Science.gov

Sample records for positive co-operative activity

  1. Fostering Positive Peer Relations in the Primary Classroom through Circle Time and Co-Operative Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mary, Latisha

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of co-operative games and circle time activities in fostering positive peer relations in two French Primary classrooms (N = 40). It presents French teachers' and pupils' perceptions of a set of co-operative games and circle time activities implemented within a year long study on personal,…

  2. Co-operation at work: a process-oriented perspective on joint activity in inter-organizational relations.

    PubMed

    Wehner, T; Clases, C; Bachmann, R

    2000-07-01

    In this paper the authors present a conceptual framework for analysing co-operation between organizations as a situated process, highlighting co-operation, co-ordination and co-construction as different modes of joint activity. Within this framework, the analysis of unexpected events becomes a crucial issue. The analytic power of reconstructing the (psycho-) logics of unexpected events in inter-organizational relations will be demonstrated in the presentation of selected outcomes of a research project on the dynamics of producer-supplier relationships in the German automobile industry. Also in this empirical part, the significance of trust and confidence in inter-organizational relations will be reflected. PMID:10929832

  3. Active and inactive enhancers co-operate to exert localized and long-range control of gene regulation

    PubMed Central

    Proudhon, Charlotte; Snetkova, Valentina; Raviram, Ramya; Lobry, Camille; Badri, Sana; Jiang, Tingting; Hao, Bingtao; Trimarchi, Thomas; Kluger, Yuval; Aifantis, Iannis; Bonneau, Richard; Skok, Jane A

    2016-01-01

    V(D)J recombination relies on the presence of proximal enhancers that activate the antigen receptor (AgR) loci in a lineage and stage specific manner. Unexpectedly we find that both active and inactive AgR enhancers co-operate to disseminate their effects in a localized and long-range manner. Here we demonstrate the importance of short-range contacts between active enhancers that constitute an Igk super-enhancer in B cells. Deletion of one element reduces the interaction frequency between other enhancers in the hub, which compromises the transcriptional output of each component. We further establish that in T cells long-range contact and co-operation between the inactive Igk enhancer, MiEκ and the active Tcrb enhancer, Eβ, alters enrichment of CBFβ binding in a manner that impacts Tcrb recombination. These findings underline the complexities of enhancer regulation and point to a role for localized and long-range enhancer-sharing between active and inactive elements in lineage and stage specific control. PMID:27239026

  4. Co-Operative Education or Co-Operative Placement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickson, C. R.

    The Co-operative Education Department at Mohawk College is designed to extend the academic learning process into the workplace through on-the-job learning experiences which enhance the students' vocational maturation and personal development, and are integrated with the learning objectives of the program. The department offers paid, supervised…

  5. It All Began with Raiffeisen: Co-operatives as Instruments of Self-Help and Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nover, Kurt

    1986-01-01

    The rural and manufacturing co-operatives and credit co-operatives in the Federal Republic of Germany have succeeded in continuously expanding and consolidating their position within the framework of the country's market economy. As the biggest organizations of medium-size enterprises, the co-operatives have adapted to the new circumstances…

  6. Optical positions of active galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meurs, E. J. A.

    1984-04-01

    Optical positions are calculated for 26 active galaxies (mainly Markarian dn Arakelian objects), using the plate-measuring apparatus at Leiden Observatory on the O plates of the Palomar Sky Survey and applying AGK-3 data in the reductions. The results are presented in a table and have accuracy 0.5 arcsec; a comparison with the positions determined by Clements (1981, 1983) for 19 objects reveals a possible offset of -0.28 arcsec in the right-ascension determinations.

  7. The Co-Operative: Good with Schools?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coates, Max

    2015-01-01

    The article is a summary of a small-scale research project which considers the formation of Co-operative Trust Schools. This was carried out in 2013 at a time when the number of schools becoming Academies and Trust Schools through the Co-operative College was burgeoning. Through questionnaire, interview, documentary analysis and exploration of…

  8. Women and International Intellectual Co-Operation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Joyce

    2012-01-01

    The article explores ways in which intellectual co-operation at the League of Nations [SDN] provided a space for the engagement of culturally elite women in intellectual co-operation circles in Geneva, Paris and a range of national contexts stretching across Europe, Latin America and Asia. It discusses the language of the "international mind" and…

  9. Making Co-Operative Ideas Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Phil

    2013-01-01

    Reddish Vale Technology College was the first co-operative trust in England. The democratic and co-operative nature of the experiment mean that students have gained a greater voice in the organisation of the school. As a result, new social enterprises, environmental interventions, connections with the community and with the wider co-operative…

  10. [SUPPORT, CO-OPERATIVE EDUCATION PROGRAMMES, PRAGMATIC CODE OF ETHICS: A CLINICAL APPROACH OF EXECUTIVE TRAINING].

    PubMed

    Cabaret, Véronique

    2016-01-01

    This article aims at introducing an educational sequence completed at l'Institut de Formation des Cadres de Santé (IFCS) at the CHRU in Lille in France, entitled "training project and educational project" present in the "training duties" module whose goal is to generate students'knowledge through co-operative education programmes. By creating this innovative sequence, the educational aim is to use the Institut ground as a ground of learning, associated with the various internship grounds, in order to get the most of co-operative education programmes. Besides, in a pragmatic code of ethics in training, the teaching staff draw their inspiration from a clinical approach of executive training: they regard students as true protagonists in a co-operative plan created for them, wishing to design it with them using their words. Thus, students are brought to criticize the IFCS educational project and debate it with the trainers who have built it. Each partner tries to understand the Other, being aware of their being different. By contributing every year to rewriting the educational project which directly concerns them, students build their professional positions as health executives. They play an active role in co-operative education programmes just like IFCS outside partners. PMID:27305794

  11. Making poverty history in Sandwell the co-operative way.

    PubMed

    Mooney, Mary

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how a financial cooperative, owned and managed at a local level, can have a positive impact on financial exclusion. Member-owners of the co-operative are able to access easy saving products, take advantage of affordable loans, and develop transferable skills working as volunteers at the strategic and community level. PMID:18771197

  12. Co-operativity in a nanocrystalline solid-state transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Sarah L.; Smith, Jeremy G.; Behl, Mayank; Jain, Prashant K.

    2013-12-01

    Co-operativity is a remarkable phenomenon mostly seen in biology, where initial reaction events significantly alter the propensity of subsequent reaction events, giving rise to a nonlinear tightly regulated synergistic response. Here we have found unique evidence of atomic level co-operativity in an inorganic material. A thousand-atom nanocrystal (NC) of the inorganic solid cadmium selenide exhibits strong positive co-operativity in its reaction with copper ions. A NC doped with a few copper impurities becomes highly prone to be doped even further, driving an abrupt transition of the entire NC to the copper selenide phase, as manifested by a strongly sigmoidal response in optical spectroscopy and electron diffraction measurements. The examples presented here suggest that cooperative phenomena may have an important role in the solid state, especially in the nucleation of new chemical phases, crystal growth, and other materials’ transformations.

  13. Co-operativity in a nanocrystalline solid-state transition.

    PubMed

    White, Sarah L; Smith, Jeremy G; Behl, Mayank; Jain, Prashant K

    2013-01-01

    Co-operativity is a remarkable phenomenon mostly seen in biology, where initial reaction events significantly alter the propensity of subsequent reaction events, giving rise to a nonlinear tightly regulated synergistic response. Here we have found unique evidence of atomic level co-operativity in an inorganic material. A thousand-atom nanocrystal (NC) of the inorganic solid cadmium selenide exhibits strong positive co-operativity in its reaction with copper ions. A NC doped with a few copper impurities becomes highly prone to be doped even further, driving an abrupt transition of the entire NC to the copper selenide phase, as manifested by a strongly sigmoidal response in optical spectroscopy and electron diffraction measurements. The examples presented here suggest that cooperative phenomena may have an important role in the solid state, especially in the nucleation of new chemical phases, crystal growth, and other materials' transformations. PMID:24335761

  14. Analysis and Prospects of European Co-Operation in the Field of Regional Planning. Activity Report of the Committee of Senior Officials 1976-1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Europe, Strasbourg (France).

    To guide future work, to provide an overall view of the program of technical cooperation in regional planning, and to form a basis for a Conference Ministerial Resolution, the report outlines the activities of the Committee of Senior Officials (CSO) of the Council of Europe's Conference of Ministers Responsible for Regional Planning during…

  15. Co-operation of the transcription factor hepatocyte nuclear factor-4 with Sp1 or Sp3 leads to transcriptional activation of the human haem oxygenase-1 gene promoter in a hepatoma cell line.

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Shigeru; Matsuura, Naomi; Kurokawa, Takako; Takahashi, Yuji; Miura, Takashi

    2002-01-01

    We reported previously that the 5'-flanking region (nucleotides -1976 to -1655) of the human haem oxygenase-1 ( hHO-1 ) gene enhances hHO-1 promoter activity in human hepatoma HepG2 cells, but not in HeLa cells [Takahashi, Takahashi, Ito, Nagano, Shibahara and Miura (1999) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1447, 231-235]. To define more precisely the regulatory elements involved, in the present study we have functionally dissected this region and localized the enhancer to a 50 bp fragment (-1793 to -1744). Site-direct mutagenesis analysis revealed that two regions were responsible for this enhancer activity, i.e. a hepatocyte nuclear factor-4 (HNF-4) homologous region and a GC box motif homologous region. Mutation in either region alone moderately decreased enhancer activity. However, mutations in both regions reduced promoter activity to the basal level. Electrophoretic mobility-shift assays demonstrated that the P5-2 fragment (-1793 to -1744) interacted with at least two nuclear factors, i.e. HNF-4 and Sp1/Sp3. Co-transfection experiments using Drosophila SL2 cells revealed that HNF-4 and Sp1/Sp3 synergistically stimulated the enhancer activity of the P5-2 fragment. These results indicate that co-operation of HNF-4 with Sp1 or Sp3 leads to the activation of hHO-1 gene expression in hepatoma cells. PMID:12133007

  16. Co-operation of the transcription factor hepatocyte nuclear factor-4 with Sp1 or Sp3 leads to transcriptional activation of the human haem oxygenase-1 gene promoter in a hepatoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Shigeru; Matsuura, Naomi; Kurokawa, Takako; Takahashi, Yuji; Miura, Takashi

    2002-11-01

    We reported previously that the 5'-flanking region (nucleotides -1976 to -1655) of the human haem oxygenase-1 ( hHO-1 ) gene enhances hHO-1 promoter activity in human hepatoma HepG2 cells, but not in HeLa cells [Takahashi, Takahashi, Ito, Nagano, Shibahara and Miura (1999) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1447, 231-235]. To define more precisely the regulatory elements involved, in the present study we have functionally dissected this region and localized the enhancer to a 50 bp fragment (-1793 to -1744). Site-direct mutagenesis analysis revealed that two regions were responsible for this enhancer activity, i.e. a hepatocyte nuclear factor-4 (HNF-4) homologous region and a GC box motif homologous region. Mutation in either region alone moderately decreased enhancer activity. However, mutations in both regions reduced promoter activity to the basal level. Electrophoretic mobility-shift assays demonstrated that the P5-2 fragment (-1793 to -1744) interacted with at least two nuclear factors, i.e. HNF-4 and Sp1/Sp3. Co-transfection experiments using Drosophila SL2 cells revealed that HNF-4 and Sp1/Sp3 synergistically stimulated the enhancer activity of the P5-2 fragment. These results indicate that co-operation of HNF-4 with Sp1 or Sp3 leads to the activation of hHO-1 gene expression in hepatoma cells. PMID:12133007

  17. The Discourse Co-operation Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friel, Michael

    1984-01-01

    Proposes a new type of oral test, based on Grice's Co-operative Principle and its dependent maxims, to measure communicative competence. Describes the design, administration, and scoring of this timed, multiple-choice test and gives sample test materials. Discusses applications to testing languages for special purposes and ways of presenting the…

  18. INTERNATIONAL CO-OPERATION IN NUCLEAR DATA EVALUATION

    SciTech Connect

    Herman, M.; Katakura,J.; Koning,A.; Nordborg,C.

    2010-04-30

    The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) is organising a co-operation between the major nuclear data evaluation projects in the world. The co-operation involves the ENDF, JEFF, and JENDL projects, and, owing to the collaboration with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), also the Russian RUSFOND and the Chinese CENDL projects. The Working Party on international nuclear data Evaluation Cooperation (WPEC), comprised of about 20 core members, manages this co-operation and meets annually to discuss progress in each evaluation project and also related experimental activities. The WPEC assesses common needs for nuclear data improvements and these needs are then addressed by initiating joint evaluation efforts. The work is performed in specially established subgroups, consisting of experts from the participating evaluation projects. The outcome of these subgroups is published in reports, issued by the NEA. Current WPEC activities comprise for example a number of studies related to nuclear data uncertainties, including a review of methods for the combined use of integral experiments and covariance data, as well as evaluations of some of the major actinides, such as {sup 235}U and {sup 239}Pu. This paper gives an overview of current and planned activities within the WPEC.

  19. Quorum sensing protects bacterial co-operation from exploitation by cheats.

    PubMed

    Allen, Richard C; McNally, Luke; Popat, Roman; Brown, Sam P

    2016-07-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) is a cell-cell communication system found in many bacterial species, commonly controlling secreted co-operative traits, including extracellular digestive enzymes. We show that the canonical QS regulatory architecture allows bacteria to sense the genotypic composition of high-density populations, and limit co-operative investments to social environments enriched for co-operators. Using high-density populations of the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa we map per-capita signal and co-operative enzyme investment in the wild type as a function of the frequency of non-responder cheats. We demonstrate mathematically and experimentally that the observed response rule of 'co-operate when surrounded by co-operators' allows bacteria to match their investment in co-operation to the composition of the group, therefore allowing the maintenance of co-operation at lower levels of population structuring (that is, lower relatedness). Similar behavioural responses have been described in vertebrates under the banner of 'generalised reciprocity'. Our results suggest that mechanisms of reciprocity are not confined to taxa with advanced cognition, and can be implemented at the cellular level via positive feedback circuits. PMID:26744811

  20. Quorum sensing protects bacterial co-operation from exploitation by cheats

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Richard C; McNally, Luke; Popat, Roman; Brown, Sam P

    2016-01-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) is a cell–cell communication system found in many bacterial species, commonly controlling secreted co-operative traits, including extracellular digestive enzymes. We show that the canonical QS regulatory architecture allows bacteria to sense the genotypic composition of high-density populations, and limit co-operative investments to social environments enriched for co-operators. Using high-density populations of the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa we map per-capita signal and co-operative enzyme investment in the wild type as a function of the frequency of non-responder cheats. We demonstrate mathematically and experimentally that the observed response rule of ‘co-operate when surrounded by co-operators' allows bacteria to match their investment in co-operation to the composition of the group, therefore allowing the maintenance of co-operation at lower levels of population structuring (that is, lower relatedness). Similar behavioural responses have been described in vertebrates under the banner of ‘generalised reciprocity'. Our results suggest that mechanisms of reciprocity are not confined to taxa with advanced cognition, and can be implemented at the cellular level via positive feedback circuits. PMID:26744811

  1. Co-Operation: The Antidote to Isolated Misery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    This is a case study demonstrating the impact the co-operative movement has had on one co-operative school in south-west England. Lipson Co-operative Academy in Plymouth was one of the first schools to convert to become a co-operative school in 2009. The article has been co-written by members of the Academy and focuses on three transformational…

  2. Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play

    PubMed Central

    Tremblay, Mark S.; Gray, Casey; Babcock, Shawna; Barnes, Joel; Costas Bradstreet, Christa; Carr, Dawn; Chabot, Guylaine; Choquette, Louise; Chorney, David; Collyer, Cam; Herrington, Susan; Janson, Katherine; Janssen, Ian; Larouche, Richard; Pickett, William; Power, Marlene; Sandseter, Ellen Beate Hansen; Simon, Brenda; Brussoni, Mariana

    2015-01-01

    A diverse, cross-sectorial group of partners, stakeholders and researchers, collaborated to develop an evidence-informed Position Statement on active outdoor play for children aged 3–12 years. The Position Statement was created in response to practitioner, academic, legal, insurance and public debate, dialogue and disagreement on the relative benefits and harms of active (including risky) outdoor play. The Position Statement development process was informed by two systematic reviews, a critical appraisal of the current literature and existing position statements, engagement of research experts (N = 9) and cross-sectorial individuals/organizations (N = 17), and an extensive stakeholder consultation process (N = 1908). More than 95% of the stakeholders consulted strongly agreed or somewhat agreed with the Position Statement; 14/17 participating individuals/organizations endorsed it; and over 1000 additional individuals and organizations requested their name be listed as a supporter. The final Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play states: “Access to active play in nature and outdoors—with its risks— is essential for healthy child development. We recommend increasing children’s opportunities for self-directed play outdoors in all settings—at home, at school, in child care, the community and nature.” The full Position Statement provides context for the statement, evidence supporting it, and a series of recommendations to increase active outdoor play opportunities to promote healthy child development. PMID:26062040

  3. Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Mark S; Gray, Casey; Babcock, Shawna; Barnes, Joel; Bradstreet, Christa Costas; Carr, Dawn; Chabot, Guylaine; Choquette, Louise; Chorney, David; Collyer, Cam; Herrington, Susan; Janson, Katherine; Janssen, Ian; Larouche, Richard; Pickett, William; Power, Marlene; Sandseter, Ellen Beate Hansen; Simon, Brenda; Brussoni, Mariana

    2015-06-01

    A diverse, cross-sectorial group of partners, stakeholders and researchers, collaborated to develop an evidence-informed Position Statement on active outdoor play for children aged 3-12 years. The Position Statement was created in response to practitioner, academic, legal, insurance and public debate, dialogue and disagreement on the relative benefits and harms of active (including risky) outdoor play. The Position Statement development process was informed by two systematic reviews, a critical appraisal of the current literature and existing position statements, engagement of research experts (N=9) and cross-sectorial individuals/organizations (N=17), and an extensive stakeholder consultation process (N=1908). More than 95% of the stakeholders consulted strongly agreed or somewhat agreed with the Position Statement; 14/17 participating individuals/organizations endorsed it; and over 1000 additional individuals and organizations requested their name be listed as a supporter. The final Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play states: "Access to active play in nature and outdoors--with its risks--is essential for healthy child development. We recommend increasing children's opportunities for self-directed play outdoors in all settings--at home, at school, in child care, the community and nature." The full Position Statement provides context for the statement, evidence supporting it, and a series of recommendations to increase active outdoor play opportunities to promote healthy child development. PMID:26062040

  4. Sixteen Years of International Co-operation. The OECD/NEA Co-operative Programme on Decommissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Menon, S.; Valencia, L.

    2002-02-25

    The Co-operative Programme on Decommissioning under the administration of the Radioactive Waste Management Committee of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) has recently completed sixteen years of operation. The Programme, which is essentially an information exchange programme between decommissioning projects, came into being in 1985. It has grown from an initial 10 decommissioning projects from 7 countries to 39 projects from 14 countries today. From purely information exchange to start with, the Programme has, in later years, been functioning as a voice for the collective expression of views of the implementers of nuclear decommissioning. During the first sixteen years of the operation of the Co-operative Programme, nuclear decommissioning has grown from local specialist activities within projects to a competitive commercial industry. By the dismantling and release from regulatory control of over a dozen diverse nuclear facilities, the Programme has been able to demonstrate in practice, that nuclear decommissioning can be performed safely both for the workers and the public, and that this can be done at reasonable costs in an environmentally friendly fashion. During the recent years, discussions and work within the Co-operative Programme, specially within some of the Task Groups, have had/are having effects and repercussions not just in the field of nuclear decommissioning, but can possibly affect activities and regulations in other industries. This paper describes how the Programme and its activities and procedures have evolved over the years and indicate the directions of developments in the organization and execution of decommissioning projects. Finally, it gives a brief overview of the achievements of the Cooperative Programme and visualizes future developments in the field of nuclear decommissioning.

  5. Discursive Positionings and Emotions in Modelling Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daher, Wajeeh

    2015-01-01

    Mathematical modelling is suggested as an activity through which students engage in meaningful mathematics. In the current research, the modelling activity of a group of four seventh-grade students was analysed using the discursive analysis framework. The research findings show that the positionings and emotions of the group members during their…

  6. Discursive positionings and emotions in modelling activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daher, Wajeeh

    2015-11-01

    Mathematical modelling is suggested as an activity through which students engage in meaningful mathematics. In the current research, the modelling activity of a group of four seventh-grade students was analysed using the discursive analysis framework. The research findings show that the positionings and emotions of the group members during their participation in the modelling activity changed as the activity proceeded. Overall, it can be said that three of the four group members acted as insiders, while the fourth acted as an outsider, and only, towards the end of the group's work on the activity, he acted as an insider. Moreover, the research findings point at four factors that affected the group members' positionings and emotions during the modelling activity: the member's characteristics, the member's history of learning experiences, the activity characteristics and the modelling phases. Furthermore, the different positionings of the group members in the different modelling phases were accompanied by different emotions experienced by them, where being an insider and a collaborator resulted in positive emotions, while being an outsider resulted in negative emotions.

  7. Adenosinergic Immunosuppression by Human Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Requires Co-Operation with T cells.

    PubMed

    Kerkelä, Erja; Laitinen, Anita; Räbinä, Jarkko; Valkonen, Sami; Takatalo, Maarit; Larjo, Antti; Veijola, Johanna; Lampinen, Milla; Siljander, Pia; Lehenkari, Petri; Alfthan, Kaija; Laitinen, Saara

    2016-03-01

    Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) have the capacity to counteract excessive inflammatory responses. MSCs possess a range of immunomodulatory mechanisms, which can be deployed in response to signals in a particular environment and in concert with other immune cells. One immunosuppressive mechanism, not so well-known in MSCs, is mediated via adenosinergic pathway by ectonucleotidases CD73 and CD39. In this study, we demonstrate that adenosine is actively produced from adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) by CD73 on MSCs and MSC-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs). Our results indicate that although MSCs express CD39 at low level and it colocalizes with CD73 in bulge areas of membranes, the most efficient adenosine production from adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) requires co-operation of MSCs and activated T cells. Highly CD39 expressing activated T cells produce AMP from ATP and MSCs produce adenosine from AMP via CD73 activity. Furthermore, adenosinergic signaling plays a role in suppression of T cell proliferation in vitro. In conclusion, this study shows that adenosinergic signaling is an important immunoregulatory mechanism of MSCs, especially in situations where ATP is present in the extracellular environment, like in tissue injury. An efficient production of immunosuppressive adenosine is dependent on the concerted action of CD39-positive immune cells with CD73-positive cells such as MSCs or their EVs. Stem Cells 2016;34:781-790. PMID:26731338

  8. Are University Co-Operative Education Students Safe? Perceptions of Risk to Students on Work Terms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newhook, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    As students venture off campus for university-sponsored activities, are they at risk, given that universities are better able to control risk factors on campus than they can for their off-campus activities? Co-operative education is a formalized and longstanding academic program that often sees students spend upwards of a third of their time off…

  9. Co-operation between patient organisations and the drug industry in Finland.

    PubMed

    Hemminki, Elina; Toiviainen, Hanna K; Vuorenkoski, Lauri

    2010-04-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the co-operation between patient organizations and the drug industry in Finland prior to critical discussions on the topic. The data were gathered by a questionnaire survey of 85 patient organisations (response rate 65%, n = 55) and 20 drug firms (response rate 100%) in 2003, and by interviewing 13 organisations and surveying their web-pages and other documents in 2004. In the surveys, half of the patient organisations and 80% of the drug firms considered co-operation important. Most (71%) organisations reported financial support from the drug industry. Most organisations and drug firms had experienced problems. Common problems for organisations were too little or too unpredictable support from industry, and threats to independence and objectivity. Drug firms frequently mentioned unclear rules of co-operation. The patient organisation interviews exhibited similar themes and findings to those found in the surveys, revealing the complexity and importance of co-operation in organisation activities, and the variation between organisations. This case study from Finland showed that co-operation between patient organizations and the drug industry was common, many-sided and not usually transparent. The close connections between patient organizations and commercial companies, particularly drug firms, raise several policy issues and the need for action. PMID:20163903

  10. Benzoyl peroxide interferes with metabolic co-operation between cultured human epidermal keratinocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, N.J.; Parkinson, E.K.; Emmerson, A.

    1984-03-01

    The ability of benzoyl peroxide to inhibit metabolic co-operation in rodent cell cultures may be relevant to its recently reported tumour promoting activity in mouse epidermis. We show here that non-toxic doses of this compound reduce metabolic co-operation between human epidermal keratinocytes to approximately 30% of that found in controls. The doses of benzoyl peroxide used did not affect keratinocyte morphology or their rate of attachment to the culture substratum. These results could be important as benzoyl peroxide is widely used in industry.

  11. Computer-Supported Co-operative Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florea, Adina Magda

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the impact of computer-supported cooperative work tools in the creation of educational environments and the facilities such tools bring to teaching methods, and examines the relationship between new techniques and the learner-centered, active learning approach in higher education. The importance of collaborative learning in this context…

  12. Council for Cultural Co-Operation and Cultural Fund. Annual Report 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Cultural Cooperation, Strasbourg (France).

    This document is a report on the activities of the Council for Cultural Co-Operation (CCC) and Cultural Fund for 1972. The CCC is briefly defined as being designed to reinforce educational and cultural cooperation among the 21 countries of the CCC, especially in matters of research, information, and documentation. The document is composed of…

  13. Cyberethics and co-operation in the information society.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Christian; Bichler, Robert M; Raffl, Celina

    2009-12-01

    The task of this paper is to ground the notion of cyberethics of co-operation. The evolution of modern society has resulted in a shift from industrial society towards informational capitalism. This transformation is a multidimensional shift that affects all aspects of society. Hence also the ethical system of society is penetrated by the emergence of the knowledge society and ethical guidelines for the information age are needed. Ethical issues and conflicts in the knowledge society are connected to topics of ecological and social sustainability. For information ethics and cyberethics, the sustainable design of society, social, and socio-technological systems is important. In this context the notions of sustainability and co-operation are discussed. Based on these categories, the approach of cyberethics of co-operation can be theoretically grounded. PMID:19440854

  14. SMEs and their co-operation with academia.

    PubMed

    Antoine, Jean Michel; Strömqvist, Mats

    2005-01-01

    Co-operation between SMEs and Academia can be a win-win situation when each partner understands the constraints of the other. SMEs are often leaders in innovation; therefore more ready to share interest in research. They are flexible and dynamic. They need a short feed-back to sustain their co-operation. Academia is often more long-term oriented and more question- than answer-oriented. A code of conduct can ease the relationship because it can anticipate the potential problems. PMID:16137116

  15. Supersurveillance, Democracy, and Co-Operation--The Challenge for Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schostak, John

    2014-01-01

    The paper explores pedagogies of surveillance and counter pedagogies of radical democracy and co-operative practice and their implications for continuing professional development (CPD). Teachers have had to respond to an increasing naturalisation of surveillance in schools. However, this naturalisation can be countered by drawing upon the emergent…

  16. Co-Operative Training in the Sheffield Forging Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, R.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to give details of an operation carried out in Sheffield to increase the recruitment of young men into the steel forging industry. Design/methodology/approach: The Sheffield Forges Co-operative Training Scheme was designed to encourage boys to enter the forging industry and to provide them with training and…

  17. Securing co-operation from persons supplying statistical data

    PubMed Central

    Aubenque, M. J.; Blaikley, R. M.; Harris, F. Fraser; Lal, R. B.; Neurdenburg, M. G.; Hernández, R. de Shelly

    1954-01-01

    Securing the co-operation of persons supplying information required for medical statistics is essentially a problem in human relations, and an understanding of the motivations, attitudes, and behaviour of the respondents is necessary. Before any new statistical survey is undertaken, it is suggested by Aubenque and Harris that a preliminary review be made so that the maximum use is made of existing information. Care should also be taken not to burden respondents with an overloaded questionnaire. Aubenque and Harris recommend simplified reporting. Complete population coverage is not necessary. Neurdenburg suggests that the co-operation and support of such organizations as medical associations and social security boards are important and that propaganda should be directed specifically to the groups whose co-operation is sought. Informal personal contacts are valuable and desirable, according to Blaikley, but may have adverse effects if the right kind of approach is not made. Financial payments as an incentive in securing co-operation are opposed by Neurdenburg, who proposes that only postage-free envelopes or similar small favours be granted. Blaikley and Harris, on the other hand, express the view that financial incentives may do much to gain the support of those required to furnish data; there are, however, other incentives, and full use should be made of the natural inclinations of respondents. Compulsion may be necessary in certain instances, but administrative rather than statutory measures should be adopted. Penalties, according to Aubenque, should be inflicted only when justified by imperative health requirements. The results of surveys should be made available as soon as possible to those who co-operated, and Aubenque and Harris point out that they should also be of practical value to the suppliers of the information. Greater co-operation can be secured from medical persons who have an understanding of the statistical principles involved; Aubenque and

  18. Comprehensive School Physical Activity Programs. Position Statement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association for Sport and Physical Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The National Association for Sport and Physical Education (NASPE) recommends that all PK-12 schools implement a Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program. Schools play an important role in public health, and the physical, mental, and social benefits of regular physical activity for youth are well documented. Leading public health, medical,…

  19. Interdisciplinary Co-operation (Part II of "Language Learning: Individual Needs, Interdisciplinary Co-operation, Bi- and Multilingualism").

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1978

    The following papers on interdisciplinary cooperation in second language instruction are included: (1) "Language Teaching: Possibilities for Interdisciplinary Co-operation," by James E. Alatis; (2) "L'insegnamento della letteratura italiana (The Teaching of Italian Literature)," by Ezio Raimondi; (3) "Objective Evaluation and Transparency," by…

  20. Vitrification assistance program: international co-operation on vitrification technology

    SciTech Connect

    Penrice, Ch.; McGowan, B.; Garth, B.; Reed, J.; Prod'homme, A.; Sartelet, S.; Guerif, H.N.; Hollebecque, J.F.; Flament, T.; Prod'homme, A.

    2008-07-01

    With 10 vitrification lines in operation (3 on WVP in Sellafield, 1 on AVM in Marcoule and 6 on AVH in La Hague), Sellafield Ltd and Areva NC benefit from the most in-depth experience worldwide in the vitrification of highly active liquors within a framework of commercial operations. Based on the two-step process design, using a calciner and an induction-heated hot melter, which was initially deployed in Marcoule in 1978, core vitrification equipment has been continuously improved by the independent development programmes of the two companies. In March 2005, Sellafield Ltd and Areva NC signed the Vitrification Assistance Program (hereafter referred to as VAP); a co-operative project lasting 4 years during which Areva NC is to share some areas of their experience and expertise with Sellafield Ltd. Now at the halfway point of this project, this paper summarises the work performed by the VAP team to date, highlighting the early benefits and lessons learned. The following points will be developed: - Equipment delivery and preparation for implementation on WVP - Training organization and dissemination to WVP teams - Lessons learned from the early changes implemented in operations (Calciner, Melter, Dust Scrubber and Primary off gas system), and initial feedback from the first campaign using a VAP equipped line. In conclusion: The vitrification process and technology implemented at Sellafield and at La Hague, based on the two-step process, have proved to be efficient in treating high active liquor of various types. Ten lines based on this principle have been successfully operated for more than 15 years in France and in the UK. The process has also been demonstrated to be sufficiently versatile to benefit from continuous improvement and development programmes. VAP, as a complete package to support vitrification technology and knowledge transfer from AREVA NC to Sellafield Ltd, has provided the framework for fruitful technical exchanges and discussions between the two

  1. Action by the Customs Co-operation Council to combat illicit drug trafficking.

    PubMed

    Gotschlich, G D

    1983-01-01

    Since its establishment in 1953, the Customs Co-operation Council (CCC) has been actively involved in combating illicit drug trafficking. CCC has adopted legal measures designed to meet the requirements of member States in their efforts to promote the prevention, investigation and repression of customs offences, including drug smuggling. CCC studies patterns and trends in drug trafficking and promotes ways and means of detecting drug smuggling and financial transactions related to such smuggling. CCC publishes studies and handbooks that serve as practical guides to national customs administrations of member States. In its work to combat drug trafficking, the CCC co-operates with the United Nations bodies concerned with drug control and the International Criminal Police Organizations (ICPO/Interpol). PMID:6563930

  2. Associations among positive mood, brain, and cardiovascular activities in an affectively positive situation.

    PubMed

    Matsunaga, Masahiro; Isowa, Tokiko; Kimura, Kenta; Miyakoshi, Makoto; Kanayama, Noriaki; Murakami, Hiroki; Fukuyama, Seisuke; Shinoda, Jun; Yamada, Jitsuhiro; Konagaya, Toshihiro; Kaneko, Hiroshi; Ohira, Hideki

    2009-03-31

    It is hypothesized that experiencing positive emotions such as pleasure leads to a perception of the body being in a positive state. This study demonstrated associations among positive mood, brain, and cardiovascular activities by simultaneously recording these activities when positive emotions were evoked in participants watching films revolving around a love story. Heart rate variability analysis revealed increased parasympathetic nervous activity while watching the film. The following brain regions were significantly activated in the positive condition relative to the control condition: medial prefrontal cortex, thalamus, superior temporal gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus, and cerebellum. Further, covariate analyses indicated that these brain regions were temporally associated with subjective positive mood. Activities of brain regions considered to be related to interoceptive awareness, such as the insular cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, amygdala, and orbitofrontal cortex, were also temporally associated with the cardiovascular change. These results suggest that while an individual experiences positive emotions, activities of the central nervous system and cardiovascular system may be interrelated, and the brain may perceive the body to be in a positive state. PMID:19368841

  3. Generalized microscopic reversibility, kinetic co-operativity of enzymes and evolution.

    PubMed Central

    Ricard, J

    1978-01-01

    Generalized microscopic reversibility implies that the apparent rate of any catalytic process in a complex mechanism is paralleled by substrate desorption in such a way that this ratio is held constant within the reaction mechanism [Whitehead (1976) Biochem. J. 159, 449--456]. The physical and evolutionary significances of this concept, for both polymeric and monomeric enzymes, are discussed. For polymeric enzymes, generalized microscopic reversibility of necessity occurs if, within the same reaction sequence, the substrate stabilizes one type of conformation of the active site only. Generalized microscopic reversibility suppresses the kinetic co-operativity of the slow transition model [Ainslie, Shill & Neet (1972) J. Biol. Chem. 247, 7088--7096]. This situation is obtained if the free-energy difference between the corresponding transition states of the two enzyme forms is held constant along the reaction co-ordinate. This situation implies that the 'extra costs' of energy (required to pass each energy barrier) that are not covered by the corresponding binding energies of the transition states vary in a similar way along the two reaction co-ordinates. The regulatory behaviour of monomeric enzymes is discussed in the light of the concept of 'catalytic perfection' proposed by Albery & Knowles [(1976) Biochemistry 15, 5631--5640]. These authors claim that an enzyme will be catalytically 'perfect' when its catalytic efficiency is maximum. If this situation occurs for a monomeric enzyme obeying either the slow transition or the mnemonical model, it can be shown that the kinetic co-operativity disappears. In other words, kinetic co-operativity of a monomeric enzyme is 'paid for' at the expense of catalytic efficiency, and the monomeric enzyme cannot be simultaneously co-operative and catalytically very efficient. This is precisely what has been found experimentally in a number of cases. PMID:743234

  4. Releasing the brakes in coagulation Factor IXa by co-operative maturation of the substrate-binding site.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Line Hyltoft; Olsen, Ole H; Blouse, Grant E; Brandstetter, Hans

    2016-08-01

    Coagulation Factor IX is positioned at the merging point of the intrinsic and extrinsic blood coagulation cascades. Factor IXa (activated Factor IX) serves as the trigger for amplification of coagulation through formation of the so-called Xase complex, which is a ternary complex of Factor IXa, its substrate Factor X and the cofactor Factor VIIIa on the surface of activated platelets. Within the Xase complex the substrate turnover by Factor IXa is enhanced 200000-fold; however, the mechanistic and structural basis for this dramatic enhancement remains only partly understood. A multifaceted approach using enzymatic, biophysical and crystallographic methods to evaluate a key set of activity-enhanced Factor IXa variants has demonstrated a delicately balanced bidirectional network. Essential molecular interactions across multiple regions of the Factor IXa molecule co-operate in the maturation of the active site. This maturation is specifically facilitated by long-range communication through the Ile(212)-Ile(213) motif unique to Factor IXa and a flexibility of the 170-loop that is further dependent on the conformation in the Cys(168)-Cys(182) disulfide bond. Ultimately, the network consists of compensatory brakes (Val(16) and Ile(213)) and accelerators (Tyr(99) and Phe(174)) that together allow for a subtle fine-tuning of enzymatic activity. PMID:27208168

  5. Rhadinovirus Host Entry by Co-operative Infection

    PubMed Central

    May, Janet S.; Stevenson, Philip G.

    2015-01-01

    Rhadinoviruses establish chronic infections of clinical and economic importance. Several show respiratory transmission and cause lung pathologies. We used Murid Herpesvirus-4 (MuHV-4) to understand how rhadinovirus lung infection might work. A primary epithelial or B cell infection often is assumed. MuHV-4 targeted instead alveolar macrophages, and their depletion reduced markedly host entry. While host entry was efficient, alveolar macrophages lacked heparan - an important rhadinovirus binding target - and were infected poorly ex vivo. In situ analysis revealed that virions bound initially not to macrophages but to heparan+ type 1 alveolar epithelial cells (AECs). Although epithelial cell lines endocytose MuHV-4 readily in vitro, AECs did not. Rather bound virions were acquired by macrophages; epithelial infection occurred only later. Thus, host entry was co-operative - virion binding to epithelial cells licensed macrophage infection, and this in turn licensed AEC infection. An antibody block of epithelial cell binding failed to block host entry: opsonization provided merely another route to macrophages. By contrast an antibody block of membrane fusion was effective. Therefore co-operative infection extended viral tropism beyond the normal paradigm of a target cell infected readily in vitro; and macrophage involvement in host entry required neutralization to act down-stream of cell binding. PMID:25790477

  6. Nucleosome positioning and kinetics near transcription-start-site barriers are controlled by interplay between active remodeling and DNA sequence

    PubMed Central

    Parmar, Jyotsana J.; Marko, John F.; Padinhateeri, Ranjith

    2014-01-01

    We investigate how DNA sequence, ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling and nucleosome-depleted ‘barriers’ co-operate to determine the kinetics of nucleosome organization, in a stochastic model of nucleosome positioning and dynamics. We find that ‘statistical’ positioning of nucleosomes against ‘barriers’, hypothesized to control chromatin structure near transcription start sites, requires active remodeling and therefore cannot be described using equilibrium statistical mechanics. We show that, unlike steady-state occupancy, DNA site exposure kinetics near a barrier is dominated by DNA sequence rather than by proximity to the barrier itself. The timescale for formation of positioning patterns near barriers is proportional to the timescale for active nucleosome eviction. We also show that there are strong gene-to-gene variations in nucleosome positioning near barriers, which are eliminated by averaging over many genes. Our results suggest that measurement of nucleosome kinetics can reveal information about sequence-dependent regulation that is not apparent in steady-state nucleosome occupancy. PMID:24068556

  7. Activities for Teaching Positive Psychology: A Guide for Instructors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froh, Jeffrey J., Ed.; Parks, Acacia C., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Positive psychology is a rapidly expanding area of study that is of great interest to students at the graduate, undergraduate, and high school levels. But the field is so broad that teachers who want to cover all the bases when designing a positive psychology course may have difficulty locating and selecting materials. "Activities for Teaching…

  8. Active control of a flexible structure using a modal positive position feedback controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poh, S.; Baz, A.

    1990-01-01

    The feasibility of a new Modal Positive Position Feedback (MPPF) strategy in controlling the vibration of a complex flexible structure using a single piezo-electric active structural member is demonstrated. The control strategy generates its control forces by manipulating only the modal position signals of the structure to provide a damping action to undamped modes. This is in contrast to conventional modal controllers that rely in their operation on negative feedback of both the modal position and velocity. The proposed strategy is very simple to design and implement as it designs the controller at the uncoupled modal level and utilizes simple first order filters to achieve the Positive Position Feedback effect. The performance of the new strategy is enhanced by augmenting it with a time sharing strategy to share a small number of actuators between larger number of modes. The effectiveness of the new strategy is validated experimentally on a flexible box-type structure that has four bays and its first two bending modes are 2.015 and 6.535 Hz respectively. A single piezo-electric actuator is utilized as an active structural member to control several transverse bending modes of the structure. The performance of the active control system is determined in the time and the frequency domains. The results are compared with those obtained when using the Independent Modal Space Control (IMSC) of Meirovitch. The experimental results suggest the potential of the proposed strategy as a viable means for controlling the vibration of large flexible structures in real time.

  9. Active control of a flexible structure using a modal positive position feedback controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poh, S.; Baz, A.

    1990-01-01

    The feasibility of a new Modal Positive Position Feedback (MPPF) strategy in controlling the vibration of a complex flexible structure using a single piezo-electric active structural member is demonstrated. The control strategy generates its control forces by manipulating only the modal position signals of the structure to provide a damping action to undamped modes. This is in contrast to conventional modal controllers that rely in their operation on negative feedback of both the modal position and velocity. The proposed strategy is very simple to design and implement as it designs the controller at the uncoupled modal level and utilizes simple first order filters to achieve the Positive Position Feedback effect. The performance of the new strategy is enhanced by augmenting it with a time sharing strategy to share a small number of actuators between larger number of modes. The effectiveness of the new strategy is validated experimentally on a flexible box-type structure that has four bays and its first two bending modes are 2.015 and 6.535 Hz, respectively. A single piezo-electric actuator is utilized as an active structural member to control several transverse bending modes of the structure. The performance of the active control system is determined in the time and the frequency domains. The results are compared with those obtained when using the Independent Modal Space Control (IMSC) of Meirovitch. The experimental results suggest the potential of the proposed strategy as a viable means for controlling the vibration of large flexible structures in real time.

  10. Intramolecular signal transmission in enterobacterial aspartate transcarbamylases II. Engineering co-operativity and allosteric regulation in the aspartate transcarbamylase of Erwinia herbicola.

    PubMed

    Cunin, R; Rani, C S; Van Vliet, F; Wild, J R; Wales, M

    1999-12-17

    The aspartate transcarbamylase (ATCase) from Erwinia herbicola differs from the other investigated enterobacterial ATCases by its absence of homotropic co-operativity toward the substrate aspartate and its lack of response to ATP which is an allosteric effector (activator) of this family of enzymes. Nevertheless, the E. herbicola ATCase has the same quaternary structure, two trimers of catalytic chains with three dimers of regulatory chains ((c3)2(r2)3), as other enterobacterial ATCases and shows extensive primary structure conservation. In (c3)2(r2)3 ATCases, the association of the catalytic subunits c3 with the regulatory subunits r2 is responsible for the establishment of positive co-operativity between catalytic sites for the binding of aspartate and it dictates the pattern of allosteric response toward nucleotide effectors. Alignment of the primary sequence of the regulatory polypeptides from the E. herbicola and from the paradigmatic Escherichia coli ATCases reveals major blocks of divergence, corresponding to discrete structural elements in the E. coli enzyme. Chimeric ATCases were constructed by exchanging these blocks of divergent sequence between these two ATCases. It was found that the amino acid composition of the outermost beta-strand of a five-stranded beta-sheet in the effector-binding domain of the regulatory polypeptide is responsible for the lack of co-operativity and response to ATP of the E. herbicola ATCase. A novel structural element involved in allosteric signal recognition and transmission in this family of ATCases was thus identified. PMID:10600394

  11. Effects of co-operative ligand binding on protein amide NH hydrogen exchange.

    PubMed

    Polshakov, Vladimir I; Birdsall, Berry; Feeney, James

    2006-03-01

    Amide protection factors have been determined from NMR measurements of hydrogen/deuterium amide NH exchange rates measured on assigned signals from Lactobacillus casei apo-DHFR and its binary and ternary complexes with trimethoprim (TMP), folinic acid and coenzymes (NADPH/NADP(+)). The substantial sizes of the residue-specific DeltaH and TDeltaS values for the opening/closing events in NH exchange for most of the measurable residues in apo-DHFR indicate that sub-global or global rather than local exchange mechanisms are usually involved. The amide groups of residues in helices and sheets are those most protected in apo-DHFR and its complexes, and the protection factors are generally related to the tightness of ligand binding. The effects of ligand binding that lead to changes in amide protection are not localised to specific binding sites but are spread throughout the structure via a network of intramolecular interactions. Although the increase in protein stability in the DHFR.TMP.NADPH complex involves increased ordering in the protein structure (requiring TDeltaS energy) this is recovered, to a large extent, by the stronger binding (enthalpic DeltaH) interactions made possible by the reduced motion in the protein. The ligand-induced protection effects in the ternary complexes DHFR.TMP.NADPH (large positive binding co-operativity) and DHFR.folinic acid.NADPH (large negative binding co-operativity) mirror the co-operative effects seen in the ligand binding. For the DHFR.TMP.NADPH complex, the ligand-induced protection factors result in DeltaDeltaG(o) values for many residues being larger than the DeltaDeltaG(o) values in the corresponding binary complexes. In contrast, for DHFR.folinic acid.NADPH, the DeltaDeltaG(o) values are generally smaller than many of those in the corresponding binary complexes. The results indicate that changes in protein conformational flexibility on formation of the ligand complex play an important role in determining the co-operativity in

  12. Position dependent rate dampening in any active hand controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, William W. (Inventor); Kauffman, James W. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A control system for an active hand controller, for example, uses a control stick connected to and controlled by a motor. Electronics are provided to control the motor to eliminate oscillations due to motor torque and high gain due to breakout at the control stick when the control stick is at about its null position. Both hardware as well as software implementations can provide position dependent dampening to the control sticks such that when the control stick is located about a null position, a higher rate of dampening is provided than when the control stick is located outside the null position, when a lower rate of dampening is provided. The system provides a stable active hand controller control stick without degraded force and feel characteristics of the system.

  13. A position-dependent transcription-activating domain in TFIIIA.

    PubMed

    Mao, X; Darby, M K

    1993-12-01

    Transcription of the Xenopus 5S RNA gene by RNA polymerase III requires the gene-specific factor TFIIIA. To identify domains within TFIIIA that are essential for transcriptional activation, we have expressed C-terminal deletion, substitution, and insertion mutants of TFIIIA in bacteria as fusions with maltose-binding protein (MBP). The MBP-TFIIIA fusion protein specifically binds to the 5S RNA gene internal control region and complements transcription in a TFIIIA-depleted oocyte nuclear extract. Random, cassette-mediated mutagenesis of the carboxyl region of TFIIIA, which is not required for promoter binding, has defined a 14-amino-acid region that is critical for transcriptional activation. In contrast to activators of RNA polymerase II, the activity of the TFIIIA activation domain is strikingly sensitive to its position relative to the DNA-binding domain. When the eight amino acids that separate the transcription-activating domain from the last zinc finger are deleted, transcriptional activity is lost. Surprisingly, diverse amino acids can replace these eight amino acids with restoration of full transcriptional activity, suggesting that the length and not the sequence of this region is important. Insertion of amino acids between the zinc finger region and the transcription-activating domain causes a reduction in transcription proportional to the number of amino acids introduced. We propose that to function, the transcription-activating domain of TFIIIA must be correctly positioned at a minimum distance from the DNA-binding domain. PMID:8246967

  14. Physical Activity Is Positively Associated with Episodic Memory in Aging

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Scott M.; Alosco, Michael L.; Hayes, Jasmeet P.; Cadden, Margaret; Peterson, Kristina M.; Allsup, Kelly; Forman, Daniel E.; Sperling, Reisa A.; Verfaellie, Mieke

    2016-01-01

    Aging is associated with performance reductions in executive function and episodic memory, although there is substantial individual variability in cognition among older adults. One factor that may be positively associated with cognition in aging is physical activity. To date, few studies have objectively assessed physical activity in young and older adults, and examined whether physical activity is differentially associated with cognition in aging. Young (n = 29, age 18–31 years) and older adults (n = 31, ages 55–82 years) completed standardized neuropsychological testing to assess executive function and episodic memory capacities. An experimental face-name relational memory task was administered to augment assessment of episodic memory. Physical activity (total step count and step rate) was objectively assessed using an accelerometer, and hierarchical regressions were used to evaluate relationships between cognition and physical activity. Older adults performed more poorly on tasks of executive function and episodic memory. Physical activity was positively associated with a composite measure of visual episodic memory and face-name memory accuracy in older adults. Physical activity associations with cognition were independent of sedentary behavior, which was negatively correlated with memory performance. Physical activity was not associated with cognitive performance in younger adults. Physical activity is positively associated with episodic memory performance in aging. The relationship appears to be strongest for face-name relational memory and visual episodic memory, likely attributable to the fact that these tasks make strong demands on the hippocampus. The results suggest that physical activity relates to cognition in older, but not younger adults. PMID:26581790

  15. Active diffusion positions the nucleus in mouse oocytes.

    PubMed

    Almonacid, Maria; Ahmed, Wylie W; Bussonnier, Matthias; Mailly, Philippe; Betz, Timo; Voituriez, Raphaël; Gov, Nir S; Verlhac, Marie-Hélène

    2015-04-01

    In somatic cells, the position of the cell centroid is dictated by the centrosome. The centrosome is instrumental in nucleus positioning, the two structures being physically connected. Mouse oocytes have no centrosomes, yet harbour centrally located nuclei. We demonstrate how oocytes define their geometric centre in the absence of centrosomes. Using live imaging of oocytes, knockout for the formin 2 actin nucleator, with off-centred nuclei, together with optical trapping and modelling, we discover an unprecedented mode of nucleus positioning. We document how active diffusion of actin-coated vesicles, driven by myosin Vb, generates a pressure gradient and a propulsion force sufficient to move the oocyte nucleus. It promotes fluidization of the cytoplasm, contributing to nucleus directional movement towards the centre. Our results highlight the potential of active diffusion, a prominent source of intracellular transport, able to move large organelles such as nuclei, providing in vivo evidence of its biological function. PMID:25774831

  16. Draft position paper on knowledge management in space activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holm, Jeanne; Moura, Denis

    2003-01-01

    As other fields of industry, space activities are facing the challenge of Knowledge Management and the International Academy of Astronautics decided to settle in 2002 a Study Group to analyse the problem and issue general guidelines. This communication presents the draft position paper of this group in view to be discussed during the 2003 IAF Congress.

  17. Positioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conone, Ruth M.

    The key to positioning is the creation of a clear benefit image in the consumer's mind. One positioning strategy is creating in the prospect's mind a position that takes into consideration the company's or agency's strengths and weaknesses as well as those of its competitors. Another strategy is to gain entry into a position ladder owned by…

  18. Overcoming decommissioning challenges through client/laboratory co-operation

    SciTech Connect

    Wharton, Mike; Gray, Lesley

    2007-07-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: Accelerated decommissioning projects of the type underway at the former gaseous diffusion plant at BNG Capenhurst, UK, involve characterisation and radiochemical fingerprinting of a variety of unusual materials derived from legacy wastes. The project management and technical challenges that can occur during such a program can be successfully surmounted if a close working relationship between the client and the analytical laboratory is achieved. The Capenhurst Integrated Decommissioning Program (IDP) is an example of how such co-operation can reduce costs and time scales by providing the analytical laboratory with key sample and technical information prior to the shipping of the samples to the lab. This ensures that challenges associated with unusual sample matrices can be anticipated and dealt with at an early stage in the project. Gamma spectrometry is the most common analytical technique when analysing samples for radioactive content as it is non-destructive, relatively inexpensive and fast. However, accurate measurement generally requires samples of a known density to be counted in calibrated geometries. This becomes a challenge as many legacy wastes comprise materials of uneven geometry and/or varying density, as has been the case during the Capenhurst IDP. Liaising with the client to ensure a representative sub-sample of the material is taken on-site, and a series of additional checks when analysing the sample ensure that accurate results are obtained even for non-routine materials. Often it is only one or two radionuclides that dominate the radioactive inventory for legacy wastes. (authors)

  19. Positive Active Material For Alkaline Electrolyte Storage Battert Nickel Electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Bernard, Patrick; Baudry, Michelle

    2000-12-05

    A method of manufacturing a positive active material for nickel electrodes of alkaline storage batteries which consists of particles of hydroxide containing mainly nickel and covered with a layer of a hydroxide phase based on nickel and yttrium is disclosed. The proportion of the hydroxide phase is in the range 0.15% to 3% by weight of yttrium expressed as yttrium hydroxide relative to the total weight of particles.

  20. 'Part of the solution': Developing sustainable energy through co-operatives and learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duguid, Fiona C. B.

    After five years of development, WindShare Co-operative in Toronto, Ontario became the first urban wind turbine in North America and the first co-operatively owned and operated wind turbine in Canada. The development of WindShare Co-operative has spurred the growth of a green energy co-operative sector in Ontario. This study, which included 27 interviews and a focus group with members of WindShare Co-operative, focuses on the roles of community-based green energy co-operatives in advancing sustainable energy development and energy literacy. Sustainable energy development is firmly rooted in the triple bottom line of environmental, social and economic success, and green energy co-operatives can be a way to help achieve those successes. Green energy co-operatives are structures for providing renewable energy generation or energy conservation practices, both of which have important environmental impacts regarding climate change and pollution levels. Co-operative structures are supported by processes that include local ownership, democracy, participation, community organizing, learning and social change. These processes have a significant social impact by creating a venue for people to be directly involved in the energy industry, by involving learning through participation in a community-based organization, and by advancing energy literacy within the membership and the general public. In regards to the economic impacts, green energy co-operatives foster a local economy and local investment opportunities, which have repercussions regarding building expertise within Ontario's green energy and co-operative development future, and more generally, captures members' interest because they have a direct stake in the co-operative. This thesis shows that green energy co-operatives, like WindShare, play an important role in advancing sustainable energy development, energy literacy and the triple bottom line. Members of WindShare expressed resounding feelings of pride, efficacy

  1. Surface Support Systems for Co-Operative and Integrated Human/Robotic Lunar Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Robert P.

    2006-01-01

    Human and robotic partnerships to realize space goals can enhance space missions and provide increases in human productivity while decreasing the hazards that the humans are exposed to. For lunar exploration, the harsh environment of the moon and the repetitive nature of the tasks involved with lunar outpost construction, maintenance and operation as well as production tasks associated with in-situ resource utilization, make it highly desirable to use robotic systems in co-operation with human activity. A human lunar outpost is functionally examined and concepts for selected human/robotic tasks are discussed in the context of a lunar outpost which will enable the presence of humans on the moon for extended periods of time.

  2. Active vibration control of a sandwich plate by non-collocated positive position feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrari, Giovanni; Amabili, Marco

    2015-04-01

    The active vibration control of a free rectangular sandwich plate by using the Positive Position Feedback (PPF) algorithm was experimentally investigated in a previous study. Four normal modes were controlled by four nearly collocated couples of piezoelectric sensors and actuators. The experimental results of the control showed some limitation, especially in the Multi-Input Multi-Output (MIMO) configuration. This was attributed to the specific type of sensors and their conditioning, as well as to the phase shifts present in the vibration at different points of the structure. An alternative approach is here undertaken by abandoning the configuration of quasi-perfect collocation between sensor and actuator. The positioning of the piezoelectric patches is still led by the strain energy value distribution on the plate; each couple of sensor and actuator is now placed on the same face of the plate but in two distinct positions, opposed and symmetrical with respect to the geometric center of the plate. Single-Input Single-Output (SISO) PPF is tested and the transfer function parameters of the controller are tuned according to the measured values of modal damping. Then the participation matrices necessary for the MIMO control algorithm are determined by means of a completely experimental procedure. PPF is able to mitigate the vibration of the first four natural modes, in spite of the rigid body motions due to the free boundary conditions. The amplitude reduction achieved with the non-collocated configuration is much larger than the one obtained with the nearby collocated one. The phase lags were addressed in the MIMO algorithm by correction phase delays, further increasing the performance of the controller.

  3. Dynamic positioning system based on active disturbance rejection technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Zhengling; Guo, Chen; Fan, Yunsheng

    2015-08-01

    A dynamically positioned vessel, by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) and the certifying class societies (DNV, ABS, LR, etc.), is defined as a vessel that maintains its position and heading (fixed location or pre-determined track) exclusively by means of active thrusters. The development of control technology promotes the upgrading of dynamic positioning (DP) systems. Today there are two different DP systems solutions available on the market: DP system based on PID regulator and that based on model-based control. Both systems have limited disturbance rejection capability due to their design principle. In this paper, a new DP system solution is proposed based on Active Disturbance Rejection Control (ADRC) technology. This technology is composed of Tracking-Differentiator (TD), Extended State Observer (ESO) and Nonlinear Feedback Combination. On one hand, both TD and ESO can act as filters and can be used in place of conventional filters; on the other hand, the total disturbance of the system can be estimated and compensated by ESO, which therefore enhances the system's disturbance rejection capability. This technology's advantages over other methods lie in two aspects: 1) This method itself can not only achieve control objectives but also filter noisy measurements without other specialized filters; 2) This method offers a new useful approach to suppress the ocean disturbance. The simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  4. Climate protection in Germany`s bilateral development co-operation with the People`s Republic of China

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, A.

    1996-12-31

    For globally sustainable development to be achieved, three concerns are central: productive economic growth, social justice and ecological sustainability. Development co-operation supports the realisation of these three goals in partner countries by helping to alleviate poverty, promote economic growth through private-sector development and protect vital natural resources. The aim of globally sustainable development can only be achieved if industrial countries too implement necessary reforms and structural adjustments at every level. Co-operation efforts with partners must therefore be complemented by coherent policies at home. This is a matter of credibility, but also of developmental far-sightedness. Internal reforms in the industrial countries secure financial leeway for their providing foreign assistance in the longer term. Environmental and resource protection as a focal point of Germany`s development co-operation with the PRC aims to preserve vital natural resources, shape economic development in their partner countries in an ecologically sound manner and put China in a position to participate in global endeavours to protect the environment. Climate protection measures figure prominently in this area. This is justified given China`s share of global CO{sub 2} emissions and the potential for energy-saving measures and measures to increase power intensity. This potential is derived primarily from the possibility of using energy-efficient technologies, increasing the relatively low energy prices and making use of renewable sources of energy.

  5. Co-Operative Education and the State, c.1895-1935

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vernon, Keith

    2013-01-01

    The co-operative movement is currently exploring ways of engaging with changes in government education policy to develop schools with a distinctive co-operative ethos. While drawing on the opportunities in changing policy, these initiatives can also be seen as offering alternatives to the prevailing tenor of government thinking. This is not the…

  6. The Effectiveness of Structured Co-Operative Teaching and Learning in Greek Primary School Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaldi, Stavroula; Filippatou, Diamanto; Anthopoulou, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses upon the effectiveness of structured co-operative group work on primary school students, aged between 8.5 and 9.5 years old, regarding their content knowledge, attitudes towards co-operative group work, experiential learning and open-ended curriculum as well as students' social and learning behaviour during co-operative…

  7. Ethics and Accountability: Participatory Research in a Worker Co-Operative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellor, Mary

    1988-01-01

    The author describes a participatory research project that took place in a garment workers' co-operative. The project's purpose was to record the history and working relationships of the co-operative in an attempt to help similar ventures. Problems of participatory research are considered. (CH)

  8. Co-Operative Problem-Solving at the Royal Docks Community School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    This article responds to Henry Tam's article in this issue of FORUM by exploring opportunities for co-operative problem-solving for staff and students of the Royal Docks Community School in the London Borough of Newham. Becoming a co-operative trust helped the school move out of special measures and develop a strategy of participation and…

  9. Co-operation processes in dynamic environment management: evolution through training experienced pilots in flying a highly automated aircraft.

    PubMed

    Rogalski, J

    1996-01-01

    Dynamic environment management (process control, aircraft piloting, etc.) increasingly implies collective work components. Pragmatic purposes as well as epistemological interests raise important questions on collective activities at work. In particular, linked to the technological evolution in flight management, the role of the 'collective fact' appears as a key point in reliability. Beyond the development of individual competencies, the quality of the 'distributed' crew activity has to be questioned. This paper presents an empirical study about how experienced pilots co-ordinate their information and actions during the last period of training on a highly automated cockpit. A task of disturbance management (engine fire during takeoff) is chosen as amplifying cognitive requirements. Analysis focuses on the transitions between the main task and the incident to be managed. Crew performance and co-operation between two pilots are compared in three occurrences of the same task: the results are coherent with the hypothesis of a parallel evolution of the crew performance and its internal co-operation, and show that prescribed explicit co-operation is more present on action than on information about the 'state of the world'. Methodological issues are discussed about the possible effects of the specific situation of training, and about the psychological meaning of the results. PMID:11540153

  10. Global Positioning System Synchronized Active Light Autonomous Docking System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Richard T. (Inventor); Book, Michael L. (Inventor); Bryan, Thomas C. (Inventor); Bell, Joseph L. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A Global Positioning System Synchronized Active Light Autonomous Docking System (GPSSALADS) for automatically docking a chase vehicle with a target vehicle comprising at least one active light emitting target which is operatively attached to the target vehicle. The target includes a three-dimensional array of concomitantly flashing lights which flash at a controlled common frequency. The GPSSALADS further comprises a visual tracking sensor operatively attached to the chase vehicle for detecting and tracking the target vehicle. Its performance is synchronized with the flash frequency of the lights by a synchronization means which is comprised of first and second internal clocks operatively connected to the active light target and visual tracking sensor, respectively, for providing timing control signals thereto, respectively. The synchronization means further includes first and second Global Positioning System receivers operatively connected to the first and second internal clocks, respectively, for repeatedly providing simultaneous synchronization pulses to the internal clocks, respectively. In addition, the GPSSALADS includes a docking process controller means which is operatively attached to the chase vehicle and is responsive to the visual tracking sensor for producing commands for the guidance and propulsion system of the chase vehicle.

  11. Global Positioning System Synchronized Active Light Autonomous Docking System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Richard (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A Global Positioning System Synchronized Active Light Autonomous Docking System (GPSSALADS) for automatically docking a chase vehicle with a target vehicle comprises at least one active light emitting target which is operatively attached to the target vehicle. The target includes a three-dimensional array of concomitantly flashing lights which flash at a controlled common frequency. The GPSSALADS further comprises a visual tracking sensor operatively attached to the chase vehicle for detecting and tracking the target vehicle. Its performance is synchronized with the flash frequency of the lights by a synchronization means which is comprised of first and second internal clocks operatively connected to the active light target and visual tracking sensor, respectively, for providing timing control signals thereto, respectively. The synchronization means further includes first and second Global Positioning System receivers operatively connected to the first and second internal clocks, respectively, for repeatedly providing simultaneous synchronization pulses to the internal clocks, respectively. In addition, the GPSSALADS includes a docking process controller means which is operatively attached to the chase vehicle and is responsive to the visual tracking sensor for producing commands for the guidance and propulsion system of the chase vehicle.

  12. The Distribution of Active Force Generators Controls Mitotic Spindle Position

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grill, Stephan W.; Howard, Jonathon; Schäffer, Erik; Stelzer, Ernst H. K.; Hyman, Anthony A.

    2003-07-01

    During unequal cell divisions a mitotic spindle is eccentrically positioned before cell cleavage. To determine the basis of the net force imbalance that causes spindle displacement in one-cell Caenorhabditis elegans embryos, we fragmented centrosomes with an ultraviolet laser. Analysis of the mean and variance of fragment speeds suggests that the force imbalance is due to a larger number of force generators pulling on astral microtubules of the posterior aster relative to the anterior aster. Moreover, activation of heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein) α subunits is required to generate these astral forces.

  13. Functional co-operation between the subunits in heterodimeric platelet-derived growth factor receptor complexes.

    PubMed Central

    Emaduddin, M; Ekman, S; Rönnstrand, L; Heldin, C H

    1999-01-01

    To determine the importance of the phosphorylation capacity of receptor kinase as well as the ability to serve as docking sites for SH2-domain-containing signal transduction molecules, we established pig aortic endothelial cell lines stably expressing kinase-active platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) alpha-receptors together with kinase-inactive beta-receptors, and vice versa. After stimulation with PDGF-AB, heterodimeric receptor complexes were formed in which the kinase-inactive receptor was phosphorylated by the kinase-active receptor, although less efficiently than in heterodimers of wild-type receptors. The kinase-active receptor was only minimally phosphorylated. Thus the phosphorylation within the receptor dimer occurred in trans between the components. Analyses of the abilities of heterodimeric receptor complexes of one kinase-active and one kinase-inactive receptor to mediate mitogenicity, chemotaxis and activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase revealed less efficient effects than those of heterodimers of wild-type receptors. Importantly, however, the fact that signalling capacities were retained illustrates a functional co-operation between the two receptor molecules in the dimer, where one receptor provides a functional kinase and the other acts as a substrate and provides docking sites for downstream signalling molecules. PMID:10417313

  14. Bidirectional associations between valued activities and adolescent positive adjustment in a longitudinal study: positive mood as a mediator.

    PubMed

    DesRoches, Andrea; Willoughby, Teena

    2014-02-01

    Although activity involvement has been linked to positive youth development, the value that adolescents place on these activities (i.e., how much they enjoy the activities, find them important, and spend time on them) has received less attention. The purpose of the present study was to examine the bidirectional longitudinal association between engagement in valued activities and adolescent positive adjustment (optimism, purpose in life, and self-esteem), as well as investigate a possible underlying mechanism for this link. High school students (N = 2,270, 48.7% female) from Ontario, Canada completed questionnaires annually in grades 10, 11, and 12. Auto-regressive cross-lagged path analyses were conducted over time, controlling for gender, parental education, and academic grades. Greater engagement in valued activities predicted higher optimism, purpose, and self-esteem over time. Importantly, the results did not support an alternate hypothesis of selection effects, in that adolescents who were better adjusted were not more likely than their peers to engage in valued activities over time. We also found that the longitudinal associations between valued activities and positive adjustment may be due partly to an underlying effect of increased positive mood. Thus, engagement in valued activities appears to be important for adolescent positive adjustment, and may help to foster thriving. Communities, educators, and parents should actively support and encourage adolescents to develop valued activities, and seek to ensure that there are ample opportunities and resources available for them to do so. PMID:23625185

  15. Activity of quinolones against gram-positive cocci: clinical features.

    PubMed

    Giamarellou, H

    1995-01-01

    The potential role of the commercially available fluoroquinolones in the treatment of Gram-positive infections is discussed on the basis of data obtained from animal experiments and clinical trials. In respiratory tract infections, and particularly in community-acquired pneumonia, it is evident that the presently available quinolones cannot be prescribed empirically as first-line therapy because of their borderline activity against Streptococcus pneumoniae and anaerobes. Reports of pneumococcal seeding in other tissues during quinolone therapy render their administration a debatable issue. Experience in endocarditis is limited to the use of ciprofloxacin plus rifampicin in intravenous drug users with right-sided Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis. Patients with staphylococcal osteomyelitis are included among cases of other bone infections. In noncontrolled studies ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin and pefloxacin attained a staphylococcal eradication rate ranging from 70 to 100%, while the addition of rifampicin has been proven to reduce the emergence of resistant mutants during therapy. In soft tissue and skin structure infections that also involve Gram-negative bacteria, ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin eradicated 72.6 and 89% of staphylococci, respectively; however, the presence of diabetes or vascular disease compromised the success of treatment. In staphylococcal peritonitis complicating continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis, results with ciprofloxacin given intravenously or intraperitoneally were promising. In infections in neutropenic hosts, success of prophylaxis or therapy is still not clear, since colonisation and breakthrough bacteraemias with viridans streptococci and staphylococci have been reported. Furthermore, therapeutic results are compromised by the low response rate in Gram-positive infections. Despite the reported clinical efficacy of the newer fluoroquinolones, physicians should be alerted to the emergence of staphylococci resistant to fluoroquinolones

  16. OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development): A Guide to Publications and Data Available in the Libraries of Duke University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basefsky, Stuart, Comp.

    Designed to make Duke University's collection of OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development) publications and data more readily accessible, this guide is divided into the following sections: Introduction to OECD and Its Publications; General References about OECD and Its Activities; Indexes and Other Sources for Accessing OECD…

  17. UNESCO's Co-operation within the Framework of the Major Project for the Latin American and Caribbean Region: Reference Document PROMEDLAC V Meeting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Santiago (Chile). Regional Office for Education in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    This report summarizes UNESCO's co-operation activities within the framework of the Major Project of Education in the field of Education in Latin America and the Caribbean between May 1991 and March 1993. Regional priorities had been established in Quito (Ecuador) in 1991 to focus on: (1) women as protagonists both in family life and economic…

  18. Conseil de la Cooperation Culturelle et Fonds Culturel. Rapport Annuel 1972. (Council for Cultural Co-operation and Cultural Fund. Annual Report 1972.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Cultural Cooperation, Strasbourg (France).

    This document is a report on the activities of the Council for Cultural Co-Operation (CCC) and Cultural Fund for 1972. The CCC is briefly defined as being designed to reinforce educational and cultural cooperation among the 21 countries of the CCC, especially in matters of research, information, and documentation. The document is composed of…

  19. High physical activity in young children suggests positive effects by altering autoantigen-induced immune activity.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, E; Ludvigsson, J; Huus, K; Faresjö, M

    2016-04-01

    Physical activity in children is associated with several positive health outcomes such as decreased cardiovascular risk factors, improved lung function, enhanced motor skill development, healthier body composition, and also improved defense against inflammatory diseases. We examined how high physical activity vs a sedentary lifestyle in young children influences the immune response with focus on autoimmunity. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells, collected from 55 5-year-old children with either high physical activity (n = 14), average physical activity (n = 27), or low physical activity (n = 14), from the All Babies In Southeast Sweden (ABIS) cohort, were stimulated with antigens (tetanus toxoid and beta-lactoglobulin) and autoantigens (GAD65 , insulin, HSP60, and IA-2). Immune markers (cytokines and chemokines), C-peptide and proinsulin were analyzed. Children with high physical activity showed decreased immune activity toward the autoantigens GAD65 (IL-5, P < 0.05), HSP60 and IA-2 (IL-10, P < 0.05) and also low spontaneous pro-inflammatory immune activity (IL-6, IL-13, IFN-γ, TNF-α, and CCL2 (P < 0.05)) compared with children with an average or low physical activity. High physical activity in young children seems to have positive effects on the immune system by altering autoantigen-induced immune activity. PMID:25892449

  20. European tendencies and co-operation in the field of ITS systems - national achievements and challenges in Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindenbach, Ágnes

    2016-06-01

    The article presents the role of intelligent transport systems/services related to the implementation of the essential European and Hungarian transport policy objectives. The `ITS Directive' will provide a framework for the tasks/works to be performed in the forthcoming years within the priority areas of ITS. The European Commission published regulations / specifications for the priority actions in the form of delegated acts defining the tasks/responsibilities of Member States. Regional/European co-operation for Hungary started after the EU-accession of the country. Hungary was an active partner within the European CONNECT and EasyWay projects, currently Hungary is a member of the CROCODILE consortium.

  1. South Asian co-operation in population programmes.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, M A

    1989-12-01

    Efforts by governments of South Asian countries to improve the economic growth and welfare of the people are being negated by high fertility. In some countries, the expenditures on health programs have increased and the programs have expanded rapidly without any concomitant improvement in efficiency or cost-effectiveness. This highlights the urgency of tackling the problems of not only population growth but also of managing population programs. There are similarities as well as differences in the management of population programs in the South Asian countries. Bangladesh has a population policy with a strong political will behind it. It also has a sound administrative structure and organization. Some areas that need attention are building up the operational relationship between health and family planning personnel, improved infrastructure development, more community involvement, and better evaluation. Some states in India have shown outstanding success in population programs, and some have successfully experimented with beyond family planning methods. A greater awareness of family planning among health staff, a solid information base for decision making, and management training for medical officers and staff are also needed. Pakistan's population program has had uneven results in the past, but it has now developed multi-sectoral components in decentralized field activities, involvement of local organizations and leaders, and better information, education, and social marketing, but it still needs to plan for evaluation and strengthen management training. Of the South Asian countries, Sri Lanka, with a high level of literacy and health care, has shown the best achievement in its social sector. The coverage through the maternal and child health service delivery system has been commendable with 94% of deliveries through institutions. Regional meetings have identified program management problem areas in 1) planning, control, and coordination of program implementation, 2

  2. Active Healthy Kids Canada's Position on Active Video Games for Children and Youth.

    PubMed

    Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Leblanc, Allana G; McFarlane, Allison; Colley, Rachel C; Thivel, David; Biddle, Stuart Jh; Maddison, Ralph; Leatherdale, Scott T; Tremblay, Mark S

    2013-12-01

    The effect of active video games (AVGs) on acute energy expenditure has previously been reported; however, the influence of AVGs on other health-related lifestyle indicators remains unclear. To address this knowledge gap, Active Healthy Kids Canada (AHKC) convened an international group of researchers to conduct a systematic review to understand whether AVGs should be promoted to increase physical activity and improve health indicators in children and youth (zero to 17 years of age). The present article outlines the process and outcomes of the development of the AHKC's position on active video games for children and youth. In light of the available evidence, AHKC does not recommend AVGs as a strategy to help children be more physically active. However, AVGs may exchange some sedentary time for light- to moderate-intensity physical activity, and there may be specific situations in which AVGs provide benefit (eg, motor skill development in special populations and rehabilitation). PMID:24497779

  3. Evolution of co-operation among mobile agents with different influence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhen; Chen, Tianyi; Wang, Xingpu; Jin, Jiuwu; Li, Mingchu

    2013-10-01

    Co-operation is a key factor in understanding the evolution of our society. Inspired by this issue, the individual mobility in game theory has been proved to be a very useful scenario. However, it is not realistic, as described in previous studies, that each agent has the same influence on its neighbour’s movement trait. In this work, we mainly focus on the weighted influence on the mobility of agents in the prisoner’s dilemma game. Here the weight is proportional to its degree with power exponent of λ, where λ is the adjustable parameter to control the level of heterogeneity among individuals in the network. Through numerous simulations we find that co-operation level is promoted when the heterogeneous influence factor is considered. In particular, there is an intermediate value λopt≈10 to guarantee the optimal evolution of co-operation. Moreover, we also prove that the effect of influence weight on the enhancement of co-operation is only valid when the agent’s interaction radius is within a threshold value. We thus present a viable method of understanding the ubiquitous co-operative behaviour in nature and hope that it will inspire further studies to resolve social dilemmas.

  4. Positional asphyxia without active restraint following an assault.

    PubMed

    Fernando, Tarini; Byard, Roger W

    2013-11-01

    Deaths due to positional asphyxia are most often accidental, associated with alcohol and/or drug intoxication. A 19-year-old male is reported who was assaulted and placed in a head-down position in the back of a car were he was later found dead. Brush abrasions indicated that he had been dragged to the vehicle. The head and right shoulder were wedged into the foot well with the body uppermost. At autopsy, there was marked congestion of the face, neck, and upper chest with conjunctival ecchymoses, bruising of the face and scalp, focal subarachnoid hemorrhage, minor cerebral contusion, and diffuse cerebral swelling with early hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). Toxicology was negative. Death was attributed to HIE resulting from the unusual positioning of the body. Cases of positional asphyxia involving others may not always include restraint, and when encountered should initiate a careful evaluation of the possible events and lethal pathophysiological processes. PMID:23786332

  5. Novel co-operation between eotaxin and substance-P in inducing eosinophil-derived neurotoxin release.

    PubMed Central

    El-Shazly, A; Ishikawa, T

    1999-01-01

    Eosinophils, chemokines, and neuropeptides are thought to play effector roles in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases such as rhinitis. Eotaxin is a novel C-C chemokine with a potent and relatively specific eosinophil chemoattractant activity that binds selectively to CCR3 receptor, however, its activity in inducing eosinophil granules proteins release is poorly characterized. This study was performed to determine whether eotaxin primes eosinophil exocytosis and whether this co-operates with the sensory neuroimmune-axis. In the present communication, we show that 10 ng/ml eotaxin primed normal human eosinophil for exaggerated eosonophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN) release stimulated by 10(-8) M Substance-P (SP). This novel priming was blocked by; 7B11 and Herbimycin A (HA), the CCR3 antagonist and the tyrosine kinase inhibitor, respectively. SDS-Page studies showed significant tyrosine phosphorylation of several protein residues induced by 10(-8) M SP only after priming with 10 ng/ml eotaxin. These results demonstrate a novel co-operation between eotaxin and SP in inducing eosinophil cytotoxicity, which at least in part involves tyrosine kinases pathway(s). PMID:10704057

  6. Nuclear energy for peaceful uses: Status and salient issues for regional co-operation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    Based on an expert group survey commissioned by ESCAP in preparation for the United Nations Conference for the Promotion of International Co-operation in the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy, this report provides an overview of the current and potential uses of nuclear energy that could be harnessed by developing countries to support their development efforts. In particular, it highlights the agricultural, medical, and industrial applications of radioisotopes and radiation and underscores the need for regional and interregional co-operation in nuclear science and technology. Illustrated with charts, graphs, and tables.

  7. Active Women: Perspectives on Their Structural Position in the Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyer, Harriett; And Others

    An exploratory pilot study to determine the personal characteristics of women community leaders and their position in the power structure was conducted in Chippewa and Eau Claire Counties, Wisconsin. The research design involved a comparison of three samples: the traditional power structure identified through reputational techniques; the active…

  8. Positive Youth Development through Physical Activity: Opportunities for Physical Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemphill, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    As physical educators continue to advocate for school-based PE, they should also consider ways to extend their work into community settings in an effort to ensure that all kids have an opportunity to develop physical literacy. This article describes how positive youth development programs can provide an opportunity for physical educators to engage…

  9. Collecting "Total" Vocational Education and Training Activity. Position Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karmel, Tom

    2011-01-01

    In this position paper, NCVER's Managing Director, Dr Tom Karmel, argues that the submission of vocational education and training student data should be mandated as a condition of registration for all registered training organisations, including private providers. This will ensure a comprehensive data collection that gives a realistic view of…

  10. Positive feedback of protein kinase C proteolytic activation during apoptosis.

    PubMed Central

    Leverrier, Sabrina; Vallentin, Alice; Joubert, Dominique

    2002-01-01

    In contrast with protein kinase Calpha (PKCalpha) and PKCepsilon, which are better known for promoting cell survival, PKCdelta is known for its pro-apoptotic function, which is exerted mainly through a caspase-3-dependent proteolytic activation pathway. In the present study, we used the rat GH3B6 pituitary adenoma cell line to show that PKCalpha and PKCepsilon are activated and relocalized together with PKCdelta when apoptosis is induced by a genotoxic stress. Proteolytic activation is a crucial step used by the three isoforms since: (1) the catalytic domains of the PKCalpha, PKCepsilon or PKCdelta isoforms (CDalpha, CDepsilon and CDdelta respectively) accumulated, and this accumulation was dependent on the activity of both calpain and caspase; and (2) transient expression of CDalpha, CDepsilon or CDdelta sufficed to induce apoptosis. However, following this initial step of proteolytic activation, the pathways diverge; cytochrome c release and caspase-3 activation are induced by CDepsilon and CDdelta, but not by CDalpha. Another interesting finding of the present study is the proteolysis of PKCdelta induced by CDepsilon expression that revealed the existence of a cross-talk between PKC isoforms during apoptosis. Hence the PKC family may participate in the apoptotic process of pituitary adenoma cells at two levels: downstream of caspase and calpain, and via retro-activation of caspase-3, resulting in the amplification of its own proteolytic activation. PMID:12238950

  11. Novel JAZ co-operativity and unexpected JA dynamics underpin Arabidopsis defence responses to Pseudomonas syringae infection.

    PubMed

    de Torres Zabala, Marta; Zhai, Bing; Jayaraman, Siddharth; Eleftheriadou, Garoufalia; Winsbury, Rebecca; Yang, Ron; Truman, William; Tang, Saijung; Smirnoff, Nicholas; Grant, Murray

    2016-02-01

    Pathogens target phytohormone signalling pathways to promote disease. Plants deploy salicylic acid (SA)-mediated defences against biotrophs. Pathogens antagonize SA immunity by activating jasmonate signalling, for example Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 produces coronatine (COR), a jasmonic acid (JA) mimic. This study found unexpected dynamics between SA, JA and COR and co-operation between JAZ jasmonate repressor proteins during DC3000 infection. We used a systems-based approach involving targeted hormone profiling, high-temporal-resolution micro-array analysis, reverse genetics and mRNA-seq. Unexpectedly, foliar JA did not accumulate until late in the infection process and was higher in leaves challenged with COR-deficient P. syringae or in the more resistant JA receptor mutant coi1. JAZ regulation was complex and COR alone was insufficient to sustainably induce JAZs. JAZs contribute to early basal and subsequent secondary plant defence responses. We showed that JAZ5 and JAZ10 specifically co-operate to restrict COR cytotoxicity and pathogen growth through a complex transcriptional reprogramming that does not involve the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors MYC2 and related MYC3 and MYC4 previously shown to restrict pathogen growth. mRNA-seq predicts compromised SA signalling in a jaz5/10 mutant and rapid suppression of JA-related components on bacterial infection. PMID:26428397

  12. Position paper on active countermeasures for computer networks.

    SciTech Connect

    Van Randwyk, Jamie A.

    2003-07-01

    Computer security professionals have used passive network countermeasures for several years in order to secure computer networks. Passive countermeasures such as firewalls and intrusion detection systems are effective but their use alone is not enough to protect a network. Active countermeasures offer new ways of protecting a computer network. Corporations and government entities should adopt active network countermeasures as a means of protecting their computer networks.

  13. International Co-Operation in Control Engineering Education Using Online Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Jim; Schaedel, Herbert M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the international co-operation experience in teaching control engineering with laboratories being conducted remotely by students via the Internet. This paper describes how the students ran the experiments and their personal experiences with the laboratory. A tool for process identification and controller tuning based on…

  14. The Case of the Missing Organizations: Co-operatives and the Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Roderick

    2000-01-01

    States that co-operative (co-op) economics organizations are ignored in economic introductory textbooks in North America and provides evidence for this assertion. Addresses how to deal with this form of economic organization. Argues that asking who makes the decisions in firms and why, using co-ops as an example, raises important questions. (CMK)

  15. Missing--The People's Voice: Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pike, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Sustainable development in education for future economic growth has always been a global focal point for non-governmental agencies across the world. This article highlights the extensive work the Organisation for Economic Co-operation Development (OECD) has achieved over time, constructing contemporary society as we know it today, continually…

  16. Effects of a Co-operative Learning Strategy on Ninth-Graders' Understanding of Human Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soyibo, Kola; Evans, Hermel G.

    2002-01-01

    Looks at the effect of teaching strategies on a group's attitude toward biology and understanding human nutrition. Used an experimental group that participated in co-operative learning and a control group taught using the lecture method. Involves ninth graders (n=156) from two high schools in Jamaica. (Author/YDS)

  17. From competition to co-operation: new economic relationships in the National Health Service.

    PubMed

    Goddard, M; Mannion, R

    1998-03-01

    The Labour government has outlined its plans to 'replace' the competitive internal market with a more collaborative system based on partnership. Agreement amongst purchasers and providers is to be based on co-operation rather than competition. Longer term agreements covering periods of 3-5 years are to replace annual contracts within this new environment. The aim of this paper is to explore the potential economic implications of these policy changes by drawing on the economics of co-operation and the transaction costs approach to longer term contracting. Issues surrounding the role of trust in contractual relationships are explored and the relevance of experience and evidence from non-health care sectors is considered in the context of the NHS. It is concluded that both theory and empirical evidence suggest that co-operation and trust can play a central role in the efficient organisation of contractual arrangements in circumstances similar to those under which the NHS operates. However, we warn against the expectation that the policy changes will produce automatically the scale of benefits predicted by the Labour government, especially as they will have to find a way of extracting reasonable performance from providers under a system of collaboration and long term agreements. They may find they need to tread a fine line between competition and co-operation in order to reap the benefits of both. PMID:9565167

  18. Environmental Engineering Education (E3) in the Gulf Co-Operation Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jassim, Majeed; Coskuner, Gulnur

    2007-01-01

    The six members of the Gulf Co-operation Countries (GCC)--Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates--are facing enormous environmental challenges associated with rapid urbanisation and industrialisation, especially in the last three decades, due to its role as a global hydrocarbon energy centre. None of these…

  19. Organized network for supporting the amateur-scientist co-operation in Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mäkelä, V.; Haukka, H.; Oksanen, A.; Hentunen, V.-P.

    2014-04-01

    PROAM network is a working group of Ursa Astronomical Association [1] for supporting Finnish amateur astronomers participating to co-operation projects between professional and amateur astronomers. The network relays the information on projects, maintains professional contacts and arranges training on technical skills for research work.

  20. Learner Oriented Co-Operative Learning: A Booster to Higher Educational Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singaravelu, G.

    2007-01-01

    The present study enlightens the impact of Learner-Oriented-Co-operative Learning in enriching knowledge in Environmental Education at Higher Education. To achieve the expected competency in Biodiversity, various approaches were adopted in the class room transaction which were not fruitful. Hence the researcher practiced the Learner-Oriented-Co…

  1. Gestalt Revisited: Spin-Offs and Assessment in International University Co-Operation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denman, Brian D.

    2004-01-01

    International university co-operation is in a constant state of metamorphosis. Its future rests upon extraneous forces such as globalization and internationalization and also upon those who make policy decisions. Many international university organizations are auditing their programs and initiatives to such a degree that the cost effectiveness of…

  2. The Tyranny of No Alternative: Co-Operating in a Competitive Marketplace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Martin

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the decisions made by one secondary school in a major English city to become a co-operative academy. This school is located in an area affected by economic hardship and social and cultural tensions. The school, prior to its conversion to an academy, was well known in the local area for its commitment to social justice…

  3. Using Peer Teaching to Support Co-Operative Learning in Undergraduate Pharmacology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Depaz, Iris; Moni, Roger W.

    2008-01-01

    We report findings from the second phase of a study of co-operative, group-based assessment in Pharmacology for second-year undergraduates at The University of Queensland, Australia. Students (n = 285) enrolled in the 2006 Bachelor of Science degree program completed a group-based assessment task (weighted 10% of their course). Blended teaching…

  4. GITR Activation Positively Regulates Immune Responses against Toxoplasma gondii

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Frederico R. C.; Mota, Caroline M.; Santiago, Fernanda M.; Silva, Murilo V.; Ferreira, Marcela D.; Fonseca, Denise M.; Silva, João S.; Mineo, José R.; Mineo, Tiago W. P.

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a widespread parasite responsible for causing clinical diseases especially in pregnant and immunosuppressed individuals. Glucocorticoid-induced TNF receptor (GITR), which is also known as TNFRS18 and belongs to the TNF receptor superfamily, is found to be expressed in various cell types of the immune system and provides an important costimulatory signal for T cells and myeloid cells. However, the precise role of this receptor in the context of T. gondii infection remains elusive. Therefore, the current study investigated the role of GITR activation in the immunoregulation mechanisms induced during the experimental infection of mice with T. gondii. Our data show that T. gondii infection slightly upregulates GITR expression in Treg cells and B cells, but the most robust increment in expression was observed in macrophages and dendritic cells. Interestingly, mice infected and treated with an agonistic antibody anti-GITR (DTA-1) presented a robust increase in pro-inflammatory cytokine production at preferential sites of parasite replication, which was associated with the decrease in latent brain parasitism of mice under treatment with DTA-1. Several in vivo and in vitro analysis were performed to identify the cellular mechanisms involved in GITR activation upon infection, however no clear alterations were detected in the phenotype/function of macrophages, Tregs and B cells under treatment with DTA-1. Therefore, GITR appears as a potential target for intervention during infection by the parasite Toxoplasma gondii, even though further studies are still necessary to better characterize the immune response triggered by GITR activation during T. gondii infection. PMID:27027302

  5. Real-Time GNSS Positioning Along Canada's Active Coastal Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henton, J. A.; Dragert, H.; Lu, Y.

    2014-12-01

    High-rate, low-latency Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) data are being refined for real-time applications to monitor and report motions related to large earthquakes in coastal British Columbia. Given the tectonic setting of Canada's west coast, specific goals for real-time regional geodetic monitoring are: (1) the collection of GNSS data with adequate station density to identify the deformation field for regional earthquakes with M>7.3; (2) the robust, continuous real-time analyses of GNSS data with a precision of 1-2 cm and a latency of less than 10s; and (3) the display of results with attending automated alarms and estimations of earthquake parameters. Megathrust earthquakes (M>8) are the primary targets for immediate identification, since the tsunamis they generate will strike the coast within 15 to 20 min. However, large (6.0positioning streams for regional sites received from the Canadian Geodetic Survey (CGS), the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), and the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO). The comparison of these various real-time solutions allows a realistic evaluation of day-to-day software performance especially when faced with adverse conditions such as data gaps or poor satellite geometry. Forward models for scenario earthquakes in this region are used to "fingerprint" the coseismic displacements expected from various offshore events which allows an evaluation of the effectiveness of the current regional coverage. The present distribution and density of real-time sites is largely sufficient for aiding the timely estimation of size, location

  6. Novel positive allosteric modulators of GABAA receptors with anesthetic activity

    PubMed Central

    Maldifassi, Maria C.; Baur, Roland; Pierce, David; Nourmahnad, Anahita; Forman, Stuart A.; Sigel, Erwin

    2016-01-01

    GABAA receptors are the main inhibitory neurotransmitter receptors in the brain and are targets for numerous clinically important drugs such as benzodiazepines, anxiolytics and anesthetics. We previously identified novel ligands of the classical benzodiazepine binding pocket in α1β2γ2 GABAA receptors using an experiment-guided virtual screening (EGVS) method. This screen also identified novel ligands for intramembrane low affinity diazepam site(s). In the current study we have further characterized compounds 31 and 132 identified with EGVS as well as 4-O-methylhonokiol. We investigated the site of action of these compounds in α1β2γ2 GABAA receptors expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes using voltage-clamp electrophysiology combined with a benzodiazepine site antagonist and transmembrane domain mutations. All three compounds act mainly through the two β+/α− subunit transmembrane interfaces of the GABAA receptors. We then used concatenated receptors to dissect the involvement of individual β+/α− interfaces. We further demonstrated that these compounds have anesthetic activity in a small aquatic animal model, Xenopus laevis tadpoles. The newly identified compounds may serve as scaffolds for the development of novel anesthetics. PMID:27198062

  7. Co-operative interactions between NFAT (nuclear factor of activated T cells) c1 and the zinc finger transcription factors Sp1/Sp3 and Egr-1 regulate MT1-MMP (membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase) transcription by glomerular mesangial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Alfonso-Jaume, Maria Alejandra; Mahimkar, Rajeev; Lovett, David H

    2004-01-01

    The transition of normally quiescent glomerular MCs (mesangial cells) to a highly proliferative phenotype with characteristics of myofibroblasts is a process commonly observed in inflammatory diseases affecting the renal glomerulus, the ultimate result of which is glomerulosclerosis. Generation of proteolytically active MMP (matrix metalloproteinase)-2 by the membrane-associated membrane type 1 (MT1)-MMP is responsible for the transition of mesangial cells to the myofibroblast phenotype [Turck, Pollock, Lee, Marti and Lovett (1996) J. Biol. Chem. 271, 15074-15083]. In the present study, we show that the expression of MT1-MMP within the context of MCs is mediated by three discrete cis -acting elements: a proximal non-canonical Sp1 site that preferentially binds Sp1; an overlapping Sp1/Egr-1-binding site that preferentially binds Egr-1; and a more distal binding site for the NFAT (nuclear factor of activated T cells) that binds the NFAT c1 isoform present in MC nuclear extracts. Transfection with an NFAT c1 expression plasmid, or activation of calcineurin with a calcium ionophore, yielded major increases in NFAT c1 nuclear DNA-binding activity, MT1-MMP transcription and protein synthesis, which were additive with the lower levels of transactivation provided by the proximal Sp1 and the overlapping Sp1/Egr-1 sites. Specific binding of NFAT c1 to the MT1-MMP promoter was confirmed by chromatin immunoprecipitation studies, while MT1-MMP expression was suppressed by treatment with the calcineurin inhibitor, cyclosporin A. These studies are the first demonstration that a specific NFAT isoform enhances transcription of an MMP (MT1-MMP) that plays a major role in the proteolytic events that are a dominant feature of acute glomerular inflammation. Suppression of MT1-MMP by commonly used calcineurin inhibitors may play a role in the development of renal fibrosis following renal transplantation. PMID:14979875

  8. Brain activations during judgments of positive self-conscious emotion and positive basic emotion: pride and joy.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Hidehiko; Matsuura, Masato; Koeda, Michihiko; Yahata, Noriaki; Suhara, Tetsuya; Kato, Motoichiro; Okubo, Yoshiro

    2008-04-01

    We aimed to investigate the neural correlates associated with judgments of a positive self-conscious emotion, pride, and elucidate the difference between pride and a basic positive emotion, joy, at the neural basis level using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Study of the neural basis associated with pride might contribute to a better understanding of the pride-related behaviors observed in neuropsychiatric disorders. Sixteen healthy volunteers were studied. The participants read sentences expressing joy or pride contents during the scans. Pride conditions activated the right posterior superior temporal sulcus and left temporal pole, the regions implicated in the neural substrate of social cognition or theory of mind. However, against our prediction, we did not find brain activation in the medial prefrontal cortex, a region responsible for inferring others' intention or self-reflection. Joy condition produced activations in the ventral striatum and insula/operculum, the key nodes of processing of hedonic or appetitive stimuli. Our results support the idea that pride is a self-conscious emotion, requiring the ability to detect the intention of others. At the same time, judgment of pride might require less self-reflection compared with those of negative self-conscious emotions such as guilt or embarrassment. PMID:17638925

  9. Effect of seat positions on discomfort, muscle activation, pressure distribution and pedal force during cycling.

    PubMed

    Verma, Rachita; Hansen, Ernst A; de Zee, Mark; Madeleine, Pascal

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to measure and analyse discomfort and biomechanics of cycling, i.e., muscle activation, centre of pressure of seat pressure profiles and pedal forces as a function of seat position. Twenty-one recreationally active individuals cycled for 10min at 100W on an ergometer cycle using five different seat positions. The neutral position was considered as basic seat position and was compared with upward, downward, forward and backward seat positions. The initial bout was repeated at the end of the recording session. Discomfort increased for upward and backward condition compared with neutral (P<0.05). Normalized surface electromyography from gastrocnemius decreased in the downward and forward position but increased in the upward and backward position. The minimum force became less negative for forward position compared with neutral seat position (P<0.05). The degree of variability of centre of pressure increased in the upward and backward position and the entropy of the centre of pressure of sitting posture for backward position decreased compared with neutral seat position (P<0.05). The present study revealed that consecutive changes of seat position over time lead to increase in discomfort as well as alterations of the biomechanics of cycling. PMID:26938676

  10. Positive affect modulates activity in the visual cortex to images of high calorie foods.

    PubMed

    Killgore, William D S; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah A

    2007-05-01

    Activity within the visual cortex can be influenced by the emotional salience of a stimulus, but it is not clear whether such cortical activity is modulated by the affective status of the individual. This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine the relationship between affect ratings on the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule and activity within the occipital cortex of 13 normal-weight women while viewing images of high calorie and low calorie foods. Regression analyses revealed that when participants viewed high calorie foods, Positive Affect correlated significantly with activity within the lingual gyrus and calcarine cortex, whereas Negative Affect was unrelated to visual cortex activity. In contrast, during presentations of low calorie foods, affect ratings, regardless of valence, were unrelated to occipital cortex activity. These findings suggest a mechanism whereby positive affective state may affect the early stages of sensory processing, possibly influencing subsequent perceptual experience of a stimulus. PMID:17464782

  11. Co-operative and Hierarchical Binding of c-FLIP and Caspase-8: A Unified Model Defines How c-FLIP Isoforms Differentially Control Cell Fate

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Michelle A.; Powley, Ian R.; Jukes-Jones, Rebekah; Horn, Sebastian; Feoktistova, Maria; Fairall, Louise; Schwabe, John W.R.; Leverkus, Martin; Cain, Kelvin; MacFarlane, Marion

    2016-01-01

    Summary The death-inducing signaling complex (DISC) initiates death receptor-induced apoptosis. DISC assembly and activation are controlled by c-FLIP isoforms, which function as pro-apoptotic (c-FLIPL only) or anti-apoptotic (c-FLIPL/c-FLIPS) regulators of procaspase-8 activation. Current models assume that c-FLIP directly competes with procaspase-8 for recruitment to FADD. Using a functional reconstituted DISC, structure-guided mutagenesis, and quantitative LC-MS/MS, we show that c-FLIPL/S binding to the DISC is instead a co-operative procaspase-8-dependent process. FADD initially recruits procaspase-8, which in turn recruits and heterodimerizes with c-FLIPL/S via a hierarchical binding mechanism. Procaspase-8 activation is regulated by the ratio of unbound c-FLIPL/S to procaspase-8, which determines composition of the procaspase-8:c-FLIPL/S heterodimer. Thus, procaspase-8:c-FLIPL exhibits localized enzymatic activity and is preferentially an activator, promoting DED-mediated procaspase-8 oligomer assembly, whereas procaspase-8:c-FLIPS lacks activity and potently blocks procaspase-8 activation. This co-operative hierarchical binding model explains the dual role of c-FLIPL and crucially defines how c-FLIP isoforms differentially control cell fate. PMID:26990987

  12. Safety management in multiemployer worksites in the manufacturing industry: opinions on co-operation and problems encountered.

    PubMed

    Nenonen, Sanna; Vasara, Juha

    2013-01-01

    Co-operation between different parties and effective safety management play an important role in ensuring safety in multiemployer worksites. This article reviews safety co-operation and factors complicating safety management in Finnish multiemployer manufacturing worksites. The paper focuses on the service providers' opinions; however, a comparison of the customers' views is also presented. The results show that safety-related co-operation between providers and customers is generally considered as successful but strongly dependent on the partner. Safety co-operation is provided through, e.g., training, orientation and risk analysis. Problems encountered include ensuring adequate communication, identifying hazards, co-ordinating work tasks and determining responsibilities. The providers and the customers encounter similar safety management problems. The results presented in this article can help companies to focus their efforts on the most problematic points of safety management and to avoid common pitfalls. PMID:23759189

  13. Educational Co-operation in Asia and the Pacific: 30 Years of NIER's Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watanabe, Ryo, Ed.; Numano, Taro, Ed.; Nagata, Yoshiyuki, Ed.

    The history of the regional cooperation program of the National Institute for Educational Research (NIER) is recorded in this document. Specifically, the report outlines the past 30 years of the program in Asia and the Pacific. Throughout those years, 93 seminars, workshops, and symposia have been organized. In addition, information about the…

  14. Physical Activity and Psychological Benefits. International Society of Sport Psychology Position Statement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physician and Sportsmedicine, 1992

    1992-01-01

    International Society of Sport Psychology clarifies the psychological benefits of physical activity, noting the positive relationship between physical activity level and mental health. Exercise can reduce anxiety, decrease depression levels, reduce neuroticism and anxiety, reduce stress, and have beneficial emotional effects for both sexes across…

  15. Alignment of Hands-On STEM Engagement Activities with Positive STEM Dispositions in Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Rhonda; Knezek, Gerald; Tyler-Wood, Tandra

    2015-01-01

    This study examines positive dispositions reported by middle school and high school students participating in programs that feature STEM-related activities. Middle school students participating in school-to-home hands-on energy monitoring activities are compared to middle school and high school students in a different project taking part in…

  16. Excerpts from "Position Statement on Physical Fitness and Activity in the Context of Leisure Education."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruskin, Hilleil

    2002-01-01

    Presents a position statement designed to inform governments, non-governmental organizations, and education institutions about the significance and benefits of physical activity for all and establish a clear relationship between physical activity and leisure education. The statement includes specific recommendations for leisure education and…

  17. Positive Behavior Interventions and Support in a Physical Activity Summer Camp

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinton, Vanessa; Buchanan, Alice M.

    2015-01-01

    This purpose of this study was to investigate the implementation of positive behavior interventions and support (PBIS) in a summer camp. The camp provided physical activity opportunities to underserved children attending a summer program at a local, rural public school. Certified physical education teachers led activity stations. Participants in…

  18. Adaptability and Prediction of Anticipatory Muscular Activity Parameters to Different Movements in the Sitting Position.

    PubMed

    Chikh, Soufien; Watelain, Eric; Faupin, Arnaud; Pinti, Antonio; Jarraya, Mohamed; Garnier, Cyril

    2016-08-01

    Voluntary movement often causes postural perturbation that requires an anticipatory postural adjustment to minimize perturbation and increase the efficiency and coordination during execution. This systematic review focuses specifically on the relationship between the parameters of anticipatory muscular activities and movement finality in sitting position among adults, to study the adaptability and predictability of anticipatory muscular activities parameters to different movements and conditions in sitting position in adults. A systematic literature search was performed using PubMed, Science Direct, Web of Science, Springer-Link, Engineering Village, and EbscoHost. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied to retain the most rigorous and specific studies, yielding 76 articles, Seventeen articles were excluded at first reading, and after the application of inclusion and exclusion criteria, 23 were retained. In a sitting position, central nervous system activity precedes movement by diverse anticipatory muscular activities and shows the ability to adapt anticipatory muscular activity parameters to the movement direction, postural stability, or charge weight. In addition, these parameters could be adapted to the speed of execution, as found for the standing position. Parameters of anticipatory muscular activities (duration, order, and amplitude of muscle contractions constituting the anticipatory muscular activity) could be used as a predictive indicator of forthcoming movement. In addition, this systematic review may improve methodology in empirical studies and assistive technology for people with disabilities. PMID:27440765

  19. Alignment of Hands-on STEM Engagement Activities with Positive STEM Dispositions in Secondary School Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, Rhonda; Knezek, Gerald; Tyler-Wood, Tandra

    2015-12-01

    This study examines positive dispositions reported by middle school and high school students participating in programs that feature STEM-related activities. Middle school students participating in school-to-home hands-on energy monitoring activities are compared to middle school and high school students in a different project taking part in activities such as an after-school robotics program. Both groups are compared and contrasted with a third group of high school students admitted at the eleventh grade to an academy of mathematics and science. All students were assessed using the same science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) dispositions instrument. Findings indicate that the after-school group whose participants self-selected STEM engagement activities, and the self-selected academy of mathematics and science group, each had highly positive STEM dispositions comparable to those of STEM professionals, while a subset of the middle school whole-classroom energy monitoring group that reported high interest in STEM as a career, also possessed highly positive STEM dispositions comparable to the STEM Professionals group. The authors conclude that several different kinds of hands-on STEM engagement activities are likely to foster or maintain positive STEM dispositions at the middle school and high school levels, and that these highly positive levels of dispositions can be viewed as a target toward which projects seeking to interest mainstream secondary students in STEM majors in college and STEM careers, can hope to aspire. Gender findings regarding STEM dispositions are also reported for these groups.

  20. A second international co-operative investigation into thioacetazone side-effects*

    PubMed Central

    Miller, A. B.; Nunn, A. J.; Robinson, D. K.; Ferguson, G. C.; Fox, Wallace; Tall, Ruth

    1970-01-01

    As part of a large-scale international, co-operative investigation into the side-effects produced by thioacetazone employed in the treatment of tuberculosis, an evaluation has been made of a supplement incorporating vitamins and an antihistamine as a prophylactic. Over a 12-week period of treatment, the additive supplement failed to reduce the over-all frequency of side-effects or the frequency of side-effects leading to a major departure from prescribed treatment. There was also no evidence that the more serious side-effects, particularly rashes, jaundice and agranulocytosis, were reduced by the additives, although the occurrence of vomiting, which was however infrequent, was reduced. In view of this lack of appreciable benefit, as well as the higher cost and impaired keeping properties of tablets containing thioacetazone plus isoniazid when the supplement is added, the use of the supplement as a prophylactic cannot be recommended. PMID:4098113

  1. Co-Operation and Co-Funding Networks in eHealth Research.

    PubMed

    Kokol, Peter; Blažun Vošner, Helena; Saranto, Kaija

    2016-01-01

    In our bibliometric study we were interested in development and global trends in information and communication technology resulted in the emergence of cooperation and co-funding networks in eHealth research. The corpus was formed from the Web of Science Core Collection using the search keyword string "eHealth" in information source titles, abstracts, and keywords for the time period 2005-2014. The study results show that the research in eHealth is globally dispersed, however most co-operation is performed on the local continent or country level. Most co-founding is done among pharmaceutical firms themselves, however Sanofi, Merck and Abbot also co-fund the same projects as funding agencies. PMID:27332426

  2. Loss of Rassf1a co-operates with ApcMin to accelerate intestinal tumourigenesis

    PubMed Central

    van der Weyden, L.; Arends, M.J.; Dovey, O.M.; Harrison, H. L.; Lefebvre, G.; Conte, N.; Gergely, F.V.; Bradley, A.; Adams, D.J.

    2013-01-01

    Promoter methylation of the RAS-association domain family 1, isoform A gene (RASSF1A) is one of the most frequent events found in human tumours. In this study we set out to test the hypothesis that loss of Rassf1a can co-operate with inactivation of the adenomatous polyposis coli (Apc) gene to accelerate intestinal tumourigenesis using the Apc-Min (ApcMin/+) mouse model, as mutational or deletional inactivation of APC is a frequent early event in the genesis of intestinal cancer. Further, loss of RASSF1A has also been reported to occur in premalignant adenomas of the bowel. RASSF1A has been implicated in an array of pivotal cellular processes, including regulation of the cell cycle, apoptosis, microtubule stability and most recently in the β-catenin signalling pathway. By interbreeding isoform specific Rassf1a knockout mice with Apc+/Min mice we showed that loss of Rassf1a results in a significant increase in adenomas of the small intestine and accelerated intestinal tumourigenesis leading to the earlier death of adenocarcinoma-bearing mice and decreased overall survival. Comparative genomic hybridization of adenomas from Rassf1a−/−; Apc+/Min mice revealed no evidence of aneuploidy or gross chromosomal instability (no difference to adenomas from Rassf1a+/+; Apc+/Min mice). Immunohistochemical analysis of adenomas revealed increased nuclear β-catenin accumulation in adenomas from Rassf1a−/−; Apc+/Min mice, compared to those from Rassf1a+/+; Apc+/Min mice, but no differences in proliferation marker (Ki67) staining patterns. Collectively these data demonstrate co-operation between inactivation of Rassf1a and Apc resulting in accelerated intestinal tumourigenesis, with adenomas showing increased nuclear accumulation of β-catenin, supporting a mechanistic link via loss of the known interaction of Rassf1 with β-TrCP that usually mediates degradation of β-catenin. PMID:18391979

  3. Site selection and characterization for historic low-level radioactive wastes in Ontario, Co-operative Siting Process

    SciTech Connect

    Paktunc, A.D.

    1993-12-31

    The Co-operative Siting Process is a non-confrontational way to site a low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) management facility in Ontario. The facility will be designed to accommodate approximately 880,000 m{sup 3} of LLRW. Four sets of general facility concepts, appropriate for the physical and chemical characteristics of the wastes and the general site conditions, are being considered. These include engineered mounds, shallow burial in trenches, burial in open pit with previous surround, and intermediate depth rock disposal concepts. The communities interested in offering a site are located in the Canadian Shield where the topography is dominated by rolling hills with reliefs of up to 50 meters and hydrogeological conditions are primarily controlled by fractures in the rock and by the types and distribution of glacial sediments. Climatic conditions can be classified as humid-continental. The objective of site characterization activity is to assess the suitability of potential sites for long-term containment of LLRW in the geosphere and their safe isolation from the biosphere. An initial phase involves exploratory studies designed to reduce larger areas to smaller areas and eventually to candidate sites. The second phase involves site-specific studies designed to maximize the changes of identifying more than one site for different facility requirements and complying with the regulatory requirements and performance expectations.

  4. Directed evolution of Tau class glutathione transferases reveals a site that regulates catalytic efficiency and masks co-operativity.

    PubMed

    Axarli, Irine; Muleta, Abdi W; Vlachakis, Dimitrios; Kossida, Sophia; Kotzia, Georgia; Maltezos, Anastasios; Dhavala, Prathusha; Papageorgiou, Anastassios C; Labrou, Nikolaos E

    2016-03-01

    A library of Tau class GSTs (glutathione transferases) was constructed by DNA shuffling using the DNA encoding the Glycine max GSTs GmGSTU2-2, GmGSTU4-4 and GmGSTU10-10. The parental GSTs are >88% identical at the sequence level; however, their specificity varies towards different substrates. The DNA library contained chimaeric structures of alternated segments of the parental sequences and point mutations. Chimaeric GST sequences were expressed in Escherichia coli and their enzymatic activities towards CDNB (1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene) and the herbicide fluorodifen (4-nitrophenyl α,α,α-trifluoro-2-nitro-p-tolyl ether) were determined. A chimaeric clone (Sh14) with enhanced CDNB- and fluorodifen-detoxifying activities, and unusual co-operative kinetics towards CDNB and fluorodifen, but not towards GSH, was identified. The structure of Sh14 was determined at 1.75 Å (1 Å=0.1 nm) resolution in complex with S-(p-nitrobenzyl)-glutathione. Analysis of the Sh14 structure showed that a W114C point mutation is responsible for the altered kinetic properties. This was confirmed by the kinetic properties of the Sh14 C114W mutant. It is suggested that the replacement of the bulky tryptophan residue by a smaller amino acid (cysteine) results in conformational changes of the active-site cavity, leading to enhanced catalytic activity of Sh14. Moreover, the structural changes allow the strengthening of the two salt bridges between Glu(66) and Lys(104) at the dimer interface that triggers an allosteric effect and the communication between the hydrophobic sites. PMID:26637269

  5. Greater positive schizotypy relates to reduced N100 activity during rejection scenes.

    PubMed

    Premkumar, Preethi; Onwumere, Juliana; Wilson, Daniel; Sumich, Alexander; Castro, Antonio; Kumari, Veena; Kuipers, Elizabeth

    2014-08-01

    Social anxiety due to rejection sensitivity (RS) exacerbates psychosis-like experiences in the general population. While reduced dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) activity during social rejection in high schizotypy has suggested self-distancing from rejection, earlier stages of mental processing such as feature encoding could also contribute to psychosis-like experiences. This study aimed to determine the stage of mental processing of social rejection that relates to positive schizotypy. Forty-one healthy participants were assessed for schizotypy and RS. Event-related potential amplitudes (ERPs) were measured at frontal, temporal and parieto-occipital sites and their cortical sources (dACC, temporal pole and lingual gyrus) at early (N100) and late (P300 and late slow wave, LSW) timeframes during rejection, acceptance and neutral scenes. ERPs were compared between social interaction types. Correlations were performed between positive schizotypy (defined as the presence of perceptual aberrations, hallucinatory experiences and magical thinking), RS and ERPs during rejection. Amplitude was greater during rejection than acceptance or neutral conditions at the dACC-P300, parieto-occipital-P300, dACC-LSW and frontal-LSW. RS correlated positively with positive schizotypy. Reduced dACC N100 activity during rejection correlated with greater positive schizotypy and RS. Reduced dACC N100 activity and greater RS independently predicted positive schizotypy. An N100 deficit that indicates reduced feature encoding of rejection scenes increases with greater positive schizotypy and RS. Higher RS shows that a greater tendency to misattribute ambiguous social situations as rejecting also increases with positive schizotypy. These two processes, namely primary bottom-up sensory processing and secondary misattribution of rejection, combine to increase psychosis-like experiences. PMID:25010933

  6. p21-activated kinase 4 regulates mitotic spindle positioning and orientation.

    PubMed

    Bompard, Guillaume; Morin, Nathalie

    2012-01-01

    During mitosis, microtubules (MTs) are massively rearranged into three sets of highly dynamic MTs that are nucleated from the centrosomes to form the mitotic spindle. Tight regulation of spindle positioning in the dividing cell and chromosome alignment at the center of the metaphase spindle are required to ensure perfect chromosome segregation and to position the cytokinetic furrow that will specify the two daughter cells. Spindle positioning requires regulation of MT dynamics, involving depolymerase activities together with cortical and kinetochore-mediated pushing and pulling forces acting on astral MTs and kinetochore fibres. These forces rely on MT motor activities. Cortical pulling forces exerted on astral MTs depend upon dynein/dynactin complexes and are essential in both symmetric and asymmetric cell division. A well-established spindle positioning pathway regulating the cortical targeting of dynein/dynactin involves the conserved LGN (Leu-Gly-Asn repeat-enriched-protein) and NuMA (microtubule binding nuclear mitotic apparatus protein) complex. Spindle orientation is also regulated by integrin-mediated cell adhesion and actin retraction fibres that respond to mechanical stress and are influenced by the microenvironment of the dividing cell. Altering the capture of astral MTs or modulating pulling forces affects spindle position, which can impair cell division, differentiation and embryogenesis. In this general scheme, the activity of mitotic kinases such as Auroras and Plk1 (Polo-like kinase 1) is crucial. Recently, the p21-activated kinases (PAKs) emerged as novel important players in mitotic progression. In our recent article, we demonstrated that PAK4 regulates spindle positioning in symmetric cell division. In this commentary, and in light of recent published studies, we discuss how PAK4 could participate in the regulation of mechanisms involved in spindle positioning and orientation. PMID:22960742

  7. HIV Serosorting, Status Disclosure, and Strategic Positioning Among Highly Sexually Active Gay and Bisexual Men.

    PubMed

    Grov, Christian; Rendina, H Jonathon; Moody, Raymond L; Ventuneac, Ana; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2015-10-01

    Researchers have identified harm reduction strategies that gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (GBMSM) use to reduce HIV transmission--including serosorting, status disclosure, and strategic positioning. We report on patterns of these behaviors among 376 highly sexually active (i.e., 9+partners, <90 days) GBMSM: mean age of 37, 49.5% men of color, 87.8% gay identified, 57.5% college educated. We found evidence that many men engaged in serosorting, status disclosure, and strategic positioning; however, rates varied based on the participant's HIV status. HIV-positive and HIV-negative men both engaged in sex with men of similar status more often than they engaged in sex with men known to be a different HIV status (i.e., serosorting). However, HIV-negative men disclosed their HIV-status with about half of their partners, whereas HIV-positive participants disclosed with only about one-third. With regard to strategic positioning, HIV-positive participants were the receptive partner about half the time with their HIV-negative partners and with their HIV-positive partners. In contrast, strategic positioning was very common among HIV-negative participants-they rarely bottomed with HIV-positive partners, bottomed about one-third of the time with status-unknown partners, and 42% of the time (on average) with HIV-negative partners. Highly sexually active GBMSM are a critical population in which to both investigate HIV prevention strategies as well as develop effective intervention programs. Providers and clinicians might be well served to include a wide range of behavioral harm reduction strategies in addition to condom use and biomedical approaches to reduce onward HIV transmission. PMID:26348322

  8. Assessing the Positive Influence of Music Activities in Community Development Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillon, Steve

    2006-01-01

    This article describes a framework for assessing the positive influence of music activities in community development programs. It examines hybrid music, health and rich media approaches to creative case study with the purpose of developing more compelling evidence based advocacy that examines the claims of a causal link. This preliminary study…

  9. Enhanced Right Amygdala Activity in Adolescents during Encoding of Positively-Valenced Pictures

    PubMed Central

    Vasa, Roma A.; Pine, Daniel S.; Thorn, Julia M.; Nelson, Tess E.; Spinelli, Simona; Nelson, Eric; Maheu, Francoise S.; Ernst, Monique; Bruck, Maggie; Mostofsky, Stewart H.

    2010-01-01

    While studies among adults implicate the amygdala and interconnecting brain regions in encoding emotional stimuli, few studies have examined whether developmental changes occur within this emotional-memory network during adolescence. The present study examined whether adolescents and adults differentially engaged the amygdala and hippocampus during successful encoding of emotional pictures, with either positive or negative valence. Eighteen adults and twelve adolescents underwent event-related fMRI while encoding emotional pictures. Approximately 30 minutes later, outside the scanner, subjects were asked to recall the pictures seen during the scan. Age group differences in brain activity in the amygdala and hippocampus during encoding of the pictures that were later successfully and unsuccessfully recalled were separately compared for the positive and negative pictures. Adolescents, relative to adults, demonstrated enhanced activity in the right amygdala during encoding of positive pictures that were later recalled compared to not recalled. There were no age group differences in amygdala or hippocampal activity during successful encoding of negative pictures. The findings of preferential activity within the adolescent right amygdala during successful encoding of positive pictures may have implications for the increased reward and novelty seeking behavior, as well as elevated rates of psychopathology, observed during this distinct developmental period. PMID:21127721

  10. A Systematic Review of the Relationship between Socio-Economic Position and Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gidlow, Christopher; Johnston, Lynne Halley; Crone, Diane; Ellis, Naomi; James, David

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present review was to examine epidemiological evidence to determine if there is strong evidence of a positive gradient of increasing physical activity across the socio-economic strata, and how relationships are affected by socio-economic measurement. Design: Systematic review. Method: A search of major databases was…

  11. Positive Youth Development through an Outdoor Physical Activity Programme: Evidence from a Four-Year Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armour, Kathleen; Sandford, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    In 2006, Sandford, Armour and Warmington undertook a comprehensive review of the literature on the role of physical activity/sport and physical education in promoting positive development for disaffected youth. This paper revisits the findings of the literature review in light of data from a four-year evaluation of one corporate-sponsored physical…

  12. Research on acupuncture points and cortical functional activation position in cats by infrared imaging detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shuwang; Sha, Zhanyou; Wang, Shuhai; Wen, Huanming

    2007-12-01

    The research of the brain cognition is mainly to find out the activation position in brain according to the stimulation at present in the world. The research regards the animals as the experimental objects and explores the stimulation response on the cerebral cortex of acupuncture. It provides a new method, which can detect the activation position on the creatural cerebral cortex directly by middle-far infrared imaging. According to the theory of local temperature situation, the difference of cortical temperature maybe associate with the excitement of cortical nerve cells, the metabolism of local tissue and the local hemal circulation. Direct naked detection of temperature variety on cerebral cortex is applied by middle and far infrared imaging technology. So the activation position is ascertained. The effect of stimulation response is superior to other indirect methods. After removing the skulls on the head, full of cerebral cortex of a cat are exposed. By observing the infrared images and measuring the temperatures of the visual cerebral cortex during the process of acupuncturing, the points are used to judge the activation position. The variety in the cortical functional sections is corresponding to the result of the acupuncture points in terms of infrared images and temperatures. According to experimental results, we know that the variety of a cortical functional section is corresponding to a special acupuncture point exactly.

  13. Positive Activities: Qualitative Research with Parents. Solutions Research. Research Report. DCSF-RR142

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department for Children, Schools and Families, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This research was commissioned by COI and DCSF to understand in depth, the barriers, motivators and messages for parents to encourage participation in positive activities for young people. Within this the research was designed to understand the level of influence of parents in whether a young person participates/what a young person might…

  14. Physical Activity and Positive Youth Development: Impact of a School-Based Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madsen, Kristine A.; Hicks, Katherine; Thompson, Hannah

    2011-01-01

    Background: Protective factors associated with positive youth development predict health and education outcomes. This study explored trends in these protective factors and in physical activity among low-income students, and determined the impact of a school-based youth development program on these trends. Methods: This study used a…

  15. Students' Use of Extra-Curricular Activities for Positional Advantage in Competitive Job Markets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roulin, Nicolas; Bangerter, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    With the rise of mass higher education, competition between graduates in the labour market is increasing. Students are aware that their degree will not guarantee them a job and realise they should add value and distinction to their credentials to achieve a positional advantage. Participation in extra-curricular activities (ECAs) is one such…

  16. Influence of proline position upon the ion channel activity of alamethicin.

    PubMed Central

    Kaduk, C; Duclohier, H; Dathe, M; Wenschuh, H; Beyermann, M; Molle, G; Bienert, M

    1997-01-01

    Alamethicin, a 20-residue peptaibol, induces voltage-dependent ion channels in lipid bilayers according to the barrel-stave model. To study relationships between the proline-14-induced kink region and the channel-forming behavior of the peptide, a set of alamethicin analogs with proline incorporated at positions 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, and 17, respectively, as well as an analog with alanine instead of proline at position 14 were synthesized. Macroscopic conductance experiments show that the voltage dependence of the peptides is conserved although slightly influenced, but the apparent mean number of monomers forming the channels is significantly reduced when proline is not located at position 14. This is confirmed in single-channel experiments. The analogs with proline next to position 14 (i.e., 13, 15, 16) show stable conductance levels, but of reduced number, which follows the order Alam-P14 > Alam-P15 > Alam-P16 > Alam-P13. This reduction in the number of levels is connected with changes in the lifetime of the channels. Analogs with proline at position 11, 12, or 17 produce erratic, extremely short-lived current events that could not be resolved. The changes in functional properties are related to structural properties as probed by circular dichroism. The results indicate that proline at position 14 results in optimal channel activity, whereas channels formed by the analogs bearing proline at different positions are considerably less stable. PMID:9129817

  17. Activity of the Aurora Kinase inhibitor VX-680 against Bcr/Abl positive acute lymphoblastic leukemias

    PubMed Central

    Fei, Fei; Stoddart, Sonia; Groffen, John; Heisterkamp, Nora

    2010-01-01

    The emergence of resistance to tyrosine kinase inhibitors due to point mutations in Bcr/Abl is a challenging problem for Philadelphia-chromosome positive (Ph-positive) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients, especially for those with the T315I mutation, against which neither nilotinib or dasatinib shows significant activity. VX-680 is a pan-Aurora kinase inhibitor active against all Bcr/Abl proteins but has not been extensively examined in preclinical models of Ph-positive ALL. Here, we have tested VX-680 for treatment of Bcr/Abl positive ALL when leukemic cells are protected by the presence of stroma. Under these conditions, VX-680 showed significant effects on primary human Ph-positive ALL cells both with and without the T315I mutation, including ablation of tyrosine phosphorylation downstream of Bcr/Abl, decreased viability and induction of apoptosis. However, drug treatment of human Ph-positive ALL cells for 3 days followed by drug removal allowed the outgrowth of abnormal cells 21 days later, and upon culture of mouse Bcr/Abl ALL cells on stroma with lower concentrations of VX-680, drug-resistant cells emerged. Combined treatment of human ALL cells lacking the T315I mutation with both VX-680 and dasatinib caused significantly more cytotoxicity than each drug alone. We suggest that use of VX-680 together with a second effective drug as first-line treatment for Ph-positive ALL is likely to be safer and more useful than second-line treatment with VX-680 as monotherapy for drug-resistant T315I Ph-positive ALL. PMID:20388735

  18. Experimental study on active vibration control using genetic algorithm-based system identification and optimized positive position feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orszulik, Ryan R.; Shan, Jinjun

    2012-12-01

    A genetic algorithm is implemented to identify the transfer function of an experimental system consisting of a flexible manipulator with a collocated piezoelectric sensor/actuator pair. A multi-mode positive position feedback controller is then designed based upon the identified transfer function. To this end, the same iteratively implemented genetic algorithm is used to optimize all controller parameters by minimization of the closed loop H∞-norm. The designed controller is then applied for vibration suppression on the experimental system.

  19. Positive And Negative Feedback Loops Coupled By Common Transcription Activator And Repressor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sielewiesiuk, Jan; Łopaciuk, Agata

    2015-03-01

    Dynamical systems consisting of two interlocked loops with negative and positive feedback have been studied using the linear analysis of stability and numerical solutions. Conditions for saddle-node bifurcation were formulated in a general form. Conditions for Hopf bifurcations were found in a few symmetrical cases. Auto-oscillations, when they exist, are generated by the negative feedback repressive loop. This loop determines the frequency and amplitude of oscillations. The positive feedback loop of activation slightly modifies the oscillations. Oscillations are possible when the difference between Hilll's coefficients of the repression and activation is sufficiently high. The highly cooperative activation loop with a fast turnover slows down or even makes the oscillations impossible. The system under consideration can constitute a component of epigenetic or enzymatic regulation network.

  20. Active vibration suppression through positive acceleration feedback on a building-like structure: An experimental study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enríquez-Zárate, J.; Silva-Navarro, G.; Abundis-Fong, H. F.

    2016-05-01

    This work deals with the structural and dynamic analysis of a building-like structure consisting of a three-story building with one active vibration absorber. The base of the structure is perturbed using an electromagnetic shaker, which provides forces with a wide range of excitation frequencies, including some resonance frequencies of the structure. One beam-column of the structure is coupled with a PZT stack actuator to reduce the vibrations. The overall mechanical structure is modeled using Euler-Lagrange methodology and validated using experimental modal analysis and Fine Element Method (FEM) techniques. The active control laws are synthesized to actively attenuate the vibration system response via the PZT stack actuator, caused by excitation forces acting on the base of the structure. The control scheme is obtained using Positive Acceleration Feedback (PAF) and Multiple Positive Acceleration Feedback (MPAF) to improve the closed-loop system response. Some experimental results are included to illustrate the overall system performance.

  1. Cumulative activation during positive and negative events and state anxiety predicts subsequent inertia of amygdala reactivity

    PubMed Central

    Miendlarzewska, Ewa A.; Eryilmaz, Hamdi; Vuilleumier, Patrik

    2015-01-01

    Inertia, together with intensity and valence, is an important component of emotion. We tested whether positive and negative events generate lingering changes in subsequent brain responses to unrelated threat stimuli and investigated the impact of individual anxiety. We acquired fMRI data while participants watched positive or negative movie-clips and subsequently performed an unrelated task with fearful and neutral faces. We quantified changes in amygdala reactivity to fearful faces as a function of the valence of preceding movies and cumulative neural activity evoked during them. We demonstrate that amygdala responses to emotional movies spill over to subsequent processing of threat information in a valence-specific manner: negative movies enhance later amygdala activation whereas positive movies attenuate it. Critically, the magnitude of such changes is predicted by a measure of cumulative amygdala responses to the preceding positive or negative movies. These effects appear independent of overt attention, are regionally limited to amygdala, with no changes in functional connectivity. Finally, individuals with higher state anxiety displayed stronger modulation of amygdala reactivity by positive movies. These results suggest that intensity and valence of emotional events as well as anxiety levels promote local changes in amygdala sensitivity to threat, highlighting the importance of past experience in shaping future affective reactivity. PMID:24603023

  2. The divide within: Older active ICT users position themselves against different 'Others'.

    PubMed

    Kania-Lundholm, Magdalena; Torres, Sandra

    2015-12-01

    Although research into older people's internet usage patterns is rapidly growing, their understandings of digital technologies, particularly in relation to how these are informed by their understandings of aging and old age, remain unexplored. This is the case because research on older active ICT users tends to regard old age as an empirically interesting part of the life-course as opposed to a theoretically profuse source of information about why and how older people engage with digital technologies. This article explores - through focus group interviews with 30 older adults (aged 66-89) - the ways in which the social position of old age is used by older active ICT users in order to make sense of how and why they engage with these technologies. In this article, positioning theory is used to shed light on how the older people interviewed positioned themselves as 'active older users' in the interviews. The analysis brings to the fore the divide that older people themselves create as they discursively position themselves against different types of ICT users and non-users (young and old) when describing how and why they engage with digital technologies. PMID:26568212

  3. Effect of sugar positions in ginsenosides and their inhibitory potency on Na+/K+-ATPase activity

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ronald JY; Chung, Tse-yu; Li, Feng-yin; Lin, Nan-hei; Tzen, Jason TC

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To determine whether ginsenosides with various sugar attachments may act as active components responsible for the cardiac therapeutic effects of ginseng and sanqi (the roots of Panax ginseng and Panax notoginseng) via the same molecular mechanism triggered by cardiac glycosides, such as ouabain and digoxin. Methods: The structural similarity between ginsenosides and ouabain was analyzed. The inhibitory potency of ginsenosides and ouabain on Na+/K+-ATPase activity was examined and compared. Molecular modeling was exhibited for the docking of ginsenosides to Na+/K+-ATPase. Results: Ginsenosides with sugar moieties attached only to the C-3 position of the steroid-like structure, equivalent to the sugar position in cardiac glycosides, and possessed inhibitory potency on Na+/K+-ATPase activity. However, their inhibitory potency was significantly reduced or completely abolished when a monosaccharide was linked to the C-6 or C-20 position of the steroid-like structure; replacement of the monosaccharide with a disaccharide molecule at either of these positions caused the disappearance of the inhibitory potency. Molecular modeling and docking confirmed that the difference in Na+/K+-ATPase inhibitory potency among ginsenosides was due to the steric hindrance of sugar attachment at the C-6 and C-20 positions of the steroid-like structure. Conclusion: The cardiac therapeutic effects of ginseng and sanqi should be at least partly attributed to the effective inhibition of Na+/K+-ATPase by their metabolized ginsenosides with sugar moieties attached only to the C-3 position of the steroid-like structure. PMID:19060914

  4. A professional ethics learning module for use in co-operative education.

    PubMed

    Cates, Cheryl; Dansberry, Bryan

    2004-04-01

    The Professional Practice Program, also known as the co-operative education (co-op) program, at the University of Cincinnati (UC) is designed to provide eligible students with the most comprehensive and professional preparation available. Beginning with the Class of 2006, students in UC's Centennial Co-op Class will be following a new co-op curriculum centered around a set of learning outcomes Regardless of their particular discipline, students will pursue common learning outcomes by participating in the Professional Practice Program, which will cover issues of organizational culture, technology, professional ethics, and the integration of theory and practice. During their third co-op work term, students will complete a learning module on Professional Ethics. To complete the learning module students must familiarize themselves with the code of ethics for their profession, create a hypothetical scenario portraying an ethical dilemma that involves issues covered by the code, resolve the dilemma, and explain why their resolution is the best course of action based upon the code of ethics. A three-party assessment process including students, employers and faculty complete the module. PMID:15152866

  5. [Comparative urinary bactericidal activity of oral antibiotics against gram-positive pathogens].

    PubMed

    Bedenić, Branka; Budimir, Ana; Gverić, Ana; Plecko, Vanda; Vranes, Jasmina; Bubonja-Sonje, Marina; Kalenić, Smilja

    2012-01-01

    In routine bacteriological laboratories the antibacterial activity of antibiotics is determined by in vitro testing, usually by disk-diffusion test. However, in vitro testing does not always reflect antibacterial efficiency of antibiotics in vivo. In this investigation, the urine samples obtained in a single oral dose pharmacokinetic study were examined for their bactericidal activity against a range of relevant Gram-positive urinary tract pathogens. Urinary bactericidal activity of linezolid had been previously compared with ciprofloxacin but not with other oral antibiotics such as beta-lactams. Linezolid showed satisfactory urinary bactericidal titres throughout the whole testing period against all Gram-positive cocci. Fluoroquinolones displayed high and persisting levels of urinary bactericidal activity against staphylococci, but their activity against enterococci was weaker. According to the results of ex-vivo testing amoxycillin could be recommended only for infections caused by E. faecalis. Amoxycillin combined with clavulanic acid can be considered as a therapeutic option for infections caused by S. saprophyticus and E. faecalis. Older cephalosporins had high titres only against S. saprophyticus. Their drawback is a short elimination half-time in urine resulting in rapid decrease of urinary bactericidal titers during dosing interval. Furthermore, they do not show activity against enterococci due to their intrinsic resistance to cephalosporins. PMID:22930932

  6. Passive damping to enhance active positioning of a prototype lithography platen

    SciTech Connect

    Segalman, D.J.; Kipp, R.L.; Gregory, D.L.

    1994-12-31

    A viscoelastic tuned-mass damper was used to suppress specific structural modes of a prototype lithography platen. The platen is magnetically levitated and it is repositioned and held in position by a closed-loop feedback control system. Important capabilities of the platen control system are precise positioning and rapid repositioning, which tend to require high frequency bandwidth. The high bandwidth excites structural vibration modes which are disruptive to the control system. The present work was to develop and demonstrate a means to suppress these modes using passive vibration damping techniques. The motivation is to increase the robustness of the platen positioning and control system by reducing unwanted modal accelerations excited by high control system bandwidth. Activities performed and discussed in this paper include the analytical design of viscoelastic tuned-mass dampers and the demonstration/testing of their effectiveness on the platen while levitated and controlled.

  7. Individual Public Transportation Accessibility is Positively Associated with Self-Reported Active Commuting

    PubMed Central

    Djurhuus, Sune; Hansen, Henning Sten; Aadahl, Mette; Glümer, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Background: Active commuters have lower risk of chronic disease. Understanding which of the, to some extent, modifiable characteristics of public transportation that facilitate its use is thus important in a public health perspective. The aim of the study was to examine the association between individual public transportation accessibility and self-reported active commuting, and whether the associations varied with commute distance, age, and gender. Methods: Twenty-eight thousand nine hundred twenty-eight commuters in The Capital Region of Denmark reported self-reported time spent either walking or cycling to work or study each day and the distance to work or study. Data were obtained from the Danish National Health Survey collected in February to April 2010. Individual accessibility by public transportation was calculated using a multi-modal network in a GIS. Multilevel logistic regression was used to analyze the association between accessibility, expressed as access area, and being an active commuter. Results: Public transport accessibility area based on all stops within walking and cycling distance was positively associated with being an active commuter. Distance to work, age, and gender modified the associations. Residing within 10 km commute distance and in areas of high accessibility was associated with being an active commuter and meeting the recommendations of physical activity. For the respondents above 29 years, individual public transportation accessibility was positively associated with being an active commuter. Women having high accessibility had significantly higher odds of being an active commuter compared to having a low accessibility. For men, the associations were insignificant. Conclusion: This study extends the knowledge about the driving forces of using public transportation for commuting by examining the individual public transportation accessibility. Findings suggest that transportation accessibility supports active commuting and planning

  8. Positively Valenced Stimuli Facilitate Creative Novel Metaphoric Processes by Enhancing Medial Prefrontal Cortical Activation

    PubMed Central

    Subramaniam, Karuna; Beeman, Mark; Faust, Miriam; Mashal, Nira

    2013-01-01

    A metaphor is a figure of speech in which a subject is symbolic of another unrelated object. In the present study, we examined neural patterns associated with both novel unfamiliar and conventional familiar metaphoric processing, and how these patterns are modulated by affective valence. Prior to fMRI scanning, participants received a list of word pairs (novel unfamiliar metaphors as well as conventional familiar metaphors) and were asked to denote the valence (positive, negative, or neutral) of each word pair. During scanning, participants had to decide whether the word pairs formed meaningful or meaningless expressions. Results indicate that participants were faster and more accurate at deciding that positively valenced metaphors were meaningful compared to neutral metaphors. These behavioral findings were accompanied by increased activation in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), and the right inferior parietal lobe (RIPL). Specifically, positively valenced novel unfamiliar metaphors elicited activation in these brain regions in addition to the left superior temporal gyrus when compared to neutral novel metaphors. We also found that the mPFC and PCC mediated the processing of positively valenced metaphors when compared to negatively valenced metaphors. Positively valenced conventional metaphors, however, elicited different neural signatures when contrasted with either neutral or negatively valenced conventional metaphors. Together, our results indicate that positively valenced stimuli facilitate creative metaphoric processes (specifically novel metaphoric processes) by mediating attention and cognitive control processes required for the access, integration, and selection of semantic associations via modulation of the mPFC. The present study is important for the development of neural accounts of emotion-cognition interactions required for creativity, language, and successful social functioning in general. PMID:23637686

  9. Strategy-Based Development of Teacher Educators' ICT Competence through a Co-operative Staff Development Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavonen, Jari; Lattu, Matti; Juuti, Kalle; Meisalo, Veijo

    2006-01-01

    An ICT strategy and an implementation plan for teacher education were created in a co-operative process. Visions and expectations of staff members and students were registered by questionnaires and by making notes during sessions in which the strategy was created. Thereafter, an implementation document, where the staff development programme and…

  10. Environmental Co-Operatives as Instruments for Delivering Across-Farm Environmental and Rural Policy Objectives: Lessons for the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franks, J. R.; Mc Gloin, A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper assesses the potential of environmental co-operatives (EC) to deliver environmental benefits and an integrated and strengthened rural economy in the UK. It is based on research into Dutch EC, which have about 10,000 members, of which a quarter are non-farmers. The paper details the benefits EC have delivered to their members, the Dutch…

  11. Characteristics of Mother-Infant Communicative Interaction: Relations to the Ratings of Maternal Sensitivity and Infant Co-Operation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paavola, Leila; Kemppinen, Kaarina; Kunnari, Sari; Kumpulainen, Kirsti; Moilanen, Irma; Ebeling, Hanna

    2006-01-01

    The present article reports a study of communicative behaviour among mothers and infants who were grouped according to the ratings of sensitivity and co-operation, respectively. The participants were 27 Finnish-speaking mothers and their 10-month-old first-born infants (13 boys and 14 girls). The study is descriptive by nature, and the data were…

  12. Examining the Research Base on University Co-Operative Education in Light of the Neoliberal Challenge to Liberal Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milley, Peter; Kovinthan, Thursica

    2014-01-01

    Debates have been taking place in higher education communities in Canada and other Anglo-American contexts between defenders of liberal education and promoters of neoliberalism. One development not addressed is the growth of co-operative education (co-op). The origins of co-op may reside in John Dewey's (1939, 1966) ideas about experience and…

  13. Co-operative Learning for Students with Difficulties in Learning: A Description of Models and Guidelines for Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Ellen; Grey, Ian M.; Honan, Rita

    2005-01-01

    As part of a larger study regarding the inclusion of children with disabilities in mainstream classroom settings, Ellen Murphy, of the D Clin Psych programme at NUI Galway, with Ian Grey and Rita Honan, from Trinity College, Dublin, reviewed existing literature on co-operative learning in the classroom. In this article, they identify four models…

  14. Student Perceptions of Social Learning Space: Designing and Implementing a Co-Operative Assessment Task in Pharmacology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moni, Roger W.; Depaz, Iris; Lluka, Lesley J.

    2008-01-01

    We report findings from a case study of co-operative, group-based assessment in Pharmacology for second-year undergraduates at The University of Queensland, Australia. Students enrolled in the 2005 Bachelor of Science and 2006 Bachelor of Pharmacy degree programs, were early users of the university's new Collaborative Teaching and Learning Centre…

  15. Perceptions of Co-Operation and Collegiality by Participants of a One-Day Challenge Course Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, Brent D.; Dattilo, John

    2007-01-01

    While many studies have sought to understand challenge courses and their benefits, less emphasis has been focused on understanding participants' perceptions of these programmes. In this study, 16 adults working at a dental office attended a one-day challenge course programme designed to teach lessons about co-operation. Data were collected via "in…

  16. Identification of novel aminopiperidine derivatives for antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hee-Yeol; An, Kyung-Mi; Jung, Juyoung; Koo, Je-Min; Kim, Jeong-Geun; Yoon, Jong-Min; Lee, Myong-Jae; Jang, HyeonSoo; Lee, Hong-Sub; Park, Soobong; Kang, Jae-Hoon

    2016-07-01

    We have previously reported amidopiperidine derivatives as a novel peptide deformylase (PDF) inhibitor and evaluated its antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria, but poor pharmacokinetic profiles have resulted in low efficacy in in vivo mouse models. In order to overcome these weaknesses, we newly synthesized aminopiperidine derivatives with remarkable antimicrobial properties and oral bioavailability, and also identified their in vivo efficacy against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) and penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae (PRSP). PMID:27173797

  17. Dynamic detection of window starting positions and its implementation within an activity recognition framework.

    PubMed

    Ni, Qin; Patterson, Timothy; Cleland, Ian; Nugent, Chris

    2016-08-01

    Activity recognition is an intrinsic component of many pervasive computing and ambient intelligent solutions. This has been facilitated by an explosion of technological developments in the area of wireless sensor network, wearable and mobile computing. Yet, delivering robust activity recognition, which could be deployed at scale in a real world environment, still remains an active research challenge. Much of the existing literature to date has focused on applying machine learning techniques to pre-segmented data collected in controlled laboratory environments. Whilst this approach can provide valuable ground truth information from which to build recognition models, these techniques often do not function well when implemented in near real time applications. This paper presents the application of a multivariate online change detection algorithm to dynamically detect the starting position of windows for the purposes of activity recognition. PMID:27392647

  18. Graduated exposure and positive reinforcement to overcome setting and activity avoidance in an adolescent with autism.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Jonathan D; Luiselli, James K; Rue, Hanna; Whalley, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    Some students who have developmental disabilities avoid settings and activities that can improve their learning and quality of life. This two-phase study concerned an adolescent boy with autism who avoided the gross-motor exercise room, gymnasium, and music room at his school; he demonstrated distress, agitation, and problem behaviors when prompted to enter these areas. Using graduated exposure combined with positive reinforcement, he learned to enter these settings without resisting and eventually to participate in activities within the settings. This article discusses this intervention approach for reducing and eliminating avoidant behavior. PMID:22987915

  19. Structure-Activity Analysis of Gram-positive Bacterium-producing Lasso Peptides with Anti-mycobacterial Activity

    PubMed Central

    Inokoshi, Junji; Koyama, Nobuhiro; Miyake, Midori; Shimizu, Yuji; Tomoda, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Lariatin A, an 18-residue lasso peptide encoded by the five-gene cluster larABCDE, displays potent and selective anti-mycobacterial activity. The structural feature is an N-terminal macrolactam ring, through which the C-terminal passed to form the rigid lariat-protoknot structure. In the present study, we established a convergent expression system by the strategy in which larA mutant gene-carrying plasmids were transformed into larA-deficient Rhodococcus jostii, and generated 36 lariatin variants of the precursor protein LarA to investigate the biosynthesis and the structure-activity relationships. The mutational analysis revealed that four amino acid residues (Gly1, Arg7, Glu8, and Trp9) in lariatin A are essential for the maturation and production in the biosynthetic machinery. Furthermore, the study on structure-activity relationships demonstrated that Tyr6, Gly11, and Asn14 are responsible for the anti-mycobacterial activity, and the residues at positions 15, 16 and 18 in lariatin A are critical for enhancing the activity. This study will not only provide a useful platform for genetically engineering Gram-positive bacterium-producing lasso peptides, but also an important foundation to rationally design more promising drug candidates for combatting tuberculosis. PMID:27457620

  20. Structure-Activity Analysis of Gram-positive Bacterium-producing Lasso Peptides with Anti-mycobacterial Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inokoshi, Junji; Koyama, Nobuhiro; Miyake, Midori; Shimizu, Yuji; Tomoda, Hiroshi

    2016-07-01

    Lariatin A, an 18-residue lasso peptide encoded by the five-gene cluster larABCDE, displays potent and selective anti-mycobacterial activity. The structural feature is an N-terminal macrolactam ring, through which the C-terminal passed to form the rigid lariat-protoknot structure. In the present study, we established a convergent expression system by the strategy in which larA mutant gene-carrying plasmids were transformed into larA-deficient Rhodococcus jostii, and generated 36 lariatin variants of the precursor protein LarA to investigate the biosynthesis and the structure-activity relationships. The mutational analysis revealed that four amino acid residues (Gly1, Arg7, Glu8, and Trp9) in lariatin A are essential for the maturation and production in the biosynthetic machinery. Furthermore, the study on structure-activity relationships demonstrated that Tyr6, Gly11, and Asn14 are responsible for the anti-mycobacterial activity, and the residues at positions 15, 16 and 18 in lariatin A are critical for enhancing the activity. This study will not only provide a useful platform for genetically engineering Gram-positive bacterium-producing lasso peptides, but also an important foundation to rationally design more promising drug candidates for combatting tuberculosis.

  1. TNF activation of NF-κB is essential for development of single-positive thymocytes.

    PubMed

    Webb, Louise V; Ley, Steven C; Seddon, Benedict

    2016-07-25

    NF-κB activation has been implicated at multiple stages of thymic development of T cells, during which it is thought to mediate developmental signals originating from the T cell receptor (TCR). However, the Card11-Bcl10-Malt1 (CBM) complex that is essential for TCR activation of NF-κB in peripheral T cells is not required for thymocyte development. It has remained unclear whether the TCR activates NF-κB independent of the CBM complex in thymocyte development or whether another NF-κB activating receptor is involved. In the present study, we generated mice in which T cells lacked expression of both catalytic subunits of the inhibitor of κB kinase (IKK) complex, IKK1 and IKK2, to investigate this question. Although early stages of T cell development were unperturbed, maturation of CD4 and CD8 single-positive (SP) thymocytes was blocked in mice lacking IKK1/2 in the T cell lineage. We found that IKK1/2-deficient thymocytes were specifically sensitized to TNF-induced cell death in vitro. Furthermore, the block in thymocyte development in IKK1/2-deficient mice could be rescued by blocking TNF with anti-TNF mAb or by ablation of TNFRI expression. These experiments reveal an essential role for TNF activation of NF-κB to promote the survival and development of single positive T cells in the thymus. PMID:27432943

  2. Petroleum geology of the Timor Gap Zone of co-operation (Area A)

    SciTech Connect

    Whittam, D.B. )

    1996-01-01

    The discovery of the Elang/Kakatua oilfield and Undan/Bayu gas-condensate accumulation has demonstrated the presence of a significant new hydrocarbon province in Area A of the Zone of Co-Operation between Australia and Indonesia (ZOCA). The western part of ZOCA is underlain by a north-west trending Triassic to mid-Cretaceous sag basin (the Northern Bonaparte Basin) which is overprinted by a series of east-west faults. The basin is related to Jurassic rifting and continental separation and is overlain by a seaward thickening, passive-margin wedge of Upper Cretaceous marls and Tertiary carbonates. The east-west faults form horst blocks which are the principal structural trapping style. Hydrocarbons have been encountered in fluvial and shallow marine sandstone of mid-Jurassic age (Bathonian to Callovian). These reservoirs are sealed by marine claystones and shales of Oxfordian to Berriasian age which are also potential petroleum source rocks containing a mixture of Type II and III organic matter. The discovered oils are very light (57[degrees] API), mature crudes with low producing gas/oil ratios. The understanding and prediction of the controls on reservoir quality and access to mature source rocks are key factors in the successful exploration of the area. Poor seismic data quality is a major obstacle to the accurate mapping of structure at the level of top reservoir. Several traps are interpreted to have failed due to breaching and remigration of hydrocarbons caused by Miocene/Pliocene faulting related to the collision between the Australasian and Eurasian plates.

  3. Petroleum geology of the Timor Gap Zone of co-operation (Area A)

    SciTech Connect

    Whittam, D.B.

    1996-12-31

    The discovery of the Elang/Kakatua oilfield and Undan/Bayu gas-condensate accumulation has demonstrated the presence of a significant new hydrocarbon province in Area A of the Zone of Co-Operation between Australia and Indonesia (ZOCA). The western part of ZOCA is underlain by a north-west trending Triassic to mid-Cretaceous sag basin (the Northern Bonaparte Basin) which is overprinted by a series of east-west faults. The basin is related to Jurassic rifting and continental separation and is overlain by a seaward thickening, passive-margin wedge of Upper Cretaceous marls and Tertiary carbonates. The east-west faults form horst blocks which are the principal structural trapping style. Hydrocarbons have been encountered in fluvial and shallow marine sandstone of mid-Jurassic age (Bathonian to Callovian). These reservoirs are sealed by marine claystones and shales of Oxfordian to Berriasian age which are also potential petroleum source rocks containing a mixture of Type II and III organic matter. The discovered oils are very light (57{degrees} API), mature crudes with low producing gas/oil ratios. The understanding and prediction of the controls on reservoir quality and access to mature source rocks are key factors in the successful exploration of the area. Poor seismic data quality is a major obstacle to the accurate mapping of structure at the level of top reservoir. Several traps are interpreted to have failed due to breaching and remigration of hydrocarbons caused by Miocene/Pliocene faulting related to the collision between the Australasian and Eurasian plates.

  4. Triterpene sapogenin-polyarginine conjugates exhibit promising antibacterial activity against Gram-positive strains.

    PubMed

    Na, Heiya; Li, Xiangpeng; Zou, Cunbin; Wang, Chenhong; Wang, Chao; Liu, Keliang

    2016-07-01

    Triterpene sapogenins are a group of biologically active compounds with antibacterial activity. However, the limited solubility and poor bioavailability of triterpene sapogenins restrict their therapeutic application. Polyarginine peptides are small cationic peptides with high affinities for multiple negatively charged cell membranes and possess moderate antibacterial activities. In this study, we designed and synthesized a series of sapogenin-polyarginine conjugates in which the triterpene sapogenin moiety was covalently appended to the positively charged polyarginine via click chemistry. A clear synergistic effect was found, and the conjugates exhibited potent and selective antibacterial activity against Gram-positive strains. Among them, BAc-R3 was the most promising compound, which was also proven to be nontoxic toward mammalian cells as well as stable in plasma. The mechanism of BAc-R3 primarily involves an interaction with the bacterial membrane, similar to that of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). This scaffold design opens an avenue for the further development of novel antibiotics comprised of the combination of a peptide and a natural product. PMID:27209170

  5. Activity in ventromedial prefrontal cortex during self-related processing: positive subjective value or personal significance?

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyungmi; Johnson, Marcia K

    2015-04-01

    Well-being and subjective experience of a coherent world depend on our sense of 'self' and relations between the self and the environment (e.g. people, objects and ideas). The ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vMPFC) is involved in self-related processing, and disrupted vMPFC activity is associated with disruptions of emotional/social functioning (e.g. depression and autism). Clarifying precise function(s) of vMPFC in self-related processing is an area of active investigation. In this study, we sought to more specifically characterize the function of vMPFC in self-related processing, focusing on two alternative accounts: (i) assignment of positive subjective value to self-related information and (ii) assignment of personal significance to self-related information. During functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), participants imagined owning objects associated with either their perceived ingroup or outgroup. We found that for ingroup-associated objects, vMPFC showed greater activity for objects with increased than decreased post-ownership preference. In contrast, for outgroup-associated objects, vMPFC showed greater activity for objects with decreased than increased post-ownership preference. Our findings support the idea that the function of vMPFC in self-related processing may not be to represent/evaluate the 'positivity' or absolute preference of self-related information but to assign personal significance to it based on its meaning/function for the self. PMID:24837477

  6. Respiratory Motion of The Heart and Positional Reproducibility Under Active Breathing Control

    SciTech Connect

    Jagsi, Reshma; Moran, Jean M.; Kessler, Marc L.; Marsh, Robin B. C; Balter, James M.; Pierce, Lori J. . E-mail: ljpierce@umich.edu

    2007-05-01

    Purpose: To reduce cardiotoxicity from breast radiotherapy (RT), innovative techniques are under investigation. Information about cardiac motion with respiration and positional reproducibility under active breathing control (ABC) is necessary to evaluate these techniques. Methods and Materials: Patients requiring loco-regional RT for breast cancer were scanned by computed tomography using an ABC device at various breath-hold states, before and during treatment. Ten patients were studied. For each patient, 12 datasets were analyzed. Mutual information-based regional rigid alignment was used to determine the magnitude and reproducibility of cardiac motion as a function of breathing state. For each scan session, motion was quantified by evaluating the displacement of a point along the left anterior descending artery (LAD) with respect to its position at end expiration. Long-term positional reproducibility was also assessed. Results: Displacement of the LAD was greatest in the inferior direction, moderate in the anterior direction, and lowest in the left-right direction. At shallow breathing states, the average displacement of LAD position was up to 6 mm in the inferior direction. The maximum displacement in any patient was 2.8 cm in the inferior direction, between expiration and deep-inspiration breath hold. At end expiration, the long-term reproducibility (SD) of the LAD position was 3 mm in the A-P, 6 mm in the S-I, and 4 mm in the L-R directions. At deep-inspiration breath hold, long-term reproducibility was 3 mm in the A-P, 7 mm in the S-I, and 3 mm in the L-R directions. Conclusions: These data demonstrate the extent of LAD displacement that occurs with shallow breathing and with deep-inspiration breath hold. This information may guide optimization studies considering the effects of respiratory motion and reproducibility of cardiac position on cardiac dose, both with and without ABC.

  7. Litter effects on seedling establishment interact with seed position and earthworm activity.

    PubMed

    Donath, T W; Eckstein, R L

    2012-01-01

    Seedling establishment is influenced by litter cover and by seed predators, but little is known about interactions between these two factors. We tested their effects on emergence of five typical grassland species in a microcosm experiment. We manipulated the amounts of grass litter, seed sowing position and earthworm activity to determine whether: (i) the protective effect of litter against seed predation depends on cover amount and seed sowing position, i.e., on top or beneath litter; (ii) seed transport by earthworms changes the effect of seed sowing position on seedling emergence; and (iii) seeds transported into deeper soil layers by earthworms are still germinable. Litter cover and presence of earthworms lowered seedling emergence. The impact of seed position increased with seed size. Emergence of large-seeded species was reduced when sown on the surface. Additionally, we found an important seed position × earthworm interaction related to seed size. Emergence of large-seeded species sown on top of the litter was up to three times higher when earthworms were present than without earthworms. Earthworms also significantly altered the depth distribution of seeds in the soil and across treatments: on average 6% of seeds germinated after burial. In contrast to the seed position effect, we found no size effect on mobility and germinability of seeds after burial in the soil. Nevertheless, the fate of different-sized seeds may differ. While burial will remove large seeds from the regeneration pool, it may enhance seed bank build up in small-seeded species. Consequently, changes in the amount of litter cover and the invertebrate community play a significant role in plant community composition. PMID:21972886

  8. Dual functional activity of semaphorin 3B is required for positioning the anterior commissure.

    PubMed

    Falk, Julien; Julien, Falk; Bechara, Ahmad; Fiore, Roberto; Nawabi, Homaira; Zhou, Heather; Hoyo-Becerra, Carolina; Bozon, Muriel; Rougon, Geneviève; Grumet, Martin; Püschel, Andreas W; Sanes, Joshua R; Castellani, Valérie

    2005-10-01

    Chemorepulsion by semaphorins plays a critical role during the development of neuronal projections. Although semaphorin-induced chemoattraction has been reported in vitro, the contribution of this activity to axon pathfinding is still unclear. Using genetic and culture models, we provide evidence that both attraction and repulsion by Sema3B, a secreted semaphorin, are critical for the positioning of a major brain commissural projection, the anterior commissure (AC). NrCAM, an immunoglobulin superfamily adhesion molecule of the L1 subfamily, associates with neuropilin-2 and is a component of a receptor complex for Sema3B and Sema3F. Finally, we show that activation of the FAK/Src signaling cascade distinguishes Sema3B-mediated attractive from repulsive axonal responses of neurons forming the AC, revealing a mechanism underlying the dual activity of this guidance cue. PMID:16202709

  9. Small-Activating RNA Can Change Nucleosome Positioning in Human Fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; Sun, Jing; Shi, Jiandong; Guo, Qing; Tong, Xiangrong; Zhang, Jin; Hu, Ningzhu; Hu, YunZhang

    2016-07-01

    RNA activation (RNAa) is a mechanism of positive gene expression regulation mediated by small-activating RNAs (saRNAs), which target gene promoters and have been used as tools to manipulate gene expression. Studies have shown that RNAa is associated with epigenetic modifications at promoter regions; however, it is unclear whether these modifications are the cause or a consequence of RNAa. In this study, we examined changes in nucleosome repositioning and the involvement of RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) in this process. We screened saRNAs for OCT4 (POU5F1), SOX2, and NANOG, and identified several novel saRNAs. We found that nucleosome positioning was altered after saRNA treatment and that the formation of nucleosome-depleted regions (NDRs) contributed to RNAa at sites of RNAPII binding, such as the TATA box, CpG islands (CGIs), proximal enhancers, and proximal promoters. Moreover, RNAPII appeared to be bound specifically to NDRs. These results suggested that changes in nucleosome positions resulted from RNAa. We thus propose a hypothesis that targeting promoter regions using exogenous saRNAs can induce the formation of NDRs, exposing regulatory binding sites to recruit RNAPII, a key component of preinitiation complex, and leading to increased initiation of transcription. PMID:26993320

  10. NK and CD4+ T cell co-operative immune responses correlate with control of disease in a macaque SIV infection model1

    PubMed Central

    Vargas-Inchaustegui, Diego A.; Xiao, Peng; Tuero, Iskra; Patterson, L. Jean; Robert-Guroff, Marjorie

    2012-01-01

    Control of infectious disease may be accomplished by successful vaccination, or by complex immunologic and genetic factors favoring antigen-specific multicellular immune responses. Using a rhesus macaque model, we evaluated antigen-specific T cell-dependent NK cell immune responses in SIV-infected macaques, designated controlling or non-controlling based on long-term chronic viremia levels, to determine if NK cell effector functions contribute to control of SIV infection. We observed that Gag stimulation of macaque PBMCs induced subset-specific NK cell responses in SIV-controlling, but not non-controlling animals, and that circulatory NK cell responses were dependent on antigen-specific IL-2 production by CD4+ central memory T cells. NK cell activation was blocked by anti-IL-2 neutralizing antibody and by CD4+ T cell depletion which abrogated the Gag-specific responses. Among tissue-resident cells, splenic and circulatory NK cells displayed similar activation profiles, whereas liver and mucosal NK cells displayed a decreased activation profile, similar in SIV controlling and non-controlling macaques. Lack of T cell-dependent NK cell function was rescued in SIV non-controlling macaques through drug-mediated control of viremia. Our results indicate that control of disease progression in SIV controlling macaques is associated with co-operation between antigen-specific CD4+ T cells and NK cell effector function, highlight the importance of such cell-to-cell co-operativity in adaptive immunity and suggest this interaction should be further investigated in HIV vaccine development and other prophylactic vaccine approaches. PMID:22798665

  11. Physical Activity in the Prevention of Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo: Probable Association

    PubMed Central

    Bazoni, Jéssica Aparecida; Mendes, William Siqueira; Meneses-Barriviera, Caroline Luiz; Melo, Juliana Jandre; Costa, Viviane de Souza Pinho; Teixeira, Denilson de Castro; Marchiori, Luciana Lozza de Moraes

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Physical inactivity is an important risk factor for many age-related diseases and symptoms such as dizziness and vertigo. Objective The aim of the study was to investigate the possible association between benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) and regular physical activity in elderly subjects. Methods This cross-sectional study included 491 elderly individuals who lived independently. Physical exercise was assessed through a questionnaire and BPPV by history and the Dix-Hallpike maneuver. Results The present study indicates no significant association between BPPV with lack of physical activity in men and in the total population. We have confirmed associations between BPPV with lack of physical activity in women (p = 0.01). Women with a sedentary lifestyle who do not practice physical activity are 2.62 more likely to have BPPV than those with regular physical activity. Conclusion These results highlight the importance of identifying risk factors for BPPV that can be modified through specific interventions. Regular physical activity is a lifestyle with potential to decrease the risk of vertigo in women. PMID:25992128

  12. Localization of Physical Activity in Primary School Children Using Accelerometry and Global Positioning System

    PubMed Central

    Bürgi, Rahel; Tomatis, Laura; Murer, Kurt; de Bruin, Eling D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Ecological approaches have highlighted the importance of the built environment as a factor affecting physical activity. However, knowledge on children’s activity patterns is still incomplete. Particularly, data on the spatial context of physical activity is limited, which limits the potential to design location-based interventions effectively. Using global positioning system (GPS) and accelerometry, this study aimed to identify locations where children engage in moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Methods Participants included 119 children (11–14 years, 57% girls) from public schools in Winterthur, Switzerland. During a regular school week between February and April 2013, children wore an accelerometer and GPS sensor for seven consecutive days. Time-matched accelerometer and GPS data was mapped with a geographic information system and each data point was assigned to one of seven defined activity settings. Both the absolute amount of MVPA and proportion of time in MVPA were calculated for every setting. Multilevel analyses accounting for the hierarchical structure of the data were conducted to investigate any gender differences. Results Children achieved most MVPA on streets (34.5%) and on school grounds (33.4%). The proportion children spent in MVPA was highest in recreational facilities (19.4%), at other schools (19.2%) and on streets (18.6%). Boys accumulated significantly more MVPA overall and on other school grounds (p < 0.05) and showed a significantly higher proportion of time in MVPA at own school and outside of Winterthur (p < 0.05). Conclusions The results indicate the importance of streets and school grounds as activity-promoting environments. The high use of streets may be an indicator for active transportation, which appears to contribute to an active lifestyle in both genders. In contrast, the school setting is more likely to encourage physical activity in boys. Recreational facilities seem to be conducive for MVPA among both

  13. Force-Based Puncture Detection and Active Position Holding for Assisted Retinal Vein Cannulation*

    PubMed Central

    Gonenc, Berk; Tran, Nhat; Riviere, Cameron N.; Gehlbach, Peter; Taylor, Russell H.; Iordachita, Iulian

    2016-01-01

    Retinal vein cannulation is a demanding procedure proposed to treat retinal vein occlusion by direct therapeutic agent delivery methods. Challenges in identifying the moment of venous puncture, achieving cannulation and maintaining cannulation during drug delivery currently limit the feasibility of the procedure. In this study, we respond to these problems with an assistive system combining a handheld micromanipulator, Micron, with a force-sensing microneedle. The integrated system senses the instant of vein puncture based on measured forces and the position of the needle tip. The system actively holds the cannulation device securely in the vein following cannulation and during drug delivery. Preliminary testing of the system in a dry phantom, stretched vinyl membranes, demonstrates a significant improvement in the total time the needle could be maintained stably inside of the vein. This was especially evident in smaller veins and is attributed to decreased movement of the positioned cannula following venous cannulation. PMID:27127804

  14. Active and latent tuberculosis among HIV-positive injecting drug users in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Meijerink, Hinta; Wisaksana, Rudi; Lestari, Mery; Meilana, Intan; Chaidir, Lydia; van der Ven, Andre JAM; Alisjahbana, Bachti; van Crevel, Reinout

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Injecting drug use (IDU) is associated with tuberculosis but few data are available from low-income settings. We examined IDU in relation to active and latent tuberculosis (LTBI) among HIV-positive individuals in Indonesia, which has a high burden of tuberculosis and a rapidly growing HIV epidemic strongly driven by IDU. Methods Active tuberculosis was measured prospectively among 1900 consecutive antiretroviral treatment (ART)-naïve adult patients entering care in a clinic in West Java. Prevalence of LTBI was determined cross-sectionally in a subset of 518 ART-experienced patients using an interferon-gamma release assay. Results Patients with a history of IDU (53.1%) more often reported a history of tuberculosis treatment (34.8% vs. 21.9%, p<0.001), more often received tuberculosis treatment during follow-up (adjusted HR=1.71; 95% CI: 1.25–2.35) and more often had bacteriologically confirmed tuberculosis (OR=1.67; 95% CI: 0.94–2.96). LTBI was equally prevalent among people with and without a history of IDU (29.1 vs. 30.4%, NS). The risk estimates did not change after adjustment for CD4 cell count or ART. Conclusions HIV-positive individuals with a history of IDU in Indonesia have more active tuberculosis, with similar rates of LTBI. Within the HIV clinic, LTBI screening and isoniazid preventive therapy may be prioritized to patients with a history of IDU. PMID:25690530

  15. The influence of substituents in 3-position on the activity of chroman-type potassium channel activators.

    PubMed

    Bergmann, R; Gericke, R

    1994-03-01

    Swern oxidation of chromanol 1 led to ketone 3 with concomitant chlorination of the adjacent 4-position. Using Leuckart conditions, chromanone 2 was converted to enamine 5.--4-Bromochromene-3-carbaldehyde 8, which was obtained by Vilsmeier-Arnold reaction from 7, turned out to be a suitable intermediate for the insertion of the pyridone residue. 3-Chloro derivatives 16 and 19 resulted on heating the mesylate or tosylate with LiCl in DMF. Bromination of chromene 20 led to 21.--All compounds were tested for oral antihypertensive activity in spontaneously hypertensive rats with a dose of 1 mg/kg. PMID:8179475

  16. Classical-quantum arbitrarily varying wiretap channel: Ahlswede dichotomy, positivity, resources, super-activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boche, Holger; Cai, Minglai; Deppe, Christian; Nötzel, Janis

    2016-08-01

    We establish the Ahlswede dichotomy for arbitrarily varying classical-quantum wiretap channels, i.e., either the deterministic secrecy capacity of the channel is zero, or it equals its randomness-assisted secrecy capacity. We analyze the secrecy capacity of these channels when the sender and the receiver use various resources. It turns out that randomness, common randomness, and correlation as resources are very helpful for achieving a positive secrecy capacity. We prove the phenomenon "super-activation" for arbitrarily varying classical-quantum wiretap channels, i.e., two channels, both with zero deterministic secrecy capacity, if used together allow perfect secure transmission.

  17. S-Nitrosylation Positively Regulates Ascorbate Peroxidase Activity during Plant Stress Responses1

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Huanjie; Mu, Jinye; Chen, Lichao; Feng, Jian; Hu, Jiliang; Li, Lei; Zhou, Jian-Min; Zuo, Jianru

    2015-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) are two classes of key signaling molecules involved in various developmental processes and stress responses in plants. The burst of NO and ROS triggered by various stimuli activates downstream signaling pathways to cope with abiotic and biotic stresses. Emerging evidence suggests that the interplay of NO and ROS plays a critical role in regulating stress responses. However, the underpinning molecular mechanism remains poorly understood. Here, we show that NO positively regulates the activity of the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) cytosolic ascorbate peroxidase1 (APX1). We found that S-nitrosylation of APX1 at cysteine (Cys)-32 enhances its enzymatic activity of scavenging hydrogen peroxide, leading to the increased resistance to oxidative stress, whereas a substitution mutation at Cys-32 causes the reduction of ascorbate peroxidase activity and abolishes its responsiveness to the NO-enhanced enzymatic activity. Moreover, S-nitrosylation of APX1 at Cys-32 also plays an important role in regulating immune responses. These findings illustrate a unique mechanism by which NO regulates hydrogen peroxide homeostasis in plants, thereby establishing a molecular link between NO and ROS signaling pathways. PMID:25667317

  18. Gramicidin A Mutants with Antibiotic Activity against Both Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Zerfas, Breanna L; Joo, Yechaan; Gao, Jianmin

    2016-03-17

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have shown potential as alternatives to traditional antibiotics for fighting infections caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria. One promising example of this is gramicidin A (gA). In its wild-type sequence, gA is active by permeating the plasma membrane of Gram-positive bacteria. However, gA is toxic to human red blood cells at similar concentrations to those required for it to exert its antimicrobial effects. Installing cationic side chains into gA has been shown to lower its hemolytic activity while maintaining the antimicrobial potency. In this study, we present the synthesis and the antibiotic activity of a new series of gA mutants that display cationic side chains. Specifically, by synthesizing alkylated lysine derivatives through reductive amination, we were able to create a broad selection of structures with varied activities towards Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Importantly, some of the new mutants were observed to have an unprecedented activity towards important Gram-negative pathogens, including Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Psuedomonas aeruginosa. PMID:26918268

  19. Effects of Cycling Conditions of Active Material From Discharged Ni Positive Plates Studied by Inelastic Neutron Scattering Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckert, Juergen; Varma, Ravi; Diebolt, Lisa; Reid, Margaret

    1998-01-01

    The objectives of this presentation are: identify atomic-level signatures of electrochemical activity of the active material on the Ni positive plates of Ni-H2 batteries, relate finding to cycling conditions and histories, and develop INS spectroscopy as a non-destructive testing technique for the evaluation of Ni-positive plates of Ni-H2 batteries.

  20. Exogenous Magnesium Chloride Reduces the Activated Partial Thromboplastin Times of Lupus Anticoagulant-Positive Patients

    PubMed Central

    Tokutake, Takayoshi; Baba, Hisami; Shimada, Yuji; Takeda, Wataru; Sato, Keijiro; Hiroshima, Yuki; Kirihara, Takehiko; Shimizu, Ikuo; Nakazawa, Hideyuki; Kobayashi, Hikaru; Ishida, Fumihiro

    2016-01-01

    The activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) assay is a basic hemostatic assay based on the time it takes for clots to form in plasma samples after the addition of calcium chloride. It is used to screen for various coagulation disorders. Several previous reports have suggested that magnesium (Mg) might contribute to coagulation reactions by binding to specific coagulation proteins. We investigated the effects of Mg on the APTT. In healthy controls, the APTT was significantly prolonged in proportion to the increase in the concentration of magnesium chloride in the range from 2.1 to 16.7 mmol/L. Among eight samples from patients with various disorders that exhibited prolonged APTT, two samples demonstrated shorter APTT when Mg was added, both of which were from patients that were positive for lupus anticoagulant. When we examined 206 clinical APTT samples, we found that Mg shortened the APTT of two samples. These two samples were also from lupus anticoagulant-positive patients (p-value: <0.003). Our findings regarding the unique effects of exogenous Mg on the APTT of lupus anticoagulant-positive patients might shed light on the role of Mg in APTT assays and lead to the development of a novel screening method for lupus anticoagulant. PMID:27355205

  1. An Action Research Report on Applying Co-Operative Learning Techniques in an Intensive English Reading Class in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fu, Xiao

    2013-01-01

    This study is to examine whether the implementation of CL in an intensive reading class has a positive effect on improving the passive situation of students, whether it helps activate their enthusiasm for and ease their anxiety of participation in language class activities, and whether it is helpful to their improvement of English proficiency. The…

  2. Reproducibility of liver position using active breathing coordinator for liver cancer radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Eccles, Cynthia; Brock, Kristy K.; Bissonnette, Jean-Pierre; Hawkins, Maria; Dawson, Laura A. . E-mail: laura.dawson@rmp.uhn.on.ca

    2006-03-01

    Purpose: To measure the intrabreath-hold liver motion and the intrafraction and interfraction reproducibility of liver position relative to vertebral bodies using an active breathing coordinator (ABC) in patients with unresectable liver cancer treated with hypofractionated stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Methods: Tolerability of ABC and organ motion during ABC was assessed using kV fluoroscopy in 34 patients. For patients treated with ABC, repeat breath-hold CT scans in the ABC breath-hold position were acquired at simulation to estimate the volumetric intrafraction reproducibility of the liver relative to the vertebral bodies. In addition, preceding each radiation therapy fraction, with the liver immobilized using ABC, repeat anteroposterior (AP) megavoltage verification images were obtained. Off-line alignments were completed to determine intrafraction reproducibility (from repeat images obtained before one treatment) and interfraction reproducibility (from comparisons of the final image for each fraction with the AP) of diaphragm position relative to vertebral bodies. For each image set, the vertebral bodies were aligned, and the resultant craniocaudal (CC) offset in diaphragm position was measured. Liver position during ABC was also evaluated from kV fluoroscopy acquired at the time of simulation, kV fluoroscopy at the time of treatment, and from MV beam's-eye view movie loops acquired during treatment. Results: Twenty-one of 34 patients were screened to be suitable for ABC. The average free breathing range of these patients was 13 mm (range, 5-1 mm). Fluoroscopy revealed that the average maximal diaphragm motion during ABC breath-hold was 1.4 mm (range, 0-3.4 mm). The MV treatment movie loops confirmed diaphragm stability during treatment. For a measure of intrafraction reproducibility, an analysis of 36 repeat ABC computed tomography (CT) scans in 14 patients was conducted. The average mean difference in the liver surface position was -0.9 mm, -0

  3. Evaluation of a "no-cost" Internet technology-based system for teleradiology and co-operative work.

    PubMed

    Bergh, B; Schlaefke, A; Pietsch, M; García, I; Vogl, T J

    2003-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the suitability of a no-cost system based on standard Internet technology components for teleradiology. The system was composed of free software (communication, DICOM viewer, compression) and standard off-the-shelf hardware components. For different image (CR, CT, MR) and network types (LAN and ISDN) the File Transfer, Audio and Video Conference, and Co-operative Work properties were examined and compared with the literature referring to standard complete packages and dedicated teleradiology systems. The main advantages of the no-cost system are: price; ease of use; independence from specific hardware; and potential connection to any possible partner. The performance of the File Transfer and the Audio and Video Conference was comparable to the other system groups with slight disadvantages in the usability. For Co-operative Work the employed "application sharing" technology does not meet the clinical requirements, which applies identically to the standard complete packages. Here the specialized systems prove superior, although they are proprietary. With minimal restraints the evaluated no-cost solution can be used for File Transfer and Conference scenarios. The usage for Co-operative Work with ISDN is not recommended, unless for the purpose of gaining experience or when dealing with small amounts of cases or images. PMID:12599011

  4. Two Active Forms of UDP-N-Acetylglucosamine Enolpyruvyl Transferase in Gram-Positive Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Du, Wensheng; Brown, James R.; Sylvester, Daniel R.; Huang, Jianzhong; Chalker, Alison F.; So, Chi Y.; Holmes, David J.; Payne, David J.; Wallis, Nicola G.

    2000-01-01

    Gene sequences encoding the enzymes UDP-N-acetylglucosamine enolpyruvyl transferase (MurA) from many bacterial sources were analyzed. It was shown that whereas gram-negative bacteria have only one murA gene, gram-positive bacteria have two distinct genes encoding these enzymes which have possibly arisen from gene duplication. The two murA genes of the gram-positive organism Streptococcus pneumoniae were studied further. Each of the murA genes was individually inactivated by allelic replacement. In each case, the organism was viable despite losing one of its murA genes. However, when attempts were made to construct a double-deletion strain, no mutants were obtained. This indicates that both genes encode active enzymes that can substitute for each other, but that the presence of a MurA function is essential to the organism. The two genes were further cloned and overexpressed, and the enzymes they encode were purified. Both enzymes catalyzed the transfer of enolpyruvate from phosphoenolpyruvate to UDP-N-acetylglucosamine, confirming they are both active UDP-N-acetylglucosamine enolpyruvyl transferases. The catalytic parameters of the two enzymes were similar, and they were both inhibited by the antibiotic fosfomycin. PMID:10894720

  5. Knowing good from bad: differential activation of human cortical areas by positive and negative outcomes.

    PubMed

    Nieuwenhuis, Sander; Slagter, Heleen A; von Geusau, Niels J Alting; Heslenfeld, Dirk J; Holroyd, Clay B

    2005-06-01

    Previous research has identified a component of the event-related brain potential (ERP), the feedback-related negativity, that is elicited by feedback stimuli associated with unfavourable outcomes. In the present research we used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings to test the common hypothesis that this component is generated in the caudal anterior cingulate cortex. The EEG results indicated that our paradigm, a time estimation task with trial-to-trial performance feedback, elicited a large feedback-related negativity (FRN). Nevertheless, the fMRI results did not reveal any area in the caudal anterior cingulate cortex that was differentially activated by positive and negative performance feedback, casting doubt on the notion that the FRN is generated in this brain region. In contrast, we found a number of brain areas outside the posterior medial frontal cortex that were activated more strongly by positive feedback than by negative feedback. These included areas in the rostral anterior cingulate cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, right superior frontal gyrus, and striatum. An anatomically constrained source model assuming equivalent dipole generators in the rostral anterior cingulate, posterior cingulate, and right superior frontal gyrus produced a simulated scalp distribution that corresponded closely to the observed scalp distribution of the FRN. These results support a new hypothesis regarding the neural generators of the FRN, and have important implications for the use of this component as an electrophysiological index of performance monitoring and reward processing. PMID:15978024

  6. Activated WNT signaling in postnatal SOX2-positive dental stem cells can drive odontoma formation

    PubMed Central

    Xavier, Guilherme M.; Patist, Amanda L.; Healy, Chris; Pagrut, Ankita; Carreno, Gabriela; Sharpe, Paul T.; Pedro Martinez-Barbera, Juan; Thavaraj, Selvam; Cobourne, Martyn T.; Andoniadou, Cynthia L.

    2015-01-01

    In common with most mammals, humans form only two dentitions during their lifetime. Occasionally, supernumerary teeth develop in addition to the normal complement. Odontoma represent a small group of malformations containing calcified dental tissues of both epithelial and mesenchymal origin, with varying levels of organization, including tooth-like structures. The specific cell type responsible for the induction of odontoma, which retains the capacity to re-initiate de novo tooth development in postnatal tissues, is not known. Here we demonstrate that aberrant activation of WNT signaling by expression of a non-degradable form of β-catenin specifically in SOX2-positive postnatal dental epithelial stem cells is sufficient to generate odontoma containing multiple tooth-like structures complete with all dental tissue layers. Genetic lineage-tracing confirms that odontoma form in a similar manner to normal teeth, derived from both the mutation-sustaining epithelial stem cells and adjacent mesenchymal tissues. Activation of the WNT pathway in embryonic SOX2-positive progenitors results in ectopic expression of secreted signals that promote odontogenesis throughout the oral cavity. Significantly, the inductive potential of epithelial dental stem cells is retained in postnatal tissues, and up-regulation of WNT signaling specifically in these cells is sufficient to promote generation and growth of ectopic malformations faithfully resembling human odontoma. PMID:26411543

  7. Activated WNT signaling in postnatal SOX2-positive dental stem cells can drive odontoma formation.

    PubMed

    Xavier, Guilherme M; Patist, Amanda L; Healy, Chris; Pagrut, Ankita; Carreno, Gabriela; Sharpe, Paul T; Martinez-Barbera, Juan Pedro; Thavaraj, Selvam; Cobourne, Martyn T; Andoniadou, Cynthia L

    2015-01-01

    In common with most mammals, humans form only two dentitions during their lifetime. Occasionally, supernumerary teeth develop in addition to the normal complement. Odontoma represent a small group of malformations containing calcified dental tissues of both epithelial and mesenchymal origin, with varying levels of organization, including tooth-like structures. The specific cell type responsible for the induction of odontoma, which retains the capacity to re-initiate de novo tooth development in postnatal tissues, is not known. Here we demonstrate that aberrant activation of WNT signaling by expression of a non-degradable form of β-catenin specifically in SOX2-positive postnatal dental epithelial stem cells is sufficient to generate odontoma containing multiple tooth-like structures complete with all dental tissue layers. Genetic lineage-tracing confirms that odontoma form in a similar manner to normal teeth, derived from both the mutation-sustaining epithelial stem cells and adjacent mesenchymal tissues. Activation of the WNT pathway in embryonic SOX2-positive progenitors results in ectopic expression of secreted signals that promote odontogenesis throughout the oral cavity. Significantly, the inductive potential of epithelial dental stem cells is retained in postnatal tissues, and up-regulation of WNT signaling specifically in these cells is sufficient to promote generation and growth of ectopic malformations faithfully resembling human odontoma. PMID:26411543

  8. Co-operative agreements and the EU Water Framework Directive in conjunction with the Common Agricultural Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinz, I.

    2007-06-01

    This paper discusses the significance of voluntary arrangements for the water and agricultural policies in the European Union. The current implementation of the European Water Framework Directive (WFD) and the reform of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) require new approaches in water management. As many case studies have shown, co-operative agreements (CAs) between water companies, farmers and authorities can help to reduce environmental pressures on water bodies. The main reasons for that are: i) water companies are ready to advise and financially support farmers in changing production methods; ii) changes of farming practices are tailored to the site-specific requirements; iii) farmers and water companies are interested in minimising the costs and environmental pressures as they benefit, for example, from modernization of farming methods, and reductions in cost of water treatment, and iv) voluntarily agreed commitments to change farming practices are often stricter than statutory rules. Moreover, precautionary rather than remedial measures are preferred. Tackling diffuse pollution is one of the main concerns of the WFD. CAs can enhance the cost-effectiveness of actions within the programmes of measures so that good water status is achieved by 2015. In CAs all relevant stakeholders, located in catchment areas of agricultural usage, can be involved. Thus, they can help to foster integrated water resources management. In particular, disproportionate costs of changing farming practices can be identified. With regard to the recent CAP reform, financial support for farmers will be linked to compliance with environmental standards and further commitments. This concerns both direct payments and agri-environmental programmes. The experience gained in CAs can provide information on best agricultural practices. Informed farmers are more ready to meet environmental requirements. Because CAs implement the most cost-effective changes in farming practice, it can be assumed

  9. Co-operative agreements and the EU Water Framework Directive in conjunction with the Common Agricultural Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinz, I.

    2008-05-01

    This paper discusses the significance of voluntary arrangements for the water and agricultural policies in the European Union. The current implementation of the European Water Framework Directive (WFD) and the reform of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) require new approaches in water management. As many case studies have shown, co-operative agreements (CAs) between water companies, farmers and authorities can help to reduce environmental pressures on water bodies. The main reasons for that are: i) water companies are ready to advise and financially support farmers in changing production methods; ii) changes of farming practices are tailored to the site-specific requirements; iii) farmers and water companies are interested in minimising the costs and environmental pressures as they benefit, for example, from modernization of farming methods, and reductions in cost of water treatment, and iv) voluntarily agreed commitments to change farming practices are often stricter than statutory rules. Moreover, precautionary rather than remedial measures are preferred. Tackling diffuse pollution is one of the main concerns of the WFD. CAs can enhance the cost-effectiveness of actions within the programmes of measures so that good water status is achieved by 2015. In CAs all relevant stakeholders, located in catchment areas of agricultural usage, can be involved. Thus, they can help to foster integrated water resources management. In particular, disproportionate costs of changing farming practices can be identified. With regard to the recent CAP reform, financial support for farmers will be linked to compliance with environmental standards and further commitments. This concerns both direct payments and agri-environmental programmes. The experience gained in CAs can provide information on best agricultural practices. Informed farmers are more ready to meet environmental requirements. Because CAs implement the most cost-effective changes in farming practice, it can be assumed

  10. Gendered experiences of conflict and co-operation in heterosexual relations of Somalis in exile in Gothenburg, Sweden.

    PubMed

    Aden, A S; Dahlgren, L; Tarsitani, G

    2004-01-01

    Political upheaval and poverty at home has been forcing many Somalis to immigrate. These immigrants do not only leave their physical house, families, relatives, loved ones, friends, but also familiarities, culture, customs, and often they do end up in no man's land being between their own and new home culture. Available reports suggest that there are about 15,000 Somalis in Sweden and their majority came here from late 1989 to 1996. About one third these immigrants live in and around the city of Gothenburg. This paper explores and describes gendered experiences of conflict and co-operation in heterosexual relations of Somalis in exile in Gothenburg, Sweden. A qualitative sociological in-depth interviews with 6 women and 7 men was performed during May 1999 to January 2000. A follow up focus group interviews with 10 people (2 women and 8 men) was also carried on. The results show that both the Somali culture and Muslim religion do not support the children being taught sex education in schools or the names of the sex organs being pronounced other than to be used as metaphors. The girls, unlike their age group males, experience a very painful and terrifying process during childhood in which their self-esteem is downgraded by means of serious degrading traditional active violence such as female genital mutilation and visible virginity control. The narratives tell stories in which Somali women are degraded and expected to obey in situations characterised by their man's arbitrariness. They are subject to a very extensive form of social control, which is especially pronounced on issues regarding sexuality. Their integrity as women is, consequently set aside. When Somali refugees came to Sweden some of them came to adopt much of the modern lifestyle and cultural norm systems, preferable young people and some of the females. Relating to a new culture with its new expectations on the norm obedience also created changes in self-esteem. Exile situation tends to generate

  11. Kinetics of positive ions and electrically neutral active particles in afterglow in neon at low pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pejović, Milić M.; Nešić, Nikola T.; Pejović, Momčilo M.

    2014-04-01

    Kinetics of positive ions and electrically neutral active particles formed during breakdown and successive discharge in neon-filled tube at 6.6 millibars pressure had been analyzed. This analysis was performed on the basis of mean value of electrical breakdown time delay t¯d dependence on afterglow period τ (memory curve). It was shown that positive ions are present in the 1μs < τ < 30 ms interval, which is manifested through t ¯d slow increase with the increase of τ. A rapid t¯d increase in the 30 ms < τ < 3 s interval is a consequence of significant decrease of positive ions concentration and dominant role in breakdown initiation have ground state nitrogen atoms, which further release secondary electrons from the cathode by catalytic recombination process. These atoms are formed during discharge by dissociation of ground state nitrogen molecules that are present as impurities in neon. For τ > 3 s, breakdown is initiated by cosmic rays and natural radioactivity. The increase of discharge current leads to decrease of t¯d due to the increase of positive ions concentration in inter electrode gap. The increase of applied voltage also decreases t¯d for τ > 30 ms due to the increase of the probability for initial electron to initiate breakdown. The presence of UV radiation leads to the decrease of t¯d due to the increased electron yield caused by photoelectrons. The influence of photoelectrons on breakdown initiation can be noticed for τ > 0.1 ms, while they dominantly determine t¯d for τ > 30 ms.

  12. Kinetics of positive ions and electrically neutral active particles in afterglow in neon at low pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Pejović, Milić M. Nešić, Nikola T.; Pejović, Momčilo M.

    2014-04-15

    Kinetics of positive ions and electrically neutral active particles formed during breakdown and successive discharge in neon-filled tube at 6.6 millibars pressure had been analyzed. This analysis was performed on the basis of mean value of electrical breakdown time delay t{sup ¯}{sub d} dependence on afterglow period τ (memory curve). It was shown that positive ions are present in the 1μs < τ < 30 ms interval, which is manifested through t{sup ¯}{sub d} slow increase with the increase of τ. A rapid t{sup ¯}{sub d} increase in the 30 ms < τ < 3 s interval is a consequence of significant decrease of positive ions concentration and dominant role in breakdown initiation have ground state nitrogen atoms, which further release secondary electrons from the cathode by catalytic recombination process. These atoms are formed during discharge by dissociation of ground state nitrogen molecules that are present as impurities in neon. For τ > 3 s, breakdown is initiated by cosmic rays and natural radioactivity. The increase of discharge current leads to decrease of t{sup ¯}{sub d} due to the increase of positive ions concentration in inter electrode gap. The increase of applied voltage also decreases t{sup ¯}{sub d} for τ > 30 ms due to the increase of the probability for initial electron to initiate breakdown. The presence of UV radiation leads to the decrease of t{sup ¯}{sub d} due to the increased electron yield caused by photoelectrons. The influence of photoelectrons on breakdown initiation can be noticed for τ > 0.1 ms, while they dominantly determine t{sup ¯}{sub d} for τ > 30 ms.

  13. Magnitudes of muscle activation of spine stabilizers, gluteals, and hamstrings during supine bridge to neutral position.

    PubMed

    Youdas, James W; Hartman, James P; Murphy, Brooke A; Rundle, Ashley M; Ugorowski, Jenna M; Hollman, John H

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the magnitude of selective core muscle activation during supine bridging to neutral exercises (three on a stable and three on an unstable surface). Surface EMG analysis was performed on the lumbar multifidus, gluteus medius, gluteus maximus, and hamstrings from 13 male and 13 female subjects. Lumbar multifidus recruitment was not influenced by exercise or condition and ranged between 29.2 and 35.9% of maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC). Peak gluteus medius activation (42.0% MVIC) occurred in unstable single-leg bridge. Maximum recruitment of gluteus maximus (32.6% MVIC) appeared during stable single-leg bridge. Peak hamstring activation (59.6% MVIC) occurred during stable double-leg hamstring curl. Regardless of condition, hamstrings demonstrated high (51.9-59.6% MVIC) muscle recruitment during double-leg hamstring curls compared with the single-leg bridge or double-leg bridge. Various supine bridging to neutral exercises activated the hamstrings at levels conducive to strengthening, whereas recruitment of lumbar multifidus, gluteus medius, and gluteus maximus promoted endurance training. Clinically, we were unable to conclude the unstable support surface was preferable to the stable surface for boosting muscle recruitment of spine stabilizers, gluteals, and hamstring muscles during supine bridge to neutral position. PMID:25671354

  14. Randomized Controlled Trial of Positive Affect Induction to Promote Physical Activity After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Janey C.; Charlson, Mary E.; Hoffman, Zachary; Wells, Martin T.; Wong, Shing-Chiu; Hollenberg, James P.; Jobe, Jared B.; Boschert, Kathryn A.; Isen, Alice M.; Allegrante, John P.

    2013-01-01

    Background Within 1 year after percutaneous coronary intervention, more than 20% of patients experience new adverse events. Physical activity confers a 25% reduction in mortality; however, physical activity is widely underused. Thus, there is a need for more powerful behavioral interventions to promote physical activity. Our objective was to motivate patients to achieve an increase in expenditure of 336 kcal/wk or more at 12 months as assessed by the Paffenbarger Physical Activity and Exercise Index. Methods Two hundred forty-two patients were recruited immediately after percutaneous coronary intervention between October 2004 and October 2006. Patients were randomized to 1 of 2 groups. The patient education (PE) control group (n=118) (1) received an educational workbook, (2) received a pedometer, and (3) set a behavioral contract for a physical activity goal. The positive affect/self-affirmation (PA) intervention group (n=124) received the 3 PE control components plus (1) a PA workbook chapter, (2) bimonthly induction of PA by telephone, and (3) small mailed gifts. All patients were contacted with standardized bimonthly telephone follow-up for 12 months. Results Attrition was 4.5%, and 2.1% of patients died. Significantly more patients in the PA intervention group increased expenditure by 336 kcal/wk or more at 12 months, our main outcome, compared with the PE control group (54.9% vs 37.4%, P=.007). The PA intervention patients were 1.7 times more likely to reach the goal of a 336-kcal/wk or more increase by 12 months, controlling for demographic and psychosocial measures. In multivariate analysis, the PA intervention patients had nearly double the improvement in kilocalories per week at 12 months compared with the PE control patients (602 vs 328, P=.03). Conclusion Patients who receive PA intervention after percutaneous coronary intervention are able to achieve a sustained and clinically significant increase in physical activity by 12 months. Trial Registration

  15. Pharmacological activity of a Bv8 analogue modified in position 24

    PubMed Central

    Lattanzi, R; Sacerdote, P; Franchi, S; Canestrelli, M; Miele, R; Barra, D; Visentin, S; DeNuccio, C; Porreca, F; De Felice, M; Guida, F; Luongo, L; de Novellis, V; Maione, S; Negri, L

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The amphibian peptide Bv8 induces potent nociceptive sensitization in rodents. Its mammalian homologue, prokineticin 2 (PROK2), is strongly up-regulated in inflamed tissues and is a major determinant in triggering inflammatory pain. Bv8 and PROK2 activate two closely related GPCRs, PK1 and PK2, in a relatively non-selective fashion. To characterize better the roles of the two receptors in hyperalgesia and to obtain ligands whose binding affinity and efficacy differed for the two receptors, we modified the Bv8 molecule in regions essential for receptor recognition and activation. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH We modified the Bv8 molecule by substituting Trp in position 24 with Ala (A-24) and compared it with Bv8 for binding and activating PK1 and PK2 receptors in cell preparations and in affecting nociceptive thresholds in rodents. KEY RESULTS A-24 preferentially bound to PK2 receptors and activated them with a lower potency (5-fold) than Bv8. When systemically injected, A-24 induced Bv8-like hyperalgesia in rats and in mice, at doses 100 times higher than Bv8. Locally and systemically injected at inactive doses, A-24 antagonized Bv8-induced hyperalgesia. In rat and mouse models of inflammatory and post-surgical pain, A-24 showed potent and long-lasting anti-hyperalgesic activity. Unlike Bv8, A-24 increased β-endorphin levels in mouse brain. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS A-24 induced its anti-hyperalgesic effect in rodents by directly blocking nociceptor PK1 receptors and by activating the central opioid system and the descending pain control pathway through brain PK2 receptors. PMID:22122547

  16. Reconstructing liver shape and position from MR image slices using an active shape model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenchel, Matthias; Thesen, Stefan; Schilling, Andreas

    2008-03-01

    We present an algorithm for fully automatic reconstruction of 3D position, orientation and shape of the human liver from a sparsely covering set of n 2D MR slice images. Reconstructing the shape of an organ from slice images can be used for scan planning, for surgical planning or other purposes where 3D anatomical knowledge has to be inferred from sparse slices. The algorithm is based on adapting an active shape model of the liver surface to a given set of slice images. The active shape model is created from a training set of liver segmentations from a group of volunteers. The training set is set up with semi-manual segmentations of T1-weighted volumetric MR images. Searching for the optimal shape model that best fits to the image data is done by maximizing a similarity measure based on local appearance at the surface. Two different algorithms for the active shape model search are proposed and compared: both algorithms seek to maximize the a-posteriori probability of the grey level appearance around the surface while constraining the surface to the space of valid shapes. The first algorithm works by using grey value profile statistics in normal direction. The second algorithm uses average and variance images to calculate the local surface appearance on the fly. Both algorithms are validated by fitting the active shape model to abdominal 2D slice images and comparing the shapes, which have been reconstructed, to the manual segmentations and to the results of active shape model searches from 3D image data. The results turn out to be promising and competitive to active shape model segmentations from 3D data.

  17. Oxygenation, EMG and position sense during computer mouse work. Impact of active versus passive pauses.

    PubMed

    Crenshaw, A G; Djupsjöbacka, M; Svedmark, A

    2006-05-01

    We investigated the effects of active versus passive pauses implemented during computer mouse work on muscle oxygenation and EMG of the forearm extensor carpi radialis muscle, and on wrist position sense. Fifteen healthy female subjects (age: 19-24 years) performed a 60-min mouse-operated computer task, divided into three 20 min periods, on two occasions separated by 3-6 days. On one occasion a passive pause (subjects resting) was implemented at the end of each 20-min period, and on another occasion an active pause (subjects performed a number of high intensity extensions of the forearm) was implemented. Also at the end of each 20-min period, test contractions were conducted and subjective ratings of fatigue and stress were obtained. Another parameter of interest was total haemoglobin calculated as the summation of oxy-and deoxy-haemoglobin, since it reflects blood volume changes. The most interesting findings were an overall increasing trend in total haemoglobin throughout the mouse work (P<0.001), and that this trend was greater for the active pause as compared to the passive pause (P<0.01). These data were accompanied by an overall increase in oxygen saturation (P<0.001), with a tendency, albeit not significant, toward a higher increase for the active pause (P=0.13). EMG amplitude and median frequency tended to decrease (P=0.08 and 0.05, respectively) during the mouse work but was not different between pause types. Borg ratings of forearm fatigue showed an overall increase during the activity (P<0.001), but the perceptions of stress did not change. Position sense did not change due to the mouse work for either pause type. While increasing trends were found for both pause types, the present study lends support to the hypothesis of an enhancement in oxygenation and blood volume for computer mouse work implemented with active pauses. However, a presumption of an association between this enhancement and attenuated fatigue during the mouse work was not supported

  18. Subtle Changes in Motif Positioning Cause Tissue-Specific Effects on Robustness of an Enhancer's Activity

    PubMed Central

    Erceg, Jelena; Saunders, Timothy E.; Girardot, Charles; Devos, Damien P.; Hufnagel, Lars; Furlong, Eileen E. M.

    2014-01-01

    Deciphering the specific contribution of individual motifs within cis-regulatory modules (CRMs) is crucial to understanding how gene expression is regulated and how this process is affected by sequence variation. But despite vast improvements in the ability to identify where transcription factors (TFs) bind throughout the genome, we are limited in our ability to relate information on motif occupancy to function from sequence alone. Here, we engineered 63 synthetic CRMs to systematically assess the relationship between variation in the content and spacing of motifs within CRMs to CRM activity during development using Drosophila transgenic embryos. In over half the cases, very simple elements containing only one or two types of TF binding motifs were capable of driving specific spatio-temporal patterns during development. Different motif organizations provide different degrees of robustness to enhancer activity, ranging from binary on-off responses to more subtle effects including embryo-to-embryo and within-embryo variation. By quantifying the effects of subtle changes in motif organization, we were able to model biophysical rules that explain CRM behavior and may contribute to the spatial positioning of CRM activity in vivo. For the same enhancer, the effects of small differences in motif positions varied in developmentally related tissues, suggesting that gene expression may be more susceptible to sequence variation in one tissue compared to another. This result has important implications for human eQTL studies in which many associated mutations are found in cis-regulatory regions, though the mechanism for how they affect tissue-specific gene expression is often not understood. PMID:24391522

  19. Activity of T-DM1 in Her2-positive breast cancer brain metastases.

    PubMed

    Bartsch, Rupert; Berghoff, Anna S; Vogl, Ursula; Rudas, Margaretha; Bergen, Elisabeth; Dubsky, Peter; Dieckmann, Karin; Pinker, Katja; Bago-Horvath, Zsuzsanna; Galid, Arik; Oehler, Leopold; Zielinski, Christoph C; Gnant, Michael; Steger, Guenther G; Preusser, Matthias

    2015-10-01

    Brain metastases (BM) are frequently diagnosed in metastatic Her2-positive breast cancer. Local treatment remains the standard of care but lapatinib plus capecitabine was recently established as systemic therapy option. Due to a disruption of the blood-brain/tumour-barrier at metastatic sites, even large molecules may penetrate into the central nervous system (CNS). Here, we report on the activity of T-DM1 in Her2-positive breast cancer BM. T-DM1 was administered at a dose of 3.6 mg once every 3 weeks as primary systemic therapy for BM or upon documented CNS progression after initial local treatment. Thus, this study allowed for the appraisal of T-DM1 activity in BM. Restaging was conducted every 12 weeks with MRI or whenever symptoms of disease progression occurred. Ten patients were included; in two asymptomatic subjects, T-DM1 was administered as primary therapy, while eight had progressive BM. All patients had received prior treatment with trastuzumab, six had already received lapatinib, and three pertuzumab as well. Three patients had partial remission of BM, and two patient had stable disease lasting for ≥6 months; two further patients had stable disease for <6 months while three progressed despite treatment. At 8.5 months median follow-up, intracranial PFS was 5 months, and median OS from initiation of T-DM1 was not reached. Local treatment of BM remains the standard of care; lapatinib plus capecitabine is currently the best established systemic therapy option. Still, T-DM1 apparently offers relevant clinical activity in BM and further investigation is warranted. PMID:26303828

  20. CCL21/IL21-armed oncolytic adenovirus enhances antitumor activity against TERT-positive tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Li, Yi-Fei; Si, Chong-Zhan; Zhu, Yu-Hui; Jin, Yan; Zhu, Tong-Tong; Liu, Ming-Yuan; Liu, Guang-Yao

    2016-07-15

    Multigene-armed oncolytic adenoviruses are capable of efficiently generating a productive antitumor immune response. The chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 21 (CCL21) binds to CCR7 on naïve T cells and dendritic cells (DCs) to promote their chemoattraction to the tumor and resultant antitumor activity. Interleukin 21 (IL21) promotes survival of naïve T cells while maintaining their CCR7 surface expression, which increases their capacity to transmigrate in response to CCL21 chemoattraction. IL21 is also involved in NK cell differentiation and B cell activation and proliferation. The generation of effective antitumor immune responses is a complex process dependent upon coordinated interactions of various subsets of effector cells. Using the AdEasy system, we aimed to construct an oncolytic adenovirus co-expressing CCL21 and IL21 that could selectively replicate in TERTp-positive tumor cells (Ad-CCL21-IL21 virus). The E1A promoter of these oncolytic adenoviruses was replaced by telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter (TERTp). Ad-CCL21-IL21 was constructed from three plasmids, pGTE-IL21, pShuttle-CMV-CCL21 and AdEasy-1 and was homologously recombined and propagated in the Escherichia coli strain BJ5183 and the packaging cell line HEK-293, respectively. Our results showed that our targeted and armed oncolytic adenoviruses Ad-CCL21-IL21 can induce apoptosis in TERTp-positive tumor cells to give rise to viral propagation, in a dose-dependent manner. Importantly, we confirm that these modified oncolytic adenoviruses do not replicate efficiently in normal cells even under high viral loads. Additionally, we investigate the role of Ad-CCL21-IL21 in inducing antitumor activity and tumor specific cytotoxicity of CTLs in vitro. This study suggests that Ad-CCL21-IL21 is a promising targeted tumor-specific oncolytic adenovirus. PMID:27157859

  1. Trait positive and negative emotionality differentially associate with diurnal cortisol activity.

    PubMed

    Miller, Karissa G; Wright, Aidan G C; Peterson, Laurel M; Kamarck, Thomas W; Anderson, Barbara A; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Marsland, Anna L; Muldoon, Matthew F; Manuck, Stephen B

    2016-06-01

    Inter-individual variability in metrics of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) activity, such as the slope of the diurnal decline in cortisol, cortisol awakening response (CAR), and total cortisol output, have been found to associate inversely with trait ratings of extraversion and positive affect (E/PA) and positively with neuroticism and negative affect (N/NA) in some, but not all, investigations. These inconsistencies may partly reflect varied intensity of cortisol sampling among studies and reliance on self-rated traits, which are subject to reporting biases and limitations of introspection. Here, we further examined dispositional correlates of HPA activity in 490 healthy, employed midlife volunteers (M age=43 years; 54% Female; 86% white). Trait ratings were requested from participants and 2 participant-elected informants using the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) and Extraversion and Neuroticism dimensions of NEO personality inventories. CAR was assessed as percent increase in cortisol levels from awakening to 30min after awakening; and the diurnal slope and total output of cortisol [Area Under the Curve (AUC)] were determined from cortisol measurements taken at awakening, +4 and +9h later, and bedtime, across 3 workdays. Structural equation modeling was used to estimate multi-informant E/PA and N/NA factors. We used 3days of measurement as indicators to model each of the three latent cortisol factors (slope, CAR, and AUC). With the two latent emotionality and three latent cortisol indices included there was good fit to the data (χ(2)(200)=278.38, p=0.0002; RMSEA=0.028, 90% CI=0.02-0.04; CFI/TLI=0.97/0.96; SRMR=0.04). After controlling for covariates (age, sex, race), results showed higher latent E/PA associated with a steeper diurnal slope (Standardized β=-0.19, p=0.02) and smaller CAR (Standardized β=-0.26, p=0.004), whereas N/NA did not associate with any cortisol metric (Standardized β's=-0.12 to 0.13, p's=0.10 to 0.53). These

  2. Intervention to increase physical activity in irritable bowel syndrome shows long-term positive effects

    PubMed Central

    Johannesson, Elisabet; Ringström, Gisela; Abrahamsson, Hasse; Sadik, Riadh

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To assess the long-term effects of physical activity on irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms and on quality of life, fatigue, depression and anxiety. METHODS: Seventy-six patients from a previous randomized controlled interventional study on increased physical activity in IBS were asked to participate in this long-term follow-up study. The included patients attended one visit in which they filled out questionnaires and they underwent a submaximal cycle ergometer test. The primary end point was the change in the IBS Severity Scoring System (IBS-SSS) at baseline, i.e., before the intervention and at follow-up. The secondary endpoints were changes in quality of life, fatigue, depression and anxiety. RESULTS: A total of 39 [32 women, median age 45 (28-61) years] patients were included in this follow-up. Median follow-up time was 5.2 (range: 3.8-6.2) years. The IBS symptoms were improved compared with baseline [IBS-SSS: 276 (169-360) vs 218 (82-328), P = 0.001]. This was also true for the majority of the dimensions of psychological symptoms such as disease specific quality of life, fatigue, depression and anxiety. The reported time of physical activity during the week before the visit had increased from 3.2 (0.0-10.0) h at baseline to 5.2 (0.0-15.0) h at follow-up, P = 0.019. The most common activities reported were walking, aerobics and cycling. There was no significant difference in the oxygen uptake 31.8 (19.7-45.8) mL per min per kg at baseline vs 34.6 (19.0-54.6) mL/min per kg at follow-up. CONCLUSION: An intervention to increase physical activity has positive long-term effects on IBS symptoms and psychological symptoms. PMID:25593485

  3. Clusterless Decoding of Position From Multiunit Activity Using A Marked Point Process Filter

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Xinyi; Liu, Daniel F.; Kay, Kenneth; Frank, Loren M.; Eden, Uri T.

    2016-01-01

    Point process filters have been applied successfully to decode neural signals and track neural dynamics. Traditionally, these methods assume that multiunit spiking activity has already been correctly spike-sorted. As a result, these methods are not appropriate for situations where sorting cannot be performed with high precision such as real-time decoding for brain-computer interfaces. As the unsupervised spike-sorting problem remains unsolved, we took an alternative approach that takes advantage of recent insights about clusterless decoding. Here we present a new point process decoding algorithm that does not require multiunit signals to be sorted into individual units. We use the theory of marked point processes to construct a function that characterizes the relationship between a covariate of interest (in this case, the location of a rat on a track) and features of the spike waveforms. In our example, we use tetrode recordings, and the marks represent a four-dimensional vector of the maximum amplitudes of the spike waveform on each of the four electrodes. In general, the marks may represent any features of the spike waveform. We then use Bayes’ rule to estimate spatial location from hippocampal neural activity. We validate our approach with a simulation study and with experimental data recorded in the hippocampus of a rat moving through a linear environment. Our decoding algorithm accurately reconstructs the rat’s position from unsorted multiunit spiking activity. We then compare the quality of our decoding algorithm to that of a traditional spike-sorting and decoding algorithm. Our analyses show that the proposed decoding algorithm performs equivalently or better than algorithms based on sorted single-unit activity. These results provide a path toward accurate real-time decoding of spiking patterns that could be used to carry out content-specific manipulations of population activity in hippocampus or elsewhere in the brain. PMID:25973549

  4. Rethinking procrastination: positive effects of "active" procrastination behavior on attitudes and performance.

    PubMed

    Chu, Angela Hsin Chun; Choi, Jin Nam

    2005-06-01

    Researchers and practitioners have long regarded procrastination as a self-handicapping and dysfunctional behavior. In the present study, the authors proposed that not all procrastination behaviors either are harmful or lead to negative consequences. Specifically, the authors differentiated two types of procrastinators: passive procrastinators versus active procrastinators. Passive procrastinators are procrastinators in the traditional sense. They are paralyzed by their indecision to act and fail to complete tasks on time. In contrast, active procrastinators are a "positive" type of procrastinator. They prefer to work under pressure, and they make deliberate decisions to procrastinate. The present results showed that although active procrastinators procrastinate to the same degree as passive procrastinators, they are more similar to nonprocrastinators than to passive procrastinators in terms of purposive use of time, control of time, self-efficacy belief, coping styles, and outcomes including academic performance. The present findings offer a more sophisticated understanding of procrastination behavior and indicate a need to reevaluate its implications for outcomes of individuals. PMID:15959999

  5. Charged Nonclassical Antifolates with Activity Against Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Scocchera, Eric; Reeve, Stephanie M; Keshipeddy, Santosh; Lombardo, Michael N; Hajian, Behnoush; Sochia, Adrienne E; Alverson, Jeremy B; Priestley, Nigel D; Anderson, Amy C; Wright, Dennis L

    2016-07-14

    Although classical, negatively charged antifolates such as methotrexate possess high affinity for the dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) enzyme, they are unable to penetrate the bacterial cell wall, rendering them poor antibacterial agents. Herein, we report a new class of charged propargyl-linked antifolates that capture some of the key contacts common to the classical antifolates while maintaining the ability to passively diffuse across the bacterial cell wall. Eight synthesized compounds exhibit extraordinary potency against Gram-positive S. aureus with limited toxicity against mammalian cells and good metabolic profile. High resolution crystal structures of two of the compounds reveal extensive interactions between the carboxylate and active site residues through a highly organized water network. PMID:27437079

  6. Size controlled protein nanoemulsions for active targeting of folate receptor positive cells.

    PubMed

    Loureiro, Ana; Nogueira, Eugénia; Azoia, Nuno G; Sárria, Marisa P; Abreu, Ana S; Shimanovich, Ulyana; Rollett, Alexandra; Härmark, Johan; Hebert, Hans; Guebitz, Georg; Bernardes, Gonçalo J L; Preto, Ana; Gomes, Andreia C; Cavaco-Paulo, Artur

    2015-11-01

    Bovine serum albumin (BSA) nanoemulsions were produced by high pressure homogenization with a tri-block copolymer (Poloxamer 407), which presents a central hydrophobic chain of polyoxypropylene (PPO) and two identical lateral hydrophilic chains of polyethylene glycol (PEG). We observed a linear correlation between tri-block copolymer concentration and size - the use of 5mg/mL of Poloxamer 407 yields nanoemulsions smaller than 100nm. Molecular dynamics and fluorescent tagging of the tri-block copolymer highlight their mechanistic role on the size of emulsions. This novel method enables the fabrication of highly stable albumin emulsions in the nano-size range, highly desirable for controlled drug delivery. Folic Acid (FA)-tagged protein nanoemulsions were shown to promote specific folate receptor (FR)-mediated targeting in FR positive cells. The novel strategy presented here enables the construction of size controlled, functionalized protein-based nanoemulsions with excellent characteristics for active targeting in cancer therapy. PMID:26241920

  7. Earthquake lights and the stress-activation of positive hole charge carriers in rocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    St-Laurent, F.; Derr, J.S.; Freund, F.T.

    2006-01-01

    Earthquake-related luminous phenomena (also known as earthquake lights) may arise from (1) the stress-activation of positive hole (p-hole) charge carriers in igneous rocks and (2) the accumulation of high charge carrier concentrations at asperities in the crust where the stress rates increase very rapidly as an earthquake approaches. It is proposed that, when a critical charge carrier concentration is reached, the p-holes form a degenerated solid state plasma that can break out of the confined rock volume and propagate as a rapidly expanding charge cloud. Upon reaching the surface the charge cloud causes dielectric breakdown at the air-rock interface, i.e. corona discharges, accompanied by the emission of light and high frequency electromagnetic radiation. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Active diffusion and microtubule-based transport oppose myosin forces to position organelles in cells

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Congping; Schuster, Martin; Guimaraes, Sofia Cunha; Ashwin, Peter; Schrader, Michael; Metz, Jeremy; Hacker, Christian; Gurr, Sarah Jane; Steinberg, Gero

    2016-01-01

    Even distribution of peroxisomes (POs) and lipid droplets (LDs) is critical to their role in lipid and reactive oxygen species homeostasis. How even distribution is achieved remains elusive, but diffusive motion and directed motility may play a role. Here we show that in the fungus Ustilago maydis ∼95% of POs and LDs undergo diffusive motions. These movements require ATP and involve bidirectional early endosome motility, indicating that microtubule-associated membrane trafficking enhances diffusion of organelles. When early endosome transport is abolished, POs and LDs drift slowly towards the growing cell end. This pole-ward drift is facilitated by anterograde delivery of secretory cargo to the cell tip by myosin-5. Modelling reveals that microtubule-based directed transport and active diffusion support distribution, mobility and mixing of POs. In mammalian COS-7 cells, microtubules and F-actin also counteract each other to distribute POs. This highlights the importance of opposing cytoskeletal forces in organelle positioning in eukaryotes. PMID:27251117

  9. Active diffusion and microtubule-based transport oppose myosin forces to position organelles in cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Congping; Schuster, Martin; Guimaraes, Sofia Cunha; Ashwin, Peter; Schrader, Michael; Metz, Jeremy; Hacker, Christian; Gurr, Sarah Jane; Steinberg, Gero

    2016-06-01

    Even distribution of peroxisomes (POs) and lipid droplets (LDs) is critical to their role in lipid and reactive oxygen species homeostasis. How even distribution is achieved remains elusive, but diffusive motion and directed motility may play a role. Here we show that in the fungus Ustilago maydis ~95% of POs and LDs undergo diffusive motions. These movements require ATP and involve bidirectional early endosome motility, indicating that microtubule-associated membrane trafficking enhances diffusion of organelles. When early endosome transport is abolished, POs and LDs drift slowly towards the growing cell end. This pole-ward drift is facilitated by anterograde delivery of secretory cargo to the cell tip by myosin-5. Modelling reveals that microtubule-based directed transport and active diffusion support distribution, mobility and mixing of POs. In mammalian COS-7 cells, microtubules and F-actin also counteract each other to distribute POs. This highlights the importance of opposing cytoskeletal forces in organelle positioning in eukaryotes.

  10. Active diffusion and microtubule-based transport oppose myosin forces to position organelles in cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Congping; Schuster, Martin; Guimaraes, Sofia Cunha; Ashwin, Peter; Schrader, Michael; Metz, Jeremy; Hacker, Christian; Gurr, Sarah Jane; Steinberg, Gero

    2016-01-01

    Even distribution of peroxisomes (POs) and lipid droplets (LDs) is critical to their role in lipid and reactive oxygen species homeostasis. How even distribution is achieved remains elusive, but diffusive motion and directed motility may play a role. Here we show that in the fungus Ustilago maydis ∼95% of POs and LDs undergo diffusive motions. These movements require ATP and involve bidirectional early endosome motility, indicating that microtubule-associated membrane trafficking enhances diffusion of organelles. When early endosome transport is abolished, POs and LDs drift slowly towards the growing cell end. This pole-ward drift is facilitated by anterograde delivery of secretory cargo to the cell tip by myosin-5. Modelling reveals that microtubule-based directed transport and active diffusion support distribution, mobility and mixing of POs. In mammalian COS-7 cells, microtubules and F-actin also counteract each other to distribute POs. This highlights the importance of opposing cytoskeletal forces in organelle positioning in eukaryotes. PMID:27251117

  11. Interferon-α/β enhances temozolomide activity against MGMT-positive glioma stem-like cells.

    PubMed

    Shen, Dong; Guo, Cheng-Cheng; Wang, Jing; Qiu, Zhi-Kun; Sai, Ke; Yang, Qun-Ying; Chen, Yin-Sheng; Chen, Fu-Rong; Wang, Jie; Panasci, Lawrence; Chen, Zhong-Ping

    2015-11-01

    Glioma is one of the most common primary tumors of the central nervous system in adults. Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most lethal type of glioma, whose 5-year survival is 9.8% at best. Glioma stem-like cells (GSCs) play an important role in recurrence and treatment resistance. MGMT is a DNA repair protein that removes DNA adducts and therefore attenuates treatment efficiency. It has been reported that interferon-α/β (IFN-α/β) downregulates the level of MGMT and sensitizes glioma cells to temozolomide. In the present study, we assessed whether IFN-α/β is able to sensitize GSCs to temozolomide by modulating MGMT expression. Upon the treatment of IFN-α/β, the efficacy of temozolomide against MGMT‑positive GSCs was markedly enhanced by combination treatment with IFN-α/β when compared with the temozolomide single agent group, and MGMT expression was markedly decreased at the same time. Further mechanistic study showed that IFN-α/β suppressed the NF-κB activity, which further mediated the sensitization of MGMT‑positive GSCs to temozolomide. Our data therefore demonstrated that the application of IFN-α/β is a promising agent with which to enhance temozolomide efficiency and reduce drug resistance, and our findings shed light on improving clinical outcomes and prolonging the survival of patients with malignant gliomas. PMID:26329778

  12. Activity of T-DM1 in HER-2 positive central nervous system breast cancer metastases

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Sofia; Maralani, Pejman; Verma, Sunil

    2014-01-01

    A 55-year-old woman with metastatic human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2) positive breast cancer (BC) to the lungs and bones was diagnosed with central nervous system (CNS) metastases in November 2011. The MRI showed a right parietal lobe mass with adjacent leptomeningeal disease and several small bilateral cerebellar metastases. She was treated with whole brain irradiation (WBI), followed by capecitabine and lapatinib (December 2011-March 2013) and trastuzumab and lapatinib (May 2013-August 2013). Then, the brain MRI showed progression. In the absence of significant neurological symptoms, we postponed WBI and closely monitored for the development of neurological symptoms. Systemic treatment with trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1), an antibody-drug conjugate composed of the cytotoxic agent DM1 conjugated to trastuzumab, was initiated in September 2013 to control systemic disease. Unexpectedly, after two cycles of treatment the brain MRI showed a decrease in size of CNS metastases. This case report suggests possible activity of T-DM1 in HER-2 positive BC with CNS metastases. PMID:25123575

  13. Refining Time-Activity Classification of Human Subjects Using the Global Positioning System

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Maogui; Li, Wei; Li, Lianfa; Houston, Douglas; Wu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Background Detailed spatial location information is important in accurately estimating personal exposure to air pollution. Global Position System (GPS) has been widely used in tracking personal paths and activities. Previous researchers have developed time-activity classification models based on GPS data, most of them were developed for specific regions. An adaptive model for time-location classification can be widely applied to air pollution studies that use GPS to track individual level time-activity patterns. Methods Time-activity data were collected for seven days using GPS loggers and accelerometers from thirteen adult participants from Southern California under free living conditions. We developed an automated model based on random forests to classify major time-activity patterns (i.e. indoor, outdoor-static, outdoor-walking, and in-vehicle travel). Sensitivity analysis was conducted to examine the contribution of the accelerometer data and the supplemental spatial data (i.e. roadway and tax parcel data) to the accuracy of time-activity classification. Our model was evaluated using both leave-one-fold-out and leave-one-subject-out methods. Results Maximum speeds in averaging time intervals of 7 and 5 minutes, and distance to primary highways with limited access were found to be the three most important variables in the classification model. Leave-one-fold-out cross-validation showed an overall accuracy of 99.71%. Sensitivities varied from 84.62% (outdoor walking) to 99.90% (indoor). Specificities varied from 96.33% (indoor) to 99.98% (outdoor static). The exclusion of accelerometer and ambient light sensor variables caused a slight loss in sensitivity for outdoor walking, but little loss in overall accuracy. However, leave-one-subject-out cross-validation showed considerable loss in sensitivity for outdoor static and outdoor walking conditions. Conclusions The random forests classification model can achieve high accuracy for the four major time-activity

  14. Dab2IP Regulates Neuronal Positioning, Rap1 Activity and Integrin Signaling in the Developing Cortex.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Shuhong; Homayouni, Ramin

    2015-01-01

    Dab2IP (DOC-2/DAB2 interacting protein) is a GTPase-activating protein which is involved in various aspects of brain development in addition to its roles in tumor formation and apoptosis in other systems. In this study, we carefully examined the expression profile of Dab2IP and investigated its physiological role during brain development using a Dab2IP-knockdown (KD) mouse model created by retroviral insertion of a LacZ-encoding gene-trapping cassette. LacZ staining revealed that Dab2IP is expressed in the ventricular zone as well as the cortical plate and the intermediate zone. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that Dab2IP protein is localized in the leading process and proximal cytoplasmic regions of migrating neurons in the intermediate zone. Bromodeoxyuridine birth dating experiments in combination with immunohistochemical analysis using layer-specific markers showed that Dab2IP is important for proper positioning of a subset of layer II-IV neurons in the developing cortex. Notably, neuronal migration was not completely disrupted in the cerebral cortex of Dab2IP-KD mice and disruption of migration was not strictly layer specific. Previously, we found that Dab2IP regulates multipolar transition in cortical neurons. Others have shown that Rap1 regulates the transition from multipolar to bipolar morphology in migrating postmitotic neurons through N-cadherin signaling and somal translocation in the superficial layer of the cortical plate through integrin signaling. Therefore, we examined whether Rap1 and integrin signaling were affected in Dab2IP-KD brains. We found that Dab2IP-KD resulted in higher levels of activated Rap1 and integrin in the developing cortex. Taken together, our results suggest that Dab2IP plays an important role in the migration and positioning of a subpopulation of later-born (layers II-IV) neurons, likely through the regulation of Rap1 and integrin signaling. PMID:25721469

  15. The effect of tongue position and resulting vertical dimension on masticatory muscle activity. A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Valdés, C; Gutiérrez, M; Falace, D; Astaburuaga, F; Manns, A

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to: (a) compare the tonic electromyographic (EMG) activity of the temporalis and masseter muscles between two tongue positions, (b) compare the vertical dimension (VD) resulting from each tongue position and (c) determine the influence of the VD on the tonic EMG activity for each tongue position. Thirty-three healthy dental students with natural dentition and bilateral molar support, between the ages of 18 and 22 years, with no prior history of oro-facial injury, or current or past pain in the jaw, mouth, or tongue participated in the study. Tonic masseteric and temporalis EMG activities were recorded using surface electrodes. Subjects were instructed to passively place the tongue either on the anterior hard palate or in the floor of the mouth. At each tongue position, the resulting EMG and VD were recorded. No significant difference in EMG activity was found for either the masseter (P-value = 0·5376) or temporalis muscle (P-value = 0·7410), between the two tongue positions. However, there was a significant difference in the VD resulting from the two different tongue positions, being greater with the tongue placed in the floor of the mouth. There was no statistically significant correlation between VD and EMG activity for both tongue positions. In spite of the lack of difference in the effect of both tongue positions on the masseteric and temporalis EMG activity, an increment of the VD was registered for the floor of mouth-tongue position. However, VD was not correlated with EMG activity for both tongue positions. PMID:23855557

  16. Tedizolid: a novel oxazolidinone with potent activity against multidrug-resistant gram-positive pathogens.

    PubMed

    Zhanel, George G; Love, Riley; Adam, Heather; Golden, Alyssa; Zelenitsky, Sheryl; Schweizer, Frank; Gorityala, Bala; Lagacé-Wiens, Philippe R S; Rubinstein, Ethan; Walkty, Andrew; Gin, Alfred S; Gilmour, Matthew; Hoban, Daryl J; Lynch, Joseph P; Karlowsky, James A

    2015-02-01

    Tedizolid phosphate is a novel oxazolidinone prodrug (converted to the active form tedizolid by phosphatases in vivo) that has been developed and recently approved (June 2014) by the United States FDA for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSIs) caused by susceptible Gram-positive pathogens, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Tedizolid is an oxazolidinone, but differs from other oxazolidinones by possessing a modified side chain at the C-5 position of the oxazolidinone nucleus which confers activity against certain linezolid-resistant pathogens and has an optimized C- and D-ring system that improves potency through additional binding site interactions. The mechanism of action of tedizolid is similar to other oxazolidinones and occurs through inhibition of bacterial protein synthesis by binding to 23S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) of the 50S subunit of the ribosome. As with other oxazolidinones, the spontaneous frequency of resistance development to tedizolid is low. Tedizolid is four- to eightfold more potent in vivo than linezolid against all species of staphylococci, enterococci, and streptococci, including drug-resistant phenotypes such as MRSA and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) and linezolid-resistant phenotypes. Importantly, tedizolid demonstrates activity against linezolid-resistant bacterial strains harboring the horizontally transmissible cfr gene, in the absence of certain ribosomal mutations conferring reduced oxazolidinone susceptibility. With its half-life of approximately 12 h, tedizolid is dosed once daily. It demonstrates linear pharmacokinetics, has a high oral bioavailability of approximately 90 %, and is primarily excreted by the liver as an inactive, non-circulating sulphate conjugate. Tedizolid does not require dosage adjustment in patients with any degree of renal dysfunction or hepatic dysfunction. Studies in animals have demonstrated that the pharmacodynamic parameter most closely

  17. A novel method for measuring TBAb activity in TSAb- and TBAb-positive serum.

    PubMed

    Ochi, Yukio; Hachiya, Takashi; Arata, Naoko

    2015-01-01

    We reported a conversion assay in which thyroid blocking antibody (TBAb) function as thyroid stimulating antibody (TSAb). TBAb-bound porcine thyroid cells (PTC) were made by incubating TBAb(+) serum and PTC for 1 hour. When these TBAb-bound PTC were incubated 4 h with rabbit anti-human (h) IgG antibody (Ab), cAMP production was high, but when incubated with normal rabbit serum (NRS) cAMP production was low. TBAb-Mnoclonal Ab (MoAb) (KI-70) showed similar conversion. However, when TSAb-MoAb(M22) was assayed, anti-hIgG Ab-produced cAMP was lower than NRS-produced cAMP. When a mixture of M22 and KI-70 was assayed, anti-hIgG Ab-produced cAMP was higher than NRS. Thus, it is possible to determine existence of TBAb in TSAb(+)serum when anti-IgG Ab-produced cAMP is higher than NRS-produced cAMP. In this assay TBAb activity in TSAb(+)serum was scored as positive, gray zone and negative when the difference [anti-hIgG Ab-produced cAMP(%)-NRS-produced cAMP(%)] was >100%, 50-100% and <±50%, respectively. In TSAb(+)sera of Graves' patients with no treatment or anti-thyroid therapy, positive TBAb was 9% (3/33 )and 6.9% (5/72), and gray zone was 18 % (6/33) and 25% (18/72), respectively. A low prevelance of TBAb and low TBAb activity (<200% as cAMP) was found in these Graves' patients. A radioisotope treated Graves' patient showed existence of both TSAb and TBAb at 5 months (NRS, 800% cAMP and anti-IgGAb,1,350% cAMP), and highly positive TBAb (NRS, 180% cAMP and anti-hIgG Ab, 3,200% cAMP) at 30 months. This conversion assay is useful principally for TBAb determination but is also useful for TBAb determination in TSAb(+)serum. PMID:26299889

  18. Moisture-uptake by the positive active material from the casting solvent and the ambient environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saharan, Vijay; Roberts, Jeffrey; Manev, Vesselin; Chia, Yee Ho; MacLean, Greg; McMullen, Steven R.

    It is widely recognized that the presence of residual moisture has significant detrimental effects on the performance of lithium ion batteries. Studies have shown that the positive active material can be a major source of moisture contributors to the overall cell moisture. The aim of the present study is to understand the factors affecting moisture uptake by the doped-lithium nickel cobalt oxide material from the casting solvent, acetone, and the ambient environment. As-is and the air-dried powders under various conditions (300 °C for 24 h, 500 °C for 8 h, and 500 °C for 24 h) were exposed to ambient and humid air for various lengths of time. Similarly, all these powders were exposed to extra dry (47 ppm) and wet (5789 ppm) acetone. Karl Fisher measurements at 160 °C and 290 °C show that humidity levels (80-85% relative humidity versus 20-25%) and the exposure times are the critical factors. Acetone wetness and the length of exposure in it do not contribute significantly to the moisture uptake by the active material. Cathode powder drying helps in minimizing the amount of moisture uptake from the environment.

  19. Phosphorylation acts positively and negatively to regulate MRTF-A subcellular localisation and activity.

    PubMed

    Panayiotou, Richard; Miralles, Francesc; Pawlowski, Rafal; Diring, Jessica; Flynn, Helen R; Skehel, Mark; Treisman, Richard

    2016-01-01

    The myocardin-related transcription factors (MRTF-A and MRTF-B) regulate cytoskeletal genes through their partner transcription factor SRF. The MRTFs bind G-actin, and signal-regulated changes in cellular G-actin concentration control their nuclear accumulation. The MRTFs also undergo Rho- and ERK-dependent phosphorylation, but the function of MRTF phosphorylation, and the elements and signals involved in MRTF-A nuclear export are largely unexplored. We show that Rho-dependent MRTF-A phosphorylation reflects relief from an inhibitory function of nuclear actin. We map multiple sites of serum-induced phosphorylation, most of which are S/T-P motifs and show that S/T-P phosphorylation is required for transcriptional activation. ERK-mediated S98 phosphorylation inhibits assembly of G-actin complexes on the MRTF-A regulatory RPEL domain, promoting nuclear import. In contrast, S33 phosphorylation potentiates the activity of an autonomous Crm1-dependent N-terminal NES, which cooperates with five other NES elements to exclude MRTF-A from the nucleus. Phosphorylation thus plays positive and negative roles in the regulation of MRTF-A. PMID:27304076

  20. Indole trimers with antibacterial activity against Gram-positive organisms produced using combinatorial biocatalysis.

    PubMed

    McClay, Kevin; Mehboob, Shahila; Yu, Jerry; Santarsiero, Bernard D; Deng, Jiangping; Cook, James L; Jeong, Hyunyoung; Johnson, Michael E; Steffan, Robert J

    2015-12-01

    The I100V isoform of toluene-4-monooxygenase was used to catalyze the oxidative polymerization of anthranil and various indoles under mildly acidic conditions, favoring the production of trimers. Compounds produced in sufficient yield were purified and tested for their ability to inhibit the growth of B. anthracis, E. faecalis, L. monocytogenes, S. aureus, and in some cases, F. tularensis. 15 of the compounds displayed promising antibacterial activity (MIC < 5 µg/ml) against one or more of the strains tested, with the best MIC values being <0.8 µg/ml. All of these compounds had good selectivity, showing minimal cytotoxicity towards HepG2 cells. The structure was solved for six of the compounds that could be crystallized, revealing that minimally two classes of indole based trimers were produced. One compound class produced was a group of substituted derivatives of the natural product 2,2-bis(3-indolyl) indoxyl. The other group of compounds identified was classified as tryptanthrin-like compounds, all having multi-ring pendant groups attached at position 11 of tryptanthrin. One compound of particular interest, SAB-J85, had a structure that suggests that any compound, with a ring structure that can be activated by an oxygenase, might serve as a substrate for combinatorial biocatalysis. PMID:26112315

  1. Phosphorylation acts positively and negatively to regulate MRTF-A subcellular localisation and activity

    PubMed Central

    Panayiotou, Richard; Miralles, Francesc; Pawlowski, Rafal; Diring, Jessica; Flynn, Helen R; Skehel, Mark; Treisman, Richard

    2016-01-01

    The myocardin-related transcription factors (MRTF-A and MRTF-B) regulate cytoskeletal genes through their partner transcription factor SRF. The MRTFs bind G-actin, and signal-regulated changes in cellular G-actin concentration control their nuclear accumulation. The MRTFs also undergo Rho- and ERK-dependent phosphorylation, but the function of MRTF phosphorylation, and the elements and signals involved in MRTF-A nuclear export are largely unexplored. We show that Rho-dependent MRTF-A phosphorylation reflects relief from an inhibitory function of nuclear actin. We map multiple sites of serum-induced phosphorylation, most of which are S/T-P motifs and show that S/T-P phosphorylation is required for transcriptional activation. ERK-mediated S98 phosphorylation inhibits assembly of G-actin complexes on the MRTF-A regulatory RPEL domain, promoting nuclear import. In contrast, S33 phosphorylation potentiates the activity of an autonomous Crm1-dependent N-terminal NES, which cooperates with five other NES elements to exclude MRTF-A from the nucleus. Phosphorylation thus plays positive and negative roles in the regulation of MRTF-A. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.15460.001 PMID:27304076

  2. Activating β-catenin signaling in CD133-positive dermal papilla cells increases hair inductivity.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Linli; Yang, Kun; Xu, Mingang; Andl, Thomas; Millar, Sarah E; Boyce, Steven; Zhang, Yuhang

    2016-08-01

    Bioengineering hair follicles using cells isolated from human tissue remains a difficult task. Dermal papilla (DP) cells are known to guide the growth and cycling activities of hair follicles by interacting with keratinocytes. However, DP cells quickly lose their inductivity during in vitro passaging. Rodent DP cell cultures need external addition of growth factors, including WNT and BMP molecules, to maintain the hair inductive property. CD133 is expressed by a subpopulation of DP cells that are capable of inducing hair follicle formation in vivo. We report here that expression of a stabilized form of β-catenin promoted clonal growth of CD133-positive (CD133+) DP cells in in vitro three-dimensional hydrogel culture while maintaining expression of DP markers, including alkaline phosphatase (AP), CD133, and integrin α8. After a 2-week in vitro culture, cultured CD133+ DP cells with up-regulated β-catenin activity led to an accelerated in vivo hair growth in reconstituted skin compared to control cells. Further analysis showed that matrix cell proliferation and differentiation were significantly promoted in hair follicles when β-catenin signaling was up-regulated in CD133+ DP cells. Our data highlight an important role for β-catenin signaling in promoting the inductive capability of CD133+ DP cells for in vitro expansion and in vivo hair follicle regeneration, which could potentially be applied to cultured human DP cells. PMID:27312243

  3. Does the Dumbbell-Carrying Position Change the Muscle Activity in Split Squats and Walking Lunges?

    PubMed Central

    Lehnert, Michal; Zaatar, Amr M.Z.; Svoboda, Zdenek; Xaverova, Zuzana

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Stastny, P, Lehnert, M, Zaatar, AMZ, Svoboda, Z, and Xaverova, Z. Does the dumbbell-carrying position change the muscle activity in split squats and walking lunges? J Strength Cond Res 29(11): 3177–3187, 2015—The forward walking lunge (WL) and split squat (SSq) are similar exercises that have differences in the eccentric phase, and both can be performed in the ipsilateral or contralateral carrying conditions. This study aimed to determine the effects of dumbbell-carrying position on the kinematics and electromyographic (EMG) amplitudes of the gluteus medius (Gmed), vastus medialis (VM), vastus lateralis (VL), and biceps femoris during WLs and SSqs. The resistance-trained (RT) and the non–resistance-trained (NT) groups (both n = 14) performed ipsilateral WLs, contralateral WLs, ipsilateral SSqs, and contralateral SSqs in a randomized order in a simulated training session. The EMG amplitude, expressed as a percentage of the maximal voluntary isometric contraction (%MVIC), and the kinematics, expressed as the range of motion (ROM) of the hip and knee, were measured during 5 repetition maximum for both legs. The repeated measure analyses of variance showed significant differences between the RT and NT groups. The NT group showed a smaller knee flexion ROM (p < 0.001, η2 = 0.36) during both types of WLs, whereas the RT group showed a higher eccentric Gmed amplitude (p < 0.001, η2 = 0.46) during all exercises and a higher eccentric VL amplitude (p < 0.001, η2 = 0.63) during contralateral WLs. Further differences were found between contralateral and ipsilateral WLs in both the RT (p < 0.001, η2 = 0.69) and NT groups (p < 0.001, η2 = 0.80), and contralateral WLs resulted in higher eccentric Gmed amplitudes. Contralateral WLs highly activated the Gmed (90% MVIC); therefore, this exercise can increase the Gmed maximal strength. The ipsilateral loading condition did not increase the Gmed or VM activity in the RT or NT group. PMID:25968228

  4. The ePHD protein SPBP interacts with TopBP1 and together they co-operate to stimulate Ets1-mediated transcription.

    PubMed

    Sjøttem, Eva; Rekdal, Cecilie; Svineng, Gunbjørg; Johnsen, Sylvia Sagen; Klenow, Helle; Uglehus, Rebecca Dale; Johansen, Terje

    2007-01-01

    SPBP (Stromelysin-1 PDGF responsive element binding protein) is a ubiquitously expressed 220 kDa nuclear protein shown to enhance or repress the transcriptional activity of various transcription factors. A yeast two-hybrid screen, with the extended plant homeodomain (ePHD) of SPBP as bait, identified TopBP1 (topoisomerase II beta-binding protein 1) as a candidate interaction partner of SPBP. TopBP1 has eight BRCA1 carboxy-terminal (BRCT) domains and is involved in DNA replication, DNA damage responses and in the regulation of gene expression. The interaction between SPBP and TopBP1 was confirmed in vitro and in vivo, and was found to be mediated by the ePHD domain of SPBP and the BRCT6 domain of TopBP1. Both SPBP and TopBP1 enhanced the transcriptional activity of Ets1 on the c-myc P1P2- and matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP3) promoters. Together they displayed a more than additive effect. Both proteins were associated with these promoters. The involvement of TopBP1 was dependent on the serine 1159 phosphorylation site, known to be important for transcriptional activation. Depletion of endogenous SPBP by siRNA treatment reduced MMP3 secretion by 50% in phorbol ester-stimulated human fibroblasts. Taken together, our results show that TopBP1 and SPBP interact physically and functionally to co-operate as co-activators of Ets1. PMID:17913746

  5. The ePHD protein SPBP interacts with TopBP1 and together they co-operate to stimulate Ets1-mediated transcription

    PubMed Central

    Sjøttem, Eva; Rekdal, Cecilie; Svineng, Gunbjørg; Johnsen, Sylvia Sagen; Klenow, Helle; Uglehus, Rebecca Dale; Johansen, Terje

    2007-01-01

    SPBP (Stromelysin-1 PDGF responsive element binding protein) is a ubiquitously expressed 220 kDa nuclear protein shown to enhance or repress the transcriptional activity of various transcription factors. A yeast two-hybrid screen, with the extended plant homeodomain (ePHD) of SPBP as bait, identified TopBP1 (topoisomerase II β-binding protein 1) as a candidate interaction partner of SPBP. TopBP1 has eight BRCA1 carboxy-terminal (BRCT) domains and is involved in DNA replication, DNA damage responses and in the regulation of gene expression. The interaction between SPBP and TopBP1 was confirmed in vitro and in vivo, and was found to be mediated by the ePHD domain of SPBP and the BRCT6 domain of TopBP1. Both SPBP and TopBP1 enhanced the transcriptional activity of Ets1 on the c-myc P1P2- and matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP3) promoters. Together they displayed a more than additive effect. Both proteins were associated with these promoters. The involvement of TopBP1 was dependent on the serine 1159 phosphorylation site, known to be important for transcriptional activation. Depletion of endogenous SPBP by siRNA treatment reduced MMP3 secretion by 50% in phorbol ester-stimulated human fibroblasts. Taken together, our results show that TopBP1 and SPBP interact physically and functionally to co-operate as co-activators of Ets1. PMID:17913746

  6. American College of Sports Medicine Position Stand. Exercise and physical activity for older adults.

    PubMed

    1998-06-01

    ACSM Position Stand on Exercise and Physical Activity for Older Adults. Med. Sci. Sports. Exerc., Vol. 30, No. 6, pp. 992-1008, 1998. By the year 2030, the number of individuals 65 yr and over will reach 70 million in the United States alone; persons 85 yr and older will be the fastest growing segment of the population. As more individuals live longer, it is imperative to determine the extent and mechanisms by which exercise and physical activity can improve health, functional capacity, quality of life, and independence in this population. Aging is a complex process involving many variables (e.g., genetics, lifestyle factors, chronic diseases) that interact with one another, greatly influencing the manner in which we age. Participation in regular physical activity (both aerobic and strength exercises) elicits a number of favorable responses that contribute to healthy aging. Much has been learned recently regarding the adaptability of various biological systems, as well as the ways that regular exercise can influence them. Participation in a regular exercise program is an effective intervention/ modality to reduce/prevent a number of functional declines associated with aging. Further, the trainability of older individuals (including octo- and nonagenarians) is evidenced by their ability to adapt and respond to both endurance and strength training. Endurance training can help maintain and improve various aspects of cardiovascular function (as measured by maximal VO2, cardiac output, and arteriovenous O2 difference), as well as enhance submaximal performance. Importantly, reductions in risk factors associated with disease states (heart disease, diabetes, etc.) improve health status and contribute to an increase in life expectancy. Strength training helps offset the loss in muscle mass and strength typically associated with normal aging. Additional benefits from regular exercise include improved bone health and, thus, reduction in risk for osteoporosis; improved

  7. Lateral flow urine lipoarabinomannan assay for detecting active tuberculosis in Hiv-positive adults

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Maunank; Hanrahan, Colleen; Wang, Zhuo Yu; Dendukuri, Nandini; Lawn, Stephen D; Denkinger, Claudia M; Steingart, Karen R

    2016-01-01

    Background Rapid detection of tuberculosis (TB) among people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a global health priority. HIV-associated TB may have different clinical presentations and is challenging to diagnose. Conventional sputum tests have reduced sensitivity in HIV-positive individuals, who have higher rates of extrapulmonary TB compared with HIV-negative individuals. The lateral flow urine lipoarabinomannan assay (LF-LAM) is a new, commercially available point-of-care test that detects lipoarabinomannan (LAM), a lipopolysaccharide present in mycobacterial cell walls, in people with active TB disease. Objectives To assess the accuracy of LF-LAM for the diagnosis of active TB disease in HIV-positive adults who have signs and symptoms suggestive of TB (TB diagnosis).To assess the accuracy of LF-LAM as a screening test for active TB disease in HIV-positive adults irrespective of signs and symptoms suggestive of TB (TB screening). Search methods We searched the following databases without language restriction on 5 February 2015: the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register; MEDLINE (PubMed,1966); EMBASE (OVID, from 1980); Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED, from 1900), Conference Proceedings Citation Index-Science (CPCI-S, from 1900), and BIOSIS Previews (from 1926) (all three using the Web of Science platform; MEDION; LILACS (BIREME, from 1982); SCOPUS (from 1995); the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT); the search portal of the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (WHO ICTRP); and ProQuest Dissertations & Theses A&l (from 1861). Selection criteria Eligible study types included randomized controlled trials, cross-sectional studies, and cohort studies that determined LF-LAM accuracy for TB against a microbiological reference standard (culture or nucleic acid amplification test from any body site). A higher quality reference standard was one in which two or more specimen types were

  8. Analysis on the Load Carrying Mechanism Integrated as Heterogeneous Co-operative Manipulator in a Walking Wheelchair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajay Vedaraj, I. S.; Jain, Ritika; Rao, B. V. A.

    2014-07-01

    After industrial robots came into existence during 1960, the technology of robotics with the design and analysis of robots in various forms in industries as well as in domestic applications were developed. Nowadays, along with the automotive sector the robots are producing a great impact in the form of quality and production rate to register their existence reliable in various other sectors also. Robotic technology has undergone various phase translations from being tortured as humanoids to the present day manipulators. Depending upon the various forms of its existence, robot manipulators are designed as serial manipulators and parallel manipulators. Individually both types can be proved effective though both have various drawbacks in design and the kinematic analysis. The versatility of robots can be increased by making them work in an environment where the same work volume is shared by more than one manipulator. This work volume can be identified as co-operative work volume of those manipulators. Here the interference of manipulators in the work volume of other manipulators is possible and is made obstacle free. The main advantage of co-operative manipulators is that when a number of independent manipulators are put together in a cooperative work envelope the efficiency and ability to perform tasks is greatly enhanced. The main disadvantage of the co-operative manipulators lies in the complication of its design even for a simple application, in almost all fields. In this paper, a cooperative design of robot manipulators to work in co-operative work environment is done and analysed for its efficacy. In the industrial applications when robotic manipulators are put together in more numbers, the trajectory planning becomes the tough task in the work cell. Proper design can remove the design defects of the cooperative manipulators and can be utilized in a more efficient way. In the proposed research paper an analysis is made on such a type of cooperative manipulator

  9. A Co-operative Inquiry Into Generating, Describing, and Transforming Knowledge About De-escalation Practices in Mental Health Settings.

    PubMed

    Berring, Lene Lauge; Hummelvoll, Jan Kåre; Pedersen, Liselotte; Buus, Niels

    2016-07-01

    De-escalation is concerned with managing violent behaviour without resorting to coercive measures. Co-operative Inquiry provided the conceptual basis for generating knowledge regarding de-escalation practices in acute mental health care settings. The research included service users and staff members as co-researchers and knowledge was generated in dynamic research cycles around an extended epistemology of knowing: experiential, presentational, propositional, and practical. Through this process, co-researchers became de-escalation learners, implementing de-escalation practices while transforming violence management. Neighbouring mental health communities' involvement strengthened the transformation process and assisted in validating the research results. PMID:27070499

  10. Reduced intra-amygdala activity to positively valenced faces in adolescent schizophrenia offspring.

    PubMed

    Barbour, Tracy; Murphy, Eric; Pruitt, Patrick; Eickhoff, Simon B; Keshavan, Matcheri S; Rajan, Usha; Zajac-Benitez, Caroline; Diwadkar, Vaibhav A

    2010-11-01

    Studies suggest that the affective response is impaired in both schizophrenia and adolescent offspring of schizophrenia patients. Adolescent offspring of patients are developmentally vulnerable to impairments in several domains, including affective responding, yet the bases of these impairments and their relation to neuronal responses within the limbic system are poorly understood. The amygdala is the central region devoted to the processing of emotional valence and its sub-nuclei including the baso-lateral and centro-medial are organized in a relative hierarchy of affective processing. Outputs from the centro-medial nucleus converge on regions involved in the autonomous regulation of behavior, and outputs from the baso-lateral nucleus modulate the response of reward processing regions. Here using fMRI we assessed the intra-amygdala response to positive, negative, and neutral valenced faces in a group of controls (with no family history of psychosis) and offspring of schizophrenia parents (n=44 subjects in total). Subjects performed an affective continuous performance task during which they continually appraised whether the affect signaled by a face on a given trial was the same or different from the previous trial (regardless of facial identity). Relative to controls, offspring showed reduced activity in the left centro-medial nucleus to positively (but not negatively or neutral) valenced faces. These results were independent of behavioral/cognitive performance (equal across groups) suggesting that an impaired affective substrate in the intra-amygdala response may lie at the core of deficits of social behavior that have been documented in this population. PMID:20716480

  11. Detecting grizzly bear use of ungulate carcasses using global positioning system telemetry and activity data.

    PubMed

    Ebinger, Michael R; Haroldson, Mark A; van Manen, Frank T; Costello, Cecily M; Bjornlie, Daniel D; Thompson, Daniel J; Gunther, Kerry A; Fortin, Jennifer K; Teisberg, Justin E; Pils, Shannon R; White, P J; Cain, Steven L; Cross, Paul C

    2016-07-01

    Global positioning system (GPS) wildlife collars have revolutionized wildlife research. Studies of predation by free-ranging carnivores have particularly benefited from the application of location clustering algorithms to determine when and where predation events occur. These studies have changed our understanding of large carnivore behavior, but the gains have concentrated on obligate carnivores. Facultative carnivores, such as grizzly/brown bears (Ursus arctos), exhibit a variety of behaviors that can lead to the formation of GPS clusters. We combined clustering techniques with field site investigations of grizzly bear GPS locations (n = 732 site investigations; 2004-2011) to produce 174 GPS clusters where documented behavior was partitioned into five classes (large-biomass carcass, small-biomass carcass, old carcass, non-carcass activity, and resting). We used multinomial logistic regression to predict the probability of clusters belonging to each class. Two cross-validation methods-leaving out individual clusters, or leaving out individual bears-showed that correct prediction of bear visitation to large-biomass carcasses was 78-88 %, whereas the false-positive rate was 18-24 %. As a case study, we applied our predictive model to a GPS data set of 266 bear-years in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (2002-2011) and examined trends in carcass visitation during fall hyperphagia (September-October). We identified 1997 spatial GPS clusters, of which 347 were predicted to be large-biomass carcasses. We used the clustered data to develop a carcass visitation index, which varied annually, but more than doubled during the study period. Our study demonstrates the effectiveness and utility of identifying GPS clusters associated with carcass visitation by a facultative carnivore. PMID:26971522

  12. Detecting grizzly bear use of ungulate carcasses using global positioning system telemetry and activity data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ebinger, Michael R.; Haroldson, Mark A.; van Manen, Frank T.; Costello, Cecily M; Bjornlie, Daniel D; Thompson, Daniel J.; Gunther, Kerry A.; Fortin, Jennifer K.; Teisberg, Justin E.; Pils, Shannon R; White, P J; Cain, Steven L; Cross, Paul C.

    2016-01-01

    Global positioning system (GPS) wildlife collars have revolutionized wildlife research. Studies of predation by free-ranging carnivores have particularly benefited from the application of location clustering algorithms to determine when and where predation events occur. These studies have changed our understanding of large carnivore behavior, but the gains have concentrated on obligate carnivores. Facultative carnivores, such as grizzly/brown bears (Ursus arctos), exhibit a variety of behaviors that can lead to the formation of GPS clusters. We combined clustering techniques with field site investigations of grizzly bear GPS locations (n = 732 site investigations; 2004–2011) to produce 174 GPS clusters where documented behavior was partitioned into five classes (large-biomass carcass, small-biomass carcass, old carcass, non-carcass activity, and resting). We used multinomial logistic regression to predict the probability of clusters belonging to each class. Two cross-validation methods—leaving out individual clusters, or leaving out individual bears—showed that correct prediction of bear visitation to large-biomass carcasses was 78–88%, whereas the false-positive rate was 18–24%. As a case study, we applied our predictive model to a GPS data set of 266 bear-years in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (2002–2011) and examined trends in carcass visitation during fall hyperphagia (September–October). We identified 1997 spatial GPS clusters, of which 347 were predicted to be large-biomass carcasses. We used the clustered data to develop a carcass visitation index, which varied annually, but more than doubled during the study period. Our study demonstrates the effectiveness and utility of identifying GPS clusters associated with carcass visitation by a facultative carnivore.

  13. Differential activation of amygdala Arc expression by positive and negatively valenced emotional learning conditions

    PubMed Central

    Young, Erica J.; Williams, Cedric L.

    2013-01-01

    Norepinephrine is released in the amygdala following negatively arousing learning conditions. This event initiates a cascade of changes including the transcription of activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc) expression, an early-immediate gene associated with memory encoding. Recent evidence suggests that the valence of emotionally laden encounters may generate lateralized, as opposed to symmetric release of this transmitter in the right or left amygdala. It is currently not clear if valence-induced patterns of selective norepinephrine output across hemispheres are also reproduced in downstream pathways of cellular signaling necessary for memory formation. This question was addressed by determining if Arc expression is differentially distributed across the right and left amygdala following exposure to positively or negatively valenced learning conditions respectively. Male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned to groups exposed to the Homecage only, five auditory tones only, or five auditory tones paired with footshock (0.35 mA) during Pavlovian fear conditioning. Western blot analysis revealed that Arc expression in the right amygdala was elevated significantly above that observed in the left amygdala 60 and 90 min following fear conditioning. Similarly, subjects exposed to a negatively valenced outcome consisting of an unexpected reduction in food rewards showed a greater level of Arc expression in only the right, but not left basolateral amygdala. Presenting a positively valenced event involving an unexpected increase in food reward magnitude following bar pressing, resulted in significantly greater Arc expression in the left, but not right basolateral amygdala (p < 0.01). These findings indicate that the valence of emotionally arousing learning conditions is reflected at later stages of synaptic plasticity involving the transcription of immediate early genes such as Arc. PMID:24367308

  14. Physical activity intensity can be accurately monitored by smartphone global positioning system 'app'.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Brett Ashley; Bruce, Lyndell; Benson, Amanda Clare

    2016-08-01

    Monitoring physical activity is important to better individualise health and fitness benefits. This study assessed the concurrent validity of a smartphone global positioning system (GPS) 'app' and a sport-specific GPS device with a similar sampling rate, to measure physical activity components of speed and distance, compared to a higher sampling sport-specific GPS device. Thirty-eight (21 female, 17 male) participants, mean age of 24.68, s = 6.46 years, completed two 2.400 km trials around an all-weather athletics track wearing GPSports Pro™ (PRO), GPSports WiSpi™ (WISPI) and an iPhone™ with a Motion X GPS™ 'app' (MOTIONX). Statistical agreement, assessed using t-tests and Bland-Altman plots, indicated an (mean; 95% LOA) underestimation of 2% for average speed (0.126 km·h(-1); -0.389 to 0.642; p < .001), 1.7% for maximal speed (0.442 km·h(-1); -2.676 to 3.561; p = .018) and 1.9% for distance (0.045 km; -0.140 to 0.232; p < .001) by MOTIONX compared to that measured by PRO. In contrast, compared to PRO, WISPI overestimated average speed (0.232 km·h(-1); -0.376 to 0.088; p < .001) and distance (0.083 km; -0.129 to -0.038; p < .001) by 3.5% whilst underestimating maximal speed by 2.5% (0.474 km·h(-1); -1.152 to 2.099; p < .001). Despite the statistically significant difference, the MOTIONX measures intensity of physical activity, with a similar error as WISPI, to an acceptable level for population-based monitoring in unimpeded open-air environments. This presents a low-cost, minimal burden opportunity to remotely monitor physical activity participation to improve the prescription of exercise as medicine. PMID:26505223

  15. Impact of Different Body Positions on Bioelectrical Activity of the Pelvic Floor Muscles in Nulliparous Continent Women

    PubMed Central

    Chmielewska, Daria; Stania, Magdalena; Sobota, Grzegorz; Kwaśna, Krystyna; Błaszczak, Edward; Taradaj, Jakub; Juras, Grzegorz

    2015-01-01

    We examined pelvic floor muscles (PFM) activity (%MVC) in twenty nulliparous women by body position during exercise as well as the activation of abdominal muscles and the gluteus maximus during voluntary contractions of the PFMs. Pelvic floor muscle activity was recorded using a vaginal probe during five experimental trials. Activation of transversus abdominis, rectus abdominis, and gluteus maximus during voluntary PFM contractions was also assessed. Significant differences in mean normalized amplitudes of baseline PFM activity were revealed between standing and lying (P < 0.00024) and lying and ball-sitting positions (P < 0.0053). Average peak, average time before peak, and average time after peak did not differ significantly during the voluntary contractions of the PFMs. Baseline PFM activity seemed to depend on the body position and was the highest in standing. Pelvic floor muscles activity during voluntary contractions did not differ by position in continent women. Statistically significant differences between the supine lying and sitting positions were only observed during a sustained 60-second contraction of the PFMs. PMID:25793212

  16. Impact of changed positive and negative task-related brain activity on word-retrieval in aging

    PubMed Central

    Meinzer, M.; Seeds, L.; Flaisch, T.; Harnish, S.; Cohen, M.L.; McGregor, K.; Conway, T.; Benjamin, M.; Crosson, B.

    2010-01-01

    Previous functional imaging studies that compared activity patterns in older and younger adults during non-linguistic tasks found evidence for two phenomena: older participants usually show more pronounced task-related positive activity in the brain hemisphere that is not dominant for the task and less pronounced negative task-related activity in temporo-parietal and midline brain regions. The combined effects of these phenomena and the impact on word-retrieval, however, have not yet been assessed. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to explore task-related positive (active task > baseline) and negative activity (baseline > active task) during semantic and phonemic verbal fluency tasks. Increased right-frontal positive activity during the semantic task and reduced negative activity in the right hemisphere during both tasks was associated with reduced performance in older subjects. No substantial relationship between changes in positive and negative activity was observed in the older participants, pointing towards two partially independent but potentially co-occurring processes. Underlying causes of the observed functional network inefficiency during word-retrieval in older adults need to be determined in the future. PMID:20696496

  17. Does the Dumbbell-Carrying Position Change the Muscle Activity in Split Squats and Walking Lunges?

    PubMed

    Stastny, Petr; Lehnert, Michal; Zaatar, Amr M Z; Svoboda, Zdenek; Xaverova, Zuzana

    2015-11-01

    The forward walking lunge (WL) and split squat (SSq) are similar exercises that have differences in the eccentric phase, and both can be performed in the ipsilateral or contralateral carrying conditions. This study aimed to determine the effects of dumbbell-carrying position on the kinematics and electromyographic (EMG) amplitudes of the gluteus medius (Gmed), vastus medialis (VM), vastus lateralis (VL), and biceps femoris during WLs and SSqs. The resistance-trained (RT) and the non-resistance-trained (NT) groups (both n = 14) performed ipsilateral WLs, contralateral WLs, ipsilateral SSqs, and contralateral SSqs in a randomized order in a simulated training session. The EMG amplitude, expressed as a percentage of the maximal voluntary isometric contraction (%MVIC), and the kinematics, expressed as the range of motion (ROM) of the hip and knee, were measured during 5 repetition maximum for both legs. The repeated measure analyses of variance showed significant differences between the RT and NT groups. The NT group showed a smaller knee flexion ROM (p < 0.001, η = 0.36) during both types of WLs, whereas the RT group showed a higher eccentric Gmed amplitude (p < 0.001, η = 0.46) during all exercises and a higher eccentric VL amplitude (p < 0.001, η = 0.63) during contralateral WLs. Further differences were found between contralateral and ipsilateral WLs in both the RT (p < 0.001, η = 0.69) and NT groups (p < 0.001, η = 0.80), and contralateral WLs resulted in higher eccentric Gmed amplitudes. Contralateral WLs highly activated the Gmed (90% MVIC); therefore, this exercise can increase the Gmed maximal strength. The ipsilateral loading condition did not increase the Gmed or VM activity in the RT or NT group. PMID:25968228

  18. TRAP-positive osteoclast precursors mediate ROS/NO-dependent bactericidal activity via TLR4.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Kazuaki; Shindo, Satoru; Movila, Alexandru; Kayal, Rayyan; Abdullah, Albassam; Savitri, Irma Josefina; Ikeda, Atsushi; Yamaguchi, Tsuguno; Howait, Mohammed; Al-Dharrab, Ayman; Mira, Abdulghani; Han, Xiaozhe; Kawai, Toshihisa

    2016-08-01

    Osteoclastogenesis was induced by RANKL stimulation in mouse monocytes to examine the possible bactericidal function of osteoclast precursors (OCp) and mature osteoclasts (OCm) relative to their production of NO and ROS. Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive OCp, but few or no OCm, phagocytized and killed Escherichia coli in association with the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO). Phagocytosis of E. coli and production of ROS and NO were significantly lower in TRAP+ OCp derived from Toll-like receptor (TLR)-4 KO mice than that derived from wild-type (WT) or TLR2-KO mice. Interestingly, after phagocytosis, TRAP+ OCp derived from wild-type and TLR2-KO mice did not differentiate into OCm, even with continuous exposure to RANKL. In contrast, E. coli-phagocytized TRAP+ OCp from TLR4-KO mice could differentiate into OCm. Importantly, neither NO nor ROS produced by TRAP+ OCp appeared to be engaged in phagocytosis-induced suppression of osteoclastogenesis. These results suggested that TLR4 signaling not only induces ROS and NO production to kill phagocytized bacteria, but also interrupts OCm differentiation. Thus, it can be concluded that TRAP+ OCp, but not OCm, can mediate bactericidal activity via phagocytosis accompanied by the production of ROS and NO via TLR4-associated reprograming toward phagocytic cell type. PMID:27343691

  19. In vitro activity of ceftaroline against mecC-positive MRSA isolates.

    PubMed

    Armengol-Porta, Marc; Tenorio-Abreu, Alberto; Bandt, Dirk; Coleman, David C; Gavier-Widen, Dolores; Hotzel, Helmut; Kinnevey, Peter; Lazaris, Alexandros; Peters, Martin; Rangstrup-Christensen, Lena; Schlotter, Katharina; Shore, Anna C; Ehricht, Ralf; Monecke, Stefan

    2016-06-01

    Ceftaroline is a new cephalosporin with activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). A collection of 17 clinical and veterinary mecC-positive MRSA isolates was tested to evaluate the in vitro efficacy of ceftaroline against recently emerged mecC-MRSA isolates. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) of ceftaroline for the 17 isolates were determined by broth microdilution using the methodology and interpretive criteria of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Additional susceptibility tests were performed using ceftaroline M.I.C.Evaluator (M.I.C.E.™) strips. All isolates showed susceptibility according to CLSI breakpoints, with MICs of ceftaroline ranging from 0.125mg/L to 0.25mg/L. MBCs were identical or up to a twofold dilution step higher. In conclusion, all tested isolates, from various sources and belonging to several clonal complexes (CCs), but predominantly to CC130, were found to be susceptible to ceftaroline. Ceftaroline could thus be an option for the treatment of mecC-MRSA infections. PMID:27436457

  20. Childhood socioeconomic position and adult leisure-time physical activity: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Elhakeem, Ahmed; Cooper, Rachel; Bann, David; Hardy, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Regular leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) benefits health and is thought to be less prevalent in lower socioeconomic groups. Evidence suggests that childhood socioeconomic circumstances can impact on adult health and behaviour however, it is unclear if this includes an influence on adult LTPA. This review tested the hypothesis that a lower childhood socioeconomic position (SEP) is associated with less frequent LTPA during adulthood. Studies were located through a systematic search of MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL and SPORTDiscus and by searching reference lists. Eligible studies were English-language publications testing the association between any indicator of childhood SEP and an LTPA outcome measured during adulthood. Forty-five papers from 36 studies, most of which were European, were included. In most samples, childhood SEP and LTPA were self-reported in midlife. Twenty-two studies found evidence to support the review's hypothesis and thirteen studies found no association. Accounting for own adult SEP partly attenuated associations. There was more evidence of an association in British compared with Scandinavian cohorts and in women compared with men. Results did not vary by childhood SEP indicator or age at assessment of LTPA. This review found evidence of an association between less advantaged childhood SEP and less frequent LTPA during adulthood. Understanding how associations vary by gender and place could provide insights into underlying pathways. PMID:26138985

  1. Electrical Conductivity of Rocks and Dominant Charge Carriers. Part 1; Thermally Activated Positive Holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freund, Friedemann T.; Freund, Minoru M.

    2012-01-01

    The prevailing view in the geophysics community is that the electrical conductivity structure of the Earth's continental crust over the 5-35 km depth range can best be understood by assuming the presence of intergranular fluids and/or of intragranular carbon films. Based on single crystal studies of melt-grown MgO, magma-derived sanidine and anorthosite feldspars and upper mantle olivine, we present evidence for the presence of electronic charge carriers, which derive from peroxy defects that are introduced during cooling, under non-equilibrium conditions, through a redox conversion of pairs of solute hydroxyl arising from dissolution of H2O.The peroxy defects become thermally activated in a 2-step process, leading to the release of defect electrons in the oxygen anion sublattice. Known as positive holes and symbolized by h(dot), these electronic charge carriers are highly mobile. Chemically equivalent to O(-) in a matrix of O(2-) they are highly oxidizing. Being metastable they can exist in the matrix of minerals, which crystallized in highly reduced environments. The h(dot) are highly mobile. They appear to control the electrical conductivity of crustal rocks in much of the 5-35 km depth range.

  2. Frequencies of Inaudible High-Frequency Sounds Differentially Affect Brain Activity: Positive and Negative Hypersonic Effects

    PubMed Central

    Fukushima, Ariko; Yagi, Reiko; Kawai, Norie; Honda, Manabu; Nishina, Emi; Oohashi, Tsutomu

    2014-01-01

    The hypersonic effect is a phenomenon in which sounds containing significant quantities of non-stationary high-frequency components (HFCs) above the human audible range (max. 20 kHz) activate the midbrain and diencephalon and evoke various physiological, psychological and behavioral responses. Yet important issues remain unverified, especially the relationship existing between the frequency of HFCs and the emergence of the hypersonic effect. In this study, to investigate the relationship between the hypersonic effect and HFC frequencies, we divided an HFC (above 16 kHz) of recorded gamelan music into 12 band components and applied them to subjects along with an audible component (below 16 kHz) to observe changes in the alpha2 frequency component (10–13 Hz) of spontaneous EEGs measured from centro-parieto-occipital regions (Alpha-2 EEG), which we previously reported as an index of the hypersonic effect. Our results showed reciprocal directional changes in Alpha-2 EEGs depending on the frequency of the HFCs presented with audible low-frequency component (LFC). When an HFC above approximately 32 kHz was applied, Alpha-2 EEG increased significantly compared to when only audible sound was applied (positive hypersonic effect), while, when an HFC below approximately 32 kHz was applied, the Alpha-2 EEG decreased (negative hypersonic effect). These findings suggest that the emergence of the hypersonic effect depends on the frequencies of inaudible HFC. PMID:24788141

  3. Frequencies of inaudible high-frequency sounds differentially affect brain activity: positive and negative hypersonic effects.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Ariko; Yagi, Reiko; Kawai, Norie; Honda, Manabu; Nishina, Emi; Oohashi, Tsutomu

    2014-01-01

    The hypersonic effect is a phenomenon in which sounds containing significant quantities of non-stationary high-frequency components (HFCs) above the human audible range (max. 20 kHz) activate the midbrain and diencephalon and evoke various physiological, psychological and behavioral responses. Yet important issues remain unverified, especially the relationship existing between the frequency of HFCs and the emergence of the hypersonic effect. In this study, to investigate the relationship between the hypersonic effect and HFC frequencies, we divided an HFC (above 16 kHz) of recorded gamelan music into 12 band components and applied them to subjects along with an audible component (below 16 kHz) to observe changes in the alpha2 frequency component (10-13 Hz) of spontaneous EEGs measured from centro-parieto-occipital regions (Alpha-2 EEG), which we previously reported as an index of the hypersonic effect. Our results showed reciprocal directional changes in Alpha-2 EEGs depending on the frequency of the HFCs presented with audible low-frequency component (LFC). When an HFC above approximately 32 kHz was applied, Alpha-2 EEG increased significantly compared to when only audible sound was applied (positive hypersonic effect), while, when an HFC below approximately 32 kHz was applied, the Alpha-2 EEG decreased (negative hypersonic effect). These findings suggest that the emergence of the hypersonic effect depends on the frequencies of inaudible HFC. PMID:24788141

  4. Correlation of the highest-energy cosmic rays with the positions of nearby active galactic nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Collaboration, The Pierre auger

    2007-12-01

    Data collected by the Pierre Auger Observatory provide evidence for anisotropy in the arrival directions of the cosmic rays with the highest energies, which are correlated with the positions of relatively nearby active galactic nuclei (AGN) [1]. The correlation has maximum significance for cosmic rays with energy greater than {approx} 6 x 10{sup 19} eV and AGN at a distance less than {approx} 75 Mpc. We have confirmed the anisotropy at a confidence level of more than 99% through a test with parameters specified a priori, using an independent data set. The observed correlation is compatible with the hypothesis that cosmic rays with the highest energies originate from extra-galactic sources close enough so that their flux is not significantly attenuated by interaction with the cosmic background radiation (the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin effect). The angular scale of the correlation observed is a few degrees, which suggests a predominantly light composition unless the magnetic fields are very weak outside the thin disk of our galaxy. Our present data do not identify AGN as the sources of cosmic rays unambiguously, and other candidate sources which are distributed as nearby AGN are not ruled out. We discuss the prospect of unequivocal identification of individual sources of the highest-energy cosmic rays within a few years of continued operation of the Pierre Auger Observatory.

  5. Relationship between position of brain activity and change in optical density for NIR imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashio, Yoshihiko; Ono, Muneo; Firbank, Michael; Schweiger, Martin; Arridge, Simon R.; Okada, Eiji

    2000-11-01

    Multi-channel NIR system can obtain the topographic image of brain activity. Since the image is reconstructed from the change in optical density measured with the source-detector pairs, it is important to reveal the volume of tissue sampled by each source-detector pair. In this study, the light propagation in three-dimensional adult head model is calculated by hybrid radiosity-diffusion method. The model is a layered slab which mimics the extra cerebral tissue (skin, skull), CSF and brain. The change in optical density caused by the absorption change in a small cylindrical region of 10 mm in diameter at various positions in the brain is calculated. The greatest change in optical density can be observed when the absorber is located in the middle of the source and detector. When the absorber is located just below the source or detector, the change in optical density is almost half of that caused by the same absorber in the midpoint. The light propagation in the brain is strongly affected by the presence of non-scattering layer and consequently sensitive region is broadly distributed on the brain surface.

  6. A new co-operative inversion strategy via fuzzy clustering technique applied to seismic and magnetotelluric data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thong Kieu, Duy; Kepic, Anton

    2015-04-01

    Geophysical inversion produces very useful images of earth parameters; however, inversion results usually suffer from inherent non-uniqueness: many subsurface models with different structures and parameters can explain the measurements. To reduce the ambiguity, extra information about the earth's structure and physical properties is needed. This prior information can be extracted from geological principles, prior petrophysical information from well logs, and complementary information from other geophysical methods. Any technique used to constrain inversion should be able to integrate the prior information and to guide updating inversion process in terms of the geological model. In this research, we have adopted fuzzy c-means (FCM) clustering technique for this purpose. FCM is a clustering method that allows us to divide the model of physical parameters into a few clusters of representative values that also may relate to geological units based on the similarity of the geophysical properties. This exploits the fact that in many geological environments the earth is comprised of a few distinctive rock units with different physical properties. Therefore FCM can provide a platform to constrain geophysical inversion, and should tend to produce models that are geologically meaningful. FCM was incorporated in both separate and co-operative inversion processing of seismic and magnetotelluric (MT) data with petrophysical constraints. Using petrophysical information through FCM assists the inversion to build a reliable earth model. In this algorithm, FCM plays a role of guider; it uses the prior information to drive the model update process, and also forming an earth model filled with rocks units rather than smooth transitions when the boundary is in doubt. Where petrophysical information from well logs or core measurement is not locally available the cluster petrophysics may be solved for in inversion as well if some knowledge of how many distinctive geological exist. A

  7. A Propensity Score Matching Study of Participation in Community Activities: A Path to Positive Outcomes for Youth in New Zealand?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Seini; Jose, Paul E.

    2012-01-01

    Extracurricular activities are important in many young people's lives and have been associated with positive academic, psychological, and social outcomes. However, most previous research has been limited to school-based activities in the North American context. This study expands existing literature by analyzing longitudinal data from more than…

  8. In Vitro Activities of the Ketolide HMR 3647 against Recent Gram-Positive Clinical Isolates and Haemophilus influenzae

    PubMed Central

    Barry, Arthur L.; Fuchs, Peter C.; Brown, Steven D.

    1998-01-01

    The ketolide HMR 3647 (previously RU 66647) was evaluated against 2,563 recent clinical isolates of gram-positive pathogens and 200 Haemophilus influenzae isolates. HMR 3647 was active against macrolide-resistant streptococci, including pneumococci, but was not active against macrolide- or lincosamide-resistant staphylococci. Against H. influenzae, the potency of HMR 3647 was similar to that of azithromycin. PMID:9687424

  9. Learning Network Design: A Methodology for the Construction of Co-operative Distance Learning Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Dick

    Learning Network Design (LND) is a socially oriented methodology for construction of cooperative distance learning environments. The paper advances a social constructivist approach to learning in which learning and teaching are seen as a process of active communication, interpretation, and negotiation; offers a view of information technology as a…

  10. Evaluation of the Unesco Associated Schools Project in Education for International Co-operation and Peace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Churchill, Stacy; Omari, Issa

    In accordance with a mandate from Unesco's 1978 General Conference, an evaluation methodology and instruments were devised to assess the Unesco Associated School's success in encouraging international peace and human rights. The background of this assessment project and a report of evaluation activities are presented in this document. The…