Science.gov

Sample records for position monitor upgrade

  1. Tevatron beam position monitor upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Wolbers, Stephen; Banerjee, B.; Barker, B.; Bledsoe, S.; Boes, T.; Bowden, M.; Cancelo, G.; Forster, B.; Duerling, G.; Haynes, B.; Hendricks, B.; Kasza, T.; Kutschke, R.; Mahlum, R.; Martens, M.; Mengel, M.; Olson, M.; Pavlicek, V.; Pham, T.; Piccoli, L.; Steimel, J.; /Fermilab

    2005-05-01

    The Tevatron Beam Position Monitor (BPM) readout electronics and software have been upgraded to improve measurement precision, functionality and reliability. The original system, designed and built in the early 1980's, became inadequate for current and future operations of the Tevatron. The upgraded system consists of 960 channels of new electronics to process analog signals from 240 BPMs, new front-end software, new online and controls software, and modified applications to take advantage of the improved measurements and support the new functionality. The new system reads signals from both ends of the existing directional stripline pickups to provide simultaneous proton and antiproton position measurements. Measurements using the new system are presented that demonstrate its improved resolution and overall performance.

  2. Commissioning results of the narrow-band beam position monitor system upgrade in the APS storage ring.

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, O.

    1999-04-20

    When using a low emittance storage ring as a high brightness synchrotron radiation source, it is critical to maintain a very high degree of orbit stability, both for the short term and for the duration of an operational fill. A fill-to-fill reproducibility is an additional important requirement. Recent developments in orbit correction algorithms have provided tools that are capable of achieving a high degree of orbit stability. However, the performance of these feedback systems can be severely limited if there are errors in the beam position monitors (BPMs). The present orbit measurement and correction system at the APS storage ring utilizes 360 broad-band-type BPMs that provide turn-by-turn diagnostics and an ultra-stable orbit: < 1.8 micron rms vertically and 4.5 microns rms horizontally in a frequency band of 0.017 to 30 Hz. The effects of beam intensity and bunch pattern dependency on these BPMs have been significantly reduced by employing offset compensation correction. Recently, 40 narrow-band switching-type BPMs have been installed in the APS storage ring, two in each of 20 operational insertion device straight sections, bringing the total number of beam position monitors to 400. The use of narrow-band BPM electronics is expected to reduce sensitivity to beam intensity, bunch pattern dependence, and long-term drift. These beam position monitors are used for orbit correction/feedback and machine protection interlocks for the insertion device beamlines. The commissioning results and overall performance for orbit stability are provided.

  3. Upgrade of Apatity Neutron Monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balabin, Yu; Vashenyuk, E.; Gvozdevsky, B.; Germanenko, A.

    2015-08-01

    The neutron monitor (NM) in Apatity has been deeply upgraded in the end of 2013. We developed and installed new amplifier-discriminators. The detecting tubes of NM were tested and calibrated with additionally using of a pulse-amplitude analyzer. Due to this operation electric noise and interfering pulses are reduced. The NM was equipped with a new rapid data acquisition system. The system registers each NM pulse with time accuracy of 1 microsecond. This gives a possibility to investigate such fast phenomena as, for example, multiplicities in NM. Moreover, using these detailed data, it is possible to produce not only a standard NM count rate (number of pulses per minute) but (if necessary) a count rate with any high time resolution. Based on the detailed data we implemented the software calculation of so called "large dead time" data, which previously was done by hardware.

  4. Project W-420 stack monitoring system upgrades

    SciTech Connect

    CARPENTER, K.E.

    1999-02-25

    This project will execute the design, procurement, construction, startup, and turnover activities for upgrades to the stack monitoring system on selected Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) ventilation systems. In this plan, the technical, schedule, and cost baselines are identified, and the roles and responsibilities of project participants are defined for managing the Stack Monitoring System Upgrades, Project W-420.

  5. NSLS Control Monitor and its upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Ramamoorthy, S.; Smith, J.D.

    1993-07-01

    The NSLS Control Monitor is a real-time operating system designed for the microprocessor subsystems that control the machine hardware in the NSLS facility. Its major functions are to control the hardware in response to the commands from the host computers, monitor hardware status and report errors to the alarm handler. The software originally developed for the Multibus micros has been upgraded to run on the VME-based systems. The upgraded monitor provides ethernet communication with the new system and serial link with the old system. The dual link is the key feature for a smooth and nondisruptive transition at all levels of the control system. This paper describes the functions of the various modules of the monitor and future plans.

  6. GPS Monitor Station Upgrade Program at the Naval Research Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galysh, Ivan J.; Craig, Dwin M.

    1996-01-01

    One of the measurements made by the Global Positioning System (GPS) monitor stations is to measure the continuous pseudo-range of all the passing GPS satellites. The pseudo-range contains GPS and monitor station clock errors as well as GPS satellite navigation errors. Currently the time at the GPS monitor station is obtained from the GPS constellation and has an inherent inaccuracy as a result. Improved timing accuracy at the GPS monitoring stations will improve GPS performance. The US Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) is developing hardware and software for the GPS monitor station upgrade program to improve the monitor station clock accuracy. This upgrade will allow a method independent of the GPS satellite constellation of measuring and correcting monitor station time to US Naval Observatory (USNO) time. THe hardware consists of a high performance atomic cesium frequency standard (CFS) and a computer which is used to ensemble the CFS with the two CFS's currently located at the monitor station by use of a dual-mixer system. The dual-mixer system achieves phase measurements between the high-performance CFS and the existing monitor station CFS's to within 400 femtoseconds. Time transfer between USNO and a given monitor station is achieved via a two way satellite time transfer modem. The computer at the monitor station disciplines the CFS based on a comparison of one pulse per second sent from the master site at USNO. The monitor station computer is also used to perform housekeeping functions, as well as recording the health status of all three CFS's. This information is sent to the USNO through the time transfer modem. Laboratory time synchronization results in the sub nanosecond range have been observed and the ability to maintain the monitor station CFS frequency to within 3.0 x 10 (sup minus 14) of the master site at USNO.

  7. Photon beam position monitor

    DOEpatents

    Kuzay, Tuncer M.; Shu, Deming

    1995-01-01

    A photon beam position monitor for use in the front end of a beamline of a high heat flux and high energy photon source such as a synchrotron radiation storage ring detects and measures the position and, when a pair of such monitors are used in tandem, the slope of a photon beam emanating from an insertion device such as a wiggler or an undulator inserted in the straight sections of the ring. The photon beam position monitor includes a plurality of spaced blades for precisely locating the photon beam, with each blade comprised of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond with an outer metal coating of a photon sensitive metal such as tungsten, molybdenum, etc., which combination emits electrons when a high energy photon beam is incident upon the blade. Two such monitors are contemplated for use in the front end of the beamline, with the two monitors having vertically and horizontally offset detector blades to avoid blade "shadowing". Provision is made for aligning the detector blades with the photon beam and limiting detector blade temperature during operation.

  8. Photon beam position monitor

    DOEpatents

    Kuzay, T.M.; Shu, D.

    1995-02-07

    A photon beam position monitor is disclosed for use in the front end of a beamline of a high heat flux and high energy photon source such as a synchrotron radiation storage ring detects and measures the position and, when a pair of such monitors are used in tandem, the slope of a photon beam emanating from an insertion device such as a wiggler or an undulator inserted in the straight sections of the ring. The photon beam position monitor includes a plurality of spaced blades for precisely locating the photon beam, with each blade comprised of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond with an outer metal coating of a photon sensitive metal such as tungsten, molybdenum, etc., which combination emits electrons when a high energy photon beam is incident upon the blade. Two such monitors are contemplated for use in the front end of the beamline, with the two monitors having vertically and horizontally offset detector blades to avoid blade ''shadowing''. Provision is made for aligning the detector blades with the photon beam and limiting detector blade temperature during operation. 18 figs.

  9. Magnetic beam position monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Varfolomeev, A.A.; Ivanchenkov, S.N.; Khlebnikov, A.S.

    1995-12-31

    Many nondestructive beam position monitors are known. However, these devices can not be used for DC particle beam diagnostics. We investigated a method of beam diagnostics applicable for the operative control of DC high power e-beam inside closed waveguide. A design of the detector for determination of{open_quote} center of mass {close_quote} position of DC particle beam was developed. It was shown that the monitor can be used as a nondestructive method for the beam position control in resonators. Magnetic field of the particle beam outside a resonator is used. The detector consists of the steel yokes and magnetic field sensors. The sensors measure magnetic fluxes in the steel yokes fixed outside the resonator. When the particle beam changes its position, these magnetic fluxes also change. Beam displacement sensitivity of the monitor depends on the steel yoke dimensions. The detector sensitivity is equal to 1 Gauss/mm for the conditions adequate to the FOM-FEM project.

  10. Project W-420 Stack Monitoring system upgrades conceptual design report

    SciTech Connect

    TUCK, J.A.

    1998-11-06

    This document describes the scope, justification, conceptual design, and performance of Project W-420 stack monitoring system upgrades on six NESHAP-designated, Hanford Tank Farms ventilation exhaust stacks.

  11. Beam position monitor

    DOEpatents

    Alkire, Randy W.; Rosenbaum, Gerold; Evans, Gwyndaf

    2003-07-22

    An apparatus for determining the position of an x-ray beam relative to a desired beam axis. Where the apparatus is positioned along the beam path so that a thin metal foil target intersects the x-ray beam generating fluorescent radiation. A PIN diode array is positioned so that a portion of the fluorescent radiation is intercepted by the array resulting in an a series of electrical signals from the PIN diodes making up the array. The signals are then analyzed and the position of the x-ray beam is determined relative to the desired beam path.

  12. Timing and control monitor system upgrade design document. Version 4

    SciTech Connect

    Brandt, J.J.

    1984-01-24

    This is a design document for the Timing and Control Monitor System Upgrade Project. This project is intended to provide a replacement system for the existing user Encoder Monitor Systems and Varian 72 Control Room computer systems. All of these systems reside at the Nevada Test Site. The function of the T and C Monitor System is to gather real-time statistics and data on user defined key variables from control, communication, data acquistion systems, and from the monitoring system itself. The control, communication, and data acquisition systems each operate separately from the monitor system. The T and C Monitor System gathers this data in order to verify the readiness of an event to begin countdown. This includes setup, verification, calibration, and peripheral services, report any failures that may occur during the countdown, verify detonation and containment, and assist reentry activities after the event.

  13. Upgrading, monitoring and operation of a dome drive system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauman, Steven E.; Cruise, Bill; Look, Ivan; Matsushige, Grant; Roberts, Larry; Salmon, Derrick; Taroma, Ralph; Vermeulen, Tom; Richards, Krieg

    2014-08-01

    CFHT's decision to move away from classical observing prompted the development of a remote observing environment aimed at producing science observations from headquarters facility in Waimea, HI. This remote observing project commonly referred to as the Observatory Automation Project (OAP ) was completed at the end of January 2011 and has been providing the majority of science data ever since. A comprehensive feasibility study was conducted to determine the options available to achieve remote operations of the observatory dome drive system. After evaluation, the best option was to upgrade the original hydraulic system to utilize variable frequency drive (VFD) technology. The project upgraded the hydraulic drive system, which initially utilized a hydraulic power unit and three (3) identical drive units to rotate the dome. The new electric drive system replaced the hydraulic power unit with electric motor controllers, and each drive unit reuses the original drive and swaps one for one the original hydraulic motors with an electric motor. The motor controllers provide status and monitoring parameters for each drive unit which convey the functionality and health of the system. This paper will discuss the design upgrades to the dome drive rotation system, as well as some benefits, control, energy savings, and monitoring.

  14. Fast beam condition monitor for CMS: Performance and upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonard, Jessica L.; Bell, Alan; Burtowy, Piotr; Dabrowski, Anne; Hempel, Maria; Henschel, Hans; Lange, Wolfgang; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Odell, Nathaniel; Penno, Marek; Pollack, Brian; Przyborowski, Dominik; Ryjov, Vladimir; Stickland, David; Walsh, Roberval; Warzycha, Weronika; Zagozdzinska, Agnieszka

    2014-11-01

    The CMS beam and radiation monitoring subsystem BCM1F (Fast Beam Condition Monitor) consists of 8 individual diamond sensors situated around the beam pipe within the pixel detector volume, for the purpose of fast bunch-by-bunch monitoring of beam background and collision products. In addition, effort is ongoing to use BCM1F as an online luminosity monitor. BCM1F will be running whenever there is beam in LHC, and its data acquisition is independent from the data acquisition of the CMS detector, hence it delivers luminosity even when CMS is not taking data. A report is given on the performance of BCM1F during LHC run I, including results of the van der Meer scan and on-line luminosity monitoring done in 2012. In order to match the requirements due to higher luminosity and 25 ns bunch spacing, several changes to the system must be implemented during the upcoming shutdown, including upgraded electronics and precise gain monitoring. First results from Run II preparation are shown.

  15. Upgrade of the D0 luminosity monitor readout system

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, John; Bridges, Lloyd; Casey, Brendan; Enari, Yuji; Green, Johnny; Johnson, Marvin; Kwarciany, Rick; Miao, Chyi-Chiang; Partridge, Richard; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Wang, Jigang; /Brown U. /Fermilab

    2006-12-01

    We describe upgrades to the readout system for the D0 Luminosity Monitor. The D0 Luminosity Monitor consists of plastic scintillation detectors with fine-mesh photomultiplier readout that cover the pseudorapidity range 2.7 < |{eta}| < 4.4. The detector is designed to provide a precise measurement of the rate for non-diffractive inelastic collisions that is used to calculate the TeVatron luminosity at D0. The new readout system is based on custom VME electronics that make precise time-of-flight and charge measurements for each luminosity counter. These measurements are used to identify beam crossings with non-diffractive interactions by requiring in-time hits in both the forward and backward luminosity counters. We have also significantly increased signal/noise for the photomultiplier signals by developing a new front-end preamplifier and improving the grounding scheme.

  16. MULTI - MILLION - TURN BEAM POSITION MONITORS FOR RHIC.

    SciTech Connect

    SATOGATA,T.CAMERON,P.CERNIGLIA,P.CUPOLO,J.DAWSON,CDEGEN,CMEAD,JVETTER,K

    2003-05-12

    During the RHIC 2003 run, two beam position monitors (BPMs) in each transverse plane in the RHIC blue ring were upgraded with high-capacity mezzanine cards. This upgrade provided these planes with the capability to digitize up to 128 million consecutive turns of RHIC beam, or almost 30 minutes of continuous beam centroid phase space evolution for a single RHIC bunch. This paper describes necessary hardware and software changes and initial system performance. We discuss early uses and results for diagnosis of coherent beam oscillations, turn-by-turn (TBT) acquisition through a RHIC acceleration ramp, and ac-dipole nonlinear dynamics studies.

  17. Beam Position and Phase Monitor - Wire Mapping System

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, Heath A; Shurter, Robert B.; Gilpatrick, John D.; Kutac, Vincent G.; Martinez, Derwin

    2012-04-10

    The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) deploys many cylindrical beam position and phase monitors (BPPM) throughout the linac to measure the beam central position, phase and bunched-beam current. Each monitor is calibrated and qualified prior to installation to insure it meets LANSCE requirements. The BPPM wire mapping system is used to map the BPPM electrode offset, sensitivity and higher order coefficients. This system uses a three-axis motion table to position the wire antenna structure within the cavity, simulating the beam excitation of a BPPM at a fundamental frequency of 201.25 MHz. RF signal strength is measured and recorded for the four electrodes as the antenna position is updated. An effort is underway to extend the systems service to the LANSCE facility by replacing obsolete electronic hardware and taking advantage of software enhancements. This paper describes the upgraded wire positioning system's new hardware and software capabilities including its revised antenna structure, motion control interface, RF measurement equipment and Labview software upgrades. The main purpose of the wire mapping system at LANSCE is to characterize the amplitude response versus beam central position of BPPMs before they are installed in the beam line. The wire mapping system is able to simulate a beam using a thin wire and measure the signal response as the wire position is varied within the BPPM aperture.

  18. The new Tevatron beam position monitor front-end software

    SciTech Connect

    Piccoli, Luciano; Votava, Margaret; Zhang, Dehong; /Fermilab

    2005-05-01

    The Tevatron is a proton anti-proton accelerator collider operating at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. The machine is currently delivering beam for the CDF and D0 experiments, which expect increasing luminosity until the conclusion of Run II, planned for 2009. The Laboratory defined a plan for achieving higher luminosity, and one of the tasks is the upgrade of the accelerator's beam position monitor (BPM). The Tevatron was built during the early eighties and some of its control systems, including the BPMs, are still the original ones. This paper describes the front-end software of the Tevatron BPM upgrade, from the requirements to the implementation, and the underlying hardware setup. The front-end software designed is presented, emphasizing its modularity and reusability, allowing it to be applied to other Fermilab machines.

  19. Applying EVM principles to Tevatron Beam Position Monitor Project

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, Bakul; /Fermilab

    2005-08-01

    At Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), the Tevatron high energy particle collider must meet the increasing scientific demand of higher beam luminosity. To achieve this higher luminosity goal, U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored a major upgrade of capabilities of Fermilab's accelerator complex that spans five years and costs over fifty million dollars. Tevatron Beam Position Monitor (BPM) system upgrade is a part of this project, generally called RunII upgrade project. Since the purpose of the Tevatron collider is to detect the smashing of proton and anti-protons orbiting the circular accelerator in opposite directions, capability to detect positions of both protons and antiprotons at a high resolution level is a desirable functionality of the monitoring system. The original system was installed during early 1980s, along with the original construction of the Tevatron. However, electronic technology available in 1980s did not allow for the detection of significantly smaller resolution of antiprotons. The objective of the upgrade project is to replace the existing BPM system with a new system utilizing capabilities of modern electronics enhanced by a front-end software driven by a real-time operating software. The new BPM system is designed to detect both protons and antiprotons with increased resolution of up to an order of magnitude. The new system is capable of maintaining a very high-level of data integrity and system reliability. The system consists of 27 VME crates installed at 27 service buildings around the Tevatron ring servicing 236 beam position monitors placed underground, inside the accelerator tunnel. Each crate consists of a single Timing Generator Fanout module, custom made by Fermilab staff, one MVME processor card running VxWorks 5.5, multiple Echotek Digital Receiver boards complimented by custom made Filter Board. The VxWorks based front-end software communicates with the Main Accelerator Control software via a special

  20. REVIEW OF THE RADNET AIR MONITORING NETWORK UPGRADE AND EXPANSION

    EPA Science Inventory

    RadNet, formerly known as ERAMS, has been operating since the 1970's, monitoring environmental radiation across the country, supporting responses to radiological emergencies, and providing important information on background levels of radiation in the environment. The original ...

  1. A Prototype Wire Position Monitoring System

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Wei

    2010-12-07

    The Wire Position Monitoring System (WPM) will track changes in the transverse position of LCLS Beam Position Monitors (BPMs) to 1{micro}m over several weeks. This position information will be used between applications of beam based alignment to correct for changes in component alignment. The WPM system has several requirements. The sensor range must be large enough so that precision sensor positioning is not required. The resolution needs to be small enough so that the signal can be used to monitor motion to 1{micro}m. The system must be stable enough so that system drift does not mimic motion of the component being monitored. The WPM sensor assembly consists of two parts, the magnetic sensor and an integrated lock-in amplifier. The magnetic sensor picks up a signal from the alternating current in a stretched wire. The voltage v induced in the sensor is proportional to the wire displacement from the center of the sensor. The integrated lock-in amplifier provides a DC output whose magnitude is proportional to the AC signal from the magnetic sensor. The DC output is either read on a digital voltmeter or digitized locally and communicated over a computer interface.

  2. New Beam Loss Monitor for 12 GeV Upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Jianxun Yan, Kelly Mahoney

    2009-10-01

    This paper describes a new VME based machine protection Beam Loss Monitor (BLM) signal processing board designed at Jefferson Lab to replace the current CAMAC based BLM board. The new eight-channel BLM signal processor has linear, logarithmic, and integrating amplifiers that simultaneously provide the optimal signal processing for each application. Amplified signals are digitized and then further processed through a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). Combining both the diagnostic and machine protection functions in each channel allows the operator to tune-up and monitor beam operations while the machine protection is integrating the same signal. Other features include extensive built-in-self-test, fast shutdown interface (FSD), and 16-Mbit buffers for beam loss transient play-back. The new VME BLM board features high sensitivity, high resolution, and low cost per channel.

  3. Upgrade of the ALICE TPC FEE online radiation monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    RØed, K.; Alme, J.; Askeland, E.; David, E.; Gunji, T.; Helstrup, H.; Kiss, T.; Lippmann, C.; Rehman, A.; Röhrich, D.; Ullaland, K.; Velure, A.; Zhao, C.

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents the radiation monitoring system on the Readout Control Unit (RCU) of the the ALICE TPC Front End Electronics. In Run 1, Single Event Upsets (SEUs) in the configuration memory of an SRAM based FPGA were counted, and the results from different run periods with stable beam conditions are presented. For Run 2, a new RCU, the RCU2, has been designed in order to achieve higher data readout rates and increase radiation tolerance. The RCU2 also includes a new radiation monitor solution with increased sensitivity, which is based on counting the number of SEUs in dedicated SRAM memories. The paper presents this new solution together with the results from the targeted irradiation campaigns.

  4. Point Positioning Service for Natural Hazard Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bar-Sever, Y. E.

    2014-12-01

    In an effort to improve natural hazard monitoring, JPL has invested in updating and enlarging its global real-time GNSS tracking network, and has launched a unique service - real-time precise positioning for natural hazard monitoring, entitled GREAT Alert (GNSS Real-Time Earthquake and Tsunami Alert). GREAT Alert leverages the full technological and operational capability of the JPL's Global Differential GPS System [www.gdgps.net] to offer owners of real-time dual-frequency GNSS receivers: Sub-5 cm (3D RMS) real-time, absolute positioning in ITRF08, regardless of location Under 5 seconds turnaround time Full covariance information Estimates of ancillary parameters (such as troposphere) optionally provided This service enables GNSS networks operators to instantly have access to the most accurate and reliable real-time positioning solutions for their sites, and also to the hundreds of participating sites globally, assuring inter-consistency and uniformity across all solutions. Local authorities with limited technical and financial resources can now access to the best technology, and share environmental data to the benefit of the entire pacific region. We will describe the specialized precise point positioning techniques employed by the GREAT Alert service optimized for natural hazard monitoring, and in particular Earthquake monitoring. We address three fundamental aspects of these applications: 1) small and infrequent motion, 2) the availability of data at a central location, and 3) the need for refined solutions at several time scales

  5. Correlation study of a beam-position monitor and a photon-beam-position monitor in the PLS-II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Changbum; Shin, Seunghwan; Hwang, Ilmoon; Lee, Byung-Joon; Joo, Young-Do; Ha, Taekyun; Yoon, Jong Chel; Kim, Ghyung Hwa; Kim, Mungyung; Lee, Eun Hee; Kim, Ilyou; Huang, Jung-Yun

    2015-01-01

    The beam stability is one of the most important issues for the user service of the synchrotron radiation facility. After the upgrade of the Pohang Light Source (PLS-II), the electron-beam orbit is maintained within a root-mean-squred (rms) 1- μm range by using an orbit feedback system. However, that does not guarantee the radiation stability at the end of the beamline because unknown factors, such as focusing mirrors and double-crystal monocrometers, are present in the beamline. As a first step to solve this problem, photon-beam-position monitors (PBPMs) are installed in the front ends of the beamline to monitor the radiation stability. If the radiation is stable at the starting point of the beamline, we can move to the other components downstream that make the radiation unstable. In this paper, a correlation study will be presented between the beam-position monitor (BPM) and the PBPM. In addition, the effect of the orbit feedback system on the correlation will be described.

  6. SSC Linac Beam Position Monitor System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aiello, G. Roberto; Jones, Alan A.; Mills, Mark R.

    1994-10-01

    The Superconducting Super Collider (SSC), Linac Beam Position Monitor System is designed to measure beam position and phase. Forty-three monitors will be installed in the Linac and Transfer Line. The position measurement provides information on the transverse beam position in the beam pipe with respect to a mechanical reference. The phase measurement provides information on the difference between the longitudinal phase of the beam and the radio frequency reference signal (rf reference), to be used for phase scanning and time of flight measurement. The system design and the prototypes are complete, and the series is under fabrication. The signals to be processed are extracted from four striplines, down-converted to a convenient intermediate frequency and fed into position and phase electronics. The position electronics is realized with the log-ratio technique, and the phase electronics uses a new digital technique that overcomes most of the problems of existing systems. Both position and phase analog electronics are mounted on identical VXI motherboards, containing analog-to-digital converters (ADC's) and digital circuitry.

  7. SSC Linac Beam Position Monitor System

    SciTech Connect

    Aiello, G.R.; Jones, A.A.; Mills, M.R. )

    1994-10-10

    The Superconducting Super Collider (SSC), Linac Beam Position Monitor System is designed to measure beam position and phase. Forty-three monitors will be installed in the Linac and Transfer Line. The position measurement provides information on the transverse beam position in the beam pipe with respect to a mechanical reference. The phase measurement provides information on the difference between the longitudinal phase of the beam and the radio frequency reference signal (rf reference), to be used for phase scanning and time of flight measurement. The system design and the prototypes are complete, and the series is under fabrication. The signals to be processed are extracted from four striplines, down-converted to a convenient intermediate frequency and fed into position and phase electronics. The position electronics is realized with the log-ratio technique, and the phase electronics uses a new digital technique that overcomes most of the problems of existing systems. Both position and phase analog electronics are mounted on identical VXI motherboards, containing analog-to-digital converters (ADC's) and digital circuitry.

  8. Cavity Beam Position Monitor System for ATF2

    SciTech Connect

    Boogert, Stewart; Boorman, Gary; Swinson, Christina; Ainsworth, Robert; Molloy, Stephen; Aryshev, Alexander; Honda, Yosuke; Tauchi, Toshiaki; Terunuma, Nobuhiro; Urakawa, Junji; Frisch, Josef; May, Justin; McCormick, Douglas; Nelson, Janice; Smith, Tonee; White, Glen; Woodley, Mark; Heo, Ae-young; Kim, Eun-San; Kim, Hyoung-Suk; Kim, Youngim; /Kyungpook Natl. U. /University Coll. London /Kyungpook Natl. U. /Fermilab /Pohang Accelerator Lab.

    2012-07-09

    The Accelerator Test Facility 2 (ATF2) in KEK, Japan, is a prototype scaled demonstrator system for the final focus required for a future high energy lepton linear collider. The ATF2 beam-line is instrumented with a total of 38 C and S band resonant cavity beam position monitors (CBPM) with associated mixer electronics and digitizers. The current status of the BPM system is described, with a focus on operational techniques and performance. The ATF2 C-band system is performing well, with individual CBPM resolution approaching or at the design resolution of 50 nm. The changes in the CBPM calibration observed over three weeks can probably be attributed to thermal effects on the mixer electronics systems. The CW calibration tone power will be upgraded to monitor changes in the electronics gain and phase. The four S-band CBPMs are still to be investigated, the main problem associated with these cavities is a large cross coupling between the x and y ports. This combined with the large design dispersion in that degion makes the digital signal processing difficult, although various techniques exist to determine the cavity parameters and use these coupled signals for beam position determination.

  9. An interactive beam position monitor system simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, W.A.; Shea, T.J.

    1993-03-01

    A system simulator has been implemented to aid the development of the RHIC position monitor system. Based on the LabVIEW software package by National Instruments, this simulator allows engineers and technicians to interactively explore the parameter space of a system during the design phase. Adjustable parameters are divided into three categories: beam, pickup, and electronics. The simulator uses these parameters in simple formulas to produce results in both time-domain and frequencydomain. During the prototyping phase, these simulated results can be compared to test data acquired with the same software package. The RHIC position monitor system is presented as an example, but the software is applicable to several other systems as well.

  10. The AGS Booster Beam Position Monitor system

    SciTech Connect

    Ciardullo, D.J.; Abola, A.; Beadle, E.R.; Smith, G.A.; Thomas, R.; Van Zwienen, W.; Warkentien, R.; Witkover, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    To accelerate both protons and heavy ions, the AGS Booster requires a broadband (multi-octave) beam position monitoring system with a dynamic range spanning several orders of magnitude (2 {times} 10{sup 10} to 1.5 {times} 10{sup 13} particles per pulse). System requirements include the ability to acquire single turn trajectory and average orbit information with {plus minus} 0.1 mm resolution. The design goal of {plus minus} 0.5 mm corrected accuracy requires that the detectors have repeatable linear performance after periodic bakeout at 300 {degree}C. The system design and capabilities of the Booster Beam Position Monitor will be described, and initial results presented. 7 refs., 5 figs.

  11. LEDA BEAM DIAGNOSTICS INSTRUMENTATION: BEAM POSITION MONITORS

    SciTech Connect

    D. BARR; ET AL

    2000-05-01

    The Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA) facility located at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) accelerates protons to an energy of 6.7-MeV and current of 100-mA operating in either a pulsed or cw mode. Of key importance to the commissioning and operations effort is the Beam Position Monitor system (BPM). The LEDA BPM system uses five micro-stripline beam position monitors processed by log ratio processing electronics with data acquisition via a series of custom TMS32OC40 Digital Signal Processing (DSP) boards. Of special interest to this paper is the operation of the system, the log ratio processing, and the system calibration technique. This paper will also cover the DSP system operations and their interaction with the main accelerator control system.

  12. Beam Position Monitor System for PEP II

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Stephen R.; Aiello, G.Roberto; Hendrickson, Linda J.; Johnson, Ronald G.; Mills, Mark R.; Olsen, Jeff J.; /SLAC

    2011-09-12

    We describe the beam position monitor system built for PEP-II, the B-factory at SLAC. The system reports beam position for bunches of between 5 x 10{sup 8} and 8 x 10{sup 10} electron charges, either singly or as continuous streams of bunches every 4.2 ns. Resolution at full charge is to be better than 10 microns in a single turn. Higher resolution is available via on-board multi-turn averaging. The position signal is processed in a 20 MHz bandwidth around 952 MHz. This bandwidth, rather broader than that typical of RF position monitors, allows good resolution for low charge single bunches. Additional novel features include stringent control of return losses in order to minimize cross-talk between nearby bunches which may contain very different charges. The digitizing electronics is multiplexed between the two PEP-II storage rings. Design, construction, and installation experience, as well as first results with beam are presented.

  13. Engineering Upgrades to the Radionuclide Aerosol Sampler/Analyzer for the CTBT International Monitoring System

    SciTech Connect

    Forrester, Joel B.; Carty, Fitz; Comes, Laura; Hayes, James C.; Miley, Harry S.; Morris, Scott J.; Ripplinger, Mike D.; Slaugh, Ryan W.; Van Davelaar, Peter

    2013-05-13

    The Radionuclide Aerosol Sampler/Analyzer (RASA) is an automated aerosol collection and analysis system designed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in the 1990’s and is deployed in several locations around the world as part of the International Monitoring System (IMS) required under the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). The utility of such an automated system is the reduction of human intervention and the production of perfectly uniform results. However, maintainability and down time issues threaten this utility, even for systems with over 90% data availability. Engineering upgrades to the RASA are currently being pursued to address these issues, as well as Fukushima lessons learned. Current work includes a new automation control unit, and other potential improvements such as alternative detector cooling and sampling options are under review. This paper presents the current state of upgrades and improvements under investigation

  14. Upgrading of data acquisition software for centralized radiation monitoring system in Malaysian Nuclear Agency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yussup, F.; Ibrahim, M. M.; Haris, M. F.; Soh, S. C.; Hasim, H.; Azman, A.; Razalim, F. A. A.; Yapp, R.; Ramli, A. A. M.

    2016-01-01

    With the growth of technology, many devices and equipments can be connected to the network and internet to enable online data acquisition for real-time data monitoring and control from monitoring devices located at remote sites. Centralized radiation monitoring system (CRMS) is a system that enables area radiation level at various locations in Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuklear Malaysia) to be monitored centrally by using a web browser. The Local Area Network (LAN) in Nuclear Malaysia is utilized in CRMS as a communication media for data acquisition of the area radiation levels from radiation detectors. The development of the system involves device configuration, wiring, network and hardware installation, software and web development. This paper describes the software upgrading on the system server that is responsible to acquire and record the area radiation readings from the detectors. The recorded readings are called in a web programming to be displayed on a website. Besides the main feature which is acquiring the area radiation levels in Nuclear Malaysia centrally, the upgrading involves new features such as uniform time interval for data recording and exporting, warning system and dose triggering.

  15. A new measurement method for electrode gain in an orthogonally symmetric beam position monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Jun-Ying; Wu, Fang-Fang; Yang, Yong-Liang; Sun, Bao-Gen; Zhou, Ze-Ran; Luo, Qing; Lu, Ping; Xu, Hong-Liang

    2014-12-01

    The new beam position monitor (BPM) system of the injector at the upgrade project of the Hefei Light Source (HLS II) has 19 stripline beam position monitors. Most consist of four orthogonally symmetric stripline electrodes. Differences in electronic gain and mismachining tolerance can cause changes in the beam response of the BPM electrodes. This variation will couple the two measured horizontal positions, resulting in measuring error. To alleviate this effect, a new technique to measure the relative response of the four electrodes has been developed. It is independent of the beam charge, and the related coefficient can be calculated theoretically. The effect of electrode coupling on this technique is analyzed. The calibration data is used to fit the gain for all 19 injector beam position monitors. The results show the standard deviation of the distribution of measured gains is about 5%.

  16. A Bunch Length Monitor for JLab 12 GeV Upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, Mahmoud Mohamad Ali; Freyberger, Arne P.; Gubeli, Joseph F.; Krafft, Geoffrey A.

    2013-12-01

    A continuous non-invasive bunch length monitor for the 12 GeV upgrade of Jefferson Lab will be used to determine the bunch length of the beam. The measurement will be done at the fourth dipole of the injector chicane at 123 MeV using the coherent synchrotron light emitted from the dipole. The estimated bunch length is 333 fs. A vacuum chamber will be fabricated and a Radiabeam real time interferometer will be used. In this paper, background, the estimated calculations and the construction of the chamber will be discussed.

  17. Advanced Light Source beam position monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Hinkson, J.

    1991-10-28

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) is a synchrotron radiation facility nearing completion at LBL. As a third-generation machine, the ALS is designed to produce intense light from bend magnets, wigglers, and undulators (insertion devices). The facility will include a 50 MeV electron linear accelerator, a 1.5 GeV booster synchrotron, beam transport lines, a 1--2 GeV storage ring, insertion devices, and photon beam lines. Currently, the beam injection systems are being commissioned, and the storage ring is being installed. Electron beam position monitors (BPM) are installed throughout the accelerator and constitute the major part of accelerator beam diagnostics. The design of the BPM instruments is complete, and 50 units have been constructed for use in the injector systems. We are currently fabricating 100 additional instruments for the storage ring. In this paper I discuss engineering fabrication, testing and performance of the beam pickup electrodes and the BPM electronics.

  18. A Two Bunch Beam Position Monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Medvedko, E.; Aiello, R.; Smith, S.; /SLAC

    2011-09-12

    A new beam position monitor digitizer module has been designed, tested and tuned at SLAC. This module, the electron-positron beam position monitor (epBPM), measures position of single electron and positron bunches for the SLC, LINAC, PEPII injections lines and final focus. The epBPM has been designed to improve resolution of beam position measurements with respect to existing module and to speed feedback correction. The required dynamic range is from 5 x 10{sup 8} to 10{sup 11} particles per bunch (46dB). The epBPM input signal range is from {+-}2.5 mV to {+-}500 mV. The pulse-to-pulse resolution is less than 2 {mu}m for 5 x 10{sup 10} particles per bunch for the 12 cm long striplines, covering 30{sup o} at 9 mm radius. The epBPM module has been made in CAMAC standard, single width slot, with SLAC type timing connector. 45 modules have been fabricated. The epBPM module has four input channels X{sup +}, X{sup -}, Y{sup +}, Y{sup -} (Fig. 1), named to correspond with coordinates of four striplines - two in horizontal and two in vertical planes, processing signals to the epBPM inputs. The epBPM inputs are split for eight signal processing channels to catch two bunches, first - the positron, then the electron bunch in one cycle of measurements. The epBPM has internal and external trigger modes of operations. The internal mode has two options - with or without external timing, catching only first bunch in the untimed mode. The epBPM has an on board calibration circuit for measuring gain of the signal processing channels and for timing scan of programmable digital delays to synchronize the trigger and the epBPM input signal's peak. There is a mode for pedestal measurements. The epBPM has 3.6 {mu}s conversion time.

  19. NSLS-II RF BEAM POSITION MONITOR

    SciTech Connect

    Vetter, K.; Della Penna, A. J.; DeLong, J.; Kosciuk, B.; Mead, J.; Pinayev, I.; Singh, O.; Tian, Y.; Ha, K.; Portmann, G.; Sebek J.

    2011-03-28

    An internal R&D program has been undertaken at BNL to develop a sub-micron RF Beam Position Monitor (BPM) for the NSLS-II 3rd generation light source that is currently under construction. The BPM R&D program started in August 2009. Successful beam tests were conducted 15 months from the start of the program. The NSLS-II RF BPM has been designed to meet all requirements for the NSLS-II Injection system and Storage Ring. Housing of the RF BPM's in +-0.1 C thermally controlled racks provide sub-micron stabilization without active correction. An active pilot-tone has been incorporated to aid long-term (8hr min) stabilization to 200nm RMS. The development of a sub-micron BPM for the NSLS-II has successfully demonstrated performance and stability. Pilot Tone calibration combiner and RF synthesizer has been implemented and algorithm development is underway. The program is currently on schedule to start production development of 60 Injection BPM's starting in the Fall of 2011. The production of {approx}250 Storage Ring BPM's will overlap the Injection schedule.

  20. Wire Position Monitoring with FPGA based Electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Eddy, N.; Lysenko, O.; /Fermilab

    2009-01-01

    This fall the first Tesla-style cryomodule cooldown test is being performed at Fermilab. Instrumentation department is preparing the electronics to handle the data from a set of wire position monitors (WPMs). For simulation purposes a prototype pipe with a WMP has been developed and built. The system is based on the measurement of signals induced in pickups by 320 MHz signal carried by a wire through the WPM. The wire is stretched along the pipe with a tensioning load of 9.07 kg. The WPM consists of four 50 {Omega} striplines spaced 90{sup o} apart. FPGA based digitizer scans the WPM and transmits the data to a PC via VME interface. The data acquisition is based on the PC running LabView. In order to increase the accuracy and convenience of the measurements some modifications were required. The first is implementation of an average and decimation filter algorithm in the integrator operation in the FPGA. The second is the development of alternative tool for WPM measurements in the PC. The paper describes how these modifications were performed and test results of a new design. The last cryomodule generation has a single chain of seven WPMs (placed in critical positions: at each end, at the three posts and between the posts) to monitor a cold mass displacement during cooldown. The system was developed in Italy in collaboration with DESY. Similar developments have taken place at Fermilab in the frame of cryomodules construction for SCRF research. This fall preliminary cryomodule cooldown test is being performed. In order to prepare an appropriate electronic system for the test a prototype pipe with a WMP has been developed and built, figure 1. The system is based on the measurement of signals induced in pickups by 320 MHz signal carried by a wire through the WPM. The 0.5 mm diameter Cu wire is stretched along the pipe with a tensioning load of 9.07 kg and has a length of 1.1 m. The WPM consists of four 50 {Omega} striplines spaced 90{sup o} apart. An FPGA based

  1. Upgrading the Digital Electronics of the PEP-II Bunch Current Monitors at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center

    SciTech Connect

    Kline, Josh; /SLAC

    2006-08-28

    The testing of the upgrade prototype for the bunch current monitors (BCMs) in the PEP-II storage rings at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) is the topic of this paper. Bunch current monitors are used to measure the charge in the electron/positron bunches traveling in particle storage rings. The BCMs in the PEP-II storage rings need to be upgraded because components of the current system have failed and are known to be failure prone with age, and several of the integrated chips are no longer produced making repairs difficult if not impossible. The main upgrade is replacing twelve old (1995) field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) with a single Virtex II FPGA. The prototype was tested using computer synthesis tools, a commercial signal generator, and a fast pulse generator.

  2. Photoconducting positions monitor and imaging detector

    DOEpatents

    Shu, Deming; Kuzay, Tuncer M.

    2000-01-01

    A photoconductive, high energy photon beam detector/monitor for detecting x-rays and gamma radiation, having a thin, disk-shaped diamond substrate with a first and second surface, and electrically conductive coatings, or electrodes, of a predetermined configuration or pattern, disposed on the surfaces of the substrate. A voltage source and a current amplifier is connected to the electrodes to provide a voltage bias to the electrodes and to amplify signals from the detector.

  3. Log-ratio technique for beam position monitor systems

    SciTech Connect

    Roberto Aiello, G.; Mills, M.R. )

    1992-07-10

    Recent progress in the development of a beam position monitor system (BPM), based on the log-ratio technique, is described in this paper. A complete electronic analysis is presented, showing linearity, dynamic range, noise, RF burst response, and temperature dependence. A calibration technique has been developed, which corrects the errors due to mismatched channels and electronics drift. This technique is particularly effective because of the log-ratio property for beam position monitoring. This circuit is the most likely candidate for beam position monitor electronics at the SSC.

  4. A photon beam position monitor for SSRL beamline 9

    SciTech Connect

    Cerino, J.A.; Rabedeau, T.; Bowen, W.

    1995-10-01

    We present here the concept of a simple one dimensional photon beam position monitor for use with high power synchrotron radiation beams. It has micron resolution, reasonable linearity in an inexpensive design. Most important, is its insensitivity to diffusely scattered low energy radiation from components upstream of the monitor.

  5. Position calibration methodology for scanning sky monitor for ASTROSAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramadevi, M. C.; Ravishankar, B. T.; Seetha, S.

    2011-10-01

    Scanning Sky Monitor (SSM) on ASTROSAT is an X-ray sky monitor which has a large Field of View (FOV) and scans the sky to detect and locate X-ray transient sources in the energy range 2 to 10 keV. Experiments are carried out to calibrate SSM detectors for position response and to verify the calibration constants derived. In this paper we discuss the methodology of position calibration of proportional counters for SSM and results from various experiments.

  6. Prone position craniotomy in pregnancy without fetal heart rate monitoring.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Jean; Alexander, Ashish; Philip, Shoba; Thomas, Anoop

    2016-09-01

    A pregnant patient in second trimester scheduled for posterior fossa craniotomy in prone position is a challenge for the anesthesiologist. Things to consider are physiological changes during pregnancy, non-obstetric surgery in pregnant patients, neuroanesthetic principles, effects of prone positioning, and need for fetal heart rate (FHR) monitoring. We have described the anesthetic management of this case and discussed intra-operative FHR monitoring including controversies about its role, indications, and various options available as per fetal gestational age. In our case we attempted intermittent intra-operative FHR monitoring to optimize maternal positioning and fetal oxygenation even though the fetus was pre-viable. However the attempt was abandoned due to practical difficulties with prone positioning. Patient made good neurological recovery following the procedure and delivered a healthy term baby 4 months later. Decisions regarding fetal monitoring should be individualized based on viability of the fetus and feasibility of emergency cesarean delivery. Good communication between a multidisciplinary team involving neurosurgeon, anesthesiologist, obstetrician, and neonatologist is important for a successful outcome for mother and fetus. We conclude that prone position neurosurgery can safely be carried out in a pregnant patient with pre-viable fetus without FHR monitoring. PMID:27555144

  7. A wire scanning type position monitor for an undulator radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaowei; Sugiyama, Hiroshi; Ando, Masami; Xia, Shaojian; Shiwaku, Hideaki

    1995-02-01

    A scanning wire position monitor for insertion devices was designed and installed in an x-ray undulator beam line. It consists of a graphite wire, a copper mesh for electric shielding, and a motor-driven linear guide. The wire of the monitor was tested under the undulator radiation thermal load. It has been found that the signal level of the monitor was proportional to the radiation power density on the wire. Even when the wire crossed the beam during the x-ray experiment, no detectable influence on the experiment was observed.

  8. Progress on the development of APS beam position monitoring system

    SciTech Connect

    Decker, G.; Chung, Youngjoo.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the development status of the beam position monitoring system for the Advanced Photon Source (APS), a third-generation light source now under construction at Argonne National Laboratory. The accelerator complex will consist of an electron linac, a positron linac, a positron accumulator ring (PAR), an injector synchrotron and a storage ring. For beam position measurement, striplines will be used on the linacs, while button-type pickups will be used on the injector synchrotron and the storage ring. A test stand with a prototype injector synchrotron beam position monitor (BPM) unit has been built, and we present the results of position calibration measurements using a wire. Comparison of the results with theoretical calculations will be presented. The current effort on similar storage ring BPM system measurements will also be discussed. 4 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Upgrades of DARWIN, a dose and spectrum monitoring system applicable to various types of radiation over wide energy ranges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Tatsuhiko; Satoh, Daiki; Endo, Akira; Shigyo, Nobuhiro; Watanabe, Fusao; Sakurai, Hiroki; Arai, Yoichi

    2011-05-01

    A dose and spectrum monitoring system applicable to neutrons, photons and muons over wide ranges of energy, designated as DARWIN, has been developed for radiological protection in high-energy accelerator facilities. DARWIN consists of a phoswitch-type scintillation detector, a data-acquisition (DAQ) module for digital waveform analysis, and a personal computer equipped with a graphical-user-interface (GUI) program for controlling the system. The system was recently upgraded by introducing an original DAQ module based on a field programmable gate array, FPGA, and also by adding a function for estimating neutron and photon spectra based on an unfolding technique without requiring any specific scientific background of the user. The performance of the upgraded DARWIN was examined in various radiation fields, including an operational field in J-PARC. The experiments revealed that the dose rates and spectra measured by the upgraded DARWIN are quite reasonable, even in radiation fields with peak structures in terms of both spectrum and time variation. These results clearly demonstrate the usefulness of DARWIN for improving radiation safety in high-energy accelerator facilities.

  10. BEAM POSITION AND PHASE MONITORS FOR THE LANSCE LINAC

    SciTech Connect

    McCrady, Rodney C.; Gilpatrick, John D.; Power, John F.

    2011-01-01

    New beam-position and phase monitors are under development for the linac at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE). Transducers have been designed and are being fabricated. We are considering many options for the electronic instrumentation to process the signals and provide position and phase data with the necessary precision and flexibility to serve the various required functions. We'll present the various options under consideration for instrumentation along with the advantages and shortcomings of these options.

  11. BEAM POSITION AND PHASE MONITORS FOR THE LANSCE LINAC

    SciTech Connect

    McCrady, Rodney C.; Gilpatrick, John D.; Watkins, Heath A.

    2012-04-11

    New beam-position and phase monitors are under development for the linac at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE.) Transducers have been designed and are being installed. We are considering many options for the electronic instrumentation to process the signals and provide position and phase data with the necessary precision and flexibility to serve the various required functions. We'll present the various options under consideration for instrumentation along with the advantages and shortcomings of these options.

  12. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS FROM A MICROWAVE CAVITY BEAM POSITION MONITOR.

    SciTech Connect

    BALAKIN,V.; BAZHAN,A.; LUNEV,P.; SOLYAK,N.; VOGEL,V.; ZHOGOLEV,P.; LISITSYN,A.; YAKIMENKO,V.

    1999-03-29

    Future Linear Colliders have hard requirements for the beam transverse position stability in the accelerator. A beam Position Monitor (BPM) with the resolution better than 0.1 micron in the single bunch regime is needed to control the stability of the beam position along the linac. Proposed BPM is based on the measurement of the asymmetrical mode excited by single bunch in the cavity. Four stages of signal processing (space-, time-, frequency- and phase-filtering providing the required signal-to-noise ratio) are used to obtain extremely high resolution. The measurement set-up was designed by BINP and installed at ATF/BNL to test experimentally this concept. The set-up includes three two-coordinates BPM's at the frequency of 13.566 GHz, and reference intensity/phase cavity. BPM's were mounted on support table. The two-coordinates movers allow to move and align BPM's along the straight line, using the signals from the beam. The position of each monitor is controlled by the sensors with the accuracy 0.03 micron. The information from three monitors allows to exclude angle and position jitter of the beam and measure BPM resolution. In the experiments the resolution of about 0.15 micron for 0.25 nC beam intensity was obtained, that is close to the value required.

  13. Comparison of beam-position-transfer functions using circular beam-position monitors

    SciTech Connect

    Gilpatrick, J.D.

    1997-10-01

    A cylindrical beam-position monitor (BPM) used in many accelerator facilities has four electrodes on which beam-image currents induce bunched-beam signals. These probe-electrode signals are geometrically configured to provide beam-position information about two orthogonal axes. An electronic processor performs a mathematical transfer function (TF) on these BPM-electrode signals to produce output signals whose time-varying amplitude is proportional to the beam`s vertical and horizontal position. This paper will compare various beam-position TFs using both pencil beams and will further discuss how diffuse beams interact with some of these TFs.

  14. Performance of a High Resolution Cavity Beam Position Monitor System

    SciTech Connect

    Walston, S; Boogert, S; Chung, C; Fitsos, P; Frisch, J; Gronberg, J; Hayano, H; Honda, Y; Kolomensky, Y; Lyapin, A; Malton, S; May, J; McCormick, D; Meller, R; Miller, D; Orimoto, T; Ross, M; Slater, M; Smith, S; Smith, T; Terunuma, N; Thomson, M; Urakawa, J; Vogel, V; Ward, D; White, G

    2006-12-18

    It has been estimated that an RF cavity Beam Position Monitor (BPM) could provide a position measurement resolution of less than one nanometer. We have developed a high resolution cavity BPM and associated electronics. A triplet comprised of these BPMs was installed in the extraction line of the Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) at the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) for testing with its ultra-low emittance beam. The three BPMs were each rigidly mounted inside an alignment frame on six variable-length struts which could be used to move the BPMs in position and angle. We have developed novel methods for extracting the position and tilt information from the BPM signals including a robust calibration algorithm which is immune to beam jitter. To date, we have demonstrated a position resolution of 15.6 nm and a tilt resolution of 2.1 {micro}rad over a dynamic range of approximately {+-} 20 {micro}m.

  15. Performance of a High Resolution Cavity Beam Position Monitor System

    SciTech Connect

    Walston, Sean; Boogert, Stewart; Chung, Carl; Fitsos, Joe; Frisch, Joe; Gronberg, Jeff; Hayano, Hitoshi; Honda, Yosuke; Kolomensky, Yury; Lyapin, Alexey; Malton, Stephen; May, Justin; McCormick, Douglas; Meller, Robert; Miller, David John; Orimoto, Toyoko; Ross, Marc; Slater, Mark; Smith, Steve; Smith, Tonee; Terunuma, Nobuhiro; /Fermilab /UC, Berkeley /LBL, Berkeley /Cambridge U. /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Cornell U., LNS /LLNL, Livermore /University Coll. London /SLAC /Caltech /KEK, Tsukuba

    2007-06-08

    It has been estimated that an RF cavity Beam Position Monitor (BPM) could provide a position measurement resolution of less than one nanometer. We have developed a high resolution cavity BPM and associated electronics. A triplet comprised of these BPMs was installed in the extraction line of the Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) at the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) for testing with its ultra-low emittance beam. The three BPMs were each rigidly mounted inside an alignment frame on six variable-length struts which could be used to move the BPMs in position and angle. We have developed novel methods for extracting the position and tilt information from the BPM signals including a robust calibration algorithm which is immune to beam jitter. To date, we have demonstrated a position resolution of 15.6 nm and a tilt resolution of 2.1 {mu}rad over a dynamic range of approximately {+-} 20 {mu}m.

  16. Beam position monitors for the Fermilab recycler ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barsotti, E.; Lackey, S.; McClure, C.; Meadowcroft, R.

    1998-12-01

    Fermilab's new Recycler Ring will recover and cool "used" antiprotons at the end of a Tevatron store and also accumulate "new" antiprotons from the antiproton source. A wideband rf system based on barrier buckets will result in unbunched beam, grouped in one to three separate partitions throughout the ring. A new beam position monitor system will measure position of any one partition at a time, using low-frequency signals from beam distribution edges. A signal path including an elliptical split-plate detector, radiation-resistant tunnel preamplifiers, and logarithmic amplifiers, will result in a held output voltage nearly proportional to position. The results will be digitized using Industry Pack technology and a Motorola MVME162 processor board. The data acquisition subsystem, including digitization and timing for 80 position channels, will occupy two VME slots. System design will be described, with some additional emphasis on the use of logamp chips.

  17. The SLS Storage Ring Vertical Position Monitoring System

    SciTech Connect

    Zelenika, Sasa

    2004-05-12

    The goal of monitoring the vertical position of the SLS machine was achieved by employing a capacitive gauge-based Hydrostatic Leveling System (HLS). Although all the preliminary results showed that the aimed HLS micrometric range resolutions and accuracies have been reached, the long-time behavior of the system revealed considerable drifts. A satisfactory solution could eventually be reached only by adding to the working fluid a fungicide.

  18. Real-Time Coil Position Monitoring System for Biomagnetic Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyama, Daisuke; Adachi, Yoshiaki; Higuchi, Masanori; Kawai, Jun; Kobayashi, Koichiro; Uehara, Gen

    In this paper, we propose a new method for monitoring the position of marker coils. The marker coil is used for indicating spatial relationship between subject's body and magnetic sensor arrays in biomagnetic measurements, such as magnetoencephalography (MEG) and magnetocardiography (MCG). We developed a real-time marker coil position monitoring system combined with a conventional MEG system. In order to achieve simultaneous measurement of MEG signals and marker signals, we separated their frequency bands. The frequency bands of flux-locked loop (FLL) circuits were separated into three parts by three integrators; low-band, mid-band, and high-band. The second and third bands were assigned for MEG signals and marker signals, respectively. This method can avoid the crosstalk of the marker signals to MEG signals. Marker signals were generated from five marker coils driven by five independent sinusoidal current generators. These signals were continuously measured by the high-band of FLL, and then the coils were localized by FFT processing and solving inverse problem. We succeeded in displaying the localized coil position on a PC monitor once per second in real-time.

  19. Global positioning system interference and satellite anomalous event monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marti, Lukas M.

    Global Positioning System satellite Signal Quality Monitoring (SQM) is required to ensure the integrity of the received signal for aviation safety-critical systems. Failure mitigation is not addressed since failure detection ensures system integrity. The GPS Anomalous Event Monitor (GAEM) is introduced, consisting of a GPS receiver serving as an anomaly sensor, and the Software Defined Radio, allowing for a thorough analysis of signal malfunction modes through advanced signal processing techniques. Algorithms to monitor the GPS signal by the anomaly sensor are developed and in case of possible signal inconsistencies the signal is analyzed by the Software Defined Radio. For the purpose of quality monitoring it is essential to understand the impact of the radio frequency front-end on the received signal, and implicitly onto the signal parameter estimation process; otherwise a signal inconsistency may be flagged which is induced by the monitoring system. Thus, radio frequency front-end induced errors are examined and the statistics for signal parameter estimators are derived. As the statistics of an anomalous signal are unknown, a non-parametric, non-homoscedastic (uncommon variance of sample space) statistical test is developed. Berry-Esseen bounds are introduced to quantify convergence and to establish confidence levels. The algorithm is applied to the detection of signal anomalies, with emphasis on interference detection. The algorithms to detect GPS signal anomalies are verified with experimental data. The performance of the interference detection algorithms is demonstrated through data collection in a shielded measurement chamber. Actual GPS signals in combination with interference sources such as narrowband, wideband and pulsed interference were broadcast in the chamber. Subsequently, case studies from continuous GPS monitoring are included and observed anomalies are discussed. The performance demonstration of the GPS anomalous event monitor is concluded with a

  20. Beam position monitor system for PEP-II

    SciTech Connect

    Aiello, G.R.; Johnson, R.G.; Martin, D.J.; Mills, M.R.; Olsen, J.J.; Smith, S.R.

    1997-01-01

    The beam position monitor (BPM) system for PEP-II, the B-Factory under construction at SLAC, is described in this paper. The system must measure closed orbit for a 3-A multibunch beam and turn-by-turn position for a low-current single bunch injected in a 200-ns gap in the multibunch beam. A system that combines broadband and narrowband capabilities and provides data at high bandwidth was designed. It includes a filter-isolator box (FIB) that selects a harmonic of the bunch spacing (952 MHz) and absorbs the other frequency components; a CAMAC-based wideband I&Q demodulator, ADC, and signal processor that provides beam position information to the control system; and a calibrator that must work even in presence of beam, correcting for electronic measurement errors. This paper describes the system requirements, the electronics design, and the laboratory tests. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  1. A phase-space beam position monitor for synchrotron radiation

    PubMed Central

    Samadi, Nazanin; Bassey, Bassey; Martinson, Mercedes; Belev, George; Dallin, Les; de Jong, Mark; Chapman, Dean

    2015-01-01

    The stability of the photon beam position on synchrotron beamlines is critical for most if not all synchrotron radiation experiments. The position of the beam at the experiment or optical element location is set by the position and angle of the electron beam source as it traverses the magnetic field of the bend-magnet or insertion device. Thus an ideal photon beam monitor would be able to simultaneously measure the photon beam’s position and angle, and thus infer the electron beam’s position in phase space. X-ray diffraction is commonly used to prepare monochromatic beams on X-ray beamlines usually in the form of a double-crystal monochromator. Diffraction couples the photon wavelength or energy to the incident angle on the lattice planes within the crystal. The beam from such a monochromator will contain a spread of energies due to the vertical divergence of the photon beam from the source. This range of energies can easily cover the absorption edge of a filter element such as iodine at 33.17 keV. A vertical profile measurement of the photon beam footprint with and without the filter can be used to determine the vertical centroid position and angle of the photon beam. In the measurements described here an imaging detector is used to measure these vertical profiles with an iodine filter that horizontally covers part of the monochromatic beam. The goal was to investigate the use of a combined monochromator, filter and detector as a phase-space beam position monitor. The system was tested for sensitivity to position and angle under a number of synchrotron operating conditions, such as normal operations and special operating modes where the photon beam is intentionally altered in position and angle at the source point. The results are comparable with other methods of beam position measurement and indicate that such a system is feasible in situations where part of the synchrotron beam can be used for the phase-space measurement. PMID:26134798

  2. Advance techniques for monitoring human tolerance to positive Gz accelerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelligra, R.; Sandler, H.; Rositano, S.; Skrettingland, K.; Mancini, R.

    1973-01-01

    Tolerance to positive g accelerations was measured in ten normal male subjects using both standard and advanced techniques. In addition to routine electrocardiogram, heart rate, respiratory rate, and infrared television, monitoring techniques during acceleration exposure included measurement of peripheral vision loss, noninvasive temporal, brachial, and/or radial arterial blood flow, and automatic measurement of indirect systolic and diastolic blood pressure at 60-sec intervals. Although brachial and radial arterial flow measurements reflected significant cardiovascular changes during and after acceleration, they were inconsistent indices of the onset of grayout or blackout. Temporal arterial blood flow, however, showed a high correlation with subjective peripheral light loss.

  3. Beam position monitor readout and control in the SLC linac

    SciTech Connect

    Bogart, J.; Phinney, N.; Ross, M.; Yaffe, D.

    1985-04-01

    A beam position monitoring system has been implemented in the first third of the SLC linac which provides a complete scan of the trajectory on a single beam pulse. The data is collected from the local micro-computers and viewed with an updating display at a console or passed on to application programs. The system must operate with interlaced beams so the scans are also interlaced, providing each user with the ability to select the beam, the update rate, and the attenuation level in the digitizing hardware. In addition each user calibrates the hardware for his beam. A description of the system architecture will be presented. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  4. Simulation of PEP-II beam position monitors

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, C.K.; Weiland, T.; Martin, D.; Smith, S.; Kurita, N.

    1995-05-01

    The authors use MAFIA to analyze the PEP-II button-type beam position monitors (BPMs). Employing proper termination of the BPM into a coaxial cable, the output signal at the BPM can be determined. Thus the issues of sensitivity and power output can be addressed quantitatively, including all transient effects and wakefields. Besides this first quantitative analysis of a true BPM 3D structure, they find that internal resonant modes are a major source of high value narrow-band impedances. These are evaluated and methods are presented to suppress these parasitic resonances below the tolerable limit of multibunch instabilities.

  5. Beam position monitor design for a third generation light source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhichu; Leng, Yongbin; Ye, Kairong; Zhao, Guobi; Yuan, Renxian

    2014-11-01

    The measurement of the beam orbit plays a very important role in particle accelerators. The button-type beam position monitor (BPM) was designed for the Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility to reduce the impedances and to guarantee a high resolution of the measurement. Position resolution, beam impedance, higher-order mode, and impedance matching have been studied during the design based on the physical parameters of the storage ring at the Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility. Meanwhile, an analytic formula of the BPM broadband impedance was derived based on a resistor-capacitor equivalent circuit. Thus, the impedance of the BPM could be analyzed quantitatively by simply measuring the capacitance of the electrode. This formula had been verified by comparing the results of the calculations of the formula and the simulations in MAFIA.

  6. Noise estimation of beam position monitors at RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, X.; Bai, M.; Lee, S. Y.

    2014-02-10

    Beam position monitors (BPM) are used to record the average orbits and transverse turn-by-turn displacements of the beam centroid motion. The Relativistic Hadron Ion Collider (RHIC) has 160 BPMs for each plane in each of the Blue and Yellow rings: 72 dual-plane BPMs in the insertion regions (IR) and 176 single-plane modules in the arcs. Each BPM is able to acquire 1024 or 4096 consecutive turn-by-turn beam positions. Inevitably, there are broadband noisy signals in the turn-by-turn data due to BPM electronics as well as other sources. A detailed study of the BPM noise performance is critical for reliable optics measurement and beam dynamics analysis based on turn-by-turn data.

  7. Resolution of a High Performance Cavity Beam Position Monitor System

    SciTech Connect

    Walston, S; Chung, C; Fitsos, P; Gronberg, J; Ross, M; Khainovski, O; Kolomensky, Y; Loscutoff, P; Slater, M; Thomson, M; Ward, D; Boogert, S; Vogel, V; Meller, R; Lyapin, A; Malton, S; Miller, D; Frisch, J; Hinton, S; May, J; McCormick, D; Smith, S; Smith, T; White, G; Orimoto, T; Hayano, H; Honda, Y; Terunuma, N; Urakawa, J

    2005-09-12

    International Linear Collider (ILC) interaction region beam sizes and component position stability requirements will be as small as a few nanometers. It is important to the ILC design effort to demonstrate that these tolerances can be achieved - ideally using beam-based stability measurements. It has been estimated that RF cavity beam position monitors (BPMs) could provide position measurement resolutions of less than one nanometer and could form the basis of the desired beam-based stability measurement. We have developed a high resolution RF cavity BPM system. A triplet of these BPMs has been installed in the extraction line of the KEK Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) for testing with its ultra-low emittance beam. A metrology system for the three BPMs was recently installed. This system employed optical encoders to measure each BPM's position and orientation relative to a zero-coefficient of thermal expansion carbon fiber frame and has demonstrated that the three BPMs behave as a rigid-body to less than 5 nm. To date, we have demonstrated a BPM resolution of less than 20 nm over a dynamic range of +/- 20 microns.

  8. Position Stability Monitoring of THEthe LCLS Undulator Quadrupoles

    SciTech Connect

    Nuhn, Heinz Dieter; Gassner, Georg; Peters, Franz; /SLAC

    2012-03-26

    X-ray FELs demand that the positions of undulator components be stable to less than 1 {mu}m per day. Simultaneously, the undulator length increases significantly in order to saturate at x-ray wavelengths. To minimize the impact of the outside environment, the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) undulator is placed underground, but reliable data about ground motion inside such a tunnel was not available in the required stability range during the planning phase. Therefore, a new position monitor system had been developed and installed with the LCLS undulator. This system is capable of measuring x, y, roll, pitch and yaw of each of the 33 undulator quadrupoles with respect to stretched wires. Instrument resolution is about 10 nm and instrument drift is negligible. Position data of individual quadrupoles can be correlated along the entire 132-m long undulator. The system has been under continuous operation since 2009. This report describes long term experiences with the running system and the observed positional stability of the undulator quadrupoles.

  9. A two-bunch beam position monitor performance evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Traller, R.; Medvedko, E.; Smith, S.; Aiello, R.

    1998-12-01

    New beam position processing electronics for the Linear Accelerator allow faster feedback and processing of both positron and electron bunch positions in a single machine pulse. More than 30 electron-positron beam position monitors (epBPMs) have been installed at SLAC in various applications and have met all design requirements. The SLC production electron bunch follows the positron bunch down the linac separated by 58.8 nS. The epBPM measures the position of both bunches with an accuracy of better than 5 {mu}m at nominal operating intensities. For SLC, the epBPMs have measured the position of bunches consisting of from 1 to 8{times}10{sup 10} particles per bunch. For PEP-II ({ital B} Factory) injection, epBPMs have been used with larger electrodes and several BPMs have been combined on a single cable set. The signals are separated for measurement in the epBPM by timing. In PEP-II injection we have measured the position of bunches of as little as 2{times}10{sup 9} particles per bunch. To meet the demands of SLC and PEP-II injection, the epBPM has been designed with three triggering modes: 1. As a self-triggering detector, it can trigger off the beam and hold the peak signal until read out by the control program. 2. The gated mode uses external timing signals to gate the beam trigger. 3. The external trigger mode uses the external timing signals offset with internal vernier delays to precisely catch peak signals in noisy environments. Finally, the epBPM also has built-in timing verniers capable of nulling errors in cable set fabrication and differences in channel-to-channel signal delay. Software has made all this functionality available through the SLC control system. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  10. A two-bunch beam position monitor performance evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Traller, Robert; Medvedko, Evgeny; Smith, Steve; Aiello, Roberto

    1998-12-10

    New beam position processing electronics for the Linear Accelerator allow faster feedback and processing of both positron and electron bunch positions in a single machine pulse. More than 30 electron-positron beam position monitors (epBPMs) have been installed at SLAC in various applications and have met all design requirements. The SLC production electron bunch follows the positron bunch down the linac separated by 58.8 nS. The epBPM measures the position of both bunches with an accuracy of better than 5 {mu}m at nominal operating intensities. For SLC, the epBPMs have measured the position of bunches consisting of from 1 to 8x10{sup 10} particles per bunch. For PEP-II (B Factory) injection, epBPMs have been used with larger electrodes and several BPMs have been combined on a single cable set. The signals are separated for measurement in the epBPM by timing. In PEP-II injection we have measured the position of bunches of as little as 2x10{sup 9} particles per bunch. To meet the demands of SLC and PEP-II injection, the epBPM has been designed with three triggering modes: 1. As a self-triggering detector, it can trigger off the beam and hold the peak signal until read out by the control program. 2. The gated mode uses external timing signals to gate the beam trigger. 3. The external trigger mode uses the external timing signals offset with internal vernier delays to precisely catch peak signals in noisy environments. Finally, the epBPM also has built-in timing verniers capable of nulling errors in cable set fabrication and differences in channel-to-channel signal delay. Software has made all this functionality available through the SLC control system.

  11. Volcano monitoring using the Global Positioning System: Filtering strategies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, K.M.; Cervelli, Peter; Lisowski, M.; Miklius, Asta; Segall, P.; Owen, S.

    2001-01-01

    Permanent Global Positioning System (GPS) networks are routinely used for producing improved orbits and monitoring secular tectonic deformation. For these applications, data are transferred to an analysis center each day and routinely processed in 24-hour segments. To use GPS for monitoring volcanic events, which may last only a few hours, real-time or near real-time data processing and subdaily position estimates are valuable. Strategies have been researched for obtaining station coordinates every 15 min using a Kalman filter; these strategies have been tested on data collected by a GPS network on Kilauea Volcano. Data from this network are tracked continuously, recorded every 30 s, and telemetered hourly to the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory. A white noise model is heavily impacted by data outages and poor satellite geometry, but a properly constrained random walk model fits the data well. Using a borehole tiltmeter at Kilauea's summit as ground-truth, solutions using different random walk constraints were compared. This study indicates that signals on the order of 5 mm/h are resolvable using a random walk standard deviation of 0.45 cm/???h. Values lower than this suppress small signals, and values greater than this have significantly higher noise at periods of 1-6 hours. Copyright 2001 by the American Geophysical Union.

  12. Video-based beam position monitoring at CHESS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Revesz, Peter; Pauling, Alan; Krawczyk, Thomas; Kelly, Kevin J.

    2012-10-01

    CHESS has pioneered the development of X-ray Video Beam Position Monitors (VBPMs). Unlike traditional photoelectron beam position monitors that rely on photoelectrons generated by the fringe edges of the X-ray beam, with VBPMs we collect information from the whole cross-section of the X-ray beam. VBPMs can also give real-time shape/size information. We have developed three types of VBPMs: (1) VBPMs based on helium luminescence from the intense white X-ray beam. In this case the CCD camera is viewing the luminescence from the side. (2) VBPMs based on luminescence of a thin (~50 micron) CVD diamond sheet as the white beam passes through it. The CCD camera is placed outside the beam line vacuum and views the diamond fluorescence through a viewport. (3) Scatter-based VBPMs. In this case the white X-ray beam passes through a thin graphite filter or Be window. The scattered X-rays create an image of the beam's footprint on an X-ray sensitive fluorescent screen using a slit placed outside the beam line vacuum. For all VBPMs we use relatively inexpensive 1.3 Mega-pixel CCD cameras connected via USB to a Windows host for image acquisition and analysis. The VBPM host computers are networked and provide live images of the beam and streams of data about the beam position, profile and intensity to CHESS's signal logging system and to the CHESS operator. The operational use of VBPMs showed great advantage over the traditional BPMs by providing direct visual input for the CHESS operator. The VBPM precision in most cases is on the order of ~0.1 micron. On the down side, the data acquisition frequency (50-1000ms) is inferior to the photoelectron based BPMs. In the future with the use of more expensive fast cameras we will be able create VBPMs working in the few hundreds Hz scale.

  13. Beam position monitor system of J-PARC RCS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, N.; Kawase, M.; Hatakeyama, S.; Hiroki, S.; Saeki, R.; Takahashi, H.; Teruyama, Y.; Toyokawa, R.; Arakawa, D.; Hiramatsu, S.; Lee, S.; Satou, K.; Tejima, M.; Toyama, T.

    2012-06-01

    The J-PARC RCS is a 25 Hz Rapid-Cycling proton Synchrotron and its designed beam power is 1 MW. The beam position monitor (BPM) system at J-PARC RCS is described in this paper. The pre-defined diameter of the BPM detectors is larger than 250 mm, however, the system has to measure the beam position very accurately. In addition, it is necessary to have a large dynamic range. The system should work not only for the high intensity but also for low intensity, such as during beam commissioning, when the intensity is below 1% of the design intensity. There are 54 BPM detectors around the ring and most of them are placed inside steering magnets because of quite limited space. The BPM detector is an electro-static type and it has four electrodes, and a pair of electrodes gives a good linear response with a diagonal cut shape to detect the charge center precisely. The signal processing units, which are equipped with 14-bit 40 MS/s ADC and 600 MHz DSP, have been developed. They are accessed via shared memory space and controlled by EPICS. Such a processing unit is capable of recording the full 25 Hz pulse data for the so-called "COD mode" (averaged beam position calculation) and it can also store the whole waveform data for further analysis, like turn-by-turn position calculation. The resolution was estimated to be 20 μm for "COD mode" and to be 0.3 mm for the turn-by-turn mode with relatively low intensity of 8×1011 ppp. The position accuracy is estimated to be about 0.5 mm using a newly developed Beam Based Alignment (BBA) method.

  14. Contributions to the building and upgrading of the Greenland Ice Sheet Monitoring Network (GLISN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reusch, A. M.; Childs, D.; Anderson, K. R.

    2011-12-01

    The GLISN project began in 2009 and is now a 10-nation collaborative project (Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Norway, Poland, Switzerland and the USA) with a long-term goal of establishing a real-time broadband seismic network of 25 stations within and around Greenland. The GLISN project provides publicly available data distributed by the IRIS Data Management Center that researchers can use in the characterization of tectonic and glacial earthquakes as well as other cryo-seismic phenomena (e.g. iceberg calving events, seiches, tidal patterns, and the draining of supra-glacial lakes). Cooperation among the 10 nations has provided a wealth of material and knowledge resources, contributing to the success of the project as a whole. At the same time, involving multiple intra-national and international organizations has also required increased efforts in coordination and shared decision-making. As of August 2011, the IRIS PASSCAL Instrument Center has contributed to the effort by building, installing and maintaining 6 new and upgrading 5 existing broadband seismic stations at both coastal and interior sites. Three of the 11 GLISN stations were installed along the main ice divide. Two of these ridge sites are equipped with borehole sensors in addition to the standard surface sensor, and all 3 stations have real-time geodetic-quality GPS receivers. The GLISN stations take advantage of the latest methods and technologies field-tested in Antarctica and other high-latitude regions by the PASSCAL Instrument Center. All stations are designed to operate year-round with cold-rated instrumentation, autonomous power generation (solar and wind) or protected AC power delivery systems when grid power is available. Data and state of health communication is through the Internet, when available, or via Iridium modem. The latter currently provides daily station state of health information along with a 10s data segment on an hourly basis. Development of an Iridium link is

  15. New generation electronics applied to beam position monitors

    SciTech Connect

    Unser, K.B.

    1997-01-01

    Cellular telephones and global positioning system (GPS) satellite receivers are examples of modern rf engineering. Taking some inspiration from those designs, a precision signal-processor module for beam position monitors was developed. It features a heterodyne receiver (100 MHz to 1 GHz) with more than 90 dB dynamic range. Four multiplexed input channels are able to resolve signal differences lower than 0.0005 dB with good long-term stability. This corresponds to sub-micron resolution when used with a beam position pick-up with 40 mm free aperture. The paper concentrates on circuit design and modern dynamic testing methods, used first during development and later for production tests. The frequency synthesizer of the local oscillator, the phase-locked synchronous detector, and the low-noise preamplifier with automatic gain control are discussed. Other topics are design for immunity to electromagnetic interference to ensure reliable operation in an accelerator environment. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  16. Digital Beam Position Monitor for the Happex Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    S.R. Kauffman; H. Dong; A. Freyberger; L. Kaufman; J. Musson

    2005-05-16

    The proposed HAPPEX experiment at CEBAF employs a three cavity monitor system for high-precision (1 mm), high-bandwidth (100 kHz) position measurements. This is performed using a cavity triplet consisting of two TM110-mode cavities (one each for X and Y planes) combined with a conventional TM-010-mode cavity for a phase and magnitude reference. Traditional systems have used the TM010 cavity output to directly down convert the BPM cavity signals to base band. The Multi-channel HAPPEX digital receiver simultaneously I/Q samples each cavity and extracts position using a CORDIC algorithm. The hardware design consists of a digital receiver daughter board and digital processor motherboard that resides in a VXI crate. The daughter board down converts 1.497 GHz signals from the TM010 cavity and X and Y signals from the TM110 cavities to 4 MHz, and extracts the quadrature digital signals. The motherboard processes this data and computes beam intensity and X-Y positions with a resolution of one mm, 100 kHz output bandwidth, and overall latency of ten microseconds. The results are available in both analog and digital format.

  17. Digital beam position monitor for the HAPPEX experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Sherlon Kauffman; John Musson; Hai Dong; Lisa Kaufman; Arne Freyberger

    2005-05-01

    The proposed HAPPEX experiment at CEBAF employs a three cavity monitor system for high precision (1um), high bandwidth (100 kHz) position measurements. This is performed using a cavity triplet consisting of two TM110-mode cavities (one each for X and Y planes) combined with a conventional TM010-mode cavity for a phase and magnitude reference. Traditional systems have used the TM010 cavity output to directly down convert the BPM cavity signals to base band. The multi-channel HAPPEX digital receiver simultaneously I/Q samples each cavity and extracts position using a CORDIC algorithm. The hardware design consists of a RF receiver daughter board and a digital processor motherboard that resides in a VXI crate. The daughter board down converts 1.497 GHz signals from the TM010 cavity and X and Y signals from the TM110 cavities to 3 MHz and extracts the quadrature digital signals. The motherboard processes this data and computes beam intensity and X-Y positions with resolution of 1um, 100 kHz output bandwidth, and overall latency of 1us. The results are available in both the analog and digital format.

  18. A button - type beam position monitor design for TARLA facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gündoǧan, M. Tural; Kaya, ć.; Yavaş, Ö.

    2016-03-01

    Turkish Accelerator and Radiation Laboratory in Ankara (TARLA) facility is proposed as an IR FEL and Bremsstrahlung facility as the first facility of Turkish Accelerator Center (TAC). TARLA is essentially proposed to generate oscillator mode FEL in 3-250 microns wavelengths range, will consist of normal conducting injector system with 250 keV beam energy, two superconducting RF accelerating modules in order to accelerate the beam 15-40 MeV. The TARLA facility is expected to provide two modes, Continuous wave (CW) and pulsed mode. Longitudinal electron bunch length will be changed between 1 and 10 ps. The bunch charge will be limited by 77pC. The design of the Button-type Beam Position Monitor for TARLA IR FEL is studied to operate in 1.3 GHz. Mechanical antenna design and simulations are completed considering electron beam parameters of TARLA. Ansoft HFSS and CST Particle Studio is used to compare with results of simulations.

  19. Architecture of a Silicon Strip Beam Position Monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Angstadt, R.; Cooper, W.; Demarteau, M.; Green, J.; Jakubowski, S.; Prosser, A.; Rivera, R.; Turqueti, M.; Utes, M.; Cai, X.; /Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys.

    2010-10-01

    A collaboration between Fermilab and the Institute for High Energy Physics (IHEP), Beijing, has developed a beam position monitor for the IHEP test beam facility. This telescope is based on 5 stations of silicon strip detectors having a pitch of 60 microns. The total active area of each layer of the detector is about 12 x 10 cm{sup 2}. Readout of the strips is provided through the use of VA1 ASICs mounted on custom hybrid printed circuit boards and interfaced to Adapter Cards via copper-over-kapton flexible circuits. The Adapter Cards amplify and level-shift the signal for input to the Fermilab CAPTAN data acquisition nodes for data readout and channel configuration. These nodes deliver readout and temperature data from triggered events to an analysis computer over gigabit Ethernet links.

  20. Performance of a reentrant cavity beam position monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Claire; Luong, Michel; Chel, Stéphane; Napoly, Olivier; Novo, Jorge; Roudier, Dominique; Rouvière, Nelly; Baboi, Nicoleta; Mildner, Nils; Nölle, Dirk

    2008-08-01

    The beam-based alignment and feedback systems, essential operations for the future colliders, require high resolution beam position monitors (BPMs). In the framework of the European CARE/SRF program, a reentrant cavity BPM with its associated electronics was developed by the CEA/DSM/Irfu in collaboration with DESY. The design, the fabrication, and the beam test of this monitor are detailed within this paper. This BPM is designed to be inserted in a cryomodule, work at cryogenic temperature in a clean environment. It has achieved a resolution better than 10μm and has the possibility to perform bunch to bunch measurements for the x-ray free electron laser (X-FEL) and the International Linear Collider (ILC). Its other features are a small size of the rf cavity, a large aperture (78 mm), and an excellent linearity. A first prototype of a reentrant cavity BPM was installed in the free electron laser in Hamburg (FLASH), at Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY) and demonstrated its operation at cryogenic temperature inside a cryomodule. The second, installed, also, in the FLASH linac to be tested with beam, measured a resolution of approximately 4μm over a dynamic range ±5mm in single bunch.

  1. The upgraded data acquisition system for beam loss monitoring at the Fermilab Tevatron and Main Injector

    SciTech Connect

    Baumbaugh, A.; Briegel, C.; Brown, B.C.; Capista, D.; Drennan, C.; Fellenz, B.; Knickerbocker, K.; Lewis, J.D.; Marchionni, A.; Needles, C.; Olson, M.; /Fermilab

    2011-11-01

    A VME-based data acquisition system for beam-loss monitors has been developed and is in use in the Tevatron and Main Injector accelerators at the Fermilab complex. The need for enhanced beam-loss protection when the Tevatron is operating in collider-mode was the main driving force for the new design. Prior to the implementation of the present system, the beam-loss monitor system was disabled during collider operation and protection of the Tevatron magnets relied on the quench protection system. The new Beam-Loss Monitor system allows appropriate abort logic and thresholds to be set over the full set of collider operating conditions. The system also records a history of beam-loss data prior to a beam-abort event for post-abort analysis. Installation of the Main Injector system occurred in the fall of 2006 and the Tevatron system in the summer of 2007. Both systems were fully operation by the summer of 2008. In this paper we report on the overall system design, provide a description of its normal operation, and show a number of examples of its use in both the Main Injector and Tevatron.

  2. Evaluation of alternatives for upgrading double shell tank corrosion monitoring at Hanford

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, J.L.

    1996-02-23

    Recent discovery of low hydroxide conditions in Double Shell Tanks have demonstrated that the current corrosion control system of waste sampling and analysis is inadequate to monitor and maintain specified chemistries for dilute and low volume waste tanks. Moreover, waste sampling alone cannot provide adequate information to resolve the questions raised regarding tank corrosion. This report evaluates available technologies which could be used to improve on the existing corrosion control system. The evaluation concludes that a multi-technique corrosion monitoring system is necessary, utilizing ultrasonic and visual examinations for direct evaluation of tank liner condition, probes for rapid detection (alarm) of corrosive conditions, and waste sampling and analysis for determination of corrective action. The probes would incorporate electrochemical noise and linear polarization resistance techniques. When removed from the waste tank, the probe electrodes would be physically examined as corrosion coupons. The probes would be used in addition to a modified regimen of waste sampling and the existing schedule for ultrasonic examination of the tank liners. Supporting information would be obtained by examination of in-tank equipment as it is removed.

  3. Upgrading wet granulation monitoring from hand squeeze test to mixing torque rheometry

    PubMed Central

    Sakr, Walid F.; Ibrahim, Mohamed A.; Alanazi, Fars K.; Sakr, Adel A.

    2011-01-01

    With over 50 years of research in granulation technology, however more research is required to elucidate this widely applicable technology. Wetting phenomena could influence redistribution of individual ingredients within a granule according their solubility and also could affect the drying processes. Binder selection for a particular system is quite often empirical and dependent on the skills and experience of the formulator. Hand squeeze test was and still the main way for determination of wet granulation end point, but it is subjected to individual variation. It depends mainly on operator experience, so it is not possible to be validated. Literature reveals a variety of advanced monitoring techniques following up different wet massing stages. Torque measurement has been proved to be the most reliable control method as its tight relation to mass resistance. Many reports showed successful applications of mixing torque rheometer (MTR) for monitoring the wet massing procedure and scale up in addition to some preformulation applications. MTR as a new approach allows formulators to select a liquid addition range where the granule growth behavior is more predictable. PMID:23960772

  4. Monitoring the ionospheric positioning error with a GNSS dense network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wautelet, Gilles; Lejeune, Sandrine; Warnant, René

    2010-05-01

    MSTID and an "ionospheric wall" (TEC depletion) caused by an extreme geomagnetic storm. In both cases, equatorwards direction of propagation was clearly visible on polar plots. Indeed, baselines oriented parallel to the direction of propagation of disturbances are more affected by TEC gradients than others. SoDIPE-RTK is therefore a tool which allows not only to assess the effect of ionospheric disturbances on relative positioning but also to monitor propagation patterns of such disturbances while run through a GPS dense network. Finally, we propose a service dedicated to GNSS relative positioning users based on SoDIPE-RTK. Every 15 minutes, each AGN baseline is mapped in a given color ranging from green (quiet conditions) to red (extreme conditions). This easy-to-use application allows registered users to access to local information about current ionospheric conditions on the field.

  5. Analysis of the Reactor Position Independent Monitor (PIM) Diagnostic

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes-Sterbenz, Anna Catherine

    2014-07-17

    In this note I analyze the physics determining the proposed reactor position independent monitor (PIM), which is the ratio (240Pu/239Pu)1/3 × (135Cs/137Cs)1/2. The PIM ratios in any reactor fuel is shown to increase monotonically with the time over which the fuel is irradiated. This is because the Cs ratio determines the neutron flux, while the Pu isotopic ratio is determined by the flux times the irradiation time. If the irradiation time for all fuel rods across the reactor is fixed, the PIM ratio is approximately constant in all rods. However, no information can be extracted from the PIM ratio on Pu isotopics unless both the flux (or Cs ratio) and the irradiation time (from, say, Ru isotopics) are known separately, i.e., the PIM ratio is not a fundamental parameter of any reactor. Thus, unless the PIM ratio has been measured for the specific fuel under interrogation, no information can be deduced from measurements or reactor simulations of PIM ratios in different fuel from the same reactor. However, if a PIM measurement has been in one spent fuel rod from a given reactor, all other rods that are known to have been in the reactor for the same irradiation period can be assumed to have approximately the same PIM ratio.

  6. Beam position monitor electronics using DC coupled demodulating logarithmic amplifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Aiello, G.R.; Mills, M.R.

    1992-03-01

    An electronics circuit operating up to 120 MHz suitable for Beam Position Monitor signal processing is described. Two different channels process signals from the electrodes. Each channel is realized with two cascaded DC coupled demodulating logarithmic amplifiers, providing an output voltage proportional to the logarithm of the input signal amplitude. The outputs from the two channels are processed by differential and summing amplifiers. The difference output produces a voltage proportional to the beam displacement between the electrodes, but both the difference and sum outputs are digitized in order to allow for a software correction of the gain and offset mismatches. The electronics show better characteristics than previous implementations utilizing log-amp circuits. The dynamic range has been increased, keeping the linearity error smaller than 1% over a 65 dB input signal range. The noise characteristics have been improved providing good resolution at low currents. The RF burst response has also been tested showing good characteristics for use on a Linac or Transfer Line. One prototype, working at 60 MHz, has been built and is planned for use on one or more machines at the SSC.

  7. Global positioning system measurements over a strain monitoring network in the eastern two-thirds of the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Strange, W.E.

    1991-09-01

    A 45-station geodetic network was established in 1987 using global positioning system (GPS) technology to provide a means of monitoring strain and deformation in the central and eastern United States. Reduction of the initial epoch data showed that accuracies of 1 to 3 cm can be achieved for horizontal position, provided sufficient observations are available and there are four or more fiducial stations whose positions are known a priori, for example from Very Long Baseline Interferometry measurements. Accuracies obtained provide the ability to determine strain at the 1:10{sup 7} to 1:10{sup 8} level. Vertical positions are less accurate because of problems in modeling refraction and are determined at the 5 to 7 cm level. It is planned to remeasure this network at regular intervals in the coming years to place bounds on the strain occurring in the central and eastern United States. This network is also expected to serve as a reference network for more detailed monitoring networks in areas of high risk such as the New Madrid area. Future measurements are expected to provide more accurate results because of increased numbers of GPS satellites available and improved computation software. The improved software will also allow future upgrading of the accuracy of the 1987 observations. 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. Position-sensitive radiation monitoring (surface contamination monitor). Innovative technology summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1999-06-01

    The Shonka Research Associates, Inc. Position-Sensitive Radiation Monitor both detects surface radiation and prepares electronic survey map/survey report of surveyed area automatically. The electronically recorded map can be downloaded to a personal computer for review and a map/report can be generated for inclusion in work packages. Switching from beta-gamma detection to alpha detection is relatively simple and entails moving a switch position to alpha and adjusting the voltage level to an alpha detection level. No field calibration is required when switching from beta-gamma to alpha detection. The system can be used for free-release surveys because it meets the federal detection level sensitivity limits requires for surface survey instrumentation. This technology is superior to traditionally-used floor contamination monitor (FCM) and hand-held survey instrumentation because it can precisely register locations of radioactivity and accurately correlate contamination levels to specific locations. Additionally, it can collect and store continuous radiological data in database format, which can be used to produce real-time imagery as well as automated graphics of survey data. Its flexible design can accommodate a variety of detectors. The cost of the innovative technology is 13% to 57% lower than traditional methods. This technology is suited for radiological surveys of flat surfaces at US Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facility decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) sites or similar public or commercial sites.

  9. Transmission-mode diamond white-beam position monitor at NSLS

    SciTech Connect

    Muller E. M.; Heroux A.; Smedley, J.; Bohon, J.; Yang, X.; Gaowei, M.; Skinner, J.; De Geronimo, G.; Sullivan, M.; Allaire, M.; Keister, J. W.; Berman, L.

    2012-05-01

    Two transmission-mode diamond X-ray beam position monitors installed at National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) beamline X25 are described. Each diamond beam position monitor is constructed around two horizontally tiled electronic-grade (p.p.b. nitrogen impurity) single-crystal (001) CVD synthetic diamonds. The position, angle and flux of the white X-ray beam can be monitored in real time with a position resolution of 500 nm in the horizontal direction and 100 nm in the vertical direction for a 3 mm x 1 mm beam. The first diamond beam position monitor has been in operation in the white beam for more than one year without any observable degradation in performance. The installation of a second, more compact, diamond beam position monitor followed about six months later, adding the ability to measure the angular trajectory of the photon beam.

  10. Design and development of a long-travel positioning actuator and tandem constant force actuator safety system for the Hobby Eberly Telescope wide-field upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mollison, Nicholas T.; Mock, Jason R.; Soukup, Ian M.; Beets, Timothy A.; Good, John M.; Beno, Joseph H.; Kriel, Herman J.; Hinze, Sarah E.; Wardell, Douglas R.; Heisler, James T.

    2010-07-01

    The Wide Field Upgrade presents a five-fold increase in mass for the Hobby-Eberly Telescope's* tracker system. The design of the Hobby-Eberly Telescope places the Prime Focus Instrument Package (PFIP) at a thirty-five degree angle from horizontal. The PFIP and its associated hardware have historically been positioned along this uphill axis (referred to as the telescope's Y-axis) by a single screw-type actuator. Several factors, including increased payload mass and design for minimal light obscuration, have led to the design of a new and novel configuration for the Y-axis screw-drive as part of the tracker system upgrade. Typical screw-drive designs in this load and travel class (approximately 50 kilonewtons traveling a distance of 4 meters) utilize a stationary screw with the payload translating with the moving nut component. The new configuration employs a stationary nut and translating roller screw affixed to the moving payload, resulting in a unique drive system design. Additionally, a second cable-actuated servo drive (adapted from a system currently in use on the Southern African Large Telescope) will operate in tandem with the screw-drive in order to significantly improve telescope safety through the presence of redundant load-bearing systems. Details of the mechanical design, analysis, and topology of each servo drive system are presented in this paper, along with discussion of the issues such a configuration presents in the areas of controls, operational and failure modes, and positioning accuracy. Findings and results from investigations of alternative telescope safety systems, including deformable crash barriers, are also included.

  11. Stereo optical tracker for standoff monitoring of position and orientation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherman, W. D.; Houk, T. L.; Saint Clair, J. M.; Sjoholm, P. F.; Voth, M. D.

    2009-01-01

    A Precision Optical Measurement System (POMS) has been designed, constructed and tested for tracking the position (x, y, z) and orientation (roll, pitch, yaw) of models in Boeing's 9-77 Compact Radar Range. A stereo triangulation technique is implemented using two remote sensor units separated by a known baseline. Each unit measures pointing angles (azimuth and elevation) to optical targets on a model. Four different reference systems are used for calibration and alignment of the system's components and two platforms. Pointing angle data and calibration corrections are processed at high rates to give near real-time feedback to the mechanical positioning system of the model. The positional accuracy of the system is +/- .010 inches at a distance of 85 feet while using low RCS reflective tape targets. The precision measurement capabilities and applications of the system are discussed.

  12. Support means for a particle beam position monitor

    DOEpatents

    VanZwienen, W.H.

    1991-01-29

    A support means is disclosed for a plurality of thermally deformable component parts that are concentrically mounted within a thermally expandable housing. The support means includes a plurality of pins that are mounted in relatively fixed or sliding relationship to either one of the concentrically positioned components or to the housing, and the pins are positioned to extend through aligned apertures in the remaining components or the housing in a manner such that the pins are free to slide in a snug relationship relative to the sides of the holes through those components or the housing. The support means enables the concentrically mounted components and the housing to undergo expansion and contraction movement, radially and longitudinally relative to one another, while maintaining concentricity of the components and the housing relative to one another. 3 figures.

  13. Support means for a particle beam position monitor

    DOEpatents

    VanZwienen, William H.

    1991-01-01

    A support means for a plurality of thermally deformable component parts that are concentrically mounted within a thermally expandable housing. The support means includes a plurality of pins that are mounted in relatively fixed or sliding relationship to either one of the concentrically positioned components or to the housing, and the pins are positioned to extend through aligned apertures in the remaining components or the housing in a manner such that the pins are free to slide in a snug relationship relative to the sides of the holes through those components or the housing. The support means enables the concentrically mounted components and the housing to undergo expansion and contraction movement, radially and longitudinally relative to one another, while maintaining concentricity of the components and the housing relative to one another.

  14. A major upgrade of the global Mercator Océan ocean monitoring and forecasting system and corresponding product quality improvements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dombrowsky, Eric; Drillet, Yann; Legalloudec, Olivier; Lellouche, Jean Michel; Regnier, Charly

    2013-04-01

    Mercator Océan (the French ocean forecast service provider) was setup in France about 10 years ago by all the French organizations holding stakes in ocean forecasting. It has since then constantly developed and is currently operating operational ocean forecasting systems based on state-of-the-art Ocean General Circulation Models (OGCM, we use the NEMO code) assimilating the observations of the Global Ocean Observing System (remote sensing + in situ). The mandate of Mercator Océan is to cover the global ocean at a resolution sufficient to both simulate the physics including the eddies (eddy resolving) and take the maximum benefit from the GOOS via data assimilation. To do so, Mercator Océan is strongly connected to the ocean modeling and data assimilation research communities, at French, European and international levels. Mercator Océan is engaged in the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) European initiative and is currently coordinating a European consortium (~60 partners) gathering all the European skills in ocean monitoring and forecasting to build the Marine forecast component of the GMES service. This is currently done in the MyOcean II EU funded project (project started in 2012). Within the MyOcean consortium, among other commitments, Mercator Océan is the operator of the global ocean forecasting system, and one of the providers of global ocean reanalysis products. In this context (MyOcean V3 service), we have implemented a major upgrade of the systems operated at Mercator Océan ., including improvements in the model configurations, in data assimilation and product elaboration and serving. This concerns especially the global eddy resolving system (1/12° global) which is operational providing daily service. We focus our presentation on product quality, showing how these upgrades correspond to product improvements, and illustrating how the users are served with better quality products, thanks to this upgrade.

  15. Evoked Potential Monitoring Identifies Possible Neurological Injury During Positioning for Craniotomy

    PubMed Central

    Anastasian, Zirka H.; Ramnath, Brian; Komotar, Ricardo J.; Bruce, Jeffrey N.; Sisti, Michael B.; Gallo, Edward J.; Emerson, Ronald G.; Heyer, Eric J.

    2009-01-01

    Somatosensory evoked potential (SSEP) monitoring is commonly used to detect changes in nerve conduction and prevent impending nerve injury. We present a case series of 2 patients who had SSEP monitoring for their surgical craniotomy procedure, and who, upon positioning supine with their head tilted 30–45 degrees, developed unilateral upper extremity SSEP changes. These SSEP changes were reversed when the patients were repositioned. These cases indicate the clinical usefulness of monitoring SSEPs while positioning the patient and adjusting position accordingly to prevent injury. PMID:19690251

  16. Development of position sensitive proportional counters for hot particle detection in laundry and portal monitors

    SciTech Connect

    Shonka, J.J.; Schwahn, S.O.; Bennett, T.E.; Misko, D.J.

    1992-09-01

    This report summarizes research which demonstrates the use of position sensitive proportional counters in contamination monitoring systems. Both laundry monitoring and portal monitoring systems were developed. The laundry monitor was deployed at a nuclear power plant where it was used to monitor clothing during an outage. Position sensitive proportional counter based contamination monitoring systems were shown to have significant advantages over systems using conventional proportional counters. These advantages include the ability to directly measure the area and quantity of contamination. This capability permits identification of hot particles. These systems are also capable of self calibration via internal check sources. Systems deployed with this technology should benefit from reduced complexity, cost and maintenance. The inherent reduction of background that occurs when the counter is electronically divided into numerous detectors permits operation in high background radiation fields and improves detection limits over conventional technology.

  17. Compact integrated X-ray intensity and beam position monitor based on rare gas scintillation

    SciTech Connect

    Revesz, Peter; Ruff, Jacob; Dale, Darren; Krawczyk, Thomas

    2013-05-15

    We have created and tested a compact integrated X-ray beam intensity and position monitor using Ar-gas scintillation. The light generated inside the device's cavity is detected by diametrically opposed PIN diodes located above and below the beam. The intensity is derived from the sum of the top and bottom signals, while the beam position is calculated from the difference-over-sum of the two signals. The device was tested at Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source with both 17 keV and 59 keV x-rays. For intensity monitoring, the Ar-scintillation monitor performance is comparable to standard ion chambers in terms of precision. As an X-ray beam position monitor the new device response is linear with vertical beam position over a 2 mm span with a precision of 2 {mu}m.

  18. Continuous non-invasive monitoring improves blood pressure stability in upright position: randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Benes, Jan; Simanova, Alena; Tovarnicka, Tereza; Sevcikova, Silvie; Kletecka, Jakub; Zatloukal, Jan; Pradl, Richard; Chytra, Ivan; Kasal, Eduard

    2015-02-01

    Intermittent blood pressure (BP) monitoring is the standard-of-care during low and intermediate risk anaesthesia, yet it could lead to delayed recognition of BP fluctuations. Perioperative hypotension is known to be associated with postoperative complications. Continuous, non-invasive methods for BP monitoring have been developed recently. We have tested a novel non-invasive, continuous monitor (using the volume clamp method) to assist with maintaining BP in safe ranges for patients undergoing surgery in a beach chair position. Forty adult patients undergoing thyroid gland surgery in an upright position were included in this prospective randomised controlled trial. Patients were equally allocated to the group with continuous monitoring of BP using the CNAP® Monitor and to the control group managed using an intermittent oscillometric BP cuff. The absolute and proportional time spent outside the range of ±20% of the target BP along with other hemodynamic and clinical parameters were evaluated. The continuous monitoring decreased the anaesthesia time spent below -20% pressure range [absolute: 12 min (4-20) vs. 27 min (16-34); p=0.001; relative to procedure length: 14% (7-20) vs. 33.5% (17.5-53); p=0.003]. No significant differences were observed in postoperative morbidity or in hospital length of stay. Continuous non-invasive BP monitoring via the CNAP® Monitor allows for better BP management in patients undergoing surgery in a beach chair position. In our randomised trial the time spent in hypotension was significantly shorter using continuous monitoring. PMID:24841333

  19. RHIC BPM SYSTEM PERFORMANCE, UPGRADES, AND TOOLS.

    SciTech Connect

    SATOGATA,T.; CAMERON,P.; CERNIGLIA,P.; CUPOLO,J.; DAWSON,C.; DEGEN,C.; MEAD,J.; PTITSYN,V.; SIKORA,R.

    2002-06-02

    During the RHIC 2001-2 run, the beam position monitor (BPM) system provided independent average orbit and turn-by-turn (TBT) position measurements at 162 locations in each measurement plane and RHIC ring. TBT acquisition was successfully upgraded from 128 turns to 1024 turns per trigger, including injection. Closed orbits were acquired and automatically archived every two seconds through each acceleration ramp for orbit analysis and feed-forward orbit correction. This paper presents the overall system performance during this run, including precision, reproducibility, radiation damage, and analysis tools. We also summarize future plans, including million-turn TBT acquisition for nonlinear dynamics studies.

  20. Diagnostic Systems Plan for the Advanced Light Source Top-OffUpgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Barry, Walter; Chin, Mike; Robin, David; Sannibale, Fernando; Scarvie, Tom; Steier, Christoph

    2005-05-10

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) will soon be upgraded to enable top-off operations [1], in which electrons are quasi-continuously injected to produce constant stored beam current. The upgrade is structured in two phases. First, we will upgrade our injector from 1.5 GeV to 1.9 GeV to allow full energy injection and will start top-off operations. In the second phase, we will upgrade the Booster Ring (BR) with a bunch cleaning system to allow high bunch purity top-off injection. A diagnostics upgrade will be crucial for success in both phases of the top-off project, and our plan for it is described in this paper. New booster ring diagnostics will include updated beam position monitor (BPM) electronics, a tune monitoring system, and a new scraper. Two new synchrotron light monitors and a beam stop will be added to the booster-to-storage ring transfer line (BTS), and all the existing beam current monitors along the accelerator chain will be integrated into a single injection efficiency monitoring application. A dedicated bunch purity monitor will be installed in the storage ring (SR). Together, these diagnostic upgrades will enable smooth commissioning of the full energy injector and a quick transition to high quality top-off operation at the ALS.

  1. High resolution upgrade of the ATF damping ring BPM system

    SciTech Connect

    Terunuma, N.; Urakawa, J.; Frisch, J.; May, J.; McCormick, D.; Nelson, J.; Seryi, A.; Smith, T.; Woodley, M.; Briegel, C.; Dysert, R.; /Fermilab

    2008-05-01

    A beam position monitor (BPM) upgrade at the KEK Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) damping ring has been accomplished in its first stage, carried out by a KEK/FNAL/SLAC collaboration under the umbrella of the global ILC R&D effort. The upgrade consists of a high resolution, high reproducibility read-out system, based on analog and digital downconversion techniques, digital signal processing, and also tests a new automatic gain error correction schema. The technical concept and realization, as well as preliminary results of beam studies are presented.

  2. Status of the ATF Damping Ring BPM Upgrade Project

    SciTech Connect

    Briegel, C.; Eddy, N.; Haynes, B.; May, J.; McCormick, D.; Nelson, J.; Nicklaus, D.; Prieto, P.; Rechenmacher, R.; Smith, T.; Teranuma, N.; Urakawa, J.; Voy, D.; Wendt, M.; Woodley, M.; /SLAC

    2011-12-01

    A substantial upgrade of the beam position monitors (BPM) at the ATF (Accelerator Test Facility) damping ring is currently in progress. Implementing digital read-out signal processing techniques in line with an optimized, low-noise analog downconverter, a resolution well below 1 mum could be demonstrated at 20 (of 96) upgraded BPM stations. The narrowband, high resolution BPM mode permits investigation of all types of non-linearities, imperfections and other obstacles in the machine which may limit the very low target aimed vertical beam emittance of < 2 pm. The technical status of the project, first beam measurements and an outlook to it's finalization are presented.

  3. Method and apparatus for optically monitoring the angular position of a rotating mirror

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lansing, J. C., Jr.; Cline, R. W. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    An optical system monitors the angular position of a rotating scanning mirror to indicate the effective start and end of each scan. At a certain angular position, a ray of energy transmitted to the mirror is reflected a plurality of times between the reflectors associated with the optical system and the line on the mirror parallel to the axis, and then to a detector to sense that angular position. A single optical system may be arranged to sense a plurality of different angular positions for each revolution of the mirror.

  4. Optoacoustic technique for noninvasive monitoring of endotracheal tube placement and positioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prough, Donald S.; Petrov, Yuriy; Petrov, Irene; Kinsky, Michael; Esenaliev, Rinat O.

    2011-03-01

    Improper placement or positioning of an endotracheal tube may be lethal. Correct placement and positioning of endotracheal tubes is an essential component of life support during resuscitation from cardiac arrest or severe multiple trauma, during mechanical ventilatory support and during most surgical procedures under general anesthesia. To properly ventilate the lungs, endotracheal tubes must be inserted into the trachea rather than the esophagus, must be properly positioned in the mid-trachea and must remain properly positioned. We proposed to use optoacoustic technique for noninvasive monitoring of endotracheal tube placement and positioning. In this work we developed a compact, near infrared optoacoustic system for this application and performed in vitro tests of the system. The tests were performed in tissue phantoms (simulating overlying tissue) with an endotracheal tube. The optoacoustic measurements were noninvasively performed from the skin surface using custom-made optoacoustic probes. The placement and positioning of the endotracheal tubes were monitored with submillimeter axial and millimeter lateral resolution using the optoacoustic system. The obtained data indicate that optoacoustics can provide real-time, precise, cost-effective monitoring of placement and positioning of endotracheal tubes.

  5. Beam position monitoring in the AGS Linac to Booster transfer line

    SciTech Connect

    Shea, T.J.; Brodowski, J.; Witkover, R.

    1991-12-31

    A beam position monitor system has been developed and used in the commissioning of Brookhaven`s Linac to Booster transfer line. This line transports a chopped, RF modulated H- beam from the 200 MeV Linac to the AGS Booster. Over a 15dB dynamic range in beam current, the position monitor system provides a real-time, normalized position signal with an analog bandwidth of about 20 MHz. Seven directional coupler style pickups are installed in the line with each pickup sensing both horizontal and vertical position. Analog processing electronics are located in the tunnel and incorporate the amplitude modulation to phase modulation normalization technique. To avoid interference from the 200 MHz linac RF system, processing is performed at 400 MHz. This paper will provide a system overview and report results from the commissioning experience.

  6. Beam position monitoring in the AGS Linac to Booster transfer line

    SciTech Connect

    Shea, T.J.; Brodowski, J.; Witkover, R.

    1991-01-01

    A beam position monitor system has been developed and used in the commissioning of Brookhaven's Linac to Booster transfer line. This line transports a chopped, RF modulated H- beam from the 200 MeV Linac to the AGS Booster. Over a 15dB dynamic range in beam current, the position monitor system provides a real-time, normalized position signal with an analog bandwidth of about 20 MHz. Seven directional coupler style pickups are installed in the line with each pickup sensing both horizontal and vertical position. Analog processing electronics are located in the tunnel and incorporate the amplitude modulation to phase modulation normalization technique. To avoid interference from the 200 MHz linac RF system, processing is performed at 400 MHz. This paper will provide a system overview and report results from the commissioning experience.

  7. Design Updates of the X-ray Beam Position Monitor for Beamline Front Ends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Deming; Singh, Om; Hahne, Michael; Decker, Glenn

    2007-01-01

    At the Advanced Photon Source (APS), each insertion device (ID) beamline front end has two x-ray beam position monitors (XBPMs) to monitor the x-ray beam position in both the vertical and horizontal directions. The XBPMs measure photoelectrons generated from the CVD-diamond-based sensory blades and deduce the beam position by comparison of the relative signals from the blades. Using the method proposed by G. Decker, which involves the introduction of a chicane into the accelerator lattice that directs unwanted x-rays away from the photosensitive XBPM blades, the photon source stability has been improved by addition of XBPMs in the storage ring global orbit feedback. In recent years, design updates for the XBPM mechanical structure and geometric configuration have been made to improve its performance. We present these design updates in this paper. Test results of the XBPM design updates are also discussed here.

  8. Resolving two beams in beam splitters with a beam position monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Kurennoy, S.

    2002-01-01

    The beam transport system for the Advanced Hydrotest Facility (AHF) anticipates multiple beam splitters. Monitoring two separated beams in a common beam pipe in the splitter sections imposes certain requirements on diagnostics for these sections. In this note we explore a two-beam system in a generic beam monitor and study the feasibility of resolving the positions of the two beams with a single diagnostic device. In the Advanced Hydrotest Facility (AHF), 20-ns beam pulses (bunches) are extracted from the 50-GeV main proton synchrotron and then are transported to the target by an elaborated transport system. The beam transport system splits the beam bunches into equal parts in its splitting sections so that up to 12 synchronous beam pulses can be delivered to the target for the multi-axis proton radiography. Information about the transverse positions of the beams in the splitters, and possibly the bunch longitudinal profile, should be delivered by some diagnostic devices. Possible candidates are the circular wall current monitors in the circular pipes connecting the splitter elements, or the conventional stripline BPMs. In any case, we need some estimates on how well the transverse positions of the two beams can be resolved by these monitors.

  9. Uncovering beam position monitor noise at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, X.; Lee, S. Y.; Bai, M.

    2015-01-01

    We apply the independent component analysis (ICA) algorithm to uncover intrinsic noise in the beam position monitor (BPM) system. Numerical simulations found that ICA is efficient in the BPM noise estimation. The ICA algorithm is applied to the turn-by-turn data at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. We found the distribution of the BPM noise level, which is consistent with the Johnson-Nyquist thermal noise model. The ICA analysis of turn-by-turn data can be used in neuronetwork feasibility of monitoring a storage ring parasitically.

  10. A Method for Monitoring the Underground Mining Position Based on the Blasting Source Location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Xiu-zhi; Wang, Zong-sheng; Zhang, Zeng-zhi; Wang, Feng-qian

    2013-01-01

    Some small and medium-sized coal mines are mining beyond their mining boundary driven by profit. The illegal activities cause many mine disasters but effective supervision is very hard to achieve, especially for underground coal mining. Nowadays, artificial blasting operation is widely used in tunneling or mining in small and medium-sized coal mines. A method for monitoring the underground mining position by monitoring the blasting source position is firstly introduced in this paper. The blasting vibration waves are picked up by the detectors and dealt by the signal acquisition sub-station, and then sent to the principal computer. The blasting source is located by the principal computer and displayed in the mine’s electronic map. The blasting source position is located in 10 seconds after the first P wave reaching the detector, whose error is registered within 20 meters by field-proven method. Auto-monitoring of the underground mining position in real-time is solved better and management level is improved using this method.

  11. Controllable in-situ cell electroporation with cell positioning and impedance monitoring using micro electrode array

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xiaoliang; Zhu, Rong

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports a novel microarray chip for in-situ, real-time and selective electroporation on individual cells integrated with cell positioning and impedance monitoring. An array of quadrupole-electrode units (termed positioning electrodes) and pairs of planar center electrodes located at the centers of each quadrupole-electrode unit were fabricated on the chip. The positioning electrodes are used to trap and position living cells onto the center electrodes based on negative dielectrophoresis (nDEP). The center electrodes are used for in-situ cell electroporation, and also used to measure cell impedance for monitoring cellular dynamics in real time. Controllably selective electroporation and electrical measurement on the cells in array are realized. We present an evidence of selective electroporation through use of fluorescent dyes. Subsequently we use in-situ and real-time impedance measurement to monitor the process, which demonstrates the dynamic behavior of the cell electroporation. Finally, we show the use of this device to perform successful transfection onto individual HeLa cells with vector DNA encoding a green fluorescent. PMID:27507603

  12. Controllable in-situ cell electroporation with cell positioning and impedance monitoring using micro electrode array.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaoliang; Zhu, Rong

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports a novel microarray chip for in-situ, real-time and selective electroporation on individual cells integrated with cell positioning and impedance monitoring. An array of quadrupole-electrode units (termed positioning electrodes) and pairs of planar center electrodes located at the centers of each quadrupole-electrode unit were fabricated on the chip. The positioning electrodes are used to trap and position living cells onto the center electrodes based on negative dielectrophoresis (nDEP). The center electrodes are used for in-situ cell electroporation, and also used to measure cell impedance for monitoring cellular dynamics in real time. Controllably selective electroporation and electrical measurement on the cells in array are realized. We present an evidence of selective electroporation through use of fluorescent dyes. Subsequently we use in-situ and real-time impedance measurement to monitor the process, which demonstrates the dynamic behavior of the cell electroporation. Finally, we show the use of this device to perform successful transfection onto individual HeLa cells with vector DNA encoding a green fluorescent. PMID:27507603

  13. Residual Gas X-ray Beam Position Monitor Development for PETRA III

    SciTech Connect

    Ilinski, P.; Hahn, U.; Schulte-Schrepping, H.; Degenhardt, M.

    2007-01-19

    The development effort is driven by the need for a new type of x-ray beam position monitor (XBPM), which will detect the centre of gravity of the undulator beam. XBPMs based on the ionization of a residual gas are considered being the candidate for this future ''white'' undulator beam XBPMs. A number of residual gas XBPM prototypes for the PETRA III storage ring were developed and tested. Tests were performed at DESY and the ESRF, resolution of beam position up to 5 {mu}m is reported. The further development of the RGXBPMs will be focused on improvements of resolution, readout speed and reliability.

  14. Positioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conone, Ruth M.

    The key to positioning is the creation of a clear benefit image in the consumer's mind. One positioning strategy is creating in the prospect's mind a position that takes into consideration the company's or agency's strengths and weaknesses as well as those of its competitors. Another strategy is to gain entry into a position ladder owned by…

  15. Evaluation and Correction of the Non-linear Distortion of CEBAF Beam Position Monitors

    SciTech Connect

    M. Spata, T.L. Allison, K.E. Cole, J. Musson, J. Yan

    2011-09-01

    The beam position monitors at CEBAF have four antenna style pickups that are used to measure the location of the beam. There is a strong nonlinear response when the beam is far from the electrical center of the device. In order to conduct beam experiments at large orbit excitation we need to correct for this nonlinearity. The correction algorithm is presented and compared to measurements from our stretched wire BPM test stand.

  16. Beam Position and Phase Monitors Characterized and Installed in the LANSCE CCL

    SciTech Connect

    Gilpatrick, John D; Kutac, Vincent G.; Martinez, Derwin; McCrady, Rodney C.; O'Hara, James F.; Olivas, Felix R.; Shurter, Robert B.; Watkins, Heath A.

    2012-04-11

    The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center - Risk Mitigation Project is in the process of replacing older Coupled-Cavity-Linac (CCL) Beam-Position Monitors (BPMs) with newer Beam Position and Phase Monitors (BPPMs) and their associated electronics and cable plants. In many locations, these older BPMs include a separate Delta-T loop for measuring the beam's central phase and energy. Thirty-one BPPMs have been installed and many have monitored the charged particle beam. The installation of these newer BPPMs is the first step to installing complete BPPM measurement systems. Prior to the installation, a characterization of each BPPM took place. The characterization procedure includes a mechanical inspection, a vacuum testing, and associated electrical tests. The BPPM electrical tests for all four electrodes include contact resistance measurements, Time Domain Reflectometer (TDR) measurements, relative 201.25-MHz phase measurements, and finally a set of position-sensitive mapping measurements were performed which included associated fitting routines. This paper will show these data for a typical characterized BPPM.

  17. A national upgrade of the climate monitoring grid in Sri Lanka. The place of Open Design, OSHW and FOSS.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chemin, Yann; Bandara, Niroshan; Eriyagama, Nishadi

    2015-04-01

    The National Climate Observatory of Sri lanka is a proposition designed for the Government of Sri Lanka in September and discussed with private and public stakeholders in November 2014. The idea was initially to install a networked grid of weather instruments from locally-made open source hardware technology, on land and seas, that report live the state of climate. After initial stakeholder meetings, it was agreed to first try to connect any existing weather stations from different governmental and private sector agencies. This would bring existing information to a common ground through the Internet. At this point, it was realized that extracting information from various vendors set up would take a large amount of efforts, that is still the best and fastest anyway, as considerations from ownership and maintenance are the most important issues in a tropical humid country as Sri Lanka. Thus, the question of Open Design, open source hardware (OSHW) and free and open source software (FOSS) became a pivotal element in considering operationalization of any future elements of a national grid. Reasons range from ownership, to low-cost and customization, but prominently it is about technology ownership, royalty-free and local availability. Building on previous work from (Chemin and Bandara, 2014) we proposed to open design specifications and prototypes for weather monitoring for various kinds of needs, the Meteorological Department clearly specified that the highest variability observed spatially in Sri Lanka is rainfall, and their willingness to investigate OSHW electronics using their new team of electronics and sensors specialists. A local manufacturer is providing an OSHW micro-controller product, a start up is providing additional sensor boards under OSHW specifications and local manufacture of the sensors (tipping-bucket and other wind sensors) is under development and blueprints have been made available in the Public Domain for CNC machine, 3D printing or Plastic

  18. Self-Monitoring across Age and Ability Levels: Teaching Students to Implement Their Own Positive Behavioral Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganz, Jennifer B.

    2008-01-01

    The author aims to provide practitioners (e.g., teachers, clinicians, parents) with a review of the research on the use of self-monitoring, a positive behavioral support, with children with disabilities. The author includes a description of the steps used to implement self-monitoring; examples of the implementation of self-monitoring with children…

  19. Online monitoring of alpine slope instabilities with L1 GPS Real Time Kinematic Positions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Zhenzhong; Geiger, Alain; Limpach, Philippe; Beutel, Jan; Gsell, Tonio; Buchli, Bernhard; Gruber, Stephan; Wirz, Vanessa; Sutton, Felix

    2014-05-01

    Real time (RT) monitoring the kinematic displacement of moving landforms is of great interest to geologists and geomorphologists. Differential GPS carrier phase processing is able to compute real time kinematic (RTK) positions with an accuracy of several centimeters. The accurate kinematic position means better temporal resolution compare to static daily solution. Cost-effective L1 GPS units make deployment of higher density network affordable, which means better spatial resolution. Moreover, the real time capability is critical in the context of early warning scenarios. In this work, we present an online system for monitoring of alpine slope instabilities developed in the framework of the X-Sense project. First, a short introduction about the system will be given, from RT data transfer to RT GPS data processing and the online visualization of results. Second, we demonstrate the real time solutions and we show that GPS signal delay induced by None-Line-of-Sight (NLOS) propagation (like diffraction and reflection delays) is the major error source degrading the accuracy of computed RTK positions in short baseline process. For static stations, we model the error based on the solutions of previous days, and use the model to correct present and future solutions. For stations in motion, we propose to make use of carrier-to-noise ratio (C/N0) to appropriate dilute or correct NLOS error. By doing so, the standard deviation and especially the maximum deviation of computed RTK positions are significantly reduced.

  20. The data quality monitoring system of non-cable self-positioning seismographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, F.; Lin, J.; Linhang, Z.; Hongyuan, Y.; Zubin, C.; Huaizhu, Z.; Sun, F.

    2013-12-01

    Seismic exploration is the most effective and promising geophysical exploration methods, it inverts underground geological structure by recording crust vibration caused by nature or artificial means. In order to get rid of the long-term dependence on imported seismographs, China pays more and more attention to the independent research and development of seismic exploration equipment. This study is based on the self-invented non-cable self-positioning seismographs of Jilin University. Non-cable seismographs have many advantages such as simple arrangement, light, easy to move, easy to maintain, low price, large storage space and high-quality data, they especially apply to complex terrain and field construction environment inconvenient laying big lines. The built-in integration of GPS realizes precise clock synchronization, fast and accurate self-positioning for non-cable seismographs. The low power design and the combination of built-in rechargeable battery and external power can effectively improve non-cable seismographs` working time, which ensures the stability of exploration and construction. In order to solve the problem that the non-cable seismographs are difficult to on-site data monitor and also to provide non-cable seismographs` ability of real-time data transmission, We integrate the wireless communication technology into non-cable seismographs, combing instrument, electronic, communication, computer and many other subject knowledge, design and develop seismic exploration field work control system and seismic data management system. Achieve two research objectives which are real-time data quality monitoring in the resource exploration field and status monitoring of large trace spacing long-term observations for seismographs. Through several field experiments in different regions, we accumulate a wealth of experience, and the experiments effectively prove the good practical performance of non-cable self-positioning seismographs and data quality monitoring

  1. A real-time applicator position monitoring system for gynecologic intracavitary brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Xia, Junyi Waldron, Timothy; Kim, Yusung

    2014-01-15

    Purpose: To develop a real-time applicator position monitoring system (RAPS) for intracavitary brachytherapy using an infrared camera and reflective markers. Methods: 3D image-guided brachytherapy requires high accuracy of applicator localization; however, applicator displacement can happen during patient transfer for imaging and treatment delivery. No continuous applicator position monitoring system is currently available. The RAPS system was developed for real-time applicator position monitoring without additional radiation dose to patients. It includes an infrared camera, reflective markers, an infrared illuminator, and image processing software. After reflective markers are firmly attached to the applicator and the patient body, applicator displacement can be measured by computing the relative change in distance between the markers. The reflective markers are magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) compatible, which is suitable for MRI-guided HDR brachytherapy paradigm. In our prototype, a Microsoft Kinect sensor with a resolution of 640 by 480 pixels is used as an infrared camera. A phantom study was carried out to compare RAPS' measurements with known displacements ranging from −15 to +15 mm. A reproducibility test was also conducted. Results: The RAPS can achieve 4 frames/s using a laptop with Intel{sup ®} Core™2 Duo processor. When the pixel size is 0.95 mm, the difference between RAPS' measurements and known shift values varied from 0 to 0.8 mm with the mean value of 0.1 mm and a standard deviation of 0.44 mm. The system reproducibility was within 0.6 mm after ten reposition trials. Conclusions: This work demonstrates the feasibility of a real-time infrared camera based gynecologic intracavitary brachytherapy applicator monitoring system. Less than 1 mm accuracy is achieved when using an off-the-shelf infrared camera.

  2. Beam position and total current monitor for heavy ion fusion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Berners, D.; Reginato, L.L.

    1992-10-01

    Heavy Ion Fusion requires moderate currents, 1-10A, for a duration of about 1 {mu}s. For accurate beam transport, the center of charge must be located to within {plus_minus} 100 {mu}m. Beam position and intensity may be excited at frequencies approaching 10 MHz, and the monitoring system must have adequate bandwidth to respond at these frequencies. We have modified the Rogowski technique by using distributed reactance multiturn magnetic loops so that it is suitable for measuring current position as well as amplitude. Four identical stripline coils are wound one per quadrant around a non magnetic core. The sensitivity is similar to that of a lumped coil system, with the added advantage of increased bandwidth. The voltages induced on the four separate coils are compared and suitable signal conditioning is performed to recover beam position and intensity information.

  3. Beam position and total current monitor for heavy ion fusion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Berners, D.; Reginato, L.L.

    1992-10-01

    Heavy Ion Fusion requires moderate currents, 1-10A, for a duration of about 1 [mu]s. For accurate beam transport, the center of charge must be located to within [plus minus] 100 [mu]m. Beam position and intensity may be excited at frequencies approaching 10 MHz, and the monitoring system must have adequate bandwidth to respond at these frequencies. We have modified the Rogowski technique by using distributed reactance multiturn magnetic loops so that it is suitable for measuring current position as well as amplitude. Four identical stripline coils are wound one per quadrant around a non magnetic core. The sensitivity is similar to that of a lumped coil system, with the added advantage of increased bandwidth. The voltages induced on the four separate coils are compared and suitable signal conditioning is performed to recover beam position and intensity information.

  4. A wire scanner system for characterizing the BNL energy recovery LINAC beam position monitor system

    SciTech Connect

    Michnoff R.; Biscardi, C.; Cerniglia, P.; Degen, C.; Gassner, D.; Hoff, L.; Hulsart, R.

    2012-04-15

    A stepper motor controlled wire scanner system has recently been modified to support testing of the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) Collider-Accelerator department's Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) beam position monitor (BPM) system. The ERL BPM consists of four 9.33 mm diameter buttons mounted at 90 degree spacing in a cube with 1.875 inch inside diameter. The buttons were designed by BNL and fabricated by Times Microwave Systems. Libera brilliance single pass BPM electronic modules with 700 MHz bandpass filter, manufactured by Instrumentation Technologies, will be used to measure the transverse beam positions at 14 locations around the ERL. The wire scanner assembly provides the ability to measure the BPM button response to a pulsed wire, and evaluate and calibrate the Libera position measurement electronics. A description of the wire scanner system and test result data will be presented.

  5. Hiresmon: A Fast High Resolution Beam Position Monitor for Medium Hard and Hard X-Rays

    SciTech Connect

    Menk, Ralf Hendrik; Giuressi, Dario; Arfelli, Fulvia; Rigon, Luigi

    2007-01-19

    The high-resolution x-ray beam position monitor (XBPM) is based on the principle of a segmented longitudinal ionization chamber with integrated readout and USB2 link. In contrast to traditional transversal ionization chambers here the incident x-rays are parallel to the collecting field which allows absolute intensity measurements with a precision better than 0.3 %. Simultaneously the beam position in vertical and horizontal direction can be measured with a frame rate of one kHz. The precision of position encoding depends only on the SNR of the synchrotron radiation and is in the order of micro meters at one kHz frame rate and 108 photon /sec at 9 KeV.

  6. A GPS/GNSS dense network used to monitor ionospheric positioning error

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wautelet, G.; Lejeune, S.; Warnant, R.

    2010-12-01

    GPS/GNSS networks are, for the last few years, quickly expanding their density all over the surface of the globe. The present idea is to use this density in order to assess the effect of ionospheric disturbances on relative positioning but also to monitor their propagation patterns. Local variability in the ionospheric electron density can dramaticaly affect the reliability of GPS/GNSS real time applications. In particular, Traveling Ionospheric Disturbances (TID's) or plasma instability due to geomagnetic storms can induce strong disturbances in relative positioning. It is therefore useful to develop an integrity monitoring service based on a GPS/GNSS dense network. To assess the effects of ionospheric activity on relative positioning, the SoDIPE-RTK software (Software for Determining the Ionospheric Positionning Error on RTK) has been developed at the Royal Meteorological Institute of Belgium. The approach consists in computing the positioning error due to the ionosphere and has been applied, as a proof of concept, on the Belgian dense network. This network called Active Geodetic Network (AGN) is composed of 66 GPS (dual-frequency) stations. In order to ensure a successful ambiguity resolution for both L1 and L2 carriers, baselines larger than 40 km are not taken into account in the analysis. In a first step, we assess the nominal RTK precision for each baseline during quiet ionospheric conditions (i.e. a background of low Total Electron Content (TEC) variability). The observed positioning accuracy is ~1 cm and depends mainly on baseline length and satellite geometry at the two considered stations. In a second step, the impact of two ionospheric events on positioning error (a medium scale TID and a powerful geomagnetic storm) is evaluated. As expected, the study demonstrates that the largest effects are observed during the occurrence of the geomagnetic storm with an ionospheric positioning error reaching 0.9 m. The maximal positioning error observed during the

  7. Through-wafer optical probe characterization for microelectromechanical systems positional state monitoring and feedback control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, Jeremy M.; Chen, Jingdong; Brown, Kolin S.; Famouri, Parviz F.; Hornak, Lawrence A.

    2000-12-01

    Implementation of closed-loop microelectromechanical system (MEMS) control enables mechanical microsystems to adapt to the demands of the environment that they are actuating, opening a broad range of new opportunities for future MEMS applications. Integrated optical microsystems have the potential to enable continuous in situ optical interrogation of MEMS microstructure position fully decoupled from the means of mechanical actuation that is necessary for realization of feedback control. We present the results of initial research evaluating through-wafer optical microprobes for surface micromachined MEMS integrated optical position monitoring. Results from the through-wafer free-space optical probe of a lateral comb resonator fabricated using the multiuser MEMS process service (MUMPS) indicate significant positional information content with an achievable return probe signal dynamic range of up to 80% arising from film transmission contrast. Static and dynamic deflection analysis and experimental results indicate a through-wafer probe positional signal sensitivity of 40 mV/micrometers for the present setup or 10% signal change per micrometer. A simulation of the application of nonlinear sliding control is presented illustrating position control of the lateral comb resonator structure given the availability of positional state information.

  8. The LHCb VELO upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dosil Suárez, Álvaro

    2016-07-01

    The upgrade of the LHCb experiment, planned for 2019, will transform the experiment to a trigger-less system reading out the full detector at 40 MHz event rate. All data reduction algorithms will be executed in a high-level software farm. The upgraded detector will run at luminosities of 2×1033 cm-2 s-1 and probe physics beyond the Standard Model in the heavy flavour sector with unprecedented precision. The Vertex Locator (VELO) is the silicon vertex detector surrounding the interaction region. The current detector will be replaced with a hybrid pixel system equipped with electronics capable of reading out at 40 MHz. The detector comprises silicon pixel sensors with 55×55 μm2 pitch, read out by the VeloPix ASIC, based on the TimePix/MediPix family. The hottest region will have pixel hit rates of 900 Mhits/s yielding a total data rate more than 3 Tbit/s for the upgraded VELO. The detector modules are located in a separate vacuum, separated from the beam vacuum by a thin custom made foil. The detector halves are retracted when the beams are injected and closed at stable beams, positioning the first sensitive pixel at 5.1 mm from the beams. The material budget will be minimised by the use of evaporative CO2 coolant circulating in microchannels within 400 μm thick silicon substrates.

  9. Integral window/photon beam position monitor and beam flux detectors for x-ray beams

    DOEpatents

    Shu, Deming; Kuzay, Tuncer M.

    1995-01-01

    A monitor/detector assembly in a synchrotron for either monitoring the position of a photon beam or detecting beam flux may additionally function as a vacuum barrier between the front end and downstream segment of the beamline in the synchrotron. A base flange of the monitor/detector assembly is formed of oxygen free copper with a central opening covered by a window foil that is fused thereon. The window foil is made of man-made materials, such as chemical vapor deposition diamond or cubic boron nitrate and in certain configurations includes a central opening through which the beams are transmitted. Sensors of low atomic number materials, such as aluminum or beryllium, are laid on the window foil. The configuration of the sensors on the window foil may be varied depending on the function to be performed. A contact plate of insulating material, such as aluminum oxide, is secured to the base flange and is thereby clamped against the sensor on the window foil. The sensor is coupled to external electronic signal processing devices via a gold or silver lead printed onto the contact plate and a copper post screw or alternatively via a copper screw and a copper spring that can be inserted through the contact plate and coupled to the sensors. In an alternate embodiment of the monitor/detector assembly, the sensors are sandwiched between the window foil of chemical vapor deposition diamond or cubic boron nitrate and a front foil made of similar material.

  10. A configurable electronics system for the ESS-Bilbao beam position monitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muguira, L.; Belver, D.; Etxebarria, V.; Varnasseri, S.; Arredondo, I.; del Campo, M.; Echevarria, P.; Garmendia, N.; Feuchtwanger, J.; Jugo, J.; Portilla, J.

    2013-09-01

    A versatile and configurable system has been developed in order to monitorize the beam position and to meet all the requirements of the future ESS-Bilbao Linac. At the same time the design has been conceived to be open and configurable so that it could eventually be used in different kinds of accelerators, independent of the charged particle, with minimal change. The design of the Beam Position Monitors (BPMs) system includes a test bench both for button-type pick-ups (PU) and striplines (SL), the electronic units and the control system. The electronic units consist of two main parts. The first part is an Analog Front-End (AFE) unit where the RF signals are filtered, conditioned and converted to base-band. The second part is a Digital Front-End (DFE) unit which is based on an FPGA board where the base-band signals are sampled in order to calculate the beam position, the amplitude and the phase. To manage the system a Multipurpose Controller (MC) developed at ESSB has been used. It includes the FPGA management, the EPICS integration and Archiver Instances. A description of the system and a comparison between the performance of both PU and SL BPM designs measured with this electronics system are fully described and discussed.

  11. GPS/GLONASS time offset monitoring based on combined Precise Point Positioning (PPP) approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, G.; Zhang, Q.; Fu, W.; Guo, H.

    2015-06-01

    A new strategy is proposed to monitor GPS/GLONASS time offsets for common navigation users using a combined GPS/GLONASS Precise Point Positioning (PPP) method based on the orbit and clock products of different time scales. The results of the inter-system GPS/GLONASS time offset, the user time offset and the inter-system device delay difference were obtained using the proposed method. The properties of these results were analyzed in terms of the stability, precision and variation characteristics. Moreover, the practicality of the time offset results in an actual navigation application was tested and demonstrated. The results indicate that the monitoring and prediction of the user time offset, but not the inter-system time offset, has important values for navigation users.

  12. Positioning of Embedded Optical Fibres Sensors for the Monitoring of Buckling in Stiffened Composite Panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riccio, A.; Di Caprio, F.; Camerlingo, F.; Scaramuzzino, F.; Gambino, B.

    2013-02-01

    A numerical/experimental study on the monitoring of the skin buckling phenomenon in stiffened composite panels by embedding optical fibres is presented in this paper. A numerical procedure has been introduced able to provide the most efficient embedded optical fibre path (with minimum length) fulfilling the grating sensors locations and directions requirements whilst satisfying specific embedding/integrity constraints for the optical fibre. The developed numerical procedure has been applied to a stiffened composite panel under compression load. The best location and direction of the grating sensors and the optimal optical fibre path for the monitoring of the skin buckling phenomenon have been found by performing respectively non-linear FEM analyses and optimization analyses. The procedure has been validated by means of an experimental testing activity on a stiffened panel instrumented with embedded optical fibres and back-to-back strain gauges which have been positioned according to the numerically estimated grating sensors locations and directions.

  13. Monitoring mobility in older adults using global positioning system (GPS) watches and accelerometers: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Webber, Sandra C; Porter, Michelle M

    2009-10-01

    This exploratory study examined the feasibility of using Garmin global positioning system (GPS) watches and ActiGraph accelerometers to monitor walking and other aspects of community mobility in older adults. After accuracy at slow walking speeds was initially determined, 20 older adults (74.4 +/- 4.2 yr) wore the devices for 1 day. Steps, distances, and speeds (on foot and in vehicle) were determined. GPS data acquisition varied from 43 min to over 12 hr, with 55% of participants having more than 8 hr between initial and final data-collection points. When GPS data were acquired without interruptions, detailed mobility information was obtained regarding the timing, distances covered, and speeds reached during trips away from home. Although GPS and accelerometry technology offer promise for monitoring community mobility patterns, new GPS solutions are required that allow for data collection over an extended period of time between indoor and outdoor environments. PMID:19940324

  14. Intrafraction displacement of prone versus supine prostate positioning monitored by real-time electromagnetic tracking.

    PubMed

    Butler, Wayne M; Merrick, Gregory S; Reed, Joshua L; Murray, Brian C; Kurko, Brian S

    2013-01-01

    Implanted radiofrequency transponders were used for real-time monitoring of the intrafraction prostate displacement between patients in the prone position and the same patients in the supine position. Thirteen patients had three transponders implanted transperineally and were treated prone with a custom-fitted thermoplastic immobilization device. After collecting data from the last fraction, patients were realigned in the supine position and the displacements of the transponders were monitored for 5-7 minutes. Fourier transforms were applied to the data from each patient to determine periodicity and its amplitude. To remove auto correlation from the stream of displacement data, the distribution of short-term and long-term velocity components were calculated from Poincaré plots of paired sequential vector displacements. The mean absolute displacement was significantly greater prone than supine in the superior-inferior (SI) plane (1.2 ± 0.6 mm vs. 0.6 ± 0.4 mm, p= 0.015), but not for the lateral or anterior-posterior (AP) planes. Displacements were least in the lateral direction. Fourier analyses showed the amplitude of respiratory oscillations was much greater for the SI and AP planes in the prone versus the supine position. Analysis of Poincaré plots confirmed greater short-term variance in the prone position, but no difference in the long-term variance. The centroid of the implanted transponders was offset from the treatment isocenter by > 5 mm for 1.9% of the time versus 0.8% of the time for supine. These results confirmed significantly greater net intrafraction prostate displacement of patients in the prone position than in the supine position, but most of the difference was due to respiration-induced motion that was most pronounced in the SI and AP directions. Because the respiratory motion remained within the action threshold and also within our 5 mm treatment planning margins, there is no compelling reason to choose one treatment position over the other

  15. Monitoring motion and measuring relative position of the Chang'E-3 rover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qinghui; Zheng, Xin; Huang, Yong; Li, Peijia; He, Qingbao; Wu, Yajun; Guo, Li; Tang, Mingle

    2014-11-01

    Same-beam very long baseline interferometry observations were performed between the rover and the lander of Chang'E-3 and differential phase delay data were obtained with the minimum random error of about 0.03 ps. These data were used to monitor the rover motions, as small as several centimeters, including movement, turning, and attitude adjustment. The relative position between the rover and the lander was precisely measured with an accuracy of 1 m, which is an improvement of 10 times compared with that of the Apollo project.

  16. High-Precision Resonant Cavity Beam Position, Emittance And Third-Moment Monitors

    SciTech Connect

    Barov, N.; Kim, J.S.; Weidemann, A.W.; Miller, R.H.; Nantista, C.D.; /SLAC

    2006-03-14

    Linear colliders and FEL facilities need fast, nondestructive beam position and profile monitors to facilitate machine tune-up, and for use with feedback control. FAR-TECH, Inc., in collaboration with SLAC, is developing a resonant cavity diagnostic to simultaneously measure the dipole, quadrupole and sextupole moments of the beam distribution. Measurements of dipole and quadrupole moments at multiple locations yield information about beam orbit and emittance. The sextupole moment can reveal information about beam asymmetry which is useful in diagnosing beam tail deflections caused by short-range dipole wakefields. In addition to the resonance enhancement of a single-cell cavity, use of a multi-cell standing-wave structure further enhances signal strength and improves the resolution of the device. An estimated resolution is better than 1 {micro}m in rms beam size and better than 1 nm in beam position.

  17. Prototyping of beam position monitor for medium energy beam transport section of RAON heavy ion accelerator.

    PubMed

    Jang, Hyojae; Jin, Hyunchang; Jang, Ji-Ho; Hong, In-Seok

    2016-02-01

    A heavy ion accelerator, RAON is going to be built by Rare Isotope Science Project in Korea. Its target is to accelerate various stable ions such as uranium, proton, and xenon from electron cyclotron resonance ion source and some rare isotopes from isotope separation on-line. The beam shaping, charge selection, and modulation should be applied to the ions from these ion sources because RAON adopts a superconducting linear accelerator structure for beam acceleration. For such treatment, low energy beam transport, radio frequency quadrupole, and medium energy beam transport (MEBT) will be installed in injector part of RAON accelerator. Recently, development of a prototype of stripline beam position monitor (BPM) to measure the position of ion beams in MEBT section is under way. In this presentation, design of stripline, electromagnetic (EM) simulation results, and RF measurement test results obtained from the prototyped BPM will be described. PMID:26932088

  18. Design and performance of a high resolution, low latency stripline beam position monitor system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apsimon, R. J.; Bett, D. R.; Blaskovic Kraljevic, N.; Burrows, P. N.; Christian, G. B.; Clarke, C. I.; Constance, B. D.; Dabiri Khah, H.; Davis, M. R.; Perry, C.; Resta López, J.; Swinson, C. J.

    2015-03-01

    A high-resolution, low-latency beam position monitor (BPM) system has been developed for use in particle accelerators and beam lines that operate with trains of particle bunches with bunch separations as low as several tens of nanoseconds, such as future linear electron-positron colliders and free-electron lasers. The system was tested with electron beams in the extraction line of the Accelerator Test Facility at the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) in Japan. It consists of three stripline BPMs instrumented with analogue signal-processing electronics and a custom digitizer for logging the data. The design of the analogue processor units is presented in detail, along with measurements of the system performance. The processor latency is 15.6 ±0.1 ns . A single-pass beam position resolution of 291 ±10 nm has been achieved, using a beam with a bunch charge of approximately 1 nC.

  19. Prototyping of beam position monitor for medium energy beam transport section of RAON heavy ion accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Hyojae; Jin, Hyunchang; Jang, Ji-Ho; Hong, In-Seok

    2016-02-01

    A heavy ion accelerator, RAON is going to be built by Rare Isotope Science Project in Korea. Its target is to accelerate various stable ions such as uranium, proton, and xenon from electron cyclotron resonance ion source and some rare isotopes from isotope separation on-line. The beam shaping, charge selection, and modulation should be applied to the ions from these ion sources because RAON adopts a superconducting linear accelerator structure for beam acceleration. For such treatment, low energy beam transport, radio frequency quadrupole, and medium energy beam transport (MEBT) will be installed in injector part of RAON accelerator. Recently, development of a prototype of stripline beam position monitor (BPM) to measure the position of ion beams in MEBT section is under way. In this presentation, design of stripline, electromagnetic (EM) simulation results, and RF measurement test results obtained from the prototyped BPM will be described.

  20. Model-independent analysis of the Fermilab Tevatron turn-by-turn beam position monitor measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Petrenko, A.V.; Valishev, A.A.; Lebedev, V.A.; /Fermilab

    2011-09-01

    Coherent transverse beam oscillations in the Tevatron were analyzed with the model-independent analysis (MIA) technique. This allowed one to obtain the model-independent values of coupled betatron amplitudes, phase advances, and dispersion function around the ring from a single dipole kick measurement. In order to solve the MIA mode mixing problem which limits the accuracy of determination of the optical functions, we have developed a new technique of rotational MIA mode untangling. The basic idea is to treat each beam position monitor (BPM) as two BPMs separated in a ring by exactly one turn. This leads to a simple criterion of MIA mode separation: the betatron phase advance between any BPM and its counterpart shifted by one turn should be equal to the betatron tune and therefore should not depend on the BPM position in the ring. Furthermore, we describe a MIA-based technique to locate vibrating magnets in a storage ring.

  1. A novel electromagnetic design and a new manufacturing process for the cavity BPM (Beam Position Monitor)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dal Forno, Massimo; Craievich, Paolo; Baruzzo, Roberto; De Monte, Raffaele; Ferianis, Mario; Lamanna, Giuseppe; Vescovo, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    The Cavity Beam Position Monitor (BPM) is a beam diagnostic instrument which, in a seeded Free Electron Laser (FEL), allows the measurement of the electron beam position in a non-destructive way and with sub-micron resolution. It is composed by two resonant cavities called reference and position cavity, respectively. The measurement exploits the dipole mode that arises when the electron bunch passes off axis. In this paper we describe the Cavity BPM that has been designed and realized in the context of the FERMI@Elettra project [1]. New strategies have been adopted for the microwave design, for both the reference and the position cavities. Both cavities have been simulated by means of Ansoft HFSS [2] and CST Particle Studio [3], and have been realized using high precision lathe and wire-EDM (Electro-Discharge) machine, with a new technique that avoids the use of the sinker-EDM machine. Tuners have been used to accurately adjust the working frequencies for both cavities. The RF parameters have been estimated, and the modifications of the resonant frequencies produced by brazing and tuning have been evaluated. Finally, the Cavity BPM has been installed and tested in the presence of the electron beam.

  2. A Demonstration of GPS Landslide Monitoring Using Online Positioning User Service (OPUS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, G.

    2011-12-01

    Global Positioning System (GPS) technologies have been frequently applied to landslide study, both as a complement, and as an alternative to conventional surveying methods. However, most applications of GPS for landslide monitoring have been limited to the academic community for research purposes. High-accuracy GPS has not been widely equipped in geotechnical companies and used by technicians. The main issue that limits the applications of GPS in the practice of high-accuracy landslide monitoring is the complexity of GPS data processing. This study demonstrated an approach using the Online Positioning User Service (OPUS) (http://www.ngs.noaa.gov/OPUS) provided by the National Geodetic Survey (NGS) of National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to process GPS data and conduct long-term landslide monitoring in the Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands Region. Continuous GPS data collected at a creeping landslide site during two years were used to evaluate different scenarios for landslide surveying: continuous or campaign, long duration or short duration, morning or afternoon (different weather conditions). OPUS uses Continuously Operating Reference Station (CORS) managed by NGS (http://www.ngs.noaa.giv/CORS/) as references and user data as a rover to solve a position. There are 19 CORS permanent GPS stations in the Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands region. The dense GPS network provides a precise and reliable reference frame for subcentimeter-accuracy landslide monitoring in this region. Our criterion for the accuracy was the root-mean-square (RMS) of OPUS solutions over a 2-year period with respect to true landslide displacement time series overt the same period. The true landslide displacements were derived from a single-baseline (130 m) GPS processing by using 24-hour continuous data. If continuous GPS surveying is performed in the field, then OPUS static processing can provide 0.6 cm horizontal and 1.1 cm vertical precision with few outliers. If repeated

  3. Beam feasibility study of a collimator with in-jaw beam position monitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wollmann, Daniel; Nosych, Andriy A.; Valentino, Gianluca; Aberle, Oliver; Aßmann, Ralph W.; Bertarelli, Alessandro; Boccard, Christian; Bruce, Roderik; Burkart, Florian; Calvo, Eva; Cauchi, Marija; Dallocchio, Alessandro; Deboy, Daniel; Gasior, Marek; Jones, Rhodri; Kain, Verena; Lari, Luisella; Redaelli, Stefano; Rossi, Adriana

    2014-12-01

    At present, the beam-based alignment of the LHC collimators is performed by touching the beam halo with both jaws of each collimator. This method requires dedicated fills at low intensities that are done infrequently and makes this procedure time consuming. This limits the operational flexibility, in particular in the case of changes of optics and orbit configuration in the experimental regions. The performance of the LHC collimation system relies on the machine reproducibility and regular loss maps to validate the settings of the collimator jaws. To overcome these limitations and to allow a continuous monitoring of the beam position at the collimators, a design with jaw-integrated Beam Position Monitors (BPMs) was proposed and successfully tested with a prototype (mock-up) collimator in the CERN SPS. Extensive beam experiments allowed to determine the achievable accuracy of the jaw alignment for single and multi-turn operation. In this paper, the results of these experiments are discussed. The non-linear response of the BPMs is compared to the predictions from electromagnetic simulations. Finally, the measured alignment accuracy is compared to the one achieved with the present collimators in the LHC.

  4. Volatile anesthetics give a false-positive reading in chemical agent monitors in the "H" mode.

    PubMed

    Risk, D; Verpy, D; Conley, J D; Jacobson, T; Sawyer, T W

    2001-08-01

    Chemical agent monitors (CAMs) are routinely used by the armed forces and emergency response teams of many countries for the detection of the vesicant sulfur mustard (HD) and the G series of organophosphate nerve agents. Ambient operating room isoflurane levels were found to produce strong positive signals in the "H" mode when the CAM was used to monitor the efficacy of decontamination procedures during routine surgical procedures on HD-poisoned animals requiring up to 8 hours of general anesthesia. Subsequent testing showed that isoflurane, as well as desflurane, sevoflurane, halothane and methoxyflurane, produce two ionization peaks in the CAM response. One of these peaks is interpreted by the CAM processing software as HD, resulting in a CAM "H" mode bar response. No interference was encountered with isoflurane, desflurane, and sevoflurane when the CAM was set to the "G" mode, although extremely high (nonclinical) concentrations of halothane and methoxyflurane yielded a weakly positive bar response. These findings have potentially serious ramifications for the medical management of patients resulting from terrorist, military, or chemical agent decommissioning activity when concomitant chemical injuries are also possible. PMID:11515322

  5. Long bunch trains measured using a prototype cavity beam position monitor for the Compact Linear Collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cullinan, F. J.; Boogert, S. T.; Farabolini, W.; Lefevre, T.; Lunin, A.; Lyapin, A.; Søby, L.; Towler, J.; Wendt, M.

    2015-11-01

    The Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) requires beam position monitors (BPMs) with 50 nm spatial resolution for alignment of the beam line elements in the main linac and beam delivery system. Furthermore, the BPMs must be able to make multiple independent measurements within a single 156 ns long bunch train. A prototype cavity BPM for CLIC has been manufactured and tested on the probe beam line at the 3rd CLIC Test Facility (CTF3) at CERN. The transverse beam position is determined from the electromagnetic resonant modes excited by the beam in the two cavities of the pickup, the position cavity and the reference cavity. The mode that is measured in each cavity resonates at 15 GHz and has a loaded quality factor that is below 200. Analytical expressions for the amplitude, phase and total energy of signals from long trains of bunches have been derived and the main conclusions are discussed. The results of the beam tests are presented. The variable gain of the receiver electronics has been characterized using beam excited signals and the form of the signals for different beam pulse lengths with the 2 /3 ns bunch spacing has been observed. The sensitivity of the reference cavity signal to charge and the horizontal position signal to beam offset have been measured and are compared with theoretical predictions based on laboratory measurements of the BPM pickup and the form of the resonant cavity modes as determined by numerical simulation. Finally, the BPM was calibrated so that the beam position jitter at the BPM location could be measured. It is expected that the beam jitter scales linearly with the beam size and so the results are compared to predicted values for the latter.

  6. uc(Pegasus) Facility Upgrades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, J. C.; Lewicki, B. T.; Burke, S. P.; Eidietis, N. W.; Fonck, R. J.; Ford, B. A.; Garstka, G. D.; Unterberg, E. A.; Winz, G. R.

    2003-10-01

    Extensive new capabilities have been installed on the uc(Pegasus) ST facility. A new laboratory configuration allows separation of all power systems from the experimental hall. Data acquisition, control, and support facilities have been improved. New magnetic field power supplies utilize unique high-power 2700V IGCT switch modules to provide bipolar waveform control for the high-stress solenoid magnet, while 900V IGBTs provide uni/bipolar control of the PF and TF systems. The coil sets are independently controlled by pulse-width-modulated circuits developed by the HIT group. Capacitor charging, dumping, and monitoring are controlled by a PCI-based multichannel data acquisition and control system. These upgrades will provide: 1) increased V-s and loop voltage control for higher plasma current and suppression of MHD modes; 2) increased toroidal field with fast-ramp capability for improved access to the low-q, high βt regime; and 3) flexible equilibrium field control for radial position and modest shape control.

  7. Development of Electronics for the ATF2 Interaction Point Region Beam Position Monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Youngim; Heo, Ae-young; Kim, Eun-San; Boogert, Stewart; Honda, Yosuke; Tauchi, Toshiaki; Terunuma, Nobuhiro; May, Justin; McCormick, Douglas; Smith, Tonee; /SLAC

    2012-08-14

    Nanometer resolution beam position monitors have been developed to measure and control beam position stability at the interaction point region of ATF2. The position of the beam has to be measured to within a few nanometers at the interaction point. In order to achieve this performance, electronics for the low-Q IP-BPM was developed. Every component of the electronics have been simulated and checked on the bench and using the ATF2 beam. We will explain each component and define their working range. Then, we will show the performance of the electronics measured with beam signal. ATF2 is a final focus test beam line for ILC in the framework of the ATF international collaboration. The new beam line was constructed to extend the extraction line at ATF, KEK, Japan. The first goal of ATF2 is the acheiving of a 37 nm vertical beam size at focal point (IP). The second goal is to stabilize the beam at the focal point at a few nanometer level for a long period in order to ensure the high luminosity. To achieve these goals a high resolution IP-BPM is essential. In addition for feedback applications a low-Q system is desirable.

  8. Calibration of the beam-position monitor system for the SLAC PEP-II B factory

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.; Smith, S.; Kurita, N.

    1997-06-01

    The Beam-Position Monitors (BPM) for the PEP-II B Factory consist of four 1.5-cm diameter button style pickups mounted on the diagonals of the quadrupole vacuum chambers. Before installation of the vacuum chambers in the quadrupole assemblies, the electrical center of the BPMs is measured with respect to the mechanical center in a calibration test stand. In this paper the calibration test stand is described and the precision and accuracy of the calibrations are presented. After installation of the quadrupole assemblies in the PEP-II tunnel, the passive attenuation for each channel of the system is measured to preserve the accuracy of the calibration. Finally, the active electronics includes an onboard calibrator. Results for these portions of the calibration are presented.

  9. Successive approximation algorithm for beam-position-monitor-based LHC collimator alignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentino, Gianluca; Nosych, Andriy A.; Bruce, Roderik; Gasior, Marek; Mirarchi, Daniele; Redaelli, Stefano; Salvachua, Belen; Wollmann, Daniel

    2014-02-01

    Collimators with embedded beam position monitor (BPM) button electrodes will be installed in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) during the current long shutdown period. For the subsequent operation, BPMs will allow the collimator jaws to be kept centered around the beam orbit. In this manner, a better beam cleaning efficiency and machine protection can be provided at unprecedented higher beam energies and intensities. A collimator alignment algorithm is proposed to center the jaws automatically around the beam. The algorithm is based on successive approximation and takes into account a correction of the nonlinear BPM sensitivity to beam displacement and an asymmetry of the electronic channels processing the BPM electrode signals. A software implementation was tested with a prototype collimator in the Super Proton Synchrotron. This paper presents results of the tests along with some considerations for eventual operation in the LHC.

  10. A Beam Position Monitor for High Power Beams with Large Transverse Dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Arne Freyberger; Danny Dotson; Pavel Degtiarenko; Vladimir Popov

    2005-06-01

    Proper transport of the electron beam with over 0.5MW of power to the beam dump is a prerequisite for operations at Jefferson Lab. Operations has relied on imaging the beam on a beam viewer located at the entrance to the beam dump. The large beam size at the dump entrance, due to beam scattering in the experimental target, sometimes results in no observable image on the view-screen. Chemical vapor deposited silicon carbide [CVD] material with its large thermal conductivity and high melting point is well suited for surviving the thermal effects of beam exposure with this power density. We are exploring the CVD properties and how it can be used as a robust beam position monitor. Results of some beam tests with 0.5MW beams will be presented.

  11. Capacitive beam position monitors for the low-β beam of the Chinese ADS proton linac

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yong; Wu, Jun-Xia; Zhu, Guang-Yu; Jia, Huan; Xue, Zong-Heng; Zheng, Hai; Xie, Hong-Ming; Kang, Xin-Cai; He, Yuan; Li, Lin; Denard, Jean Claude

    2016-02-01

    Beam Position Monitors (BPMs) for the low-β beam of the Chinese Accelerator Driven Subcritical system (CADS) Proton linac are of the capacitive pick-up type. They provide higher output signals than that of the inductive type. This paper will describe the design and tests of the capacitive BPM system for the low-β proton linac, including the pick-ups, the test bench and the read-out electronics. The tests done with an actual proton beam show a good agreement between the measurements and the simulations in the time domain. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11405240) and “Western Light” Talents Training Program of Chinese Academy of Sciences

  12. Developmental Status of Beam Position and Phase Monitor for PEFP Proton Linac

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sungju; Park, Jangho; Yu, Inha; Kim, Dotae; Hwang, Jung-Yun; Nam, Sanghoon

    2004-11-01

    The PEFP (Proton Engineering Frontier Project) at the KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) is building a high-power proton linear accelerator aiming to generate 100-MeV proton beams with 20-mA peak current. (Pulse width and max. repetition rate of 1 ms and 120 Hz respectively.) We have developed the Beam Position and Phase Monitor (BPPM) for the machine that features the button-type PU, the full-analog processing electronics, and the EPICS-based control system. The beam responses of the button-type PU have been obtained using the MAGIC (Particle-In-Cell) code. The processing electronics has been developed in collaboration with Bergoz Instrumentation. In this article, we report the present status of the system developments except the control system.

  13. Log-ratio signal-processing technique for beam position monitors

    SciTech Connect

    Shafer, R.E.

    1993-02-01

    Two basic signal-processing techniques are presently in wide use for the processing of signals from beam position monitors (BPMs); difference-over-sum, and amplitude-modulation-to-phase-modulation (AM-PM) conversion. Difference-over-sum offers simplicity and low cost, but poor real-time normalized response and amplitude dynamic range. AM-PM offers fast real-time response and large dynamic range, but is costly and difficult to implement. Logarithmic-ratio processing, a technique using newly available inexpensive hybrid circuits, appears to offer the advantages of both, and the disadvantages of neither. This paper reviews the features techniques, and highlights the features of the log-ratio technique. Among the advantages of log-ratio is a beam-displacement response linearity that is superior to either difference-over-sum or AM-PM for circular-aperture BPMs.

  14. PAL-XFEL cavity beam position monitor pick-up design and beam test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sojeong; Park, Young Jung; Kim, Changbum; Kim, Seung Hwan; Shin, Dong Cheol; Han, Jang-Hui; Ko, In Soo

    2016-08-01

    As an X-ray Free Electron Laser, PAL-XFEL is about to start beam commissioning. X-band cavity beam position monitor (BPM) is used in the PAL-XFEL undulator beam line. Prototypes of cavity BPM pick-up were designed and fabricated to test the RF characteristics. Also, the beam test of a cavity BPM pick-up was done in the Injector Test Facility (ITF). In the beam test, the raw signal properties of the cavity BPM pick-up were measured at a 200 pC bunch charge. According to the RF test and beam test results, the prototype cavity BPM pick-up design was confirmed to meet the requirements of the PAL-XFEL cavity BPM system.

  15. A new ultrasonic canal preparation system with electronic monitoring of file tip position.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, C; Yoshioka, T; Suda, H

    1996-09-01

    A new ultrasonic root canal preparation system has been developed that electronically monitors the location of the file tip during all instrumentation procedures. The Root ZX has been adapted for this purpose, and its filter circuit effectively cuts out the large spike noise of the ultrasonic unit. During enlargement of the canal, the ultrasonic vibration of the file can be stopped at any desired position on the meter. Extracted human tooth models with electronically measurable canals were used to test the device. Pre- and postoperative shapes of the root canals were evaluated using contact microradiography. The autostop mechanism worked correctly. Using a weak power and fine files, straightening, ledge formation, and file breakage were minimal. It seems that this system minimized the danger of overinstrumentation and could be safely applied in clinical practice. PMID:9198433

  16. Efficacy of Monitoring Patient’s Position during Neurosurgical Procedures: Introduction of Real-time Display and Record

    PubMed Central

    HASEGAWA, Mitsuhiro; NOURI, Mohsen; FUJISAWA, Hironori; HAYASHI, Yutaka; INAMASU, Joji; HIROSE, Yuichi; YAMASHITA, Junkoh

    2015-01-01

    There are many reports on position-related complications in neurosurgical literature but so far, continuous quantification of the patient’s position during the surgery has not been reported. This study aims to explore the utility of a new surgical table system and its software in displaying the patient’s body positions during surgery on real-time basis. More than 200 neurosurgical cases were monitored for their positions intra-operatively. The position was digitally recorded and could be seen by all the members in the operating team. It also displayed the three-dimensional relationship between the head and the heart positions. No position-related complications were observed during the study. The system was able to serve as an excellent indicator for monitoring the patient’s position. The recordings were analyzed and even used to reproduce or improve the position in the subsequent operations. The novel technique of monitoring the position of the head and the heart of the patients and the operating table planes are considered to be useful during delicate neurosurgical procedures thereby, preventing inadvertent procedural errors. This can be used to quantify various surgical positions in the future and define safety measures accordingly. PMID:25797776

  17. Integrity monitoring in real-time precise point positioning in the presence of ionospheric disturbances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wezka, K.; Galas, R.

    2013-12-01

    Ionospheric disturbances are characterized as fast and random variability in the ionosphere. Those phenomena are difficult to predict, detect and model. Occurrence of some strong ionospheric disturbances can cause, inter alia degradation and interruption of GNSS signals. Therefore they are especially harmful for real-time applications, as for example Precise Point Positioning (PPP) in real time, where one of the most important requirements is to ensure the high level of reliability. In such applications verification and confirmation of a high trust degree towards the estimated coordinates is a very critical issue. In one of the previous papers (K. Wezka, 2012 -Identification of system performance parameters and their usability) two sets of parameters have been proposed for enhance reliability of the PPP. The first one for data quality control (QC) of the raw GNSS observations and the second one for examination of the quality, robustness and performance of various processing approaches (strategies). To the second group the following parameters has been proposed: accuracy, precision, availability, integrity and convergence time. In consideration of perturbation of GNSS signal resulting from sudden ionospheric disturbances, one of the most important demands is effective autonomous integrity monitoring. The poster presents first preliminary results of the applicability of the proposed parameters in order to ensure the high level of reliability/integrity of GNSS observations and positioning results under the presence of strong ionospheric anomalies. The data-set from continuously operated GNSS station located at high latitude, where ionospheric disturbances occur more frequently, were used for the analysis. Various selected Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring (RAIM) approaches for quality control of the GNSS observables are applied to the data sets recorded under different (low/quite and high) ionospheric activities. Based on those analyses the usability of the

  18. Advanced laser-based tracking device for motor vehicle lane position monitoring and steering assistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachalo, William D.; Inenaga, Andrew; Schuler, Carlos A.

    1995-12-01

    Aerometrics is developing an innovative laser-diode based device that provides a warning signal when a motor-vehicle deviates from the center of the lane. The device is based on a sensor that scans the roadway on either side of the vehicle and determines the lateral position relative to the existing painted lines marking the lane. No additional markings are required. A warning is used to alert the driver of excessive weaving or unanticipated departure from the center of the lane. The laser beams are at invisible wavelengths to that operation of the device does not pose a distraction to the driver or other motorists: When appropriate markers are not present on the road, the device is capable of detecting this condition and warn the driver. The sensor system is expected to work well irrespective of ambient light levels, fog and rain. This sensor has enormous commercial potential. It could be marketed as an instrument to warn drivers that they are weaving, used as a research tool to monitor driving patterns, be required equipment for those previously convicted of driving under the influence, or used as a backup sensor for vehicle lateral position control. It can also be used in storage plants to guide robotic delivery vehicles. In this paper, the principles of operation of the sensor, and the results of Aerometrics ongoing testing will be presented.

  19. Hybrid monitor for both beam position and tilt of pulsed high-current beams

    SciTech Connect

    Pang, J. He, X.; Ma, C.; Zhao, L.; Li, Q.; Dai, Z.

    2014-09-15

    A Hybrid beam monitor, integrated with both azimuthal and axial B-dot probes, was designed for simultaneous measurement of both beam position and beam angle for pulsed high-current beams at the same location in beam pipe. The output signals of axial B-dot probes were found to be mixed with signals caused by transverse position deviation. In order to eliminate the unwanted signals, an elimination method was developed and its feasibility tested on a 50-Ω coaxial line test stand. By this method, a waveform, shape-like to that of input current and proportional to the tilt angle, was simulated and processed by following integration step to achieve the tilt angle. The tests showed that the measurement error of displacement and tilt angle less than 0.3 mm and 1.5 mrad, respectively. The latter error could be reduced with improved probes by reducing the inductance of the axial B-dot probe, but the improvement reached a limit due to some unknown systemic mechanism.

  20. Performance of the beam position monitor system for the SLAC PEP-II B factory

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Ronald G.; Smith, Stephen R.; Aiello, G. Roberto

    1998-12-10

    The beam position monitor (BPM) system for the SLAC PEP-II B Factory was designed to measure the positions of single-bunch single-turn to multibunch multi-turn beams in both rings of the facility. Each BPM is based on four button-style pickups. At most locations the buttons are connected to provide single-axis information (x only or y only). Operating at a harmonic (952 MHz) of the bunch spacing, the BPM system combines broadband and narrowband capabilities and provides data at a high rate. The active electronics system is multiplexed for signals from the high-energy ring (HER) and low-energy ring (LER). The system will be briefly described; however, the main purpose of the present paper is to present operational results. The BPM system operated successfully during commissioning of the HER (primarily) and the LER over the past year. Results to be presented include on-line calibration, single-bunch single-turn resolution (<100 {mu}m), and multibunch multi-turn resolution (<3 {mu}m), multiplexing, and absolute calibration. Thus far, the system has met or exceeded all the requirements that have been tested. The remaining requirements will be tested when both rings are completed and commissioned this summer. In addition, typical results of beam physics studies relying on the BPM system will be presented.

  1. Performance of the beam position monitor system for the SLAC PEP-II {ital B} factory

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.G.; Smith, S.R.; Aiello, G.R.

    1998-12-01

    The beam position monitor (BPM) system for the SLAC PEP-II {ital B} Factory was designed to measure the positions of single-bunch single-turn to multibunch multi-turn beams in both rings of the facility. Each BPM is based on four button-style pickups. At most locations the buttons are connected to provide single-axis information ({ital x} only or {ital y} only). Operating at a harmonic (952 MHz) of the bunch spacing, the BPM system combines broadband and narrowband capabilities and provides data at a high rate. The active electronics system is multiplexed for signals from the high-energy ring (HER) and low-energy ring (LER). The system will be briefly described; however, the main purpose of the present paper is to present operational results. The BPM system operated successfully during commissioning of the HER (primarily) and the LER over the past year. Results to be presented include on-line calibration, single-bunch single-turn resolution ({lt}100 {mu}m), and multibunch multi-turn resolution ({lt}3 {mu}m), multiplexing, and absolute calibration. Thus far, the system has met or exceeded all the requirements that have been tested. The remaining requirements will be tested when both rings are completed and commissioned this summer. In addition, typical results of beam physics studies relying on the BPM system will be presented. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  2. Dual AC Dipole Excitation for the Measurement of Magnetic Multipole Strength from Beam Position Monitor Data

    SciTech Connect

    M. Spata, G.A. Krafft

    2011-09-01

    An experiment was conducted at Jefferson Lab's Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility to develop a technique for characterizing the nonlinear fields of the beam transport system. Two air-core dipole magnets were simultaneously driven at two different frequencies to provide a time-dependent transverse modulation of the electron beam. Fourier decomposition of beam position monitor data was then used to measure the amplitude of these frequencies at different positions along the beamline. For a purely linear transport system one expects to find solely the frequencies that were applied to the dipoles with amplitudes that depend on the phase advance of the lattice. In the presence of nonlinear fields one expects to also find harmonics of the driving frequencies that depend on the order of the nonlinearity. The technique was calibrated using one of the sextupole magnets in a CEBAF beamline and then applied to a dipole to measure the sextupole and octupole strength of the magnet. A comparison is made between the beam-based measurements, results from TOSCA and data from our Magnet Measurement Facility.

  3. Functional performance requirements for seismic network upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, R.C.

    1991-08-18

    The SRL seismic network, established in 1976, was developed to monitor site and regional seismic activity that may have any potential to impact the safety or reduce containment capability of existing and planned structures and systems at the SRS, report seismic activity that may be relevant to emergency preparedness, including rapid assessments of earthquake location and magnitude, and estimates of potential on-site and off-site damage to facilities and lifelines for mitigation measures. All of these tasks require SRL seismologists to provide rapid analysis of large amounts of seismic data. The current seismic network upgrade, the subject of this Functional Performance Requirements Document, is necessary to improve system reliability and resolution. The upgrade provides equipment for the analysis of the network seismic data and replacement of old out-dated equipment. The digital network upgrade is configured for field station and laboratory digital processing systems. The upgrade consists of the purchase and installation of seismic sensors,, data telemetry digital upgrades, a dedicated Seismic Data Processing (SDP) system (already in procurement stage), and a Seismic Signal Analysis (SSA) system. The field stations and telephone telemetry upgrades include equipment necessary for three remote station upgrades including seismic amplifiers, voltage controlled oscillators, pulse calibrators, weather protection (including lightning protection) systems, seismometers, seismic amplifiers, and miscellaneous other parts. The central receiving and recording station upgrades will include discriminators, helicopter amplifier, omega timing system, strong motion instruments, wide-band velocity sensors, and other miscellaneous equipment.

  4. Automated long-term monitoring of parallel microfluidic operations applying a machine vision-assisted positioning method.

    PubMed

    Yip, Hon Ming; Li, John C S; Xie, Kai; Cui, Xin; Prasad, Agrim; Gao, Qiannan; Leung, Chi Chiu; Lam, Raymond H W

    2014-01-01

    As microfluidics has been applied extensively in many cell and biochemical applications, monitoring the related processes is an important requirement. In this work, we design and fabricate a high-throughput microfluidic device which contains 32 microchambers to perform automated parallel microfluidic operations and monitoring on an automated stage of a microscope. Images are captured at multiple spots on the device during the operations for monitoring samples in microchambers in parallel; yet the device positions may vary at different time points throughout operations as the device moves back and forth on a motorized microscopic stage. Here, we report an image-based positioning strategy to realign the chamber position before every recording of microscopic image. We fabricate alignment marks at defined locations next to the chambers in the microfluidic device as reference positions. We also develop image processing algorithms to recognize the chamber positions in real-time, followed by realigning the chambers to their preset positions in the captured images. We perform experiments to validate and characterize the device functionality and the automated realignment operation. Together, this microfluidic realignment strategy can be a platform technology to achieve precise positioning of multiple chambers for general microfluidic applications requiring long-term parallel monitoring of cell and biochemical activities. PMID:25133248

  5. Physical activity intensity can be accurately monitored by smartphone global positioning system 'app'.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Brett Ashley; Bruce, Lyndell; Benson, Amanda Clare

    2016-08-01

    Monitoring physical activity is important to better individualise health and fitness benefits. This study assessed the concurrent validity of a smartphone global positioning system (GPS) 'app' and a sport-specific GPS device with a similar sampling rate, to measure physical activity components of speed and distance, compared to a higher sampling sport-specific GPS device. Thirty-eight (21 female, 17 male) participants, mean age of 24.68, s = 6.46 years, completed two 2.400 km trials around an all-weather athletics track wearing GPSports Pro™ (PRO), GPSports WiSpi™ (WISPI) and an iPhone™ with a Motion X GPS™ 'app' (MOTIONX). Statistical agreement, assessed using t-tests and Bland-Altman plots, indicated an (mean; 95% LOA) underestimation of 2% for average speed (0.126 km·h(-1); -0.389 to 0.642; p < .001), 1.7% for maximal speed (0.442 km·h(-1); -2.676 to 3.561; p = .018) and 1.9% for distance (0.045 km; -0.140 to 0.232; p < .001) by MOTIONX compared to that measured by PRO. In contrast, compared to PRO, WISPI overestimated average speed (0.232 km·h(-1); -0.376 to 0.088; p < .001) and distance (0.083 km; -0.129 to -0.038; p < .001) by 3.5% whilst underestimating maximal speed by 2.5% (0.474 km·h(-1); -1.152 to 2.099; p < .001). Despite the statistically significant difference, the MOTIONX measures intensity of physical activity, with a similar error as WISPI, to an acceptable level for population-based monitoring in unimpeded open-air environments. This presents a low-cost, minimal burden opportunity to remotely monitor physical activity participation to improve the prescription of exercise as medicine. PMID:26505223

  6. Development and clinical application of a patient-position monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerig, Lee H.; El-Hakim, Sabry F.; Szanto, Janos; Salhani, Doug; Girard, A.

    1994-10-01

    We have developed and clinically tested a computer vision system capable of real time monitoring of the position of an oncology (cancer) patient undergoing radiation therapy. The system is able to report variations in patient setup from day to day, as well as patient motion during an individual treatment. The system consists of two CCD cameras mounted in the treatment room and focused on the treatment unit isocenter. The cameras are interfaced to a PC via a two channel video board. Special targets, placed on the patient surface are automatically recognized and extracted by our 3D vision software. The three coordinates of each target are determined using a triangulation algorithm. System accuracy, stability and reproducibility were tested in the laboratory as well as in the radiation therapy room. Beside accuracy, the system must ensure the highest reliability and safety in the actual application environment. In this paper we also report on the results of clinical testing performed on a total of 23 patients having various treatment sites and techniques. The system in its present configuration is capable of measuring multiple targets placed on the patient surface during radiation therapy. In the clinical environment the system has an accuracy and repeatability of better than 0.5 mm in Cartesian space over extended periods (> 1 month). The system can measure and report patient position in less than 5 seconds. Clinically we have found that the system can easily and accurately detect patient motion during treatment as well as variations in patient setup from day to day. A brief description of the system and detailed analysis of its performance in the laboratory and in the clinic are presented.

  7. Monitoring crustal motion in Papua New Guinea using the global positioning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolz, A.

    Papua New Guinea is a region of intense and frequent earthquake activity. Four earthquakes of magnitude 8.0 or greater have occurred here in the last century. There are about 100 major volcanoes of which 14 are classified as active and 24 are classified as dormant. Bouguer gravity anomalies range from about -180 mGal to 200 mGal and the minimum free-air gravity anomalies reach about -300 mGal. The region occupies a unique position on the global satellite geoid — at the crest of a bulge which is higher than other parts of this geoid. Papua New Guinea is also a region of large predicted plate tectonic motions. The region includes two, and possibly as many as four, minor plates sandwiched between the major Indo-Australian and Pacific plates. It is proposed to use Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers to monitor crustal motion in Papua New Guinea. Because of the location of various islands on both sides of the plate boundaries, and within the broad inter-arc area, it is possible to use GPS to establish baselines that straddle many of the major tectonic elements, and so by repeated observations of these baselines, to directly observe the kinematics of plate convergence, intra-arc strain and back-arc spreading. Because the rates of plate convergence and back-arc spreading in this region are among the highest found in the world, and baseline length is generally under 500 km, it should be possible to attain an unusually high ratio of tectonic signal-to-measurement noise.

  8. Redesigned front end for the upgrade at CHESS

    SciTech Connect

    Headrick, R.L.; Smolenski, K.W.

    1996-09-01

    We will report on beamline front-end upgrades for the 24-pole wiggler beamlines at CHESS. A new design for primary x-ray beamstops based on a tapered, water-cooled copper block has been implemented and installed in the CHESS F beamline. The design uses a horizontally tapered {open_quote}{open_quote}V{close_quote}{close_quote} shape to reduce the power density on the internal surfaces and internal water channels in the block to provide efficient water cooling. Upstream of the beam stops, we have installed a new photoelectron style beam position monitor with separate monitoring of the wiggler and dipole vertical beam positions and with micron-level sensitivity. The monitor{close_quote}s internal surfaces are designed to absorb the full x-ray power in case of beam missteering, and the uncooled photoelectron collecting plates are not visible to the x-ray beam. A graphite prefilter has been installed to protect the beryllium windows that separate the front end from the x-ray optics downstream. The redesigned front end is required by the upgrade of the Cornell storage ring, now in progress, which will allow stored electron and positron currents of 300 mA by 1996, and 500 mA by 1998. At 500 mA, the wiggler power output will be over 32 kW. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  9. Design of the button beam position monitor for PEP-II

    SciTech Connect

    Kurita, N.; Martin, D.; Smith, S.; Ng, C.; Nordby, M.; Perkins, C.

    1995-08-01

    The beam position monitor (BPM) was designed to provide a robust UHV feedthru and a reliable electromagnetic sensor. Stringent resolution requirements at low beam currents, bunch parameters, along with mechanical and chamber requirements produced challenges in the electrical, thermal, and structural design of the BPM`s. Numerical modeling and experimental analyses were used to optimize the design. The higher order modes (HOM`s) and beam impedance were modeled using MAFIA. Measurements agreed with the calculated 1 {Omega} transfer impedance at the 952 MHz signal processing frequency, and the first two HOM`s found in MAFIA. Tests and analysis both showed the button signal power approaching 40 W. Temperature and stress distributions were analyzed using this power loading with ANSYS. An electronic grade CuNi was selected for the BPM to reliably weld into the copper chambers. Pin seal and compressive joints were considered for the insulator vacuum seals. Both glassy ceramic-to-metal and ceramic-to-metal seals were evaluated.

  10. Estimation of effective imaging dose for kilovoltage intratreatment monitoring of the prostate position during cancer radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, J. A.; Booth, J.; Poulsen, P.; Kuncic, Z.; Keall, P. J.

    2013-09-01

    Kilovoltage intratreatment monitoring (KIM) is a novel real-time localization modality where the tumor position is continuously measured during intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) or intensity modulated arc therapy (IMAT) by a kilovoltage (kV) x-ray imager. Adding kV imaging during therapy adds radiation dose. The additional effective dose is quantified for prostate radiotherapy and compared to dose from other localization modalities. The software PCXMC 2.0 was used to calculate the effective dose delivered to a phantom as a function of imager angle and field size for a Varian On-Board Imager. The average angular effective dose was calculated for a field size of 6 cm × 6 cm. The average angular effective dose was used in calculations for different treatment scenarios. Treatment scenarios considered were treatment type and fractionation. For all treatment scenarios, (i.e. conventionally fractionated and stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT), IMRT and IMAT), the total KIM dose at 1 Hz ranged from 2-10 mSv. This imaging dose is less than the Navotek radioactive implant dose (64 mSv) and a standard SBRT cone beam computed tomography pretreatment scan dose (22 mSv) over an entire treatment regime. KIM delivers an acceptably low effective dose for daily use as a real-time image-guidance method for prostate radiotherapy.

  11. ECG-based detection of body position changes in ischemia monitoring.

    PubMed

    García, José; Aström, Magnus; Mendive, Javier; Laguna, Pablo; Sörnmo, Leif

    2003-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze and detect changes in body position (BPC) during electrocardiogram (ECG) recording. These changes are often manifested as shifts in the electrical axis and may be misclassified as ischemic changes during ambulatory monitoring. We investigate two ECG signal processing methods for detecting BPCs. Different schemes for feature extraction are used (spatial and scalar), while preprocessing, trend postprocessing and detection are identical. The spatial approach is based on VCG loop rotation angles and the scalar approach is based on the Karhunen-Loève transform (KLT) coefficients. The methods are evaluated on two different databases: a database with annotated BPCs and the STAFF III database with recordings from rest and during angioplasty-induced ischemia but not including BPCs. The angle-based detector results in performance values of detection probability PD = 95%, false alarm probability PF = 3% in the BPC database and false alarm rate in the STAFF III database in control ECGs during rest RF(c) = 2 h(-1) (episodes per hour) and in ischemia recordings during angioplasty RF(a) = 7 h(-1), whereas the KLT-based detector produces values of PD = 89%, PF = 3%, RF(c) = 4 h(-1), and RF(a) = 11 h(-1), respectively. Including information on noise level in the detection process to reduce the number of false alarms, performance values of PD approximately equal to 90%, PF approximately equal to 1%, RF(c) approximately equal to 1 h(-1) and RF(a) approximately equal to 2 h(-1) are obtained with both methods. It is concluded that reliable detection of BPCs may be achieved using the ECG signal and should work in parallel to ischemia detectors. PMID:12814234

  12. Triangle and concave pentagon electrodes for an improved broadband frequency response of stripline beam position monitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shobuda, Yoshihiro; Chin, Yong Ho; Takata, Koji; Toyama, Takeshi; Nakamura, Keigo

    2016-02-01

    The frequency domain performance of a stripline beam position monitor depends largely on the longitudinal shape of its electrode. Some shapes other than a conventional rectangle have been proposed and tested. To attain a good impedance matching along the electrode, they need to be precisely bent down toward their downstream in proportion to their width. This is a considerable task, and a failure to comply with it will result in a large distortion of the frequency-domain transfer function from the ideal one due to unwanted signal reflections. In this report, we first propose a triangle electrode for easy fabrication and setup: it only requires that a triangularly cut flat electrode will be placed in a chamber while being obliquely inclined toward the downstream port. Theoretical and simulation results show that the simple triangle electrode has a remarkably flatter frequency response than the rectangle one. The frequency response, in particular at high frequencies, can be further improved by attaching an "apron" plate, perpendicular to the upstream edge of the electrode. The overshooting of the frequency response at low frequency can be eliminated by replacing the straight sidelines of the triangle by three-point polylines (with a result that the triangle is transformed to a concave pentagon). The concave pentagon electrode needs to be bent only once at the middle point of the polylines for a good impedance matching and thus its fabrication and setup remain to be easy. Rf measurements for the various electrode shapes have been carried out. We found that the concave pentagon electrode achieves a wide and flat frequency response up to about 4 GHz for the J-PARC Main Ring (MR).

  13. Position , photometric and morphological monitoring of comet-sungrazer S/2012 S1 (ISON) in Kyiv

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Churyumov, Klim; Baransky, Alexandr

    Comet-sungrazer C/2012 S1 (ISON) was observed at the observational station of Kyiv Shevchenko National University ( MPC 585 ) from 28 Sept. 2012 to 1 Nov. 2013 During the 16 nights of observation obtained and sent to the database MPC - 214 astromerical exact positions of the comet. In parallel with the astrometrical monitoring of the comet were obtained a series of photometrical observations of cometary central condensation (m_2) through filter R. During Oct. - Dec. 2012 a magnitude of the central condensation of the comet (m(2) ) increased gradually from 17.6(m) to 16.8(m) . In the period from Dec. 28, 2012 to Jan. 2, 2013 there was observed a jump of increasing of comet brightness by ampliitude 1.1(m) from 16.8(m) to 15.7(m) , which was initiated by a sharp increasing of numbers of the sunspot : on Dec. 31, 2012 the Wolf number was 87 , and on Jan. 4 it reached of a values 167. Until the end of Feb. 2013 a cometary magnitude reached a values 15.4(m) . During Feb.- May 2013 the magnitude of the comet almost did not change. In the summer of 2013 , the comet did not observe because the small elongation of the comet. In autumn 2013 , a month before perihelion passage , the comet was observed during temporal interval Oct. 20 - Nov. 1. In the course of this period cometary magnitude of the central condensation rapidly increased from 13.4(m) to 11.6(m) . In the anti-solar direction the large tail was observed. Near the head in the direction of the comet tail a bright - helically twisted jet was observed.

  14. The D0 Upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Abachi, S.; D0 Collaboration

    1995-07-01

    In this paper we describe the approved DO Upgrade detector, and its physics capabilities. The DO Upgrade is under construction and will run during the next Fermilab collider running period in early 1999 (Run II). The upgrade is designed to work at the higher luminosities and shorter bunch spacings expected during this run. The major elements of t he upgrade are: a new tracking system with a silicon tracker, scintillating fiber tracker, a 2T solenoid, and a central preshower detector; new calorimeter electronics; new muon trigger and tracking detectors with new muon system electronics; a forward preshower detector; new trigger electronics and DAQ improvements to handle the higher rates.

  15. EPIC Computer Upgrade

    NASA Video Gallery

    Expedition 30 Commander Dan Burbank and Flight Engineer Don Pettit work on installing hardware for the Enhanced Processor and Integrated Communications (EPIC) upgrade of the International Space Sta...

  16. Two-terminal longitudinal hotwire sensor for monitoring the position and speed of advancing liquid fronts in microfluidic channels

    SciTech Connect

    Ryu, Kee Suk; Shaikh, Kashan; Goluch, Edgar; Liu Chang

    2006-03-06

    We report a simple and practical sensor for monitoring both the absolute position and advancing speed of liquid front in a microfluidic channel. The sensor consists of a longitudinal hot wire element - a two-terminal electrical device, with its length spanning the entire channel. The design, materials, fabrication method, and use of this sensor are extremely simple. Characterization results are presented.

  17. Community Violence Exposure and Adolescent Substance Use: Does Monitoring and Positive Parenting Moderate Risk in Urban Communities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Rosalyn

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates whether monitoring and positive parenting moderate the relationship between community violence exposure (CVE) and youth substance use. Analyses utilized a subsample (N = 2197) of a cross-sectional, ethnically diverse, urban school district sample. Dependent variables were any past year alcohol or drug use (AOD) and binge…

  18. Development of a Millimeter-Wave Beam Position and Profile Monitor for Transmission Efficiency Improvement in an ECRH System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimozuma, T.; Kobayashi, S.; Ito, S.; Ito, Y.; Kubo, S.; Yoshimura, Y.; Nishiura, M.; Igami, H.; Takahashi, H.; Mizuno, Y.; Okada, K.; Mutoh, T.

    2015-03-01

    In a high power Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ECRH) system, a long-distance and low-loss transmission system is required to realize effective heating of nuclear fusion-relevant plasmas. A millimeter-wave beam position and profile monitor, which can be used in a high-power, evacuated, and cooled transmission line, is proposed, designed, manufactured, and tested. The beam monitor consists of a reflector, Peltier-device array and a heat-sink. It was tested using simulated electric heater power or gyrotron output power. The data obtained from the monitor were well agreed with the heat source position and profile. The methods of data analysis and mode-content analysis of a propagating millimeter-wave in the corrugated wave-guide are proposed.

  19. Upgrading the GSI beamline microscope with a confocal fluorescence lifetime scanner to monitor charged particle induced chromatin decondensation in living cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdollahi, Elham; Taucher-Scholz, Gisela; Durante, Marco; Jakob, Burkhard

    2015-12-01

    We report the upgrade of the GSI beamline microscope coupled to the linear accelerator UNILAC by a confocal FLIM scanner utilizing time correlated single photon counting technique (TCSPC). The system can now be used to address the radiation induced chromatin decondensation in more detail and with higher sensitivity compared to intensity based methods. This decondensation of heterochromatic areas is one of the early DNA damage responses observed after charged particle irradiation and might facilitate the further processing of the induced lesions. We describe here the establishment of different DNA dyes as chromatin compaction probes usable for quantification of the DNA condensation status in living cells utilizing lifetime imaging. In addition, we find an evidence of heterochromatic chromatin decondensation in ion irradiated murine chromocenters detected after subsequent fixation using FLIM measurements.

  20. External Ventricular Catheters: Is It Appropriate to Use an Open/Monitor Position to Adequately Trend Intracranial Pressure in a Neuroscience Critical Care Environment?

    PubMed

    Sunderland, Nicole E; Villanueva, Nancy E; Pazuchanics, Susan J

    2016-10-01

    Intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring can be an important assessment tool in critically and acutely ill patients. An external ventricular drain offers a comprehensive way to monitor ICP and drain cerebrospinal fluid. The Monro-Kellie hypothesis, Pascal's principle, and fluid dynamics were used to formulate an assumption that an open/monitor position on the stopcock is an adequate trending measure for ICP monitoring while concurrently draining cerebrospinal fluid. Data were collected from 50 patients and totaled 1053 separate number sets. The open/monitor position was compared with the clamped position every hour. An order for "open to drain" was needed for appropriate measurement and nursing care. Results showed the absolute average differences between open/monitor and clamped positions at 1.6268 mm Hg. This finding suggests that it is appropriate to use an open/monitor position via an external ventricular drain for adequate trending of patients' ICP. PMID:27579963

  1. Hydrocarbonaceous material upgrading method

    SciTech Connect

    Brecher, Lee E.; Mones, Charles G.; Guffey, Frank D.

    2015-06-02

    A hydrocarbonaceous material upgrading method may involve a novel combination of heating, vaporizing and chemically reacting hydrocarbonaceous feedstock that is substantially unpumpable at pipeline conditions, and condensation of vapors yielded thereby, in order to upgrade that feedstock to a hydrocarbonaceous material condensate that meets crude oil pipeline specification.

  2. Proof of the standard quantum limit for monitoring free-mass position

    SciTech Connect

    Kosugi, Seiji

    2010-08-15

    The measurement result of the moved distance for a free mass m during the time {tau} between two position measurements cannot be predicted with uncertainty smaller than {radical}(({h_bar}/2{pi}){tau}/m). This is formulated as a standard quantum limit and it has been proven to always hold for the following position measurement: a probe is set in a prescribed position before the measurement. Just after the interaction of the mass with the probe, the probe position is measured, and using this value, the measurement results of the premeasurement and postmeasurement positions are estimated.

  3. STAR upgrade program and future physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yaping; Star Collaboration

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we will present STAR's future plan in terms of both the detector upgrade and physics measurement to study matter with colour degrees of freedom. We will first discuss the status of the newly installed Heavy Flavor Tracker and Muon Telescope Detector, and their physics prospect in 2014-2016. We will then describe the proposed detector upgrades for the second phase of Beam Energy Scan program in 2018-2019 to study the QCD phase diagram. Finally we will present STAR's plan with detector upgrades in the forward directions for the anticipated pp/pA physics program in 2021-2022 and ep/eA in 2025+. The upgraded STAR experiment will be in an excellent position to perform precision measurements of the partonic structures of the nucleon and nuclei.

  4. Deformation integrity monitoring for GNSS positioning services including local, regional and large scale hazard monitoring - the Karlsruhe approach and software(MONIKA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaeger, R.

    2007-05-01

    GNSS-positioning services like SAPOS/ascos in Germany and many others in Europe, America and worldwide, usually yield in a short time their interdisciplinary and country-wide use for precise geo-referencing, replacing traditional low order geodetic networks. So it becomes necessary that possible changes of the reference stations' coordinates are detected ad hoc. The GNSS-reference-station MONitoring by the KArlsruhe approach and software (MONIKA) are designed for that task. The developments at Karlsruhe University of Applied Sciences in cooperation with the State Survey of Baden-Württemberg are further motivated by a the official resolution of the German state survey departments' association (Arbeitsgemeinschaft der Vermessungsverwaltungen Deutschland (AdV)) 2006 on coordinate monitoring as a quality-control duty of the GNSS-positioning service provider. The presented approach can - besides the coordinate control of GNSS-positioning services - also be used to set up any GNSS-service for the tasks of an area-wide geodynamical and natural disaster-prevention service. The mathematical model of approach, which enables a multivariate and multi-epochal design approach, is based on the GNSS-observations input of the RINEX-data of the GNSS service, followed by fully automatic processing of baselines and/or session, and a near-online setting up of epoch-state vectors and their covariance-matrices in a rigorous 3D network adjustment. In case of large scale and long-term monitoring situations, geodynamical standard trends (datum-drift, plate-movements etc.) are accordingly considered and included in the mathematical model of MONIKA. The coordinate-based deformation monitoring approach, as third step of the stepwise adjustments, is based on the above epoch-state vectors, and - splitting off geodynamics trends - hereby on a multivariate and multi-epochal congruency testing. So far, that no other information exists, all points are assumed as being stable and congruent reference

  5. Use of a home positive airway pressure device during intraoperative monitored anesthesia care for outpatient surgery.

    PubMed

    Borg, Lindsay; Walters, Tessa L; Siegel, Lawrence C; Dazols, John; Mariano, Edward R

    2016-08-01

    Perioperative positive airway pressure (PAP) is recommended by the American Society of Anesthesiologists for patients with obstructive sleep apnea, but a readily available and personalized intraoperative delivery system does not exist. We present the successful use of a patient's own nasal PAP machine in the operating room during outpatient foot surgery which required addition of a straight adaptor for oxygen delivery and careful positioning of the gas sampling line to permit end-tidal carbox dioxide monitoring. Home PAP machines may provide a potential alternative to more invasive methods of airway management for patients with obstructive sleep apnea under moderate sedation. PMID:27169990

  6. Reconstruction of lattice parameters and beam momentum distribution from turn-by-turn beam position monitor readings in circular accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edmonds, C. S.; Gratus, J.; Hock, K. M.; Machida, S.; Muratori, B. D.; Torromé, R. G.; Wolski, A.

    2014-05-01

    In high chromaticity circular accelerators, rapid decoherence of the betatron motion of a particle beam can make the measurement of lattice and bunch values, such as Courant-Snyder parameters and betatron amplitude, difficult. A method for reconstructing the momentum distribution of a beam from beam position measurements is presented. Further analysis of the same beam position monitor data allows estimates to be made of the Courant-Snyder parameters and the amplitude of coherent betatron oscillation of the beam. The methods are tested through application to data taken on the linear nonscaling fixed field alternating gradient accelerator, EMMA.

  7. Optimisation of NSLS-II Blade X-ray Beam Position Monitors: from Photoemission type to Diamond Detector

    SciTech Connect

    ILINSKI P.

    2012-07-10

    Optimisation of blade type x-ray beam position monitors (XBPM) was performed for NSLS-II undulator IVU20. Blade material, con and #64257;guration and operation principle was analysed in order to improve XBPM performance. Optimisation is based on calculation of the XBPM signal spatial distribution. Along with standard photoemission type XBPM a Diamond Detector Blades (DDB) were analysed as blades for XBPMs. DDB XBPMs can help to overcome drawbacks of the photoemission blade XBPMs.

  8. Tapping upgrade potential

    SciTech Connect

    Gill, H.S. )

    1993-01-01

    Modernizing aging hydropower stations presents plant owners with a unique opportunity for improving efficiency and plant output. But several factors should be considered before undertaking a turbine upgrade project.

  9. The D0 upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Gruenendahl, S.; The D0 Collaboration

    1994-01-01

    In order to maximize the physics potential of the Fermilab Tevatron proton antiproton collider complex, both the accelerator system and the two large collider detectors are undergoing major upgrades during the remainder of this decade. For the D0 detector, the upgrade focuses on implementation of an integrated magnetic tracker in the central region of the detector, accompanied by those modifications to other parts of the apparatus necessary to cope with the increase in interaction rate provided by the collider.

  10. Optics upgrade for switchyard

    SciTech Connect

    Kobilarcik, Thomas R.; /Fermilab

    2005-08-01

    An upgrade of the Switchyard optics is proposed. This upgrade extends the P3 (old Main Ring) lattice through enclosure C. The septa for the 3-way Meson Area split is moved from enclosure F1 to enclosure M01. The functionality of the Meson Target Train is preserved. Finally, for the purpose of demonstrating that the resulting split can be transported, a straw-man lattice is proposed for enclosure M02 and beyond.

  11. New X-ray beam position monitors with submicron resolution utilizing imaging of scattered X-rays at CHESS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Revesz, Peter; Temnykh, Alexander B.; Pauling, Alan K.

    2011-09-01

    At CHESS' A, F and G wiggler beam lines three new video beam position monitors (VBPMs) have been commissioned. These new VBPMs utilize X-rays scattered from the graphite filter (A and F line) or from a beryllium window (G-line) as the white wiggler beam passes through them. As the X-rays scatter in all directions from the scattering medium, a slit camera creates an image of the beam's footprint on a fluorescent screen. This image is then viewed by a CCD camera and analyzed using a computer program to calculate the intensity centroid, the beam profile and integrated intensity. These data are delivered to the CHESS signal archiving system for storage and display. The new systems employ digital cameras. These cameras are free of the noise inherent to the analog systems with long video signal connections. As a result, the beam position data delivered by the new systems are more reliable and accurate as shown by beam position traces using different beam position monitors on the same beam line.

  12. In-line monitoring of particle size in a fluid bed granulator: investigations concerning positioning and configuration of the sensor.

    PubMed

    Roßteuscher-Carl, Katrin; Fricke, Sabine; Hacker, Michael C; Schulz-Siegmund, Michaela

    2014-05-15

    According to the ICH Q8 guideline, analytic technologies (PAT) are important tools for characterization and optimization of pharmaceutical manufacturing processes. Particle size as a critical quality attribute for granules is therefore an important parameter that should be monitored during the fluid bed granulation process. This work focusses on optimizing position and configuration of an SFT-sensor for the in-line measurement of particle size distribution in a Glatt GPCG 3 fluid bed granulator. As model-substances, different grades of microcrystalline cellulose were used. The in-line measured particle size and particle rate in the sensor were evaluated. A sensor position in the deceleration zone of the granulator was found to be promising for in-line particle size measurement. Most reliable data were generated in this position when the probe was placed in a distance of 11cm from the chamber wall to avoid bias by the inlet air stream. No major influence of rotation angle of the probe was found in this position. Furthermore, an entire fluid bed granulation process was successfully monitored with the sensor installed in the optimized setting. PMID:24589125

  13. Position and Orientation Tracking in a Ubiquitous Monitoring System for Parkinson Disease Patients With Freezing of Gait Symptom

    PubMed Central

    Català, Andreu; Rodríguez Martín, Daniel; van der Aa, Nico; Chen, Wei; Rauterberg, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Background Freezing of gait (FoG) is one of the most disturbing and least understood symptoms in Parkinson disease (PD). Although the majority of existing assistive systems assume accurate detections of FoG episodes, the detection itself is still an open problem. The specificity of FoG is its dependency on the context of a patient, such as the current location or activity. Knowing the patient's context might improve FoG detection. One of the main technical challenges that needs to be solved in order to start using contextual information for FoG detection is accurate estimation of the patient's position and orientation toward key elements of his or her indoor environment. Objective The objectives of this paper are to (1) present the concept of the monitoring system, based on wearable and ambient sensors, which is designed to detect FoG using the spatial context of the user, (2) establish a set of requirements for the application of position and orientation tracking in FoG detection, (3) evaluate the accuracy of the position estimation for the tracking system, and (4) evaluate two different methods for human orientation estimation. Methods We developed a prototype system to localize humans and track their orientation, as an important prerequisite for a context-based FoG monitoring system. To setup the system for experiments with real PD patients, the accuracy of the position and orientation tracking was assessed under laboratory conditions in 12 participants. To collect the data, the participants were asked to wear a smartphone, with and without known orientation around the waist, while walking over a predefined path in the marked area captured by two Kinect cameras with non-overlapping fields of view. Results We used the root mean square error (RMSE) as the main performance measure. The vision based position tracking algorithm achieved RMSE = 0.16 m in position estimation for upright standing people. The experimental results for the proposed human orientation

  14. Spatial Orientation and Morphology of the Pulmonary Artery: Relevance to Optimising Design and Positioning of a Continuous Pressure Monitoring Device.

    PubMed

    Lee, Su-Lin; Aguib, Heba; Chapron, Julien; Bahmanyar, Reza; Borghi, Alessandro; Murphy, Olive; McLeod, Chris; ElGuindy, Ahmed; Yacoub, Magdi

    2016-06-01

    Personalised treatment of heart disease requires an understanding of the patient-specific characteristics, which can vary over time. A newly developed implantable surface acoustic wave pressure sensor, capable of continuous monitoring of the left ventricle filling pressure, is a novel device for personalised management of patients with heart disease. However, a one-size-fits-all approach to device sizing will affect its positioning within the pulmonary artery and its relationship to the interrogating device on the chest wall on a patient-specific level. In this paper, we analyse the spatial orientation and morphology of the pulmonary artery and its main branches in patients who could benefit from the device and normal controls. The results could optimise the design of the sensor, its stent, and importantly its placement, ensuring long-term monitoring in patient groups. PMID:27075735

  15. Preliminary results on the effect of sensor position on unobtrusive rollover detection for sleep monitoring in smart homes.

    PubMed

    Townsend, Daphne I; Goubran, Rafik; Frize, Monique; Knoefel, Frank

    2009-01-01

    Older adults experience increased sleep movement disorders and sleep fragmentation, and these are associated with serious health consequences such as falls. Monitoring sleep fragmentation and restlessness in older adults can reveal information about their daily and long-term health status. Long-term home monitoring is only realistic within the contact of unobtrusive, non-contact sensors. This paper presents exploratory work using the pressure sensor array as an instrument for rollover detection. The sensor output is used to calculate a center of gravity signal, from which five features are extracted. These features are used in a decision tree to classify detected movements in two categories; rollovers and other movements. Rollovers were detected with a sensitivity and specificity of 82% and 100% respectively, and a Mathew's correlation coefficient of 0.86 when data from all sensor positions were included. Intrapositional and interpositional effects of movements on sensors placed throughout the bed are described. PMID:19965073

  16. A proposed interim improvement to the Tevatron beam position monitors with narrow band crystal filters

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng-Yang Tan

    2003-08-25

    Since the start of Run II, we have found that we are unable to reliably and accurately measure the beam position with the present BPM system during high energy physics (HEP). This problem can be traced back to the analogue frontend called the AM/PM module which has trouble handling coalesced beam, but works well with uncoalesced beam. In this paper, we propose a simple fix to the AM/PM module so that we can measure the beam position during HEP. The idea is to use narrow band crystal filters which ring when pinged by coalesced beam so that the AM/PM module is tricked into thinking that it is measuring uncoalesced beam.

  17. Solar Eclipse Monitoring for Solar Energy Applications Using the Solar and Moon Position Algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Reda, I.

    2010-03-01

    This report includes a procedure for implementing an algorithm (described by Jean Meeus) to calculate the moon's zenith angle with uncertainty of +/-0.001 degrees and azimuth angle with uncertainty of +/-0.003 degrees. The step-by-step format presented here simplifies the complicated steps Meeus describes to calculate the Moon's position, and focuses on the Moon instead of the planets and stars. It also introduces some changes to accommodate for solar radiation applications.

  18. A demonstration of centimeter-level monitoring of polar motion with the Global Positioning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindqwister, U. J.; Freedman, A. P.; Blewitt, G.

    1992-01-01

    Daily estimates of the Earth's pole position were obtained with the Global Positioning System (GPS) by using measurements obtained during the GPS IERS (International Earth Rotation Service) and Geodynamics (GIG'91) experiment from 22 Jan. to 13 Feb. 1991. Data from a globally distributed network consisting of 21 Rogue GPS receivers were chosen for the analysis. A comparison of the GPS polar motion series with nine 24-hour very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) estimates yielded agreement in the day-to-day pole position of about 1.5 cm for both X and Y polar motion. A similar comparison of GPS and satellite laser ranging (SLR) data showed agreement to about 1.0 cm. These preliminary results indicate that polar motion can be determined by GPS independent of, and at a level comparable to, that which is obtained from either VLBI or SLR. Furthermore, GPS can provide these data with a daily frequency that neither alternative technique can readily achieve. Thus, GPS promises to be a powerful tool for determining high-frequency platform parameter variation, essential for the ultraprecise spacecraft-tracking requirements of the coming years.

  19. VISIR upgrade overview and status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerber, Florian; Käufl, Hans Ulrich; Baksai, Pedro; Dobrzycka, Danuta; Finger, Gert; Ives, Derek; Jakob, Gerd; Lagadec, Eric; Lundin, Lars; Mawet, Dimitri; Mehrgan, Leander; Moerchen, Margaret; Momany, Yazan; Moreau, Vincent; Pantin, Eric; Riquelme, Miguel; Siebenmorgen, Ralf; Silber, Armin; Smette, Alain; Taylor, Julian; van den Ancker, Mario; Venema, Lars; Weilenmann, Ueli; Yegorova, Irina

    2012-09-01

    We present an overview of the VISIR upgrade project. VISIR is the mid-infrared imager and spectrograph at ESO's VLT. The project team is comprised of ESO staff and members of the original VISIR consortium: CEA Saclay and ASTRON. The project plan is based on input from the ESO user community with the goal of enhancing the scientific performance and efficiency of VISIR by a combination of measures: installation of improved hardware, optimization of instrument operations and software support. The cornerstone of the upgrade is the 1k by 1k Si:As Aquarius detector array (Raytheon) which has demonstrated very good performance (sensitivity, stability) in the laboratory IR detector test facility (modified TIMMI 2 instrument). A prism spectroscopic mode will cover the N-band in a single observation. New scientific capabilities for high resolution and high-contrast imaging will be offered by sub-aperture mask (SAM) and phase-mask coronagraphic (4QPM/AGPM) modes. In order to make optimal use of favourable atmospheric conditions a water vapour monitor has been deployed on Paranal, allowing for real-time decisions and the introduction of a userdefined constraint on water vapour. Improved pipelines based on the ESO Reflex concept will provide better support to astronomers. The upgraded VISIR will be a powerful instrument providing background limited performance for diffraction-limited observations at an 8-m telescope. It will offer synergy with facilities such as ALMA, JWST, VLTI and SOFIA, while a wealth of targets is available from survey work (e.g. VISTA, WISE). In addition it will bring confirmation of the technical readiness and scientific value of several aspects of potential mid-IR instrumentation at Extremely Large Telescopes. The intervention on VISIR and installation of hardware has been completed in July and commissioning will take place during July and August. VISIR is scheduled to be available to the users starting Oct 2012.

  20. Simultaneous linear optics and coupling correction for storage rings with turn-by-turn beam position monitor data

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Xi; Huang, Xiaobiao

    2015-11-10

    We propose a method to simultaneously correct linear optics errors and linear coupling for storage rings using turn-by-turn (TbT) beam position monitor (BPM) data. The independent component analysis (ICA) method is used to isolate the betatron normal modes from the measured TbT BPM data. The betatron amplitudes and phase advances of the projections of the normal modes on the horizontal and vertical planes are then extracted, which, combined with dispersion measurement, are used to fit the lattice model. Furthermore, the fitting results are used for lattice correction. Our method has been successfully demonstrated on the NSLS-II storage ring.

  1. ALPHA: A Case Study in Upgrading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granick, Leonard P. R.; And Others

    An industry-focused upgrading model, based upon job redesigns of entry-level and higher skill positions and a multi-step diagonal/vertical progression ladder was installed in a company having a 150-employee blue collar work force. The model provided for rapid promotion and wage increases of both present employees and new hires, supported by skills…

  2. Cyclotron Institute Upgrade Project

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Henry; Yennello, Sherry; Tribble, Robert

    2014-08-26

    The Cyclotron Institute at Texas A&M University has upgraded its accelerator facilities to extend research capabilities with both stable and radioactive beams. The upgrade is divided into three major tasks: (1) re-commission the K-150 (88”) cyclotron, couple it to existing beam lines to provide intense stable beams into the K-500 experimental areas and use it as a driver to produce radioactive beams; (2) develop light ion and heavy ion guides for stopping radioactive ions created with the K-150 beams; and (3) transport 1+ ions from the ion guides into a charge-breeding electron-cyclotron-resonance ion source (CB-ECR) to produce highly-charged radioactive ions for acceleration in the K-500 cyclotron. When completed, the upgraded facility will provide high-quality re-accelerated secondary beams in a unique energy range in the world.

  3. Formaldehyde OMI operational retrieval upgrades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez Abad, G.; Chance, K.; Liu, X.

    2013-05-01

    Total column of formaldehyde (HCHO), a proxy for biogenic emissions, can be observed from satellites using the ultraviolet region of the spectrum. The operational HCHO retrievals from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on board the AURA satellite, part of NASA's A-train constellation of Earth Observing satellites, are described. The operational retrieval, based on a basic optical absorption spectroscopy (BOAS) algorithm, has been affected by the degradation of the instrument especially from 2008 onwards. The most significant problems are the unrealistic increasing high background concentrations of HCHO retrieved from OMI and the row anomaly. An upgrade for the original operational algorithm is therefore needed to ensure its trend quality and to account for these difficulties. The strategies implemented to deal with the instrumental degradation are presented here. Air mass factors (AMFs) in the current fitting window show significant wavelength dependence. Fitting uncertainties can potentially be improved by including shorter wavelengths as long as the AMFs wavelength dependence is taken into account. As part of these improvements a look-up table of wavelength-dependent AMFs have been calculated. Using this new table it is possible to retrieve the HCHO total column directly, weighting the HCHO cross sections with the wavelength-dependent AMFs. Additionally, the pixels affected by the row anomaly are now flagged in the level 2 data generated with the upgraded algorithm.

  4. Monitoring Afatinib Treatment in HER2-Positive Gastric Cancer with 18F-FDG and 89Zr-Trastuzumab PET

    PubMed Central

    Janjigian, Yelena Y.; Viola-Villegas, Nerissa; Holland, Jason P.; Divilov, Vadim; Carlin, Sean D.; Gomes-DaGama, Erica M.; Chiosis, Gabriela; Carbonetti, Gregory; de Stanchina, Elisa; Lewis, Jason S.

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the ability of the PET imaging agent 89Zr-trastuzumab to delineate HER2-positive gastric cancer and to monitor the pharmacodynamic effects of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) tyrosine kinase inhibitor afatinib. Methods Using 89Zr-trastuzumab, 18F-FDG, or 3′-deoxy-3′-18F-fluorothymidine (18F-FLT PET), we imaged HER2-positive NCI-N87 and HER2-negative MKN74 gastric cancer xenografts in mice. Next, we examined the pharmacodynamic effects of afatinib in NCI-N87 xenografts using 89Zr-trastuzumab and 18F-FDG PET and comparing imaging results to changes in tumor size and in protein expression as monitored by Western blot and histologic studies. Results Although 18F-FDG uptake in NCI-N87 tumors did not change, a decrease in 89Zr-trastuzumab uptake was observed in the afatinib-treated versus control groups (3.0 ± 0.0 percentage injected dose per gram (%ID/g) vs. 21.0 ± 3.4%ID/g, respectively; P < 0.05). 89Zr-trastuzumab PET results corresponded with tumor reduction, apoptosis, and downregulation of HER2 observed on treatment with afatinib. Downregulation of total HER2, phosphorylated (p)-HER2, and p-EGFR occurred within 24 h of the first dose of afatinib, with a sustained effect over 21 d of treatment. Conclusion Afatinib demonstrated antitumor activity in HER2-positive gastric cancer in vivo. 89Zr-trastuzumab PET specifically delineated HER2-positive gastric cancer and can be used to measure the pharmacodynamic effects of afatinib. PMID:23578997

  5. Intelligent portal monitor for fast suppression of false positives due to radiopharmaceuticals

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, M.W.; Butterfield, K.B.

    1985-01-01

    Monitoring the movement of radioactive material through secure or sensitive areas may be complicated by the existence of unanticipated sources of radiation carried by individuals passing through the area. Typical of such sources are radiopharmaceuticals prescribed for a medical procedure. We report here on an apparatus designed to quickly discriminate between in-vivo radiopharmaceuticals and other nuclear materials, based on a pattern-recognition algorithm and a microcomputer. Principles of operation are discussed, and the data base for the pattern-recognition algorithm is displayed. Operating experience with the apparatus in a trial location is also discussed. Our apparatus correctly identifies in-vivo radiopharmaceuticals in over 80% of all trials; challenges with radioisotopes other than radiopharmaceuticals have led the apparatus, without exception, to reject the challenge isotope as incompatible with medical practice. The apparatus thus rapidly discriminates between individuals bearing radiopharmaceuticals and those bearing illicit sources, such as special nuclear materials. Examples of applications are presented. 7 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  6. ELECTRO-OPTIC BEAM POSITION AND PULSED POWER MONITORS FOR THE SECOND AXIS OF DARHT.

    SciTech Connect

    M. BRUBAKER; C. EKDAHL; C. YAKYMYSHYN

    2001-05-01

    The second axis of the Dual Axis Radiographic Hydro-Test (DARHT) facility utilizes a long pulse electron beam having a duration in excess of two microseconds. This time scale poses problems for many conventional diagnostics that rely upon electrical cables to transmit signals between the accelerator and recording equipment. Recognizing that transit time isolation is not readily achieved for the long pulse regime, difficulties resulting from ground loops are anticipated. An electro-optic (EO) voltage sensor technology has been developed to address this issue. The EO sensor exploits the Pockels effect in Bi{sub 4}Ge{sub 3}O{sub 12} (BGO) to provide linear modulation of laser light in response to the voltage induced on a pickup electrode. Fiber coupling between the light source, Pockels cell and receiver ensures complete galvanic isolation with improved cost and performance as compared to conventional sensors fitted with fiber optic links. Furthermore, the EO approach requires that only the passive sensor element be located near the accelerator while the light source and receiver can be installed in remote locations. This paper describes the design and development of EO sensors for electron beam and pulsed power monitoring on the second axis of DARHT. Typical calibration and testing data for the sensors is also presented.

  7. Antenna feedhorn software upgrade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, P. D.

    1979-01-01

    The HYBRIDHORN computer program was developed to serve as an item of general purpose antenna feedhorn design and analysis software. The formulation contains a small flare angle approximation which is subject to question for designs such as the S- and X-band feedhorn. Additionally, the original formulation did not allow azimuthal variation indexes other than unity. The HYBRIDHORN program was upgraded to correct both of these deficiencies. A large flare angle formulation was found. In the upgrade, all of the major program elements were converted to Univac 1108 compatible structured FORTRAN (SFTRAN) for ease of software maintenance. The small and large angle formulations are described and sample numerical results are presented.

  8. HISPASAT launch and early operations phases: Computation and monitoring of geostationary satellite positioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brousse, Pascal; Desprairies, Arnaud

    1993-01-01

    Since 1974, CNES, the French National Space Agency, has been involved in the geostationary launch and early operations phases (LEOP) of moving satellites from a transfer orbit delivered by a launcher to a geostationary point. During the operations and their preparation, the Flight Dynamics Center (FDC), part of CNES LEOP facilities, is in charge of the space mechanics aspects. What is noteworthy about the Spanish HISPASAT satellite positioning is that all the operations were performed on the customer's premises, and consequently the FDC was duplicated in Madrid, Spain. The first part of this paper is the FDC presentation: its role, its hardware configuration, and its space dynamics ground control system called MERCATOR. The second part of this paper details the preparation used by the FDC for the HISPASAT mission: hardware and software installation in Madrid, integration with the other entities, and technical and operational qualifications. The third part gives results concerning flight dynamics aspects and operational activities.

  9. Global positioning system surveying to monitor land subsidence in Sacramento Valley, California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ikehara, M.E.

    1994-01-01

    A subsidence research program began in 1985 to document the extent and magnitude of land subsidence in Sacramento Valley, California, an area of about 15 600 km2m, using Global Positioning System (GPS) surveying. In addition to periodic conventional spirit levelling, an examination was made of the changes in GPS-derived ellipsoidal height differences (summary differences) between pairs of adjacent bench marks in central Sacramento Valley from 1986 to 1989. The average rates of land subsidence in the southern Sacramento Valley for the past several decades were determined by comparing GPS-derived orthometric heights with historic published elevations. A maximum average rate of 0.053 m year-1 (0.90 m in 17 years) of subsidence has been measured. -Author

  10. VISIR upgrade overview and status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerber, Florian; Käufl, Hans-Ulrich; Baksai, Pedro; Di Lieto, Nicola; Dobrzycka, Danuta; Duhoux, Philippe; Finger, Gert; Heikamp, Stephanie; Ives, Derek; Jakob, Gerd; Lundin, Lars; Mawet, Dimitri; Mehrgan, Leander; Momany, Yazan; Moreau, Vincent; Pantin, Eric; Riquelme, Miguel; Sandrock, Stefan; Siebenmorgen, Ralf; Smette, Alain; Taylor, Julian; van den Ancker, Mario; Valdes, Guillermo; Venema, Lars; Weilenmann, Ueli

    2014-07-01

    We present an overview of the VISIR upgrade project. VISIR is the mid-infrared imager and spectrograph at ESO's VLT. The project team is comprised of ESO staff and members of the original VISIR consortium: CEA Saclay and ASTRON. The project plan is based on input from the ESO user community with the goal of enhancing the scientific performance and efficiency of VISIR by a combination of measures: installation of improved hardware, optimization of instrument operations and software support. The cornerstone of the upgrade is the 1k by 1k Si:As AQUARIUS detector array (Raytheon) which has been carefully characterized in ESO's IR detector test facility (modified TIMMI 2 instrument). A prism spectroscopic mode will cover the N-band in a single observation. New scientific capabilities for high resolution and high-contrast imaging will be offered by sub-aperture mask (SAM) and phase-mask coronagraphic (4QPM/AGPM) modes. In order to make optimal use of favourable atmospheric conditions a water vapour monitor has been deployed on Paranal, allowing for real-time decisions and the introduction of a user-defined constraint on water vapour. During the commissioning in 2012 it was found that the on-sky sensitivity of the AQUARIUS detector was significantly below expectations and that VISIR was not ready to go back to science operations. Extensive testing of the detector arrays in the laboratory and on-sky enabled us to diagnose the cause for the shortcoming of the detector as excess low frequency noise (ELFN). It is inherent to the design chosen for this detector and can't be remedied by changing the detector set-up. Since this is a form of correlated noise its impact can be limited by modulating the scene recorded by the detector. We have studied several mitigation options and found that faster chopping using the secondary mirror (M2) of the VLT offers the most promising way forward. Faster M2 chopping has been tested and is scheduled for implementation before the end of 2014

  11. Occupational Exposure to Ultrafine Particles among Airport Employees - Combining Personal Monitoring and Global Positioning System

    PubMed Central

    Møller, Karina Lauenborg; Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Schipperijn, Jasper; Loft, Steffen; Bonde, Jens Peter; Mikkelsen, Sigurd; Brauer, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Background Exposure to ultrafine particles (UFP) has been linked to cardiovascular and lung diseases. Combustion of jet fuel and diesel powered handling equipment emit UFP resulting in potentially high exposure levels among employees working at airports. High levels of UFP have been reported at several airports, especially on the apron, but knowledge on individual exposure profiles among different occupational groups working at an airport is lacking. Purpose The aim of this study was to compare personal exposure to UFP among five different occupational groups working at Copenhagen Airport (CPH). Method 30 employees from five different occupational groups (baggage handlers, catering drivers, cleaning staff and airside and landside security) at CPH were instructed to wear a personal monitor of particle number concentration in real time and a GPS device. The measurements were carried out on 8 days distributed over two weeks in October 2012. The overall differences between the groups were assessed using linear mixed model. Results Data showed significant differences in exposure levels among the groups when adjusted for variation within individuals and for effect of time and date (p<0.01). Baggage handlers were exposed to 7 times higher average concentrations (geometric mean, GM: 37×103 UFP/cm3, 95% CI: 25–55×103 UFP/cm3) than employees mainly working indoors (GM: 5×103 UFP/cm3, 95% CI: 2–11×103 UFP/cm3). Furthermore, catering drivers, cleaning staff and airside security were exposed to intermediate concentrations (GM: 12 to 20×103 UFP/cm3). Conclusion The study demonstrates a strong gradient of exposure to UFP in ambient air across occupational groups of airport employees. PMID:25203510

  12. Blood pressure monitor with a position sensor for wrist placement to eliminate hydrostatic pressure effect on blood pressure measurement.

    PubMed

    Sato, Hironori; Koshimizu, Hiroshi; Yamashita, Shingo; Ogura, Toshihiko

    2013-01-01

    Accurate measurement of blood pressure at wrist requires the heart and wrist to be kept at the same level to avoid the effects of hydrostatic pressure. Although a blood pressure monitor with a position sensor that guides appropriate forearm angle without use of a chair and desk has already been proposed, a similar functioning device for measuring upper arm blood pressure with a chair and desk is needed. In this study, a calculation model was first used to explore design of such a system. The findings were then implemented into design of a new blood pressure monitor. Results of various methods were compared. The calculation model of the wrist level from arthrosis angles and interarticulars lengths was developed and considered using published anthropometric dimensions. It is compared with 33 volunteer persons' experimental results. The calculated difference of level was -4.1 to 7.9 (cm) with a fixed chair and desk. The experimental result was -3.0 to 5.5 (cm) at left wrist and -2.1 to 6.3(cm) at right wrist. The absolute difference level equals ±4.8 (mmHg) of blood pressure readings according to the calculated result. This meets the AAMI requirements for a blood pressure monitor. In the conclusion, the calculation model is able to effectively evaluate the difference between the heart and wrist level. Improving the method for maintaining wrist to heart level will improve wrist blood pressure measurement accuracy when also sitting in the chair at a desk. The leading angle of user's forearm using a position sensor is shown to work for this purpose. PMID:24110067

  13. A new tool to monitor training and performance of sport horses using global positioning system (GPS) with integrated GSM capabilities.

    PubMed

    Hebenbrock, M; Düe, M; Holzhausen, H; Sass, A; Stadler, P; Ellendorff, F

    2005-07-01

    Global Positioning Systems (GPS) are considered suitable to monitor the position and velocity of horses during cross-country competition or in training. Furthermore, simultaneous recording of life data such as heart rate could be useful to assess the horse's condition during exercise. To test the suitability and reliability of a commercially available GPS system with integrated heart rate recording system and with built in GSM for data transmission, the Fidelak Equipilot Type EP-2003-15/G-2.11 (EP-15/G) was evaluated first for reliability of pulse recording from a pulse generator within the physiological range of horses; furthermore distance, velocity and heart rate recordings were carried out on a standard 1000 m field track with five repetitions. Agreement (% deviation from actually measured distance and from stopwatch-distance based velocity calculations) and variability (Coefficient of Variation for distance, velocity, heart rate) were calculated. From the results it was safe to assume that the heart rate sensor recorded horse heart rates at a high degree of accuracy. Overall distances and velocities are in high agreement with actually measured values. However, overall variability expressed in terms of relative variability (C.V.) is smaller for distance recording (C.V. 0.68%) when compared to velocity (C.V. 1.01%). The system tested is suitable and reliable for simultaneously recording of distance, velocity and heart rates for horses during cross country exercise. GPS-based monitoring of movement along with simultaneous recording of physiological data and the possibility to call upon data will not only be of benefit for training horses or for surveillance during competition, it may also be suitable for distant patient monitoring and in behavioural studies as well as in veterinary medicine in general. PMID:16124700

  14. Development of the chemical exposure monitor with indoor positioning (CEMWIP) for workplace VOC surveys.

    PubMed

    Brown, K K; Shaw, P B; Mead, K R; Kovein, R J; Voorhees, R T; Brandes, A R

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this article was to research and develop a direct-reading exposure assessment method that combined a real-time location system with a wireless direct-reading personal chemical sensor. The personal chemical sensor was a photoionization device for detecting volatile organic compounds. The combined system was calibrated and tested against the same four standard gas concentrations and calibrated at one standard location and tested at four locations that included the standard locations. Data were wirelessly collected from the chemical sensor every 1.4 sec, for volatile organic compounds concentration, location, temperature, humidity, and time. Regression analysis of the photo-ionization device voltage response against calibration gases showed the chemical sensor had a limit of detection of 0.2 ppm. The real-time location system was accurate to 13 cm ± 6 cm (standard deviation) in an open area and to 57 cm ± 31 cm in a closed room where the radio frequency has to penetrate drywall-finished walls. The streaming data were collected and graphically displayed as a three-dimensional hazard map for assessment of peak exposure with location. A real-time personal exposure assessment device with indoor positioning was practical and provided new knowledge on direct reading exposure assessment methods. PMID:26786234

  15. A compact and portable X-ray beam position monitor using Medipix3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rico-Alvarez, O.; Kachatkou, A.; Marchal, J.; Willis, B.; Sawhney, K.; Tartoni, N.; van Silfhout, R. G.

    2014-12-01

    The present work reports on the design and implementation of a novel portable X-ray beam diagnostics (XBPM) device. The device is transparent to the X-ray beam and provides real-time measurements of beam position, intensity, and size. The measurement principle is based on a pinhole camera which records scattered radiation from a Kapton foil which is placed in the beam path. The use of hybrid detectors (Medipix3) that feature a virtually noiseless readout system with capability of single photon detection and energy resolving power enables the diagnostics with a better resolution and higher sensitivity compared to the use of traditional indirect X-ray detection schemes. We describe the detailed system design, which consists of a vacuum compatible focal plane sensor array, a sensor conditioning and readout board and a heterogeneous data processing unit, which also acts as a network server that handles network communications with clients. The readout protocol for the Medipix3 sensor is implemented using field programmable gate array (FPGA) logic resulting in a versatile and scalable system that is capable of performing advanced functions such as data compression techniques and feature extraction. For the system performance measurements, we equipped the instrument with a single Medipix3 die, bump bonded to a Si sensor, rather than four for which it was designed. Without data compression, it is capable of acquiring magnified images and profiles of synchrotron X-ray beams at a transfer rate through Ethernet of 27 frames/s for one Medipix3 die.

  16. Reproducibility of the external surface position in left-breast DIBH radiotherapy with spirometer-based monitoring.

    PubMed

    Fassi, Aurora; Ivaldi, Giovanni B; Meaglia, Ilaria; Porcu, Patrizia; Tabarelli de Fatis, Paola; Liotta, Marco; Riboldi, Marco; Baroni, Guido

    2014-01-01

    Deep inspiration breath hold (DIBH) in left-sided breast cancer radiotherapy treatments allows for a reduction in cardiac and pulmonary doses without compromising target coverage. The selection of the most appropriate technology for DIBH monitoring is a crucial issue. We evaluated the stability and reproducibility of DIBHs controlled by a spirometric device, by assessing the variability of the external surface position within a single DIBH (intra-DIBH) and between DIBHs performed in the same treatment session (intrafraction) or in different sessions (interfraction). The study included seven left-breast cancer patients treated with spirometer-based DIBH radiotherapy. Infrared optical tracking was used to record the 3D coordinates of seven to eleven passive markers placed on the patient's thoraco-abdominal surface during 29-43 DIBHs performed in six to eight treatment sessions. The obtained results showed displacements of the external surface between different sessions up to 6.3mm along a single direction, even at constant inspired volumes. The median value of the interfraction variability in the position of breast passive markers was 2.9 mm (range 1.9-4.8 mm) in the latero-lateral direction, 3.6 mm (range 2.2-4.6mm) in the antero-posterior direction, and 4.3mm (range 2.8-6.2 mm) in the cranio-caudal direction. There were no significant dose distribution variations for target and organs at risk with respect to the treatment plan, confirming the adequacy of the applied clinical margins (15 mm) to compensate for the measured setup uncertainties. This study demonstrates that spirometer-based control does not guarantee a stable and reproducible position of the external surface in left-breast DIBH radiotherapy, suggesting the need for more robust DIBH monitoring techniques when reduced margins and setup uncertainties are required for improving normal tissue sparing and decreasing cardiac and pulmonary toxicity. PMID:24423845

  17. Biochemical upgrading of oils

    DOEpatents

    Premuzic, Eugene T.; Lin, Mow S.

    1999-01-12

    A process for biochemical conversion of heavy crude oils is provided. The process includes contacting heavy crude oils with adapted biocatalysts. The resulting upgraded oil shows, a relative increase in saturated hydrocarbons, emulsions and oxygenates and a decrease in compounds containing in organic sulfur, organic nitrogen and trace metals. Adapted microorganisms which have been modified under challenged growth processes are also disclosed.

  18. Biochemical upgrading of oils

    DOEpatents

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.

    1999-01-12

    A process for biochemical conversion of heavy crude oils is provided. The process includes contacting heavy crude oils with adapted biocatalysts. The resulting upgraded oil shows, a relative increase in saturated hydrocarbons, emulsions and oxygenates and a decrease in compounds containing organic sulfur, organic nitrogen and trace metals. Adapted microorganisms which have been modified under challenged growth processes are also disclosed. 121 figs.

  19. Upgrading Undergraduate Biology Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musante, Susan

    2011-01-01

    On many campuses throughout the country, undergraduate biology education is in serious need of an upgrade. During the past few decades, the body of biological knowledge has grown exponentially, and as a research endeavor, the practice of biology has evolved. Education research has also made great strides, revealing many new insights into how…

  20. Design of a Standing-Wave Multi-Cavity Beam-Monitor for Simultaneous Beam Position and Emittance Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jin-Soo; Miller, Roger; Nantista, Christopher

    2004-12-01

    A high precision emittance measurement requires precise beam position at the measurement location. At present there is no existing technique, commercial or otherwise, for non-destructive pulse-to-pulse simultaneous beam position and emittance measurement. FAR-TECH, Inc. is currently developing a high precision cavity-based beam monitor for simultaneous beam position and emittance measurements pulse-to-pulse, without beam interception and without moving parts. The design and anlysis of a multi-cavity standing wave structure for a pulse-to-pulse emittance measurement system in which the quadrupole and the dipole standing wave modes resonate at harmonics of the beam operating frequency is presented. Considering the Next Linear Collider beams, an optimized 9-cavity standing wave system is designed for simultaneous high precision beam position and emittance measurements. It operates with the π - quadrupole mode resonating at 16th harmonic of the NLC bunch frequency, and the 3 π /4 dipole mode at 12th harmonic (8.568 GHz). The 9-cavity system design indicates that the two dipoles resonate almost at the same frequency 8.583 GHz and the quadrupole at 11.427 GHz according to the scattering parameter calculations. The design can be trivially scaled so that the dipole frequency is at 8.568 GHz, and the quadrupole frequency can then be tuned during fabrication to achieve the desired 11.424 GHz. The output powers from these modes are estimated for the NLC beams. An estimated rms-beam size resolution is sub micro-meters and beam positions in sub nano-meters.

  1. Design of a Standing-Wave Multi-Cavity Beam-Monitor for Simultaneous Beam Position and Emittance Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, J.S.; Miller, R.; Nantista, C.; /SLAC

    2005-06-22

    A high precision emittance measurement requires precise beam position at the measurement location. At present there is no existing technique, commercial or otherwise, for non-destructive pulse-to-pulse simultaneous beam position and emittance measurement. FARTECH, Inc. is currently developing a high precision cavity-based beam monitor for simultaneous beam position and emittance measurements pulse-to-pulse, without beam interception and without moving parts. The design and analysis of a multi-cavity standing wave structure for a pulse-to-pulse emittance measurement system in which the quadrupole and the dipole standing wave modes resonate at harmonics of the beam operating frequency is presented. Considering the Next Linear Collider beams, an optimized 9-cavity standing wave system is designed for simultaneous high precision beam position and emittance measurements. It operates with the {pi}-quadrupole mode resonating at 16th harmonic of the NLC bunch frequency, and the 3 {pi}/4 dipole mode at 12th harmonic (8.568 GHz). The 9-cavity system design indicates that the two dipoles resonate almost at the same frequency 8.583 GHz and the quadrupole at 11.427 GHz according to the scattering parameter calculations. The design can be trivially scaled so that the dipole frequency is at 8.568 GHz, and the quadrupole frequency can then be tuned during fabrication to achieve the desired 11.424 GHz. The output powers from these modes are estimated for the NLC beams. An estimated rms-beam size resolution is sub micro-meters and beam positions in sub nano-meters.

  2. Continuous Monitoring and Intrafraction Target Position Correction During Treatment Improves Target Coverage for Patients Undergoing SBRT Prostate Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Lovelock, D. Michael; Messineo, Alessandra P.; Cox, Brett W.; Kollmeier, Marisa A.; Zelefsky, Michael J.

    2015-03-01

    Purpose: To compare the potential benefits of continuous monitoring of prostate position and intervention (CMI) using 2-mm displacement thresholds during stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) treatment to those of a conventional image-guided procedure involving single localization prior to treatment. Methods and Materials: Eighty-nine patients accrued to a prostate SBRT dose escalation protocol were implanted with radiofrequency transponder beacons. The planning target volume (PTV) margin was 5 mm in all directions, except for 3 mm in the posterior direction. The prostate was kept within 2 mm of its planned position by the therapists halting dose delivery and, if necessary, correcting the couch position. We computed the number, type, and time required for interventions and where the prostate would have been during dose delivery had there been, instead, a single image-guided setup procedure prior to each treatment. Distributions of prostate displacements were computed as a function of time. Results: After the initial setup, 1.7 interventions per fraction were required, with a concomitant increase in time for dose delivery of approximately 65 seconds. Small systematic drifts in prostate position in the posterior and inferior directions were observed in the study patients. Without CMI, intrafractional motion would have resulted in approximately 10% of patients having a delivered dose that did not meet our clinical coverage requirement, that is, a PTV D95 of >90%. The posterior PTV margin required for 95% of the dose to be delivered with the target positioned within the PTV was computed as a function of time. The margin necessary was found to increase by 2 mm every 5 minutes, starting from the time of the imaging procedure. Conclusions: CMI using a tight 2-mm displacement threshold was not only feasible but was found to deliver superior PTV coverage compared with the conventional image-guided procedure in the SBRT setting.

  3. Monitoring daily MLC positional errors using trajectory log files and EPID measurements for IMRT and VMAT deliveries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agnew, A.; Agnew, C. E.; Grattan, M. W. D.; Hounsell, A. R.; McGarry, C. K.

    2014-05-01

    This work investigated the differences between multileaf collimator (MLC) positioning accuracy determined using either log files or electronic portal imaging devices (EPID) and then assessed the possibility of reducing patient specific quality control (QC) via phantom-less methodologies. In-house software was developed, and validated, to track MLC positional accuracy with the rotational and static gantry picket fence tests using an integrated electronic portal image. This software was used to monitor MLC daily performance over a 1 year period for two Varian TrueBeam linear accelerators, with the results directly compared with MLC positions determined using leaf trajectory log files. This software was validated by introducing known shifts and collimator errors. Skewness of the MLCs was found to be 0.03 ± 0.06° (mean ±1 standard deviation (SD)) and was dependent on whether the collimator was rotated manually or automatically. Trajectory log files, analysed using in-house software, showed average MLC positioning errors with a magnitude of 0.004 ± 0.003 mm (rotational) and 0.004 ± 0.011 mm (static) across two TrueBeam units over 1 year (mean ±1 SD). These ranges, as indicated by the SD, were lower than the related average MLC positioning errors of 0.000 ± 0.025 mm (rotational) and 0.000 ± 0.039 mm (static) that were obtained using the in-house EPID based software. The range of EPID measured MLC positional errors was larger due to the inherent uncertainties of the procedure. Over the duration of the study, multiple MLC positional errors were detected using the EPID based software but these same errors were not detected using the trajectory log files. This work shows the importance of increasing linac specific QC when phantom-less methodologies, such as the use of log files, are used to reduce patient specific QC. Tolerances of 0.25 mm have been created for the MLC positional errors using the EPID-based automated picket fence test. The software allows diagnosis

  4. Evaluation of target and cardiac position during visually monitored deep inspiration breath-hold for breast radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Conroy, Leigh; Yeung, Rosanna; Watt, Elizabeth; Quirk, Sarah; Long, Karen; Hudson, Alana; Phan, Tien; Smith, Wendy L

    2016-01-01

    A low-resource visually monitored deep inspiration breath-hold (VM-DIBH) technique was successfully implemented in our clinic to reduce cardiac dose in left-sided breast radiotherapy. In this study, we retrospectively characterized the chest wall and heart positioning accuracy of VM-DIBH using cine portal images from 42 patients. Central chest wall position from field edge and in-field maximum heart distance (MHD) were manually measured on cine images and compared to the planned positions based on the digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs). An in-house program was designed to measure left anterior descending artery (LAD) and chest wall separation on the planning DIBH CT scan with respect to breath-hold level (BHL) during simulation to determine a minimum BHL for VM-DIBH eligibility. Systematic and random setup uncertainties of 3.0 mm and 2.6 mm, respectively, were found for VM-DIBH treatment from the chest wall measurements. Intrabeam breath-hold stability was found to be good, with over 96% of delivered fields within 3 mm. Average treatment MHD was significantly larger for those patients where some of the heart was planned in the field compared to patients whose heart was completely shielded in the plan (p < 0.001). No evidence for a minimum BHL was found, suggesting that all patients who can tolerate DIBH may yield a benefit from it. PMID:27455494

  5. Monitors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, David

    1984-01-01

    Provides guidelines for selecting a monitor to suit specific applications, explains the process by which graphics images are produced on a CRT monitor, and describes four types of flat-panel displays being used in the newest lap-sized portable computers. A comparison chart provides prices and specifications for over 80 monitors. (MBR)

  6. Evaluation of New Quantitative Assays for Diagnosis and Monitoring of Cytomegalovirus Disease in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Positive Patients

    PubMed Central

    Pellegrin, Isabelle; Garrigue, Isabelle; Binquet, Christine; Chene, Genevieve; Neau, Didier; Bonot, Pascal; Bonnet, Fabrice; Fleury, Herve; Pellegrin, Jean-Luc

    1999-01-01

    Cobas Amplicor CMV Monitor (CMM) and Quantiplex CMV bDNA 2.0 (CMV bDNA 2.0), two new standardized and quantitative assays for the detection of cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA in plasma and peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs), respectively, were compared to the CMV viremia assay, pp65 antigenemia assay, and the Amplicor CMV test (P-AMP). The CMV loads were measured in 384 samples from 58 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1-infected, CMV-seropositive subjects, including 13 with symptomatic CMV disease. The assays were highly concordant (agreement, 0.88 to 0.97) except when the CMV load was low. Quantitative results for plasma and PBLs were significantly correlated (Spearman ρ = 0.92). For PBLs, positive results were obtained 125 days before symptomatic CMV disease by CMV bDNA 2.0 and 124 days by pp65 antigenemia assay, whereas they were obtained 46 days before symptomatic CMV disease by CMM and P-AMP. At the time of CMV disease diagnosis, the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of CMV bDNA 2.0 were 92.3, 97.8, 92.3, and 97.8%, respectively, whereas they were 92.3, 93.3, 80, and 97.8%, respectively, for the pp65 antigenemia assay; 84.6, 100, 100, and 95.7%, respectively, for CMM; and 76.9, 100, 100, and 93.8%, respectively, for P-AMP. Considering the entire follow-up, the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of CMV bDNA 2.0 were 92.3, 73.3, 52.1, and 97.1%, respectively, whereas they were 100, 55.5, 39.4, and 100%, respectively, for the pp65 antigenemia assay; 92.3, 86.7, 66.7, and 97.5%, respectively, for CMM; and 84.6, 91.1, 73.3, and 95.3%, respectively, for P-AMP. Detection of CMV in plasma is technically easy and, despite its later positivity (i.e., later than in PBLs), can provide enough information sufficiently early so that HIV-infected patients can be effectively treated. In addition, these standardized quantitative assays accurately monitor the efficacy of anti-CMV treatment. PMID:10488165

  7. Testing of FMI's Coal Upgrading Process

    SciTech Connect

    Vijay Sethi

    2009-03-21

    WRI and FMI have collaborated to develop and test a novel coal upgrading technology. Proprietary coal upgrading technology is a fluidized bed-based continuous process which allows high through-puts, reducing the coal processing costs. Processing is carried out under controlled oxidizing conditions at mild enough conditions that compared to other coal upgrading technologies; the produced water is not as difficult to treat. All the energy required for coal drying and upgrading is derived from the coal itself. Under the auspices of the Jointly Sponsored Research Program, Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-98FT40323, a nominal 400 lbs/hour PDU was constructed and operated. Over the course of this project, several low-rank coals were successfully tested in the PDU. In all cases, a higher Btu, low moisture content, stable product was produced and subsequently analyzed. Stack emissions were monitored and produced water samples were analyzed. Product stability was established by performing moisture readsorption testing. Product pyrophobicity was demonstrated by instrumenting a coal pile.

  8. BNL upgrade plans

    SciTech Connect

    Foelsche, H.W.J.

    1987-01-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory is proposing two major upgrade projects for a future experimental program with protons and heavy ions. The first is the construction of a Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) which will use the AGS complex as an injector. The second initiative is an upgrade of the AGS proton intensity and duty cycle. Both objectives require a Booster for the AGS which has recently been approved as a construction project. With the completion of the booster, and with certain modifications of the AGS, the facility will ultimately become capable of supporting average proton currents on the order of 25 to 50 microamperes. The RHIC will provide center-of-mass collision energies of 2 x 100 to 125 GeV/amu for ions up to the heaviest masses, and 2 x 250 GeV for protons.

  9. CRYOGENICS IN BEPCII UPGRADE.

    SciTech Connect

    JIA,L.; WANG,L.; LI,S.

    2002-07-22

    THIS PAPER PRESENTS A CRYOGENIC DESIGN FOR UPGRADING THE BEIJING ELECTRON POSITRON COLLIDER AT THE INSTITUTE OF HIGH ENERGY PHYSICS IN BEIJING. THE UPGRADE INVOLVES 3 NEW SUPERCONDUCTING FACILITIES, THE INTERACTION REGION QUADRUPOLE MAGNETS, THE DETECTOR SOLENOID MAGNETS AND THE SRF CAVITIES. FOR COOLING OF THESE DEVICES, A NEW CRYPLANT WITH A TOTAL CAPACITY OF 1.0KW AT 4.5K IS TO BE BUILT AT IHEP. AN INTEGRATED CRYOGENIC DESIGN TO FIT THE BEPCII CRYOGENIC LOADS WITH HIGH EFFICIENCY IS CARRIEDOUT USING COMPUTATIONAL PROCESS ANALYSIS SOFTWARE WITH THE EMPHASES ON ECONOMICS AND SAFETY IN BOTH CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATION OF THE PLANT. THIS PAPER DESCRIBES THE CRYOGENIC CHARACTERISTICS OF EACH SUPERCONDUCTING DEVICE, THEIR COOLING SCHEMES AND THE OVERALL CRYOPLANT.

  10. The D0 upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Tuts, P.M. . Physics Dept.)

    1992-10-01

    The original D0 detector was proposed in 1983, with a focus on high P[sub T] physics using precision measurements of e's, [mu]'s, jets, and missing E[sub T]. This detector, as of the summer of 1992, has started data taking at the Fermilab Collider. However, by 1995/6 the luminosity will reach 10[sup 31] cm[sup [minus]2]sec[sup [minus]1], and the minimum bunch spacing will drop to 396ns from the present 3.5[mu]s (by the Main Injector era, luminosities will approach 10[sup 32] cm[sup [minus]2]sec[sup [minus]1] and minimum bunch spacings may reach 132ns). These changes in the accelerator conditions force us to upgrade or replace a number of detector subsystems in order to meet these new demands. In addition, the upgrade offers us the opportunity to expand the physics horizons to include not only the all important high P[sub T] physics menu, but also the low P[sub T] physics that has become increasingly important. In this paper we describe the D0 detector upgrade.

  11. The D0 upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Tuts, P.M.; The D0 Collaboration

    1992-10-01

    The original D0 detector was proposed in 1983, with a focus on high P{sub T} physics using precision measurements of e`s, {mu}`s, jets, and missing E{sub T}. This detector, as of the summer of 1992, has started data taking at the Fermilab Collider. However, by 1995/6 the luminosity will reach 10{sup 31} cm{sup {minus}2}sec{sup {minus}1}, and the minimum bunch spacing will drop to 396ns from the present 3.5{mu}s (by the Main Injector era, luminosities will approach 10{sup 32} cm{sup {minus}2}sec{sup {minus}1} and minimum bunch spacings may reach 132ns). These changes in the accelerator conditions force us to upgrade or replace a number of detector subsystems in order to meet these new demands. In addition, the upgrade offers us the opportunity to expand the physics horizons to include not only the all important high P{sub T} physics menu, but also the low P{sub T} physics that has become increasingly important. In this paper we describe the D0 detector upgrade.

  12. The LHCb VELO upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez Pérez, Pablo

    2013-12-01

    LHCb is a forward spectrometer experiment dedicated to the study of new physics in the decays of beauty and charm hadrons produced in proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. The VErtex LOcator (VELO) is the microstrip silicon detector surrounding the interaction point, providing tracking and vertexing measurements. The upgrade of the LHCb experiment, planned for 2018, will increase the luminosity up to 2×1033 cm-2 s-1 and will perform the readout as a trigger-less system with an event rate of 40 MHz. Extremely non-uniform radiation doses will reach up to 5×1015 1 MeV neq/cm2 in the innermost regions of the VELO sensors, and the output data bandwidth will be increased by a factor of 40. An upgraded detector is under development based in a pixel sensor of the Timepix/Medipix family, with 55 × 55 μm2 pixels. In addition a microstrip solution with finer pitch, higher granularity and thinner than the current detector is being developed in parallel. The current status of the VELO upgrade program will be described together with recent testbeam results.

  13. Immunologic Monitoring of T-Lymphocyte Subsets and Hla-Dr-Positive Monocytes in Kidney Transplant Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Jang-Hee; Yoon, Young-Deuk; Jang, Hye Min; Kwon, Eugene; Jung, Hee-Yeon; Choi, Ji-Young; Park, Sun-Hee; Kim, Yong-Lim; Kim, Hyung-Kee; Huh, Seung; Won, Dong-Il; Kim, Chan-Duck

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The clinical significance of circulating T-lymphocyte subsets and human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR-positive monocytes in the peripheral blood of kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) remains unclear. We examined the efficacy of enumerating these cells for the immunologic monitoring of KTRs. Blood samples were obtained before transplantation, 2 weeks after transplantation and at diagnosis, and 2 weeks after treating biopsy-proven acute cellular rejection and cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. Serial flow cytometric analysis was performed using peripheral blood obtained from 123 patients to identify the frequencies of HLA-DR+, CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, and CD25+ T-lymphocytes and HLA-DR-positive monocytes. Frequencies of CD4+CD25+/CD4+ T cells, CD8+CD25+/CD8+ T cells, and HLA-DR-positive monocytes were significantly lower at 2 weeks after transplantation than before transplantation (all P < 0.001). This decrease was not correlated with clinical parameters. The frequency of CD4+CD25+/CD4+ T cells was significantly higher in KTRs with acute rejection than in KTRs at 2 weeks after transplantation (9.10% [range 4.30–25.6%] vs 5.10% [range 0.10–33.3%]; P = 0.024). However, no significant differences were observed between stable KTRs and KTRs with CMV infection. Analysis of the receiver operating characteristic curve adjusted by covariates showed that acute rejection could be predicted with 75.0% sensitivity and 68.4% specificity by setting the cutoff value of CD4+CD25+/CD4+ T cell frequency as 5.8%. Circulating T-lymphocyte and monocyte subsets showed significant and consistent changes in their frequencies after immunosuppression. Of the various immune cells examined, circulating levels of CD4+CD25+ T cells might be a useful noninvasive immunologic indicator for detecting acute rejection. PMID:26554788

  14. High Resolution BPM Upgrade for the ATF Damping Ring at KEK

    SciTech Connect

    Eddy, N.; Briegel, C.; Fellenz, B.; Gianfelice-Wendt, E.; Prieto, P.; Rechenmacher, R.; Semenov, A.; Voy, D.; Wendt, M.; Zhang, D.; Terunuma, N.; /KEK, Tsukuba

    2011-08-17

    A beam position monitor (BPM) upgrade at the KEK Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) damping ring has been accomplished, carried out by a KEK/FNAL/SLAC collaboration under the umbrella of the global ILC R&D effort. The upgrade consists of a high resolution, high reproducibility read-out system, based on analog and digital down-conversion techniques, digital signal processing, and also implements a new automatic gain error correction schema. The technical concept and realization as well as results of beam studies are presented. The next generation of linear colliders require ultra-low vertical emittance of <2 pm-rad. The damping ring at the KEK Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) is designed to demonstrate this mission critical goal. A high resolution beam position monitor (BPM) system for the damping ring is one of the key tools for realizing this goal. The BPM system needs to provide two distnict measurements. First, a very high resolution ({approx}100-200nm) closed-orbit measurement which is averaged over many turns and realized with narrowband filter techniques - 'narrowband mode'. This is needed to monitor and steer the beam along an optimum orbit and to facilitate beam-based alignment to minimize non-linear field effects. Second, is the ability to make turn by turn (TBT) measurements to support optics studies and corrections necessary to achieve the design performance. As the TBT measurement necessitates a wider bandwidth, it is often referred to as 'wideband mode'. The BPM upgrade was initiated as a KEK/SLAC/FNAL collaboration in the frame of the Global Design Initiative of the International Linear Collider. The project was realized and completed using Japan-US funds with Fermilab as the core partner.

  15. The LHCb Upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobsson, Richard

    2013-11-01

    With the demonstration that LHCb can successfully perform forward precision measurements with event pileup, the operation and trigger strategy evolved significantly during the LHC Run 1 allowing LHCb to collect over 3fb-1 at centre-of-mass energies of 7TeV and 8TeV. Increased bandwidth opened the door for LHCb to extend the physics program. The additional statistics and well managed systematic effects together with the stable trigger and data taking conditions have led to a very large number of world-class measurements and dominance in heavy flavour physics [1], in addition to a reputation of an excellent forward general purpose detector at the LHC. Long Shutdown (LS) 1 (2013-2014) will allow LHCb to fully explore the large statistics collected and prepare LHCb for Run 2 (2015 - 2017). However, even after an additional expected integrated luminosity of 5-6 fb-1 in Run 2, many of the LHCb precision measurements will remain limited by statistics, and some exploratory physics modes will not even be accessible yet. With the need for reconstructing the event topology in order to efficiently trigger on the beauty and the charm hadrons decays, the current 1 MHz readout limit is the main bottle neck to run at higher luminosity and with higher trigger efficiencies. LHCb will therefore undergo a major upgrade in LS 2 ( 2018 - 2019) aimed at collecting an order of magnitude more data by 2028. The upgrade consists of a full readout at the LHC bunch crossing rate ( 40 MHz) with the ultimate flexibility of only a software trigger. In order to increase the instantaneous luminosity up to 2x1033cm-2s-1, several sub-detector upgrades are also underway to cope with the higher occupancies and radiation dose.

  16. LHC detector upgrades

    SciTech Connect

    Dan Green

    2003-09-15

    The LHC detectors are well into their construction phase. The LHC schedule shows first beam to ATLAS and CMS in 2007. Because the LHC accelerator has begun to plan for a ten fold increase in LHC design luminosity (the SLHC or super LHC) it is none too soon to begin to think about the upgrades which will be required of the present LHC detectors. In particular, the tracking systems of ATLAS and CMS will need to be completely rebuilt. Given the time needed to do the R & D, make prototypes, and construct the new detectors and given the accelerator schedule for the SLHC, work needs to begin rather soon.

  17. Upgraded Coal Interest Group

    SciTech Connect

    Evan Hughes

    2009-01-08

    The Upgraded Coal Interest Group (UCIG) is an EPRI 'users group' that focuses on clean, low-cost options for coal-based power generation. The UCIG covers topics that involve (1) pre-combustion processes, (2) co-firing systems and fuels, and (3) reburn using coal-derived or biomass-derived fuels. The UCIG mission is to preserve and expand the economic use of coal for energy. By reducing the fuel costs and environmental impacts of coal-fired power generation, existing units become more cost effective and thus new units utilizing advanced combustion technologies are more likely to be coal-fired.

  18. Research ships upgraded

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Two research vessels, operated by the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Mass., are undergoing scientific upgrading and engineering modifications costing $15 million each. The improvements will prepare them to take lead roles in major future ocean research efforts.Research vessel Knorr (operated by WHOI) entered the McDermott Shipyard in Amelia, LA., on February 15. It will receive new engines and a propulsion system, and its length will be increased from 245 to 279 feet. The R/V Melville (operated by SIO) is scheduled for the same 10-month remodeling to begin in mid-November.

  19. 'Upgrading' psoriasis responsibly.

    PubMed

    Boehncke, Sandra; Boehncke, Wolf-Henning

    2014-10-01

    Psoriasis is a 'pacemaker' in dermatology. Substantial progress has been made regarding our understanding of its pathophysiology and genetic background, fuelling developments in cutaneous biology in general. Besides, the clinical perspective on psoriasis is currently changing, taking into consideration comorbidity and the systemic dimensions of this seemingly organ-specific inflammation. The availability of drugs exhibiting fewer contraindications and improved long-term safety opened a discussion around replacing a relatively limited (regarding both objectives and duration) 'therapeutic' by a much broader 'management' approach when it comes to treating psoriasis as a systemic disease. The question arises whether this 'upgrade' is warranted. PMID:25040560

  20. The Bevalac Upgrade Project

    SciTech Connect

    Alonso, J.R.; Dwinell, R.D.; Feinberg, B.; Frias, R.; Gough, R.A.; Howard, D.R.; Hunt, D.B.; Krebs, G.F.; Krupnick, J.T.; Lewis, S.A.

    1987-03-01

    This paper describes a proposed upgrade of the Bevalac accelerator complex in which the present Bevatron is replaced with a modern, strong-focusing 17 T-m synchrotron. This new ring is designed to accelerate all ions throughout the periodic table with intensities 100 to 1000 times higher than the present Bevatron. It will also provide a substantially improved beam spill structure and will reduce operating costs. A fast extraction capability can be used to inject a future heavy ion storage ring. Pulse-to-pulse switching of energy and ion species is an important goal. The existing injectors, shielding, experimental facilities and utilities of the present Bevalac will remain substantially intact.

  1. The upgraded DØ detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abazov, V. M.; Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Acharya, B. S.; Adams, D. L.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Agelou, M.; Agram, J.-L.; Ahmed, S. N.; Ahn, S. H.; Ahsan, M.; Alexeev, G. D.; Alkhazov, G.; Alton, A.; Alverson, G.; Alves, G. A.; Anastasoaie, M.; Andeen, T.; Anderson, J. T.; Anderson, S.; Andrieu, B.; Angstadt, R.; Anosov, V.; Arnoud, Y.; Arov, M.; Askew, A.; Åsman, B.; Assis Jesus, A. C. S.; Atramentov, O.; Autermann, C.; Avila, C.; Babukhadia, L.; Bacon, T. C.; Badaud, F.; Baden, A.; Baffioni, S.; Bagby, L.; Baldin, B.; Balm, P. W.; Banerjee, P.; Banerjee, S.; Barberis, E.; Bardon, O.; Barg, W.; Bargassa, P.; Baringer, P.; Barnes, C.; Barreto, J.; Bartlett, J. F.; Bassler, U.; Bhattacharjee, M.; Baturitsky, M. A.; Bauer, D.; Bean, A.; Baumbaugh, B.; Beauceron, S.; Begalli, M.; Beaudette, F.; Begel, M.; Bellavance, A.; Beri, S. B.; Bernardi, G.; Bernhard, R.; Bertram, I.; Besançon, M.; Besson, A.; Beuselinck, R.; Beutel, D.; Bezzubov, V. A.; Bhat, P. C.; Bhatnagar, V.; Binder, M.; Biscarat, C.; Bishoff, A.; Black, K. M.; Blackler, I.; Blazey, G.; Blekman, F.; Blessing, S.; Bloch, D.; Blumenschein, U.; Bockenthien, E.; Bodyagin, V.; Boehnlein, A.; Boeriu, O.; Bolton, T. A.; Bonamy, P.; Bonifas, D.; Borcherding, F.; Borissov, G.; Bos, K.; Bose, T.; Boswell, C.; Bowden, M.; Brandt, A.; Briskin, G.; Brock, R.; Brooijmans, G.; Bross, A.; Buchanan, N. J.; Buchholz, D.; Buehler, M.; Buescher, V.; Burdin, S.; Burke, S.; Burnett, T. H.; Busato, E.; Buszello, C. P.; Butler, D.; Butler, J. M.; Cammin, J.; Caron, S.; Bystricky, J.; Canal, L.; Canelli, F.; Carvalho, W.; Casey, B. C. K.; Casey, D.; Cason, N. M.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; Chakrabarti, S.; Chakraborty, D.; Chan, K. M.; Chandra, A.; Chapin, D.; Charles, F.; Cheu, E.; Chevalier, L.; Chi, E.; Chiche, R.; Cho, D. K.; Choate, R.; Choi, S.; Choudhary, B.; Chopra, S.; Christenson, J. H.; Christiansen, T.; Christofek, L.; Churin, I.; Cisko, G.; Claes, D.; Clark, A. R.; Clément, B.; Clément, C.; Coadou, Y.; Colling, D. J.; Coney, L.; Connolly, B.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, W. E.; Coppage, D.; Corcoran, M.; Coss, J.; Cothenet, A.; Cousinou, M.-C.; Cox, B.; Crépé-Renaudin, S.; Cristetiu, M.; Cummings, M. A. C.; Cutts, D.; da Motta, H.; Das, M.; Davies, B.; Davies, G.; Davis, G. A.; Davis, W.; De, K.; de Jong, P.; de Jong, S. J.; De La Cruz-Burelo, E.; De La Taille, C.; De Oliveira Martins, C.; Dean, S.; Degenhardt, J. D.; Déliot, F.; Delsart, P. A.; Del Signore, K.; DeMaat, R.; Demarteau, M.; Demina, R.; Demine, P.; Denisov, D.; Denisov, S. P.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Diesburg, M.; Doets, M.; Doidge, M.; Dong, H.; Doulas, S.; Dudko, L. V.; Duflot, L.; Dugad, S. R.; Duperrin, A.; Dvornikov, O.; Dyer, J.; Dyshkant, A.; Eads, M.; Edmunds, D.; Edwards, T.; Ellison, J.; Elmsheuser, J.; Eltzroth, J. T.; Elvira, V. D.; Eno, S.; Ermolov, P.; Eroshin, O. V.; Estrada, J.; Evans, D.; Evans, H.; Evdokimov, A.; Evdokimov, V. N.; Fagan, J.; Fast, J.; Fatakia, S. N.; Fein, D.; Feligioni, L.; Ferapontov, A. V.; Ferbel, T.; Ferreira, M. J.; Fiedler, F.; Filthaut, F.; Fisher, W.; Fisk, H. E.; Fleck, I.; Fitzpatrick, T.; Flattum, E.; Fleuret, F.; Flores, R.; Foglesong, J.; Fortner, M.; Fox, H.; Franklin, C.; Freeman, W.; Fu, S.; Fuess, S.; Gadfort, T.; Galea, C. F.; Gallas, E.; Galyaev, E.; Gao, M.; Garcia, C.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; Gardner, J.; Gavrilov, V.; Gay, A.; Gay, P.; Gelé, D.; Gelhaus, R.; Genser, K.; Gerber, C. E.; Gershtein, Y.; Gillberg, D.; Geurkov, G.; Ginther, G.; Gobbi, B.; Goldmann, K.; Golling, T.; Gollub, N.; Golovtsov, V.; Gómez, B.; Gomez, G.; Gomez, R.; Goodwin, R.; Gornushkin, Y.; Gounder, K.; Goussiou, A.; Graham, D.; Graham, G.; Grannis, P. D.; Gray, K.; Greder, S.; Green, D. R.; Green, J.; Green, J. A.; Greenlee, H.; Greenwood, Z. D.; Gregores, E. M.; Grinstein, S.; Gris, Ph.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Groer, L.; Grünendahl, S.; Grünewald, M. W.; Gu, W.; Guglielmo, J.; Gupta, A.; Gurzhiev, S. N.; Gutierrez, G.; Gutierrez, P.; Haas, A.; Hadley, N. J.; Haggard, E.; Haggerty, H.; Hagopian, S.; Hall, I.; Hall, R. E.; Han, C.; Han, L.; Hance, R.; Hanagaki, K.; Hanlet, P.; Hansen, S.; Harder, K.; Harel, A.; Harrington, R.; Hauptman, J. M.; Hauser, R.; Hays, C.; Hays, J.; Hazen, E.; Hebbeker, T.; Hebert, C.; Hedin, D.; Heinmiller, J. M.; Heinson, A. P.; Heintz, U.; Hensel, C.; Hesketh, G.; Hildreth, M. D.; Hirosky, R.; Hobbs, J. D.; Hoeneisen, B.; Hohlfeld, M.; Hong, S. J.; Hooper, R.; Hou, S.; Houben, P.; Hu, Y.; Huang, J.; Huang, Y.; Hynek, V.; Huffman, D.; Iashvili, I.; Illingworth, R.; Ito, A. S.; Jabeen, S.; Jacquier, Y.; Jaffré, M.; Jain, S.; Jain, V.; Jakobs, K.; Jayanti, R.; Jenkins, A.; Jesik, R.; Jiang, Y.; Johns, K.; Johnson, M.; Johnson, P.; Jonckheere, A.; Jonsson, P.; Jöstlein, H.; Jouravlev, N.; Juarez, M.; Juste, A.; Kaan, A. P.; Kado, M. M.; Käfer, D.; Kahl, W.; Kahn, S.; Kajfasz, E.

    2006-09-01

    The DØ experiment enjoyed a very successful data-collection run at the Fermilab Tevatron collider between 1992 and 1996. Since then, the detector has been upgraded to take advantage of improvements to the Tevatron and to enhance its physics capabilities. We describe the new elements of the detector, including the silicon microstrip tracker, central fiber tracker, solenoidal magnet, preshower detectors, forward muon detector, and forward proton detector. The uranium/liquid-argon calorimeters and central muon detector, remaining from Run I, are discussed briefly. We also present the associated electronics, triggering, and data acquisition systems, along with the design and implementation of software specific to DØ.

  2. Energy Efficiency Through Lighting Upgrades

    SciTech Connect

    Berst, Kara; Howeth, Maria

    2013-02-26

    Lighting upgrades including neon to LED, incandescent to CFL's and T-12 to T-8 and T-5's were completed through this grant. A total of 16 Chickasaw nation facilities decreased their carbon footprint because of these grant funds. Calculations used were based on comparing the energy usage from the previous year's average and the current energy usage. For facilities without a full year's set of energy bills, the month after installation was compared to the same month from the previous year. Overall, the effect the lighting change-outs had for the gaming centers and casinos far exceeded expectations. For the Madill Gaming Center; both an interior and exterior upgrade was performed which resulted in a 31% decrease in energy consumption. This same reduction was seen in every facility that participated in the grant. Just by simply changing out light bulbs to newer energy efficient equivalents, a decrease in energy usage can be achieved and this was validated by the return on investment seen at Chickasaw Nation facilities. Along with the technical project tasks were awareness sessions presented at Chickasaw Head Starts. The positive message of environmental stewardship was passed down to head start students and passed along to Chickasaw employees. Excitement was created in those that learned what they could do to help reduce their energy bills and many followed through and took the idea home. For a fairy low cost, the general public can also use this technique to lower their energy consumption both at home and at work. Although the idea behind the project was somewhat simple, true benefits have been gained through environmental awareness and reductions of energy costs.

  3. Design of a diagnostic area-type beam position monitor for x-ray beamlines at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Corridon, D.

    1996-10-01

    We have built a area-type beam position monitor for use as a diagnostic tool at the National Synchrotron Light Source. The device is compact and fits into a vacuum cross. We completed range and resolution tests of the device at beamline X-19A at the NSLS and concluded that such a monitor can be placed in the confines of the vacuum cross.

  4. Using Electronic Drug Monitor Feedback to Improve Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy Among HIV-Positive Patients in China

    PubMed Central

    DeSilva, Mary Bachman; Hamer, Davidson H.; Xu, Keyi; Zhang, Jianbo; Li, Tao; Wilson, Ira B.; Gill, Christopher J.

    2009-01-01

    Effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) requires excellent adherence. Little is known about how to improve ART adherence in many HIV/AIDS-affected countries, including China. We therefore assessed an adherence intervention among HIV-positive patients in southwestern China. Eighty subjects were enrolled and monitored for 6 months. Sixty-eight remaining subjects were randomized to intervention/control arms. In months 7–12, intervention subjects were counseled using EDM feedback; controls continued with standard of care. Among randomized subjects, mean adherence and CD4 count were 86.8 vs. 83.8% and 297 vs. 357 cells/μl in intervention vs. control subjects, respectively. At month 12, among 64 subjects who completed the trial, mean adherence had risen significantly among intervention subjects to 96.5% but remained unchanged in controls. Mean CD4 count rose by 90 cells/μl and declined by 9 cells/μl among intervention and control subjects, respectively. EDM feedback as a counseling tool appears promising for management of HIV and other chronic diseases. PMID:19771504

  5. Regioselective deprotection of the monosaccharide-bearing thiocyanomethyl group at the anomeric position monitored by reversed-phase HPLC method.

    PubMed

    Abualassal, Qais; Al Azzam, Khaldun M; Jilani, Jamal A

    2016-09-01

    In the current work, the investigation and development of a chemo-enzymatic approach for the synthesis of neo-glycoproteins have been studied. This strategy is based on the regioselective enzymatic hydrolysis of peracetylated monosaccharide, functionalized at the anomeric position (C1) as 1-thio-(S-cyanomethyl) group, a precursor of the 2- iminomethoxyethyl thioglycosides-linker for protein glycosylation, catalyzed by immobilized enzymes to obtain selectively monodeprotected compounds. The use of this activation in C1 is the most frequently used strategy for glycoprotein preparation. The selected biocatalysts are the lipase from Candida rugosa and the acetyl xylan esterase from Bacillus pumilus. A reversed-phase high-performance liquid-chromatographic (HPLC) method for monitoring the regioselective deprotection reaction has been developed. The developed HPLC method was used as a fingerprint to follow the hydrolysis of substrate 1 to substrate 1a and to determine its purity and yield. Moreover, the obtained compound was further purified by flash chromatography. The obtained compound 1a was further characterized using (1) H, (13) C NMR, correlation spectroscopy (COSY) and heteronuclear multiple bond correlation. The resulting product can be used as an intermediate for the preparation of di- and more complex oligosaccharides aimed at protein conjugation. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26864255

  6. Tracking Accuracy of a Real-Time Fiducial Tracking System for Patient Positioning and Monitoring in Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Shchory, Tal; Schifter, Dan; Lichtman, Rinat; Neustadter, David; Corn, Benjamin W.

    2010-11-15

    Purpose: In radiation therapy there is a need to accurately know the location of the target in real time. A novel radioactive tracking technology has been developed to answer this need. The technology consists of a radioactive implanted fiducial marker designed to minimize migration and a linac mounted tracking device. This study measured the static and dynamic accuracy of the new tracking technology in a clinical radiation therapy environment. Methods and Materials: The tracking device was installed on the linac gantry. The radioactive marker was located in a tissue equivalent phantom. Marker location was measured simultaneously by the radioactive tracking system and by a Microscribe G2 coordinate measuring machine (certified spatial accuracy of 0.38 mm). Localization consistency throughout a volume and absolute accuracy in the Fixed coordinate system were measured at multiple gantry angles over volumes of at least 10 cm in diameter centered at isocenter. Dynamic accuracy was measured with the marker located inside a breathing phantom. Results: The mean consistency for the static source was 0.58 mm throughout the tested region at all measured gantry angles. The mean absolute position error in the Fixed coordinate system for all gantry angles was 0.97 mm. The mean real-time tracking error for the dynamic source within the breathing phantom was less than 1 mm. Conclusions: This novel radioactive tracking technology has the potential to be useful in accurate target localization and real-time monitoring for radiation therapy.

  7. Upgraded demonstration vehicle task report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, J.; Hardy, K.; Livingston, R.; Sandberg, J.

    1981-01-01

    Vehicle/battery performance capabilities and interface problems that occurred when upgraded developmental batteries were integrated with upgraded versions of comercially available electric vehicles were investigated. Developmental batteries used included nickel zinc batteries, a nickel iron battery, and an improved lead acid battery. Testing of the electric vehicles and upgraded batteries was performed in the complete vehicle system environment to characterize performance and identify problems unique to the vehicle/battery system. Constant speed tests and driving schedule range tests were performed on a chassis dynamometer. The results from these tests of the upgraded batteries and vehicles were compared to performance capabilities for the same vehicles equipped with standard batteries.

  8. HP upgrade operational streamlining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edge, David R.; Emenheiser, Kenneth S.; Hanrahan, William P., III; Mccollums, D.; Seery, Paul J.; Ricklefs, Randall L.

    1993-01-01

    New computer technology and resources must be successfully integrated into CDSLR station operations to manage new complex operational tracking requirements, support the on site production of new data products, support ongoing station performance improvements, and to support new station communication requirements. The NASA CDSLR Network is in the process of upgrading station computer resources with HP UNIX workstations, designed to automate a wide range of operational station requirements. The primary HP upgrade objective was to relocate computer intensive data system tasks from the controller computer to a new advanced computer environment designed to meet the new data system requirements. The HP UNIX environment supports fully automated real time data communications, data management, data processing, and data quality control. Automated data compression procedures are used to improve the efficiency of station data communications. In addition, the UNIX environment supports a number of semi-automated technical and administrative operational station tasks. The x window user interface generates multiple simultaneous color graphics displays, providing direct operator visibility and control over a wide range of operational station functions.

  9. SNO+ Readout Electronics Upgrades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonventre, Richard; Shokair, Timothy; Knapik, Robert

    2012-03-01

    The SNO+ experiment is designed to explore several topics in neutrino physics including neutrinoless double beta decay, reactor antineutrinos, and low energy solar neutrinos. SNO+ uses the existing Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) detector, with the heavy water target replaced with liquid scintillator. The new target requires an upgrade to the command and control electronics to handle the higher rates expected with scintillation light as compared to Cherenkov light. The readout electronics have been upgraded to autonomously push data to a central data acquisition computer over ethernet from each of the 19 front end crates. The autonomous readout is achieved with a field programmable gate array (FPGA) with an embedded processor. Inside the FPGA fabric a state machine is configured to pull data across the VME-like bus of each crate. A small C program, making use of the open source Light Weight IP (LWIP) libraries, is run directly on the hardware (with no operating system) to push the data via TCP/IP. The hybrid combination of `high-level' C code and a `low-level' VHDL state machine is a cost effective and flexible solution for reading out individual front end crates.

  10. Energy Efficiency Upgrades

    SciTech Connect

    Roby Williams

    2012-03-29

    The energy efficiency upgrades project at Hardin County General Hospital did not include research nor was it a demonstration project. The project enabled the hospital to replace outdated systems with modern efficient models. Hardin County General Hospital is a 501c3, nonprofit hospital and the sole community provider for Hardin and Pope Counties of Illinois. This project provided much needed equipment and facility upgrades that would not have been possible through locally generated funding. Task 1 was a reroofing of the hospital. The hospital architect designed the replacement to increase the energy efficiency of the hospital roof/ceiling structure. Task 2 was replacement and installation of a new more efficient CT scanner for the hospital. Included in the project was replacement of HVAC equipment for the entire radiological suite. Task 5 was a replacement and installation of a new higher capacity diesel-fueled emergency generator for the hospital replacing a 50+ year old gas-fired generator. Task 7 was the replacement of 50+ year-old walk-in cooler/freezer with a newer, energy efficient model. Task 8 was the replacement of 10+ year-old washing machines in the hospital laundry with higher capacity, energy efficient models. Task 9 was replacement of 50-year old single pane curtain window system with double-pane insulated windows. Additionally, insulation was added around ventilation systems and the curtain wall system.

  11. Parris Island Wastewater Treatment Plant SCADA Upgrades Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Meador, Richard J.; Hatley, Darrel D.

    2004-03-18

    Marine Corp Recruit Depot (MCRD), Parris Island, SC, home of the Easter Recruiting Region Marine Corp Boot Camp, found itself in a situation common to Department of Defense (DOD) facilities. It had to deal with several different types of installed energy-related control systems that could not talk to each other. This situation was being exacerbated by the installation of a new and/or unique type of control system for every new building being constructed or older facility that was being upgraded. The Wastewater Treatment Facility (WWTF) and lift station controls were badly in need of a thorough inspection and a new Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system upgrade to meet environmental, safety, manpower, and maintenance concerns. A project was recently completed to implement such a wastewater treatment SCADA upgrade, which is compatible with other upgrades to the energy monitoring and control systems for Parris Island buildings and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Decision Support for Operations and Maintenance (DSOM) system installed at the Central Energy Plant (CEP). This project included design, specification, procurement, installation, and testing an upgraded SCADA alarm, process monitoring, and display system; and training WWTF operators in its operation. The ultimate goal of this and the other PNNL projects at Parris Island is to allow monitoring and control of energy and environmental components from a central location.

  12. A Study on the Optimal Positions of ECG Electrodes in a Garment for the Design of ECG-Monitoring Clothing for Male.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hakyung; Lee, Joo Hyeon

    2015-09-01

    Smart clothing is a sort of wearable device used for ubiquitous health monitoring. It provides comfort and efficiency in vital sign measurements and has been studied and developed in various types of monitoring platforms such as T-shirt and sports bra. However, despite these previous approaches, smart clothing for electrocardiography (ECG) monitoring has encountered a serious shortcoming relevant to motion artifacts caused by wearer movement. In effect, motion artifacts are one of the major problems in practical implementation of most wearable health-monitoring devices. In the ECG measurements collected by a garment, motion artifacts are usually caused by improper location of the electrode, leading to lack of contact between the electrode and skin with body motion. The aim of this study was to suggest a design for ECG-monitoring clothing contributing to reduction of motion artifacts. Based on the clothing science theory, it was assumed in this study that the stability of the electrode in a dynamic state differed depending on the electrode location in an ECG-monitoring garment. Founded on this assumption, effects of 56 electrode positions were determined by sectioning the surface of the garment into grids with 6 cm intervals in the front and back of the bodice. In order to determine the optimal locations of the ECG electrodes from the 56 positions, ECG measurements were collected from 10 participants at every electrode position in the garment while the wearer was in motion. The electrode locations indicating both an ECG measurement rate higher than 80.0 % and a large amplitude during motion were selected as the optimal electrode locations. The results of this analysis show four electrode locations with consistently higher ECG measurement rates and larger amplitudes amongst the 56 locations. These four locations were abstracted to be least affected by wearer movement in this research. Based on this result, a design of the garment-formed ECG monitoring platform

  13. TMX upgrade experimental operating plan

    SciTech Connect

    Coensgen, F.H.; Davis, J.C.; Simonen, T.C.

    1981-07-01

    This document describes the operating plan for the TMX Upgrade experiment. This plan covers the period from November 1981 to March 1983 and describes how the TMX will be brought into operation, our schedules and milestones, and how we will determine if the TMX Upgrade program milestones have been met.

  14. Skill Upgrading, Incorporated. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skill Upgrading, Inc., Baltimore, MD.

    As in two other projects in Cleveland and Newark, New Jersey, this project was set up in Baltimore to provide technical assistance in designing ways to meet in-plant skills needs by upgrading job skills on entry workers through High Intensity Training (HIT). Skill Upgrading, Inc. was established in Maryland to provide training and manpower…

  15. Environmental and biological monitoring of platinum-containing drugs in two hospital pharmacies using positive air pressure isolators.

    PubMed

    Kopp, Bettina; Crauste-Manciet, Sylvie; Guibert, Agnès; Mourier, Wilhelmine; Guerrault-Moro, Marie-Noelle; Ferrari, Sylvie; Jomier, Jean-Yves; Brossard, Denis; Schierl, Rudolf

    2013-04-01

    Environmental and biological monitoring of platinum containing drugs was implemented in two French hospital pharmacies using positive air pressure isolators and having similar working procedures when preparing antineoplastic drugs. Wipe sampling of surfaces, gloves, and vials was performed in the preparation room and in storage areas. All employees involved in the preparation of antineoplastic drugs were tested for urinary platinum on Monday before work and Friday after shift. Only traces of platinum were detected on surfaces in the preparation room outside the isolators (less than 1.61 pg cm(-2)). However, in one center, significant contamination was found in the storage area of the drug vials, which can most likely be linked to the rupture of a platinum vial and due to inefficient cleaning procedures. Surfaces inside the isolators were found to be contaminated (maximum: 198.4 pg cm(-2)). A higher level of contamination was detected in one pharmacy and could be explained by the lack of overgloving with regular changes during the preparation process. Nitrile gloves used during drug handling outside the isolator showed the highest platinum concentration (maximum: 5.86 ng per pair). With regards to platinum urine concentration, no significant difference was found between exposed and unexposed pharmacy personnel. Isolator technology combined with individual protective measures seems to be efficient to protect workers from occupational exposure to antineoplastic drugs, whereas specific individual protective procedures implemented were focussing on the risk of handling vials outside the isolator (e.g. high frequency of glove changing). Moreover, overgloving inside the isolator would contribute to substantially decrease inner surface contamination and should be recommended in order to limit the transfer of chemical contamination to the end products. PMID:23091112

  16. Monitoring

    DOEpatents

    Orr, Christopher Henry; Luff, Craig Janson; Dockray, Thomas; Macarthur, Duncan Whittemore

    2004-11-23

    The invention provides apparatus and methods which facilitate movement of an instrument relative to an item or location being monitored and/or the item or location relative to the instrument, whilst successfully excluding extraneous ions from the detection location. Thus, ions generated by emissions from the item or location can successfully be monitored during movement. The technique employs sealing to exclude such ions, for instance, through an electro-field which attracts and discharges the ions prior to their entering the detecting location and/or using a magnetic field configured to repel the ions away from the detecting location.

  17. A FOrward CALorimeter Upgrade For PHENIX

    SciTech Connect

    Hollis, Richard S.

    2011-06-01

    Over the past few years, the PHENIX detector has undergone several upgrades in the forward region (1<|{eta}|<4), initially covered only by the muon arms. The focus of these upgrades is toward a better understanding of the Color-Glass Condensate and the interplay between the different components of the proton's spin valence/sea quark and gluon contributions. This paper highlights the newly proposed forward calorimeter detector, FOCAL. FOCAL is a tungsten-silicon sampling calorimeter with high position and energy resolution, covering a pseudorapidity of 1.6<{eta}<2.5. This future detector aims to constrain the current view of gluon saturation at small x in the Color-Glass Condensate framework, through isolation of direct photons at high-p{sub T} over a broad range of pseudorapidity.

  18. Operability test procedure for the 340-NT-EX stack upgrades -- Project W337

    SciTech Connect

    Hagerty, K.J.

    1994-12-15

    The purpose of the 340-NT-EX sampling system upgrade Operability Test Procedure (OTP) is to test and ensure the sampler system upgrades correctly interface with the control room alarm and recording functions. The sampling system monitors the exhaust air from a 300 Area waste handling facility for alpha, beta, gamma, particulate, and iodine releases.

  19. NIRSS Upgrades: Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Politovich, Marcia K.

    2007-01-01

    This year we were able to further the NIRSS program by re-writing the data ingest and display code from LabVIEW to C++ and Java. This was leveraged by a University of Colorado Computer Science Department Senior Project. The upgrade made the display more portable and upgradeable. Comparisons with research aircraft flights conducted during AIRS-2 were also done and demonstrate reasonable skill in determining cloud altitudes and liquid water distribution. Improvements can still be made to the cloud and liquid logic. The icing hazard index was not evaluated here since that represents work in progress and needs to be made compatible with the new CIP-Severity algorithm. CIP is the Current Icing Potential product that uses a combination decision tree/fuzzy logic algorithm to combine numerical weather model output with operational sensor data (NEXRAD, GOES, METARs and voice pilot reports) to produce an hourly icing diagnosis across the CONUS. The new severity algorithm seeks to diagnose liquid water production through rising, cooling air, and depletion by ice processes. The information used by CIP is very different from that ingested by NIRSS but some common ground does exist. Additionally, the role of NIRSS and the information it both needs and provides needs to be determined in context of the Next Generation Air Traffic System (NGATS). The Weather Integrated Products Team has a plan for an Initial Operating Capability (IOC) to take place in 2012. NIRSS is not explicitly a part of that IOC but should be considered as a follow-on as part of the development path to a 2025 full capability.

  20. Development of a Propagating Millimeter-Wave Beam Position and Profile Monitor in the Oversize Corrugated Waveguide Used in an ECRH System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimozuma, Takashi; Kobayashi, Sakuji; Ito, Satoshi; Ito, Yasuhiko; Kubo, Shin; Yoshimura, Yasuo; Nishiura, Masaki; Igami, Hiroe; Takahashi, Hiromi; Mizuno, Yoshinori; Okada, Kohta; Mutoh, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    In a high-power electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) system for plasma heating, a long-distance and low-loss transmission system of the millimeter wave is required. A real-time monitor of the millimeter-wave beam position and its intensity profile, which can be used in a high-power, evacuated, and cooled transmission line, is proposed, designed, manufactured, and tested. The beam-position and profile monitor (BPM) consists of a reflector, Peltier-device array, and a heat-sink, which is installed in the reflector-plate of a miterbend. The BPM was tested using both simulated electric heater power and high-power gyrotron output power. The profile obtained from the monitor using the gyrotron output was well agreed with the burn patter on a thermal sensitive paper. Methods of data analysis and mode-content analysis of a propagating millimeter-wave in the corrugated waveguide are proposed.

  1. Improving minimum cost spanning trees by upgrading nodes

    SciTech Connect

    Krumke, S.O.; Noltemeier, H.; Wirth, H.C.; Marathe, M.V.; Ravi, R.; Ravi, S.S.; Sundaram, R.

    1998-11-01

    The authors study budget constrained network upgrading problems. The authors are given an undirected edge weighted graph (G = V, E) where node v {element_of} V can be upgraded at a cost of c(v). This upgrade reduces the weight of each edge incident on v. The goal is to find a minimum cost set of nodes to be upgraded so that the resulting network has a minimum spanning tree of weight no more than a given budget D. The results obtained in the paper include the following: (1) on the positive side, they provide a polynomial time approximation algorithm for the above upgrading problem when the difference between the maximum and minimum edge weights is bounded by a polynomial in n, the number of nodes in the graph, the solution produced by the algorithm satisfies the budget constrain, and the cost of the upgrading set produced by the algorithm is O (log n) times the minimum upgrading cost needed to obtain a spanning tree of weight at most D; (2) in contrast , they show that, unless NP {improper_subset} DTIME (n{sup O(log log n)}), there can be no polynomial time approximation algorithm for the problem that produces a solution with upgrading cost at most {alpha} < ln n times the optimal upgrading cost even if the budget can be violated by a factor f(n), for any polynomial time computable function f(n), this result continues to hold, with f(n) = n{sup k} being any polynomial, even when the difference between the maximum and minimum edge weights is bounded by a polynomial in n; and (3) finally, they show that using a simple binary search over the set of admissible values, the dual problem can be solved with an appropriate performance guarantee.

  2. A protocol for monitoring vegetation, bare ground and litter in scaled globally-positioned, ground-level digital imagery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scientists and managers have used the quadrat as a means of measuring and monitoring vegetation since the foundation of modern plant ecology. Traditional quadrat sampling, unfortunately, is quite tedious and slow. Proper monitoring requires not only careful examination of individual quadrats (sampl...

  3. 28 CFR 115.218 - Upgrades to facilities and technologies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Upgrades to facilities and technologies. 115.218 Section 115.218 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE... residents from sexual abuse. (b) When installing or updating a video monitoring system,...

  4. 28 CFR 115.218 - Upgrades to facilities and technologies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Upgrades to facilities and technologies. 115.218 Section 115.218 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE... residents from sexual abuse. (b) When installing or updating a video monitoring system,...

  5. 28 CFR 115.218 - Upgrades to facilities and technologies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Upgrades to facilities and technologies. 115.218 Section 115.218 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE... residents from sexual abuse. (b) When installing or updating a video monitoring system,...

  6. Improving Monitoring and Reporting of Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs) in HIV positive patients on Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Agu, Kenneth Anene; Oparah, Azuka Cyriacus; Ochei, Uche M.

    2012-01-01

    Under-reporting of ADR may be associated with poor knowledge, attitudes and practices to pharmacovigilance. This study evaluated knowledge, attitudes and practices of healthcare professionals about ADR monitoring and reporting following interventions. This longitudinal study included 36 healthcare professionals participating in ART program in a tertiary hospital. Interventions included group training on pharmacovigilance (PV) and provision of ADR reporting forms amongst others. Assessments were conducted at months 0 and 6 post-interventions using study-specific Likert-type instruments. Mean attitude scores above midpoint of 3.6 on 5-point scale were regarded as positive and below as negative. P<0.05 used to determine statistical significance. Mean age of participants was 36.6 (95%CI, 34.5–38.7) years; 61.1% males; 44.4% doctors, 13.9% pharmacists, 19.4% nurses, 8.3% laboratory scientists, 8.3% record officers and 5.6% welfare officers. None had received training on PV previously. Mean knowledge test score increased from 53.6% (95%CI, 44.6–63.6) at pre-intervention to 77.1% (95%CI, 72.8–81.4) at post-intervention with a mean change of 146.9% (95%CI, 60.5–233.3; p=0.000). Mean rated attitude scores increased from 3.6 (95%CI, 3.4–3.8) at pre-intervention to 4.2 (95%CI, 4.0–4.4) at post-intervention; the difference was statistically significant (p=0.000). 75.8% reported that ADR reporting forms were not readily available at pre-intervention compared to 18.2% at postintervention; 15.2% had reported ADR previously at pre-intervention compared to 69.7% at post-intervention; 12.1% reported providing information regarding ADRs and its management always at pre-intervention compared to 45.5% at post-intervention; these differences were statistically significant (p<0.05). Lack/inadequate knowledge, unavailability of reporting forms and negative attitudes were barriers identified; and addressing them resulted in significant improvement in this setting. Scaling up

  7. NSLS control system upgrade status

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.; Ramamoorthy, S.; Tang, Y.; Flannigan, J.; Sathe, S.; Keane, J.; Krinsky, S.

    1993-07-01

    The NSLS control system initially installed in 1978 has undergone several modifications but the basic system architecture remained relatively unchanged. The need for faster response, increased reliability and better diagnostics made the control system upgrade a priority. Since the NSLS runs continuously, major changes to the control system are difficult. The upgrade plan had to allow continuous incremental changes to the control system without having any detrimental effect on operations. The plan had to provide for immediate improvement in a few key areas, such as data access rates, and be complete in a short time. At present, most accelerator operations utilize the upgraded control system.

  8. Variation of band-edge position with errors in the monitoring of layer termination level for long- and short-wave pass filters.

    PubMed

    Willey, R R; Machado, D E

    1999-09-01

    Optical monitoring of periodic thin-film stacks by the termination of each layer at the same constant photometric level has certain advantages. One of these principal advantages is the error compensation effect in the vicinity of the monitoring wavelength. In this study, we examine, by simulation, the effect of an error in the knowledge of the absolute value of the photometric termination level on the probable stability in the manufacture of the edge position of a blocked band. The results include equations that allow the determination of the appropriate values of parameters associated with the optimum termination levels to minimize the effects of such errors. PMID:18324052

  9. Reproducibility of The Abdominal and Chest Wall Position by Voluntary Breath-Hold Technique Using a Laser-Based Monitoring and Visual Feedback System

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, Katsumasa . E-mail: nakam@radiol.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp; Shioyama, Yoshiyuki; Nomoto, Satoru; Ohga, Saiji; Toba, Takashi; Yoshitake, Tadamasa; Anai, Shigeo; Terashima, Hiromi; Honda, Hiroshi

    2007-05-01

    Purpose: The voluntary breath-hold (BH) technique is a simple method to control the respiration-related motion of a tumor during irradiation. However, the abdominal and chest wall position may not be accurately reproduced using the BH technique. The purpose of this study was to examine whether visual feedback can reduce the fluctuation in wall motion during BH using a new respiratory monitoring device. Methods and Materials: We developed a laser-based BH monitoring and visual feedback system. For this study, five healthy volunteers were enrolled. The volunteers, practicing abdominal breathing, performed shallow end-expiration BH (SEBH), shallow end-inspiration BH (SIBH), and deep end-inspiration BH (DIBH) with or without visual feedback. The abdominal and chest wall positions were measured at 80-ms intervals during BHs. Results: The fluctuation in the chest wall position was smaller than that of the abdominal wall position. The reproducibility of the wall position was improved by visual feedback. With a monitoring device, visual feedback reduced the mean deviation of the abdominal wall from 2.1 {+-} 1.3 mm to 1.5 {+-} 0.5 mm, 2.5 {+-} 1.9 mm to 1.1 {+-} 0.4 mm, and 6.6 {+-} 2.4 mm to 2.6 {+-} 1.4 mm in SEBH, SIBH, and DIBH, respectively. Conclusions: Volunteers can perform the BH maneuver in a highly reproducible fashion when informed about the position of the wall, although in the case of DIBH, the deviation in the wall position remained substantial.

  10. Upgrading Diagnostic Diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proxauf, B.; Kimeswenger, S.; Öttl, S.

    2014-04-01

    Diagnostic diagrams of forbidden lines have been a useful tool for observers in astrophysics for many decades now. They are used to obtain information on the basic physical properties of thin gaseous nebulae. Moreover they are also the initial tool to derive thermodynamic properties of the plasma from observations to get ionization correction factors and thus to obtain proper abundances of the nebulae. Some diagnostic diagrams are in wavelengths domains which were difficult to take either due to missing wavelength coverage or low resolution of older spectrographs. Thus they were hardly used in the past. An upgrade of this useful tool is necessary because most of the diagrams were calculated using only the species involved as a single atom gas, although several are affected by well-known fluorescence mechanisms as well. Additionally the atomic data have improved up to the present time. The new diagnostic diagrams are calculated by using large grids of parameter space in the photoionization code CLOUDY. For a given basic parameter the input radiation field is varied to find the solutions with cooling-heating-equilibrium. Empirical numerical functions are fitted to provide formulas usable in e.g. data reduction pipelines. The resulting diagrams differ significantly from those used up to now and will improve the thermodynamic calculations.

  11. Naphtha upgrading process

    SciTech Connect

    Mc Guiness, M.P.; Mitchell, K.M.; Ware, R.A.

    1987-03-03

    A method is described for upgrading a paraffinic naphtha including major amounts of C/sub 5/ and C/sub 6/ components to produce gasoline boiling range products of improved octane number, which comprises (i) hydrocracking the naphtha over a hydrocracking catalyst comprising zeolite beta and a hydrogenation-dehydrogenation component under conditions of elevated temperature and pressure and in the presence of hydrogen and at a conversion of not more than 25 volume percent to C/sub 5-/ products. This is done to effect a partial, preferential hydrocracking of the paraffins of relatively longer chain length in the naphtha and a concurrent isomerization of n-paraffins, to form a hydrocracking effluent comprising isobutane and higher boiling materials; (ii) fractionating the hydrocracked effluent to form (i) an isobutane stream, (ii) a relatively low boiling stream having a boiling range of approximately C/sub 5/ to 200/sup 0/F. and comprising C/sub 5/ to C/sub 7/ iso-paraffins, and (iii) a relatively higher boiling stream having an initial boiling point of approximately 200/sup 0/F., and (iii) reforming the relatively high boiling point stream to form a gasoline boiling range product of improved octane rating.

  12. SU-E-J-62: Breath Hold for Left-Sided Breast Cancer: Visually Monitored Deep Inspiration Breath Hold Amplitude Evaluated Using Real-Time Position Management

    SciTech Connect

    Conroy, L; Quirk, S; Smith, WL; Yeung, R; Phan, T; Hudson, A

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: We used Real-Time Position Management (RPM) to evaluate breath hold amplitude and variability when gating with a visually monitored deep inspiration breath hold technique (VM-DIBH) with retrospective cine image chest wall position verification. Methods: Ten patients with left-sided breast cancer were treated using VM-DIBH. Respiratory motion was passively collected once weekly using RPM with the marker block positioned at the xiphoid process. Cine images on the tangent medial field were acquired on fractions with RPM monitoring for retrospective verification of chest wall position during breath hold. The amplitude and duration of all breath holds on which treatment beams were delivered were extracted from the RPM traces. Breath hold position coverage was evaluated for symmetric RPM gating windows from ± 1 to 5 mm centered on the average breath hold amplitude of the first measured fraction as a baseline. Results: The average (range) breath hold amplitude and duration was 18 mm (3–36 mm) and 19 s (7–34 s). The average (range) of amplitude standard deviation per patient over all breath holds was 2.7 mm (1.2–5.7 mm). With the largest allowable RPM gating window (± 5 mm), 4 of 10 VM-DIBH patients would have had ≥ 10% of their breath hold positions excluded by RPM. Cine verification of the chest wall position during the medial tangent field showed that the chest wall was greater than 5 mm from the baseline in only 1 out of 4 excluded patients. Cine images verify the chest wall/breast position only, whether this variation is acceptable in terms of heart sparing is a subject of future investigation. Conclusion: VM-DIBH allows for greater breath hold amplitude variability than using a 5 mm gating window with RPM, while maintaining chest wall positioning accuracy within 5 mm for the majority of patients.

  13. Using time separation of signals to obtain independent proton and antiproton beam position measurements around the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Webber, R.; /Fermilab

    2005-05-01

    Independent position measurement of the counter-circulating proton and antiproton beams in the Tevatron, never supported by the original Tevatron Beam Position Monitor (BPM) system, presents a challenge to upgrading that system. This paper discusses the possibilities and complications of using time separation of proton and antiproton signals at the numerous BPM locations and for the dynamic Tevatron operating conditions. Results of measurements using one such method are presented.

  14. The D0 upgrade trigger

    SciTech Connect

    Eno, S.

    1994-09-01

    The current trigger system for the D0 detector at Fermilab`s Tevatron will need to be upgraded when the Min Injector is installed and the Tevatron can operate at luminosities exceeding 10{sup 32} cm{sup {minus}2}s{sup {minus}1} and with a crossing time of 132 ns. We report on preliminary designs for upgrades to the trigger system for the Main Injector era.

  15. Upgrading in an Industrial Setting. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Wendell

    The project objectives were: (1) to assess existing industrial upgrading practices in an Atomic Energy Commission contractor organization, (2) to design new alternative upgrading methods, (3) to experiment with new upgrading methods, (4) to plan for utilization of proven upgrading programs, and (5) to document and disseminate activities. A twelve…

  16. Setting priorities for safeguards upgrades

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Ayat, R.A.; Judd, B.R.; Patenaude, C.J.; Sicherman, A.

    1987-07-10

    This paper describes an analytic approach and a computer program for setting priorities among safeguards upgrades. The approach provides safeguards decision makers with a systematic method for allocating their limited upgrade resources. The priorities are set based on the upgrades cost and their contribution to safeguards effectiveness. Safeguards effectiveness is measured by the probability of defeat for a spectrum of potential insider and outsider adversaries. The computer program, MI$ER, can be used alone or as a companion to ET and SAVI, programs designed to evaluate safeguards effectiveness against insider and outsider threats, respectively. Setting the priority requires judgments about the relative importance (threat likelihoods and consequences) of insider and outsider threats. Although these judgments are inherently subjective, MI$ER can analyze the sensitivity of the upgrade priorities to these weights and determine whether or not they are critical to the priority ranking. MI$ER produces tabular and graphical results for comparing benefits and identifying the most cost-effective upgrades for a given expenditure. This framework provides decision makers with an explicit and consistent analysis to support their upgrades decisions and to allocate the safeguards resources in a cost-effective manner.

  17. Setting priorities for safeguards upgrades

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Ayat, R.A.; Judd, B.R.; Patenaude, C.J.; Sicherman, A.

    1987-07-01

    This paper describes an analytic approach and a computer program for setting priorities among safeguards upgrades. The approach provides safeguards decision makers with a systematic method for allocating their limited upgrade resources. The priorities are set based on the upgrades cost and their contribution to safeguards effectiveness. Safeguards effectiveness is measured by the probability of defeat for a spectrum of potential insider and outsider adversaries. The computer program, MI$ER, can be used alone or as a companion to ET and SAVI, programs designed to evaluate safeguards effectiveness against insider and outsider threats, respectively. Setting the priority required judgments about the relative importance (threat likelihoods and consequences) of insider and outsider threats. Although these judgments are inherently subjective, MI$ER can analyze the sensitivity of the upgrade priorities to these weights and determine whether or not they are critical to the priority ranking. MI$ER produces tabular and graphical results for comparing benefits and identifying the most cost-effective upgrades for a given expenditure. This framework provides decision makers with an explicit and consistent analysis to support their upgrades decisions and to allocate the safeguards resources in a cost-effective manner.

  18. Characterization of a multi-user indoor positioning system based on low cost depth vision (Kinect) for monitoring human activity in a smart home.

    PubMed

    Sevrin, Loïc; Noury, Norbert; Abouchi, Nacer; Jumel, Fabrice; Massot, Bertrand; Saraydaryan, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    An increasing number of systems use indoor positioning for many scenarios such as asset tracking, health care, games, manufacturing, logistics, shopping, and security. Many technologies are available and the use of depth cameras is becoming more and more attractive as this kind of device becomes affordable and easy to handle. This paper contributes to the effort of creating an indoor positioning system based on low cost depth cameras (Kinect). A method is proposed to optimize the calibration of the depth cameras, to describe the multi-camera data fusion and to specify a global positioning projection to maintain the compatibility with outdoor positioning systems. The monitoring of the people trajectories at home is intended for the early detection of a shift in daily activities which highlights disabilities and loss of autonomy. This system is meant to improve homecare health management at home for a better end of life at a sustainable cost for the community. PMID:26737415

  19. User and Performance Impacts from Franklin Upgrades

    SciTech Connect

    He, Yun

    2009-05-10

    The NERSC flagship computer Cray XT4 system"Franklin" has gone through three major upgrades: quad core upgrade, CLE 2.1 upgrade, and IO upgrade, during the past year. In this paper, we will discuss the various aspects of the user impacts such as user access, user environment, and user issues etc from these upgrades. The performance impacts on the kernel benchmarks and selected application benchmarks will also be presented.

  20. Process Evaluation of the Project SHINE Intervention for African American Families: An Integrated Positive Parenting and Peer Monitoring Approach to Health Promotion.

    PubMed

    St George, Sara M; Wilson, Dawn K; McDaniel, Tyler; Alia, Kassandra A

    2016-07-01

    This study describes the process evaluation of Project SHINE, a randomized family-based health promotion intervention that integrated parenting and peer monitoring for improving sedentary behavior, physical activity, and diet in African American families. Adolescent-parent dyads (n = 89) were randomized to a 6-week behavioral, positive parenting, and peer monitoring skills intervention or a general health education comparison condition. Process evaluation included observational ratings of fidelity, attendance records, psychosocial measures, and qualitative interviews. Results indicated that the intervention was delivered with high fidelity based on facilitator adherence (>98% of content delivered) and competent use of theoretically based behavior change and positive parenting skills (100% of ratings >3 on a 1-4 scale). Although only 43% of peers attended the "bring a friend" session, overall attendance was high (4.39 ± 1.51 sessions) as was the retention rate (88%). Parents in the intervention condition reported significant improvements in communication related to adolescents' engagement in health behaviors both on their own and with peers. These findings were supported by qualitative themes related to improvements in family communication and connectedness. This study provides an innovative example of how future family-based health promotion trials can expand their process evaluation approaches by assessing theoretically relevant positive parenting variables as part of ongoing monitoring. PMID:27084025

  1. Overview of ASDEX Upgrade results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruber, O.; Arslanbekov, R.; Atanasiu, C.; Bard, A.; Becker, G.; Becker, W.; Beckmann, M.; Behler, K.; Behringer, K.; Bergmann, A.; Bilato, R.; Bolshukin, D.; Borrass, K.; Bosch, H.-S.; Braams, B.; Brambilla, M.; Brandenburg, R.; Braun, F.; Brinkschulte, H.; Brückner, R.; Brüsehaber, B.; Büchl, K.; Buhler, A.; Bürbaumer, H.; Carlson, A.; Ciric, M.; Conway, G.; Coster, D. P.; Dorn, C.; Drube, R.; Dux, R.; Egorov, S.; Engelhardt, W.; Fahrbach, H.-U.; Fantz, U.; Faugel, H.; Foley, M.; Franzen, P.; Fu, P.; Fuchs, J. C.; Gafert, J.; Gantenbein, G.; Gehre, O.; Geier, A.; Gernhardt, J.; Gubanka, E.; Gude, A.; Günter, S.; Haas, G.; Hartmann, D.; Heinemann, B.; Herrmann, A.; Hobirk, J.; Hofmeister, F.; Hohenöcker, H.; Horton, L.; Hu, L.; Jacobi, D.; Jakobi, M.; Jenko, F.; Kallenbach, A.; Kardaun, O.; Kaufmann, M.; Kendl, A.; Kim, J.-W.; Kirov, K.; Kochergov, R.; Kollotzek, H.; Kraus, W.; Krieger, K.; Kurzan, B.; Kyriakakis, G.; Lackner, K.; Lang, P. T.; Lang, R. S.; Laux, M.; Lengyel, L.; Leuterer, F.; Lorenz, A.; Maier, H.; Mank, K.; Manso, M.-E.; Maraschek, M.; Mast, K.-F.; McCarthy, P. J.; Meisel, D.; Meister, H.; Meo, F.; Merkel, R.; Mertens, V.; Meskat, J. P.; Monk, R.; Müller, H. W.; Münich, M.; Murmann, H.; Neu, G.; Neu, R.; Neuhauser, J.; Noterdaeme, J.-M.; Nunes, I.; Pautasso, G.; Peeters, A. G.; Pereverzev, G.; Pinches, S.; Poli, E.; Pugno, R.; Raupp, G.; Ribeiro, T.; Riedl, R.; Riondato, S.; Rohde, V.; Röhr, H.; Roth, J.; Ryter, F.; Salzmann, H.; Sandmann, W.; Sarelma, S.; Schade, S.; Schilling, H.-B.; Schlögl, D.; Schmidtmann, K.; Schneider, R.; Schneider, W.; Schramm, G.; Schweinzer, J.; Schweizer, S.; Scott, B. D.; Seidel, U.; Serra, F.; Sesnic, S.; Sihler, C.; Silva, A.; Sips, A.; Speth, E.; Stäbler, A.; Steuer, K.-H.; Stober, J.; Streibl, B.; Strumberger, E.; Suttrop, W.; Tabasso, A.; Tanga, A.; Tardini, G.; Tichmann, C.; Treutterer, W.; Troppmann, M.; Tsois, N.; Ullrich, W.; Ulrich, M.; Varela, P.; Vollmer, O.; Wenzel, U.; Wesner, F.; Wolf, R.; Wolfrum, E.; Wunderlich, R.; Xantopoulos, N.; Yu, Q.; Zarrabian, M.; Zasche, D.; Zehetbauer, T.; Zehrfeld, H.-P.; Zeiler, A.; Zohm, H.

    2001-10-01

    and electron ITBs with Te approx Ti approx 10 keV were achieved by combining ion and electron heating with NBI and ECRH, respectively. In low current discharges full non-inductive current drive was achieved in an integrated high performance H mode scenario with [`n]e = nGW, high βp = 3.1, βN = 2.8 and HL-89P = 1.8, which developed ITBs with qmin approx 1. Central co-ECCD at low densities allows a high current drive fraction of >80%, while counter-ECCD leads to negative central shear and formation of an electron ITB with Te(0)>12 keV. MHD phenomena, especially fishbones, contribute to achieving quasi-stationary advanced discharge conditions and trigger ITBs, which is attributed to poloidal E × B shearing driven by redistribution of resonant fast particles. But MHD instabilities also limit the operational regime of conventional (NTMs) and advanced (double tearing, infernal and external kink modes) scenarios. The onset βN for NTM is proportional to the normalized gyroradius ρ*. Complete NTM stabilization was demonstrated at βN = 2.5 using ECCD at the island position with 10% of the total heating power. MHD limits are expected to be extended using current profile control by off-axis current drive from more tangential NBI combined with ECCD and wall stabilization. Presently, the ASDEX Upgrade divertor is being adapted to optimal performance at higher δ's and tungsten covering of the first wall is being extended on the basis of the positive experience with tungsten on divertor and heat shield tiles.

  2. Upgrade of the LHCb Vertex Locator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leflat, A.

    2014-08-01

    The upgrade of the LHCb experiment, planned for 2018, will transform the entire readout to a trigger-less system operating at 40 MHz. All data reduction algorithms will be executed in a high-level software farm, with access to all event information. This will enable the detector to run at luminosities of 1-2 × 1033/cm2/s and probe physics beyond the Standard Model in the heavy sector with unprecedented precision. The upgraded VELO must be low mass, radiation hard and vacuum compatible. It must be capable of fast pattern recognition and track reconstruction and will be required to drive data to the outside world at speeds of up to 2.5 Tbit/s. This challenge is being met with a new Vertex Locator (VELO) design based on hybrid pixel detectors positioned to within 5 mm of the LHC colliding beams. The sensors have 55 × 55 μm square pixels and the VELOPix ASIC which is being developed for the readout is based on the Timepix/Medipix family of chips. The hottest ASIC will have to cope with pixel hit rates of up to 900 MHz. The material budget will be optimised with the use of evaporative CO2 coolant circulating in microchannels within a thin silicon substrate. Microchannel cooling brings many advantages: very efficient heat transfer with almost no temperature gradients across the module, no CTE mismatch with silicon components, and low material contribution. This is a breakthrough technology being developed for LHCb. LHCb is also focussing effort on the construction of a lightweight foil to separate the primary and secondary LHC vacua, the development of high speed cables and radiation qualification of the module. The 40 MHz readout will also bring significant conceptual changes to the way in which the upgrade trigger is operated. Work is in progress to incorporate momentum and impact parameter information into the trigger at the earliest possible stage, using the fast pattern recognition capabilities of the upgraded detector. The current status of the VELO upgrade will

  3. REVIVING AND UPGRADING OF THE EP DEVICE

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriquez, I.; Higinbotham, D.W.

    2008-01-01

    At Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, an electron beam is used to probe the fundamental properties of the nucleus. In these experiments, it is essential to know the precise energy of the beam. An important instrument along the beamline to measure the beam energy is the eP device. The device measures the scattered electron angle and the recoil proton angle of an elastic collision. From these angle measurements, the beam energy can be calculated. Many eP device components such as computer software, controls, and mechanical parts needed to be upgraded and/or replaced in order for the eP device to be operational again. A research study was conducted of the current hydrogen target and its properties as well as alternate targets for better performance. As the maximum electron beam energy incident on the eP device will soon be upgraded from 6 GeV to 12 GeV, an analysis was also done on potential changes to the position of the electron and proton detectors in order to accommodate this change. Calculations show that for the new energy upgrade, electron detectors need to be positioned at 5° above and below the beamline to measure the energy of 12 GeV. New proton detectors need to be placed at an angle of 49.2° above and below the beamline to measure energies of 6.6 GeV and 8.8 GeV. With these changes the eP device will measure the range of new energies from 2.2 GeV to 12 GeV. From the target research studies it was found that a carbon nanotube mixture with polypropylene could be the ideal target for the eP device because of its high thermal conductivity and its high hydrogen content. The changes made to the eP device demonstrate the importance of continued research and new technologies.

  4. Millimeter-accuracy GPS landslide monitoring using Precise Point Positioning with Single Receiver Phase Ambiguity (PPP-SRPA) resolution: a case study in Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, G. Q.

    2013-03-01

    Continuous Global Positioning System (GPS) monitoring is essential for establishing the rate and pattern of superficial movements of landslides. This study demonstrates a technique which uses a stand-alone GPS station to conduct millimeter-accuracy landslide monitoring. The Precise Point Positioning with Single Receiver Phase Ambiguity (PPP-SRPA) resolution employed by the GIPSY/OASIS software package (V6.1.2) was applied in this study. Two-years of continuous GPS data collected at a creeping landslide were used to evaluate the accuracy of the PPP-SRPA solutions. The criterion for accuracy was the root-mean-square (RMS) of residuals of the PPP-SRPA solutions with respect to "true" landslide displacements over the two-year period. RMS is often regarded as repeatability or precision in GPS literature. However, when contrasted with a known "true" position or displacement it could be termed RMS accuracy or simply accuracy. This study indicated that the PPP-SRPA resolution can provide an accuracy of 2 to 3 mm horizontally and 8 mm vertically for 24-hour sessions with few outliers (< 1%) in the Puerto Rico region. Horizontal accuracy below 5 mm can be stably achieved with 4-hour or longer sessions if avoiding the collection of data during extreme weather conditions. Vertical accuracy below 10 mm can be achieved with 8-hour or longer sessions. This study indicates that the PPP-SRPA resolution is competitive with the conventional carrier-phase double-difference network resolution for static (longer than 4 hours) landslide monitoring while maintaining many advantages. It is evident that the PPP-SRPA method would become an attractive alternative to the conventional carrier-phase double-difference method for landslide monitoring, notably in remote areas or developing countries.

  5. A Wire Position Monitor System for the 1.3 FHZ Tesla-Style Cryomodule at the Fermilab New-Muon-Lab Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Eddy, N.; Fellenz, B.; Prieto, P.; Semenov, A.; Voy, D.C.; Wendt, M.; /Fermilab

    2011-08-17

    The first cryomodule for the beam test facility at the Fermilab New-Muon-Lab building is currently under RF commissioning. Among other diagnostics systems, the transverse position of the helium gas return pipe with the connected 1.3 GHz SRF accelerating cavities is measured along the {approx}15 m long module using a stretched-wire position monitoring system. An overview of the wire position monitor system technology is given, along with preliminary results taken at the initial module cooldown, and during further testing. As the measurement system offers a high resolution, we also discuss options for use as a vibration detector. An electron beam test facility, based on superconducting RF (SRF) TESLA-style cryomodules is currently under construction at the Fermilab New-Muon-Lab (NML) building. The first, so-called type III+, cryomodule (CM-1), equipped with eight 1.3 GHz nine-cell accelerating cavities was recently cooled down to 2 K, and is currently under RF conditioning. The transverse alignment of the cavity string within the cryomodule is crucial for minimizing transverse kick and beam break-up effects, generated by the high-order dipole modes of misaligned accelerating structures. An optimum alignment can only be guaranteed during the assembly of the cavity string, i.e. at room temperatures. The final position of the cavities after cooldown is uncontrollable, and therefore unknown. A wire position monitoring system (WPM) can help to understand the transverse motion of the cavities during cooldown, their final location and the long term position stability after cryo-temperatures are settled, as well as the position reproducibility for several cold-warm cycles. It also may serve as vibration sensor, as the wire acts as a high-Q resonant detector for mechanical vibrations in the low-audio frequency range. The WPM system consists out of a stretched-wire position detection system, provided with help of INFN-Milano and DESY Hamburg, and RF generation and read

  6. Positively charged and pH self-buffering quantum dots for efficient cellular uptake by charge mediation and monitoring cell membrane permeability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Suhua; Song, Haipeng; Ong, Wei Yi; Han, Ming Yong; Huang, Dejian

    2009-10-01

    Positively charged and pH self-buffering quantum dots (Tren-QDs) were achieved by surface functionalization with tris(2-aminoethyl)amine (Tren) derivatives, which are attached to the inorganic cores of QDs through bidentate chelating of dithiocarbamates. The Tren-QDs exhibit pH buffering capability by absorbing or releasing protons due to the surface polyamine groups as the surrounding pH fluctuates. Such self-buffering capability stabilizes the photoluminescence of the Tren-QDs against acid. The Tren-QDs bear positive charges through protonation of the surface polyamine groups under physiological conditions and the surface positive charges improve their cellular uptake efficiency by charge mediation, which has been demonstrated by BV-2 microglia cells. The photoluminescence of Tren-QDs shows a selective Stern-Volmer response to copper ions and this property has been preliminarily evaluated for investigating the BV-2 cell membrane structure by monitoring the photoluminescence of intracellular Tren-QDs.

  7. Toward Submillimeter Accuracy in the Management of Intrafraction Motion: The Integration of Real-Time Internal Position Monitoring and Multileaf Collimator Target Tracking

    SciTech Connect

    Sawant, Amit Smith, Ryan L.; Venkat, Raghu B.; Santanam, Lakshmi; Cho, Byungchul; Poulsen, Per; Cattell, Herbert; Newell, Laurence J.; Parikh, Parag; Keall, Paul J.

    2009-06-01

    Purpose: We report on an integrated system for real-time adaptive radiation delivery to moving tumors. The system combines two promising technologies-three-dimensional internal position monitoring using implanted electromagnetically excitable transponders and corresponding real-time beam adaptation using a dynamic multileaf collimator (DMLC). Methods and Materials: In a multi-institutional academic and industrial collaboration, a research version of the Calypso position monitoring system was integrated with a DMLC-based four-dimensional intensity-modulated radiotherapy delivery system using a Varian 120-leaf multileaf collimator (MLC). Two important determinants of system performance-latency (i.e., elapsed time between target motion and MLC response) and geometric accuracy-were investigated. Latency was quantified by acquiring continuous megavoltage X-ray images of a moving phantom (with embedded transponders) that was tracked in real time by a circular MLC field. The latency value was input into a motion prediction algorithm within the DMLC tracking system. Geometric accuracy was calculated as the root-mean-square positional error between the target and the centroid of the MLC aperture for patient-derived three-dimensional motion trajectories comprising two lung tumor traces and one prostate trace. Results: System latency was determined to be approximately 220 milliseconds. Tracking accuracy was observed to be sub-2 mm for the respiratory motion traces and sub-1 mm for prostate motion. Conclusion: We have developed and characterized a research version of a novel four-dimensional delivery system that integrates nonionizing radiation-based internal position monitoring and accurate real-time DMLC-based beam adaptation. This system represents a significant step toward achieving the eventual goal of geometrically ideal dose delivery to moving tumors.

  8. Physical protection upgrades in Ukraine.

    SciTech Connect

    Djakov, A.

    1998-08-06

    The U.S. DOE is providing nuclear material safeguards assistance in both material control and accountability and in physical protection to several facilities in Ukraine. This paper summarizes the types of physical protection upgrades that have been or are presently being implemented at these facilities. These facilities include the Kiev Institute for Nuclear Research, Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology, Sevastopol Institute of Nuclear Energy and Industry, and the South Ukraine Nuclear Power Plant. Typical upgrades include: hardening of storage areas; improvements in access control, intrusion detection, and CCTV assessment; central alarm station improvements; and implementation of new voice communication systems. Methods used to implement these upgrades and problems encountered are discussed. Training issues are also discussed.

  9. Accuracy and efficiency of an infrared based positioning and tracking system for patient set-up and monitoring in image guided radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Jing; Xu, Gongming; Pei, Xi; Cao, Ruifen; Hu, Liqin; Wu, Yican

    2015-03-01

    An infrared based positioning and tracking (IPT) system was introduced and its accuracy and efficiency for patient setup and monitoring were tested for daily radiotherapy treatment. The IPT system consists of a pair of floor mounted infrared stereoscopic cameras, passive infrared markers and tools used for acquiring localization information as well as a custom controlled software which can perform the positioning and tracking functions. The evaluation of IPT system characteristics was conducted based on the AAPM 147 task report. Experiments on spatial drift and reproducibility as well as static and dynamic localization accuracy were carried out to test the efficiency of the IPT system. Measurements of known translational (up to 55.0 mm) set-up errors in three dimensions have been performed on a calibration phantom. The accuracy of positioning was evaluated on an anthropomorphic phantom with five markers attached to the surface; the precision of the tracking ability was investigated through a sinusoidal motion platform. For the monitoring of the respiration, three volunteers contributed to the breathing testing in real time. The spatial drift of the IPT system was 0.65 mm within 60 min to be stable. The reproducibility of position variations were between 0.01 and 0.04 mm. The standard deviation of static marker localization was 0.26 mm. The repositioning accuracy was 0.19 mm, 0.29 mm, and 0.53 mm in the left/right (L/R), superior/inferior (S/I) and anterior/posterior (A/P) directions, respectively. The measured dynamic accuracy was 0.57 mm and discrepancies measured for the respiratory motion tracking was better than 1 mm. The overall positioning accuracy of the IPT system was within 2 mm. In conclusion, the IPT system is an accurate and effective tool for assisting patient positioning in the treatment room. The characteristics of the IPT system can successfully meet the needs for real time external marker tracking and patient positioning as well as respiration

  10. Status of TMX upgrade diagnostics construction

    SciTech Connect

    Hornady, R.S.; Davis, J.C.; Simonen, T.C.

    1981-07-20

    This report describes the status of the initial TMX Upgrade diagnostics and the state of development of additional diagnostics being prepared for later TMX Upgrade experiments. The initial diagnostic instrument set has been described in the TMX Upgrade Proposal. This set is required to get TMX Upgrade operational and to evaluate its initial performance. Additional diagnostic instruments are needed to then carry out the more detailed experiments outlined by the TMX Upgrade program milestones. The relation of these new measurements to the physics program is described in The TMX Upgrade Program Plan.

  11. Run 2 upgrades to the CMS Level-1 calorimeter trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreis, B.; Berryhill, J.; Cavanaugh, R.; Mishra, K.; Rivera, R.; Uplegger, L.; Apanasevich, L.; Zhang, J.; Marrouche, J.; Wardle, N.; Aggleton, R.; Ball, F.; Brooke, J.; Newbold, D.; Paramesvaran, S.; Smith, D.; Baber, M.; Bundock, A.; Citron, M.; Elwood, A.; Hall, G.; Iles, G.; Laner, C.; Penning, B.; Rose, A.; Tapper, A.; Foudas, C.; Beaudette, F.; Cadamuro, L.; Mastrolorenzo, L.; Romanteau, T.; Sauvan, J. B.; Strebler, T.; Zabi, A.; Barbieri, R.; Cali, I. A.; Innocenti, G. M.; Lee, Y.-J.; Roland, C.; Wyslouch, B.; Guilbaud, M.; Li, W.; Northup, M.; Tran, B.; Durkin, T.; Harder, K.; Harper, S.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C.; Thea, A.; Williams, T.; Cepeda, M.; Dasu, S.; Dodd, L.; Forbes, R.; Gorski, T.; Klabbers, P.; Levine, A.; Ojalvo, I.; Ruggles, T.; Smith, N.; Smith, W.; Svetek, A.; Tikalsky, J.; Vicente, M.

    2016-01-01

    The CMS Level-1 calorimeter trigger is being upgraded in two stages to maintain performance as the LHC increases pile-up and instantaneous luminosity in its second run. In the first stage, improved algorithms including event-by-event pile-up corrections are used. New algorithms for heavy ion running have also been developed. In the second stage, higher granularity inputs and a time-multiplexed approach allow for improved position and energy resolution. Data processing in both stages of the upgrade is performed with new, Xilinx Virtex-7 based AMC cards.

  12. Alaska Seismic Network Upgrade and Expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandru, J. M.; Hansen, R. A.; Estes, S. A.; Fowler, M.

    2009-12-01

    AEIC (Alaska Earthquake Information Center) has begun the task of upgrading the older regional seismic monitoring sites that have been in place for a number of years. Many of the original sites (some dating to the 1960's) are still single component analog technology. This was a very reasonable and ultra low power reliable system for its day. However with the advanced needs of today's research community, AEIC has begun upgrading to Broadband and Strong Motion Seismometers, 24 bit digitizers and high-speed two-way communications, while still trying to maintain the utmost reliability and maintaining low power consumption. Many sites have been upgraded or will be upgraded from single component to triaxial broad bands and triaxial accerometers. This provided much greater dynamic range over the older antiquated technology. The challenge is compounded by rapidly changing digital technology. Digitizersand data communications based on analog phone lines utilizing 9600 baud modems and RS232 are becoming increasingly difficult to maintain and increasingly expensive compared to current methods that use Ethernet, TCP/IP and UDP connections. Gaining a reliable Internet connection can be as easy as calling up an ISP and having a DSL connection installed or may require installing our own satellite uplink, where other options don't exist. LANs are accomplished with a variety of communications devices such as spread spectrum 900 MHz radios or VHF radios for long troublesome shots. WANs are accomplished with a much wider variety of equipment. Traditional analog phone lines are being used in some instances, however 56K lines are much more desirable. Cellular data links have become a convenient option in semiurban environments where digital cellular coverage is available. Alaska is slightly behind the curve on cellular technology due to its low population density and vast unpopulated areas but has emerged into this new technology in the last few years. Partnerships with organizations

  13. UIUC control console installation and upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Holm, Richard L.

    1994-07-01

    The University of Illinois Nuclear Reactor Laboratory shutdown in March of 1993 to install the General Atomics digital control console. Two weeks of this period were devoted to refurbishment of the rod drives and two weeks were the actual installation of the console. Much of the wiring necessary to install the console was done during the period when the rod drives were being refurbished. A few mistakes were made along the way. 1) A 'repaired' extension cord was temporarily used to supply power to the DAC... the ground and neutral were reversed... this was not appreciated by the DAC{exclamation_point} We had to replace a couple of the boards in the DAC after that little fiasco. 2) The instrumentation cables for the rod drives were received with the plugs all connected and ready to install... except you can't put a two inch plug through a half inch conduit. We had to cut the plugs off, run the cable through the conduit, and then resolder the plugs on where the rod drive assembly connects (my privilege). 3) We had to replace the memory board in the NM1000 in order to prevent it from losing its mind every time it got turned off. 4) There were problems with the pulse data acquisition that were eventually traced to a problem in the ribbon cable between the mother and daughter boards. All in all the installation and operation of the console went fairly well. There are still occasional glitches, but none serious or excessively annoying. The console installation is part of an upgrade program to replace all of the instrumentation in the facility with the modern equivalent. The pressure and flow sensors, currently air operated, are being replaced with 4-20 ma transmitters for input into the control console and into a mimic board for the primary and secondary systems. Through the funding of the now defunct, temporarily we hope, Reactor Instrumentation Program we have upgraded our area radiation monitors as well. These upgrades provide us with more reliable equipment as well as

  14. LCLS LLRF Upgrades to the SLAC Linac

    SciTech Connect

    Akre, R.; Dowell, D.; Emma, P.; Frisch, J.; Hong, B.; Kotturi, K.; Krejcik, P.; Wu, J.; Byrd, J.; /LBL, Berkeley

    2007-10-04

    The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) at SLAC will be the brightest X-ray laser in the world when it comes on line. In order to achieve the brightness a 200fS length electron bunch is passed through an undulator. To create the 200fS, 3kA bunch, a 10pS electron bunch, created from a photo cathode in an RF gun, is run off crest on the RF to set up a position to energy correlation. The bunch is then compressed by chicanes. The stability of the RF system is critical in setting up the position to energy correlation. Specifications derived from simulations require the RF system to be stable to below 200fS in several critical injector stations and the last kilometer of linac. The SLAC linac RF system is being upgraded to meet these requirements.

  15. PEP-II Transverse Feedback Electronics Upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, J.; Chin, M.; Doolittle, L.; Akre, R.

    2005-05-09

    The PEP-II B Factory at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) requires an upgrade of the transverse feedback system electronics. The new electronics require 12-bit resolution and a minimum sampling rate of 238 Msps. A Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) is used to implement the feedback algorithm. The FPGA also contains an embedded PowerPC 405 (PPC-405) processor to run control system interface software for data retrieval, diagnostics, and system monitoring. The design of this system is based on the Xilinx(R) ML300 Development Platform, a circuit board set containing an FPGA with an embedded processor, a large memory bank, and other peripherals. This paper discusses the design of a digital feedback system based on an FPGA with an embedded processor. Discussion will include specifications, component selection, and integration with the ML300 design.

  16. PEP-II Transverse Feedback Electronics Upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, J.M.; Chin, M.J.; Doolittle, L.R.; Akre, R.; /SLAC

    2006-03-13

    The PEP-II B Factory at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) requires an upgrade of the transverse feedback system electronics. The new electronics require 12-bit resolution and a minimum sampling rate of 238 Msps. A Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) is used to implement the feedback algorithm. The FPGA also contains an embedded PowerPC 405 (PPC-405) processor to run control system interface software for data retrieval, diagnostics, and system monitoring. The design of this system is based on the Xilinx{reg_sign} ML300 Development Platform, a circuit board set containing an FPGA with an embedded processor, a large memory bank, and other peripherals. This paper discusses the design of a digital feedback system based on an FPGA with an embedded processor. Discussion will include specifications, component selection, and integration with the ML300 design.

  17. Options to upgrade the Mirror Fusion Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Thomassen, K.I.; Doggett, J.N.

    1983-04-01

    In this document we describe three options for upgrading MFTF-B, and the nomenclature used for these options is shown on the chart, MFTF-B Upgrade Options. We propose to add a 4-m-long reactor-like insert to the central cell, or to change the end plugs to the new MARS-type configuration, or both. LLNL prefers the third option, labeled MFTF-..cap alpha../sup +/T in the chart, in which both the central cell insert is added and the end plugs are modified. All options are long-pulse or steady-state DT burning experiments. Those upgrades with the insert would be constructed beginning in FY 86, with operation beginning in mid-FY 92. Confirmation of our intent to modify the end plugs would be sought in FY 88 based on positive results from MFTF-B experiments. The upgrade with only the end plug modification would not start until MFTF-B data are available. The timeline for constructing and operating the MFTF-B Upgrade included at the end of this preface is for reference while reading the text. The various modes of operation shown on the chart are described later.

  18. Measurement of patient imaging dose for real-time kilovoltage x-ray intrafraction tumour position monitoring in prostate patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crocker, James K.; Aun Ng, Jin; Keall, Paul J.; Booth, Jeremy T.

    2012-05-01

    The dose for image-based motion monitoring of prostate tumours during radiotherapy delivery has not been established. This study aimed to provide quantitative analysis and optimization of the fluoroscopic patient imaging dose during radiotherapy for IMRT and VMAT treatments using standard and hypofractionated treatment schedules. Twenty-two patients with type T1c N0/M0 prostate cancer and three implanted fiducial markers were considered. Minimum field sizes encompassing all fiducial markers plus a 7.5 mm motion margin were determined for each treatment beam, each patient and the complete cohort. Imaging doses were measured for different field sizes and depths in a phantom at 75 and 120 kV. Based on these measurements, the patient imaging doses were then estimated according to beam-on time for clinical settings. The population minimum field size was 5.3 × 6.1 cm2, yielding doses of 406 and 185 mGy over the course of an IMRT treatment for 75 kV (10 mAs) and 120 kV (1.04 mAs) imaging respectively, at 1 Hz. The imaging dose was reduced by an average of 28% and 32% by adopting patient-specific and treatment-beam-specific field sizes respectively. Standard fractionation VMAT imaging doses were 37% lower than IMRT doses over a complete treatment. Hypofractionated IMRT stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) and VMAT SBRT imaging doses were 58% and 76% lower than IMRT doses respectively. The patient dose for kilovoltage intrafraction monitoring of the prostate was quantified. Tailoring imaging field sizes to specific patients yielded a significant reduction in the imaging dose, as did adoption of faster treatment modalities such as VMAT.

  19. A method for simultaneous linear optics and coupling correction for storage rings with turn-by-turn beam position monitor data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xi; Huang, Xiaobiao

    2016-08-01

    We propose a method to simultaneously correct linear optics errors and linear coupling for storage rings using turn-by-turn (TbT) beam position monitor (BPM) data. The independent component analysis (ICA) method is used to isolate the betatron normal modes from the measured TbT BPM data. The betatron amplitudes and phase advances of the projections of the normal modes on the horizontal and vertical planes are then extracted, which, combined with dispersion measurement, are used to fit the lattice model. The fitting results are used for lattice correction. The method has been successfully demonstrated on the NSLS-II storage ring.

  20. Preparing the ALICE DAQ upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carena, F.; Carena, W.; Chapeland, S.; Chibante Barroso, V.; Costa, F.; Dénes, E.; Divià, R.; Fuchs, U.; Grigore, A.; Kiss, T.; Rauch, W.; Rubin, G.; Simonetti, G.; Soós, C.; Telesca, A.; Vande Vyvre, P.; Von Haller, B.

    2012-12-01

    In November 2009, after 15 years of design and installation, the ALICE experiment started to detect and record the first collisions produced by the LHC. It has been collecting hundreds of millions of events ever since with both proton and heavy ion collisions. The future scientific programme of ALICE has been refined following the first year of data taking. The physics targeted beyond 2018 will be the study of rare signals. Several detectors will be upgraded, modified, or replaced to prepare ALICE for future physics challenges. An upgrade of the triggering and readout systems is also required to accommodate the needs of the upgraded ALICE and to better select the data of the rare physics channels. The ALICE upgrade will have major implications in the detector electronics and controls, data acquisition, event triggering and offline computing and storage systems. Moreover, the experience accumulated during more than two years of operation has also lead to new requirements for the control software. We will review all these new needs and the current R&D activities to address them. Several papers of the same conference present in more details some elements of the ALICE online system.

  1. Old PCs: Upgrade or Abandon?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Ernest

    1997-01-01

    Examines the practical realities of upgrading Intel personal computers in libraries, considering budgets and technical personnel availability. Highlights include adding RAM; putting in faster processor chips, including clock multipliers; new hard disks; CD-ROM speed; motherboards and interface cards; cost limits and economic factors; and…

  2. Conceptual design of a high precision dual directional beam position monitoring system for beam crosstalk cancellation and improved output pulse shapes

    SciTech Connect

    Thieberger P.; Dawson, C.; Fischer, W.; Gassner, D.; Hulsart, R.; Mernick, K.; Michnoff, R.; Minty, M.

    2012-04-15

    The Relativistic Heavy Ions Collider (RHIC) would benefit from improved beam position measurements near the interaction points that see both beams, especially as the tolerances become tighter when reducing the beam sizes to obtain increased luminosity. Two limitations of the present beam position monitors (BPMs) would be mitigated if the proposed approach is successful. The small but unavoidable cross-talk between signals from bunches traveling in opposite directions when using conventional BPMs will be reduced by adopting directional BPMs. Further improvements will be achieved by cancelling residual cross-talk using pairs of such BPMs. Appropriately delayed addition and integration of the signals will also provide pulses with relatively flat maxima that will be easier to digitize by relaxing the presently very stringent timing requirements.

  3. Photodiode-Based X-Ray Beam-Position Monitor With High Spatial-Resolution for the NSLS-II Beamlines

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, P.S.; Siddons, D. P.

    2009-05-25

    We developed a photodiode-based monochromatic X-ray beam-position monitor (X-BPM) with high spatial resolution for the project beamlines of the NSLS-II. A ring array of 32 Si PIN-junction photodiodes were designed for use as a position sensor, and a low-noise HERMES4 ASIC chip was integrated into the electronic readout system. A series of precision measurements to characterize electrically the Si-photodiode sensor and the ASIC chip demonstrated that the inherent noise is sufficiently below tolerance levels. Following up modeling of detector's performance, including geometrical optimization using a Gaussian beam, we fabricated and assembled a first prototype. In this paper, we describe the development of this new state-of-the-art X-ray BPM along the beamline, in particular, downstream from the monochromator.

  4. Analog signal pre-processing for the Fermilab Main Injector BPM upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Saewert, A.L.; Rapisarda, S.M.; Wendt, M.; /Fermilab

    2006-05-01

    An analog signal pre-processing scheme was developed, in the framework of the Fermilab Main Injector Beam Position Monitor (BPM) Upgrade, to interface BPM pickup signals to the new digital receiver based read-out system. A key component is the 8-channel electronics module, which uses separate frequency selective gain stages to acquire 53 MHz bunched proton, and 2.5 MHz anti-proton signals. Related hardware includes a filter and combiner box to sum pickup electrode signals in the tunnel. A controller module allows local/remote control of gain settings and activation of gain stages, and supplies test signals. Theory of operation, system overview, and some design details are presented, as well as first beam measurements of the prototype hardware.

  5. The Hellenic Seismic Network (HL): Recent Upgrades and Developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melis, N. S.; Evangelidis, C. P.; Boukouras, K.; Kalogeras, I. S.; Makropoulos, K.

    2012-04-01

    The Institute of Geodynamics, National Observatory of Athens (NOA-IG) monitors seismicity in Greece since its foundation in 1893. Upgrades with results towards a modernized digital seismic network started back in 2000 and they were continued since then in stages, as national funds were made available as well as more personnel was employed. The most recent upgrade started in 2007, with a dedicated project aiming to establish a Unified National Seismic Network and to link the Hellenic National Seismic Network of NOA-IG with the three Universities: Athens, Thessaloniki and Patras, which also operate local seismic networks. Although the four joining networks are operated independently, with each partner taking responsibility for the operation of its own network, the project upgrade achieved the update - improvement of every network and the seismic waveform data to be made available in near real time amongst the four partners. In parallel, a new upgraded National Strong Motion Network at NOA-IG is under way, giving the opportunity to join the continuous monitored accelerometric data in real time with the available broadband data and furthermore to upgrade existing seismic stations by deploying also an accelerometer next to the broadband sensor. Experiences through troubleshooting, methodologies and tools used to improve operation and examples of recordings from the new established infrastructure are presented, explaining the developments - improvements achieved at every stage until today. Specific earthquake recorded examples are shown, in order to explain the new possibilities opened for detail investigation and operational preparedness established on line in the 24/7 operational center at NOA-IG in Athens, as well as to other operating as backup centers. Further developments and operations using the present resulted operational - research infrastructure and the databases that are made available are also explained and presented.

  6. The Global Positioning System constellation as a space weather monitor: Comparison of electron measurements with Van Allen Probes data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morley, Steven K.; Sullivan, John P.; Henderson, Michael G.; Blake, J. Bernard; Baker, Daniel N.

    2016-02-01

    Energetic electron observations in Earth's radiation belts are typically sparse, and multipoint studies often rely on serendipitous conjunctions. This paper establishes the scientific utility of the Combined X-ray Dosimeter (CXD), currently flown on 19 satellites in the Global Positioning System (GPS) constellation, by cross-calibrating energetic electron measurements against data from the Van Allen Probes. By breaking our cross calibration into two parts—one that removes any spectral assumptions from the CXD flux calculation and one that compares the energy spectra—we first validate the modeled instrument response functions, then the calculated electron fluxes. Unlike previous forward modeling of energetic electron spectra, we use a combination of four distributions that together capture a wide range of observed spectral shapes. Our two-step approach allowed us to identify, and correct for, small systematic offsets between block IIR and IIF satellites. Using the Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer and Relativistic Electron-Proton Telescope on Van Allen Probes as a "gold standard," we demonstrate that the CXD instruments are well understood. A robust statistical analysis shows that CXD and Van Allen Probes fluxes are similar and the measured fluxes from CXD are typically within a factor of 2 of Van Allen Probes at energies ≲4 MeV. We present data from 17 CXD-equipped GPS satellites covering the 2015 "St. Patrick's Day" geomagnetic storm to illustrate the scientific applications of such a high data density satellite constellation and therefore demonstrate that the GPS constellation is positioned to enable new insights in inner magnetospheric physics and space weather forecasting.

  7. The Global Positioning System constellation as a space weather monitor. Comparison of electron measurements with Van Allen Probes data

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Morley, Steven K.; Sullivan, John P.; Henderson, Michael G.; Blake, J. Bernard; Baker, Daniel N.

    2016-02-06

    Energetic electron observations in Earth's radiation belts are typically sparse, and multipoint studies often rely on serendipitous conjunctions. This paper establishes the scientific utility of the Combined X-ray Dosimeter (CXD), currently flown on 19 satellites in the Global Positioning System (GPS) constellation, by cross-calibrating energetic electron measurements against data from the Van Allen Probes. By breaking our cross calibration into two parts—one that removes any spectral assumptions from the CXD flux calculation and one that compares the energy spectra—we first validate the modeled instrument response functions, then the calculated electron fluxes. Unlike previous forward modeling of energetic electron spectra, wemore » use a combination of four distributions that together capture a wide range of observed spectral shapes. Moreover, our two-step approach allowed us to identify, and correct for, small systematic offsets between block IIR and IIF satellites. Using the Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer and Relativistic Electron-Proton Telescope on Van Allen Probes as a “gold standard,” here we demonstrate that the CXD instruments are well understood. A robust statistical analysis shows that CXD and Van Allen Probes fluxes are similar and the measured fluxes from CXD are typically within a factor of 2 of Van Allen Probes at energies inline image4 MeV. Our team present data from 17 CXD-equipped GPS satellites covering the 2015 “St. Patrick's Day” geomagnetic storm to illustrate the scientific applications of such a high data density satellite constellation and therefore demonstrate that the GPS constellation is positioned to enable new insights in inner magnetospheric physics and space weather forecasting.« less

  8. Design of the Trigger Interface and Distribution Board for CEBAF 12 GeV Upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, Jianhui; Dong, Hai; Cuevas, R; Gyurjyan, Vardan; Heyes, William; Jastrzembski, Edward; Kaneta, Scott; Nganga, Nicholas; Moffit, Bryan; Raydo, Benjamin; Timmer, Carl

    2012-10-01

    The design of the Trigger Interface and Distribution (TID) board for the 12 GeV Upgrade at the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) at TJNAL is described. The TID board distributes a low jitter system clock, synchronized trigger, and synchronized multi-purpose SYNC signal. The TID also initiates data acquisition for the crate. With the TID boards, a multi-crate system can be setup for experiment test and commissioning. The TID board can be selectively populated as a Trigger Interface (TI) board, or a Trigger Distribution (TD) board for the 12 GeV upgrade experiments. When the TID is populated as a TI, it can be located in the VXS crate and distribute the CLOCK/TRIGGER/SYNC through the VXS P0 connector; it can also be located in the standard VME64 crate, and distribute the CLOCK/TRIGGER/SYNC through the VME P2 connector or front panel. It initiates the data acquisition for the front crate where the TI is positioned in. When the TID is populated as a TD, it fans out the CLOCK/TRIGGER/SYNC from trigger supervisor to the front end crates through optical fibres. The TD monitors the trigger processing on the TIs, and gives feedback to the TS for trigger flow control. Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA) is utilised on TID board to provide programmability. The TID boards were intensively tested on the bench, and various setups.

  9. Conceptual Design Report for a Phase 3 upgrade of the National Synchrotron Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Foyt, W.; Krinsky, S.; Hastings, J.; Finlay, L.

    1994-03-01

    Considerable investment by both the Department of Energy and the facility`s Participating Research teams has permitted the NSLS to offer a national facility to a wide range of scientific pursuits. The purpose of the NSLS Phase III project is to maximize the scientific output of this premier 2nd generation synchrotron radiation facility through a number of distinct projects. Over the years the NSLS has made significant improvements in the area of beam reliability which has resulted in deliverable, reproducible beam during 98% and 97% of scheduled operations on the VUV and X-ray rings respectively. This project will focus on improving beam intensity and stability by upgrading the optics and detector systems on a number of beamlines as well as upgrading radio frequency (rf) and beam position monitoring systems in the storage rings. In addition, the project includes plans for the design and procurement of a utility isolation system that would guard against voltage transients that disrupt the facility`s electrical system. Also a new insertion device will be installed at beamline X25 and a 2nd floor will be constructed over the X6 -- X16 region which will provide sorely needed laboratory and office space for the user community. This project requests funding of 22.5 million dollars over a three year period: FY 1996 ($6.3M), FY 1997 ($13.4M) and FY 1998 ($2.8M).

  10. Application of a combined global positioning and heart rate monitoring system in jumper horses during an official competition - A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Bazzano, Marilena; Giudice, Elisabetta; Rizzo, Maria; Congiu, Fulvio; Zumbo, Alessandro; Arfuso, Francesca; Di Pietro, Simona; Bruschetta, Daniele; Piccione, Giuseppe

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether a combined global positioning system (GPS)/heart rate (HR) monitoring system is a valuable tool to assess, step by step, the physiological response of HR and its relationship with speed in healthy horses competing in an official show jumping class. Six mares performing a standardised warm-up and jumping course were monitored using a HR/GPS device. Venous blood lactate (BL), assessed before and after exercise, showed a significant increase (P = 0.0004) following the physical effort. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed significant changes in HR throughout the experimental period. The analysis of HR data recorded during the warm-up jumping stage showed significantly higher HR (P = 0.001) in the recovery period compared to the related jumping phase. Shifting the fence height from 100 cm to 125 cm during the warm-up jumps was also found to cause a significant increase (P = 0.016) in HR. According to these preliminary results, the simultaneous logging of heart rate and speed has the potential to be a reliable and powerful technique for field testing that can help in the monitoring of the horse's response to jumping effort during training and competition. PMID:27342090

  11. Cerebral hemodynamics in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome monitored with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) during positive airways pressure (CPAP) therapy: a pilot study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhongxing; Schneider, Maja; Laures, Marco; Fritschi, Ursula; Lehner, Isabella; Qi, Ming; Khatami, Ramin

    2014-03-01

    In obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA) the periodic reduction or cessation of breathing due to narrowing or occlusion of the upper airway during sleep leads to daytime symptoms and increased cardiovascular risk, including stroke. The higher risk of stroke is related to the impairment in cerebral vascular autoregulation. Continuous positive airways pressure (CPAP) therapy at night is the most effective treatment for OSA. However, there is no suitable bedside monitoring method evaluating the treatment efficacy of CPAP therapy, especially to monitor the recovery of cerebral hemodynamics. NIRS is ideally suited for non-invasive monitoring the cerebral hemodynamics during sleep. In this study, we will for first time assess dynamic changes of cerebral hemodynamics during nocturnal CPAP therapy in 3 patients with OSA using NIRS. We found periodic oscillations in HbO2, HHb, tissue oxygenation index (TOI) and blood volume associated with periodic apnea events without CPAP in all OSA patients. These oscillations were gradually attenuated and finally eliminated with the stepwise increments of CPAP pressures. The oscillations were totally eliminated in blood volume earlier than in other hemodynamic parameters. These results suggested that 1) the cerebral hemodynamic oscillations induced by OSA events can effectively be attenuated by CPAP therapy, and 2) blood flow and blood volume recovered first during CPAP therapy, followed by the recovery of oxygen consumption. Our study suggested that NIRS is a useful tool to evaluate the efficacy of CPAP therapy in patients with OSA bedside and in real time.

  12. Real-Time Target Position Estimation Using Stereoscopic Kilovoltage/Megavoltage Imaging and External Respiratory Monitoring for Dynamic Multileaf Collimator Tracking

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Byungchul; Poulsen, Per Rugaard; Sawant, Amit; Ruan, Dan; Keall, Paul J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a real-time target position estimation method using stereoscopic kilovoltage (kV)/megavoltage (MV) imaging and external respiratory monitoring, and to investigate the performance of a dynamic multileaf collimator tracking system using this method. Methods and Materials: The real-time three-dimensional internal target position estimation was established by creating a time-varying correlation model that connected the external respiratory signals with the internal target motion measured intermittently using kV/MV imaging. The method was integrated into a dynamic multileaf collimator tracking system. Tracking experiments were performed for 10 thoracic/abdominal traces. A three-dimensional motion platform carrying a gold marker and a separate one-dimensional motion platform were used to reproduce the target and external respiratory motion, respectively. The target positions were detected by kV (1 Hz) and MV (5.2 Hz) imaging, and external respiratory motion was captured by an optical system (30 Hz). The beam-target alignment error was quantified as the positional difference between the target and circular beam center on the MV images acquired during tracking. The correlation model error was quantified by comparing a model estimate and measured target positions. Results: The root-mean-square errors in the beam-target alignment that had ranged from 3.1 to 7.6 mm without tracking were reduced to <1.5 mm with tracking, except during the model building period (6 s). The root-mean-square error in the correlation model was submillimeters in all directions. Conclusion: A novel real-time target position estimation method was developed and integrated into a dynamic multileaf collimator tracking system and demonstrated an average submillimeter geometric accuracy after initializing the internal/external correlation model. The method used hardware tools available on linear accelerators and therefore shows promise for clinical implementation.

  13. Integration of Real-Time Internal Electromagnetic Position Monitoring Coupled With Dynamic Multileaf Collimator Tracking: An Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Ryan L.; Sawant, Amit PhD.; Santanam, Lakshmi PhD.; Venkat, Raghu B.; Newell, Laurence J.; Cho, Byung-chul; Poulsen, Per; Catell, Herbert; Keall, Paul J.; Parikh, Parag J.

    2009-07-01

    Purpose: Continuous tumor position measurement coupled with a tumor tracking system would result in a highly accurate radiation therapy system. Previous internal position monitoring systems have been limited by fluoroscopic radiation dose and low delivery efficiency. We aimed to incorporate a continuous, electromagnetic, three-dimensional position tracking system (Calypso 4D Localization System) with a dynamic multileaf collimator (DMLC)-based dose delivery system. Methods and Materials: A research version of the Calypso System provided real-time position of three Beacon transponders. These real-time three-dimensional positions were sent to research MLC controller with a motion-tracking algorithm that changed the planned leaf sequence. Electromagnetic transponders were embedded in a solid water film phantom that moved with patient lung trajectories while being irradiated with two different plans: a step-and-shoot intensity-modulated radiation therapy (S-IMRT) field and a dynamic IMRT (D-IMRT) field. Dosimetric results were recorded under three conditions: no intervention, DMLC tracking, and a spatial gating system. Results: Dosimetric accuracy was comparable for gating and DMLC tracking. Failure rates for gating/DMLC tracking are as follows: {+-}3 cGy 10.9/ 7.5% for S-IMRT, 3.3/7.2% for D-IMRT; gamma (3mm/3%) 0.2/1.2% for S-IMRT, 0.2/0.2% for D-IMRT. DMLC tracking proved to be as efficient as standard delivery, with a two- to fivefold efficiency increase over gating. Conclusions: Real-time target position information was successfully integrated into a DMLC effector system to modify dose delivery. Experimental results show both comparable dosimetric accuracy as well as improved efficiency compared with spatial gating.

  14. DACS upgrade acceptance test procedure

    SciTech Connect

    Zuehlke, A.C.

    1994-09-28

    The readiness of the Data Acquisition and Control System (DACS) to provide monitoring and control of the mixer pump, directional drive system, and the instrumentation associated with the SY-101 tank and support systems, and the proper functioning of the DACS with new Model 984-785 Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs), new MODBUS PLUS version 2.01 software for the PLCs, and version 3.72 of the GENESIS software will be systematically evaluated by performance of this procedure. The DACS, which is housed in a trailer located just outside of the north fence at the SY tank farm, receives input signals from a variety of sensors located in and around the SY-101 tanks. These sensors provide information such as: tank vapor space and ventilation system H{sub 2} concentration; tank waste temperature; tank pressure; waste density; operating pump parameters such as speed, flow, rotational position, discharge pressure, and internal temperature; strain (for major equipment); and waste level. The output of these sensors is conditioned and transmitted to the DACS computers where these signals are displayed, recorded, and monitored for out-of-specification conditions. If abnormal conditions are detected, then, in certain situations, the DACS automatically generates alarms and causes the system to abort pump operations.

  15. Outburst of GX304-1 Monitored with INTEGRAL: Positive Correlation Between the Cyclotron Line Energy and Flux

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klochkov, D.; Doroshenko, V.; Santangelo, A.; Staubert, R.; Ferrigno, C.; Kretschmar, P.; Caballero, I.; Wilms, J.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Pottschmidt, I.; Rothschild, R. E.; Pilhlhofer, G.

    2012-01-01

    Context. X-ray spectra of many accreting pulsars exhibit significant variations as a function of flux and thus of mass accretion rate. In some of these pulsars, the centroid energy of the cyclotron line(s), which characterizes the magnetic field strength at the site of the X-ray emission, has been found to vary systematically with flux. Aims. GX304-1 is a recently established cyclotron line source with a line energy around 50 keV. Since 2009, the pulsar shows regular outbursts with the peak flux exceeding one Crab. We analyze the INTEGRAL observations of the source during its outburst in January-February 2012. Methods. The observations covered almost the entire outburst, allowing us to measure the source's broad-band X-my spectrum at different flux levels. We report on the variations in the spectral parameters with luminosity and focus on the variations in the cyclotron line. Results. The centroid energy of the line is found to be positively correlated with the luminosity. We interpret this result as a manifestation of the local sub-Eddington (sub-critical) accretion regime operating in the source.

  16. Project W-314 241-AN-A valve pit upgrade acceptance for beneficial use

    SciTech Connect

    HAMMERS, J.S.

    1999-07-21

    This report identifies the responsibilities and requirements, applicable to the 241-AN-A Valve Pit Upgrades portion of Project W-314, for Acceptance for Beneficial Use in accordance with HNF-IP-0842, Vol IV, Sec 3.12. At project turnover, the end user accepts the affected Structures, Systems, and Components (SSCs) for beneficial use. This checklist is used to help the end user ensure that all documentation, training, and testing requirements are met prior to turnover. This checklist specifically identifies those items related to the upgrading of the 241-AN-A valve pit. The upgrades include: the installation of jumper/valve manifolds with position sensors, replacement pit leak detection systems, construction of replacement cover blocks, and electrical upgrades to support the instrumentation upgrades.

  17. Project W-314 241-AN-B valve pit upgrade acceptance for beneficial use

    SciTech Connect

    HAMMERS, J.S.

    1999-07-21

    This report identifies the responsibilities and requirements, applicable to the 241-AN-B Valve Pit Upgrades portion of Project W-314, for Acceptance for Beneficial Use in accordance with HNF-IP-0842, Vol IV, Sec 3.12. At project turnover, the end user accepts the affected Structures, Systems, and Components (SSCs) for beneficial use. This checklist is used to help the end user ensure that all documentation, training, and testing requirements are met prior to turnover. This checklist specifically identifies those items related to the upgrading of the 241-AN-B valve pit. The upgrades include: the installation of jumper/valve manifolds with position sensors, replacement pit leak detection systems, construction of replacement cover blocks, and electrical upgrades to support the instrumentation upgrades.

  18. MIPP Plastic Ball electronics upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Baldin, Boris; /Fermilab

    2009-01-01

    An upgrade electronics design for Plastic Ball detector is described. The Plastic Ball detector was a part of several experiments in the past and its back portion (proposed to be used in MIPP) consists of 340 photomultipliers equipped with a sandwich scintillator. The scintillator sandwich has fast and slow signal component with decay times 10 ns and 1 {micro}s respectively. The upgraded MIPP experiment will collect up to 12,000 events during each 4 second spill and read them out in {approx}50 seconds between spills. The MIPP data acquisition system will employ deadtime-less concept successfully implemented in Muon Electronics of Dzero experiment at Fermilab. An 8-channel prototype design of the Plastic Ball Front End (PBFE) implementing these requirements is discussed. Details of the schematic design, simulation and prototype test results are discussed.

  19. Space Shuttle Propulsion Safety Upgrades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphries, William Randy, Jr.; McCool, Alex (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This document is a viewgraph presentation which reviews the proposed upgrades to the Space Shuttle Propulsion system, to improve safety, and reduce significant hazards. The goals of the program are to reduce the risk of a catastrophe in ascent, to achieve significant reduction in orbital and entry systems, and to improve the crew cockpit situational awareness for managing the critical operational situations. The document reviews the upgrades to the propulsion system which are planned to improve the safety. These include modifications to the Advanced Thrust Vector Control, modifications to the Space Shuttle Main Engine Block III, improvement in the Advanced Health Management System, the use of Friction Stir welding on the external tank, which is expected to improve mechanical properties, and reduce defect rate, and the modification of the propellant grains geometry.

  20. MAST YAG Thomson scattering upgrade alignment system

    SciTech Connect

    Figueiredo, J.; Serra, F.; Naylor, G.; Walsh, M.; Dunstan, M.; Scannell, R.

    2010-10-15

    The recent upgrade to the MAST YAG Thomson scattering while enhancing the diagnostic capabilities increased the complexity of the system. There are eight YAG lasers now operational, doubling the number from the previous setup. This means alignment between each laser individually and reference points is essential to guarantee data quality and diagnostic reliability. To address this issue an alignment system was recently installed. It mimics the beams alignment in MAST by sampling 1% of the laser beam that is sent into a telescope which demagnifies by a factor of 8. The demagnified beam is viewed with a CCD camera. By scanning the camera the profile and position of the beams in the scattering zone and in a range of several meters inside MAST can be determined. Therefore alignment is checked along the beam path without having to sample it inside the vessel. The experimental apparatus and test procedures are described.

  1. The FNAL Injector Upgrade Status

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, C.Y.; Bollinger, D.S.; Duel, K.L.; Karns, P.R.; Lackey, J.R.; Pellico, W.A; Scarpine, V.E.; Tomlin, R.E.; /Fermilab

    2012-05-14

    The new FNAL H{sup -} injector upgrade is currently being tested before installation in the Spring 2012 shutdown of the accelerator complex. This line consists of an H{sup -} source, low energy beam transport (LEBT), 200 MHz RFQ and medium energy beam transport (MEBT). Beam measurements have been performed to validate the design before installation. The results of the beam measurements are presented in this paper.

  2. Foreign surveillance radar upgrade analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farr, Steven D.

    1992-02-01

    This report details an example of the work required to predict the functionality of future systems based on improvements in computer technology. Areas of analysis include CPU load, bus load, memory load, I/O load, target report delay, and probability of target loss associated with the upgraded radar. The analysis scenario provides an example of how queuing theory and probability can be applied for the purpose of assessing future threats.

  3. The Pegasus-Upgrade Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonck, R. J.; Bongard, M. W.; Barr, J. L.; Frerichs, H. G.; Lewicki, B. T.; Reusch, J. A.; Schmitz, O.; Winz, G. R.

    2015-11-01

    Tokamak operation at near-unity aspect ratio provides access to advanced tokamak physics at modest parameters. High plasma current is accessible at very low toroidal field. This offers H-mode performance at Te levels that allow use of electrostatic and magnetic probe arrays through the edge pedestal region into the plasma core. An upgrade to the Pegasus ST is planned to exploit these features and pursue unique studies in three areas: local measurements of pedestal and ELM dynamics at Alfvenic timescales; direct measurement of the local plasma response to application of 3D magnetic perturbations with high spectral flexibility; and extension of Local Helicity Injection for nonsolenoidal startup to NSTX-U-relevant confinement and stability regimes. Significant but relatively low-cost upgrades to the facility are proposed: a new centerstack with larger solenoid and 2x the number of toroidal field conductors; a new TF power supply and conversion of the 200 MVA OH power supply to a cascaded multilevel inverter configuration; and installation of an extensive 3D-magnetic perturbation coil system for ELM mitigation and suppression studies. The upgraded facility will provide 0.3 MA plasmas with pulse lengths of 50-100 msec flattop, aspect ratio <1.25, and toroidal field up to 0.4 T. These research activities will be integrated into related efforts on DIII-D and NSTX-U. Work supported by US DOE grant DE-FG02-96ER54375.

  4. Upgrade of the CMS tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tricomi, A.

    2014-03-01

    The LHC machine is planning an upgrade program which will smoothly bring the luminosity up to or above 5 × 1034 cm-2s-1 sometimes after 2020, to possibly reach an integrated luminosity of 3000 fb-1 at the end of that decade. The foreseen increases of both the instantaneous and the integrated luminosity by the LHC during the next ten years will necessitate a stepwise upgrade of the CMS tracking detector. During the extended end-of-year shutdown 2016-2017 the pixel detector will be exchanged with a new one. The so-called Phase1 Pixel foresees one additional barrel layer and one additional end-cap disk, a new readout chip, reduction of material, and the installation of more efficient cooling and powering systems. In the so-called Phase2, when LHC will reach the High Luminosity (HL-LHC) phase, CMS will need a completely new Tracker detector, in order to fully exploit the high-demanding operating conditions and the delivered luminosity. The new Tracker should have also trigger capabilities. To achieve such goals, R&D activities are ongoing to explore options and develop solutions that would allow including tracking information at Level-1. The design choices for the CMS pixel and outer tracker upgrades are discussed along with some highlights of the R&D activities.

  5. Upgraded Fuel Assemblies for BWRs

    SciTech Connect

    Garner, N.L.; Rentmeister, T.; Lippert, H.J.; Mollard, P.

    2007-07-01

    Established with engineering and manufacturing operations in the US and Europe, AREVA NP has been and is supplying nuclear fuel assemblies and associated core components to light water reactors worldwide, representing today more than 170,000 fuel assemblies on the world market and more than 56,000 fuel assemblies for BWR plants. Since first delivered in 1992, ATRIUM{sup TM}(1)10 fuel assemblies have now been supplied to a total of 28 BWR plants in the US, Europe, and Asia resulting in an operating experience over 16 000 fuel assemblies. In the spring of 2001, a BWR record burnup of 71 MWd/kgU was reached by four lead fuel assemblies after eight operating cycles. More recently, ATRIUM 10XP and ATRIUM 10XM fuel assemblies featuring changes in their characteristics and exhibiting upgraded behavior have been delivered to several utilities worldwide. This success story has been made possible thanks to a continuous improvement process with the aim of further upgrading BWR fuel assembly performance and reliability. An overview is given on current AREVA advanced BWR fuel supply regarding: - advanced designs to tailor product selection to specific operating strategies; - performance capabilities of each advanced design option; - testing and operational experience for these advanced designs; - upgraded features available for inclusion with advanced designs. (authors)

  6. Monitoring Progress and Adherence with Positive Airway Pressure Therapy for Obstructive Sleep Apnea: The Roles of Telemedicine and Mobile Health Applications.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Dennis

    2016-06-01

    Technology is changing the way health care is delivered and how patients are approaching their own health. Given the challenge within sleep medicine of optimizing adherence to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), implementation of telemedicine-based mechanisms is a critical component toward developing a comprehensive and cost-effective solution for OSA management. Key elements include the use of electronic messaging, remote monitoring, automated care mechanisms, and patient self-management platforms. Current practical sleep-related telemedicine platforms include Web-based educational programs, automated CPAP follow-up platforms that promote self-management, and peer-based patient-driven Internet support forums. PMID:27236054

  7. Output beam energy measurement of a 100-MeV KOMAC drift tube linac by using a stripline beam position monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Han-Sung

    2015-10-01

    The 100-MeV proton linac at the KOMAC (Korea Multi-purpose Accelerator Complex) is composed of a 50-keV proton injector, a 3-MeV RFQ (radio-frequency quadrupole) and a 100-MeV DTL (drift tube linac). The proton beam is accelerated from 3 MeV to 100 MeV through 11 DTL tanks. The precise measurement of the proton-beam's energy at the output of each DTL tank is important for the longitudinal beam dynamics and can be performed by using a time-of-flight method with a BPM (beam position monitor), which is installed between each DTL tank. The details of the output beam energy measurement of the KOMAC DTL with stripline-type BPM and BPM signal processing, along with a comparison with the simulation results, will be presented in this paper.

  8. Upgrade to the control system of the reflectometry diagnostic of ASDEX upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graça, S.; Santos, J.; Manso, M. E.

    2004-10-01

    The broadband frequency modulation-continuous wave microwave/millimeter wave reflectometer of ASDEX upgrade tokamak (Institut für Plasma Physik (IPP), Garching, Germany) developed by Centro de Fusão Nuclear (Lisboa, Portugal) with the collaboration of IPP, is a complex system with 13 channels (O and X modes) and two types of operation modes (swept and fixed frequency). The control system that ensures remote operation of the diagnostic incorporates VME and CAMAC bus based acquisition/timing systems. Microprocessor input/output boards are used to control and monitor the microwave circuitry and associated electronic devices. The implementation of the control system is based on an object-oriented client/server model: a centralized server manages the hardware and receives input from remote clients. Communication is handled through transmission control protocol/internet protocol sockets. Here we describe recent upgrades of the control system aiming to: (i) accommodate new channels; (ii) adapt to the heterogeneity of computing platforms and operating systems; and (iii) overcome remote access restrictions. Platform and operating system independence was achieved by redesigning the graphical user interface in JAVA. As secure shell is the standard remote access protocol adopted in major fusion laboratories, secure shell tunneling was implemented to allow remote operation of the diagnostic through the existing firewalls.

  9. Canadian Sleep Society/Canadian Thoracic Society position paper on the use of portable monitoring for the diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea in adults.

    PubMed

    Blackman, Adam; McGregor, Catherine; Dales, Robert; Driver, Helen S; Dumov, Ilya; Fleming, Jon; Fraser, Kristin; George, Charlie; Khullar, Atul; Mink, Joe; Moffat, Murray; Sullivan, Glendon E; Fleetham, John A; Ayas, Najib; Bradley, T Douglas; Fitzpatrick, Michael; Kimoff, John; Morrison, Debra; Ryan, Frank; Skomro, Robert; Series, Frederic; Tsai, Willis

    2010-01-01

    The present position paper on the use of portable monitoring (PM) as a diagnostic tool for obstructive sleep apnea⁄hypopnea (OSAH) in adults was based on consensus and expert opinion regarding best practice standards from stakeholders across Canada. These recommendations were prepared to guide appropriate clinical use of this new technology and to ensure that quality assurance standards are adhered to. Clinical guidelines for the use of PM for the diagnosis and management of OSAH as an alternative to in-laboratory polysomnography published by the American Academy of Sleep Medicine Portable Monitoring Task Force were used to tailor our recommendations to address the following: indications; methodology including physician involvement, physician and technical staff qualifications, and follow-up requirements; technical considerations; quality assurance; and conflict of interest guidelines. When used appropriately under the supervision of a physician with training in sleep medicine, and in conjunction with a comprehensive sleep evaluation, PM may expedite treatment when there is a high clinical suspicion of OSAH. PMID:21037998

  10. D0 Silicon Upgrade: Upgrade on Cryogenic Lines at Refrigerator

    SciTech Connect

    Kuwazaki, Andrew; /Fermilab

    1995-09-26

    This is an upgrade to the thermal contraction analysis sound in D0 Engineering Note: 3823.115-EN-426. In this new design, a portion of the transfer lines are consolidated into one 6-inch vacuum jacket. Since all four transfer lines follow the same path and are of equal lengths, the stress analysis is performed on only one transfer line using the design system ALGOR{reg_sign}. The GHe Cooldown Supply line is analyzed for combined pressure, thermal movement, and dead weight and all the stresses were below the allowable stress limit of 25,050 psi.

  11. Upgrade of LXe gamma-ray detector in MEG experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneko, Daisuke

    2014-08-01

    We are searching for the μ → e + γ in the MEG experiment. In order to improve the search sensitivity down to about 5 × 10-14, which is one order higher than the sensitivity goal of the current stage of the experiment. We are planning a major upgrade of the experiment including the upgrade of the liquid xenon (LXe) γ-ray detector. The main item of the upgrade of the xenon detector is a replacement of the current PMTs located on the γ-ray incident face with smaller photosensors such as MPPC. The energy and position resolutions are expected to be significantly improved, especially for the event where γ-ray converts at a shallow point in the LXe. Because the MPPC operational in liquid xenon is not yet commercially available, we are developing special MPPC in collaboration with Hamamatsu Photonics. The detection efficiency for LXe scintillation light is measured with prototype sensors and found to be already at the level necessary for the upgrade of the experiment.

  12. Upgrades at the NASA Langley Research Center National Transonic Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paryz, Roman W.

    2012-01-01

    Several projects have been completed or are nearing completion at the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) National Transonic Facility (NTF). The addition of a Model Flow-Control/Propulsion Simulation test capability to the NTF provides a unique, transonic, high-Reynolds number test capability that is well suited for research in propulsion airframe integration studies, circulation control high-lift concepts, powered lift, and cruise separation flow control. A 1992 vintage Facility Automation System (FAS) that performs the control functions for tunnel pressure, temperature, Mach number, model position, safety interlock and supervisory controls was replaced using current, commercially available components. This FAS upgrade also involved a design study for the replacement of the facility Mach measurement system and the development of a software-based simulation model of NTF processes and control systems. The FAS upgrades were validated by a post upgrade verification wind tunnel test. The data acquisition system (DAS) upgrade project involves the design, purchase, build, integration, installation and verification of a new DAS by replacing several early 1990's vintage computer systems with state of the art hardware/software. This paper provides an update on the progress made in these efforts. See reference 1.

  13. Ultrasound Targeted Apoptosis Imaging in Monitoring Early Tumor Response of Trastuzumab in a Murine Tumor Xenograft Model of Her-2–Positive Breast Cancer11

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xi; Li, Ying; Zhang, Sheng; Gao, Xiujun; Luo, Yi; Gao, Ming

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Our study aimed to monitor the trastuzumab therapy response of murine tumor xenograft model with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (Her-2)–positive breast cancer using ultrasound targeted apoptosis imaging. METHODS: We prepared targeted apoptosis ultrasound probes by nanobubble (NB) binding with Annexin V. In vitro, we investigated the binding rate of NB–Annexin V with breast cancer apoptotic cells after the trastuzumab treatment. In vivo, tumor-bearing mice underwent ultrasound targeted imaging over 7 days. After imaging was completed, the tumors were excised to determine Her-2 and caspase-3 expression by immunohistochemistry (IHC). The correlation between parameters of imaging and histologic results was then analyzed. RESULTS: For seeking the ability of targeted NB binding with apoptotic tumor cells (Her-2 positive), we found that binding rate in the treatment group was higher than that of the control group in vitro (P = .001). There were no differences of tumor sizes in all groups over the treatment process in vivo (P = .98). However, when using ultrasound imaging to visualize tumors by targeted NB in vivo, we observed that the mean and peak intensities from NBs gradually increased in the treatment group after trastuzumab therapy (P = .001). Furthermore, these two parameters were significantly associated with caspase-3 expression of tumor excised samples (P = .0001). CONCLUSION: Ultrasound targeted apoptosis imaging can be a non-invasive technique to evaluate the early breast tumor response to trastuzumab therapy. PMID:24685547

  14. Fluorescence-type Monochromatic X-ray Beam-position Monitor with High-spatial Resolution for the NSLS-II Beamlines

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Phil S.; Siddons, D. Peter

    2010-06-23

    We developed a fluorescence-type monochromatic X-ray beam-position monitor (X-BPM) with high-spatial resolution for end-station experiments at the initial project beamlines of the NSLS-II. We designed a ring array of multi-segmented Si PIN-junction photodiodes to use as a position sensor. Further, we integrated a low-noise charge-preamplification HERMES4 ASIC chip into an electronic readout system for photon-counting application. A series of precision measurements to characterize electronically the Si-photodiode sensor and the ASIC chip demonstrated that the inherent noise from the detector system is sufficiently low to meet our stringent requirements. Using a Gaussian beam, we parametrically modeled the optimum working distance to ensure the detector's best performance. Based upon the results from the parametric modeling, prototypes of the next versions of the X-BPM are being developed. In this paper, we describe the methodology for developing the new compact monochromatic X-ray BPM, including its instrumentation, detector modeling, and future plan.

  15. Overview of ASDEX Upgrade results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zohm, H.; Angioni, C.; Arslanbekov, R.; Atanasiu, C.; Becker, G.; Becker, W.; Behler, K.; Behringer, K.; Bergmann, A.; Bilato, R.; Bobkov, V.; Bolshukhin, D.; Bolzonella, T.; Borrass, K.; Brambilla, M.; Braun, F.; Buhler, A.; Carlson, A.; Conway, G. D.; Coster, D. P.; Drube, R.; Dux, R.; Egorov, S.; Eich, T.; Engelhardt, K.; Fahrbach, H.-U.; Fantz, U.; Faugel, H.; Finken, K. H.; Foley, M.; Franzen, P.; Fuchs, J. C.; Gafert, J.; Fournier, K. B.; Gantenbein, G.; Gehre, O.; Geier, A.; Gernhardt, J.; Goodman, T.; Gruber, O.; Gude, A.; Günter, S.; Haas, G.; Hartmann, D.; Heger, B.; Heinemann, B.; Herrmann, A.; Hobirk, J.; Hofmeister, F.; Hohenöcker, H.; Horton, L. D.; Igochine, V.; Jacchia, A.; Jakobi, M.; Jenko, F.; Kallenbach, A.; Kardaun, O.; Kaufmann, M.; Keller, A.; Kendl, A.; Kim, J.-W.; Kirov, K.; Kochergov, R.; Kollotzek, H.; Kraus, W.; Krieger, K.; Kurki-Suonio, T.; Kurzan, B.; Lang, P. T.; Lasnier, C.; Lauber, P.; Laux, M.; Leonard, A. W.; Leuterer, F.; Lohs, A.; Lorenz, A.; Lorenzini, R.; Maggi, C.; Maier, H.; Mank, K.; Manso, M.-E.; Mantica, P.; Maraschek, M.; Martines, E.; Mast, K.-F.; McCarthy, P.; Meisel, D.; Meister, H.; Meo, F.; Merkel, P.; Merkel, R.; Merkl, D.; Mertens, V.; Monaco, F.; Mück, A.; Müller, H. W.; Münich, M.; Murmann, H.; Na, Y.-S.; Neu, G.; Neu, R.; Neuhauser, J.; Nguyen, F.; Nishijima, D.; Nishimura, Y.; Noterdaeme, J.-M.; Nunes, I.; Pautasso, G.; Peeters, A. G.; Pereverzev, G.; Pinches, S. D.; Poli, E.; Proschek, M.; Pugno, R.; Quigley, E.; Raupp, G.; Reich, M.; Ribeiro, T.; Riedl, R.; Rohde, V.; Roth, J.; Ryter, F.; Saarelma, S.; Sandmann, W.; Savtchkov, A.; Sauter, O.; Schade, S.; Schilling, H.-B.; Schneider, W.; Schramm, G.; Schwarz, E.; Schweinzer, J.; Schweizer, S.; Scott, B. D.; Seidel, U.; Serra, F.; Sesnic, S.; Sihler, C.; Silva, A.; Sips, A. C. C.; Speth, E.; Stäbler, A.; Steuer, K.-H.; Stober, J.; Streibl, B.; Strumberger, E.; Suttrop, W.; Tabasso, A.; Tanga, A.; Tardini, G.; Tichmann, C.; Treutterer, W.; Troppmann, M.; Urano, H.; Varela, P.; Vollmer, O.; Wagner, D.; Wenzel, U.; Wesner, F.; Westerhof, E.; Wolf, R.; Wolfrum, E.; Würsching, E.; Yoon, S.-W.; Yu, Q.; Zasche, D.; Zehetbauer, T.; Zehrfeld, H.-P.

    2003-12-01

    Recent results from the ASDEX Upgrade experimental campaigns 2001 and 2002 are presented. An improved understanding of energy and particle transport emerges in terms of a 'critical gradient' model for the temperature gradients. Coupling this to particle diffusion explains most of the observed behaviour of the density profiles, in particular, the finding that strong central heating reduces the tendency for density profile peaking. Internal transport barriers (ITBs) with electron and ion temperatures in excess of 20 keV (but not simultaneously) have been achieved. By shaping the plasma, a regime with small type II edge localized modes (ELMs) has been established. Here, the maximum power deposited on the target plates was greatly reduced at constant average power. Also, an increase of the ELM frequency by injection of shallow pellets was demonstrated. ELM free operation is possible in the quiescent H-mode regime previously found in DIII-D which has also been established on ASDEX Upgrade. Regarding stability, a regime with benign neoclassical tearing modes (NTMs) was found. During electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) stabilization of NTMs, bgrN could be increased well above the usual onset level without a reappearance of the NTM. Electron cyclotron resonance heating and ECCD have also been used to control the sawtooth repetition frequency at a moderate fraction of the total heating power. The inner wall of the ASDEX Upgrade vessel has increasingly been covered with tungsten without causing detrimental effects on the plasma performance. Regarding scenario integration, a scenario with a large fraction of noninductively driven current (geq50%), but without ITB has been established. It combines improved confinement (tgrE/tgrITER98 ap 1.2) and stability (bgrN les 3.5) at high Greenwald fraction (ne/nGW ap 0.85) in steady state and with type II ELMy edge and would offer the possibility for long pulses with high fusion power at reduced current in ITER.

  16. RHIC Beam Position Monitor Assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Cameron, P.R.; Grau, M.C.; Ryan, W.A.; Shea, T.J.; Sikora, R.E.

    1993-09-01

    Design calculations, design details, and fabrication techniques for the RHIC BPM Assemblies are discussed. The 69 mm aperture single plane detectors are 23 cm long short-circuited 50 ohm strip transmission lines subtending 80 degrees. They are mounted on the sextupole end of the Corrector-Quadrupole-Sextupole package and operate at liquid helium temperature. The 69 cm aperture was selected to be the same as that of the beampipe in the CQS package, dc 23 cm length is a compromise between mechanical stability and electrical sensitivity to the long low-intensity proton and heavy ion bunches to be found in RHIC during commissioning, and the 80 degree subtended angle maximizes linear aperture. The striplines are aligned after brazing to maintain electrical-to-mechanical centers within 0.1 mm radius, eliminating the need for individual calibration. Because the cryogenic feedthrus isolate the UHV beam vacuum only from the HV insulating vacuum, and do not see liquid helium, a replaceable mini-ConFlat design was chosen to simplify fabrication, calibration, and maintenance.

  17. Position monitor for mining machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lubich, J.

    1980-01-01

    Circuit at output of incremental transducer records progress of longwall shearer. In contrast to mechanical shaft encoders, electronic circuit can be easily packaged to withstand shock and vibration of mining machine as it cuts across coal seam.

  18. The Upgraded D0 detector

    SciTech Connect

    Abazov, V.M.; Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Acharya, B.S.; Adams, D.L.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Agelou, M.; Agram, J.-L.; Ahmed, S.N.; Ahn, S.H.; Ahsan, M.; Alexeev, G.D.; Alkhazov, G.; Alton, A.; Alverson, G.; Alves, G.A.; Anastasoaie, M.; Andeen, T.; Anderson, J.T.; Anderson, S.; /Buenos Aires U. /Rio de Janeiro, CBPF /Sao Paulo, IFT /Alberta U. /Simon Fraser U. /York U., Canada /McGill U. /Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys. /Hefei, CUST /Andes U., Bogota /Charles U. /Prague, Tech. U. /Prague, Inst. Phys. /San Francisco de Quito U. /Clermont-Ferrand U. /LPSC, Grenoble /Marseille, CPPM /Orsay, LAL /Paris U., VI-VII /DAPNIA, Saclay /Strasbourg, IReS

    2005-07-01

    The D0 experiment enjoyed a very successful data-collection run at the Fermilab Tevatron collider between 1992 and 1996. Since then, the detector has been upgraded to take advantage of improvements to the Tevatron and to enhance its physics capabilities. We describe the new elements of the detector, including the silicon microstrip tracker, central fiber tracker, solenoidal magnet, preshower detectors, forward muon detector, and forward proton detector. The uranium/liquid-argon calorimeters and central muon detector, remaining from Run I, are discussed briefly. We also present the associated electronics, triggering, and data acquisition systems, along with the design and implementation of software specific to D0.

  19. Development of an S-band cavity-type beam position monitor for a high power THz free-electron laser

    SciTech Connect

    Noh, Seon Yeong; Kim, Eun-San Hwang, Ji-Gwang; Heo, A.; Won, Jang Si; Vinokurov, Nikolay A.; Jeong, Young UK Hee Park, Seong; Jang, Kyu-Ha

    2015-01-15

    A cavity-type beam position monitor (BPM) has been developed for a compact terahertz (THz) free-electron laser (FEL) system and ultra-short pulsed electron Linac system at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). Compared with other types of BPMs, the cavity-type BPM has higher sensitivity and faster response time even at low charge levels. When electron beam passes through the cavity-type BPM, it excites the dipole mode of the cavity of which amplitude depends linearly on the beam offset from the center of the cavity. Signals from the BPM were measured as a function of the beam offset by using an oscilloscope. The microtron accelerator for the KAERI THz FEL produces the electron beam with an energy of 6.5 MeV and pulse length of 5 μs with a micropulse of 10-20 ps at the frequency of 2.801 GHz. The macropulse beam current is 40 mA. Because the microtron provides multi-bunch system, output signal would be the superposition of each single bunch. So high output signal can be obtained from superposition of each single bunch. The designed position resolution of the cavity-type BPM in multi-bunch is submicron. Our cavity-type BPM is made of aluminum and vacuum can be maintained by indium sealing without brazing process, resulting in easy modification and cost saving. The resonance frequency of the cavity-type BPM is 2.803 GHz and the cavity-type BPM dimensions are 200 × 220 mm (length × height) with a pipe diameter of 38 mm. The measured position sensitivity was 6.19 (mV/mm)/mA and the measured isolation between the X and Y axis was −39 dB. By measuring the thermal noise of system, position resolution of the cavity-type BPM was estimated to be less than 1 μm. In this article, we present the test results of the S-band cavity-type BPM and prove the feasibility of the beam position measurement with high resolution using this device.

  20. Development of an S-band cavity-type beam position monitor for a high power THz free-electron laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noh, Seon Yeong; Kim, Eun-San; Hwang, Ji-Gwang; Heo, A.; won Jang, Si; Vinokurov, Nikolay A.; Jeong, Young UK; Hee Park, Seong; Jang, Kyu-Ha

    2015-01-01

    A cavity-type beam position monitor (BPM) has been developed for a compact terahertz (THz) free-electron laser (FEL) system and ultra-short pulsed electron Linac system at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). Compared with other types of BPMs, the cavity-type BPM has higher sensitivity and faster response time even at low charge levels. When electron beam passes through the cavity-type BPM, it excites the dipole mode of the cavity of which amplitude depends linearly on the beam offset from the center of the cavity. Signals from the BPM were measured as a function of the beam offset by using an oscilloscope. The microtron accelerator for the KAERI THz FEL produces the electron beam with an energy of 6.5 MeV and pulse length of 5 μs with a micropulse of 10-20 ps at the frequency of 2.801 GHz. The macropulse beam current is 40 mA. Because the microtron provides multi-bunch system, output signal would be the superposition of each single bunch. So high output signal can be obtained from superposition of each single bunch. The designed position resolution of the cavity-type BPM in multi-bunch is submicron. Our cavity-type BPM is made of aluminum and vacuum can be maintained by indium sealing without brazing process, resulting in easy modification and cost saving. The resonance frequency of the cavity-type BPM is 2.803 GHz and the cavity-type BPM dimensions are 200 × 220 mm (length × height) with a pipe diameter of 38 mm. The measured position sensitivity was 6.19 (mV/mm)/mA and the measured isolation between the X and Y axis was -39 dB. By measuring the thermal noise of system, position resolution of the cavity-type BPM was estimated to be less than 1 μm. In this article, we present the test results of the S-band cavity-type BPM and prove the feasibility of the beam position measurement with high resolution using this device.

  1. Operation of the upgraded ATLAS Central Trigger Processor during the LHC Run 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertelsen, H.; Carrillo Montoya, G.; Deviveiros, P.-O.; Eifert, T.; Galster, G.; Glatzer, J.; Haas, S.; Marzin, A.; Silva Oliveira, M. V.; Pauly, T.; Schmieden, K.; Spiwoks, R.; Stelzer, J.

    2016-02-01

    The ATLAS Central Trigger Processor (CTP) is responsible for forming the Level-1 trigger decision based on the information from the calorimeter and muon trigger processors. In order to cope with the increase of luminosity and physics cross-sections in Run 2, several components of this system have been upgraded. In particular, the number of usable trigger inputs and trigger items have been increased from 160 to 512 and from 256 to 512, respectively. The upgraded CTP also provides extended monitoring capabilities and allows to operate simultaneously up to three independent combinations of sub-detectors with full trigger functionality, which is particularly useful for commissioning, calibration and test runs. The software has also undergone a major upgrade to take advantage of all these new functionalities. An overview of the commissioning and the operation of the upgraded CTP during the LHC Run 2 is given.

  2. SOFIA Gets Avionics and Mission Systems Upgrades

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy, or SOFIA, has received major upgrades to its telescope control and avionics systems that will significantly improve their efficiency and ope...

  3. ISS Update: Computer Upgrade on Station

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Brandi Dean interviews Gary Cox, EPIC Project Manager, about EPIC (Enhanced Processor and Integrated Communications), the computer upgrade program for the International ...

  4. Space Station Live: ISS Communications Unit Upgrade

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Nicole Cloutier-Lemasters interviews International Space Station Flight Director Mike Lammers about the recent Ku communications unit upgrade work taking place aboard th...

  5. Analysis Efforts Supporting NSTX Upgrades

    SciTech Connect

    H.Zhang, P. Titus, P. Rogoff, A.Zolfaghari, D. Mangra, M. Smith

    2010-11-29

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is a low aspect ratio, spherical torus (ST) configuration device which is located at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) This device is presently being updated to enhance its physics by doubling the TF field to 1 Tesla and increasing the plasma current to 2 Mega-amperes. The upgrades include a replacement of the centerstack and addition of a second neutral beam. The upgrade analyses have two missions. The first is to support design of new components, principally the centerstack, the second is to qualify existing NSTX components for higher loads, which will increase by a factor of four. Cost efficiency was a design goal for new equipment qualification, and reanalysis of the existing components. Showing that older components can sustain the increased loads has been a challenging effort in which designs had to be developed that would limit loading on weaker components, and would minimize the extent of modifications needed. Two areas representing this effort have been chosen to describe in more details: analysis of the current distribution in the new TF inner legs, and, second, analysis of the out-of-plane support of the existing TF outer legs.

  6. Upgrade for the NSTX Control Computer

    SciTech Connect

    D. Mueller; D.A. Gates; J.R. Ferron

    1999-06-01

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is a proof of scientific principle experiment as a magnetic fusion containment device. A primary goal of NSTX operations is control of the plasma current, position and shape in real time for a wide range of plasma pressure and current density profiles. In order to employ the best calculation of the plasma current, position and shape, it is planned to implement the equilibrium analysis code, EFIT, in real-time, RTEFIT. EFIT inverts the Grad-Shafranov equation and performs a least squares fit to the magnetics data. RTEFIT is also capable of providing the plasma current profile and the plasma pressure profile from analysis of diagnostic data. The calculation time for RTEFTI using the present NSTX control computer system is comparable to the expected energy confinement time on NSTX and is thus slower than desired. A computer upgrade based upon 604e processors will permit the RTEFIT calculation loop to complete in about 3 ms. The presence of the passive plates further complicates the control algorithm to be used in conjunction with RTEFIT. The planned approach is to measure the eddy currents in the passive plates and to use the transient response of the coils to minimize the total shell current effect.

  7. Testing an mHealth Momentary Assessment Routine Outcome Monitoring Application: A Focus on Restoration of Daily Life Positive Mood States

    PubMed Central

    van Os, Jim; Delespaul, Philippe; Barge, Daniela; Bakker, Roberto P.

    2014-01-01

    Background Routine Outcome Monitoring (ROM) is used as a means to enrich the process of treatment with feedback on patient outcomes, facilitating patient involvement and shared decision making. While traditional ROM measures focus on retrospective accounts of symptoms, novel mHealth technology makes it possible to collect real life, in-the-moment ambulatory data that allow for an ecologically valid assessment of personalized and contextualized emotional and behavioural adjustment in the flow daily life (mROM). Method In a sample of 34 patients with major depressive disorder, treated with antidepressants, the combined effect of treatment and natural course was examined over a period of 18 weeks with Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA). EMA consisted of repeated, within-subject, mini-measurements of experience (eg positive affect, negative affect, medication side effects) and context (eg stressors, situations, activities) at 10 unselected semi-random moments per day, for a period of six days, repeated three times over the 18-week period (baseline, week 6 and week 18). Results EMA measures of emotional and behavioural adjustment were sensitive to the effects of treatment and natural course over the 18-week period, particularly EMA measures focussing on positive mood states and the ability to use natural rewards (impact of positive events on positive mood states), with standardized effect sizes of 0.4–0.5. EMA measures of activities, social interaction, stress-sensitivity and negative mood states were also sensitive to change over time. Conclusion This study supports the use of mROM as a means to involve the patient in the process of needs assessment and treatment. EMA data are meaningful to the patient, as they reflect daily life circumstances. Assessment of treatment response with mROM data allows for an interpretation of the effect of treatment at the level of daily life emotional and social adjustment – as an index of health, obviating the need for an

  8. Design considerations: Upgrading Boston Gas odorant stations

    SciTech Connect

    Flynn, E.

    1995-05-01

    Boston Gas Company (BGC) has progressed beyond the half-way point on a four-year program to upgrade its odorant injection systems. An experienced odorization team from BGC`s Gas Supply and Production Department set out to redesign odorant storage, piping and injection system operation and to research the availability of improved odorization equipment. Research included investigating odorization practices of other gas companies and new technologies offered by odorization equipment manufacturers. The NJEX system and other innovations used in BGC`s odorization operation have proven effective since their inception. The system has provided reliable metering, consistent injection rates and accurate data storage. The controller has greatly simplified programming, troubleshooting and system monitoring. Innovations such as back welded fittings, Viton O-ring seal fittings, diaphragm valves, and complete combustion flares have provided reliable odor-free operation, filling and maintenance. The system`s simple mechanical layout, the user`s manual, and closed loop purging and priming have lowered the learning curve for operating personnel, and reduce man hours for maintenance and troubleshooting.

  9. The tungsten divertor experiment at ASDEX Upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neu, R.; Asmussen, K.; Krieger, K.; Thoma, A.; Bosch, H.-S.; Deschka, S.; Dux, R.; Engelhardt, W.; García-Rosales, C.; Gruber, O.; Herrmann, A.; Kallenbach, A.; Kaufmann, M.; Mertens, V.; Ryter, F.; Rohde, V.; Roth, J.; Sokoll, M.; Stäbler, A.; Suttrop, W.; Weinlich, M.; Zohm, H.; Alexander, M.; Becker, G.; Behler, K.; Behringer, K.; Behrisch, R.; Bergmann, A.; Bessenrodt-Weberpals, M.; Brambilla, M.; Brinkschulte, H.; Büchl, K.; Carlson, A.; Chodura, R.; Coster, D.; Cupido, L.; de Blank, H. J.; de Peña Hempel, S.; Drube, R.; Fahrbach, H.-U.; Feist, J.-H.; Feneberg, W.; Fiedler, S.; Franzen, P.; Fuchs, J. C.; Fußmann, G.; Gafert, J.; Gehre, O.; Gernhardt, J.; Haas, G.; Herppich, G.; Herrmann, W.; Hirsch, S.; Hoek, M.; Hoenen, F.; Hofmeister, F.; Hohenöcker, H.; Jacobi, D.; Junker, W.; Kardaun, O.; Kass, T.; Kollotzek, H.; Köppendörfer, W.; Kurzan, B.; Lackner, K.; Lang, P. T.; Lang, R. S.; Laux, M.; Lengyel, L. L.; Leuterer, F.; Manso, M. E.; Maraschek, M.; Mast, K.-F.; McCarthy, P.; Meisel, D.; Merkel, R.; Müller, H. W.; Münich, M.; Murmann, H.; Napiontek, B.; Neu, G.; Neuhauser, J.; Niethammer, M.; Noterdaeme, J.-M.; Pasch, E.; Pautasso, G.; Peeters, A. G.; Pereverzev, G.; Pitcher, C. S.; Poschenrieder, W.; Raupp, G.; Reinmüller, K.; Riedl, R.; Röhr, H.; Salzmann, H.; Sandmann, W.; Schilling, H.-B.; Schlögl, D.; Schneider, H.; Schneider, R.; Schneider, W.; Schramm, G.; Schweinzer, J.; Scott, B. D.; Seidel, U.; Serra, F.; Speth, E.; Silva, A.; Steuer, K.-H.; Stober, J.; Streibl, B.; Treutterer, W.; Troppmann, M.; Tsois, N.; Ulrich, M.; Varela, P.; Verbeek, H.; Verplancke, Ph; Vollmer, O.; Wedler, H.; Wenzel, U.; Wesner, F.; Wolf, R.; Wunderlich, R.; Zasche, D.; Zehetbauer, T.; Zehrfeld, H.-P.

    1996-12-01

    Tungsten-coated tiles, manufactured by plasma spray on graphite, were mounted in the divertor of the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak and cover almost 90% of the surface facing the plasma in the strike zone. Over 600 plasma discharges have been performed to date, around 300 of which were auxiliary heated with heating powers up to 10 MW. The production of tungsten in the divertor was monitored by a W I line at 400.8 nm. In the plasma centre an array of spectral lines at 5 nm emitted by ionization states around W XXX was measured. From the intensity of these lines the W content was derived. Under normal discharge conditions W-concentrations around 0741-3335/38/12A/013/img12 or even lower were found. The influence on the main plasma parameters was found to be negligible. The maximum concentrations observed decrease with increasing heating power. In several low power discharges accumulation of tungsten occurred and the temperature profile was flattened. The concentrations of the intrinsic impurities carbon and oxygen were comparable to the discharges with the graphite divertor. Furthermore, the density and the 0741-3335/38/12A/013/img13 limits remained unchanged and no negative influence on the energy confinement or on the H-mode threshold was found. Discharges with neon radiative cooling showed the same behaviour as in the graphite divertor case.

  10. Electromagnetic Real-Time Tumor Position Monitoring and Dynamic Multileaf Collimator Tracking Using a Siemens 160 MLC: Geometric and Dosimetric Accuracy of an Integrated System

    SciTech Connect

    Krauss, Andreas; Nill, Simeon; Tacke, Martin; Oelfke, Uwe

    2011-02-01

    Purpose: Dynamic multileaf collimator tracking represents a promising method for high-precision radiotherapy to moving tumors. In the present study, we report on the integration of electromagnetic real-time tumor position monitoring into a multileaf collimator-based tracking system. Methods and Materials: The integrated system was characterized in terms of its geometric and radiologic accuracy. The former was assessed from portal images acquired during radiation delivery to a phantom in tracking mode. The tracking errors were calculated from the positions of the tracking field and of the phantom as extracted from the portal images. Radiologic accuracy was evaluated from film dosimetry performed for conformal and intensity-modulated radiotherapy applied to different phantoms moving on sinusoidal trajectories. A static radiation delivery to the nonmoving target served as a reference for the delivery to the moving phantom with and without tracking applied. Results: Submillimeter tracking accuracy was observed for two-dimensional target motion despite the relatively large system latency of 500 ms. Film dosimetry yielded almost complete recovery of a circular dose distribution with tracking in two dimensions applied: 2%/2 mm gamma-failure rates could be reduced from 59.7% to 3.3%. For single-beam intensity-modulated radiotherapy delivery, accuracy was limited by the finite leaf width. A 2%/2 mm gamma-failure rate of 15.6% remained with tracking applied. Conclusion: The integrated system we have presented marks a major step toward the clinical implementation of high-precision dynamic multileaf collimator tracking. However, several challenges such as irregular motion traces or a thorough quality assurance still need to be addressed.

  11. Upgrades to the Polarized Neutron Reflectometer Asterix at LANSCE

    SciTech Connect

    Pynn, Roger

    2015-03-16

    We have upgraded the polarized neutron reflectometer, Asterix, at the Lujan Neutron Scattering Center at Los Alamos for the benefit of the research communities that study magnetic and complex-fluid films, both of which play important roles in support of the DOE’s energy mission. The upgrades to the instrument include: • A secondary spectrometer that was integrated with a Huber sample goniometer purchased with other funds just prior to the start of our project. The secondary spectrometer provides a flexible length for the scattered flight path, includes a mechanism to select among 3 alternative polarization analyzers as well as a support for new neutron detectors. Also included is an optic rail for reproducible positioning of components for Spin Echo Scattering Angle Measurement (SESAME). The entire secondary spectrometer is now non-magnetic, as required for neutron Larmor labeling. • A broad-band neutron polarizer for the incident neutron beam based on the V geometry. • A wide-angle neutron polarization analyzer • A 2d position-sensitive neutron detector • Electromagnetic coils (Wollaston prisms) for SESAME plus the associated power supplies, cooling, safety systems and integration into the data acquisition system. The upgrades allowed a nearly effortless transition between configurations required to serve the polarized neutron reflectometry community, users of the 11 T cryomagnet and users of SESAME.

  12. System Upgrades: The Ever Moving Target.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Denise

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the need for system upgrades of automated library systems in order to support ongoing software releases; obtain new functional modules; satisfy new library requirements; conform to new industry standards; and utilize new technology. Guidelines are presented for deciding when to upgrade and implement changes in these areas. (11…

  13. Upgrading Programs for Construction Journeymen. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, William S.

    The report describes a study of industry-sponsored upgrading programs for journeymen in construction unions. Interviews with union and training officials, as well as 405 journeymen and 99 contractors, revealed that upgrading activities were concentrated in electrical work, carpentry, and the pipe trades, and that both the number of programs and…

  14. Final Upgrading Report: The Vermont Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattson, Robert E.

    This report describes Vermont's experience with a program to upgrade the working poor and thus increase their total family income. Upgrading refers to enhancing one's job skills which ultimately will lead to increased earnings within one's given occupation. Employer cooperation was encouraged through use of on-site job facilities where supervised…

  15. Performance of the upgraded Orroral laser ranging system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luck, John M.

    1993-01-01

    The topics discussed include the following: upgrade arrangements, system prior to 1991, elements of the upgrade, laser performance, timing system performance, pass productivity, system precision, system accuracy, telescope pointing and future upgrades and extensions.

  16. Enhanced forensic discrimination of pollutants by position-specific isotope analysis using isotope ratio monitoring by (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Julien, Maxime; Nun, Pierrick; Höhener, Patrick; Parinet, Julien; Robins, Richard J; Remaud, Gérald S

    2016-01-15

    In forensic environmental investigations the main issue concerns the inference of the original source of the pollutant for determining the liable party. Isotope measurements in geochemistry, combined with complimentary techniques for contaminant identification, have contributed significantly to source determination at polluted sites. In this work we have determined the intramolecular (13)C profiles of several molecules well-known as pollutants. By giving additional analytical parameters, position-specific isotope analysis performed by isotope ratio monitoring by (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (irm-(13)C NMR) spectrometry gives new information to help in answering the major question: what is the origin of the detected contaminant? We have shown that isotope profiling of the core of a molecule reveals both the raw materials and the process used in its manufacture. It also can reveal processes occurring between the contamination site 'source' and the sampling site. Thus, irm-(13)C NMR is shown to be a very good complement to compound-specific isotope analysis currently performed by mass spectrometry for assessing polluted sites involving substantial spills of pollutant. PMID:26592622

  17. First simultaneous measurement of sextupolar and octupolar resonance driving terms in a circular accelerator from turn-by-turn beam position monitor data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franchi, A.; Farvacque, L.; Ewald, F.; Le Bec, G.; Scheidt, K. B.

    2014-07-01

    Beam lifetime in storage rings and colliders is affected by, among other effects, lattice nonlinearities. Their control is of great benefit to the dynamic aperture of an accelerator, whose enlargement leads in general to more efficient injection and longer lifetime. This article describes a procedure to evaluate and correct unwanted nonlinearities by using turn-by-turn beam position monitor data, which is an evolution of previous works on the resonance driving terms (RDTs). Effective normal and skew sextupole magnetic errors at the ESRF electron storage ring are evaluated and corrected (when possible) by using this technique. For the first time, also octupolar RDTs could be measured and used to define an octupolar model for the main quadrupoles. Most of the deviations from the model observed in the sextupolar RDTs of the ESRF storage ring turned out to be generated by focusing errors rather than by sextupole errors. These results could be achieved thanks to new analytical formulas describing the harmonic content of the nonlinear betatron motion to the second order. For the first time, linear combinations of RDTs have been also used for beam-based calibration of individual sextupole magnets. They also proved to be a powerful tool in predicting faulty magnets and in validating magnetic models. This technique also provides a figure of merit for a self-assessment of the reliability of the data analysis.

  18. Upgrade Summer Severe Weather Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Leela

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this task was to upgrade to the existing severe weather database by adding observations from the 2010 warm season, update the verification dataset with results from the 2010 warm season, use statistical logistic regression analysis on the database and develop a new forecast tool. The AMU analyzed 7 stability parameters that showed the possibility of providing guidance in forecasting severe weather, calculated verification statistics for the Total Threat Score (TTS), and calculated warm season verification statistics for the 2010 season. The AMU also performed statistical logistic regression analysis on the 22-year severe weather database. The results indicated that the logistic regression equation did not show an increase in skill over the previously developed TTS. The equation showed less accuracy than TTS at predicting severe weather, little ability to distinguish between severe and non-severe weather days, and worse standard categorical accuracy measures and skill scores over TTS.

  19. CDF level 2 trigger upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Anikeev, K.; Bogdan, M.; DeMaat, R.; Fedorko, W.; Frisch, H.; Hahn, K.; Hakala, M.; Keener, P.; Kim, Y.; Kroll, J.; Kwang, S.; Lewis, J.; Lin, C.; Liu, T.; Marjamaa, F.; Mansikkala, T.; Neu, C.; Pitkanen, S.; Reisert, B.; Rusu, V.; Sanders, H.; /Fermilab /Chicago U. /Pennsylvania U.

    2006-01-01

    We describe the new CDF Level 2 Trigger, which was commissioned during Spring 2005. The upgrade was necessitated by several factors that included increased bandwidth requirements, in view of the growing instantaneous luminosity of the Tevatron, and the need for a more robust system, since the older system was reaching the limits of maintainability. The challenges in designing the new system were interfacing with many different upstream detector subsystems, processing larger volumes of data at higher speed, and minimizing the impact on running the CDF experiment during the system commissioning phase. To meet these challenges, the new system was designed around a general purpose motherboard, the PULSAR, which is instrumented with powerful FPGAs and modern SRAMs, and which uses mezzanine cards to interface with upstream detector components and an industry standard data link (S-LINK) within the system.

  20. Fish and shellfish upgrading, traceability.

    PubMed

    Guérard, Fabienne; Sellos, Daniel; Le Gal, Yves

    2005-01-01

    Recognition of the limited biological resources and the increasing environmental pollution has emphasised the need for better utilisation of by-products from the fisheries. Currently, the seafood industry is dependent on the processing of the few selected fish and shellfish species that are highly popular with consumers but, from economic and nutritional points of view, it is essential to utilise the entire catch. In this review, we will focus on recent developments and innovations in the field of underutilised marine species and marine by-product upgrading and, more precisely, on two aspects of the bioconversion of wastes from marine organisms, i.e. extraction of enzymes and preparation of protein hydrolysates. We will deal with the question of accurate determination of fish species at the various steps of processing. Methods of genetic identification applicable to fresh fish samples and to derived products will be described. PMID:16566090

  1. Biological upgrading of coal liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Culture screening and performance studies were performed with a variety of cultures in removing nitrogen compounds from coal liquid. Two cultures were shown to be effective in removing 17 and 26 percent of the nitrogen in coal liquid as determined by elemental analysis. Experiments will continue in an effort to find additional cultures and isolates able to degrade nitrogen, as well as oxygen and sulfur as heteroatom compounds, from coal liquids. A biological process for upgrading of coal liquids would offer significant advantages, such as operation at ordinary temperature and pressure with better energy efficiency. Of greater importance is the fact that microorganisms do not require an external supply of hydrogen for heteroatom removal, obtaining required hydrogen from water. Furthermore, the biocatalysts are continuously regenerated by growth on the heteroatom compounds. Ring structures are degraded as the heteroatoms are removed. The heteroatoms are in an inocuous form, such as NH[sub 3], SO[sub 4][sup 2[minus

  2. LHCb Upgrade: Scintillating Fibre Tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobin, Mark

    2016-07-01

    The LHCb detector will be upgraded during the Long Shutdown 2 (LS2) of the LHC in order to cope with higher instantaneous luminosities and to read out the data at 40 MHz using a trigger-less read-out system. All front-end electronics will be replaced and several sub-detectors must be redesigned to cope with higher occupancy. The current tracking detectors downstream of the LHCb dipole magnet will be replaced by the Scintillating Fibre (SciFi) Tracker. The SciFi Tracker will use scintillating fibres read out by Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs). State-of-the-art multi-channel SiPM arrays are being developed to read out the fibres and a custom ASIC will be used to digitise the signals from the SiPMs. The evolution of the design since the Technical Design Report in 2014 and the latest R & D results are presented.

  3. Manastash Ridge Observatory Autoguider Upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozo, Jason; Huehnerhoff, Joseph; Armstrong, John; Davila, Adrian; Johnson, Courtney; McMaster, Alex; Olinger, Kyle

    2016-06-01

    The Astronomy Undergraduate Engineering Group (AUEG) at the University of Washington has designed and manufactured a novel autoguider system for the 0.8-meter telescope at the Manastash Ridge Observatory in Ellensburg, Washington. The system uses a pickoff mirror placed in the unused optical path, directing the outer field to the guide camera via a system of axi-symmetrically rotating relay mirrors (periscope). This allows the guider to sample nearly 7 times the area that would be possible with the same fixed detector. This system adds closed loop optical feedback to the tracking capabilities of the telescope. When tuned the telescope will be capable of acheiving 0.5 arcsecond tracking or better. Dynamic focusing of the primary optical path will also be an included feature of this system. This unique guider will be a much needed upgrade to the telescope allowing for increased scientific capability.

  4. Beam intensity upgrade at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Marchionni, A.; /Fermilab

    2006-07-01

    The performance of the Fermilab proton accelerator complex is reviewed. The coming into operation of the NuMI neutrino line and the implementation of slip-stacking to increase the anti-proton production rate has pushed the total beam intensity in the Main Injector up to {approx} 3 x 10{sup 13} protons/pulse. A maximum beam power of 270 kW has been delivered on the NuMI target during the first year of operation. A plan is in place to increase it to 350 kW, in parallel with the operation of the Collider program. As more machines of the Fermilab complex become available with the termination of the Collider operation, a set of upgrades are being planned to reach first 700 kW and then 1.2 MW by reducing the Main Injector cycle time and by implementing proton stacking.

  5. Sensitivity Upgrades to the Idaho Accelerator Center Neutron Time of Flight Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, S. J.; Kinlaw, M. T.; Harmon, J. F.; Wells, D. P.; Hunt, A. W.

    2007-10-26

    Past experiments have shown that discrimination between between fissionable and non-fissionable materials is possible using an interrogation technique that monitors for high energy prompt fission neutrons. Several recent upgrades have been made to the neutron time of flight spectrometer at the Idaho Accelerator Center with the intent of increasing neutron detection sensitivity, allowing for system use in nonproliferation and security applications.

  6. 241-SY-101 data acquisition and control system (DACS) operator interface upgrade operational test report

    SciTech Connect

    ERMI, A.M.

    1999-05-11

    This procedure provides instructions for readiness of the first portion of the upgraded 241-SY-101 Data Acquisition and Control System (DACS) computer system to provide proper control and monitoring of the mitigation mixer pump and instrumentation installed in the 241-SY-101 underground storage tank will be systematically evaluated by the performance of this procedure.

  7. KARMEN upgrade and prospects at ESS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drexlin, G.; Armbruster, B.; Eberhard, V.; Eitel, K.; Gemmeke, H.; Jannakos, T.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Oehler, C.; Plischke, P.; Rapp, J.; Reichenbacher, J.; Steidl, M.; Wolf, J.; Zeitnits, B.; Bodmann, B. A.; Finckh, E.; Hößl, J.; Jünger, P.; Kretschmer, W.; Eichner, C.; Maschuw, R.; Ruf, C.; Blair, I. M.; Edgington, J. A.; Seligmann, B.; Booth, N. E.; Karmen Collaboration

    The KARMEN experiment at the ISIS spallation source has enhanced its sensitivity for overlineν μ → overlineν e oscillations in 1996 by the installation of an additional large area veto counter system. Consisting of 136 highly transparent plastic scintillator modules, the new veto is completely embedded inside the experiment's 7000 tonne steel blockhouse. It allows to eliminate the main background component in the search for overlineν μ → overlineν e appearance originating from high energy neutrons induced by deep inelastic scattering of cosmic ray muons in the massive shielding. First measurements after the detector upgrade show a substantial reduction of this background meeting the expected factor of 40. If no oscillation signal is seen after 3 years of measuring (1997-1999) KARMEN will be able to exclude mixing amplitudes of sin 22 Θ≃1 x10 -3. The ongoing KARMEN2 measurements will thus allow a decisive and reliable test of the entire parameter space favoured by the positive result of LSND. An even higher oscillation sensitivity can be achieved by experiments at future high intensity short spill proton accelerators such as the planned European Spallation Source ESS.

  8. Habitat Demonstration Unit Medical Operations Workstation Upgrades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trageser, Katherine H.

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the design and fabrication associated with upgrades for the Medical Operations Workstation in the Habitat Demonstration Unit. The work spanned a ten week period. The upgrades will be used during the 2011 Desert Research and Technology Studies (Desert RATS) field campaign. Upgrades include a deployable privacy curtain system, a deployable tray table, an easily accessible biological waste container, reorganization and labeling of the medical supplies, and installation of a retractable camera. All of the items were completed within the ten week period.

  9. Safety analysis report for packaging upgrade plan

    SciTech Connect

    KELLY, D.L.

    1998-11-18

    This Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) Upgrade Plan reflects a revised SARP upgrade schedule based on the most current program needs. A Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) Performance Expectation exists to update, revise, and/or cancel seven onsite SARPS during FY 1999. It is the U.S. Department of Energy's desire that 100% of the SARPs (which existed at the beginning of the PHMC Contract) be upgraded, revised, and/or canceled by the end of the five year contract. This plan is a ''living'' document and is used as a management tool.

  10. Overview of ASDEX Upgrade results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruber, O.; Bosch, H.-S.; Günter, S.; Herrmann, A.; Kallenbach, A.; Kaufmann, M.; Krieger, K.; Lackner, K.; Mertens, V.; Neu, R.; Ryter, F.; Schweinzer, J.; Stäbler, A.; Suttrop, W.; Wolf, R.; Asmussen, K.; Bard, A.; Becker, G.; Behler, K.; Behringer, K.; Bergmann, A.; Bessenrodt-Weberpals, M.; Borrass, K.; Braams, B.; Brambilla, M.; Brandenburg, R.; Braun, F.; Brinkschulte, H.; Brückner, R.; Brüsehaber, B.; Büchl, K.; Buhler, A.; Callaghan, H. P.; Carlson, A.; Coster, D. P.; Cupido, L.; de Peña Hempel, S.; Dorn, C.; Drube, R.; Dux, R.; Egorov, S.; Engelhardt, W.; Fahrbach, H.-U.; Fantz, U.; Feist, H.-U.; Franzen, P.; Fuchs, J. C.; Fussmann, G.; Gafert, J.; Gantenbein, G.; Gehre, O.; Geier, A.; Gernhardt, J.; Gubanka, E.; Gude, A.; Haas, G.; Hallatschek, K.; Hartmann, D.; Heinemann, B.; Herppich, G.; Herrmann, W.; Hofmeister, F.; Holzhauer, E.; Jacobi, D.; Kakoulidis, M.; Karakatsanis, N.; Kardaun, O.; Khutoretski, A.; Kollotzek, H.; Kötterl, S.; Kraus, W.; Kurzan, B.; Kyriakakis, G.; Lang, P. T.; Lang, R. S.; Laux, M.; Lengyel, L. L.; Leuterer, F.; Lorenz, A.; Maier, H.; Manso, M.; Maraschek, M.; Markoulaki, M.; Mast, K.-F.; McCarthy, P. J.; Meisel, D.; Meister, H.; Merkel, R.; Meskat, J. P.; Müller, H. W.; Münich, M.; Murmann, H.; Napiontek, B.; Neu, G.; Neuhauser, J.; Niethammer, M.; Noterdaeme, J.-M.; Pautasso, G.; Peeters, A. G.; Pereverzev, G.; Pinches, S.; Raupp, G.; Reinmüller, K.; Riedl, R.; Rohde, V.; Röhr, H.; Roth, J.; Salzmann, H.; Sandmann, W.; Schilling, H.-B.; Schlögl, D.; Schmidtmann, K.; Schneider, H.; Schneider, R.; Schneider, W.; Schramm, G.; Schweizer, S.; Schwörer, R. R.; Scott, B. D.; Seidel, U.; Serra, F.; Sesnic, S.; Sihler, C.; Silva, A.; Speth, E.; Steuer, K.-H.; Stober, J.; Streibl, B.; Thoma, A.; Treutterer, W.; Troppmann, M.; Tsois, N.; Ullrich, W.; Ulrich, M.; Varela, P.; Verbeek, H.; Vollmer, O.; Wedler, H.; Weinlich, M.; Wenzel, U.; Wesner, F.; Wunderlich, R.; Xantopoulos, N.; Yu, Q.; Zasche, D.; Zehetbauer, T.; Zehrfeld, H.-P.; Zohm, H.; Zouhar, M.

    1999-09-01

    The closed ASDEX Upgrade Divertor II, `LYRA', is capable of handling heating powers of up to 20 MW or P/R of 12 MW/m, owing to a reduction of the maximum heat flux to the target plates by more than a factor of 2 compared with the open Divertor I. This reduction is caused by high radiative losses from carbon and hydrogen inside the divertor region and is in agreement with B2-EIRENE modelling predictions. At medium densities in the H mode, the type I ELM behaviour shows no dependence on the heating method (NBI, ICRH). ASDEX Upgrade-JET dimensionless identity experiments showed compatibility of the L-H transition with core physics constraints, while in the H mode confinement, inconsistencies with the invariance principle were established. At high densities close to the Greenwald density, the MHD limited edge pressures, the influence of divertor detachment on separatrix parameters and increasing edge transport lead to limited edge densities and finally to temperatures below the critical edge temperatures for H mode. This results in a drastic increase of the H mode threshold power and an upper H mode density limit with gas puff refuelling. The H mode confinement degradation approaching this density limit is caused by the ballooning mode limited edge pressures and `stiff' temperature profiles relating core and edge temperatures. Repetitive high field side pellet injection allows for H mode operation well above the Greenwald density; moreover, higher confinement than with gas fuelling is found up to the highest densities. Neoclassical tearing modes limit the achievable β depending on the collisionality at the resonant surface. In agreement with the polarization current model, the onset β is found to be proportional to the ion gyroradius in the collisionless regime, while higher collisionalities are stabilizing. The fractional energy loss connected with saturated modes at high pressures is about 25%. A reduction of neoclassical mode amplitude and an increase of β have

  11. Positive position control of robotic manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baz, A.; Gumusel, L.

    1989-01-01

    The present, simple and accurate position-control algorithm, which is applicable to fast-moving and lightly damped robot arms, is based on the positive position feedback (PPF) strategy and relies solely on position sensors to monitor joint angles of robotic arms to furnish stable position control. The optimized tuned filters, in the form of a set of difference equations, manipulate position signals for robotic system performance. Attention is given to comparisons between this PPF-algorithm controller's experimentally ascertained performance characteristics and those of a conventional proportional controller.

  12. Linear Coherent Light Source, LCLS: The upgrade path

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergmann, Uwe

    2014-03-01

    With ultrashort and ultrabright X-ray pulses (>1012 photons in pulses of < 100 femtosecond length) X-ray Free electron lasers provide revolutionary new capabilities to study a wide range of phenomena including novel states of matter, quantum materials, ultrafast chemistry and structural biology. Starting operations in 2009 the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) at SLAC has been the first of such machines delivering 280 eV-11 keV X-ray pulses to users at a rate of 120 Hz. The success of the LCLS has positively impacted numerous efforts around the world and there are now five hard X-ray FELs in operation or under construction in addition to two FELs that operate in the VUV and soft X-ray region. The planned LCLS upgrade, LCLS-II, has recently been modified in order to address the recommendation of a report of the Basic Energy Science Advisory Committee from last summer. We will present examples of some of the most exciting LCLS science highlights, discuss operation upgrades and present the parameters of the new LCLS-II upgrade.

  13. Pegasus power system facility upgrades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewicki, B. T.; Kujak-Ford, B. A.; Winz, G. R.

    2008-11-01

    Two key Pegasus systems have been recently upgraded: the Ohmic-transformer IGCT bridge control system, and the plasma-gun injector power system. The Ohmic control system contains two new microprocessor controlled components to provide an interface between the PWM controller and the IGCT bridges. An interface board conditions the command signals from the PWM controller. A splitter/combiner board routes the conditioned PWM commands to an array of IGCT bridges and interprets IGCT bridge status. This system allows for any PWM controller to safely control IGCT bridges. Future developments will include a transition to a polyphasic bridge control. This will allow for 3 to 4 times the present pulse length and provide a much higher switching frequency. The plasma gun injector system now includes active current feedback control on gun bias current via PWM buck type power supplies. Near term goals include a doubling or tripling of the applied bias voltage. Future arc bias system power supplies may include a simpler boost type system which will allow access to even higher voltages using existing low voltage energy storage systems.

  14. ETA-II accelerator upgrades

    SciTech Connect

    Nilson, D.G.; Deadrick, F.J.; Hibbs, S.M.; Sampayan, S.E.; Petersen, D.E.

    1991-09-01

    We discuss recent improvements to the ETA-II linear induction electron accelerator. The accelerator's cells have been carefully reconditioned to raise the maximum accelerating gap voltage from approximately 100 kV to 125 kV. Insulators of Rexolite plastic in a new zero-gap'' arrangement replaced the alumina originals after several alternative materials were investigated. A new multi-cable current feed system will be used to eliminate pulse reflection interactions encountered in earlier experiments. Improved alignment fixtures have been installed to help minimize beam perturbation due to poorly aligned intercell magnets between 10-cell groups. A stretched wire alignment technique (SWAT) has been utilized to enhance overall magnetic alignment, and to characterize irreducible alignment errors. These changes are in conjunction with an expansion of the accelerator from a 20-cell to a 60-cell configuration. When completed, the upgraded accelerator is expected to deliver 2.5 kA of electron beam current at 7.5 MeV in bursts of up to fifty 70-ns pulses at a 5-kHz repetition rate. A 5.5-meter-long wiggler will convert the energy into 3-GW microwave pulses at 140 GHz for plasma heating experiments in the Microwave Tokamak Experiment (MTX).

  15. ETA-II accelerator upgrades

    SciTech Connect

    Nilson, D.G.; Deadrick, F.J.; Hibbs, S.M.; Sampayan, S.E.; Petersen, D.E.

    1991-09-01

    We discuss recent improvements to the ETA-II linear induction electron accelerator. The accelerator`s cells have been carefully reconditioned to raise the maximum accelerating gap voltage from approximately 100 kV to 125 kV. Insulators of Rexolite plastic in a new ``zero-gap`` arrangement replaced the alumina originals after several alternative materials were investigated. A new multi-cable current feed system will be used to eliminate pulse reflection interactions encountered in earlier experiments. Improved alignment fixtures have been installed to help minimize beam perturbation due to poorly aligned intercell magnets between 10-cell groups. A stretched wire alignment technique (SWAT) has been utilized to enhance overall magnetic alignment, and to characterize irreducible alignment errors. These changes are in conjunction with an expansion of the accelerator from a 20-cell to a 60-cell configuration. When completed, the upgraded accelerator is expected to deliver 2.5 kA of electron beam current at 7.5 MeV in bursts of up to fifty 70-ns pulses at a 5-kHz repetition rate. A 5.5-meter-long wiggler will convert the energy into 3-GW microwave pulses at 140 GHz for plasma heating experiments in the Microwave Tokamak Experiment (MTX).

  16. D0 Silicon Upgrade: Upgrade Piping Loads on Cleanroom Roof

    SciTech Connect

    Sakla, Steve; /Fermilab

    1995-08-28

    The proposed piping layout for the DO upgrade will run along the south wall of DAB. The cryogenic service pipe runs above the upper and lower cleanroom roofs and will need to be supported by the roofs beams. Calculations were done to determine the stresses in the I-beams created by the existing and additional loads due to the upgrade. Refer to drawing no. 3823.115-ME-317283 for drawings of the piping layout. Figure 1 shows the 'plan view' portion of this drawing. The weight of the individual lines were calculated in figure 2 assuming a pipe density of O.28 lbm/in{sup 3} for stainless steel (0.12% C) and a fluid density (assuming LN2 at 1 atm) of 0.03 lbm/in{sup 3}. The weights of the corrugated steel flooring, assembly hall feed cans, support beams, and roof hatch were also included in the analysis. These loads are calculated on pgs. 5-6. A floor load of 50 lbf/ft{sup 2} was also added in order to maintain the existing floor load limit in addition to the added piping loads. Measurements of the dimensions of the I-beams determined that the nominal sizes of the beams were W8 x 21 for the lower roof and W14 x 26 for the upper roof. Pipe lengths were determined from the drawing for each of the lines on pgs. 1-2 of the calculations (refer to all piping by line numbers according to figure 2). A total weight was calculated for lines 3-9 along the south wall and lines 1-2 running along the north wall of the lower cleanroom roof. To simplify the calculations these weights were assumed to be evenly distributed on the 5 I-beam supports of the lower cleanroom roof 2.5 feet in from the south wall. The stress analysis was done using FrameMac, a 2-D finite element program for the Macintosh. Beam 3 was not included in the analysis because it is structurally equivalent to beam 1. The program outputted maximum values for shear stress, bending stress, shear force, and moments in each of the beams analyzed. These values were then compared to the allowable stresses as per the

  17. PERFORMANCE AND UPGRADING OF WASTEWATER STABILIZATION PONDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The proceedings contain 18 papers discussing and describing the design, operation, performance, and upgrading of lagoon systems. Performance data for facultative and aerated lagoons collected at numerous sites throughout the USA are presented. Design criteria and the applicabilit...

  18. Advanced Photon Source Upgrade Project - Materials

    ScienceCinema

    Gibbson, Murray;

    2013-04-19

    An upgrade to Advanced Photon Source announced by DOE - http://go.usa.gov/ivZ -- will help scientists break through bottlenecks in materials design in order to develop materials with desirable functions.

  19. System and process for upgrading hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Bingham, Dennis N.; Klingler, Kerry M.; Smith, Joseph D.; Turner, Terry D.; Wilding, Bruce M.

    2015-08-25

    In one embodiment, a system for upgrading a hydrocarbon material may include a black wax upgrade subsystem and a molten salt gasification (MSG) subsystem. The black wax upgrade subsystem and the MSG subsystem may be located within a common pressure boundary, such as within a pressure vessel. Gaseous materials produced by the MSG subsystem may be used in the process carried out within the black wax upgrade subsystem. For example, hydrogen may pass through a gaseous transfer interface to interact with black wax feed material to hydrogenate such material during a cracking process. In one embodiment, the gaseous transfer interface may include one or more openings in a tube or conduit which is carrying the black wax material. A pressure differential may control the flow of hydrogen within the tube or conduit. Related methods are also disclosed.

  20. Completion of the ATLAS control system upgrade.

    SciTech Connect

    Munson, F. H.

    1998-11-30

    In the fall of 1992 at the SNEAP(Symposium of North Eastern Accelerator Personnel) a project to up grade the ATLAS (Argonne Tandem Linear Accelerator System) control system was first reported. Not unlike the accelerator it services the control system will continue to evolve. However, the first of this year has marked the completion of this most recent upgrade project. Since the control system upgrade took place during a period when ATLAS was operating at a record number of hours, special techniques were necessary to enable the development of the new control system ''on line'' while still saving the needs of normal operations. This paper reviews the techniques used for upgrading the ATLAS control system while the system was in use. In addition a summary of the upgrade project and final configuration, as well as some of the features of the new control system is provided.

  1. TMX Upgrade magnet-set geometry design

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, R.L.

    1981-09-24

    A magnet set, consisting of 24 coils, has been designed for the TMX Upgrade. Like the coil set designed for the TMX experiment, the coils for TMX Upgrade consist of a central-cell set with a minimum-B plug set on each end. Between the central cell and each end plug, there is a flux bundle recircularizing transition set. Physics considerations require that the TMX Upgrade magnet set be almost twice as long as the TMX magnet set (14 m between the outer mirrors). The central circular coils are the only coils used from TMX. The TMX transition set of two C-coils and an octupole is replaced by a C-coil and an Ioffe coil. The TMX plug composed of a baseball coil and two C-coils is replaced by an Ioffe coil, two C-coils and two circular coils. A comparison between the TMX and TMX Upgrade magnet sets is shown.

  2. Advanced Photon Source Upgrade Project - Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbson, Murray

    2011-01-01

    An upgrade to Advanced Photon Source announced by DOE - http://go.usa.gov/ivZ -- will help scientists break through bottlenecks in materials design in order to develop materials with desirable functions.

  3. Upgrading of light Fischer-Tropsch products

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, P.P.

    1990-11-30

    The upgrading of Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) light ends was studied at UOP in a program sponsored by the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the US Department of Energy. The goal of the program was to increase the overall yield of marketable transportation fuels from the F-T upgrading complex by focusing on liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and naphtha. An overview of the entire light-ends program is presented in this paper. Although this contract is specifically concerned with light products (C{sub 3}-C{sub 11}), a separate DOE-sponsored program at UOP investigated the characterization and upgrading of the heavy end of the F-T product spectrum: F-T wax. An economic analysis of the light and heavy ends upgrading was performed to evaluate the conversion of F-T products to marketable transportation fuels. 9 refs., 7 figs., 9 tabs.

  4. Space Station Live: Station Communications Upgrade

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Nicole Cloutier-Lemasters recently spoke with Penny Roberts, one of the leads for the International Space Station Avionics and Software group, about the upgrade of the K...

  5. RECOVERY ACT: TAPOCO PROJECT: CHEOAH UPGRADE

    SciTech Connect

    Tran, Paul

    2013-02-28

    Under Funding Opportunity Announcement Number: DE-FOA-0000120, Recovery Act: Hydroelectric Facility Modernization, Alcoa Power Generating Inc. (APGI), a fully owned subsidiary of Alcoa Inc., implemented major upgrades at its Cheoah hydroelectric facility near Robbinsville, North Carolina.

  6. Backbone upgrades and DEC equipment replacement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vancamp, Warren

    1991-01-01

    The NASA Science Internet (NSI) dual protocol backbone is outlined. It includes DECnet link upgrades to match TCP/IP link performance. It also includes the integration of backbone resources and central management. The phase 1 transition process is outlined.

  7. Control upgrade study for Huntley Unit 65

    SciTech Connect

    Barber, S.H.; Colasanti, R.; Marko, R. ); Lassahn, P.L.; Brown, B.B.; House, W.E.; Rumble, E.T. III; Koren, J.M.; Grote, T.A.; Fray, R.R. )

    1990-08-01

    This report describes a reliability, availability, and maintainability (RAM) analysis conducted to support the Control Upgrade Project. The study's principal objective was to determine the potential benefits of upgrading the Huntley Unit 65 control system. Other study objectives included technology transfer and the identification of the main contributors to plant unavailability. The project used CAFTA software to model the plant. The RAM analysis was supplemented with a human factors evaluation. 15 refs., 20 figs., 7 tabs.

  8. CDF central preshower and crack detector upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Artikov, A.; Boudagov, J.; Chokheli, D.; Drake, G.; Gallinaro, M.; Giunta, M.; Grudzinski, J.; Huston, J.; Iori, M.; Kim, D.; Kim, M.; /Dubna, JINR /Argonne /Rockefeller U. /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /Pisa, Scuola Normale Superiore /Michigan State U. /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /CHEP, Taegu /Seoul Natl. U.

    2007-02-01

    The CDF Central Preshower and Crack Detector Upgrade consist of scintillator tiles with embedded wavelength-shifting fibers, clear-fiber optical cables, and multi-anode photomultiplier readout. A description of the detector design, test results from R&D studies, and construction phase are reported. The upgrade was installed late in 2004, and a large amount of proton-antiproton collider data has been collected since then. Detector studies using those data are also discussed.

  9. BNL ACCELERATOR TEST FACILITY CONTROL SYSTEM UPGRADE.

    SciTech Connect

    MALONE,R.; BEN-ZVI,I.; WANG,X.; YAKIMENKO,V.

    2001-06-18

    Brookhaven National Laboratory's Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) has embarked on a complete upgrade of its decade old computer system. The planned improvements affect every major component: processors (Intel Pentium replaces VAXes), operating system (Linux/Real-Time Linux supplants OpenVMS), and data acquisition equipment (fast Ethernet equipment replaces CAMAC serial highway.) This paper summarizes the strategies and progress of the upgrade along with plans for future expansion.

  10. Cobra Fiber-Optic Positioner Upgrade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Charles D.; Braun, David F.; Kaluzny, Joel V.

    2013-01-01

    A prime focus spectrometer (PFS), along with corrective optics, will mount in place of the secondary mirror of the Subaru telescope on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. This will allow simultaneous observations of cosmologic targets. It will enable large-scale galactic archeology and dark energy surveys to help unlock the secrets of the universe. To perform these cosmologic surveys, an array of 2,400 optical fibers needs to be independently positioned within the 498-mm-diameter focal plane of the PFS instrument to collect light from galaxies and stars for spectrographic analyses. To allow for independent re-positioning of the fibers, a very small positioner (7.7 mm in diameter) is required. One hundred percent coverage of the focal plane is also required, so these small actuators need to cover a patrol region of 9.5 mm in diameter. To optimize the amount of light that can be collected, the fibers need to be placed within 5 micrometers of their intended target (either a star or galaxy). The Cobra Fiber Positioner was designed to meet the size and accuracy requirements stated above. Cobra is a two-degrees-of-freedom mechanism that can position an optical fiber in the focal plane of the PFS instrument to a precision of 5 micrometers. It is a theta-phi style positioner containing two rotary piezo tube motors with one offset from the other, which enables the optic fibers to be placed anywhere in a small circular patrol region. The patrol region of the actuator is such that the array of 2,400 positioners allows for full coverage of the instrument focal plane by overlapping the patrol areas. A second-generation Cobra positioner was designed based on lessons learned from the original prototype built in 2009. Improvements were made to the precision of the ceramic motor parts, and hard stops were redesigned to minimize friction and prevent jamming. These changes resulted in reducing the number of move iterations required to position the optical fiber within 5 micrometers of its target. At

  11. PSL Icing Facility Upgrade Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, Thomas A.; Dicki, Dennis J.; Lizanich, Paul J.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center Propulsion Systems Lab (PSL) was recently upgraded to perform engine inlet ice crystal testing in an altitude environment. The system installed 10 spray bars in the inlet plenum for ice crystal generation using 222 spray nozzles. As an altitude test chamber, the PSL is capable of simulating icing events at altitude in a groundtest facility. The system was designed to operate at altitudes from 4,000 to 40,000 ft at Mach numbers up to 0.8M and inlet total temperatures from -60 to +15 degF. This paper and presentation will be part of a series of presentations on PSL Icing and will cover the development of the icing capability through design, developmental testing, installation, initial calibration, and validation engine testing. Information will be presented on the design criteria and process, spray bar developmental testing at Cox and Co., system capabilities, and initial calibration and engine validation test. The PSL icing system was designed to provide NASA and the icing community with a facility that could be used for research studies of engine icing by duplicating in-flight events in a controlled ground-test facility. With the system and the altitude chamber we can produce flight conditions and cloud environments to simulate those encountered in flight. The icing system can be controlled to set various cloud uniformities, droplet median volumetric diameter (MVD), and icing water content (IWC) through a wide variety of conditions. The PSL chamber can set altitudes, Mach numbers, and temperatures of interest to the icing community and also has the instrumentation capability of measuring engine performance during icing testing. PSL last year completed the calibration and initial engine validation of the facility utilizing a Honeywell ALF502-R5 engine and has duplicated in-flight roll back conditions experienced during flight testing. This paper will summarize the modifications and buildup of the facility to accomplish these tests.

  12. IPNS upgrade: A feasibility study

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    Many of Argonne National Laboratory`s (ANL`s) scientific staff members were very active in R&D work related to accelerator-based spoliation sources in the 1970s and early 1980s. In 1984, the Seitz/Eastman Panel of the National Academy of Sciences reviewed U.S. materials science research facilities. One of the recommendations of this panel was that the United States build a reactor-based steady-state source, the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS), at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Subsequently, R&D activities related to the design of an accelerator-based source assumed a lower priority. The resumption of pulsed-source studies in this country started simultaneously with design activities in Europe aimed at the European Spallation Source (ESS). The European Community funded a workshop in September 1991 to define the parameters of the ESS. Participants in this workshop included both accelerator builders and neutron source users. A consortium of European countries has proposed to build a 5-MW pulsed source, and a feasibility study is currently under way. Soon after the birth of the ESS, a small group at ANL set about bringing themselves up to date on pulsed-source information since 1984 and studied the feasibility of upgrading ANL`s Intense Pulsed Neutron Source (IPNS) to 1 MW by means of a rapidly cycling synchrotron that could be housed, along with its support facilities, in existing buildings. In early 1993, the Kohn panel recommended that (1) design and construction of the ANS should be completed according to the proposed project schedule and (2) development of competitive proposals for cost-effective design and construction of a 1-MW pulsed spallation source should be authorized immediately.

  13. LLNL flash x-ray radiography machine (FXR) double-pulse upgrade diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Ong, M.; Avalee, C.; Richardson, R.; Zentler, J.

    1997-06-26

    When the FXR machine was first tuned on the 1980`s, a minimal amount of diagnostics was available and consisted mostly of power monitors. During the recent accelerator upgrade, additional beam diagnostics were added. The sensor upgrades included beam bugs (resistive wall beam motion sensors) and high-frequency B-dot. Even with this suite of measurement tools, tuning was difficult. For the current Double- Pulse Upgrade, beam transport is a more complex problem--the beam characteristics must be measured better. Streak and framing cameras, which measure beam size and motions, are being added. Characterization of the beam along the entire accelerator is expected and other techniques will be evaluated also. Each sensor has limitations and only provides a piece of the puzzle. Besides providing more beam data, the set of diagnostics used should be broad enough so results can be cross validated. Results will also be compared to theoretical calculations and computer models, and successes and difficulties will be reported.

  14. Upgrading Preschool Environment in a Swedish Municipality: Evaluation of an Implementation Process.

    PubMed

    Altin, Carolina; Kvist Lindholm, Sofia; Wejdmark, Mats; Lättman-Masch, Robert; Boldemann, Cecilia

    2015-07-01

    Redesigning outdoor preschool environment may favorably affect multiple factors relevant to health and reach many children. Cross-sectional studies in various landscapes at different latitudes have explored the characteristics of preschool outdoor environment considering the play potential triggering combined physical activity and sun-protective behavior due to space, vegetation, and topography. Criteria were pinpointed to upgrade preschool outdoor environment for multiple health outcomes to be applied in local government in charge of public preschools. Purposeful land use policies and administrative management of outdoor land use may serve to monitor the quality of preschool outdoor environments (upgrading and planning). This study evaluates the process of implementing routines for upgrading outdoor preschool environments in a medium-sized municipality, Sweden, 2008-2011, using qualitative and quantitative analysis. Recorded written material (logs and protocols) related to the project was processed using thematic analysis. Quantitative data (m(2) flat/multileveled, overgrown/naked surface, and fraction of free visible sky) were analyzed to assess the impact of implementation (surface, topography, greenery integrated in play). The preschool outdoor environments were upgraded accordingly. The quality of implementation was assessed using the theory of policy streams approach. Though long-term impact remains to be confirmed the process seems to have changed work routines in the interior management for purposeful upgrading of preschool outdoor environments. The aptitude and applicability of inexpensive methods for assessing, selecting, and upgrading preschool land at various latitudes, climates, and outdoor play policies (including gender aspects and staff policies) should be further discussed, as well as the compilation of data for monitoring and evaluation. PMID:25589022

  15. Hardware and Software Upgrades to DIII-D Main Computer Control System

    SciTech Connect

    Piglowski, D. A.; Penaflor, B.G.; McHarg, JR., B.B.; Greene, K.L.; Coon, R.M.; Phillips, J.C.

    2002-09-01

    The complexities of monitoring and controlling the various DIII-D tokamak systems have always required the aid of high-speed computer resources. Because of recent improvements in computing technology, DIII-D has upgraded both hardware and software for the central DIII-D control system. This system is responsible for coordination of all main DIII-D subsystems during a plasma discharge. The replacement of antiquated older hardware has increased reliability and reduced costs both in the initial procurement and eventual maintenance of the system. As expected, upgrading the corresponding computer software has become the more time consuming and expensive part of this upgrade. During this redesign, the main issues focused on making the most of existing in-house codes, speed with which the new system could be brought on-line, the ability to add new features/enhancements, ease of integration with all DIII-D systems and future portability/upgrades. The resulting system has become a template by which other DIII-D systems can follow during similar upgrade paths; in particular DIII-D's main data acquisition system and neutral beam injection (NBI).

  16. Upgrades for GERDA Phase II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heisel, Mark

    2014-09-01

    The Germanium Detector Array (GERDA) experiment is searching for the neutrinoless double beta decay (0 νββ) of 76Ge. It is a process that violates lepton number conservation and is predicted to occur in extensions of the standard model of particle physics. GERDA is located underground in the Gran Sasso National Laboratory (LNGS), Italy. An array of bare high-purity germanium detectors enriched in 76Ge is operated in a cryostat with 64 m3 of liquid argon supplemented by a 3 m thick shield of water. The experiment aims at exploring the 0 νββ decay up to a half life of 2 .1026 yr in two phases: Phase I of the experiment has been concluded last year. No signal is observed and the so far best limit is derived for the half life of the 0 νββ decay of 76Ge, T1/20ν <= 2 . 1 .1025 yr (90% C.L.), after an exposure of 21 . 6 kg .yr. The result refutes an earlier claim of discovery with high probability. The background index of 1 .10-2 cts/(keV .kg .yr) is lower by about one order of magnitude compared to previous experiments. At present the experiment is being upgraded to Phase II. The aim is to collect an exposure of 100kg .yr and further reduce the background by another order of magnitude to a level of <=10-3 cts/(keV .kg .yr). The detector mass will be increased by ~20 kg of new Broad Energy Germanium (BEGe) detectors from enriched 76Ge, which exhibit superior pulse shape discrimination and hence background rejection power. Low mass detector holders, cold front-end electronics, contacting and cabling schemes are redesigned for ultra low mass and radiopurity. In addition, a retractable liquid argon veto will be installed to efficiently suppress background events that induce scintillation in the liquid argon. A hybrid solution of photomultiplier tubes and silicon photomultipliers coupled to scintillating fibres was chosen. This talk gives an account of the results and these challenging modifications to meet our design goals. The Germanium Detector Array (GERDA

  17. Improving spanning trees by upgrading nodes

    SciTech Connect

    Krumke, S.O.; Noltemeier, H.; Wirth, H.C.

    1997-01-16

    We study budget constrained optimal network upgrading problems. Such problems aim at finding optimal strategies for improving a network under some cost measure subject to certain budget constraints. A general problem in this setting is the following. We are given an edge weighted graph G = (V, E) where nodes represent processors and edges represent bidirectional communication links. The processor at a node v {element_of} V can be upgraded at a cost of c(v). Such an upgrade reduces the delay of each link emanating from v. The goal is to find a minimum cost set of nodes to be upgraded so that the resulting network has the best performance with respect to some measure. We consider the problem under two measures, namely, the weight of a minimum spanning tree and the bottleneck weight of a minimum bottleneck spanning tree. We present approximation and hardness results for the problem. Our results are tight to within constant factors. We also show that these approximation algorithms can be used to construct good approximation algorithms for the dual versions of the problems where there is a budget constraint on the upgrading cost and the objectives are minimum weight spanning tree and minimum bottleneck weight spanning tree respectively.

  18. Climate balance of biogas upgrading systems

    SciTech Connect

    Pertl, A.; Mostbauer, P.; Obersteiner, G.

    2010-01-15

    One of the numerous applications of renewable energy is represented by the use of upgraded biogas where needed by feeding into the gas grid. The aim of the present study was to identify an upgrading scenario featuring minimum overall GHG emissions. The study was based on a life-cycle approach taking into account also GHG emissions resulting from plant cultivation to the process of energy conversion. For anaerobic digestion two substrates have been taken into account: (1) agricultural resources and (2) municipal organic waste. The study provides results for four different upgrading technologies including the BABIU (Bottom Ash for Biogas Upgrading) method. As the transport of bottom ash is a critical factor implicated in the BABIU-method, different transport distances and means of conveyance (lorry, train) have been considered. Furthermore, aspects including biogas compression and energy conversion in a combined heat and power plant were assessed. GHG emissions from a conventional energy supply system (natural gas) have been estimated as reference scenario. The main findings obtained underlined how the overall reduction of GHG emissions may be rather limited, for example for an agricultural context in which PSA-scenarios emit only 10% less greenhouse gases than the reference scenario. The BABIU-method constitutes an efficient upgrading method capable of attaining a high reduction of GHG emission by sequestration of CO{sub 2}.

  19. Positive Community Relations: The Keystone to the CEMP

    SciTech Connect

    Hartwell, W.T.; Tappen, J.; Karr, L.

    2006-07-01

    The Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP), currently conducted by the Desert Research Institute (DRI) of the Nevada System of Higher Education for the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration, is designed to monitor airborne radiological releases to the offsite environment from activities on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and to disseminate information. A key aspect of this program is the involvement of residents from local communities around the NTS in the management and operation of the program. After the March, 1979 accident at Three Mile Island (TMI), the DOE initiated the Citizens' Radiation Monitoring Program (CRMP) in order to provide the local residents with accurate information on the radiation health risks, and to rebuild trust and credibility. As a result, citizens around TMI had more confidence in the data because it was collected by community residents. Because of the positive results of the CRMP, a similar program was instituted in the communities around the NTS, where the U.S. was conducting its Nuclear Weapons Testing Program. Although a well-established monitoring program was in place, it was argued that the implementation of a similar community monitoring program would create monitoring stations located in highly visible locations where residents would be aware of their presence, and have access to the radiological data and the station managers. As a result, in 1981, the Community Monitoring Program, a cooperative project of the DOE, DRI, and EPA, consisting of 15 monitoring stations located in California, Nevada, and Utah was initiated. In 1999, technical administration of the CEMP was transitioned from EPA to DRI and the stations were upgraded to include a full suite of meteorological instrumentation in addition to radiation monitoring sensors, state-of-the-art electronic data collectors, and communications hardware enabling updates several times daily to a publicly-accessible web page. The CEMP has

  20. The Idaho Chemical Processing Plant Special Nuclear Material vault upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R.C.; Holloway, E.R.

    1992-06-24

    This document discusses storage space in a Special Nuclear Material (SNM) product storage vault at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) which has been recently expanded by approximately 175%. This expansion required a minimum of space and funding and resulted in a large increase in net storage capacity. Security for the additional storage is provided by standard intrusion sensors and by a real-time monitoring system, which monitors the weight of the material as it rests on weight sensors (load cells). The monitoring system also feeds weight data to a Safeguards processor which provides further confidence to Safeguards personnel. The Department of Energy requirements for bimonthly inventories for SNM stored in a particular part of this facility have been eliminated because of the guarantees provided by a real-time monitoring system. A higher efficiency has been obtained by using the expensive real estate inside a hardened product storage vault. This project has provided the ICPP with a relatively inexpensive vault upgrade and when product material is placed in this area of the vault the manpower requirements to inventory it will be reduced, resulting in a net reduction in plant worker radiation exposure.

  1. Level-2 Calorimeter Trigger Upgrade at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Flanagan, G.U.; /Purdue U.

    2007-04-01

    The CDF Run II Level-2 calorimeter trigger is implemented in hardware and is based on an algorithm used in Run I. This system insured good performance at low luminosity obtained during the Tevatron Run II. However, as the Tevatron instantaneous luminosity increases, the limitations of the current system due to the algorithm start to become clear. In this paper, we will present an upgrade of the Level-2 calorimeter trigger system at CDF. The upgrade is based on the Pulsar board, a general purpose VME board developed at CDF and used for upgrading both the Level-2 tracking and the Level-2 global decision crate. This paper will describe the design, hardware and software implementation, as well as the advantages of this approach over the existing system.

  2. Microbial biocatalyst developments to upgrade fossil fuels.

    PubMed

    Kilbane, John J

    2006-06-01

    Steady increases in the average sulfur content of petroleum and stricter environmental regulations concerning the sulfur content have promoted studies of bioprocessing to upgrade fossil fuels. Bioprocesses can potentially provide a solution to the need for improved and expanded fuel upgrading worldwide, because bioprocesses for fuel upgrading do not require hydrogen and produce far less carbon dioxide than thermochemical processes. Recent advances have demonstrated that biodesulfurization is capable of removing sulfur from hydrotreated diesel to yield a product with an ultra-low sulfur concentration that meets current environmental regulations. However, the technology has not yet progressed beyond laboratory-scale testing, as more efficient biocatalysts are needed. Genetic studies to obtain improved biocatalysts for the selective removal of sulfur and nitrogen from petroleum provide the focus of current research efforts. PMID:16678400

  3. MAVIS III -- A Windows 95/NT Upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Hardwick, M.F.

    1997-12-01

    MAVIS (Modeling and Analysis of Explosive Valve Interactions) is a computer program that simulates operation of explosively actuated valve. MAVIS was originally written in Fortran in the mid 1970`s and was primarily run on the Sandia Vax computers in use through the early 1990`s. During the mid to late 1980`s MAVIS was upgraded to include the effects of plastic deformation and it became MAVIS II. When the Vax computers were retired, the Gas Transfer System (GTS) Development Department ported the code to the Macintosh and PC platforms, where it ran as a simple console application. All graphical output was lost during these ports. GTS code developers recently completed an upgrade that provides a Windows 95/NT MAVIS application and restores all of the original graphical output. This upgrade is called MAVIS III version 1.0. This report serves both as a user`s manual for MAVIS III v 1.0 and as a general software development reference.

  4. The upgrade of the Inner Tracking System of ALICE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddhanta, Sabyasachi

    2014-11-01

    ALICE has devised a comprehensive upgrade strategy to enhance its physics capabilities and to exploit the LHC running conditions after the second long shutdown of the LHC scheduled in 2018-2019. Within this upgrade programme, the upgrade of the Inner Tracking System (ITS) forms an important part. The upgraded ITS will have a barrel geometry consisting of seven layers of Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) with high granularity, which would fulfil the material budget, readout and radiation hardness requirements for the upgrade. In this contribution, an overview of the upgraded ITS, its technology and performance studies are presented.

  5. Technology-Aided Programs to Support Positive Verbal and Physical Engagement in Persons with Moderate or Severe Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Lancioni, Giulio E; Singh, Nirbhay N; O'Reilly, Mark F; Sigafoos, Jeff; D'Amico, Fiora; Renna, Caterina; Pinto, Katia

    2016-01-01

    Pilot studies using technology-aided programs to promote verbal reminiscence and mild physical activity (i.e., positive forms of engagement) in persons with moderate or severe Alzheimer's disease have provided promising results (Lancioni et al., 2015a,b). The present two studies were aimed at upgrading and/or extending the assessment of those programs. Specifically, Study 1 upgraded the program for verbal reminiscence and assessed it with eight new participants. The upgraded version automatically monitored the participants' verbal behavior during the sessions, in which photos and brief videos were used to foster verbal reminiscence. Monitoring allowed computer approval and reminders to be consistent with the participants' behavior. Study 2 extended the assessment of the program for promoting mild physical activity with 10 new participants for whom arm-raising responses were targeted. The results of Study 1 showed that the participants' mean percentages of intervals with verbal engagement/reminiscence were below 10 during baseline and control sessions and between above 50 and nearly 80 during the intervention. The results of Study 2 showed that the mean frequencies of arm-raising responses were about or below four and between about 10 and 19 per session during the baseline and the intervention, respectively. The general implications of the aforementioned results and the need for new research in the area were discussed. PMID:27148050

  6. Dual array 3D electron cyclotron emission imaging at ASDEX Upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Classen, I. G. J. Bogomolov, A. V.; Domier, C. W.; Luhmann, N. C.; Suttrop, W.; Boom, J. E.; Tobias, B. J.; Donné, A. J. H.

    2014-11-15

    In a major upgrade, the (2D) electron cyclotron emission imaging diagnostic (ECEI) at ASDEX Upgrade has been equipped with a second detector array, observing a different toroidal position in the plasma, to enable quasi-3D measurements of the electron temperature. The new system will measure a total of 288 channels, in two 2D arrays, toroidally separated by 40 cm. The two detector arrays observe the plasma through the same vacuum window, both under a slight toroidal angle. The majority of the field lines are observed by both arrays simultaneously, thereby enabling a direct measurement of the 3D properties of plasma instabilities like edge localized mode filaments.

  7. Dual array 3D electron cyclotron emission imaging at ASDEX Upgrade.

    PubMed

    Classen, I G J; Domier, C W; Luhmann, N C; Bogomolov, A V; Suttrop, W; Boom, J E; Tobias, B J; Donné, A J H

    2014-11-01

    In a major upgrade, the (2D) electron cyclotron emission imaging diagnostic (ECEI) at ASDEX Upgrade has been equipped with a second detector array, observing a different toroidal position in the plasma, to enable quasi-3D measurements of the electron temperature. The new system will measure a total of 288 channels, in two 2D arrays, toroidally separated by 40 cm. The two detector arrays observe the plasma through the same vacuum window, both under a slight toroidal angle. The majority of the field lines are observed by both arrays simultaneously, thereby enabling a direct measurement of the 3D properties of plasma instabilities like edge localized mode filaments. PMID:25430246

  8. Next linear collider test accelerator injector upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Yeremian, A.D.; Miller, R.H.

    1995-12-31

    The Next Linear Collider Test Accelerator (NLCTA) is being constructed at SLAC to demonstrate multibunch beam loading compensation, suppression of higher order deflecting modes and measure transverse components of the accelerating fields in X-band accelerating structures. Currently a simple injector which provides the average current necessary for the beam loading compensations studies is under construction. An injector upgrade is planned to produce bunch trains similar to that of the NLC with microbunch intensity, separation and energy spread, identical to that of NLC. We discuss the design of the NLCTA injector upgrade.

  9. Physics capabilities of the DO upgrade detector

    SciTech Connect

    Ellison, J.

    1994-11-01

    The D0 detector at Fermilab is being upgraded to meet the demands imposed by high luminosity Tevatron running planned to begin in 1998. The central tracking detectors will be replaced with silicon and scintillating fiber tracking systems inside a solenoidal magnetic field and a preshower detector will be added to aid in electron identification. The design and performance of these systems are described and detailed simulations of the physics capabilities of the upgraded detector are presented. In particular the authors focus on the study of electroweak boson properties and top quark physics and briefly describe the b-physics capabilities.

  10. Fuel Flexible Gas Turbine Combustor Flametube Facility Upgraded

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Little, James E.; Nemets, Steve A.; Tornabene, Robert T.; Smith, Timothy D.; Frankenfeld, Bruce J.

    2004-01-01

    In fiscal year 2003, test cell 23 of the Research Combustion Laboratory (RCL 23) at the NASA Glenn Research Center was upgraded with the addition of gaseous hydrogen as a working propellant and the addition of a 450-psig air-supply system. Test flexibility was further enhanced by upgrades to the facility control systems. RCL 23 can now test with gaseous hydrogen flow rates up to 0.05 lbm/sec and jet fuel flow rates up to 0.62 lbm/sec. Research airflow rates up to 3 lbm/sec are possible with the 450-psig supply system over a range of inlet temperatures. Nonvitiated, heated air is supplied from a shell and tube heat exchanger. The maximum nonvitiated facility air temperature is 1100 F at 1.5 lbm/sec. Research-section exhaust temperatures are limited to 3200 F because of material and cooling capacity limits. A variety of support systems are available depending on the research hardware configuration. Test section ignition can be provided via either a hydrogen air torch system or an electronic spark system. Emissions measurements are obtained with either pneumatically or electromechanically actuated gas sample probes, and the electromechanical system allows for radial measurements at a user-specified axial location for measurement of emissions profiles. Gas analysis data can be obtained for a variety of species, including carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen oxides (NO and NOx), oxygen (O2), unburnt hydrocarbons, and unburnt hydrogen. Facility control is accomplished with a programmable logic control system. Facility operations have been upgraded to a system based on graphical user interface control screens. A data system is available for real-time acquisition and monitoring of both measurements in engineering units and performance calculations. The upgrades have made RCL 23 a highly flexible facility for research into low emissions gas turbine combustor concepts, and the flame tube configuration inherently allows for a variety of fuel nozzle

  11. Nutritional upgrading for omnivorous carpenter ants by the endosymbiont Blochmannia

    PubMed Central

    Feldhaar, Heike; Straka, Josef; Krischke, Markus; Berthold, Kristina; Stoll, Sascha; Mueller, Martin J; Gross, Roy

    2007-01-01

    Background Carpenter ants (genus Camponotus) are considered to be omnivores. Nonetheless, the genome sequence of Blochmannia floridanus, the obligate intracellular endosymbiont of Camponotus floridanus, suggests a function in nutritional upgrading of host resources by the bacterium. Thus, the strongly reduced genome of the endosymbiont retains genes for all subunits of a functional urease, as well as those for biosynthetic pathways for all but one (arginine) of the amino acids essential to the host. Results Nutritional upgrading by Blochmannia was tested in 90-day feeding experiments with brood-raising in worker-groups on chemically defined diets with and without essential amino acids and treated or not with antibiotics. Control groups were fed with cockroaches, honey water and Bhatkar agar. Worker-groups were provided with brood collected from the queenright mother-colonies (45 eggs and 45 first instar larvae each). Brood production did not differ significantly between groups of symbiotic workers on diets with and without essential amino acids. However, aposymbiotic worker groups raised significantly less brood on a diet lacking essential amino acids. Reduced brood production by aposymbiotic workers was compensated when those groups were provided with essential amino acids in their diet. Decrease of endosymbionts due to treatment with antibiotic was monitored by qRT-PCR and FISH after the 90-day experimental period. Urease function was confirmed by feeding experiments using 15N-labelled urea. GC-MS analysis of 15N-enrichment of free amino acids in workers revealed significant labelling of the non-essential amino acids alanine, glycine, aspartic acid, and glutamic acid, as well as of the essential amino acids methionine and phenylalanine. Conclusion Our results show that endosymbiotic Blochmannia nutritionally upgrade the diet of C. floridanus hosts to provide essential amino acids, and that it may also play a role in nitrogen recycling via its functional urease

  12. Structure and dynamics of sawteeth crashes in ASDEX Upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Igochine, V.; Guenter, S.; Lackner, K.; Pereverzev, G.; Zohm, H.; Boom, J.; Classen, I.; Dumbrajs, O.

    2010-12-15

    The crash phase of the sawteeth in ASDEX Upgrade tokamak [Herrmann et al., Fusion Sci. Technol. 44(3), 569 (2003)] is investigated in detail in this paper by means of soft x-ray (SXR) and electron cyclotron emission (ECE) diagnostics. Analysis of precursor and postcursor (1,1) modes shows that the crash does not affect the position of the resonant surface q=1. Our experimental results suggest that sawtooth crash models should contain two ingredients to be consistent with experimental observations: (1) the (1,1) mode structure should survive the crash and (2) the flux changes should be small to preserve the position of the q=1 surface close to its original location. Detailed structure of the reconnection point was investigated with ECE imaging diagnostic. It is shown that reconnection starts locally. The expelled core is hot which is consistent with SXR tomography results. The observed results can be explained in the framework of a stochastic model.

  13. Structure and dynamics of sawteeth crashes in ASDEX Upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igochine, V.; Boom, J.; Classen, I.; Dumbrajs, O.; Günter, S.; Lackner, K.; Pereverzev, G.; Zohm, H.; ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2010-12-01

    The crash phase of the sawteeth in ASDEX Upgrade tokamak [Herrmann et al., Fusion Sci. Technol. 44(3), 569 (2003)] is investigated in detail in this paper by means of soft x-ray (SXR) and electron cyclotron emission (ECE) diagnostics. Analysis of precursor and postcursor (1,1) modes shows that the crash does not affect the position of the resonant surface q =1. Our experimental results suggest that sawtooth crash models should contain two ingredients to be consistent with experimental observations: (1) the (1,1) mode structure should survive the crash and (2) the flux changes should be small to preserve the position of the q =1 surface close to its original location. Detailed structure of the reconnection point was investigated with ECE imaging diagnostic. It is shown that reconnection starts locally. The expelled core is hot which is consistent with SXR tomography results. The observed results can be explained in the framework of a stochastic model.

  14. Upgrade of the BATMAN test facility for H- source development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinemann, B.; Fröschle, M.; Falter, H.-D.; Fantz, U.; Franzen, P.; Kraus, W.; Nocentini, R.; Riedl, R.; Ruf, B.

    2015-04-01

    The development of a radio frequency (RF) driven source for negative hydrogen ions for the neutral beam heating devices of fusion experiments has been successfully carried out at IPP since 1996 on the test facility BATMAN. The required ITER parameters have been achieved with the prototype source consisting of a cylindrical driver on the back side of a racetrack like expansion chamber. The extraction system, called "Large Area Grid" (LAG) was derived from a positive ion accelerator from ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) using its aperture size (ø 8 mm) and pattern but replacing the first two electrodes and masking down the extraction area to 70 cm2. BATMAN is a well diagnosed and highly flexible test facility which will be kept operational in parallel to the half size ITER source test facility ELISE for further developments to improve the RF efficiency and the beam properties. It is therefore planned to upgrade BATMAN with a new ITER-like grid system (ILG) representing almost one ITER beamlet group, namely 5 × 14 apertures (ø 14 mm). Additionally to the standard three grid extraction system a repeller electrode upstream of the grounded grid can optionally be installed which is positively charged against it by 2 kV. This is designated to affect the onset of the space charge compensation downstream of the grounded grid and to reduce the backstreaming of positive ions from the drift space backwards into the ion source. For magnetic filter field studies a plasma grid current up to 3 kA will be available as well as permanent magnets embedded into a diagnostic flange or in an external magnet frame. Furthermore different source vessels and source configurations are under discussion for BATMAN, e.g. using the AUG type racetrack RF source as driver instead of the circular one or modifying the expansion chamber for a more flexible position of the external magnet frame.

  15. Hardware Testing of the BaBar Drift Chamber Electronics Upgrade (SULI paper)

    SciTech Connect

    Littlejohn, Bryce; Chu, Yiwen; Wiik, Liv; /SLAC

    2006-01-04

    The BaBar drift chamber provides position, timing, and dE/dx measurements for charged decay products of the {Upsilon}(4S) resonance at 10.58 GeV. Increasing data collection rates stemming from higher PEP II luminosities and background have highlighted dead time problems in the drift chamber's data acquisition system. A proposed upgrade, called Phase II, aims to solve the problem with the introduction of rewritable, higher-memory firmware in the DAQ front-end electronics that lowers dataflow through the system. After fabrication, the new electronics components were tested to ensure proper function and reliability before installation in the detector. Some tests checked for successful operation of individual components, while others operated entire sections of the upgraded system in a mockup drift chamber environment. This paper explains the testing process and presents results regarding performance of the upgrade electronics.

  16. Optical attenuation mechanism upgrades, MOBLAS, and TLRS systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichinger, Richard; Johnson, Toni; Malitson, Paul; Oldham, Thomas; Stewart, Loyal

    1993-01-01

    This poster presentation describes the Optical Attenuation Mechanism (OAM) Upgrades to the MOBLAS and TLRS Crustal Dynamics Satellite Laser Ranging (CDSLR) systems. The upgrades were for the purposes of preparing these systems to laser range to the TOPEX/POSEIDON spacecraft when it will be launched in the summer of 1992. The OAM permits the laser receiver to operate over the expected large signal dynamic range from TOPEX/POSEIDON and it reduces the number of pre- and post-calibrations for each satellite during multi-satellite tracking operations. It further simplifies the calibration bias corrections that had been made due to the pass-to-pass variation of the photomultiplier supply voltage and the transmit filter glass thickness. The upgrade incorporated improvements to the optical alignment capability of each CDSLR system through the addition of a CCD camera into the MOBLAS receive telescope and an alignment telescope onto the TLRS optical table. The OAM is stepper motor and microprocessor based; and the system can be controlled either manually by a control switch panel or computer controlled via an EIA RS-232C serial interface. The OAM has a neutral density (ND) range of 0.0 to 4.0 and the positioning is absolute referenced in steps of 0.1 ND. Both the fixed transmit filter and the daylight filter are solenoid actuated with digital inputs and outputs to and from the OAM microprocessor. During automated operation, the operator has the option to overide the remote control and control the OAM system via a local control switch panel.

  17. GAS/LIQUID MEMBRANES FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING

    SciTech Connect

    Howard S. Meyer

    2002-06-01

    A new project was initiated this quarter to develop gas/liquid membranes for natural gas upgrading. Efforts have concentrated on legal agreements, including alternative field sites. Gas Technology Institute (GTI) is conducting this research program whose objective is to develop gas/liquid membranes for natural gas upgrading to assist DOE in achieving their goal of developing novel methods of upgrading low quality natural gas to meet pipeline specifications. Kvaerner Process Systems (KPS) and W. L. Gore & Associates (GORE) gas/liquid membrane contactors are based on expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) membranes acting as the contacting barrier between the contaminated gas stream and the absorbing liquid. These resilient membranes provide much greater surface area for transfer than other tower internals, with packing densities five to ten times greater, resulting in equipment 50-70% smaller and lower weight for the same treating service. The scope of the research program is to (1) build and install a laboratory- and a field-scale gas/liquid membrane absorber; (2) operate the units with a low quality natural gas feed stream for sufficient time to verify the simulation model of the contactors and to project membrane life in this severe service; and (3) conducted an economic evaluation, based on the data, to quantify the impact of the technology. Chevron, one of the major producers of natural gas, has offered to host the test at a gas treating plant. KPS will use their position as a recognized leader in the construction of commercial amine plants for building the unit along with GORE providing the membranes. GTI will provide operator and data collection support during lab- and field-testing to assure proper analytical procedures are used. Kvaerner and GTI will perform the final economic evaluation. GTI will provide project management and be responsible for reporting and interactions with DOE on this project.

  18. Network Upgrade for the SLC: PEP II Network

    SciTech Connect

    Crane, M.; Call, M.; Clark, S.; Coffman, F.; Himel, T.; Lahey, T.; Miller, E.; Sass, R.; /SLAC

    2011-09-09

    The PEP-II control system required a new network to support the system functions. This network, called CTLnet, is an FDDI/Ethernet based network using only TCP/IP protocols. An upgrade of the SLC Control System micro communications to use TCP/IP and SLCNET would allow all PEP-II control system nodes to use TCP/IP. CTLnet is private and separate from the SLAC public network. Access to nodes and control system functions is provided by multi-homed application servers with connections to both the private CTLnet and the SLAC public network. Monitoring and diagnostics are provided using a dedicated system. Future plans and current status information is included.

  19. THE SNS VACUUM CONTROL SYSTEM UPGRADE FOR THE SUPERCONDUCTING LINAC

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Derrick C

    2009-01-01

    The superconducting linac of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) has 23 cryomodules whose vacuum system is monitored and controlled by custom built hardware. The original control hardware was provided by Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab) and contained a variety of custom boards utilizing integrated circuits to perform logic. The need for control logic changes, a desire to increase maintainability, and a desire to increase flexibility to adapt for the future has led to a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) based upgrade. This paper provides an overview of the commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) hardware being used in the superconducting vacuum control system. Details of the design and challenges to convert a control system during small windows of maintenance periods without disrupting beam operation will be covered in this paper.

  20. Searching for New Physics with Top Quarks and Upgrade to the Muon Spectrometer at ATLAS

    SciTech Connect

    Schwarz, Thomas Andrew

    2015-06-29

    Over the funding period of this award, my research has focused on searching for new physics with top quarks and in the Higgs sector. The highly energetic top quark events at the LHC are an excellent venue to search for new physics, as well as make standard model measurements. Further, the recent discovery of the Higgs boson motivates searching for new physics that could be associated with it. This one-year award has facilitated the beginning of my research program, which has resulted in four publications, several conference talks, and multiple leadership positions within physics groups. Additionally, we are contributing to ATLAS upgrades and operations. As part of the Phase I upgrade, I have taken on the responsibility of the design, prototyping, and quality control of a signal packet router for the trigger electronics of the New Small Wheel. This is a critical component of the upgrade, as the router is the main switchboard for all trigger signals to track finding processors. I am also leading the Phase II upgrade of the readout electronics of the muon spectrometer, and have been selected as the USATLAS Level-2 manager of the Phase II upgrade of the muon spectrometer. The award has been critical in these contributions to the experiment.

  1. Operation of the Upgraded ATLAS Level-1 Central Trigger System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glatzer, Julian

    2015-12-01

    The ATLAS Level-1 Central Trigger (L1CT) system is a central part of ATLAS data-taking and has undergone a major upgrade for Run 2 of the LHC, in order to cope with the expected increase of instantaneous luminosity of a factor of two with respect to Run 1. The upgraded hardware offers more flexibility in the trigger decisions due to the factor of two increase in the number of trigger inputs and usable trigger channels. It also provides an interface to the new topological trigger system. Operationally - particularly useful for commissioning, calibration and test runs - it allows concurrent running of up to three different subdetector combinations. An overview of the operational software framework of the L1CT system with particular emphasis on the configuration, controls and monitoring aspects is given. The software framework allows a consistent configuration with respect to the ATLAS experiment and the LHC machine, upstream and downstream trigger processors, and the data acquisition system. Trigger and dead-time rates are monitored coherently at all stages of processing and are logged by the online computing system for physics analysis, data quality assurance and operational debugging. In addition, the synchronisation of trigger inputs is watched based on bunch-by-bunch trigger information. Several software tools allow for efficient display of the relevant information in the control room in a way useful for shifters and experts. The design of the framework aims at reliability, flexibility, and robustness of the system and takes into account the operational experience gained during Run 1. The Level-1 Central Trigger was successfully operated with high efficiency during the cosmic-ray, beam-splash and first Run 2 data taking with the full ATLAS detector.

  2. Preparation for upgrading western subbituminous coal

    SciTech Connect

    Grimes, R.W.; Cha, C.Y.; Sheesley, D.C.

    1990-11-01

    The objective of this project was to establish the physical and chemical characteristics of western coal and determine the best preparation technologies for upgrading this resource. Western coal was characterized as an abundant, easily mineable, clean, low-sulfur coal with low heating value, high moisture, susceptibility to spontaneous ignition, and considerable transit distances from major markets. Project support was provided by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The research was conducted by the Western Research Institute, (WRI) in Laramie, Wyoming. The project scope of work required the completion of four tasks: (1) project planning, (2) literature searches and verbal contacts with consumers and producers of western coal, (3) selection of the best technologies to upgrade western coal, and (4) identification of research needed to develop the best technologies for upgrading western coals. The results of this research suggest that thermal drying is the best technology for upgrading western coals. There is a significant need for further research in areas involving physical and chemical stabilization of the dried coal product. Excessive particle-size degradation and resulting dustiness, moisture reabsorption, and high susceptibility to spontaneous combustion are key areas requiring further research. Improved testing methods for the determination of equilibrium moisture and susceptibility to spontaneous ignition under various ambient conditions are recommended.

  3. The CDF SVX II detector upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Skarha, J.E.

    1993-10-01

    The proposed CDF SVX II detector upgrade for secondary vertex detection during the Fermilab Tevatron Run II collider run is described. The general design and important features of this silicon vertex detector are presented. The CDF physics goals which are addressed by this detector are also given.

  4. T-Farm complex alarm upgrades

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, J.B.

    1995-01-01

    The alarm and controls associated with the T, TX, and TY farms are located in the 242-T control room. The design data for replacement and upgrades of the alarm panels is in this document. This task was canceled previous to the 90% design review point.

  5. Operation status and upgrading of HIRFL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, J. Y.; Wang, Y. F.; Wei, B. W.

    2001-12-01

    The operation status and the undergoing upgrading at HIRFL machine are presented. The accelerated ion species with the machine have been expanding, including metallic ions and higher energy with the new ECR ion source. The upgrading of HIRFL as the pre-accelerator of CSR storage ring has been processing steadily. The new 14.5 GHz ECR ion source has been put in operation in early 1999. A full-superconducting ECR ion source of 18 GHz is under design. The manufacture of the new vacuum chamber for SFC is just finished and the installation is to be started. The construction of the new B1 buncher is nearly to be finished, and the off-line test and the installation will be started soon. Another two identical bunchers will be ordered after the test. The beam distribution system is under upgrading to make all experiment stations separate from the others and the time-sharing mode possible, and a new cancer-therapy station is also under construction. The other upgrading items include the yoke enlarging of SFC, beam diagnostics, computer control and beam distribution system.

  6. The BABAR detector: Upgrades, operation and performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubert, B.; Barate, R.; Boutigny, D.; Couderc, F.; del Amo Sanchez, P.; Gaillard, J.-M.; Hicheur, A.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J. P.; Poireau, V.; Prudent, X.; Robbe, P.; Tisserand, V.; Zghiche, A.; Grauges, E.; Garra Tico, J.; Lopez, L.; Martinelli, M.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Pompili, A.; Chen, G. P.; Chen, J. C.; Qi, N. D.; Rong, G.; Wang, P.; Zhu, Y. S.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Sun, L.; Abrams, G. S.; Battaglia, M.; Borgland, A. W.; Breon, A. B.; Brown, D. N.; Button-Shafer, J.; Cahn, R. N.; Charles, E.; Clark, A. R.; Day, C. T.; Furman, M.; Gill, M. S.; Groysman, Y.; Jacobsen, R. G.; Kadel, R. W.; Kadyk, J. A.; Kerth, L. T.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; Kral, J. F.; Kukartsev, G.; LeClerc, C.; Levi, M. E.; Lynch, G.; Merchant, A. M.; Mir, L. M.; Oddone, P. J.; Orimoto, T. J.; Osipenkov, I. L.; Pripstein, M.; Roe, N. A.; Romosan, A.; Ronan, M. T.; Shelkov, V. G.; Suzuki, A.; Tackmann, K.; Tanabe, T.; Wenzel, W. A.; Zisman, M.; Barrett, M.; Bright-Thomas, P. G.; Ford, K. E.; Harrison, T. J.; Hart, A. J.; Hawkes, C. M.; Knowles, D. J.; Morgan, S. E.; O'Neale, S. W.; Penny, R. C.; Smith, D.; Soni, N.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, N. K.; Goetzen, K.; Held, T.; Koch, H.; Kunze, M.; Lewandowski, B.; Pelizaeus, M.; Peters, K.; Schmuecker, H.; Schroeder, T.; Steinke, M.; Fella, A.; Antonioli, E.; Boyd, J. T.; Chevalier, N.; Cottingham, W. N.; Foster, B.; Mackay, C.; Walker, D.; Abe, K.; Asgeirsson, D. J.; Cuhadar-Donszelmann, T.; Fulsom, B. G.; Hearty, C.; Knecht, N. S.; Mattison, T. S.; McKenna, J. A.; Thiessen, D.; Khan, A.; Kyberd, P.; McKemey, A. K.; Randle-Conde, A.; Saleem, M.; Sherwood, D. J.; Teodorescu, L.; Blinov, V. E.; Bukin, A. D.; Buzykaev, A. R.; Druzhinin, V. P.; Golubev, V. B.; Korol, A. A.; Kravchenko, E. A.; Onuchin, A. P.; Serednyakov, S. I.; Skovpen, Yu. I.; Solodov, E. P.; Telnov, V. I.; Todyshev, K. Yu.; Yushkov, A. N.; Best, D. S.; Bondioli, M.; Bruinsma, M.; Chao, M.; Curry, S.; Eschrich, I.; Kirkby, D.; Lankford, A. J.; Mandelkern, M.; Martin, E. C.; McMahon, S.; Mommsen, R. K.; Stoker, D. P.; Abachi, S.; Buchanan, C.; Hartfiel, B. L.; Weinstein, A. J. R.; Atmacan, H.; Foulkes, S. D.; Gary, J. W.; Layter, J.; Liu, F.; Long, O.; Shen, B. C.; Vitug, G. M.; Wang, K.; Yasin, Z.; Zhang, L.; Hadavand, H. K.; Hill, E. J.; Paar, H. P.; Rahatlou, S.; Schwanke, U.; Sharma, V.; Berryhill, J. W.; Campagnari, C.; Cunha, A.; Dahmes, B.; Hong, T. M.; Kovalskyi, D.; Kuznetsova, N.; Levy, S. L.; Lu, A.; Mazur, M. A.; Richman, J. D.; Verkerke, W.; Beck, T. W.; Beringer, J.; Eisner, A. M.; Flacco, C. J.; Grillo, A. A.; Grothe, M.; Heusch, C. A.; Kroseberg, J.; Lockman, W. S.; Martinez, A. J.; Nesom, G.; Schalk, T.; Schmitz, R. E.; Schumm, B. A.; Seiden, A.; Spencer, E.; Spradlin, P.; Turri, M.; Walkowiak, W.; Wang, L.; Wilder, M.; Williams, D. C.; Wilson, M. G.; Winstrom, L. O.; Chen, E.; Cheng, C. H.; Doll, D. A.; Dorsten, M. P.; Dvoretskii, A.; Echenard, B.; Erwin, R. J.; Fang, F.; Flood, K.; Hitlin, D. G.; Metzler, S.; Narsky, I.; Oyang, J.; Piatenko, T.; Porter, F. C.; Ryd, A.; Samuel, A.; Yang, S.; Zhu, R. Y.; Andreassen, R.; Devmal, S.; Geld, T. L.; Jayatilleke, S.; Mancinelli, G.; Meadows, B. T.; Mishra, K.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Abe, T.; Antillon, E. A.; Barillari, T.; Becker, J.; Blanc, F.; Bloom, P. C.; Chen, S.; Clifton, Z. C.; Derrington, I. M.; Destree, J.; Dima, M. O.; Ford, W. T.; Gaz, A.; Gilman, J. D.; Hachtel, J.; Hirschauer, J. F.; Johnson, D. R.; Kreisel, A.; Nagel, M.; Nauenberg, U.; Olivas, A.; Rankin, P.; Roy, J.; Ruddick, W. O.; Smith, J. G.; Ulmer, K. A.; van Hoek, W. C.; Wagner, S. R.; West, C. G.; Zhang, J.; Ayad, R.; Blouw, J.; Chen, A.; Eckhart, E. A.; Harton, J. L.; Hu, T.; Toki, W. H.; Wilson, R. J.; Winklmeier, F.; Zeng, Q. L.; Altenburg, D.; Feltresi, E.; Hauke, A.; Jasper, H.; Karbach, M.; Merkel, J.; Petzold, A.; Spaan, B.; Wacker, K.; Brandt, T.; Brose, J.; Colberg, T.; Dahlinger, G.; Dickopp, M.; Eckstein, P.; Futterschneider, H.; Kaiser, S.; Kobel, M. J.; Krause, R.; Müller-Pfefferkorn, R.; Mader, W. F.; Maly, E.; Nogowski, R.; Otto, S.; Schubert, J.; Schubert, K. R.; Schwierz, R.; Sundermann, J. E.; Volk, A.; Wilden, L.; Bernard, D.; Brochard, F.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Dohou, F.; Ferrag, S.; Latour, E.; Mathieu, A.; Renard, C.; Schrenk, S.; T'Jampens, S.; Thiebaux, Ch.; Vasileiadis, G.; Verderi, M.; Anjomshoaa, A.; Bernet, R.; Clark, P. J.; Lavin, D. R.; Muheim, F.; Playfer, S.; Robertson, A. I.; Swain, J. E.; Watson, J. E.; Xie, Y.; Andreotti, D.; Andreotti, M.; Bettoni, D.; Bozzi, C.; Calabrese, R.; Carassiti, V.; Cecchi, A.; Cibinetto, G.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; Evangelisti, F.; Fioravanti, E.; Franchini, P.; Garzia, I.; Landi, L.; Luppi, E.; Malaguti, R.; Negrini, M.; Padoan, C.; Petrella, A.; Piemontese, L.; Santoro, V.; Sarti, A.; Anulli, F.; Baldini-Ferroli, R.; Calcaterra, A.; Finocchiaro, G.; Pacetti, S.; Patteri, P.; Peruzzi, I. M.; Piccolo, M.; Rama, M.; de Sangro, R.; Santoni, M.; Zallo, A.; Bagnasco, S.; Buzzo, A.; Capra, R.; Contri, R.; Crosetti, G.; Lo Vetere, M.; Macri, M. M.; Minutoli, S.; Monge, M. R.; Musico, P.; Passaggio, S.; Pastore, F. C.; Patrignani, C.; Pia, M. G.; Robutti, E.; Santroni, A.; Tosi, S.; Bhuyan, B.; Prasad, V.; Bailey, S.; Brandenburg, G.; Chaisanguanthum, K. S.; Lee, C. L.; Morii, M.; Won, E.; Wu, J.; Adametz, A.; Dubitzky, R. S.; Marks, J.; Schenk, S.; Uwer, U.; Klose, V.; Lacker, H. M.; Aspinwall, M. L.; Bhimji, W.; Bowerman, D. A.; Dauncey, P. D.; Egede, U.; Flack, R. L.; Gaillard, J. R.; Gunawardane, N. J. W.; Morton, G. W.; Nash, J. A.; Nikolich, M. B.; Panduro Vazquez, W.; Sanders, P.; Smith, D.; Taylor, G. P.; Tibbetts, M.; Behera, P. K.; Chai, X.; Charles, M. J.; Grenier, G. J.; Hamilton, R.; Lee, S.-J.; Mallik, U.; Meyer, N. T.; Chen, C.; Cochran, J.; Crawley, H. B.; Dong, L.; Eyges, V.; Fischer, P.-A.; Lamsa, J.; Meyer, W. T.; Prell, S.; Rosenberg, E. I.; Rubin, A. E.; Gao, Y. Y.; Gritsan, A. V.; Guo, Z. J.; Lae, C. K.; Schott, G.; Albert, J. N.; Arnaud, N.; Beigbeder, C.; Breton, D.; Davier, M.; Derkach, D.; Dû, S.; Firmino da Costa, J.; Grosdidier, G.; Höcker, A.; Laplace, S.; Le Diberder, F.; Lepeltier, V.; Lutz, A. M.; Malaescu, B.; Nief, J. Y.; Petersen, T. C.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pruvot, S.; Roudeau, P.; Schune, M. H.; Serrano, J.; Sordini, V.; Stocchi, A.; Tocut, V.; Trincaz-Duvoid, S.; Wang, L. L.; Wormser, G.; Bionta, R. M.; Brigljević, V.; Lange, D. J.; Simani, M. C.; Wright, D. M.; Bingham, I.; Burke, J. P.; Chavez, C. A.; Coleman, J. P.; Forster, I. J.; Fry, J. R.; Gabathuler, E.; Gamet, R.; George, M.; Hutchcroft, D. E.; Kay, M.; Parry, R. J.; Payne, D. J.; Schofield, K. C.; Sloane, R. J.; Touramanis, C.; Azzopardi, D. E.; Bellodi, G.; Bevan, A. J.; Clarke, C. K.; Cormack, C. M.; Di Lodovico, F.; Dixon, P.; George, K. A.; Menges, W.; Potter, R. J. L.; Sacco, R.; Shorthouse, H. W.; Sigamani, M.; Strother, P.; Vidal, P. B.; Brown, C. L.; Cowan, G.; Flaecher, H. U.; George, S.; Green, M. G.; Hopkins, D. A.; Jackson, P. S.; Kurup, A.; Marker, C. E.; McGrath, P.; McMahon, T. R.; Paramesvaran, S.; Salvatore, F.; Vaitsas, G.; Winter, M. A.; Wren, A. C.; Brown, D. N.; Davis, C. L.; Denig, A. G.; Fritsch, M.; Gradl, W.; Griessinger, K.; Hafner, A.; Prencipe, E.; Allison, J.; Alwyn, K. E.; Bailey, D. S.; Barlow, N. R.; Barlow, R. J.; Chia, Y. M.; Edgar, C. L.; Forti, A. C.; Fullwood, J.; Hart, P. A.; Hodgkinson, M. C.; Jackson, F.; Jackson, G.; Kelly, M. P.; Kolya, S. D.; Lafferty, G. D.; Lyon, A. J.; Naisbit, M. T.; Savvas, N.; Weatherall, J. H.; West, T. J.; Williams, J. C.; Yi, J. I.; Anderson, J.; Farbin, A.; Hulsbergen, W. D.; Jawahery, A.; Lillard, V.; Roberts, D. A.; Schieck, J. R.; Simi, G.; Tuggle, J. M.; Blaylock, G.; Dallapiccola, C.; Hertzbach, S. S.; Kofler, R.; Koptchev, V. B.; Li, X.; Moore, T. B.; Salvati, E.; Saremi, S.; Staengle, H.; Willocq, S. Y.; Cowan, R.; Dujmic, D.; Fisher, P. H.; Henderson, S. W.; Koeneke, K.; Lang, M. I.; Sciolla, G.; Spitznagel, M.; Taylor, F.; Yamamoto, R. K.; Yi, M.; Zhao, M.; Zheng, Y.; Klemetti, M.; Lindemann, D.; Mangeol, D. J. J.; Mclachlin, S. E.; Milek, M.; Patel, P. M.; Robertson, S. H.; Biassoni, P.; Cerizza, G.; Lazzaro, A.; Lombardo, V.; Neri, N.; Palombo, F.; Pellegrini, R.; Stracka, S.; Bauer, J. M.; Cremaldi, L.; Eschenburg, V.; Kroeger, R.; Reidy, J.; Sanders, D. A.; Summers, D. J.; Zhao, H. W.; Godang, R.; Brunet, S.; Cote, D.; Nguyen, X.; Simard, M.; Taras, P.; Viaud, B.; Nicholson, H.; Cavallo, N.; De Nardo, G.; Fabozzi, F.; Gatto, C.; Lista, L.; Monorchio, D.; Onorato, G.; Paolucci, P.; Piccolo, D.; Sciacca, C.; Baak, M. A.; Raven, G.; Snoek, H. L.; Jessop, C. P.; Knoepfel, K. J.; LoSecco, J. M.; Wang, W. F.; Allmendinger, T.; Benelli, G.; Brau, B.; Corwin, L. A.; Gan, K. K.; Honscheid, K.; Hufnagel, D.; Kagan, H.; Kass, R.; Morris, J. P.; Rahimi, A. M.; Regensburger, J. J.; Smith, D. S.; Ter-Antonyan, R.; Wong, Q. K.; Blount, N. L.; Brau, J.; Frey, R.; Igonkina, O.; Iwasaki, M.; Kolb, J. A.; Lu, M.; Potter, C. T.; Rahmat, R.; Sinev, N. B.; Strom, D.; Strube, J.; Torrence, E.; Borsato, E.; Castelli, G.; Colecchia, F.; Crescente, A.; Dal Corso, F.; Dorigo, A.; Fanin, C.; Furano, F.; Gagliardi, N.; Galeazzi, F.; Margoni, M.; Marzolla, M.; Michelon, G.; Morandin, M.; Posocco, M.; Rotondo, M.; Simonetto, F.; Solagna, P.; Stevanato, E.; Stroili, R.; Tiozzo, G.; Voci, C.; Akar, S.; Bailly, P.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bonneaud, G.; Briand, H.; Chauveau, J.; Hamon, O.; John, M. J. J.; Lebbolo, H.; Leruste, Ph.; Malclès, J.; Marchiori, G.; Martin, L.; Ocariz, J.; Perez, A.; Pivk, M.; Prendki, J.; Roos, L.; Sitt, S.; Stark, J.; Thérin, G.; Vallereau, A.; Biasini, M.; Covarelli, R.; Manoni, E.; Pennazzi, S.; Pioppi, M.; Angelini, C.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Bosi, F.; Bucci, F.; Calderini, G.; Carpinelli, M.; Cenci, R.; Cervelli, A.; Forti, F.; Giorgi, M. A.; Lusiani, A.; Marchiori, G.; Morganti, M.; Morsani, F.; Paoloni, E.; Raffaelli, F.; Rizzo, G.; Sandrelli, F.; Triggiani, G.; Walsh, J. J.; Haire, M.; Judd, D.; Biesiada, J.; Danielson, N.; Elmer, P.; Fernholz, R. E.; Lau, Y. P.; Lu, C.; Miftakov, V.; Olsen, J.; Lopes Pegna, D.; Sands, W. R.; Smith, A. J. S.; Telnov, A. V.; Tumanov, A.; Varnes, E. W.; Baracchini, E.; Bellini, F.; Bulfon, C.; Buccheri, E.; Cavoto, G.; D'Orazio, A.; Di Marco, E.; Faccini, R.; Ferrarotto, F.; Ferroni, F.; Gaspero, M.; Jackson, P. D.; Lamanna, E.; Leonardi, E.; Li Gioi, L.; Lunadei, R.; Mazzoni, M. A.; Morganti, S.; Piredda, G.; Polci, F.; del Re, D.; Renga, F.; Safai Tehrani, F.; Serra, M.; Voena, C.; Bünger, C.; Christ, S.; Hartmann, T.; Leddig, T.; Schröder, H.; Wagner, G.; Waldi, R.; Adye, T.; Bly, M.; Brew, C.; Condurache, C.; De Groot, N.; Franek, B.; Geddes, N. I.; Gopal, G. P.; Olaiya, E. O.; Ricciardi, S.; Roethel, W.; Wilson, F. F.; Xella, S. M.; Aleksan, R.; Bourgeois, P.; Emery, S.; Escalier, M.; Esteve, L.; Gaidot, A.; Ganzhur, S. F.; Giraud, P.-F.; Georgette, Z.; Graziani, G.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Kozanecki, W.; Langer, M.; Legendre, M.; London, G. W.; Mayer, B.; Micout, P.; Serfass, B.; Vasseur, G.; Yèche, Ch.; Zito, M.; Allen, M. T.; Akre, R.; Aston, D.; Azemoon, T.; Bard, D. J.; Bartelt, J.; Bartoldus, R.; Bechtle, P.; Becla, J.; Benitez, J. F.; Berger, N.; Bertsche, K.; Boeheim, C. T.; Bouldin, K.; Boyarski, A. M.; Boyce, R. F.; Browne, M.; Buchmueller, O. L.; Burgess, W.; Cai, Y.; Cartaro, C.; Ceseracciu, A.; Claus, R.; Convery, M. R.; Coupal, D. P.; Craddock, W. W.; Crane, G.; Cristinziani, M.; DeBarger, S.; Decker, F. J.; Dingfelder, J. C.; Donald, M.; Dorfan, J.; Dubois-Felsmann, G. P.; Dunwoodie, W.; Ebert, M.; Ecklund, S.; Erickson, R.; Fan, S.; Field, R. C.; Fisher, A.; Fox, J.; Franco Sevilla, M.; Fulsom, B. G.; Gabareen, A. M.; Gaponenko, I.; Glanzman, T.; Gowdy, S. J.; Graham, M. T.; Grenier, P.; Hadig, T.; Halyo, V.; Haller, G.; Hamilton, J.; Hanushevsky, A.; Hasan, A.; Hast, C.; Hee, C.; Himel, T.; Hryn'ova, T.; Huffer, M. E.; Hung, T.; Innes, W. R.; Iverson, R.; Kaminski, J.; Kelsey, M. H.; Kim, H.; Kim, P.; Kharakh, D.; Kocian, M. L.; Krasnykh, A.; Krebs, J.; Kroeger, W.; Kulikov, A.; Kurita, N.; Langenegger, U.; Leith, D. W. G. S.; Lewis, P.; Li, S.; Libby, J.; Lindquist, B.; Luitz, S.; Lüth, V.; Lynch, H. L.; MacFarlane, D. B.; Marsiske, H.; McCulloch, M.; McDonald, J.; Melen, R.; Menke, S.; Metcalfe, S.; Messner, R.; Moss, L. J.; Mount, R.; Muller, D. R.; Neal, H.; Nelson, D.; Nelson, S.; Nordby, M.; Nosochkov, Y.; Novokhatski, A.; O'Grady, C. P.; O'Neill, F. G.; Ofte, I.; Ozcan, V. E.; Perazzo, A.; Perl, M.; Petrak, S.; Piemontese, M.; Pierson, S.; Pulliam, T.; Ratcliff, B. N.; Ratkovsky, S.; Reif, R.; Rivetta, C.; Rodriguez, R.; Roodman, A.; Salnikov, A. A.; Schietinger, T.; Schindler, R. H.; Schwarz, H.; Schwiening, J.; Seeman, J.; Smith, D.; Snyder, A.; Soha, A.; Stanek, M.; Stelzer, J.; Su, D.; Sullivan, M. K.; Suzuki, K.; Swain, S. K.; Tanaka, H. A.; Teytelman, D.; Thompson, J. M.; Tinslay, J. S.; Trunov, A.; Turner, J.; van Bakel, N.; van Winkle, D.; Va'vra, J.; Wagner, A. P.; Weaver, M.; Weinstein, A. J. R.; Weber, T.; West, C. A.; Wienands, U.; Wisniewski, W. J.; Wittgen, M.; Wittmer, W.; Wright, D. H.; Wulsin, H. W.; Yan, Y.; Yarritu, A. K.; Yi, K.; Yocky, G.; Young, C. C.; Ziegler, V.; Chen, X. R.; Liu, H.; Park, W.; Purohit, M. V.; Singh, H.; Weidemann, A. W.; White, R. M.; Wilson, J. R.; Yumiceva, F. X.; Sekula, S. J.; Bellis, M.; Burchat, P. R.; Edwards, A. J.; Majewski, S. A.; Meyer, T. I.; Miyashita, T. S.; Petersen, B. A.; Roat, C.; Ahmed, M.; Ahmed, S.; Alam, M. S.; Bula, R.; Ernst, J. A.; Jain, V.; Liu, J.; Pan, B.; Saeed, M. A.; Wappler, F. R.; Zain, S. B.; Gorodeisky, R.; Guttman, N.; Peimer, D.; Soffer, A.; De Silva, A.; Lund, P.; Krishnamurthy, M.; Ragghianti, G.; Spanier, S. M.; Wogsland, B. J.; Eckmann, R.; Ritchie, J. L.; Ruland, A. M.; Satpathy, A.; Schilling, C. J.; Schwitters, R. F.; Wray, B. C.; Drummond, B. W.; Izen, J. M.; Kitayama, I.; Lou, X. C.; Ye, S.; Bianchi, F.; Bona, M.; Gallo, F.; Gamba, D.; Pelliccioni, M.; Bomben, M.; Borean, C.; Bosisio, L.; Cossutti, F.; Della Ricca, G.; Dittongo, S.; Grancagnolo, S.; Lanceri, L.; Poropat, P.; Rashevskaya, I.; Vitale, L.; Vuagnin, G.; Manfredi, P. F.; Re, V.; Speziali, V.; Frank, E. D.; Gladney, L.; Guo, Q. H.; Panetta, J.; Azzolini, V.; Lopez-March, N.; Martinez-Vidal, F.; Milanes, D. A.; Oyanguren, A.; Agarwal, A.; Albert, J.; Banerjee, Sw.; Bernlochner, F. U.; Brown, C. M.; Choi, H. H. F.; Fortin, D.; Fransham, K. B.; Hamano, K.; Kowalewski, R.; Lewczuk, M. J.; Nugent, I. M.; Roney, J. M.; Sobie, R. J.; Back, J. J.; Gershon, T. J.; Harrison, P. F.; Ilic, J.; Latham, T. E.; Mohanty, G. B.; Puccio, E.; Band, H. R.; Chen, X.; Cheng, B.; Dasu, S.; Datta, M.; Eichenbaum, A. M.; Hollar, J. J.; Hu, H.; Johnson, J. R.; Kutter, P. E.; Li, H.; Liu, R.; Mellado, B.; Mihalyi, A.; Mohapatra, A. K.; Pan, Y.; Pierini, M.; Prepost, R.; Scott, I. J.; Tan, P.; Vuosalo, C. O.; von Wimmersperg-Toeller, J. H.; Wu, S. L.; Yu, Z.; Greene, M. G.; Kordich, T. M. B.

    2013-11-01

    The BABAR detector operated successfully at the PEP-II asymmetric e+e- collider at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory from 1999 to 2008. This report covers upgrades, operation, and performance of the collider and the detector systems, as well as the trigger, online and offline computing, and aspects of event reconstruction since the beginning of data taking.

  7. The Newly Upgraded Large COMPASS Polarized Target

    SciTech Connect

    Gautheron, F.

    2007-06-13

    During the CERN SPS 2005 shutdown the COMPASS target system received a major hardware upgrade for the new period of data taking starting in 2006. A new superconducting magnet with a larger acceptance combined with a new microwave cavity and a three cell target setup have been installed and already showed excellent performances that we present for the first time.

  8. Upgrade of the ALICE Inner Tracking System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kushpil, Svetlana; ALICE Collaboration

    2016-02-01

    ALICE detector was constructed to study the properties of hot and dense hadronic matter formed in relativistic nuclear collisions. During the second long LHC shutdown in 2019-2020, the collaboration plans to upgrade the current vertex detector, the Inner Tracking System (ITS), in order to increase the reconstruction accuracy of secondary vertices and to lower the threshold of particle transverse momentum measurement. The upgrade strategy of ITS is based on the application of new Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) designed in 0.18 μm CMOS technology. The 50 μm thick chip consists of a single silicon die incorporating a 0.18 μm high-resistivity silicon epitaxial layer (sensor active volume) and matrix of charge collection diodes (pixels) with readout electronics. Radiation hardness of the upgraded ITS is one of the crucial moments in the overall performance of the system. A wide set of MAPS structures with different read-out circuits was produced and is being studied by the ALICE collaboration to optimize the pixel sensor functionality. An overview of the ALICE ITS upgrade and the expected performance improvement will be presented together with selected results from a campaign that includes several irradiation and beam tests.

  9. UPGRADES TO Monteburns, VERSION 3.0

    SciTech Connect

    Galloway, Jack D; Trellue, Holly R

    2012-06-22

    Monteburns VERSION 3.0 is an upgrade of the existing Monteburns code available through RSICC. The new version includes modern programming style, increased parallel computing, more accurate capture gamma calculations and an automated input generator. This capability was demonstrated through a small PWR core simulation.

  10. Electrostatic precipitator upgrading -- Twelve years of progress

    SciTech Connect

    Grieco, G.J.

    1997-09-01

    In 1984 the author presented a paper entitled ``Electrostatic Precipitator Upgrading: A Technology Overview`` which reviewed various technologies for electrostatic precipitator performance enhancement in the utility industry. This evaluation was based on a set of criteria which included: commercial status; space requirements; required outage time for installation; installed cost; operating cost; range of applicability; and performance enhancement factor. The upgrade technologies discussed and evaluated included: gas/particulate flow upgrade; microprocessor controller retrofit; transformer-rectifier (T/R) set upgrade; pulse energization; electrode rapping modification; flue gas conditioning agents such as sulfur trioxide, ammonia and sodium; pulse energization; precipitator rebuild; and precipitator retrofit. The findings of this 1984 survey are summarized on Table 1. The installed costs listed on this table range from a low end cost associated with large precipitators with 250,000 ft{sup 2} of collecting electrode plate area and above, to a high end cost for small precipitators with only 25,000 ft{sup 2} of plate area. Twelve years later this subject is revisited and, surprisingly, significant progress has been made--this in spite of what some experts would characterize as a mature and somewhat stagnant technology field. Commercially proven techniques such as advanced flue gas conditioning, sonic horns, selective fuel blending using powder river basin coals, prudent selection of electrode geometry, and pulse energization are discussed and evaluated. Updated costs are presented for these technologies.

  11. Chicago Initiative Aims to Upgrade Principal Pipeline

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Lesli A.

    2013-01-01

    Even with nearly 50 schools shutting down at the end of this month, Chicago education officials have been barreling ahead with plans to groom a large crop of high-performing principals that they say represents the most ambitious effort the city has undertaken to upgrade its school leadership ranks. The goal, said Chicago schools CEO Barbara…

  12. Upgrade Your Facilities Without a Bond Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahoney, John; Thompson, Laura

    1998-01-01

    Discusses eliminating bond issues for facility energy management upgrades by using performance contracting. Explains that performance contracts create savings that help support financing new equipment over a specific number of years. Financing options, performance contracting tips, and an example of its use in St. Louis (Missouri) are highlighted.…

  13. ELECTRONICS UPGRADE OF HIGH RESOLUTION MASS SPECTROMETERS

    SciTech Connect

    Mcintosh, J; Joe Cordaro, J

    2008-03-10

    High resolution mass spectrometers are specialized systems that allow researchers to determine the exact mass of samples to four significant digits by using magnetic and electronic sector mass analyzers. Many of the systems in use today at research laboratories and universities were designed and built more than two decades ago. The manufacturers of these systems have abandoned the support for some of the mass spectrometers and parts to power and control them have become scarce or obsolete. The Savannah River National Laboratory has been involved in the upgrade of the electronics and software for these legacy machines. The Electronics Upgrade of High Resolution Mass Spectrometers consists of assembling high-end commercial instrumentation from reputable manufacturers with a minimal amount of customization to replace the electronics for the older systems. By taking advantage of advances in instrumentation, precise magnet control can be achieved using high resolution current sources and continuous feedback from a high resolution hall-effect probe. The custom equipment include a precision voltage divider/summing amplifier chassis, high voltage power supply chassis and a chassis for controlling the voltage emission for the mass spectrometer source tube. The upgrade package is versatile enough to interface with valve control, vacuum and other instrumentation. Instrument communication is via a combination of Ethernet and traditional IEEE-488 GPIB protocols. The system software upgrades include precision control, feedback and spectral waveform analysis tools.

  14. Array of Hall Effect Sensors for Linear Positioning of a Magnet Independently of Its Strength Variation. A Case Study: Monitoring Milk Yield during Milking in Goats

    PubMed Central

    García-Diego, Fernando-Juan; Sánchez-Quinche, Angel; Merello, Paloma; Beltrán, Pedro; Peris, Cristófol

    2013-01-01

    In this study we propose an electronic system for linear positioning of a magnet independent of its modulus, which could vary because of aging, different fabrication process, etc. The system comprises a linear array of 24 Hall Effect sensors of proportional response. The data from all sensors are subject to a pretreatment (normalization) by row (position) making them independent on the temporary variation of its magnetic field strength. We analyze the particular case of the individual flow in milking of goats. The multiple regression analysis allowed us to calibrate the electronic system with a percentage of explanation R2 = 99.96%. In our case, the uncertainty in the linear position of the magnet is 0.51 mm that represents 0.019 L of goat milk. The test in farm compared the results obtained by direct reading of the volume with those obtained by the proposed electronic calibrated system, achieving a percentage of explanation of 99.05%. PMID:23793020

  15. Structural analysis of fuel assembly clads for the Upgraded Transient Reactor Test Facility (TREAT Upgrade)

    SciTech Connect

    Ewing, T.F.; Wu, T.S.

    1986-01-01

    The Upgraded Transient Reactor Test Facility (TREAT Upgrade) is designed to test full-length, pre-irradiated fuel pins of the type used in large LMFBRs under accident conditions, such as severe transient overpower and loss-of-coolant accidents. In TREAT Upgrade, the central core region is to contain new fuel assemblies of higher fissile loadings to maximize the energy deposition to the test fuel. These fuel assemblies must withstand normal peak clad temperatures of 850/sup 0/C for hundreds of test transients. Due to high temperatures and gradients predicted in the clad, creep and plastic strain effects are significant, and the clad structural behavior cannot be analyzed by conventional linear techniques. Instead, the detailed elastic-plastic-creep behavior must be followed along the time-dependent load history. This paper presents details of the structural evaluations of the conceptual TREAT Upgrade fuel assembly clads.

  16. Guidelines for Home Energy Upgrade Professionals: Standard Work Specifications for Multifamily Energy Upgrades (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-08-01

    This fact sheet provides essential information about the 2011 publication of the Workforce Guidelines for Multifamily Home Energy Upgrades, including their origin, their development with the help of industry leaders to create the standard work specifications for retrofit work.

  17. Low serum testosterone predicts upgrading and upstaging of prostate cancer after radical prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yuan; Jiang, Chen-Yi; Mao, Shi-Kui; Cui, Di; Hao, Kui-Yuan; Zhao, Wei; Jiang, Qi; Ruan, Yuan; Xia, Shu-Jie; Han, Bang-Min

    2016-01-01

    Often, pathological Gleason Score (GS) and stage of prostate cancer (PCa) were inconsistent with biopsy GS and clinical stage. However, there were no widely accepted methods predicting upgrading and upstaging PCa. In our study, we investigated the association between serum testosterone and upgrading or upstaging of PCa after radical prostatectomy (RP). We enrolled 167 patients with PCa with biopsy GS ≤6, clinical stage ≤T2c, and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) <10 ng ml−1 from April 2009 to April 2015. Data including age, body mass index, preoperative PSA level, comorbidity, clinical presentation, and preoperative serum total testosterone level were collected. Upgrading occurred in 62 (37.1%) patients, and upstaging occurred in 73 (43.7%) patients. Preoperative testosterone was lower in the upgrading than nonupgrading group (3.72 vs 4.56, P< 0.01). Patients in the upstaging group had lower preoperative testosterone than those in the nonupstaging group (3.84 vs 4.57, P= 0.01). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, as both continuous and categorical variables, low serum testosterone was confirmed to be an independent predictor of pathological upgrading (P = 0.01 and P= 0.01) and upstaging (P = 0.01 and P = 0.02) after RP. We suggest that low serum testosterone (<3 ng ml−1) is associated with a high rate of upgrading and upstaging after RP. It is better for surgeons to ensure close monitoring of PSA levels and imaging examination when selecting non-RP treatment, to be cautious in proceeding with nerve-sparing surgery, and to be enthusiastic in performing extended lymph node dissection when selecting RP treatment for patients with low serum testosterone. PMID:26732103

  18. Low serum testosterone predicts upgrading and upstaging of prostate cancer after radical prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yuan; Jiang, Chen-Yi; Mao, Shi-Kui; Cui, Di; Hao, Kui-Yuan; Zhao, Wei; Jiang, Qi; Ruan, Yuan; Xia, Shu-Jie; Han, Bang-Min

    2016-01-01

    Often, pathological Gleason Score (GS) and stage of prostate cancer (PCa) were inconsistent with biopsy GS and clinical stage. However, there were no widely accepted methods predicting upgrading and upstaging PCa. In our study, we investigated the association between serum testosterone and upgrading or upstaging of PCa after radical prostatectomy (RP). We enrolled 167 patients with PCa with biopsy GS ≤6, clinical stage ≤T2c, and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) <10 ng ml-1 from April 2009 to April 2015. Data including age, body mass index, preoperative PSA level, comorbidity, clinical presentation, and preoperative serum total testosterone level were collected. Upgrading occurred in 62 (37.1%) patients, and upstaging occurred in 73 (43.7%) patients. Preoperative testosterone was lower in the upgrading than nonupgrading group (3.72 vs 4.56, P< 0.01). Patients in the upstaging group had lower preoperative testosterone than those in the nonupstaging group (3.84 vs 4.57, P= 0.01). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, as both continuous and categorical variables, low serum testosterone was confirmed to be an independent predictor of pathological upgrading (P = 0.01 and P= 0.01) and upstaging (P = 0.01 and P = 0.02) after RP. We suggest that low serum testosterone (<3 ng ml-1 ) is associated with a high rate of upgrading and upstaging after RP. It is better for surgeons to ensure close monitoring of PSA levels and imaging examination when selecting non-RP treatment, to be cautious in proceeding with nerve-sparing surgery, and to be enthusiastic in performing extended lymph node dissection when selecting RP treatment for patients with low serum testosterone. PMID:26732103

  19. Regional seismic networks upgrade encouraged

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A partnership between the U.S. National Seismic Network (USNSN)—planned by the U.S. Geological Survey for implementation in the early 1990s—and a group of modernized, independently run regional seismic networks is recommended by the National Research Council in their recent report, “Assessing the Nation's Earthquakes: The Health and Future of Regional Seismograph Networks.” The panel that prepared the report said that together, the facilities would constitute a National Seismic System, a satellite-based network capable of systematically monitoring and analyzing earthquakes throughout the nation within minutes of their occurrence.Regional seismic networks are arrays of tens to hundreds of seismic stations targeted chiefly on seismically active regions. They provide a broad range of data and information, which can be applied to public safety and emergency management, quantification of hazard and risk assessment associated with natural and human-induced earthquakes, surveillance of underground nuclear explosions, basic research on earthquake mechanics and dynamics, seismic wave propagation, seismotectonic processes, earthquake forecasting and prediction, and properties and composition of the crust and the internal structure of the Earth.

  20. The 400 MeV Linac Upgrade at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Noble, R.J.

    1992-12-01

    The Fermilab Linac Upgrade in planned to increase the energy of the H{sup {minus}} linac from 200 to 400 MeV. This is intended to reduce the incoherent space-charge tuneshift at injection into the 8 GeV Booster which limit either the brightness or the total intensity of the beam. The Linac Upgrade will be achieved by replacing the last four 201.25 MHs drift-tube linac (DTL) tanks which accelerate the beam from 116 to 200 MeV, with seven 805 MRs side-coupled cavity modules operating at an average axial field of about 7.5 MV/meter. This will allow acceleration to 400 MeV in the existing Linac enclosure. Each accelerator module will be driven with a 12 MW klystron-based rf power supply. Three of seven accelerator modules have been fabricated, power tested and installed in their temporary location adjacent to the existing DTL. All seven RF Modulators have been completed and klystron installation has begun. Waveguide runs have completed from the power supply gallery to the accelerator modules. The new linac will be powered in the temporary position without beam in order to verify overall system reliability until the laboratory operating schedule permits final conversion to 400 MeV operation.

  1. The sPHENIX Barrel Upgrade: Jet Physics and Beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haggerty, John S.

    2013-05-01

    The past decade of heavy ion physics at RHIC has produced many surprising discoveries and puzzles. Currently the experiments at the LHC are providing a first look at things to come: a burgeoning program for studying the quark-gluon plasma with reconstructed jets. The PHENIX collaboration has developed a long term plan involving a series of upgrades designed to expand the physics capabilities and make use of the full enhanced luminosity at RHIC. With increased coverage and the addition of hadronic calorimetry, we demonstrate that the sPHENIX upgrade will be well positioned to provide a broad and exciting program of jet probe measurements. Sampling 50 billion Au + Au events annually, we will collect 10 million jets with transverse energy above 20 GeV and 100 thousand jets above 40 GeV. With the addition of new tracking layers and an EM preshower, a crucial program of upsilon measurements, as well as neutral pion measurements with a 40 GeV/c reach, can be made in a flexible accelerator facility capable of providing a diverse range of collision systems across many beam energies. And, ultimately, the sPHENIX detector will provide the base for staging a future electron-ion collider detector at eRHIC.

  2. Preliminary test results and upgrades for an automated assembly system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Will, Ralph W.; Rhodes, Marvin D.; Quach, Cuong

    1992-01-01

    An automated structures assembly testbed developed by Langley Research Center to study the practical problems associated with the automated assembly of large space structures using robotic manipulators is described. Emphasis is placed on the requirements and features of system upgrades and their impact on system performance, flexibility, and reliability. The current research program is aimed at evolving the baseline assembly system into a flexible, robust, sensor-based system capable of assembling more complex truss-supported satellite systems. To achieve this objective, five system upgrades have been developed including a machine vision capability to eliminate taught robot arm positions; an on-board end-effector microprocessor to reduce communications; a second-generation end-effector to construct contoured trusses for antennas and install payloads; the installation of reflector-type panels on the truss to produce a complete and functional system, and an expert system to significantly reduce the amount of software code required for system operation and provide greater flexibility in implementing new features.

  3. Upgrade of a kicker control system for the HIRFL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yan-Yu; Zhou, Wen-Xiong; Luo, Jin-Fu; Zhou, De-Tai; Zhang, Jian-Chuan; Ma, Xiao-Li; Gao, Da-Qing; Shang-Guan, Jing-Bin

    2014-02-01

    A kicker system plays an important role in beam extraction and injection for a ring-like accelerator. The kicker system in the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL) is used for beam extraction and injection between two cooling storage rings (CSRs). The system consists of two parts: one part is used for beam extraction from the CSR/main (CSRm), and the other is used for beam injection into the CSR/experimental (CSRe). To meet the requirements of special physics experiments, we upgraded the kicker control system. In this upgraded system, the position of the beam bunches can be determined by measuring the phase of the radio frequency (RF) signal in real time because each beam bunch is synchronized with the RF signal. The digital timing control and delay regulatory function, which are based on a new design using ARM+DSP+FPGA technology, achieved a precision of 2.5 ns, which is a significant improvement over old system's precision of 5 ns. In addition, this system exhibits a better anti-interference capability. Moreover, the efficiency of beam extraction can be enhanced, and the accuracy of the reference voltage setting can reach as low as 0.1%, compared to 2% for the old system.

  4. The JLAB 12 GeV Energy Upgrade of CEBAF

    SciTech Connect

    Harwood, Leigh H.

    2013-12-01

    This presentation should describe the progress of the 12GeV Upgrade of CEBAF at Jefferson Lab. The status of the upgrade should be presented as well as details on the construction, procurement, installation and commissioning of the magnet and SRF components of the upgrade.

  5. Immune Infertility Should Be Positively Diagnosed Using an Accurate Method by Monitoring the Level of Anti-ACTL7a Antibody.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jun; Yao, Rongyan; Luo, Yanyun; Yang, Dantong; Cao, Yang; Qiu, Yi; Song, Wei; Miao, Shiying; Gu, Yiqun; Wang, Linfang

    2016-01-01

    Infertility is currently a major public health problem. Anti-sperm antibodies (ASAs) markedly reduce sperm quality, which can subsequently lead to male and/or female infertility. The accurate detection of ASAs derived from specific spermatozoa is, therefore, clinically useful. We have focused on the spermatozoa-specific expression protein ACTL7a for many years and have developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect the concentration of anti-ACTL7a antibodies in fertile sera (n = 267) and infertile sera (n = 193). Infertile sera were collected from the positive sera of tray agglutination tests (TAT), which is a routine ASA screening methodology. We found that the concentration of anti-ACTL7a antibodies was significantly higher in the infertile sera (than in the fertile sera, P < 0.0001) and much higher in the TAT ≥ 16 infertile sera. The ELISA was much better for male sera detection (AUC = 0.9899). If we set the standard at a strongly positive value (calculated by ROC curve), the positive predictive value of the antibody detection reached 100 percent, with a false positive rate of zero. The developed ELISA method for anti-ACTL7a antibody detection is therefore sensitive, accurate, and easy to perform, making it an excellent potential tool for future clinical use. PMID:26957350

  6. Immune Infertility Should Be Positively Diagnosed Using an Accurate Method by Monitoring the Level of Anti-ACTL7a Antibody

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Jun; Yao, Rongyan; Luo, Yanyun; Yang, Dantong; Cao, Yang; Qiu, Yi; Song, Wei; Miao, Shiying; Gu, Yiqun; Wang, Linfang

    2016-01-01

    Infertility is currently a major public health problem. Anti-sperm antibodies (ASAs) markedly reduce sperm quality, which can subsequently lead to male and/or female infertility. The accurate detection of ASAs derived from specific spermatozoa is, therefore, clinically useful. We have focused on the spermatozoa-specific expression protein ACTL7a for many years and have developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect the concentration of anti-ACTL7a antibodies in fertile sera (n = 267) and infertile sera (n = 193). Infertile sera were collected from the positive sera of tray agglutination tests (TAT), which is a routine ASA screening methodology. We found that the concentration of anti-ACTL7a antibodies was significantly higher in the infertile sera (than in the fertile sera, P < 0.0001) and much higher in the TAT ≥ 16 infertile sera. The ELISA was much better for male sera detection (AUC = 0.9899). If we set the standard at a strongly positive value (calculated by ROC curve), the positive predictive value of the antibody detection reached 100 percent, with a false positive rate of zero. The developed ELISA method for anti-ACTL7a antibody detection is therefore sensitive, accurate, and easy to perform, making it an excellent potential tool for future clinical use. PMID:26957350

  7. Nuclear Thermal Rocket Element Environmental Simulator (NTREES) Upgrade Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emrich, William J., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past year the Nuclear Thermal Rocket Element Environmental Simulator (NTREES) has been undergoing a significant upgrade beyond its initial configuration. The NTREES facility is designed to perform realistic non-nuclear testing of nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) fuel elements and fuel materials. Although the NTREES facility cannot mimic the neutron and gamma environment of an operating NTR, it can simulate the thermal hydraulic environment within an NTR fuel element to provide critical information on material performance and compatibility. The first phase of the upgrade activities which was completed in 2012 in part consisted of an extensive modification to the hydrogen system to permit computer controlled operations outside the building through the use of pneumatically operated variable position valves. This setup also allows the hydrogen flow rate to be increased to over 200 g/sec and reduced the operation complexity of the system. The second stage of modifications to NTREES which has just been completed expands the capabilities of the facility significantly. In particular, the previous 50 kW induction power supply has been replaced with a 1.2 MW unit which should allow more prototypical fuel element temperatures to be reached. The water cooling system was also upgraded to so as to be capable of removing 100% of the heat generated during. This new setup required that the NTREES vessel be raised onto a platform along with most of its associated gas and vent lines. In this arrangement, the induction heater and water systems are now located underneath the platform. In this new configuration, the 1.2 MW NTREES induction heater will be capable of testing fuel elements and fuel materials in flowing hydrogen at pressures up to 1000 psi at temperatures up to and beyond 3000 K and at near-prototypic reactor channel power densities. NTREES is also capable of testing potential fuel elements with a variety of propellants, including hydrogen with additives to inhibit

  8. Upgrade of level instruments in inactive liquid low-level waste tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Youngblood, E.L.; Hylton, T.D.; Kendrick, C.M.

    1992-11-01

    The objectives of this low-level liquid wastes study were to (1) determine the requirements for inventory monitoring of inactive (LLLW) tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), (2) evaluate the existing inventory of monitoring instruments and determine whether the current requirements for monitoring and leak detection are being met, and (3) recommend improvements or upgrades of the level instruments where needed. The instrumentation was evaluated on the basis of its accuracy, previous experience with the instrumentation, and any other available evaluation data. Instruments were evaluated for their effectiveness in monitoring the liquid inventory. Level instrumentation for 12 of the tanks was considered satisfactory for monitoring liquid inventory and potential leakage. A fist of options was provided for monitoring 12 tanks that are either currently empty or scheduled to be emptied during FY 1992 or 1993. Recommendations were also provided for the Group 5 tanks. Instrument upgrades were determined to be needed for the remaining eight tanks. The study examined the capabilities and limitations of the level-monitoring instruments in use at ORNL and other sites for appropriateness for the tanks requiring upgrades.

  9. Project Design Concept for Monitoring and Control System

    SciTech Connect

    MCGREW, D.L.

    2000-10-02

    This Project Design Concept represents operational requirements established for use in design the tank farm Monitoring and Control System. These upgrades are included within the scope of Project W-314, Tank Farm Restoration and Safe Operations.

  10. Radar volcano monitoring system in Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arason, Þórður; Yeo, Richard F.; Sigurðsson, Geirfinnur S.; Pálmason, Bolli; von Löwis, Sibylle; Nína Petersen, Guðrún; Bjornsson, Halldór

    2013-04-01

    Weather radars are valuable instruments in monitoring explosive volcanic eruptions. Temporal variations in the eruption strength can be monitored as well as variations in plume and ash dispersal. Strength of the reflected radar signal of a volcanic plume is related to water content and droplet sizes as well as type, shape, amount and the grain size distribution of ash. The Icelandic Meteorological Office (IMO) owns and operates three radars and one more is planned for this radar volcano monitoring system. A fixed position 250 kW C-band weather radar was installed in 1991 in SW-Iceland close to Keflavík International Airport, and upgraded to a doppler radar in 2010. In cooperation with the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), IMO has recently invested in two mobile X-band radars and one fixed position C-band radar. The fixed position 250 kW doppler C-band weather radar was installed in April 2012 at Fljótsdalsheiði, E-Iceland, and in June 2012 IMO received a mobile 65 kW dual-polarization doppler X-band radar. Early in 2013 IMO will acquire another mobile radar of the same type. Explosive volcanic eruptions in Iceland during the past 22 years were monitored by the Keflavík radar: Hekla 1991, Gjálp 1996, Grímsvötn 1998, Hekla 2000, Grímsvötn 2004, Eyjafjallajökull 2010 and Grímsvötn 2011. Additionally, the Grímsvötn 2011 eruption was mointored by a mobile X-band radar on loan from the Italian Civil Protection Authorities. Detailed technical information is presented on the four radars with examples of the information acquired during previous eruptions. This expanded network of radars is expected to give valuable information on future volcanic eruptions in Iceland.

  11. Development of a frameless stereotactic radiosurgery system based on real-time 6D position monitoring and adaptive head motion compensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiersma, Rodney D.; Wen, Zhifei; Sadinski, Meredith; Farrey, Karl; Yenice, Kamil M.

    2010-01-01

    Stereotactic radiosurgery delivers radiation with great spatial accuracy. To achieve sub-millimeter accuracy for intracranial SRS, a head ring is rigidly fixated to the skull to create a fixed reference. For some patients, the invasiveness of the ring can be highly uncomfortable and not well tolerated. In addition, placing and removing the ring requires special expertise from a neurosurgeon, and patient setup time for SRS can often be long. To reduce the invasiveness, hardware limitations and setup time, we are developing a system for performing accurate head positioning without the use of a head ring. The proposed method uses real-time 6D optical position feedback for turning on and off the treatment beam (gating) and guiding a motor-controlled 3D head motion compensation stage. The setup consists of a central control computer, an optical patient motion tracking system and a 3D motion compensation stage attached to the front of the LINAC couch. A styrofoam head cast was custom-built for patient support and was mounted on the compensation stage. The motion feedback of the markers was processed by the control computer, and the resulting motion of the target was calculated using a rigid body model. If the target deviated beyond a preset position of 0.2 mm, an automatic position correction was performed with stepper motors to adjust the head position via the couch mount motion platform. In the event the target deviated more than 1 mm, a safety relay switch was activated and the treatment beam was turned off. The feasibility of the concept was tested using five healthy volunteers. Head motion data were acquired with and without the use of motion compensation over treatment times of 15 min. On average, test subjects exceeded the 0.5 mm tolerance 86% of the time and the 1.0 mm tolerance 45% of the time without motion correction. With correction, this percentage was reduced to 5% and 2% for the 0.5 mm and 1.0 mm tolerances, respectively.

  12. Measurement of patient imaging dose for real-time kilovoltage x-ray intra-fraction tumour position monitoring in prostate patients

    PubMed Central

    Crocker, James K; Ng, Jin Aun; Keall, Paul J; Booth, Jeremy T

    2012-01-01

    The dose for image-based motion monitoring of prostate tumours during radiotherapy delivery has not been established. This study aimed to provide quantitative analysis and optimisation of the fluoroscopic patient imaging dose during radiotherapy for IMRT and VMAT treatments using standard and hypofractionated treatment schedules. Twenty-two patients with type T1c N0/M0 prostate cancer and three implanted fiducial markers were considered. Minimum field sizes encompassing all fiducial markers plus a 7.5mm motion margin were determined for each treatment beam, each patient and the complete cohort. Imaging doses were measured for different field sizes and depths in a phantom at 75kV and 120kV. Based on these measurements, the patient imaging doses were then estimated according to beam-on time for clinical settings. The population minimum field size was 5.3 × 6.1cm2, yielding doses of 406mGy and 185mGy over the course of an IMRT treatment for 75kV (10 mAs) and 120kV (1.04 mAs) imaging, respectively at 1Hz. The imaging dose was reduced by an average of 28% and 32% by adopting patient specific and treatment-beam specific field sizes respectively. Standard fractionation VMAT imaging doses were 37% lower than IMRT doses over a complete treatment. Hypofractionated IMRT SBRT and VMAT SBRT imaging doses were 58% and 76% lower than IMRT doses respectively. The patient dose for kilovoltage intrafraction monitoring of the prostate was quantified. Tailoring imaging field sizes to specific patients yielded a significant reduction in the imaging dose, as did adoption of faster treatment modalities such as VMAT. PMID:22517054

  13. Upgrade of CEBAF from 6 Gev To 12 Gev: Status

    SciTech Connect

    Harwood, Leigh

    2013-04-19

    The CEBAF accelerator is being upgraded from 6 GeV to 12 GeV by the US Department of Energy. The accelerator upgrade is being done within the existing tunnel footprint. The accelerator upgrade includes: 10 new srfbased high-performance cryomodules plus RF systems, doubling the 2K helium plant's capability, upgrading the existing beamlines to operate at nearly double the original performance envelope, and adding a beamline to a new experimental area. Construction is over 75% complete with final completion projected for late FY13. Details of the upgrade and status of the work will be presented.

  14. Instrumentation and control upgrade plan for Browns Ferry nuclear plant

    SciTech Connect

    Belew, M.R.; Langley, D.T. ); Torok, R.C.; Wilkinson, C.D. ); Stanley, L. )

    1992-01-01

    A comprehensive upgrade of the instrumentation and control (I C) systems at a power plant represents a formidable project for any utility. For a nuclear plant, the extra safety and reliability requirements along with regulatory constraints add further complications and cost. The need for the upgrade must, therefore, be very compelling, and the process must be well planned from the start. This paper describes the steps taken to initiate the I C upgrade process for Tennessee Valley Authority's (TVA's) Browns Ferry 2 nuclear plant. It explains the impetus for the upgrade, the expected benefits, and the process by which system upgrades will be selected and implemented.

  15. Upgrade of MARSCHALS Observation Capabilities for StratoClim 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerber, Daniel; Moyna, Brian; Oldfield, Matthew; Rea, Simon; Ellison, Brian; Siddans, Richard; Thomas, Gareth; Kerridge, Brian

    2014-05-01

    a new receiver using a RAL SHIRM mixer in conjunction with four WBS from STAR-Dundee, therefore closely replicating the PREMIER observation capabilities of EE7 Phase A. This upgrade will significantly increase the measurement quality of the principal targeted gases H2O, O3 and HNO3, but also adds a number of new species of strong scientific interest, especially in the context of StratoClim. In addition to its principal targeted gases, the upgraded MARSCHALS will have improved sensitivity to CO and will observe other trace gases for the first time; notably HCN and CH3CN elevated from biomass burning, OCS, CH3Cl and, in event of volcanic eruption, SO2. These mm-wave observations will be made in the presence of cirrus or high aerosol loading which obscure ir observations A prototype of the upgraded receiver is to be deployed in a test campaign from the High-Alpine Research Station Jungfraujoch in Switzerland in February 2014, of which some first results will be presented as well. Other instrument upgrades currently under consideration are the addition of a novel, miniature Fourier Transform Spectrometer developed at RAL Space with the prospect to contribute cloud and aerosol information where the current optical cloud monitor only reports cloud top heights.

  16. Evaluation of Catalysts from Different Origin for Vapor Phase Upgrading in Biomass Pyrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, X.; Mukarakate, C.; Zheng, Z.; Nimlos, M.

    2012-01-01

    Liquid fuels and chemicals from biomass resources arouse much interests in research and development. Fast pyrolysis of biomass has the potential to effectively change solid biomass materials into liquid products. However, bio-oil from traditional pyrolysis processes is difficult to apply in industry, because of its complicated composition, high oxygen content, low stability, etc. Upgrading or refining of the bio-oil should be performed for industrial application of biomass pyrolysis. Often, the process would be done in a separate reactor downstream of the pyrolysis process. In this paper, a laboratory scale micro test facility was constructed, wherein the pyrolysis of pine and catalytic upgrading of the resulting vapors were closely coupled in one reactor. The composition of vapor effluent was monitored with a molecular beam mass spectrometer (MBMS) for the online evaluation of the catalyst performance. Catalysts from different origin were tested and compared for the effectiveness of pyrolysis vapor upgrading, namely commercial zeolites, Ni based steam reforming catalyst, CaO, MgO, and several laboratory-made catalysts. The reaction temperature for catalytic upgrading varied between 400 and 600 centigrade, and the gaseous residence time ranged from 0.1 second to above 2 second, to simulate the conditions in industrial application. It is revealed that some catalysts are active in transform most of primary biomass pyrolysis vapors into hydrocarbons, resulting in nonoxygenated products, which is beneficial for downstream utilization. Others are not as effective, results in minor improvement compared with blank test results.

  17. SWATCH: common control SW for the uTCA-based upgraded CMS L1 Trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooke, Jim; Bunkowski, Karol; Cali, Ivan; Ghabrous Larrea, Carlos; Lazaridis, Christos; Thea, Alessandro

    2015-12-01

    The CMS L1 Trigger electronics are composed of a large number of different cards based on the VMEBus standard. The majority of the system is being replaced to adapt the trigger to the higher collision rates the LHC will deliver after the LS1, the first phase on the CMS upgrade program. As a consequence, the software that controls, monitors and tests the hardware will need to be re-written. The upgraded trigger will consist of a set of general purpose boards of similar technology that follow the TCA specification, thus resulting in a more homogeneous system. A great effort has been made to identify the common firmware blocks and components shared across different cards, regardless of the role they play within the trigger data path. A similar line of work has been followed in order to identify all possible common functionalities in the control software, as well as in the database where the hardware initialisation and configuration data are stored. This will not only increase the homogeneity on the software and database sides, but it will also reduce the manpower needed to accommodate the online SW to the changes on hardware. Due to the fact that the upgrade will take place in different stages, it has been taken into consideration that these new components had to be integrated in the current SW framework. This paper presents the design of the control SW and configuration database for the upgraded L1 Trigger.

  18. The Jefferson Lab 12 GeV Upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    R.D. McKeown

    2010-09-01

    Construction of the 12 GeV upgrade to the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility is presently underway. This upgrade includes doubling the energy of the electron beam to 12 GeV, the addition of a new fourth experimental hall, and the construction of upgraded detector hardware. An overview of this upgrade project is presented, along with highlights of the anticipated experimental program. The 12 GeV upgrade project at Jefferson Lab will enable a powerful new experimental program that will advance our understanding of the quark/gluon structure of hadronic matter, the nature of Quantum Chromodynamics, and the properties of a new extended standard model of particle interactions. Commissioning of the upgraded beam will be begin in 2013, and the full complement of upgraded experimental equipment will be completed in 2015. This unique facility will provide many opportunities for exploration and discovery for a large international community of nuclear scientists.

  19. A poloidal section neutron camera for MAST upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Sangaroon, S.; Weiszflog, M.; Cecconello, M.; Conroy, S.; Ericsson, G.; Wodniak, I.; Keeling, D.; Turnyanskiy, M. [EURATOM Collaboration: MAST Team

    2014-08-21

    The Mega Ampere Spherical Tokamak Upgrade (MAST Upgrade) is intended as a demonstration of the physics viability of the Spherical Tokamak (ST) concept and as a platform for contributing to ITER/DEMO physics. Concerning physics exploitation, MAST Upgrade plasma scenarios can contribute to the ITER Tokamak physics particularly in the field of fast particle behavior and current drive studies. At present, MAST is equipped with a prototype neutron camera (NC). On the basis of the experience and results from previous experimental campaigns using the NC, the conceptual design of a neutron camera upgrade (NC Upgrade) is being developed. As part of the MAST Upgrade, the NC Upgrade is considered a high priority diagnostic since it would allow studies in the field of fast ions and current drive with good temporal and spatial resolution. In this paper, we explore an optional design with the camera array viewing the poloidal section of the plasma from different directions.

  20. An Upgrade for the Advanced Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Chemla, Daniel S.; Feinberg, Benedict; Hussain, Zahid; Kirz, Janos; Krebs, Gary F.; Padmore, Howard A.; Robin, David S.; Robinson, Arthur L.; Smith, Neville V.

    2004-09-01

    One of the first third-generation synchrotron light sources, the ALS, has been operating for almost a decade at Berkeley Lab, where experimenters have been exploiting its high brightness for forefront science. However, accelerator and insertion-device technology have significantly changed since the ALS was designed. As a result, the performance of the ALS is in danger of being eclipsed by that of newer, more advanced sources. The ALS upgrade that we are planning includes full-energy, top-off injection with higher storage-ring current and the replacement of five first-generation insertion devices with nine state-of-the art insertion devices and four new application-specific beamlines now being identified in a strategic planning process. The upgrade will help keep the ALS at the forefront of soft x-ray synchrotron light sources for the next two decades.

  1. Design analysis of the upgraded TREAT reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharyya, S.K.

    1982-01-01

    The TREAT reactor, fueled by a dilute dispersion of fully enriched UO/sub 2/ in graphite, has been a premier transient testing facility since 1959. A major Upgrade of the reactor is in progress to enhance its transient testing capability in support of the LMFBR safety program. The TREAT Upgrade (TU) reactor features a modified central zone of the core with higher fissile loadings of the same fuel, clad in Inconel to allow operation at higher temperatures. The demanding functional requirements on the reactor necessitated the use of unique features in the core design which, in turn, presented major calculational complexities in the analysis. Special design methods had to be used in many cases to treat these complexities. The addition of an improved Reactor Control System, a safety grade Plant Protection System and an enhanced Coolant/Filtration System produces a reactor that can meet the functional requirements on the reactor in a safe manner.

  2. JEFFERSON LAB 12 GEV CEBAF UPGRADE

    SciTech Connect

    Rode, C. H.

    2010-04-09

    The existing continuous electron beam accelerator facility (CEBAF) at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF) is a 5-pass, recirculating cw electron Linac operating at approx6 GeV and is devoted to basic research in nuclear physics. The 12 GeV CEBAF Upgrade is a $310 M project, sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Physics, that will expand its research capabilities substantially by doubling the maximum energy and adding major new experimental apparatus. The project received construction approval in September 2008 and has started the major procurement process. The cryogenic aspects of the 12 GeV CEBAF Upgrade includes: doubling the accelerating voltages of the Linacs by adding ten new high-performance, superconducting radiofrequency (SRF) cryomodules (CMs) to the existing 42 1/4 cryomodules; doubling of the 2 K cryogenics plant; and the addition of eight superconducting magnets.

  3. Upgrading Reference Set — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    We are proposing a multi-institutional study to identify molecular biomarkers and clinical measures that will predict presence of Gleason 7 or higher cancer (as evidence in the radical prostatectomy specimen) among patients with a biopsy diagnosis of Gleason score ≤ 6 prostate cancer. This proposal will be conducted in two phases. The first phase will assemble an “Upgrading Reference Set” that will include clinical information as well as biologics on a cohort of 600 men. The first phase will also assess the clinical parameters associated with upgrading, as well as, perform a central pathology review of both biopsies and prostatectomy specimens to confirm tumor grade. The second phase will use the biologics collected in phase 1 to evaluate a series of biomarkers to further refine the prediction of Gleason 7-10 cancer at radical prostatectomy.

  4. Upgrades for TwinSol facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Malley, P. D.; Bardayan, D. W.; Kolata, J. J.; Hall, M. R.; Hall, O.; Allen, J.; Becchetti, F. D.

    2016-06-01

    TwinSol, a pair of coupled, superconducting solenoids, was one of the first devices capable of producing beams of radioactive nuclei at energies near the Coulomb barrier. A primary beam from University of Notre Dame (UND) tandem accelerator is used to bombard a primary target producing a secondary beam in flight. TwinSol is used to gather, separate, and focus the recoils. Since it was commissioned at the UND in 1997, at least 58 publications have reported data from its use and there have been hundreds of collaborators from many different countries that use this device. Currently, plans are in place at the UND to provide several upgrades to TwinSol, including a multi-cell gas production target and the possible addition of a third solenoid. Upgrades currently in progress will be discussed along with future plans.

  5. RHIC OPERATIONAL STATUS AND UPGRADE PLANS.

    SciTech Connect

    FISCHER, W.

    2006-06-23

    Since 2000 RHIC has collided, at 8 energies, 4 combinations of ion species, ranging from gold ions to polarized protons, and including the collisions of deuterons with gold ions. During that time the heavy ion and polarized proton peak luminosities increased by two orders and one order of magnitude respectively. The average proton polarization in store reached 65%. Planned upgrades include the evolution to the Enhanced Design parameters by about 2008, the construction of an Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS) by 2009, the installation of electron cooling for RHIC II, and the implementation of the electron-ion collider eRHIC. We review the current performance, and the expected performance with these upgrades.

  6. Control upgrade study for Huntley Unit 65

    SciTech Connect

    Willsey, P.T. ); Lassahn, P.L.; Brown, B.B.; House, W.E.; Fray, R.R. ); Knobel, P.; Labbe, D.E. )

    1990-08-01

    This report summarizes a reliability, availability, and maintainability (RAM) analysis and an advanced control study conducted to support the Control Upgrade Project. The RAM analysis and advanced control study were conducted to determine the potential benefits of upgrading the Huntley Unit 65 control system, to transfer technology, and to identify the main contributors to plant unavailability. The RAM analysis used CAFTA software and was supplemented with a human factors evaluation. The advanced control study explored several traditional and advanced control strategies using the code Modular Modeling System (MMS) and incorporated a set of cost functions'' to provide comparison of the alternative strategies. The RAM analysis identified the main mechanical contributions to unavailability and showed that RAM analyses could be a tool for both plant operators and corporate managers to improve availability, prioritize expenditures, and improve maintenance. The model has been updated, and the database for the RAM analysis now contains eight years of data. 1 ref., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  7. CHALLENGES FOR THE SNS RING ENERGY UPGRADE

    SciTech Connect

    Plum, Michael A; Gorlov, Timofey V; Holmes, Jeffrey A; Hunter, W Ted; Roseberry, Jr., R Tom; Wang, Jian-Guang

    2012-01-01

    The Oak Ridge Spallation Neutron Source accumulator ring presently operates at a beam power of about 1 MW with a beam energy of about 910 MeV. A power upgrade is planned to increase the beam energy to 1.3 GeV. For the accumulator ring this mostly involves modifications to the injection and extraction sections. A variety of modifications to the existing injection section were necessary to achieve 1 MW, and the tools developed and the lessons learned from this work are now being applied to the design of the new injection section. This paper will discuss the tools and the lessons learned, and also present the design and status of the upgrades to the accumulator ring.

  8. ATA upgrade to 150 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Birx, D.L.; Hawkins, S.A.; Poor, S.E.; Reginato, L.L.; Smith, M.W.

    1985-04-09

    The increased interests in upgrading the ATA accelerator has warranted a preliminary look at applying the magnetic drivers to achieve both higher energy and higher average power. The goal of this upgrade is to satisfy the FEL requirements and to keep the capability of producing a higher current beam for CPB experiments at reduced energy. ATA Note 247 showed that a possible solution to obtain higher energy was simply to add additional cells, run them at higher voltage and accept a 30 ns pulse width with about 5% energy variation. Considering the recent history of the cells and the doubling of the voltage stress that would be required at the insulator, it seemed prudent to review the overall system reliability and try a different approach.

  9. The CDF L2 XFT Trigger Upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Lister, Alison; /UC, Davis

    2008-10-01

    We briefly present the eXtremely Fast Tracker stereo track upgrade for the CDF Level 2 trigger system. This upgrade enabled full 3D track reconstruction at Level 2 of the 3-Level CDF online triggering system. Using information provided by the stereo layers of the Central Outer Tracker, we can decrease the trigger rate due to fake tracks by requiring the tracks to be consistent with a single vertex in all three dimensions but also by using the track information to 'point' to the various detector components. We will also discuss the effectiveness of the Level 2 stereo track algorithm at achieving reduced trigger rates with high efficiencies during high luminosity running.

  10. The ALICE Central Trigger Processor (CTP) upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krivda, M.; Alexandre, D.; Barnby, L. S.; Evans, D.; Jones, P. G.; Jusko, A.; Lietava, R.; Pospíšil, J.; Villalobos Baillie, O.

    2016-03-01

    The ALICE Central Trigger Processor (CTP) at the CERN LHC has been upgraded for LHC Run 2, to improve the Transition Radiation Detector (TRD) data-taking efficiency and to improve the physics performance of ALICE. There is a new additional CTP interaction record sent using a new second Detector Data Link (DDL), a 2 GB DDR3 memory and an extension of functionality for classes. The CTP switch has been incorporated directly onto the new LM0 board. A design proposal for an ALICE CTP upgrade for LHC Run 3 is also presented. Part of the development is a low latency high bandwidth interface whose purpose is to minimize an overall trigger latency.

  11. Unbiased polarized PDFs upgraded with new inclusive DIS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nocera, Emanuele R.

    2016-02-01

    I present a determination of longitudinally-polarized parton distribution functions of the proton from inclusive deep-inelastic scattering data: NNPDFpol1.0+. This determination, based on the NNPDF methodology, upgrades a previous analysis, NNPDFpol1.0, in two respects: first, it includes all new data sets which have recently become available from the COMPASS experiment at CERN and from the E93-009, EG1-DVCS and E06-014 experiments at JLAB; second, it uses the state-of-the-art unpolarized parton set NNPDF3.0 as a baseline for the reconstruction of fitted observables and for the determination of positivity constraints. I discuss the impact of both these new inputs on the uncertainty of parton distribution functions.

  12. Export industry structure upgrading and China's vertical specialization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Yinghua

    2011-10-01

    We computed the ratio of China's vertical specialization with revising method of Hummels et al. (2001). We found that China's export has the traits of processing trade, and Asian countries are the main exporter of intermediate goods to China; there is strong positive relationship between export ratio and ratio of China's vertical specialization, indicates that importing of intermediate goods play an important role in China's industry upgrading, China's comparative advantage of export still lies in low price of labor; even if China's production still locates in low value added stage in international supply chain, but China has began to advance its industry structure, and change the mode of production and trade that rely processing trade too much.

  13. Upgrade of the Upstream Tracker at LHCb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, Jason; LHCb Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    The LHCb detector will be upgraded to allow it operate at higher collider luminosity without the need for a hardware trigger stage. Flavor enriched events will be selected in a software based, high level trigger, using fully reconstructed events. This presentation will describe the design, optimization and the expected performance of the Upstream Tracker (UT), which has a critical role in high level trigger scheme.

  14. Fast sweeping reflectometry upgrade on Tore Supra

    SciTech Connect

    Clairet, F.; Bottereau, C.; Molina, D.; Ducobu, L.; Leroux, F.; Barbuti, A.; Heuraux, S.

    2010-10-15

    In order to study the temporal dynamics of turbulence, the sweep time of our reflectometry has been shortened from 20 to 2 {mu}s with 1 {mu}s dead time. Detailed technical aspects of the upgrade are given, namely, about the stability of the ramp generation, the detection setup, and the fast acquisition module. A review of studies (velocity measurement of the turbulence, modifications of the wavenumber spectrum, radial mapping of correlation time, etc.) offered by such improvements is presented.

  15. Upgrade of Fermilab/NICADD photoinjector laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Piot, P.; Edwards, H.; Huning, M.; Li, J.; Tikhoplav, R.; Koeth, T.; /Rutgers U., Piscataway

    2005-05-01

    The Fermilab/NICADD photoinjector laboratory is a 16 MeV electron accelerator dedicated to beam dynamics and advanced accelerator physics studies. FNPL will soon be capable of operating at {approx} 40 MeV, after the installation of a high gradient TESLA cavity. In this paper we present the foreseen design for the upgraded facility along with its performance. We discuss the possibilities of using of FNPL as an injector for the superconducting module and test facility (SM&TF).

  16. SLC Energy Upgrade Program at SLAC

    SciTech Connect

    Loew, G.A.; Allen, M.A.; Cassel, R.L.; Dean, N.R.; Konrad, G.T.; Koontz, R.F.; Lebacqz, J.V.

    1985-03-01

    The SLAC Linear Collider (SLC) must reach a nominal center-of-mass energy of 100 GeV to fulfill its high energy physics goals. This paper describes the energy upgrade program that is being implemented on the SLAC linear accelerator to meet these goals. It includes a discussion of the design requirements and available technical options, the rationale for the adopted solution, and the technical problems involved in the engineering and production of klystrons and modulators.

  17. The Sandia Lightning Simulator Recommissioning and upgrades.

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, Leonard E.; Caldwell, Michele

    2005-08-01

    The Sandia lightning simulator at Sandia National Laboratories can provide up to 200 kA for a simulated single lightning stroke, 100 kA for a subsequent stroke, and hundreds of Amperes of continuing current. It has recently been recommissioned after a decade of inactivity and the single-stroke capability demonstrated. The simulator capabilities, basic design components, upgrades, and diagnostic capabilities are discussed in this paper.

  18. Space Shuttle Upgrades Advanced Hydraulic Power System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Three Auxiliary Power Units (APU) on the Space Shuttle Orbiter each provide 145 hp shaft power to a hydraulic pump which outputs 3000 psi hydraulic fluid to 41 hydraulic actuators. A hydrazine fuel powered APU utilized throughout the Shuttle program has undergone many improvements, but concerns remain with flight safety, operational cost, critical failure modes, and hydrazine related hazards. The advanced hydraulic power system (AHPS), also known as the electric APU, is being evaluated as an upgrade to replace the hydrazine APU. The AHPS replaces the high-speed turbine and hydrazine fuel supply system with a battery power supply and electric motor/pump that converts 300 volt electrical power to 3000 psi hydraulic power. AHPS upgrade benefits include elimination of toxic hydrazine propellant to improve flight safety, reduction in hazardous ground processing operations, and improved reliability. Development of this upgrade provides many interesting challenges and includes development of four hardware elements that comprise the AHPS system: Battery - The battery provides a high voltage supply of power using lithium ion cells. This is a large battery that must provide 28 kilowatt hours of energy over 99 minutes of operation at 300 volts with a peak power of 130 kilowatts for three seconds. High Voltage Power Distribution and Control (PD&C) - The PD&C distributes electric power from the battery to the EHDU. This 300 volt system includes wiring and components necessary to distribute power and provide fault current protection. Electro-Hydraulic Drive Unit (EHDU) - The EHDU converts electric input power to hydraulic output power. The EHDU must provide over 90 kilowatts of stable, output hydraulic power at 3000 psi with high efficiency and rapid response time. Cooling System - The cooling system provides thermal control of the Orbiter hydraulic fluid and EHDU electronic components. Symposium presentation will provide an overview of the AHPS upgrade, descriptions of the four

  19. Proposal to upgrade the MIPP experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Isenhower, D.; Sadler, M.; Towell, R.; Watson, S.; Peterson, R.J.; Baker, W.; Carey, D.; Christian, D.; Demarteau, M.; Jensen, D.; Johnstone, C.; Meyer, H.; Raja, R.; Ronzhin, A.; Solomey, N.; Wester, W.; Gutbrod, H.; Peters, K.; Feldman, G.; Torun, Y.; Messier, M.D.; /Indiana U. /Iowa U. /Dubna, JINR /Kent State U. /Groningen, KVI /Michigan U. /St. Petersburg, INP /Purdue U. /South Carolina U. /Virginia U. /Wisconsin U., Madison

    2006-09-01

    The upgraded MIPP physics results are needed for the support of NuMI projects, atmospheric cosmic ray and neutrino programs worldwide and will permit a systematic study of non-perturbative QCD interactions. The MIPP TPC is the largest contributor to the MIPP event size by far. Its readout system and electronics were designed in the 1990's and limit it to a readout rate of 60 Hz in simple events and {approx} 20 Hz in complicated events. With the readout chips designed for the ALICE collaboration at the LHC, we propose a low cost scheme of upgrading the MIPP data acquisition speed to 3000 Hz. This will also enable us to measure the medium energy numi target to be used for the NOvA/MINERvA experiments. We outline the capabilities of the upgraded MIPP detector to obtain high statistics particle production data on a number of nuclei that will help towards the understanding and simulation of hadronic showers in matter. Measurements of nitrogen cross sections will permit a better understanding of cosmic ray shower systematics in the atmosphere. In addition, we explore the possibilities of providing tagged neutral beams using the MIPP spectrometer that may be crucial for validating the Particle Flow Algorithm proposed for calorimeters for the International Linear Collider detectors. Lastly, we outline the physics potential of such a detector in understanding non-perturbative QCD processes.

  20. The APS control system network upgrade.

    SciTech Connect

    Sidorowicz, K. v.; Leibfritz, D.; McDowell, W. P.

    1999-10-22

    When it was installed,the Advanced Photon Source (APS) control system network was at the state-of-the-art. Different aspects of the system have been reported at previous meetings [1,2]. As loads on the controls network have increased due to newer and faster workstations and front-end computers, we have found performance of the system declining and have implemented an upgraded network. There have been dramatic advances in networking hardware in the last several years. The upgraded APS controls network replaces the original FDDI backbone and shared Ethernet hubs with redundant gigabit uplinks and fully switched 10/100 Ethernet switches with backplane fabrics in excess of 20 Gbits/s (Gbps). The central collapsed backbone FDDI concentrator has been replaced with a Gigabit Ethernet switch with greater than 30 Gbps backplane fabric. Full redundancy of the system has been maintained. This paper will discuss this upgrade and include performance data and performance comparisons with the original network.

  1. NSTX-U Control System Upgrades

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, K. G.; Gates, D. A.; Gerhardt, S. P.; Lawson, J. E.; Mozulay, R.; Sichta, P.; Tchilinguirian, G. J.

    2014-06-01

    The National Spherical Tokamak Experiment (NSTX) is undergoing a wealth of upgrades (NSTX-U). These upgrades, especially including an elongated pulse length, require broad changes to the control system that has served NSTX well. A new fiber serial Front Panel Data Port input and output (I/O) stream will supersede the aging copper parallel version. Driver support for the new I/O and cyber security concerns require updating the operating system from Redhat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) v4 to RedHawk (based on RHEL) v6. While the basic control system continues to use the General Atomics Plasma Control System (GA PCS), the effort to forward port the entire software package to run under 64-bit Linux instead of 32-bit Linux included PCS modifications subsequently shared with GA and other PCS users. Software updates focused on three key areas: (1) code modernization through coding standards (C99/C11), (2) code portability and maintainability through use of the GA PCS code generator, and (3) support of 64-bit platforms. Central to the control system upgrade is the use of a complete real time (RT) Linux platform provided by Concurrent Computer Corporation, consisting of a computer (iHawk), an operating system and drivers (RedHawk), and RT tools (NightStar). Strong vendor support coupled with an extensive RT toolset influenced this decision. The new real-time Linux platform, I/O, and software engineering will foster enhanced capability and performance for NSTX-U plasma control.

  2. DAQ Architecture for the LHCb Upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Guoming; Neufeld, Niko

    2014-06-01

    LHCb will have an upgrade of its detector in 2018. After the upgrade, the LHCb experiment will run at a high luminosity of 2 × 1033 cm-2s-1. The upgraded detector will be read out at 40 MHz with a highly flexible software-based triggering strategy. The Data Acquisition (DAQ) system of LHCb reads out the data fragments from the Front-End Electronics and transports them to the High-Lever Trigger farm at an aggregate throughput of ~ 32 Tbit/s. The DAQ system will be based on high speed network technologies such as InfiniBand and/or 10/40/100 Gigabit Ethernet. Independent of the network technology, there are different possible architectures for the DAQ system. In this paper, we present our studies on the DAQ architecture, where we analyze size, complexity and relative cost. We evaluate and compare several data-flow schemes for a network-based DAQ: push, pull and push with barrel-shifter traffic shaping. We also discuss the requirements and overall implications of the data-flow schemes on the DAQ system.

  3. Criteria development for upgrading computer networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Efe, Kemal

    1995-01-01

    Being an infrastructure system, the computer network has a fundamental role in the day to day activities of personnel working at KSC. It is easily appreciated that the lack of 'satisfactory' network performance can have a high 'cost' for KSC. Yet, this seemingly obvious concept is quite difficult to demonstrate. At what point do we say that performance is below the lowest tolerable level? How do we know when the 'cost' of using the system at the current level of degraded performance exceeds the cost of upgrading it? In this research, we consider the cost and performance factors that may have an effect in decision making in regards to upgrading computer networks. Cost factors are detailed in terms of 'direct costs' and 'subjective costs'. Performance factors are examined in terms of 'required performance' and 'offered performance.' Required performance is further examined by presenting a methodology for trend analysis based on applying interpolation methods to observed traffic levels. Offered performance levels are analyzed by deriving simple equations to evaluate network performance. The results are evaluated in the light of recommended upgrade policies currently in use for telephone exchange systems, similarities and differences between the two types of services are discussed.

  4. Upgrades to Monteburns, version 3.0

    SciTech Connect

    Galloway, J. D.; Trellue, H. R.

    2012-07-01

    Monteburns, a Monte Carlo burnup code which has the flexibility to model time-dependent isotopic changes for a variety of nuclear systems by linking the neutron transport code MCNP/X to a production/depletion code, has undergone several performance upgrades recently that have increased the code's capabilities. Once limited to a specific number of regions, enhancements have been implemented that afford a much greater number of burn materials, such that users will be more limited by the physical constraints of their computing environment as opposed to inherent limits built into the coding of Monteburns. In conjunction with the increase in the number of burn materials, parallel execution of a production/depletion code of choice has been implemented, such that users have the option of using CINDER90, 0RIGEN2, or the newly released version of ORIGEN. Finally, the recoverable energy per fission calculation was upgraded to include capture gamma energy deposited in all specified materials as a function of irradiation time. The sum of the prompt and delayed recoverable energies from fission was obtained as before. These upgrades were first tested on a rigorous 1/8 core model of a Pressurized Water Reactor with fresh, once- and twice-burned fuel. We can now model several orders of magnitude more materials using Monte Carlo techniques, which is a significant advance in the reactor modeling world. (authors)

  5. Status of PLS-II Upgrade Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyung-Ryul; Wiedemann, Helmut; Park, Sung-Ju; Kim, Dong-Eon; Park, Chong-Do; Park, Sung-Soo; Kim, Seong-Hwan; Kim, Bongsoo; Namkung, Won; Nam, Sanghoon; Ree, Moonhor

    2010-06-01

    The Pohang Light Source (PLS) at the Pohang Accelerator Laboratory has been operated first at 2.0 GeV since 1995, and later was upgraded to 2.5 GeV. During this time, 6 insertion devices like undulators and multipole wigglers have been put into operation to produce special photon beams, with a total of 27 beamlines installed and 3 beamlines under construction. Recently, Korea synchrotron user's community is demanding high beam stability, higher photon energies as well as more straight sections for insertion devices in the PLS. To meet the user requirements, the PLS-II upgrade program has been launched in January, 2009, incorporating a modified chromatic version of Double Bend Achromat (DBA) to achieve almost twice as many straight sections as the current PLS with a design goal of the relatively low emittance, ɛ, of 5.9 nmṡrad. In the PLS-II, the top-up injection using full energy linac is planned for much higher stable beam as well and thus the production of hard x-ray undulator radiation of 8 to 13 keV is anticipated to allow for the successful research program namely Protein Crystallography. The PLS-II machine components of storage ring, linear accelerator and photon beamlines will be partly dismantled and reinstalled in a 6-months shutdown beginning January, 2011 and then the PLS-II upgrade be started the initial commissioning with a 100 mA beam current from July in 2011.

  6. Progress in the AGS upgrade projects

    SciTech Connect

    Sluyters, T.J.

    1989-01-01

    The objectives of the AGS Upgrade Project are to prepare the AGS for Booster injection with an increase in the proton intensity to 6 {times} 10{sup 13} particles per pulse for a new generation of experiments on rare K decay, neutrino physics, the (g-2) value of the muon, and many other areas; to increase polarized proton intensity to 10{sup 12} particles per pulse for multi-target spin physics; to accelerate heavy ions up to Au for heavy ion physics; and, of course, to improve the flexibility and reliability of the AGS. High priority has been given to those projects which will reduce, at an early stage, beam losses during injection and acceleration, such as a fast electrostatic beam chopper and a high frequency dilution cavity. Other upgrade programs in progress are: a vacuum overhaul to reduce the AGS operating pressure by a factor of 100; an upgrade of the low and high field magnet correction system; automation of the Siemens main magnet power supply, etc. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  7. Progress on the NSTX Center Stack Upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    L. Dudek, J. Chrzanowski, P. Heitzenroeder, D. Mangra, C. Neumeyer, M. Smith, R. Strykowsky, P. Titus, T. Willard

    2010-09-22

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) will be upgraded to provide increased toroidal field, plasma current and pulse length. This involves the replacement of the so-called center stack, including the inner legs of the Toroidal Field (TF) coil, the Ohmic Heating (OH) coil, and the inner Poloidal Field (PF) coils. In addition the increased performance of the upgrade requires qualification of remaining existing components for higher loads. Initial conceptual design efforts were based on worst-case combinations of possible currents that the power supplies could deliver. This proved to be an onerous requirement and caused many of the outer coils support structures to require costly heavy reinforcement. This has led to the planned implementation of a Digital Coil Protection System (DCPS) to reduce design-basis loads to levels that are more realistic and manageable. As a minimum, all components must be qualified for the increase in normal operating loads with headroom. Design features and analysis efforts needed to meet the upgrade loading are discussed. Mission and features of the DCPS are presented.

  8. SLC energy spectrum monitor using synchrotron radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Seeman, J.; Brunk, W.; Early, R.; Ross, M.; Tillmann, E.; Walz, D.

    1986-04-01

    The SLAC Linac is being upgraded for the use in the SLAC Linear Collider (SLC). The improved Linac must accelerate electron and positron bunches from 1.2 GeV to 50 GeV while producing output energy spectra of about 0.2%. The energy spectra must be maintained during operation to provide for good beam transmission and to minimize chromatic effects in the SLC ARCs and Final Focus. the energy spectra of these beams are determined by the bunch length and intensity, the RF phase and waveform and the intra-bunch longitudinal wakefields. A non-destructive energy spectrum monitor has been designed using a vertical wiggler magnet located downstream of the horizontal beam splitter at the end of the SLC Linac. It produces synchrotron radiation which is viewed in an off-axis x-ray position sensitive detector. The expected resolution is 0.08%. The design considerations of this monitor are presented in this paper. A pair of these monitors is under construction with an installation date set for late summer 1986. 5 refs., 6 figs.

  9. Floodplain Assessment for the Proposed Outdoor Fire Range Upgrades at TA-72 in Lower Sandia Canyon, Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Hathcock, Charles D.

    2012-08-27

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is preparing to implement actions in Sandia Canyon at Technical Area (TA) 72. Los Alamos National Security (LANS) biologists conducted a floodplain determination and this project is partially located within a 100-year floodplain. The proposed project is to upgrade the existing outdoor shooting range facilities at TA-72. These upgrades will result in increased safety and efficiencies in the training for Protective Force personnel. In order to remain current on training requirements, the firing ranges at TA-72 will be upgraded which will result in increased safety and efficiencies in the training for Protective Force personnel (Figure 1). These upgrades will allow for an increase in class size and more people to be qualified at the ranges. Some of these upgrades will be built within the 100-year floodplain. The upgrades include: concrete pads for turning target systems and shooting positions, new lighting to illuminate the firing range for night fire, a new speaker system for range operations, canopies at two locations, an impact berm at the far end of the 300-yard mark, and a block wall for road protection.

  10. Monitoring well

    DOEpatents

    Hubbell, Joel M.; Sisson, James B.

    2002-01-01

    The present invention relates to a monitoring well which includes an enclosure defining a cavity and a water reservoir enclosed within the cavity and wherein the reservoir has an inlet and an outlet. The monitoring well further includes a porous housing borne by the enclosure and which defines a fluid chamber which is oriented in fluid communication with the outlet of the reservoir, and wherein the porous housing is positioned in an earthen soil location below-grade. A geophysical monitoring device is provided and mounted in sensing relation relative to the fluid chamber of the porous housing; and a coupler is selectively moveable relative to the outlet of reservoir to couple the porous housing and water reservoir in fluid communication. An actuator is coupled in force transmitting relation relative to the coupler to selectively position the coupler in a location to allow fluid communication between the reservoir and the fluid chamber defined by the porous housing.

  11. Effect of telemetric monitoring in the first 30 days of continuous positive airway pressure adaptation for obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome - a controlled pilot study.

    PubMed

    Frasnelli, Matthias; Baty, Florent; Niedermann, Jolanda; Brutsche, Martin H; Schoch, Otto D

    2016-06-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) is characterised by repetitive collapse of the upper airway during sleep. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) applied via a mask is the standard treatment for OSAS. CPAP adherence is crucial in therapy to prevent the deleterious consequences of OSAS. We hypothesised that a combination of supervision by telemetry together with targeted telephone support in the first month of CPAP would increase CPAP adherence and treatment success. A total of 113 OSAS patients followed by telemetry-triggered interventions used the device for 5.3 h/night on 28/30 nights, significantly more than the 110 OSAS patients in the control group with 4.6 h/night and 27/30 nights. Telemetry-triggered interventions have a significant impact on adherence rate in early CPAP treatment. These results can be reached with an acceptable additional effort. PMID:26253747

  12. The BaBar Gas Bubbler Upgrade and Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Gan, Yu; Young, C.; /SLAC

    2005-12-15

    The Instrumented Flux Return region (muon and K{sub L} detection barrel) of the BaBar detector at SLAC requires careful monitoring of the gas flow through the detector array. This is currently done by a system of digital gas bubblers which monitor the flow rate by using photogate technology to detect the presence of bubbles formed by gas flowing through an internal oil chamber. Recently, however, a design flaw was discovered in these bubblers. Because the bubblers are connected directly to the detector array with no filter, during rises in atmospheric pressure or a drop in the gas flow rate (e.g. when the gas system is shut off for maintenance), the oil in this chamber could be forced backwards into the detector tubes. To compensate for this problem, we upgraded the existing gas bubbler systems by installing metal traps into the old gas lines to capture the oil. This installation was followed by an evaluation of the retro-fitted bubblers during which we determined a relationship between the bubble counting rate and the actual gas flow rate, but encountered recurring problems with baseline fluctuations and unstable bubble counting rates. Future work will involve the study of how these instabilities develop, and whether or not they can be mitigated.

  13. On optimal strategies for upgrading networks

    SciTech Connect

    Krumke, S.O.; Noltemeier, H.; Marathe, M.V.; Ravi, S.S.; Ravi, R.; Sundaram, R.

    1996-07-02

    We study {ital budget constrained optimal network upgrading problems}. Such problems aim at finding optimal strategies for improving a network under some cost measure subject to certain budget constraints. Given an edge weighted graph {ital G(V,E)}, in the {ital edge based upgrading model}, it is assumed that each edge {ital e} of the given network has an associated function {ital c(e)} that specifies for each edge {ital e} the amount by which the length {ital l(e)} is to be reduced. In the {ital node based upgrading model} a node {ital v} can be upgraded at an expense of cost {ital (v)}. Such an upgrade reduces the cost of each edge incident on {ital v} by a fixed factor {rho}, where 0 < {rho} < 1. For a given budget, {ital B}, the goal is to find an improvement strategy such that the total cost of reduction is a most the given budget {ital B} and the cost of a subgraph (e.g. minimum spanning tree) under the modified edge lengths is the best over all possible strategies which obey the budget constraint. Define an ({alpha},{beta})-approximation algorithm as a polynomial-time algorithm that produces a solution within {alpha} times the optimal function value, violating the budget constraint by a factor of at most {Beta}. The results obtained in this paper include the following 1. We show that in general the problem of computing optimal reduction strategy for modifying the network as above is {bold NP}-hard. 2. In the node based model, we show how to devise a near optimal strategy for improving the bottleneck spanning tree. The algorithms have a performance guarantee of (2 ln {ital n}, 1). 3. for the edge based improvement problems we present improved (in terms of performance and time) approximation algorithms. 4. We also present pseudo-polynomial time algorithms (extendible to polynomial time approximation schemes) for a number of edge/node based improvement problems when restricted to the class of treewidth-bounded graphs.

  14. Statistical Health Monitoring Applied to a Metabolomic Study of Experimental Hepatocarcinogenesis: An Alternative Approach to Supervised Methods for the Identification of False Positives.

    PubMed

    Del Carratore, Francesco; Lussu, Milena; Kowalik, Marta Anna; Perra, Andrea; Griffin, Julian Leether; Atzori, Luigi; Grosso, Massimiliano

    2016-08-16

    In a typical metabolomics experiment, two or more conditions (e.g., treated versus untreated) are compared, in order to investigate the potential differences in the metabolic profiles. When dealing with complex biological systems, a two-class classification is often unsuitable, since it does not consider the unpredictable differences between samples (e.g., nonresponder to treatment). An approach based on statistical process control (SPC), which is able to monitor the response to a treatment or the development of a pathological condition, is proposed here. Such an approach has been applied to an experimental hepatocarcinogenesis model to discover early individual metabolic variations associated with a different response to the treatment. Liver study was performed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, followed by multivariate statistical analysis. By this approach, we were able to (1) identify which treated samples have a significantly different metabolic profile, compared to the control (in fact, as confirmed by immunohistochemistry, the method correctly classified 7 responders and 3 nonresponders among the 10 treated animals); (2) recognize, for each individual sample, the metabolites that are out of control (e.g., glutathione, acetate, betaine, and phosphocholine). The first point could be used for classification purposes, and the second point could be used for a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying the early phase of carcinogenesis. The statistical control approach can be used for diagnosis (e.g., healthy versus pathological, responder versus nonresponder) and for generation of an individual metabolic profile, leading to a better understanding of the individual pathological processes and to a personalized diagnosis and therapy. PMID:27437557

  15. Technology-Aided Programs to Support Positive Verbal and Physical Engagement in Persons with Moderate or Severe Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O’Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff; D’Amico, Fiora; Renna, Caterina; Pinto, Katia

    2016-01-01

    Pilot studies using technology-aided programs to promote verbal reminiscence and mild physical activity (i.e., positive forms of engagement) in persons with moderate or severe Alzheimer’s disease have provided promising results (Lancioni et al., 2015a,b). The present two studies were aimed at upgrading and/or extending the assessment of those programs. Specifically, Study 1 upgraded the program for verbal reminiscence and assessed it with eight new participants. The upgraded version automatically monitored the participants’ verbal behavior during the sessions, in which photos and brief videos were used to foster verbal reminiscence. Monitoring allowed computer approval and reminders to be consistent with the participants’ behavior. Study 2 extended the assessment of the program for promoting mild physical activity with 10 new participants for whom arm-raising responses were targeted. The results of Study 1 showed that the participants’ mean percentages of intervals with verbal engagement/reminiscence were below 10 during baseline and control sessions and between above 50 and nearly 80 during the intervention. The results of Study 2 showed that the mean frequencies of arm-raising responses were about or below four and between about 10 and 19 per session during the baseline and the intervention, respectively. The general implications of the aforementioned results and the need for new research in the area were discussed. PMID:27148050

  16. First Results From the (Multibeam) Hydrosweep DS2 Upgrade on the R/V Maurice Ewing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chayes, D. N.; Slagle, A.; Caress, D. W.; Arko, R. A.

    2001-12-01

    The ATLAS Hydrosweep DS multibeam swath mapping sonar system on the R/V Maurice Ewing was upgraded to a DS2 in May 2000. This upgrade increased the effective swath width from 59 beams over about 89 degrees to as many as 140 beams over approximately 118 degrees, added sidescan image as well as data records from which backscatter can be extracted. The upgrade replaced the outdated processing computer, half-inch tape drive and console with modern workstations and 4mm tape. The upgrade did not require changes to the under hull transducer arrays or transceivers so it was relatively inexpensive and was accomplished in a few days during a transit of the Panama Canal. Evaluation and software enhancements were done during subsequent transits. MB-System was enhanced to support the native, raw data format of the Hydrosweep DS2. We also expect to be able to support the more general SURF format that is also generated by new ATLAS sonar systems in the near future. In addition to the hardware and software upgrades to the multibeam, we installed a POS/MV-320 vertical reference system to take over from our venerable HIPPY-120 as the primary attitude reference for the Hydrosweep on the Ewing. The attitude data from the POS has allowed us to eliminate the turn rate restrictions and to improve the data quality. As an additional benefit the P-Code aided position data produced by the POS is significantly more stable and better behaved than our other navigation sources. The upgraded sonar was used during EW0108 (Taylor) in the Gulf of Corinth. As is usually the case with new implementations or modifications of complex systems, some unexpected behaviors were observed and carefully documented. Good remote support from the manufacturer enabled us to implement fixes and to generate very good quality bathymetry and sidescan images on board and in shore-side post processing. Two related software prototypes are currently being evaluated as part of this upgrade package. One is a web-based real

  17. Comparison of false-negative/positive results of intraoperative evoked potential monitoring between no and partial neuromuscular blockade in patients receiving propofol/remifentanil-based anesthesia during cerebral aneurysm clipping surgery: A retrospective analysis of 685 patients.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Hoon; Jin, Seok-Joon; Karm, Myong-Hwan; Moon, Young-Jin; Jeong, Hye-Won; Kim, Jae-Won; Ha, Seung-Il; Kim, Joung-Uk

    2016-08-01

    Although the elicited responses of motor evoked potential (MEP) monitoring are very sensitive to suppression by anesthetic agents and muscle relaxants, the use of neuromuscular blockade (NMB) during MEP monitoring is still controversial because of serious safety concerns and diagnostic accuracy. Here, we evaluated the incidence of unacceptable movement and compared false-negative MEP results between no and partial NMB during cerebral aneurysm clipping surgery. We reviewed patient medical records for demographic data, anesthesia regimen, neurophysiology event logs, MEP results, and clinical outcomes. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to the intraoperative use of NMB: no NMB group (n = 276) and partial NMB group (n = 409). We compared the diagnostic accuracy of MEP results to predict postoperative outcomes between both groups. Additionally, we evaluated unwanted patient movement during MEP monitoring in both groups. Of the 685 patients, 622 (90.8%) manifested no intraoperative changes in MEP and no postoperative motor deficits. Twenty patients showed postoperative neurologic deficits despite preserved intraoperative MEP. False-positive MEP results were 3.6% in the no NMB group and 3.9% in the partial NMB group (P = 1.00). False-negative MEP results were 1.1% in the no NMB group and 4.2% in the partial NMB group (P = 0.02). No spontaneous movement or spontaneous respiration was observed in either group. Propofol/remifentanil-based anesthesia without NMB decreases the stimulation intensity of MEPs, which may reduce the false-negative ratio of MEP monitoring during cerebral aneurysm surgery. Our anesthetic protocol enabled reliable intraoperative MEP recording and patient immobilization during cerebral aneurysm clipping surgery. PMID:27559984

  18. Sensitive monitoring of monoterpene metabolites in human urine using two-step derivatisation and positive chemical ionisation-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Lukas; Belov, Vladimir N; Göen, Thomas

    2013-09-01

    A gas chromatographic-positive chemical ionisation-tandem mass spectrometric (GC-PCI-MS/MS) method for the simultaneous determination of 10 oxidative metabolites of the monoterpenoid hydrocarbons α-pinene, (R)-limonene, and Δ(3)-carene ((+)-3-carene) in human urine was developed and tested for the monoterpene biomonitoring of the general population (n=36). The method involves enzymatic cleavage of the glucuronides followed by solid-supported liquid-liquid extraction and derivatisation using a two-step reaction with N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)-trifluoroacetamide and N-(trimethylsilyl)imidazole. The method proved to be both sensitive and reliable with detection limits ranging from 0.1 to 0.3 μg L(-1). In contrast to the frequent and distinct quantities of (1S,2S,4R)-limonene-1,2-diol, the (1R,2R,4R)-stereoisomer could not be detected. The expected metabolite of (+)-3-carene, 3-caren-10-ol was not detected in any of the samples. All other metabolites were detected in almost all urine samples. The procedure enables for the first time the analysis of trace levels of a broad spectrum of mono- and bicyclic monoterpenoid metabolites (alcohols, diols, and carboxylic acids) in human urine. This analytical procedure is a powerful tool for population studies as well as for the discovery of human metabolism and toxicokinetics of monoterpenes. PMID:23953203

  19. Stability, Visibility, and Histologic Analysis of a New Implanted Fiducial for Use as a Kilovoltage Radiographic or Radioactive Marker for Patient Positioning and Monitoring in Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Neustadter, David; Tune, Michal; Zaretsky, Asaph; Shofti, Rona; Kushnir, Arnon; Harel, Tami; Carmi-Yinon, Dafna; Corn, Ben M.S.

    2010-07-15

    Purpose: To analyze the stability, visibility, and histology of a novel implantable soft-tissue marker (nonradioactive and radioactive) implanted in dog prostate and rabbit liver. Methods and Materials: A total of 34 nonradioactive and 35 radioactive markers were implanted in 1 dog and 16 rabbits. Stability was assessed by measuring intermarker distance (IMD) variation relative to IMDs at implantation. The IMDs were measured weekly for 4 months in the dog and biweekly for 2-4 weeks in the rabbits. Ultrasound and X-ray imaging were performed on all subjects. Computed tomography and MRI were performed on the dog. Histologic analysis was performed on the rabbits after 2 or 4 months. Results: A total of 139 measurements had a mean ({+-} SD) absolute IMD variation of 1.1 {+-} 1.1 mm. These IMD variations are consistent with those reported in the literature as due to random organ deformation. The markers were visible, identifiable, and induced minimal or no image artifacts in all tested imaging modalities. Histologic analysis revealed that all pathologic changes were highly localized and not expected to be clinically significant. Conclusions: The markers were stable from the time of implantation. The markers were found to be compatible with all common medical imaging modalities. The markers caused no significant histologic effects. With respect to marker stability, visibility, and histologic analysis these implanted fiducials are appropriate for soft-tissue target positioning in radiotherapy.

  20. Fermilab Recycler Ring BPM Upgrade Based on Digital Receiver Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Webber, R.; Crisp, J.; Prieto, P.; Voy, D.; Briegel, C.; McClure, C.; West, R.; Pordes, S.; Mengel, M.

    2004-11-10

    Electronics for the 237 BPMs in the Fermilab Recycler Ring have been upgraded from a log-amplifier based system to a commercially produced digitizer-digital down converter based system. The hardware consists of a pre-amplifier connected to a split-plate BPM, an analog differential receiver-filter module and an 8-channel 80-MHz digital down converter VME board. The system produces position and intensity with a dynamic range of 30 dB and a resolution of {+-}10 microns. The position measurements are made on 2.5-MHz bunched beam and barrier buckets of the un-bunched beam. The digital receiver system operates in one of six different signal processing modes that include 2.5-MHz average, 2.5-MHz bunch-by-bunch, 2.5-MHz narrow band, unbunched average, un-bunched head/tail and 89-kHz narrow band. Receiver data is acquired on any of up to sixteen clock events related to Recycler beam transfers and other machine activities. Data from the digital receiver board are transferred to the front-end CPU for position and intensity computation on an on-demand basis through the VME bus. Data buffers are maintained for each of the acquisition events and support flash, closed orbit and turn-by-turn measurements. A calibration system provides evaluation of the BPM signal path and application programs.