquakes in the swarm (M/sub L/ 1.5-2.0) were located 4 to 5 km further east along a n-NW trend beneath the flank of the adjacent Mineral Mountains. Focal mechanism solutions indicate primarily normal faulting due to the regional E-W extension which characterizes this portion of the eastern Basin and Range province. Hence, the Mineral Mountain swarm appears to be a natural release of tectonic stress in this area. Nevertheless, the occurrence of natural earthquake swarms indicates a potential for induced seismicity at Roosevelt Hot Springs after major production operations are initiated.

  4. Pliocene and early Pleistocene environments and climates of the western Snake River Plain, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, R.S.

    1996-01-01

    Sedimentological, palynological, and magnetic susceptibility data provide paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic information from a 989 ft (301 m) core of sediments from the upper Glenns Ferry and Bruneau Formations from near the town of Bruneau, Idaho. Chronology is based on stratigraphic position, paleomagnetism, and biostratigraphic data. Palynological data from the Glenns Ferry sediments reveal a pollen flora similar to the modern regional pollen flora, with very rare occurrences of now-extirpated taxa common earlier in the Tertiary. Palynological data from the Pliocene portion of this core indicate conditions more moist than today, with cooler summers and perhaps warmer winters. The pollen spectra from the Bruneau Formation sediments resemble those of the Wisconsinan glacial period on the Snake River Plain, and hence indicate cold and dry conditions during some portion of the early Pleistocene. The deep-water Glenns Ferry lacustrine episode appears to date between approximately 3.5 to 3.3 and 2.5 Ma, and thus occurred during the middle Pliocene period of warmer-than-modern global temperatures. Similar sustained wetter-than-present conditions occurred in the same age range at sites across the western USA. This moist period was apparently followed by an interval of regional arid conditions that persisted for several hundred thousand years. -from Author

  5. DATA RECOVERY EFFORTS AT IDAHO NATIONAL LABORATORY, OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY, AND SAVANNAH RIVER NATIONAL LABORATORY

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Metcalf; Saleem Salaymeh; Michael Ehinger

    2010-07-01

    Abstract was already submitted. Could not find the previous number. Would be fine with attaching/update of old number. Abstract Below: Modern nuclear facilities will have significant process monitoring capability for their operators. These systems will also be used for domestic safeguards applications, which has led to research over new diversion-detection algorithms. Curiously missing from these efforts are verification and validation data sets. A tri-laboratory project to locate the existing data sets and recover their data has yielded three major potential sources of data. The first is recovery of the process monitoring data of the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, which now has a distributable package for algorithm developers. The second data set is extensive sampling and process data from Savannah River National Laboratory’s F- and H-canyon sites. Finally, high fidelity data from the start-up tests at the Barnwell Reprocessing Facility is in recovery. This paper details the data sets and compares their relative attributes.

  6. Assessing riparian shade for the Lemhi River, Idaho using LiDAR: A point cloud analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spaete, L.; Glenn, N. F.; Shrestha, R.; Shumar, M. L.; Mitchell, J.

    2012-12-01

    Riparian vegetation plays a crucial role in shading streams by reducing the amount of incoming solar insolation that would otherwise reach the water surface, negatively affecting water temperature and photosynthetic organisms within the water column. Unlike incoming solar insolation, riparian shade can be manipulated by adding or removing riparian vegetation, making it attractive for restoration as well as thermal credit trading programs. Before riparian shade can be evaluated in such trading programs, the existing riparian vegetation needs to be quantified. Several studies have investigated the utility of LiDAR derived canopy height models for estimating riparian shade, however, few to no studies have used point cloud data as a direct model input in order to improve the riparian shade estimates. Using point cloud data increases spatial resolution and the ability to extract vegetation shape information without losses due to interpolation/rasterization. In this study, we assessed the ability of LiDAR point cloud data to estimate riparian shade for 32 km of the Lemhi River in north central Idaho. Riparian shade quantification of the point cloud and canopy height models are compared to shade values calculated using established models in practice.

  7. Carbonate pseudomatrix in siliciclastic-carbonate turbidites from the Oquirrh-Wood River basin, southern Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Geslin, J.K. . Dept. of Earth and Space Sciences)

    1994-01-01

    Upper Pennsylvanian to Lower Permian mixed siliciclastic-carbonate sandy turbidites from the Oquirrh-Wood River basin in southern Idaho contain 20 to 60 modal percent microspar and pseudospar. Previous interpretations suggested that neomorphism of detrital lime mud produced the observed carbonate textures. The original detrital lime mud produced the observed carbonate textures. The original detrital lime mud content, based on these interpretations, indicates matrix-rich, poorly sorted turbidite deposits. However, observed turbidite hydrodynamics, and grain-size data from experimental and naturally occurring sandy turbidite deposits, indicate that T[sub n]-T[sub c] intervals of sandy turbidites are generally moderately well sorted, with low matrix content. Fluorescence microscopy reveals that the carbonate fraction of these mixed siliciclastic-carbonate turbidites contains micritized skeletal grains and fusulinids, and algal peloids. These micritized grains and peloids were physically compacted and neomorphosed to form a carbonate pseudomatrix. Formation of carbonate pseudomatrix is analogous to formation of pseudomatrix in siliciclastic lithic sands, which includes crushing and recrystallization of lithic grains. Grain-size analysis of siliciclastic and slightly compacted carbonate grains indicates that these are moderately well sorted turbidite deposits with similar grain-size populations in both fractions. Lack of recognition of carbonate pseudomatrix could lead to erroneous interpretations of carbonate petrology. Identification of carbonate pseudomatrix is important to the study of mixed siliciclastic-carbonate gravity-flow deposits. This study demonstrates the value of fluorescence microscopy in the recognition of carbonate pseudomatrix.

  8. Processes of fluvial island formation, with examples from plum creek, Colorado and Snake River, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Osterkamp, W.R.

    1998-01-01

    A fluvial island is a landform, elevated above and surrounded by stream-channel branches or waterways, that persists sufficiently long to establish permanent vegetation. Natural fluvial islands occur in any part of a drainage network but most commonly in montane, piedmont-valley, and coastal flood-plain environments. Processes, often interactive, by which islands form include avulsion (the sudden separation of land by a flood or by an abrupt change in the course of a stream), rapid and gradual channel incision, channel migration, dissection of both rapidly and slowly deposited bed sediment, and deposition of bed sediment on a vegetated surface or behind a channel obstruction. Products of high-energy conditions, fluvial islands typically lack stability over decades to millennia. Fluvial islands in Plum Creek, Colorado, USA, results of sorting processes following a recent high-magnitude flood, and in the Snake River, Idaho, USA, partly results of the Pleistocene Bonneville Flood, illustrate how islands form, develop, and disappear. The examples consider differing conditions of island shape, size, height, sediment, and vegetation.

  9. Geochemistry of Central Snake River Plain Basalts From Camas Prairie to Glenns Ferry, Southern Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetter, S. K.; Johnston, S. A.; Shervais, J.; Hanan, B.

    2006-12-01

    The Snake River Plain (SRP) of southern Idaho represents the track of a hot-spot (mantle plume) which links voluminous flood basalts of the Miocene Columbia River province to Quaternary volcanic centers at Island Park and Yellowstone. However, much of the volcanism associated with this province either lies off the main volcanic trend or differs in age from the postulated plume passage. The Camas Prairie and the Mount Bennett Hills lie north of the Snake River-Yellowstone plume track, near the intersection of the eastern and western Snake River Plain trends. Young basalt flows cap highlands overlooking the Snake River near King Hill, but farther north in the Mount Bennett Hills and Camas Prairie these young lava flows are juxtaposed against older basalts along a series of WNW trending normal faults. These older basalt flows rest directly on rhyolite of the Mount Bennett Hills, making them the oldest basalts known in outcrop in this area. The older basalts in the Mount Bennett Hills include at least six major flows with a total thickness of 110 m. Although they have been strongly dissected by erosion, they still cover an outcrop area of 300 km2 . Eighty samples were collected as part of our petrologic survey of basaltic volcanism in the central Snake River Plain. These samples were studied petrographically and analyzed for their major elements, trace elements, and REE. The basalts consist of plagioclase and olivine microphenocrysts set in a groundmass of olivine, plagioclase, clinopyroxene, oxides and interstitial glass. The majority of samples have Mg# ranging from 50- 59. However there are samples that are more evolved as indicated by Mg# ranging from less than 50 to 29. The high Mg# samples have the following chemical ranges: TiO2 0.87 - 2.6 wt.%; FeO 9.95 - 13.7 wt.%; Nb 8 to 23 ppm; Zr 111 to 243 ppm; Ni 81 to 151 ppm; La 10.9 to 26.9 ppm. The more evolved samples have TiO2 1.4 3.93 wt.%; FeO 9.7 16.8 wt%; Nb 11 to 40 ppm; Zr 110 to 500 ppm; Ni 4 to 85 ppm; La 67 to 97 ppm. All magmas exhibit the typical SRP LREE enrichment. The high Mg# samples have La = 35 to 85x chondrite and Lu = 14 to 25x chondrite. The evolved samples have La = 200 to 300x chondrite and Lu = 30 to 40x chondrite. The high Mg# basalts resemble older off-axis basalts of the Boise River Group [Vetter and Shervais, 1992, JGR]. Rayleigh fractionation modeling of incompatible elements shows >80% olivine and plagioclase fractionation is needed to create the evolved magmas from the high Mg# basalts. Presents of these older basalts north of the main SRP trend maybe associated with the tilt of the plume as imaged by seismic tomography.

  10. Additions and corrections to the bibliography of geologic studies, Columbia Plateau (Columbia River Besalt) and adjacent Areas, in Idaho, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Strowd, W.

    1980-01-01

    This bibliography is an update to Idaho Bureau of Mines and Geology Open-File Report 78-6, Bibliography of Geological Studies, Columbia Plateau (Columbia River Basalt Group) and adjacent areas in Idaho (also known as Rockwell Hanford Operations' contractor report RHO-BWI-C-44). To keep the original document current, this additions and corrections report was prepared for the Basalt Waste Isolation Project of Rockwell Hanford Operations. This update is supplementary; therefore, references cited in the original document have not been included here. What is included are materials that have become available since the original publication and pertinent literature that had originally been overlooked. Accompany this updated bubliography are index maps that show locations of geologic studies and geochemical petrographic, remanent paleomagnetic, and radiometric age-dated sites within the Columbia River Basalt Group field within Idaho; also identified are archeological sites, test wells, mines, quarries, and other types of excavations. References on the index maps are keyed to the bibliography and cover the Spokane, Pullman, Hamilton, Grangeville, Elk City, Baker, Boise, and Jordan Valley Army Map Service two-degree quadrangles.

  11. Hydrogeologic framework of the Wood River Valley aquifer system, south-central Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartolino, James R.; Adkins, Candice B.

    2012-01-01

    The Wood River Valley contains most of the population of Blaine County and the cities of Sun Valley, Ketchum, Hailey, and Bellevue. This mountain valley is underlain by the alluvial Wood River Valley aquifer system, which consists primarily of a single unconfined aquifer that underlies the entire valley, an underlying confined aquifer that is present only in the southernmost valley, and the confining unit that separates them. The entire population of the area depends on groundwater for domestic supply, either from domestic or municipal-supply wells, and rapid population growth since the 1970s has caused concern about the long-term sustainability of the groundwater resource. As part of an ongoing U.S. Geological Survey effort to characterize the groundwater resources of the Wood River Valley, this report describes the hydrogeologic framework of the Wood River Valley aquifer system. Although most of the Wood River Valley aquifer system is composed of Quaternary-age sediments and basalts of the Wood River Valley and its tributaries, older igneous, sedimentary, or metamorphic rocks that underlie these Quaternary deposits also are used for water supply. It is unclear to what extent these rocks are hydraulically connected to the main part of Wood River Valley aquifer system and thus whether they constitute separate aquifers. Paleozoic sedimentary rocks in and near the study area that produce water to wells and springs are the Phi Kappa and Trail Creek Formations (Ordovician and Silurian), the Milligen Formation (Devonian), and the Sun Valley Group including the Wood River Formation (Pennsylvanian-Permian) and the Dollarhide Formation (Permian). These sedimentary rocks are intruded by granitic rocks of the Late Cretaceous Idaho batholith. Eocene Challis Volcanic Group rocks overlie all of the older rocks (except where removed by erosion). Miocene Idavada Volcanics are found in the southern part of the study area. Most of these rocks have been folded, faulted, and metamorphosed to some degree, thus rock types and their relationships vary over distance. Quaternary-age sediment and basalt compose the primary source of groundwater in the Wood River Valley aquifer system. These Quaternary deposits can be divided into three units: a coarse-grained sand and gravel unit, a fine-grained silt and clay unit, and a single basalt unit. The fine- and coarse-grained units were primarily deposited as alluvium derived from glaciation in the surrounding mountains and upper reaches of tributary canyons. The basalt unit is found in the southeastern Bellevue fan area and is composed of two flows of different ages. Most of the groundwater produced from the Wood River Valley aquifer system is from the coarse-grained deposits. The altitude of the pre-Quaternary bedrock surface in the Wood River Valley was compiled from about 1,000 well-driller reports for boreholes drilled to bedrock and about 70 Horizontal-to-Vertical Spectral Ratio (HVSR) ambient-noise measurements. The bedrock surface generally mimics the land surface by decreasing down tributary canyons and the main valley from north to south; it ranges from more than 6,700 feet in Baker Creek to less than 4,600 feet in the central Bellevue fan. Most of the south-central portion of the Bellevue fan is underlain by an apparent topographically closed area on the bedrock surface that appears to drain to the southwest towards Stanton Crossing. Quaternary sediment thickness ranges from less than a foot on main and tributary valley margins to about 350 feet in the central Bellevue fan. Hydraulic conductivity for 81 wells in the study area was estimated from well-performance tests reported on well-driller reports. Estimated hydraulic conductivity for 79 wells completed in alluvium ranges from 1,900 feet per day (ft/d) along Warm Springs Creek to less than 1 ft/d in upper Croy Canyon. A well completed in bedrock had an estimated hydraulic conductivity value of 10 ft/d, one well completed in basalt had a value of 50 ft/d, and three wells completed in the confined system had values ranging from 32 to 52 ft/

  12. Geologic map and profiles of the north wall of the Snake River Canyon, Pasadena Valley and Ticeska quadrangles, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Covington, H.R.; Weaver, Jean N.

    1990-01-01

    The Snake River Plain is a broad, arcuate region of low relief that extends more than 300 mi across southern Idaho. The Snake River enters the plain near Idaho Falls and flows westward along the southern margin of the eastern Snake River Plain (fig. 1), a position mainly determined by the basaltic lava flows that erupted near the axis of the plain. The highly productive Snake River Plain aquifer north of the Snaked River underlies the most of the eastern plain. The aquifer is composed of basaltic ricks that are interbedded with fluvial and lacustrine sedimentary rocks. The top of the aquifer (water table) is typically less than 500 ft below the land surface, but is deeper than 1,000 ft in few areas. The Snake River had excavated a canyon into the nearly flat-lying basaltic and sedimentary rocks of the eastern Snake River Plain between Milner Dam and King Hill (fig. 2), a distance of almost 90 mi. For much of its length the canyon intersects the Snake River Plain aquifer, which discharges from the north canyon wall as springs of variable size, spacing, and altitude. Geologic controls on springs are of importance because nearly 60 percent of the aquifer's discharge occurs as spring flow along this reach of the canyon. This report is one of several that describes the geologic occurrence of springs along the northern wall of the Snake River canyon from Milner Dam to King Hill. To understand the local geologic controls on springs, the Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey initiated a geologic mapping project as part of their Snake River Plain Regional Aquifer System-Analysis Program. Objectives of the project were (1) to prepare a geologic map of a strip of land immediately north of the Snake River canyon, (2) to map the geology of the north canyon wall in profile, (3) to locate spring occurrences along the north side of the Snake River between Milner Dam and King Hill, and (4) to estimate spring discharge from the north wall of the canyon.

  13. Lead exposure and poisoning of songbirds using the Coeur d'Alene River Basin, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, James A.; Audet, Daniel; Spears, Brian L.; Healy, Kate A.; Brazzle, Roy E.; Hoffman, David J.; Dailey, Anne; Beyer, W. Nelson

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have found widespread Pb poisoning of waterfowl in the Coeur d'Alene River Basin in northern Idaho, USA, which has been contaminated by mining and smelting activities. We studied the exposure of ground-feeding songbirds to Pb, sampling 204 American robins (Turdus migratorius), song sparrows (Melospiza melodia), and Swainson's thrushes (Catharus ustulatus) throughout the basin. These songbirds had mean blood Pb concentrations (mg/kg, dry weight) of less than 0.19 at a reference area (25 mg Pb/kg soil), 1.09 at moderately contaminated sites (170 to 1300 mg Pb/kg soil), and 2.06 at highly contaminated sites (2000 to 5000 mg Pb/kg soil). Based on guidelines for evaluating blood Pb in birds, 6% of robins from the highly contaminated sites had background concentrations, 24% were subclinically poisoned, 52% were clinically poisoned, and 18% were severely clinically poisoned with Pb. Blood Pb concentrations were lower in song sparrows than in robins and lowest in Swainson's thrushes. More than half of the robins and song sparrows from all contaminated sites and more than half of the Swainson's thrushes from highly contaminated sites showed at least 50% inhibition of the activity of the enzyme ?-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), commonly used as a measure of exposure to Pb. The highest hepatic Pb concentration of 61 mg/kg (dry weight) was detected in a song sparrow. Using Al as a marker for soil in songbird ingesta, we estimated average soil ingestion rates as 20% in robins, 17% in song sparrows, and 0.7% in Swainson's thrushes. Soil Pb in ingesta accounted for almost all of the songbirds' exposure to Pb. Based on these results, it is recommended that ecological risk assessments of ground-feeding songbirds at contaminated sites include soil ingestion as a pathway of exposure to Pb.

  14. wrv: An R Package for Groundwater Flow Model Construction, Wood River Valley Aquifer System, Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, J. C.

    2014-12-01

    Groundwater models are one of the main tools used in the hydrogeological sciences to assess resources and to simulate possible effects from future water demands and changes in climate. The hydrological inputs to groundwater models can be numerous and can vary in both time and space. Difficulties associated with model construction are often related to extensive datasets and cumbersome data processing tasks. To mitigate these difficulties, a graphical user interface (GUI) is often employed to aid the input of data for creating models. Unfortunately, GUI software presents an obstacle to reproducibility, a cornerstone of research. The considerable effort required to document processing steps in a GUI program, and the rapid obsoleteness of these steps with subsequent versions of the software, has prompted modelers to explicitly write down processing steps as source code to make them 'easily' reproducible. This research describes the R package wrv, a collection of datasets and functions for pre- and post-processing the numerical groundwater flow model of the Wood River Valley aquifer system, south-central Idaho. R largely facilitates reproducible modeling with the package vignette; a document that is a combination of content and source code. The code is run when the vignette is built, and all data analysis output (such as figures and tables) is created on the fly and inserted into the final document. The wrv package includes two vignettes that explain and run steps that (1) create package datasets from raw data files located on a publicly accessible repository, and (2) create and run the groundwater flow model. MODFLOW-USG, the numerical groundwater model used in this study, is executed from the vignette, and model output is returned for exploratory analyses. The ability of R to perform all processing steps in a single workflow is attributed to its comprehensive list of features; that include geographic information system and time series functionality.

  15. Lead exposure and poisoning of songbirds using the Coeur d'Alene River Basin, Idaho, USA.

    PubMed

    Hansen, James A; Audet, Daniel; Spears, Brian L; Healy, Kate A; Brazzle, Roy E; Hoffman, David J; Dailey, Anne; Beyer, W Nelson

    2011-10-01

    Previous studies have found widespread Pb poisoning of waterfowl in the Coeur d'Alene River Basin in northern Idaho, USA, which has been contaminated by mining and smelting activities. We studied the exposure of ground-feeding songbirds to Pb, sampling 204 American robins (Turdus migratorius), song sparrows (Melospiza melodia), and Swainson's thrushes (Catharus ustulatus) throughout the basin. These songbirds had mean blood Pb concentrations (mg/kg, dry weight) of less than 0.19 at a reference area (25 mg Pb/kg soil), 1.09 at moderately contaminated sites (170 to 1300 mg Pb/kg soil), and 2.06 at highly contaminated sites (2000 to 5000 mg Pb/kg soil). Based on guidelines for evaluating blood Pb in birds, 6% of robins from the highly contaminated sites had background concentrations, 24% were subclinically poisoned, 52% were clinically poisoned, and 18% were severely clinically poisoned with Pb. Blood Pb concentrations were lower in song sparrows than in robins and lowest in Swainson's thrushes. More than half of the robins and song sparrows from all contaminated sites and more than half of the Swainson's thrushes from highly contaminated sites showed at least 50% inhibition of the activity of the enzyme ?-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), commonly used as a measure of exposure to Pb. The highest hepatic Pb concentration of 61 mg/kg (dry weight) was detected in a song sparrow. Using Al as a marker for soil in songbird ingesta, we estimated average soil ingestion rates as 20% in robins, 17% in song sparrows, and 0.7% in Swainson's thrushes. Soil Pb in ingesta accounted for almost all of the songbirds' exposure to Pb. Based on these results, it is recommended that ecological risk assessments of ground-feeding songbirds at contaminated sites include soil ingestion as a pathway of exposure to Pb. PMID:21538831

  16. Laboratory-Measured and Property-Transfer Modeled Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity of Snake River Plain Aquifer Sediments at the Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perkins, Kim S.

    2008-01-01

    Sediments are believed to comprise as much as 50 percent of the Snake River Plain aquifer thickness in some locations within the Idaho National Laboratory. However, the hydraulic properties of these deep sediments have not been well characterized and they are not represented explicitly in the current conceptual model of subregional scale ground-water flow. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the nature of the sedimentary material within the aquifer and to test the applicability of a site-specific property-transfer model developed for the sedimentary interbeds of the unsaturated zone. Saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat) was measured for 10 core samples from sedimentary interbeds within the Snake River Plain aquifer and also estimated using the property-transfer model. The property-transfer model for predicting Ksat was previously developed using a multiple linear-regression technique with bulk physical-property measurements (bulk density [pbulk], the median particle diameter, and the uniformity coefficient) as the explanatory variables. The model systematically underestimates Ksat,typically by about a factor of 10, which likely is due to higher bulk-density values for the aquifer samples compared to the samples from the unsaturated zone upon which the model was developed. Linear relations between the logarithm of Ksat and pbulk also were explored for comparison.

  17. Seismic Reflection Project Near the Southern Terminations of the Lost River and Lemhi Faults, Eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    S. M. Jackson; G. S. Carpenter; R. P. Smith; J. L. Casper

    2006-10-01

    Thirteen seismic reflection lines were processed and interpreted to determine the southern terminations of the Lost River and Lemhi faults along the northwest boundary of the eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP). The southernmost terminations of the Arco and Howe segments were determined to support characterization of the Lost River and Lemhi fault sources, respectively, for the INL probabilistic seismic hazard analysis. Keywords:Keywords are required forExternal Release Review*KeywordsKeywords *Contacts (Type and Name are required for each row) Type ofContactContact Name POC Editor RecordFour commercial seismic reflection lines (Arco lines 81-1 and 81-2; Howe lines 81-3 and 82-2) were obtained from the Montana Power Company. The seismic data were collected in the early 1980s using a Vibroseis source with station and shot point locations that resulted in 12-fold data. Arco lines 81?1 and 81?2 and Howe lines 81?3 and 82?2 are located within the basins adjacent to the Arco and Howe segments, respectively. Seven seismic lines (Arco lines A1, A2, A3, and A4 and Howe lines H1, H2, and H3) were acquired by EG&G Idaho, Inc. Geosciences for this study using multiple impacts with an accelerated weight drop source. Station and shot point locations yielded 12-fold data. The seismic reflection lines are oriented perpendicular to and at locations along the projected extensions of the Arco and Howe fault segments within the ESRP. Two seismic lines (Arco line S2 and Howe line S4) were obtained from Sierra Geophysics. In 1984, they acquired seismic reflection data using an accelerated weight drop source with station and shot point locations that yielded 6-fold data. The two seismic reflection lines are oriented perpendicular to and at locations along the projected extensions of the Arco and Howe fault segments within the ESRP. In 1992 for this study, Geotrace Technologies Inc. processed all of the seismic reflection data using industry standard processing techniques. The southern termination of the Howe segment of the Lemhi fault was placed between Howe lines H1 and H2, 2.2 km south of the faults southernmost surface expression. In the adjacent basin, south-dipping normal faults at the northern end of Howe line 81-3 and two southwest-dipping normal faults at the northeastern end of Howe line 82-2 that can be correlated with Howe segment. South of the surface expression, two southwest-dipping normal faults on Howe line H1 can be correlated with the Howe segment. Further into the ESRP, Howe lines H2, H3, and S4 show continuous flat lying reflectors and indicate no fault offset. The southern termination of the Arco segment of the Lost River fault was placed between Arco lines S2 and A3, a distance of 4.6 km south of the faults southernmost surface expression. Within the basin, west-dipping normal faults interpreted on Arco lines 81-1 and 81-2 can be correlated with the Arco segment. Further south within the Arco volcanic rift zone (VRZ), three seismic lines (Arco lines A2, S2, and A3) permit two interpretations. The west- and south-dipping normal faults on Arco lines A2 and S2 could be associated with slip along the Arco segment. These normal faults have an opposite dip to an east-dipping fault on Arco line A3. The observed small-offsets (< 85 m) along the oppositely dipping normal faults can be interpreted as a graben structure that resulted from dike intrusion within the Arco VRZ. Arco line A4 further south within the Arco VRZ shows flat lyin

  18. Geologic map and profiles of the north wall of the Snake River Canyon, Bliss, Hagerman, and Tuttle quadrangles, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Covington, H.R.; Weaver, Jean N.

    1990-01-01

    The Snake River Plain is a broad, arcuate region of low relief that extends more than 300 mi across southern Idaho. The Snake River enters the plain near Idaho Falls and flows westward along the southern margin of the eastern Snake River Plain (fig. 1), a position mainly determined by the basaltic lava flows that erupted near the axis of the plain. The highly productive Snake River Plain aquifer north of the Snake River underlies most of the eastern plain. The aquifer is composed of basaltic rocks that are interbedded with fluvial and lacustrine sedimentary rocks. The top of the aquifer (water table) is typically less than 500 ft below the land surface, but is deeper than 1,000 ft in a few areas. The Snake River has excavated a canyon into the nearly flat-lying basaltic and sedimentary rocks of the eastern Snake River Plain between Milner Dam and King Hill (fig. 2), a distance of almost 90 mi. For much of its length the canyon wall as springs of variable size, spacing, and altitude. Geologic controls on springs are of importance because nearly 60 percent of the aquifer's discharge occurs as spring flow along this reach of the canyon. This report is one of several that describes the geologic occurrence of springs along the northern wall of the Snake River canyon from Milner Dam to King Hill (fig. 1). To understand the local geologic controls on springs, the Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey initiated a geologic mapping project as part of their Snake River Plain Regional Aquifer System-Analysis Program. Objectives of the project were (1) to prepare a geologic map of a strip of land immediately north of the Snake River canyon, (2) to map the geology of the north canyon wall in profile, (3) to locate spring occurrences along the north side of the Snake River between Milner Dam and King Hill, and (4) to estimate spring discharge from the north wall of the canyon.

  19. Spawning Success of Hatchery Spring Chinook Salmon Outplanted as Adults in the Clearwater River Basin, Idaho, 2001.

    SciTech Connect

    Cramer, Steven P.; Ackerman, Nichlaus; Witty, Kenneth L.

    2002-04-16

    The study described in this report evaluated spawning distribution, overlap with naturally-arriving spawners, and pre-spawning mortality of spring chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, outplanted as adults in the Clearwater River Subbasin in 2001. Returns of spring chinook salmon to Snake River Basin hatcheries and acclimation facilities in 2001 exceeded needs for hatchery production goals in Idaho. Consequently, management agencies including the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS), Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) and Nez Perce Tribe (NPT) agreed to outplant chinook salmon adults as an adaptive management strategy for using hatchery adults. Adult outplants were made in streams or stream sections that have been typically underseeded with spawners. This strategy anticipated that outplanted hatchery chinook salmon would spawn successfully near the areas where they were planted, and would increase natural production. Outplanting of adult spring chinook salmon from hatcheries is likely to be proposed in years when run sizes are similar to those of the 2001 run. Careful monitoring of results from this year's outplanting can be used to guide decisions and methods for future adult outplanting. Numbers of spring chinook salmon outplanted was based on hatchery run size, hatchery needs, and available spawning habitat. Hatcheries involved in outplanting in the Clearwater Basin included Dworshak National Fish Hatchery, Kooskia National Fish Hatchery, Clearwater Anadromous Fish Hatchery, and Rapid River Fish Hatchery. The NPT, IDFG, FWS, and the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) agreed upon outplant locations and a range of numbers of spring chinook salmon to be outplanted (Table 1). Outplanting occurred mainly in the Selway River Subbasin, but additional outplants were made in tributaries to the South Fork Clearwater River and the Lochsa River (Table 1). Actual outplanting activities were carried out primarily by the NPT with supplemental outplanting done in the Lochsa basin by IDFG. Fish were trucked from the hatcheries to outplant sites.

  20. Climatic and Tectonic Controls on Alluvial Fan Evolution: The Lost River Range, Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, R. J.; Pierce, J. L.; Sharp, W. D.; Pierce, K. L.

    2006-12-01

    In the northern Basin &Range, alluvial fans developed along the Lost River range-front consist of several distinct inset fan segments with concave-up radial profiles. Multiple large radius (>5 km), shallow (2- 3), alluvial fans extend across and beyond the active, ~140-km-long, normal Lost River fault. These large fans are relict features, formed by major sheetfloods that occurred intermittently between ~15-180 ka. More recent deposition has been dominated by debris-flows that form small-radius (<2 km), steep (8- 17), fans closely confined to the mountain front [1,2]. In order to determine the timing of fan surface stabilization, we have undertaken precise mass spectrometric 230Th/U dating of pedogenic carbonate from calcic soils that mantle fan surfaces on the Arco fault segment. Careful selection of mg-size samples of dense soil carbonate pebble coats, from within a trench that cuts through gravelly fan deposits, indicates that the fan soils are geochemically suitable for uranium-series dating (median U=7ppm, 232Th=0.09ppm, 232Th/230Th=154). 230Th/U analysis of these calcic soils can thus provide precise temporal constraints on intervals of surface stability and subsequent soil formation. The oldest fan surface (Qfo1, 178+/-8 ka), exposed within the footwall of the trench, suggests an interval of surface stability, indicating that the fan was likely abandoned due to incision early in MIS 6. Incision may have resulted from surface faulting along the Arco segment of the Lost River fault, but could relate to changes in stream power or sediment supply associated with climatic change or with auto-cyclic variations within the drainage basin. A younger incised and faulted fan surface (Qfo2, 69+/-6 ka), likely represents active alluviation at the beginning of MIS 4 and, since it formed as hanging-wall alluvial gravel, provides age limits on an episode of fault displacement between Qfo1 and Qfo2. In situ pedogenic carbonate coats on sub-angular gravels within the colluvial fault wedge date at 68+/-2 ka, suggesting that either faulting occurred soon after Qfo2 stabilized or that soil carbonate coats were recycled into the colluvial wedge from the faulted surface. Further studies in the Lost River Range will assess the timing of fan deposition, surface stabilization and fault activity since the late Pleistocene using coupled application of Optically Stimulated Thermoluminescence (OSL) dating of loess and fine-sands, and 230Th/U-dating of pedogenic carbonate formed within well- exposed fan stratigraphy. Defining intervals of erosion, deposition and stability within the context of regional records of Quaternary climate change will yield new insights into the interplay between faulting, climate change and alluvial fan deposition and incision in semi-arid environments. [1] Pierce, K.L., Scott, W.E., 1982. Idaho Mines &Geol. Bull. 26. [2] Patterson, S.J., 2006. M.S. Thesis, Montana State University

  1. Stratigraphy of the unsaturated zone and uppermost part of the Snake River Plain aquifer at test area north, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, S.R.; Bowers, B.

    1995-06-01

    A complex sequence of basalt flows and sedimentary interbeds underlies Test Area North (TAN) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory in eastern Idaho. Wells drilled to depths of at least 500 feet penetrate 10 basalt-flow groups and 5 to 10 sedimentary interbeds that range in age from about 940,000 to 1.4 million years. Each basalt-flow group consists of one or more basalt flows from a brief, single or compound eruption. All basalt flows of each group erupted from the same vent, and have similar ages, paleomagnetic properties, potassium contents, and natural-gamma emissions. Sedimentary interbeds consist of fluvial, lacustrine, and eolian deposits of clay, silt, sand, and gravel that accumulated for hundreds to hundreds of thousands of years during periods of volcanic quiescence. Basalt and sediment are elevated by hundreds of feet with respect to rocks of equivalent age south and cast of the area, a relation that is attributed to past uplift at TAN. Basalt and sediment are unsaturated to a depth of about 200 feet below land surface. Rocks below this depth are saturated and make up the Snake River Plain aquifer. The effective base of the aquifer is at a depth of 885 feet below land surface. Detailed stratigraphic relations for the lowermost part of the aquifer in the depth interval from 500 to 885 feet were not determined because of insufficient data. The stratigraphy of basalt-flow groups and sedimentary interbeds in the upper 500 feet of the unsaturated zone and aquifer was determined from natural-gamma logs, lithologic logs, and well cores. Basalt cores were evaluated for potassium-argon ages, paleomagnetic properties, petrographic characteristics, and chemical composition. Stratigraphic control was provided by differences in ages, paleomagnetic properties, potassium content, and natural-gamma emissions of basalt-flow groups and sedimentary interbeds.

  2. Cottus schitsuumsh, a new species of sculpin (Scorpaeniformes: Cottidae)in the Columbia River basin, Idaho-Montana, USA.

    PubMed

    Lemoine, Michael; Young, Michael K; Mckelvey, Kevin S; Eby, Lisa; Pilgrim, Kristine L; Schwartz, Michael K

    2014-01-01

    Fishes of the genus Cottus have long been taxonomically challenging because of morphological similarities among species and their tendency to hybridize, and a number of undescribed species may remain in this genus. We used a combination of genetic and morphological methods to delineate and describe Cottus schitsuumsh, Cedar Sculpin, a new species, from the upper Columbia River basin, Idaho-Montana, USA. Although historically confused with the Shorthead Sculpin (C. confusus), the genetic distance between C. schitsuumsh and C. confusus (4.84-6.29%) suggests these species are distant relatives. Moreover, the two species can be differentiated on the basis of lateral-line pores on the caudal peduncle, head width, and interpelvic width. Cottus schitsuumsh is also distinct from all other Cottus in this region in having a single small, skin-covered, preopercular spine. Haplotypes of mtDNA cytochrome oxidase c subunit 1 of C. schitsuumsh differed from all other members of the genus at three positions, had interspecific genetic distances typical for congeneric fishes (1.61-2.74% to nearest neighbors), and were monophyletic in maximum-likelihood trees. Microsatellite analyses confirmed these taxonomic groupings for species potentially sympatric with C. schitsuumsh and that fish used in morphological comparisons were unlikely to be introgressed. Its irregular distribution, in the Spokane River basin in Idaho and portions of the Clark Fork River basin in Montana, may have resulted from human-assisted translocation. PMID:24869819

  3. Groundwater resources of the Wood River Valley, Idaho--A groundwater-flow model for resource management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartolino, James; Vincent, Sean

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in collaboration with the Idaho Department of Water Resources (IDWR), will use the current understanding of the Wood River Valley aquifer system to construct a MODFLOW numerical groundwater-flow model to simulate potential anthropogenic and climatic effects on groundwater and surface-water resources. This model will serve as a tool for water rights administration and water-resource management and planning. The study will be conducted over a 3-year period from late 2012 until model and report completion in 2015.

  4. Multiscale Genetic Structure of Yellowstone Cutthroat Trout in the Upper Snake River Basin.

    SciTech Connect

    Cegelski, Christine C.; Campbell, Matthew R.

    2006-05-30

    Populations of Yellowstone cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarkii bouvierii have declined throughout their native range as a result of habitat fragmentation, overharvest, and introductions of nonnative trout that have hybridized with or displaced native populations. The degree to which these factors have impacted the current genetic population structure of Yellowstone cutthroat trout populations is of primary interest for their conservation. In this study, we examined the genetic diversity and genetic population structure of Yellowstone cutthroat trout in Idaho and Nevada with data from six polymorphic microsatellite loci. A total of 1,392 samples were analyzed from 45 sample locations throughout 11 major river drainages. We found that levels of genetic diversity and genetic differentiation varied extensively. The Salt River drainage, which is representative of the least impacted migration corridors in Idaho, had the highest levels of genetic diversity and low levels of genetic differentiation. High levels of genetic differentiation were observed at similar or smaller geographic scales in the Portneuf River, Raft River, and Teton River drainages, which are more altered by anthropogenic disturbances. Results suggested that Yellowstone cutthroat trout are naturally structured at the major river drainage level but that habitat fragmentation has altered this structuring. Connectivity should be restored via habitat restoration whenever possible to minimize losses in genetic diversity and to preserve historical processes of gene flow, life history variation, and metapopulation dynamics. However, alternative strategies for management and conservation should also be considered in areas where there is a strong likelihood of nonnative invasions or extensive habitat fragmentation that cannot be easily ameliorated.

  5. Chemical Constituents in Groundwater from Multiple Zones in the Eastern Snake River Plain Aquifer at the Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho, 2005-08

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartholomay, Roy C.; Twining, Brian V.

    2010-01-01

    From 2005 to 2008, the U.S. Geological Survey's Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Project office, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, collected water-quality samples from multiple water-bearing zones in the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer. Water samples were collected from six monitoring wells completed in about 350-700 feet of the upper part of the aquifer, and the samples were analyzed for major ions, selected trace elements, nutrients, selected radiochemical constituents, and selected stable isotopes. Each well was equipped with a multilevel monitoring system containing four to seven sampling ports that were each isolated by permanent packer systems. The sampling ports were installed in aquifer zones that were highly transmissive and that represented the water chemistry of the top four to five model layers of a steady-state and transient groundwater-flow model. The model's water chemistry and particle-tracking simulations are being used to better define movement of wastewater constituents in the aquifer. The results of the water chemistry analyses indicated that, in each of four separate wells, one zone of water differed markedly from the other zones in the well. In four wells, one zone to as many as five zones contained radiochemical constituents that originated from wastewater disposal at selected laboratory facilities. The multilevel sampling systems are defining the vertical distribution of wastewater constituents in the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer and the concentrations of wastewater constituents in deeper zones in wells Middle 2051, USGS 132, and USGS 103 support the concept of groundwater flow deepening in the southwestern part of the INL.

  6. Eocene extension in Idaho generated massive sediment floods into Franciscan trench and into Tyee, Great Valley, and Green River basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dumitru, Trevor A.; Ernst, W.G.; Wright, James E.; Wooden, Joseph L.; Wells, Ray E.; Farmer, Lucia P.; Kent, Adam J.R.; Graham, Stephan A.

    2013-01-01

    The Franciscan Complex accretionary prism was assembled during an ?165-m.y.-long period of subduction of Pacific Ocean plates beneath the western margin of the North American plate. In such fossil subduction complexes, it is generally difficult to reconstruct details of the accretion of continent-derived sediments and to evaluate the factors that controlled accretion. New detrital zircon U-Pb ages indicate that much of the major Coastal belt subunit of the Franciscan Complex represents a massive, relatively brief, surge of near-trench deposition and accretion during Eocene time (ca. 5349 Ma). Sediments were sourced mainly from the distant Idaho Batholith region rather than the nearby Sierra Nevada. Idaho detritus also fed the Great Valley forearc basin of California (ca. 5337 Ma), the Tyee forearc basin of coastal Oregon (49 to ca. 36 Ma), and the greater Green River lake basin of Wyoming (5047 Ma). Plutonism in the Idaho Batholith spanned 9853 Ma in a contractional setting; it was abruptly superseded by major extension in the Bitterroot, Anaconda, Clearwater, and Priest River metamorphic core complexes (5340 Ma) and by major volcanism in the Challis volcanic field (5143 Ma). This extensional tectonism apparently deformed and uplifted a broad region, shedding voluminous sediments toward depocenters to the west and southeast. In the Franciscan Coastal belt, the major increase in sediment input apparently triggered a pulse of massive accretion, a pulse ultimately controlled by continental tectonism far within the interior of the North American plate, rather than by some tectonic event along the plate boundary itself.

  7. Additional mineral resources assessment of the Battle Creek, Bruneau River, Deep Creek-Owyhee River, Jarbidge River, Juniper Creek, Little Owyhee River, North Fork Owyhee River, Owyhee River Canyon, South Fork Owyhee River, Upper Deep Creek, and Yatahoney Creek Wilderness Study Areas, Owyhee County, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diggles, Michael F.; Berger, Byron R.; Vander Meulen, Dean B.; Minor, Scott A.; Ach, Jay A.; Sawlan, Michael G.

    1989-01-01

    From 1984 to 1986, studies were conducted to assess the potential for undiscovered mineral resources in wilderness study areas on the Owyhee Plateau. The results of these studies have been published in a series of U.S. Geological Survey Bulletins. Since that time, low-grade, high-tonnage epithermal hot-spring gold-silver deposits have been recognized in the region north of the wilderness study areas. The recognition that this mineral-deposit model is applicable in the region, coupled with new data that has become available to the U.S. Geological Survey, reinterpretation of existing geochemical data, and known-deposit data suggest that similar deposits may be present elsewhere on the Owyhee Plateau. This report is an additional assessment of the Battle Creek, Bruneau River, Deep Creek-Owyhee River, Jarbidge River, Juniper Creek, Little Owyhee River, North Fork Owyhee River, Owyhee River Canyon, South Fork Owyhee River (ID-016-053), Upper Deep Creek, and Yatahoney Creek Wilderness Study Areas in Idaho Wilderness Study Areas in Idaho in light of those new data.

  8. Ground water for irrigation in the Snake River Basin in Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mundorff, Maurice John; Crosthwaite, E.G.; Kilburn, Chabot

    1964-01-01

    The Snake River basin, in southern Idaho, upstream from the mouth of the Powder River in Oregon, includes more than 50 percent of the land area and 65 percent of the total population of the State. More than 2.5 million acres of land is irrigated ; irrigation agriculture and industry allied with agriculture are the basis of the economy of the basin. Most of the easily developed sources of surface water are fully utilized, and few storage sites remain where water could be made available to irrigate lands under present economic conditions. Because surface-water supplies have be come more difficult to obtain, use of ground water has increased greatly. At the present time (1959), about 600,000 acres of land is irrigated with ground water. Ground-water development has been concentrated in areas where large amounts of water are available beneath or adjacent to tracts of arable land and where the depth to water is not excessive under the current economy. Under these criteria, many of the most favorable areas already have been developed; however, tremendous volumes of water are still available for development. In some places, water occurs at depths considered near or beyond the limit for economic recovery, whereas in some other places, water is reasonably close to the surface but no arable land is available in the vicinity. In other parts of the basin large tracts of arable land are without available water supply. Thus the chief tasks in development of the ground-water resources include not only locating and evaluating ground-water supplies but also the planning necessary to bring the water to the land. Irrigation began in the 1860's ; at the present time more than 10 million acre feet of surface water, some of which is recirculated water, is diverted annually for irrigation of more than 2.5 million acres. Diversion of this large quantity of water has had a marked effect on the ground-water regimen. In some areas, the water table has risen more than 100 feet and the discharge of some springs has more than doubled. Large-scale development of ground water began after World War II, and it is estimated that in 1959 about 1,500,000 acre-feet of ground water was pumped for irrigation of the 600,000 acres irrigated wholly with ground water in addition to a substantial amount of ground water pumped to supplement surface-water supplies. Ground water is also the principal source of supply for municipal, industrial, and domestic use. The water regimen in the Snake River basin is greatly influenced by the geology. The rocks forming the mountains are largely consolidated rocks of low permeability; however, a fairly deep and porous subsoil has formed on them by decay and disintegration of the parent rock. Broad intermontane valleys and basins are partly filled with alluvial sand and gravel. The subsoil and alluvial materials are utilized very little as a source of water supply but are important as seasonal ground-water reservoirs because they store water during periods of high rainfall and snowmelt. Discharge from these reservoirs maintains stream flow during periods of surface runoff. Because these aquifers are fairly thin, they drain rapidly and are considerably depleted at the end of each dry cycle. The plain and plateau areas and tributary valleys, on the other hand, are underlain chiefly by rocks of high permeability and porosity. These rocks, mostly basaltic lava flows and alluvial materials, constitute a reservoir which fluctuates only slightly from season to season. Large amounts' of water are withdrawn from them for irrigation and other uses, and discharge from the Snake Plain aquifer is an important part of the total flow of the Snake River downstream from Hagerman Valley. The ultimate source of ground water in the basin is precipitation on the basin. In the mountainous areas, aquifers mostly are recharged directly by precipitation. On the other hand, in the plains, lowlands, and valleys which contain the principal aquifers

  9. Steady-state and transient models of groundwater flow and advective transport, Eastern Snake River Plain aquifer, Idaho National Laboratory and vicinity, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ackerman, Daniel J.; Rousseau, Joseph P.; Rattray, Gordon W.; Fisher, Jason C.

    2010-01-01

    Three-dimensional steady-state and transient models of groundwater flow and advective transport in the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer were developed by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy. The steady-state and transient flow models cover an area of 1,940 square miles that includes most of the 890 square miles of the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). A 50-year history of waste disposal at the INL has resulted in measurable concentrations of waste contaminants in the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer. Model results can be used in numerical simulations to evaluate the movement of contaminants in the aquifer. Saturated flow in the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer was simulated using the MODFLOW-2000 groundwater flow model. Steady-state flow was simulated to represent conditions in 1980 with average streamflow infiltration from 1966-80 for the Big Lost River, the major variable inflow to the system. The transient flow model simulates groundwater flow between 1980 and 1995, a period that included a 5-year wet cycle (1982-86) followed by an 8-year dry cycle (1987-94). Specified flows into or out of the active model grid define the conditions on all boundaries except the southwest (outflow) boundary, which is simulated with head-dependent flow. In the transient flow model, streamflow infiltration was the major stress, and was variable in time and location. The models were calibrated by adjusting aquifer hydraulic properties to match simulated and observed heads or head differences using the parameter-estimation program incorporated in MODFLOW-2000. Various summary, regression, and inferential statistics, in addition to comparisons of model properties and simulated head to measured properties and head, were used to evaluate the model calibration. Model parameters estimated for the steady-state calibration included hydraulic conductivity for seven of nine hydrogeologic zones and a global value of vertical anisotropy. Parameters estimated for the transient calibration included specific yield for five of the seven hydrogeologic zones. The zones represent five rock units and parts of four rock units with abundant interbedded sediment. All estimates of hydraulic conductivity were nearly within 2 orders of magnitude of the maximum expected value in a range that exceeds 6 orders of magnitude. The estimate of vertical anisotropy was larger than the maximum expected value. All estimates of specific yield and their confidence intervals were within the ranges of values expected for aquifers, the range of values for porosity of basalt, and other estimates of specific yield for basalt. The steady-state model reasonably simulated the observed water-table altitude, orientation, and gradients. Simulation of transient flow conditions accurately reproduced observed changes in the flow system resulting from episodic infiltration from the Big Lost River and facilitated understanding and visualization of the relative importance of historical differences in infiltration in time and space. As described in a conceptual model, the numerical model simulations demonstrate flow that is (1) dominantly horizontal through interflow zones in basalt and vertical anisotropy resulting from contrasts in hydraulic conductivity of various types of basalt and the interbedded sediments, (2) temporally variable due to streamflow infiltration from the Big Lost River, and (3) moving downward downgradient of the INL. The numerical models were reparameterized, recalibrated, and analyzed to evaluate alternative conceptualizations or implementations of the conceptual model. The analysis of the reparameterized models revealed that little improvement in the model could come from alternative descriptions of sediment content, simulated aquifer thickness, streamflow infiltration, and vertical head distribution on the downgradient boundary. Of the alternative estimates of flow to or from the aquifer, only a 20 percent decrease in

  10. Movements of adult chinook salmon during spawning migration in a metals-contaminated system, Coeur d'Alene River, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldstein, J.N.; Woodward, D.F.; Farag, A.M.

    1999-01-01

    Spawning migration of adult male chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha was monitored by radio telemetry to determine their response to the presence of metals contamination in the South Fork of the Coeur d'Alene River, Idaho. The North Fork of the Coeur d'Alene River is relatively free of metals contamination and was used as a control. In all, 45 Chinook salmon were transported from their natal stream. Wolf Lodge Creek, tagged with radio transmitters, and released in the Coeur d'Alene River 2 km downstream of the confluence of the South Fork and the North Fork of the Coeur d'Alene River. Fixed telemetry receivers were used to monitor the upstream movement of the tagged chinook salmon through the confluence area for 3 weeks after release. During this period, general water quality and metals concentrations were monitored in the study area. Of the 23 chinook salmon observed to move upstream from the release site and through the confluence area, the majority (16 fish, 70%) moved up the North Fork, and only 7 fish (30%) moved up the South Fork, where greater metals concentrations were observed. Our results agree with laboratory findings and suggest that natural fish populations will avoid tributaries with high metals contamination.

  11. Cutthroat trout avoidance of metals and conditions characteristic of a mining waste site: Coeur d'Alene River, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodward, D.F.; Goldstein, J.N.; Farag, A.M.; Brumbaugh, W.G.

    1997-01-01

    The South Fork basin of the Coeur d'Alene River, Idaho has been an area of heavy mining activity since the 1880s. The mining operations have resulted in elevated concentrations of metals in surface water, most notably cadmium, lead, zinc, and, to a lesser extent, copper. The metals affected surface water quality downstream in the Coeur d'Alene basin and are suspected to be one of the primary reasons for the reduction in populations of native westslope cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi. The avoidance response of a surrogate species, Snake River cutthroat trout O. clarki (unnamed subspecies), was evaluated against conditions simulating those in the Coeur d'Alene River basin. Cutthroat trout avoided a metals mixture of these concentrations: Cd (0.30 ??g/L), Cu (6.0 ??g/L), Pb (0.6 ??g/L), and Zn (28 ??g/L). The avoidance response to either Cu or Zn alone was similar to the avoidance response to the mixture, suggesting that avoidance to the mixture was due to these metals. After acclimation to Zn at 55 ??g/L for 90 d, cutthroat trout detected and preferred a lower Zn concentration of 28 ??g/L. The lowest Zn concentrations avoided (28 ??g/L) were 1/6 to 1/78 the Zn concentrations measured in the South Fork and lower Coeur d'Alene River basins. Avoidance of metals-contaminated habitats by cutthroat trout may be, in part, responsible for reduced fish populations.

  12. Physiographic factors defining the Snake River Valley AVA; beyond "Vin de Idaho"

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beginning in 1971 with the first plantings of wine grapes, the wine and wine grape industry in southwest Idaho have grown to become significant contributors to the state economy with an annual impact of $75 million. With around 1600 acres under cultivation in 50 vineyards producing at least 24 varie...

  13. Multilevel groundwater monitoring of hydraulic head and temperature in the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho, 200910

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twining, Brian V.; Fisher, Jason C.

    2012-01-01

    During 2009 and 2010, the U.S. Geological Surveys Idaho National Laboratory Project Office, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, collected quarterly, depth-discrete measurements of fluid pressure and temperature in nine boreholes located in the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer. Each borehole was instrumented with a multilevel monitoring system consisting of a series of valved measurement ports, packer bladders, casing segments, and couplers. Multilevel monitoring at the Idaho National Laboratory has been ongoing since 2006. This report summarizes data collected from three multilevel monitoring wells installed during 2009 and 2010 and presents updates to six multilevel monitoring wells. Hydraulic heads (heads) and groundwater temperatures were monitored from 9 multilevel monitoring wells, including 120 hydraulically isolated depth intervals from 448.0 to 1,377.6 feet below land surface. Quarterly head and temperature profiles reveal unique patterns for vertical examination of the aquifers complex basalt and sediment stratigraphy, proximity to aquifer recharge and discharge, and groundwater flow. These features contribute to some of the localized variability even though the general profile shape remained consistent over the period of record. Major inflections in the head profiles almost always coincided with low-permeability sediment layers and occasionally thick sequences of dense basalt. However, the presence of a sediment layer or dense basalt layer was insufficient for identifying the location of a major head change within a borehole without knowing the true areal extent and relative transmissivity of the lithologic unit. Temperature profiles for boreholes completed within the Big Lost Trough indicate linear conductive trends; whereas, temperature profiles for boreholes completed within the axial volcanic high indicate mostly convective heat transfer resulting from the vertical movement of groundwater. Additionally, temperature profiles provide evidence for stratification and mixing of water types along the southern boundary of the Idaho National Laboratory. Vertical head and temperature change were quantified for each of the nine multilevel monitoring systems. The vertical head gradients were defined for the major inflections in the head profiles and were as high as 2.1 feet per foot. Low vertical head gradients indicated potential vertical connectivity and flow, and large gradient inflections indicated zones of relatively low vertical connectivity. Generally, zones that primarily are composed of fractured basalt displayed relatively small vertical head differences. Large head differences were attributed to poor vertical connectivity between fracture units because of sediment layering and/or dense basalt. Groundwater temperatures in all boreholes ranged from 10.2 to 16.3?C. Normalized mean hydraulic head values were analyzed for all nine multilevel monitoring wells for the period of record (2007-10). The mean head values suggest a moderately positive correlation among all boreholes, which reflects regional fluctuations in water levels in response to seasonality. However, the temporal trend is slightly different when the location is considered; wells located along the southern boundary, within the axial volcanic high, show a strongly positive correlation.

  14. Geological Studies of the Salmon River Suture Zone and Adjoining Areas, West-Central Idaho and Eastern Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuntz, Mel A., (Edited By); Snee, Lawrence W.

    2007-01-01

    The papers in this volume describe petrologic, structural, and geochemical studies related to geographic areas adjacent to and including the Salmon River suture zone. We therefore start this volume by defining and giving a general description of that suture zone. The western margin of the North American continent was the setting for complex terrane accretion and large-scale terrane translation during Late Cretaceous and Eocene time. In western Idaho, the boundary that separates the Paleozoic-Mesozoic accreted oceanic, island-arc rocks on the west from Precambrian continental metamorphic and sedimentary rocks on the east is called the Salmon River suture zone (SRSZ). Readers will note that the term 'Salmon River suture zone' is used in the title of this volume and in the text of several of the papers and the term 'western Idaho suture zone' is used in several other papers in this volume. Both terms refer to the same geologic feature and reflect historical usage and custom; thus no attempt has been made by the editors to impose or demand a single term by the various authors of this volume. The suture zone is marked by strong lithologic and chemical differences. Rocks adjacent to the suture zone are characterized by high-grade metamorphism and much structural deformation. In addition, the zone was the locus of emplacement of plutons ranging in composition from tonalite to monzogranite during and after the final stages of accretion of the oceanic terrane to the North American continent. The contents of this paper consists of seven chapters.

  15. Timing and development of the Heise volcanic field, Snake River Plain, Idaho, western USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morgan, L.A.; McIntosh, W.C.

    2005-01-01

    The Snake River Plain (SRP) developed over the last 16 Ma as a bimodal volcanic province in response to the southwest movement of the North American plate over a fixed melting anomaly. Volcanism along the SRP is dominated by eruptions of explosive high-silica rhyolites and represents some of the largest eruptions known. Basaltic eruptions represent the final stages of volcanism, forming a thin cap above voluminous rhyolitic deposits. Volcanism progressed, generally from west to east, along the plain episodically in successive volcanic fields comprised of nested caldera complexes with major caldera-forming eruptions within a particular field separated by ca. 0.5-1 Ma, similar to, and in continuation with, the present-day Yellowstone Plateau volcanic field. Passage of the North American plate over the melting anomaly at a particular point in time and space was accompanied by uplift, regional tectonism, massive explosive eruptions, and caldera subsidence, and followed by basaltic volcanism and general subsidence. The Heise volcan ic field in the eastern SRP, Idaho, represents an adjacent and slightly older field immediately to the southwest of the Yellowstone Plateau volcanic field. Five large-volume (>0.5 km3) rhyolitic ignimbrites constitute a time-stratigraphic framework of late Miocene to early Pliocene volcanism for the study region. Field relations and high-precision 40Ar/39Ar age determinations establish that four of these regional ignimbrites were erupted from the Heise volcanic field and form the framework of the Heise Group. These are the Blacktail Creek Tuff (6.62 ?? 0.03 Ma), Walcott Tuff (6.27 ?? 0.04 Ma), Conant Creek Tuff (5.51 ?? 0.13 Ma), and Kilgore Tuff (4.45 ?? 0.05 Ma; all errors reported at ?? 2??). The fifth widespread ignimbrite in the regions is the Arbon Valley Tuff Member of the Starlight Formation (10.21 ?? 0.03 Ma), which erupted from a caldera source outside of the Heise volcanic field. These results establish the Conant Creek Tuff as a distinct and widespread ignimbrite in the Heise volcanic field, eliminating former confusion resulting from previous discordant K/Ar and fission-track dates. New 40Ar/39Ar determinations, when combined wi th geochemical, lithologic geophysical, and field data, define the volcanic and tectonic history of the Heise volcanic field and surrounding areas. Volcanic units erupted from the Heise volcanic field also provide temporal control for tectonic events associated with late Cenozoic extension in the Snake Range and with uplift of the Teton Range, Wyoming. In the Snake Range, movement of large (???0.10 km3) slide blocks of Mississippian limestone exposed 50 km to the east of the Heise field occurred between 6.3 and 5.5 Ma and may have been catastrophically triggered by the caldera eruption of the 5.51 ?? 0.13-Ma Conant Creek Tuff. This slide block movement of ???300 vertical meters indicates that the Snake Range had significant relief by at least 5.5 Ma. In Jackson Hole, the distribution of outflow facies of the 4.45 ?? 0.05-Ma Kilgore caldera in the Heise volcanic field on the eastern SRP indicates that the northern Teton Range was not a significant topographic feature at this time. ?? 2005 Geological Society of America.

  16. Tritium concentrations in flow from selected springs that discharge to the Snake River, Twin Falls-Hagerman area, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mann, L.J.

    1989-01-01

    Concern has been expressed that some of the approximately 30,900 curies of tritium disposed to the Snake River Plain aquifer from 1952 to 1988 at the INEL (Idaho National Engineering Laboratory) have migrated to springs discharging to the Snake River in the Twin Falls-Hagerman area. To document tritium concentrations in springflow, 17 springs were sampled in November 1988 and 19 springs were sampled in March 1989. Tritium concentrations were less than the minimum detectable concentration of 0.5 pCi/mL (picocuries/mL) in November 1988 and less than the minimum detectable concentration of 0.2 pCi/mL in March 1989; the minimum detectable concentration was smaller in March 1989 owing to a longer counting time in the liquid scintillation system. The maximum contaminant level of tritium in drinking water as established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is 20 pCi/mL. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency sample analyses indicate that the tritium concentration has decreased in the Snake River near Buhl since the 1970's. In 1974-79, tritium concentrations were less than 0.3 +/-0.2 pCi/mL in 3 of 20 samples; in 1983-88, 17 of 23 samples contained less than 0.3 +/-0.2 pCi/mL of tritium; the minimum detectable concentration is 0.2 pCi/mL. On the basis of decreasing tritium concentrations in the Snake River, their correlation to cessation of atmospheric weapons tests tritium concentrations in springflow less than the minimum detectable concentration, and the distribution of tritium in groundwater at the INEL, aqueous disposal of tritium at the INEL has had no measurable effect on tritium concentrations in springflow from the Snake River Plain aquifer and in the Snake River near Buhl. (USGS)

  17. An update of hydrologic conditions and distribution of selected constituents in water, Snake River Plain aquifer, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho, Emphasis 1999-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Linda C.

    2006-01-01

    Radiochemical and chemical wastewater discharged since 1952 to infiltration ponds, evaporation ponds, and disposal wells at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has affected water quality in the Snake River Plain aquifer underlying the INL. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, maintains ground-water monitoring networks at the INL to determine hydrologic trends, and to delineate the movement of radiochemical and chemical wastes in the aquifer. This report presents an analysis of water-level and water-quality data collected from wells in the USGS ground-water monitoring networks during 1999-2001. Water in the Snake River Plain aquifer moves principally through fractures and interflow zones in basalt, generally flows southwestward, and eventually discharges at springs along the Snake River. The aquifer is recharged principally from infiltration of irrigation water, infiltration of streamflow, ground-water inflow from adjoining mountain drainage basins, and infiltration of precipitation. Water levels in wells rose in the northern and west-central parts of the INL by 1 to 3 feet, and declined in the southwestern parts of the INL by up to 4 feet during 1999-2001. Detectable concentrations of radiochemical constituents in water samples from wells in the Snake River Plain aquifer at the INL generally decreased or remained constant during 1999-2001. Decreases in concentrations were attributed to decreased rates of radioactive-waste disposal, radioactive decay, changes in waste-disposal methods, and dilution from recharge. Tritium concentrations in water samples decreased as much as 8.3 picocuries per milliliter (pCi/mL) during 1999-2001, ranging from 0.43?0.14 to 13.6?0.6 pCi/mL in October 2001. Tritium concentrations in five wells near the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) increased a few picocuries per milliliter from October 2000 to October 2001. Strontium-90 concentrations decreased or remained constant during 1999-2001, ranging from 2.1?0.6 to 42.4?1.4 pCi/L in October 2001. During 1999-2001, concentrations of cesium-137, plutonium-238, and plutonium-239, -240 (undivided) were less than the reporting level in water samples from all wells sampled at the INL. The concentration of americium-241 in one sample was 0.003?0.001 pCi/L, the reporting level for that constituent. Cobalt-60 was not detected in any samples collected during 1999-2001. Changes in detectable concentrations of nonradioactive chemical constituents in water from the Snake River Plain aquifer at the INL varied during 1999-2001. In October 2001, water from one well south of the Reactor Technology Complex (RTC) [known as the Test Reactor Area (TRA) until 2005] contained 139 micrograms per liter (?g/L) of chromium, a decrease from the concentration of 168 ?g/L detected in October 1998. Other water samples contained from less than 16.7 to 21.3 ?g/L of chromium. In October 2001, concentrations of sodium in water samples from most of the wells in the southern part of the INL were larger than the background concentration of 10 mg/L, but were similar to or slightly less than October 1998 concentrations. The largest sodium concentration was 75 milligrams per liter (mg/L) in water from well USGS 113. In 2001, chloride concentrations in most water samples from the INTEC and the Central Facilities Area (CFA) exceeded ambient concentrations of 10 and 20 mg/L, respectively. Chloride concentrations in water from wells near the RTC were less than 20 mg/L. At the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC), chloride concentrations in water from wells USGS 88, 89, and 120 were 81, 40, and 23 mg/L, respectively. Concentrations of chloride in all other wells near the RWMC were less than 19 mg/L. During 2001, concentrations of sulfate in water from two wells near the RTC, two wells near the RWMC, and one well near the CFA exceeded 40 mg/L, the estimated background concentration of sulfate in the Snake River

  18. A LITERATURE SEARCH TO DETERMINE THE BASE-LINE CONDITIONS AND EFFECTS OF POLLUTION ON THE BIG WOOD RIVER AND MAGIC RESERVOIR, IDAHO. 1977

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report examines existing information concerning the ecology of Magic Reservoir and Big Wood River, Idaho (17040219) to determine the background conditions and effects of pollution on these ecosystems. The area is a popular attraction for outdoor recreationists, which has st...

  19. PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL, AND BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE BOISE RIVER FROM VETERANS MEMORIAL PARKWAY, BOISE TO STAR, IDAHO, OCTOBER 1987 TO MARCH 1987

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemical and physical data were collected at 6 sites and biological data at 5 sites on the Boise River between Veterans Memorial Parkway in Boise and Star, Idaho (17050114), from October 1987 to March 1988. Data were collected to determine whether trace elements from effluents d...

  20. BIOLOGICAL METRIC DEVELOPMENT FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF NONPOINT POLLUTION IN THE SNAKE RIVER ECOREGION OF SOUTHERN IDAHO, 1990-91 FINAL REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this project was to develop and test a biological assessment program for representative streams in the Snake River Basin ecoregion of southern Idaho. A habitat analysis component was included to provide an independent measure of environmental conditions. The over...

  1. WATER QUALITY INVESTIGATIONS OF SNAKE RIVER AND PRINCIPAL TRIBUTARIES FROM WALTERS FERRY TO WEISER, IDAHO. 1971

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stream surveys conducted from 18 October to 10 November 1971 revealed that water upstream of the Boise River was relatively unpolluted, however, bacterial standards were violated. In the reach of the Snake River between the mouth of the Boise River and Weiser (170501), gross vio...

  2. Geologic Controls of Hydraulic Conductivity in the Snake River Plain Aquifer At and Near the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    S. R. Anderson; M. A. Kuntz; L. C. Davis

    1999-02-01

    The effective hydraulic conductivity of basalt and interbedded sediment that compose the Snake River Plain aquifer at and near the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) ranges from about 1.0x10 -2 to 3.2x10 4 feet per day (ft/d). This six-order-of-magnitude range of hydraulic conductivity was estimated from single-well aquifer tests in 114 wells, and is attributed mainly to the physical characteristics and distribution of basalt flows and dikes. Hydraulic conductivity is greatest in thin pahoehoe flows and near-vent volcanic deposits. Hydraulic conductivity is least in flows and deposits cut by dikes. Estimates of hydraulic conductivity at and near the INEEL are similar to those measured in similar volcanic settings in Hawaii. The largest variety of rock types and the greatest range of hydraulic conductivity are in volcanic rift zones, which are characterized by numerous aligned volcanic vents and fissures related to underlying dikes. Three broad categories of hydraulic conductivity corresponding to six general types of geologic controls can be inferred from the distribution of wells and vent corridors. Hydraulic conductivity of basalt flows probably is increased by localized fissures and coarse mixtures of interbedded sediment, scoria, and basalt rubble. Hydraulic conductivity of basalt flows is decreased locally by abundant alteration minerals of probable hydrothermal origin. Hydraulic conductivity varies as much as six orders of magnitude in a single vent corridor and varies from three to five orders of magnitude within distances of 500 to 1,000 feet. Abrupt changes in hydraulic conductivity over short distances suggest the presence of preferential pathways and local barriers that may greatly affect the movement of ground water and the dispersion of radioactive and chemical wastes downgradient from points of waste disposal.

  3. Salmon Supplementation Studies in Idaho Rivers; Field Activities Conducted on Clear and Pete King Creeks, 2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Bretz, Justin K.; Olson, Jill M.

    2003-03-01

    In 2002 the Idaho Fisheries Resource Office continued working as a cooperator on the Salmon Supplementation Studies in Idaho Rivers (ISS) project on Pete King and Clear creeks. Data relating to supplementation treatment releases, juvenile sampling, juvenile PIT tagging, broodstock spawning and rearing, spawning ground surveys, and snorkel surveys were used to evaluate the project data points and augment past data. Supplementation treatments included the release of 51,329 left ventral-clipped smolts into Clear Creek (750 were PIT tagged), and 12,000 unmarked coded-wire tagged parr into Pete King Creek (998 were PIT tagged). Using juvenile collection methods, Idaho Fisheries Resource Office staff PIT tagged and released 579 naturally produced spring chinook juveniles in Clear Creek, and 54 on Pete King Creek, for minimum survival estimates to Lower Granite Dam. For Clear Creek, minimum survival estimates to Lower Granite Dam of hatchery produced supplementation and naturally produced PIT tagged smolts, were 36.0%, and 53.1%, respectively. For Pete King Creek, minimum survival estimates to Lower Granite Dam, of hatchery produced supplementation smolts and naturally produced smolts PIT tagged as parr and presmolts, were 18.8%, and 8.3%, respectively. Adults collected for broodstock in 2002 represented the final adult broodstock group collected for the ISS project. Twenty-six ventral clipped, and 28 natural adult spring chinook were transported above the weir. Monitoring and evaluation of spawning success was continued on Clear and Pete King creeks. A total of 69 redds were counted and 79 carcasses were recovered on Clear Creek. Two redds were observed and no carcasses were collected on Pete King Creek.

  4. Salmon Supplementation Studies in Idaho Rivers; Field Activities Conducted on Clear and Pete King Creeks, 2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Gass, Carrie; Olson, Jim M.

    2004-11-01

    In 2001 the Idaho Fisheries Resource Office continued as a cooperator on the Salmon Supplementation Studies in Idaho Rivers (ISS) project on Pete King and Clear creeks. Data relating to supplementation treatment releases, juvenile sampling, juvenile PIT tagging, brood stock spawning and rearing, spawning ground surveys, and snorkel surveys were used to evaluate project data points and augment past data. Due to low adult spring Chinook returns to Kooskia National Fish Hatchery (KNFH) in brood year 1999 there was no smolt supplementation treatment release into Clear Creek in 2001. A 17,014 spring Chinook parr supplementation treatment (containing 1000 PIT tags) was released into Pete King Creek on July 24, 2001. On Clear Creek, there were 412 naturally produced spring Chinook parr PIT tagged and released. Using juvenile collection methods, Idaho Fisheries Resource Office staff PIT tagged and released 320 naturally produced spring Chinook pre-smolts on Clear Creek, and 16 natural pre-smolts on Pete King Creek, for minimum survival estimates to Lower Granite Dam. There were no PIT tag detections of brood year 1999 smolts from Clear or Pete King creeks. A total of 2261 adult spring Chinook were collected at KNFH. Forty-three females were used for supplementation brood stock, and 45 supplementation (ventral fin-clip), and 45 natural (unmarked) adults were released upstream of KNFH to spawn naturally. Spatial and temporal distribution of 37 adults released above the KNFH weir was determined through the use of radio telemetry. On Clear Creek, a total of 166 redds (8.2 redds/km) were observed and data was collected from 195 carcasses. Seventeen completed redds (2.1 redds/km) were found, and data was collected data from six carcasses on Pete King Creek.

  5. Multilevel groundwater monitoring of hydraulic head and temperature in the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho, 2007-08

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fisher, Jason C.; Twining, Brian V.

    2011-01-01

    During 2007 and 2008, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, collected quarterly depth-discrete measurements of fluid pressure and temperature in six boreholes located in the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer of Idaho. Each borehole was instrumented with a multilevel monitoring system consisting of a series of valved measurement ports, packer bladders, casing segments, and couplers. Hydraulic heads (head) and water temperatures in boreholes were monitored at 86 hydraulically-isolated depth intervals located 448.0 to 1,377.6 feet below land surface. The calculation of head is most sensitive to fluid pressure and the altitude of the pressure transducer at each port coupling; it is least sensitive to barometric pressure and water temperature. An analysis of errors associated with the head calculation determined the accuracy of an individual head measurement at +/- 2.3 feet. Many of the sources of measurement error are diminished when considering the differences between two closely-spaced readings of head; therefore, a +/- 0.1 foot measurement accuracy was assumed for vertical head differences (and gradients) calculated between adjacent monitoring zones. Vertical head and temperature profiles were unique to each borehole, and were characteristic of the heterogeneity and anisotropy of the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer. The vertical hydraulic gradients in each borehole remained relatively constant over time with minimum Pearson correlation coefficients between head profiles ranging from 0.72 at borehole USGS 103 to 1.00 at boreholes USGS 133 and MIDDLE 2051. Major inflections in the head profiles almost always coincided with low permeability sediment layers. The presence of a sediment layer, however, was insufficient for identifying the location of a major head change in a borehole. The vertical hydraulic gradients were defined for the major inflections in the head profiles and were as much as 2.2 feet per foot. Head gradients generally were downward in boreholes USGS 133, 134, and MIDDLE 2050A, zero in boreholes USGS 103 and 132, and exhibited a reversal in direction in borehole MIDDLE 2051. Water temperatures in all boreholes ranged from 10.2 to 16.3 degrees Celsius. Boreholes USGS 103 and 132 are in an area of concentrated volcanic vents and fissures, and measurements show water temperature decreasing with depth. All other measurements in boreholes show water temperature increasing with depth. A comparison among boreholes of the normalized mean head over time indicates a moderately positive correlation.

  6. The relation of Holocene fluvial terraces to changes in climate and sediment supply, South Fork Payette River, Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierce, Jennifer L.; Meyer, Grant A.; Rittenour, Tammy

    2011-03-01

    Well-preserved Holocene terraces along the South Fork Payette River in central Idaho provide a record of fluvial system behavior in a steep mountain watershed characterized by weathered and erodible Idaho Batholith granitic rocks. Terrace deposit ages were provided by 14C dating of charcoal fragments and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating of sandy sediments. Along with pairing of many terrace tread heights, these data indicate episodic downcutting during the Holocene, with a mean incision rate of 0.9 m/ka from 7 ka to present. Prior to 7 ka, the river incised to within3 m of current bankfull, but then aggraded by 5 m over at least a 10 km-long reach in an episode centered 7-6 ka. Aggradation may relate to (1) increased hillslope sediment input from landslides and debris flows in steep tributary basins with abundant grussified granitic bedrock, (2) possible local landslide-damming of the channel, (3) decreased peak discharge, or (4) a combination of these factors. Middle Holocene channel aggradation ca. 7-6 ka corresponds with a period of prolonged and widespread aridity in the northern Rocky Mountains. Between 5 and 1.3 ka, the river aggraded slightly and then remained stable, forming a prominent terrace tread at 3 m above current bankfull. Modest aggradation to vertical stability of the South Fork Payette River at the 1.5 m terrace level 1.0-0.7 ka corresponds with large fire-related debris flows in tributaries during Medieval droughts. Three intervals of incision (5.5-5 ka, 1.3-1.0 ka and 0.5 ka) correspond with frequent but small fire-related sedimentation events and generally cooler, wetter conditions suggesting increased snowmelt runoff discharges. Other possible drivers of channel incision include an increase in stochastic or climate-modulated large storms and floods and a reduction in delivery of hillslope sediment to the channel. Aggradation is more confidently tied to climate through increases in hillslope sediment delivery and (or) decreased stream power, both likely related to warmer, drier conditions (including high-severity fires) that reduce snowmelt and decrease vegetation cover on steep slopes. Thus, the Holocene terraces of the South Fork Payette River do not reflect simple stepwise incision with periods of vertical stability and lateral migration, but record substantial episodes of aggradation as well. We infer that increases in hillslope erosion and mass movements combined with reduced discharges during prolonged droughts episodically reverse the post-glacial trend of downcutting, in particular during the middle Holocene. The present bedrock-dominated channel implies a strong tendency toward incision in the late Holocene.

  7. Geophysical logging studies in the Snake River Plain Aquifer at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory: Wells 44, 45, and 46

    SciTech Connect

    Morin, R.H.; Paillet, F.L.; Taylor, T.A.; Barrash, W.

    1993-05-01

    A geophysical logging program was undertaken to vertically profile changes in the hydrology and hydrochemistry of the Snake River Plain aquifer underlies the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Field investigations were concentrated within an area west of the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) in three wells that penetrated the upper 190 feet of the aquifer. The logs obtained in these wells consisted of temperature, caliper, nuclear (neutron porosity and gamma-gama density), natural gamma, borehole televiewer, gamma spectral, and thermal flowmeter (with and without pumping). The nuclear, caliper, and televiewer logs are used to delineate individual basalt flows or flow units and to recognize breaks between flows or flow units at interflow contact zones and sedimentary interbeds. The temperature logs and flowmeter measurements obtained under ambient hydraulic head conditions identified upward fluid-circulation patterns in the three wells. Gamma-spectral analyses performed at several depths in each well showed that the predominant source of gamma radiation in the formation at this site originates mainly from potassium ({sup 40}K). However, {sup 137}Cesium was detected at 32 feet below land surface in well 45. An empirical investigation of the effect of source-receiver spacing on the response of the neutron-porosity logging tool was attempted in an effort to understand the conditions under which this tool might be applied to large-diameter boreholes in-unsaturated formations.

  8. Large-volume, low-δ18O rhyolites of the central Snake River Plain, Idaho, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boroughs, Scott; Wolff, John; Bonnichsen, Bill; Godchaux, Martha; Larson, Peter

    2005-01-01

    The Miocene Bruneau-Jarbidge and adjacent volcanic fields of the central Snake River Plain, southwest Idaho, are dominated by high-temperature rhyolitic tuffs and lavas having an aggregate volume estimated as 7000 km3. Samples from units representing at least 50% of this volume are strongly depleted in 18O, with magmatic feldspar δ18OVSMOW (Vienna standard mean ocean water) values between −1.4‰ and 3.8‰. The magnitude of the 18O depletion and the complete lack of any rhyolites with normal values (7‰–10‰) combine to suggest that assimilation or melting of a caldera block altered by near- contemporaneous hydrothermal activity is unlikely. Instead, we envisage generation of the high-temperature rhyolites by shallow melting of Idaho Batholith rocks, under the influence of the Yellowstone hotspot, affected by Eocene meteoric-hydrothermal events. The seeming worldwide scarcity of strongly 18O-depleted rhyolites may simply reflect a similar scarcity of suitable crustal protoliths.

  9. An update of hydrologic conditions and distribution of selected constituents in water, Snake River Plain aquifer and perched groundwater zones, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho, emphasis 2006-08

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Linda C.

    2010-01-01

    Since 1952, radiochemical and chemical wastewater discharged to infiltration ponds (also called percolation ponds), evaporation ponds, and disposal wells at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has affected water quality in the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer and perched groundwater zones underlying the INL. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, maintains groundwater monitoring networks at the INL to determine hydrologic trends, and to delineate the movement of radiochemical and chemical wastes in the aquifer and in perched groundwater zones. This report presents an analysis of water-level and water-quality data collected from aquifer and perched groundwater wells in the USGS groundwater monitoring networks during 2006-08. Water in the Snake River Plain aquifer primarily moves through fractures and interflow zones in basalt, generally flows southwestward, and eventually discharges at springs along the Snake River. The aquifer primarily is recharged from infiltration of irrigation water, infiltration of streamflow, groundwater inflow from adjoining mountain drainage basins, and infiltration of precipitation. From March-May 2005 to March-May 2008, water levels in wells generally remained constant or rose slightly in the southwestern corner of the INL. Water levels declined in the central and northern parts of the INL. The declines ranged from about 1 to 3 feet in the central part of the INL, to as much as 9 feet in the northern part of the INL. Water levels in perched groundwater wells around the Advanced Test Reactor Complex (ATRC) also declined. Detectable concentrations of radiochemical constituents in water samples from wells in the Snake River Plain aquifer at the INL generally decreased or remained constant during 2006-08. Decreases in concentrations were attributed to decreased rates of radioactive-waste disposal, radioactive decay, changes in waste-disposal methods, and dilution from recharge and underflow. In April or October 2008, reportable concentrations of tritium in groundwater ranged from 810 ? 70 to 8,570 ? 190 picocuries per liter (pCi/L), and the tritium plume extended south-southwestward in the general direction of groundwater flow. Tritium concentrations in water from wells completed in shallow perched groundwater at the ATRC were less than the reporting levels. Tritium concentrations in deep perched groundwater exceeded the reporting level in 11 wells during at least one sampling event during 2006-08 at the ATRC. Tritium concentrations from one or more zones in each well were reportable in water samples collected at various depths in six wells equipped with multi-level WestbayTM packer sampling systems. Concentrations of strontium-90 in water from 24 of 52 aquifer wells sampled during April or October 2008 exceeded the reporting level. Concentrations ranged from 2.2 ? 0.7 to 32.7 ? 1.2 pCi/L. Strontium-90 has not been detected within the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer beneath the ATRC partly because of the exclusive use of waste-disposal ponds and lined evaporation ponds rather than using the disposal well for radioactive-wastewater disposal at ATRC. At the ATRC, the strontium-90 concentration in water from one well completed in shallow perched groundwater was less than the reporting level. During at least one sampling event during 2006-08, concentrations of strontium-90 in water from nine wells completed in deep perched groundwater at the ATRC were greater than reporting levels. Concentrations ranged from 2.1?0.7 to 70.5?1.8 pCi/L. At the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC), the reporting level was exceeded in water from two wells completed in deep perched groundwater. During 2006-08, concentrations of cesium-137, plutonium-238, and plutonium-239, -240 (undivided), and americium-241 were less than the reporting level in water samples from all wells and all zones in wells equipped with multi-level WestbayTM packer sampling systems

  10. Geohydrologic framework of the Snake River plain regional aquifer system, Idaho and eastern Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitehead, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    Across most of the plain, Quaternary basalt aquifers overlie aquifers in the Tertiary Idavada Volcanics and Banbury Basalt of the Idaho Group. The older volcanic rocks are typically much less transmissive than the Quaternary basalt. Faults and frac- tures are permeable zones for water storage and conduits for water movement. In places near the margins of the plain, the Idavada Volcanics contains important geothermal aquifers.

  11. Detection of aspen/conifer forest mixes from multitemporal Landsat digital data. [Utah-Idaho Bear River Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merola, J. A.; Jaynes, R. A.; Harniss, R. O.

    1984-01-01

    Aspen, conifer and mixed aspen/conifer forests were mapped for a 15-quadrangle study area in the Utah-Idaho Bear River Range using Landsat multispectral scanner data. Digital classification and statistical analysis of Landsat data allowed the identification of six groups of signatures which reflect different types of aspen/conifer forest mixing. Photo interpretations of the print symbols suggest that such classes are indicative of mid to late seral aspen forests. Digital print map overlayes and acreage calculations were prepared for the study area quadrangles. Further field verification is needed to acquire additional information about the nature of the forests. Single data Landsat analysis should be a cost effective means to index aspen forests which are at least in the mid seral phase of conifer invasion. Since aspen canopies tend to obscure understory conifers for early seral forests, a second data analysis, using data taken when aspens are leafless, could provide information about early seral aspen forests.

  12. Detection of aspen-conifer forest mixes from LANDSAT digital data. [Utah-Idaho Bear River Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaynes, R. A.; Merola, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    Aspen, conifer and mixed aspen/conifer forests were mapped for a 15-quadrangle study area in the Utah-Idaho Bear River Range using LANDSAT multispectral scanner data. Digital classification and statistical analysis of LANDSAT data allowed the identification of six groups of signatures which reflect different types of aspen/conifer forest mixing. Photo interpretations of the print symbols suggest that such classes are indicative of mid to late seral aspen forests. Digital print map overlays and acreage calculations were prepared for the study area quadrangles. Further field verification is needed to acquire additional information about the nature of the forests. Single date LANDSAT analysis should be a cost effective means to index aspen forests which are at least in the mid seral phase of conifer invasion. Since aspen canopies tend to obscure understory conifers for early seral forests, a second date analysis, using data taken when aspens are leafless, could provide information about early seral aspen forests.

  13. Irrigated acreage in the Bear River Basin as of the 1975 growing season. [Idaho, Utah, and Wyoming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ridd, M. K.; Jaynes, R. A.; Landgraf, K. F.; Clark, L. D., Jr. (principal investigators)

    1982-01-01

    The irrigated cropland in the Bear River Basin as of the 1975 growing season was inventoried from satellite imagery. LANDSAT color infrared images (scale 1:125,000) were examined for early, mid, and late summer dates, and acreage was estimated by use of township/section overlays. The total basin acreage was estimated to be 573,435 acres, with individual state totals as follows: Idaho 234,370 acres; Utah 265,505 acres; and Wyoming 73,560 acres. As anticipated, wetland areas intermingled among cropland appears to have produced an over-estimation of irrigated acreage. According to a 2% random sample of test sites evaluated by personnel from the Soil Conservation Service such basin-wide over-estimation is 7.5%; individual counties deviate significantly from the basin-wide figure, depending on the relative amount of wetland areas intermingled with cropland.

  14. Escapement Monitoring of Adult Chinook Salmon in the Secesh River and Lake Creek, Idaho, 1999 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Faurot, Dave; Kucera, Paul A.

    2001-04-01

    Underwater time-lapse video technology was used to monitor adult spring and summer chinook salmon abundance in spawning areas in Lake Creek and the Secesh River, Idaho, in 1999. This technique is a passive methodology that does not trap or handle this Endangered Species Act listed species. This was the third year of testing the remote application of this methodology in the Secesh River drainage. Secesh River chinook salmon represent a wild salmon spawning aggregate that has not been directly supplemented with hatchery fish. Adult chinook salmon spawner abundance was estimated in Lake Creek with the remote time-lapse video application. Adult spawner escapement into Lake Creek in 1999 was 67 salmon. Significant upstream and downstream spawner movement affected the ability to determine the number of fish that contributed to the spawning population. The first passage on Lake Creek was recorded on July 11, two days after installation of the fish counting station. Peak net upstream adult movement occurred at the Lake Creek site on July 20, peak of total movement activity was August 19 with the last fish observed on August 26. A minimum of 133 adult chinook salmon migrated upstream past the Secesh River fish counting station to spawning areas in the Secesh River drainage. The first upstream migrating adult chinook salmon passed the Secesh River site prior to the July 15 installation of the fish counting station. Peak net upstream adult movement at the Secesh River site occurred July 19, peak of total movement was August 15, 17 and 18 and the last fish passed on September 10. Migrating salmon in the Secesh River and Lake Creek exhibited two behaviorally distinct segments of fish movement. Mainly upstream only, movement characterized the first segment. The second segment consisted of upstream and downstream movement with very little net upstream movement. Estimated abundance was compared to single and multiple-pass redd count surveys within the drainage. There were differences between the two methodologies. The fish counting stations did not impede salmon movements, nor was spawning displaced downstream. Fish moved freely upstream and downstream through the fish counting structures. Fish movement was greatest between the period of 10:00 p. m. and 4:00 a. m. There appeared to be a segment of ''nomadic'' males that moved into and out of the spawning area, apparently seeking other mates to spawn with. This methodology has the potential to provide more consistent and accurate salmon spawner abundance information than single-pass and multiple-pass spawning ground surveys. Accurate adult escapement information would allow managers to determine if recovery actions benefited listed chinook salmon in tributary streams.

  15. ELK CREEK STUDY, IDAHO COUNTY IDAHO, 1979

    EPA Science Inventory

    In Water Year 1979, the American River, the Red River, and Elk Creek in Idaho County (17060305) were studied to determine their present water quality and to obtain background information on effluent limitations development for the Elk City sewage treatment plant. Quarterly monit...

  16. Age of irrigation water in ground water from the Eastern Snake River Plain Aquifer, south-central Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plummer, L.N.; Rupert, M.G.; Busenberg, E.; Schlosser, P.

    2000-01-01

    Stable isotope data (2H and 18O) were used in conjunction with chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) and tritium/helium-3 (3H/3He) data to determine the fraction and age of irrigation water in ground water mixtures from farmed parts of the Eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) Aquifer in south-central Idaho. Two groups of waters were recognized: (1) regional background water, unaffected by irrigation and fertilizer application, and (2) mixtures of irrigation water from the Snake River with regional background water. New data are presented comparing CFC and 3H/3He dating of water recharged through deep fractured basalt, and dating of young fractions in ground water mixtures. The 3H/3He ages of irrigation water in most mixtures ranged from about zero to eight years. The CFC ages of irrigation water in mixtures ranged from values near those based on 3H/3He dating to values biased older than the 3H/3He ages by as much as eight to 10 years. Unsaturated zone air had CFC-12 and CFC-113 concentrations that were 60% to 95%, and 50% to 90%, respectively, of modern air concentrations and were consistently contaminated with CFC-11. Irrigation water diverted from the Snake River was contaminated with CFC-11 but near solubility equilibrium with CFC-12 and CFC-113. The dating indicates ground water velocities of 5 to 8 m/d for water along the top of the ESRP Aquifer near the southwestern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Many of the regional background waters contain excess terrigenic helium with a 3He/4He isotope ratio of 7 x 10-6 to 11 x 10-6 (R/Ra = 5 to 8) and could not be dated. Ratios of CFC data indicate that some rangeland water may contain as much as 5% to 30% young water (ages of less than or equal to two to 11.5 years) mixed with old regional background water. The relatively low residence times of ground water in irrigated parts of the ESRP Aquifer and the dilution with low-NO3 irrigation water from the Snake River lower the potential for NO3 contamination in agricultural areas.

  17. Seasonal seepage investigation on an urbanized reach of the lower Boise River, southwestern Idaho, water year 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Marshall L.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Idaho Department of Water Resources Treasure Valley Comprehensive Aquifer Management Planning effort investigated seasonal groundwater gains and losses on the Boise River, Idaho, starting in November 2009 through August 2010. The investigation was conducted using seepage runs in 11 subreaches over a 14-mile reach from downstream of the inactive streamgage, Boise River below Diversion Dam (U.S. Geological Survey station No. 13203510) to the active Boise River at Glenwood Bridge streamgage (U.S. Geological Survey station No. 13206000). The seepage runs measured mainstem discharge, and significant tributary contributions and diversions along the reach. In addition, an evaluation of the groundwater hydraulic gradient was simultaneously conducted through shallow groundwater mini-piezometers adjacent to the river during February (low stream discharge) and May (high stream discharge) measurement timeframes. November discharge estimates, representative of autumn, had gains and losses that varied by subreach with an overall net gain of 42 8 cubic feet per second (ft3/s). This finding compares favorably to a previous U.S. Geological Survey seepage investigation in November 1996 that found a gaining reach with an estimated gain of 52 ft3/s. This finding also is supported by a U.S. Geological Survey investigation in the study reach in November 1971 that estimated a gain of 74 ft3/s, which largely came from groundwater. The February discharge estimates, representative of winter conditions, showed variability in the reach with a net gain of 52 ft3/s with an uncertainty estimate of 7 ft3/s, which is consistent with the low stream discharge findings from November 2009. This finding is further supported by the differential hydraulic head measured at transect sites that qualitatively indicated groundwater to surface-water movement with few exceptions. The May discharge estimates, representative of the spring-time conditions, were gaining or potentially gaining in all but one of the upper subreaches between Boise River below Diversion Dam and Boise River near MK Nature Center sites, with seepage run results supported by hydraulic head differentials indicating a groundwater to surface-water movement. The lower end of the study reach between Boise River near MK Nature Center and Boise River at Glenwood Bridge sites showed more variability with observed hydraulic head differentials that partially supported the potential gains or losses in the reach. Overall, the reach had a calculated net gain of 24 51 ft3/s and, therefore, this estimate may or may not reflect the actual conditions in the reach. The groundwater gains and losses in August, representative of summer conditions, varied in both the upper and lower parts of the reach, with a net loss of -88 69 ft3/s. Overall, the reach experienced a net gain from groundwater at low stream discharges (November and February), a net loss to groundwater at moderately high stream discharge (August), and an ambiguous finding at a higher stream discharge (May). The hydraulic head differentials measured between the groundwater and surface water largely supported the calculated gain and loss estimates in the subreaches, with a potential for groundwater to surface-water movement at low stream discharge in February, and variability during high stream discharge conditions in May.

  18. Results of 2001 Groundwater Sampling in Support of Conditional No Longer Contained-In Determination for the Snake River Plain Aquifer in the Vicinity of the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center

    SciTech Connect

    Meachum, T.R.

    2002-04-26

    This report summarizes the results of sampling five groundwater monitoring wells in the vicinity of the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory in 2001. Information on general sampling practices, quality assurance practices, parameter concentrations, representativeness of sampling results, and cumulative cancer risk are presented. The information is provided to support a conditional No Longer Contained-In Determination for the Snake River Plain Aquifer in the vicinity of the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center.

  19. WATER QUALITY STATUS REPORT, SALMON RIVER, MAIN STEM (HEADWATERS TO BELOW MIDDLE FORK), IDAHO, 1977

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fifteen water quality stations in the Salmon River Basin (17060201, 17060203) were sampled bi-weekly for a year. Eight of the stations were on the Main Salmon River and the remaining seven represented the major tributaries. This portion of the study extended from Stanley to bel...

  20. Hydraulic geometry and sediment data for the South Fork Salmon River, Idaho, 1985-86

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Rhea P.; O'Dell, Ivalou; Megahan, Walter F.

    1989-01-01

    Hydraulic geometry, suspended-sediment, and bedload samples were collected at three sites in the upper reach of the South Fork Salmon River drainage basin from April 1985 to June 1986. Sites selected were South Fork Salmon River near Krassel Ranger Station, Buckhorn Creek, and North Fork Lick Creek. Results of the data collection are presented in this report.

  1. STREAM CHANNEL SEDIMENT CONDITIONS IN THE SOUTH FORK SALMON RIVER, IDAHO, PROGRESS REPORT IV, JUNE 1974

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the South Fork Salmon River (17060208) studies is to determine the condition of the aquatic environment and provide measures needed to maintain or enhance this environment. Prior to 1965, the South Fork Salmon River steadily degraded in quality, due to acceleratio...

  2. Water resources data, Idaho, 2002; Volume 2. Upper Columbia River basin and Snake River basin below King Hill

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brennan, T.S.; Lehmann, A.K.; Campbell, A.M.; O'Dell, I.; Beattie, S.E.

    2003-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2002 water year for Idaho consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; discharge of irrigation diversions; and water levels and water quality of groundwater. The two volumes of this report contain discharge records for 196 stream-gaging stations and 15 irrigation diversions; stage only records for 5 stream-gaging stations; stage only for 6 lakes and reservoirs; contents only for 13 lakes and reservoirs; water-quality for 78 stream-gaging stations and partial record sites, 3 lakes sites, and 383 groundwater wells; and water levels for 425 observation network wells and 900 special project wells. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data collection program and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Idaho, adjacent States, and Canada.

  3. Data summary report on short-term turbidity monitoring of pipeline river crossings in the Moyie River, Boundary County, Idaho: PGT-PG&E Pipeline Expansion Project

    SciTech Connect

    Gowdy, M.J.; Smits, M.P.; Wilkey, P.L.; Miller, S.F.

    1994-03-01

    A water-quality monitoring program was implemented for Bechtel Corporation to measure the short-term increases in turbidity in the Moyie River caused by construction activities of the Pacific Gas Transmission-Pacific Gas & Electric Pipeline Expansion Project. Construction of the buried, 42-in.-diameter, steel pipeline, during the summer of 1992, involved eight wet crossings of the Moyie River along the 13-mi section of pipeline immediately south of the Canadian-United States border in Boundary County, Idaho. This report summarizes the sampling and analysis protocol used and gives the results and observations for each of the eight crossings. The data obtained from this monitoring program, in addition to satisfying regulatory requirements for the Pipeline Expansion Project, will contribute to an ongoing long-term study of the Moyie River crossings being performed for the Gas Research Institute by Argonne National Laboratory. The purpose of this document is strictly limited to reporting the results of the monitoring program. Interpretation of the data is not within the scope of this report.

  4. Water resources data, Idaho, 2002; Volume 1. Great Basin and Snake River basin above King Hill

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brennan, T.S.; Lehmann, A.K.; Campbell, A.M.; O'Dell, I.; Beattie, S.E.

    2003-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2002 water year for Idaho consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; discharge of irrigation diversions; and water levels and water quality of groundwater. The two volumes of this report contain discharge records for 196 stream-gaging stations and 15 irrigation diversions; stage only records for 5 stream-gaging stations; stage only for 6 lakes and reservoirs; contents only for 13 lakes and reservoirs; water-quality for 78 stream-gaging stations and partial record sites, 3 lakes sites, and 383 groundwater wells; and water levels for 425 observation network wells and 900 special project wells. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data collection program and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Idaho, adjacent States, and Canada.

  5. Lead exposure in passerines inhabiting lead-contaminated floodplains in the Coeur d'Alene River Basin, Idaho, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, G.D.; Kern, J.W.; Strickland, M.D.; McDonald, L.L. ); Audet, D.J.; LeCaptain, L.J. ); Hoffman, D.J. )

    1999-06-01

    Blood collected from song sparrows (Melospiza melodia) and American robins (Turdus migratorius) captured with mist nets in a lead-contaminated (assessment) area and nearby uncontaminated (reference) areas within the Coeur d'Alene Basin in northern Idaho was analyzed for [delta]-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity (ALAD) and hematocrit levels, and livers were analyzed for lead. Mean ALAD inhibition in the assessment area was 51% in song sparrows and 75% in American robins. The proportion of the sampled population with ALAD inhibition > 50% was calculated to be 43% for song sparrows and 83% for American robins. Assessment area hematocrit values for song sparrows and American robins were lower than in reference areas; however, differences were not statistically significant. Significantly higher levels of lead (wet weight) were found in livers from song sparrows captured on the assessment area ([bar x] = 1.93 ppm) than on reference areas. Study results indicate that 43% of the song sparrows and 83% of the American robins inhabiting the floodplain along the Coeur d'Alene River in the assessment area are being exposed to lead at levels sufficient to inhibit ALAD by > 50%. Variability in lead exposure indicators was attributed to high variability in environmental lead concentrations in the Coeur d'Alene River Basin.

  6. Thrust segment from the Antler orogeny identified north of the Snake River Plain, south-central Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Skipp, B. )

    1993-04-01

    A small segment of folded thrust fault places silicified, cleaved, folded, graptolite-bearing black mudstone, sandstone, and minor granule conglomerate of the Ordovician Phi Kappa Formation over unnamed cleaved, yellow, calcareous siltstone and silty limestone of Devonian to Silurian age in the Long Canyon area near Fish Creek Reservoir, within a kilometer of the north-central margin of the Snake River Plain. The thrust fault and rocks of both hanging wall and footwall are overlain by sandy limestone and pebble conglomerate of the Middle Pennsylvanian Hailey Member of the Wood River Formation along a locally faulted unconformable contact. Thus, the age of the thrust is bracketed as post-Devonian and pre-Middle Pennsylvanian, a period that encompasses the Antler orogeny. The Long Canyon thrust fault is the first direct evidence of contraction within rocks of the postulated Mississippian Antler highland in western Idaho. Indirect evidence such as penetrative axial plane cleavage in Devonian argillites of the Milligen Formation, not present in younger argillites, has been recognized for several years. The entire sequence of Ordovician through Pennsylvanian rocks constitutes the southernmost exposure of the hanging wall of the Mesozoic Pioneer thrust fault system. In this area, the footwall of the Pioneer thrust comprises Silurian through Devonian platform carbonate rocks overlain unconformably by Mississippian orogenic detritus derived from the western Antler highland.

  7. Verification of Precipitation Enhancement due to Winter Orographic Cloud Seeding in the Payette River Basin of Western Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holbrook, V. P.; Kunkel, M. L.; Blestrud, D.

    2013-12-01

    The Idaho Power Company (IPCo) is a hydroelectric based utility serving eastern Oregon and most of southern Idaho. Snowpack is critical to IPCo operations and the company has invested in a winter orographic cloud seeding program for the Payette, Boise, and Upper Snake River basins to augment the snowpack. IPCo and the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) are in the middle of a two-year study to determine precipitation enhancement due to winter orographic cloud seeding in the Payette River basin. NCAR developed a cloud seeding module, as an enhancement to the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model, that inputs silver iodide released from both ground based and/or aircraft generators. The cloud seeding module then increases the precipitation as a function of the cloud seeding. The WRF model used for this program is run at the University of Arizona with a resolution of 1.8 kilometers using Thompson microphysics and Mellor-Yamada-Janic boundary layer scheme. Two different types of verification schemes to determine precipitation enhancement is being used for this program; model versus model and model versus precipitation gauges. In the model versus model method, a control model run uses NCAR developed criteria to identify the best times to operate cloud or airborne seeding generators and also establishes the baseline precipitation. The model is then rerun with the cloud seeding module turned on for the time periods determined by the control run. The precipitation enhancement due to cloud seeding is then the difference in precipitation between the control and seeding model runs. The second verification method is to use the model forecast precipitation in the seeded and non-seeded areas, compare against observed precipitation (from mainly SNOTEL gauges), and determine the precipitation enhancement due to cloud seeding. Up to 15 SNOTEL gauges in or near the Payette River basin along with 14 IPCo high resolution rain gauges will be used with this target/control method during future phases of the study. Additionally, the IPCo precipitation gauges record to a hundredth of an inch (vice a tenth of an inch for SNOTELs) and can be used to determine precipitation enhancement from both individual storm systems as well as seasonal precipitation. Results of both the model to model and model to rain gauge comparisons from the first year of the project will be presented.

  8. Multilevel Groundwater Monitoring of Hydraulic Head and Temperature in the Eastern Snake River Plain Aquifer, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho, 2007 to 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, J. C.; Twining, B. V.

    2010-12-01

    During 2007 and 2008, the U.S. Geological Surveys Idaho National Laboratory Project Office, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, collected quarterly depth-discrete measurements of fluid pressure and temperature in six boreholes located in the fractured basalts and interbedded sediments of the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer. Each borehole was instrumented with a multilevel monitoring system consisting of a series of valved measurement ports, packer bladders, casing segments, and couplers. Hydraulic heads (head) and groundwater temperatures were monitored in 86 hydraulically-isolated depth intervals located from 448.0 to 1,377.6 ft below land surface. The calculation of head is most sensitive to fluid pressure and the altitude of the pressure transducer at each port coupling, and it is least sensitive to barometric pressure and fluid temperature. An analysis of errors associated with the head calculation determined the accuracy of an individual head measurement to be 2.3 ft. Many of the sources of measurement error are diminished, however, for differences between closely-spaced readings of head; therefore, a 0.1 ft measurement accuracy was assumed for vertical head differences (and gradients) calculated between adjacent monitoring zones. The repeatability of head measurements was evaluated using the maximum head difference between paired ports; a mean difference of 0.04 ft showed excellent agreement between measurements for the 0- to 500-psia pressure transducer used in this study. Vertical head and temperature profiles were unique to each borehole, and they were characteristic of the heterogeneity and anisotropy of the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer. The vertical hydraulic gradients within each borehole remained relatively constant over time, with minimum Pearson correlation coefficients between head profiles ranging from 0.72 at the USGS 103 borehole to 1.00 at boreholes USGS 133 and MIDDLE 2051. Major inflections in the head profiles almost always coincided with low-permeability sediment layers. However, the presence of a sediment layer was insufficient for identifying the location of a major head change within a borehole. The vertical hydraulic gradients were defined for the major inflections in the head profiles and were as high as 2.2 ft ft-1. Gradients were generally downward in the USGS 133, USGS 134, and MIDDLE 2050A boreholes, were zero in the USGS 103 and USGS 132 boreholes, and exhibited a reversal in direction within the MIDDLE 2051 borehole. Groundwater temperatures in all boreholes ranged from 10.2 to 16.3 C. Boreholes USGS 103 and USGS 132 are located in an area of concentrated volcanic vents and fissures, and they showed fluid temperature decreasing with depth. All other boreholes showed fluid temperature increasing with depth. A comparison among boreholes of the normalized mean head over time suggests a strongly positive correlation, which indicates regional fluctuations in the water table due to seasonal changes in recharge conditions.

  9. The availability of water in the Little Lost River Basin, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clebsch, Alfred, Jr.; Waite, H.A.; Decker, S.O.

    1974-01-01

    The Little Lost River basin, an elongated, northwest trending structurally formed intermontane valley, drains an area of about 900 square miles into a closed depression near the northwestern edge of the Snake River Plain. Runoff from snowmelt and rainfall on the Lost River Range on the west and the Lemhi Range on the east maintains the flow of the Little Lost River, and recharges the ground-water reservoir, Both mountain ranges are complexly faulted and are underlain by a variety of rocks, dominantly limestone, of Paleozoic age The principal aquifers are highly transmissive alluvial fill in the middle and upper valley and alluvial fill interfingered with basalt in the southernmost part of the valley.

  10. HENRY'S FORK AND SNAKE RIVER BASIN, IDAHO - WATER QUALITY REPORT, 1973

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reported problems in the Henrys Fork and Snake River Basin (17040202, 17040203, 17040201) include bacteria levels exceeding water quality standards, dissolved oxygen standards violations, and excessive algal blooms resulting in aesthetic problems and contributing to DO depression...

  11. Lead in hawks, falcons and owls downstream from a mining site on the Coeur D'Alene river, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henny, C.J.; Blus, L.J.; Hoffman, D.J.; Grove, R.A.

    1994-01-01

    Mining and smelting at Kellogg-Smelterville, Idaho, resulted in high concentrations of lead in Coeur d'Alene (CDA) River sediments and the floodplain downstream, where American Kestrels (Falco sparverius), Northern Harriers (Circus cyaneus), Red-tailed Hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), Great Horned Owls (Bubo virginianus), and Western Screech-owls (Otus kennicotti) nested. Nestling American Kestrels contained significantly higher (P=0.0012) blood lead concentrations along the CDA River (0.24 ?g/g, wet wt) than the nearby reference area (0.087 ?g/g). A 35% inhibition of blood *-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) in nestling Northern Harriers (P=0.0001), 55% in nestling American Kestrels (P=0.0001) and 81% in adult American Kestrels (P=0.0004) provided additional evidence of lead exposure in the CDA River population. In nestling American Kestrels and Northern Harriers, ALAD activity was negatively correlated with lead in blood. An earlier report on Ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) showed slightly less inhibition of ALAD than in American Kestrels, but no significant reduction in hemoglobin or hematocrit and no negative influence on production rates. The adult and nestling American Kestrels along the CDA River contained about twice as much blood lead as Ospreys during the same years (adult 0.46 vs. 0.20 ?g/g, and nestling 0.24 vs. 0.09 ?g/g), but adults showed a 7.5% reduction in hemoglobin (P=0.0356) and nestlings an 8.2% reduction in hemoglobin (P=0.0353) and a 5.8% reduction in hematocrit (P=0.0482). We did not observe raptor deaths related to lead, and although the production rate for American Kestrels was slightly lower along the CDA River, we found no significant negative relation between productivity and lead. Limited data on the other raptors provide evidence of exposure to lead along the CDA River. Several traits of raptors apparently reduce their potential for accumulating critical levels of lead which is primarily stored in bones of prey species.

  12. Anthropogenic Impacts of Recreational Use on Sandbars in Hells Canyon on the Snake River, Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morehead, M. D.

    2014-12-01

    Sandbars along large rivers are important cultural, recreational, and natural resources. In modern, historic and prehistoric times the sandbars have been used for camping, hunting, fishing and recreational activities. Sandbars are a dynamic geomorphic unit of the river system that stores and exchanges sand with the main river channel. Both natural and anthropogenic changes to river systems affect the size, shape and dynamics of sandbars. During high spring flows, the Snake River can resupply and build the sand bars. During the lower flows of the summer and fall the sand is redistributed to lower levels by natural and anthropogenic forces, where it can be remobilized by the river and exported from the bar. During the summer and fall high use season many people camp and recreate on the bars and redistribute the sand. This study utilizes change detection from repeat high resolution terrestrial LiDAR scanning surveys to study the impacts humans have on the sandbars in Hells Canyon. Nearly a decade of annual LiDAR and Bathymetric surveys were used to place these recreational impacts into the context of overall sandbar dynamics.

  13. Mineralogy and grain size of surficial sediment from the Big Lost River drainage and vicinity, with chemical and physical characteristics of geologic materials from selected sites at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartholomay, R.C.; Knobel, L.L.; Davis, L.C.

    1989-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey 's Idaho National Engineering Laboratory project office, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, collected 35 samples of surficial sediments from the Big Lost River drainage and vicinity from July 1987 through August 1988 for analysis of grain-size distribution, bulk mineralogy, and clay mineralogy. Samples were collected from 11 sites in the channel and 5 sites in overbank deposits of the Big Lost River, 6 sites in the spreading areas that receive excess flow from the Big Lost River during peak flow conditions, 7 sites in the natural sinks and playas of the Big Lost River, 1 site in the Little Lost River Sink, and 5 sites from other small, isolated closed basins. Eleven samples from the Big Lost River channel deposits had a mean of 1.9 and median of 0.8 weight percent in the less than 0.062 mm fraction. The other 24 samples had a mean of 63.3 and median of 63.7 weight percent for the same size fraction. Mineralogy data are consistent with grain-size data. The Big Lost River channel deposits had mean and median percent mineral abundances of total clays and detrital mica of 10 and 10%, respectively, whereas the remaining 24 samples had mean and median values of 24% and 22.5% , respectively. (USGS)

  14. Depth to water in the western Snake River Plain and surrounding tributary valleys, southwestern Idaho and eastern Oregon, calculated using water levels from 1980 to 1988

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maupin, Molly A.

    1991-01-01

    The vulnerability of ground water to contamination in Idaho is being assessed by the ISHW/DEQ (Idaho Department of Health and Welfare, Division of Environmental Quality), using a modified version of the Environmental Protection Agency DRASTIC methods (Allers and others, 1985). The project was designed as a technique to: (1) Assign priorities for development of ground-water management and monitoring programs; (2) build support for, and public awareness of, vulnerability of ground water to contamination; (3) assist in the development of regulatory programs; and (4) provide access to technical data through the use of a GIS (geographic information system) (C. Grantham, Idaho Department of Health and Welfare, written commun., 1989). Digital representation of first-encountered water below land surface is an important element in evaluating vulnerability of ground water to contamination. Depth-to-water values were developed using existing data and computer software to construct a GIS data set to be combined with a soils data set developed by the SCS (Soul Conservation Service) and the IDHW/WQB (Idaho Department of Health and Welfare/Water Quality Bureau), and a recharge data set developed by the IDWR/RSF (idaho Department of Water Resources/Remote Sensing Facility). The USGS (U.S. Geological Survey) has developed digital depth-to-water values for eleven 1:100,00-scale quadrangles on the eastern Snake River Plain and surrounding tributary valleys.

  15. Depth to water in the eastern Snake River Plain and surrounding tributary valleys, southwestern Idaho and eastern Oregon, calculated using water levels from 1980 to 1988

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maupin, Molly A.

    1992-01-01

    The vulnerability of ground water to contamination in Idaho is being assessed by the IDHW/DEQ (Idaho Department of Health and Welfare, Division of Environmental Quality), using a modified version of the Environmental Orotection Agency DRASTIC methods (Allers and others, 1985). The project was designed as a technique to: (1) Assign priorities for development of ground-water management and monitoring programs; (2) build support for, and public awareness of, vulnerability or ground water to contamination; (3) assist in the development of regulatory programs; and (4) provide access to technical data through the use of a GIS (geographic information system) (C. Grantha,, Idaho Department of Health and Welfare, written commun., 1989). A digital representation of first-encountered water below land surface is an important element in evaluating vulnerability of ground water to contamination. Depth-to-water values were developed using existing data and computer software to construct a GIS data set to be combined with a sols data set developed by the SCS (Soil Conservation Service) and IDHW/WQB (Idaho Department of Health and Welfare/Water Quality Bureau), and a recharge data set developed by the IDWR/RSF (Idaho Department of Water Resources/Remote Sensing Facility). The USGS (U.S. Geological Survey) developed digital depth-to-water values for eleven 1:100,000-scale quadrangles on the eastern Snake River Plain and surrounding tributary valleys.

  16. Dietary effects of metals-contaminated invertebrates from the Coeur d'Alene River, Idaho, on cutthroat trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farag, A.M.; Woodward, D.F.; Brumbaugh, W.; Goldstein, J.N.; MacConnell, E.; Hogstrand, C.; Barrows, F.T.

    1999-01-01

    Benthic macroinvertebrates with elevated concentrations of metals were collected from the Coeur d'Alene (CDA) River, Idaho, pasteurized, and fed to cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarki in the laboratory from start of feeding until 90 d posthatch. Invertebrates were collected from two sites known to contain elevated concentrations of metals: near Pinehurst in the South Fork of the CDA River and at Cataldo, approximately 5 km below the confluence of the South Fork and the North Fork. Invertebrates collected from a relatively clean site in the North Fork were used as a reference diet. We performed measurements of fish health that indicate reduced fitness of fish fed the South Fork and Cataldo diets. Effects measured were reduced feeding activity, increased number of macrophage aggregates and hyperplasia of cells in the kidney, degeneration of mucosal epithelium in the pyloric caecae, and metallothionein induction. These effects would likely reduce growth and survival of fish in the wild. Vacuolization of glial cells were also observed in fish fed the Cataldo diet. Metals in the water often exacerbated the histological effects observed. Although the invertebrates collected near Cataldo had lower concentrations of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) than the invertebrates from the South Fork, fish fed the Cataldo diet had equally high or higher concentrations of all metals except as by day 44. The Cataldo diet also caused the most deleterious effects on survival and growth. These findings are especially important for early life stage fish, whose diet consists wholly of benthic macroinvertebrates. Therefore, fish feeding on invertebrates in the CDA River below the Bunker Hill smelting complex are at risk of reduced fitness.

  17. Thermal and tectonic implications of heat flow in the Eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brott, Charles A.; Blackwell, David D.; Ziagos, John P.

    1981-12-01

    Geothermal data from 248 wells and drill holes, a thermal model for the effects of the Snake Plain aquifer on observed heat flow, an estimate of the regional heat flow in the eastern Snake River Plain, a detailed moving source, regional thermal model, and a discussion of the origin and the relationship of the eastern and western halves of the Snake River Plain are included in this paper. In order to determine the thermal structure of the eastern Snake River Plain, an extensive geothermal gradient and heat flow survey was carried out. Data from 248 holes show high heat flow values along the margins but low values along the center because of effects of the extensive Snake Plain aquifer. Based on a thermal model of the aquifer, a heat budget was derived from which a mean heat flow for the eastern Snake River Plain of 190 m W m-2 was calculated. This value can be compared to observed values along the margins of 120 mW m-2 and two values in deep holes along the northeastern margin of 110 and 109 mW m-2. The areas of highest expected values, in the Island Park caldera region, have not been sampled by heat flow measurements, however. Based on the heat flow results from the eastern and the western Snake River Plain and other geophysical and geological data, a finite-width moving-source-plane thermal model is developed for the Snake River Plain. Even though the geological and geophysical characteristics of the eastern and western Snake River Plain are somewhat different, they are attributed to the same moving heat source, and the spatial geological and geophysical differences are explained by different stages in a time-related sequence of thermally driven geological and tectonic events. The Snake River Plain is due to a strong thermal source interacting with the crust with the resulting complete chemical reorganization of the crust. The major immediate driving mechanism is a thick mafic intrusive emplaced in the midlevels of the crust. Associated with this thermal event are regional uplift of a kilometer or so as the heating occurs, associated melting of the upper crust, and subsequent rapid subsidence of approximately 1/2 to 1 km because of the change in density of the crust and upper mantle section associated with the emplacement of the basic intrusive and the disruption of the granitic upper crust. After the heat source moves eastward, continued subsidence occurs due to cooling of the lithospheric section (similar to that seen for oceanic regions). Along with the subsidence and soon after completion of the extensive silicic volcanism, basalts began to be extruded. Thermal contraction also generates faulting on the sides and perhaps in the center of the hot spot track. The subsidence causes reversal of the dips of the silicic ash flows from their initial away-from-the-source configuration, to the toward-the-source configuration observed in the Snake River Plain. Continued subsidence and cooling cause the formation of the basin which is then filled by sediments, causing additional subsidence due to isostatic adjustment (the western Snake River basin). Thus all aspects of the Snake River Plain-Yellowstone region are consequences of a single thermal event, and all stages in the future history of the Yellowstone region and the past history of the western Snake River basin are represented by westward or eastward traverses (respectively) along the Snake River Plain.

  18. Effects of municipal wastewater discharges on aquatic communities, Boise River, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frenzel, S.A.

    1990-01-01

    Aquatic communities in the Boise River were examined from October 1987 to March 1988 to determine whether they were adversely affected by trace elements in effluents from two Boise wastewater treatment facilities. Trace-element concentrations in the Boise River were less than or near analytical-detection levels and were less than chronic toxicity criteria when detectable. Insect communities colonizing artificial substrates upstream and downstream from the wastewater treatment facilities were strongly associated, and coefficients of community loss indicated that effluents had benign enriching effects. The distributions of trace-element-intolerant mayflies indicated that trace-element concentrations in effluents did not adversely affect intolerant organisms in the Boise River. Condition factor of whitefish was significantly increased downstream from the Lander Street wastewater treatment facility and was significantly decreased downstream from the West Boise wastewater treatment facility.

  19. Enhanced Geothermal System Potential for Sites on the Eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Robert K Podgorney; Thomas R. Wood; Travis L McLing; Gregory Mines; Mitchell A Plummer; Michael McCurry; Ahmad Ghassemi; John Welhan; Joseph Moore; Jerry Fairley; Rachel Wood

    2013-09-01

    The Snake River volcanic province overlies a thermal anomaly that extends deep into the mantle and represents one of the highest heat flow provinces in North America (Blackwell and Richards, 2004). This makes the Snake River Plain (SRP) one of the most under-developed and potentially highest producing geothermal districts in the United States. Elevated heat flow is typically highest along the margins of the topographic SRP and lowest along the axis of the plain, where thermal gradients are suppressed by the Snake River aquifer. Beneath this aquifer, however, thermal gradients rise again and may tap even higher heat flows associated with the intrusion of mafic magmas into the mid-crustal sill complex (e.g., Blackwell, 1989).

  20. Ecological indicators of water quality in the Spokane River, Idaho and Washington, 1998 and 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    MacCoy, Dorene E.; Maret, Terry R.

    2003-01-01

    A water-quality investigation of the Spokane River was completed during summer low-flow conditions in 1998 and 1999 as part of the USGS NAWQA Program, in cooperation with the WDOE. (Abbreviations used in this report are defined on the last page.) Samples for analyses of water chemistry; bed sediment; aquatic communities (fish, macroinvertebrates, and algae); contaminants in tissue (fish and macroinvertebrates); and associated measures of habitat were collected at six sites downstream from Coeur dAlene Lake between river miles 63 and 100. These data provided baseline information to evaluate the water-quality status of the Spokane River and can be used to determine the ecological risk to aquatic organisms from contaminants.

  1. Effects of municipal wastewater discharges on aquatic communities, Boise River, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Frenzel, S.A. )

    1990-04-01

    Aquatic communities in the Boise River were examined from October 1987 to March 1988 to determine whether they were adversely affected by trace elements in effluents from two Boise wastewater treatment facilities. Trace-element concentrations in the Boise River were less than or near analytical-detection levels and were less than chronic toxicity criteria when detectable. Insect communities colonizing artificial substrates upstream and downstream from the wastewater treatment facilities were strongly associated, and coefficients of community loss indicated that effluents had benign enriching effects. The distributions of trace-element-intolerant mayflies indicated that trace-element concentrations in effluents did not adversely affect intolerant organisms in the Boise River. Condition factor of whitefish was significantly decreased downstream from the West Boise wastewater treatment facility.

  2. Surface-water/ground-water interaction along reaches of the Snake River and Henrys Fork, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hortness, Jon E.; Vidmar, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Declining water levels in the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer and decreases in spring discharges from the aquifer to the Snake River have spurred studies to improve understanding of the surface-water/ground-water interaction on the plain. This study was done to estimate streamflow gains and losses along specific reaches of the Snake River and Henrys Fork and to compare changes in gain and loss estimates to changes in ground-water levels over time. Data collected during this study will be used to enhance the conceptual model of the hydrologic system and to refine computer models of ground-water flow and surface-water/ground-water interactions. Estimates of streamflow gains and losses along specific subreaches of the Snake River and Henrys Fork, based on the results of five seepage studies completed during 2001?02, varied greatly across the study area, ranging from a loss estimate of 606 ft3/s in a subreach of the upper Snake River near Heise to a gain estimate of 3,450 ft3/s in a subreach of the Snake River that includes Thousand Springs. Some variations over time also were apparent in specific subreaches. Surface spring flow accounted for much of the inflow to subreaches having large gain estimates. Several subreaches alternately gained and lost streamflow during the study. Changes in estimates of streamflow gains and losses along some of the subreaches were compared with changes in water levels, measured at three different times during 2001?02, in adjacent wells. In some instances, a strong relation between changes in estimates of gains or losses and changes in ground-water levels was apparent.

  3. ANATOMY OF A RIVER, AN EVALUATION OF WATER REQUIREMENTS FOR THE HELL'S CANYON REACH OF THE SNAKE RIVER, IDAHO, 1973

    EPA Science Inventory

    This evaluation began in March 1973, involving more than 30 state and federal agencies and private entities. 79 specialists monitored the effects of 5 controlled flows on the biological community and mans use of the Middle Snake River (17060103, 17060101). The total program inv...

  4. LOWER BOISE RIVER DRAINS, WATER QUALITY STATUS, CANYON COUNTY, IDAHO, 1983

    EPA Science Inventory

    A water quality monitoring program was established on the irrigation drainage system in the Lower Boise River Valley (17050114) as part of a 208 project to develop a pollution abatement plan for agricultural lands. The 208 project area encompassed irrigated lands along the Boise...

  5. NON POINT SOURCE BASIN STATUS EVALUATION, LOWER SNAKE RIVER BASIN, IDAHO, JULY 1976

    EPA Science Inventory

    Region 10 has developed a nonpoint source assessment approach to assist EPA planners, land agencies, and state and local agencies in identifying probable nonpoint sources and determining their effect upon the fishable-swimmable aspect of Regional streams and rivers. Generally th...

  6. LOWER PAYETTE RIVER, IDAHO AGRICULTURE IRRIGATION WATER RETURN STUDY AND GROUND WATER EVALUATION, 1992-1993

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report covers the final 17 miles of the Payette River (17050112) and 32,000 acres of irrigated cropland referred to as the Lower Payette State Agricultural Water Quality Project. An in-depth surface and ground water monitoring effort was initiated in June 1992 and completed...

  7. Characterize and Quantify Residual Steelhead in the Clearwater River, Idaho, 1999-2000 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Brostrom, Jody K.

    2006-08-01

    During 1999-2002 we determined whether size at release and release site influenced emigration success and survival of hatchery steelhead smolts raised at Dworshak National Fish Hatchery and released into the Clearwater River drainage. We marked 4,500 smolts each year with Passive Integrated Transponder Tags (PIT-tags) which enabled us to track emigration and estimate survival through mainstem Snake and Columbia river dams. Hatchery steelhead raised in System I freshwater were significantly smaller than those raised in warmer System II re-use water (196 mm, 206 mm, 198 mm and 201 mm System I; 215 mm, 213 mm, 206 mm and 209 mm System II). However, there was no significant difference in detection rates to mainstem observation sites between the two groups (65%, 58%, 78% and 55% System I; 69%, 59%, 74% and 53% System II). Survival estimates to Lower Granite Dam were also not significant between the two groups (72%, 81%, 80% and 77% System I; 77%, 79%, 77%, and 72% System II). Smolts less than 180 mm FL were less likely to be detected than larger smolts. Hatchery steelhead smolts released into Clear Creek, the South Fork Clearwater River and the Clearwater River at Dworshak National Fish Hatchery had significantly different lengths each year, but there was no discernible pattern due to random egg takes and rearing systems. Detection rates to mainstem observation sites for smolts released into Clear Creek were significantly less than the other two groups in all years except 2002 (62%, 57%, 71%, and 57% Clear Creek; 68%, 63%, 73% and 61% South Fork Clearwater River; 70%, 59%, 78% and 55% Clearwater River). However, survival rates to Lower Granite Dam were not significantly different (73%, 65%, 78%, and 77% Clear Creek; 79%, 72%, 79% and 76% South Fork Clearwater River; 81%, 76%, 80% and 83% Clearwater River). Similar to the size at release group, smolts less than 180 mm FL were less likely to get detected than larger smolts. Smolts from both size at release and release site groups that were mature at tagging rarely migrated downstream. If smolts migrated they did it in the same year they were released, as less than 0.02% were observed migrating the second year. We sampled the Clearwater River, North Fork Clearwater River, Bedrock Creek, Big Canyon Creek, Cottonwood Creek, Jacks Creek and the Dworshak National Fish Hatchery adult ladder to collect residual hatchery steelhead. We PIT-tagged and released 3,651 hatchery steelhead and collected 645 hatchery steelhead for coded wire tags. Most residual hatchery steelhead were caught within 4 rkm of Dworshak National Fish Hatchery. Hatchery steelhead sampled in the North Fork Clearwater River and the Dworshak Hatchery adult ladder were significantly larger than those sampled in the Clearwater River and lower tributaries in all years except 2001 (205 mm, 205 mm, 223 mm and 238 mm North Fork Clearwater River; 190 mm, 182 mm, 226 mm and 189 mm Clearwater River). Of the hatchery steelhead we PIT-tagged, only 12% were observed at downstream observation sites. Most migrants were tagged in the Clearwater River (91%) and were smaller than hatchery steelhead that were tagged but were not detected. Most migrants were detected in the same year they were tagged, but 14% held over and migrated in the second year after tagging. We documented migration outside of the normal window, as one detection occurred on October 31 at Lower Granite Dam. We recaptured 130 individual hatchery steelhead that we had tagged during sampling. Over 77% of the recaptures were within one km of where they were tagged, and 67% of the recaptures were tagged in the North Fork Clearwater River and the Dworshak Hatchery adult ladder. We calculated a mean growth rate of 0.27 mm/day for fish we recaptured. For those hatchery steelhead we PIT-tagged, the proportion of males was 13%, the rest we could not ascertain gender. All the males were precocious. Over 97% of the coded-wire tag recoveries came from hatchery steelhead released at Dworshak National Fish Hatchery. The Contribution group (random egg take and rearing system) comprised 44% of the recoveries, followed by 32% System I and 24% System II. The mean length of the Contribution group was significantly smaller than the other two groups in all years except 2001 (173 mm, 191 mm, 209 mm and 197 mm Contribution; 210 mm, 206 mm, 205 mm and 228 mm System I; 226 mm, 216 mm, 213 mm and 225 mm System II). Males made up 81% of the recoveries, and their maturity ranged from 0% to 100%. The Contribution group had significantly more males than the other two groups in 1999 and 2001.

  8. WATER QUALITY STATUS REPORT, LITTLE SALMON RIVER, ADAMS COUNTY, IDAHO, 1976

    EPA Science Inventory

    This survey was conducted to determine the point source impact of treatment sewage discharged from the New Meadows Wastewater Treatment lagoons on the Little Salmon River (17060210). Water quality data was collected semiannually from June 1970 to May 1975. Some of this data is ...

  9. MIDDLE SNAKE RIVER, IDAHO WATER QUALITY STUDY, PHASE I. 1990-1991

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water quality samples from 55 stations in the Middle Snake River (17060103, 17060101) for the period June 1990 through July 1991 were successfully obtained and field and laboratory data entered into the database. Weekly sampling on aquaculture facilities, and biweekly sampling o...

  10. Basic data from five core holes in the Raft River geothermal area, Cassia County, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crosthwaite, E. G., (compiler)

    1976-01-01

    meters) were completed in the area (Crosthwaite, 1974), and the Aerojet Nuclear Company, under the auspices of the U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration, was planning some deep drilling 4,000 to 6,000 feet (1,200 to 1,800 meters) (fig. 1). The purpose of the core drilling was to provide information to test geophysical interpretations of the subsurface structure and lithology and to provide hydrologic and geologic data on the shallow part of the geothermal system. Samples of the core were made available to several divisions and branches of the Geological Survey and to people and agencies outside the Survey. This report presents the basic data from the core holes that had been collected to September 1, 1975, and includes lithologic and geophysical well logs, chemical analyses of water (table 1), and laboratory analyses of cores (table 2) that were completed as of the above date. The data were collected by the Idaho District office, Hydrologic Laboratory, Borehole Geophysics Research Project, and Drilling, Sampling, and Testing Section, all of the Water Resources Division, and the Branch of Central Environmental Geology of the Geologic Divison.

  11. Biological assessment of the lower Boise River, October 1995 through January 1998, Ada and Canyon Counties, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mullins, William H.

    1999-01-01

    The lower Boise River, between Lucky Peak Dam and the mouth of the river near Parma, Idaho, is adversely affected by various land- and water-use activities. To assess the biotic integrity of the river and the effects of environmental perturbations on aquatic community structure, and to provide a baseline from which to identify future changes in habitat conditions, biological data were collected from October 1995 through January 1998 and evaluated using protocols developed for the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program. Aquatic biological communities were sampled according to the following schedule: epilithic periphyton were collected in October 1995, October 1996, and August 1997; benthic macroinvertebrates were collected in October 1995, 1996, and 1997; and fish were collected in December 1996 and August 1997. Qualitative measurements of instream and riparian habitat indicated an overall decrease in instream habitat quality in a downstream direction. Embeddedness was high at all sites but was lower at the Eckert Road site than at the downstream sites near Middleton and Parma. Silt/sand substrate increased from 17 percent at the Eckert Road site to 49 percent near the mouth of the river. The Eckert Road site had a mix of geomorphic channel units (pool/riffle/run), whereas the Middleton and Parma sites were dominated by runs with very little pool or riffle habitat. Epilithic periphyton chlorophyll-a and ashfree dry weight values tended to increase downstream to the Middleton site and decrease from Middleton to the downstream sites near Caldwell and near Parma. Benthic index of biotic integrity (B-IBI) scores for macroinvertebrates collected in 1995, 1996, and 1997 were highest at the Eckert Road site and decreased at sites downstream. IBI scores for fish collected in 1996 were similar at the Glenwood Bridge and Middleton sites (17 and 16, respectively) and were indicative of a low to moderate level of disturbance. In contrast, the IBI score of 6 at the site near Parma was markedly lower and was indicative of more degraded conditions.

  12. Integrated geophysical studies of the Fort Worth Basin (Texas), Harney Basin (Oregon), and Snake River Plain (Idaho)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khatiwada, Murari

    Geophysical methods such as seismic, gravity, magnetics, electric, and electromagnetics are capable of identifying subsurface features but each has a different spatial resolution. Although, each of these methods are stand-alone tools and have produced wonderful and reliable results for decades to solve geological problems, integrating geophysical results from these different methods with geological and geospatial data, adds an extra dimension towards solving geological problems. Integration techniques also involve comparing and contrasting the structural and tectonic evolution of geological features from different tectonic and geographic provinces. I employed 3D and 2D seismic data, passive seismic data, and gravity and magnetic data in three studies and integrated these results with geological, and geospatial data. Seismic processing, and interpretation, as well as filtering techniques applied to the potential filed data produced many insightful results. Integrated forward models played an important role in the interpretation process. The three chapters in this dissertation are stand-alone separate scientific papers. Each of these chapters used integrated geophysical methods to identify the subsurface features and tectonic evolution of the study areas. The study areas lie in the southeast Fort Worth Basin, Texas, Harney Basin, Oregon, and Snake River Plain, Idaho. The Fort Worth Basin is one of the most fully developed shale gas fields in North America. With the shallow Barnett Shale play in place, the Precambrian basement remains largely unknown in many places with limited published work on the basement structures underlying the Lower Paleozoic strata. In this research, I show how the basement structures relate to overlying Paleozoic reservoirs in the Barnett Shale and Ellenburger Group. I used high quality, wide-azimuth, 3D seismic data near the southeast fringe of the Fort Worth Basin. The seismic results were integrated with gravity, magnetic, well log, and geospatial data to understand the basement and sub-basement structures in the study area. Major tectonic features including the Ouachita thrust-fold belt, Lampasas arch, Llano uplift, and Bend arch surround the southeast Fort Worth Basin. The effects of these tectonic units in the basement were imaged in form of faulted and folded basement and sub-basement layers. Euler deconvolution and integrated forward gravity modeling were employed to extend the interpretations beyond the 3D seismic survey into a regional context. The Harney Basin is a relatively flat lying depression in the northeast portion of the enigmatic High Lava Plains volcanic province in eastern Oregon. In addition to the High Lava Plains active source seismic data, I also employed gravity, magnetic, digital elevation, geologic maps, and other geospatial data in this integrated study. I generated an upper crustal 3D seismic tomographic model of the Harney Basin and surrounding area using the active source seismic data. I then integrated it with gravity, magnetic, and geologic data to produce a geophysical model of the upper crustal structure, which reveals that the basin reaches as deep as 6 km in the central areas. I observed two major caldera shaped features within the basin. These calderas reveal seismic low velocity areas along with low gravity and magnetic anomalies. I interpreted the extent of these calderas with the help of integrated geophysical results. I propose a nested caldera complex in the northern Harney Basin and another caldera in the southern part. The Snake River Plain is an arcuate-shaped topographic low that lies in southern Idaho. This rifted valley is filled by large volume of mafic magma with numerous exposures of silicic volcanic centers. The scientific discussion on the structural complexities and evolution of the Snake River Plain and the role of extension in its formation has been going on for decades. Similarly, high gravity and magnetic anomalies are associated with the Snake River Plains, and their possible causes are still the subject of many studies. Numerous recent

  13. Characterize and Quantify Residual Steelhead in the Clearwater River, Idaho, 1999 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Bigelow, Patricia E.; Larsen, Chris A.

    2003-03-01

    Although sample sizes were small during the 1999 field season, we were able to verify at least some residual steelhead survive the winter to persist in the Clearwater River. Hatchery steelhead were found in low numbers migrating up tributaries of the Clearwater River where wild A-run steelhead spawn. Data from this first year did not indicate differences in survival due to size, release site, or rearing system for steelhead reared at Dworshak National Fish Hatchery. This information needs to be compared over several (at least three) years for meaningful analysis. Final analysis will also include influences of water flow and temperature in emigration success. Based on one year of data, the majority of steelhead which do not emigrate during the first couple of weeks after release, are unlikely to emigrate at all.

  14. Fish assemblages and environmental variables associated with hard-rock mining in the Coeur d'Alene River basin, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maret, Terry R.; MacCoy, Dorene E.

    2002-01-01

    As part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water Quality Assessment Program, fish assemblages, environmental variables, and associated mine densities were evaluated at 18 test and reference sites during the summer of 2000 in the Coeur d'Alene and St. Regis river basins in Idaho and Montana. Multimetric and multivariate analyses were used to examine patterns in fish assemblages and the associated environmental variables representing a gradient of mining intensity. The concentrations of cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) in water and streambed sediment found at test sites in watersheds where production mine densities were at least 0.2 mines/km2 (in a 500-m stream buffer) were significantly higher than the concentrations found at reference sites. Many of these metal concentrations exceeded Ambient Water Quality Criteria (AWQC) and the Canadian Probable Effect Level guidelines for streambed sediment. Regression analysis identified significant relationships between the production mine densities and the sum of Cd, Pb, and Zn concentrations in water and streambed sediment (r2 = 0.69 and 0.66, respectively; P < 0.01). Zinc was identified as the primary metal contaminant in both water and streambed sediment. Eighteen fish species in the families Salmonidae, Cottidae, Cyprinidae, Catostomidae, Centrarchidae, and Ictaluridae were collected. Principal components analysis of 11 fish metrics identified two distinct groups of sites corresponding to the reference and test sites, predominantly on the basis of the inverse relationship between percent cottids and percent salmonids (r = -0.64; P < 0.05). Streams located downstream from the areas of intensive hard-rock mining in the Coeur d'Alene River basin contained fewer native fish and lower abundances as a result of metal enrichment, not physical habitat degradation. Typically, salmonids were the predominant species at test sites where Zn concentrations exceeded the acute AWQC. Cottids were absent at these sites, which suggests that they are more severely affected by elevated metals than are salmonids.

  15. Lead exposure in passerines inhabiting lead-contaminated floodplains in the Coeur d'Alene River Basin, Idaho, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, G.D.; Audet, D.J.; Kern, J.W.; LeCaptain, L.J.; Strickland, M.D.; Hoffman, D.J.; McDonald, L.L.

    1999-01-01

    Blood collected from song sparrows (Melospiza melodia) and American robins (Turdus migratorius) captured with mist nets in a lead-contaminated (assessment) area and nearby uncontaminated (reference) areas within the Coeur d'Alene Basin in northern Idaho was analyzed for d-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity (ALAD) and hematocrit levels, and livers were analyzed for lead. Mean ALAD inhibition in the assessment area was 51% in song sparrows and 75% in American robins. The proportion of the sampled population with ALAD inhibition >50% was calculated to be 43% for song sparrows and 83% for American robins. Assessment area hematocrit values for song sparrows (0 = 39.9) and American robins (0 = 39.5) were lower than in reference areas (0 = 42.4 for song sparrows and 40.2 for American robins); however, differences were not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Significantly higher levels of lead (wet weight) were found in livers from song sparrows captured on the assessment area (0 = 1.93 ppm) than on reference areas (0 = 0.10 ppm) (p = 0.0079). Study results indicate that 43% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 12.9-77.5%) of the song sparrows and 83% (95% CI = 41.8-99.2%) of the American robins inhabiting the floodplain along the Coeur d'Alene River in the assessment area are being exposed to lead at levels sufficient to inhibit ALAD by > 50%. Variability in lead exposure indicators was attributed to high variability in environmental lead concentrations in the Coeur d'Alene River Basin.

  16. Biotic integrity of the Boise River upstream and downstream from two municipal wastewater treatment facilities, Boise, Idaho, 1995-96

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mullins, William H.

    1999-01-01

    Aquatic biological communities were used to assess the biotic integrity of the Boise River upstream and downstream from the Lander Street and West Boise municipal wastewater treatment facilities (WTFs) in Boise, Idaho. Samples of epilithic periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrates, and fish were collected in late February and early March 1995, in late October 1996, and in early December 1996. Epilithic periphyton biomass, expressed as chlorophyll-a and ash-free dry weight, declined substantially between 1995 and 1996. Chlorophyll-a concentrations were higher at sites downstream from WTFs in both years, but differences in concentrations between sites upstream and downstream from WTFs were not statistically significant. High withinsite variance suggests that greater sampling intensity would improve statistical comparison. Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI) scores calculated for benthic macroinvertebrates were higher for the sites upstream from WTFs in 1995 and were the same for all sites in 1996. Similarly, IBI scores calculated for fish were higher for the sites upstream from WTFs in 1995, were higher for the site upstream from the Lander Street WTF in 1996, and were the same for sites upstream and downstream from the West Boise WTF in 1996. Two species of sculpin (Cottus) were abundant at the site upstream from both WTFs but were absent at all other sites downstream from WTFs in 1995 and composed only 2 percent of the total number of fish collected downstream from the Lander Street WTF in 1996.

  17. Radiocarbon studies of latest Pleistocene and Holocene lava flows of the Snake River Plain, Idaho: Data, lessons, interpretations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuntz, M.A.; Spiker, E. C.; Rubin, M.; Champion, D.E.; Lefebvre, R.H.

    1986-01-01

    Latest Pleistocene-Holocene basaltic lava fields of the Snake River Plain, Idaho, have been dated by the radiocarbon method. Backhoe excavations beneath lava flows typically yielded carbon-bearing, charred eolian sediment. This material provided most of the samples for this study; the sediment typically contains less than 0.2% carbon. Charcoal fragments were obtained from tree molds but only from a few backhoe excavations. Contamination of the charred sediments and charcoal by younger carbon components is extensive; the effects of contamination were mitigated but appropriate pretreatment of samples using acid and alkali leaches. Twenty of the more than 60 lava flows of the Craters of the Moon lava field have been dated; their ages range from about 15,000 to about 2000 yr B.P. The ages permit assignment of the flows to eight distinct eruptive periods with an average recurrence interval of about 2000 yr. The seven other latest Pleistocene-Holocene lava fields were all emplaced in short eruptive bursts. Their 14C ages (yr B.P.) are: Kings Bowl (2222?? 100), Wapi (2270 ?? 50), Hells Half Acre (5200 ?? 150), Shoshone (10,130 ?? 350), North Robbers and South Robbers (11.980 ?? 300), and Cerro Grande (13,380 ?? 350). ?? 1986.

  18. A comparative evaluation of conceptual models for the Snake River Plain aquifer at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, INEL

    SciTech Connect

    Prahl, C.J.

    1992-01-01

    Geologic and hydrologic data collected by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) are used to evaluate the existing ground water monitoring well network completed in the upper portion of the Snake River Plain aquifer (SRPA) beneath the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). The USGS data analyzed and compared in this study include: (a) lithologic, geophysical, and stratigraphic information, including the conceptual geologic models intrawell, ground water flow measurement (Tracejector tests) and (c) dedicated, submersible, sampling group elevations. Qualitative evaluation of these data indicate that the upper portion of the SRPA is both heterogeneous and anisotropic at the scale of the ICPP monitoring well network. Tracejector test results indicate that the hydraulic interconnection and spatial configuration of water-producing zones is extremely complex within the upper portion of the SRPA. The majority of ICPP monitoring wells currently are equipped to sample ground water only the upper lithostratigraphic intervals of the SRPA, primarily basalt flow groups E, EF, and F. Depth-specific hydrogeochemical sampling and analysis are necessary to determine if ground water quality varies significantly between the various lithostratigraphic units adjacent to individual sampling pumps.

  19. Influences of body size and environmental factors on autumn downstream migration of bull trout in the Boise River, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Monnot, L.; Dunham, J.B.; Hoem, T.; Koetsier, P.

    2008-01-01

    Many fishes migrate extensively through stream networks, yet patterns are commonly described only in terms of the origin and destination of migration (e.g., between natal and feeding habitats). To better understand patterns of migration in bull trout,Salvelinus confluentus we studied the influences of body size (total length [TL]) and environmental factors (stream temperature and discharge) on migrations in the Boise River basin, Idaho. During the autumns of 2001-2003, we tracked the downstream migrations of 174 radio-tagged bull trout ranging in size from 21 to 73 cm TL. The results indicated that large bull trout (>30 cm) were more likely than small fish to migrate rapidly downstream after spawning in headwater streams in early autumn. Large bull trout also had a higher probability of arriving at the current terminus of migration in the system, Arrowrock Reservoir. The rate of migration by small bull trout was more variable and individuals were less likely to move into Arrowrock Reservoir. The rate of downstream migration by all fish was slower when stream discharge was greater. Temperature was not associated with the rate of migration. These findings indicate that fish size and environmentally related changes in behavior have important influences on patterns of migration. In a broader context, these results and other recent work suggest, at least in some cases, that commonly used classifications of migratory behavior may not accurately reflect the full range of behaviors and variability among individuals (or life stages) and environmental conditions. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  20. Ichnology of fine-grained mixed carbonate-siliciclastic turbidites, Wood River Formation, Pennsylvanian-Permian south-central Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, B.R. ); Link, P.K. )

    1991-06-01

    In south-central Idaho, the Wood River Formation (Pennsylvanian-Permian) contains a stratigraphic megacycle over 2,000 m thick that is composed of fine-grained mixed carbonate-siliciclastic turbidites. Complete and partial (Bouma) turbidite structural sequences in these rocks are arranged in upward thinning cycles 15 to 30 m thick in which top-cut-out (Ta-c) turbidite facies in the lower part grade vertically into base-cut-out (Td-f) turbidites in the upper part. These cycles are interpreted to represent the autocyclic lateral migration of turbidite lobes. A mixed trace fossil assemblage of pascichnia and fordinichnia are present in these rocks and can be separated into pre-depositional and post-turbidite ichnocoenoses. Quiet-water, pre-turbidite deposits are dark-colored, laminated, and carbonaceous, and represent anoxic to dysoxic inter-turbidite basinal conditions; they contain only Chondrites traces. Turbidity currents introduced oxygenated bottom water which fostered the temporary development of a post-turbidite ichnocoenose of pascichnia which is best developed in the medial portion of turbidite beds and lobes. Trace fossil tiering shows that a post-turbidite ichnocoenose of fodinichnia also developed, and persisted after the disappearance of pascichnia. Animals that produced the fodinichnial traces probably were part of an autochthonous benthic fauna rather than a short-lived allochthonous fauna. They may have migrated with the slowly avulsing turbidite lobes and exploited allochthonous oxygen and the carbonaceous food supply.

  1. Analysis of steady-state flow and advective transport in the Eastern Snake River Plain Aquifer System, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Ackerman, D.J.

    1995-10-01

    The regional aquifer system of the eastern Snake River Plain is an important component of the hydrologic system in eastern Idaho. The aquifer was thought to be the largest unified ground-water reservoir on the North American continent but is probably second to the Floridian aquifer in the southeastern United States. Flow in the aquifer is from major recharge areas in the northeastern part of the plain to discharge areas in the southwestern part. A comprehensive analysis of the occurrence and movement of water in the aquifer was presented by Garabedian. The analysis included a description of the recharge and discharge, the hydraulic properties, and a numerical model of the aquifer. The purposes of this report are to: (1) describe compartments in the aquifer that function as intermediate and regional flow systems, (2) describe pathlines for flow originating at or near the water table, and (3) quantify traveltimes for adjective transport originating at or near the water table. The model constructed for this study and described in this report will aid those concerned with the management and protection of the aquifer. The model will serve as a tool to further our understanding of the aquifer and will aid in assessing the needs for future flow and transport studies of the aquifer.

  2. Review of potential interactions between stocked rainbow trout and listed Snake River sockeye salmon in Pettit Lake Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Teuscher, D.

    1996-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if hatchery rainbow trout compete with or prey on juvenile Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka in Pettit Lake, Idaho. In 1995, a total of 8,570 age-0 sockeye and 4,000 hatchery rainbow trout were released in Pettit Lake. After releasing the fish, gillnets were set in the pelagic and littoral zones to collected diet and spatial distribution data. Interactions were assessed monthly from June 1995 through March 1996. Competition for food was discounted based on extremely low diet overlap results observed throughout the sample period. Conversely, predation interactions were more significant. A total of 119 rainbow trout stomachs were analyzed, two contained O. nerka. The predation was limited to one sample period, but when extrapolated to the whole rainbow trout populations results in significant losses. Total consumption of O. nerka by rainbow trout ranged from an estimated 10 to 23% of initial stocking numbers. Predation results contradict earlier findings that stocked rainbow trout do not prey on wild kokanee or sockeye in the Sawtooth Lakes. The contradiction may be explained by a combination of poorly adapted hatchery sockeye and a littoral release site that forced spatial overlap that was not occurring in the wild populations. Releasing sockeye in the pelagic zone may have reduced or eliminated predation losses to rainbow trout.

  3. Ground water in the Raft River Basin, Idaho, with special reference to irrigation use, 1956-60

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mundorff, Maurice John; Sisco, H.G.

    1963-01-01

    In the Raft River basin in south-central Idaho, ground-water withdrawals for irrigation have more than doubled since 1955, when data were compiled for a comprehensive report on the area. The present report summerizes data on the ground-water use and changes in the water regimen during the intervening 5 years. Water levels have declined 10 to 20 feet in the areas of heaviest pumping and 3 to 5 feet throughout the remainder of the area. These water-level declines are related to increased ground-water pumpage and below-normal precipitation in the basin. The total pumpage during the 1960 irrigation season is estimated to be about 127,000 acre-feet, of which about half was consumed by crops or evaporated. The remainder returned to the aquifer. Irrigation development is acting to reduce the amount of underflow out of the basin. The water table can be lowered considerably more before underflow from the basin would be reduced substantially.

  4. Characterize and Quantify Residual Steelhead in the Clearwater River, Idaho, 2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, Chris A.; Bigelow, Patricia E.; Faler, Michael P.

    2003-03-01

    We tagged 4,507 hatchery steelhead from Dworshak National Fish Hatchery (NFH), with Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tags to evaluate factors contributing to residualism. Steelhead lengths from typical growth ponds (System I) averaged 7mm less than those in faster growth ponds (System II) and travel times were 2 days faster. Steelhead were released into Clear Creek, South Fork Clearwater River, and from Dworshak NFH, and detection rates were 54.8%, 60.0% and 58.8%, respectively. The mean detection rates of steelhead analyzed by rearing system were, 51.5%, 59.8%, and 61.8% for System III, System I, and System II, respectively. We PIT tagged an additional 1,302 hatchery steelhead in the North Fork and mainstem Clearwater rivers between April 10 and August 28. Only 73 of these PIT-tagged steelhead were detected at a downstream dam and none were detected after June 14. In the 4 tributaries sampled, 77 steelhead were PIT tagged and released, 35.1% of which were detected emigrating downstream. Steelhead which were sacrificed for coded-wire tag information were also checked for sexual maturity. A total of 302 coded-wire tags were recovered; 87 from the Clearwater River, 119 from the North Fork Clearwater River, 80 from the Dworshak NFH adult return ladder, and 77 from the 4 tributaries. The precocious rate in males was 83.3% to 1.5% in females and the gender ratio was 79.8% males to 20.2% females. Although sample sizes were small, we were able to verify that at least one residual steelhead survived the winter to persist in the Clearwater River. Based on this years data, the majority of steelhead, which do not emigrate during the first couple of weeks after release, are unlikely to emigrate. Final analysis will also include influences of water flow and temperature in emigration success. This information needs to be compared over several years (at least three) for meaningful analysis.

  5. Characterize and Quantify Residual Steelhead in the Clearwater River, Idaho, 2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, Chris A.; Faler, Michael P.

    2003-03-01

    We tagged 4,505 hatchery steelhead from Dworshak National Fish Hatchery (NFH), with Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tags to evaluate factors contributing to residualism. Steelhead lengths from typical growth ponds (System I) averaged 8 mm less than those in System II and travel times were two days faster. Steelhead were released into Clear Creek, South Fork Clearwater River and directly from Dworshak NFH; detection rates were 75.7%, 77.9%, and 76.4%, respectively. The mean detection rates of steelhead by rearing system were 75.8%, 78.4%, and 74.7% for System I, System II, and System III. We PIT tagged an additional 1,131 hatchery steelhead in the North Fork and mainstem Clearwater rivers between April 9 and September 19. In the four tributaries sampled, 85 steelhead were PIT tagged and released, 57.6% were detected emigrating downstream. A total of 149 coded-wire tags were recovered; 18 were tagged at Dworshak NFH in 2000 and two in 1999. Additionally, 20 were released from the Clearwater Fish Hatchery and nine were released in Oregon. Although sample sizes were small, we were able to verify that at least 52 residual steelhead survived the winter to persist in the Clearwater River. These 52 steelhead were PIT tagged in 2000 and detected at Lower Granite Dam emigrating in 2001. Based on this years data, the majority of steelhead, which do not emigrate during the first couple of weeks after release, are unlikely to emigrate. Final analysis will also include influences of water flow and temperature in emigration success. This information needs to be compared over several years for meaningful analysis.

  6. Quality of groundwater and surface water, Wood River Valley, south-central Idaho, July and August 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hopkins, Candice B.; Bartolino, James R.

    2013-01-01

    Residents and resource managers of the Wood River Valley of south-central Idaho are concerned about the effects that population growth might have on the quality of groundwater and surface water. As part of a multi-phase assessment of the groundwater resources in the study area, the U.S. Geological Survey evaluated the quality of water at 45 groundwater and 5 surface-water sites throughout the Wood River Valley during July and August 2012. Water samples were analyzed for field parameters (temperature, pH, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen, and alkalinity), major ions, boron, iron, manganese, nutrients, and Escherichia coli (E.coli) and total coliform bacteria. This study was conducted to determine baseline water quality throughout the Wood River Valley, with special emphasis on nutrient concentrations. Water quality in most samples collected did not exceed U.S. Environmental Protection Agency standards for drinking water. E. coli bacteria, used as indicators of water quality, were detected in all five surface-water samples and in two groundwater samples collected. Some analytes have aesthetic-based recommended drinking water standards; one groundwater sample exceeded recommended iron concentrations. Nitrate plus nitrite concentrations varied, but tended to be higher near population centers and in agricultural areas than in tributaries and less populated areas. These higher nitrate plus nitrite concentrations were not correlated with boron concentrations or the presence of bacteria, common indicators of sources of nutrients to water. None of the samples collected exceeded drinking-water standards for nitrate or nitrite. The concentration of total dissolved solids varied considerably in the waters sampled; however a calcium-magnesium-bicarbonate water type was dominant (43 out of 50 samples) in both the groundwater and surface water. Three constituents that may be influenced by anthropogenic activity (chloride, boron, and nitrate plus nitrite) deviate from this pattern and show a wide distribution of concentrations in the unconfined aquifer, indicating possible anthropogenic influence. Time-series plots of historical water-quality data indicated that nitrate does not seem to be increasing or decreasing in groundwater over time; however, time-series plots of chloride concentrations indicate that chloride may be increasing in some wells. The small amount of temporal variability in nitrate concentrations indicates a lack of major temporal changes to groundwater inputs.

  7. 78 FR 4377 - Idaho Panhandle National Forests, Coeur d'Alene River Ranger District, Shoshone County, ID...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-22

    ...The Forest Service will prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) on a proposal to accomplish vegetation management in the Beaver Creek Resource Area, which is located on National Forest System lands administered by the Idaho Panhandle National Forests in Shoshone County, Idaho. The proposed action would include timber harvest (commercial thin, shelterwood, improvement cut, and seed tree......

  8. Geothermal Systems In The Snake River Plain Idaho Characterized By The Hotspot Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielson, D. L.; Delahunty, C.; Shervais, J. W.

    2012-12-01

    The Snake River Plain (SRP) is potentially the largest geothermal province in the world. It is postulated that the SRP results from passage of the North American Plate over the Yellowstone mantle plume. This has resulted in felsic, caldera-related volcanism followed by voluminous eruptions of basalt. Compilations of subsurface temperature data demonstrate the masking effect of the Snake River Aquifer. As a consequence, here has been little serious geothermal exploration within the center of the plain; although there are numerous examples of low-temperature fluids, as well as the Raft River geothermal system, on the southern flanks of the SRP. Project Hotspot was designed to investigate the geothermal potential of the SRP through the coring and subsequent scientific evaluation of three holes, each representing a different geothermal environment. These are located at Kimama, north of Burley, in the center of the plain; at Kimberly near Twin Falls on the southern margin of the plain; and at Mountain Home Air Force base in the central part of the western SRP. Both the Kimberly and Mountain Home sites are located in areas that have warm wells and hot springs, whereas, the Kimama site has neither surface nor subsurface thermal manifestations. All of the sites studied here were sampled using slim hole coring techniques in conjunction with a bottom hole temperature probe developed by DOSECC. Our first hole at Kimama in the center of the eastern SRP was cored to a depth of 1,912 m. Temperature measurements showed the SRP fresh water aquifer extends to a depth of 965 m and masks the underlying high temperature gradient of 74.5oC/Km. The core hole at Kimberly reached a depth of 1,959 m and demonstrated a large low-temperature resource of >50oC below 800 m. A core hole at Mountain Home AFB in the eastern SRP reached a depth of 1,821 m and demonstrated the presence of an intermediate- to high-temperature artesian resource that has a clear magmatic association, with measured temperatures of up to 140oC and extrapolated equilibrium temperatures of 150oC. Calculated equilibrium temperatures of the artesian water samples vary from ~134oC to 154oC (Lachmar et al 2012; GRC Transactions). The Kimama hole greatly expanded the depth extent of the Snake River aquifer. However, beneath the masking effect of the aquifer, high temperature gradients were encountered suggesting that high-temperature resources could be present, but their identification could be difficult. The Kimberly hole demonstrated that low-temperature resources along the southern flank of the SRP can have considerable depth extent and are higher volume than previously anticipated. The overall architecture of this large low-temperature system deserves further investigation. Hole MH-2 Mountain Home AFB in the central part of the western SRP has encountered the upper part of a high temperature geothermal resource that also remains to be fully evaluated.

  9. Gas Bubble Trauma Monitoring in the Clearwater River Drainage, Idaho 1998.

    SciTech Connect

    Cochnauer, Tim

    1998-12-01

    Select portions of the Clearwater and North Fork of the Clearwater rivers were electroshocked to estimate the incidence of gas bubble trauma (GBT) occurring in resident fish populations for the spring and summer months of 1998. The study area was divided into four sections and sampled weekly during periods of spill and non-spill from Dworshak Dam. Five thousand five hundred and forty one fish, representing 22 different species, were captured and examined for GBT. Two fish were detected with signs of GBT; exhibiting the lowest incidence of GBT in the last four years (0.04%). Reduced discharge and lower levels of total dissolved gases may have resulted in lower incidence of GBT in the 1998 monitoring period.

  10. Bimodal magmatism, basaltic volcanic styles, tectonics, and geomorphic processes of the eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hughes, S.S.; Smith, R.P.; Hackett, W.R.; McCurry, M.; Anderson, S.R.; Ferdock, G.C.

    1997-01-01

    Geology presented in this field guide covers a wide spectrum of internal and surficial processes of the eastern Snake River Plain, one of the largest components of the combined late Cenozoic igneous provinces of the western United States. Focus is on widespread Quaternary basaltic plains volcanism that produced coalescent shields and complex eruptive centers that yielded compositionally evolved magmas. The guide is constructed in several parts beginning with discussion sections that provide an overview of the geology followed by road directions, with explanations, for specific locations. The geology overview briefly summarizes the collective knowledge gained, and petrologic implications made, over the past few decades. The field guide covers plains volcanism, lava flow emplacement, basaltic shield growth, phreatomagmatic eruptions, and complex and evolved eruptive centers. Locations and explanations are also provided for the hydrogeology, groundwater contamination, and environmental issues such as range fires and cataclysmic floods associated with the region.

  11. Aquifer-test results, direction of ground-water flow, and 1984-90 annual ground-water pumpage for irrigation, lower Big Lost River Valley, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bassick, M.D.; Jones, M.L.

    1992-01-01

    The study area (see index map of Idaho), part of the Big Lost River drainage basin, is at the northern side of the eastern Snake River Plain. The lower Big Lost River Valley extends from the confluence of Antelope Creek and the Big Lost River to about 4 mi south of Arco and encompasses about 145 mi2 (see map showing water-level contours). The study area is about 18 mi long and, at its narrowest, 4 mi wide. Arco, Butte City, and Moore, with populations of 1,016, 59, and 190, respectively, in 1990, are the only incorporated towns. The entire study area, except the extreme northwestern part, is in Butte City. The study area boundary is where alluvium and colluvium pinch out and abut against the White Knob Mountains (chiefly undifferentiated sedimentary rock with lesser amounts of volcanic rock) on the west and the Lost River Range (chiefly sedimentary rock) on the east. Gravel and sand in the valley fill compose the main aquifer. The southern boundary is approximately where Big Lost River valley fill intercalates with or abuts against basalt of the Snake River Group. Spring ground-water levels and flow in the Big Lost River depend primarily on temperature and the amount and timing of precipitation within the entire drainage basin. Periods of abundant water supply and water shortages are, therefore, related to the amount of annual precipitation. Surface reservoir capacity in the valley (Mackay Reservoir, about 20 mi northwest of Moore) is only 20 percent of the average annual flow of the Big Lost River (Crosthwaite and others, 1970, p. 3). Stored surface water is generally unavailable for carryover from years of abundant water supply to help relieve drought conditions in subsequent years. Many farmers have drilled irrigation wells to supplement surface-water supplies and to increase irrigated acreage. Average annual flow of the Big Lost River below Mackay Reservoir near Mackay (gaging station 13127000, not shown) in water years 1905, 1913-14, and 1920-90 was about 224,600 acre-ft; average annual flow of the Big Lost River near Arco (gaging station 13132500; see map showing water-level contours) in water years 1947-61, 1967-80, and 1983-90 was about 79,000 acre-ft (Harenberg and others, 1991, p. 254-255). Moore Canal and East Side Ditch divert water from the Big Lost River at the Moore Diversion, 3 mi north of Moore (see map showing water-level contours) and supply water for irrigation near the margins of the valley. When water supply is average or greater, water in the Big Lost River flows through the study area and onto the Snake River Plain, where it evaporates or infiltrates into the Snake River Plain aquifer. When water supply is below average, water in the Big Lost River commonly does not reach Arco; rather, it is diverted for irrigation in the interior of the valley, evaporates, or infiltrates to the valley-fill aquifer. This report describes the results of a study by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Idaho Department of Water Resources, to collect hydrologic data needed to help address water-supply problems in the Big Lost River Valley. Work involved (1) field inventory of 81 wells, including 46 irrigation wells; (2) measurement of water levels in 154 wells in March 1991; (3) estimation of annual ground-water pumpage for irrigation from 1984 through 1990; and (4) analysis of results of an aquifer test conducted southwest of Moore. All data obtained during this study may be inspected at the U.S. Geological Survey, Idaho District office, Boise.

  12. Streamflow monitoring and statistics for development of water rights claims for Wild and Scenic Rivers, Owyhee Canyonlands Wilderness, Idaho, 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, Molly S.; Fosness, Ryan L.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), collected streamflow data in 2012 and estimated streamflow statistics for stream segments designated "Wild," "Scenic," or "Recreational" under the National Wild and Scenic Rivers System in the Owyhee Canyonlands Wilderness in southwestern Idaho. The streamflow statistics were used by BLM to develop and file a draft, federal reserved water right claim in autumn 2012 to protect federally designated "outstanding remarkable values" in the stream segments. BLM determined that the daily mean streamflow equaled or exceeded 20 and 80 percent of the time during bimonthly periods (two periods per month) and the bankfull streamflow are important streamflow thresholds for maintaining outstanding remarkable values. Prior to this study, streamflow statistics estimated using available datasets and tools for the Owyhee Canyonlands Wilderness were inaccurate for use in the water rights claim. Streamflow measurements were made at varying intervals during February–September 2012 at 14 monitoring sites; 2 of the monitoring sites were equipped with telemetered streamgaging equipment. Synthetic streamflow records were created for 11 of the 14 monitoring sites using a partial‑record method or a drainage-area-ratio method. Streamflow records were obtained directly from an operating, long-term streamgage at one monitoring site, and from discontinued streamgages at two monitoring sites. For 10 sites analyzed using the partial-record method, discrete measurements were related to daily mean streamflow at a nearby, telemetered “index” streamgage. Resulting regression equations were used to estimate daily mean and annual peak streamflow at the monitoring sites during the full period of record for the index sites. A synthetic streamflow record for Sheep Creek was developed using a drainage-area-ratio method, because measured streamflows did not relate well to any index site to allow use of the partial-record method. The synthetic and actual daily mean streamflow records were used to estimate daily mean streamflow that was exceeded 80, 50, and 20 percent of the time (80-, 50-, and 20-percent exceedances) for bimonthly and annual periods. Bankfull streamflow statistics were calculated by fitting the synthetic and actual annual peak streamflow records to a log Pearson Type III distribution using Bulletin 17B guidelines in the U.S. Geological Survey PeakFQ program. The coefficients of determination (R2) for the regressions between the monitoring and index sites ranged from 0.74 for Wickahoney Creek to 0.98 for the West Fork Bruneau River and Deep Creek. Confidence in computed streamflow statistics is highest among other sites for the East Fork Owyhee River and the West Fork Bruneau River on the basis of regression statistics, visual fit of the related data, and the range and number of streamflow measurements. Streamflow statistics for sites with the greatest uncertainty included Big Jacks, Little Jacks, Cottonwood, Wickahoney, and Sheep Creeks. The uncertainty in computed streamflow statistics was due to a number of factors which included the distance of index sites relative to monitoring sites, relatively low streamflow conditions that occurred during the study, and the limited number and range of streamflow measurements. However, the computed streamflow statistics are considered the best possible estimates given available datasets in the remote study area. Streamflow measurements over a wider range of hydrologic and climatic conditions would improve the relations between streamflow characteristics at monitoring and index sites. Additionally, field surveys are needed to verify if the streamflows selected for the water rights claims are sufficient for maintaining outstanding remarkable values in the Wild and Scenic rivers included in the study.

  13. Age dating ground water by use of chlorofluorocarbons (CCl{sub 3}F and CCl{sub 2}F{sub 2}), and distribution of chlorofluorocarbons in the unsaturated zone, Snake River Plain aquifer, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Busenberg, E.; Weeks, E.P.; Plummer, L.N.; Bartholomay, R.C.

    1993-04-01

    Detectable concentrations of chlorofluorocarbons (CFC`s) were observed in ground water and unsaturated-zone air at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and vicinity. The recharge ages of waters were determined to be from 4 to more than 50 years on the basis of CFC concentrations and other environmental data; most ground waters have ages of 14 to 30 years. These results indicate that young ground water was added at various locations to the older regional ground water (greater than 50 years) within and outside the INEL boundaries. The wells drilled into the Snake River Plain aquifer at INEL sampled mainly this local recharge. The Big Lost River, Birch Creek, the Little Lost River, and the Mud Lake-Terreton area appear to be major sources of recharge of the Snake River Plain aquifer at INEL. An average recharge temperature of 9.7{plus_minus}1.3{degrees}C (degrees Celsius) was calculated from dissolved nitrogen and argon concentrations in the ground waters, a temperature that is similar to the mean annual soil temperature of 9{degrees}C measured at INEL. This similarity indicates that the aquifer was recharged at INEL and not at higher elevations that would have cooler soil temperatures than INEL. Soil-gas concentrations at Test Area North (TAN) are explained by diffusion theory.

  14. Oxygen and strontium isotopic studies of basaltic lavas from the Snake River plain, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leeman, William P.; Whelan, Joseph F.

    1983-01-01

    The Snake Creek-Williams Canyon pluton of the southern Snake Range crops out over an area of about 30 km2, about 60 km southeast of Ely, Nev. This Jurassic intrusion displays large and systematic chemical and mineralogical zonation over a horizontal distance of 5 km. Major-element variations compare closely with Dalyls average andesite-dacite-rhyolite over an SiO2 range of 63 to 76 percent. For various reasons it was originally thought that assimilation played a dominant role in development of the Snake Creek-Williams Canyon pluton. However, based on modeling of more recently obtained trace element and isotopic data, we have concluded that the zonation is the result of in-situ fractional crystallization, with little assimilation at the level of crystallization. This report summarizes data available for each of the mineral species present in the zoned intrusion. Special attention has been paid to trends We present oxygen and strontium isotopic data for olivine tholeiites, evolved (that is, differentiated and (or) contaminated) lavas, rhyolites, and crustal- derived xenoliths from the Snake River Plain. These data show that the olivine tholeiites are fairly uniform in d80 (5.1 to 6.2) and 87Sr/86Sr (0.7056 to 0.7076) and reveal no correlation between these ratios. The tholeiites are considered representative of mantle-derived magmas that have not interacted significantly with crustal material or meteoric water. The evolved lavas display a wider range in d 80 (5.6 to 7.6) and 87Sr/86Sr (0.708 to 0.717) with positive correlations between these ratios in some suites but not in others. Crustal xenoliths have high and variable 8?Sr/86Sr (0.715 to 0.830) and d80 values that vary widely (6.7 to 9.2) and are a few permil greater than d80 values of the Snake River basalts. Thus, isotopic data for the evolved lavas are permissive of small degrees of contamination by crustal rocks similar to the most d80-depleted xenoliths. The d80 enrichments in some evolved lavas also are consistent with crystal fractionation processes and do not necessarily require bulk interaction with crustal rocks. Enrichment in d80 but not in 87Sr/86Sr in one suite of evolved lavas suggests that crustal contamination may not be essential to the petrogenesis of those lavas. Other suites of evolved lavas display large variations in 87Sr/86Sr that reflect at least some selective contamination with 87St. Bulk solid/liquid oxygen-isotope fractionation factors (a's) calculated for the evolved lavas from Craters of the Moon National Monument are comparatively large. These a's are dependent upon the nature and proportions of phases removed by crystal fractionation; basaltic lava a's differ from latitic lava a?s in accordance with different phenocryst assemblages in these rocks. Snake River Plain rhyolites are isotopically distinct from both the analyzed crustal xenoliths and olivine tholeiites. Their origin remains poorly understood, but crustal or sub-crustal sources may be viable. In the first case, they must be derived by anatexis of material distinct from the analyzed crustal xenoliths. In the second case, they must be derived from material unlike the source for tholeiites. No cogenetic relation with the tholeiites seems likely on the basis of available data. that might relate to the variation in the chemical petrology of the pluton.

  15. Evaluation of well-purging effects on water-quality results for samples collected from the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer underlying the Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knobel, LeRoy L.

    2006-01-01

    This report presents qualitative and quantitative comparisons of water-quality data from the Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho, to determine if the change from purging three wellbore volumes to one wellbore volume has a discernible effect on the comparability of the data. Historical water-quality data for 30 wells were visually compared to water-quality data collected after purging only 1 wellbore volume from the same wells. Of the 322 qualitatively examined constituent plots, 97.5 percent met 1 or more of the criteria established for determining data comparability. A simple statistical equation to determine if water-quality data collected from 28 wells at the INL with long purge times (after pumping 1 and 3 wellbore volumes of water) were statistically the same at the 95-percent confidence level indicated that 97.9 percent of 379 constituent pairs were equivalent. Comparability of water-quality data determined from both the qualitative (97.5 percent comparable) and quantitative (97.9 percent comparable) evaluations after purging 1 and 3 wellbore volumes of water indicates that the change from purging 3 to 1 wellbore volumes had no discernible effect on comparability of water-quality data at the INL. However, the qualitative evaluation was limited because only October-November 2003 data were available for comparison to historical data. This report was prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy.

  16. Climate-driven changes in scour regime and potential risks to salmonid survival in the Middle Fork Salmon River, Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goode, J.; Buffington, J. M.; Isaak, D.; Tonina, D.; Tetzlaff, D.; Soulsby, C.; Tockner, K.; Thurow, R.; McKean, J. A.; Luce, C.; Wenger, S.; Nagel, D.

    2010-12-01

    The timing and magnitude of streamflow in the Pacific Northwest show measurable changes to twentieth century climate change. How the physical characteristics of fluvial systems in this region will respond, and how such changes will affect salmonid species remain unresolved questions. Flow and sediment transport conditions during the spawning and incubation periods are of particular concern. To enhance survival, the depth of egg burial must exceed the depth to which the bed scours during flows within the incubation period. Here, we investigate whether climate-driven shifts in the timing and depth of bed scour will impact salmonid spawning success in the Middle Fork Salmon River (MFSR), Idaho. The MFSR is a snowmelt-dominated system that supports federally listed salmonids, and is the largest unregulated basin in the conterminous US. As a first-order analysis, we ask whether changes in the magnitude and timing of the typical annual flood (i.e., bankfull) will affect scour risk for incubating salmonids. The spatial distribution of critical scour (that which exceeds egg burial depths for different salmonid populations of interest) is predicted at basin scales using current bed material grain size and bankfull shear stress. Grain size and bankfull shear stress are predicted from empirical functions of drainage area and slope determined from field surveys of 121 channel reaches, coupled with digital elevation models to extrapolate these relationships across the landscape. The spatial distribution of critical scour for predicted changes in bankfull flow (altered magnitude and timing) are compared to known salmonid spawning sites within the basin to assess location of scour risk. Future work will examine predicted changes in the magnitude and variability of flows during the incubation period, as well as differences in predicted impacts across a range of hydroclimates (snowmelt- vs. rainfall-dominated basins) in the western US and Europe.

  17. Temperatures, heat flow, and water chemistry from drill holes in the Raft River geothermal system, Cassia County, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Nathenson, M.; Urban, T.C.; Diment, W.H.; Nehring, N.L.

    1980-01-01

    The Raft River area of Idaho contains a geothermal system of intermediate temperatures (approx. = 150/sup 0/C) at depths of about 1.5 km. Outside of the geothermal area, temperature measurements in three intermediate-depth drill holes (200 to 400 m) and one deep well (1500 m) indicate that the regional conductive heat flow is about 2.5 ..mu..cal/cm/sup 2/ sec or slightly higher and that temperature gradients range from 50/sup 0/ to 60/sup 0/C/km in the sediments, tuffs, and volcanic debris that fill the valley. Within and close to the geothermal system, temperature gradients in intermediate-depth drill holes (100 to 350 m) range from 120/sup 0/ to more than 600/sup 0/C/km, the latter value found close to an artesian hot well that was once a hot spring. Temperatures measured in three deep wells (1 to 2 km) within the geothermal area indicate that two wells are in or near an active upflow zone, whereas one well shows a temperature reversal. Assuming that the upflow is fault controlled, the flow is estimated to be 6 liter/sec per kilometer of fault length. From shut-in pressure data and the estimated flow, the permeability times thickness of the fault is calculated to be 2.4 darcy m. Chemical analyses of water samples from old flowing wells, recently completed intermediate-depth drill holes, and deep wells show a confused pattern. Geothermometer temperatures of shallow samples suggest significant re-equilibration at temperatures below those found in the deep wells. Silica geothermometer temperatures of water samples from the deep wells are in reasonable agreement with measured temperatures, whereas Na-K-Ca temperatures are significantly higher than measured temperatures. The chemical characteristics of the water, as indicated by chloride concentration, are extremely variable in shallow and deep samples. Chloride concentrations of the deep samples range from 580 to 2200 mg/kg.

  18. Stream-Sediment Geochemistry in Mining-Impacted Drainages of the Yankee Fork of the Salmon River, Custer County, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frost, Thomas P.; Box, Stephen E.

    2009-01-01

    This reconnaissance study was undertaken at the request of the USDA Forest Service, Region 4, to assess the geochemistry, in particular the mercury and selenium contents, of mining-impacted sediments in the Yankee Fork of the Salmon River in Custer County Idaho. The Yankee Fork has been the site of hard-rock and placer mining, primarily for gold and silver, starting in the 1880s. Major dredge placer mining from the 1930s to 1950s in the Yankee Fork disturbed about a 10-kilometer reach. Mercury was commonly used in early hard-rock mining and placer operations for amalgamation and recovery of gold. During the late 1970s, feasibility studies were done on cyanide-heap leach recovery of gold from low-grade ores of the Sunbeam and related deposits. In the mid-1990s a major open-pit bulk-vat leach operation was started at the Grouse Creek Mine. This operation shut down when gold values proved to be lower than expected. Mercury in stream sediments in the Yankee Fork ranges from below 0.02 ppm to 7 ppm, with the highest values associated with old mill locations and lode and placer mines. Selenium ranges from below the detection limit for this study of 0.2 ppm to 4 ppm in Yankee Fork sediment samples. The generally elevated selenium content in the sediment samples reflect the generally high selenium contents in the volcanic rocks that underlie the Yankee Fork and the presence of gold and silver selenides in some of the veins that were exploited in the early phases of mining.

  19. Patterns of hybridization of nonnative cutthroat trout and hatchery rainbow trout with native redband trout in the Boise River, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neville, Helen M.; Dunham, Jason B.

    2011-01-01

    Hybridization is one of the greatest threats to native fishes. Threats from hybridization are particularly important for native trout species as stocking of nonnative trout has been widespread within the ranges of native species, thus increasing the potential for hybridization. While many studies have documented hybridization between native cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarkii and nonnative rainbow trout O. mykiss, fewer have focused on this issue in native rainbow trout despite widespread threats from introductions of both nonnative cutthroat trout and hatchery rainbow trout. Here, we describe the current genetic (i.e., hybridization) status of native redband trout O. mykiss gairdneri populations in the upper Boise River, Idaho. Interspecific hybridization was widespread (detected at 14 of the 41 sampled locations), but high levels of hybridization between nonnative cutthroat trout and redband trout were detected in only a few streams. Intraspecific hybridization was considerably more widespread (almost 40% of sampled locations), and several local populations of native redband trout have been almost completely replaced with hatchery coastal rainbow trout O. mykiss irideus; other populations exist as hybrid swarms, some are in the process of being actively invaded, and some are maintaining genetic characteristics of native populations. The persistence of some redband trout populations with high genetic integrity provides some opportunity to conserve native genomes, but our findings also highlight the complex decisions facing managers today. Effective management strategies in this system may include analysis of the specific attributes of each site and population to evaluate the relative risks posed by isolation versus maintaining connectivity, identifying potential sites for control or eradication of nonnative trout, and long-term monitoring of the genetic integrity of remaining redband trout populations to track changes in their status.

  20. Application of a parameter-estimation technique to modeling the regional aquifer underlying the eastern Snake River plain, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garabedian, Stephen P.

    1986-01-01

    A nonlinear, least-squares regression technique for the estimation of ground-water flow model parameters was applied to the regional aquifer underlying the eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho. The technique uses a computer program to simulate two-dimensional, steady-state ground-water flow. Hydrologic data for the 1980 water year were used to calculate recharge rates, boundary fluxes, and spring discharges. Ground-water use was estimated from irrigated land maps and crop consumptive-use figures. These estimates of ground-water withdrawal, recharge rates, and boundary flux, along with leakance, were used as known values in the model calibration of transmissivity. Leakance values were adjusted between regression solutions by comparing model-calculated to measured spring discharges. In other simulations, recharge and leakance also were calibrated as prior-information regression parameters, which limits the variation of these parameters using a normalized standard error of estimate. Results from a best-fit model indicate a wide areal range in transmissivity from about 0.05 to 44 feet squared per second and in leakance from about 2.2x10 -9 to 6.0 x 10 -8 feet per second per foot. Along with parameter values, model statistics also were calculated, including the coefficient of correlation between calculated and observed head (0.996), the standard error of the estimates for head (40 feet), and the parameter coefficients of variation (about 10-40 percent). Additional boundary flux was added in some areas during calibration to achieve proper fit to ground-water flow directions. Model fit improved significantly when areas that violated model assumptions were removed. It also improved slightly when y-direction (northwest-southeast) transmissivity values were larger than x-direction (northeast-southwest) transmissivity values. The model was most sensitive to changes in recharge, and in some areas, to changes in transmissivity, particularly near the spring discharge area from Milner Dam to King Hill.

  1. Tests of ground-penetrating radar and induced polarization for mapping fluvial mine tailings on the floor of the Couer d'Alene River, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Campbell, David L.; Wynn, Jefferey C.; Box, Stephen E.; Bookstrom, Arthur A.; Horton, Robert J.

    1997-01-01

    In order to investigate sequences of toxic mine tailings that have settled in the bed of the Coeur d'Alene River, Idaho, (see figure 1) we improvised ways to make geophysical measurements on the river floor. To make ground penetrating radar (GPR) profiles, we mounted borehole antennas on a skid that was towed along the river bottom. To make induced polarization (IP) profiles, we devised a bottom streamer from a garden hose, lead strips, PVC standoffs, and insulated wire. Each approach worked and provided uniquely different information about the buried toxic sediments. GPR showed shallow stratigraphy, but did not directly detect the presence of contaminating metals. IP showed a zone of high chargeability that is probably due to pockets of relatively higher metal content. Neither method was able to define the base of the fluvial tailings section, at least in part because the IP streamer was deliberately designed to sample only the top three meters of sediments to maximize horizontal resolution.

  2. Hydrology and digital simulation of the regional aquifer system, eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garabedian, S.P.

    1992-01-01

    The transient model was used to simulate aquifer changes from 1981 to 2010 in response to three hypothetical development alternatives: (1) Continuation of 1980 hydrologic conditions, (2) increased pumpage, and (3) increased recharge. Simulation of continued 1980 hydrologic conditions for 30 years indicated that head declines of 2 to 8 feet might be expected in the central part of the plain. The magnitude of simulated head declines was con- sistent with head declines measured during the 1980 water year. Larger declines were calculated along model boundaries, but these changes may have resulted from underestimation of tribu- tary drainage-basin underflow and inadequate aquifer definition. Simulation of increased ground-water pumpage (an additional 2,400 cubic feet per second) for 30 years indicated head declines of 10 to 50 feet in the central part of the plain. These relatively large head declines were accompanied by increased simulated river leakage of 50 percent and decreased spring discharge of 20 percent. The effect of increased recharge (800 cubic feet per sec- ond) for 30 years was a rise in simulated heads of 0 to 5 feet in the central part of the plain.

  3. Geology of the Arco-Big Southern Butte area, eastern Snake River Plain, and volcanic hazards to the radioactive waste management complex, and other waste storage and reactor facilities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuntz, Mel A.; Kork, John O.

    1978-01-01

    The Arco-Big Southern Butte area of the eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho, includes a volcanic rift zone and more than 70 Holocene and late Quaternary basalt volcanoes. The Arco volcanic rift zone extends southeast for 50 km from Arco to about 10 km southeast of Big Southern Butte. The rift zone is the locus of extensional faults, graben, fissure basaltic volcanic vents, several rhyolite domes at Big Southern Butte, and a ferrolatite volcano at Cedar Butte. Limited radiometric age data and geological field criteria suggest that all volcanism in the area is younger than 700,000 years; at least 67 separate basaltic eruptions are estimated to have occurred within the last 200,000 years. The average volcanic recurrence interval for the Arco-Big Southern Butte area is approximately one eruption per 3,000 years. Radioactive waste storage and reactor facilities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory may be subject to potential volcanic hazards. The geologic history and inferred past volcanic events in the Arco-Big Southern Butte area provide a basis for assessing the volcanic hazard. It is recommended that a radiometric age-dating study be performed on rocks in cored drill holes to provide a more precise estimate of the eruption recurrence interval for the region surrounding and including the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. It is also recommended that several geophysical monitoring systems (dry tilt and seismic) be installed to provide adequate warning of future volcanic eruptions.

  4. Quality of the ground water in basalt of the Columbia River group, Washington, Oregon, and Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newcomb, Reuben Clair

    1972-01-01

    The ground water within the 50,000-square-mile area of the layered basalt of the Columbia River Group is a generally uniform bicarbonate water having calcium and sodium in nearly equal amounts as the principal cations. water contains a relatively large amount of silica. The 525 chemical analyses indicate that the prevalent ground water is of two related kinds--a calcium and a sodium water. The sodium water is more common beneath the floors of the main synclinal valleys; the calcium water, elsewhere. In addition to the prevalent type, five special types form a small part of the ground water; four of these are natural and one is artificial. The four natural special types are: (1) calcium sodium chloride waters that rise from underlying sedimentary rocks west of the Cascade Range, (2) mineralized water at or near warm or hot springs, (3) water having unusual ion concentrations, especially of chloride, near sedimentary rocks intercalated at the edges of the basalt, and (4) more mineralized water near one locality of excess carbon dioxide. The one artificial kind of special ground water has resulted from unintentional artificial recharge incidental to irrigation in parts of central Washington. The solids dissolved in the ground water have been picked up on the surface, within the overburden, and from minerals and glasses within the basalt. Evidence for the removal of ions from solution is confined to calcium and magnesium, only small amounts of which are present in some of the sodium-rich water. Minor constituents, such as the heavy metals, alkali metals, and alkali earths, occur in the ground water in trace, or small, amounts. The natural radioactivity of the ground waters is very low. Except for a few of the saline calcium sodium chloride waters and a few occurrences of excessive nitrate, the ground water generally meets the common standards of water good for most ordinary uses, but some of it can be improved by treatment. The water is clear and colorless and has a temperature slightly higher than would be indicated by the accepted 'normal' earth gradient. A small amount of iron is present in some of the water and a slight amount of hydrogen sulfide gas is present in water from most wells. Carbon-14 determinations indicate that the water has been underground for periods ranging from modern times to several tens of thousands of years. Generally, an increase in the age of the water corresponds to depth and with location in the central parts of the main structural basins. The evidence of correlations between chemical characteristics and the age of the water is limited to the excessive nitrate which occurs in young, shallow ground water and to the apparent base-exchange removal of calcium and magnesium that has occurred where the ground water is old.

  5. Statistical tables and charts showing geochemical variation in the Mesoproterozoic Big Creek, Apple Creek, and Gunsight formations, Lemhi group, Salmon River Mountains and Lemhi Range, central Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindsey, David A.; Tysdal, Russell G.; Taggart, Joseph E., Jr.

    2002-01-01

    The principal purpose of this report is to provide a reference archive for results of a statistical analysis of geochemical data for metasedimentary rocks of Mesoproterozoic age of the Salmon River Mountains and Lemhi Range, central Idaho. Descriptions of geochemical data sets, statistical methods, rationale for interpretations, and references to the literature are provided. Three methods of analysis are used: R-mode factor analysis of major oxide and trace element data for identifying petrochemical processes, analysis of variance for effects of rock type and stratigraphic position on chemical composition, and major-oxide ratio plots for comparison with the chemical composition of common clastic sedimentary rocks.

  6. Reliability and longitudinal change of detrital-zircon age spectra in the Snake River system, Idaho and Wyoming: An example of reproducing the bumpy barcode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Link, Paul Karl; Fanning, C. Mark; Beranek, Luke P.

    2005-12-01

    Detrital-zircon age-spectra effectively define provenance in Holocene and Neogene fluvial sands from the Snake River system of the northern Rockies, U.S.A. SHRIMP U-Pb dates have been measured for forty-six samples (about 2700 zircon grains) of fluvial and aeolian sediment. The detrital-zircon age distributions are repeatable and demonstrate predictable longitudinal variation. By lumping multiple samples to attain populations of several hundred grains, we recognize distinctive, provenance-defining zircon-age distributions or "barcodes," for fluvial sedimentary systems of several scales, within the upper and middle Snake River system. Our detrital-zircon studies effectively define the geochronology of the northern Rocky Mountains. The composite detrital-zircon grain distribution of the middle Snake River consists of major populations of Neogene, Eocene, and Cretaceous magmatic grains plus intermediate and small grain populations of multiply recycled Grenville (950 to 1300 Ma) grains and Yavapai-Mazatzal province grains (1600 to 1800 Ma) recycled through the upper Belt Supergroup and Cretaceous sandstones. A wide range of older Paleoproterozoic and Archean grains are also present. The best-case scenario for using detrital-zircon populations to isolate provenance is when there is a point-source pluton with known age, that is only found in one location or drainage. We find three such zircon age-populations in fluvial sediments downstream from the point-source plutons: Ordovician in the southern Beaverhead Mountains, Jurassic in northern Nevada, and Oligocene in the Albion Mountains core complex of southern Idaho. Large detrital-zircon age-populations derived from regionally well-defined, magmatic or recycled sedimentary, sources also serve to delimit the provenance of Neogene fluvial systems. In the Snake River system, defining populations include those derived from Cretaceous Atlanta lobe of the Idaho batholith (80 to 100 Ma), Eocene Challis Volcanic Group and associated plutons (45 to 52 Ma), and Neogene rhyolitic Yellowstone-Snake River Plain volcanics (0 to 17 Ma). For first-order drainage basins containing these zircon-rich source terranes, or containing a point-source pluton, a 60-grain random sample is sufficient to define the dominant provenance. The most difficult age-distributions to analyze are those that contain multiple small zircon age-populations and no defining large populations. Examples of these include streams draining the Proterozoic and Paleozoic Cordilleran miogeocline in eastern Idaho and Pleistocene loess on the Snake River Plain. For such systems, large sample bases of hundreds of grains, plus the use of statistical methods, may be necessary to distinguish detrital-zircon age-spectra.

  7. Plume-Lithosphere Interaction beneath the Snake River Plain, Idaho: Constraints from Pb, Sr, Nd, and Hf Isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jean, M. M.; Hanan, B. B.; Shervais, J. W.

    2011-12-01

    The Yellowstone-Snake River Plain (YSRP) volcanic province links 17 million years of volcanic activity that extends from the Owyhee Plateau in western Idaho/eastern Oregon to its current terminus underlying the Yellowstone Plateau. This investigation presents new Strontium, Neodymium, Lead, and Hafnium isotopic compositions of 25 basalts that represent four distinct areas of the YSRP (i.e., eastern province, central province, western province, Owyhee Plateau), which transect the ancient cratonic boundary of North America. The purpose of this study is to test and refine models for plume-lithosphere interaction and determines the mantle origin for YSRP basalts. New results shows: (1) low-K tholeiites from the eastern, central, and western SRP have ?Nd (-2 to -5.5), 87Sr/86Sr (0.7060-0.7071) and similar Pb-isotopes [206Pb/204Pb (17.8-18.6), 207Pb/204Pb (15.5-15.66), 208Pb/204Pb (38.4-39.1)]; (2) central SRP tholeiites are enriched in 208Pb/204Pb (~38.5-38.9), relative to eastern SRP basalts and define a 208Pb/204Pb trend, intermediate between the eastern SRP and Craters of the Moon lavas; (3) western SRP high-K basalts are depleted in ?Nd (> -1) and 87Sr/86Sr (0.7050-0.7057), relative to low-K tholeiites, and plot closer to "bulk silicate earth," but are enriched in 206Pb/204Pb (18.66-18.71), and have 207Pb/204Pb (15.62-15.65) and 208Pb/204Pb (39.1-39.2) isotope ratios similar to high-K basalts of Smith Prairie (Boise River Group 2); (4) Silver City basalt (>16.6 Ma) overlaps in Pb-isotope space with Imnaha basalt compositions (Columbia River Basalt Group); (5) new 177Hf/176Hf isotopic data lie above and parallel to the Mantle array in Nd and Hf isotope space and define a linear trend between Leucite Hills lavas and OIB basalts (i.e., Steens and Hawaii); (6) these basalts follow a systematic geographic pattern: eastern and central plain low-K tholeiites have low ?Nd (-3 to -5) and intermediate 206Pb/204Pb (~17.7-18.5), while western plain low-K tholeiites are enriched, i.e., ?Nd (-2 to -4) and 206Pb/204Pb (~18.2-18.6). The geochemical and geospatial observations can be modeled as a mixture between an OIB-like plume source that mixes with subduction-rejuvenated subcontinental lithosphere that varies in age and Sr and Pb isotopic composition from west to east beneath the SRP. The SCLM in the east is indicative of the ancient Wyoming Craton underlying the Yellowstone Plateau (i.e., 87Sr/86Sr (>0.706) and 206Pb/204Pb <18). The SCLM in the west has less radiogenic 87Sr/86Sr (<0.706) and more radiogenic Pb-isotopes (206Pb/204Pb >19), typical of the Mesozoic-Paleozoic margin of the North American craton. The model shows that eastern, central, and western plain low-K tholeiites can be modeled with ~ 97-98% plume component, as opposed to western SRP high-K lavas, which requires ? 99% plume component, while the Silver City basalt has essentially the isotopic composition of the plume component. Yellowstone Plateau basalts have the lowest plume component (< 90%). Additionally, the architecture beneath the SRP allows plume material to flow westward and potentially decompress, thus accounting for high-K volcanism millions of years after the North American continent overrode the plume.

  8. Metal Transport, Heavy Metal Speciation and Microbial Fixation Through Fluvial Subenvironments, Lower Coeur D'Alene River Valley, Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooper, R. L.; Mahoney, J. B.

    2001-12-01

    The lower Coeur d'Alene River Valley of northern Idaho is the site of extensive lead and zinc contamination resulting from both direct riverine tailings disposal and flood remobilization of contaminated sediments derived from the Coeur d'Alene mining district upstream. Variations in the hydrologic regime, redox conditions, porosity/permeability, organic content and microbial activity results in complicated metal transport pathways. Documentation of these pathways is a prerequisite to effective remediation, and requires accurate analysis of lateral and vertical variations. An analytical approach combining sequential extraction, electron microscopy, and microanalysis provides a comprehensive assessment of particulate speciation in this complex hydrologic system. Rigorously controlled sample preparation and a new sequential extraction protocol provide unprecedented insight into the role of metal sequestration in fluvial subenvironments. Four subenvironments were investigated: bedload, overbank (levee), marsh, and lacustrine. Periodic floods remobilize primary ore minerals and secondary minerals from upstream tailings (primarily oxyhydroxides, sulfides and carbonates). The bedload in the lower valley is a reducing environment and acts as a sink for detrital carbonates and sulfides moving downstream. In addition, authigenic/biogenic Fe, Pb and Zn sulfides and phosphates are common in bedload sediments near the sediment/water interface. Flood redistribution of oxide, sulfide and carbonate phases results in periodic contaminant recharge generating a complex system of metal dissolution, mobilization, migration and precipitation. In levee environments, authigenic sulfides from flood scouring are quickly oxidized resulting in development of oxide coated grain surfaces. Stability of detrital minerals on the levee is variable depending on sediment permeability, grain size and mineralogy resulting in a complex stratigraphy of oxide zones mottled with zones dominated by detrital and authigenic carbonate and sulfide phases. Marshes subjected to periodic subaerial exposure/flooding are even more complex and dominated by authigenic and biogenic mineralization. Lacustrine environments are dominated by nanocrystalline inorganic and biogenic sulfide minerals in the upper third of the contaminated sediment column with increasing amounts of silt sized detrital sulfides (especially sphalerite) closer to the premining surface. In pH-neutral subenvironments within the wetlands and lateral lakes of the lower Coeur d'Alene River Valley, microbial fixation plays a critical role in sequestering metals. Complex metal oxyhydroxide phases provided via flood recharge to river edge, marsh and lacustrine environments rapidly dissolve upon encountering anoxic conditions. Microbial activity is extremely effective in removing heavy metals from the water column, producing a nanocrystalline biofilm substrate characterized by ZnS (sphalerite) and non-stoichiometric PbS, FeS, and mixed metal sulfides. These solid phases are inherently unstable, and the sequestered metals become readily available through changes in redox or pH conditions, particularly dam-controlled annual fluctuations in base level, or during removal by bottom-feeding aquatic water fowl. The recognition of the inherent complexity and instability of microbially produced sulfidic material in a pH-neutral environment has important implications for remediation efforts utilizing wetland filtration methods.

  9. Movement of bull trout in the upper Jarbidge River watershed, Idaho and Nevada, 2008-09--A supplement to Open-File Report 2010-1033

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Munz, Carrie S.; Allen, M. Brady; Connolly, Patrick J.

    2011-01-01

    We monitored bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in 2008 and 2009 as a continuation of our work in 2006 and 2007, which involved the tagging of 1,536 bull trout with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags in the East Fork Jarbidge River and West Fork Jarbidge River and their tributaries in northeastern Nevada and southern Idaho. We installed PIT tag interrogation systems (PTISs) at established locations soon after ice-out, and maintained the PTISs in order to collect information on bull trout movements through December of each year. We observed a marked increase of movement in 2008 and 2009. Bull trout tagged in the uppermost portions of the East Fork Jarbidge River at altitudes greater than 2,100 meters moved to the confluence of the East Fork Jarbidge River and West Fork Jarbidge River in summer and autumn. Ten bull trout tagged upstream of the confluence of Pine Creek and the West Fork Jarbidge River moved downstream and then upstream in the East Fork Jarbidge River, and then past the PTIS at Murphy Hot Springs (river kilometer [rkm] 4.1). Two of these fish ascended Dave Creek, a tributary of the East Fork Jarbidge River, past the PTIS at rkm 0.4. One bull trout that was tagged at rkm 11 in Dave Creek on June 28, 2007 moved downstream to the confluence of the East Fork Jarbidge River and West Fork Jarbidge River (rkm 0) on July 28, 2007, and it was then detected in the West Fork Jarbidge River moving past our PTIS at rkm 15 on May 4, 2008. Combined, the extent and types of bull trout movements observed indicated that the primarily age-1 and age-2 bull trout that we tagged in 2006 and 2007 showed increased movement with age and evidence of a substantial amount of fluvial life history. The movements suggest strong connectivity between spawning areas and downstream mainstem areas, as well as between the East Fork Jarbidge River and West Fork Jarbidge River.

  10. Analysis of steady-state flow and advective transport in the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer system, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ackerman, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    Quantitative estimates of ground-water flow directions and traveltimes for advective flow were developed for the regional aquifer system of the eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho. The work included: (1) descriptions of compartments in the aquifer that function as intermediate and regional flow systems, (2) descriptions of pathlines for flow originating at or near the water table, and (3) quantitative estimates of traveltimes for advective transport originating at or near the water table. A particle-tracking postprocessing program was used to compute pathlines on the basis of output from an existing three-dimensional steady-state flow model. The flow model uses 1980 conditions to approximate average annual conditions for 1950-80. The advective transport model required additional information about the nature of flow across model boundaries, aquifer thickness, and porosity. Porosity of two types of basalt strata has been reported for more than 1,500 individual cores from test holes, wells, and outcrops near the south side of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The central 80 percent of samples had porosities of 0.08 to 0.25, the central 50 percent of samples, O. 11 to 0.21. Calibration of the model involved choosing a value for porosity that yielded the best solution. Two radiologic contaminants, iodine-129 and tritium, both introduced to the flow system about 40 years ago, are relatively conservative tracers. Iodine- 129 was considered to be more useful because of a lower analytical detection limit, longer half-life, and longer flow path. The calibration value for porosity was 0.21. Most flow in the aquifer is contained within a regional-scale compartment and follows paths that discharge to the Snake River downstream from Milner Dam. Two intermediate-scale compartments exist along the southeast side of the aquifer and near Mud Lake.One intermediate-scale compartment along the southeast side of the aquifer discharges to the Snake River near American Fails Reservoir and covers an area of nearly 1,000 square miles. This compartment, which receives recharge from an area of intensive surface-water irrigation, is apparently fairly stable. The other intermediate-scale compartment near Mud Lake covers an area of 300 square miles. The stability and size of this compartment are uncertain, but are assumed to be in a state of change. Traveltimes for advective flow from the water table to discharge points in the regional compartment ranged from 12 to 350 years for 80 percent of the particles; in the intermediate-scale flow compartment near American Falls Reservoir, from 7 to 60 years for 80 percent of the particles; and in the intermediate-scale compartment near Mud Lake, from 25 to 100 years for 80 percent of the particles. Traveltimes are sensitive to porosity and assumptions regarding the importance of the strength of internal sinks, which represent ground-water pumpage. A decrease in porosity results in shorter traveltimes but not a uniform decrease in traveltime, because the porosity and thickness is different in each model layer. Most flow was horizontal and occurred in the top 500 feet of the aquifer. An important limitation of the model is the assumption of steady-state flow. The most recent trend in the flow system has been a decrease in recharge since 1987 because of an extended drought and changes in land use. A decrease in flow through the system will result in longer traveltimes than those predicted for a greater flow. Because the interpretation of the model was limited to flow on a larger scale, and did not consider individual wells or well fields, the interpretations were not seriously limited by the discretization of well discharge. The interpretations made from this model also were limited by the discretization of the major discharge areas. Near discharge areas, pathlines might not be representative at the resolution of the grid. Most improvement in the estimates of ground-waterflow directions and travelt

  11. Estimated 100-year peak flows and flow volumes in the Big Lost River and Birch Creek at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Kjelstrom, L.C.; Berenbrock, C.

    1996-12-31

    The purpose of this report is to provide estimates of the 100-year peak flows and flow volumes that could enter the INEL area from the Big Lost River and Brich Creek are needed as input data for models that will be used to delineate the extent of the 100-year flood plain at the INEL. The methods, procedures and assumptions used to estimate the 100-year peak flows and flow volumes are described in this report.

  12. Monitoring recharge in areas of seasonally frozen ground in the Columbia Plateau and Snake River Plain, Idaho, Oregon, and Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mastin, Mark; Josberger, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Seasonally frozen ground occurs over approximately one‑third of the contiguous United States, causing increased winter runoff. Frozen ground generally rejects potential groundwater recharge. Nearly all recharge from precipitation in semi-arid regions such as the Columbia Plateau and the Snake River Plain in Idaho, Oregon, and Washington, occurs between October and March, when precipitation is most abundant and seasonally frozen ground is commonplace. The temporal and spatial distribution of frozen ground is expected to change as the climate warms. It is difficult to predict the distribution of frozen ground, however, because of the complex ways ground freezes and the way that snow cover thermally insulates soil, by keeping it frozen longer than it would be if it was not snow covered or, more commonly, keeping the soil thawed during freezing weather. A combination of satellite remote sensing and ground truth measurements was used with some success to investigate seasonally frozen ground at local to regional scales. The frozen-ground/snow-cover algorithm from the National Snow and Ice Data Center, combined with the 21-year record of passive microwave observations from the Special Sensor Microwave Imager onboard a Defense Meteorological Satellite Program satellite, provided a unique time series of frozen ground. Periodically repeating this methodology and analyzing for trends can be a means to monitor possible regional changes to frozen ground that could occur with a warming climate. The Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System watershed model constructed for the upper Crab Creek Basin in the Columbia Plateau and Reynolds Creek basin on the eastern side of the Snake River Plain simulated recharge and frozen ground for several future climate scenarios. Frozen ground was simulated with the Continuous Frozen Ground Index, which is influenced by air temperature and snow cover. Model simulation results showed a decreased occurrence of frozen ground that coincided with increased temperatures in the future climate scenarios. Snow cover decreased in the future climate scenarios coincident with the temperature increases. Although annual precipitation was greater in future climate scenarios, thereby increasing the amount of water available for recharge over current (baseline) simulations, actual evapotranspiration also increased and reduced the amount of water available for recharge over baseline simulations. The upper Crab Creek model shows no significant trend in the rates of recharge in future scenarios. In these scenarios, annual precipitation is greater than the baseline averages, offsetting the effects of greater evapotranspiration in future scenarios. In the Reynolds Creek Basin simulations, precipitation was held constant in future scenarios and recharge was reduced by 1.0 percent for simulations representing average conditions in 2040 and reduced by 4.3 percent for simulations representing average conditions in 2080. The focus of the results of future scenarios for the Reynolds Creek Basin was the spatial components of selected hydrologic variables for this 92 square mile mountainous basin with 3,600 feet of relief. Simulation results from the watershed model using the Continuous Frozen Ground Index provided a relative measure of change in frozen ground, but could not identify the within-soil processes that allow or reject available water to recharge aquifers. The model provided a means to estimate what might occur in the future under prescribed climate scenarios, but more detailed energy-balance models of frozen-ground hydrology are needed to accurately simulate recharge under seasonally frozen ground and provide a better understanding of how changes in climate may alter infiltration.

  13. Warm Springs Creek, Idaho

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Warm Springs Creek is a tributary of the Big Wood River in south-central Idaho. It is one of eight sites at which the USGS is conducting an ecological assessment during the summer of 2014. Study results will be published in 2015....

  14. Analysis of data on nutrients and organic compounds in ground water in the upper Snake River basin, Idaho and western Wyoming, 1980-91

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rupert, Michael G.

    1994-01-01

    Nutrient and organic compound data from the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency STORET data bases provided information for development of a preliminary conceptual model of spatial and temporal ground-water quality in the upper Snake River Basin. Nitrite plus nitrate (as nitrogen; hereafter referred to as nitrate) concentrations exceeded the Federal drinking-water regulation of 10 milligrams per liter in three areas in Idaho" the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, the area north of Pocatello (Fort Hall area), and the area surrounding Burley. Water from many wells in the Twin Falls area also contained elevated (greater than two milligrams per liter) nitrate concentrations. Water from domestic wells contained the highest median nitrate concentrations; water from industrial and public supply wells contained the lowest. Nitrate concentrations decreased with increasing well depth, increasing depth to water (unsaturated thickness), and increasing depth below water table (saturated thickness). Kjeldahl nitrogen concentrations decreased with increasing well depth and depth below water table. The relation between kjeldahl nitrogen concentrations and depth to water was poor. Nitrate and total phosphorus concentrations in water from wells were correlated among three hydrogeomorphic regions in the upper Snake River Basin, Concentrations of nitrate were statistically higher in the eastern Snake River Plain and local aquifers than in the tributary valleys. There was no statistical difference in total phosphorus concentrations among the three hydrogeomorphic regions. Nitrate and total phosphorus concentrations were correlated with land-use classifications developed using the Geographic Information Retrieval and Analysis System. Concentrations of nitrate were statistically higher in area of agricultural land than in areas of rangeland. There was no statistical difference in concentrations between rangeland and urban land and between urban land and agricultural land. There was no statistical difference in total phosphorus concentrations among any of the land-use classifications. Nitrate and total phosphorus concentrations also were correlated with land-use classifications developed by the Idaho Department of Water Resources for the Idaho part of the upper Snake River Basin. Nitrate concentrations were statistically higher in areas of irrigated agriculture than in areas of dryland agriculture and rangeland. There was no statistical difference in total phosphorus concentrations among any of the Idaho Department of Water Resources land-use classifications. Data were sufficient to assess long-term trends of nitrate concentrations in water from only eight wells: four wells north of Burley and four wells northwest of Pocatello. The trend in nitrate concentrations in water from all wells in upward. The following organic compounds were detected in ground water in the upper Snake River Basin: cyanazine, 2,4-D DDT, dacthal, diazinon, dichloropropane, dieldrin, malathion, and metribuzin. Of 211 wells sampled for organic compounds, water from 17 contained detectable concentrations.

  15. Multilevel groundwater monitoring of hydraulic head and temperature in the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho, 2011-13

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twining, Brian V.; Fisher, Jason C.

    2015-01-01

    Normalized mean head values were analyzed for all 11 multilevel monitoring wells for the period of record (200713). The mean head values suggest a moderately positive correlation among all boreholes and generally reflect regional fluctuations in water levels in response to seasonal climatic changes. Boreholes within volcanic rift zones and near the southern boundary (USGS 103, USGS 105, USGS 108, USGS 132, USGS 135, USGS 137A) display a temporal correlation that is strongly positive. Boreholes in the Big Lost Trough display some variations in temporal correlations that may result from proximity to the mountain front to the northwest and episodic flow in the Big Lost River drainage system. For example, during June 2012, boreholes MIDDLE 2050A and MIDDLE 2051 showed head buildup within the upper zones when compared to the June 2010 profile event, which correlates to years when surface water was reported for the Big Lost River several months preceding the measurement period. With the exception of borehole USGS 134, temporal correlation between MLMS wells completed within the Big Lost Trough is generally positive. Temporal correlation for borehole USGS 134 shows the least agreement with other MLMS boreholes located within the Big Lost Trough; however, borehole USGS 134 is close to the mountain front where tributary valley subsurface inflow is suspected.

  16. A Journey of Surprises: Rivers Reveal Their Secrets to Idaho Students Researching Water Quality through Rigorous Scientific Inquiry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boss, Suzie

    2002-01-01

    Idaho secondary students learn the scientific method through outdoor environmental projects related to water quality monitoring. A program trains teachers to design project-based learning and provides extensive followup support. Five-day summer workshops immerse teachers in the types of projects they will orchestrate with their own students.…

  17. A Journey of Surprises: Rivers Reveal Their Secrets to Idaho Students Researching Water Quality through Rigorous Scientific Inquiry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boss, Suzie

    2002-01-01

    Idaho secondary students learn the scientific method through outdoor environmental projects related to water quality monitoring. A program trains teachers to design project-based learning and provides extensive followup support. Five-day summer workshops immerse teachers in the types of projects they will orchestrate with their own students.

  18. Geochemical Evolution of Groundwater in the Medicine Lodge Creek Drainage Basin with Implications for the Eastern Snake River Plain Aquifer, Eastern Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginsbach, M. L.; Rattray, G. W.; McCurry, M. O.; Welhan, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    The eastern Snake River Plain aquifer (ESRPA) is an unconfined, continuous aquifer located in a northeast-trending structural basin filled with basaltic lava flows and sedimentary interbeds in eastern Idaho. The ESPRA is not an inert transport system, as it acts as both a sink and source for solutes found in the water. More than 90% of the water recharged naturally to the ESRPA is from the surrounding mountain drainage basins. Consequently, in order to understand the natural geochemistry of water within the ESRPA, the chemistry of the groundwater from the mountain drainage basins must be characterized and the processes that control the chemistry need to be understood. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy and Idaho State University, has been studying these mountain drainage basins to help understand the movement of waste solutes in the ESRPA at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in eastern Idaho. This study focuses on the Medicine Lodge Creek drainage basin, which originates in the Beaverhead Mountains, extends onto the eastern Snake River Plain, and contributes recharge to the ESRPA beneath the INL as underflow along the northeastern INL boundary. Water and rock samples taken from the Medicine Lodge Creek drainage basin were analyzed to better understand water/rock interactions occurring in this system and to define the groundwater geochemistry of this drainage basin. Water samples were collected at 10 locations in the drainage basin during June 2012: 6 groundwater wells used for agricultural irrigation or domestic use and 4 springs. These water samples were analyzed for major ions, nutrients, trace metals, isotopes, and dissolved gasses. Samples of rock representative of the basalt, rhyolite, and sediments that occur within the drainage basin also were collected. These samples were analyzed using x-ray diffraction and petrographic study to determine the mineralogical constituents of the rock and the presence and composition of alteration products. The lithologic variability in this area leads to differing water-rock interactions occurring in different parts of the drainage basin. Anthropogenic influences also affect the water; at the far downgradient end of the drainage basin, increased levels of chloride and sulfate in the groundwater suggest an increased influence of irrigation recharge. Results from both water and rock analyses are combined in geochemical modeling software to determine plausible reactions that occur in groundwater collected at the sampling sites.

  19. Effect of activities at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory on the water quality of the Snake River Plain aquifer in the Magic Valley study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartholomay, Roy C.

    1998-01-01

    Radiochemical and chemical constituents in wastewater generated at facilities of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) (figure 1) have been discharged to waste-disposal ponds and wells since the early 1950 s. Public concern has been expressed that some of these constituents could migrate through the Snake River Plain aquifer to the Snake River in the Twin Falls-Hagerman area Because of these concerns the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requested that the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conduct three studies to gain a greater understanding of the chemical quality of water in the aquifer. One study described a one-time sampling effort for radionuclides, trace elements, and organic compounds in the eastern part of the A&B Irrigation District in Minidoka County (Mann and Knobel, 1990). Another ongoing study involves sampling for tritium from 19 springs on the north side of the Snake River in the Twin Falls-Hagerman area (Mann, 1989; Mann and Low, 1994). A third study an ongoing annual sampling effort in the area between the southern boundary of the INEEL and Hagerman (figure 1) (hereafter referred to as the Magic Valley study area), is being conducted with the Idaho Department of Water Resources in cooperation with the DOE. Data for a variety of radiochemical and chemical constituents from this study have been published by Wegner and Campbell (1991); Bartholomay, Edwards, and Campbell (1992, 1993, 1994a, 1994b); and Bartholomay, Williams, and Campbell (1995, 1996, 1997b). Data discussed in this fact sheet were taken from these reports. An evaluation of data collected during the first four years of this study (Bartholomay Williams, and Campbell, 1997a) showed no pattern of water-quality change for radionuclide data as concentrations randomly increased or decreased. The inorganic constituent data showed no statistical change between sample rounds.

  20. Idaho Fires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 Click on image for larger version

    This full-frame ASTER image, acquired August 30, 2000, covers an area of 60 by 60 km in the Salmon River Mountains, Idaho. In this color infrared composite, vegetation is red, clouds are white, and smoke from forest fires is blue. An enlargement (Figure 1) covers an area of 12 x 15 km. A thermal infrared band is displayed in red, a short wave infrared band is displayed in green, and a visible band is displayed in blue. In this combination, fires larger than about 50 m appear yellow because they are bright in both infrared bands. Smaller fires appear green because they are too small to be seen by the 90 m thermal pixels, but large enough to be detected in the 30 m short wave infrared pixels. We are able to see through the smoke in the infrared bands, whereas in the visible bands, the smoke obscures detection of the active fires. This image is located at 44.8 degrees north latitude and 114.8 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  1. IDAHO WILDERNESS, IDAHO.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cater, Fred W.; Weldin, R.D.

    1984-01-01

    Mineral surveys conducted in the Idaho Wilderness identified 28 areas with probable or substantiated mineral-resource potential, and 5 mines with demonstrated or inferred resources. Metals including gold, silver, copper, lead, zinc, and tungsten, have been extracted from deposits inside the wilderness. Current studies indicate additional areas of probable mineral-resource potential for gold, tungsten, mercury, rare-earth elements, and base metals related to intrusive rocks that follow structures formed by cauldron subsidence. These on-going studies also indicate that there is probable and substantiated resource potential for cobalt with copper, silver, and gold in the Precambrian rocks in the northeastern part of the wilderness in a geologic environment similar to that of the Blackbird mine that lies outside the area. The nature of the geologic terrane precludes the potential for organic fuels.

  2. Availability of ground water for large-scale use in the Malad Valley-Bear River areas of southeastern Idaho: an initial assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burnham, W.L.; Harder, A.H.; Dion, N.P.

    1969-01-01

    Five areas within the Bear River drainage of southeastern Idaho offer potential for further development of ground water--the valley north of Bear Lake, north of Soda Springs, Gem Valley, Cache Valley in Idaho, and Malad Valley in Idaho. Saturated deposits north of Bear Lake are too fine-textured to yield large quantities to wells; the areas north of Soda Springs and in Gem Valley would provide large yields, but at the expense of current beneficial discharge. Northern Cache Valley has small areas of high yield in the northwestern part, but total annual yield would be only about 20,000 acre-feet and seasonal water-level fluctuation would be large. Malad Valley contains a large aquifer system within valley fill underlying about 75 square miles. The aquifer system is several hundred feet thick, and contains about 1.8 million acre-feet of water in storage in the top 300 feet of saturated thickness. Average annual recharge to the valley-fill aquifer is about 64,000 acre-feet. Lowering of the water level 100 feet uniformly over the valley area would theoretically yield about 300,000 acre-feet from storage and salvage a present-day large nonbeneficial discharge. Sufficient water to irrigate all lands in a planned project near Samaria could be pumped with a maximum 200-foot pumping lift and then delivered by gravity flow. Such pumping would cause water-level lowering of a few feet to a few tens of feet in present artesian areas, and would cause many present-day artesian wells to cease flowing at land surface. Chemical-quality problems in Malad Valley seem not to be sufficient to prohibit development and use of the ground-water resource.

  3. Mineralogic variations in fluvial sediments contaminated by mine tailings as determined from AVIRIS data, Coeur D'Alene River Valley, Idaho

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrand, W. H.; Harsanyi, Joseph C.

    1995-01-01

    The success of imaging spectrometry in mineralogic mapping of natural terrains indicates that the technology can also be used to assess the environmental impact of human activities in certain instances. Specifically, this paper describes an investigation into the use of data from the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) for mapping the spread of, and assessing changes in, the mineralogic character of tailings from a major silver and base metal mining district. The area under investigation is the Coeur d'Alene River Valley in northern Idaho. Mining has been going on in and around the towns of Kellogg and Wallace, Idaho since the 1880's. In the Kellogg-Smelterville Flats area, west of Kellogg, mine tailings were piled alongside the South Fork of the Coeur d'Alene River. Until the construction of tailings ponds in 1968 much of these waste materials were washed directly into the South Fork. The Kellogg-Smelterville area was declared an Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Superfund site in 1983 and remediation efforts are currently underway. Recent studies have demonstrated that sediments in the Coeur d'Alene River and in the northern part of Lake Coeur d'Alene, into which the river flows, are highly enriched in Ag, Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, Hg, As, and Sb. These trace metals have become aggregated in iron oxide and oxyhydroxide minerals and/or mineraloids. Reflectance spectra of iron-rich tailing materials are shown. Also shown are spectra of hematite and goethite. The broad bandwidth and long band center (near 1 micron) of the Fe(3+) crystal-field band of the iron-rich sediment samples combined with the lack of features on the Fe(3+) -O(2-) charge transfer absorption edge indicates that the ferric oxide and/or oxyhydroxide in these sediments is poorly crystalline to amorphous in character. Similar features are seen in poorly crystalline basaltic weathering products (e.g., palagonites). The problem of mapping and analyzing the downriver occurrences of iron rich tailings in the Coeur d'Alene (CDA) River Valley using remotely sensed data is complicated by the full vegetation cover present in the area. Because exposures of rock and soil were sparse, the data processing techniques used in this study were sensitive to detecting materials at subpixel scales. The methods used included spectral mixture analysis and a constrained energy minimization technique.

  4. Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Idaho Department of Fish and Game Captive Rearing Initiative for Salmon River Chinook Salmon

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2000-10-12

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), Department of Energy (DOE), is proposing to fund the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) Captive Rearing Initiative for Salmon River Chinook Salmon Program (IDFG Program). The IDFG Program is a small-scale research and production initiative designed to increase numbers of three weak but recoverable populations of spring/summer chinook salmon in the Salmon River drainage. This would increase numbers of spring/summer chinook salmon within the Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook Salmon Evolutionarily Significant Unit (ESU), and reduce population fragmentation within the ESU. BPA has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1301) evaluating the proposed IDFG Program. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the Proposed Action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, as defined within the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required, and BPA is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  5. Field and Geochemical Study of Table Legs Butte and Quaking Aspen Butte, Eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho: An Analog to the Morphology of Small Shield Volcanoes on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brady, S. M.; Hughes, S. S.; Sakimoto, S. E. H.; Gregg, T. K. P.

    2004-01-01

    Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) data allows insight to Martian features in great detail, revealing numerous small shields in the Tempe region, consisting of low profiles and a prominent summit caps . Terrestrial examples of this shield morphology are found on the Eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP), Idaho. This plains-style volcanism [2] allows an analog to Martian volcanism based on topographic manifestations of volcanic processes . Recent studies link the slope and morphology of Martian volcanoes to eruptive process and style . The ESRP, a 400km long, 100km wide depression, is host to hundreds of tholeiitic basalt shields, which have low-profiles built up over short eruptive periods of a few months or years . Many of these smaller scale shields (basal diameters rarely exceed 5km) display morphology similar to the volcanoes in the Tempe region of Mars . Morphological variations within these tholeiitic shields are beautifully illustrated in their profiles.

  6. 139. MILNER DAM, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO; OUTLET SIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    139. MILNER DAM, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO; OUTLET SIDE OF SPILLWAY, EAST VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  7. 107. MURTAUGH LAKE, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF MURTAUGH, IDAHO; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    107. MURTAUGH LAKE, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF MURTAUGH, IDAHO; WEST VIEW OF LAKE. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  8. 128. COTTONWOOD CUT, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY, IDAHO; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    128. COTTONWOOD CUT, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY, IDAHO; NORTH VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  9. Geothermal investigations in Idaho. Part 12. Stable isotopic evaluation of thermal water occurrences in the Weiser and Little Salmon River drainage basins and adjacent areas, west-central Idaho with attendant gravity and magnetic data on the Weiser area

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, J.C.; Bideganeta, K.; Palmer, M.A.

    1984-12-01

    Fifteen thermal springs, two thermal wells, and eight cold springs in the Weiser and Little Salmon river drainages were sampled for deuterium and oxygen-18 analysis during the fall of 1981. The straight-line fit of delta D and delta /sup 18/O versus latitude and longitude observed in the data is what would be expected if the recharge areas for the thermal and non-thermal waters were in close proximity to their respective discharge points. The discrete values of delta D and delta /sup 18/O for each thermal discharge suggest that none of the sampled thermal systems have common sources. The depleted deuterium and oxygen-18 contents of most thermal relative to non-thermal waters sampled suggests that the thermal waters might be Pleistocene age precipitation. The isotopic data suggest little or no evidence for mixing of thermal and non-thermal water for the sampled discharges. Thermal waters from Weiser, Crane Creek, Cove Creek, and White Licks hot springs show enrichment in oxygen-18 suggesting that these waters have been at elevated temperatures relative to other sampled thermal discharges in the area. Gravity and magnetic data gathered by the Idaho State University Geology Department in the Weiser Hot Springs area suggest that southeastward plunging synclinal-anticlinal couples, which underlie the hot springs, are cut south of the springs by a northeast trending boundary fault.

  10. Water resources data, Idaho, 2003; Volume 1. Surface water records for Great Basin and Snake River basin above King Hill

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brennan, T.S.; Lehmann, A.K.; O'Dell, I.

    2004-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2003 water year for Idaho consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; discharge of irrigation diversions; and water levels and water quality of groundwater. The three volumes of this report contain discharge records for 208 stream-gaging stations and 14 irrigation diversions; stage only records for 6 stream-gaging stations; stage only for 6 lakes and reservoirs; contents only for 13 lakes and reservoirs; water-quality for 50 stream-gaging stations and partial record sites, 3 lakes sites, and 398 groundwater wells; and water levels for 427 observation network wells and 900 special project wells. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data collection program and are published as miscellaneous measurements. Volumes 1 & 2 contain the surface-water and surface-water-quality records. Volume 3 contains the ground-water and ground-water-quality records. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Idaho, adjacent States, and Canada.

  11. Water resources data, Idaho, 2004; Volume 1. Surface water records for Great Basin and Snake River basin above King Hill

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brennan, T.S.; Lehmann, A.K.; O'Dell, I.

    2005-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2004 water year for Idaho consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; discharge of irrigation diversions; and water levels and water quality of groundwater. The three volumes of this report contain discharge records for 209 stream-gaging stations and 8 irrigation diversions; stage only records for 6 stream-gaging stations; stage only for 6 lakes and reservoirs; contents only for 13 lakes and reservoirs; water-quality for 39 stream-gaging stations and partial record sites, 3 lakes sites, and 395 groundwater wells; and water levels for 425 observation network wells and 900 special project wells. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data collection program and are published as miscellaneous measurements. Volumes 1 & 2 contain the surface-water and surface-water-quality records. Volume 3 contains the ground-water and ground-water-quality records. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Idaho, adjacent States, and Canada.

  12. Geology, geochronology, and potential volcanic hazards in the Lava Ridge-Hells Half Acre area, eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuntz, Mel A.; Dalrymple, G. Brent

    1979-01-01

    The evaluation of volcanic hazards for the proposed Safety Test Reactor Facility (STF) at the Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANLW) site, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), Idaho, involves an analysis of the geology of the Lava Ridge-Hells Half Acre area and of K-At age determinations on lava flows in cored drill holes. The ANLW site at INEL lies in a shallow topographic depression bounded on the east and south by volcanic rift zones that are the locus of past shield-type basalt volcanism and by rhyolite domes erupted along the ring fracture of an inferred rhyolite caldera. The K-At age data indicate that the ANLW site has been flooded by basalt lava flows at irregular intervals from perhaps a few thousand years to as much as 300,000-400,000 years, with an average recurrence interval between flows of approximately 80,000-100,000 years. At least five major lava flows have covered the ANLW site within the past 500,000 years.

  13. Effects of the Cabinet Gorge Kokanee Hatchery on Wintering Bald Eagles in the Lower Clark Fork River and Lake Pend, Oreille, Idaho: 1986 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Crenshaw, John G.

    1987-12-01

    The abundance and distribution of bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) on the lower Clark Fork River, Lake Pend Oreille, and the upper Pend Oreille River, Idaho, were documented during the winters of 1985--86 and 1986--87. Peak counts of bald eagles in weekly aerial censuses were higher in 1985--86 (274) and 1986--87 (429) than previously recorded in mid-winter surveys. Differences in eagle distribution within and between years were apparently responses to changes in prey availability. Eight bald eagles were captured and equipped with radio transmitters in the winter and spring of 1986. Residencies within the study area averaged 13.9 days in 1985--86 and 58.3 days for the four eagles that returned in 1986-87. The eagles exhibited considerable daily movement throughout the study area. After departing the area, one eagle was later sighted approximately 1185 km to the southwest in northern California. Eagle behavioral activity was recorded at time budget sessions at areas of heavy use. Perching in live trees was the most common behavior observed. 34 refs., 39 figs., 17 tabs.

  14. Development of a regional groundwater flow model for the area of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Eastern Snake River Plain Aquifer

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, J.M.; Arnett, R.C.; Neupauer, R.M.

    1995-03-01

    This report documents a study conducted to develop a regional groundwater flow model for the Eastern Snake River Plain Aquifer in the area of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The model was developed to support Waste Area Group 10, Operable Unit 10-04 groundwater flow and transport studies. The products of this study are this report and a set of computational tools designed to numerically model the regional groundwater flow in the Eastern Snake River Plain aquifer. The objective of developing the current model was to create a tool for defining the regional groundwater flow at the INEL. The model was developed to (a) support future transport modeling for WAG 10-04 by providing the regional groundwater flow information needed for the WAG 10-04 risk assessment, (b) define the regional groundwater flow setting for modeling groundwater contaminant transport at the scale of the individual WAGs, (c) provide a tool for improving the understanding of the groundwater flow system below the INEL, and (d) consolidate the existing regional groundwater modeling information into one usable model. The current model is appropriate for defining the regional flow setting for flow submodels as well as hypothesis testing to better understand the regional groundwater flow in the area of the INEL. The scale of the submodels must be chosen based on accuracy required for the study.

  15. Water information bulletin No. 30, part 13: geothermal investigations in Idaho. Preliminary geologic reconnaissance of the geothermal occurrences of the Wood River Drainage Area

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.E.; Bideganeta, K.; Mitchell, J.C.

    1985-04-01

    Pre-tertiary sediments of the Milligen and Wood River Formations consisting primarily of argillite, quartzite, shale and dolomite are, for the most part, exposed throughout the area and are cut locally by outliers of the Idaho Batholith. At some locations, Tertiary-age Challis Volcanics overlay these formations. Structurally the area is complex with major folding and faulting visible in many exposures. Many of the stream drainages appear to be fault controlled. Hydrologic studies indicate hot spring occurrences are related to major structural trends, as rock permeabilities are generally low. Geochemical studies using stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen indicate the thermal water in the Wood River region to be depleted by about 10 0/00 in D and by 1 to 2 0/00 in /sup 18/0 relative to cold water. This suggests the water could be meteoric water that fell during the late Pleistocene. The geological data, as well as the chemical data, indicate the geothermal waters are heated at depth, and subsequently migrate along permeable structural zones. In almost all cases the chemical data suggest slightly different thermal histories and recharge areas for the water issuing from the hot springs. Sustained use of the thermal water at any of the identified springs is probably limited to flow rates approximating the existing spring discharge. 28 refs., 16 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. In Situ Production of Chlorine-36 in the Eastern Snake River Plain Aquifer, Idaho: Implications for Describing Ground-Water Contamination Near a Nuclear Facility

    SciTech Connect

    L. D. Cecil; L. L. Knobel; J. R. Green; S. K. Frape

    2000-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the calculated contribution to ground water of natural, in situ produced 36Cl in the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer and to compare these concentrations in ground water with measured concentrations near a nuclear facility in southeastern Idaho. The scope focused on isotopic and chemical analyses and associated 36Cl in situ production calculations on 25 whole-rock samples from 6 major water-bearing rock types present in the eastern Snake River Plain. The rock types investigated were basalt, rhyolite, limestone, dolomite, shale, and quartzite. Determining the contribution of in situ production to 36Cl inventories in ground water facilitated the identification of the source for this radionuclide in environmental samples. On the basis of calculations reported here, in situ production of 36Cl was determined to be insignificant compared to concentrations measured in ground water near buried and injected nuclear waste at the INEEL. Maximum estimated 36Cl concentrations in ground water from in situ production are on the same order of magnitude as natural concentrations in meteoric water.

  17. EFFECTS OF WASTE DISCHARGES ON WATER QUALITY OF THE SNAKE RIVER AND ROCK CREEK, TWIN FALLS AREA, IDAHO. 1971

    EPA Science Inventory

    Comprehensive water quality investigations in the Snake River Basin, Twin Falls Area (17040212) were conducted from November 2 to 17, 1971. Studies included an evaluation of municipal and industrial wastewater treatment facilities. Subsequently, stream surveys were conducted on...

  18. Velocity estimation using a Bayesian network in a critical-habitat reach of the Kootenai River, Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmsten, Margaret L.; Todd Holland, K.; Plant, Nathaniel G.

    2013-09-01

    Numerous numerical modeling studies have been completed in support of an extensive recovery program for the endangered white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) on the Kootenai River near Bonner's Ferry, ID. A technical hurdle in the interpretation of these model results is the transfer of information from the specialist to nonspecialist such that practical decisions utilizing the numerical simulations can be made. To address this, we designed and trained a Bayesian network to provide probabilistic prediction of depth-averaged velocity. Prediction of this critical parameter governing suitable spawning habitat was obtained by exploiting the dynamic relationships between variables derived from model simulations with associated parameter uncertainties. Postdesign assessment indicates that the most influential environmental variables in order of importance are river discharge, depth, and width, and water surface slope. We demonstrate that the probabilistic network not only reproduces the training data with accuracy similar to the accuracy of a numerical model (root-mean-squared error of 0.10 m/s), but that it makes reliable predictions on the same river at times and locations other than where the network was trained (root mean squared error of 0.09 m/s). Additionally, the network showed similar skill (root mean square error of 0.04 m/s) when predicting velocity on the Apalachicola River, FL, a river of similar shape and size to the Kootenai River where a related sturgeon population is also threatened.

  19. Idaho Fires

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title: Wildfires in Northwestern United States ... (MISR) image of smoke plumes from devastating wildfires in the northwestern United States. This view of the Clearwater and ... at JPL August 5, 2000 - Smoke plumes from wildfires in Idaho. project: MISR category: ...

  20. Liver lead burden in hunter-killed ducks from the Coeur d'Alene River Valley of northern Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Casteel, S.W.; Nigh, J.; Neufeld, J.; Thomas, B.R. )

    1991-06-01

    Liver lead burden was evaluated in ducks from an area in northern Idaho contaminated with mining waste and lead shot. Hunter-killed ducks with lead shot in their gizzard had a mean liver lead concentration of 15.18 {plus minus} 2.51 micrograms/g wet-weight (N = 23) and ducks without lead shot had a mean liver lead concentration of 4.21 {plus minus} 0.47 micrograms/g wet-weight (N = 85). The most hazardous source of lead for waterfowl in this area has been thought to be mining waste-contaminated soils and sediments. Three sediment samples had a mean concentration of 4,520 micrograms lead/g wet-weight.

  1. Remote sensing research for agricultural applications. [San Joaquin County, California and Snake River Plain and Twin Falls area, Idaho

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colwell, R. N. (Principal Investigator); Wall, S. L.; Beck, L. H.; Degloria, S. D.; Ritter, P. R.; Thomas, R. W.; Travlos, A. J.; Fakhoury, E.

    1984-01-01

    Materials and methods used to characterize selected soil properties and agricultural crops in San Joaquin County, California are described. Results show that: (1) the location and widths of TM bands are suitable for detecting differences in selected soil properties; (2) the number of TM spectral bands allows the quantification of soil spectral curve form and magnitude; and (3) the spatial and geometric quality of TM data allows for the discrimination and quantification of within field variability of soil properties. The design of the LANDSAT based multiple crop acreage estimation experiment for the Idaho Department of Water Resources is described including the use of U.C. Berkeley's Survey Modeling Planning Model. Progress made on Peditor software development on MIDAS, and cooperative computing using local and remote systems is reported as well as development of MIDAS microcomputer systems.

  2. Impacts of Fire and Mass Wasting on Channel Morphology and Stream Temperature in Mountain Rivers of Central Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welcker, C. W.; Buffington, J. M.; Rieman, B. E.; Luce, C. H.; McKean, J.

    2004-12-01

    Debris flows and hyperconcentrated flows immediately impact streams by changing channel morphology, grain size, sediment storage and transport, amount of incision, riparian vegetation, large woody debris dynamics, and extirpating fish, amphibian, and insect populations. In central Idaho, these disturbances are commonly triggered by intense thunderstorms or rain-on-snow events, and are exacerbated by wildfires which alter basin hydrology and sediment supply by removing vegetation and creating hydrophobic soils. While the immediate effect of these flows is dramatic, the time to recovery of the physical habitat is poorly understood and the long-term significance of these disturbances to aquatic organisms is unknown. Stream temperature is a key variable of stream ecosystems and has been shown to control the distribution of salmonids in our study area of the Idaho Batholith. Previous research in 10 recently disturbed streams shows a systematic increase in stream temperature across three stream types representing progressively greater disturbance: undisturbed; burned; and those impacted by both fire and mass-wasting events. Here, we test the hypothesis that the observed pattern of warming is due to increased solar radiation loading caused by wider, shallower streams and the removal of vegetative shade by fires and mass-wasting events. We examine channel conditions across several treatment classes (undisturbed, post-fire debris flow, debris flow without fire) and time since disturbance (1964 to present). In 32 streams, 200-600 meter reaches were surveyed and upstream and downstream temperatures were monitored throughout the summer, the solar load was estimated as a function of shading (measured with hemispherical photo analysis), stream width and depth, and average velocity estimated with salt tracers. Preliminary results indicate that while recent disturbances (1995-2003) significantly increase the solar load and stream temperatures, older disturbances (1964) are similar to undisturbed streams.

  3. An Update of Hydrologic Conditions and Distribution of Selected Constituents in Water, Snake River Plain Aquifer and Perched-Water Zones, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho, Emphasis 2002-05

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Linda C.

    2008-01-01

    Radiochemical and chemical wastewater discharged since 1952 to infiltration ponds, evaporation ponds, and disposal wells at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has affected water quality in the Snake River Plain aquifer and perched-water zones underlying the INL. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, maintains ground-water monitoring networks at the INL to determine hydrologic trends, and to delineate the movement of radiochemical and chemical wastes in the aquifer and in perched-water zones. This report presents an analysis of water-level and water-quality data collected from aquifer and perched-water wells in the USGS ground-water monitoring networks during 2002-05. Water in the Snake River Plain aquifer primarily moves through fractures and interflow zones in basalt, generally flows southwestward, and eventually discharges at springs along the Snake River. The aquifer is recharged primarily from infiltration of irrigation water, infiltration of streamflow, ground-water inflow from adjoining mountain drainage basins, and infiltration of precipitation. From March-May 2001 to March-May 2005, water levels in wells declined throughout the INL area. The declines ranged from about 3 to 8 feet in the southwestern part of the INL, about 10 to 15 feet in the west central part of the INL, and about 6 to 11 feet in the northern part of the INL. Water levels in perched water wells declined also, with the water level dropping below the bottom of the pump in many wells during 2002-05. For radionuclides, concentrations that equal 3s, wheres s is the sample standard deviation, represent a measurement at the minimum detectable concentration, or 'reporting level'. Detectable concentrations of radiochemical constituents in water samples from wells in the Snake River Plain aquifer at the INL generally decreased or remained constant during 2002-05. Decreases in concentrations were attributed to decreased rates of radioactive-waste disposal, radioactive decay, changes in waste-disposal methods, and dilution from recharge and underflow. In October 2005, reportable concentrations of tritium in ground water ranged from 0.51+or-0.12 to 11.5+or-0.6 picocuries per milliliter and the tritium plume extended south-southwestward in the general direction of ground-water flow. Tritium concentrations in water from several wells southwest of the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) decreased or remained constant as they had during 1998-2001, with the exception of well USGS 47, which increased a few picocuries per milliliter. Most wells completed in shallow perched water at the Reactor Technology Complex (RTC) were dry during 2002---05. Tritium concentrations in deep perched water exceeded the reporting level in nine wells at the RTC. The tritium concentration in water from one deep perched water well exceeded the reporting level at the INTEC. Concentrations of strontium-90 in water from 14 of 34 wells sampled during October 2005 exceeded the reporting level. Concentrations ranged from 2.2+or-0.7 to 33.1+or-1.2 picocuries per liter. However, concentrations from most wells remained relatively constant or decreased since 1989. Strontium-90 has not been detected within the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer beneath the RTC partly because of the exclusive use of waste-disposal ponds and lined evaporation ponds rather than the disposal well for radioactive-wastewater disposal at RTC. At the RTC, strontium-90 concentrations in water from six wells completed in deep perched ground water exceeded the reporting level during 2002-05. At the INTEC, the reporting level was exceeded in water from three wells completed in deep perched ground water. During 2002-05, concentrations of plutonium-238, and plutonium-239, -240 (undivided), and americium-241 were less than the reporting level in water samples from all wells sampled at the INL. During 2002-05, concentrations of cesium-137 in water from all wells sa

  4. Forcing, properties, structure, and antecedent synoptic climatology of the Snake River Plain Convergence Zone of eastern Idaho: Analyses of observations and numerical simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andretta, Thomas A.

    The Snake River Plain Convergence Zone (SPCZ) is a convergent shear zone generated by synoptic-scale post cold-frontal winds in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) interacting with the complex topography of eastern Idaho. The SPCZ produces clouds and occasional precipitation over time scales of 6--12 hours in a significant area of mesoscale dimensions (10--50 x 10 3 km2). This meso-beta-scale feature also contributes to the precipitation climatology in a semi-arid plain. The SPCZ is climatologically linked to the passage of synoptic-scale cold fronts and typically occurs in the fall and winter months with the highest frequencies in October, November, and January. The Snake River Plain of eastern Idaho is covered by a dense surface mesonetwork of towers with sensible weather measurements, single Doppler weather radar, regional soundings, and operational model sources. The ability of numerical weather prediction models to simulate the SPCZ depends on several factors: the accuracy of the large scale flow upstream of the zone, terrain resolution, grid scale, boundary layer parameterizations of stability, cumulus parameterizations, and microphysics schemes. This dissertation explores several of these issues with the aforementioned observations and with the Weather Research and Forecasting-Advanced Research WRF (WRF-ARW) model simulations of selected SPCZ events. This dissertation first explains the conceptual models of the flow patterns related to the genesis of the SPCZ in light of other well-documented topographically-generated zones. The study then explores the links between the theoretical models and observations of the SPCZ in several episodes. With this foundation, the dissertation then tests several hypotheses relating to the horizontal and vertical zone structure, topographic sensitivity on the zone structure, and boundary layer evolution of the zone through the use of high resolution nested grid numerical simulations. The SPCZ consists of windward and leeward flow regimes in Idaho which form under low Froude number (stable blocked flow) in a post cold-frontal environment. The SPCZ is a weak baroclinic feature. The formation of the zone is independent of the vertical wind shear in the middle to upper troposphere. With a grid scale of 4 km, the WRF-ARW model adequately reproduces the post cold-frontal environment, windward and leeward convergence zones, relative vertical vorticity belts, and precipitation bands in several SPCZ cases. The vertical structure of the SPCZ reveals upright reflectivity towers with circulations that tilt slightly with height into the colder air aloft. Topographic sensitivity analyses of the SPCZ indicate that the terrain-driven circulations and resulting snow bands are more defined at the finer terrain scales. The ambient horizontal wind shear in the tributary valleys of the Central Mountains creates potential vorticity (PV) banners. The PV banner maintenance and strength are directly tied to the terrain resolution. An environment of convective instability sometimes occurs as a layer of air is lifted along the gentle elevation rise of the eastern Magic Valley and lower plain. An environment of inertial instability forms within the anticyclonic (negative) vorticity belts in the upper plain. Potential symmetric instability (PSI) may be released in a moist environment near the vorticity banners. The planetary boundary layer perturbed by the SPCZ inside the Snake River Plain is characterized by a deeper mixed layer with stronger vertical motions relative to a PBL in a sheltered valley outside the plain. Finally, a 10-year antecedent synoptic climatology of 78 SPCZ events reveals two pattern types: Type N (wet and warm) and Type S (dry and cold). The 40° N parallel divides these two synoptic patterns.

  5. Hydraulic Characteristics of Bedrock Constrictions and Evaluation of One- and Two-Dimensional Models of Flood Flow on the Big Lost River at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berenbrock, Charles; Rousseau, Joseph P.; Twining, Brian V.

    2007-01-01

    A 1.9-mile reach of the Big Lost River, between the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) diversion dam and the Pioneer diversion structures, was investigated to evaluate the effects of streambed erosion and bedrock constrictions on model predictions of water-surface elevations. Two one-dimensional (1-D) models, a fixed-bed surface-water flow model (HEC-RAS) and a movable-bed surface-water flow and sediment-transport model (HEC-6), were used to evaluate these effects. The results of these models were compared to the results of a two-dimensional (2-D) fixed-bed model [Transient Inundation 2-Dimensional (TRIM2D)] that had previously been used to predict water-surface elevations for peak flows with sufficient stage and stream power to erode floodplain terrain features (Holocene inset terraces referred to as BLR#6 and BLR#8) dated at 300 to 500 years old, and an unmodified Pleistocene surface (referred to as the saddle area) dated at 10,000 years old; and to extend the period of record at the Big Lost River streamflow-gaging station near Arco for flood-frequency analyses. The extended record was used to estimate the magnitude of the 100-year flood and the magnitude of floods with return periods as long as 10,000 years. In most cases, the fixed-bed TRIM2D model simulated higher water-surface elevations, shallower flow depths, higher flow velocities, and higher stream powers than the fixed-bed HEC-RAS and movable-bed HEC-6 models for the same peak flows. The HEC-RAS model required flow increases of 83 percent [100 to 183 cubic meters per second (m3/s)], and 45 percent (100 to 145 m3/s) to match TRIM2D simulations of water-surface elevations at two paleoindicator sites that were used to determine peak flows (100 m3/s) with an estimated return period of 300 to 500 years; and an increase of 13 percent (150 to 169 m3/s) to match TRIM2D water-surface elevations at the saddle area that was used to establish the peak flow (150 m3/s) of a paleoflood with a return period of 10,000 years. A field survey of the saddle area, however, indicated that the elevation of the lowest point on the saddle area was 1.2 feet higher than indicated on the 2-ft contour map that was used in the TRIM2D model. Because of this elevation discrepancy, HEC-RAS model simulations indicated that a peak flow of at least 210 m3/s would be needed to initiate flow across the 10,000-year old Pleistocene surface. HEC-6 modeling results indicated that to compensate for the effects of streambed scour, additional flow increases would be needed to match HEC-RAS and TRIM2D water-surface elevations along the upper and middle reaches of the river, and to compensate for sediment deposition, a slight decrease in flows would be needed to match HEC-RAS water-surface elevations along the lower reach of the river. Differences in simulated water-surface elevations between the TRIM2D and the HEC-RAS and HEC-6 models are attributed primarily to differences in topographic relief and to differences in the channel and floodplain geometries used in these models. Topographic differences were sufficiently large that it was not possible to isolate the effects of these differences on simulated water-surface elevations from those attributable to the effects of supercritical flow, streambed scour, and sediment deposition.

  6. NRC Waste Incidental to Reprocessing Program: Overview of Consultation and Monitoring Activities at the Idaho National Laboratory and the Savannah River Site - What We Have Learned - 12470

    SciTech Connect

    Suber, Gregory

    2012-07-01

    In 2005 the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) began to implement a new set of responsibilities under the Ronald W. Reagan National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA) of Fiscal Year 2005. Section 3116 of the NDAA requires the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to consult with the NRC for certain non-high level waste determinations and also requires NRC to monitor DOE's disposal actions related to those determinations. In Fiscal Year 2005, the NRC staff began consulting with DOE and completed reviews of draft waste determinations for salt waste at the Savannah River Site. In 2006, a second review was completed on tank waste residuals including sodium-bearing waste at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Tank Farm at the Idaho National Laboratory. Monitoring Plans were developed for these activities and the NRC is actively monitoring disposal actions at both sites. NRC is currently in consultation with DOE on the F-Area Tank Farm closure and anticipates entering consultation on the H-Area Tank Farm at the Savannah River Site. This paper presents, from the NRC perspective, an overview of how the consultation and monitoring process has evolved since its conception in 2005. It addresses changes in methods and procedures used to collect and develop information used by the NRC in developing the technical evaluation report and monitoring plan under consultation and the implementation the plan under monitoring. It will address lessons learned and best practices developed throughout the process. The NDAA has presented significant challenges for the NRC and DOE. Past and current successes demonstrate that the NDAA can achieve its intended goal of facilitating tank closure at DOE legacy defense waste sites. The NRC believes many of the challenges in performing the WD reviews have been identified and addressed. Lessons learned have been collected and documented throughout the review process. Future success will be contingent on each agencies commitment to consistently apply the lessons learned and continue to create an open and collaborative work environment to maintain the process of continuous improvement. (authors)

  7. Digital modeling of radioactive and chemical waste transport in the aquifer underlying the Snake River Plain at the National Reactor Testing Station, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robertson, J.B.

    1974-01-01

    Industrial and low-level radioactive liquid wastes at the National Reactor Testing Station (NRTS) in Idaho have been disposed to the Snake River Plain aquifer since 1952. Monitoring studies have indicated that tritium and chloride have dispersed over a 15-square mile (39-square kilometer) area of the aquifer in low but detectable concentrations and have only migrated as far as 5 miles (8 kilometers) downgradient from discharge points. The movement of cationic waste solutes, particularly 90Sr and 137Cs, has been significantly retarded due to sorption phenomena, principally ion exchange. 137Cs has shown no detectable migration in the aquifer and 90Sr has migrated only about 1.5 miles (2 kilometers) from the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) discharge well, and is detectable over an area of only 1.5 square miles ( 4 square kilometers) of the aquifer. Digital modeling techniques have been applied successfully to the analysis of the complex waste-transport system by utilizing numerical solution of the coupled equations of groundwater motion and mass transport. The model includes the effects of convective transport, flow divergence, two-dimensional hydraulic dispersion, radioactive decay, and reversible linear sorption. The hydraulic phase of the model uses the iterative, alternating direction, implicit finite-difference scheme to solve the groundwater flow equations, while the waste-transport phase uses a modified method of characteristics to solve the solute transport equations simulated by the model. The modeling results indicate that hydraulic dispersion (especially transverse) is a much more significant influence than previously suggested by earlier studies. The model has been used to estimate future waste migration patterns for varied assumed hydrological and waste conditions up through the year 2000. The hydraulic effects of recharge from the Big Lost River have an important (but not predominant) influence on the simulated future migration patterns. For the assumed conditions, the model indicates that detectable concentrations of waste chloride and tritium could move as much as 15 miles (24 kilometers) downgradient from the original discharge points by the year 2000. However, the model shows 90Sr moving only 2 to 3 miles (3 to 5 kilometers) downgradient in the same time. The model may also be used to estimate the effects of the various future waste disposal practices and hydrologic conditions on subsequent migration of waste products.

  8. Field evaluation of lead effects on Canada geese and mallards in the Coeur d'Alene River Basin, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henny, Charles J.; Blus, L.J.; Hoffman, D.J.; Sileo, L.; Audet, Daniel J.; Snyder, Mark R.

    2000-01-01

    Hatch year (HY) mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) in the Coeur d'Alene (CDA) River Basin had higher concentrations of lead in their blood than HY Western Canada geese (Branta canadensis moffitti) (geometric means 0.98 versus 0.28 I?g/g, wet weight). The pattern for adults of both species was similar, although geometric means (1.77 versus 0.41 I?g/g) were higher than in HY birds. HY mallards captured in the CDA River Basin in 1987 contained significantly lower lead concentrations in their blood than in 1994a??95 (0.36 versus 0.98 I?g/g); however, some very young mallards were sampled in 1987, and concentrations in adults were not significantly different in 1987, 1994, or 1995 (1.52, 2.07, 1.55 I?g/g, respectively). Both species in the CDA River Basin in 1994a??95 showed significantly reduced red blood cell delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity compared to the reference areas: Canada geese (HY a??65.4 to a??86.0%, adults a??82.3%), and mallards (HY a??90.7 to a??95.5%, adults a??94.1%). Canada goose goslings were divided into size classes, and the two smaller classes from the CDA River Basin had significantly elevated free erythrocyte protoporphyrin (protoporphyrin) levels compared to the reference area (15.2?? and 6.9??). HY and adult mallards both had significantly elevated protoporphyrin (5.9?? and 7.5??). Recognizing that interspecific differences exist in response and sensitivity to lead, it appears (at least for hemoglobin and hematocrit) that Canada geese were more sensitive to lead than mallards, i.e., adverse hematologic effects occur at lower blood lead concentrations. Only Canada geese from the CDA River Basin, in spite of lower blood lead concentrations, had significantly reduced mean hemoglobin and hematocrit values. No euthanized Canada geese (all HYs) from CDA River Basin were classified as clinically lead poisoned, but 38 Canada geese found dead in the CDA River Basin during a concurrent study succumbed to lead poisoning between 1992 and 1997. Only 6 (15.8%) of these 38 contained ingested lead shot, which contrasts greatly with the 75a??94% incidence of ingested lead shot when mortality was due to lead shot ingestion. Lead from other contaminated sources (i.e., sediments and vegetation) in the CDA River Basin was strongly implicated in most Canada goose deaths. Based on the 31 live mallards and Canada geese collected in the CDA River Basin, which were representative of the live populations blood sampled only, the prevalence of subclinical and clinical lead poisoning (as determined by liver lead concentrations, excluding birds with ingested lead shot) was higher in mallards: subclinical (4 of 8, 50% HYs and 6 of 11, 55% adults); clinical (0% HYs and 4 of 11, 36% adults), with less data available for Canada geese (only 1 of 9, 11% HYs marginally subclinical). The clinically lead-poisoned mallards had extremely high concentrations of lead in blood (2.69a??8.82 I?g/g) and liver (6.39a??17.89 I?g/g). Eight mallards found dead in the CDA River Basin during a concurrent study were diagnosed as lead poisoned, and only one (12.5%) contained ingested lead shot, which again strongly implicates other lead sources. The finding of dead lead poisoned Canada geese together with the high percentage of live mallards classified as subclinically or clinically lead poisoned, in combination with the low incidence of ingested lead shot causes us concern for both of these species, which live in association with lead-contaminated sediment in the CDA River Basin.

  9. WATER QUALITY CONDITIONS IN THE MILNER REACH, SNAKE RIVER, SOUTH-CENTRAL IDAHO, OCTOBER 18-21 1977

    EPA Science Inventory

    During late October 1977, water discharge form Minidoka Dam into the Milner reach of the Snake River was less than 22 cubic meters per second, compared to normal flows for that time of year of about 42 cubic meters per second or more. To determine if impared water-wquality condi...

  10. Biological and Physical Inventory of Clear Creek, Orofino Creek, and the Potlatch River, Tributary Streams of the Clearwater River, Idaho, 1984 Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, David B.

    1985-05-01

    Clear Creek, Orofino Creek, and Potlatch Creek, three of the largest tributaries of the lower Clearwater River Basin, were inventoried during 1984. The purpose of the inventory was to identify where anadromous salmonid production occurs and to recommend enhancement alternatives to increase anadromous salmonid habitat in these streams. Anadromous and fluvial salmonids were found in all three drainages. The lower reach of Clear Creek supported a low population of rainbow-steelhead, while the middle reach supported a much greater population of rainbow-steelhead. Substantial populations of cutthroat trout were also found in the headwaters of Clear Creek. Rainbow-steelhead and brook trout were found throughout Orofino Creek. A predominant population of brook trout was found in the headwaters while a predominant population of rainbow-steelhead was found in the mainstem and lower tributaries of Orofino Creek. Rainbow-steelhead and brook trout were also found in the Potlatch River. Generally, the greatest anadromous salmonid populations in the Potlatch River were found within the middle reach of this system. Several problems were identified which would limit anadromous salmonid production within each drainage. Problems affecting Clear Creek were extreme flows, high summer water temperature, lack of riparian habitat, and high sediment load. Gradient barriers prevented anadromous salmonid passage into Orofino Creek and they are the main deterrent to salmonid production in this system. Potlatch River has extreme flows, high summer water temperature, a lack of riparian habitat and high sediment loads. Providing passage over Orofino Falls is recommended and should be considered a priority for improving salmonid production in the lower Clearwater River Basin. Augmenting flows in the Potlatch River is also recommended as an enhancement measure for increasing salmonid production in the lower Clearwater River Basin. 18 refs., 5 figs., 85 tabs.

  11. Applications of medium range to seasonal/interannual climate forecasts for water resources management in the Yakima River basin, Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, A. W.; Steinemann, A. C.; Alexander, D.; Shukla, S.

    2006-12-01

    The Yakima River system supplies the primary inflows for a multi-reservoir project that is managed to support irrigation, environmental flows, and hydropower production. The US Bureau of Reclamation (USBR) coordinates water allocations and reservoir operations based on evolving storage levels and forecasts of summer period streamflow. Streamflow forecasts are currently taken from several sources, including regression-based predictions from the NWS and NRCS, and internally-generated Ensemble Streamflow Prediction outputs from an MMS hydrology model. The University of Washington is collaborating with the USBR to evaluate the uses of experimental streamflow forecasts that are derived from medium to long lead climate forecasts from NCEP and CPC, and generated by a water and energy balance land surface model, VIC, that was developed as part of the NOAA/NASA NLDAS initiative. This presentation focuses on the initial results from the project, and more generally on the uses of climate forecast information in the Yakima River basin water management setting.

  12. Operation Plans for Anadromous Fish Production Facilities in the Columbia River Basin : Annual Report 1995, Volume I - Idaho.

    SciTech Connect

    Idaho Department of Fish and Game; US Fish and Wildlife Service; Nez Perce Tribe

    1996-06-01

    Clearwater Hatchery is located on the north bank of the North Fork of the Clearwater River, downstream from Dworshak Dam. It is approximately 72 miles from Lower Granite Dam, and 504 miles from the mouth of the Columbia River. Site elevation is approximately 994 feet above sea level. The hatchery is staffed with 8 FTE`s. Clearwater Hatchery has two pipelines from Dworshak Reservoir. One is attached to a floating platform and is capable of providing various temperatures at varying depths. The other is a stationary intake about 245 feet below the top of the dam. All water is gravity fed to the hatchery. An 18-inch intake pipe provides an estimated 10 cfs with temperature remaining constant at approximately 40T. The primary 42-inch intake pipe can draw water from 5 to 45 feet in depth with temperatures ranging from 55{degrees} to 60{degrees}F and 70 cfs of flow. This report describes the operations of the hatchery.

  13. Evaluation of LiDAR-Acquired Bathymetric and Topographic Data Accuracy in Various Hydrogeomorphic Settings in the Lower Boise River, Southwestern Idaho, 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Skinner, Kenneth D.

    2009-01-01

    Elevation data in riverine environments can be used in various applications for which different levels of accuracy are required. The Experimental Advanced Airborne Research LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) - or EAARL - system was used to obtain topographic and bathymetric data along the lower Boise River, southwestern Idaho, for use in hydraulic and habitat modeling. The EAARL data were post-processed into bare earth and bathymetric raster and point datasets. Concurrently with the EAARL data collection, real-time kinetic global positioning system and total station ground-survey data were collected in three areas within the lower Boise River basin to assess the accuracy of the EAARL elevation data in different hydrogeomorphic settings. The accuracies of the EAARL-derived elevation data, determined in open, flat terrain, to provide an optimal vertical comparison surface, had root mean square errors ranging from 0.082 to 0.138 m. Accuracies for bank, floodplain, and in-stream bathymetric data had root mean square errors ranging from 0.090 to 0.583 m. The greater root mean square errors for the latter data are the result of high levels of turbidity in the downstream ground-survey area, dense tree canopy, and horizontal location discrepancies between the EAARL and ground-survey data in steeply sloping areas such as riverbanks. The EAARL point to ground-survey comparisons produced results similar to those for the EAARL raster to ground-survey comparisons, indicating that the interpolation of the EAARL points to rasters did not introduce significant additional error. The mean percent error for the wetted cross-sectional areas of the two upstream ground-survey areas was 1 percent. The mean percent error increases to -18 percent if the downstream ground-survey area is included, reflecting the influence of turbidity in that area.

  14. Assessment of the sand and gravel resources of the Lower Boise River Valley area, Idaho: part one: geological framework of the sand and gravel deposits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bliss, James D.; Moyle, Phillip R.

    2001-01-01

    The USGS has undertaken a first order evaluation of sand & gravel resources in the Lower Boise River Valley in response to rapid urban expansion in the Boise-Nampa-Caldwell corridor in southwest Idaho. The study is intended to provide land-use planners and managers, particularly in the Bureau of Land Management, with a foundation of knowledge that will allow them to anticipate and plan for demand for and development of sand and gravel resources on public lands in response to the urban growth. Attributes under study include: regional geology of both alluvial source areas as well as deposits; fluvial processes that led to deposition of the sand and gravel deposits; spatial distribution of the deposits; quantity and quality of materials in the deposits; and the suitability of the deposits for a range of applications. The study will also examine and attempt to model the association between fluvial processes, deposit characteristics, and physical specifications for various applications of sand and gravel. The results will be presented in a series of sand and gravel assessment reports of which this is the first.

  15. Estimation of total nitrogen and total phosphorus in streams of the Middle Columbia River Basin (Oregon, Washington, and Idaho) using SPARROW models, with emphasis on the Yakima River Basin, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Henry M.; Black, Robert W.; Wise, Daniel R.

    2013-01-01

    The watershed model SPARROW (Spatially Related Regressions on Watershed attributes) was used to predict total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) loads and yields for the Middle Columbia River Basin in Idaho, Oregon, and Washington. The new models build on recently published models for the entire Pacific Northwest, and provide revised load predictions for the arid interior of the region by restricting the modeling domain and recalibrating the models. Results from the new TN and TP models are provided for the entire region, and discussed with special emphasis on the Yakima River Basin, Washington. In most catchments of the Yakima River Basin, the TN and TP in streams is from natural sources, specifically nitrogen fixation in forests (TN) and weathering and erosion of geologic materials (TP). The natural nutrient sources are overshadowed by anthropogenic sources of TN and TP in highly agricultural and urbanized catchments; downstream of the city of Yakima, most of the load in the Yakima River is derived from anthropogenic sources. Yields of TN and TP from catchments with nearly uniform land use were compared with other yield values and export coefficients published in the scientific literature, and generally were in agreement. The median yield of TN was greatest in catchments dominated by agricultural land and smallest in catchments dominated by grass and scrub land. The median yield of TP was greatest in catchments dominated by forest land, but the largest yields (90th percentile) of TP were from agricultural catchments. As with TN, the smallest TP yields were from catchments dominated by grass and scrub land.

  16. Origin and stratigraphy of phreatomagmatic deposits at the Pleistocene Sinker Butte Volcano, Western Snake River Plain, Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brand, Brittany D.; White, Craig M.

    2007-02-01

    Sinker Butte is the erosional remnant of a very large basaltic tuff cone of middle Pleistocene age located at the southern edge of the western Snake River Plain. Phreatomagmatic tephras are exposed in complete sections up to 100 m thick in the walls of the Snake River Canyon, creating an unusual opportunity to study the deposits produced by this volcano through its entire sequence of explosive eruptions. The main objectives of the study were to determine the overall evolution of the Sinker Butte volcano while focusing particularly on the tephras produced by its phreatomagmatic eruptions. Toward this end, twenty-three detailed stratigraphic sections ranging from 20 to 100 m thick were examined and measured in canyon walls exposing tephras deposited around 180 of the circumference of the volcano. Three main rock units are recognized in canyon walls at Sinker Butte: a lower sequence composed of numerous thin basaltic lava flows, an intermediate sequence of phreatomagmatic tephras, and a capping sequence of welded basaltic spatter and more lava flows. We subdivide the phreatomagmatic deposits into two main parts, a series of reworked, mostly subaqueously deposited tephras and a more voluminous sequence of overlying subaerial surge and fall deposits. Most of the reworked deposits are gray in color and exhibit features such as channel scour and fill, planar-stratification, high and low angle cross-stratification, trough cross-stratification, and Bouma-turbidite sequences consistent with their being deposited in shallow standing water or in braided streams. The overlying subaerial deposits are commonly brown or orange in color due to palagonitization. They display a wide variety of bedding types and sedimentary structures consistent with deposition by base surges, wet to dry pyroclastic fall events, and water saturated debris flows. Proximal sections through the subaerial tephras exhibit large regressive cross-strata, planar bedding, and bomb sags suggesting deposition by wet base surges and tephra fallout. Medial and distal deposits consist of a thick sequence of well-bedded tephras; however, the cross-stratified base-surge deposits are thinner and interbedded within the fallout deposits. The average wavelength and amplitude of the cross strata continue to decrease with distance from the vent. These bedded surge and fall deposits grade upward into dominantly fall deposits containing 75-95% juvenile vesiculated clasts and localized layers of welded spatter, indicating a greatly reduced water-melt ratio. Overlying these "dryer" deposits are massive tuff breccias that were probably deposited as water saturated debris flows (lahars). The first appearance of rounded river gravels in these massive tuff breccias indicates downward coring of the diatreme and entrainment of country rock from lower in the stratigraphic section. The "wetter" nature of these deposits suggests a renewed source of external water. The massive deposits grade upward into wet fallout tephras and the phreatomagmatic sequence ends with a dry scoria fall deposit overlain by welded spatter and lava flows. Field observations and two new 40Ar- 39Ar incremental heating dates suggest the succession of lavas and tephra deposits exposed in this part of the Snake River canyon may all have been erupted from a closely related complex of vents at Sinker Butte. We propose that initial eruptions of lava flows built a small shield edifice that dammed or disrupted the flow of the ancestral Snake River. The shift from effusive to explosive eruptions occurred when the surface water or rising ground water gained access to the vent. As the river cut a new channel around the lava dam, water levels dropped and the volcano returned to an effusive style of eruption.

  17. Distribution of metals during digestion by cutthroat trout fed benthic invertebrates contaminated in the Clark Fork River, Montana and the Coeur d'Alene River, Idaho, U.S.A., and fed artificially contaminated Artemia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farag, A.M.; Suedkamp, M.J.; Meyer, J.S.; Barrows, R.; Woodward, D.F.

    2000-01-01

    The concentrations of essential amino acids in three, undigested invertebrate diets collected from the Clark Fork River (CFR) for cutthroat trout were similar to each other, but were c. 25-75% less than Artemia that were exposed to a mixture of arsenic, copper, cadmium, lead and zinc in the laboratory. The Artemia diet appeared less palatable and the texture, quantity and appearance of the intestinal contents differed between fish fed the Artemia and CFR diets. The Pb% in the fluid fraction of the intestinal contents was greater for the Artemia (29%) than for the CFR diets (10-17%), and the Cu% in the amino acid plus metal fraction of the intestinal contents was greater for the Artemia (78%) than for two of the three CFR diets (67% and 70%). Intestinal contents of fish fed invertebrate diets collected from various sites on the Coeur d'Alene River (CDA), Idaho, were similar in texture, quantity, and appearance. For fish fed the CDA diets, differences in the distribution of metals among fractions of the digestive fluids appeared to be related to concentrations of metals in the invertebrate diets. Pb% was lowest of all metals in the fluid portion of the intestinal contents. However, >80% of all metals in the hind gut were associated with the particulate fraction where they may still be available for uptake through pinocytosis. (C) 2000 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  18. Geothermal resources of southern Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Mabey, D.R.

    1983-01-01

    The geothermal resource of southern Idaho as assessed by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1978 is large. Most of the known hydrothermal systems in southern Idaho have calculated reservoir temperatures of less than 150 C. Water from many of these systems is valuable for direct heat applications. A majority of the known and inferred geothermal resources of southern Idaho underlie the Snake River Plain. However, major uncertainties exist concerning the geology and temperatures beneath the plain. The largest hydrothermal system in Idaho is in the Bruneau-Grang View area of the western Snake River Plain with a calculated reservoir temperature of 107 C and an energy of 4.5 x 10 to the 20th power joules. No evidence of higher temperature water associated with this system was found. Although the geology of the eastern Snake River Plain suggests that a large thermal anomaly may underlie this area of the plain, direct evidence of high temperatures was not found. Large volumes of water at temperatures between 90 and 150 C probably exist along the margins of the Snake River Plain and in local areas north and south of the plain.

  19. Ground-Water Budgets for the Wood River Valley Aquifer System, South-Central Idaho, 1995-2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartolino, James R.

    2009-01-01

    The Wood River Valley contains most of the population of Blaine County and the cities of Sun Valley, Ketchum, Haley, and Bellevue. This mountain valley is underlain by the alluvial Wood River Valley aquifer system which consists of a single unconfined aquifer that underlies the entire valley, an underlying confined aquifer that is present only in the southernmost valley, and the confining unit that separates them. The entire population of the area depends on ground water for domestic supply, either from domestic or municipal-supply wells, and rapid population growth since the 1970s has caused concern about the long-term sustainability of the ground-water resource. To help address these concerns this report describes a ground-water budget developed for the Wood River Valley aquifer system for three selected time periods: average conditions for the 10-year period 1995-2004, and the single years of 1995 and 2001. The 10-year period 1995-2004 represents a range of conditions in the recent past for which measured data exist. Water years 1995 and 2001 represent the wettest and driest years, respectively, within the 10-year period based on precipitation at the Ketchum Ranger Station. Recharge or inflow to the Wood River Valley aquifer system occurs through seven main sources (from largest to smallest): infiltration from tributary canyons, streamflow loss from the Big Wood River, areal recharge from precipitation and applied irrigation water, seepage from canals and recharge pits, leakage from municipal pipes, percolation from septic systems, and subsurface inflow beneath the Big Wood River in the northern end of the valley. Total estimated mean annual inflow or recharge to the aquifer system for 1995-2004 is 270,000 acre-ft/yr (370 ft3/s). Total recharge for the wet year 1995 and the dry year 2001 is estimated to be 270,000 acre-ft/yr (370 ft3/s) and 220,000 acre-ft/yr (300 ft3/s), respectively. Discharge or outflow from the Wood River Valley aquifer system occurs through five main sources (from largest to smallest): Silver Creek streamflow gain, ground-water pumpage, Big Wood River streamflow gain, direct evapotranspiration from riparian vegetation, and subsurface outflow (treated separately). Total estimated mean 1995-2004 annual outflow or discharge from the aquifer system is 250,000 acre-ft/yr (350 ft3/s). Estimated total discharge is 240,000 acre-ft/yr (330 ft3/s) for both the wet year 1995 and the dry year 2001. The budget residual is the difference between estimated ground-water inflow and outflow and encompasses subsurface outflow, ground-water storage change, and budget error. For 1995-2004, mean annual inflow exceeded outflow by 20,000 acre-ft/yr (28 ft3/s); for the wet year 1995, mean annual inflow exceeded outflow by 30,000 acre-ft/yr (41 ft3/s); for the dry year 2001, mean annual outflow exceeded inflow by 20,000 acre-ft/yr (28 ft3/s). These values represent 8, 13, and 8 percent, respectively, of total outflows for the same periods. It is difficult to differentiate the relative contributions of the three residual components, although the estimated fluctuations between the wet and dry year budgets likely are primarily caused by changes in ground-water storage. The individual components in the wet and dry year ground-water budgets responded in a consistent manner to changes in precipitation and temperature. Although the ground-water budgets for the three periods indicated that ground-water storage is replenished in wet years, statistical analyses by Skinner and others (2007) suggest that such replenishment is not complete and over the long term more water is removed from storage than is replaced. In other words, despite restoration of water to ground-water storage in wet years, changes have occurred in either recharge and (or) discharge to cause ground-water storage to decline over time. Such changes may include, but are not limited to: lining or abandoning canals and ditches, conversion of surface-water irriga

  20. Genetic interpretation of lead-isotopic data from the Columbia River basalt group, Oregon, Washington, and Idaho.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Church, S.E.

    1985-01-01

    Lead-isotopic data for the high-alumina olivine plateau basalts and most of the Colombia River basalt group plot within the Cascade Range mixing array. The data for several of the formations form small, tight clusters and the Nd and Sr isotopic data show discrete variation between these basalt groups. The observed isotopic and trace-element data from most of the Columbia River basalt group can be accounted for by a model which calls for partial melting of the convecting oceanic-type mantle and contamination by fluids derived from continental sediments which were subducted along the trench. These sediments were transported in the low-velocity zone at least 400 km behind the active arc into a back-arc environment represented by the Columbia Plateau province. With time, the zone of melting moved up, resulting in the formation of the Saddle Mt basalt by partial melting of a 2600 m.y.-old sub-continental lithosphere characterized by high Th/U, Th/Pb, Rb/Sr and Nd/Sm ratios and LREE enrichment. Partial melting of old sub-continental lithosphere beneath the continental crust may be an important process in the formation of continental tholeiite flood basalt sequences world-wide. -L.di H.

  1. Pressure-temperature-time paths, prograde garnet growth, and protolith of tectonites from a polydeformational, polymetamorphic terrane: Salmon River suture zone, west-central Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKay, Matthew Paul

    The metamorphic rocks of the Salmon River suture zone (SRSZ) in west-central Idaho provide a unique glimpse into mid-lower crustal processes during continental growth by island arc accretion. The SRSZ, which separates island arc terranes of the Blue Mountains Province (BMP) from the Mesozoic margin of North America, contains medium to high grade tectonites that record multiple metamorphic and deformation events. The SRSZ is divided by the Pollock Mountain thrust fault (PMtf) into two structural blocks: the higher-grade Pollock Mountain plate (PMp), and the lower-grade, underlying Rapid River plate (RRp). Previous studies interpreted pre-144 Ma metamorphism within the SRSZ related to assembly of the BMP. Counter-clockwise P-T paths for metamorphism within the RRp [peak=8--9 kbar 600C, retrograde=5--7 kbar, 450--525C] were inferred to include prograde garnet growth during pre-144 Ma loading followed by garnet growth during rapid cooling due to lithospheric delamination. The PMp was interpreted to have subsequently been buried to increasing depth and metamorphosed again at 128 Ma as a result of the BMP docking with North America. New P-T-t paths for the RRp and PMp constructed from geochronology, geothermobarometry, pseudosections, and petrography suggest that after loading, slow cooling rates caused diffusion in garnet rims, which produced counter-clockwise P-T paths. Garnet Sm-Nd ages of 112.5+/-1.5 Ma from the RRp, and 141--124 Ma from the PMp suggest that metamorphism within the SRSZ is diachronous and that crustal thickening was protracted occurring between 141--112 Ma. P-T-t paths between both plates indicate that the PMp reached peak metamorphism prior to peak metamorphism of the RRp. This suggests that the PMp was buried prior to the development of the PMtf. The RRp was subsequently buried along the PMtf, which was followed by development of the Rapid River thrust fault, which juxtaposed RRp schists onto the Wallowa terrane of the BMP. This model suggests that metamorphism in the SRSZ was controlled by individual thrust faults instead of recording collisions between terranes and is consistent with a prolonged burial of rocks in the SRSZ followed by slow cooling that does not require lithospheric delamination to account for retrograde P-T estimates.

  2. Water-Resource Trends and Comparisons Between Partial-Development and October 2006 Hydrologic Conditions, Wood River Valley, South-Central Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Skinner, Kenneth D.; Bartolino, James R.; Tranmer, Andrew W.

    2007-01-01

    This report analyzes trends in ground-water and surface-water data, documents 2006 hydrologic conditions, and compares 2006 and historic ground-water data of the Wood River Valley of south-central Idaho. The Wood River Valley extends from Galena Summit southward to the Timmerman Hills. It is comprised of a single unconfined aquifer and an underlying confined aquifer present south of Baseline Road in the southern part of the study area. Streams are well-connected to the shallow unconfined aquifer. Because the entire population of the area depends on ground water for domestic supply, either from domestic or municipal-supply wells, rapid population growth since the 1970s has raised concerns about the continued availability of ground and surface water to support existing uses and streamflow. To help address these concerns, this report evaluates ground- and surface-water conditions in the area before and during the population growth that started in the 1970s. Mean annual water levels in three wells (two completed in the unconfined aquifer and one in the confined aquifer) with more than 50 years of semi-annual measurements showed statistically significant declining trends. Mean annual and monthly streamflow trends were analyzed for three gaging stations in the Wood River Valley. The Big Wood River at Hailey gaging station (13139500) showed a statistically significant trend of a 25-percent increase in mean monthly base flow for March over the 90-year period of record, possibly because of earlier snowpack runoff. Both the 7-day and 30-day low-flow analyses for the Big Wood River near Bellevue gaging station (13141000) show a mean decrease of approximately 15 cubic feet per second since the 1940s, and mean monthly discharge showed statistically significant decreasing trends for December, January, and February. The Silver Creek at Sportsman Access near Picabo gaging station (13150430) also showed statistically significant decreasing trends in annual and mean monthly discharge for July through February and April from 1975 to 2005. Comparisons of partial-development (ground-water conditions from 1952 to 1986) and 2006 ground-water resources in the Wood River Valley using a geographic information system indicate that most ground-water levels for the unconfined aquifer in the study area are either stable or declining. Declines are predominant in the southern part of the study area south of Hailey, and some areas exceed what is expected of natural fluctuations in ground-water levels. Some ground-water levels rose in the northern part of the study area; however, these increases are approximated due to a lack of water-level data in the area. Ground-water level declines in the confined aquifer exceed the range of expected natural fluctuations in large areas of the confined aquifer in the southern part of the study area in the Bellevue fan. However, the results in this area are approximated due to limited available water-level data.

  3. Use of chlorine-36 to determine regional-scale aquifer dispersivity, eastern Snake River Plain aquifer, Idaho/USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cecil, L.D.; Welhan, J.A.; Green, J.R.; Grape, S.K.; Sudicky, E.R.

    2000-01-01

    Chlorine-36 (36Cl) derived from processed nuclear waste that was disposed at the US Department of Energy's Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) through a deep injection well in 1958, was detected 24-28 yr later in groundwater monitoring wells approximately 26 km downgradient from the source. Groundwater samples covering the period 1966-1995 were selected from the US Geological Survey's archived-sample library at the INEEL and analyzed for 36Cl by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). The smaller 36Cl peak concentrations in water from the far-field monitoring wells relative to the input suggest that aquifer dispersivity may be large. However, the sharpness of the 1958 disposal peak of 36Cl is matched by the measured 36Cl concentrations in water from these wells. This implies that a small aquifer dispersivity may be attributed to preferential groundwater flowpaths. Assuming that tracer arrival times at monitoring wells are controlled by preferential flow, a 1-D system-response model was used to estimate dispersivity by comparing the shape of predicted 36Cl-concentration curves to the shape of 36Cl-concentration curves measured in water from these observation wells. The comparisons suggest that a 1-D dispersivity of 5 m provides the best fit to the tracer data. Previous work using a 2-D equivalent porous-media model concluded that longitudinal dispersivity (equivalent to 1-D dispersivity in our model) was 90 m (Ackerman, 1991). A 90 m dispersivity value eliminates the 1958 disposal peak in our model output curves. The implications of the arrival of 36Cl at downgradient monitoring wells are important for three reasons: (1) the arrival times and associated 36Cl concentrations provide quantitative constraints on residence times, velocities, and dispersivities in the aquifer; (2) they help to refine our working hypotheses of groundwater flow in this aquifer and (3) they may suggest a means of estimating the distribution of preferential flowpaths in the aquifer. ?? 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Preliminary Multi-Isotopic Data and Potential Regional Connections for Late Cenozoic Basalts of the Western Snake River Plain, Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera, T. A.; White, C. M.; Schmitz, M. D.

    2007-12-01

    Previous research regarding the origin and evolution of Snake River Plain (SRP) basalts west of the 116 meridian has utilized field mapping, petrographic and geochemical data, and some Sr-isotopic analyses. These studies showed that in the past 2 m.y. at least three suites of chemically and isotopically distinct basalts were produced. The oldest (1.0 Ma to 1.6 Ma) are iron-rich tholeiitic basalts (N-tholeiities); the intermediate suite (0.90 Ma) is tholeiitic with an usually high phosphorus content (P-tholeiites); and the youngest basalts (< 0.50 Ma) are mildly alkaline (A-lavas). The current study presents Sr, Nd, and Pb isotopic data for basalts collected from each of these suites. Temporal trends in isotopic systematics of western SRP basalts, from N-tholeiites (87Sr/86Sr > 0.707, epsilon Nd < -4, 206Pb/204Pb < 18.5) to younger P-tholeiites and A-lavas (87Sr/86Sr < 0.706, epsilon Nd from -2 to 0, 206Pb/204Pb > 18.5), are comparable to Late Cenozoic basalts of nearby provinces. These trends are nearly identical to those exhibited by the Boise River Group (BRG) northeast of the study area. In eastern Oregon, the Jordan Valley Volcanic Field (JVVF) also displays similar trends; however the JVVF data are slightly offset to less radiogenic Sr and more radiogenic Nd. This may be controlled by differences in the character of the underlying lithospheric mantle across the western boundary of the North American craton. Further comparisons show the N-tholeiites are isotopically similar to the Saddle Mountain basalts of the Columbia River Group (CRG), which are attributed a subcontinental lithospheric mantle source. In contrast, the P- tholeiites and A-lavas trend toward the isotopically depleted Imnaha basalts of the CRG. These, and the younger alkaline rocks of the BRG and JVVF, are interpreted to be derived from a deeper asthenospheric source. We interpret our data as recording a similar lithospheric to asthenospheric source transition for basalt magma genesis in the western SRP. The similarities in evolution of basaltic volcanism across this area imply that similar processes generate and modify magmas on a regional scale.

  5. Water-quality and biological conditions in selected tributaries of the Lower Boise River, southwestern Idaho, water years 2009-12

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Etheridge, Alexandra B.; MacCoy, Dorene E.; Weakland, Rhonda J.

    2014-01-01

    Water-quality conditions were studied in selected tributaries of the lower Boise River during water years 2009–12, including Fivemile and Tenmile Creeks in 2009, Indian Creek in 2010, and Mason Creek in 2011 and 2012. Biological samples, including periphyton biomass and chlorophyll-a, benthic macroinvertebrates, and fish were collected in Mason Creek in October 2011. Synoptic water-quality sampling events were timed to coincide with the beginning and middle of the irrigation season as well as the non-irrigation season, and showed that land uses and irrigation practices affect water quality in the selected tributaries. Large increases in nutrient and sediment concentrations and loads occurred over relatively short stream reaches and affected nutrient and sediment concentrations downstream of those reaches. Escherichia coli (E. coli) values increased in study reaches adjacent to pastured lands or wastewater treatment plants, but increased E. coli values at upstream locations did not necessarily affect E. coli values at downstream locations. A spatial loading analysis identified source areas for nutrients, sediment, and E. coli, and might be useful in selecting locations for water-quality improvement projects. Effluent from wastewater treatment plants increased nutrient loads in specific reaches in Fivemile and Indian Creeks. Increased suspended-sediment loads were associated with increased discharge from irrigation returns in each of the studied tributaries. Samples collected during or shortly after storms showed that surface runoff, particularly during the winter, may be an important source of nutrients in tributary watersheds with substantial agricultural land use. Concentrations of total phosphorus, suspended sediment, and E. coli exceeded regulatory water-quality targets or trigger levels at one or more monitoring sites in each tributary studied, and exceedences occurred during irrigation season more often than during non-irrigation season. As with water-quality sampling results, bottom-sediment samples analyzed for contaminants of emerging concern indicated that adjacent land uses can affect in-stream conditions. Contaminants of emerging concern were detected in four categories: urban compounds, industrial compounds, fecal steroids, and personal care products. Compounds in one or more of the four contaminant categories were detected at higher concentrations in upstream sites than in downstream sites in the tributaries and in the lower Boise River. High concentrations of compounds in upstream locations indicated that adjacent land use might be an important factor in contributing contaminants of emerging concern to the lower Boise River watershed. Expanded monitoring at Mason Creek near the mouth included a streamgage, a continuous water-quality monitor, and monthly water-quality sample collection. Data collected during expanded monitoring efforts at Mason Creek near the mouth provided information to develop and compare water-quality models. Regression models were developed using turbidity, discharge, and seasonality as surrogates to estimate concentrations of water-quality constituents. Daily streamflow also was used in a load model to estimate daily loads of water-quality constituents. Surrogate regression models may be useful for long-term monitoring and generally performed better than other models to estimate concentrations and loads of total phosphorus, total nitrogen, and suspended sediment in Mason Creek. Biological sampling results from Mason Creek showed low periphyton biomass and chlorophyll-a concentrations compared to those historically measured in the Boise River near Parma, Idaho, during October and November. The most abundant invertebrate found in Mason Creek was the highly tolerant and invasive New Zealand mudsnail (Potamopyrgus antipodarum). The presence of small rainbow trout (90 millimeters) may indicate salmonid spawning in Mason Creek. The rangeland-fish-index score of 58 for Mason Creek is comparable to rangeland-fish-index scores calculated for the Boise River near Middleton, indicating intermediate biotic condition.

  6. CONANT CREEK, FREMONT COUNTY, IDAHO WATER QUALITY STATUS REPORT, 1986

    EPA Science Inventory

    Conant Creek, Idaho (17040203) is a major tributary of the Falls River and is implicated as a major contributor of sediment. The 1983 Idaho Agricultural Pollution Abatement Plan identified the Falls River as being moderately affected by sediment from agricultural lands. The pur...

  7. Streamflow statistics for development of water rights claims for the Jarbidge Wild and Scenic River, Owyhee Canyonlands Wilderness, Idaho, 2013-14: a supplement to Scientific Investigations Report 2013-5212

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, Molly S.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), estimated streamflow statistics for stream segments designated “Wild,” “Scenic,” or “Recreational” under the National Wild and Scenic Rivers System in the Owyhee Canyonlands Wilderness in southwestern Idaho. The streamflow statistics were used by the BLM to develop and file a draft, federal reserved water right claim to protect federally designated “outstanding remarkable values” in the Jarbidge River. The BLM determined that the daily mean streamflow equaled or exceeded 20, 50, and 80 percent of the time during bimonthly periods (two periods per month) and the bankfull (66.7-percent annual exceedance probability) streamflow are important thresholds for maintaining outstanding remarkable values. Although streamflow statistics for the Jarbidge River below Jarbidge, Nevada (USGS 13162225) were published previously in 2013 and used for the draft water right claim, the BLM and USGS have since recognized the need to refine streamflow statistics given the approximate 40 river mile distance and intervening tributaries between the original point of estimation (USGS 13162225) and at the mouth of the Jarbidge River, which is the downstream end of the Wild and Scenic River segment. A drainage-area-ratio method was used in 2013 to estimate bimonthly exceedance probability streamflow statistics at the mouth of the Jarbidge River based on available streamgage data on the Jarbidge and East Fork Jarbidge Rivers. The resulting bimonthly streamflow statistics were further adjusted using a scaling factor calculated from a water balance on streamflow statistics calculated for the Bruneau and East Fork Bruneau Rivers and Sheep Creek. The final, adjusted bimonthly exceedance probability and bankfull streamflow statistics compared well with available verification datasets (including discrete streamflow measurements made at the mouth of the Jarbidge River) and are considered the best available estimates for streamflow statistics in the Jarbidge Wild and Scenic River segment.

  8. Methods to determine pumped irrigation-water withdrawals from the Snake River between Upper Salmon Falls and Swan Falls Dams, Idaho, using electrical power data, 1990-95

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maupin, Molly A.

    1999-01-01

    Pumped withdrawals compose most of the irrigation-water diversions from the Snake River between Upper Salmon Falls and Swan Falls Dams in southwestern Idaho. Pumps at 32 sites along the reach lift water as high as 745 feet to irrigate croplands on plateaus north and south of the river. The number of pump sites at which withdrawals are being continuously measured has been steadily decreasing, from 32 in 1990 to 7 in 1998. A cost-effective and accurate means of estimating annual irrigation-water withdrawals at pump sites that are no longer continuously measured was needed. Therefore, the U.S. Geological Survey began a study in 1998, as part of its Water-Use Program, to determine power-consumption coeffi- cients (PCCs) for each pump site so that withdrawals could be estimated by using electrical powerconsumption and total head data. PCC values for each pump site were determined by using withdrawal data that were measured by the U.S. Geological Survey during 1990–92 and 1994–95, energy data reported by Idaho Power Company during the same period, and total head data collected at each site during a field inventory in 1998. Individual average annual withdrawals for the 32 pump sites ranged from 1,120 to 44,480 acre-feet; average PCC values ranged from 103 to 1,248 kilowatthours per acre-foot. During the 1998 field season, power demand, total head, and withdrawal at 18 sites were measured to determine 1998 PCC values. Most of the 1998 PCC values were within 10 percent of the 5-year average, which demonstrates that withdrawals for a site that is no longer continuously measured can be calculated with reasonable accuracy by using the PCC value determined from this study and annual power-consumption data. K-factors, coefficients that describe the amount of energy necessary to lift water, were determined for each pump site by using values of PCC and total head and ranged from 1.11 to 1.89 kilowatthours per acre-foot per foot. Statistical methods were used to define the relations among PCC values and selected pumpsite characteristics. Multiple correlation analysis between average PCC values and total head, total horsepower, and total number of pumps revealed the strongest correlation was between average PCC and total head. Linear regression of these two variables resulted in a strong coefficient of determination R2=0 .9 86) and a representative K-factor of 1.463. Pump sites were subdivided into two groups on the basis of total head—0 to 300 feet and greater than 300 feet. Regression of average PCC values for eight pump sites with total head less than 300 feet produced a good correlation of determination (R2=0.870) and a representative K-factor of 1.682. The second group consisted of 10 pump sites with total head greater than 300 feet; regression produced a correlation of R2=0.939 and a representative K-factor of 1.405. Data on pump-site characteristics were successfully used to determine individual PCC and K-factor values. Statistical relations between pumpsite characteristics and PCC values were defined and used to determine regression equations that resulted in good coefficients of determination and representative K-factors. The individual PCC values will be used in the future to calculate irrigation- water withdrawals at sites that are no longer continuously measured. The representative K-factors and regression equations will be used to calculate irrigation-water withdrawals at sites that have not been previously measured and where total head and power consumption are known.

  9. Mechanics of brittle deformation and slope failure at the North Menan Butte tuff cone, Eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okubo, C. H.

    2013-12-01

    The Menan Volcanic Complex consists of phreatomagmatic tuff cones that were emplaced as part of the regional volcanic activity in the Snake River Plain during the late Pleistocene. These tuff cones, the ';Menan Buttes', resulted from the eruption of basaltic magma through water-saturated alluvium and older basalts along the Snake River. The tuffs are composed primarily of basaltic glass with occasional plagioclase and olivine phenocrysts. The tuff is hydrothermally altered to a massive palagonitic tuff at depth but is otherwise poorly welded. Mass movements along the flanks of the cones were contemporaneous with tuff deposition. These slope failures are manifest as cm- to meter-scale pure folds, faults and fault-related folds, as well as larger slumps that are tens to a few hundred meters wide. Previous investigations classified the structural discontinuities at North Menan Butte based on orientation and sense of displacement, and all were recognized as opening-mode or shear fractures (Russell and Brisbin, 1990). This earlier work also used a generalized model of static (i.e., aseismic) gravity-driven shear failure within cohesionless soils to infer a possible origin for these fractures through slope failure. Recent work at North Menan Butte has provided novel insight into the styles of brittle deformation present, the effect of this deformation on the circulation of subsurface fluids within the tuff cone, as well as the mechanisms of the observed slope failures. Field observations reveal that the brittle deformation, previously classified as fractures, is manifest as deformation bands within the non-altered, poorly welded portions of the tuff. Both dilational and compactional bands, with shear, are observed. Slumps are bounded by normal faults, which are found to have developed within clusters of deformation bands. Deformation bands along the down-slope ends of these failure surfaces are predominantly compactional in nature. These bands have a ~3800 millidarcy permeability, a decrease from the ~9400 millidarcy permeability typical of the non-deformed, poorly-welded tuff. As such, these bands would have acted to slow to the circulation of local fluids through the tuff cone, possibly reducing the slopes' stability further. Future work will employ slope stability models to investigate the tendency for slumping of these tuffs shortly after their emplacement, accounting for water-saturated conditions and the effects of eruption-related seismicity. These results will improve current understanding of the mechanics of fault growth within basaltic tuff and enable more rigorous assessments of the hazards posed by slope instability on active phreatomagmatic tuff cones.

  10. The Raft River Basin, Idaho-Utah as of 1966: A reappraisal of the water resources and effects of ground-water development

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walker, E.H.; Dutcher, L.C.; Decker, S.O.; Dyer, K.L.

    1970-01-01

    The Raft River basin, mostly in south-central Idaho and partly in Utah, is a drainage basin of approximately 1,510 square miles. Much arable land in the basin lacks water for irrigation, and the potentially irrigable acreage far exceeds the amount that could be irrigated with the 140,000 acre-feet estimated annual water yield. Therefore, the amount of uncommitted water that could be intercepted and used within the basin is the limiting factor in further development of agriculture irrigated with water derived from within the basin; Water for additional irrigation might be obtained by pumping more ground water, but only if large additional ground-water storage depletion can be tolerated. Alternatively, supplemental water might be imported. The Raft River basin is an area of rugged mountain ranges, aggraded alluvial plains, and intermontane valleys. Topography and geologic structure strongly influence the climate and hydrology. The Raft River rises in the Goose Creek Range of northwestern Utah and flows generally northeastward and northward, joining the Snake River in the backwater of Lake Walcott. The climate ranges from cool subhumid in the mountains to semiarid on the floor of the Raft River valley. Precipitation ranges from less than l0 inches on the valley floor to more than 30 inches at some places in the mountains. Rainfall is light during the growing season of about 100 days, and irrigation is necessary for most cultivated crops. About 87,000 acres of land was irrigated in the 1960's, on the average, and most of that is in the lower Raft River valley. Nearly all usable surface water in the basin is diverted for irrigation and as of 1966 less than 20,000 acres were irrigated exclusively with surface water. Most stock, farm, and domestic water is from wells. Irrigation with ground water is Widely practiced and about 69,000 acres were irrigated partly or wholly with ground water in, 1966. In 1963 the valley was closed to further issuance of permits to appropriate ground-water because of declining water levels. Geologic structure, lithology, and physiographic history control the surface-drainage pattern as well as the occurrence and movement of ground water. The principal water-bearing formations are the Salt Lake Formation of Pliocene age, consisting mainly of weakly consolidated sandy sediments and some layers of volcanic rock; the Raft Formation of Pleistocene age consisting of sand and gravel, lake sediments, and thin beds of silt and clay; and alluvial deposits of Holocene age that form aquifers beneath the bottom lands of the valleys. Good yields from wells, ranging upward to several thousand gallons a minute, are obtained from the water-bearing formations. Basalt lavas of the Snake River Group yield water where they occur below the water table of the valley. A few wells that penetrate limestone obtain substantial supplies from crevices. Thickness of the composite aquifer ranges from 0 to more than 1,500 feet. Transmissivity of the composite aquifer is estimated to vary from about 10,000 gpd/ft (gallons per day per foot) along the basin margins to more than 450,000 gpd/ft. Permeability of the water-bearing deposits is highly variable, but is estimated to average about 300 gpd/ft2 for the basin as a whole. The ground-water storage capacity of the basin is large; in the lower Raft Rive subbasin alone, the upper 200 feet of saturated deposits contain an estimated 9,000,000 acre-feet of water. The average specific yield of the shallow deposits is estimated to be 20 percent. The water yield of the Raft River basin is estimated to average about 140,000 acre-feet per year as compared to 183,600 acre-feet estimated by Nace and others (1961) and 320,000 acre-feet estimated by Mundorff and Sisco (1963). Surface outflow of the Raft River to the Snake River now amounts to only about 1,900 acre-feet per year, a decline of about 15,000 acre-feet a year from the estimated original average outflow prior to ir

  11. Coolwater culmination: Sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) U-Pb and isotopic evidence for continental delamination in the Syringa Embayment, Salmon River suture, Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lund, Karen; Aleinikoff, J. N.; Yacob, E. Y.; Unruh, D. M.; Fanning, C. M.

    2008-04-01

    During dextral oblique translation along Laurentia in western Idaho, the Blue Mountains superterrane underwent clockwise rotation and impinged into the Syringa embayment at the northern end of the Salmon River suture. Along the suture, the superterrane is juxtaposed directly against western Laurentia, making this central Cordilleran accretionary-margin segment unusually attenuated. In the embayment, limited orthogonal contraction produced a crustal wedge of oceanic rocks that delaminated Laurentian crust. The wedge is exposed through Laurentian crust in the Coolwater culmination as documented by mapping and by sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe U-Pb, Sri, and ?Nd data for gneisses that lie inboard of the suture. The predominant country rock is Mesoproterozoic paragneiss overlying Laurentian basement. An overlying Neoproterozoic (or younger) paragneiss belt in the Syringa embayment establishes the form of the Cordilleran miogeocline and that the embayment is a relict of Rodinia rifting. An underlying Cretaceous paragneiss was derived from arc terranes and suture-zone orogenic welt but also from Laurentia. The Cretaceous paragneiss and an 86-Ma orthogneiss that intruded it formed the wedge of oceanic rocks that were inserted into the Laurentian margin between 98 and 73 Ma, splitting supracrustal Laurentian rocks from their basement. Crustal thickening, melting and intrusion within the wedge, and folding to form the Coolwater culmination continued until 61 Ma. The embayment formed a restraining bend at the end of the dextral transpressional suture. Clockwise rotation of the impinging superterrane and overthrusting of Laurentia that produced the crustal wedge in the Coolwater culmination are predicted by oblique collision into the Syringa embayment.

  12. The timing of tertiary metamorphism and deformation in the Albion-Raft River-Grouse Creek metamorphic core complex, Utah and Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Strickland, A.; Miller, E.L.; Wooden, J.L.

    2011-01-01

    The Albion-Raft River-Grouse Creek metamorphic core complex of southern Idaho and northern Utah exposes 2.56-Ga orthogneisses and Neoproterozoic metasedimentary rocks that were intruded by 32-25-Ma granitic plutons. Pluton emplacement was contemporaneous with peak metamorphism, ductile thinning of the country rocks, and top-to-thewest, normal-sense shear along the Middle Mountain shear zone. Monazite and zircon from an attenuated stratigraphic section in the Middle Mountain were dated with U-Pb, using a SHRIMP-RG (reverse geometry) ion microprobe. Zircons from the deformed Archean gneiss preserve a crystallization age of 2532 ?? 33 Ma, while monazites range from 32.6 ?? 0.6 to 27.1 ?? 0.6 Ma. In the schist of the Upper Narrows, detrital zircons lack metamorphic overgrowths, and monazites produced discordant U-Pb ages that range from 52.8 ?? 0.6 to 37.5 ?? 0.3 Ma. From the structurally and stratigraphically highest unit sampled, the schist of Stevens Spring, narrow metamorphic rims on detrital zircons yield ages from 140-110 Ma, and monazite grains contained cores that yield an age of 141 ??2 Ma, whereas rims and some whole grains ranged from 35.5 ?? 0.5 to 30.0 ?? 0.4 Ma. A boudinaged pegmatite exposed in Basin Creek is deformed by the Middle Mountains shear zone and yields a monazite age of 27.6 ?? 0.2 Ma. We interpret these data to indicate two periods of monazite and metamorphic zircon growth: a poorly preserved Early Cretaceous period (???140 Ma) that is strongly overprinted by Oligocene metamorphism (???32-27 Ma) related to regional plutonism and extension. ?? 2011 by The University of Chicago.

  13. Coolwater culmination: Sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) U-Pb and isotopic evidence for continental delamination in the Syringa Embayment, Salmon River suture, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lund, K.; Aleinikoff, J.N.; Yacob, E.Y.; Unruh, D.M.; Fanning, C.M.

    2008-01-01

    During dextral oblique translation along Laurentia in western Idaho, the Blue Mountains superterrane underwent clockwise rotation and impinged into the Syringa embayment at the northern end of the Salmon River suture. Along the suture, the superterrane is juxtaposed directly against western Laurentia, making this central Cordilleran accretionary-margin segment unusually attenuated. In the embayment, limited orthogonal contraction produced a crustal wedge of oceanic rocks that delaminated Laurentian crust. The wedge is exposed through Laurentian crust in the Coolwater culmination as documented by mapping and by sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe U-Pb, Sri, and ??Nd data for gneisses that lie inboard of the suture. The predominant country rock is Mesoproterozoic paragneiss overlying Laurentian basement. An overlying Neoproterozoic (or younger) paragneiss belt in the Syringa embayment establishes the form of the Cordilleran miogeocline and that the embayment is a relict of Rodinia rifting. An underlying Cretaceous paragneiss was derived from arc terranes and suture-zone orogenic welt but also from Laurentia. The Cretaceous paragneiss and an 86-Ma orthogneiss that intruded it formed the wedge of oceanic rocks that were inserted into the Laurentian margin between 98 and 73 Ma, splitting supracrustal Laurentian rocks from their basement. Crustal thickening, melting and intrusion within the wedge, and folding to form the Coolwater culmination continued until 61 Ma. The embayment formed a restraining bend at the end of the dextral transpressional suture. Clockwise rotation of the impinging superterrane and overthrusting of Laurentia that produced the crustal wedge in the Coolwater culmination are predicted by oblique collision into the Syringa embayment. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  14. Comparison of Plains Volcanism in the Tempe Terra Region of Mars to the Eastern Snake River Plains, Idaho with Implications for Geochemical Constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weren, S. L.; Sakimoto, S. E. H.; Hughes, S. S.; Gregg, T. K. P.

    2004-01-01

    The Eastern Snake River Plains (ESRP) in Idaho have long been considered a terrestrial analog for the plains volcanism like that evident in Syria Planum and Tempe Terra, Mars. Both the ESRP and Tempe Terra are sediment-blanketed volcanic fields in areas with significant extensional faulting. Similar volcanic features can be observed throughout both study areas using field analysis and DEMs of the ESRP and the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) data from Mars. These features include flow fields, low shields, shields with steep summits, and fissure eruptions. A few other volcanic features, such as cinder cones, which suggest variable compositions, volatile interactions, and multiple volcanic events can be seen in both areas. The eruptions in both the ESRP and Tempe Terra generally originate from the fissures creating elongate, multi-vent shields as well as isolated or aligned single vent shields. Many of these show evidence of radial flow patterns from summit craters as well as lava tube fed flows. The volcanoes of Tempe Terra display some of the global latitudinal parameter trends of small volcanoes on Mars. Some of these trends may be explained by the variation of volatile content and compositional variation across Mars. However, within Tempe Terra no significant local latitudinal trends can be seen in edifice attributes and not all variations are explained by global trends. This study builds upon previous studies of the Tempe Terra region and the ESRP in order to develop a more detailed representation of features and topographic data. Using these data we attempt to help constrain the composition and eruptive style of the Tempe Terra volcanoes by correlating them with the similar and quantified ESRP variations.

  15. Straddle-packer determination of the vertical distribution of hydraulic properties in the Snake River Plain Aquifer at well USGS-44, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, INEL

    SciTech Connect

    Monks, J.I.

    1994-09-23

    Many of the monitor wells that penetrate the upper portion of the Snake River Plain aquifer at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) are open over large intervals that include multiple water-bearing zones. Most of these wells are equipped with dedicated submersible pumps. Water of varying quality from different water-bearing zones is mixed within the wells. The hydrologic properties of individual water bearing zones are difficult to determine. Water quality and water-level data on organic, heavy metal, and radioactive contaminants have been collected, reported, and interpreted from these monitor wells for more than forty years. The problems associated with well completions over large intervals through multiple water-bearing zones raise significant questions about the data. A straddle-packer system was developed and applied at the INEL site to investigate the monitor well network. The straddle-packer system, hydraulic testing methods, data analysis procedures, and testing results are described in this report. The straddle-packer system and the straddle-packer testing and data evaluation procedures can be improved for future testing at the INEL site. Recommended improvements to the straddle-packer system are: (1) improved transducer pressure sensing systems, (2) faster opening riser valve, and (3) an in-line flowmeter in the riser pipe. Testing and data evaluation recommended improvements are: (1) simultaneous valve opening during slug tests, (2) analysis of the ratio of the times for head change and recovery to occur, (3) constant-drawdown tests of high transmissivity intervals, (4) multiple-well aquifer tests, and (5) long term head monitoring.

  16. Martian Plains Volcanism in Syria Planum and Tempe Mareotis as Analogs to the Eastern Snake River Plains, Idaho: Similarities and Possible Petrologic Contributions to Topography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakimoto, S. E. H.; Gregg, T. K. P.; Hughes, S. S.; Chadwick, J.

    2003-01-01

    Prior to the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) and Mars Odyssey (MO) missions, The Syria Planum region of Mars was noted for several clusters of small (5-100 km) shield volcanoes and collapse craters, long tube and fissure-fed lava flows, and possible volcanic vents that were thought to be nearly contemporaneous with the volcanism in the Tempe- Mareotis province, which has long been known for volcanic shields and vents analogous to those of the Eastern Snake River Plains (ESRP) in Idaho. Recent MGS-based work on regional and global populations of martian small shields has revealed significant global trends in edifice attributes that are well-explained by eruption models with latitudinal variations in subsurface water/ice abundance, consistent with recent MO evidence for significant amounts of subsurface water that varies in latitude abundance s, and topographic and morphologic evidence for more geologically recent lava-ice relationships. However, while the global trends in small volcano data can be at least partially explained by volatile interactions with volcanism, some global and regional characteristics appear to be perhaps better explained by possible compositional, crystallinity or eruption style variations. This study expands the sampling of shields done in martian initial global studies for the Syria Planum and Tempe-Mareotis regions, which display a newly visible breadth and number of features in image and topography data. We compare these features to a similar range of features visible in the ESRP where both compositional and eruption style variations can quantitatively be shown to contribute to morphologic and topographic differences.

  17. Mercury and Selenium Concentrations in Biofilm, Macroinvertebrates, and Fish Collected in the Yankee Fork of the Salmon River, Idaho, USA, and Their Potential Effects on Fish Health

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rhea, Darren T.; Farag, Aida M.; Harper, David D.; McConnell, Elizabeth; Brumbaugh, William G.

    2013-01-01

    The Yankee Fork is a large tributary of the Salmon River located in central Idaho, USA, with an extensive history of placer and dredge-mining activities. Concentrations of selenium (Se) and mercury (Hg) in various aquatic trophic levels were measured in the Yankee Fork during 2001 and 2002. Various measurements of fish health were also performed. Sites included four on the mainstem of the Yankee Fork and two off-channel sites in partially reclaimed dredge pools used as rearing habitat for cultured salmonid eggs and fry. Hg concentrations in whole mountain whitefish and shorthead sculpin ranged from 0.28 to 0.56 μg/g dry weight (dw), concentrations that are generally less than those reported to have significant impacts on fish. Biofilm and invertebrates ranged from 0.05 to 0.43 μg Hg/g dw. Se concentrations measured in biota samples from the Yankee Fork were greater than many representative samples collected in the Snake and Columbia watersheds and often exceeded literature-based toxic thresholds. Biofilm and invertebrates ranged from 0.58 to 4.66 μg Se/g dw. Whole fish ranged from 3.92 to 7.10 μg Se/g dw, and gonads ranged from 6.91 to 31.84 μg Se/g dw. Whole-body Se concentrations exceeded reported toxicological thresholds at three of four sites and concentrations in liver samples were mostly greater than concentrations shown to have negative impacts on fish health. Histological examinations performed during this study noted liver abnormalities, especially in shorthead sculpin, a bottom-dwelling species.

  18. Is the PDO or AMO the climate driver of soil moisture in the Salmon River Basin, Idaho?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Chunling; Chen, Dong; Crosby, Benjamin T.; Piechota, Thomas C.; Wheaton, Joseph M.

    2014-09-01

    Current droughts and increasing water demands are straining water resources in the Salmon River Basin (SRB) and are anticipated to continue in the future. As a robust drought indictor, soil moisture plays an important role in characterizing prolonged droughts. The current study investigates the impacts of two oceanic-atmospheric patterns, i.e. the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO), on soil moisture and identify the most complete driver (PDO/AMO) of soil moisture in the SRB. Using wavelet analysis tools, we found that: 1) soil moisture in both Stanley station (a snow-dominated region) and White Bird station (a rain-dominated region) in the SRB are linked to the variations of the PDO and AMO; 2) both the PDO and AMO have less significant impacts on soil moisture in Stanley station; and 3) the PDO produces, with respect to AMO, a stronger correlation with soil moisture in the SRB. Given the importance of the soil moisture to the drought, the results could allow an estimation of drought availability under forecasted oceanic-atmospheric patterns, which will provide useful information for water resources management in the SRB.

  19. Brittle deformation and slope failure at the North Menan Butte tuff cone, Eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Okubo, Chris H.

    2014-01-01

    The manifestation of brittle deformation within inactive slumps along the North Menan Butte, a basaltic tuff cone in the Eastern Snake River Plain, is investigated through field and laboratory studies. Microstructural observations indicate that brittle strain is localized along deformation bands, a class of structural discontinuity that is predominant within moderate to high-porosity, clastic sedimentary rocks. Various subtypes of deformation bands are recognized in the study area based on the sense of strain they accommodate. These include dilation bands (no shear displacement), dilational shear bands, compactional shear bands and simple shear bands (no volume change). Measurements of the host rock permeability between the deformation bands indicate that the amount of brittle strain distributed throughout this part of the rock is negligible, and thus deformation bands are the primary means by which brittle strain is manifest within this tuff. Structural discontinuities that are similar in appearance to deformation bands are observed in other basaltic tuffs. Therefore deformation bands may represent a common structural feature of basaltic tuffs that have been widely misclassified as fractures. Slumping and collapse along the flanks of active volcanoes strongly influence their eruptive behavior and structural evolution. Therefore characterizing the process of deformation band and fault growth within basaltic tuff is key to achieving a more complete understanding of the evolution of basaltic volcanoes and their associated hazards.

  20. Stochastic Model of Fracture Frequency Heterogeneity in a Welded Tuff EGS reservoir, Snake River Plain, Idaho, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moody, A.; Fairley, J. P., Jr.

    2014-12-01

    In light of recent advancements in reservoir enhancement and injection tests at active geothermal fields, there is interest in investigating the geothermal potential of widespread subsurface welded tuffs related to caldera collapse on the Snake River Plain (SRP). Before considering stimulation strategies, simulating heat extraction from the reservoir under in-situ fracture geometries will give a first-order estimation of extractable heat. With only limited deep boreholes drilled on the SRP, few analyses of the bulk hydrologic properties of the tuffs exist. Acknowledging the importance of the spatial heterogeneity of fractures to the permeability and injectivity of reservoirs hosted in impermeable volcanic units, we present fracture distributions from ICDP hole 5036-2A drilled as a part of Project HOTSPOT. The core documents more than 1200 m of largely homogeneous densely welded tuff hosting an isothermal warm-water reservoir at ~60˚ C. Multiple realizations of a hypothetical reservoir are created using sequential indicator algorithms that honor the observed vertical fracture frequency statistics. Results help form criteria for producing geothermal energy from the SRP.

  1. Occurrence and flux of selected pesticides in surface water of the upper snake River Basin, Idaho and western Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, G.M.

    1997-01-01

    During May and June 1994, 37 water samples were collected at 31 sites in the upper Snake River Basin and analyzed for 83 pesticides and pesticide metabolites. EPTC, atrazine, and the atrazine metabolite deethylated atrazine were the most frequently detected and were found in 30, 20, and 13 of the samples, respectively. Fifteen additional pesticides were detected at least once. All the compounds detected were at concentrations of less than 1 microgram per liter. Total annual applications of EPTC and atrazine within subbasins and their instantaneous instream fluxes have a logarithmic relation with coefficients of determination (R2 values) of 0.55 and 0.62, respectively. At the time of sampling, the median daily flux of EPTC was about O. 0001% of the annual amount applied in a subbasin, whereas the median daily flux of atrazine was between 0.001 and 0.01%. The difference in fluxes between EPTC and atrazine probably results from differences in their physical properties and in the method and timing of application.

  2. Characterization of Elastic Properties in Basalts of the Western Snake River Plain, Idaho: a Mechanostratigraphic Analysis of a Potential Geothermal Reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kessler, J. A.; Evans, J. P.; Schmitt, D. R.; Shervais, J. W.

    2013-12-01

    The western Snake River Plain is a region of high crustal heat flow and has the potential for commercial geothermal energy development. High-temperature crystalline reservoirs commonly have connected fracture networks and other discontinuities that provide the primary fluid storage and permeability (Type I fractures). A borehole was drilled during the DOE/ICDP Snake River Scientific Drilling Program near Mountain Home, Idaho to a depth of ~1,800 m (6,000 ft) with 85 - 90% slimhole core recovery to assess the potential for geothermal energy development. A high-temperature artesian flow zone was encountered in basalt at a depth of 1,745 m (5,726 ft) in the MH-2 borehole with fluid temperatures above 140°C (240°F). Analysis of geomechanical behavior of rocks requires an understanding of basic physical and elastic properties under dynamic in-situ stress conditions. Here we conduct unconfined uniaxial compressive stress experiments on core samples to measure static elastic properties and compressive strength over a ~305 m (1,000 ft) interval of the borehole above and including the geothermal reservoir. Acoustic velocities are measured under pressure and temperature scenarios to calculate dynamic elastic properties and describe the anisotropy of elastic moduli and compressive strength. Dynamic elastic properties are calculated from dipole sonic borehole log data and compare the results to the previous dynamic and static interpretations. The comparison demonstrates that the calculation of dynamic elastic properties from borehole data is an effective method to interpret and describe mechanical stratigraphy and elastic properties in the case that core is not available for analysis in this area. Natural fractures, induced fractures, and breakouts are mapped in acoustic televiewer data. Fracture density is calculated and compared to lithological and mechanical stratigraphy, defined by the physical properties, elastic properties, and strength measurements. The stratigraphic relationships indicate that a ~15 m (50 ft) section of weak, non-brittle, low-permeability, highly altered basalt may act as a caprock to the geothermal reservoir at depth. Lithological descriptions of core show that the basalt in MH-2 has been altered and reworked in many cases. The alternating zones of ductile rocks and brittle basalts affect fracture density and can control fracture permeability. The induced fracture and breakout data are used to identify the direction of each of the two horizontal principal stresses. Interpretation of breakout data and induced fracture data indicate that the maximum horizontal principal stress (Shmax) is oriented 50° + 15°. This direction is antithetical to the expected Shmax direction based on the orientation of the normal fault-bounded basin that is oriented approximately 320°.

  3. Rhyolites in the Kimberly Drill Core, Project Hotspot: First Intracaldera Ignimbrite from the Central Snake River Plain, Idaho?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christiansen, E. H.; McCurry, M. O.; Champion, D. E.; Bolte, T.; Holtz, F.; Knott, T.; Branney, M. J.; Shervais, J. W.

    2013-12-01

    The rhyolites on the track of the Yellowstone hotspot are the classic examples of continental hotspot volcanism and the study of surface outcrops is maturing rapidly. However, in the central part of the track, where silicic volcanism is most voluminous, compositionally distinctive, and isotopically most anomalous, study of these large magma systems has been hindered because eruptive sources are buried. The 2 km Kimberly core helps fill that gap; it penetrates through surficial basalt, deep into the rhyolitic underpinnings on the southern margin of the province. The Kimberly core is dominated by thick sections of rhyolite lava and welded ignimbrite, with basalt-sediment intercalations between 241 m and 424 m depth. We tentatively interpret the core to include a thick intracaldera tuff. Our preliminary studies suggest that there are three major rhyolite units in the core. Rhyolite 3, the uppermost unit, is a nearly 130 m thick, low-silica rhyolite lava. Rhyolite 2 is the most highly evolved with ~75% silica and distinctively resorbed quartz. Rhyolite 1 is at least 1,340 m thick (the base was not cut by the core), has no apparent flow contacts or cooling breaks, and may represent a single, thick intracaldera ignimbrite. Paleomagnetic inclinations form a curious V-shaped profile, shallowing by about 18? between 700 and 1700 m depth. We interpret this to be the result of slower cooling of the mid-part of the thick intracaldera ignimbrite. The lower unit is a low-silica rhyolite with high concentrations of Fe2O3 and TiO2--among the highest of any known ignimbrite on the SRP. It is chemically distinct from the upper units, very homogeneous, not vertically zoned, and lacks multiple populations of phenocrysts. It somewhat resembles the regionally extensive ~10 Ma outflow tuff of Wooden Shoe Butte. However, this is one of several large, petrologically similar ignimbrites as young as 8.6 Ma exposed in the Cassia Mountains south of the hole, so further work is needed. Like most rhyolites from the Snake River Plain, all 3 units have the characteristics of A-type rhyolites with high concentrations of alkalies, high Fe/Mg and TiO2/MgO ratios, as well as high concentrations Nb, Y, Zr and Ga. Initial analyses of plag, cpx, and qtz show that all three units are low ?18O rhyolites, like most from the Central Snake River Plain-- ?18O in feldspar ranges from 1 in Rhyolite 1 to 3 in Rhyolites 2 and 3. In the thick lower ignimbrite, whole-rock ?18O increases systematically from the base upward (0.5 to as much as 9 in the altered top and ?D ranges from -140 to -180). Whole rock variations correlate with water content, apparently controlled by secondary clay. We suggest that these characteristics were largely imposed by their derivation from partial melting of basaltic sills and surrounding older crust. The low ?18O values reflect recycling of hydrothermally altered crustal rocks and indicate progressive incorporation of more hydrothermally altered material into the younger magmas. More work is needed to establish correlation with regional units, understand the emplacement of the rhyolites and their volcanic setting, and ascertain the origin of these distinctive low ?18O, A-type rhyolites.

  4. Uranium potential of precambrian rocks in the Raft River area of northwestern Utah and south-central Idaho. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Black, B.A.

    1980-09-01

    A total of 1214 geochemical samples were collected and analyzed. The sampling media included 334 waters, 616 stream sediments, and 264 rocks. In addition, some stratigraphic sections of Elba and Yost Quartzites and Archean metasedimentary rock were measured and sampled and numerous radiation determinations made of the various target units. Statistical evaluation of the geochemical data permitted recognition of 156 uranium anomalies, 52 in water, 79 in stream sediment, and 25 in rock. Geographically, 68 are located in the Grouse Creek Mountains, 43 in the Raft River Mountains, and 41 in the Albion Range. Interpretation of the various data leads to the conclusion that uranium anomalies relate to sparingly and moderately soluble uraniferous heavy minerals, which occur as sparse but widely distributed magmatic, detrital, and/or metamorphically segregated components in the target lithostratigraphic units. The uraniferous minerals known to occur and believed to account for the geochemical anomalies include allanite, monazite, zircon, and apatite. In some instances samarskite may be important. These heavy minerals contain uranium and geochemically related elements, such as Th, Ce, Y, and Zr, in sufficient quantities to account for both the conspicuous lithologic preference and the generally observed low amplitude of the anomalies. The various data generated in connection with this study, as well as those available in the published literature, collectively support the conclusion that the various Precambrian W and X lithostratigraphic units pre-selected for evaluation probably lack potential to host important Precambrian quartz-pebble conglomerate uranium deposits. Moreover it is also doubted that they possess any potential to host Proterozoic unconformity-type uranium deposits.

  5. An update of hydrologic conditions and distribution of selected constituents in water, eastern Snake River Plain aquifer and perched groundwater zones, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho, emphasis 2009–11

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Linda C.; Bartholomay, Roy C.; Rattray, Gordon W.

    2013-01-01

    Since 1952, wastewater discharged to infiltration ponds (also called percolation ponds) and disposal wells at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has affected water quality in the eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) aquifer and perched groundwater zones underlying the INL. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, maintains groundwater monitoring networks at the INL to determine hydrologic trends, and to delineate the movement of radiochemical and chemical wastes in the aquifer and in perched groundwater zones. This report presents an analysis of water-level and water-quality data collected from aquifer, multilevel monitoring system (MLMS), and perched groundwater wells in the USGS groundwater monitoring networks during 2009–11. Water in the ESRP aquifer primarily moves through fractures and interflow zones in basalt, generally flows southwestward, and eventually discharges at springs along the Snake River. The aquifer primarily is recharged from infiltration of irrigation water, infiltration of streamflow, groundwater inflow from adjoining mountain drainage basins, and infiltration of precipitation. From March–May 2009 to March–May 2011, water levels in wells generally declined in the northern part of the INL. Water levels generally rose in the central and eastern parts of the INL. Detectable concentrations of radiochemical constituents in water samples from aquifer wells or MLMS equipped wells in the ESRP aquifer at the INL generally decreased or remained constant during 2009–11. Decreases in concentrations were attributed to radioactive decay, changes in waste-disposal methods, and dilution from recharge and underflow. In 2011, concentrations of tritium in groundwater from 50 of 127 aquifer wells were greater than or equal to the reporting level and ranged from 200±60 to 7,000±260 picocuries per liter. Tritium concentrations from one or more discrete zones from four wells equipped with MLMS were greater than or equal to reporting levels in water samples collected at various depths. Tritium concentrations in water from wells completed in shallow perched groundwater at the Advanced Test Reactor Complex (ATR Complex) were less than the reporting levels. Tritium concentrations in deep perched groundwater at the ATR Complex equaled or exceeded the reporting level in 12 wells during at least one sampling event during 2009–11 at the ATR Complex. Concentrations of strontium-90 in water from 20 of 76 aquifer wells sampled during April or October 2011 exceeded the reporting level. Strontium-90 was not detected within the ESRP aquifer beneath the ATR Complex. During at least one sampling event during 2009–11, concentrations of strontium-90 in water from 10 wells completed in deep perched groundwater at the ATR Complex equaled or exceeded the reporting levels. During 2009–11, concentrations of plutonium-238, and plutonium-239, -240 (undivided), and americium-241 were less than the reporting level in water samples from all aquifer wells and in all wells equipped with MLMS. Concentrations of cesium-137 were equal to or slightly above the reporting level in 8 aquifer wells and from 2 wells equipped with MLMS. The concentration of chromium in water from one well south of the ATR Complex was 97 micrograms per liter (μg/L) in April 2011, just less than the maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 100 μg/L. Concentrations of chromium in water samples from 69 other wells sampled ranged from 0.8 μg/L to 25 μg/L. During 2009–11, dissolved chromium was detected in water from 15 wells completed in perched groundwater at the ATR Complex. In 2011, concentrations of sodium in water from most wells in the southern part of the INL were greater than the background concentration of 10 milligrams per liter (mg/L); the highest concentrations were at or near the Idaho Nuclear Engineering and Technology Center (INTEC). After the newpercolation ponds were put into service in 2002 southwest of the INTEC, concentrations of sodium in water samples from the Rifle Range well rose steadily until 2008, when the concentrations generally began decreasing. The increases and decreases were attributed to disposal variability in the new percolation ponds. Concentrations of sodium in most wells equipped with MLMS generally were consistent with depth. During 2011, dissolved sodium concentrations in water from 17 wells completed in deep perched groundwater at the ATR Complex ranged from 6 to 146 mg/L. In 2011, concentrations of chloride in most water samples from aquifer wells south of the INTEC and at the Central Facilities Area exceeded the background concentrations of 15 mg/L, but were less than the secondary MCL of 250 mg/L. Chloride concentrations in water from wells south of the INTEC have generally increased because of increased chloride disposal to the old percolation ponds since 1984 when discharge of wastewater to the INTEC disposal well was discontinued. After the new percolation ponds were put into service in 2002 southwest of the INTEC, concentrations of chloride in water samples from one well rose steadily until 2008 then began decreasing. Chloride concentrations in water from all but one well completed in the ESRP aquifer at or near the ATR Complex were less than background and ranged between 10 and 14 mg/L during 2011, similar to concentrations detected during the 2006–08 reporting period. During 2011, chloride concentrations in water from two aquifer wells at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) were slightly greater than concentrations detected during the 2006–08 reporting period. The vertical distribution of chloride concentrations in wells equipped with MLMS were generally consistent within zones during 2009–11 and ranged from about 8 to 20 mg/L. During April 2011, dissolved chloride concentrations in shallow perched groundwater at the ATR Complex ranged from 7 to 13 mg/L in water from three wells. Dissolved chloride concentrations in deep perched groundwater at the ATR Complex during 2011 ranged from 4 to 54 mg/L. In 2011, sulfate concentrations in water samples from 11 aquifer wells in the south-central part of the INL equaled or exceeded the background concentration of sulfate and ranged from 40 to 167 mg/L. The greater-than-background concentrations in water from these wells probably resulted from sulfate disposal at the ATR Complex infiltration ponds or the old INTEC percolation ponds. In 2011, sulfate concentrations in water samples from two wells near the RWMC were greater than background levels and could have resulted from well construction techniques and (or) waste disposal at the RWMC. The vertical distribution of sulfate concentrations in three wells near the southern boundary of the INL was generally consistent with depth, and ranged between 19 and 25 mg/L. The maximum dissolved sulfate concentration in shallow perched groundwater near the ATR Complex was 400 mg/L in well CWP 1 in April 2011. During 2009–11, the maximum concentration of dissolved sulfate in deep perched groundwater at the ATR Complex was 1,550 mg/L in a well located west of the chemical-waste pond. In 2011, concentrations of nitrate in water from most wells at and near the INTEC exceeded the regional background concentrations of 1 mg/L and ranged from 1.6 to 5.95 mg/L. Concentrations of nitrate in wells south of INTEC and farther away from the influence of disposal areas and the Big Lost River show a general decrease in nitrate concentrations through time. During 2009–11, water samples from 30 wells were collected and analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Six VOCs were detected. At least one and up to five VOCs were detected in water samples from 10 wells. The primary VOCs detected include carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, tetrachloroethylene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, and trichloroethylene. In 2011, concentrations for all VOCs were less than their respective MCL for drinking water, except carbon tetrachloride in water from two wells. During 2009–11, variability and bias were evaluated from 56 replicate and 16 blank quality-assurance samples. Results from replicate analyses were investigated to evaluate sample variability. Constituents with acceptable reproducibility were stable isotope ratios, major ions, nutrients, and VOCs. All radiochemical constituents and trace metals had acceptable reproducibility except for gross beta-particle radioactivity, aluminum, antimony, and cobalt. Bias from sample contamination was evaluated from equipment, field, container, and source-solution blanks. No detectable constituent concentrations were reported for equipment blanks of the thief samplers and sampling pipes or for the source-solution and field blanks. Equipment blanks of bailers had detectable concentrations of strontium-90, sodium, chloride, and sulfate, and the container blank had a detectable concentration of dichloromethane.

  6. The role of episodic fire-related debris flows on long-term (103-104) sediment yields in the Middle Fork Salmon River Watershed, in central Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, K. E.; Pierce, J. L.; Hopkins, A.

    2010-12-01

    Episodic fire-related debris flows contribute large amounts of sediment and large woody debris to streams. This study evaluates fire-related sedimentation from small steep tributaries of the Middle Fork Salmon River (MFSR) in central Idaho to evaluate the timing, frequency, and magnitude of episodic fire-related sedimentation on long-term (10 3-10 4) sediment yields. The MFSR lies within the Northern Rocky Mountains and encompasses a range of ecosystems including high elevation (~3,000 -1,700 m) subalpine pine and spruce forests, mid-elevation (2650 - 1130 m) montane Douglas-fir and ponderosa pine-dominated forests and low elevation (~ 1,800 - 900 m) sagebrush steppe. Recent debris flow events in tributaries of the MFSR appear to primarily result from increased surface runoff, rilling, and progressive sediment bulking following high severity fires. This study estimates: 1) the volume of sediment delivered by four recent (1997-2008) fire-related debris flow events using real time kinematic GPS surveys, and 2) the timing of Holocene fire-related debris flow events determined by 14C dating charcoal fragments preserved in buried burned soils and within fire-related deposits. Our measured volumes of the four recent debris flow events are compared to two empirically derived volume estimates based on remotely sensed spatial data (burn severity and slope), measured geometric data (longitudinal profile, cross sectional area, flow banking angle), and precipitation records. Preliminary stratigraphic profiles in incised alluvial fans suggest that a large percentage of alluvial fan thickness is composed of fire-related deposits suggesting fire-related hillslope erosion is a major process delivering sediment to alluvial fans and to the MFSR. Fire-related deposits from upper basins compose ~71% of total alluvial fan thickness, while fire-related deposits from lower basins make up 36% of alluvial fan thickness. However, lower basins are less densely vegetated with small diameter woody material, which reduces size and preservation of charcoal fragments in lower elevation deposits. We hypothesize that fires burn during dry and/or variable climate conditions; therefore aggradation on alluvial fans, incision and abandonment of fan surfaces, and sediment yields are increased during dry and/or variable climate conditions. Preliminary results indicate that periods of fire and accelerated sedimentation vary with ecosystem type. Lower basins burned ~6500, ~900, and ~400 cal yr BP, while fire in upper basins occurred ~8200, 5400, 3800, 1300, and 500 cal yr BP. These preliminary results suggest different ecosystems respond to different climate drivers. Regional estimates of long-term (6,300 yr) sediment yields derived from cosmogenic nuclides (Kirchner et al., 2001) compared with episodic fire-related sedimentation (Meyer and Pierce 2003) indicate episodic events are orders of magnitude higher than long-term average rates, suggesting that large fire-related debris flows occur on average once every ~400 yr. Determining the timing, frequency, and magnitude of fire-related sedimentation events over the past ~ 8 ka help us assess the impact of episodic fire-related events on long-term (Holocene) average sediment yields in central Idaho.

  7. Evaluation of LiDAR-acquired bathymetric and topographic data accuracy in various hydrogeomorphic settings in the Deadwood and South Fork Boise Rivers, West-Central Idaho, 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Skinner, Kenneth D.

    2011-01-01

    High-quality elevation data in riverine environments are important for fisheries management applications and the accuracy of such data needs to be determined for its proper application. The Experimental Advanced Airborne Research LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging)-or EAARL-system was used to obtain topographic and bathymetric data along the Deadwood and South Fork Boise Rivers in west-central Idaho. The EAARL data were post-processed into bare earth and bathymetric raster and point datasets. Concurrently with the EAARL surveys, real-time kinematic global positioning system surveys were made in three areas along each of the rivers to assess the accuracy of the EAARL elevation data in different hydrogeomorphic settings. The accuracies of the EAARL-derived raster elevation values, determined in open, flat terrain, to provide an optimal vertical comparison surface, had root mean square errors ranging from 0.134 to 0.347 m. Accuracies in the elevation values for the stream hydrogeomorphic settings had root mean square errors ranging from 0.251 to 0.782 m. The greater root mean square errors for the latter data are the result of complex hydrogeomorphic environments within the streams, such as submerged aquatic macrophytes and air bubble entrainment; and those along the banks, such as boulders, woody debris, and steep slopes. These complex environments reduce the accuracy of EAARL bathymetric and topographic measurements. Steep banks emphasize the horizontal location discrepancies between the EAARL and ground-survey data and may not be good representations of vertical accuracy. The EAARL point to ground-survey comparisons produced results with slightly higher but similar root mean square errors than those for the EAARL raster to ground-survey comparisons, emphasizing the minimized horizontal offset by using interpolated values from the raster dataset at the exact location of the ground-survey point as opposed to an actual EAARL point within a 1-meter distance. The average error for the wetted stream channel surface areas was -0.5 percent, while the average error for the wetted stream channel volume was -8.3 percent. The volume of the wetted river channel was underestimated by an average of 31 percent in half of the survey areas, and overestimated by an average of 14 percent in the remainder of the survey areas. The EAARL system is an efficient way to obtain topographic and bathymetric data in large areas of remote terrain. The elevation accuracy of the EAARL system varies throughout the area depending upon the hydrogeomorphic setting, preventing the use of a single accuracy value to describe the EAARL system. The elevation accuracy variations should be kept in mind when using the data, such as for hydraulic modeling or aquatic habitat assessments.

  8. Idaho Commons at the University of Idaho.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Design Cost Data, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Describes the architectural design, costs, general description, and square footage data for the Idaho Commons at the University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho. A floor plan and photos are included along with a list of manufacturers and suppliers used for the project. (GR)

  9. Movement, swimming speed, and oxygen consumption of juvenile white sturgeon in response to changing flows, water temperatures, and light level in the Snake River, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, David R.; Brown, Richard S.; Cullinan, Valerie I.; Brink, Steve R.; Lepla, Kenneth B.; Bates, Phil; Chandler, James A.

    2005-07-01

    The flow of the Snake River downstream of Hells Canyon Dam, Idaho, frequently fluctuates as the dam responds to power production requirements. These flow fluctuations have the potential to increase the energy used by individual juvenile white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) that move to avoid unfavorable habitat or that alter their swimming speeds to maintain position over a range of velocities. Following swimming respirometry experiments, a field study using electromyogram (EMG) and sonic telemetry evaluated whether sturgeon were being negatively affected by operations of Hells Canyon Dam during three study periods where flows were artificially fluctuated (247 to 856 m3/s), held high and stable (438 to 600 m3/s), or held low and stable (275 to 284 m3/s). Respirometry results confirmed that oxygen consumption of juvenile sturgeon increased with swim speed and was temperature dependent, and when corrected for fish mass, ranged from 140.2 to 306.5 mg O2 kg-1 h-1. The telemetry study showed that movements and activity levels, as measured by swimming speeds and oxygen consumption, of sturgeon were variable among fish and across study periods. When flows were held low and stable, sturgeon movement increased while activity levels decreased when compared to the study periods when flows were variable or were high and stable. Although the overall trend was for activity levels to be less during the study period when flows were low and stable, the majority of differences between study periods appeared to be due to differences in water temperature and light levels that changed during the three-month investigation. The results suggest high flows, even those of relatively short durations such as what occurs during load-following operations, restrict the movement of juvenile sturgeon, but do not result in an increase of energy expenditure, possibly because of morphological and behavioral adaptations to living in a high-velocity environment. This may have significant implications to sturgeon survival by altering foraging behavior or inter and intra-specific competition.

  10. Holocene ecological change in relation to hydroclimate variability and post-landslide landscape processes in semi-arid watersheds, Lost River Range, Idaho, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krueger, C. R.; Finney, B.; Shapley, M.

    2013-12-01

    Lake sediment cores were collected from two landslide formed lakes in the Lost River Range, central Idaho. Grouse Creek Lake (2 m deep) is in a basin that was formed when a drainage was impounded by a debris slide, likely more than 10,000 yr BP. Under present conditions Grouse Creek Lake is closed to surface water outflow. Since the deposition of the Mazama tephra (c.a., 7,550 yr BP) 2.5 m of sediment containing authigenic carbonate has accumulated in this lake. Modern lake water dD and d18O displays an evaporative signal indicating that oxygen isotopes from Grouse Creek Lake authigenic carbonates should record a signal that is sensitive to past changes in precipitation and evaporation. This core was sampled at 1 cm intervals and sieved at 20 um to remove detrital and biogenic carbonate in preparation for analysis of the fine-grained, authigenic carbonate fraction. The oxygen isotope signal recovered has a range of 5 over the length of the record, with several major fluctuations since the deposition of the Mazama tephra. While the d18O generally increases over this period indicating decreasing effective precipitation (P - E), we are modeling the affects of changes in lake hypsometry due to sediment infilling on the isotopic composition of lake water to quantify the hydroclimate signal in the isotopic data. Carlson Lake (10 m deep) formed in the source area of a middle Holocene mudflow. Modern lake water chemistry indicates that Carlson Lake is sensitive to evaporative processes, however sediments from Carlson Lake do not contain enough carbonate for oxygen isotope analysis. A multiproxy effort (C and N isotopes, biogenic silica) is underway to understand how the landscape around Carlson Lake responded to changes in hydroclimate (as determined by the record from Grouse Creek Lake) and post-landslide soil and geomorphic processes. These records are from a region with sparse long-term hydroclimate data, and ultimately will help improve our understanding of past atmospheric circulation in the Northern Rocky Mountains.

  11. Annual trace-metal load estimates and flow-weighted concentrations of cadmium, lead, and zinc in the Spokane River basin, Idaho and Washington, 1999-2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Donato, Mary M.

    2006-01-01

    Streamflow and trace-metal concentration data collected at 10 locations in the Spokane River basin of northern Idaho and eastern Washington during 1999-2004 were used as input for the U.S. Geological Survey software, LOADEST, to estimate annual loads and mean flow-weighted concentrations of total and dissolved cadmium, lead, and zinc. Cadmium composed less than 1 percent of the total metal load at all stations; lead constituted from 6 to 42 percent of the total load at stations upstream from Coeur d'Alene Lake and from 2 to 4 percent at stations downstream of the lake. Zinc composed more than 90 percent of the total metal load at 6 of the 10 stations examined in this study. Trace-metal loads were lowest at the station on Pine Creek below Amy Gulch, where the mean annual total cadmium load for 1999-2004 was 39 kilograms per year (kg/yr), the mean estimated total lead load was about 1,700 kg/yr, and the mean annual total zinc load was 14,000 kg/yr. The trace-metal loads at stations on North Fork Coeur d'Alene River at Enaville, Ninemile Creek, and Canyon Creek also were relatively low. Trace-metal loads were highest at the station at Coeur d'Alene River near Harrison. The mean annual total cadmium load was 3,400 kg/yr, the mean total lead load was 240,000 kg/yr, and the mean total zinc load was 510,000 kg/yr for 1999-2004. Trace-metal loads at the station at South Fork Coeur d'Alene River near Pinehurst and the three stations on the Spokane River downstream of Coeur d'Alene Lake also were relatively high. Differences in metal loads, particularly lead, between stations upstream and downstream of Coeur d'Alene Lake likely are due to trapping and retention of metals in lakebed sediments. LOADEST software was used to estimate loads for water years 1999-2001 for many of the same sites discussed in this report. Overall, results from this study and those from a previous study are in good agreement. Observed differences between the two studies are attributable to streamflow differences in the two regression models, 1999-2001 and 1999-2004. Flow-weighted concentrations (FWCs) calculated from the estimated loads for 1999-2004 were examined to aid interpretation of metal load estimates, which were influenced by large spatial and temporal variations in streamflow. FWCs of total cadmium ranged from 0.04 micrograms per liter (?g/L) at Enaville to 14 ?g/L at Ninemile Creek. Total lead FWCs were lowest at Long Lake (1.3 ?g/L) and highest at Ninemile Creek (120 ?g/L). Elevated total lead FWCs at Harrison confirmed that the high total lead loads at this station were not simply due to higher streamflow. Conversely, relatively low total lead loads combined with high total lead FWCs at Ninemile and Canyon Creeks reflected low streamflow but high concentrations of total lead. Very low total lead FWCs (1.3 to 2.7 ?g/L) at the stations downstream of Coeur d'Alene Lake are a result both of deposition of lead-laden sediments in the lake and dilution by additional streamflow. Total zinc FWCs also demonstrated the effect of streamflow on load calculations, and highlighted source areas for zinc in the basin. Total zinc FWCs at Canyon and Ninemile Creeks, 1,600 ?g/L and 2,200 ?g/L, respectively, were by far the highest in the basin but contributed among the lowest total zinc loads due to their relatively low streamflow. Total zinc FWCs ranged from 38 to 67 ?g/L at stations downstream of Coeur d'Alene Lake, but total zinc load estimates at these stations were relatively high because of high mean streamflow compared to other stations in the basin. Long-term regression models for 1991 to 2003 or 2004 were developed and annual trace-metal loads and FWCs were estimated for Pinehurst, Enaville, Harrison, and Post Falls to better understand the variability of metal loading with time. Long-term load estimates are similar to the results for 1999-2004 in terms of spatial distribution of metal loads throughout the basin. LOADEST results for 1991-2004 indicated that statistically significant downward temporal trends for dissolved and total cadmium, dissolved zinc, and total lead were occurring at Pinehurst, Enaville, Harrison, and Post Falls. Additionally, data for Enaville and Post Falls showed significant downward trends for dissolved lead and total zinc loads; Harrison total zinc loads also decreased with time. The Mann-Kendall trend test results agreed with the LOADEST trend results in most cases, but gave contradictory results for total zinc at Pinehurst and at Post Falls. Long- and short-term load and flow-weighted concentration estimates yielded valuable information about metal storage and transport processes, and demonstrated that water quality data are a great aid in understanding these processes.

  12. The effect of mining and related activities on the sediment-trace element geochemistry of Lake Coeur d'Alene, Idaho, USA. Part III. Downstream effects: the Spokane River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosbois, Cecile A.; Horowitz, Arthur J.; Smith, James J.; Elrick, Kent A.

    2001-04-01

    During 1998/1999, surface and subsurface sediment samples were collected along the entire length of the Spokane River from its outlet at the northern end of Lake Coeur d'Alene (CDA), Idaho, to Lake Roosevelt on the Columbia River, Washington. The study was conducted to determine if the trace element enrichments observed in Lake CDA and on the floodplain and in the CDA River extend through the Spokane River Basin (SRB).As in Lake CDA, surface sediments in the SRB are enriched in Pb, Zn, As, Cd, Sb and Hg relative to local background levels. Pb, Cd and Zn are the most elevated, with maximum enrichment occurring in the upper Spokane River in close proximity to Lake CDA. On average, enrichment decreases downstream, apparently reflecting both increased distance from the inferred source (the CDA River Basin), as well as increased dilution by locally derived but unenriched materials. Only Cd and Zn display marked enrichment throughout the SRB. Pb, Zn and Cd seem to be associated mainly with an operationally defined iron oxide phase, whereas the majority of the As and Sb seem to be matrix-held.Subsurface sediments also are enriched in Pb, Zn, As, Cd, Sb and Hg relative to background levels. Based on 137Cs and excess 210Pb dating, trace element enrichment began in the middle part of the SRB (Long Lake) between 1900 and 1920. This is contemporaneous with similar enrichments observed in Lake CDA, as well as the completion of Long Lake Dam (1913). In the most downstream part of the basin (Spokane River Arm of Lake Roosevelt), enrichment began substantially later, between 1930 and 1940. The temporal difference in enrichment between Long Lake and the River Arm may reflect the latter's greater distance from the presumed source of the enrichment (the CDA River Basin); however, the difference is more likely the result of the completion of Grand Coulee Dam (1934-1941), which formed Lake Roosevelt, backed up the Spokane River, and increased water levels in the River Arm by about 30 m.

  13. Kootenai River Habitat Restoration

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Constructed channel features and changes in the Phase 1A side channel restoration area of the Kootenai River near Bonners Ferry, Idaho. The Kootenai Tribe of Idaho is managing a large-scale, ecosystem-based river habitat restoration effort that will be implemented over a period of 10 to 15 years acr...

  14. A conceptual model of ground-water flow in the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer at the Idaho National Laboratory and vicinity with implications for contaminant transport

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ackerman, Daniel J.; Rattray, Gordon W.; Rousseau, Joseph P.; Davis, Linda C.; Orr, Brennon R.

    2006-01-01

    Ground-water flow in the west-central part of the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer is described in a conceptual model that will be used in numerical simulations to evaluate contaminant transport at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and vicinity. The model encompasses an area of 1,940 square miles (mi2) and includes most of the 890 mi2 of the INL. A 50-year history of waste disposal associated with research activities at the INL has resulted in measurable concentrations of waste contaminants in the aquifer. A thorough understanding of the fate and movement of these contaminants in the subsurface is needed by the U.S. Department of Energy to minimize the effect that contaminated ground water may have on the region and to plan effectively for remediation. Three hydrogeologic units were used to represent the complex stratigraphy of the aquifer in the model area. Collectively, these hydrogeologic units include at least 65 basalt-flow groups, 5 andesite-flow groups, and 61 sedimentary interbeds. Three rhyolite domes in the model area extend deep enough to penetrate the aquifer. The rhyolite domes are represented in the conceptual model as low permeability, vertical pluglike masses, and are not included as part of the three primary hydrogeologic units. Broad differences in lithology and large variations in hydraulic properties allowed the heterogeneous, anisotropic basalt-flow groups, andesite-flow groups, and sedimentary interbeds to be grouped into three hydrogeologic units that are conceptually homogeneous and anisotropic. Younger rocks, primarily thin, densely fractured basalt, compose hydrogeologic unit 1; younger rocks, primarily of massive, less densely fractured basalt, compose hydrogeologic unit 2; and intermediate-age rocks, primarily of slightly-to-moderately altered, fractured basalt, compose hydrogeologic unit 3. Differences in hydraulic properties among adjacent hydrogeologic units result in much of the large-scale heterogeneity and anisotropy of the aquifer in the model area, and differences in horizontal and vertical hydraulic conductivity in individual hydrogeologic units result in much of the small-scale heterogeneity and anisotropy of the aquifer in the model area. The inferred three-dimensional geometry of the aquifer in the model area is very irregular. Its thickness generally increases from north to south and from west to east and is greatest south of the INL. The interpreted distribution of older rocks that underlie the aquifer indicates large changes in saturated thickness across the model area. The boundaries of the model include physical and artificial boundaries, and ground-water flows across the boundaries may be temporally constant or variable and spatially uniform or nonuniform. Physical boundaries include the water-table boundary, base of the aquifer, and northwest mountain-front boundary. Artificial boundaries include the northeast boundary, southeast-flowline boundary, and southwest boundary. Water flows into the model area as (1) underflow (1,225 cubic feet per second (ft3/s)) from the regional aquifer (northeast boundary-constant and nonuniform), (2) underflow (695 ft3/s) from the tributary valleys and mountain fronts (northwest boundary-constant and nonuniform), (3) precipitation recharge (70 ft3/s) (constant and uniform), streamflow-infiltration recharge (95 ft3/s) (variable and nonuniform), wastewater return flows (6 ft3/s) (variable and nonuniform), and irrigation-infiltration recharge (24 ft3/s) (variable and nonuniform) across the water table (water-table boundary-variable and nonuniform), and (4) upward flow across the base of the aquifer (44 ft3/s) (uniform and constant). The southeast-flowline boundary is represented as a no-flow boundary. Water flows out of the model area as underflow (2,037 ft3/s) to the regional aquifer (southwest boundary-variable and nonuniform) and as ground-water withdrawals (45 ft3/s) (water table boundary-variable and nonuniform). Ground-water flow i

  15. Variation of the fractal dimension anisotropy of two major Cenozoic normal fault systems over space and time around the Snake River Plain, Idaho and SW Montana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davarpanah, A.; Babaie, H. A.

    2012-12-01

    The interaction of the thermally induced stress field of the Yellowstone hotspot (YHS) with existing Basin and Range (BR) fault blocks, over the past 17 m.y., has produced a new, spatially and temporally variable system of normal faults around the Snake River Plain (SRP) in Idaho and Wyoming-Montana area. Data about the trace of these new cross faults (CF) and older BR normal faults were acquired from a combination of satellite imageries, DEM, and USGS geological maps and databases at scales of 1:24,000, 1:100,000, 1:250,000, 1:1000, 000, and 1:2,500, 000, and classified based on their azimuth in ArcGIS 10. The box-counting fractal dimension (Db) of the BR fault traces, determined applying the Benoit software, and the anisotropy intensity (ellipticity) of the fractal dimensions, measured with the modified Cantor dust method applying the AMOCADO software, were measured in two large spatial domains (I and II). The Db and anisotropy of the cross faults were studied in five temporal domains (T1-T5) classified based on the geologic age of successive eruptive centers (12 Ma to recent) of the YHS along the eastern SRP. The fractal anisotropy of the CF system in each temporal domain was also spatially determined in the southern part (domain S1), central part (domain S2), and northern part (domain S3) of the SRP. Line (fault trace) density maps for the BR and CF polylines reveal a higher linear density (trace length per unit area) for the BR traces in the spatial domain I, and a higher linear density of the CF traces around the present Yellowstone National Park (S1T5) where most of the seismically active faults are located. Our spatio-temporal analysis reveals that the fractal dimension of the BR system in domain I (Db=1.423) is greater than that in domain II (Db=1.307). It also shows that the anisotropy of the fractal dimension in domain I is less eccentric (axial ratio: 1.242) than that in domain II (1.355), probably reflecting the greater variation in the trend of the BR system in domain I. The CF system in the S1T5 domain has the highest fractal dimension (Db=1.37) and the lowest anisotropy eccentricity (1.23) among the five temporal domains. These values positively correlate with the observed maxima on the fault trace density maps. The major axis of the anisotropy ellipses is consistently perpendicular to the average trend of the normal fault system in each domain, and therefore approximates the orientation of extension for normal faulting in each domain. This fact gives a NE-SW and NW-SE extension direction for the BR system in domains I and II, respectively. The observed NE-SW orientation of the major axes of the anisotropy ellipses in the youngest T4 and T5 temporal domains, oriented perpendicular to the mean trend of the normal faults in the these domains, suggests extension along the NE-SW direction for cross faulting in these areas. The spatial trajectories (form lines) of the minor axes of the anisotropy ellipses, and the mean trend of fault traces in the T4 and T5 temporal domains, define a large parabolic pattern about the axis of the eastern SRP, with its apex at the Yellowstone plateau.

  16. Coleoptera of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory: an annotated checklist

    SciTech Connect

    Stafford, M.P.; Barr, W.F.; Johnson, J.B.

    1986-04-30

    An insect survey was conducted on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory during the summers of 1981-1983. This site is on the Snake River Plains in southeastern Idaho. Presented here is an annotated checklist of the Coleoptera collected. Successful collecting methods, dates of adult occurrence, and relative abundance are given for each species. Relevant biological information is also presented for some species.

  17. 105. MURTAUGH LAKE, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF MURTAUGH, IDAHO; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    105. MURTAUGH LAKE, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF MURTAUGH, IDAHO; NORTHWEST VIEW OF LAKE AND HEADGATES. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  18. 122. MCMULLEN CREEK, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY, IDAHO; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    122. MCMULLEN CREEK, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY, IDAHO; INLET SIDE OF THE CREEK, ENTRANCE INTO THE HIGH LINE CANAL, SOUTH VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  19. Surface-water/ground-water interaction of the Spokane River and the Spokane Valley/Rathdrum Prairie aquifer, Idaho and Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Caldwell, Rodney R.; Bowers, Craig L.

    2003-01-01

    Although trace-element concentrations sometimes exceeded aquatic-life criteria in the water of the Spokane River and were elevated above national median values in the bed sediment, trace-element concentrations of all river and ground-water samples were at levels less than U.S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking-water standards. The Spokane River appears to be a source of cadmium, copper, zinc, and possibly lead in the near-river ground water. Dissolved cadmium, copper, and lead concentrations generally were less than 1 microgram per liter (g/L) in the river water and ground water. During water year 2001, dissolved zinc concentrations were similar in water from near-river wells (17-71 g/L) and the river water (22-66 g/L), but were less than detection levels in wells farther from the river. Arsenic, found to be elevated in ground water in parts of the aquifer, does not appear to have a river source. Although the river does influence the ground-water chemistry in proximity to the river, it does not appear to adversely affect the ground-water quality to a level of human-health concern.

  20. Impeller flow-meter logging of vertical cross flow between basalt aquifers through wells at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho. Progress report, June 22, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Bennecke, W.M.; Wood, S.H.

    1992-12-31

    An impeller flowmeter was used with a COLOG digital acquisition system to determine existing borehole flows, to compare with previous logging results, and to acquire flow measurements of vertical cross-flow of water in the wells between permeable zones in the open-hole intervals. The direction of flow found was predominantly downward with velocities ranging from 0-30 ft/min. Some flow reversals were noted and attributed to nearby pumping wells. USGS wells 44 and 46 were studied in September, 1991 near the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). The results showed a usual overall flow direction downward with flow entering the wells at around 510 to 600 ft. below the land surface. Water exited these wells at lower levels around 550 to 580 ft. Flow velocities ranged up to 24 ft/min. Using published aquifer parameters, the rate of propagation of a pressure change in an aquifer was calculated for the well CPP-2 turning on and off, at 3100 gpm.

  1. Idaho Geothermal Commercialization Program. Idaho geothermal handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Hammer, G.D.; Esposito, L.; Montgomery, M.

    1980-03-01

    The following topics are covered: geothermal resources in Idaho, market assessment, community needs assessment, geothermal leasing procedures for private lands, Idaho state geothermal leasing procedures - state lands, federal geothermal leasing procedures - federal lands, environmental and regulatory processes, local government regulations, geothermal exploration, geothermal drilling, government funding, private funding, state and federal government assistance programs, and geothermal legislation. (MHR)

  2. Concentrations and loads of cadmium, lead, zinc, and nutrients measured during the 1999 water year within the Spokane River basin, Idaho and Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woods, P.F.

    2001-01-01

    the network was to quantify the absolute and relative magnitude of hydrologic, trace-element, and nutrient loads transported by numerous stream reaches within the Spokane River Basin. Of the 29 water-quality stations in the network, 19 were in the Coeur d?Alene River Basin, 2 were in the St. Joe River Basin, and the remaining 8 were on the Spokane River downstream from Coeur d'Alene Lake. All stations were sampled for whole-water recoverable and dissolved concentrations of cadmium, lead, and zinc. Nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations were sampled at nine stations to determine loads of nutrients into and out of Coeur d'Alene Lake and transported down the Spokane River into the Columbia River. Mean daily discharge during the 1999 water year was about 120 percent of the long-term average. Trace-element loads to the Columbia River were calculated for the basin's terminal station, Spokane River at Long Lake. For whole-water recoverable cadmium, 2,110 pounds, 92 percent of which was dissolved, was delivered to the Columbia River. The Columbia River received 25,000 pounds of whole-water recoverable lead, 29 percent of which was dissolved, from the Spokane River Basin. The largest trace-element load delivered to the Columbia River by the Spokane River was 764,000 pounds of whole-water recoverable zinc, 76 percent of which was dissolved. The primary source of trace-element loads in the Spokane River Basin was the Coeur d'Alene River Basin. The South Fork Coeur d'Alene River was the largest source of dissolved and wholewater recoverable loads of cadmium and zinc. In contrast, the main stem of the Coeur d'Alene River was the largest source of dissolved and wholewater recoverable loads of lead. Within the South Fork, substantial increases in dissolved loads of cadmium, lead, and zinc were detected in excess of those measured by the monitoring network stations upstream from the terminal station, South Fork Coeur d'Alene River near Pinehurst. Much of the added load was attributed to inflow of traceelement-contaminated ground water. Similarly, increases in whole-water recoverable loads of cadmium, lead, and zinc were detected in the South Fork in excess of measured loads; these were attributed largely to erosion and transport of sediment-associated trace elements during increased stream discharge events. Coeur d'Alene Lake received nearly all its trace-element loads from the Coeur d'Alene River. The lake retained the majority of the dissolved and whole-water recoverable loads of lead input to it, but retained almost none of its dissolved and whole-water recoverable loads of zinc. About one-half of the dissolved and whole-water recoverable loads of cadmium was retained in the lake. Within the Spokane River Basin, the largest loads of total nitrogen, 13,000,000 pounds, and total phosphorus, 677,000 pounds, were measuredat Spokane River at Long Lake, the station closest to the Columbia River. At Coeur d'Alene Lake, total nitrogen loads input to the lake from the Coeur d'Alene and St. Joe Rivers totaled 1,890,000 pounds; the lake discharged 2,430,000 pounds. The lake received 253,000 pounds of total phosphorus and discharged 187,000 pounds; thus, 66,000 pounds was retained by the lake.

  3. Idaho Fish Screening Improvements Final Status Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Leitzinger, Eric J.

    2008-11-12

    This project funds two Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) fish habitat biologists to develop, secure funding for, and implement on-the-ground fish habitat improvement projects in the lower Clearwater River drainage and the upper Salmon River drainage. This report summarizes project activity during the first year of funding. The Clearwater Region fish habitat biologist began work on January 28, 2008 and the Salmon Region habitat biologist began on February 11, 2008.

  4. Characteristics of fish assemblages and related environmental variables for streams of the upper Snake River basin, Idaho and western Wyoming, 1993-95

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maret, Terry R.

    1997-01-01

    limited designation for the middle reach of the Snake River between Milner Dam and King Hill and provide a framework for developing indices of biotic integrity by using fish assemblages to evaluate water quality of streams in the upper Snake River Basin.

  5. Summary of analytical results for hydrologic studies of wells open through large intervals of the Snake River plain aquifer at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, project 1

    SciTech Connect

    McCurry, M.; Welhan, J.A.

    1996-07-01

    This report summarizes results of groundwater analyses for samples collected from wells USGS-44, -45, -46 and -59 in conjunction with the INEL Oversight Program straddle-packer project between 1992 and 1995. The purpose of this project was to develop and deploy a high-quality straddle-packer system for characterization of the three-dimensional geometry of solute plumes and aquifer hydrology near the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). Principle objectives included (1) characterizing vertical variations in aquifer chemistry; (2) documenting deviations in aquifer chemistry from that monitored by the existing network, and (3) making recommendations for improving monitoring efforts.

  6. 4. SNAKE RIVER VALLEY IRRIGATION DISTRICT, PHOTOGRAPHIC COPY OF DRAWING, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. SNAKE RIVER VALLEY IRRIGATION DISTRICT, PHOTOGRAPHIC COPY OF DRAWING, PROPOSED SECTION OF DIVERSION DAM ACROSS SNAKE RIVER, SHEET 1 OF 5, 1924 (on file at the Idaho State Office of Water Resources, Boise, Idaho) - Snake River Valley Irrigation District, East Side of Snake River (River Mile 796), Shelley, Bingham County, ID

  7. 3. SNAKE RIVER VALLEY IRRIGATION DISTRICT, PHOTOGRAPHIC COPY OF DRAWING, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. SNAKE RIVER VALLEY IRRIGATION DISTRICT, PHOTOGRAPHIC COPY OF DRAWING, PROFILE AND ALIGNMENT OF DAM ACROSS WEST CHANNEL OF SNAKE RIVER, SHEET 3 OF 5, 1924 (on file at the Idaho State Office of Water Resources, Boise, Idaho) - Snake River Valley Irrigation District, East Side of Snake River (River Mile 796), Shelley, Bingham County, ID

  8. Water resources data, Idaho, 2004; Volume 2. Surface water records for Upper Columbia River basin and Great Basin below King Hill

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brennan, T.S.; Lehmann, A.K.; O'Dell, I.

    2005-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2004 water year for Idaho consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; discharge of irrigation diversions; and water levels and water quality of groundwater. The three volumes of this report contain discharge records for 209 stream-gaging stations and 8 irrigation diversions; stage only records for 6 stream-gaging stations; stage only for 6 lakes and reservoirs; contents only for 13 lakes and reservoirs; water-quality for 39 stream-gaging stations and partial record sites, 3 lakes sites, and 395 groundwater wells; and water levels for 425 observation network wells. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data collection program and are published as miscellaneous measurements. Volumes 1 & 2 contain the surface-water and surface-water-quality records. Volume 3 contains the ground-water and ground-water-quality records. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Idaho, adjacent States, and Canada.

  9. Water resources data, Idaho, 2003; Volume 2. Surface water records for Upper Columbia River basin and Great Basin below King Hill

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brennan, T.S.; Lehmann, A.K.; O'Dell, I.

    2004-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2003 water year for Idaho consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; discharge of irrigation diversions; and water levels and water quality of groundwater. The three volumes of this report contain discharge records for 208 stream-gaging stations and 14 irrigation diversions; stage only records for 6 stream-gaging stations; stage only for 6 lakes and reservoirs; contents only for 13 lakes and reservoirs; water-quality for 50 stream-gaging stations and partial record sites, 3 lakes sites, and 398 groundwater wells; and water levels for 427 observation network wells and 900 special project wells. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data collection program and are published as miscellaneous measurements. Volumes 1 & 2 contain the surface-water and surface-water-quality records. Volume 3 contains the ground-water and ground-water-quality records. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Idaho, adjacent States, and Canada.

  10. Summary of surface-water-quality data collected for the Northern Rockies Intermontane Basins National Water-Quality Assessment Program in the Clark Fork-Pend Oreille and Spokane River basins, Montana, Idaho, and Washington, water years 1999-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beckwith, Michael A.

    2003-01-01

    Water-quality samples were collected at 10 sites in the Clark Fork-Pend Oreille and Spokane River Basins in water years 1999 2001 as part of the Northern Rockies Intermontane Basins (NROK) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. Sampling sites were located in varied environments ranging from small streams and rivers in forested, mountainous headwater areas to large rivers draining diverse landscapes. Two sampling sites were located immediately downstream from the large lakes; five sites were located downstream from large-scale historical mining and oreprocessing areas, which are now the two largest Superfund (environmental remediation) sites in the Nation. Samples were collected during a wide range of streamflow conditions, more frequently during increasing and high streamflow and less frequently during receding and base-flow conditions. Sample analyses emphasized major ions, nutrients, and selected trace elements. Streamflow during the study ranged from more than 130 percent of the long-term average in 1999 at some sites to 40 percent of the long-term average in 2001. River and stream water in the study area exhibited small values for specific conductance, hardness, alkalinity, and dissolved solids. Dissolved oxygen concentrations in almost all samples were near saturation. Median total nitrogen and total phosphorus concentrations in samples from most sites were smaller than median concentrations reported for many national programs and other NAWQA Program study areas. The only exceptions were two sites downstream from large wastewater-treatment facilities, where median concentrations of total nitrogen exceeded the national median. Maximum concentrations of total phosphorus in samples from six sites exceeded the 0.1 milligram per liter threshold recommended for limiting nuisance aquatic growth. Concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, and zinc were largest in samples from sites downstream from historical mining and ore-processing areas in the upper Clark Fork in Montana and the South Fork Coeur dAlene River in Idaho. Concentrations of dissolved lead in all 32 samples from the South Fork Coeur dAlene River exceeded the Idaho chronic criterion for the protection of aquatic life at the median hardness level measured during the study. Concentrations of dissolved zinc in all samples collected at this site exceeded both the chronic and acute criteria at all hardness levels measured. When all data from all NROK sites were combined, median concentrations of dissolved arsenic, dissolved and total recoverable copper, total recoverable lead, and total recoverable zinc in the NROK study area appeared to be similar to or slightly smaller than median concentrations at sites in other NAWQA Program study areas in the Western United States affected by historical mining activities. Although the NROK median total recoverable lead concentration was the smallest among the three Western study areas compared, concentrations in several NROK samples were an order of magnitude larger than the maximum concentrations measured in the Upper Colorado River and Great Salt Lake Basins. Dissolved cadmium, dissolved lead, and total recoverable zinc concentrations at NROK sites were more variable than in the other study areas; concentrations ranged over almost three orders of magnitude between minimum and maximum values; the range of dissolved zinc concentrations in the NROK study area exceeded three orders of magnitude.

  11. WEISER-LOWER PAYETTE WATER QUALITY SURVEYS, IDAHO, AUGUST - DECEMBER 1975

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 1975, cooperative water quality surveys were conducted on the Weiser and Payette Rivers (17050122, 17050124) by Idaho Department of Health and Welfare and the Environmental Protection Agency. The area is located in the Middle Snake River Basin in Idaho. Surveys were done dur...

  12. Chemical composition of selected core samples, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Knobel, L.L.; Cecil, L.D.; Wood, T.R.

    1995-11-01

    This report presents chemical compositions determined from 84 subsamples and 5 quality-assurance split subsamples of basalt core from the eastern Snake River Plain. The 84 subsamples were collected at selected depths from 5 coreholes located on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho. This report was jointly prepared by Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company and the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office. Ten major elements and as many as 32 trace elements were determined for each subsample either by wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, or by both methods. Descriptive statistics for each element were calculated and tabulated by analytical method for each corehole.

  13. Agricultural land-use classification using landsat imagery data, and estimates of irrigation water use in Gooding, Jerome, Lincoln, and Minidoka counties, 1992 water year, Upper Snake River basin, Idaho and western Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maupin, Molly A.

    1997-01-01

    As part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program in the upper Snake River Basin study unit, land- and water-use data were used to describe activities that have potential effects on water quality, including biological conditions, in the basin. Land-use maps and estimates of water use by irrigated agriculture were needed for Gooding, Jerome, Lincoln, and Minidoka Counties (south-central Idaho), four of the most intensively irrigated counties in the study unit. Land use in the four counties was mapped from Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery data for the 1992 water year using the SPECTRUM computer program. Land-use data were field verified in 108 randomly selected sections (640 acres each); results compared favorably with land-use maps from other sources. Water used for irrigation during the 1992 water year was estimated using land-use and ancillary data. In 1992, a drought year, estimated irrigation withdrawals in the four counties were about 2.9 million acre-feet of water. Of the 2.9 million acre-feet, an estimated 2.12 million acre-feet of water was withdrawn from surface water, mainly the Snake River, and nearly 776,000 acre-feet was withdrawn from ground water. One-half of the 2.9 million acre-feet of water withdrawn for irrigation was considered to be lost during conveyance or was returned to the Snake River; the remainder was consumptively used by crops during the growing season.

  14. Characterization of channel substrate, and changes in suspended-sediment transport and channel geometry in white sturgeon spawning habitat in the Kootenai River near Bonners Ferry, Idaho, following the closure of Libby Dam

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barton, Gary J.

    2004-01-01

    Many local, State, and Federal agencies have concerns over the declining population of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) in the Kootenai River and the possible effects of the closure and subsequent operation of Libby Dam in 1972. In 1994, the Kootenai River white sturgeon was listed as an Endangered Species. A year-long field study was conducted in cooperation with the Kootenai Tribe of Idaho along a 21.7-kilometer reach of the Kootenai River including the white sturgeon spawning reach near Bonners Ferry, Idaho, approximately 111 to 129 kilometers below Libby Dam. During the field study, data were collected in order to map the channel substrate in the white sturgeon spawning reach. These data include seismic subbottom profiles at 18 cross sections of the river and sediment cores taken at or near the seismic cross sections. The effect that Libby Dam has on the Kootenai River white sturgeon spawning substrate was analyzed in terms of changes in suspended-sediment transport, aggradation and degradation of channel bed, and changes in the particle size of bed material with depth below the riverbed. The annual suspended-sediment load leaving the Kootenai River white sturgeon spawning reach decreased dramatically after the closure of Libby Dam in 1972: mean annual pre-Libby Dam load during 196671 was 1,743,900 metric tons, and the dam-era load during 197383 was 287,500 metric tons. The amount of sand-size particles in three suspended-sediment samples collected at Copeland, Idaho, 159 kilometers below Libby Dam, during spring and early summer high flows after the closure of Libby Dam is less than in four samples collected during the pre-Libby Dam era. The supply of sand to the spawning reach is currently less due to the reduction of high flows and a loss of 70 percent of the basin after the closure of Libby Dam. The river's reduced capacity to transport sand out of the spawning reach is compensated to an unknown extent by a reduced load of sand entering the spawning reach. Since the closure of Libby Dam, the most notable change in channel geometry at the Copeland streamflow gaging station was the initiation of cyclical aggradation and degradation of the riverbed in the center of the channel. The aggradation and degradation of the riverbed are reflected in a twofold increase, from 1.3 to 2.5 meters, in the fluctuation of the minimum riverbed elevation, which suggests that during the Libby Dam era, parts of the riverbed in the spawning reach may have aggraded or degraded by as much as 2.5 meters. Before the closure of Libby Dam, there was a greater propensity for aggradation and degradation of sand over the discontinuous gravel and cobble layers in the buried gravelcobble reach at Bonners Ferry. The gravel and cobble in this reach, 111.3 to 115.9 kilometers below Libby Dam, are buried by sand. Unregulated spring snowmelt-runoff flows flushed part of the sand layer and exposed some of the buried gravel-cobble layer because streamflow velocities were higher at that time. Unregulated autumn-winter base flows gradually deposited silt and sand and reestablished a sand layer, burying the gravel-cobble layer. This cyclical process of aggradation and degradation of the riverbed sediment is reflected in the alternating gravel-cobble layers and sand layers found in sediment core K18-TH taken as part of this project. White sturgeon spawning substrate in the Kootenai River meander reach is currently composed of alluvial sand that forms sand dunes and of minor amounts of lacustrine clay and silt that generally are found in the river's thalweg. The present substrate composition in the meander reach is considered similar to that which existed prior to closure of Libby Dam, with one possible exception. Prior to closure of Libby Dam, minor amounts of gravel and cobble may have been exposed on the riverbed in the spawning reach just below the mouth of Myrtle Creek 230 kilometers below Libby Dam. The substrate composition near Shorty Island, 234 kilometers below Libby Dam, a notable white sturgeon spawning reach, is predominantl

  15. Idaho GPW Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    2001-10-01

    Idaho holds enormous resources - among the largest in theUnited States - of this clean, reliable form of energy that to date have barely been tapped. According to U.S. Geological Survey estimates, Idaho ranks seventh among the 50 states in developable geothermal energy. These resources could provide up to 20% of Idaho's heat and power needs. W h y G e o t h e r m a l ?Homegrown Energy It's here, right beneath our feet! No need to import! Current Development Idaho already boasts 70 direct-use g..

  16. From Snow to Rain: Assessing streamflow sensitivity to changes in climate using a hydrologic model for the Salmon River Basin, Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, C.; Crosby, B. T.; Wheaton, J. M.

    2009-12-01

    A study of the influences of climate changes in water resource in Salmon River Basin (SRB) is presented. The Salmon River starts in high elevation, mountainous, forest headwaters as an unimpaired river system. Accelerated Climate models for the next 100 years in western North America consistently predict progressive increase in temperature. This change in temperature in mountainous environments will drive snowline upward and ultimately influence the timing and magnitude of streamflow. In this study we explore the influences of climate changes on water resource in the unimpacted Salmon River Basin (SRB). The SRB starts in high elevation, snow-dominated headwaters and flows across a steep elevation gradient to a low elevation, rain-dominated region near its confluence with the Snake River. To explore the effect of changes in climate on a basin with variable precipitation phases, we employ a large scale, long term distributed hydrological model, (the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model) to simulate SRB streamflow and generate a downscaled climate output. Simulation was performed on 1/16 degree spatial resolution at daily timesteps over a 30-yr period. Model outputs reveal how streamflows within the SRB behave under three different climate scenarios: 1) the current meteorological condition; 2) temperature increase; and 3) precipitation decrease. The distributed model allows us to extract hydrographs along the entire length of the mainstem, thus evaluating the spatial and temporal distribution of tributary contributions to the Salmon River. These results help map out how the topographic character of a watershed determines the sensitivity of both mainstem and tributary flows to changes in precipitation phase. These results improve streamflow forcasting for both fisheries and hydroelectric applications.

  17. WATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF THE UPPER SNAKE RIVER BASIN, IDAHO AND WESTERN WYOMING - SUMMARY OF AQUATIC BIOLOGICAL DATA FOR SURFACE WATER THROUGH 1992

    EPA Science Inventory

    The initial phase of this study involved compiling data to describe the current (1992) and historical aquatic biological conditions of surface water in the Snake River Basin (1704). To assess water quality of the basin, at least 26 different macroinvertebrate and fish community ...

  18. ANALYSIS OF DATA ON NUTRIENTS AND ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN GROUND WATER IN THE UPPER SNAKE RIVER BASIN, IDAHO AND WESTERN WYOMING, 1980-91

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nutrient and organic compound data from the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency STORET data bases provided information for development of a preliminary conceptual model of spatial and temporal ground-water quality in the upper Snake River Basin (17...

  19. ASSESSMENT OF SELECTED CONSTITUENTS IN THE SURFACE WATER OF THE UPPER SNAKE RIVER BASIN, IDAHO AND WESTERN WYOMING, WATER YEARS 1975-1989.

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 1991, a water-quality investigation of the upper Snake River Basin (1704) was initiated as part of the USGS National Water-Quality Assessment Program. Nearly 9,000 analyses of nutrients and suspended sediment from more than 450 stations were retrieved from the U.S. Environmen...

  20. Aquifer tests near the Idaho Falls Foothills, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Hubbell, J.M.

    1991-10-03

    Ground water pumping tests were performed in two wells located in the foothills east of Idaho Falls to determine the aquifer characteristics at these locations. These data were used to differentiate this aquifer from the Snake River Plain aquifer. The wells were pumped at rates of 11 and 14 gallons per minute with 0.03 and 0.04 ft of drawdown measured in the pumping wells. The transmissivity is estimated to be 525,000 gpd/ft and 450,000 gpd/ft, respectively. The hydraulic conductivity is 925 ft/day and 1,070 ft/day, respectively. These hydraulic conductivities are similar to those measured in the Snake River Plain aquifer. Water level data in these wells are consistent with the water table in the Snake River Plain aquifer and indicates ground water movement from the foothills toward the Plain. The high transmissivity suggests water may move rapidly from the foothills area to mix with water in the Snake River Plain aquifer. Elevated water temperatures (76 and 70{degrees}F) and high specific conductivities in these wells indicate the presence of a foothills aquifer with characteristics that can be used to separate the two aquifer systems.

  1. An evaluation of ISOCLS and CLASSY clustering algorithms for forest classification in northern Idaho. [Elk River quadrange of the Clearwater National Forest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werth, L. F. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    Both the iterative self-organizing clustering system (ISOCLS) and the CLASSY algorithms were applied to forest and nonforest classes for one 1:24,000 quadrangle map of northern Idaho and the classification and mapping accuracies were evaluated with 1:30,000 color infrared aerial photography. Confusion matrices for the two clustering algorithms were generated and studied to determine which is most applicable to forest and rangeland inventories in future projects. In an unsupervised mode, ISOCLS requires many trial-and-error runs to find the proper parameters to separate desired information classes. CLASSY tells more in a single run concerning the classes that can be separated, shows more promise for forest stratification than ISOCLS, and shows more promise for consistency. One major drawback to CLASSY is that important forest and range classes that are smaller than a minimum cluster size will be combined with other classes. The algorithm requires so much computer storage that only data sets as small as a quadrangle can be used at one time.

  2. Activities of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program in the upper Snake River Basin, Idaho and western Wyoming, 1991-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Low, Walton H.

    1997-01-01

    In 1991, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began a full-scale National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. The long-term goals of the NAWQA Program are to describe the status and trends in the water quality of a large part of the Nation's rivers and aquifers and to improve understanding of the primary natural and human factors that affect water-quality conditions. In meeting these goals, the program will produce water-quality, ecological, and geographic information that will be useful to policy makers and managers at the national, State, and local levels. A major component of the program is study-unit investigations, upon which national-level assessment activities are based. The program's 60 study-unit investigations are associated with principal river basins and aquifer systems throughout the Nation. Study units encompass areas from 1,200 to more than 65,000 mi2 (square miles) and incorporate about 60 to 70 percent of the Nation's water use and population served by public water supply. In 1991, the upper Snake River Basin was among the first 20 NAWQA study units selected for implementation. From 1991 to 1995, a high-intensity data-collection phase of the upper Snake River Basin study unit (fig. 1) was implemented and completed. Components of this phase are described in a report by Gilliom and others (1995). In 1997, a low-intensity phase of data collection began, and work continued on data analysis, report writing, and data documentation and archiving activities that began in 1996. Principal data-collection activities during the low-intensity phase will include monitoring of surface-water and ground-water quality, assessment of aquatic biological conditions, and continued compilation of environmental setting information.

  3. Assessment of selected constituents in surface water of the upper Snake River basin, Idaho and western Wyoming, water years 1975-89

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Gregory M.

    1994-01-01

    A more extensive data-collection program in the upper Snake River Basin is needed to address a number of water-quality issues. These include an analysis of effects of land use on the quality of surface water; quantification of mass movement of nutrients and suspended sediment at key locations in the basin; distribution of aquatic organisms; and temporal and spatial distribution of pesticides in surface water, bottom sediment, and biota.

  4. Department of Energy Programmatic Spent Nuclear Fuel Management and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programs Draft Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 1, Appendix C, Savannah River Site Spent Nuclear Fuel Mangement Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is engaged in two related decision making processes concerning: (1) the transportation, receipt, processing, and storage of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at the DOE Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) which will focus on the next 10 years; and (2) programmatic decisions on future spent nuclear fuel management which will emphasize the next 40 years. DOE is analyzing the environmental consequences of these spent nuclear fuel management actions in this two-volume Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). Volume 1 supports broad programmatic decisions that will have applicability across the DOE complex and describes in detail the purpose and need for this DOE action. Volume 2 is specific to actions at the INEL. This document, which limits its discussion to the Savannah River Site (SRS) spent nuclear fuel management program, supports Volume 1 of the EIS. Following the introduction, Chapter 2 contains background information related to the SRS and the framework of environmental regulations pertinent to spent nuclear fuel management. Chapter 3 identifies spent nuclear fuel management alternatives that DOE could implement at the SRS, and summarizes their potential environmental consequences. Chapter 4 describes the existing environmental resources of the SRS that spent nuclear fuel activities could affect. Chapter 5 analyzes in detail the environmental consequences of each spent nuclear fuel management alternative and describes cumulative impacts. The chapter also contains information on unavoidable adverse impacts, commitment of resources, short-term use of the environment and mitigation measures.

  5. Physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of the Boise River from Veterans Memorial Parkway, Boise to Star, Idaho, October 1987 to March 1988

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frenzel, S.A.

    1988-01-01

    Physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of the Boise River were examined from October 1987 to March 1988 to determine whether trace elements in effluents from two Boise wastewater treatment facilities were detrimental to aquatic communities. Cadmium, chromium, hexavalent chromium, cyanide, lead, nickel, and silver concentrations in the Boise River were less than or near analytical detection levels and were less than chronic toxicity criteria when detectable. Arsenic, copper, and zinc were detected in concentrations less than chronic toxicity criteria. Concentrations of trace elements in bottom material generally were small and could not be attributed to effluents from wastewater treatment facilities. From October to December 1987, mean density of benthic invertebrates colonizing artificial substrates was from 6,100 individuals/substrate downstream from the West Boise wastewater treatment facility to 14,000 individuals per substrate downstream from the Lander Street wastewater treatment facility. From January to March 1988 , mean density of benthic invertebrates colonizing artificial substrates was from 7,100 individuals per substrate downstream from the West Boise facility to 10,000 individuals per substrate near Star. Insect communities upstream and downstream from the wastewater treatment facilities were strongly associated, and coeffients of community loss indicated that effluents had benign enriching effects. Distribution of mayflies indicates that trace-element concentrations in effluents did not adversely affect intolerant organisms in the Boise River. Condition factor of whitefish was significantly increased downstream from the Lander Street wastewater treatment facility and was significantly decreased downstream from the West Boise wastewater treatment facility.

  6. Use of Dual Frequency Identification Sonar to Determine Adult Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) Escapement in the Secesh River, Idaho ; Annual Report, January 2008 – December 2008.

    SciTech Connect

    Kucera, Paul A.

    2009-06-26

    Chinook salmon in the Snake River basin were listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act in 1992 (NMFS 1992). The Secesh River represents the only stream in the Snake River basin where natural origin (wild) salmon escapement monitoring occurs at the population level, absent a supplementation program. As such the Secesh River has been identified as a long term salmon escapement and productivity monitoring site by the Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resources Management. Salmon managers will use this data for effective population management and evaluation of the effect of conservation actions on a natural origin salmon population. The Secesh River also acts as a reference stream for supplementation program comparison. Dual frequency identification sonar (DIDSON) was used to determine adult spring and summer Chinook salmon escapement in the Secesh River in 2008. DIDSON technology was selected because it provided a non-invasive method for escapement monitoring that avoided listed species trapping and handling incidental mortality, and fish impedance related concerns. The DIDSON monitoring site was operated continuously from June 13 to September 14. The first salmon passage was observed on July 3. DIDSON site total estimated salmon escapement, natural and hatchery fish, was 888 fish {+-} 65 fish (95% confidence interval). Coefficient of variation associated with the escapement estimate was 3.7%. The DIDSON unit was operational 98.1% of the salmon migration period. Adult salmon migration timing in the Secesh River occurred over 74 days from July 3 to September 14, with 5,262 total fish passages observed. The spawning migration had 10%, median, and 90% passage dates of July 8, July 16, and August 12, respectively. The maximum number of net upstream migrating salmon was above the DIDSON monitoring site on August 27. Validation monitoring of DIDSON target counts with underwater optical cameras occurred for species identification. A total of 860 optical camera identified salmon passage observations were identical to DIDSON target counts. However, optical cameras identified eight jack salmon (3 upstream, 5 downstream) less than 55 cm in length that DIDSON did not count as salmon because of the length criteria employed ({ge} 55 cm). Precision of the DIDSON technology was evaluated by comparing estimated net upstream salmon escapement and associated 95% confidence intervals between two DIDSON sonar units operated over a five day period. The DIDSON 1 salmon escapement was 145.7 fish ({+-} 2.3), and the DIDSON 2 escapement estimate was 150.5 fish ({+-} 5). The overlap in the 95% confidence intervals suggested that the two escapement estimates were not significantly different from each other. Known length salmon carcass trials were conducted in 2008 to examine the accuracy of manually measured lengths, obtained using DIDSON software, on high frequency files at a 5 m window length. Linear regression demonstrated a highly significant relationship between known lengths and manually measured salmon carcass lengths (p < 0.0001). A positive bias in manual length measurement of 6.8% to 8% existed among the two observers in the analysis. Total Secesh River salmon escapement (natural origin and hatchery) in 2008 was 912 fish. Natural origin salmon escapement in the entire Secesh River drainage was 847 fish. The estimated natural origin spawner abundance was 836 fish. Salmon spawner abundance in 2008 increased by three fold compared to 2007 abundance levels. The 10 year geometric mean natural origin spawner abundance was 538 salmon and was below the recommended viable population threshold level established by the ICTRT (2007). One additional Snake River basin salmon population was assessed for comparison of natural origin salmon spawner abundance. The Johnson Creek/EFSF Salmon River population had a 10 year geometric mean natural origin spawner abundance of 254 salmon. Salmon spawner abundance levels in both streams were below viable population thresholds. DIDSON technology has been used in the Secesh River to determine salmon escapement over the past five years. The results suggest that DIDSON technology is reliable and can be used to generate accurate and precise estimates of salmon escapement if appropriate methods are used.

  7. Chinook Salmon Adult Abundance Monitoring; Hydroacoustic Assessment of Chinook Salmon Escapement to the Secesh River, Idaho, 2002-2004 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.; McKinstry, C.; Mueller, R.

    2004-01-01

    Accurate determination of adult salmon spawner abundance is key to the assessment of recovery actions for wild Snake River spring/summer Chinook salmon (Onchorynchus tshawytscha), a species listed as 'threatened' under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). As part of the Bonneville Power Administration Fish and Wildlife Program, the Nez Perce Tribe operates an experimental project in the South Fork of the Salmon River subbasin. The project has involved noninvasive monitoring of Chinook salmon escapement on the Secesh River between 1997 and 2000 and on Lake Creek since 1998. The overall goal of this project is to accurately estimate adult Chinook salmon spawning escapement numbers to the Secesh River and Lake Creek. Using time-lapse underwater video technology in conjunction with their fish counting stations, Nez Perce researchers have successfully collected information on adult Chinook salmon spawner abundance, run timing, and fish-per-redd numbers on Lake Creek since 1998. However, the larger stream environment in the Secesh River prevented successful implementation of the underwater video technique to enumerate adult Chinook salmon abundance. High stream discharge and debris loads in the Secesh caused failure of the temporary fish counting station, preventing coverage of the early migrating portion of the spawning run. Accurate adult abundance information could not be obtained on the Secesh with the underwater video method. Consequently, the Nez Perce Tribe now is evaluating advanced technologies and methodologies for measuring adult Chinook salmon abundance in the Secesh River. In 2003, the use of an acoustic camera for assessing spawner escapement was examined. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, in a collaborative arrangement with the Nez Perce Tribe, provided the technical expertise to implement the acoustic camera component of the counting station on the Secesh River. This report documents the first year of a proposed three-year study to determine the efficacy of using an acoustic camera to count adult migrant Chinook salmon as they make their way to the spawning grounds on the Secesh River and Lake Creek. A phased approach to applying the acoustic camera was proposed, starting with testing and evaluation in spring 2003, followed by a full implementation in 2004 and 2005. The goal of this effort is to better assess the early run components when water clarity and night visibility preclude the use of optical techniques. A single acoustic camera was used to test the technology for enumerating adult salmon passage at the Secesh River. The acoustic camera was deployed on the Secesh at a site engineered with an artificial substrate to control the river bottom morphometry and the passage channel. The primary goal of the analysis for this first year of deployment was to validate counts of migrant salmon. The validation plan involved covering the area with optical video cameras so that both optical and acoustic camera images of the same viewing region could be acquired simultaneously. A secondary test was contrived after the fish passage was complete using a controlled setting at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in Richland, Washington, in which we tested the detectability as a function of turbidity levels. Optical and acoustic camera multiplexed video recordings of adult Chinook salmon were made at the Secesh River fish counting station from August 20 through August 29, 2003. The acoustic camera performed as well as or better than the optical camera at detecting adult Chinook salmon over the 10-day test period. However, the acoustic camera was not perfect; the data reflected adult Chinook salmon detections made by the optical camera that were missed by the acoustic camera. The conditions for counting using the optical camera were near ideal, with shallow clear water and good light penetration. The relative performance of the acoustic camera is expected to be even better than the optical camera in early spring when water clarity and light penetration are limited. Results of the laboratory tests at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory facility indicated that the detection rate for the acoustic camera system was essentially 100% across all levels of turbidity in the experiments. Overall, the acoustic camera outperformed the optical camera at detecting fish, both in the laboratory tank and at the Secesh River fish counting station. However, the optical camera approach still offers some advantages over the acoustic camera under certain limited circumstances. The primary advantages are better species, gender and condition determination and better separation of debris from fish moving downstream. Using both systems in parallel will provide the most robust and accurate platform for counting fish in the field by exploiting the relative strengths of both systems through the season.

  8. 2. SNAKE RIVER VALLEY IRRIGATION DISTRICT DAM, PHOTOGRAPHIC COPY OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. SNAKE RIVER VALLEY IRRIGATION DISTRICT DAM, PHOTOGRAPHIC COPY OF DRAWING, PLAN, SHEET 5 OF 5, 1924 (on file at the Idaho State Office of Water Resources, Boise, Idaho) - Snake River Valley Irrigation District, East Side of Snake River (River Mile 796), Shelley, Bingham County, ID

  9. Tritium, stable isotopes and nitrogen in flow from selected springs that discharge to the Snake River, Twin Falls-Hagerman area, Idaho, 1990-93

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, L.J.; Low, W.H.

    1994-12-01

    In 1990-93, tritium concentrations in water from 19 springs along the north side of the Snake River near Twin Falls and Hagerman ranged from 9.2{+-}0.6 to 78.4{+-}5.1 picocuries per liter (pCi/L). The springs were placed into three categories on the basis of their locations and tritium concentrations: Category I springs are the farthest upstream and contained from 52.8{+-}3.2 to 78.4{+-}5.1 pCi/L of tritium; Category It springs are downstream from those in Category I and contained from 9.2{+-}0.6 to 18.5{+-}1.2 pCi/L; and Category III springs are the farthest downstream and contained from 28.3{+-}1.9 to 47.7{+-}3.2 pCi/L. Tritium concentrations in precipitation and in the Snake River were relatively large in the 1950`s and 1960`s owing to atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons. Conversely, tritium concentrations in ground water with a residence time of several tens to a few hundred years, as occurs in the Snake River Plain aquifer hydraulically upgradient from the Category II springs, are comparatively small because of the 12.4-year half-life of tritium. The conclusion that recharge from excess applied-irrigation water from the Snake River has affected tritium in the Snake River Plain aquifer is supported by differences in the deuterium (2H) and oxygen-18 (180) ratios of water. These ratios indicate that water discharged by the springs is recharged by waters of different origins. Irrigation recharge is more enriched in 2H and 180 than the regional ground water. Water from Category I springs is more enriched in 2H and 180 than is water from Category II or III springs because a large proportion of irrigation recharge mixes with the regional ground water in Category I springs. Nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen concentrations also are greater in water from Category I springs than in water from Category II springs.

  10. Assessment of nutrients, suspended sediment, and pesticides in surface water of the upper Snake River basin, Idaho and western Wyoming, water years 1991-95

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Gregory M.

    1997-01-01

    Quality Assessment Program. As part of the investigation, intensive monitoring was conducted during water years 1993 through 1995 to assess surface-water quality in the basin. Sampling and analysis focused on nutrients, suspended sediments, and pesticides because of nationwide interest in these constituents. Concentrations of nutrients and suspended sediment in water samples from 19 sites in the upper Snake River Basin, including nine on the main stem, were assessed. In general, concentrations of nutrients and suspended sediment were smaller in water from the 11 sites upstream from American Falls Reservoir than in water from the 8 sites downstream from the reservoir where effects from land-use activities are most pronounced. Median concentrations of dissolved nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen at the 19 sites ranged from less than 0.05 to 1.60 milligrams per liter; total phosphorus as phosphorus, less than 0.01 to 0.11 milligrams per liter; and suspended sediment, 4 to 72 milligrams per liter. Concentrations of nutrients and suspended sediment in the main stem of the Snake River, in general, increased downstream. The largest concentrations in the main stem were in the middle reach of the Snake River between Milner Dam and the outlet of the upper Snake River Basin at King Hill. Significant differences (p Nutrient and suspended sediment inputs to the middle Snake reach were from a variety of sources. During water year 1995, springs were the primary source of water and total nitrogen to the river and accounted for 66 and 60 percent of the total input, respectively. Isotope and water-table information indicated that the springs derived most of their nitrogen from agricultural activities along the margins of the Snake River. Aquacultural effluent was a major source of ammonia (82 percent), organic nitrogen (30 percent), and total phosphorus (35 percent). Tributary streams were a major source of organic nitrogen (28 percent) and suspended sediment (58 percent). In proportion to its discharge (less than 1 percent), the Twin Falls sewage-treatment plant was a major source of total phosphorus (13 percent). A comparison of discharge and loading in water year 1995 with estimates of instream transport showed a good correlation (relative difference of less than 15 percent) for discharge, total organic nitrogen, dissolved nitrite plus nitrate, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus. Estimates of dissolved ammonia and suspended sediment loads correlated poorly with instream transport; relative differences were about 79 and 61 percent, respectively. The pesticides EPTC, atrazine, desethylatrazine, metolachlor, and alachlor were the most commonly detected in the upper Snake River Basin and accounted for about 75 percent of all pesticide detections. All pesticides detected were at concentrations less than 1 microgram per liter and below water-quality criteria established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. In samples collected from two small agriculturally dominated tributary basins, the largest number and concentrations of pesticides were detected in May and June following early growing season applications. At one of the sites, the pesticide atrazine and its metabolite desethylatrazine were detected throughout the year. On the basis of 37 samples collected basinwide in May and June 1994, total annual subbasin applications and instantaneous instream fluxes of EPTC and atrazine showed logarithmic relations with coefficients of determination (R2 values) of 0.55 and 0.62, respectively. At the time of sampling, the median daily flux of EPTC was about 0.0001 percent of the annual quantity applied, whereas the median daily flux of atrazine was between 0.001 and 0.01 percent.

  11. Fire protection review, Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company, Idaho Falls, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Dobson, P.H.

    1990-10-01

    A fire protection survey was conducted for the Department of Energy at the Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company, INC., Idaho Falls, Idaho, on April 24--27, April 30--May 4, June 4--8, and June 11--15, 1990. The purpose of the survey was to review the facility's fire protection program and to make recommendations according to the following criteria established by the Department of Energy: (1) Recommendations which would be made as the result of an improved risk or Highly Protected Risk (HPR) fire inspection of an industrial insured facility. (2) Identification of areas which are presently not protected or are inadequately protected where provision of automatic protection would reduce a fire or explosion loss to less than $1 million. (3) Identification of areas where loss potentials exceed $50 million assuming a failure of automatic protection systems and subsequent reliance only on separation and fire walls. (4) Evaluation of adequacy of compliance with recommendations made in prior surveys. Findings and recommendations in this report reflect to some degree the relative importance of the operation and the time to restore it to useful condition in the event that a loss were to occur.

  12. Chemical and light-stable isotope characteristics of waters from the raft river geothermal area and environs, cassia county, idaho; box elder county, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nathenson, M.; Nehring, N.L.; Crosthwaite, E.G.; Harmon, R.S.; Janik, C.; Borthwick, J.

    1982-01-01

    Chemical and light-stable isotope data are presented for water samples from the Raft River geothermal area and environs. On the basis of chemical character, as defined by a trilinear plot of per cent milliequivalents, and light-stable isotope data, the waters in the geothermal area can be divided into waters that have and have not mixed with cold water. The non-mixed waters have essentially a constant value of light-stable isotopes but show a large variation in chloride content. The variation of chloride composition is not the usual pattern for deep geothermal waters, where it is normally assumed that the deep water has a single chloride composition. Different mixed waters also have hot-water sources of varying chloride composition. Plots of chloride values on cross-sections show that water circulation patterns are confused, with non-mixed waters having different chloride concentrations located in close proximity. Three models can explain the characteristics of the deep geothermal water: (1) in addition to near-surface mixing of cold and hot water, there is deep mixing of two hot waters with the same enthalpy and isotopic composition but differing chloride concentrations to produce the range of chloride concentrations found in the deep geothermal water; (2) there is a single deep hot water, and the range of chloride concentrations is produced by the water passing through a zone of highly soluble materials (most likely in the sedimentary section above the basement) in which waters have different residence times or slightly different circulation paths; (3) the varying chloride concentrations in space have been caused by varying chloride concentrations in the deep feed water through time. Some of this older water has not been flushed from the system by the natural discharge. Although one model may seem more plausible than the others, the available data do not rule out any of them. Data for water samples from the Raft River and Jim Sage Mountains show that water from these areas is probably the source for the cold mixing water determined from end-members on mixing lines. Data for water samples in the Upper Raft River Valley show that the thermal anomaly found at Almo 1 is probably not related to the Raft River geothermal area. The water is different in type as shown by its placement on a trilinear plot, and the isotopes are different enough to show that it is probably a different water. Isotopic compositions of samples from a wide area around the Raft River geothermal system indicate that the likely source of the recharge water is the southern Albion Mountains and western Raft River Mountains. The recharge area is at one end of the Narrows zone, and the geothermal area is along the Narrows zone; thus it is likely that the Narrows zone defines the circulation path. ?? 1982.

  13. Tritium, stable isotopes, and nitrogen in flow from selected springs that discharge to the Snake River, Twin Falls-Hagerman area, Idaho, 1990-93

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mann, L.J.; Low, W.H.

    1994-01-01

    In 1990-93, water from 19 springs along the north side of the Snake River near Twin Falls and Hagerman contained from 9.2+0.6 to 78.4+5.1 picocuries per liter (pCi/L) of tritium. The springs were placed into three categories based on their locations and tritium concentrations: Category I was the upstream most and contained from 52.8+3.2 to 78.4+5.1 pCi/L of tritium; Category 11 was downstream from those in Category I and contained from 9.2+0.6 to 18.6+1.2 pCi/L; and Category III was the farthest downstream and contained from 28.3+1.9 to 47.7+3.2 pCi/L. Differences in tritium concentrations in the Category I, II, and III springs are a function of the ground-water flow regime, land use, and irrigation practices in and hydraulically upgradient from each category of springs. A comparatively large part of the water from the Category I springs is derived from recharge in heavily irrigated areas in which the irrigation water largely is diverted from the Snake River. A large part of the recharge for Category II springs occurs as much as 140 miles upgradient. Tritium concentrations in Category III springs indicate an intermediate proportion of the recharge is from excess applied-irrigation water. The concept that recharge from excess applied- irrigation water from the Snake River has affected tritium in the aquifer is supported by isotopic and nitrogen data. Deuterium and oxygen-18 isotopic values, and nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen concentrations in the flow of some springs has been impacted by irrigation.

  14. Small Towns in a Rural Area: A Study of the Problems of Small Towns in Idaho. Idaho Agricultural Experiment Station Research Bulletin No. 91, April 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, J. R.; And Others

    Using aggregate data from several Idaho counties and towns, the study examined the economic forces which pressure small town people and merchants--pressures which ultimately shape and will shape small towns in areas like Idaho. Six towns chosen for intensive study were Priest River, Cottonwood, Riggins, Shoshone, Oakley, and Malad. Focusing on

  15. Influence of the diversion of Bear River into Bear Lake (Utah and Idaho) on the environment of deposition of carbonate minerals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dean, W.E.; Forester, R.M.; Bright, Jordon; Anderson, R.Y.

    2007-01-01

    Bear River, the largest river in the Great Basin, had some of its flow diverted into Bear Lake through a series of canals constructed between 1911 and 1918, turning Bear Lake into a reservoir. The prediversion lake had an unusually high Mg2+ : Ca2+ ratio (38 by weight), which resulted in precipitation of CaCO3 as aragonite. The amount and mineralogy of the carbonate did not change immediately after the diversion, but during the middle of the 20th century, high-Mg calcite began to precipitate. In contrast, at the time of diversion there were very distinct changes in the isotopic composition of the carbonate that clearly define the time of diversion within the sediments. Sediment-trap studies show that the CaCO3 polymorph that precipitates in the epilimnion of the lake today is high-Mg calcite. Samples in sediment traps placed 2 m above the bottom of the lake in 45 m of water (bottom traps) contain predominantly aragonite and quartz, with lesser amounts of high-Mg and low-Mg calcite and dolomite. Isotopic evidence from the sediments shows that the aragonite that accumulated in the bottom sediment traps and that constitutes the bulk of postdiversion sediments is reworked and redistributed from shallow sites to deep sites. ?? 2007, by the American Society of Limnology and Oceanography, Inc.

  16. Concentrations of metals associated with mining waste in sediments, biofilm, benthic macroinvertebrates, and fish from the Coeur d'Alene River Basin, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farag, A.M.; Woodward, D.F.; Goldstein, J.N.; Brumbaugh, W.; Meyer, J.S.

    1998-01-01

    Arsenic, Cd, Cu, Pb, Hg, and Zn were measured in sediments, biofilm, benthic macroinvertebrates, and fish from the Coeur d'Alene (CDA) River to characterize the pathway of metals transfer between these components. Metals enter the CDA Basin via tributaries where mining activities have occurred. In general, the ranking of food-web components from the greatest to smallest concentrations of metals was as follows: biofilm (the layer of abiotic and biotic material on rock surfaces) and sediments > invertebrates > whole fish. Elevated Pb was documented in invertebrates, and elevated Cd and Zn were documented in sediment and biofilm approximately 80 km downstream to the Spokane River. The accumulation of metals in invertebrates was dependent on functional feeding group and shredders-scrapers that feed on biofilm accumulated the largest concentrations of metals. Although the absolute concentrations of metals were the largest in biofilm and sediments, the metals have accumulated in fish approximately 50 km downstream from Kellogg, near the town of Harrison. While metals do not biomagnify between trophic levels, the metals in the CDA Basin are bioavailable and do biotransfer. Trout less than 100 mm long feed exclusively on small invertebrates, and small invertebrates accumulate greater concentrations of metals than large invertebrates. Therefore, early-lifestage fish may be exposed to a larger dose of metals than adults.

  17. Project Hotspot: Temporal Compositional Variation in Basalts of the Kimama Core and Implications for Magma Source Evolution, Snake River Scientific Drilling Project, Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potter, K. E.; Shervais, J. W.; Champion, D.; Duncan, R. A.; Christiansen, E. H.

    2012-12-01

    Project Hotspot produced continuous core from three drill sites in the Snake River plain, including 1912 m of core from the Kimama drill site on the axis of the plain. Ongoing major and trace element chemical characterization of the Kimama core and new 40Ar/39Ar and paleomagnetic age data demonstrate temporal variations in the evolution of Snake River Plain volcanism. Cyclic fluctuations in magma chemistry identify over a hundred chemically distinct basalt flow groups (comprising 550 individual lava flows) within 54 periods of volcanic activity, separated by hiatuses of decades to many millennia. From a surface age of 700 ka to a bottom-hole age of 6.5 Ma, the Kimama core records the presence of several nearly coeval but compositionally different lava flows, ranging from highly evolved lavas to non-evolved tholeiites. Determining whether Kimama lavas are genetically unrelated or extreme differentiates of a single magma batch relies upon a combination of detailed chemostratigraphy and absolute and relative age data. Age and geochemical data introduce new ideas on the role of multiple magma sources and/or differentiation processes in the development of central Snake River Plain volcanic systems. The relatively short gestation of evolved liquids is demonstrated throughout the Kimama core, with evidence for cyclic fractionation of mafic lavas at depths of 318 m, 350 m, 547 m, and 1078 m. Here, highly evolved lava flows (FeOT 16.0-18.4 wt %; TiO2 3.43-4.62 wt %) are stratigraphically bounded by more primitive tholeiitic basalts (FeOT 9.9-14.8 wt%; TiO2 1.22-3.56 wt%) within the same inclination range, suggesting that cyclic fractionation is a regular feature of shield volcano development on the central Snake River Plain. Between 1.60 0.13 Ma (453.5 m depth) and 1.54 0.15 Ma (320.0 m depth), Kimama lavas ranged in composition from primitive tholeiite (FeOT 11.7 wt %; TiO2 1.76 wt %) to evolved basalt (FeOT 16.0 wt %; TiO2 4.00 wt %). At depths of 1119 m and 1138 m, evolved lava flows (FeOT 17.2 and 17.0 wt %; TiO2 4.20 and 4.09 wt %, respectively) of negative polarity are stratigraphically bounded by more primitive tholeittic lava flows (FeOT 13.6 and 14.5 wt %; TiO2 2.92 and 3.24 wt %, respectively) of positive polarity, a chronological transition that may represent many millennia and magma source variability. Kimama core stratigraphy as well as paleomagnetic, and radiometric age data demonstrate that mafic volcanism on the central Snake River Plain has been relatively continuous for the last 6.5 Ma. The compositional variability in Kimama basalts introduces broader implications for the timing of cyclic fractionation processes and the development of regional magma sources.

  18. Tectonic evolution of the Priest River complex, northern Idaho and Washington: A reappraisal of the Newport fault with new insights on metamorphic core complex formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doughty, P. Ted; Price, Raymond A.

    1999-06-01

    New geologic mapping, 40Ar/39Ar thermochronometry, and geobarometry in the Middle Eocene Priest River metamorphic core complex provide the basis for unraveling the role of en echelon fault systems in core complex formation and for determining the scale of crustal fragments that form during continental extension. Four faults occur in the Priest River complex. The east verging Purcell Trench fault zone on the eastern side consists of two distinct en echelon fault segments separated by an unfaulted homocline. The U-shaped Newport fault system on the northwestern side is a conjugate normal fault set. The west verging eastern Newport fault terminates within the Silver Point Wrencoe pluton, which was intruded syntectonically into the fault zone. The east verging western Newport fault merges with the east verging Spokane dome mylonite zone in the underlying infrastructure. New geobarometric data show that this midcrustal shear zone, which evidently forms part of the regional basal dcollement of the Cordilleran fold and thrust belt, also records significant Eocene extensional shearing. Rocks that formed beneath the mylonite zone at a depth of 30-35 km are juxtaposed against rocks that formed at a depth of 10 km above the zone. Eocene 40Ar/39Ar chrontours in the southern part of the infrastructure record progressive exhumation and quenching that becomes younger eastward. In the northern fragment of the infrastructure, alternating domains of progressive westward exhumation/quenching and progressive eastward exhumation/quenching occur beneath the eastern Newport fault and the northern Purcell Trench fault, respectively. These relationships form the basis for a new model of the evolution of the Priest River complex. The southern part of the infrastructure was exhumed by a major east verging detachment system comprising the western Newport fault and the reactivated eastern part of the Spokane dome mylonite zone, into which the western Newport fault merges. This master detachment fault, which roots in the southern Purcell Trench on the east side of the core complex, plunges beneath the northern part of the infrastructure (the Selkirk Crest block). Below the detachment, the infrastructure appears to be intact; above the detachment, the crust extended along a set of relaying conjugate detachment faults. These faults are the eastern Newport fault and the north and south Purcell Trench faults. Kinematic analysis shows that the Selkirk Crest block is a crustal-scale extensional horse that was stranded as continued extension moved the underlying metamorphic infrastructure out from beneath it and toward the west along the master detachment. This study shows that large tracts of midcrustal rocks can be translated and stranded as allochthonous fragments during continental crustal extension.

  19. Thickness of surficial sediment at and near the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, S.R.; Liszewski, M.J.; Ackerman, D.J.

    1996-06-01

    Thickness of surficial sediment was determined from natural-gamma logs in 333 wells at and near the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory in eastern Idaho to provide reconnaissance data for future site-characterization studies. Surficial sediment, which is defined as the unconsolidated clay, silt, sand, and gravel that overlie the uppermost basalt flow at each well, ranges in thickness from 0 feet in seven wells drilled through basalt outcrops east of the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant to 313 feet in well Site 14 southeast of the Big Lost River sinks. Surficial sediment includes alluvial, lacustrine, eolian, and colluvial deposits that generally accumulated during the past 200 thousand years. Additional thickness data, not included in this report, are available from numerous auger holes and foundation borings at and near most facilities.

  20. Geologic framework for the national assessment of carbon dioxide storage resources: Greater Green River Basin, Wyoming, Colorado, and Utah, and Wyoming-Idaho-Utah Thrust Belt: Chapter E in Geologic framework for the national assessment of carbon dioxide storage resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buursink, Marc L.; Slucher, Ernie R.; Brennan, Sean T.; Doolan, Colin A.; Drake II, Ronald M.; Merrill, Matthew D.; Warwick, Peter D.; Blondes, Madalyn S.; Freeman, P.A.; Cahan, Steven M.; DeVera, Christina A.; Lohr, Celeste D.

    2014-01-01

    The 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act (Public Law 110–140) directs the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to conduct a national assessment of potential geologic storage resources for carbon dioxide (CO2). The methodology used by the USGS for the national CO2 assessment follows up on previous USGS work. The methodology is non-economic and intended to be used at regional to subbasinal scales. This report identifies and contains geologic descriptions of 14 storage assessment units (SAUs) in Ordovician to Upper Cretaceous sedimentary rocks within the Greater Green River Basin (GGRB) of Wyoming, Colorado, and Utah, and eight SAUs in Ordovician to Upper Cretaceous sedimentary rocks within the Wyoming-Idaho-Utah Thrust Belt (WIUTB). The GGRB and WIUTB are contiguous with nearly identical geologic units; however, the GGRB is larger in size, whereas the WIUTB is more structurally complex. This report focuses on the characteristics, specified in the methodology, that influence the potential CO2 storage resource in the SAUs. Specific descriptions of the SAU boundaries, as well as their sealing and reservoir units, are included. Properties for each SAU, such as depth to top, gross thickness, porosity, permeability, groundwater quality, and structural reservoir traps, are typically provided to illustrate geologic factors critical to the assessment. This geologic information was employed, as specified in the USGS methodology, to calculate a probabilistic distribution of potential storage resources in each SAU. Figures in this report show SAU boundaries and cell maps of well penetrations through sealing units into the top of the storage formations. The cell maps show the number of penetrating wells within one square mile and are derived from interpretations of variably attributed well data and a digital compilation that is known not to include all drilling.

  1. Sediment transport and evaluation of sediment surrogate ratings in the Kootenai River near Bonners Ferry, Idaho, Water Years 2011–14

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, Molly S.; Fosness, Ryan L.; Etheridge, Alexandra B.

    2015-01-01

    Acoustic surrogate ratings were developed between backscatter data collected using acoustic Doppler velocity meters (ADVMs) and results of suspended-sediment samples. Ratings were successfully fit to various sediment size classes (total, fines, and sands) using ADVMs of different frequencies (1.5 and 3 megahertz). Surrogate ratings also were developed using variations of streamflow and seasonal explanatory variables. The streamflow surrogate ratings produced average annual sediment load estimates that were 8–32 percent higher, depending on site and sediment type, than estimates produced using the acoustic surrogate ratings. The streamflow surrogate ratings tended to overestimate suspended-sediment concentrations and loads during periods of elevated releases from Libby Dam as well as on the falling limb of the streamflow hydrograph. Estimates from the acoustic surrogate ratings more closely matched suspended-sediment sample results than did estimates from the streamflow surrogate ratings during these periods as well as for rating validation samples collected in water year 2014. Acoustic surrogate technologies are an effective means to obtain continuous, accurate estimates of suspended-sediment concentrations and loads for general monitoring and sediment-transport modeling. In the Kootenai River, continued operation of the acoustic surrogate sites and use of the acoustic surrogate ratings to calculate continuous suspended-sediment concentrations and loads will allow for tracking changes in sediment transport over time.

  2. A monoclinic, pseudo-orthorhombic Au-Hg mineral of potential economic significance in Pleistocene Snake River alluvial deposits of southeastern Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Desborough, G.A.; Foord, E.E.

    1992-01-01

    A mineral with the approximate composition of Au94Hg6 - Au88Hg12 (atomic %) has been identified in Pleistocene Snake River alluvial deposits. The gold-mercury mineral occurs as very small grains or as polycrystalline masses composed of subhedral to nearly euhedral attached crystals. Vibratory cold-polishing techniques with 0.05-??m alumina abrasive for polished sections revealed a porous internal texture for most subhedral crystals after 48-72 hours of treatment. Thus, optical character (isotropic or anisotropic) could not be determined by reflected-light microscopy, and pore-free areas were too small for measurement of reflectance. X-ray-diffraction lines rather than individual reflections (spots), on powder camera X-ray films of unrotated spindles of single grains that morphologically appear to be single crystals, indicate that individual subhedral or euhedral crystals are composed of domains in random orientation. Thus, no material was found suitable for single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies. -from Authors

  3. 75 FR 45107 - Idaho Power Company; Notice of Authorization for Continued Project Operation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-02

    ... July 23, 2010. On June 26, 2008, Idaho Power Company, licensee for the Swan Falls Hydroelectric Project... regulations thereunder. The Swan Falls Hydroelectric Project is on the Snake River in Ada and Owyhee counties..., notice is hereby given that Idaho Power Company is authorized to continue operation of the Swan...

  4. UPPER SNAKE BASIN, IDAHO WATER QUALITY MONITORING ASSESSMENT REPORT, PHASE I. 1971

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Upper Snake River Basin, Idaho (17040104, 170402) was studied in an effort to establish a monitoring network from above Idaho Falls to Milner Dam. The object was to provide timely data and information pertaining to the priority problems of the basin and to be responsive to t...

  5. 76 FR 33346 - Final Supplementary Rules for the Upper Snake Field Office, Idaho

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-08

    ... following notices: (1) Notice of Emergency Closure of Public Lands, Idaho, 53 FR 8701 (March 16, 1988); (2) Notice of Seasonal Restrictions and Limited Land Use, Closure Order, Idaho, 57 FR 27264 (June 18, 1992... River, 60 FR 19762 (April 20, 1995). II. Discussion of Public Comments The BLM Upper Snake Field...

  6. Secular variation of the middle and late Miocene geomagnetic field recorded by the Columbia River Basalt Group in Oregon, Idaho and Washington, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominguez, Ada R.; Van der Voo, Rob

    2014-06-01

    This study of 118 discrete volcanic flows from the Columbia River Basalt Group is aimed to determine their distribution of geomagnetic field directions and virtual geomagnetic poles (VGPs) and to compare the inherent secular variation parameters with those from other studies. The magnetic signature of these rocks is uniformly carried by primary titanomagnetite, indicating that magnetic changes are due to variations in the magnetic field. Although most flows are flat lying, those that are tilted pass the Tauxe and Watson tilt test. Sequential flows with statistically similar site means were grouped, and directions that were considered outliers were evaluated and removed using the Vandamme cut-off method. Three normal-polarity (N-polarity) and three reversed-polarity (R-polarity) intervals are revealed by the stratigraphically ordered flows and have mean directions of N polarity (dec/inc = 6.6°/+61.2°, k = 29.3, α95 = 4.2°), and R polarity (dec/inc = 178.2°/-59.2°, k = 16, α95 = 5.5°). Regression analysis indicates that the secular variation analysis has not been affected by regional rotation, and that apparent polar wander is negligible. The VGP distribution is almost perfectly circular and supports the preference of VGP positions for the dispersion analysis. Dispersion parameters with corrections for within-site scatter (Sb) show a range of 14.3°-25.5°, including error limits, and were consistently higher for R-polarity results than for those of N polarity. Published dispersion parameters for extrusives <5 Ma show Sb values slightly lower than ours, yielding values of 16°-19°, although the difference is not statistically significant. In contrast, published dispersion parameters from high quality data from the Cretaceous Normal Superchron are lower than those for the Neogene, which suggests that the noisiness of the magnetic field correlates with the frequency of reversals. Our new results allow us to extend the Plio-Pleistocene palaeosecular variation database to the bottom of the middle Miocene. Many Miocene formations on a variety of continents are suitable targets for future analysis. Furthermore, the significant difference between the reversed and N-polarity dispersion parameters is intriguing and needs substantiation.

  7. Bedload Sediment Sampling, Kootenai River

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    USGS hydrologic technicians Ryan Smith and Rhonda Weakland collect a bedload sediment sample from the Kootenai River near Bonners Ferry, Idaho. The sampling is part of long-term monitirong the USGS is conducting on the Kootenai River to support a river habitat restoriation program undertaken by...

  8. WATER QUALITY STUDY OF THE ISLAND PARK WATERWAYS, IDAHO 1970

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study was initiated to examine some chemical, physical, and bacteriological aspects of the waterways of the Island Park recreational area, Idaho (17040202) in an effort to initiate local water quality standards, to identify sources of river abuse, and where possible, to lear...

  9. Water-Quality Study in Historical Idaho Mining District

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    The so-called Glory Hole on the East Fork of the South Fork Salmon River in the historical Stibnite Mining District of central Idaho. A USGS water-quality study found that the Glory Hole acts as a sediment trap, particularly at high streamflow....

  10. ROCK CREEK, IDAHO WATER QUALITY STATUS REPORT, 1970-1984

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study was designed to determine the characteristics and amounts of industrial and municipal wastes discharged to Rock Creek, Idaho (17040212) and subsequently into the Snake River and to evaluate the effects of these wastes on the biota and water quality of Rock Creek. Indus...

  11. Water-Quality Study in Historical Idaho Mining District

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    USGS Hydrologic Technician Keith Hein carries water-quality samples past USGS streamgage 13311250 on the East Fork of the South Fork Salmon River. The samples were collected as part of a USGS water-quality study conducted in the historical Stibnite Mining District of central Idaho....

  12. Idaho's Energy Options

    SciTech Connect

    Robert M. Neilson

    2006-03-01

    This report, developed by the Idaho National Laboratory, is provided as an introduction to and an update of the status of technologies for the generation and use of energy. Its purpose is to provide information useful for identifying and evaluating Idaho’s energy options, and for developing and implementing Idaho’s energy direction and policies.

  13. IDAHO FLUVIAL GEOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Restricted availability. Major Attributes: Polygons described by geologic type codes & descriptions. May be incorporated into maps at the state/county/basin scale. Probably too coarse for use at the site scale. Scale: 1:500:000. Extent: Idaho. Projection: Albers. Source: ...

  14. Idaho's Library Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idaho State Library, Boise.

    In l998, Idahoans gathered in a series of six Regional Futures Conferences to identify what they thought was probable during the next ten years, what was possible for libraries to do and be, and what a preferred future of Idaho libraries might be. Participants from the regional conferences then convened to refine and focus descriptions of the…

  15. Central Idaho Debris Flow

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    During August 2013, the Beaver Creek wildfire burned more than 114,000 acres in south-central Idaho. Shortly after the fire was contained, heavy rainfall triggered numerous debris flows, including this one in Badger Gulch. USGS hydrologists Dave Evetts (left) and Jake Jacobson examine the debris flo...

  16. IDAHO AQUIFER TYPES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Five aquifer types are presented: Unconsolidated alluvium, Snake River Plain alluvium, Snake River Plain basalt, Columbia River basalt, Sedimentary / volcanic rock. Should only be used for page-sized maps of state, due to the very generalized source materials & digitizing proce...

  17. HELLS CANYON STUDY AREA, OREGON AND IDAHO.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simmons, George C.; Close, Terry J.

    1984-01-01

    The Hells Canyon study area occupies nearly 950 sq mi along and near Hells Canyon of the Snake River in northeast Oregon and west-central Idaho. Geologic, geochemical, aeromagnetic, and mine and prospect investigations to determine the mineral-resource potential of the area were carried out. As a result, 42 sq mi or about 4 percent of the lands, in 21 separate areas, were classified as having probable or substantiated resource potential for base and precious metals, molybdenum, and tungsten. No energy resource potential was identified in this study.

  18. Idaho Explosives Detection System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reber, Edward L.; Blackwood, Larry G.; Edwards, Andrew J.; Jewell, J. Keith; Rohde, Kenneth W.; Seabury, Edward H.; Klinger, Jeffery B.

    2005-12-01

    The Idaho Explosives Detection System was developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to respond to threats imposed by delivery trucks potentially carrying explosives into military bases. A full-scale prototype system has been built and is currently undergoing testing. The system consists of two racks, one on each side of a subject vehicle. Each rack includes a neutron generator and an array of NaI detectors. The two neutron generators are pulsed and synchronized. A laptop computer controls the entire system. The control software is easily operable by minimally trained staff. The system was developed to detect explosives in a medium size truck within a 5-min measurement time. System performance was successfully demonstrated with explosives at the INL in June 2004 and at Andrews Air Force Base in July 2004.

  19. Idaho Explosives Detection System

    SciTech Connect

    Edward L. Reber; J. Keith Jewell; Larry G. Blackwood; Andrew J. Edwards; Kenneth W. Rohde; Edward H. Seabury

    2004-10-01

    The Idaho Explosives Detection System (IEDS) was developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to respond to threats imposed by delivery trucks carrying explosives into military bases. A full-scale prototype system has been built and is currently undergoing testing. The system consists of two racks, one on each side of a subject vehicle. Each rack includes a neutron generator and an array of NaI detectors. The two neutron generators are pulsed and synchronized. A laptop computer controls the entire system. The control software is easily operable by minimally trained staff. The system was developed to detect explosives in a medium size truck within a 5-minute measurement time. System performance was successfully demonstrated with explosives at the INL in June 2004 and at Andrews Air Force Base in July 2004.

  20. Idaho Steelhead Monitoring and Evaluation Studies : Annual Progress Report 2007.

    SciTech Connect

    Copeland, Timothy; Putnam, Scott

    2008-12-01

    The goal of Idaho Steelhead Monitoring and Evaluation Studies is to collect monitoring data to evaluate wild and natural steelhead populations in the Clearwater and Salmon river drainages. During 2007, intensive population data were collected in Fish Creek (Lochsa River tributary) and Rapid River (Little Salmon River tributary); extensive data were collected in other selected spawning tributaries. Weirs were operated in Fish Creek and Rapid River to estimate adult escapement and to collect samples for age determination and genetic analysis. Snorkel surveys were conducted in Fish Creek, Rapid River, and Boulder Creek (Little Salmon River tributary) to estimate parr density. Screw traps were operated in Fish Creek, Rapid River, Secesh River, and Big Creek to estimate juvenile emigrant abundance, to tag fish for survival estimation, and to collect samples for age determination and genetic analysis. The estimated wild adult steelhead escapement in Fish Creek was 81 fish and in Rapid River was 32 fish. We estimate that juvenile emigration was 24,127 fish from Fish Creek; 5,632 fish from Rapid River; and 43,674 fish from Big Creek. The Secesh trap was pulled for an extended period due to wildfires, so we did not estimate emigrant abundance for that location. In cooperation with Idaho Supplementation Studies, trap tenders PIT tagged 25,618 steelhead juveniles at 18 screw trap sites in the Clearwater and Salmon river drainages. To estimate age composition, 143 adult steelhead and 5,082 juvenile steelhead scale samples were collected. At the time of this report, 114 adult and 1,642 juvenile samples have been aged. Project personnel collected genetic samples from 122 adults and 839 juveniles. We sent 678 genetic samples to the IDFG Eagle Fish Genetics Laboratory for analysis. Water temperature was recorded at 37 locations in the Clearwater and Salmon river drainages.

  1. Idaho Higher Education: 1994 Fact Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idaho State Board of Education, Boise.

    This fact book presents information about Idaho's public four-year college, Lewis-Clark State College, and the three universities: Boise State University, Idaho State University, and the University of Idaho. The book also provides selected data on vocational education and Idaho's two community colleges: North Idaho College and the College of

  2. Lithospheric structure in the Eastern Oregon and Western Idaho across the Western Idaho Shear Zone and Idaho Batholith from teleseismic receiver functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanciu, A. C.; Russo, R. M.; Mocanu, V. I.; Bremner, P. M.; Torpey, M.; Hongsresawat, S.

    2013-12-01

    We present new P-to-S receiver functions at 86 broadband seismic stations that we deployed in Eastern Oregon and Western Idaho as part of the IDOR (IDaho-ORegon) Earthscope project. We obtained a 3D lithospheric image detailing the crustal structure and architecture of the Idaho Batholith and Salmon River suture/Western Idaho Shear Zone (WISZ) at depth. The suture marks the sharp ~110-90 Ma contact between the accreted oceanic terranes (Blue Mountains province) and the North American Craton and is characterized largely by the near vertical dextral transpressional system of the WISZ, which closely follows the Sr 0.706 isopleth. The Idaho Batholith (Atlanta and Bitterroot lobes) is characterized by long-lived magmatism ranging between 108 and 50 Ma occurring during and after the deformation in the WISZ. To understand the evolution of this portion of the western North American plate boundary and the transition from Mesozoic transpressional tectonics west of the Idaho batholith to current basin-and-range-like tectonics to the east, we analyzed more than 350 teleseismic events generated at epicentral distances between 30 and 95 degrees. We constructed receiver functions using a modified version of the Ligorria and Ammon (1999) iterative deconvolution technique, and then applied the H-k stacking procedure of Zhu and Kanamori (2000) for each station to estimate Vp/Vs ratios and depths to different boundary interfaces. In addition we applied the common conversion point stacking method (CCP) of Dueker and Sheehan (1997) for bins of receiver functions. Preliminary results show an important variation of the crustal thickness beneath the IDOR area, with a thicker crust beneath the Atlanta lobe of the Idaho Batholith.

  3. Characterizing aquifer hydrogeology and anthropogenic chemical influences on groundwater near the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Fromm, J.M.

    1995-12-31

    A conceptual model of the Eastern Snake River Plain aquifer in the vicinity of monitoring well USGS-44, downgradient of the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), was developed by synthesis and comparison of previous work (40 years) and new investigations into local natural hydrogeological conditions and anthropogenic influences. Quantitative tests of the model, and other recommendations are suggested. The ICPP recovered fissionable uranium from spent nuclear fuel rods and disposed of waste fluids by release to the regional aquifer and lithosphere. Environmental impacts were assessed by a monitoring well network. The conceptual model identifies multiple, highly variable, interacting, and transient components, including INEL facilities multiple operations and liquid waste handling, systems; the anisotropic, in homogeneous aquifer; the network of monitoring and production wells, and the intermittent flow of the Big Lost River. Pre anthropogenic natural conditions and early records of anthropogenic activities were sparsely or unreliably documented making reconstruction of natural conditions or early hydrologic impacts impossible or very broad characterizations.

  4. 76 FR 13976 - Eastern Idaho Resource Advisory Committee; Caribou-Targhee National Forest, Idaho Falls, ID

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-15

    ... Forest Service Eastern Idaho Resource Advisory Committee; Caribou-Targhee National Forest, Idaho Falls... Resource Advisory Committee will meet Friday, March 25, 2011 in Idaho Falls, Idaho for a business meeting... Headquarters Office, 1405 Hollipark Drive, Idaho Falls, Idaho 83401. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT:...

  5. 76 FR 13345 - Eastern Idaho Resource Advisory Committee; Caribou-Targhee National Forest, Idaho Falls, ID

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-11

    ... Forest Service Eastern Idaho Resource Advisory Committee; Caribou-Targhee National Forest, Idaho Falls... Resource Advisory Committee will meet Friday, March 25, 2011 in Idaho Falls, Idaho for a business meeting... Headquarters Office, 1405 Hollipark Drive, Idaho Falls, Idaho 83401. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT:...

  6. Rodney Hunt supplies gates to Idaho Power's Swan Falls

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    Rodney Hunt Co. shipped two 30-foot by 28-foot fabricated steel roller gates to Idaho Power Co.'s Swan Falls Dam Project, where they will be installed as draft tube gates. Rodney Hunt said the gates, each weighing approximately 55 tons, are the largest roller gates the company has manufactured. The company supplied the gates under the terms of a contract worth more than $500,000. The gates were ordered as part of Idaho Power's rehabilitation of Swan Falls Dam, which will double the power plant's capacity to 25 MW. New units will begin producing power in 1993, and the project will be completed in 1994. Elsewhere on the Snake River, Idaho Power intends to increase the capacity of its Twin Falls project to 52 MW from 10 MW. Construction is scheduled to start in June 1993.

  7. Rapid River Hatchery - Spring Chinook, Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, M.

    1996-05-01

    This report presents the findings of the independent audit of the Rapid River Hatchery (Spring Chinook). The hatchery is located in the lower Snake River basin near Riggins Idaho. The hatchery is used for adult collection, egg incubation, and rearing of spring chinook. The audit was conducted in April 1996 as part of a two-year effort that will include 67 hatcheries and satellite facilities located on the Columbia and Snake River system in Idaho, Oregon, and Washington. The hatchery operating agencies include the US Fish and Wildlife Service, Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife.

  8. ANTELOPE-PINE CREEK AREA, IDAHO - WATER QUALITY STATUS REPORT. 1988-1989

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Antelope-Pine Creek study area consists of the drainage which flows into the portion of the South Fork, Snake River between Heise and the Palisades Dam, Idaho (17040104). The South Fork of the Snake River was identified in the Agricultural Nonpoint Pollution Abatement Plan a...

  9. IMPACTS OF GEOTHERMAL WATERS ON SELECTED STREAMS IN SOUTHERN IDAHO, 1984-1985

    EPA Science Inventory

    Four drainage areas were studies in Southern Idaho (17040212, 17040213) to determine the impact of geothermal discharges on area streams. Areas studied included Big Wood River near Ketchum, Mud Creek near Buhl, Salmon Falls Creek near Castleford, and the Snake River from Twin Fa...

  10. SELKIRK ROADLESS AREA, IDAHO.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Fred K.; Benham, John R.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of mineral-resource surveys the Selkirk Roadless Area, Idaho has little promise for the occurrence of mineral or energy resources. Molybdenum, lead, uranium, thorium, chromium, tungsten, zirconium, and several rare-earth elements have been detected in panned concentrates from samples of stream sediment, but no minerals containing the first five elements were found in place, nor were any conditions conducive to their concentration found. Zirconium, thorium, and the rare earths occur in sparsely disseminated accessory minerals in granitic rocks and no resource potential is identified. There is no history of mining in the roadless area and there are no oil, gas, mineral, or geothermal leases or current claims.

  11. Preliminary geothermal disposal considerations, State Health Laboratory, Boise, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Engen, I.A.

    1982-02-01

    The State of Idaho has converted its public Health and Agriculture Laboratory Building to geothermal space heating to take advantage of the opportunity for lower assessment and the resulting economic benefit. Preliminary considerations regarding geothermal effluent disposal are presented here. It was concluded that disposal of the effluent to the Boise River or to an irrigation canal would require a mechanism such as a spray cooling pond to cool the effluent prior to discharge.

  12. Strontium Distribution Coefficients of Basalt and Sediment Infill Samples from the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    M. N. Pace; R. C. Bartholomay; J. J. Rosentreter

    1999-07-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and Idaho State University, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, are conducting a study to determine and evaluate strontium distribution coefficients (Kds) of subsurface materials at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The purpose of this study is to aid in assessing the variability of strontium Kds at the INEEL as part of an ongoing investigation of chemical transport of strontium-90 in the Snake River Plain aquifer. Batch experimental techniques were used to determine Kds of six basalt core samples, five samples of sediment infill of vesicles and fractures, and six standard material samples. Analyses of data from these experiments indicate that the Kds of the sediment infill samples are significantly larger than those of the basalt samples. Quantification of such information is essential of furthering the understanding of transport processes of strontium-90 in the Snake River Plain aquifer and in similar environments.

  13. Idaho Habitat and Natural Production Monitoring : Annual Report 1989.

    SciTech Connect

    Kiefer, Russell B.; Forster, Katharine A.

    1991-01-01

    Project 83-7 was established under the Northwest Power Planning Council's 1982 Fish and Wildlife Program to monitor natural production of anadromous fish, evaluate Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) habitat improvement projects, and develop a credit record for off-site mitigation projects in Idaho. Project 83-7 is divided into two subprojects: general and intensive monitoring. Primary objectives of the general monitoring subproject (Part 1) are to determine natural production increases due to habitat improvement projects in terms of parr production and to determine natural production status and trends in Idaho. The second objective is accomplished by combining parr density data from monitoring and evaluation of BPA habitat projects and from other Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) management and research activities. Primary objectives of the intensive monitoring subproject (Part 2) are to determine the number of returning chinook and steelhead adults necessary to achieve optimal smolt production and to develop mitigation accounting based on increases in smolt production. Two locations are being intensively studied to meet these objectives. Field work began in 1987 in the upper Salmon River and Crooked River (South Fork Clearwater River tributary). 22 refs., 10 figs., 17 tabs.

  14. Salmon River Habitat Enhancement. 1990 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Rowe, Mike

    1991-12-01

    The annual report contains three individual subproject sections detailing tribal fisheries work completed during the summer and fall of 1990. Subproject I contains summaries of evaluation/monitoring efforts associated with the Bear Valley Creek, Idaho enhancement project. Subproject II contains an evaluation of the Yankee Fork of the Salmon River habitat enhancement project. Subproject III concerns the East Fork of the Salmon River, Idaho.

  15. Mineral Resources of the Hells Canyon Study Area, Wallowa County, Oregon, and Idaho and Adams Counties, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simmons, George C.; Gualtieri, James L.; Close, Terry J.; Federspiel, Francis E.; Leszcykowski, Andrew M.

    2007-01-01

    Field studies supporting the evaluation of the mineral potential of the Hells Canyon study area were carried out by the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Bureau of Mines in 1974-76 and 1979. The study area includes (1) the Hells Canyon Wilderness; (2) parts of the Snake River, Rapid River, and West Fork Rapid River Wild and Scenic Rivers; (3) lands included in the second Roadless Area Review and Evaluation (RARE II); and (4) part of the Hells Canyon National Recreation Area. The survey is one of a series of studies to appraise the suitability of the area for inclusion in the National Wilderness Preservation System as required by the Wilderness Act of 1964. The spectacular and mineralized area covers nearly 950 mi2 (2,460 km2) in northeast Oregon and west-central Idaho at the junction of the Northern Rocky Mountains and the Columbia Plateau.

  16. Water information bulletin No. 30 geothermal investigations in Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, J.C.; Johnson, L.L.; Anderson, J.E.; Spencer, S.G.; Sullivan, J.F.

    1980-06-01

    There are 899 thermal water occurrences known in Idaho, including 258 springs and 641 wells having temperatures ranging from 20 to 93/sup 0/C. Fifty-one cities or towns in Idaho containing 30% of the state's population are within 5 km of known geothermal springs or wells. These include several of Idaho's major cities such as Lewiston, Caldwell, Nampa, Boise, Twin Falls, Pocatello, and Idaho Falls. Fourteen sites appear to have subsurface temperatures of 140/sup 0/C or higher according to the several chemical geothermometers applied to thermal water discharges. These include Weiser, Big Creek, White Licks, Vulcan, Roystone, Bonneville, Crane Creek, Cove Creek, Indian Creek, and Deer Creek hot springs, and Raft River, Preston, and Magic Reservoir areas. These sites could be industrial sites, but several are in remote areas away from major transportation and, therefore, would probably be best utilized for electrical power generation using the binary cycle or Magma Max process. Present uses range from space heating to power generation. Six areas are known where commercial greenhouse operations are conducted for growing cut and potted flowers and vegetables. Space heating is substantial in only two places (Boise and Ketchum) although numerous individuals scattered throughout the state make use of thermal water for space heating and private swimming facilities. There are 22 operating resorts using thermal water and two commercial warm-water fish-rearing operations.

  17. 77 FR 51564 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Herrett Center for Arts and Science, College of Southern Idaho...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-24

    ... notice has been published. Dated: July 26, 2012. Melanie O'Brien, Acting Manager, National NAGPRA Program..., College of Southern Idaho, P.O. Box 1238, Twin Falls, ID 83303-1238, telephone (208) 732-6660... Reservation, Arizona; Salt River Pima-Maricopa of the Salt River Reservation, Arizona; and the Tohono...

  18. Augmented Fish Health Monitoring in Idaho, 1989-1990 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hauck, A. K.

    1990-10-01

    The Idaho augmented fish health monitoring contract DE-A179-87BP65903 was awarded in June 1987 and fully implemented in January 1988. The third annual report of activities serviced under this contract is presented. The prevailing fish health problems in 1989 include persistent infections caused by infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV), by Myxobolus (Myxosoma) cerebralis, Renibacterium salmoninarum and drug resistant Aeromonas salmonicida at select hatcheries on Idaho's upper Columbia River tributaries. Administrative focus during the year was to fill vacant positions and still maintain the monitoring effort at levels agreed on under contract. Complete diagnostic and inspection services were provided to eleven Idaho anadromous facilities. The present report describes work done to meet contract agreements and summarizes the fish health findings of anadromous stocks reared at and returning to Idaho's facilities during 1989.

  19. Prehistoric Rock Structures of the Idaho National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Brenda R Pace

    2007-04-01

    Over the past 13,500 years, human populations have lived in and productively utilized the natural resources offered by the cold desert environment of the northeastern Snake River Plain in eastern Idaho. Within an overall framework of hunting and gathering, groups relied on an intimate familiarity with the natural world and developed a variety of technologies to extract the resources that they needed to survive. Useful items were abundant and found everywhere on the landscape. Even the basaltic terrain and the rocks, themselves, were put to productive use. This paper presents a preliminary classification scheme for rock structures built on the Idaho National Laboratory landscape by prehistoric aboriginal populations, including discussions of the overall architecture of the structures, associated artifact assemblages, and topographic placement. Adopting an ecological perspective, the paper concludes with a discussion of the possible functions of these unique resources for the desert populations that once called the INL home.

  20. Paleozoic carbonate buildup (reef) inventory, central and southeastern Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Isaacson, P.E.

    1987-08-01

    Knowledge of central and southeastern Idaho's Paleozoic rocks to date suggest that three styles of buildup (reef) complexes occur in Late Devonian, Mississippian, and Pennsylvanian-Permian time. The Late Devonian Jefferson Formation has stromatoporoid and coral (both rugosan and tabulate) organisms effecting a buildup in the Grandview Canyon vicinity; Early Mississippian Waulsortian-type mud mounds occur in the Lodgepole formation of southeastern Idaho; there are Late Mississippian Waulsortian-type mounds in the Surrett Canyon Formation of the Lost River Range; and cyclic Pennsylvanian-Permian algal and hydrozoan buildups occur in the Juniper gulch Member of the Snaky Canyon Formation in the Arco Hills and Lemhi Range. Late Devonian (Frasnian) carbonates of the Jefferson formation show buildup development on deep ramp sediments.

  1. Reconnaissance investigation of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in the American Falls Reservoir area, Idaho, 1988-89

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Low, Walton H.; Mullins, William H.

    1990-01-01

    Increased concern about the quality of irrigation drainage and its potential effects on human health, fish, and wildlife prompted the Department of the Interior to begin a program during late 1985 to identify irrigation-induced water-quality problems that might exist in the Western States. During `988, the Task Group on Irrigation Drainage selected the American Falls Reservoir area, Idaho, for study to determine whether potentially toxic concentrations of trace elements or organochlorine compounds existed in water, bottom sediment, and biota. The 91-square mile American Falls Reservoir has a total capacity of 1.7 million acre-feet and is used primarily for irrigation-water supply and power generation. Irrigated land upstream from the reservoir totals about 550,000 acres. Total water inflow to the reservoir is about 5.8 million acre-feet per year, of which about 63 percent is from surface-water runoff, 33 percent is from ground-water discharge, and about 4 percent is from ungaged tributaries, canals, ditches, sloughs, and precipitation. Ground-water discharge to the reservoir originates, in part, from irrigation of land upstream from and adjacent to the reservoir. The 1988 water year was a drought year, and water discharge was about 34 percent less than during 1939-88. Water samples were collected during the post-irrigation (October 1987) and irrigation (July 1988) seasons and were analyzed for major ions and trace elements. Bottom-sediment samples were collected during the irrigation season and were analyzed for trace elements and organochlorine compounds. Biota samples were collected during May, June, July, and August 1988 and were analyzed for trace elements and organochlorine compounds. Dissolved-solids concentrations in water ranged from 216 to 561 milligrams per liter. The similarity of dissolved-solids concentrations between the irrigation and post-irrigation seasons can be attributed to the large volume of ground-water discharge in the study area. Most trace-element concentrations in water were near analytical reporting limits; none exceeded State or Federal water-quality standards or criteria. Trace elements that were present at all sites in analytically detectable concentrations (in micrograms per liter) included arsenic (2 to 7), boron (40 to 130), uranium (0.7 to 3.5), vanadium (1 to 6) and zinc (less than 3 to 42). The ranges of arsenic, cadmium, and mercury concentrations in water analyzed during previous investigations. Selenium concentrations ranged from less than 1 (the reporting limit) to 6 micrograms per liter and did not exceed State of Federal water-quality standards or criteria. Concentrations of most trace elements in bottom sediment were similar to geometric mean concentrations in study area soils and were within the expected 95-percent range of concentrations in soils in the Western United States. Mercury concentrations in 9 of the 18 bottom-sediment samples exceeded the 95th-percentile concentration for mercury in area soils. Selenium concentration for selenium in area soils and, in 1 sample, exceeded the upper limit of the expected 95-percent range for selenium in Western United States soils. Most organochlorine compunds in bottom sediment were lower than analytical reporting limits. Only DDE (0.2 micrograms per kilogram) and DDT (0.3 micrograms per kilogram) were detected in bottom sediment from the Portneuf River. Except for mercury and selenium, concentrations of most trace elements in biota were not considered high enough to be harmful to humans or wildlife. Some mercury concentrations in fish exceeded the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service National Contaminant Biomonitoring Program 85th-percentile concentration and were at levels that might not be safe for human consumption, especially for pregnant women. Elevated mercury concentrations in fish-eating waterbirds, such as double-crested cormorants, indicates biomagnification in the food chain. Selenium concentrations generally were low except in mallard livers (6.6 to 41.8 micrograms per gram, dry weight). This range is within the range of selen

  2. Assessment of the Geothermal System Near Stanley, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Trent Armstrong; John Welhan; Mike McCurry

    2012-06-01

    The City of Stanley, Idaho (population 63) is situated in the Salmon River valley of the central Idaho highlands. Due to its location and elevation (6270 feet amsl) it is one of the coldest locales in the continental U.S., on average experiencing frost 290 days of the year as well as 60 days of below zero (oF) temperatures. Because of high snowfall (76 inches on average) and the fact that it is at the terminus of its rural grid, the city also frequently endures extended power outages during the winter. To evaluate its options for reducing heating costs and possible local power generation, the city obtained a rural development grant from the USDA and commissioned a feasibility study through author Roy Mink to determine whether a comprehensive site characterization and/or test drilling program was warranted. Geoscience students and faculty at Idaho State University (ISU), together with scientists from the Idaho Geological Survey (IGS) and Idaho National Laboratory (INL) conducted three field data collection campaigns between June, 2011 and November, 2012 with the assistance of author Beckwith who arranged for food, lodging and local property access throughout the field campaigns. Some of the information collected by ISU and the IGS were compiled by author Mink and Boise State University in a series of progress reports (Makovsky et al., 2011a, b, c, d). This communication summarizes all of the data collected by ISU including data that were compiled as part of the IGS’s effort for the National Geothermal Data System’s (NGDS) data compilation project funded by the Department of Energy and coordinated by the Arizona Geological Survey.