Sample records for positive coping skills

  1. Coping skills of olympic developmental soccer athletes.

    PubMed

    Meyers, M C; Stewart, C C; Laurent, C M; Leunes, A D; Bourgeois, A E

    2008-12-01

    Athletes at Olympic Developmental Program (ODP) camps experience unusually high levels of expectations and inherent mental and physical challenges within such a short span of time. With the increasing emphasis on talent development, there has been consensus by the ODP staff to more clearly define present levels of coping skills, in order to enhance athletic prediction, maximize training efforts, identify the predisposition to injury, and focus on areas pertinent to successful performance. This study examined athletic and pain coping skills of U. S. ODP soccer athletes not previously investigated. Following written informed consent, 70 males completed the Athletic Coping Skills Inventory and the Sports Inventory for Pain. Data were analyzed by competitive level (U-14, U-15), and skill position (goalkeeper/defense, midfield/foward). MANOVA indicated a significant main effect across competitive level (Wilks' Lambda F(12,57) = 2.27; p = 0.02; n-beta = 0.915) but no significant effect by skill position (Wilks' Lambda F(12,57) = 0.931; p = 0.523; n-beta = 0.457). Post hoc analyses indicated that U-15 athletes scored significantly higher in concentration (p = 0.01) and body awareness (p = 0.03), but lower in avoidance (p = 0.01) than U-14 competitors. In conclusion, older, more experienced athletes revealed more positive athletic and pain coping skills than younger, less experienced athletes, although athletes in skill positions requiring spontaneous decision-making skills and split-second adjustment in a constantly changing sport environment (forwards, midfielders) did not exhibit more positive athletic and pain coping skills than those positions requiring reaction and protection (defenders, goalkeepers). PMID:18548363

  2. Coping Skills Program for Individuals with Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carruthers, Cynthia P.; Hood, Colleen Deyell

    2002-01-01

    Describes the development, implementation, and evaluation of a theory based coping skills program for people with alcoholism. Based on Shiffman and Wills' (1985) Stress Program Process model, it helped clients effectively respond to conditions that contributed to negative affect and create life- enhancing experiences. Evaluation involved social…

  3. Coping Skills for Citizenship Participation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine Univ., Orono. Coll. of Education.

    Learning materials presented in this teacher's guide were designed to develop attitudes, skills, and values in junior high school students which relate to the rights, responsibilities, and privileges of a citizen. Instructional concepts and strategies are presented in the following units: Citizenship, juveniles and the law, law in society,…

  4. Peer Attachment, Coping, and Self-Esteem in Institutionalized Adolescents: The Mediating Role of Social Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mota, Catarina Pinheiro; Matos, Paula Mena

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzes the contribution of peer attachment in predicting active coping and self-esteem in a sample of 109 institutionalized adolescents. It also explores the mediating role of social skills in the association between peer attachment, coping, and self-esteem. Structural equation modeling identified a model able to predict a positive

  5. Stressors, coping, and coping effectiveness: Gender, type of sport, and skill differences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adam R. Nicholls; Remco Polman; Andrew R. Levy; Jamie Taylor; Stephen Cobley

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine stressors, coping, and coping effectiveness as a function of gender, type of sport, and skill. The sample consisted of 749 undergraduate athletes (455 males, 294 females) aged 18 – 38 years (mean = 19.8 years). Skill was classified as international\\/national, county, university, and club standard. Participants completed a stressor and coping concept map (Novak & Gowin,

  6. Coping Skills Among Adolescent Suicide Attempters: Results of a Multisite Study

    PubMed Central

    Mirkovic, Bojan; Labelle, Réal; Guilé, Jean-Marc; Belloncle, Vincent; Bodeau, Nicolas; Knafo, Alexandra; Condat, Agnčs; Bapt-Cazalets, Nathalie; Marguet, Christophe; Breton, Jean-Jacques; Cohen, David; Gérardin, Priscille

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: A multisite study was undertaken to advance our understanding of how coping skills, depression, and suicidal ideation are related among adolescents who attempt suicide. Two hypotheses were postulated: productive coping and nonproductive coping would be associated, respectively, with lower and higher depression scores when age, sex, and stressful life events (SLEs) were controlled; and productive coping and nonproductive coping would be associated, respectively, with the presence and absence of suicidal ideation when age, sex, and SLEs were controlled. Methods: Participants were 167 adolescents (13 to 17 years of age) hospitalized for attempting suicide in 5 pediatric departments across France. Four instruments were administered: the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia—Present and Lifetime Version, the Adolescent Coping Scale, the Life Events Questionnaire, and the Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale. Descriptive analyses and univariate and multiple regression models were completed. Results: Both hypotheses were confirmed. Focus on the positive emerged as a significant variable in both models; depression emerged as a significant variable in the suicidal ideation model. The only sex difference observed was that girls made greater use of wishful thinking and seek social support. Conclusions: These findings suggest that coping skills are important mechanisms through which depression and suicidal ideation are maintained after attempting suicide. In intervening with adolescents who have attempted suicide, it may be useful to emphasize cognitive work geared to looking on the bright side, positive thinking, and fighting depression. PMID:25886670

  7. Totally Model-Free Learned Skillful Coping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dreyfus, Stuart E.

    2004-01-01

    The author proposes a neural-network-based explanation of how a brain might acquire intuitive expertise. The explanation is intended merely to be suggestive and lacks many complexities found in even lower animal brains. Yet significantly, even this simplified brain model is capable of explaining the acquisition of simple skills without developing…

  8. Treatment of Speech Anxiety: A Sequential Dismantling of Speech Skills Training, Coping Skills Training, and Paradox.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worthington, Everett L., Jr.; And Others

    Thirty-two speech anxious college students participated in a study that examined whether four treatments that have been effective when applied separately would be equally effective when applied in combination. The treatments were (1) systemic desensitization (SD), (2) speech skills training (SST), (3) SST combined with coping skills training (CST)…

  9. Coping with Positive and Negative Symptoms of Schizophrenia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Angela L. Rollins; Gary R. Bond; Paul H. Lysaker; John H. McGrew; Michelle P. Salyers

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Although coping with positive symptoms of schizophrenia has been studied widely, few studies have examined coping with negative symptoms. This study compares the appraisal of stressfulness and coping patterns in response to positive and negative symptoms experienced by clients with schizophrenia attending a community mental health center.Methods: Clients were interviewed to assess symptom severity, appraisal of symptom stressfulness, and

  10. Coping Effectively with Heart Failure (COPE-HF): Design and Rationale of a Telephone-based Coping Skills Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Sherwood, Andrew; O’Connor, Christopher M.; Routledge, Faye S.; Hinderliter, Alan L.; Watkins, Lana L.; Babyak, Michael A.; Koch, Gary G.; Adams, Kirkwood F.; Dupree, Carla Sueta; Chang, Patricia P.; Hoffman, Benson M.; Johnson, Julie; Bowers, Margaret; Johnson, Kristy S.; Blumenthal, James A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Coping Effectively with Heart Failure (COPE-HF) is an ongoing randomized clinical trial funded by the National Institutes of Health to evaluate if a Coping Skills Training (CST) intervention will result in improved health status and quality of life as well as reduced mortality and hospitalizations compared to a Heart Failure Education (HFE) intervention. Methods Two hundred heart failure (HF) patients recruited from Duke University Medical Center and the University of North Carolina Hospital systems will be randomized to a CST intervention (16 weekly, 30 minute telephone counselling sessions including motivational interviewing and individually tailored cognitive behavioral therapy) or to an HFE intervention (16 weekly, 30 minute telephone sessions including education and symptom monitoring). Primary outcomes will include post-intervention effects on HF biomarkers (B-Type naturetic peptide, ejection fraction) and quality of life, as well as long-term clinical outcomes (hospitalizations and death). Secondary analyses will include an evaluation of treatment effects across subpopulations, and potential mechanisms by which CST may improve clinical outcomes. Conclusions COPE-HF is a proof-of-concept study that should provide important insights into the health benefits of a CST intervention designed to enhance HF self-management, improve health behaviors, and reduce psychological distress. PMID:21362527

  11. Changes in Premenstrual Symptoms and Irrational Thinking Following Cognitive–Behavioral Coping Skills Training

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert J. Kirkby

    1994-01-01

    Women reporting severe premenstrual symptoms were allocated nonrandomly to a cognitive–behavioral coping skills treatment (n = 13), a nonspecific treatment (n = 12), or a waiting-list group (n = 12). Repeated measures analyses of variance showed that, compared with control subjects, the coping skills group reported significant reductions in premenstrual symptomatology and irrational thinking at posttreatment and at 9-month follow-up.

  12. Influence of Music Therapy on Coping Skills and Anger Management in Forensic Psychiatric Patients: An Exploratory Study.

    PubMed

    Hakvoort, Laurien; Bogaerts, Stefan; Thaut, Michael H; Spreen, Marinus

    2015-07-01

    The effect of music therapy on anger management and coping skills is an innovative subject in the field of forensic psychiatry. This study explores the following research question: Can music therapy treatment contribute to positive changes in coping skills, anger management, and dysfunctional behavior of forensic psychiatric patients? To investigate this question, first a literature review is offered on music therapy and anger management in forensic psychiatry. Then, an explorative study is presented. In the study, a pre- and post-test design was used with a random assignment of patients to either treatment or control condition. Fourteen participants' complete datasets were collected. All participants received "treatment as usual." Nine of the participants received a standardized, music therapy anger management program; the five controls received, unplanned, an aggression management program. Results suggested that anger management skills improved for all participants. The improvement of positive coping skills and diminishing of avoidance as a coping skill were measured to show greater changes in music therapy participants. When controlling for the exact number of treatment hours, the outcomes suggested that music therapy might accelerate the process of behavioral changes. PMID:24379454

  13. Psychosocial support and resilience building among health workers in Sierra Leone: interrelations between coping skills, stress levels, and interpersonal relationships

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background In low- and middle-income countries, a shortage of properly trained, supervised, motivated and equitably distributed health workers often hinder the delivery of lifesaving interventions. Various health workforce bottlenecks can be addressed by tackling well-being and interpersonal relationships of health workers with their colleagues and clients. This paper uses data from the Helping Health Workers Cope (HHWC) project in a rural district of Sierra Leone to achieve three objectives. First, we describe the effect of counseling and psychosocial training on coping skills, stress levels, and provider-provider and provider-client relationships. Second, we examine whether a change in coping skills is associated with a change in relationships. Finally, we qualitatively identify key ways through which the uptake of coping skills is linked to a change in relationships. Methods The HHWC project was implemented from February 2012 to June 2013 in Kono district in the Eastern province of Sierra Leone, with the neighboring district of Tonkolili selected as the control site. The evaluation followed a mixed-methods approach, which included a quantitative survey, in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with health workers and clients. Mean values of the variables of interest were compared across sub-populations, and correlation analyses were performed between changes in coping skills, stress levels, and changes in relationships. Results Overall, the results demonstrate that the HHWC intervention had a positive effect on coping skills, stress levels and provider-provider and provider-client relationships. Furthermore, associations were observed between changes in coping skills and changes in relationships as well as changes in stress management skills and changes in relationships. Conclusions Psychosocial education can have major impacts on health worker well-being and the quality of health care delivery. Integrating psychosocial counseling and training interventions into health worker pre-service and in-service curricula would allow the positive effects of the HHWC intervention to be scaled up across Sierra Leone and beyond. A roll out of the HHWC approach alongside health system strengthening initiatives could have major implications for improving health and chances of survival. PMID:26062735

  14. Coping Skills Training for Children: Effects on Distress Before, During, and After Hospitalization for Surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas R. Zastowny; Daniel S. Kirschenbaum; Anne L. Meng

    1986-01-01

    Thirty-three parent–child dyads (children’s mean age = 7.2 years, SD = 1.2) were randomly assigned to information, anxiety reduction, or coping skills presurgical preparatory interventions. All groups received the \\

  15. Coping of Judo Competitors in the Context of Gender, Age, Years of Practice and Skill Level

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aleksandra Rogowska; Cezary Ku?nierz

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the extent to which gender, age, skill level, and years of practice, serves as predictors of coping styles in judo. Participants in the study consisted of 98 judo competitors (47 females and 51 males, aged 13-21 years). As a result of the Agglomerative Hierarchical Cluster Analysis four coping styles have been established for

  16. Grief and trauma intervention for children after disaster: exploring coping skills versus trauma narration.

    PubMed

    Salloum, Alison; Overstreet, Stacy

    2012-03-01

    This study evaluated the differential effects of the Grief and Trauma Intervention (GTI) with coping skills and trauma narrative processing (CN) and coping skills only (C). Seventy African American children (6-12 years old) were randomly assigned to GTI-CN or GTI-C. Both treatments consisted of a manualized 11-session intervention and a parent meeting. Measures of trauma exposure, posttraumatic stress symptoms, depression, traumatic grief, global distress, social support, and parent reported behavioral problems were administered at pre, post, 3 and 12 months post intervention. In general, children in both treatment groups demonstrated significant improvements in distress related symptoms and social support, which, with the exception of externalizing symptoms for GTI-C, were maintained up to 12 months post intervention. Results suggest that building coping skills without the structured trauma narrative may be a viable intervention to achieve symptom relief in children experiencing trauma-related distress. However, it may be that highly distressed children experience more symptom relief with coping skills plus narrative processing than with coping skills alone. More research on the differential effects of coping skills and trauma narration on child distress and adaptive functioning outcomes is needed. PMID:22317753

  17. Veterans' Use of Religion\\/Spirituality as Culturally Relevant Coping Skills for Trauma and Recovery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    LincolnSean

    2012-01-01

    Veterans' Use of Religion\\/Spirituality as Culturally Relevant Coping Skills for Trauma and Recovery Sean Lincoln, PhD\\u000aBiographical Sketch: Sean Kathleen Lincoln, PhD is an experienced organizational administrator with skills and expertise in diversity, work\\/life initiatives, training and career counseling, clinical psychology, behavioral health, systems design and administration. Experience was gained in the health care and banking industries. She holds a

  18. Adolescent romance and depressive symptoms: the moderating effects of positive coping and perceived friendship competence.

    PubMed

    Szwedo, David E; Chango, Joanna M; Allen, Joseph P

    2015-01-01

    Youths' ability to positively cope with negative emotions and their self-perceived friendship competence were examined as potential moderators of links between multiple aspects of romantic relationships and residualized increases in depressive symptoms from late adolescence into early adulthood. Participants included 184 teens (46% male; 42% non-White) assessed at ages 15 to 19 and 21, as well as a subsample of 62 romantic partners of participants assessed when teens were 18. Results of hierarchical linear regressions showed that positive coping served as a buffer against depressive symptoms for romantically involved adolescents and also for teens receiving more intense emotional support from their romantic partners, but not for youth whose relationship had ended and had not been replaced by a new relationship. Higher perceived friendship competence served as a buffer against depressive symptoms for youth enduring the dissolution and nonreplacement of their romantic relationship. Greater use of positive coping skills and higher perceived friendship competence may help protect adolescents from depressive symptoms in different types of romantic experiences. PMID:24645877

  19. Psychosocial characteristics and coping skills in children maintained on chronic dialysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew S. Brem; Francine S. Brem; Margaret McGrath; Anthony Spirito

    1988-01-01

    Psychosocial character traits and coping skills were examined in 12 children with end-stage renal failure. Six of the children were maintained on in-center hemodialysis and 6 were treated with home peritoneal dialysis. All of the patients felt a lack of ability to control their lives. The incidence of anxiety, depression, and hostility did not appear to vary from a population

  20. Stress Management with Adolescents at the Junior High Transition: An Outcome Evaluation of Coping Skills Intervention

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven P. Schinke; Robert F. Schilling; William H. Snow

    1987-01-01

    This paper reports an outcome study of coping skills intervention to help adolescents manage stress associated with the transition from elementary school to junior high. In a randomized design, sixth grade students from four elementary schools were pretested, then two schools each were assigned to an intervention condition and to a control condition. Intervention condition subjects received eight sessions of

  1. Psychological Resilience and Positive Emotional Granularity: Examining the Benefits of Positive Emotions on Coping and Health

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michele M. Tugade; Barbara L. Fredrickson; Lisa Feldman Barrett

    2004-01-01

    For centuries, folk theory has promoted the idea that positive emotions are good for your health. Accumulating empirical ev- idence is providing support for this anecdotal wisdom. We use the broad- en-and-build theory of positive emotions (Fredrickson, 1998; 2001) as a framework to demonstrate that positive emotions contribute to psycho- logical and physical well-being via more effective coping. We argue

  2. Effectiveness of Coping Skills Education Program to Reduce Craving Beliefs among Addicts Referred To Addiction Centers in Hamadan: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadpanah, Mohammad; Mirzaei Alavijeh, Mehdi; Allahverdipour, Hamid; Jalilian, Farzad; Haghighi, Mohammad; Afsar, Ali; Gharibnavaz, Hassan

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background One of the most important factors affecting relapse of addiction is craving beliefs of substance use. The goal of the present study was assessment of the effectiveness of coping skills education program to reduce craving beliefs among opium addicts. Methods In a randomized controlled trial, during September 2011 to August 2012, 70 opium addicted men referred to the Behavioral Disorders and Substance Abuse Research Center in Hamadan, western Iran were assigned to intervention group (receiving coping skills education program) and control groups. The study information was analyzed using SPSS software. Results Regarding craving beliefs for continuing drug use, the two groups had similar scales at the beginning of interventional program, while the level of these beliefs was significantly reduced in the intervention group (P= 0.002), but not in the control group (P= 0.105). Also, a significant correlation was also revealed between taking advantage of the educational program and increase awareness of the signs of relapse in the intervention group (P=0.003) that was not revealed in the control (P= 0.174). On the other hand, executing coping skills education program led to reducecraving beliefs and improve knowledge towards signs of relapse. Conclusion Our findings demonstrate positive impact of coping skills education program after detoxification process on decrease of craving beliefs among opium addicts.

  3. Investigation of the Coping Styles of University Students With Stress According to the Social Skill Levells and Perception of Happiness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Fikret KARAHAN; Abdullah N. D?CLE; Hatice EPL?KOĒ

    In this study differentiation of the coping styles of the university students with stress have been investigated according to the social skill levels and perception of happiness. The sample consists of 1276 university students. Coping styles of the university students with stress have been measured by \\

  4. Coping Mediates Outcome Following a Randomized Group Intervention for HIV-Positive Bereaved Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Nathan Grant; Tarakeshwar, Nalini; Hansen, Nathan B.; Kochman, Arlene; Sikkema, Kathleen J.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the mechanisms responsible for the beneficial psychological effects of a coping-focused group intervention for HIV-positive individuals who had lost loved ones to AIDS. Data from 235 HIV-positive men and women enrolled in a randomized controlled clinical trial testing a coping-focused group intervention were analyzed using a multiple-indicator-multiple-cause (MIMIC) structural equation model. Results revealed that the effects of the intervention on decreases in depression and grief were mediated by decreases in avoidant coping. Specifically, participants in the intervention condition decreased their use of avoidant coping. Decreases in avoidant coping, in turn, were related to decreased depression and grief. The results of this study help to validate the use of coping-focused interventions for HIV-positive bereaved individuals. PMID:19152338

  5. The effects of Stress Management Training on collegiate football athletes' anxiety, self-esteem, self-efficacy, motivation, academic performance and coping skills

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Lucille Sepulvelda

    2008-01-01

    The study sought to examine the differential effects of a Stress Management Training on the anxiety, self-esteem, self-efficacy, motivation, academic performance, and coping skills for collegiate football athletes. It was hypothesized the Stress Management Training would have a positive effect on outcomes. The study was conducted using collegiate football athletes at a large urban university. Eighty-five collegiate football athletes participated,

  6. Positive and Negative Emotions and Coping as Mediators of Mother-Child Attachment and Peer Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abraham, Michelle M.; Kerns, Kathryn A.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether emotions and coping explain (mediate) the association between mother-child attachment and peer relationships. Attachment, positive and negative emotion experience, coping, and peer relationships were examined in 106 fourth-grade through sixth-grade girls attending a 6-day residential camp. Attachment, experience of…

  7. A Longitudinal Study of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms and Its Relationship with Coping Skill and Locus of Control in Adolescents after an Earthquake in China

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xiaolian; Wu, Dongmei; Tian, Yali

    2014-01-01

    Background/Objectives Post-traumatic stress disorder is a common psychological maladaptation among adolescents after undergoing an earthquake. Knowledge about the prevalence and maintenance of post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms and the changes of its predictors over time can help medical providers assist adolescent survivors with mitigating long-term impacts. This study examined the changes in posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and its relationship with coping skill and locus of control among adolescent earthquake survivors in China. Methodology/Findings The study used an observational longitudinal design. A total of 1420 adolescents were evaluated twice after the earthquake by using the Post-traumatic stress disorder Checklist-Civilian Version, The Internality, Powerful others and Chance scale and the Coping Styles Scale. The results indicated that the mean scores of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms were decreased significantly and the positive rates of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms also declined remarkably at 17 months compared to the 3 months post-earthquake. Internality locus of control and problem solving coping skill were effective resilient factors for the development and maintenance of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, while chance locus of control was a powerful risk factor of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms as well as being female, being injured and property loss. Conclusions/Significance Continuous screening is recommended to identify adolescent earthquake survivors with posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. More attention should be paid to adolescent survivors who are prone to adopt passive coping strategies responding to trauma events and who own external causal attribution. PMID:24516622

  8. Visual skills and playing positions of Olympic field hockey players.

    PubMed

    Wimshurst, Z L; Sowden, P T; Cardinale, M

    2012-02-01

    Many sports require fine spatiotemporal resolution for optimal performance. Previous studies have compared anticipatory skills and the decision-making process in athletes; however, there is little information on visual skills of elite athletes, particularly hockey players. To assess visual skills of Olympic hockey players and analyze differences by playing position, and to analyze improvement of visual skills after training, 21 Olympic field hockey players were pre- and post-tested on 11 visual tasks following a 10-wk. visual training program consisting of computer-based visual exercises. There were no mean differences at pre-test between players of different positions, suggesting that performance on these visual skills was independent of playing position. However, after training, an improvement was seen in all players (when scores were averaged across all 11 visual tasks) with goalkeepers improving significantly more than any other position. This suggests the possibility of improving visual skills even in an elite population. PMID:22582689

  9. Anxiety, Depression, and Coping Skills among Mexican School Children: A Comparison of Students with and without Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallegos, Julia; Langley, Audra; Villegas, Diana

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare severity and risk status for anxiety and depression with coping skills among 130 Mexican school children with learning disabilities (LD) and 130 school children without LD. This research is the first to explore the emotional difficulties of Mexican children with LD. Children completed the Spanish version of…

  10. Positive coping strategies and HIV-related stigma in south India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Shuba; Mohanraj, Rani; Rao, Deepa; Murray, Katherine R; Manhart, Lisa E

    2015-03-01

    Whether perceived or enacted, HIV-related stigma is widespread in India, and has had a crippling effect on People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA). Research has shown that a positive attitude towards the illness sets a proactive framework for the individual to cope with his or her infection; therefore, healthy coping mechanisms are essential to combat HIV-related stigma. This qualitative study involving in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with PLHA affiliated with HIV support groups in South India explored positive coping strategies employed by PLHA to deal with HIV-related stigma. Interviews and focus group discussions were translated, transcribed, and analyzed for consistent themes. Taboos surrounding modes of transmission, perceiving sex workers as responsible for the spread of HIV, and avoiding associating with PLHA provided the context of HIV-related stigma. Despite these challenges, PLHA used several positive strategies, classified as Clear Knowledge and Understanding of HIV, Social Support and Family Well-Being, Selective Disclosure, Employment Building Confidence, and Participation in Positive Networks. Poor understanding of HIV and fears of being labeled immoral undermined healthy coping behavior, while improved understanding, affiliation with support groups, family support, presence of children, and financial independence enhanced PLHA confidence. Such positive coping behaviours could inform culturally relevant interventions. PMID:25612135

  11. Cognitive reappraisal and secondary control coping: associations with working memory, positive and negative affect, and symptoms of anxiety\\/depression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charissa Andreotti; Jennifer E. Thigpen; Madeleine J. Dunn; Kelly Watson; Jennifer Potts; Michelle M. Reising; Kristen E. Robinson; Erin M. Rodriguez; Danielle Roubinov; Linda Luecken; Bruce E. Compas

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined the relations of measures of cognitive reappraisal and secondary control coping with working memory abilities, positive and negative affect, and symptoms of anxiety and depression in young adults (N=124). Results indicate significant relations between working memory abilities and reports of secondary control coping and between reports of secondary control coping and cognitive reappraisal. Associations were also

  12. Coping and Positive Affect in Adolescents of Mothers With and Without a History of Depression

    PubMed Central

    Champion, Jennifer E.; Dharamsi, Kristen R.; Riesing, Michele M.; Compas, Bruce E.

    2010-01-01

    The adolescent children of depressed mothers are at increased risk for depression, but little is known about protective factors for these children. Maintenance of positive affect in a stressful context may be an important marker of resilience. Mothers with (n = 34) and without (n = 38) a history of depression and their adolescent children completed questionnaires regarding adolescents' coping and depressive symptoms and engaged in a 15 min videotaped interaction about family stress. Adolescents' observed behaviors were coded using the Iowa Family Interaction Rating Scales. No significant differences emerged in observed behavior between adolescents of mothers with and without a history of depression. Higher levels of primary and secondary control coping and lower levels of disengagement coping were related to higher levels of observed positive mood and fewer depressive symptoms in adolescents. Observed positive mood was related to fewer depressive symptoms in adolescents, even after accounting for maternal history of depression and current maternal depressive symptoms. Results suggest the importance of considering positive affect in the context of family stress as a marker of resilience in adolescents at risk for depression. The current study provides evidence for coping as a protective factor, related to higher levels of positive affect and fewer depressive symptoms, in adolescents exposed to maternal depressive symptoms. PMID:21731408

  13. Anxiety, Depression, and Coping Skills Among Mexican School Children: A Comparison of Students With and Without Learning Disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Gallegos, Julia; Langley, Audra; Villegas, Diana

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare severity and risk status for anxiety and depression with coping skills among 130 Mexican school children with learning disabilities (LD) and 130 school children without LD. This research is the first to explore the emotional difficulties of Mexican children with LD. Children completed the Spanish version of the Spence Children’s Anxiety Scale and Children’s Depression Inventory, and the Cuestionario de Afrontamiento (Coping Skills Questionnaire). Results indicated that a higher percentage of children with LD were at risk for anxiety (22.3% vs. 11.5%) and depression (32% vs. 18%). No statistically significant differences were found for coping skills. Results support the idea that there is an increased awareness of comorbid depression and anxiety among students with LD and a need to promote early identification and intervention in schools. Efforts should focus on better understanding the relationship between social-emotional difficulties and academic achievement and on developing effective interventions to support children with LD. PMID:24223470

  14. The Utility of the Rorschach Coping Deficit Index as a Measure of Depression and Social Skills Deficits in Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stredny, Rebecca; Ball, J.

    2005-01-01

    Little research has evaluated the validity of the Coping Deficit Index (CDI) of the Rorschach Comprehensive System (CS). Because the CS Depression Index (DEPI) has frequently been found to yield false negatives, the CDI has been proposed as an alternative means of assessing social coping skills that may relate to depression. This study examined…

  15. A pilot study on enhancing positive coping behaviour in early adolescents using a school-based project.

    PubMed

    Fok, May Sin-Mai; Wong, Doris Yuk-Shim

    2005-12-01

    Early adolescence is a period of rapid cognitive, social, emotional and physical changes. During this period, early adolescents usually lack the ability to cope when they experience stress, which is usually family and school-related. If they cannot cope with such stress, they may fail to develop in a healthy manner and may develop habits harmful to their health such as substance abuse. To enhance positive behaviour in those in early adolescence coping with stress, a school-based project was implemented using focus group interviews, an open forum and follow-up interviews and journals. The objectives were to identify the stressors encountered by the students and their ability to cope, to develop and implement an educational activity to promote positive coping behaviour and to evaluate the effectiveness of the educational activity. The findings of the evaluation support the view that an early prevention programme for promoting positive coping behaviour to early adolescents is useful. PMID:16275667

  16. Coping with public speaking anxiety: An examination of various combinations of systematic desensitization, skills training, and visualization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tim Hopf; Joe Ayres

    1992-01-01

    This study examined whether the sequencing of cognitive, affective, and behavioral components of an intervention designed to help people cope with public speaking anxiety (PSA) made a difference in the effectiveness of the intervention. Since no data were available to posit hypotheses about the effectiveness of treatment sequencing, all treatment sequences were expected to be more effective than no treatment

  17. Coping Skills Training and 12-Step Facilitation for Women Whose Partner Has Alcoholism: Effects on Depression, the Partner's Drinking, and Partner Physical Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rychtarik, Robert G.; McGillicuddy, Neil B.

    2005-01-01

    Women (N = 171), distressed from their partners' untreated alcoholism, received either coping skills training (CST), 12-step facilitation (TSF), or delayed treatment (DTC). CST and TSF resulted in lower depression levels than DTC but did not differ from one another. Skill acquisition mediated the treatment effects of CST; Al-Anon attendance did…

  18. Coping and Positive Affect in Adolescents of Mothers With and Without a History of Depression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarah S. JaserJennifer; Jennifer E. Champion; Kristen R. Dharamsi; Michele M. Riesing; Bruce E. Compas

    2011-01-01

    The adolescent children of depressed mothers are at increased risk for depression, but little is known about protective factors\\u000a for these children. Maintenance of positive affect in a stressful context may be an important marker of resilience. Mothers\\u000a with (n = 34) and without (n = 38) a history of depression and their adolescent children completed questionnaires regarding adolescents’ coping and depressive\\u000a symptoms and

  19. The art of coping with a craniofacial difference: helping others through "Positive Exposure".

    PubMed

    Loewenstein, Johanna; Sutton, Erica; Guidotti, Rick; Shapiro, Kristin; Ball, Karen; McLean, Diane; Biesecker, Barbara

    2008-06-15

    Finding ways to cope with social stigmatization is an important aspect of achieving adaptation for people living with visible genetic differences. This study describes the way individuals with craniofacial differences use an innovative photography and video experience with Positive Exposure (PE), a non-profit organization based in New York City, as a way to cope with their conditions. Thirty-five individuals between 12 and 61 years of age participated in this study. We administered surveys comprised of open-ended qualitative questions and quantitative measures designed to assess self-esteem, perceived stigma, and hopefulness. Data for this analysis was generated from the written questionnaires and interview transcripts. Most participants reported high levels of self-esteem and hopefulness, suggesting that they were relatively well adapted to their condition. Almost all participants described experiences of stigmatization throughout their lives. However, participants demonstrated their ability to implement a variety of coping strategies to manage stigma. "Helping others" emerged as a prominent strategy among participants, aiding in the often lifelong process of adapting to their genetic difference. PE was described as an avenue through which participants could reach out to individuals and society at large, helping them adapt further to their condition. "Helping others" may also benefit individuals with craniofacial differences who do not consider themselves to be well adapted to their condition. Health care providers can collaborate with PE, advocacy groups and other community or support groups to identify additional ways individuals with craniofacial differences can help themselves by reaching out to others. PMID:18478594

  20. Increases in Positive Reappraisal Coping During a Group-Based Mantram Intervention Mediate Sustained Reductions in Anger in HIV-Positive Persons

    PubMed Central

    Bormann, Jill E.; Carrico, Adam W.

    2009-01-01

    Background There is evidence that various meditation practices reduce distress, but little is known about the mechanisms of frequently repeating a mantram—a spiritual word or phrase—on distress reduction. Mantram repetition is the portable practice of focusing attention frequently on a mantram throughout the day without a specific time, place or posture. Purpose We examined the hypothesis of whether increases positive reappraisal coping or distancing coping mediated the sustained decreases in anger found following a group-based mantram intervention that was designed to train attention and promote awareness of internal experiences. Method A secondary analysis was performed on data collected from a randomized controlled trial that compared a group-based mantram intervention (n=46) to an attention-matched control (n = 47) in a community sample of HIV-positive adults. Positive reappraisal and distancing coping were explored as potential mediators of anger reduction. Results Participants in the mantram intervention reported significant increases in positive reappraisal coping over the 5-week intervention period whereas the control group reported decreases. Increases in positive reappraisal coping during the 5-week intervention period mediated the effect of mantram on decreased anger at 22-week follow-up. Conclusions Findings suggest that a group-based mantram intervention may reduce anger by enhancing positive reappraisal coping. PMID:19127438

  1. When parents' affection depends on child's achievement: parental conditional positive regard, self-aggrandizement, shame and coping in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Assor, Avi; Tal, Karen

    2012-04-01

    We examined the idea that adolescents' perceptions of their mothers as using parental conditional positive regard (PCPR) to promote academic achievement are associated with maladaptive self feelings and coping. A study of 153 adolescents supported the hypothesis that PCPR predicts self-aggrandizement following success and self devaluation and shame following failure, which then predict compulsive over-investment. PCPR functioned as a unique predictor of maladaptive self feelings and coping also when the effects of perceived parental conditional negative regard or psychological control were controlled for. The findings suggest that the experience of one's mother as using conditional positive regard to promote achievement leads to a non-optimal self-esteem dynamics, in which people vacillate between feelings of grandiosity following success and self-derogation and shame following failure, which in turn promote a rigid and stressful mode of coping. Thus, the practice of PCPR, although seemingly benign, appears to carry significant emotional and coping costs for adolescents. PMID:22078668

  2. Longitudinal Effects of Coping on Outcome in a Randomized Controlled Trial of a Group Intervention for HIV-Positive Adults with AIDS-Related Bereavement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Nathan B.; Tarakeshwar, Nalini; Ghebremichael, Musie; Zhang, Heping; Kochman, Arlene; Sikkema, Kathleen J.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the longitudinal effects of coping on outcome one year following completion of a randomized, controlled trial of a group coping intervention for AIDS-related bereavement. Bereaved HIV-positive participants (N = 267) were administered measures of grief, psychiatric distress, quality of life, and coping at baseline,…

  3. A phase III randomized three-arm trial of physical therapist delivered pain coping skills training for patients with total knee arthroplasty: the KASTPain protocol

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Approximately 20% of patients report persistent and disabling pain following total knee arthroplasty (TKA) despite an apparently normally functioning prosthesis. One potential risk factor for unexplained persistent pain is high levels of pain catastrophizing. We designed a three-arm trial to determine if a pain coping skills training program, delivered prior to TKA, effectively reduces function-limiting pain following the procedure in patients with high levels of pain catastrophizing. Methods/design The trial will be conducted at four University-based sites in the US. A sample of 402 patients with high levels of pain catastrophizing will be randomly assigned to either a pain coping skills training arm, an arthritis education control arm or usual care. Pain coping skills will be delivered by physical therapists trained and supervised by clinical psychologist experts. Arthritis education will be delivered by nurses trained in the delivery of arthritis-related content. The primary outcome will be change in Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) Pain scale score 12 months following surgery. A variety of secondary clinical and economic outcomes also will be evaluated. Discussion The trial will be conducted at four University-based sites in the US. A sample of 402 patients with high levels of pain catastrophizing will be randomly assigned to either a pain coping skills training arm, an arthritis education control arm or usual care. Pain coping skills will be delivered by physical therapists trained and supervised by clinical psychologist experts. Arthritis education will be delivered by nurses trained in the delivery of arthritis-related content. The primary outcome will be change in Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) Pain scale score 12 months following surgery. A variety of secondary clinical and economic outcomes also will be evaluated. Trial Registration NCT01620983 PMID:22906061

  4. Association of neurocognition, anxiety, positive and negative symptoms with coping preference in schizophrenia spectrum disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul H. Lysaker; Louanne W. Davis; Jeffrey Lightfoot; Nicole Hunter; Amy Stasburger

    2005-01-01

    It is recognized that persons with schizophrenia tend to cope with stress in a relatively avoidant and ineffectual manner and that this coping style is linked to poorer outcome. Less is understood, however, about the interrelationship between symptoms, deficits in neurocognition and coping style in schizophrenia. To determine the extent to which various neurocognitive deficits and symptoms are related to

  5. A parallel-group, randomised controlled trial of a multimedia, self-directed, coping skills training intervention for patients with cancer and their partners: design and rationale

    PubMed Central

    Lambert, Sylvie D; Girgis, Afaf; McElduff, Patrick; Turner, Jane; Levesque, Janelle V; Kayser, Karen; Mihalopoulos, Cathrine; Shih, Sophy T F; Barker, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Coping skills training interventions have been found to be efficacious in helping both patients and their partners manage the physical and emotional challenges they face following a cancer diagnosis. However, many of these interventions are costly and not sustainable. To overcome these issues, a self-directed format is increasingly used. The efficacy of self-directed interventions for patients has been supported; however, no study has reported on the outcomes for their partners. This study will test the efficacy of Coping-Together—a multimedia, self-directed, coping skills training intervention for patients with cancer and their partners. Methods and analysis The proposed three-group, parallel, randomised controlled trial will recruit patients diagnosed in the past 4?months with breast, prostate, colorectal cancer or melanoma through their treating clinician. Patients and their partners will be randomised to (1) a minimal ethical care (MEC) condition—selected Cancer Council New South Wales booklets and a brochure for the Cancer Council Helpline, (2) Coping-Together generic—MEC materials, the six Coping-Together booklets and DVD, the Cancer Council Queensland relaxation audio CD and login to the Coping-Together website or (3) Coping-Together tailored—MEC materials, the Coping-Together DVD, the login to the website and only those Coping-Together booklet sections that pertain to their direct concerns. Anxiety (primary outcome), distress, depression, dyadic adjustment, quality of life, illness or caregiving appraisal, self-efficacy and dyadic and individual coping will be assessed before receiving the study material (ie, baseline) and again at 3, 6 and 12?months postbaseline. Intention-to-treat and per protocol analysis will be conducted. Ethics and dissemination This study has been approved by the relevant local area health and University ethics committees. Study findings will be disseminated not only through peer-reviewed publications and conference presentations but also through educational outreach visits, publication of lay research summaries in consumer newsletters and publications targeting clinicians. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12613000491763 (03/05/2013) PMID:23883890

  6. When Parents' Affection Depends on Child's Achievement: Parental Conditional Positive Regard, Self-Aggrandizement, Shame and Coping in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Assor, Avi; Tal, Karen

    2012-01-01

    We examined the idea that adolescents' perceptions of their mothers as using parental conditional positive regard (PCPR) to promote academic achievement are associated with maladaptive self feelings and coping. A study of 153 adolescents supported the hypothesis that PCPR predicts self-aggrandizement following success and self devaluation and…

  7. A pilot randomized controlled trial of the feasibility of a self-directed coping skills intervention for couples facing prostate cancer: Rationale and design

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Although it is known both patients’ and partners’ reactions to a prostate cancer diagnosis include fear, uncertainty, anxiety and depression with patients’ partners’ reactions mutually determining how they cope with and adjust to the illness, few psychosocial interventions target couples. Those that are available tend to be led by highly trained professionals, limiting their accessibility and long-term sustainability. In addition, it is recognised that patients who might benefit from conventional face-to-face psychosocial interventions do not access these, either by preference or because of geographical or mobility barriers. Self-directed interventions can overcome some of these limitations and have been shown to contribute to patient well-being. This study will examine the feasibility of a self-directed, coping skills intervention for couples affected by cancer, called Coping-Together, and begin to explore its potential impact on couples’ illness adjustment. The pilot version of Coping-Together includes a series of four booklets, a DVD, and a relaxation audio CD. Methods/design In this double-blind, two-group, parallel, randomized controlled trial, 70 couples will be recruited within 4 months of a prostate cancer diagnosis through urology private practices and randomized to: 1) Coping-Together or 2) a minimal ethical care condition. Minimal ethical care condition couples will be mailed information booklets available at the Cancer Council New South Wales and a brochure for the Cancer Council Helpline. The primary outcome (anxiety) and additional secondary outcomes (distress, depression, dyadic adjustment, quality of life, illness or caregiving appraisal, self-efficacy, and dyadic and individual coping) will be assessed at baseline (before receiving study material) and 2 months post-baseline. Intention-to-treat and per protocol analysis will be conducted. Discussion As partners’ distress rates exceed not only population norms, but also those reported by patients themselves, it is imperative that coping skills interventions target the couple as a unit and enhance both partners’ ability to overcome cancer challenges. This pilot study will examine the feasibility and potential efficacy of Coping-Together in optimising couples’ illness adjustment. This is one of the first feasibility studies to test this innovative coping intervention, which in turn will contribute to the larger literature advocating for psychosocial care of couples affected by prostate cancer. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12611000438954 PMID:23013404

  8. Positive Adjustment in Youth Post-Katrina: The Impact of Child and Maternal Social Support and Coping

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julia F. Vigna; Brittany C. Hernandez; Valerie Paasch; Arlene T. Gordon; Mary L. Kelley

    This chapter presents results of a longitudinal study conducted with youth and their parents post-Katrina. The study sought\\u000a to identify both individual and family factors predictive of long-term positive adjustment in youth. Results indicated that\\u000a family factors, such as parent-provided social support and coping through family routines and support, were paramount in predicting\\u000a positive outcomes in youth 25–28 months post-Katrina.

  9. Positive Coping Strategies among Immigrant Cambodian Families: An Ethnographic Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiboldt, Wendy; Goldstein, Avery E.

    2000-01-01

    Interviews with two Cambodian immigrant families over 2 years revealed how they relied on each other more than formal service providers to cope with difficulties. They focused on children's education and safety, insulation of the family from external influences, and interdependence with the immigrant community. (SK)

  10. Too much of a good thing?: Positive religious coping predicts worse diurnal salivary cortisol patterns for overwhelmed African-American female dementia family caregivers

    PubMed Central

    Merritt, Marcellus M.; McCallum, T. J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Religious coping arguably prevents negative health outcomes for stressed persons. This study examined the moderating role of religious coping (positive, negative, and combined) in the connection of care recipient functional status with diurnal salivary cortisol patterns among dementia family caregivers. Methods Thirty African-American (AA) female dementia caregivers and 48 AA noncaregivers completed the Religious Coping (RCOPE) scale, Activities of Daily Living (ADL) scale and Revised Memory and Behavior Problem checklist (RMBPC) and collected five saliva samples daily (at awakening, 9am, 12pm, 5pm, and 9pm) for two straight days. Results Hierarchical regression tests with mean diurnal cortisol slope as the outcome illustrated surprisingly that higher combined and positive (but not negative) RCOPE scores were associated with increasingly flatter or worse cortisol slope scores for caregivers (but not non-caregivers). Of note, the RCOPE by RMBPC interaction was significant. Among caregivers who reported higher RMBPC scores, higher combined and positive (but not negative) RCOPE scores were unexpectedly associated with increasingly flatter cortisol slopes. Conclusions These results extend current findings by showing that being AA, a caregiver, and high in positive religious coping may predict increased daily stress responses, mainly for those with higher patient behavioral problems. Since religious coping is a central coping strategy for AA caregivers, it is vital that epidemiological assessments of religious coping in health and aging as well as tailored interventions focus on the unique reasons for this disparity. PMID:23290202

  11. The effects of head position on skilled force production: implications for the tonic neck reflex

    E-print Network

    Guadagnoli, Mark Aloysious

    1990-01-01

    THE EFFECTS OF HEAD POSITION ON SKILLED FORCE PRODUCTION: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE TONIC NECK REFLEX A Thesis by MARK ALOYSIOUS GUADAGNOLI Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Nay 1990 Major Subject: Kinesiology THE EFFECT OF HEAD POSITION ON SKILLED FORCE PRODUCTION: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE TONIC NECK REFLEX A Thesis by MARK ALOYSIOUS GUADAGNOLI Approved as to style and content...

  12. Depressive and conduct disorder symptoms in youth living with HIV: The independent and interactive roles of coping and neuropsychological functioning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christina Salama; Mary Morris; Lisa Armistead; Linda J. Koenig; Penelope Demas; Corinne Ferdon; Pamela Bachanas

    2012-01-01

    Emerging research suggests the importance of psychosocial characteristics (e.g., coping and social support) for positive adaptation among youth with behaviorally acquired HIV. However, little is known about how these traits interact with cognitive abilities to impact emotional and behavioral adjustment. This study examined whether coping skills and executive functioning interact in their association with psychological adjustment in HIV-positive youth. Data

  13. Coping with Turbulence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanderson, Michael

    1978-01-01

    An essay on the changing decision-making and organization skills needed by librarians to cope with the new interdisciplinary knowledge, the great increase in types of media and services available, and uncertainty. (JAB)

  14. Self-Control and Coping Skills as Factors in Pain Perception, Perceived Health and Psychological Adjustment in the Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietrich, Coralie; And Others

    Self-control and self-efficacy have played a central role in recent behavioral medicine work on the control of chronic physical pain. Little work investigating the concepts of self-control and self-efficacy has been done with the elderly in spite of the fact that coping strategies in the elderly have been associated with a variety of health and…

  15. The Life Skills Program IPSY: Positive Influences on School Bonding and Prevention of Substance Misuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenzel, Victoria; Weichold, Karina; Silbereisen, Rainer K.

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated whether a life skills program (LSP) for the prevention of adolescent substance misuse can have positive influences on a school context and on school bonding. The study also explored whether effects on alcohol use are mediated by positive effects on school bonding resulting from program participation. The LSP IPSY…

  16. Retaining Critical Therapeutic Elements of Behavioral Interventions Translated For Delivery via the Internet: Recommendations and an Example Using Pain Coping Skills Training

    PubMed Central

    Porter, Laura S; Somers, Tamara J; McKee, Daphne C; Keefe, Francis J

    2014-01-01

    Evidence supporting the efficacy of behavioral interventions based on principles of cognitive behavioral therapies has spurred interest in translating these interventions for delivery via the Internet. However, the benefits of this dissemination method cannot be realized unless the translated interventions are as effective as possible. We describe a challenge that must be overcome to ensure this occurs—Internet interventions must retain therapeutic components and processes underlying the success of face-to-face interventions on which they are based. These components and processes vary in the ease with which they can be translated to the online environment. Moreover, some are subtle and may be overlooked, despite being recognized as essential to the success of face-to-face interventions. We provide preliminary guidance for retaining critical therapeutic components and processes in the translation process, using Pain Coping Skills Training for osteoarthritis pain to illustrate methods. Directions for future research are also discussed. PMID:25532216

  17. Teacher's Handbook for English for Living: A Set of Materials Designed to Teach Coping Skills and Language Skills to Adolescents for Whom English Is a Second Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Bilingual Education.

    This guide provides directions for teaching a series of units on survival skills in English as a second language (ESL). A brief general background of second language instruction and a short bibliography are included. The modules cover: (1) "Getting a Driver's License and Buying a Car"; (2) "Want Ads and Employment Agencies"; (3) "The Job…

  18. The Effects of Skill Demands and Object Position on the Distribution of Preferred Hand Reaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mamolo, Carla M.; Roy, Eric A.; Bryden, Pamela J.; Rohr, Linda E.

    2004-01-01

    Performance-based measures of hand preference have been developed as an objective method of examining handedness. Previous research using this method by Bryden, Roy, and Mamolo (2003) showed that both skill demands and the position of the object in working space affect preferential hand reaching. Specifically, preferred hand reaches predominated…

  19. Relationship between spirituality\\/religiousness and coping in patients with residual schizophrenia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ruchita Shah; Parmanand Kulhara; Sandeep Grover; Suresh Kumar; Rama Malhotra; Shikha Tyagi

    Purpose  To measure spirituality\\/religiousness and its relation to coping skills in patients with residual schizophrenia.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Using a cross-sectional design, 103 persons with residual schizophrenia were assessed on Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale\\u000a [PANSS] and Ways of Coping Checklist [WCC] to assess the repertoire of coping skills and WHO Quality of Life-Spirituality,\\u000a Religiousness and Personal Belief scale [WHOQOL-SRPB] to assess religiousness and

  20. The Yellow Brick Road and the Emerald City: Benefit Finding, Positive Reappraisal Coping, and Posttraumatic Growth in Women With Early-Stage Breast Cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sharon R. Sears; Annette L. Stanton; Sharon Danoff-Burg

    2003-01-01

    Predictors and outcomes of benefit finding, positive reappraisal coping, and posttraumatic growth were examined using interviews and questionnaires from a longitudinal study of women with early-stage breast cancer followed from primary medical treatment completion to 3 (n = 92) and 12 months (n = 60) later. Most women (83%) reported at least 1 benefit of their breast cancer experience. Benefit

  1. Coping strategies to manage acculturative stress: meaningful activity participation, social support, and positive emotion among Korean immigrant adolescents in the USA.

    PubMed

    Kim, Junhyoung; Suh, Wonseok; Kim, Sooyeon; Gopalan, Himanshu

    2012-01-01

    During acculturation, Asian immigrant adolescents have numerous challenges such as language barriers, cultural and ethnic differences, different school environments, discrimination experiences, and intergroup conflicts and tension. These challenges generate acculturative stress, which negatively affects the perception of health and well-being among Asian immigrant adolescents. This article explored how Asian immigrant adolescents perceive and cope with acculturative stress. In particular, this study examined the stress-coping strategies in the adaptation process as experienced by Korean immigrant adolescents. Three main themes associated with the stress-coping strategies were captured: (a) engagement in meaningful activities; (b) social support; and (c) positive emotion. This finding implies that Asian immigrant adolescents create and develop their own strategies to deal with acculturative stress, which results in a sense of happiness and psychological well-being. This study discuss the future implications on how to improve the perception of health and well-being among Asian immigrant adolescents. PMID:23195747

  2. Creative coping: a description of experiences of families coping with chronic illness in a child

    E-print Network

    McGough, Marnique

    2006-08-16

    Chronic illness impacts numerous families in the United States. Children are increasingly among those affected by a chronic illness. The families undergo trials and experiences that tax their coping skills and require extensive coping strategies...

  3. Recall of briefly presented chess positions and its relation to chess skill.

    PubMed

    Gong, Yanfei; Ericsson, K Anders; Moxley, Jerad H

    2015-01-01

    Individual differences in memory performance in a domain of expertise have traditionally been accounted for by previously acquired chunks of knowledge and patterns. These accounts have been examined experimentally mainly in chess. The role of chunks (clusters of chess pieces recalled in rapid succession during recall of chess positions) and their relations to chess skill are, however, under debate. By introducing an independent chunk-identification technique, namely repeated-recall technique, this study identified individual chunks for particular chess players. The study not only tested chess players with increasing chess expertise, but also tested non-chess players who should not have previously acquired any chess related chunks in memory. For recall of game positions significant differences between players and non-players were found in virtually all the characteristics of chunks recalled. Size of the largest chunks also correlates with chess skill within the group of rated chess players. Further research will help us understand how these memory encodings can explain large differences in chess skill. PMID:25774693

  4. Evaluating the Mindfulness-based Coping Program: An Effectiveness Study Using a Mixed Model Approach

    PubMed Central

    Bru, Edvin

    2012-01-01

    Since more than 450 million people worldwide suffer from mental disorders, interventions that promote mental health have been called for. Mindfulness-based coping (MBC) is an intervention based on coping skills from cognitive behavioral therapy integrating mindfulness practices. The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of the MBC program for psychiatric outpatients. The study employed a mixed research method with a qualitative approach using semi-structured patient interviews and clinical assessments from patients’ therapists and a quantitative approach using instruments measuring mindful coping, mental ill health, and life satisfaction. The study sample included 38 psychiatric outpatients from a district psychiatric outpatient service in Norway. Results suggested that although use of the different skills varied, participants had a positive experience with the program and positive changes in psychological functioning were observed. Findings provide knowledge regarding the design of interventions integrating mindfulness to promote more adequate psychological coping. PMID:25478104

  5. Psychological resilience: the impact of affectivity and coping on state anxiety and positive emotions during and after the Washington, DC sniper killings.

    PubMed

    Moore, Philip J; Chrabaszcz, Jeffrey S; Peterson, Rolf A; Rohrbeck, Cynthia A; Roemer, Enid C; Mercurio, Andrea E

    2014-01-01

    This research examined the impact of affectivity and coping on state anxiety and positive emotions among young adults living in the Washington, DC metro area both during and after the Washington, DC sniper killings. Participants completed questionnaires during three waves of data collection: (1) during the sniper attacks (n=92); (2) within two weeks after the snipers were captured (n=45); and (3) six months later (n=43). Affectivity (measured by neuroticism) was significantly associated with state anxiety and positive emotions during all three time periods. Coping (measured by constructive thinking) predicted state anxiety and positive emotions during the shootings, but was unrelated to either outcome immediately after the attacks, and marginally related to them six months later. Consistent with the Dynamic Model of Affect, state anxiety and positive emotions were more strongly (and negatively) correlated with each other during the killings than they were after the snipers were apprehended. Taken together, these results support transactional models of stress that emphasize the interaction between dispositional and situational influences, and they suggest that affectivity reflects a fundamental set of reactions to one's environment, while coping dispositions result in more stress-specific responses. Additional theoretical and practical implications of these findings are also discussed. PMID:23971650

  6. Sensation Seeking, Stress, and Adolescent Injuries: A Test of Stress-Buffering, Risk-Taking, and Coping Skills Hypotheses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald E. Smith; J. T. Ptacek; Frank L. Smoll

    1992-01-01

    The potential stress-buffering effects of sensation seeking were assessed in a prospective study involving high school athletes. A significant positive relation between major negative sport-specific life events and subsequent injury time-loss occurred only for athletes low in sensation seeking. No evidence was obtained for a competing hypothesis that high sensation seeking would constitute an injury vulnerability factor by increasing risk-taking

  7. Political Skills That Superintendents Need to Embrace in Order to Maintain a Positive Working Relationship with Their Board Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muhammed, Anil Salim

    2012-01-01

    According to the literature, school districts are becoming increasingly political and complex. For superintendents to be successful in this environment they must exhibit great political skills in order to maintain positive working relationships with their boards of education. Thus, this study aimed to identify political skills that superintendents…

  8. Spiritual Coping with Chronic Pain 

    E-print Network

    Henderson, Kevin

    2008-06-26

    and Pain interference (PI) (p?.05). Despite SP correlating well with R/S coping, neither the positive nor negative R/S coping subscales accounted for any of the variance in pain outcomes. Three of the CSQ coping subscales correlated with pain outcomes...

  9. OUTCOMES FROM A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL OF A GROUP INTERVENTION FOR HIV POSITIVE MEN AND WOMEN COPING WITH AIDS-RELATED LOSS AND BEREAVEMENT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    KATHLEEN J. SIKKEMA; NATHAN B. HANSEN; ARLENE KOCHMAN; DAVID C. TATE; WAYNE DIFRANCEISCO

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of a group coping intervention for HIV-positive men and women who have lost a loved one(s) to AIDS in the past 2 years. Two hundred thirty-five participants, diverse with respect to race\\/ethnicity and sexual orientation, were randomly assigned to a 12-week cognitive-behavioral group intervention or to an individual therapy on

  10. Meta-analysis of age and skill effects on recalling chess positions and selecting the best move.

    PubMed

    Moxley, Jerad H; Charness, Neil

    2013-10-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted of studies that measured the effects of both age and skill in chess on the tasks of selecting the best move for chess positions (the best move task) as well as recalling chess game positions (the recall task). Despite a small sample of studies, we demonstrated that there are age and skill effects on both tasks: age being negatively associated with performance on both tasks and skill being positively associated with performance on both tasks. On the best move task, we found that skill was the dominant effect, while on the recall task, skill and age were approximately equally strong effects. We also found that skill was best measured by the best move task. In the case of the best move task, this result is consistent with the argument that it accurately replicates expert performance (Ericsson & Smith, 1991). Results for the recall task argue that this task captures effects related to skill, but also effects likely due to a general aging process. Implications for our understanding of aging in skilled domains are also discussed. PMID:23508364

  11. Brief Report: Un Abrazo Para la Familia: Providing Low-Income Hispanics with Education and Skills in Coping with Breast Cancer and Caregiving

    PubMed Central

    Badger, Terry A.; Curran, Melissa A.; Koerner, Susan Silverberg; Larkey, Linda K.; Weihs, Karen L.; Verdugo, Lorena; Garcķa, Francisco A. R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Un Abrazo Para La Familia [A Hug for the Family] is an intervention designed to increase the accessibility of cancer information to low-income and medically underserved co-survivors of cancer. Co-survivors are family members or friends of an individual diagnosed with cancer. Our goal was to increase socio-emotional support for co-survivors, and improve skills in coping with cancer. The purpose of our pilot study was to explore the effectiveness of the intervention in increasing cancer knowledge and self-efficacy among co-survivors. Methods Un Abrazo consisted of three one-hour sessions, in either Spanish or English. Sessions were delivered by a trained promotora [community health worker], in partnership with a counselor. Sixty participants completed measures of cancer knowledge and self-efficacy preceding (pre-test) and following the intervention (post-test). Results From pre- to post-test, the percentage of questions answered correctly about cancer knowledge increased (p < .001), as did ratings of self-efficacy (p < .001). Decreases were seen in “Do not know” responses for cancer knowledge (p < .01), with a negative correlation between number of “Do not knows” on cancer knowledge at pre-test and ratings of self-efficacy at pre-test (r = ?.47, p < .01). Conclusions When provided an accessible format, co-survivors of cancer from underserved populations increase their cancer knowledge and self-efficacy. This is notable because research indicates that family members and friends with increased cancer knowledge assume more active involvement in the cancer care of their loved ones. PMID:22140003

  12. The positive impact of a facilitated peer mentoring program on academic skills of women faculty

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In academic medicine, women physicians lag behind their male counterparts in advancement and promotion to leadership positions. Lack of mentoring, among other factors, has been reported to contribute to this disparity. Peer mentoring has been reported as a successful alternative to the dyadic mentoring model for women interested in improving their academic productivity. We describe a facilitated peer mentoring program in our institution's department of medicine. Methods Nineteen women enrolled in the program were divided into 5 groups. Each group had an assigned facilitator. Members of the respective groups met together with their facilitators at regular intervals during the 12 months of the project. A pre- and post-program evaluation consisting of a 25-item self-assessment of academic skills, self-efficacy, and academic career satisfaction was administered to each participant. Results At the end of 12 months, a total of 9 manuscripts were submitted to peer-reviewed journals, 6 of which are in press or have been published, and another 2 of which have been invited to be revised and resubmitted. At the end of the program, participants reported an increase in their satisfaction with academic achievement (mean score increase, 2.32 to 3.63; P = 0.0001), improvement in skills necessary to effectively search the medical literature (mean score increase, 3.32 to 4.05; P = 0.0009), an improvement in their ability to write a comprehensive review article (mean score increase, 2.89 to 3.63; P = 0.0017), and an improvement in their ability to critically evaluate the medical literature (mean score increased from 3.11 to 3.89; P = 0.0008). Conclusions This facilitated peer mentoring program demonstrated a positive impact on the academic skills and manuscript writing for junior women faculty. This 1-year program required minimal institutional resources, and suggests a need for further study of this and other mentoring programs for women faculty. PMID:22439908

  13. Cultural and Gender Differences in Perceptions of Stressors and Coping Skills: A Study of Western and African College Students in China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashim, Ismail Hussein

    2003-01-01

    Tests the universal nature of stress and coping behavior among overseas college students in China and provides basic information towards understanding the problems that result from stress and coping which can best be defined in cultural terms. Results indicated that academic and interpersonal sources of stress were the most common Stressors…

  14. Stress-coping strategies among medical residents in Saudi Arabia: A cross-sectional national study

    PubMed Central

    Alosaimi, Fahad D.; Almufleh, Auroabah; Kazim, Sana; Aladwani, Bandar

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Maladaptive stress-coping strategies have been linked to reduced quality of life, psychiatric disorders, and reduced work performance among residents or physicians. This study aimed to examine stress-coping strategies among medical residents in Saudi Arabia and their association with stress levels and important personal characteristics. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted between May and October 2012. Residents of different specialties were recruited from a national database. Stress-coping strategies were assessed using the 28-item brief coping scale (BCS), while stress was assessed using the perceived stress scale (PSS). Results: Nine hundred seventeen residents completed both BCS and PSS assessments. Almost 55% of participants were males, 88% were Saudi, 58% were married, and 15% had positive history of psychiatric disorders. The adaptive stress-coping strategy with the highest score was religion, followed by planning, acceptance, and active coping. The maladaptive stress-coping strategy with the highest score was self-blame, followed by self-distraction, and venting. Maladaptive stress-coping strategies were associated with high stress level, female gender, and history of psychiatric disorders. Stress-coping strategies were not correlated/associated with age, presence of major medical illnesses, or stress management education/training. Conclusion: Adaptive stress-coping strategies were more frequently used among a sample of residents in Saudi Arabia than maladaptive stress-coping strategies, with higher use of religion in coping than previously reported. To avoid potential negative impact on resident well-being, future studies among residents should aim to identify the type of stress management program that most positively impacts stress-coping skills.

  15. Negative Impact and Positive Value in Caregiving: Validation of the COPE Index in a Six-Country Sample of Carers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balducci, Cristian; Mnich, Eva; McKee, Kevin J.; Lamura, Giovanni; Beckmann, Anke; Krevers, Barbro; Wojszel, Z. Beata; Nolan, Mike; Prouskas, Constantinos; Bien, Barbara; Oberg, Birgitta

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The present study attempts to further validate the COPE Index on a large sample of carers drawn from six European countries. Design and Methods: We used a cross-sectional survey, with approximately 1,000 carers recruited in each of six countries by means of a common standard evaluation protocol. Our saturation recruitment of a designated…

  16. Changes in Coping Following Treatment for Child Molesters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serran, Geris A.; Moulden, Heather; Firestone, Philip; Marshall, W. L.

    2007-01-01

    Relapse prevention theory assumes that specific coping skills deficits contribute to sexual reoffending. Recent research suggests that the general coping style of sexual offenders is also ineffective. In this study changes were examined in specific and general coping deficits following a treatment program that incorporated specific skills training…

  17. A physiotherapist-delivered integrated exercise and pain coping skills training intervention for individuals with knee osteoarthritis: a randomised controlled trial protocol

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is a prevalent chronic musculoskeletal condition with no cure. Pain is the primary symptom and results from a complex interaction between structural changes, physical impairments and psychological factors. Much evidence supports the use of strengthening exercises to improve pain and physical function in this patient population. There is also a growing body of research examining the effects of psychologist-delivered pain coping skills training (PCST) particularly in other chronic pain conditions. Though typically provided separately, there are symptom, resource and personnel advantages of exercise and PCST being delivered together by a single healthcare professional. Physiotherapists are a logical choice to be trained to deliver a PCST intervention as they already have expertise in administering exercise for knee OA and are cognisant of the need for a biopsychosocial approach to management. No studies to date have examined the effects of an integrated exercise and PCST program delivered solely by physiotherapists in this population. The primary aim of this multisite randomised controlled trial is to investigate whether an integrated 12-week PCST and exercise treatment program delivered by physiotherapists is more efficacious than either program alone in treating pain and physical function in individuals with knee OA. Methods/design This will be an assessor-blinded, 3-arm randomised controlled trial of a 12-week intervention involving 10 physiotherapy visits together with home practice. Participants with symptomatic and radiographic knee OA will be recruited from the community in two cities in Australia and randomized into one of three groups: exercise alone, PCST alone, or integrated PCST and exercise. Randomisation will be stratified by city (Melbourne or Brisbane) and gender. Primary outcomes are overall average pain in the past week measured by a Visual Analogue Scale and physical function measured by the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index subscale. Secondary outcomes include global rating of change, muscle strength, functional performance, physical activity levels, health related quality of life and psychological factors. Measurements will be taken at baseline and immediately following the intervention (12 weeks) as well as at 32 weeks and 52 weeks to examine maintenance of any intervention effects. Specific assessment of adherence to the treatment program will also be made at weeks 22 and 42. Relative cost-effectiveness will be determined from health service usage and outcome data. Discussion The findings from this randomised controlled trial will provide evidence for the efficacy of an integrated PCST and exercise program delivered by physiotherapists in the management of painful and functionally limiting knee OA compared to either program alone. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry reference number: ACTRN12610000533099 PMID:22828288

  18. Children and adults both see 'pirates' in 'parties': letter-position effects for developing readers and skilled adult readers.

    PubMed

    Paterson, Kevin B; Read, Josephine; McGowan, Victoria A; Jordan, Timothy R

    2015-03-01

    Developing readers often make anagrammatical errors (e.g. misreading pirates as parties), suggesting they use letter position flexibly during word recognition. However, while it is widely assumed that the occurrence of these errors decreases with increases in reading skill, empirical evidence to support this distinction is lacking. Accordingly, we compared the performance of developing child readers (aged 8-10 years) against the end-state performance of skilled adult readers in a timed naming task, employing anagrams used previously in this area of research. Moreover, to explore the use of letter position by developing readers and skilled adult readers more fully, we used anagrams which, to form another word, required letter transpositions over only interior letter positions, or both interior and exterior letter positions. The patterns of effects across these two anagram types for the two groups of readers were very similar. In particular, both groups showed similarly slowed response times (and developing readers increased errors) for anagrams requiring only interior letter transpositions but not for anagrams that required exterior letter transpositions. This similarity in the naming performance of developing readers and skilled adult readers suggests that the end-state skilled use of letter position is established earlier during reading development than is widely assumed. PMID:25055930

  19. Coping Strategies in People Attempting Suicide

    PubMed Central

    Bazrafshan, Mohammad-Rafi; Jahangir, Fereidun; Mansouri, Amir; Kashfi, Seyyed Hannan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Having a set of effective coping skills can prevent suicidal behavior by increasing self-control and self-direction. This study examines coping styles used by suicidal patients. Objectives: The researchers in this study try to identify coping strategies used by suicide attempters admitted to Shiraz Shahid Faghihi Hospital emergency room. Materials and Methods: This is a analytical cross-sectional study. Participants consisted of 50 suicide-attempted people admitted to Shiraz Faghihi Hospital. Instruments for data collections were a demographic checklist and the coping styles scale of Carver, Schier and Wintrope. Data were collected conveniently and analyzed using descriptive and analytic (Pearson Correlation, Student’s t-tests, and ANOVA) statistical methods. Results: Suicide attempted people used less useful coping strategies (Mean = 49.32) more than the other strategies (respectively mean of problem focused and emotion focused strategies were 30.27 and 27.83). Using ANOVA, in different educational level, problem focused and less effective coping skills of samples differed significantly (P = 0.009, P = 0.006, respectively). People with low educational level used less effective coping skills. There was a significant difference between men and women scores in use of less effective coping skills (P = 0.029). Conclusions: Teaching effective coping skills by psychological consultants in suicide attempted people, especially for women and people with low educational level, is important PMID:24971300

  20. The effect of positive and negative verbal feedback on surgical skills performance and motivation.

    PubMed

    Kannappan, Aarthy; Yip, Dana T; Lodhia, Nayna A; Morton, John; Lau, James N

    2012-01-01

    There is considerable effort and time invested in providing feedback to medical students and residents during their time in training. However, little effort has been made to measure the effects of positive and negative verbal feedback on skills performance and motivation to learn and practice. To probe these questions, first-year medical students (n = 25) were recruited to perform a peg transfer task on Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery box trainers. Time to completion and number of errors were recorded. The students were then randomized to receive either positive or negative verbal feedback from an expert in the field of laparoscopic surgery. After this delivery of feedback, the students repeated the peg transfer task. Differences in performance pre- and post-feedback and also between the groups who received positive feedback (PF) vs negative feedback (NF) were analyzed. A survey was then completed by all the participants. Baseline task times were similar between groups (PF 209.3 seconds; NF 203 seconds, p = 0.58). The PF group averaged 1.83 first-time errors while the NF group 1 (p = 0.84). Post-feedback task times were significantly decreased for both groups (PF 159.75 seconds, p = 0.05; NF 132.08 seconds, p = 0.002). While the NF group demonstrated a greater improvement in mean time than the PF group, this was not statistically significant. Both groups also made fewer errors (PF 0.33 errors, p = 0.04; NF 0.38 errors, p = 0.23). When surveyed about their responses to standardized feedback scenarios, the students stated that both positive and negative verbal feedback could be potent stimulants for improved performance and motivation. Further research is required to better understand the effects of feedback on learner motivation and the interpersonal dynamic between mentors and their trainees. PMID:23111049

  1. The Influence of Personality Disorder Indication, Social Support, and Grief on Alcohol and Cocaine Use among HIV-Positive Adults Coping with AIDS-Related Bereavement

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Nathan B.; Cavanaugh, Courtenay E.; Vaughan, Ellen L.; Connell, Christian M.; Tate, David C.; Sikkema, Kathleen J.

    2013-01-01

    Substance use is prevalent among HIV-positive adults and linked to a number of adverse health consequences; however little is known about risk and protective factors that influence substance use among HIV-positive adults coping with AIDS-related bereavement. Using structural equation modeling (SEM), male gender, diagnostic indications of antisocial and borderline personality disorders (PD), and grief severity were tested as risk factors, and social support as a protective factor, for alcohol and cocaine use among a diverse sample of 268 HIV-positive adults enrolled in an intervention for AIDS-related bereavement. Results indicated that the hypothesized model fit the study data. Male gender, PD indication, and social support had direct effects on substance use. PD had significant indirect effects on both alcohol and cocaine use, mediated by social support, but not by grief. Finally, both PD and social support had significant, but opposite, effects on grief. Implications for intervention and prevention efforts are discussed. PMID:17846878

  2. Romantic Partners’ Individual Coping Strategies and Dyadic Coping: Implications for Relationship Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Papp, Lauren M.; Witt, Nicole L.

    2011-01-01

    Individual coping strategies and dyadic coping independently predict partner well-being and relationship functioning; however, it is unclear whether the coping processes are inter-related and whether they uniquely contribute to romantic relationship functioning. One hundred heterosexual dating couples rated the individual coping strategy of negative mood regulation as well as positive and negative dyadic coping. Relationship functioning was assessed via partners’ reports of relationship satisfaction and observers’ ratings of negative interaction in conflict. Actor-Partner Interdependence Models (APIMs; Cook & Kenny, 2005; Kashy & Kenny, 2000) revealed associations between individual coping and dyadic coping in the predicted directions. APIMs also indicated the unique contributions of positive and negative dyadic coping to relationship functioning, above and beyond contributions of individual coping strategies. Implications of dyadic coping as a target of efforts to prevent or treat partner and/or relational distress are discussed. PMID:20954765

  3. Coping Power. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2011

    2011-01-01

    "Coping Power" is based on the earlier "Anger Coping Power" program. It emphasizes social and emotional skills that are needed during the transition to middle school. The program incorporates child and parent components. The child component consists of thirty-four 50-minute group sessions and periodic individual sessions over the course of 15-18…

  4. Leadership and Coping Among Air Force Officers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gene M. Alarcon; Joseph B. Lyons; Bradley R. Schlessman; Alexander J. Barelka

    2012-01-01

    The current study explored the relationship between coping and leadership in a military sample. Data were collected from Air Force officers attending a 6-week professional military education course focusing on leadership development. Correlation analyses illustrate that leadership styles are associated with different styles of coping. Hierarchical regression further demonstrates that transformational leaders use more positive reinterpretation and problem-focused coping strategies

  5. Motivational Predictors of Coping With Academic Examination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julie Doron; Yannick Stephan; Christophe Maiano; Christine Le Scanff

    2011-01-01

    The present study focused on the motivational predictors of coping with academic examination through the test of the contribution of self-determination for academic studies and achievement goals. Coping strategies, academic motivation and achievement goals were assessed among 199 undergraduate students. Regression analysis revealed that problem-focused coping is positively predicted by identified regulation and negatively by amotivation, whereas emotion-focused coping is

  6. Primary and Secondary Control among Children Undergoing Medical Procedures: Adjustment as a Function of Coping Style.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisz, John R.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Obtained reports of coping and goals from 33 children being treated for leukemia. Coping strategies were classified as primary control coping (attempts to alter objective conditions), secondary control coping (attempts to adjust to objective conditions), or relinquished control (no attempt to cope). Secondary control coping was positively

  7. Positive Transfer and Negative Transfer/Antilearning of Problem-Solving Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osman, Magda

    2008-01-01

    In problem-solving research, insights into the relationship between monitoring and control in the transfer of complex skills remain impoverished. To address this, in 4 experiments, the authors had participants solve 2 complex control tasks that were identical in structure but that varied in presentation format. Participants learned to solve the…

  8. Does Being Friendly Help in Making Friends? The Relation between the Social Position and Social Skills of Pupils with Special Needs in Mainstream Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frostad, Per; Pijl, Sip Jan

    2007-01-01

    Pupils with special needs can have difficulties in building relationships with peers in inclusive education. An important condition for developing positive relationships with peers is having the age-group appropriate social skills. It seems likely that pupils with an insufficient set of social skills face a larger risk of being excluded. This…

  9. Coping With Pain: Studies in Stress Inoculation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horan, John J.; And Others

    The stress-inoculation paradigm for helping clients deal with pain consists of education about the psychological dimensions of pain, training in a number of coping skills relevant to each dimension, and practice in applying these skills to the noxious stimulus. Presented are two studies, the first of which represents a component analysis of stress…

  10. Interpersonal distances, coping strategies and psychopathology in patients with depression and schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Ponizovsky, Alexander M; Finkelstein, Irena; Poliakova, Inna; Mostovoy, Dimitry; Goldberger, Nehama; Rosca, Paula

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To explore (1) intergroup differences in comfortable interpersonal distances (CIDs) and the use of coping strategies; (2) the association of these parameters with individual symptomatology; and (3) the interplay between CIDs and coping styles in patients with depression and schizophrenia. METHODS: The parameters of interest were assessed by means of standardized questionnaires: CID and Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations. Psychopathology was evaluated with the Beck Depression Inventory and Positive and Negative Syndromes Scale. ANOVA, Pearson’s correlations and multiple regression analyses were used to examine relationships among the variables. RESULTS: Compared with controls, depressed patients were more distanced from family members, significant others and self-images, whereas patients with schizophrenia were less distanced from neutral and threat-related stimuli. Distancing from self-images was mostly associated with depression severity in depressed patients, whereas distancing from hostile and threat-related stimuli with the severity of psychotic and affective symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. Both patient groups used more emotion-oriented than task-oriented and avoidance-oriented coping strategies. Self-distancing among patients with schizophrenia was positively associated with the use of the social diversion coping, implying social support seeking. CONCLUSION: Patients with depression and schizophrenia use different maladaptive emotion - regulation strategies to cope with their symptoms and related distress. Training in stress management might provide these patients with skills for more effective emotion regulation. PMID:24255879

  11. Gender and Age Differences in How Children Cope with Daily Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morales Rodriguez, Francisco Manuel; Trianes Torres, Maria Victoria; Miranda Paez, Jesus

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The study of coping among students accounts for an interesting subject, as having coping skills guarantees a healthy lifestyle and quality of life. The present study aims to analyze the role played by age and gender on the coping strategies used by Andalusian school students to cope with situations of daily stress. These situations…

  12. Sex and Age Differences in Coping Styles Among Children with Chronic Pain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne M. Lynch; Susmita Kashikar-Zuck; Kenneth R. Goldschneider; Benjamin A. Jones

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine sex and age differences in coping strategies among pediatric patients with chronic pain. Sex differences are reported in the adult pain and coping literatures, but little attention has been given to possible distinctions in coping styles in the pediatric chronic pain population. Investigating pain coping skills at an early age may provide

  13. Creating Positive Environments in Skilled Nursing Facilities to Support Best Practice Implementation: An Overview and Practical Suggestions.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Natalie F; Hickey, Ellen

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss various types of organizational cultures and climates in relationship to best practice implementation. Although not specific to speech-language pathology, positive organizational cultures and climates are associated with better clinician and patient outcomes in health care services than dysfunctional and/or hierarchical organizational cultures and climates. A goal of this article is to help the practicing speech-language pathologist (SLP) promote positive culture change in the skilled nursing facility (SNF) setting. Recommendations to improve the organizational culture and climate of SNFs will be presented through practical examples of collaborative practice. Further suggestions will be surmised from the organizational psychology and interprofessional education literature. The connection between organizational culture and climate, interprofessional education, collaborative practice, and SLPs' best practice implementation in the SNF setting will be discussed. Avenues for future work are suggested. PMID:26190508

  14. A Matter of Interpretation: Developing Primary Pupils' Enquiry Skills Using Position-Linked Datalogging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Daniel John; Collier, Christopher; Howe, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Background: This article reports on an evaluation study of a project seeking to develop the use of position-linked datalogging with primary pupils in environmental science contexts. Purpose: The study sought to find out the extent to which the project had developed: (1) participant teachers' confidence in using datalogging as an everyday part of…

  15. Intervention for Positive Use of Leisure Time among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarnal, Careen; Qian, Xinyi; Hustad, John; Sims, Damon

    2013-01-01

    College student excessive alcohol use is a pressing public health concern, and many of the negative events associated with heavy drinking occur during leisure or free time. Positive use of leisure can lead to coping skills, stress reduction, and healthy development. Negative use of leisure, including heavy alcohol use, is associated with physical…

  16. Religious Coping and Psychological and Behavioral Adjustment After Hurricane Katrina.

    PubMed

    Henslee, Amber M; Coffey, Scott F; Schumacher, Julie A; Tracy, Melissa; H Norris, Fran; Galea, Sandro

    2015-09-01

    Positive and negative religious coping are related to positive and negative psychological adjustment, respectively. The current study examined the relation between religious coping and PTSD, major depression, quality of life, and substance use among residents residing in Mississippi at the time of Hurricane Katrina. Results indicated that negative religious coping was positively associated with major depression and poorer quality of life and positive religious coping was negatively associated with PTSD, depression, poorer quality of life, and increased alcohol use. These results suggest that mental health providers should be mindful of the role of religious coping after traumatic events such as natural disasters. PMID:25275223

  17. Response to the DIAC Discussion Paper: "Review of the General Skilled Migration Points Test". Go8 Position Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Group of Eight (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    The Group of Eight (Go8) applauds the government's intention to comprehensively reform the skilled migration program, and it welcomes the opportunity to submit this response to the General Skilled Migration (GSM) Points Test Discussion Paper. The Go8 has argued for some time that it is inappropriate to link international education to the skilled

  18. Acculturation strategies, coping process and acculturative stress.

    PubMed

    Kosic, Ankica

    2004-09-01

    Using structural equation modeling, this study examines the influences of motivational factors (Need for Cognitive Closure--NCC--and Decisiveness), coping strategies and acculturation strategies on levels of acculturative stress. Two groups of immigrants in Rome (Croatians n= 156 and Poles n= 179) completed a questionnaire that included scales for the various factors. Although our initial hypothesized model was not confirmed, a modified model showed that the motivational factors of NCC and Decisiveness indirectly influence acculturative stress. The modified model with good fit indices indicated that the relationship between NCC and Decisiveness are mediated by coping strategies and acculturation strategies. Specifically, NCC is associated positively with avoidance coping, which in turn is negatively associated with the host group relationships and positively with the original culture maintenance. The last two dimensions predicted lower levels of acculturative stress. Decisiveness was positively associated with the problem-oriented coping and, negatively, with emotional and avoidance coping. PMID:15281915

  19. Adolescents' Attachment and Coping with Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Michelle S.; Medway, Frederic J.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined how high school students cope with stress as a function of their attachment style. Data were gathered from 75 adolescent-parent pairs in Texas and included measures of attachment, coping style, life stress, and whom the respondent would turn to in times of stress. Adolescents' attachment security was positively related to…

  20. Stress Coping Mechanisms in Elderly Adults: An Initial Study of Recreational and Other Coping Behaviors in Nursing Home Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, I. Roy; Gillen, Mark C.

    2009-01-01

    Residents (N = 32) of 3 skilled nursing homes participated in a study designed to document the nature of the stressors they experienced and the coping mechanisms they used. Medical issues were the most common stressors. The most common coping responses were prayer, reading, watching television, listening to music, and talking to friends and…

  1. Street Youth: Coping and Interventions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sean A. Kidd

    2003-01-01

    A literature review of research into interventions among street youth is presented along with the results of a qualitative analysis of interviews with 80 street youth on the topic of coping. Themes arising from the qualitative analysis include street youths' negative and positive experiences with social support; and attitudes and beliefs such as self-worth, decreased reactivity to other's opinions, hope

  2. Improving the Confidence of Pre-Adolescent Girls by Focusing on the Development of Positive Self-Esteem, Body Image, and Assertiveness Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Combes, Alice S.

    This practicum was designed to focus on: (1) the improvement of the confidence of pre-adolescent girls; (2) the establishment of a positive body image; and (3) the strengthening of assertiveness skills. The writer worked in a group of 20 girls over a period of 8 months using exercises designed to facilitate their growth. A curriculum was developed…

  3. Internet addiction: coping styles, expectancies, and treatment implications

    PubMed Central

    Brand, Matthias; Laier, Christian; Young, Kimberly S.

    2014-01-01

    Internet addiction (IA) has become a serious mental health condition in many countries. To better understand the clinical implications of IA, this study tested statistically a new theoretical model illustrating underlying cognitive mechanisms contributing to development and maintenance of the disorder. The model differentiates between a generalized Internet addiction (GIA) and specific forms. This study tested the model on GIA on a population of general Internet users. The findings from 1019 users show that the hypothesized structural equation model explained 63.5% of the variance of GIA symptoms, as measured by the short version of the Internet Addiction Test. Using psychological and personality testing, the results show that a person’s specific cognitions (poor coping and cognitive expectations) increased the risk for GIA. These two factors mediated the symptoms of GIA if other risk factors were present such as depression, social anxiety, low self-esteem, low self-efficacy, and high stress vulnerability to name a few areas that were measured in the study. The model shows that individuals with high coping skills and no expectancies that the Internet can be used to increase positive or reduce negative mood are less likely to engage in problematic Internet use, even when other personality or psychological vulnerabilities are present. The implications for treatment include a clear cognitive component to the development of GIA and the need to assess a patient’s coping style and cognitions and improve faulty thinking to reduce symptoms and engage in recovery. PMID:25426088

  4. Family Functionality and Coping Attitudes of Patients with Bipolar Disorder.

    PubMed

    Ēuhadar, Döndü; Sava?, Haluk Asuman; Ünal, Ahmet; Gökp?nar, Fatma

    2015-10-01

    The coping of patients with prodromal syndromes prevents relapses, and the differences in coping strategies affect the results of bipolar disorder. The various functionality levels of bipolar disorder patients such as work, marital relations, parental abilities and social presentation are significantly related with how well they cope. The objective of this study was to determine the family functionality and coping attitudes of bipolar disorder patients. The study planned as a descriptive one was carried with 81 bipolar disorder patients. Personal description form, family assessment device and Coping Attitudes Scale were used as data acquisition tools. It was determined that the adaptive coping attitudes used most frequently by the patients were religious coping, positive reinterpretation, active coping, problem-focused coping and emotional focused coping, beneficial social support use, emotional social support use, planning, suppression of competing activities and restraint coping; maladaptive coping attitudes used most frequently by the patients were "focusing on the problem and venting of emotions and mental disengagement." It was determined that family functions affected the coping attitudes of patients and that the patients who evaluated family functions in a healthy manner made use of adaptive coping strategies more at a statistically significant level. PMID:25086849

  5. Foresight Group Roundtable: Fresh Thinking for Learning and Skills. Centre for Innovation in Learning--Positioning Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Learning and Skills Network (NJ3), 2010

    2010-01-01

    Creating a fertile space for debate and ideas in order to drive innovation in learning and skills is integral to LSN's (Learning and Skills Network's) mission. To achieve this LSN has pioneered a new approach to making learning work from classroom to boardroom--and created the Centre for Innovation in Learning. This new, independent think tank…

  6. Introduction Coping with Your

    E-print Network

    Weaver, Harold A. "Hal"

    Welcome Introduction Coping with Your Emotions Job Search Process Self- Assessment Search, self-assessment, job search strategies, resume writing, job search correspondence, effective. How to Use This Guide #12;Welcome Introduction Coping with Your Emotions Job Search Process Self

  7. Coping and Self-Efficacy in Marijuana Treatment: Results from the Marijuana Treatment Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litt, Mark D.; Kadden, Ronald M.; Stephens, Robert S.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined whether a coping-skills-based treatment for marijuana dependence operated by encouraging the use of coping skills or via other mechanisms. Participants were 450 men and women treated in the multisite Marijuana Treatment Project who were randomly assigned to motivational enhancement therapy plus cognitive-behavioral (MET-CB)…

  8. Coping with Cancer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manuel, Gerdenio M.; And Others

    Since the incidence of cancer in this country is high and the cancer survival rates are increasing, it is important to study coping strategies in cancer patients. As survival time lengthens, coping strategies that might affect the quality of a patient's life become increasingly important. A study was conducted to examine coping strategies in newly…

  9. The Relationship of Coping, Self-Worth, and Subjective Well-Being: A Structural Equation Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smedema, Susan Miller; Catalano, Denise; Ebener, Deborah J.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between various coping-related variables and the evaluation of self-worth and subjective well-being among persons with spinal cord injury. Positive coping variables included hope, proactive coping style, and sense of humor, whereas negative coping variables included perceptions of stress,…

  10. Coping with Racism: What Works and Doesn't Work for Black Women?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Lindsey M.; Donovan, Roxanne A.; Roemer, Lizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Perceived racial discrimination (PRD) has deleterious effects on Black Americans. However, there is minimal empirical research on the influence of gender and coping on the relationship between PRD and mental health. This study posited that coping style (i.e., problem-focused coping and avoidant coping) would moderate the relationship between PRD…

  11. Pre-competitive confidence, coping, and subjective performance in sport.

    PubMed

    Levy, A R; Nicholls, A R; Polman, R C J

    2011-10-01

    The primary aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between confidence and subjective performance in addition to exploring whether coping mediated this relationship. A sample of 414 athletes completed a measure of confidence before performance. Athletes also completed a measure of coping and subjective performance after competing. Correlational findings revealed that confidence was positively and significantly associated with subjective performance. Furthermore, mediational analysis found that coping partly mediated this relationship. In particular, task-oriented coping (i.e., mental imagery) and disengagement-oriented coping (i.e., resignation) had positive and negative mediational effects, respectively. Additionally, athletes who employed mental imagery generally coped more effectively than those using resignation. These findings imply mental imagery has the potential not only to improve confidence, but also subsequent performance, while resignation coping may have the opposite effect. Overall, these results lend some credence to Vealey's integrated sports confidence model. PMID:20459476

  12. Multidimensional Approach Toward Spiritual Coping: Construction and Validation of the Spiritual Coping Questionnaire (SCQ).

    PubMed

    Charzy?ska, Edyta

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the research was to construct the Spiritual Coping Questionnaire (SCQ). Two studies have been carried out: the first on the sample of 1,296 persons facing stressful situations, and the second, on 352 persons undergoing alcohol addiction therapy. The first study provided data for PCA and CFA, calculation of internal consistency, test-retest reliability and descriptive statistics of the questionnaire. The second study allowed the author to verify the construct and criterion validity of the tool. The final version of the SCQ is composed of 32 items constituting two scales: positive and negative spiritual coping. The scale of positive spiritual coping includes four subscales-domains (personal, social, environmental and religious), and the scale of negative spiritual coping, three subscales (personal, social and religious). The validity and reliability of the tool are satisfactory. The questionnaire can be used to measure spiritual coping, both among religious and non-religious people. PMID:24898542

  13. Daily Coping Practice Predicts Treatment Effects in Children With Sickle Cell Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karen M. Gil; Kelly K. Anthony; James W. Carson; Rupa Redding-Lallinger; Charles W. Daeschner; Russell E. Ware

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To examine the 1-month effects of a pain coping skills intervention in children with sickle cell disease (SCD). Methods: Forty-six African American children (8-17 years old) were randomly assigned to either a coping skills condition or a standard care control condition. Children were asked to practice daily with audiotaped instructions of skills (e.g., relaxation, imagery). Results: Multivariate analyses of

  14. Re-Positioning Australia's International Education in Global Knowledge Economies: Implications of Shifts in Skilled Migration Policies for Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gribble, Cate; Blackmore, Jill

    2012-01-01

    In recent times, many key host nations have made it easier for foreign graduates to migrate after graduation. These students are often considered ideal migrants, possessing local qualifications along with a degree of acculturation, language skills and, in many cases, relevant local work experience. For the student, the opportunity to obtain…

  15. Perceived parenting styles, depersonalisation, anxiety and coping behaviour in adolescents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Uwe Wolfradt; Susanne Hempel; Jeremy N. V. Miles

    2003-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between perceived parenting styles, depersonalisation, anxiety and coping behaviour in a normal high school student sample (N=276). It was found that perceived parental psychological pressure correlated positively with depersonalisation and trait anxiety among the adolescents. Perceived parental warmth was positively associated with active coping and negatively correlated with trait anxiety in the adolescents. A

  16. The Regulating Role of Negative Emotions in Children’s Coping with Peer Rejection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kimberly L. Goodman; Michael A. Southam-Gerow

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the role of emotions as predictors of children’s coping responses to peer rejection experiences. Children\\u000a ages 7–12 (N = 79) completed questionnaires to assess emotional and coping responses to peer rejection scenarios. This study examined\\u000a three coping factors specific to peer rejection (positive reappraisal, ruminative coping, and aggressive coping) and examined\\u000a results separately for two negative peer experiences (teasing

  17. Transitions: Preparing Families of Preschoolers for "Marathon Skills".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deitz, Sally J.; Warkala, Catherine Sonen

    1993-01-01

    Skills that families gain in coping with transitions at the early ages of their child with visual impairments provide skills necessary for all the life-stage transitions that follow and, thus, are termed marathon skills. The transition programing of the Lighthouse Child Development Center in New York City is designed to develop those skills. (JDD)

  18. Maternal expectancy versus objective measures of child skill: evidence for absence of positive bias in mothers' expectations of children with internalizing disorders.

    PubMed

    Udy, Catherine M; Newall, Carol; Broeren, Suzanne; Hudson, Jennifer L

    2014-01-01

    Parents of anxious children are thought to be more attuned to threat, which might translate into less positive bias in parental report of child coping and ability, unlike parents of non-anxious children. Maternal expectancy bias was examined in a sample of 43 clinically anxious (51 % female), 30 clinically anxious/depressed (50 % female), and 44 non-clinical control children (46 % female), 8-14 years of age. When compared to an objective observer's ratings of the children, mothers of non-clinical children demonstrated a positive bias (i.e., over-rated their children's performance) for both ratings of expected speech performance in absolute terms and relative to peers. Mothers in the clinical groups did not exhibit this positive expectancy bias. Moreover, mothers of clinical children reported lower expectations in absolute terms and relative to peers than mothers of non-clinical children. The data suggest that mothers of clinical children held accurate expectations for child performance when compared to the gold standard of an objective observer. PMID:23982434

  19. An Ecological Momentary Assessment Analysis of Relations among Coping, Affect, and Smoking During a Quit Attempt

    PubMed Central

    Minami, Haruka; McCarthy, Danielle E.; Jorenby, Douglas E.; Baker, Timothy B.

    2010-01-01

    Aims This study used Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) data from smokers trying to quit to assess relations among coping, positive affect, negative affect, and smoking. The effects of stress coping on affect and smoking were examined. Design Data from a randomized clinical trial of smoking cessation treatments were submitted to multilevel modeling to test the effects of coping with stressful events on subsequent affect and smoking. Participants 372 adult, daily smokers who reported at least one stressful event and coping episode and provided post-quit data. Measurements Participants’ smoking, coping, and affect were assessed in near real time with multiple EMA reports using electronic diaries pre-and post-quit. Findings Multilevel models indicated that a single coping episode did not predict a change in smoking risk over the next 4 or 48 hours, but coping in men was associated with concurrent reports of increased smoking. Coping predicted improved positive and negative affect reported within 4 hours of coping, but these affective gains did not predict reduced likelihood of later smoking. Pre-quit coping frequency and gender moderated post-quit stress coping relations with later positive affect. Men and those with greater pre-quit coping frequency reported greater gains in positive affect following post-quit coping. Conclusions Coping responses early in a quit attempt may help smokers trying to quit feel better but may not help them stay smoke-free. PMID:21182550

  20. Coping during pregnancy: a systematic review and recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Guardino, Christine M.; Schetter, Christine Dunkel

    2013-01-01

    Extensive evidence documents that prenatal maternal stress predicts a variety of adverse physical and psychological health outcomes for the mother and baby. However, the importance of the ways that women cope with stress during pregnancy is less clear. We conducted a systematic review of the English-language literature on coping behaviors and coping styles in pregnancy using PsycInfo and PubMed to identify 45 cross-sectional and longitudinal studies involving 16,060 participants published between January 1990 and June 2012. Although results were often inconsistent across studies, the literature provides some evidence that avoidant coping behaviors or styles and poor coping skills in general are associated with postpartum depression, preterm birth, and infant development. Variability in study methods including differences in sample characteristics, timing of assessments, outcome variables, and measures of coping styles or behaviors may explain the lack of consistent associations. In order to advance the scientific study of coping in pregnancy, we call attention to the need for a priori hypotheses and greater use of pregnancy-specific, daily process, and skills-based approaches. There is promise in continuing this area of research, particularly in the possible translation of consistent findings to effective interventions, but only if the conceptual basis and methodological quality of research improve. PMID:24489596

  1. Coping Self-Talk and Cognitive Interference in Anxious Children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pier J. M. Prins; Gerrit J. F. P. Hanewald

    1999-01-01

    The present study addressed the as-yet-unresolved issue of whether coping self-talk facilitates or interferes with effective task performance. Tests of the relationship between coping cognition and task performance are reported when potentially confounding relationships of negative cognition and task performance are controlled. The results indicate that coping self-talk of high-anxious children was positively correlated with negative thoughts but did not

  2. The Nature of Coping in Treatment for Marijuana Dependence: Latent Structure and Validation of the Coping Strategies Scale

    PubMed Central

    Litt, Mark D.; Kadden, Ronald M; Tennen, Howard

    2012-01-01

    The Coping Strategies Scale (CSS) was designed to assess adaptive changes in substance-use specific coping that result from treatment. The present study sought to examine the latent structure of the CSS in the hope that it might shed light on the coping processes of drug users, and guide the development of a brief version of the CSS. Respondents on the CSS were 751 men and women treated in three clinical trials for marijuana dependence. Posttreatment CSS data were analyzed to determine the nature of coping responses in patients who have been trained to use specific strategies to deal with substance use disorders. Exploratory factor analysis yielded two factors, categorized as problem-focused and emotion-focused coping, but confirmatory factor analysis did not support this structure. When infrequently endorsed items were removed, however, confirmatory factor analysis revealed a good fit to the data. Contrary to expectations, practical strategies that often form the basis for coping skills training, such as avoiding those who smoke, were not frequently endorsed. Problem focused items reflected cognitive commitments to change. Emotion-focused items included cognitive reinterpretations of emotions, to help manage emotional reactions. Brief versions of the CSS based on these factors showed good convergent and discriminant validity. The CSS, and the brief versions of the CSS, may prove useful in future treatment trials to evaluate effects of treatment on coping skills acquisition and utilization in substance dependent individuals. PMID:22082345

  3. Factor structure of the happiness-increasing strategies scales (H-ISS): activities and coping strategies in relation to positive and negative affect

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background. Previous research (Tkach & Lyubomirsky, 2006) shows that there are eight general happiness-increasing strategies: social affiliation, partying, mental control, goal pursuit, passive leisure, active leisure, religion, and direct attempts. The present study investigates the factor structure of the happiness-increasing strategies scales (H-ISS) and their relationship to positive and negative affect. Method. The present study used participants’ (N = 1,050 and age mean = 34.21 sd = 12.73) responses to the H-ISS in structural equation modeling analyses. Affect was measured using the Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule. Results. After small modifications we obtained a good model that contains the original eight factors/scales. Moreover, we found that women tend to use social affiliation, mental control, passive leisure, religion, and direct attempts more than men, while men preferred to engage in partying and clubbing more than women. The H-ISS explained significantly the variance of positive affect (R2 = .41) and the variance of negative affect (R2 = .27). Conclusions. Our study is an addition to previous research showing that the factor structure of the happiness-increasing strategies is valid and reliable. However, due to the model fitting issues that arise in the present study, we give some suggestions for improving the instrument. PMID:26157626

  4. Interrelatedness of Proactive Coping, Reactive Coping, and Learned Resourcefulness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moring, John; Fuhrman, Robert; Zauszniewski, Jaclene A.

    2011-01-01

    Research has identified that coping strategies used by individuals depend on temporal locations of stressors. Dispositional attributes are also identified as predictors of coping. The current study identified commonalities of proactive coping, reactive coping, and learned resourcefulness measures. The analysis yielded three factors reflective of…

  5. Differential Associations of Dispositional Optimism and Pessimism With Coping, Goal Attainment, and Emotional Adjustment During Sport Competition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick Gaudreau; Jean-Pierre Blondin

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the associations of dispositional optimism and pessimism with athletes' coping, goal attainment, and affective states during a sport competition. Results of path analyses showed that dispositional optimism and pessimism correlated differently with coping and affective variables. Mediating analyses indicated that task-oriented coping partially mediated the relationship of optimism with postcompetition positive affective state, whereas disengagement-oriented coping fully

  6. The Difficulty of Maintaining Positive Intervention Effects: A Look at Disruptive Behavior, Deviant Peer Relations, and Social Skills During the Middle School Years

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of the Fast Track preventive intervention on youths’ functioning in three domains: disruptive behavior problems, involvement with deviant peers, and social skills during the middle school years. Eight hundred ninety-one children had been randomly assigned by sets of schools within four sites to intervention (n = 445) or to control (n = 446) conditions. In contrast to prior findings of the effectiveness of the Fast Track intervention during the elementary school years, the current findings indicate that Fast Track had little overall impact on children’s functioning in these domains during this age period. There were positive intervention effects on only 2 of 17 outcomes examined. Although the intervention had positive impact on children’s hyperactive and self-reported delinquent behaviors in seventh grade, there were no intervention effects on other externalizing behavior problems or on social skills, and there was a negative intervention effect on children’s involvement with deviant peers during this age period. PMID:24319308

  7. Caregivers--Who Copes How?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chappell, Neena L.; Dujela, Carren

    2009-01-01

    Within gerontological caregiving research, there is a major emphasis on stresses and burdens of this role. Yet there has been little attention directed toward the coping strategies that caregivers engage in to cope with this role and the factors that influence their adoption of different coping strategies. This article examines coping strategies…

  8. Coping with the Unthinkable.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholzman, Steven C.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder in students. Suggests ways that teachers can help students cope with catastrophic events such as the September 11 terrorist attack on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon. (PKP)

  9. Coping with the Crunch.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturgeon, Julie

    2000-01-01

    Examines housing strategies several college facilities managers used to cope with the problem of overcrowded residence halls. Also highlighted are tips to help facilities managers determine if their solution is to build additional housing. (GR)

  10. Coping with a threatened group identity: Psychosocial and neuroendocrine responses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kimberly Matheson; Barbara M. Cole

    2004-01-01

    Given the stress associated with belonging to a socially devalued group, members' reactions to a threat were evaluated within a stress and coping framework. Participants (N=72) were presented with an explicit or nonexplicit (positive vs. neutral cues) threat to a devalued identity. Regressions indicated that problem-focused coping was related to appraising the identity threat as controllable, and with a greater

  11. Ruminative coping as avoidance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Margaret Stroebe; Paul A. Boelen; Marcel van den Hout; Wolfgang Stroebe; Elske Salemink; Jan van den Bout

    2007-01-01

    The paper argues for a reconceptualization of ruminative coping with the death of a loved one as an avoidant rather than a\\u000a confrontational strategy. Ruminative coping has been characterized within the bereavement field as persistent, repetitive\\u000a and passive focus on negative emotions and symptoms. It has been theoretically described and empirically shown to be a maladaptive\\u000a process, being conceptually related

  12. Stress, Coping and Burnout in Mental Health Nurses: Findings From Three Research Studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leonard Fagin; Jerome Carson; John Leary; Nicolette De Villiers; Heather Bartlett; Patty OMalley; Maria West; Stephen Mcelfatrick; Daniel Brown

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we present data from three research studies on stress, coping and burnout in mental health nurses. All three studies used a range of self report questionnaires. Measures included a demographic checklist, the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28), the Maslach Burnout Inventory, the DCL Stress Scale and the Cooper Coping Skills Scale. In all, 648 ward based mental health

  13. Coping Strategies Title I Teachers Use to Manage Burnout and Stress: A Multisite Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeter, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Teacher burnout contributes to poor psychological and physical health, absenteeism, early retirement, and leads to inadequate teacher performance with adverse outcomes in student learning and achievement. Effective coping skills have been proposed as possible protectors from the effects of burnout; therefore, examining teachers' coping

  14. Learning Styles and Their Relationship to Stress and Coping in College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughn, L. M.; Hensley, B.; Baker, R. C.; Dearman, L.

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined the relationship between specific learning styles and stress and coping in a sample of female college students (N = 246). Participants in the study were assessed on the three variables by completing several self-report instruments measuring learning styles, life stress level, and coping skills. There were significant…

  15. A Group-learning Approach to Academic and Transferable Skills through an Exercise in the Global Positioning System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Giles H.

    1999-01-01

    Describes a project based on the Global Positioning System (GPS) that offers students a chance to design and implement a mini-research program to prepare them for an undergraduate research project. Discusses the context of the GPS exercise, teaching and learning outcomes, and advantages and evaluation of the exercise. (CMK)

  16. Youth Development Program Participation and Intentional Self-Regulation Skills: Contextual and Individual Bases of Pathways to Positive Youth Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Megan Kiely; Phelps, Erin; Bowers, Edmond P.; Agans, Jennifer P.; Urban, Jennifer Brown; Lerner, Richard M.

    2011-01-01

    The present research used data from Grades 8, 9, and 10 of the 4-H Study of Positive Youth Development, a longitudinal study involving U.S. adolescents, in order to better elucidate the process through which the strengths of youth and the ecological resources promoting healthy development (such as out-of-school-time programs) may contribute to…

  17. Attributions and Coping Styles in Reducing Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelley, Danielle; Craig, Wendy M.

    2010-01-01

    To examine the role of attributions and coping on children's victimization over time, 220 children completed questionnaires twice over a 6-month period. Direct and mediational models were tested using regressions, cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Characterological self-blame was positively related to victimization within and across time for…

  18. Learning Leadership Skills in a Simulated Business Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siewiorek, Anna; Saarinen, Eeli; Lainema, Timo; Lehtinen, Erno

    2012-01-01

    In today's unstable market economy, individuals have to be skilled to work efficiently in constantly changing and complex situations. Thus, graduate students have to be trained to cope with unpredictable situations before they enter the workforce. They need to exercise occupational skills, such as leadership skills, during higher education.…

  19. Passion and coping: relationships with changes in burnout and goal attainment in collegiate volleyball players.

    PubMed

    Schellenberg, Benjamin J I; Gaudreau, Patrick; Crocker, Peter R E

    2013-06-01

    This study examined the relationship between harmonious and obsessive passion and coping, and assessed whether coping mediated the relationship between passion types and changes in burnout and goal attainment. College- and university-level volleyball players (N = 421) completed measures of passion, coping, burnout, and goal attainment at the start and end of a season. Results of structural equation modeling, using a true latent change approach, supported a model whereby types of passion were indirectly related to changes in burnout and goal attainment via coping. Harmonious passion was positively related to task-oriented coping which, in turn, was positively associated with change in goal attainment. Obsessive passion was positively associated with disengagement-oriented coping which, in turn, was positively and negatively associated with changes in burnout and goal attainment, respectively. This study identifies coping as a reason why passionate athletes may experience changes in burnout and goal attainment over the course of a season. PMID:23798590

  20. Coping Strategy Use, Personality, and Adjustment of Parents Rearing Children with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glidden, L. M.; Natcher, A. L.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Parents rearing children with developmental disabilities encounter stressors that require coping and adaptation. In Glidden et al. 2006, the use of problem-focused coping strategies was more often associated with positive adjustment outcomes than was the use of emotion-focused coping strategies, and parental personality was shown to…

  1. Spirituality and Well-Being: The Relationship between Religious Coping and Recovery from Sexual Assault

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahrens, Courtney E.; Abeling, Samantha; Ahmad, Sarah; Hinman, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    Despite a growing body of literature documenting beneficial outcomes of religious coping, there are virtually no studies examining sexual assault survivors' use of religious coping. To fill this gap in the literature, the current study examines predictors and outcomes of positive and negative religious coping among 100 sexual assault survivors who…

  2. A cross-sectional study of stressors and coping mechanisms used by radiation therapists and oncology nurses: Resilience in Cancer Care Study

    PubMed Central

    Poulsen, Michael G; Poulsen, Anne A; Baumann, Kathryn C; McQuitty, Simon; Sharpley, Christopher F

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Occupational stress and burnout are well-recognised experiences reported by cancer care workers. The aim was to describe the frequency and severity of potential stressors as well as the effectiveness of coping skills of radiation therapists (RTs) and oncology nurses (ONs), which make up the two largest occupational groups in cancer care. Methods A questionnaire was distributed to RTs and ONs in two large tertiary hospitals in Queensland. Descriptive data regarding severity of potential stressors at home and work as well as the perceived effectiveness of preferred coping styles for each stressor was compared for each professional group. Respondents were asked questions about their personal circumstances and to also complete five standardised questionnaires measuring resilience, mental well-being, depression, anxiety and burnout. Results There were 71 respondents representing a response rate of 26%. The types of stressors differed between the two groups but both reported that heavy workload was the most severe workplace stressor. RTs reported higher stressor and coping strategy frequency than ONs. There were no identifiable differences between RTs and ONs in the types or effectiveness of coping strategies employed at home or work. Mental well-being for both groups was inversely correlated with depression, anxiety and burnout and positively correlated with resilience. Conclusions RTs experienced higher mean scores for stressors and coping than ONs. There were no significant between-group differences for anxiety, depression, burnout, mental well-being or resilience. PMID:25598975

  3. Loneliness at adolescence: Correlates, attributions, and coping.

    PubMed

    Moore, D; Schultz, N R

    1983-04-01

    The present study provides much needed empirical data on the adolescent loneliness experience. One hundred adolescents were given measures of loneliness, loneliness attributions, coping styles, and personal characteristics. Loneliness was positively related to state and trait anxiety, an external locus of control, depression, self-consciousness, and social anxiety and negatively related to self-reported attractiveness, likability, happiness, and life satisfaction. Lonely adolescents were also less willing to take social risks. Adolescents most often attributed loneliness to boredom and most often coped with loneliness by watching TV or listening to music. The implications of these findings for adolescent social development are discussed. PMID:24306225

  4. Coping strategies and immune neglect in affective forecasting: Direct evidence and key moderators

    PubMed Central

    Hoerger, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Affective forecasting skills have important implications for decision making. However, recent research suggests that immune neglect – the tendency to overlook coping strategies that reduce future distress – may lead to affective forecasting problems. Prior evidence for immune neglect has been indirect. More direct evidence and a deeper understanding of immune neglect are vital to informing the design of future decision-support interventions. In the current study, young adults (N = 325) supplied predicted, actual, and recollected reactions to an emotionally-evocative interpersonal event, Valentine’s Day. Based on participants’ qualitative descriptions of the holiday, a team of raters reliably coded the effectiveness of their coping strategies. Supporting the immune neglect hypothesis, participants overlooked the powerful role of coping strategies when predicting their emotional reactions. Immune neglect was present not only for those experiencing the holiday negatively (non-daters) but also for those experiencing it positively (daters), suggesting that the bias may be more robust than originally theorized. Immune neglect was greater for immediate emotional reactions than more enduring reactions. Further, immune neglect was conspicuously absent from recollected emotional reactions. Implications for decision-support interventions are discussed. PMID:22375161

  5. Impact of subject related factors and position of flight control stick on acquisition of simulated flying skills using a flight simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Bo-Keun

    Increasing demand on aviation industry calls for more pilots. Thus, pilot training systems and pilot-candidate screening systems are essential for civil and military flying training institutes. Before actual flight training, it is not easy to determine whether a flight trainee will be successful in the training. Due to the high cost of actual flight training, it would be better if there were low cost methods for screening and training candidates prior to the actual flight training. This study intended to determine if subject related factors and flight control stick position have an impact on acquisition of simulated flying skills using a PC-based flight simulator. The experimental model was a factorial design with repeated measures. Sixty-four subjects participated in the experiment and were divided into 8 groups. Experiment consisted of 8 sessions in which performance data, such as heading, altitude and airspeed were collected every 15 seconds. Collected data were analyzed using SAS statistical program. Result of multivariate analysis of variance indicated that the three independent variables: nationality, computer game experience, and flight stick position have significant impact on acquiring simulated flying skill. For nationality, Americans recorded higher scores in general (mean: 81.7) than Koreans (mean: 78.9). The difference in mean scores between Americans and Koreans was 2.8 percent. Regarding computer game experience, the difference between high experience group (82.3) and low experience group (78.3) is significant. For high experience group, American side-stick group recorded the highest (mean: 85.6), and Korean side-stick group (mean: 77.2) scored the lowest. For the low experience group, American center-stick group scored the highest (80.6), and the Korean side-stick group (74.2) scored the lowest points. Therefore, there is a significant difference between high experience group and low experience group. The results also reveal that the center-stick position is easier to learn than side-stick position. The difference in performance score between group of center-stick (mean: 82.1) and side-stick (mean: 76.8) is considerable.

  6. Map Skills

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Ali

    2010-02-23

    Map Skill Activities Map Skills Follow the directions below and write your answers on the worksheet provided. 1. Continents Quiz: Continents Quiz 2. Latitude/Longitude Reviews latitude and longitude quiz latitude/longitude map game lat/long multiple choice quiz 3. Map Scale Map Scale Activity 4.Map Skills map skills game map skills quiz ...

  7. Coping with Schizophrenia: Measuring Coping Styles, Patterns and Temporal Types

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael S. Ritsner; Paul H. Lysaker

    \\u000a How persons prefer to cope with stressful life events play an important role in one’s ability to adapt to stressful life conditions\\u000a such as schizophrenia. Cross-sectional studies have shown that schizophrenia patients utilize several different (task-, emotion-\\u000a and avoidance-oriented) coping strategies, both favorable and unfavorable, to cope with their disorder. Coping resources then\\u000a come to play an important role in

  8. Sex differences in coping strategies in military survival school.

    PubMed

    Schmied, Emily A; Padilla, Genieleah A; Thomsen, Cynthia J; Lauby, Melissa D Hiller; Harris, Erica; Taylor, Marcus K

    2015-01-01

    A wealth of research has examined psychological responses to trauma among male military service members, but few studies have examined sex differences in response to trauma, such as coping strategies. This study assessed coping strategies used by male and female U.S. service members completing an intensely stressful mock-captivity exercise, compared strategies by sex, and assessed the relationship between coping and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS). Two hundred service members (78% male) completed self-report surveys before and after mock captivity. Surveys assessed demographics, service characteristics, PTSS, and coping strategies used during mock captivity. Participants used seven coping strategies: denial, self-blame, religion, self-distraction, behavioral disengagement, positive reframing, and planning. Women used denial (p?.05), self-blame (p?.05), and positive reinterpretation (p?.05) strategies more frequently than men, and they had higher PTSS levels following the exercise. Structural equation modeling showed that the relationship between sex and PTSS was fully mediated by coping strategies. The results of this study suggest that reducing the use of maladaptive coping strategies may mitigate PTSS among females. Future efforts should target improving coping during highly stressful and traumatic experiences. PMID:25465883

  9. Coping and mood during aids-related caregiving and bereavement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Judith Tedlie Moskowitz; Susan Folkman; Linda Collette; Eric Vittinghoff

    1996-01-01

    This prospective study of a cohort of human immunodeficiency virus positive (HIV+) and HIV negative (HIV-) caregiving partners\\u000a of men with AIDS examined the contextual effects of caregiving and bereavement on coping and the association between coping\\u000a and positive and negative mood during the five months leading up to their partner's death and the five months following their\\u000a partner's death.

  10. Having Trouble Coping?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Trouble Coping? After a traumatic event, problems may come and go. It’s important to know when to ask for help. Please call us if you or someone you know is experiencing any of the following problems, especially if a problem is making it hard to get through the day or is getting worse. Call ...

  11. Coping with loneliness in childhood

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elias Besevegis; Evangelia P. Galanaki

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine coping with loneliness during early, middle, and late childhood, which is a highly neglected research issue. Children's perceptions of coping with loneliness and coping with real loneliness experiences in the past were investigated. Interviews were conducted with 180 second, fourth, and sixth graders from Athens, Greece. Qualitative analyses of children's responses were

  12. Perfectionsism, Coping, and Emotional Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Kenneth G.; Lapsley, Daniel K.

    2001-01-01

    Undergraduates (N=204) completed three scales of the student adaptation to college questionnaire. Measures of coping and emotional adjustment revealed differences among the three groups of students labeled adaptive, maladaptive, and non-perfectionists. Perfectionism and coping predicted emotional adjustment but coping as a moderator or mediator in…

  13. Children Coping with Chronic Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Lissette M.

    Children who live with chronic illness are confronted with challenges that frequently force them to cope in myriad ways. The ways in which children face chronic illness are summarized in this literature review. Also covered, are how the effects of family can influence coping strategies and how family members, especially parents, cope with their…

  14. Measuring critical mine health and safety skills. Research report (Interim), October 1985June 1987

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. P. Cole; P. K. Berger; C. Vaught; J. V. Haley; W. E. Lacefield

    1988-01-01

    A series of studies are described that identify critical health and safety skills needed by underground coal miners for coping with mine emergencies. First aid and self-rescue and escape were selected as two broad performance domains that include many subordinate skills needed for preventing, recognizing, and coping with mine emergencies. The performance domains and their objectives were used to direct

  15. Gender differences in coping with infertility: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Jordan, C; Revenson, T A

    1999-08-01

    Infertility is a stressor that affects both husbands and wives. The literature suggests that infertility is more stressful for women, although most studies have not included men/husbands. If the experience of infertility is different for women and men, the next question is whether women and men cope differently. Meta-analytic procedures were used to review the empirical evidence (1966-1995) on gender differences in coping with infertility among heterosexual married couples; all studies used a standardized coping measure [The Ways of Coping Checklist-Revised (Folkman et al., 1986)]. Significant gender differences were found for half the strategies studied: Women used the strategies of Seeking Social Support, Escape-Avoidance, Planful Problem-Solving, and Positive Reappraisal to a greater degree than their partners. The findings suggest that coping at both the individual and the couple level be considered in the treatment of infertile couples and that gender be considered before planning an intervention. PMID:10495967

  16. Sex differences in coping and depression among young adults.

    PubMed

    Hänninen, V; Aro, H

    1996-11-01

    The main purpose of the study was to evaluate the notion that the association between sex and depression is partly mediated by differences in coping styles. The study is based on questionnaire data from 890 female and 766 male Finnish 22-year-old young adults. Of the 12 ways of coping presented, self-blame, venting anger on others, seeking comfort in sweets and drinking beer were positively, and the others negatively, associated with depression; these were called dysfunctional and functional ways of coping, respectively. Women resorted much more often than men to dysfunctional ways of coping, except drinking. They also scored lower on personal resilience and showed more depressive symptoms. The sex difference in depressiveness was eliminated when dysfunctional coping was taken into account. PMID:8923617

  17. Interrater agreement on the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS).

    PubMed

    Kurokawa, N K; Weed, N C

    1998-03-01

    The Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS) is a 48-item self-report inventory designed to measure three basic coping styles: Task Oriented, Emotion Oriented, and Avoidance Oriented coping. The psychometric properties of this inventory are promising, but CISS scores have not yet been shown to reflect behavioral variation in response to stress. This study was designed as a first step toward this end by examining the relationship between self- and peer-report on the CISS. One hundred and sixty-three pairs of friends completed the CISS, a peer form of the CISS, and a friendship questionnaire. Positive but modest correlations were found for each construct. Higher correlations were obtained when comparing scores across forms completed by the same informant, indicating that examinees believe their friends cope as they do themselves. Actual friend similarity was apparent only on Avoidance Oriented coping. Neither depth of relationship nor item observability moderated peer-self agreement. PMID:9458345

  18. Parents' religious coping styles in the first year after their child's cystic fibrosis diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Grossoehme, Daniel H; Ragsdale, Judy; Cotton, Sian; Wooldridge, Jamie L; Grimes, Lisa; Seid, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Parents of children diagnosed with cystic fibrosis described it as "devastating." Given religion's importance to many Americans, parents may utilize religious coping. Relatively little is known about parents' use of religious coping to handle their child's illness. Interviews with 15 parents about their use of religion in the year following their child's cystic fibrosis diagnosis were coded for religious coping styles. Sixteen styles were identified. Positive religious coping styles were more frequent than negative styles (previously associated with poorer health outcomes), and occurred more frequently than in other studies. Religious coping styles used to make meaning, gain control, or seek comfort/intimacy with God were equally prevalent. The most common styles were: Pleading, Collaboration, Benevolent Religious Reappraisals, and Seeking Spiritual Support. Parents described active rather than passive coping styles. Religious coping involving religious others was rare. Clinical attention to negative religious coping may prevent it becoming chronic and negatively affecting health. PMID:20658425

  19. Black Canadians' Coping Responses to Racial Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Justine; Kuo, Ben C. H.

    2009-01-01

    On the basis of a cultural coping framework, the present study examined coping responses to racial discrimination among 190 Black Canadians. The study assessed the respondents' coping with both general (i.e., problem- and emotion-focused coping) and Africultural coping strategies (i.e., spiritual-centered, collective, and ritual-centered coping)…

  20. Psychological skill model of collegiate athletes in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kai; Chou, Tzu-Chin Rejoice

    2014-10-01

    The importance of psychological skills to an athlete is widely recognized. The Athletic Psychological Skills Inventory (APSI) was developed to evaluate psychological skills in the Taiwanese sports environment. This study employed the APSI model to refine the psychological skill factor structure. The model was supported as a reliable and valid form of measurement. A second-order confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) confirmed the factor structure of the APSI in Taiwanese collegiate athletes. Peaking under pressure and coping with adversity were combined into a simplified factor, coping with adversity. PMID:25310230

  1. Intervention for Positive Use of Leisure Time Among College Students

    PubMed Central

    Yarnal, Careen; Qian, Xinyi; Hustad, John; Sims, Damon

    2013-01-01

    College student excessive alcohol use is a pressing public health concern, and many of the negative events associated with heavy drinking occur during leisure or free time. Positive use of leisure can lead to coping skills, stress reduction, and healthy development. Negative use of leisure, including heavy alcohol use, is associated with physical inactivity, stress, and short and long-term health concerns. We contend that using the classroom context to help college students understand why it is beneficial to engage in positive leisure pursuits and how that engagement will promote personal growth is of critical importance to healthy development. PMID:24198896

  2. Intervention for Positive Use of Leisure Time Among College Students.

    PubMed

    Yarnal, Careen; Qian, Xinyi; Hustad, John; Sims, Damon

    2013-05-01

    College student excessive alcohol use is a pressing public health concern, and many of the negative events associated with heavy drinking occur during leisure or free time. Positive use of leisure can lead to coping skills, stress reduction, and healthy development. Negative use of leisure, including heavy alcohol use, is associated with physical inactivity, stress, and short and long-term health concerns. We contend that using the classroom context to help college students understand why it is beneficial to engage in positive leisure pursuits and how that engagement will promote personal growth is of critical importance to healthy development. PMID:24198896

  3. From Fistfights to Gunfights: Preparing Teachers and Administrators To Cope with Violence in School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, H. Woodrow

    Issues facing educators today include drug traffic and abuse, crime and delinquency, gangs, weapons, violence, vandalism, schoolyard bullying, and crisis management. Teachers and administrators require special skills to cope with potentially explosive situations and violent students, yet training in those skills is not being received in university…

  4. Coping with Breast Cancer: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kvillemo, Pia; Bränström, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Objective The primary aim of this study was to examine the associations between different types of coping and psychological well-being and physical health among women with breast cancer. A second aim was to explore the potential moderating influences of situational and measurement factors on the associations between coping and psychological well-being and physical health. Methods On 14 February 2011, a literature search was made for articles published in the PubMed and PsycINFO databases before January 2010. On 5 September 2013, a repeated literature search was made for articles published before May 2013. In the final analyses, 78 studies with 11 948 participants were included. Results Efforts to facilitate adaptation to stress, such as Acceptance and Positive Reappraisal, were related to higher well-being and health. Disengagement and avoidance types of coping were associated with lower well-being and health. The analyses indicated that, in several circumstances, coping effectiveness was dependent on cancer stage, treatment, disease duration, and type of coping measure. Conclusions Use of coping targeting adjustment and avoiding use of disengagement forms of coping were related to better psychological well-being and physical health. Adaptive strategies and avoiding disengagement forms of coping seemed particularly beneficial for women undergoing treatment. PMID:25423095

  5. [Coping with stress by the elderly: a comparison of young, middle-aged and elderly couples].

    PubMed

    Bodenmann, G; Widmer, K

    2000-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate age effects on differences and similarities of individual and dyadic coping in 242 couples. There exist only a few systematically designed studies for age effects on individual coping. The majority of the results show that functional and dysfunctional individual coping are maintained constant if age differences are focused on. In our study we found high stability in the functional and dysfunctional individual coping over the three groups. By contrast, there are no studies except one for age effects on dyadic coping in the literature. Our results show differences in the positive emotional common dyadic coping and the total score of the positive common dyadic coping, both with the lowest values in the older couples. PMID:10923374

  6. [Stressful life events, health symptoms, social support and coping in early adolescents].

    PubMed

    Oh, K; Han, J S

    1990-12-01

    Numerous research reports have substantiated the role of stressful life events in relation to the onset of health changes. The relationship tends to hold across different age groups. Theoretically, adolescence has been considered a developmental crisis period of great stress, impoverished coping skills and high vulnerability to biological, social and psychological demands. The research problem addressed by this study was to examine the relationships between stressful life events and health symptom patterns, and the effect of two variables, coping and social support, theoretically considered to mediate the relationship between stress and health symptoms in adolescents. The following five hypotheses were tested in this research: 1. Health symptoms are positively related to stressful life events in adolescents, 2. Health symptoms are negatively related to coping in adolescents, 3. Health symptoms are negatively related to social support in adolescents, 4. When coping is controlled, the relationship between health symptoms and stressful life events will decrease, and 5. When social support is controlled, the relationship between health symptoms and stressful life events will increase. The study subjects consisted of 1090 high school students of the metropolitan city of Seoul. The following sampling procedure was used: 1. Of the 169 high schools in nine school administrative districts in the city, a proportional sample of ten schools was selected. 2. One class from each of the freshman and sophomore was randomly selected and all the students who were in the sampled class were used as the study sample. The study was limited to freshman and sophomore adolescents, aged 15 to 18 (mean = 16.6). Of the 1090 subjects 688 (63%) were boys and 402 (37%) were girls. An Adolescent Inventory of Stressful Life Events, a Health Symptom Questionnaire and an Adolescent Coping Inventory were adapted for this study. The Norbeck Social Support Questionnaire was utilized to collect the data on perceived social support. Five high school teachers in the areas of school health and counselling reviewed the items of each questionnaire for content validity. A pilot study was undertaken to ascertain reliability. Fifty three high school students responded to the questionnaires and gave their opinions on the items. For stressful life events, health symptoms, coping, and social support, the Cronbach's alpha's on the study were .70, .94, .77, and .76, respectively. Research assistants attended all the sampled classes with the school proctor to explain the purpose and procedures of the study to the students. The questionnaires along with a ballpoint pen were distributed to the students who were asked to complete each item.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2290252

  7. Physical Attractiveness and Counseling Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vargas, Alice M.; Borkowski, John G.

    1982-01-01

    Searched for interaction between quality of counseling skills (presence or absence of empathy, genuineness, and positive regard) and physical attractiveness as determinants of counseling effectiveness. Attractiveness influenced perceived effectiveness of counselor's skill. Analyses of expectancy data revealed that only with good skills did…

  8. The enhanced Aussie Optimism Positive Thinking Skills Program: The relationship between internalizing symptoms and family functioning in children aged 9–11 years old

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Patricia; Rooney, Rosanna M.; Kane, Robert T.; Hassan, Sharinaz; Nesa, Monique

    2015-01-01

    The family context plays a critical role in the health of the child. This was the first study to examine the usefulness of the General Functioning subscale of the Family Assessment Device (FAD-GF) in assessing family functioning and its relationship to internalizing symptoms in school-aged children aged between 9 and 11 years of age. Eight hundred and forty-seven year 4 and 5 students from 13 schools (607 intervention students, and 240 control students) participated in the Aussie Optimism Positive Thinking Skills Program (AO-PTS) – a universal school-based program targeting internalizing symptoms. Students rated how ‘healthy’ they perceived their family to be at pre-test and at 6-months follow-up. Although some aspects of validity and reliability could be improved, results indicated that perceptions of family functioning at pre-test were predictive of internalizing symptoms at the 6-months follow-up. The FAD-GF therefore showed promise as a potential measure of family functioning for children as young as 9 years old. Regardless of children’s pre-test levels of perceived family functioning, no intervention effects were found on the anxiety and depression scales; this finding suggests that child perceptions of family functioning may act as a general protective factor against internalizing symptomology. PMID:25983698

  9. Spiritual stress and coping model of divorce: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Krumrei, Elizabeth J; Mahoney, Annette; Pargament, Kenneth I

    2011-12-01

    This study represents the first longitudinal effort to use a spiritual stress and coping model to predict adults' psychosocial adjustment following divorce. A community sample of 89 participants completed measures at the time of their divorce and 1 year later. Though the sample endorsed slightly lower levels of religiosity than the general U.S. population, most reported spiritual appraisals and positive and negative religious coping tied to divorce. Hierarchical regression analyses controlling general religiousness and nonreligious forms of coping indicated that (a) appraising divorce as a sacred loss or desecration at the time it occurred predicted more depressive symptoms and dysfunctional conflict tactics with the ex-spouse 1 year later; (b) positive religious coping reported about the year following divorce predicted greater posttraumatic growth 1 year after divorce; and (c) negative religious coping reported about the year following divorce predicted more depressive symptoms 1 year after the divorce. Bootstrapping mediation analyses indicated that negative religious coping fully mediated links between appraising the divorce as a sacred loss or desecration at the time it occurred and depressive symptoms 1 year later. In addition, moderation analyses revealed that negative religious coping is more strongly associated with depressive symptoms among those who form high versus low appraisals of their divorce as a sacred loss or desecration. These findings are relevant to divorce education and intervention provided by professionals in legal, family, mental health, and clerical roles. Implications are discussed for clinical and counseling psychology and religious communities. PMID:22004433

  10. The Association of Coping to Physical and Psychological Health Outcomes: A Meta-Analytic Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julie A. Penley; Joe Tomaka; John S. Wiebe

    2002-01-01

    We performed a series of meta-analyses examining the associations between coping and health-related outcomes in nonclinical adult samples. Results revealed that problem-focused coping was positively correlated with overall health outcomes, whereas confrontive coping, distancing, self-control, seeking social support, accepting responsibility, avoidance, and wishful thinking were each negatively correlated with overall health outcomes. Neither planful problem solving nor positive reappraisal was

  11. Psychosocial Predictors of Sexual HIV Transmission Risk Behavior among HIV-Positive Adults with a Sexual Abuse History in Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Sikkema, Kathleen J.; Hansen, Nathan B.; Meade, Christina S.; Kochman, Arlene; Fox, Ashley M.

    2015-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with HIV sexual risk behavior. Although many psychosocial correlates of sexual risk among HIV-positive persons have been identified, studies predicting continued risk among HIV-positive adults with histories of CSA are limited. This cross-sectional study identified variables predictive of sexual transmission risk behavior among an ethnically diverse sample of 256 HIV-positive adults (women and men who have sex with men; MSM) with CSA histories. Participants were assessed for trauma symptoms, shame related to HIV and sexual trauma, substance use, coping style, and sexual risk behavior. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify variables predictive of unprotected sexual behavior in the past 4 months. Unprotected sex was significantly associated with substance use and trauma-related behavioral difficulties among women and men, and less spiritual coping among men. Unprotected sex with HIV negative or serostatus unknown partners was significantly associated with greater trauma-related behavioral difficulties, more HIV-related shame, and fewer active coping strategies. Thus, trauma symptoms, shame, coping style, and substance use were significantly associated with sexual risk behavior among HIV-positive adults with histories of CSA, with models of prediction differing by gender and partner serostatus. HIV prevention intervention for persons with HIV and CSA histories should address trauma-related behavioral difficulties and enhance coping skills to reduce sexual transmission risk behavior. PMID:17999171

  12. Do Country-Specific Skills Lead to Improved Labor Market Positions? An Analysis of Unemployment and Labor Market Returns to Education among Immigrants in Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duvander, Ann-Zofie E.

    2001-01-01

    Comparison of 1,800 Swedish citizens and 1,600 immigrants to Sweden suggested that Swedish language skills and education do not reduce immigrants' risk of unemployment. Country-specific skills reduced risk of overqualification, but did not account for the labor market disadvantage of immigrants, which may be due to discrimination. (Contains 56…

  13. Evaluating Child Coping Competence: Theory and Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreland, Angela D.; Dumas, Jean E.

    2008-01-01

    Much of the research on children's coping styles is based on a downward extension of adult coping theories. In a departure from this approach, coping competence theory seeks to account for children's ability to cope with daily challenges on the basis of developmental research. The theory, which states that challenges call for distinct coping

  14. Dimensions of Family Coping with Head Injury.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosciulek, John F.

    1994-01-01

    Examined dimensions underlying family coping with head injury. Data from 150 families with a member with a head injury identified 3 dimensions of coping: individual-to-family versus family-to-community coping; family-respite versus head-injury-focused coping; and cognitive versus behavioral coping. Findings have implications for family stress and…

  15. Basic Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Addison-Rutland Supervisory Union, Fair Haven, VT.

    This publication lists basic skills curriculum objectives for kindergarten through eighth grade in the schools of the Addison-Rutland Supervisory Union in Fair Haven, Vermont. Objectives concern language arts, reading, mathematics, science, and social studies instruction. Kindergarten objectives for general skills, physical growth, motor skills,…

  16. Library Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Karin; Kuhlthau, Carol C.; Branch, Jennifer L.; Solowan, Diane Galloway; Case, Roland; Abilock, Debbie; Eisenberg, Michael B.; Koechlin, Carol; Zwaan, Sandi; Hughes, Sandra; Low, Ann; Litch, Margaret; Lowry, Cindy; Irvine, Linda; Stimson, Margaret; Schlarb, Irene; Wilson, Janet; Warriner, Emily; Parsons, Les; Luongo-Orlando, Katherine; Hamilton, Donald

    2003-01-01

    Includes 19 articles that address issues related to library skills and Canadian school libraries. Topics include information literacy; inquiry learning; critical thinking and electronic research; collaborative inquiry; information skills and the Big 6 approach to problem solving; student use of online databases; library skills; Internet accuracy;…

  17. Skill Set

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holdsworth, Tom

    2007-01-01

    With competition to attract quality students into career and technical education programs and many entrants to the workforce inadequately prepared with employability skills, some community colleges have found a way to answer industry's call--they are launching SkillsUSA chapters on campus. In this article, the author features SkillsUSA, a…

  18. Benign positional vertigo - aftercare

    MedlinePLUS

    ... treat yourself at home for BPPV. A physical therapist may be able to teach you other exercises to reduce your symptoms. Symptoms of positional vertigo can cause stress. Make healthy lifestyle choices to help you cope: ...

  19. COMMUNICATON SKILLS FOR EATING-DISORDERED CLIENTS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linda K. Riebel

    1989-01-01

    Poor assertiveness, low self-esteem, and fragile boundaries are hallmarks of eating disorders, keeping the client isolated within herself, unable to name and express her own needs, and powerless to repel undesired attentions or create desired ones. In view of the recent trend toward introducing coping skills into treatment plans, teaching communication meets important client needs. It can provide observable improvement

  20. [Coping strategies in adaptation of higher education students].

    PubMed

    das Neves Mira Freitas, Helena Cristina

    2007-01-01

    The adjustment to higher education can be understood as a multidimensional process, which requires by the student a development of adaptive skills to a new and dynamic context in itself. To meet these challenges students have to develop effective coping strategies, enabling them to be adapted to the context. The school has a key role in the help it can give to these young people, in order to adapt effectively. PMID:18372532

  1. Coping with Job Transitions over the Work Life

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John R. Rudisill; Jean M. Edwards; Paul J. Hershberger; Joyce E. Jadwin; John M. McKee

    \\u000a A job transition is a process involving a number of steps, including thinking about goals and skills, evaluating the potential\\u000a job market, conducting the job search, managing personal reactions, and negotiating entry into the new organization. As both\\u000a a common and impactful transition of modern life, it is important to examine the factors associated with coping with job transitions.\\u000a Specifically,

  2. How Do GPA, Psychological Adjustment and Coping Styles Contribute to the Reported Use of Substance as a Means of Coping with Stress?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steward, Robbie J.; Jo, Hanik; Murray, Darrick A.; Tovar, Maria A.; Johnson, Mykel L.

    In a study of African-American (n=119) urban high school students, coping with life stressors was positively and negatively associated with the use of substances. This study focused on how grade point average (GPA), psychological adjustment, and coping styles contribute to the reported use of substances as a way of dealing with stress. The results…

  3. Psychology and theology meet: illness appraisal and spiritual coping.

    PubMed

    Baldacchino, Donia R; Borg, Josette; Muscat, Charlene; Sturgeon, Cassandra

    2012-10-01

    This descriptive exploratory study explored illness appraisal and spiritual coping of three groups of individuals with life-threatening illness. These were hospice clients with cancer (Ca; n = 10), clients with first myocardial infarction (MI; n = 6), and parents of children with cystic fibrosis (CF; n = 16). Qualitative data were collected by audiotaped face-to-face interviews (parents) and focus groups (MI and Ca). Similarities in illness appraisal and spiritual coping were found across the three groups except appreciation of crafts, which was found only in clients with Ca and causal meaning of parents (CF). Overall, illness was appraised negatively and positively, whereas spiritual coping incorporated existential and religious coping. These findings confirm the psychological theory (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984) and theological theory (Otto, 1950), which guided this study. Recommendations were proposed to integrate spirituality and religiosity in the curricula, clinical practice and to conduct cross-cultural comparative longitudinal research. PMID:22514125

  4. Intergenerational Child Abuse and Coping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robboy, Juliet; Anderson, Kristen G.

    2011-01-01

    Many studies have investigated the consequences of child sexual abuse (CSA) but few have examined the intergenerational effects of poly-victimization and maladaptive coping. The purpose of this investigation was to examine patterns of maltreatment and maladaptive coping among second-generation CSA survivors. It is hypothesized that: (a) maternal…

  5. School Principals' Emotional Coping Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poirel, Emmanuel; Yvon, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    The present study examines the emotional coping of school principals in Quebec. Emotional coping was measured by stimulated recall; six principals were filmed during a working day and presented a week later with their video showing stressful encounters. The results show that school principals experience anger because of reproaches from staff…

  6. Investigating Gender Influences on Coping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arthur, Nancy; Hiebert, Bryan

    A study was conducted at Southern Alberta Institute of Technology (SAIT) to investigate gender influences on coping strategies by tracking multiple episodes of demands and coping strategies throughout an academic year. The study sample consisted of 94 students enrolled in 2-year academic programs having at least a 70/30 gender ratio. From a pool…

  7. Coping Resources of College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammer, Allen L.

    Coping resources are what people bring to situations (as opposed to what they do) that enable them to deal with stressors more effectively, allow them to recover faster, or experience fewer or less intense symptoms upon exposure to stressors. The Coping Resources Inventory (CRI) measures resources in the following domains: cognitive, social,…

  8. How Older Female Spouses Cope with Partners' Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Marnocha, Suzanne; Marnocha, Mark

    2013-01-01

    This research sought to better understand how older female spouses cope with a partner's coronary artery bypass graft surgery and to explore coping's relationships with life-change stress, cognitive appraisal, resilience, social support, and aspects of spouse's surgery. A sample of 96 women, aged from 55 to 81 years, completed surveys after their partner's surgery. Folkman and Lazarus' ways of coping (WCQ) scales yielded two factors in this sample—reactive coping and adaptive coping. Reactive coping, including more emotion-focused ways of coping from the WCQ, was associated only with more time spent anticipating spouses' surgeries. Women described the greatest use of ways of coping labeled adaptive, which in turn had significant relationships with greater resilience, social support, and positive appraisal of the surgical experience. Stepwise multiple regression found greater resilience, more frequent religious participation, and fewer children to be distinct predictors of adaptive coping. Nursing staff are encouraged to accept and normalize reactive coping, while facilitating adaptive coping with surgical stresses. PMID:23634299

  9. Coping with Changes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Science Netlinks

    2001-10-20

    The purpose of this Science NetLinks lesson is to understand how the nervous system allows us to learn, remember, and cope with changes in the environment. In grades 3-5, students start viewing the body as one whole system, as one whole organism. In the 6th grade and up, students should start to understand how organs and organ systems work together. For instance, the brain is part of the nervous system and works in conjunction with neurons (cells). The nervous system works with all other body systems, such as the musculoskeletal system. The activities in this lesson introduce the nervous system, both in parts and as a whole. By learning about the whole system, students will understand that the brain, spinal cord, and nerve cells are at the root of all other body functions.

  10. Good Cope, Bad Cope: Adaptive and Maladaptive Coping Strategies Following a Critical Negative Work Event

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven P. Brown; Robert A. Westbrook; Goutam Challagalla

    2005-01-01

    The authors examined the moderating effects of coping tactics on the relationship between negative emotion and work performance. Findings indicate an adverse effect of emotion on performance; however, this effect is moderated by coping tactics. Venting (expressing one's negative feelings to others) amplified the adverse effects of negative emotion. Self-control had mixed effects: On one hand, it buffered the adverse

  11. Coping with discrimination among Mexican American college students.

    PubMed

    Villegas-Gold, Roberto; Yoo, Hyung Chol

    2014-07-01

    There is limited research directly examining the process of how Mexican American college students cope with unique experiences of racial discrimination. The present study used a multiple mediation model to collectively examine the indirect effects of engagement (i.e., problem solving, cognitive restructuring, expression of emotion, and social support) and disengagement (i.e., social withdrawal, self-criticism, problem avoidance, and wishful thinking) coping strategies on the relationship between perceived racial discrimination and subjective well-being of 302 Mexican American college students. Results suggested that perceived racial discrimination was negatively correlated with subjective well-being. Moreover, of the engagement coping strategies examined, only problem solving had a significant mediating effect that was associated with elevations in subjective well-being. Specifically, perceptions of racial discrimination were positively related to problem solving, which, in turn, was positively related to subjective well-being. Of the disengagement coping strategies examined, self-criticism, wishful thinking, and social withdrawal had a significant mediating effect that was negatively associated with subjective well-being. Specifically, perceptions of racial discrimination were positively related to self-criticism, wishful thinking, and social withdrawal, which, in turn, were negatively related to subjective well-being. Ultimately, these findings highlight the indirect and complex ways in which multiple coping strategies are used to effectively, and sometimes not effectively, deal with racism experienced by Mexican Americans college students. PMID:25019544

  12. The Finance MBA at Rutgers Business School provides broad professional competence and skills to prepare students for careers in executive positions at banks, financial

    E-print Network

    Lin, Xiaodong

    The Finance MBA at Rutgers Business School provides broad professional competence and skills.C., an MBA in finance from Rutgers connects students with excellent job opportunities with the best and financial institutions who serve as guest speakers and hire Rutgers grads. Finance focuses on all aspects

  13. Facilitating Positive Psychosocial Adaptation in Children with Cystic Fibrosis by Increasing Family Communication and Problem-Solving Skills. A Research Report to the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stabler, Brian; And Others

    This study tested the effects of two group-oriented supportive and educational approaches on the parents of children with cystic fibrosis (CF). Thirteen families were randomly assigned either to a group which received information on medical and technical aspects of CF or to a group which received instruction in communication skills in addition to…

  14. The Coping Strategies Task: Assessment of Coping in Schizophrenia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Monica Riera Mindt; William D. Spaulding

    2002-01-01

    The current study presents the: 1) conceptual development of a preliminary measure, the Coping Strategies Task (CST), for assessing coping-related cognition in a group of long-term, hospitalized individuals with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders; and 2) preliminary reliability and validation data of the CST. The CST was designed for persons with severe and persistent mental illness, and study participants included thirty-three individuals in

  15. Job Satisfaction and Stress Coping Skills of Primary School Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bindhu, C. M.; Sudheeshkumar, P. K.

    2006-01-01

    Job satisfaction expresses the extent of match between teachers' expectation of the job, job requirements and the satisfaction derived from their jobs. There seems to be a growing discontentment towards teaching as a result of which standards of education are falling. Teachers are dissatisfied in spite of different plans and programmes which have…

  16. Presentation skills.

    PubMed

    Dougan, Mary

    2015-07-01

    Presentations are integral to my role as a learning and development practitioner. The CPD article enabled me to develop my presentation skills and those of my colleagues. Many healthcare staff have up-to-date knowledge, experience and understanding of the requirements of the organisation, yet lack confidence in their presentation skills. PMID:26153972

  17. Validation of the Mindful Coping Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tharaldsen, Kjersti B.; Bru, Edvin

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this research is to develop and validate a self-report measure of mindfulness and coping, the mindful coping scale (MCS). Dimensions of mindful coping were theoretically deduced from mindfulness theory and coping theory. The MCS was empirically evaluated by use of factor analyses, reliability testing and nomological network validation.…

  18. A test of whether coping styles moderate the effect of PTSD symptoms on alcohol outcomes.

    PubMed

    Grosso, Justine A; Kimbrel, Nathan A; Dolan, Sara; Meyer, Eric C; Kruse, Marc I; Gulliver, Suzy B; Morissette, Sandra B

    2014-08-01

    Coping style may partially account for the frequent co-occurrence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alcohol-use disorder (AUD). We hypothesized that avoidant and action-oriented coping styles would moderate the association between PTSD symptom severity and alcohol outcomes among U.S. Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom veterans, such that PTSD symptoms would be most strongly and positively associated with negative alcohol-related consequences and drinking quantity when action-oriented coping was low and avoidant coping was high. The sample (N = 128; 85.2% male, M = 37.8 years old, 63.3% Caucasian) completed a diagnostic assessment for PTSD and AUD and self-report surveys measuring coping styles, drinking quantity, and negative alcohol-related consequences. Consistent with the main hypothesis, a 3-way interaction among PTSD symptom severity, avoidant coping, and action-oriented coping was found in the predicted direction (d = 0.47-0.55). Post hoc descriptive analyses indicated that veterans with a current diagnosis of PTSD, low action-oriented coping, and high avoidant coping had worse alcohol outcomes and were twice as likely to meet criteria for current AUD compared with veterans with fewer risk factors. Findings suggest that the combination of PTSD and maladaptive coping styles may be more important for understanding alcohol-related outcomes than the presence of any of these variables in isolation. PMID:25158641

  19. Coping as a caregiver for an elderly family member.

    PubMed

    Alpert, Jordan M; Womble, Frances E

    2015-07-01

    With nearly 30% of the adult U.S. population acting as caregivers for sick, disabled, or elderly family members, it is imperative that caregivers become better equipped to cope with this challenging role. Although caregiving is regarded as an arduous endeavor, caring for an older family member may actually produce positive experiences. This study examines how caregivers use communication as a tool to cope with caring for an older family member. Over a span of 15 months, more than 150 caregiver stories were gathered from AgingCare.com, analyzed thematically, and categorized. The results show that stories utilize emotion-based techniques, including humor (20%), positive framing (16%), and acceptance (11%), to reveal that lasting, meaningful bonds can develop between caregivers and caregivers' relatives. These techniques allow caregivers to redefine their familial role and to find comfort in disheartening situations. Thus, coping is a truly communicative event since emotions can facilitate behaviors directed at ailing family members. PMID:25062386

  20. Perceptions of Stress and Coping Strategies among Adults with Mild Mental Retardation: Insight into Psychological Distress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Sigan L.; MacLean, William E., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Stress, coping, perceptions of control, and psychological distress of 88 adults with mild mental retardation were assessed. Stressful interpersonal interactions and concerns over personal competencies occurred most frequently. Frequency and stress impact were positively associated with a composite score of psychological distress. Active coping was…

  1. Faith in the Wake of Homicide: Religious Coping and Bereavement Distress in an African American Sample

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laurie A. Burke; Robert A. Neimeyer; Meghan E. McDevitt-Murphy; Maria R. Ippolito; J. Matthew Roberts

    2011-01-01

    Mourners often rely on faith following loss, but not all find spirituality comforting. Some grievers engage in negative religious coping (NRC), signaled by behaviors and thoughts such as anger toward God or their faith community, feeling spiritually abandoned, or questioning God's power. Our longitudinal study of 46 African American homicide survivors explored the relation of both positive religious coping (PRC)

  2. The Relationship between Supervisee Stress, Coping Resources, the Working Alliance, and the Supervisory Working Alliance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gnilka, Philip B.; Chang, Catherine Y.; Dew, Brian J.

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined the relationship of perceived stress, specific types of coping resources, the working alliance, and the supervisory working alliance among 232 counselor supervisees. The working alliance and the supervisory working alliance were negatively related to perceived stress and positively related to multiple coping resources. Two…

  3. Effective Stress Management: A Model of Emotional Intelligence, Self-Leadership, and Student Stress Coping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houghton, Jeffery D.; Wu, Jinpei; Godwin, Jeffrey L.; Neck, Christopher P.; Manz, Charles C.

    2012-01-01

    This article develops and presents a model of the relationships among emotional intelligence, self-leadership, and stress coping among management students. In short, the authors' model suggests that effective emotion regulation and self-leadership, as mediated through positive affect and self-efficacy, has the potential to facilitate stress coping

  4. Effects of an Intervention Promoting Proactive Coping Competencies in Middle and Late Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bode, Christina; de Ridder, Denise T. D.; Kuijer, Roeline G.; Bensing, Jozien M.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: We tested the effectiveness of a brief educational program that is based on proactive coping theory. The program entails a four-session group intervention for people aged between 50 and 75 years and was intended to improve proactive coping competencies. Furthermore, we investigated the positive as well as negative side effects and…

  5. Coping with Overload and Stress: Men and Women in Dual-Earner Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Chris A.; Duxbury, Linda E.; Lyons, Sean T.

    2010-01-01

    This study tested gender differences in a model positing relationships between work and family demands, overload, 4 coping mechanisms, and stress. The coping mechanisms were hypothesized to moderate the relationship between overload and stress. The sample consisted of 1,404 men and 1,623 women in dual-earner families. Respondents relied on 2…

  6. Quality of sleep in patients with schizophrenia is associated with quality of life and coping

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John R Hofstetter; Paul H Lysaker; Aimee R Mayeda

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: While sleep disturbance is widespread in schizophrenia it is less clear whether sleep disturbance is uniquely related to impaired coping and perceived quality of life. METHODS: We simultaneously assessed sleep quality, symptoms, and coping in 29 persons with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder in a post acute phase of illness. Assessment instruments included the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index; the Positive

  7. The relationship of religious coping and spirituality to adjustment and psychological distress in urban early adolescents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cydney J. Van Dyke; David S. Glenwick; John J. Cecero; Se-Kang Kim

    2009-01-01

    The present study explored the relation of religious coping and spirituality to adjustment and psychological distress in urban early adolescents. The participants were 76 sixth-, seventh-, and eighth-grade students attending Catholic day schools in the New York City area. They completed a set of self-report measures assessing religious coping, daily spiritual experiences, positive and negative affect, life satisfaction, and psychological

  8. School Attendance Revisited: A Study of Urban African American Students' Grade Point Averages and Coping Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steward, Robbie J.; Steward, Astin Devine; Blair, Jonathan; Jo, Hanik; Hill, Martin F.

    2008-01-01

    Urban African American first-year high school students' absenteeism was found to be negatively related to grade point average (GPA) and avoidance as a means of coping (use of substances as a way to escape--food, alcohol, smoking, caffeine, etc.) and positively related to use of social support as a means of coping (efforts to stay emotionally…

  9. Religious Coping and Locus of Control in Normal Pregnancy: Moderating Effects Between Pregnancy Worries and Mental Health.

    PubMed

    Puente, Cecilia Peńacoba; Morales, Dolores Marķn; Monge, Francisco Javier Carmona

    2015-10-01

    Most studies about coping in pregnancy focus on risk pregnancies where it has generally been found that the use of religious coping has a positive effect, although to our knowledge there are no studies that associate religious coping to locus of control. We analyzed, in a sample of 285 Spanish women with normal pregnancies, the effect of both variables on psychiatric symptoms and on the relationship between psychiatric symptoms and pregnancy worries. The results show no association between locus of control and religious coping. Locus of control has a significant influence on the pregnant women's mental health, while religious coping just adds an additional influence. PMID:24833162

  10. Changes in Religious Coping and Relapse to Drug Use Among Opioid-Dependent Patients Following Inpatient Detoxification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eve S. Puffer; Linda M. Skalski; Christina S. Meade

    Relapse rates remain high among people with opioid dependence. Identifying psychosocial factors associated with outcomes is\\u000a important for informing behavioral treatments. This study examined religious coping, opioid use, and 12-step participation\\u000a among 45 participants receiving inpatient opioid detoxification at baseline and follow-up. At baseline, higher positive coping\\u000a was related to less frequent opioid use pre-admission (? = ?.44, p p p p < .05). Positive religious coping

  11. Collaborative coping and daily mood in couples dealing with prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Berg, Cynthia A; Wiebe, Deborah J; Butner, Jonathan; Bloor, Lindsey; Bradstreet, Chester; Upchurch, Renn; Hayes, John; Stephenson, Robert; Nail, Lillian; Patton, Gregory

    2008-09-01

    Collaborative coping (i.e., spouses pooling resources and problem solving jointly) may be associated with better daily mood because of heightened perceptions of efficacy in coping with stressful events. The study examined the daily processes of collaborative coping (individuals' perceptions that the spouse collaborated), perceived coping effectiveness (ratings of how well they dealt with the event), and mood (i.e., Positive and Negative Affect Scale) across 14 days in 57 older couples coping with stressors involving the husband's prostate cancer and daily life in general. In hierarchical multivariate linear models, collaborative coping was associated with more positive same-day mood for both husbands and wives and less negative mood for wives only. These associations were partially mediated by heightened perceptions of coping effectiveness. Exploratory analyses revealed that collaborative coping was more frequent among wives who performed more poorly on cognitive tests and couples who reported greater marital satisfaction and more frequently using collaboration to make decisions. The results suggest that older couples may benefit from collaborative coping in dealing with problems surrounding illness. PMID:18808241

  12. Leadership Skills for Migrant Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamaker, Mary Lou Nava

    Written for staff developers and resource personnel who work with parents, this curriculum guide is designed to develop leadership skills in migrant parents who have been elected to leadership positions in their respective Parent Advisory Committees. The booklet focuses on developing such skills as knowing how to use parliamentary procedure,…

  13. Ways of coping as predictors of satisfaction with curriculum and academic success in medical school

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the coping strategies of medical students and to investigate the effects of coping strategies on student satisfaction and academic achievement with different instruction methods. A total of 152 medical students was followed throughout the first 2 yr of medical education between 2008 and 2010. Students completed a sociodemographic questionnaire and revised form of the Ways of Coping questionnaire both at the beginning of the first year and at the end of the second year. These forms provided data about the characteristics and main coping strategies (problem focused or emotion focused) of the students and revealed the change over time. At the end of the second year, participants also completed a satisfaction questionnaire asking their satisfaction with lectures, problem-based learning, and practicals. The authors used block, problem-based learning, and practical exam scores of the students attained in the past 2 yr as academic achievement indicators. No sociodemographic variable was related to coping strategy. The majority of students (80.9%) adopted problem-focused coping. A shift occurred in the main coping strategies of some students in both sides. Problem-focused coping scores decreased over time. Problem-focused coping positively correlated with satisfaction with practicals and practical exam scores, whereas emotion-focused coping showed the same correlation negatively. The main coping strategy also predicted satisfaction and exam success in practicals. In conclusion, a main coping strategy may be helpful to predict student satisfaction and academic achievement with some student-centered instruction methods. Determining undesired coping strategies may provide an opportunity for intervention to prevent relevant dissatisfaction and failure.

  14. Positive Education: Positive Psychology and Classroom Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seligman, Martin E. P.; Ernst, Randal M.; Gillham, Jane; Reivich, Karen; Linkins, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Positive education is defined as education for both traditional skills and for happiness. The high prevalence worldwide of depression among young people, the small rise in life satisfaction, and the synergy between learning and positive emotion all argue that the skills for happiness should be taught in school. There is substantial evidence from…

  15. Explicit and implicit memory, trait anxiety, and repressive coping style

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian Oldenburg; Lars-Gunnar Lundh; Pia Kivistö

    2002-01-01

    Individuals with high trait anxiety, low trait anxiety, and repressive coping style were compared on explicit and implicit memory for physical threat words, social threat words, positive words, and neutral words. The results replicate earlier findings to the effect that bias indexes correlate within memory type (implicit and explicit memory, respectively) but not within word category across memory type, suggesting

  16. Coping with Novelty in Human Intelligence: An Empirical Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternberg, Robert J.; Gastel, Joyce

    1989-01-01

    Using 17 female and 33 male Yale undergraduates, the relationship between the ability to cope with relative novelty and intelligence was assessed. Results of subjects' performance of novel and non-novel versions of a sentence-verification task indicated that the relationship was positive. (TJH)

  17. Changes in Religious Coping and Relapse to Drug Use Among Opioid-Dependent Patients Following Inpatient Detoxification

    PubMed Central

    Skalski, Linda M.; Meade, Christina S.

    2013-01-01

    Relapse rates remain high among people with opioid dependence. Identifying psychosocial factors associated with outcomes is important for informing behavioral treatments. This study examined religious coping, opioid use, and 12-step participation among 45 participants receiving inpatient opioid detoxification at baseline and follow-up. At baseline, higher positive coping was related to less frequent opioid use pre-admission (? = ?.44, p < .001) and history of 12-step participation (OR = 2.33, p < .05). Decreases in negative coping after discharge predicted less opioid use (? = .55, p < .001), and increases in positive coping predicted more frequent 12-step program participation (? = .42, p < .05). Positive religious coping may be protective, while negative religious coping may be a barrier to treatment. PMID:21125425

  18. Measuring coping in pregnant minority women.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Roberta Jeanne; Gennaro, Susan; O'Connor, Caitlin; Marti, C Nathan; Lulloff, Amanda; Keshinover, Tayra; Gibeau, Anne; Melnyk, Bernadette

    2015-02-01

    Coping strategies may help explain why some minority women experience more stress and poorer birth outcomes, so a psychometrically sound instrument to assess coping is needed. We examined the psychometric properties, readability, and correlates of coping in pregnant Black (n = 186) and Hispanic (n = 220) women using the Brief COPE. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis tested psychometric properties. The Flesch-Kincaid Reading Level test assessed readability. Linear regression models tested correlates of coping. Findings suggested two factors for the questionnaire: active and disengaged coping, as well as adequate reliability, validity, and readability level. For disengaged coping, Cronbach's ? was .78 (English) and .70 (Spanish), and for active coping .86 (English) and .92 (Spanish). A two group confirmatory factor analysis revealed both minority groups had equivalent factor loadings. The reading level was at the sixth grade. Age, education, and gravidity were all found to be significant correlates with active coping. PMID:24658289

  19. Coping with Chronic Illness: A Study of Illness Controllability and the Influence of Coping Strategies on Psychological Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felton, Barbara J.; Revenson, Tracey A.

    1984-01-01

    Evaluated the emotional consequences of using wish-fulfilling fantasy (palliative) and information-seeking (instrumental) coping strategies among patients (N=151) faced with chronic illness. Results showed information-seeking to have positive effects on adjustment and wish-fulfilling fantasy to have deleterious consequences. (LLL)

  20. Cognitive Coping Tool Kit for Psychosis: Development of a Group-Based Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Joel O.; Wheeler, Heather; Lubinsky, Tobi; Van Exan, Jessica

    2007-01-01

    This article outlines an 8-week curriculum that was created to help outpatients develop cognitive and behavioral skills for coping with delusions and hallucinations as well as to reduce patients' comorbid subjective levels of distress (e.g., depression, anxiety). The manualized protocol consisted of psychoeducation and training in a variety of CBT…

  1. Coping with Sudden Infant Death Syndrome: Intervention Strategies and a Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aadalen, Sharon

    1980-01-01

    Family-centered intervention after the death of a baby due to sudden infant death syndrome facilitates reorganization, growth, and development of the family system. A potentially defeating crisis becomes an opportunity to develop coping skills and strengthen family members. Public health nursing is an essential component of the program.…

  2. Improving Children’s Coping With Everyday Stress: Transporting Treatment Interventions to the School Setting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donna B. Pincus; Alice G. Friedman

    2004-01-01

    Children are continuously confronted with everyday stressors in their daily routine, and their ability to deal with these stressors has been found to be significantly related to their psychological adjustment. In fact, numerous studies have indicated that having a repertoire of coping skills at a young age can be a buffer or moderator of the effects of negative life stress

  3. Uncontrollable Stress, Coping, and Subjective Well-Being in Urban Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyle, Laura D.; Vera, Elizabeth M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether uncontrollable stress related to levels of subjective well-being (SWB) in a group of ethnically diverse urban adolescents. Additionally, the researchers examined what types of coping skills were utilized in the face of high levels of uncontrollable stress. Finally, a moderation model was proposed,…

  4. Helping Schoolchildren Cope with Anger: A Cognitive-Behavioral Intervention. Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Jim; Lochman, John E.

    2010-01-01

    This guide presents information and clinical tools to implement the Anger Coping Program, an empirically supported intervention for students in grades 3-6. Practitioners are taken step by step through setting up treatment groups, teaching vital skills for reducing aggression and disruptive behavior, and building strong partnerships with teachers…

  5. Helping Students Cope in an Age of Terrorism: Strategies for School Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chibbaro, Julia S.; Jackson, C. Marie

    2006-01-01

    School counselors experience unique challenges as they struggle to provide students with coping skills geared to the outside world including acts of terrorism. School-aged students in the United States are one of the most vulnerable populations in the event of a terrorist act. This article offers a review of the current and most relevant…

  6. Problem-Solving Treatment and Coping Styles in Primary Care for Minor Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oxman, Thomas E.; Hegel, Mark T.; Hull, Jay G.; Dietrich, Allen J.

    2008-01-01

    Research was undertaken to compare problem-solving treatment for primary care (PST-PC) with usual care for minor depression and to examine whether treatment effectiveness was moderated by coping style. PST-PC is a 6-session, manual-based, psychosocial skills intervention. A randomized controlled trial was conducted in 2 academic, primary care…

  7. Communication avoidance, coping and psychological distress of women with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yisha; Sherman, Kerry A

    2015-06-01

    This study examined the relationship between communication avoidance of cancer-related topics with psychological distress, and the mediating role of coping strategies, in women with breast cancer. Women diagnosed with breast cancer (N = 338) completed an online survey including measures of self- and perceived-partner communication avoidance, psychological distress (depression, anxiety and stress), and coping strategies. Linear regression analyses indicated that women's and perceived-partner's communication avoidance was associated with anxiety, depression, and stress in the cancer-affected women. Bootstrapping analyses showed significant mediation effects of self- and perceived-partner communication avoidance on all distress outcomes through greater disengagement coping, and on anxiety through lower engagement coping. Emotionally valenced topics (i.e., disease progression and sexuality) were most avoided and practical issues were least avoided. Enhancing couple communication about cancer and women's adaptive coping skills (i.e., discourage use of disengagement coping strategies and promote use of engagement coping strategies) may be important targets for psychosocial intervention. PMID:25804374

  8. Attitudes and behavior in counseling skill development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philip A. Hirsch; Gerald L. Stone

    1982-01-01

    To examine the association between attitudes and skill performance under laboratory conditions, 37 undergraduates received brief training in 2 counseling skills (reflection of feeling and interpretation) and then conducted interviews with coached clients. Ss with positive attitudes toward using reflection of feeling produced significantly higher quality reflective responses than did those with negative attitudes toward the use of this skill.

  9. Search in chess: Age and skill differences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neil Charness

    1981-01-01

    34 chess players 16–64 yrs old varying in skill generated think-aloud protocols for each of 4 chess positions. Findings indicate that (a) more skilled players search more extensively and deeply; (b) older players search less extensively, though equally deeply; (c) rate of search did not generally vary with age or skill; and (d) the quality of the selected move varied

  10. Coping with climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Topping, J.C. Jr. (ed.)

    1989-06-01

    The Second North American Conference on Preparing for Climate Change may be the most ambitious assemblage of experts ever to assess impact and response strategies to the twin challenges of greenhouse warming and stratospheric ozone depletion. Presentations were made by over 160 scientists, environmental leaders and policy makers from the Western Hemisphere, Europe and Asia in 38 sessions over a three day period. Chapters in this volume correspond to the seven regional panels of the Second North American Conference, with discussions of implications of climate changes for the Caribbean, the Arctic, California, the Southern United States, the Chesapeake Bay, Atlantic Canada and New England, and the Great Lakes. This book also contains a policy overview of the climate challenge with contributions from US, Canadian, British and Caribbean governmental and corporate leaders. A chapter devoted to a scientific overview of climate change includes a skillful overview of the key scientific and policy issues involved in greenhouse warming, a seminal article on regional implications of climate change and the potential impacts of global warming on droughts and floods, and a panel discussion involving four of the world's leading stratospheric scientists. Individual papers were processed separately for the data base.

  11. Coping behavior and depressive symptoms in adult children of alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Klostermann, Keith; Chen, Rui; Kelley, Michelle L; Schroeder, Valarie M; Braitman, Abby L; Mignone, Theresa

    2011-01-01

    This paper examined whether adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs) would report more depressive mood symptoms as compared to non-ACOAs, whether coping behaviors differed as a function of ACOA status, and whether specific coping behaviors were related to depressive mood symptoms in ACOAs. Participants were 136 college students categorized as ACOAs and 436 college students categorized as non-ACOAs as determined by scores on the Children of Alcoholics Screening Test (CAST; J.W.Jones, 1983 The children of alcoholics screening test: test manual. Chicago: Camelot). As compared to non-ACOAs, ACOAs reported significantly more symptoms of depressive mood as measured by the Profile of Mood States (POMS; McNair, Lorr, and Droppleman, 1992 POMS manual: profile of mood states. San Diego, CA: Edits). On the COPE Inventory (Carver, Scheier, and Weintraub, 1989 Assessing coping strategies: a theoretically based approach. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 56:267-283), ACOAs reported higher use of the following coping strategies: Behavior Disengagement, Denial, Focus on and Venting of Emotions, Humor, and Substance Use. For both the ACOA and non-ACOA groups, the use of Positive Reinterpretation and Growth and the use of Planning were significantly associated with fewer depressive symptoms, whereas Mental Disengagement, Focus on and Venting of Emotions, Denial, Behavior Disengagement, Substance Use, and Suppression of Competing Activities were associated with higher depressive mood scores. PMID:21449712

  12. Coping processes among bereaved spouses.

    PubMed

    Caserta, Michael; Utz, Rebecca; Lund, Dale; Swenson, Kristin Lee; de Vries, Brian

    2014-01-01

    The authors investigated if an intervention based on the dual process model (vs. traditional bereavement support) enhanced oscillation between loss- (LO) and restoration-oriented (RO) coping of recently bereaved (2-6 months) spouses/partners. Participants were followed over 12 months. The authors found an increased emphasis over time on RO coping, particularly for women and those who were younger; however, no treatment effect was detected. Although patterns in the data are consistent with the model, the authors conclude that it is difficult for interventions to modify LO, RO, and oscillation unless there is sufficient intervention dosage and tailored to those exclusively engaged in one process. PMID:24524542

  13. Religiosity and coping with loneliness.

    PubMed

    Rokach, Ami; Chin, Jackie; Sha'ked, Ami

    2012-06-01

    Loneliness is a universal experience which transcends age, sex, geography, and culture. Religion, and often one's religiosity, are known to affect one's approach to life, behaviour, and social involvement. The present, preliminary study aimed to explore whether coping with loneliness is influenced by one's religious observance. The present study focused on Israeli Jews. 250 participants identified themselves as Secular, Conservative, or Orthodox, by answering a 34-item yes/no questionnaire on loneliness. The three groups statistically significantly differed in their manner of coping with loneliness only on the Religion and Faith subscale, as hypothesized. Similar studies with people of other religious denominations could further highlight that issue. PMID:22897080

  14. Coping Processes Among Bereaved Spouses

    PubMed Central

    Caserta, Michael; Utz, Rebecca; Lund, Dale; Bearnson, Kristin Lee; de Vries, Brian

    2012-01-01

    We investigated if an intervention based on the dual process model (vs. traditional bereavement support) enhanced oscillation between loss- and restoration-oriented (LO/RO) coping of recently bereaved (2–6 months) spouses/partners. Participants were followed over 12 months. We found an increased emphasis over time on RO coping, particularly for women and those who were younger; however, no treatment effect was detected. Although patterns in the data are consistent with the model, we conclude that it is difficult for interventions to modify LO, RO and oscillation unless there is sufficient intervention dosage and tailored to those exclusively engaged in one process. PMID:24524542

  15. Coping strategies in voice disorders of a Brazilian population.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Gisele; Hirani, Shashivadan P; Epstein, Ruth; Yazigi, Latife; Behlau, Mara

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this research is to explore coping strategies of individuals with and without vocal complaint and to examine relationships between the type of coping and vocal complaint; vocal symptoms; vocal self-assessment; perceptual analysis and states of depression, anxiety, and aspects related to self-esteem; and locus of control. One hundred seventy-eight subjects with (n=87) and without vocal (n=91) complaint completed the following analysis: identification and characterization questionnaire, vocal self-assessment, perceptual analysis, Voice Disability Coping Questionnaire (VDCQ)-Brazilian Version, Beck Depression Inventory, Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale, Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and Health Locus of Control Scale. Age (P=0.219) and sex (P=0.132) were similar for both groups. The groups were statistically different for the following vocal characterization: number of symptoms, voice complaint, vocal self-assessment, and perceptual analysis. Conversely, the groups did not differ on states of depression, anxiety, and aspects related to self-esteem; and locus of control. Mean coping scores for the group with vocal complaint was 51.86 and for the group without vocal complaint was 23.18. Furthermore, men and women did not differ on the coping strategies reported (P=0.750); however, individuals with vocal complaint reported statistically more strategies than the individuals without vocal complaint (P<0.001). Problem-focused strategies were more frequently reported by individuals with vocal complaint (46.7%). Coping results correlated (Spearman's r) positively with vocal perceptual analysis (P=0.036), depression (P=0.006), and anxiety (P=0.022), and correlated negatively with locus of control (P=0.001). No correlation was found between coping and the other variables studied. These findings indicate that people with vocal complaint use a variety of coping strategies, problem focused in particular, to deal with their voice problems. Coping results appear to be associated with perceptual characteristics of voice and some traits, such as depression, anxiety, and locus of control. PMID:21550778

  16. How does coping change with development? A review of childhood and adolescence sport coping research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicholas L. Holt; Sharleen Hoar; Shawn N. Fraser

    2005-01-01

    It is important to study how children and adolescents cope with stressors in sport because effective coping enhances sport experiences and prevents psychological and physiological problems that can lead to sport withdrawal. The purpose of this review was to summarize the existing child and adolescent coping research to establish how coping changes with development in the achievement context of sport.

  17. How Colleges Are Coping, 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huggett, Kim

    1994-01-01

    This series of reports provides regular updates on the actions taken by California colleges in coping with a difficult economy. The reports, produced in March, June, August, and October of 1994, review the impact of budgetary shortfall on 107 California Community Colleges (CCC), 20 California State Universities (CSU), 8 Universities of California,…

  18. Magical Thinking and Consumer Coping

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yannik St. James; Jay M. Handelman; Shirley F. Taylor

    2011-01-01

    Magical thinking is often regarded as a cognitive distortion, whereby consumers irrationally invoke mystical, supernatural forces to cope with stressful situations. Adopting a culture-based theoretical lens, this article examines magical thinking as an integral element of contemporary consumer society, a cultural practice of meaning negotiation that works to restore the experience of interconnectedness when this experience has been broken. The

  19. Coping with Computer-Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudiburg, Richard A.; Necessary, James R.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses human-computer interaction and describes research that investigated coping strategies by college student computer users who experienced varying degrees of computer stress. Measures used to assess results of student questionnaires are explained, and results show high-stress users employed emotional-focused strategies while low-stress…

  20. COPE: Computer Organized Physical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambdin, Dolly

    1997-01-01

    Reviews the need for and appropriate use of individual assessment in physical education and explains how computerized data management can combat the logistical difficulties of using the data. Describes project COPE (Computer Organized Physical Education), a computerized data management system for improving recordkeeping, planning, and…

  1. How Colleges Are Coping, 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huggett, Kim

    1992-01-01

    This series of reports reviews how California colleges are coping with a difficult economy. The reports, produced in February, March, June, August, and October of 1992, review the impact of budgetary shortfalls on the 107 California Community Colleges (CCC), 20 California State Universities (CSU), 8 University of California (UC) campuses, and 63…

  2. Helping Children Cope with Death

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Size Email Print Share Helping Children Cope with Death Article Body We have had a death in the family. How do we help our ... to the death of someone in their lives: Death of a grandparent When a grandparent dies, children ...

  3. Coping with Academic Career Malaise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Edwin L.

    This paper addresses the issue of career unhappiness among academic professionals and ways academics cope with this problem. Various signs and symptoms of career blockage are discussed such as dissonance and disillusionment in the job, the non-realization of gender-specific expectations, and the feeling of career plateauing. Four stages of the…

  4. Eating Disorders as Coping Mechanisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagener, Amy M.; Much, Kari

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on the complex nature of eating disorders, specifically highlighting their use as coping mechanisms for underlying emotional and psychological concerns. Case examples of college counseling center clients are discussed in order to illustrate common ways in which eating disorders are utilized by clients with varying…

  5. Multimedia Software to Help Caregivers Cope

    PubMed Central

    Chambers, Mary G.; Connor, Samantha L.; McGonigle, Mary; Diver, Mike G.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: This report describes the design and evaluation of a software application to help carers cope when faced with caring problems and emergencies. Design: The design process involved users at each stage to ensure the content of the software application was appropriate, and the research team carefully considered the requirements of disabled and elderly users. Measurements: Focus group discussions and individual interviews were conducted in five European countries to ascertain the needs of caregivers in this area. The findings were used to design a three-part multimedia software application to help family caregivers prepare to cope with sudden, unexpected, and difficult situations that may arise during their time as a caregiver. This prototype then was evaluated via user trials and usability questionnaires to consider the usability and acceptance of the application and any changes that may be required. Results: User acceptance of the software application was high, and the key features of usability such as content, appearance, and navigation were highly rated. In general, comments were positive and enthusiastic regarding the content of the software application and relevance to the caring situation. Conclusion: The software application has the potential to offer information and support to those who are caring for the elderly and disabled at home and to help them prepare for a crisis. PMID:12807815

  6. Sharing Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mealy, Virginia; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Three articles describe methods for teaching library skills. The first presents a song used to teach students the Dewey Decimal system; the second describes a reading program incorporating Halloween and foreign countries; and the third includes short poems designed to teach students to care for library books properly. (CLB)

  7. Skills Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canter, Patricia; And Others

    The services of the Living Skills Center for the Visually Handicapped, a habilitative service for blind young adults, are described. It is explained that the Center houses its participants in their own apartments in a large complex and has served over 70 young people in 4 years. The evaluation section describes such assessment instruments as an…

  8. Adolescents' Coping with Frightening Mass Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffner, Cynthia

    1995-01-01

    Investigates the use and perceived effectiveness of strategies for coping with scary films, coping style, and two dimensions of empathy. Confirms evidence that "blunting" is characterized by distraction or reinterpretation of scary events, whereas "monitoring" is characterized by attention to threat cues. Interprets gender differences in coping as…

  9. Mothers' Coping and Hope in Early Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Einav, Michal; Levi, Uzi; Margalit, Malka

    2012-01-01

    The goals of the study were to examine the relations between maternal coping and hope among mothers who participated in early intervention program for their infants. Earlier studies focused attention on mothers' experiences of stress and their coping. Within the salutogenic construct, we aim at examining relations between mothers' coping and hope…

  10. Coping with Schizophrenia: Patterns in Later Adulthood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solano, Nancy H.; Whitbourne, Susan Krauss

    2001-01-01

    Investigated whether the coping framework developed with younger adults with schizophrenia could be applied to people over 50 with schizophrenia. Results indicated that coping strategies used by older people were similar to those of younger populations. However, it was reported that efficacy of coping strategies had increased as participants had…

  11. Stress and Coping Strategies among Zimbabwean Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magaya, Lindiwe; Asner-Self, Kimberly K.; Schreiber, James B.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Stress and social support influence adolescents' coping strategies. Adolescents need to acquire a large repertoire of coping strategies in light of a rapidly changing socio-economic and political situation. Aim: This study reports on the coping strategies of Zimbabwean adolescents and highlights some major stressors they face. The…

  12. Coping With Symptoms Related to Schizophrenia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karl H. Wiedl; Barbara Schöttner

    1991-01-01

    This article describes a method developed to assess coping with schizophrenia by inpatients and outpatients. The approach is based on a transactional theory of coping. Symptoms related to the disease, subjective appraisals given by the 40 patients, and coping behavior are assessed using a list of disease-related strains, rating scales, and a semistructured interview. Results of this study indicate that

  13. A prospective study on the development of critical thinking skills for student prosthetists and orthotists in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Wong, Man Sang

    2007-06-01

    Critical thinking skill is considered to be one of the important attributes to nurture students to cope with the challenges coming from this ever-changing world. The training of critical thinking skill could be quite different from the conventional education. Thus, special arrangements should be considered in the curriculum design and effective assessment method should be employed to test the subsequent learning outcome. This study was to evaluate prospectively the development of critical thinking disposition of the student prosthetists and orthotists in Hong Kong and a validated instrument, the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory (CCTDI) was used. The results showed that there was significant improvement in 5 out of the 7 domains, namely Truthseeking, Open-mindedness, Systematicity, Analyticity, Critical thinking self-confidence, Inquisitiveness and Maturity of judgment in 3 years' time. Further curriculum enhancements were suggested as the sum of all the domains was just slightly above the threshold of positive tendency. PMID:17520491

  14. Dispositional coping, coping effectiveness, and cognitive social maturity among adolescent athletes.

    PubMed

    Nicholls, Adam R; Perry, John L; Jones, Leigh; Morley, Dave; Carson, Fraser

    2013-06-01

    It is accepted among scholars that coping changes as people mature during adolescence, but little is known about the relationship between maturity and coping. The purpose of this paper was to assess a model, which included dispositional coping, coping effectiveness, and cognitive social maturity. We predicted that cognitive social maturity would have a direct effect on coping effectiveness, and also an indirect impact via dispositional coping. Two hundred forty-five adolescent athletes completed measures of dispositional coping, coping effectiveness, and cognitive social maturity, which has three dimensions: conscientiousness, peer influence on behavior, and rule following. Using structural equation modeling, we found support for our model, suggesting that coping is related to cognitive social maturity. This information can be used to influence the content of coping interventions for adolescents of different maturational levels. PMID:23798586

  15. A model linking sources of stress to approach and avoidance coping styles of Turkish basketball referees.

    PubMed

    Anshel, Mark Howard; Sutarso, Toto; Ekmekci, Ridvan; Saraswati, Intan W

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of this study was to externally validate and test a conceptual transient model involving six paths that linked sources of acute stress to avoidance and approach coping styles among Turkish basketball referees. The sample consisted of 125 Turkish basketball referees ranging in age from 18 to 36 years (mean = 25.58. ? = 3.69). The path analysis tested the relationships simultaneously from stressors, in consecutive order, distractions, subpar performance and verbal abuse, to coping styles, first both avoidance-cognitive and approach-cognitive, and then approach-behaviour. Results indicated that the model achieved a good fit and that all paths tested simultaneously were significant. The distractions stressor was positively related to subpar performance, which, in turn, was positively related to verbal abuse. Verbal abuse was negatively associated with an avoidance-cognitive coping style and positively related to the approach-cognitive coping style. The results also supported a crossover effect of both avoidance-cognitive and approach-cognitive on approach-behaviour. One implication of this study is that coping should be studied in naturally occurring stages, a process-oriented approach. Another implication is that approach and avoidance coping styles, each sub-divided into cognitive and behavioural categories, provide a meaningful framework which provides sports officials a coherent structure for learning and improving ways to cope with acute stress experienced during the contest. PMID:24015999

  16. Dispositional Hope and the Propensity to Cope: A Daily Diary Assessment of Minority Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Roesch, Scott C.; Duangado, Kate M.; Vaughn, Allison A.; Aldridge, Arianna A.; Villodas, Feion

    2011-01-01

    The authors examined the predictive ability of dispositional hope components (pathways, agency) in explaining minority adolescents’ consistent use of daily coping strategies. Using daily diary methodology, 126 low socioeconomic status minority participants completed a multidimensional measure of dispositional hope and reported on subsequent stressful events that they experienced and the coping strategies that they employed over the course of a 5-day period. Multilevel modeling analyses revealed that hope–pathways was uniquely and positively related to direct problem solving, planning, positive thinking, religious coping, distracting action, and overall coping use. Hope–agency was uniquely and positively associated with instrumental support for actions. Discussion focuses on the role of hope as a protective factor for minority adolescents experiencing stress, and particularly the unique predictive ability of each hope component. PMID:20438157

  17. A learning skills course for the 1st year medical students: an experience at a Saudi medical school

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, Imran A; Bin Abdulrahman, Khalid A; Alsultan, Mohammed A

    2015-01-01

    Background Every year nearly 1,500 students enter into medical program after passing high school and national aptitude exams. However, many students experience frustration, failure, and psychological morbidities like stress, depression, and anxiety because they are not aware of their learning styles or do not have effective learning skills and strategies. The College of Medicine of Al-Imam Muhammad ibn Saud Islamic University has adopted the outcome based, community oriented, Spiral Curriculum. Although the curriculum is innovative, on the other hand, it is very demanding. Objective The purpose of this paper is to share educational structure and evaluation results of the course on effective learning and study skills for the 1st year medical students. Methods To prepare our students in order to cope with this demanding but promising curriculum, we conducted an effective and comprehensive learning skills course for 16 weeks in the first semester of year 1 in the medical program. Performance of each student was assessed and the course evaluation was done by students at the end of the course. Results The attendance of the students throughout the course was over 90%. The average performance of students in the summative assessment was 78% and the course was generally liked by the students. Discussion Students overall had a positive attitude toward the learning skills course. Majority of the students showed interest in attending the sessions regularly and realized the significance of this course to improve their learning skills. PMID:25848332

  18. Religious coping moderates the relation between racism and psychological well-being among Christian Asian American college students.

    PubMed

    Kim, Paul Youngbin; Kendall, Dana L; Webb, Marcia

    2015-01-01

    The authors examined the moderating role of positive and negative religious coping in the relation between racism and psychological well-being in a sample of Catholic and Protestant Asian American college students (N = 107). On the basis of prior theorizing on the 2 types of religious coping, combined with some limited empirical evidence, they predicted that positive religious coping would have a buffering effect (Hypothesis 1) on the racism-mental health relation and that negative religious coping would have an exacerbating effect (Hypothesis 2). Participants completed an online survey containing measures corresponding to the study variables. Results indicated that the interaction between positive religious coping and racism was nonsignificant, so Hypothesis 1 was not supported. For Hypothesis 2, the negative religious coping and racism interaction term was statistically significant, but the moderating effect was in an unexpected direction, such that negative religious coping actually protected against the deleterious impact of racism on mental health. The findings suggest that the theorized deleterious influence of negative religious coping may need to be reconsidered in an Asian American setting. The findings have the potential to inform practitioners who work with Asian American college students to better cope with the detrimental consequences of racism. PMID:25602609

  19. Effects on Problem Behavior and Social Skills Associated with the Implementation of School Wide Positive Behavioral Intervention and Supports Approach in an Alternative School Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Erica

    2013-01-01

    In spite of research documenting the negative effects of punishment, most high schools and correctional facilities rely on punishment to establish order and compliance with rules and routines (Nelson, Sprague, Jolivette, Smith, & Tobin, 2009). One alternative to punitive consequences is School Wide Positive Behavioral Intervention and Supports…

  20. Communications Skills I. Reading Skills, Writing Skills, Using a Newspaper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This student workbook contains instructional units dealing with developing reading, writing, and listening skills and using a newspaper. Addressed in the unit on reading and writing skills are finding main ideas; mastering reading attack skills; improving memory skills; learning words from context; skimming; developing vocabulary; improving study…

  1. Coping with a community stressor: a proposed hazardous waste disposal facility

    SciTech Connect

    Bachrach, K.M.

    1983-01-01

    This study examined a number of factors believed to influence community involvement. Residents of a rural community near Phoenix, Arizona, where a hazardous waste facility had been proposed to built, were interviewed at home in August 1982. Most residents were chosen at random (n = 70) while a smaller number (n = 29) were selected because of known involvement in activities regarding the hazardous waste facility. Residents who perceived the facility as a threat to their health, safety, and general well-being employed a number of coping strategies. Strategies to change or alter the source of stress, problem-focused coping, were associated with greater community involvement. Strategies to regulate one's emotional response to stress, emotion-focused coping, were associated with less community involvement. Increased self-efficacy and sense of community led to increased community involvement. Both measures indirectly influenced community involvement through different modes of coping. Self-efficacy was negatively related to emotion-focused coping while sense of community was positively related to problem-focused coping. Increased demoralization was associated with decreased self-efficacy, increased emotion-focused coping, and decreased community involvement. The results suggest that the psychologically most fragile residents are underrepresented in community activities, and that the use of high levels of emotion-focused coping may have been maladaptive.

  2. [Coping or adaptive processes in psychosomatic medicine].

    PubMed

    Heim, E

    1979-01-01

    In the last decade a new psychological concept was derived from the pre-scientific English term "coping" and introduced into what is known as illness-behaviour. Coping supplements the psychoanalytical defence theory by forming part of the adaption processes in illness and helping to overcome illness as a psychic crisis. The present paper is an attempt to provide a critical analyses of all literature available on the concept of coping. After various examples of a definition of the term, it was shown how coping differs from defence mechanisms, the connection between stress and coping was explained and a comprehensive illness model was presented. Then followed a discussion of the better known forms of coping to date and a brief presentation of fields of scientific research which could benefit from the coping concept. PMID:494837

  3. Life Skills for Women in Transition: A Workshop Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Margaret

    This workshop guide is designed for facilitators of programs that assist women in coping with their newly independent status as a result of divorce, widowhood, or other life transitions. The guide reviews the leadership skills needed for organizing a workshop, planning tips, recruitment, resources and other preparations. A format for the workshop…

  4. Sexual assault related distress and drinking: the influence of daily reports of social support and coping control.

    PubMed

    Stappenbeck, Cynthia A; Hassija, Christina M; Zimmerman, Lindsey; Kaysen, Debra

    2015-03-01

    Introduction. A history of sexual assault (SA) is often associated with increased distress and heavy drinking. One's ability to cope with the distress and seek social support has been associated with drinking more generally. However, SA-related distress, drinking, and the extent to which a woman engages in adaptive coping or seeks social support is known to vary day-to-day. The goal of the present investigation was to examine the moderating influence of perceived coping control and social support on the event-level association between SA-related distress and drinking. Methods. This study included 133 college women with a history of SA who reported recent heavy drinking. Participants provided daily reports of their SA-related distress, perceived coping control, perceived social support, and alcohol consumption every day for 30days. Results. Results of generalized estimating equation models suggest that coping control moderated the association between distress and drinking such that those with less perceived coping control drank more as their SA-related distress increased from their average. Although social support did not moderate between distress and drinking, decreases in perceived social support were associated with more drinking on that day. Conclusions. The results suggest that daily deviations in SA-related distress may influence alcohol consumption more than average levels of distress, especially among women with low coping control. Interventions for women with SA histories should help them build coping skills as well as adequate social support in order to reduce drinking. PMID:25437266

  5. Assessments of "Learning-Related Skills" and "Interpersonal Skills" Constructs within Early Childhood Environments in Singapore"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Sok Mui; Rodger, Sylvia; Brown, Ted

    2010-01-01

    Social skills are necessary for developing successful relationships and promoting learning. "Interpersonal skills" (IPS) are needed for maintaining friendships while "learning-related skills" (LRS) are required for positive classroom behaviours. In this study, we investigated the construct validity of LRS and IPS within two existing assessments:…

  6. Event-exposure stress, coping, and psychological distress among New York students at six months after 9/11.

    PubMed

    Heyman, Janna C; Brennan, Mark; Colarossi, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    This study examines if event-exposure stress has a significant effect on the latent mediating factors of problem-based coping, emotion-based coping, and intrinsic religious motivation, as well as on psychological distress. The study used a single-group correlational design. Data were collected from graduate social work students (N=642) in the New York metropolitan area six months after September 11, 2001. In a structural equation model, event-exposure stress was found to be positively related to problem-focused coping. The model also supported that event-exposure stress had a positive direct effect on psychological distress. While both forms of coping were positively related to levels of distress, higher levels of intrinsic religious motivation were related to lower levels of psychological distress. Professionals should provide guidance to help individuals reduce psychological distress by building upon different coping strategies to best fit the person and the situation. PMID:19437172

  7. An exploration of the role of employment as a coping resource for women experiencing intimate partner abuse.

    PubMed

    Beecham, David

    2014-01-01

    There has been a growing interest amongst researchers and practitioners regarding the various coping strategies adopted by women experiencing intimate partner abuse (IPA). These studies have tended to adopt and adapt the stress-coping model developed by Lazarus and Folkman (1984) and thus make the distinction between emotion and problem-solving coping strategies and the resources available for women to cope. Even though, contemporary coping scholars acknowledge the role of employment and coping, it is still unclear as to how employment facilitates women's coping strategies. Drawing on findings from a qualitative study, this article explores how employment and workplace environments provide survivors of IPA with resources that allow them to cope with the abuse. By incorporating theoretical insights developed in the field of organizational studies, namely boundary work and organizational identities, these findings develop our understanding of the role of employment in survivors' coping strategies. Finally, the findings demonstrate the valuable contribution of interdisciplinarity in furthering our knowledge of coping strategies and the positive aspects of employment for survivors of IPA. PMID:25199388

  8. Assessing Students' Metacognitive Skills

    PubMed Central

    Alman, Martha; Gardner, Stephanie; Born, Charles

    2007-01-01

    Objective To develop a diagnostic test for assessing cognitive skills related to metacognition in a physiology course. Methods Cognitive skills believed to be related to metacognition (visualizing lecture information and interpreting diagrams) were identified in a first-professional year (P1) physiology course and test items were constructed for each. Analyses included overall reliability, item discrimination, and variance comparisons of 4 groups to assess the effect of prior physiology coursework and diagnostic test score level on the first examination in physiology. Results Overall reliability was 0.83 (N = 78). Eighty percent of the test items discriminated positively. The average diagnostic test scores of students with or without a prior physiology course did not differ significantly. Students who scored above the class mean on the diagnostic test and who had taken a prior physiology course also had the highest average scores on the physiology examination. Conclusion The diagnostic test provided a measure of a limited number of skills related to metacognition, and preliminary data suggest that such skills are especially important in retaining information. PMID:17429514

  9. Optimism, coping, psychological distress, and high-risk sexual behavior among men at risk for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shelley E. Taylor; Margaret E. Kemeny; Lisa G. Aspinwall; Stephen G. Schneider

    1992-01-01

    In a cohort of gay men responding to the threat of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), dispositional optimism was associated with less distress, less avoidant coping, positive attitudes as a coping strategy, and fewer AIDS-related concerns. Men who knew they were seropositive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) were significantly more optimistic about not developing AIDS than men who knew they were

  10. Forgiveness and mental health variables: Interpreting the relationship using an adaptational-continuum model of personality and coping

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Maltby; Liza Day; Louise Barber

    2004-01-01

    The present paper uses an adaptational-continuum model of personality, based on Ferguson’s (2001) health psychology model integrating Eysenck personality factors and coping style, to provide a context for examining the relationship between forgiveness and mental health. Three hundred and twenty respondents completed measures of personality, coping style, forgiveness (forgiveness of self, others, likelihood, presence of positive forgiveness, absence of negative

  11. The Best Years of Our Lives? Coping with Stress Predicts School Grades, Life Satisfaction, and Feelings about High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacCann, Carolyn; Lipnevich, Anastasiya A.; Burrus, Jeremy; Roberts, Richard D.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines whether problem-focused, emotion-focused, and avoidant coping strategies predict key outcomes in a sample of 354 high school students. The four outcomes considered are: academic achievement, life satisfaction, positive feelings towards school, and negative feelings towards school. Results demonstrate that coping incrementally…

  12. Longitudinal spiritual coping with trauma in people with HIV: implications for health care.

    PubMed

    Kremer, Heidemarie; Ironson, Gail

    2014-03-01

    This 10-year study (N=177) examines how people with HIV use spirituality to cope with life's trauma on top of HIV-related stress (e.g., facing death, stigma, poverty, limited healthcare) usual events. Spirituality, defined as a connection to a higher presence, is independent from religion (institutionalized spirituality). As a dynamic adaptive process, coping requires longitudinal studying. Qualitative content-analysis of interviews/essays yielded a coding of specific aspects and a longitudinal rating of overall spiritual coping. Most participants were rated as spiritual, using spiritual practices, about half experienced comfort, empowerment, growth/transformation, gratitude, less than one-third meaning, community, and positive reframing. Up to one-fifth perceived spiritual conflict, struggle, or anger, triggering post-traumatic stress, which sometimes converted into positive growth/transformation later. Over time, 65% used spiritual coping positively, 7% negatively, and 28% had no significant use. Spirituality was mainly beneficial for women, heterosexuals, and African Americans (p<0.05). Results suggest that spirituality is a major source of positive and occasionally negative coping (e.g., viewing HIV as sin). We discuss how clinicians can recognize and prevent when spirituality is creating distress and barriers to HIV treatment, adding a literature review on ways of effective spiritual assessment. Spirituality may be a beneficial component of coping with trauma, considering socio-cultural contexts. PMID:24601735

  13. Surveying Organization Development Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warrick, D. D.; Donovan, Tom

    1979-01-01

    From a survey of leaders in organization development, the authors identified 40 major needed skills which they categorize under four headings: knowledge skills, consulting skills, conceptual skills, and human skills. They discuss concerns and needs in each category, providing a chart of the identified skills for self-evaluation. (MF)

  14. The adolescent emotional coping after an earthquake: a risk factor for suicidal ideation.

    PubMed

    Stratta, Paolo; Capanna, Cristina; Carmassi, Claudia; Patriarca, Sara; Di Emidio, Gabriella; Riccardi, Ilaria; Collazzoni, Alberto; Dell'Osso, Liliana; Rossi, Alessandro

    2014-07-01

    The study aims to investigate the relationship of suicidal ideation with coping and resilience in a sample of adolescents who survived an earthquake. Three hundred forty-three adolescents who had experienced the L'Aquila earthquake were investigated for a screening distinguishing Suicidal Screen-Negative (SSN) from the Positive (SSP) subjects. Resilience Scale for Adolescents (READ) and Brief Cope were administered. Emotion-focused coping score was significantly higher in SSP subjects. In the SSN but not in the SSP sample the READ total score correlated with problem-focused total score. A positive correlation was seen between emotion-focused and problem-focused scores in both samples, with a higher coefficient in SSP sample. Externalising problems and maladaptive behaviours can arise in adolescents exposed to traumatic events. Attention should be paid in reducing risk factors and in the development of psychological abilities, improving the coping strategies that can protect from emotional despair and suicidal ideation. PMID:24931563

  15. Coping with guilt and shame after gambling loss.

    PubMed

    Yi, Sunghwan; Kanetkar, Vinay

    2011-09-01

    In this study we examined the relations between guilt and shame and coping strategies in response to gambling loss. Based on H.B. Lewis's (Shame & guilt in neurosis. New York: International Universities Press, 1971) account of guilt and shame, we proposed that unlike guilt, the experience of shame involves the attribution of gambling loss to stable and global internal factors (i.e., self-devaluation). We hypothesized that problem gambling severity would be more strongly associated with the intensity of shame than with the intensity of guilt following gambling loss. Further, we hypothesized that the intensity of shame would be positively associated with the use of avoidant coping strategies following gambling loss. Finally, we hypothesized that the intensity of shame would mediate the association between problem gambling severity and the use of avoidant coping. These hypotheses were supported by a retrospective survey of recent gambling losses. Our finding suggests that the experience of shame and the use of avoidant coping strategies to deal with this emotion are central to problem gambling severity. PMID:20857182

  16. Coping strategies during and after spaceflight: Data from retired cosmonauts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suedfeld, Peter; Brcic, Jelena; Johnson, Phyllis J.; Gushin, Vadim

    2015-05-01

    Coping is a dynamic physiological and psychological process in response to perceived environmental stress that functions to restore physiological homeostasis and reduce negative affect [1]. Thematic content analysis was employed for references to 13 well-established coping strategies in interviews with 20 retired long-duration male cosmonauts. As in previous research with other space samples [2,3] the retired cosmonauts mentioned Problem-Oriented strategies more frequently than Emotion-Oriented ones. In the present sample, Seeking Social Support, Planful Problem Solving and Endurance/Obedience/Effort were the top three most mentioned coping strategies. Cosmonauts who had spent more than a year in space, compared to those who had spent less than a year, mentioned using Planful Problem Solving more as they recalled their career and retirement. Examining changes over time, spaceflight had a positive effect on Accepting Responsibility. Endurance/Obedience/Effort steadily decreased over time, while we found an inverted-U pattern for Distancing and Self-Control. Additional results in relation to other astronaut samples and the relationship between coping and post-flight growth are discussed.

  17. Self-compassion, Achievement Goals, and Coping with Academic Failure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    KRISTIN D. NEFF; Ya-Ping Hsieh; Kullaya Dejitterat

    2005-01-01

    Two studies examined the relationship between self-compassion, academic achievement goals, and coping with perceived academic failure among undergraduates. Self-compassion entails being kind to oneself in instances of failure, perceiving one's experiences as part of the larger human experience, and holding painful feelings in mindful awareness. Study 1 (N?=?222) found that self-compassion was positively associated with mastery goals and negatively associated

  18. Illinois Occupational Skill Standards: Machining Skills Cluster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Occupational Skill Standards and Credentialing Council, Carbondale.

    This document of skill standards for the machining skills cluster serves as a guide to workforce preparation program providers in defining content for their programs and to employers to establish the skills and standards necessary for job acquisition. These 67 occupational skill standards describe what people should know and be able to do in an…

  19. The chronic pain coping inventory: Confirmatory factor analysis of the French version

    PubMed Central

    Truchon, Manon; Cōté, Denis; Irachabal, Sandrine

    2006-01-01

    Background Coping strategies are among the psychosocial factors hypothesized to contribute to the development of chronic musculoskeletal disability. The Chronic Pain Coping Inventory (CPCI) was developed to assess eight behavioral coping strategies targeted in multidisciplinary pain treatment (Guarding, Resting, Asking for Assistance, Task Persistence, Relaxation, Exercise/Stretch, Coping Self-Statements and Seeking Social Support). The present study had two objectives. First, it aimed at measuring the internal consistency and the construct validity of the French version of the CPCI. Second, it aimed to verify if, as suggested by the CPCI authors, the scales of this instrument can be grouped according to the following coping families: Illness-focused coping and Wellness-focused coping. Method The CPCI was translated into French with the forward and backward translation procedure. To evaluate internal consistency, Cronbach's alphas were computed. Construct validity of the inventory was estimated through confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) in two samples: a group of 439 Quebecois workers on sick leave in the sub-acute stage of low back pain (less than 84 days after the work accident) and a group of 388 French chronic pain patients seen in a pain clinic. A CFA was also performed to evaluate if the CPCI scales were grouped into two coping families (i.e. Wellness-focused and Illness-focused coping). Results The French version of the CPCI had adequate internal consistency in both samples. The CFA confirmed the eight-scale structure of the CPCI. A series of second-order CFA confirmed the composition of the Illness-focused family of coping (Guarding, Resting and Asking for Assistance). However, the composition of the Wellness-focused family of coping (Relaxation, Exercise/Stretch, Coping Self-Statements and Seeking Social Support) was different than the one proposed by the authors of the CPCI. Also, a positive correlation was observed between Illness and Wellness coping families. Conclusion The present study indicates that the internal consistency and construct validity of the French version of the CPCI were adequate, but the grouping and labeling of the CPCI families of coping are debatable and deserve further analysis in the context of musculoskeletal and pain rehabilitation. PMID:16478541

  20. Preliminary Efficacy of an Intervention to Reduce Psychosocial Stress and Improve Coping in Low-Income Families

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martha E. WadsworthCatherine; Catherine DeCarlo Santiago; Lindsey Einhorn; Erica M. Etter; Shauna Rienks; Howard Markman

    This article reports pre–post intervention results from a randomized controlled trial evaluating the initial efficacy of a\\u000a couples-based intervention aimed at teaching skills for coping with stress and improving relationship skills in a sample of\\u000a 173 ethnically diverse low-income co-resident mothers and fathers who were raising at least one child together. Couples were\\u000a randomly assigned to one of three interventions

  1. Effective Stress Management: A Model of Emotional Intelligence, Self-Leadership, and Student Stress Coping

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffery D. Houghton; Jinpei Wu; Jeffrey L. Godwin; Christopher P. Neck; Charles C. Manz

    2012-01-01

    This article develops and presents a model of the relationships among emotional intelligence, self-leadership, and stress coping among management students. In short, the authors’ model suggests that effective emotion regulation and self-leadership, as mediated through positive affect and self-efficacy, has the potential to facilitate stress coping among students. A primary implication of the model is that basic emotion regulation and

  2. The Impact of Racial Discrimination and Coping Strategies on Internalizing Symptoms in African American Youth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Noni K. Gaylord-Harden; Jamila A. Cunningham

    2009-01-01

    The current study examined the impact of racial discrimination stress on internalizing symptoms and coping strategies in a\\u000a sample of 268 African American early adolescents (mean age = 12.90; 56% female) from low-income communities. Information about\\u000a discrimination stress, coping, and internalizing symptoms was obtained via adolescents’ self-report. It was predicted that\\u000a discrimination stress would be positively associated with depression and anxiety, as

  3. Occupational Stress and Coping Strategies Among Emergency Department Nurses of China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Dong-Mei; Sun, Ning; Hong, Su; Fan, Yu-Ying; Kong, Fan-Ying; Li, Qiu-Jie

    2015-08-01

    Emergency department(ED) nurses work in a rapidly changing environment with patients that have wide variety of conditions. Occupational stress in emergency department nurses is a common problem. The purpose of this study was to describe the relationship between coping strategies and occupational stress among ED nurses in China. A correlational, cross-sectional design was adopted. Two questionnaires were given to a random sample of 127 ED nurses registered at the Heilongjiang Nurses' Association. Data were collected from the nurses that worked in the ED of five general hospitals in Harbin China. Occupational stress and coping strategies were measured by two questionnaires. A multiple regression model was applied to analyze the relationship between stress and coping strategies. The stressors of ED nurses mainly come from the ED specialty of nursing (2.97±0.55), workload and time distribution (2.97±0.58). The mean score of positive coping strategies was 2.19±0.35, higher than the norm (1.78±0.52). The mean score of negative coping strategies was 1.20±0.61, lower than the norm (1.59±0.66), both had significant statistical difference (P<0.001). Too much documents work, criticism, instrument equipment shortage, night shift, rank of professional were the influence factors about occupational stress to positive coping styles. Too much documents work, and medical insurance for ED nurses were the influential factors on occupational stress to negative coping styles. This study identified several factors associated with occupational stress in ED nurses. These results could be used to guide nurse managers of ED nurses to reduce work stress. The managers could pay more attention to the ED nurse's coping strategies which can further influence their health state and quality of nursing care. Reducing occupational stress and enhancing coping strategies are vital not only for encouraging nurses but also for the future of nursing development. PMID:26165974

  4. The role of coping in depression treatment utilization for VA primary care patients

    PubMed Central

    Osei-Bonsu, Princess E.; Bokhour, Barbara G.; Glickman, Mark E.; Rodrigues, Stephanie; Mueller, Nora M.; Dell, Natalie S.; Zhao, Shibei; Eisen, Susan V.; Elwy, A. Rani

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the impact of Veterans’ coping strategies on mental health treatment engagement following a positive screen for depression. Methods A mixed methods observational study using a mailed survey and semi structured interviews. Sample included 271 Veterans who screened positive for depression during a primary care visit at one of three VA medical centers and had not received a diagnosis of depression or prescribed antidepressants 12 months prior to screening. A subsample of 23 Veterans was interviewed. Results Logistic regression models showed that Veterans who reported more instrumental support and active coping were more likely to receive depression or other mental health treatment within three months of their positive depression screen. Those who reported emotional support or self distraction as coping strategies were less likely to receive any treatment in the same time frame. Qualitative analyses revealed that how Veterans use these and other coping strategies can impact treatment engagement in a variety of ways. Conclusions The relationship between Veterans’ use of coping strategies and treatment engagement for depression may not be readily apparent without in depth exploration. Practice implications In VA primary care clinics, nurse care managers and behavioral health providers should explore how Veterans’ methods of coping may impact treatment engagement. PMID:24315160

  5. Coping in sport: A systematic review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adam R. Nicholls; Remco C. J. Polman

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to systematically review the literature on coping in sport, examining evidence for both the trait and process perspectives, the types of coping strategies used by athletes, gender differences, age-related differences, and coping effectiveness. A comprehensive literature search of SPORTdiscus, PsychLIT, and PsychINFO in November 2004 yielded 64 studies spanning 16 years (1988 – 2004). The results

  6. From Substitution to Coping: Developing and Testing a Leisure Constraints-Based Coping Model

    E-print Network

    Tseng, Yung-Ping

    2010-01-14

    of coping mechanisms to maintain participation (Carroll & Alexandris, 1997). By extending previous work between coping and its four related concepts, it is hypothesized that: Hypothesis 3a: Levels of place attachment will have a negative effect...

  7. Coping with Hot Work Environments 

    E-print Network

    Smith, David

    2005-04-28

    lead to death. Coping with Hot Work Environments When heat stroke is suspected, summon an ambu- lance immediately. Move the worker to a cool area and thoroughly soak his or her clothes with water. Fan the body vigorously to increase... are painful muscle spasms caused by losing salt in perspiration. Workers who drink much water but do not replace salt are prone to heat cramps because drinking water dilutes the body?s fluids, with- out replacing salt. Soon, the low salt in the muscles...

  8. Coping strategies predict disability in patients with primary fibromyalgia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michelle Y Martin; Laurence A Bradley; Ronald W Alexander; Graciela S Alarcón; Mireya Triana-Alexander; Leslie A Aaron; Kristin R Alberts

    1996-01-01

    We administered the Coping Strategies Questionnaire (CSQ) to 80 patients with fibromyalgia (FM) to determine the relationship between coping strategies and functional disability. A principal components factor analysis revealed two dimensions of patients' CSQ responses: Coping Attempts and Catastrophizing. Coping Attempts consists of five scales: Reinterpreting Pain, Ignoring Pain Sensations, Diverting Attention, Coping Self-Statements and Increasing Activity Level. Catastrophizing is

  9. Stability and Change in Patterns of Coping with Parkinson's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Leslie D.

    2002-01-01

    This study examined how Parkinson's disease patients cope with disease-related stressors over time. Of interest was whether patterns of coping would support a dispositional model of coping (i.e., stability) or a contextual model of coping (i.e., change). The influence of stability and change in coping on mental and physical health outcomes was…

  10. Compulsive Eating: The Emotional Link of Its Use as a Coping Mechanism for Resident Freshman Female College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beylerian, Nvair Kadian

    An 18-year old's freshman year in college is not only a test of his or her intellect, but also a test in social skills, adaptability to new living situations, and other conditions. This study examined the link of emotions to compulsive eating and its use as a coping mechanism for female college students. It explores the stresses of the transition…

  11. Religiousness and Religious Coping in a Secular Society: The Gender Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Hvidtjųrn, Dorte; Hjelmborg, Jacob; Skytthe, Axel; Christensen, Kaare; Hvidt, Niels Christian

    2014-01-01

    Women are found to be more religious than men and more likely to use religious coping. Only few studies have explored religious gender differences in more secular societies. This population-based study comprised 3,000 Danish men and women (response rate 45 %) between 20 and 40 years of age. Information about demographics, religiousness and religious coping was obtained through a web-based questionnaire. We organized religiousness in the three dimensions: Cognition, Practice and Importance, and we assessed religious coping using the brief RCOPE questionnaire. We found substantial gender differences in both religiousness and religious coping. Nearly, 60 % of the women believed in some sort of spirit or in God compared to 40 % of the men. Generally, both men and women scored low on the RCOPE scale. However, for respondents reporting high levels of religiousness, the proportion of men who scored high in the RCOPE exceeded the proportion of women in using positive and especially negative coping strategies. Also, in a secular society, women are found to be more religious than men, but in a subset of the most religious respondents, men were more inclined to use religious coping. Further studies on religious coping in secular societies are required. PMID:23625173

  12. Integration and reuse in cognitive skill acquisition.

    PubMed

    Salvucci, Dario D

    2013-07-01

    Previous accounts of cognitive skill acquisition have demonstrated how procedural knowledge can be obtained and transformed over time into skilled task performance. This article focuses on a complementary aspect of skill acquisition, namely the integration and reuse of previously known component skills. The article posits that, in addition to mechanisms that proceduralize knowledge into more efficient forms, skill acquisition requires tight integration of newly acquired knowledge and previously learned knowledge. Skill acquisition also benefits from reuse of existing knowledge across disparate task domains, relying on indexicals to reference and share necessary information across knowledge components. To demonstrate these ideas, the article proposes a computational model of skill acquisition from instructions focused on integration and reuse, and applies this model to account for behavior across seven task domains. PMID:23551386

  13. How Dyslexic Teenagers Cope: An Investigation of Self-Esteem, Coping and Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander-Passe, Neil

    2006-01-01

    Research into how dyslexics cope and the effects of their coping has received little attention in the 100 years since dyslexia has been recognized. Why is this? Well it is not an easy area to investigate, partly as most qualitative studies have looked only at coping strategies of specific dyslexics. These are individuals and are unsuitable for…

  14. Repressive coping style: Relationships with depression, pain, and pain coping strategies in lung cancer out patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nusara Prasertsri; Janean Holden; Francis J. Keefe; Diana J. Wilkie

    2011-01-01

    Researchers have shown that coping style is related to pain and adjustment in people with chronic illness. This study was the first to examine how coping style related to pain, pain coping strategies, and depression in lung cancer outpatients. We conducted a comparative, secondary data analysis of 107 lung cancer patients (73% male, mean age 61.4±10.43 years, 88% Caucasian). As

  15. Coping patterns as a valid presentation of the diversity of coping responses in schizophrenia patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael S. Ritsner; Anatoly Gibel; Alexander M. Ponizovsky; Evgeny Shinkarenko; Yael Ratner; Rena Kurs

    2006-01-01

    This study aimed to identify coping patterns used by schizophrenia inpatients in comparison with those used by healthy individuals, and to explore their association with selected clinical and psychosocial variables. The Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS) was used to assess coping strategies among 237 inpatients who met DSM-IV criteria for schizophrenia and 175 healthy individuals. Severity of psychopathology and

  16. Does Coping Help?: A Reexamination of the Relation Between Coping and Mental Health

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carolyn M. Aldwin; Tracey A. Revenson

    1987-01-01

    In a longitudinal community survey of 291 adults, we explored the relation between coping strategies and psychological symptoms. Respondents completed the revised Ways of Coping Scale (Folkman & Lazarus, 1985) for a self-named stressful episode. Factor analysis produced eight coping factors: three problem focused, four emotion focused, and one (support mobilization) that contained elements of both. Multiple regression analyses indicated

  17. Coping behavior of international late adolescent students in selected Australian educational institutions.

    PubMed

    Shahrill, Masitah; Mundia, Lawrence

    2014-01-01

    Using the Adolescent Coping Scale, ACS (Frydenberg & Lewis, 1993) we surveyed 45 randomly selected foreign adolescents in Australian schools. The coping strategies used most by the participants were: focus on solving the problem; seeking relaxing diversions; focusing on the positive; seeking social support; worry; seeking to belong; investing in close friends; wishful thinking; and keep to self (Table 4). With regard to coping styles, the most widely used was the productive coping followed by non-productive coping while the least used style was reference to others (Table 4). In terms of both genders the four coping strategies used most often were:  work hard to achieve; seeking relaxing diversions; focus on solving the problem; and focus on the positive (Table 5). The most noticeable gender difference was the use of the physical recreation coping strategy in which male students engaged more (Fig 1). The usage of four coping strategies (solving problem; work hard; focus on positive; and social support) was higher for students who have been away from family more than once as compared to those who have been away once only while the usage of seeking relaxing diversions was higher for the first timers (Table 6). No significant differences were obtained on the sample's performance on the ACS subscales by gender (Table 7), frequency of leaving own country (Table 8), country of origin (Table 9), and length of stay in Australia (Table 11). However, foundation students scored significantly higher on the reference to others variable than their secondary school peers (Table 10). We recommended counseling for students with high support needs and further large-scale mixed-methods research to gain additional insights. PMID:24373267

  18. Religious and Spiritual Issues: Family Therapy Approaches with Military Families Coping with Deployment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gina M. Brelsford; Robert D. Friedberg

    Exploring religious and spiritual issues in family therapy has become more commonplace over the past decade (Walsh, Spiritual\\u000a resources in family therapy, 2009), but understanding how religion and spirituality evolve within military families is unclear. Further, the stressors that\\u000a family members face in the midst of a deployment are paramount, for which many individuals use a variety of coping skills.

  19. Impairment and disability: Renoir's adaptive coping strategies against rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Kowalski, Evan; Chung, Kevin C

    2012-12-01

    Pierre-Auguste Renoir was one of the most influential painters in art history, but few people know that he suffered from debilitating rheumatoid arthritis. Despite his arthritis, he was able to maintain an incredible level of precision and efficiency with his painting. More importantly, he remained positive and did not let his condition affect his passion for painting or take away from the beauty that he saw in the world around him. Renoir applied a wide variety of coping mechanisms and used his ingenuity to come up with different ways to continue painting even as his arthritis weakened him. Renoir's long battle with rheumatoid arthritis serves as an inspiration to patients who experience the pain and limited mobility associated with this disease, encouraging them to persevere and to develop coping mechanisms that prevent the effects of their impairment from disabling them. PMID:24294153

  20. Active and passive coping strategies in chronic pain patients 

    E-print Network

    Snow-Turek, Andrea Lynn

    1994-01-01

    This study assessed the validity of an active/passive conceptualization of coping in a sample of chronic pain patients (N = 84). The validity of active and passive coping dimensions was supported. The Coping Strategies Questionnaire...

  1. Active and passive coping strategies in chronic pain patients

    E-print Network

    Snow-Turek, Andrea Lynn

    1994-01-01

    This study assessed the validity of an active/passive conceptualization of coping in a sample of chronic pain patients (N = 84). The validity of active and passive coping dimensions was supported. The Coping Strategies Questionnaire...

  2. Psychosocial challenges and strategies for coping with HIV among adolescents in Uganda: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Mutumba, Massy; Bauermeister, José A; Musiime, Victor; Byaruhanga, Judith; Francis, Kiweewa; Snow, Rachel C; Tsai, Alexander C

    2015-02-01

    Although more than 90% of youth perinatally infected with HIV live in sub-Saharan Africa, little is known about the psychosocial factors that impact their wellbeing, or how these youth cope with these challenges. The purpose of this study was to identify the psychosocial challenges and coping strategies among perinatal HIV-infected adolescents in Uganda. In-depth interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 38 HIV-infected adolescents aged 12-19 years at a large HIV treatment center in Kampala. Data were analyzed thematically to identify themes and domains related to stressors and specific coping strategies. Psychosocial challenges included stigma/discrimination, relationship challenges such as HIV status disclosure, and medication difficulties. Coping strategies included medication adherence, concealment or limited disclosure of HIV status, treatment optimism, social support, rationalizing, social comparison, spirituality/religiosity, avoidance, and distraction. Age and gender differences also emerged: younger participants generally lacked specific coping strategies; compared to females, male adolescents reported greater use of avoidance/distraction techniques. Findings underscore the need to address stigma within homes and schools, and to equip adolescents with the comprehensive knowledge and skills to address their varied challenges. PMID:25607900

  3. Pain Coping Strategies in Osteoarthritis Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keefe, Francis J.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Investigated the relation of pain coping strategies to pain, health status, and psychological distress in a group of osteoarthritis patients with chronic pain. Patients completed various questionnaires. Medical status variables were also used. The Pain Control and Rational Thinking factor derived from the Coping Strategies Questionnaire proved to…

  4. Coping and adjustment to genital herpes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sharon Manne; Irwin Sandler

    1984-01-01

    The current study examined how individuals deal with genital herpes, a recurrent, incurable disease with a great psychological impact. An assessment battery composed of cognitive and problem-focused coping, attribution, and social support mechanisms was employed. These coping mechanisms were correlated with measures of psychological adjustment: self-esteem, depression, sexual adjustment, and amount upset by herpes. Subjects were 152 people with herpes

  5. Adolescent Girls' Coping With Relational Aggression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alison M. Remillard; Sharon Lamb

    2005-01-01

    This study was designed to examine coping strategies for relational aggression. Ninety-eight female middle- and high-school students completed the Revised Ways of Coping Scale (Folkman & Lazarus, 1985) and reported characteristics of a relational aggressive act of which they were the victim and characteristics of their friendship before and after the act. We explored the relationship between characteristics of the

  6. Coping with Relationship Stressors: A Decade Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seiffge-Krenke, Inge

    2011-01-01

    This review identifies key issues in research on adolescent coping with stress with parents, friends, and romantic partners during the past decade. An analysis of 78 studies revealed findings on relationship stressors and the potential links between the use of different coping styles for different relationship types. Research has confirmed…

  7. Occupational Stress and Coping among Nurses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Purvi Parikh; Atish Taukari; Tanmay Bhattacharya

    2004-01-01

    This paper explores nurses’ occupational stressors and coping mechanisms. In nurses occupational stress appears to vary according to individual and job characteristics, and work-family conflict. Common occupational stressors among nurses are workload, role ambiguity, interpersonal relationships, and death and dying concerns. Emotional distress, burnout and psychological morbidity could also result from occupational stress. Nurses’ common coping mechanisms include problem solving,

  8. Social Coping among Gifted Elementary School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swiatek, Mary Ann

    2002-01-01

    Two studies of gifted 3rd through 7th graders (n=311) enrolled in a summer academic program explored the possibility that social coping strategies could be measured. Six social coping strategies were identified: denying giftedness; minimizing focus on popularity; social interaction; humor; conformity; and denying the impact of giftedness on peer…

  9. Coping and cognition in schizophrenia and depression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert J van den Bosch; RenéP Rombouts

    1997-01-01

    We examined the stable relations between coping style and cognitive function in schizophrenic and depressed patients and in patient and normal controls on two test occasions. The results show that a poor self-report of coping style is independent of psychiatric diagnosis, but there are associations with both subjective and objective cognitive malaise. Poor cognitive task performance is associated with a

  10. Insight, distress and coping styles in schizophrenia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Cooke; Emmanuelle Peters; Dominic Fannon; Anantha P. P. Anilkumar; Ingrid Aasen; Elizabeth Kuipers; Veena Kumari

    2007-01-01

    BackgroundThe stigma and negative societal views attached to schizophrenia can make the diagnosis distressing. There is evidence that poor insight into symptoms of the disorder and need for treatment may reflect the use of denial as a coping style. However, the relationships between insight and other coping styles have seldom been investigated.

  11. The Trauma of Terrorism: Helping Children Cope.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berson, Ilene R.; Berson, Michael J.

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on how to help young people cope with the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. Discusses the reactions of students and social studies teachers. Explores how to discuss the students' feelings about the events to help them cope. Includes a list of Web sites. (CMK)

  12. Skill acquisition Motor learning

    E-print Network

    Sergio, Lauren E.

    ·1 Skill acquisition · Motor learning theories ­ closed loop theory ­ schema theory ­ hierarchical theory · Motor learning practice ­ Fitt's three stages ­ motor imagery ­ physical changes Skill acquisition: Closed loop theory · Feedback guides learning a motor skill ­ memory trace selects and initiates

  13. You want to measure coping but your protocol's too long: consider the brief COPE.

    PubMed

    Carver, C S

    1997-01-01

    Studies of coping in applied settings often confront the need to minimize time demands on participants. The problem of participant response burden is exacerbated further by the fact that these studies typically are designed to test multiple hypotheses with the same sample, a strategy that entails the use of many time-consuming measures. Such research would benefit from a brief measure of coping assessing several responses known to be relevant to effective and ineffective coping. This article presents such a brief form of a previously published measure called the COPE inventory (Carver, Scheier, & Weintraub, 1989), which has proven to be useful in health-related research. The Brief COPE omits two scales of the full COPE, reduces others to two items per scale, and adds one scale. Psychometric properties of the Brief COPE are reported, derived from a sample of adults participating in a study of the process of recovery after Hurricane Andrew. PMID:16250744

  14. An Interprofessional Approach to Teaching Communication Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sargeant, Joan; MacLeod, Tanya; Murray, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Recent research suggests that effective interprofessional communication and collaboration can positively influence patient satisfaction and outcomes. Health professional communication skills do not necessarily improve over time but can improve with formal communication skills training (CST). This article describes the development,…

  15. Elementary Map and Globe Skills Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heebink, William B.

    The document contains sequential lessons on map and global skills for grades K-6. The program relies on three commercial products: Maps Show the Earth and Where and Why (both by A.J. Nystrom) and Level A of the map and globe section from the Wisconsin Design for Reading Skills Development. Kindergarten students examine map representation, position

  16. Biotechnology Skills Standards

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Here users will find an assortment of Bioscience/Agricultural Biotechnology Skills Standards. These should be useful for development of new programs as well as for comparisons with existing programs. The sections discussed are: Biopharmaceutical Manufacturing Skill Standards, Combined Bioscience/Agricultural Biotechnology Skill Standards, Agricultural Biotechnology Skill Standards, Bioscience Industry Skill Standards, National Association of Scientific Materials Managers, ACAP Austin Competency Analysis Profile - Biotechnology, Making Skill Standards Work, and Window on the Workplace.

  17. Meaningful Maths: Teaching Map Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whittle, Miranda Pacaya

    2007-01-01

    In the author's experience, lessons that are clearly meaningful for students beyond the classroom can foster positive attitudes, increase enjoyment, and enhance learning. In this paper she offers suggestions on how to plan for meaningful mathematics lessons using the topic of map skills as an example. She also presents some specific ideas for…

  18. Proposal: Rural Policy Studies Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleury, Stephen C.; Mallan, John T.

    A proposed project would develop a rural policy studies program for high school seniors in northern New York State. The program would deal with value positions as they pertain to the improvement of social conditions, use a variety of sources and kinds of knowledge, emphasize development and use of thinking skills, and concentrate on how knowledge…

  19. SEX DIFFERENCES IN THE USE OF COPING STRATEGIES: PREDICTORS OF ANXIETY AND DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Megan M.; Tyrka, Audrey R.; Price, Lawrence H.; Carpenter, Linda L.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined sex differences in the use of coping strategies and their relationship to depression and anxiety-related psychopathology. Responses on measures of coping strategies, depression, and anxiety were obtained from a carefully screened nonclinical sample (N =107). The results demonstrated that women who used less positive reframing had higher levels of depressive symptoms compared with women who used more positive reframing and to men irrespective of their use of more or less positive reframing. In addition, women who reported the use of more self-blame had elevated levels of trait anxiety, although a similar effect was not found for men. The observed sex differences in the use of coping strategies and their association with depression and anxiety-related problems underscores differences in the clinical presentation of anxiety and depression between women and men. PMID:17603810

  20. Methods for assessing critical nonroutine mine health and safety skills. Open File Report, October 1984June 1987

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. P. Cole; P. K. Berger; C. Vaught; W. G. Lacefield; R. D. Wasielewski

    1988-01-01

    A comprehensive review of published research was carried out to identify methods for teaching and assessing critical but nonroutine skills needed for coping with emergency situations. Specific methods for assessing critical skills proficiency in aviation, medicine, organization management, the military, and other industrial\\/technical workplaces are described. The potential application of these methods for teaching and assessing (1) critical first aid

  1. Mindful movement and skilled attention

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Dav; Schumann, Frank; Mostofsky, Stewart H.

    2015-01-01

    Bodily movement has long been employed as a foundation for cultivating mental skills such as attention, self-control or mindfulness, with recent studies documenting the positive impacts of mindful movement training, such as yoga and tai chi. A parallel “mind-body connection” has also been observed in many developmental disorders. We elaborate a spectrum of mindfulness by considering ADHD, in which deficient motor control correlates with impaired (disinhibited) behavioral control contributing to defining features of excessive distractibility and impulsivity. These data provide evidence for an important axis of variation for wellbeing, in which skillful cognitive control covaries with a capacity for skillful movement. We review empirical and theoretical literature on attention, cognitive control, mind wandering, mindfulness and skill learning, endorsing a model of skilled attention in which motor plans, attention, and executive goals are seen as mutually co-defining aspects of skilled behavior that are linked by reciprocal inhibitory and excitatory connections. Thus, any movement training should engage “higher-order” inhibition and selection and develop a repertoire of rehearsed procedures that coordinate goals, attention and motor plans. However, we propose that mindful movement practice may improve the functional quality of rehearsed procedures, cultivating a transferrable skill of attention. We adopt Langer’s spectrum of mindful learning that spans from “mindlessness” to engagement with the details of the present task and contrast this with the mental attitudes cultivated in standard mindfulness meditation. We particularly follow Feldenkrais’ suggestion that mindful learning of skills for organizing the body in movement might transfer to other forms of mental activity. The results of mindful movement training should be observed in multiple complementary measures, and may have tremendous potential benefit for individuals with ADHD and other populations.

  2. Mindful movement and skilled attention.

    PubMed

    Clark, Dav; Schumann, Frank; Mostofsky, Stewart H

    2015-01-01

    Bodily movement has long been employed as a foundation for cultivating mental skills such as attention, self-control or mindfulness, with recent studies documenting the positive impacts of mindful movement training, such as yoga and tai chi. A parallel "mind-body connection" has also been observed in many developmental disorders. We elaborate a spectrum of mindfulness by considering ADHD, in which deficient motor control correlates with impaired (disinhibited) behavioral control contributing to defining features of excessive distractibility and impulsivity. These data provide evidence for an important axis of variation for wellbeing, in which skillful cognitive control covaries with a capacity for skillful movement. We review empirical and theoretical literature on attention, cognitive control, mind wandering, mindfulness and skill learning, endorsing a model of skilled attention in which motor plans, attention, and executive goals are seen as mutually co-defining aspects of skilled behavior that are linked by reciprocal inhibitory and excitatory connections. Thus, any movement training should engage "higher-order" inhibition and selection and develop a repertoire of rehearsed procedures that coordinate goals, attention and motor plans. However, we propose that mindful movement practice may improve the functional quality of rehearsed procedures, cultivating a transferrable skill of attention. We adopt Langer's spectrum of mindful learning that spans from "mindlessness" to engagement with the details of the present task and contrast this with the mental attitudes cultivated in standard mindfulness meditation. We particularly follow Feldenkrais' suggestion that mindful learning of skills for organizing the body in movement might transfer to other forms of mental activity. The results of mindful movement training should be observed in multiple complementary measures, and may have tremendous potential benefit for individuals with ADHD and other populations. PMID:26190986

  3. Coping with dyslexia in the regular classroom: Inclusion or exclusion.

    PubMed

    Richardson, S O

    1996-01-01

    The article begins with an historical review of the many attempts to cope with learning disabled and other handicapped children in schools, especially in regular classrooms. Children with dyslexia are reportedly the majority of individuals with learning disabilities. Most researchers have reached concensus that dyslexia originates with specific impairment of language processing. Although it would seem necessary for educators, especially those who teach the primary grades, to understand the structure of the English language and the alphabetic writing system, there is evidence that teachers are not required to have such command of language and how to teach it. The need for establishment of a comprehensive, interdisciplinary teacher education and training program will be discussed. This would include a core body of knowledge, relevant skills, and an understanding of methods, attitudes and values of participating disciplines. Without appropriate changes in teacher preparation it is doubtful that inclusion in regular classrooms will provide much educational benefit for the dyslexic population in our schools. PMID:24234266

  4. Religiosity and Proactive Coping with Social Difficulties in Romanian Adolescents.

    PubMed

    R?ban-Motounu, Nicoleta; Vitalia, Ileana Loredana

    2015-10-01

    Even though medical and psychological sciences and services evolved so much, in many cases, the healing process has its mystery, and some recoveries seem to be entirely magical. Especially in such cases, religion seems to play an important role, as it helps people face the "mystery" of the healing process and integrate it. Religion has helped people face potentially traumatic events with minimum consequences for their health, or, moreover, to use these experiences for personal development, making them more prepared for life challenges. Adolescents with developed proactive coping skills are less socially inhibited or non-assertive, and those that are less cold/distant or more self-sacrificing have stronger spiritual values. PMID:24903587

  5. Coping responses in the midst of terror: the July 22 terror attack at Utųya Island in Norway.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Tine K; Thoresen, Siri; Dyb, Grete

    2015-02-01

    This study examined the peri-trauma coping responses of 325 survivors, mostly youth, after the July 22, 2011 terror attack on Utųya Island in Norway. The aim was to understand peri-trauma coping responses and their relation to subsequent post-traumatic stress (PTS) reactions. Respondents were interviewed face-to-face 4-5 months after the shooting, and most were interviewed at their homes. Peri-trauma coping was assessed using ten selected items from the "How I Cope Under Pressure Scale" (HICUPS), covering the dimensions of problem solving, positive cognitive restructuring, avoidance, support seeking, seeking understanding, and religious coping. PTS reactions were assessed with the UCLA PTSD Reaction Index. The participants reported using a wide variety of coping strategies. Problem solving, positive cognitive restructuring, and seeking understanding strategies were reported most often. Men reported using more problem-solving strategies, whereas women reported more emotion-focused strategies. There were no significant associations between age and the use of coping strategies. Problem solving and positive cognitive restructuring were significantly associated with fewer PTS reactions. The results are discussed in light of previous research and may help to inform early intervention efforts for survivors of traumatic events. PMID:25431029

  6. Patterns of religious coping among bereaved college students.

    PubMed

    Lord, Benjamin D; Gramling, Sandra E

    2014-02-01

    Contemporary research has suggested that bereavement is a paramount issue in college populations, a group which has historically been underrepresented in grief research (Balk. in Death studies 25:67-84, 2001; Balk et al. in Death Studies 34:459-468, 2010). Indeed, there has been a call to generate new research on grief with specific populations and age groups (Center for the Advancement of Health. in Death Studies 28:568-575, 2004). Religion is often described as a primary way that individuals cope with bereavement in particular (Frantz et al. in Pastor Psychol 44(3):151-163, 1996) and has been shown to effect college student reactions to stress in general (Merrill et al. in Mental Health, Religion & Culture 12(5):501-511, 2009). The RCOPE (Pargament et al. in J Clin Psychol 56(4):519-543, 2000, J Health Psychol 9:713-730, 2004) is a frequently used measure of religious coping, but has not been evaluated with a bereaved undergraduate population. Given that emerging adulthood is a critical developmental phase of religious identity (Fowler. in New Directions for Child Development 3(52):27-45, 1991), the current study examined the factor structure of the RCOPE within a sample of bereaved college students. An exploratory factor analysis was performed, which approximated the factor structure proposed by Pargament et al. (J Clin Psychol 56(4):519-543, 2000). However, a high correlation between the positive and negative religious coping subscales (r = 0.71) detracted from the predictive utility of Pargament et al.'s (2000) two overarching subscales. Therefore, an exploratory factor analysis with an orthogonal rotation was used to identify two uncorrelated subscales (adaptive religious coping and maladaptive religious coping). This new two-factor, 39-item version of the RCOPE was found to demonstrate good internal consistency (? > 0.8) as well as convergent and discriminant validity. The interaction between religious coping strategies and core beliefs about the predictability of the world is explored, and directions for future research and clinical practice are suggested. PMID:22581317

  7. Children and Adolescents Coping With Cancer: Self- and Parent Reports of Coping and Anxiety/Depression

    PubMed Central

    Compas, Bruce E.; Desjardins, Leandra; Vannatta, Kathryn; Young-Saleme, Tammi; Rodriguez, Erin M.; Dunn, Madeleine; Bemis, Heather; Snyder, Sarah; Gerhardt, Cynthia A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The diagnosis and treatment of cancer present children and adolescents with significant stress. However, research on the ways that children and adolescents cope with cancer-related stress has not yielded clear findings on the efficacy of different coping strategies, and has been limited by reliance primarily on self-reports of both coping and distress. To address this gap, the current study used a control-based model of coping to examine self- and parent reports of child/adolescent coping and symptoms of anxiety and depression in a sample of children with cancer. Method Children and adolescents (5 to 17 years old) and their parents were recruited near the time of a child’s diagnosis or relapse of cancer (M = 1.30 months postdiagnosis). Child self-reports (n = 153), mother reports (n = 297), and father reports (n = 161) of children’s coping and symptoms of anxiety/depression were obtained. Results Bivariate correlations revealed significant associations for secondary control coping (efforts to adapt to source of stress; e.g., acceptance, cognitive reappraisal) and disengagement coping (e.g., avoidance, denial) with anxiety/depression within and across informants. Linear multiple regression analyses indicated that secondary control coping accounted for unique variance in symptoms of anxiety/ depression both within and across informants. Conclusions Secondary control coping appears important for children and adolescents during early phases of treatment for cancer, and it may serve as an important target for future interventions to enhance adjustment in these children. PMID:25068455

  8. Alcohol-Specific Coping Styles of Adult Children of Individuals with Alcohol Use Disorders and Associations with Psychosocial Functioning.

    PubMed

    Drapkin, Michelle L; Eddie, David; Buffington, Angela J; McCrady, Barbara S

    2015-07-01

    Parental alcohol use disorders (AUDs) have been conceptualized as a chronic stressor that can lead to deleterious long-term outcomes in children of individuals with AUDs. Yet, while many individuals are detrimentally affected by their parents' problematic alcohol use, and go on to manifest psychological problems, others do not. How individuals cope with the stress of having a parent with an AUD is believed to be an important moderator of this differential outcome. This study assessed whether individuals' alcohol-specific coping styles predicted alcohol use, positive or negative life events, and depression, using a sample of 465 college students, of whom 20% were adult children of individuals with alcohol use disorders, colloquially known as adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs), and a battery of well-validated, self-report measures. Participant ACOAs reported less 'engaged' and 'total' alcohol-specific coping strategies and more 'withdrawal' alcohol-specific coping strategies than their non adult children of alcoholics (NACOAs) counterparts. Across participants, women reported more 'engaged', 'tolerant/inactive', and 'total' coping than men. Although ACOAs reported significantly more negative life events, which predicted more passive coping styles, they did not differ significantly from NACOAs on measures of problematic alcohol use or depression, supporting theories of resilience in ACOAs regardless of their alcohol-specific coping styles. For NACOAs, 'tolerant' coping predicted greater depression and alcohol-related problems; 'engaged' coping predicted fewer alcohol problems. Results suggest that ACOAs cope differently with problematic alcohol use among relatives and friends compared with NACOAs and are more likely to experience negative life events. Additionally, alcohol-related coping strategies have more predictive utility in NACOAs than ACOAs. PMID:25802055

  9. The effects of three mindfulness skills on chocolate cravings.

    PubMed

    Lacaille, Julien; Ly, Jinshia; Zacchia, Natalie; Bourkas, Sophia; Glaser, Emma; Knäuper, Bärbel

    2014-05-01

    There is accumulating evidence that mindfulness-based interventions are useful in reducing food cravings. However, existing studies have applied many mindfulness skills together, rendering it unclear which skills are essential and which are unnecessary. Based on recent investigations into the efficacy of individual mindfulness skills at managing cravings, the goal of the present study was to compare the efficacy of two-week mindfulness-based interventions, targeting different combinations of specific mindfulness skills (awareness, acceptance, disidentification), at reducing trait and state chocolate cravings. We compared the efficacy of the mindfulness interventions to an active control intervention (distraction). Overall, disidentification emerged as the most efficacious mindfulness skill. After two weeks of practice, those trained in disidentification reported less intense state cravings after a craving induction task compared with those trained in distraction. Mediation analyses revealed that this effect was mediated first by a greater increase in the disidentification skill, and subsequently by a greater decrease in trait chocolate cravings. Manipulation checks revealed that training the disidentification skill was more successful than training the other skills. Disidentification is shown to be a crucial mindfulness skill that can be taught to help better cope with food cravings. PMID:24503333

  10. A qualitative assessment of psychosocial impact, coping and adjustment in high-risk melanoma patients and caregivers.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jason D; Butow, Phyllis N; Boyle, Frances M; Saw, Robyn P M; O'Reilly, Amanda J

    2014-06-01

    The present study qualitatively assessed the psychosocial impacts experienced by stage III melanoma patients and caregivers throughout the course of the disease, and the coping responses they utilized in an attempt to promote psychosocial adjustment. The purpose of the study was to inform the development of a supportive care strategy for this population. Nineteen stage III melanoma patients and 14 of their caregivers were recruited from the clinical research database of the Melanoma Institute Australia. Data were collected using semistructured telephone interviews and analysed using thematic analysis. Participants reported psychosocial impacts related to diagnosis (shock, panic and devastation), treatment (challenges and unsatisfactory care, pain and limitation, practical impacts, new roles and responsibilities for the caregiver, caregiver inadequacy) and survivorship (ongoing physical problems, watchful waiting, feeling abandoned). They also reported global themes relevant to multiple phases of the disease (emotional distress, disfigurement, injustice, caregiver devaluation). Coping responses were identified related to diagnosis (avoidance), treatment (confidence in the treatment team, taking action) and survivorship (finding a positive meaning, acceptance and moving on) as well as global themes pertaining to multiple disease phases (receiving support, helpful thinking, putting on a brave face, redirecting attention, religion). The current findings support routine screening for the presence of symptoms and psychological distress and appropriate referral when necessary, and for provision of psychosocial interventions to provide information and support to stage III melanoma patients and caregivers. In addition, provision of communication skills training to all health professionals treating melanoma, use of evidence-based strategies for improving patient/caregiver understanding and recall, and routine assessment of patient-reported outcomes to inform clinical practice would be helpful. PMID:24584097

  11. Acquisition of cognitive skill

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John R. Anderson

    1982-01-01

    A framework for skill acquisition is proposed that includes two major stages in the development of a cognitive skill: a declarative stage in which facts about the skill domain are interpreted and a procedural stage in which the domain knowl- edge is directly embodied in procedures for performing the skill. This general framework has been instantiated in the ACT system

  12. Soft Skills, Hard Science

    E-print Network

    Wu, Mingshen

    Soft Skills, Hard Science: A Program to Improve Job Placement of STEM Graduates with Disabilities 2013 Women & Science Conference1 Wednesday, May 22, 13 #12;Why focus on soft skills? What comes to mind rated recent grads on same skills Perception Reality 8 Wednesday, May 22, 13 #12;what are soft skills

  13. Core competence (knowledge) (skill)

    E-print Network

    Wu, Yih-Min

    Core competence 8 5~8 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 PPS003 Ver. 1.1 2011/03/07 #12; 2 (knowledge) (skill) (attitude) Set of skill, knowledge or attitude which should be learned or acquired by each, 2000) (knowledge) (skill) (attitude) Set of skill, knowledge or attitude which should be learned

  14. Relationship Between Ways of Coping and Quality of Life in Married Women: Toward Mental Health Promotion

    PubMed Central

    Mirabzadeh, Arash; Baradaran Eftekhari, Monir; Setareh Forouzan, Ameneh; Sajadi, Homeira; Rafiee, Hassan

    2013-01-01

    Background Adaptive ways of coping with stress are as a major component of mental health and also this is considered as a key element in quality of life. Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between quality of life and coping mechanisms in married women ages between 18-65 years in order to develop appropriate intervention programs to promote mental health. Patients and Methods This study was a part of interventional project to mental health promotion in married women that completed through a cross sectional studies using two standard questionnaires: Ways of Coping (WOC) and Quality of Life questionnaire (WHO, QOL-BREF). Results The most and the least used ways in coping with stress were Planful Problem Solving and Confronting Coping. Considering the quality of life, the most and the least scores were related to social dimension and mental health. Also women who have higher quality of life used more Positive Reappraisal way and less Escape-Avoidance way to deal with stress (P < 0.05). Conclusions It seems that implementation of an appropriate interventional program related to adaptive ways of coping in order to deal with stress is effective in mental health and quality of life promotion. PMID:24578846

  15. Obsessive-compulsive disorder in children and adolescents: parental understanding, accommodation, coping and distress.

    PubMed

    Futh, Annabel; Simonds, Laura M; Micali, Nadia

    2012-06-01

    Parental accommodation of pediatric OCD is common and is associated with negative affect in parents. Qualitative accounts of caring for a child with OCD are limited and no studies have assessed differences between mothers and fathers in accommodation, coping and distress. The current study used a mixed methods approach to understand parental accommodation, negative affect and coping. Forty-one mothers and 29 fathers of 43 children with OCD were asked to write narratives about their understanding and management of OCD and to complete measures of accommodation, coping, and distress. Symptom accommodation was high with almost half of the parents watching the child complete rituals or waiting for the child on a daily basis. Analysis of parental narratives indicated a distressing struggle between engaging in and resisting accommodation in order to manage their own and their child's anger and distress. T-tests and correlation analysis indicated that accommodation did not differ significantly between mothers and fathers but was more strongly associated with negative affect in mothers. Analyses indicated that mothers reported using all types of coping strategy more often than fathers, particularly escape-avoidance, taking responsibility and using social support. Escape-avoidance coping was positively correlated with accommodation and negative affect in both mothers and fathers. Interventions that target parental constructions of OCD and their behavioural and emotional responses to it may assist in reducing the occurrence of accommodation, avoidant coping and parental distress. PMID:22440392

  16. Relative contributions of negative symptoms, insight, and coping strategies to quality of life in stable schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Montemagni, Cristiana; Castagna, Filomena; Crivelli, Barbara; De Marzi, Giampiero; Frieri, Tiziana; Macrģ, Antonio; Rocca, Paola

    2014-12-15

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to examine the relative contributions of negative symptomatology, insight, and coping to quality of life (QOL) in a sample of 92 consecutive outpatients with stable schizophrenia referring to the Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatric Section, University of Turin, Struttura Semplice di Coordinamento a Valenza Dipartimentale (SSCVD), Department of Mental Health ASL TO1, Molinette, Italy, in the period between July 2009 and July 2011. In order to assess the specific effect of negative symptoms on QOL and the possible mediating role of insight and coping, two mediation hypotheses were tested, using multiple regression analyses specified by Baron and Kenny (1986). Our findings suggest that (a) higher negative symptoms predict a worse Quality of Life Scale (QLS) intrapsychic foundations (IF) subscale score; (b) attribution of symptoms and coping-social diversion have a direct and positive association with QLS-IF; (c) patients high in negative symptoms are less likely to use attribution of symptoms and coping-social diversion; and (d) attribution of symptoms and coping-social diversion act as partial mediators in the negative symptoms-QOL relationship. The prediction model accounts for 45.3% of the variance of the QLS-IF subscale score in our sample. In conclusion, our results suggest that insight and coping-social diversion substantially contribute to QOL in patients with higher negative symptoms. These factors are potentially modifiable from specific therapeutic interventions, which can produce considerable improvements in the QOL of this population. PMID:25128248

  17. Understanding recovery in children following traffic-related injuries: Exploring acute traumatic stress reactions, child coping, and coping assistance

    PubMed Central

    Marsac, Meghan L.; Donlon, Katharine A.; Hildenbrand, Aimee K.; Winston, Flaura K.; Kassam-Adams, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Millions of children incur potentially traumatic physical injuries every year. Most children recover well from their injury but many go on to develop persistent traumatic stress reactions. This study aimed to describe children’s coping and coping assistance (i.e., the ways in which parents and peers help children cope) strategies and to explore the association between coping and acute stress reactions following an injury. Children (N = 243) rated their acute traumatic stress reactions within one month of injury and reported on coping and coping assistance six months later. Parents completed a measure of coping assistance at the six month assessment. Children used an average of 5–6 coping strategies (out of 10), with wishful thinking, social support, and distraction endorsed most frequently. Child coping was associated with parent and peer coping assistance strategies. Significant acute stress reactions were related to subsequent child use of coping strategies (distraction, social withdrawal, problem-solving, blaming others) and to child-report of parent use of distraction (as a coping assistance strategy). Findings suggest that children’s acute stress reactions may influence their selection of coping and coping assistance strategies. To best inform interventions, research is needed to examine change in coping behaviors and coping assistance over time, including potential bidirectional relationships between trauma reactions and coping. PMID:23677925

  18. Coping in context: the role of stress, social support, and personality in coping.

    PubMed

    DeLongis, Anita; Holtzman, Susan

    2005-12-01

    Personality and social relationships play an important role in almost every aspect of stress and coping. Daily process methods are particularly useful in elucidating how these factors might influence both responses to and outcomes of stress. Our work has linked both dimensions of personality, particularly the Big Five, and aspects of social relationships, particularly social support, to the likelihood of engaging in certain coping strategies and the effectiveness or outcomes of these coping strategies. In addition, we have found the effect of personality on coping and stress outcomes to vary by the situational context in which stress occurs. We review findings from our recent daily process studies of stress, coping, and social support. Further, we discuss the costs and benefits of the daily process methodology for addressing these questions, highlighting the clinical utility of findings gleaned with the use of this approach. Finally, we discuss future directions and applications of daily process methods to the study of stress and coping. PMID:16274448

  19. Unusual Modality Effects in Less-Skilled Readers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Catherine G. Penney; Annette Godsell

    1999-01-01

    University students who were skilled or less-skilled readers were compared on tests of auditory information processing and immediate serial recall of auditory and visual digits. Reading skill was defined by performance on a pseudoword reading task. The good readers exhibited typical modality effects with higher recall of auditory than visual items from the last 3 serial positions. On the terminal

  20. Parents' Skills and Children's Cognitive and Non-Cognitive Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Coulon, Augustin; Meschi, Elena; Vignoles, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has suggested a positive intergenerational relationship between a parent's childhood cognitive skill level and their own children's skill levels. Yet we also know that individuals' skill levels change during childhood and into adulthood, not least as a result of their education, training and work experience. Thus parents' adult…

  1. Skills for Action. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2006

    2006-01-01

    "Skills for Action," a program to build positive character values and life and citizenship skills for students in grades 9-12, includes classroom lessons and service learning. The program, with more than 100 lessons focused around 26 personal, social, and thinking skills, ranges from one semester to four years in length. Students explore personal…

  2. Technological Change and Skill Formation in the Bank Sector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groot, Loek F. M.; de Grip, Andries

    1991-01-01

    Explores educational structure shifts in Netherlands banking caused by technological developments. A cross-section analysis of 100 local banks shows that diffusion of office automation has positively affected the skill level and share of vocationally skilled workers. Automated banks also use recruitment policies to adjust skill structure more…

  3. Psychological Distress and Coping amongst Higher Education Students: A Mixed Method Enquiry

    PubMed Central

    Deasy, Christine; Coughlan, Barry; Pironom, Julie; Jourdan, Didier; Mannix-McNamara, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Background Psychological distress among higher education students is of global concern. Students on programmes with practicum components such as nursing and teacher education are exposed to additional stressors which may further increase their risk for psychological distress. The ways in which these students cope with distress has potential consequences for their health and academic performance. An in-depth understanding of how nursing/midwifery and teacher education students experience psychological distress and coping is necessary to enable higher education providers to adequately support these students. Methods This mixed method study was employed to establish self-reported psychological distress (General Health Questionnaire), coping processes (Ways of Coping Questionnaire) and lifestyle behaviour (Lifestyle Behaviour Questionnaire) of a total sample (n?=?1557) of undergraduate nursing/midwifery and teacher education students in one university in Ireland. Individual interviews (n?=?59) provided an in-depth understanding of students experiences of psychological distress and coping. Results A significant percentage (41.9%) of respondents was psychologically distressed. The factors which contributed to their distress, included study, financial, living and social pressures. Students used varied coping strategies including seeking social support, problem solving and escape avoidance. The positive relationship between elevated psychological distress and escape avoidance behaviours including substance use (alcohol, tobacco and cannabis) and unhealthy diet is of particular concern. Statistically significant relationships were identified between “escape-avoidance” and gender, age, marital status, place of residence, programme/year of study and lifestyle behaviours such as diet, substance use and physical inactivity. Conclusion The paper adds to existing research by illuminating the psychological distress experienced by undergraduate nursing/midwifery and teacher education students. It also identifies their distress, maladaptive coping and the relationship to their lifestyle behaviours. The findings can inform strategies to minimise student distress and maladaptive coping during college and in future professional years. PMID:25506825

  4. The association of personality traits and coping styles according to stress level

    PubMed Central

    Afshar, Hamid; Roohafza, Hamid Reza; Keshteli, Ammar Hassanzadeh; Mazaheri, Mina; Feizi, Awat; Adibi, Peyman

    2015-01-01

    Background: Some personality traits and coping styles could be as risk factors in stressful situations. This study aimed to investigate the association of personality traits and coping styles according to the stress level. Meterials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed in 2011. A total of 4628 individuals over 20 years were selected by random sampling from nonacademic employees that working in 50 different centers across Isfahan province. Data were collected using 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), Big Five Personality Inventory Short Form and coping strategies scale, and individuals were divided into high and low-stress groups in term of GHQ-12. To analyze the data, a binary logistic regression analysis was conducted. Results: Mean age of participants was 36.3 ± 7.91 years and 56.26% (2604) of them were female. Neuroticism with adjusting covariates of demographic characteristics and the rest of personality traits was a risk factor for stress level with odds ratios (OR) OR:1.24; but other personality traits were protective. Also, active coping styles were protective factors for OR of stress level with adjusting covariates of demographic characteristics and the rest of coping styles, and positive reinterpretation and growth was the most effective of coping style with OR:0.84. Conclusion: Some personality traits are associated with passive copings and cause high-stress level. So, it could be concluded that improve and strengthen effective coping strategies in individual with maladaptive traits should be considered as a crucial component of prevention and control programs of stress.

  5. Coping motives, negative moods, and time-to-drink: exploring alternative analytic models of coping motives as a moderator of daily mood-drinking covariation.

    PubMed

    Littlefield, Andrew K; Talley, Amelia E; Jackson, Kristina M

    2012-12-01

    Affect regulation models of alcohol use posit individuals use alcohol to modify mood states. Importantly, these models hypothesize that individual differences in coping motives for drinking moderate the relation between drinking and negative moods. Despite consistently significant correlations among negative moods, coping motives, and alcohol involvement in numerous between-level studies, within-person analyses have yielded results inconsistent with theoretical models. Analytic techniques modeling time-to-drink have provided results more consistent with theory, though there remains a paucity of research using these methods. The purpose of the current study was to explore whether coping motives moderate the relation between negative moods and the immediacy of drinking using methodology outlined by Hussong (2007) and Armeli, Todd, Conner, and Tennen (2008). Overall, our study showed little evidence for hypothesized mood-motive-alcohol use relations, thus demonstrating that time-to-drink approaches may not provide more consistent support for these hypotheses. PMID:22867813

  6. The Relationship of Mild Depression to Stress and Coping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolenc, Koleen M.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Investigated relationship of mild depression, stress, and coping based on Lazarus's model of stress and coping. Examined two coping styles (problem and emotion focused), two measures of stress, and mild depression in college students (N=227). Found mildly depressed persons relied more on emotion-focused coping and experience more stress than did…

  7. Personality and Coping among Caregivers of Spouses with Dementia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooker, Karen; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined personality factors and coping strategies among 50 spouse caregivers of patients diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease or related dementia. Results showed that personality traits explained 60% of variance in emotion-focused coping, 30% of variance in problem-focused coping, and 15% of variance associated with social support coping.…

  8. Coping with Cancer in Everyday Life

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Articles » My ACS » Coping With Cancer in Everyday Life Download Printable Version [PDF] » ( En espańol ) Nearly 14. ... cancer For spouses, families, and friends Finding support Life after cancer treatment Finding hope To learn more ...

  9. Coping Behavior of Elderly Flood Victims.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huerta, Faye; Horton, Robert

    1978-01-01

    A study of the effects of the Teton Dam Disaster in 1976 suggests that elderly persons cope quite well with disaster situations and tend to report fewer adverse emotional effects and feelings of relative deprivation than younger victims. (Author)

  10. Grief, Bereavement, and Coping with Loss (PDQ)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... grief begins soon after a loss and symptoms go away over time. During normal grief, the bereaved ... different types and numbers of stages that people go through as they cope with loss. At this ...

  11. Relations among stress, coping strategies, coping motives, alcohol consumption and related problems: a mediated moderation model.

    PubMed

    Corbin, William R; Farmer, Nicole M; Nolen-Hoekesma, Susan

    2013-04-01

    Although prominent models of alcohol use and abuse implicate stress as an important motivator of alcohol consumption, research has not consistently identified a relationship between stress and drinking outcomes. Presumably stress leads to heavier alcohol consumption and related problems primarily for individuals who lack other adaptive methods for coping effectively with stressful experiences. To test this hypothesis, we examined four adaptive coping approaches (active coping, planning, suppression of competing activities, and restraint), as predictors of alcohol use and related problems as well as moderators of relations between stress and drinking outcomes in an undergraduate population (N=225). Further, we examined coping motives for drinking as potential mediators of the effects of coping strategies as well as stress by coping strategy interactions. Analyses supported both restraint and suppression of competing activities as moderators of the influence of stress on alcohol use but not problems. The stress by restraint interaction was also evident in the prediction of coping motives, and coping motives were related to higher levels of both weekly drinking and alcohol-related problems. Finally, coping motives for drinking served to mediate the stress by restraint interaction on weekly drinking. Overall, these results suggest that efforts to suppress competing activities and restrain impulsive responses in the face of stress may reduce the risk for heavy drinking during the transition from high school to college. PMID:23380486

  12. Work factors and behavioural coping in relation to withdrawal from the labour force in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Chorus, A; Miedema, H; Wevers, C; van der Linden, S

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To assess separate and combined effects of work factors and behavioural coping in relation to withdrawal from the labour force among patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA).?METHODS—A cross sectional study was conducted in a Dutch nationwide random sample of 720 patients with RA. Information about work factors and behavioural coping was collected by a self-administered postal questionnaire. A broad variety of work factors and coping styles were evaluated separately and in combination using multivariate logistic regression analyses, controlling for sociodemographic and disease related variables. Attributable and preventable fractions were calculated from the combined analyses to assess the relative importance of the contributing factors.?RESULTS—Additional job training, equal career opportunities, letting the disease influence the choice of the current job position, and informing colleagues about having the disease were negatively associated with withdrawal from the labour force. The most relevant factor in terms of decreasing the risk was adjusting job demands which accounted for 63% of the patients still in the labour force. Decreasing activities and diverting attention in order to cope with pain, and pacing in order to cope with limitations were the coping styles which were positively associated with withdrawal from the labour force. The most relevant factor in terms of increasing the risk of withdrawal was pacing which accounted for 67% of the withdrawals.?CONCLUSION—Work factors are potentially important modifiable risk factors for withdrawal from the labour force in patients with RA. Behavioural coping is also relevant.?? PMID:11602473

  13. Cooperative Group Performance in Graduate Research Methodology Courses: The Role of Study Coping and Examination-Taking Coping Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiao, Qun G.; Collins, Kathleen M. T.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.

    2013-01-01

    This study seeks to examine the extent to which cooperative group members' levels of coping strategies (study and examination-taking coping strategies) and the degree that heterogeneity (variability of study coping strategies and examination-taking coping strategies) predict cooperative groups' levels of achievement in research…

  14. Personality and coping traits: A joint factor analysis.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Eamonn

    2001-11-01

    OBJECTIVES: The main objective of this paper is to explore the structural similarities between Eysenck's model of personality and the dimensions of the dispositional COPE. Costa et al. {Costa P., Somerfield, M., & McCrae, R. (1996). Personality and coping: A reconceptualisation. In (pp. 44-61) Handbook of coping: Theory, research and applications. New York: Wiley} suggest that personality and coping behaviour are part of a continuum based on adaptation. If this is the case, there should be structural similarities between measures of personality and coping behaviour. This is tested using a joint factor analysis of personality and coping measures. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. METHODS: The EPQ-R and the dispositional COPE were administered to 154 participants, and the data were analysed using joint factor analysis and bivariate associations. RESULTS: The joint factor analysis indicated that these data were best explained by a four-factor model. One factor was primarily unrelated to personality. There was a COPE-neurotic-introvert factor (NI-COPE) containing coping behaviours such as denial, a COPE-extroversion (E-COPE) factor containing behaviours such as seeking social support and a COPE-psychoticism factor (P-COPE) containing behaviours such as alcohol use. This factor pattern, especially for NI- and E-COPE, was interpreted in terms of Gray's model of personality {Gray, J. A. (1987) The psychology of fear and stress. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press}. NI-, E-, and P-COPE were shown to be related, in a theoretically consistent manner, to perceived coping success and perceived coping functions. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that there are indeed conceptual links between models of personality and coping. It is argued that future research should focus on identifying coping 'trait complexes'. Implications for practice are discussed. PMID:12614507

  15. Coping and psychological distress for men with substance use disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Courbasson Christine; S. Endler Norman; L. Kocovski Nancy

    2002-01-01

    Coping with stress is a major focus for chemically dependent persons in relapse prevention programs. The relationships among\\u000a coping and psychological distress were investigated in 71 men with substance use disorders, at both pre—and post-treatment.\\u000a It was predicted that low task-oriented coping, high emotion-oriented coping, and high avoidance-oriented coping would predict\\u000a psychological distress (e.g., anxiety and depression). It was also

  16. Experienced Tutors' Deployment of Thinking Skills and What Might Be Entailed in Enhancing Such Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soden, Rebecca; Maclellan, Effie

    2004-01-01

    In the context of research that reports weaknesses in adults' critical thinking skills, the primary aim was to examine adults' use of critical thinking skills that are described in taxonomies and to identify areas for development. Position papers written by an opportunity sample of 32 experienced adult educators formed the data for a descriptive…

  17. Combat health care providers and resiliency: adaptive coping mechanisms during and after deployment.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, Susanne W; Shafer, Michaela; Aramanda, Larry; Hickling, Edward J; Benedek, David M

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to understand the varied health care provider responses to traumas by identifying perceptions of control and self-efficacy, appraisal styles, and postevent coping strategies in active duty military nurses and physicians deployed to combat/terrorist regions. Twenty purposively sampled military health care providers completed a descriptive questionnaire, the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist, the General Self-Efficacy Scale, and a recorded semistructured interview that was later transcribed and content analyzed. Cognitive-behavioral determinants of healthy response to trauma were used to frame this descriptive interpretive study and to assist with developing a model for healthy adaptation in trauma-exposed health care providers. Participants felt they had the greatest control over their health care provider role in theater, and most expressed a belief that a sense of control and a sense of purpose were important to their coping. All used some form of social support to cope and many found calming activities that allowed for self-reflection to be helpful. Results from this analysis can be used to inform interventions and promote postevent coping behaviors that increase social support, strengthen important bonds, and enhance involvement in activities that elicit positive emotions. Health care providers experienced positive outcomes despite considerable traumatic exposure by using coping strategies that map closely to several principles of psychological first aid. This suggests a need to train all medical personnel in these concepts as they appear helpful in mitigating responses to the stress of combat-related exposures. PMID:23855421

  18. The adolescent outcome of hyperactive girls. Self-reported interpersonal relationships and coping mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Young, Susan; Chadwick, Oliver; Heptinstall, Ellen; Taylor, Eric; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J S

    2005-08-01

    The aim of the study was to clarify the developmental risk for interpersonal relationship problems and ineffective coping strategies associated with hyperactive behaviour in girls in a longitudinal epidemiological design. This was investigated in a follow-up study of girls who were identified by parent and teacher ratings in a large community survey of 6- and 7-year-olds as showing pervasive hyperactivity or conduct problems or the comorbid mixture of both problems or neither problem. They were later investigated, at the age of 14-16 years, in a detailed interview. Childhood hyperactivity was a risk for disrupted relationships in adolescence with peers and the opposite sex, but not parents. Findings were independent of the existence of conduct problems. Hyperactivity was a risk for the use of a wide variety of ineffective coping strategies. On the other hand, conduct problem girls reported applying specific coping strategies, but rated these to be ineffective. It is concluded that early therapeutic interventions targeting the development of social skills and problem-solving skills are required in order to help overcome these problems in later life. PMID:15981136

  19. Teaching communication skills: beyond wishful thinking.

    PubMed

    Junod Perron, Noelle; Sommer, Johanna; Louis-Simonet, Martine; Nendaz, Mathieu

    2015-01-01

    Communication skills tend to decline with time unless they are regularly recalled and practiced. However, most medical schools still deliver clinical communication training only during pre-clinical years although the clinical environment is considered to be ideal for acquiring and teaching clinical communication. The aim of this article is to review the barriers that prevent communication skills teaching and training from occurring in clinical practice and describe strategies that may help enhance such activities. Barriers occur at several levels: students, junior doctors and clinical supervisors sometimes have negative attitudes towards communication training; structured training in communication skills is often insufficient; clinical supervisors behave as poor role models and lack effective communication and teaching skills; finally, there are organisational constraints such as lack of time, competing priorities, weak hierarchy support and lack of positive incentives for using, training or teaching good communication skills in clinical practice. Given the difficulty of assessing transfer of communication skills in practice, only few studies describe successful educational interventions. In order to optimise communication skills learning in practice, there is need to: (1.) modify the climate and structure of the working environment so that that use, training and teaching of good communication skills in clinical practice becomes valued, supported and rewarded; (2.) extend communication skills training to any field of medicine; (3.) provide regular structured trainings and tailor them to trainees' needs. Practical implications of such findings are discussed at the end of this review. PMID:25664624

  20. [Parents' coping with a diabetic child].

    PubMed

    Seppänen, S; Kyngäs, H; Nikkonen, M

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe and understand the process of parental coping with diabetic children in early childhood. The parental coping process was followed for a four-week period after the diagnosis of diabetes. The parents of two girls whose diabetes was diagnosed in early childhood served as study subjects. The data were collected by interviewing and observing the parents over four separate periods, first in hospital and later at home. The data were analyzed by the timeseries and content analysis methods. The main categories were formulated on the basis of coping theories. The subcategories were developed inductively from the data. Six phases of the parental coping were identified, which were named: 1). Disbelief, 2). Lack of information and Guilt, 3). Learning of Care, 4). Normalization, 5). Uncertainty and 6). Reorganization. In the different phases of parental coping the parents' experience of stress, coping strategies and sense of control varied. In the phase of Disbelief, parents tried to explain away the child's diabetes by questioning the diagnosis. The initial information given to the parents regarding their child's diabetes proved to be very important for parental coping. In the second phase of Lacking Information and Guilt, the parents sought for a reason for their child's diabetes and they felt guilty about it. As coping responses, the parents sought support from each other and from people who have undergone the same experience. In the Learning of Care phase, they recognized the demands caused by diabetes and took responsibility for the child's care. The parents responded that supervision based on their problems was the best. In the Normalization phase, the parents prepared to go home with the diabetic child. Getting back to normal life was one of the most effective parental coping responses. In the Uncertainty phase, the care to be given to the diabetic child changed the daily routines of the family. In the Reorganization phase, the parents adapted to the diagnosis of diabetes and the care of the diabetic child. The parents felt that the life of the family became normalized and controlled. The important parental coping responses consisted of concrete models of functioning, which they developed to control the demands caused by the child's diabetes. PMID:9429344

  1. Survival Skills: A Basic Skills Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahoney, Don

    The guide describes an approach designed to promote the basic skills of hearing impaired students Basic or survival skills are identified which cover the student's daily functioning at home, school, and in the community. The guide is aimed at the 10-15 year old hearing impaired student, but techniques are expected to be applicable to both…

  2. Managing Stress and Maintaining Well-Being: Social Support, Problem-Focused Coping, and Avoidant Coping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chao, Ruth Chu-Lien

    2011-01-01

    This study tested a model that links stress, social support, problem-focused coping, and well-being. First, it looks at how high support significantly moderated the association between stress and well-being. Next, the students' problem-focused coping was seen as mediating this moderated association. Finally, a 3-way interaction of stress, social…

  3. Strategies for Coping with Interpersonal Hurt: Preliminary Evidence for the Relationship between Coping and Forgiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strelan, Peter; Wojtysiak, Nicole

    2009-01-01

    This study provides a preliminary empirical test suggesting a coping framework that describes the behavioral, cognitive, and emotion-focused activities related to the process that may lead to forgiveness. Among 170 participants, the study explored the coping strategies people use when they respond to an interpersonal hurt and also the general use…

  4. Development and Validation of an Exploratory Measure to Assess Student Coping: The Student Coping Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boujut, Emile

    2013-01-01

    Students is a very specific population according to their manner to cope with stress. A coping questionnaire for students was developed and administered to 1100 French students at the beginning of the term (T1). Principal Component Analysis of responses, followed by varimax rotations, yielded three factors accounting for 50.5% of the total…

  5. Life Skills, Mathematical Reasoning and Critical Thinking: A Curriculum for the Prevention of Problem Gambling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nigel E. Turner; John Macdonald; Matthew Somerset

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that youth are two to three times more likely than adults to report gambling related problems.\\u000a This paper reports on the development and pilot evaluation of a school-based problem gambling prevention curriculum. The prevention\\u000a program focused on problem gambling awareness and self-monitoring skills, coping skills, and knowledge of the nature of random\\u000a events. The results of

  6. Relationships among Stress, Coping, and Mental Health in High-Achieving High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suldo, Shannon M.; Shaunessy, Elizabeth; Hardesty, Robin

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the relationships among stress, coping, and mental health in 139 students participating in an International Baccalaureate (IB) high school diploma program. Mental health was assessed using both positive indicators (life satisfaction, academic achievement, academic self-efficacy) and negative indicators (psychopathology) of…

  7. Fathers and Mothers of Children with Learning Disabilities: Links between Emotional and Coping Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Yagon, Michal

    2015-01-01

    This study compared emotional and coping resources of two parent groups with children ages 8 to 12 years--children with learning disabilities (LD) versus with typical development--and explored how mothers' and fathers' emotional resources (low anxious/avoidant attachment, low negative affect, and high positive affect) may explain differences in…

  8. Predicting Occupational Strain and Job Satisfaction: The Role of Stress, Coping, Personality, and Affectivity Variables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogarty, Gerard J.; Machin, M. Anthony; Albion, Majella J.; Sutherland, Lynette F.; Lalor, Gabrielle I.; Revitt, Susan

    1999-01-01

    Two studies showed that positive and negative affectivity influenced occupational stress, role strain, and coping. Study 3 added job satisfaction to the model, strengthening its predictive validity. Study 4's addition of personality measures did not improve prediction of job satisfaction and strain. (SK)

  9. A Longitudinal Examination of Latino Adolescents' Ethnic Identity, Coping with Discrimination, and Self-Esteem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.; Vargas-Chanes, Delfino; Garcia, Cristal D.; Gonzales-Backen, Melinda

    2008-01-01

    The current longitudinal study tested the premise that Latino adolescents' (N = 323) proactive coping with discrimination would mediate the relationship between ethnic identity and self-esteem. Each component of ethnic identity (i.e., exploration, resolution, and affirmation) was positively associated with concurrent assessments of adolescents'…

  10. The Relationship between Life Affirming Constructs and Teachers' Coping with Job Related Stress and Job Satisfaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkdoll, Sharon L.

    Research has shown that for teachers, job satisfaction is related more to intrinsic rewards than to the external conditions of their employment. However, the coping strategies for teachers' stress and recommendations for reforms in education address the teachers' external environment and offer extrinsic rewards. Positive mental health variables…

  11. Cardiovascular Reactivity and Interpersonal Influence: Active Coping in a Social Context

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy W. Smith; Kenneth D. Allred; Cheryl A. Morrison; Shane D. Carlson

    1989-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that effortful attempts to secure positive outcomes or avoid negative outcomes produce significant increases in systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and heart rate (HR). Although these effects of active coping on cardiovascular reactivity are central in current psychosomatic theories, virtually all of the research to date has used impersonal, asocial tasks. Our two

  12. Copying and Coping Conceptualizations of Language: Counseling and the Ethic of Appreciation for Human Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, James T.

    2008-01-01

    The author takes the position that the foundational value of the counseling profession is an ethic of appreciation for human differences. The professional tool that is used to actualize this value is language. In this regard, the philosophical distinction between copying and coping conceptualizations of language is overviewed. The author argues…

  13. Differences between Australian and Japanese Students in Decisional Self-Esteem, Decisional Stress, and Coping Styles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark H. B. Radford; Leon Mann; Yasuyuki Ohta; Yoshibumi Nakane

    1993-01-01

    In this article, the effect of culture on decisional self-esteem, decisional stress, and self-reported decision coping styles is examined. Results of a questionnaire study of 743 Japanese and 309 Australian university students showed that for both cultural groups decisional self-esteem was positively correlated with the \\

  14. From dispositional affect to academic goal attainment: the mediating role of coping

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Isabelle Soucy Chartier; Patrick Gaudreau; Marie-Claude Fecteau

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine a mediation model in which coping was hypothesized to mediate the relationship between positive and negative dispositional affect and academic goal attainment. At Time 1, a sample of 217 undergraduate students completed measures of dispositional affect and set a personal academic goal. At Time 2, 4 weeks later, they completed a follow-up

  15. Do Religious Coping Styles Moderate or Mediate the External and Internalized Racism-Distress Links?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szymanski, Dawn M.; Obiri, Oluwafunmilayo

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the potential moderating and mediating roles of positive and negative religious coping styles in the relationship between external and internalized racism and African American persons' psychological distress. Participants included 269 African Americans who completed a web-based Internet survey. Results…

  16. PARKING OFFICER Position Information

    E-print Network

    Ponce, V. Miguel

    PARKING OFFICER Position Information Full-time, permanent (probationary) position. Salary Range $2,456 - $3,682 mo. Commensurate with knowledge, skills, and experience. Responsibilities Issue parking citations in parking lots, structures and the core of campus for vehicles in violation of University parking

  17. Customer service skills for survival.

    PubMed

    McAtee, L F

    1999-11-01

    As APICS practitioners, we all must share a common goal. How can we contribute to our company's success? Success can be measured in positive terms of market share, growth, profitability, return on investment, or some combination thereof. Each company must establish its own definition of success. For the purposes of this article, success will be equated to one word that we can all readily identify with: survival. What skills do we need to survive in the marketplace of the next millennium? PMID:10623133

  18. The association between mental health, stress, and coping supports in mothers of children with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Zablotsky, Benjamin; Bradshaw, Catherine P; Stuart, Elizabeth A

    2013-06-01

    Raising a child with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can be a stressful experience for parents. When left unmanaged, high stress levels can lead to the development of depressive symptomatology, highlighting the importance of coping supports. The current paper examined the stress level and psychological wellbeing of mothers with a child with ASD in a national survey. After adjusting for child, mother and family level characteristics, it was determined that mothers of children with ASDs were at greater risk for poor mental health and high stress levels compared to mothers of children without ASDs. The presence of maternal coping strategies, in the form of emotional and neighborhood social supports, as well as strong coping skills, reduced these risks between models. PMID:23100053

  19. Manufacturing Engineering Skills

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Loughrey, Joe

    Manufacturing Engineering Skills provides an assessment of what the key manufacturing skills along with skill gaps are in the marketplace. Joe Loughrey is president and chief operating officer of Cummins Inc. and chairman of The Manufacturing Institute, the research and education arm of the National Association of Manufacturers. Additionally, Manufacturing Engineering Skills was shared by Mike Mohlar and by Roger Lang at an SME mfg executive roundtable in 2005 to provide clarity and encouragement about careers in manufacturing.

  20. Skills in the city

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marigee Bacolod; Bernardo S. Blum; William C. Strange

    2009-01-01

    This paper documents the allocation of skills across cities and estimates the impact of agglomeration on the hedonic prices of worker skills. We find that large cities are more skilled than are small cities, but only to a modest degree. We also show that the increase in productivity associated with agglomeration, as measured by the urban wage premium, is larger

  1. Enhancing Employee Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    This document contains four symposium papers on enhancing employee skills. "The Effect of Study Skills Training Intervention on United States Air Force Aeromedical Apprentices" (John C. Griffith) demonstrates how study skills intervention resulted in a significant increase in the end-of-course scores of a sample of 90 randomly selected Air Force…

  2. Unions, Wages, and Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirsch, Barry T.; Schumacher, Edward J.

    1998-01-01

    National Longitudinal Survey of Youth aptitude scores confirmed that differentials in union-nonunion wages are highest for workers with low measured skills and lowest for workers with high measured skills. Results suggest that unions are more successful where skills are homogenous and unionized employers are reluctant to hire both the most as well…

  3. Knowledge & Skills Foundations

    E-print Network

    Hood, Craig

    #12;Knowledge & Skills Foundations In the social sciences, incoming students succeed when they are armed with specific knowledge and skills--but above all, when they are ready to embrace the learning process. Basic Knowledge & Skills Students who are ready for entry-level courses are familiar

  4. Assessing Skill Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Jon

    2008-01-01

    Most educators are familiar with instances of authentic assessment of "content" within the disciplines or of authentic assessment of "discipline-specific skills." In such authentic assessments, students apply the knowledge and skills of the discipline to situations or tasks that replicate real world challenges. The measurement of skills is…

  5. Adolescent stress and coping: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Groėr, M W; Thomas, S P; Shoffner, D

    1992-06-01

    The purpose of this longitudinal panel study was to investigate developmental and gender influences on stress and coping in adolescents attending a suburban high school in Tennessee. Data were collected from the same 167 subjects during the freshman year and again during the senior year. Life events stress was measured through the Adolescent Life Change Event Scale (ALCES) and ways of coping were categorized from data gathered from an open-ended questionnaire. Girls reported more life events stress at both testings than boys. Life events stress was greater at senior testing for both girls and boys, but girls' scores increased more. The "gender intensification" phenomenon may account for the greater disparity in types of stress reported by boys and girls as seniors. Girls generally reported more life events associated with interpersonal and family relationships. Both girls and boys reported coping with stress mostly through active distraction techniques such as exercise. However, girls' use of active distraction decreased over time, while passive distraction increased. Self-destructive and aggressive coping behaviors increased for boys. There were no relationships between amounts or types of life events stress and ways of coping for subjects at either time. PMID:1509113

  6. Stress and coping as predictors of children's divorce-related ruminations.

    PubMed

    Weyer, M; Sandler, I N

    1998-03-01

    Examined stress and coping variables as predictors of divorce-related ruminations in children whose parents had recently divorced. Simultaneous multiple regression was used to analyze the cross-sectional data of 351 children of divorce. Divorce-related stressful events and threat appraisal were positively related to children's ruminations. A prospective longitudinal design was employed to predict rumination at Time 2 (T2) controlling for Time 1 (T1) rumination. Efficacy of coping was negatively related to T2 rumination after controlling for T1 rumination and all other predictors. This study also provided descriptive data on the frequency of children's divorce-related ruminations. PMID:9561940

  7. Psychometric Evaluation of the Parent Situation Inventory: A Role-Play Measure of Coping in Parents of Substance-Using Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGillicuddy, Neil B.; Rychtarik, Robert G.; Morsheimer, Elizabeth T.

    2004-01-01

    This article reports on the generalizability, reliability, and construct validity of the Parent Situation Inventory (PSI), a role-play measure of coping skills in parents experiencing problems from an adolescent's drug and alcohol use. Generalizability was robust (.80) and alternate form and test-retest reliability were satisfactory. PSI…

  8. Psychological hallmarks of skilled golfers.

    PubMed

    Hellström, John

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the psychological hallmarks of skilled golfers (professionals and amateurs with handicaps of skilled golfers' traits, as measured by 16 personality factors, has provided ambiguous results and there may be more complex associations not yet investigated in golf. The effect of mood and emotions on golf scores seems to be individual. Differences in personality may explain why mood states, measured by mood state profiles, have not shown a strong correlation to golf scores. Task focus, confidence, imagery, patience, ability to focus on one shot at a time and performing automatically have been found to be important during competition. These variables need to be further researched before, during and after the swing. The psychological processes needed before, during and after the swing differ and should be further specified. A decrease in heart rate and a lower cortical activity moment before the swing may be signs of an optimal performance state. The effect of coping strategies may vary over time, and players should be able to switch and combine different strategies. Pre-shot routine is associated with performance. However, it is not clear if consistency of total duration and behavioural content in pre-shot routine cause improved performance. Pre-shot routine may also be an effect of psychological processes, such as a different task focus. It may facilitate an automatic execution of technique, which can lead to better performance. The psychological variables needed for competitive golf should be related to the physical, technical and game-statistical variables in coaching and future research. PMID:19757862

  9. Coping strategies as psychological risk factor for antenatal anxiety, worries, and depression among Greek women.

    PubMed

    Gourounti, Kleanthi; Anagnostopoulos, Fotios; Lykeridou, Katerina

    2013-10-01

    A range of psychosocial, medical, and demographic variables may influence pregnant women's psychological status. However the association between coping strategies, anxiety, worries, and depression during pregnancy is a relatively neglected area of research. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the relationship between coping strategies, antenatal anxiety, pregnancy worries, and depressive symptomatology after controlling for the effects of background variables. The study sample consisted of 163 pregnant women, with gestational age ranging from 11 to 26 weeks, attending antenatal screening at a Greek public hospital. Coping strategies were measured with Brief COPE, pregnancy worries were measured with Cambridge Worry Scale (CWS), anxiety was assessed using State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-X version), and depression was measured with Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale (CES-D). Pearson's correlation coefficients were calculated among all study variables, followed by hierarchical multiple linear regression. In the univariate analysis, low annual income, unemployment, conception after an IVF treatment, and a previous history of miscarriage were associated with anxiety, depression, and worries. Additionally, almost all coping strategies (denial, behavioral disengagement, self-blame, self-distraction, substance use, acceptance, positive reframing, active coping, and seeking emotional support) were significantly associated with antenatal anxiety, worries, and depression. Linear regression analysis showed that only previous history of miscarriage, conception after IVF, as well as denial, behavioral disengagement and acceptance coping strategies were significantly related to anxiety, worries and depressive symptomatology. The risk factors found in this study could help clinicians target anxiety and depression screening to high-risk populations of pregnant women. Provision of adequate training for obstetricians and midwives in the detection and management of anxiety and depression among pregnant women should help to decrease the psychological burden during pregnancy. PMID:23558945

  10. The Development of a Sport-Based Life Skills Scale for Youth to Young Adults, 11-23 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cauthen, Hillary Ayn

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a sport-based life skills scale that assesses 20 life skills: goal setting, time management, communication, coping, problem solving, leadership, critical thinking, teamwork, self-discipline, decision making, planning, organizing, resiliency, motivation, emotional control, patience, assertiveness, empathy,…

  11. Evaluation of a Life Skills Program for Women Inmates in Michigan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schram, Pamela J.; Morash, Merry

    2002-01-01

    Describes and evaluates a life skills program that focuses on addressing the special needs of female inmates. Analyses of pre- and post-test scores of program participants compared emotional empathy, self-esteem, coping resources, problem solving, parenting stress, employability, and well-being. Results suggest tat the program does address some of…

  12. Teaching Thinking Skills in Context-Based Learning: Teachers' Challenges and Assessment Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avargil, Shirly; Herscovitz, Orit; Dori, Yehudit Judy

    2012-01-01

    For an educational reform to succeed, teachers need to adjust their perceptions to the reform's new curricula and strategies and cope with new content, as well as new teaching and assessment strategies. Developing students' scientific literacy through context-based chemistry and higher order thinking skills was the framework for establishing a new…

  13. Basic Extension Skills Training (BEST): A Responsive Approach to Integrated Extension for Rural Development in Botswana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gboku, Matthew L. S.; Modise, Oitshepile M.

    2008-01-01

    In a rapidly changing society like Botswana, the competition for employment, training and progression on the job has become very high. The development of skills is therefore a crucial and integral part of nation building, which needs a direct link to a training programme to continuously help staff to cope with the different needs they meet in the…

  14. Stress, coping, and psychological health of vocational high school nursing students associated with a competitive entrance exam.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huey-Fen; Yeh, Mei Chang

    2005-06-01

    An important issue for the nursing education system in Taiwan is to reinforce nursing education to enhance competence levels for entry to nursing specialties. Consequently, to meet the prospective demands of technical manpower, not only do nursing students in college and vocational schools pursue further studies, but they also take competitive entrance exams. Using a descriptive cross-sectional design, the study examined the following among nursing students in vocational high schools: (1) perception and sources of entrance exam stress and use of coping behaviors; (2) the effect of difference in entrance exam stress levels on coping behaviors used, and (3) measurement of coping function to determine which coping behavior works best for buffering the impact of stress on psychological health during a preparatory stage of a college and university entrance exam. The subjects were 441 third-year nursing students of vocational high schools in northern Taiwan, recruited by convenience sampling. Three measurements were adopted: Stress perceived scale, Coping behavior inventory, and a Chinese health questionnaire. Results showed that the five main stressors of entrance exam stress, in descending order, were taking tests, the student's own aspirations, learning tasks, teacher's aspirations and parent's aspirations. Students generally used problem-focused coping strategies including optimistic action and social support to deal with the entrance exam stress, but use of emotion-focused coping strategies including avoidance and emotional disturbance was significantly increased as perceived level of stress rose. Two-way analyses of variance (2-way ANOVA) revealed that problem-focused coping had a positive main effect of alleviating psychological distress. A significant interaction was observed between stress perceived and problem-focused coping used for psychological health. Further examination of the interaction effect showed that problem-focused coping behaviors were potentially more adaptive in relation to psychological health at the lower and moderate stress levels (25 - 75%T) than that at the extreme stress level (> 75%T). Conversely, emotion-focused coping had a negative main effect or impairing psychological health. No interaction effect was found between stress perceived and emotion-focused coping used, suggesting that the relationship between emotion-focused coping and psychological distress was consistent across various stress levels. PMID:15986312

  15. Effective communication skills in nursing practice.

    PubMed

    Bramhall, Elaine

    2014-12-01

    This article highlights the importance of effective communication skills for nurses. It focuses on core communication skills, their definitions and the positive outcomes that result when applied to practice. Effective communication is central to the provision of compassionate, high-quality nursing care. The article aims to refresh and develop existing knowledge and understanding of effective communication skills. Nurses reading this article will be encouraged to develop a more conscious style of communicating with patients and carers, with the aim of improving health outcomes and patient satisfaction. PMID:25467362

  16. The adolescent Religious Coping Questionnaire. Translation and cultural adaptation of Pargament's RCOPE Scale for Polish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Talik, El?bieta B

    2013-03-01

    The paper presents the process of translation and cultural adaptation of the Religious Coping Questionnaire (the RCOPE) by Pargament et al. (2000) for Polish adolescents. The work was driven by the necessity to obtain a structural and measurement equivalence between the American and Polish versions of the instrument. The Polish version was created at the Department of Clinical Psychology of Children and Adolescents at The John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin, Poland. The exploratory factor analysis with the Oblimin oblique rotation was carried out. The principal components method was used as an extraction method of common factors. The results provided input for constructing the scales. The Adolescent Religious Coping Questionnaire consists of 105 items, grouped in 16 scales, which reflects positive and negative religious coping strategies. PMID:21249521

  17. A Preliminary Examination of Thought Suppression, Emotion Regulation, and Coping in a Trauma Exposed Sample

    PubMed Central

    Amstadter, Ananda B.; Vernon, Laura L.

    2009-01-01

    Attempts to modulate negative emotional and cognitive symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) may be related to psychopathology. Trauma exposed undergraduates, 31 reporting severe PTSD symptoms (PTSD group) and 34 without PTSD symptoms (no-PTSD group), completed measures of PTSD, depression, anxiety, thought control, emotion regulation, and coping. The PTSD group had greater psychopathology and overall modulation strategy use than the no-PTSD group. Thought suppression, emotion suppression, and avoidant coping strategies were positively related to psychopathology, whereas emotion reappraisal and approach coping strategies were either not related or weakly negatively related. Hierarchical multiple regressions with psychopathologic variables as criteria and modulation strategies as predictors indicated significant models in all cases. Generally, thought suppression was the only significant independent predictor of psychopathology. PMID:20046535

  18. When Both the Skilled and Unskilled are Unaware: Consequences for Academic Performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Krista D. Mattern; Jeremy Burrus; Emily Shaw

    2010-01-01

    The authors replicate Kruger and Dunning (1999) by demonstrating that the most unskilled students overestimate their skill level, whereas highly skilled students underestimate their skill level. Furthermore, this misestimation of skill is related to academic performance. Misestimation was positively related to first year college GPA, persistence to the fourth year of college, and graduation. At times, this effect can lead

  19. A longitudinal study of coping and burnout among Japanese family caregivers of frail elders

    PubMed Central

    Okabayashi, Hideki; Sugisawa, Hidehiro; Takanashi, Kaoru; Nakatani, Yomei; Sugihara, Yoko; Hougham, Gavin W.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study is to clarify causal relations between coping strategies and burnout in family caregivers of frail elders in Japan. Methods Baseline and 1-year follow-up interviews were conducted with 546 caregivers living in suburban Tokyo. Using newly refined measures, five coping strategies of caregivers (Keeping Their Own Pace, Positive Acceptance of Caregiving Role, Diversion, Informal Support Seeking, and Formal Support Seeking), and caregiver burnout were measured, as well as several confounding factors. Results After controlling for these confounding factors, results of cross-lagged effects modelling showed that adoption of a Diversion coping strategy decreased caregiver burnout, while increases in burnout decreased caregiver Positive Acceptance of Caregiving Role. Conclusions The beneficial effect of an Adaptive Avoidance Coping strategy, Diversion, on caregiver mental health was confirmed in this two-wave longitudinal study. The mechanism by which Diversion appears to work is by containing caregiving stressors from completely spilling over into caregivers’ personal lives. In addition, we also show that preventing a decline in caregiver mental health (i.e. an increase in burnout) allowed caregivers to more easily embrace the caregiving role and, as a result, elder care-recipients were better positioned to receive high quality care. PMID:18791890

  20. Stressful life event appraisal and coping in patients with psychogenic seizures and those with epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Testa, S Marc; Krauss, Gregory L; Lesser, Ronald P; Brandt, Jason

    2012-05-01

    Understanding stress and coping among individuals with psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) may have important treatment implications. 40 patients with PNES, 20 with epilepsy (EPIL), and 40 healthy control (HC) participants reported the frequency of various stressful life events (both positive and negative) and appraised the distress these events induced. They also described their habitual coping behaviors. PNES patients reported no more frequent stressful life events than EPIL patients or HC. In addition, the stressors they experienced are not objectively more severe. However, they reported more severe distress due to negative life events, especially in the domains of work, social functioning, legal matters, and health. PNES patients also engaged in less planning and active coping than HC. Neither of these two coping behaviors was associated with distress ratings. The PNES group did not engage in more denial than either group. However, greater denial among PNES patients was associated with greater perceived distress. Coping in PNES is characterized by elevated levels of perceived distress and fewer action strategies than are normally employed to reduce the impact of a stressor. These findings may inform cognitive behavioral therapy of PNES patients. PMID:22425423

  1. Depression and Interpersonal Problems in Adolescents: Their Relationship With Alexithymia and Coping Styles

    PubMed Central

    Talebi Joybari, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present research was to determine whether depression and interpersonal problems had relationships with alexithymia and coping styles in adolescents. Methods: The study population was randomly selected from all of the adolescent students in the schools of Sari in Iran; 441 adolescents (228 boys and 213 girls) were included in the study. The participants completed the Toronto Alexithymia Scale, the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations, the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems, and the Beck Depression Inventory. The data was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics and was expressed in means, standard deviations, and Pearson correlation coefficient. Results: Alexithymia was related to depression and interpersonal problems; the adolescents who defined themselves as more alexithymic obtained higher scores in depression and interpersonal problems than the adolescents who classified themselves as less- and non-alexithymic. Furthermore, coping styles were related to depression and interpersonal problems. Regression analyses showed that both alexithymia and coping styles accounted for a unique and significant proportion of the variance in depression and interpersonal problems in adolescents. Conclusion: These findings support the positive correlation of alexithymia and maladaptive coping styles with depression and interpersonal problems. PMID:25798172

  2. Stress coping strategies in commercial airline pilots.

    PubMed

    Sloan, S J; Cooper, C L

    1986-01-01

    The literature reveals a clear deficiency in knowledge of how aircraft pilots cope with psychosocial stress. The subject is not only of intrinsic interest, but because of the nature of the pilots' personality and their work, the subject is also relevant to other occupations. In a study of the coping strategies of 442 commercial aircraft pilots, four factors were identified: stability of relationships and home life, reason and logic, social support, and wife's involvement. Implications for the study of other occupations are also highlighted. PMID:3950782

  3. Perfectionism, neuroticism, and daily stress reactivity and coping effectiveness 6 months and 3 years later.

    PubMed

    Dunkley, David M; Mandel, Tobey; Ma, Denise

    2014-10-01

    The present study addressed a fundamental gap between research and clinical work by advancing longitudinal explanatory conceptualizations of stress and coping processes that trigger daily affect in the short- and long-term for individuals with higher levels of personality vulnerability. Community adults completed measures of 2 higher order dimensions of perfectionism (personal standards [PS], self-criticism [SC]), neuroticism, and conscientiousness. Then, 6 months later and again 3 years later, participants completed daily questionnaires of stress, coping, and affect for 14 consecutive days. PS was associated with aggregated daily problem-focused coping and positive reinterpretation, whereas SC was uniquely associated with daily negative social interactions, avoidant coping, negative affect, and sadness at Month 6 and Year 3. Multilevel modeling results demonstrated that both individuals with higher PS and those with higher SC were emotionally reactive to event stress, negative social interactions, and avoidant coping at Month 6 and Year 3 and to less perceived control at Year 3. Positive reinterpretation was especially effective for individuals with higher SC at Month 6 and Year 3. The effects of PS on daily stress reactivity and coping (in)effectiveness were clearly distinguished from the effects of neuroticism and conscientiousness, whereas the SC effects were due to shared overlap with PS and neuroticism. The present findings demonstrate the promise of using repeated daily diary methodologies to help therapists and clients reliably predict future client reactions to daily stressors, which, in turn, could help guide interventions to break apart dysfunctional patterns connected to distress and build resilience for vulnerable individuals. PMID:25111703

  4. Economic uncertainty: helping employees cope.

    PubMed

    Hughes, K H

    1993-08-01

    1. The loss or threat of losing a job may have profound physiological, psychological, and behavioral effects on employees. 2. Middle aged men deteriorate more in the first year after losing a job than younger or older men. 3. It is important that unemployed people make a commitment to purposeful activity and see work in a broader definition. 4. Parents may need reminding to praise their children more than usual and continue positive family activities and routines during times of unemployment. PMID:8397552

  5. How to Help a Loved One Cope with Diabetes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... NDEP Home > Publications How to Help a Loved One Cope with Diabetes Download This Publication (NDEP-57) ... learn more about managing diabetes. Ask your loved one about coping with diabetes and how you can ...

  6. Coping with Chronic Illness in Childhood and Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Compas, Bruce E.; Jaser, Sarah S.; Dunn, Madeleine J.; Rodriguez, Erin M.

    2012-01-01

    Chronic illnesses and medical conditions present millions of children and adolescents with significant stress that is associated with risk for emotional and behavioral problems and interferes with adherence to treatment regimens. We review research on the role of child and adolescent coping with stress as an important feature of the process of adaptation to illness. Recent findings support a control-based model of coping that includes primary control or active coping (efforts to act on the source of stress or one’s emotions), secondary control or accommodative coping (efforts to adapt to the source of stress), and disengagement or passive coping (efforts to avoid or deny the stressor). Evidence suggests the efficacy of secondary control coping in successful adaptation to chronic illness in children and adolescents, disengagement coping is associated with poorer adjustment, and findings for primary control coping are mixed. Avenues for future research are highlighted. PMID:22224836

  7. Gain just-in-time skills with a developerWorks skill Skill Level: Introductory

    E-print Network

    reach the desired skill objective. You'll also be able to search within the skill kit for specificGain just-in-time skills with a developerWorks skill kit Skill Level: Introductory Kevin Czap and technologies? Are you looking to increase your skills for your next promotion or assignment? Do you sometimes

  8. Coping With Negative Symptoms of Schizophrenia: Patient and Family Perspectives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kim T. Mueser; David P. Valentiner; Julie Agresta

    1997-01-01

    An exploratory study was conducted of the strategies that schizophrenia patients and their relatives employ to cope with negative symptoms. Coping strategies and their perceived efficacy were elicited in semistructured interviews conducted separately with patients and relatives. Coping responses were coded according to the following dimensions: behavioral-cognitive, social-nonsocial, and problem focused-emotion focused. Overall, the number of coping strategies was related

  9. Does Leisure Time as a Stress Coping Resource Increase Affective Complexity? Applying the Dynamic Model of Affect (DMA).

    PubMed

    Qian, Xinyi Lisa; Yarnal, Careen M; Almeida, David M

    2013-01-01

    Affective complexity, a manifestation of psychological well-being, refers to the relative independence between positive and negative affect (PA, NA). According to the Dynamic Model of Affect (DMA), stressful situations lead to highly inverse PA-NA relationship, reducing affective complexity. Meanwhile, positive events can sustain affective complexity by restoring PA-NA independence. Leisure, a type of positive events, has been identified as a coping resource. This study used the DMA to assess whether leisure time helps restore affective complexity on stressful days. We found that on days with more leisure time than usual, an individual experienced less negative PA-NA relationship after daily stressful events. The finding demonstrates the value of leisure time as a coping resource and the DMA's contribution to coping research. PMID:24659826

  10. Does Leisure Time as a Stress Coping Resource Increase Affective Complexity? Applying the Dynamic Model of Affect (DMA)

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Xinyi (Lisa); Yarnal, Careen M.; Almeida, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Affective complexity, a manifestation of psychological well-being, refers to the relative independence between positive and negative affect (PA, NA). According to the Dynamic Model of Affect (DMA), stressful situations lead to highly inverse PA-NA relationship, reducing affective complexity. Meanwhile, positive events can sustain affective complexity by restoring PA-NA independence. Leisure, a type of positive events, has been identified as a coping resource. This study used the DMA to assess whether leisure time helps restore affective complexity on stressful days. We found that on days with more leisure time than usual, an individual experienced less negative PA-NA relationship after daily stressful events. The finding demonstrates the value of leisure time as a coping resource and the DMA’s contribution to coping research. PMID:24659826

  11. Coping with Test Pain, Discomfort, and Anxiety

    MedlinePLUS

    ... services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities PLEASE NOTE: Your web browser does not have JavaScript enabled. Unless you enable Javascript , your ability to navigate and access the features of this website will be limited. ... Coping with Test Pain, Discomfort, and Anxiety Share this page: Was ...

  12. 4 Arkansas Underground -July 2009 COPING WITH

    E-print Network

    Thomas, Dave

    4 Arkansas Underground - July 2009 COPING WITH WHITE NOSE SYNDROME By David J. Thomas, Ph.D. By now, most cavers have heard of White Nose Syn- drome (WNS). WNS is a fatal disease of hibernat- ing bats characterized by white fungal growth around the nose, wings and other parts of the body. WNS was first

  13. Linking Fearfulness and Coping Styles in Fish

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Catarina I. M. Martins; Patricia I. M. Silva; Luis E. C. Conceiēćo; Benjamin Costas; Erik Höglund; Ųyvind Ųverli; Johan W. Schrama

    2011-01-01

    Consistent individual differences in cognitive appraisal and emotional reactivity, including fearfulness, are important personality traits in humans, non-human mammals, and birds. Comparative studies on teleost fishes support the existence of coping styles and behavioral syndromes also in poikilothermic animals. The functionalist approach to emotions hold that emotions have evolved to ensure appropriate behavioral responses to dangerous or rewarding stimuli. Little

  14. Empowering Children to Cope with Teasing

    MedlinePLUS

    ... child cope with name-calling, ridicule, and verbal bullying by Judy S. Freedman • Bullies are a Pain in the Brain by Trevor ... vol. 1 by Erin McCoy • How to Handle Bullies, Teasers and other Meanies: A book that takes ...

  15. Undergraduate Student Stress and Coping Strategies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James C. Sarros; Iain L. Densten

    1989-01-01

    This study of stress among 107 undergraduate students enrolled in various degree strands in a Victorian Institute of Technology reveals that major stressors are both academic and personal in nature. Students generally are more likely to use direct?action strategies in their attempts to cope with college stress, while male students rely. more on palliative techniques compared with female students. The

  16. An Introduction to Coping Theory and Research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hanoch Livneh; Erin Martz

    The literature on coping with chronic illness and disability (CID) has grown exponentially during the past 40 years. The reasons for this growth are manifold. First, as people of industrialized societies live longer, the probability of their encountering the experience of CID increases dramatically. Indeed, with the life expectancy in the U.S. now averaging 77.6 years (Centers for Disease Control

  17. Adolescent Coping with Poverty-Related Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wadsworth, Martha E.; Wolff, Brian; Santiago, Catherine DeCarlo; Moran, Erica G.

    2008-01-01

    Adolescents living in poverty face numerous stressors that are toxic for their mental health and well-being. There are effective strategies for coping with poverty-related stress that have been shown to reduce psychological symptoms in the face of this stress. However, stress itself weakens an adolescent's ability to use these cognitively…

  18. When Disaster Strikes: Helping Young Children Cope.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farish, Jane M.

    Young children may experience stress and emotional problems in reaction to natural and other disasters. This brochure presents a number of strategies for teachers and caregivers to use to help children cope with this stress. These strategies include: (1) providing reassurance and physical comfort; (2) being aware of separation anxiety; (3)…

  19. Adaptive processes of coping, defending and mastery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert H. Short; Gretchen C. Hess

    1983-01-01

    The research relevant to the study of the adaptive processes of coping and defense is examined in order to unify a fragmented body of literature. The authors emphasize an eclectic approach which utilizes theory and experimental data drawn from literature on medicine, psychoanalysis, stress and crisis, stress management, holistic health, counselling, learning, personality, child development, and socialization. The concepts underlying

  20. Student Teacher Stress and Coping Mechanisms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemmings, Brian; Hockley, Tania

    2002-01-01

    Surveys of 43 student teachers taking a 9 week practicum in rural Australian primary schools and case studies of four of them found that student teacher stress diminished over time. Five coping strategies were identified: communicating with others, self help, relaxation/recreation, teaching and managing, and organization. (Contains 32 references.)…

  1. Social Coping of Gifted and LGBTQ Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutcheson, Virginia H.; Tieso, Carol L.

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative study used critical ethnography as a theoretical framework to investigate the social coping strategies of gifted and lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) students in middle and high school. Twelve LGBTQ college students from a selective Southeastern university were interviewed and asked to retrospectively…

  2. Relapse Crises and Coping among Dieters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grilo, Carlos M.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examined situational antecedents of dieting relapse crises and dieters'attempts to cope with temptations to overeat among obese type II diabetics (N=57). Found three categories of relapse crises: mealtime, low-arousal, and emotional upset situations. Found upset situations most frequently produced negative outcome while strong cognitive and…

  3. Construct Validity of the Social Coping Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swiatek, Mary Ann; Cross, Tracy L.

    2007-01-01

    The Social coping Questionnaire (SCQ) measures strategies used by gifted adolescents to minimize the negative effect they believe their high ability has on their social interactions. Previous studies have supported the factor structure, internal consistency, and test-retest reliability of the SCQ. The current study provides construct validity…

  4. Children of Torture Victims: Reactions and Coping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Edith; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Evaluation of 11 children from 5 exile families with at least 1 parent having been subjected to torture found children were anxious, depressive, and regressive with psychosomatic symptoms, sleep disorders, and family and school problems. Coping strategies including isolation and withdrawal, mental flight, eagerness to acclimatize, and strength of…

  5. Coping with symptoms of relapse in schizophrenia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shuba Kumar; R. Thara; S. Rajkumar

    1989-01-01

    Summary A pilot study is reported of 30 chronic schizophrenic patients at the psychiatric out-patient facility of Government General Hospital, Madras, India. The objectives of the study were to assess the patients' perception of prodromata of relapse and their coping mechanisms. Patients were questioned on these aspects, using a semi-structured interview guide. The study showed a high degree of perception

  6. Stress and Coping Activity: Reframing Negative Thoughts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Jamie S.; Gourley, Mary K.; Madson, Laura; Le Blanc, Katya

    2011-01-01

    Stress management and coping techniques are not only relevant in many psychology courses but also personally relevant for undergraduate students. In this article, the authors describe an activity designed to provide students with practice evaluating and challenging negative self-talk. Students responded to scenarios individually, were paired with…

  7. Coping with Loneliness among the Terminally Ill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rokach, Ami

    2007-01-01

    Loneliness is a universal phenomenon, and its pain is intensified by a diagnosis of a terminal illness. The present study is an investigation of the strategies used by patients with Multiple sclerosis (MS), by individuals diagnosed with cancer, and by the general population to cope with loneliness. Three hundred and twenty nine MS patients, 315…

  8. Coping styles predict responsiveness to cognitive behaviour therapy in psychosis.

    PubMed

    Premkumar, Preethi; Peters, Emmanuelle R; Fannon, Dominic; Anilkumar, Anantha P; Kuipers, Elizabeth; Kumari, Veena

    2011-05-30

    The study aimed to determine the clinical and neuropsychological predictors of responsiveness to cognitive behavioural therapy for psychosis (CBTp). Sixty patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and 25 healthy individuals took part in the study. Thirty patients (25 protocol completers) received CBTp in addition to standard care (SC); 30 patients (18 protocol completers) received SC only. All patients were assessed on symptoms using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and clinical and neuropsychological function before and after CBTp. Symptoms and self-esteem improved to a greater extent in the CBTp+SC than SC control group. Greater pre-therapy coping ability and the self-reflectiveness dimension of cognitive insight at baseline predicted improvement in symptoms in the CBTp+SC group, but not the SC control group, explaining up to 21% of the variance in symptom improvement. Pre-therapy neuropsychological function, duration of illness, clinical insight and gender did not predict CBTp responsiveness. Being able to have a range of coping strategies and reflect on one's experiences while refraining from overconfidence in one's interpretations before therapy is conducive to better CBTp responsiveness. PMID:21262541

  9. Coping styles predict responsiveness to cognitive behaviour therapy in psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Premkumar, Preethi; Peters, Emmanuelle R.; Fannon, Dominic; Anilkumar, Anantha P.; Kuipers, Elizabeth; Kumari, Veena

    2011-01-01

    The study aimed to determine the clinical and neuropsychological predictors of responsiveness to cognitive behavioural therapy for psychosis (CBTp). Sixty patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and 25 healthy individuals took part in the study. Thirty patients (25 protocol completers) received CBTp in addition to standard care (SC); 30 patients (18 protocol completers) received SC only. All patients were assessed on symptoms using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and clinical and neuropsychological function before and after CBTp. Symptoms and self-esteem improved to a greater extent in the CBTp + SC than SC control group. Greater pre-therapy coping ability and the self-reflectiveness dimension of cognitive insight at baseline predicted improvement in symptoms in the CBTp + SC group, but not the SC control group, explaining up to 21% of the variance in symptom improvement. Pre-therapy neuropsychological function, duration of illness, clinical insight and gender did not predict CBTp responsiveness. Being able to have a range of coping strategies and reflect on one's experiences while refraining from overconfidence in one's interpretations before therapy is conducive to better CBTp responsiveness. PMID:21262541

  10. Stress, Depression and Coping among Latino Migrant and Seasonal Farmworkers

    PubMed Central

    Burke Winkelman, Sloane; Chaney, Elizabeth H.; Bethel, Jeffrey W.

    2013-01-01

    Research shows that one in four migrant farmworkers experienced an episode of one or more mental health disorders such as stress, depression, or anxiety in their lifetime. The purpose of this mixed methods study was to explore experiences and perceptions related to stress and depression among Latino migrant and seasonal farmworkers (MSFWs), and to identify their coping behaviors for dealing with these mental health conditions. Using a mixed methods research approach, three focus group interviews of a sample of Latino MSFWs (N = 29) were conducted and a quantitative survey was implemented (N = 57) at community sites in eastern North Carolina. Four major themes emerged from the focus group data: (1) physical stress related to working conditions; (2) mental stress related to family situations, work environment, documentation status, and lack of resources; (3) depression related to separation from family and the lack of resources; and (4) use of positive and negative mechanisms for coping with stress and depression. A discussion of these themes, results from the survey findings, implications for intervention and outreach programs, along with recommendations for further research, are provided. PMID:23644829

  11. Stress, depression and coping among Latino migrant and seasonal farmworkers.

    PubMed

    Winkelman, Sloane Burke; Chaney, Elizabeth H; Bethel, Jeffrey W

    2013-05-01

    Research shows that one in four migrant farmworkers experienced an episode of one or more mental health disorders such as stress, depression, or anxiety in their lifetime. The purpose of this mixed methods study was to explore experiences and perceptions related to stress and depression among Latino migrant and seasonal farmworkers (MSFWs), and to identify their coping behaviors for dealing with these mental health conditions. Using a mixed methods research approach, three focus group interviews of a sample of Latino MSFWs (N = 29) were conducted and a quantitative survey was implemented (N = 57) at community sites in eastern North Carolina. Four major themes emerged from the focus group data: (1) physical stress related to working conditions; (2) mental stress related to family situations, work environment, documentation status, and lack of resources; (3) depression related to separation from family and the lack of resources; and (4) use of positive and negative mechanisms for coping with stress and depression. A discussion of these themes, results from the survey findings, implications for intervention and outreach programs, along with recommendations for further research, are provided. PMID:23644829

  12. Religious Coping in Families of Children with Autism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nalini Tarakeshwar; Kenneth I. Pargament

    2001-01-01

    We assessed the role of religion in the coping of families of children with autism. Forty-five parents completed the Brief RCOPE; identified stressors of autism; and completed measures of psychological adjustment (depression and anxiety), stress-related growth, and religious outcome. A subsample (n = 21) of parents was interviewed about their use of religious coping. Religious coping accounted for unique variance

  13. Coping With Stressful Events in Older Children and Young Adolescents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruce E. Compas; Vanessa L. Malcarne; Karen M. Fondacaro

    1988-01-01

    Both the capacity to generate alternative solutions to cope with stressful events and the strategies actually used to cope with interpersonal and academic stressors were examined in a sample of junior high school age youngsters. Subjects were moderately consistent in the generation and use of problem- and emotion-focused coping with the two types of events, and they adjusted the number

  14. Mild Depression: Its Relation to Stress, Coping and Gender.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Duane L.; Kolenc, Koleen

    This study investigated the relationship of mild depression to global stress, specific stressors, problem-focused coping, emotion-focused coping, and gender. Existing theory supported expectations that non-depressed and mildly depressed persons would use different coping styles, and perceptions of stressful events and the quantity of stressful…

  15. Occupational Stress and Coping with Stress: A Critique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. J. Newton

    1989-01-01

    This paper considers problems in the conceptualization and operationalization of four concepts in occupational stress research: stress, strain, coping behavior, and coping style. The paper argues that a lack of conceptual and operational clarity in each of these areas has led to confusion in both the conduct and the interpretation of occupational stress and coping research, citing examples from the

  16. Coping with Stresses and Concerns during Adolescence: A Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frydenberg, Erica; Lewis, Ramon

    Although numerous cross-sectional studies have documented the coping responses of young adolescents of different ages and of both sexes, few studies have tracked the developmental stages of coping within adolescents. A longitudinal study of adolescent coping was conducted in metropolitan Melbourne, Australia. During the 5-year study, 168 students…

  17. Developing Coping Typologies of Minority Adolescents: A Latent Profile Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldridge, Arianna A.; Roesch, Scott C.

    2008-01-01

    Latent profile analysis (LPA) was used to develop a coping typology of minority adolescents (M = 15.5 years). A multiethnic sample (n = 354) was recruited from a program aimed at serving low-income students. LPA revealed three distinct coping profiles. The first comprised adolescents who used a number of specific coping strategies at a low level…

  18. Perceived parental rearing practices and styles of coping

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julie Guay McIntyre; Jerome B. Dusek

    1995-01-01

    In order to study the relation between parental rearing practices and coping dispositions, 75 females and 65 males completed the Children's Report of Parental Behavior Inventory and the COPE, a measure of general coping dispositions. Those who reported their parents had an authoritative rearing style (warmth and nurturance coupled with close monitoring and age-appropriate demandingness) used more social support and

  19. Assessing the Process of Marital Adaptation: The Marital Coping Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zborowski, Lydia L.; Berman, William H.

    Studies on coping with life events identify marriage as a distinct situational stressor, in which a wide range of coping strategies specific to the marital relationship are employed. This study examined the process of martial adaptation, identified as a style of coping, in 116 married volunteers. Subjects completed a demographic questionnaire, the…

  20. Developmental and Cross-Situational Differences in Adolescents' Coping Strategies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael A. Griffith; Eric F. Dubow; Maria F. Ippolito

    2000-01-01

    In this study, we investigated developmental and cross-situational differences in strategies adolescents use to cope with family, school, and peer stressors. We also examined the relation between adolescents' use of coping strategies and two indices of adjustment (self perceptions of their adjustment as a result of coping with the specific stressor and state anxiety). The sample included 148 seventh graders,

  1. Reasons for Living and Coping Abilities among Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Range, Lillian M.; Stringer, Traci A.

    1996-01-01

    In this study, 79 older adults completed the Reasons for Living and the Cope inventories. Overall coping was significantly correlated with total reasons for living, although the low correlation suggests the constructs were moderately unique. Found older women may underrate their ability to cope. Implies suicide prevention strategies should target…

  2. The Coping Behavior of Adolescents Following a Move.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donohue, Kevin C.; Gullotta, Thomas P.

    1983-01-01

    Used an inventory of coping behaviors to examine how adolescents (N=41) cope with the stress of relocation. The most helpful techniques were establishing friendships, starting over, experiencing loneliness, and maintaining current functioning. Females seemed to use more coping behaviors successfully than males. Age differences were less…

  3. Work Stress and Coping: Drawing Together Research and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewe, Philip; Trenberth, Linda

    2004-01-01

    Despite the enthusiasm for coping research, reviewers are concerned that much of the research has failed to live up to expectations as to its practical relevance. Yet the debate about the application of coping research is not short on writers pointing the way forward. By examining a number of issues at the heart of the debate on coping research…

  4. Coping Style in Schizophrenia: Associations With Neurocognitive Deficits and Personality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul H. Lysaker; Gary J. Bryson; Kriscinda Marks; Tamasine C. Greig; Morris D. Bell

    2004-01-01

    It is widely recognized that persons with schizophrenia tend to cope with stress in a relatively avoidant and ineffectual manner. Less is understood, however, about the factors that affect coping style in schizophrenia. To determine the extent to which various neurocognitive deficits and personality dimensions are related to coping style in schizophrenia, measures of visual memory, verbal memory, executive function,

  5. Coping with a Paraphrenic World in Late Life

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pia Fromholt; Lise Bender; Birgit Elleberg

    1999-01-01

    This study deals with late paraphrenia from a psychological coping perspective. Analyses of coping behavior in relation to paraphrenic delusions and hallucinations revealed rational choices of coping efforts and generally consistent emotional reactions to the subjectively perceived problem. The majority of the patients did not display evidence of premorbid abnormal personalities or life courses. The creation and sustainment of psychotic

  6. Stress, Coping, and Behavioural Problems among Rural and Urban Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elgar, Frank J.; Arlett, Christine; Groves, Renee

    2003-01-01

    Rural/urban differences were studied in self-reported stress, coping, and behavioral problems in adolescents. Levels of stress and ways of coping were similar between the two groups. However, urban males reported more conflict and externalizing behaviors than females and rural males. Results suggest that adolescents may utilize many coping

  7. Coping zone construction and mapping: an exploratory study of contextual coping, PTSD, and childhood violence exposure in urban areas.

    PubMed

    Sloan-Power, Elizabeth M; Boxer, Paul; McGuirl, Colleen; Church, Ruslana

    2013-06-01

    This mixed-method study explored how urban children aged 11 to 14 cope with multicontextual violence exposures simultaneously and analyzed the immediate action steps these children took when faced with such violence over time. Participants' (N = 12) narratives were initially analyzed utilizing a grounded theory framework as 68 violent incidents were coded for perceived threat and coping levels. Coping strategies were examined from a Transactional Model of Stress and Coping perspective taking into account the context and severity of each violent exposure itself. A comprehensive assessment map was developed to plot and visually reveal participants (N = 12) overall contextualized coping responses. Overall "coping zone" scores were generated to index perceived threat and coping responses associated with each violent incident described. These scores were then correlated with indicators of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Results indicated that urban children with less optimal coping zone scores across context have a greater likelihood of PTSD than do children who do not. PMID:23266997

  8. Why skill matters

    PubMed Central

    Hikosaka, Okihide; Yamamoto, Shinya; Yasuda, Masaharu; Kim, Hyoung F.

    2013-01-01

    Maximizing rewards per unit time is ideal for success and survival for humans and animals. This goal can be approached by speeding up behavior aiming at rewards, and this is done most efficiently by acquiring skills. Importantly, reward-directed skills consist of two components: finding a good object (object skill) and acting on the object (action skill), which occur sequentially. Recent studies suggest that object skill is based on high capacity memory on object-value association. When a learned object appears, the corresponding memory is quickly expressed as a value-based gaze bias, leading to the automatic acquisition or avoidance of the object. Object skill thus plays a crucial role in increasing rewards per unit time. PMID:23911579

  9. Post-traumatic stress and world assumptions: the effects of religious coping.

    PubMed

    Zukerman, Gil; Korn, Liat

    2014-12-01

    Religiosity has been shown to moderate the negative effects of traumatic event experiences. The current study was designed to examine the relationship between post-traumatic stress (PTS) following traumatic event exposure; world assumptions defined as basic cognitive schemas regarding the world; and self and religious coping conceptualized as drawing on religious beliefs and practices for understanding and dealing with life stressors. This study examined 777 Israeli undergraduate students who completed several questionnaires which sampled individual world assumptions and religious coping in addition to measuring PTS, as manifested by the PTSD check list. Results indicate that positive religious coping was significantly associated with more positive world assumptions, while negative religious coping was significantly associated with more negative world assumptions. Additionally, negative world assumptions were significantly associated with more avoidance symptoms, while reporting higher rates of traumatic event exposure was significantly associated with more hyper-arousal. These findings suggest that religious-related cognitive schemas directly affect world assumptions by creating protective shields that may prevent the negative effects of confronting an extreme negative experience. PMID:23839068

  10. A Statics Skills Inventory

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Danielson, Scott

    Engineering faculty recognize the value of assessment instruments to measure student learningand to evaluate changes in teaching. As a result, a number of engineering subject assessmentinstruments formulated as ā??conceptā?¯ inventories have been developed. Taking a different tack,the authors of this paper decided to focus on assessment of student skills in statics and this paperprovides details of the development of a statics skills assessment tool. The use of only conceptinventories to provide proof of student learning is an incomplete assessment as effectiveapplication of engineering knowledge consists of both a sound understanding of conceptualknowledge and skill intertwined. For instance, while demonstrating understanding of theconcept of equilibrium is valuable, it is also important students are able to generate correctequations of equilibrium. A multi-step Delphi process involving statics educators was used toreach consensus on the important skills of statics. The Delphi rankings, including the importanceof the skill as judged by the Delphi participants as well as an estimate of the proportion ofstudents whom can perform the skill, were used to develop the final list of top ranked skills.Initial skill-based questions were developed to probe these areas and tested with students. Thecurrent status of the skill assessment instrument is discussed.

  11. Tinnitus coping style and its relationship to tinnitus severity and emotional distress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard J. Budd; Rachel Pugh

    1996-01-01

    The structure of the Tinnitus Coping Style Questionnaire (TCSQ) is examined in a sample of 108 tinnitus sufferers. Factor analysis of the TCSQ items identified two coping styles that were termed “effective coping” and “maladaptive coping.” It is shown that “maladaptive coping,” but not “effective coping,” is related to reports of subjective tinnitus severity and emotional distress. The clinical implications

  12. Coping with criticism and praise.

    PubMed

    Esdale, Lynn; Jahoda, Andrew; Pert, Carol

    2015-05-01

    Through experiencing stigma and discrimination, people with intellectual disability may become more sensitive to criticism from others and be less likely to believe praise. This study compared how people with and without intellectual disability viewed praise and criticism, using a vignette task developed for the study. Participants were asked to imagine someone saying something praiseworthy or critical and were then asked about their emotions, beliefs, and thoughts. People with intellectual disability were more likely to believe and be distressed by criticism. Contrary to predictions, this group were also more likely to believe praise and experience positive affect. The results suggest that the self-perceptions of people with intellectual disabilities is more dynamic and reliant on the views of others. PMID:25928437

  13. Latinas in Medicine: Stressors, Survival Skills, and Strengths.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grijalva, Cindy A.; Coombs, Robert Holman

    1997-01-01

    Interviews with 20 Latina physicians and medical students examined stresses encountered in medical school, on the job, and from family: lack of confidence, sex bias, financial stress, poor educational preparation, ethnic bias, and cultural sex-role expectations. Coping strategies included positive thinking, assertiveness, drawing on social…

  14. Feasibility and Acceptability of a School-Based Coping Intervention for Latina Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Carolyn; Pintor, Jessie Kemmick; Lindgren, Sandi

    2010-01-01

    Latino girls (Latinas) experience disproportionate rates of emotional distress, including suicidal ideation, which may be indicative of inadequate coping abilities. Prevention of mental health problems, a U.S. public health priority, is particularly critical for Latina adolescents due to lack of access to mental health treatments. The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility of Project Wings, a 14-session stress management/coping intervention. Latinas in school (ages 15–21) met weekly for 2-hr with two bilingual experienced facilitators to participate in sharing circles, relaxation exercise, and skill building. Intervention participation and post-intervention focus group data were analyzed. Fall semester intervention (n = 10) occurred during school (72% attendance rate); spring semester intervention (n = 11) was after school (84% attendance rate). Focus group data confirmed acceptability. Latina adolescents will participate in a school-based, group-based stress management/coping intervention. The findings offer insights about intervention recruitment and retention that are specifically relevant to school nurses. Future research includes intervention testing using a randomized study design. PMID:19850950

  15. Teaching pediatric communication skills to medical students

    PubMed Central

    Frost, Katherine A; Metcalf, Elizabeth P; Brooks, Rachel; Kinnersley, Paul; Greenwood, Stephen R; Powell, Colin VE

    2015-01-01

    Background Delivering effective clinical pediatric communication skills training to undergraduate medical students is a distinct and important challenge. Pediatric-specific communication skills teaching is complex and under-researched. We report on the development of a scenario-based pediatric clinical communication skills program as well as students’ assessment of this module. Methods We designed a pediatric clinical communication skills program and delivered it five times during one academic year via small-group teaching. Students were asked to score the workshop in eight domains (learning objectives, complexity, interest, competencies, confidence, tutors, feedback, and discussion) using 5-point Likert scales, along with free text comments that were grouped and analyzed thematically, identifying both the strengths of the workshop and changes suggested to improve future delivery. Results Two hundred and twenty-one of 275 (80%) student feedback forms were returned. Ninety-six percent of students’ comments were positive or very positive, highlighting themes such as the timing of teaching, relevance, group sizes, and the use of actors, tutors, and clinical scenarios. Conclusion Scenario-based teaching of clinical communication skills is positively received by students. Studies need to demonstrate an impact on practice, performance, development, and sustainability of communications training. PMID:25653569

  16. Managing stress: the influence of gender, age and emotion regulation on coping among university students in Botswana

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro, Nicole M.; Balogun, Shyngle K.; Oratile, Kutlo N.

    2014-01-01

    This study focused on the influence of gender, age and emotion regulation on coping strategies among university students in Botswana. Sixty-four males and 64 females, ranging in age from 18 to 29 years completed the Difficulty in Emotion Regulation Scale and the Coping Strategy Inventory. Female students used wishful thinking and problem-focused disengagement more than male students; however, there were no other significant gender differences in coping strategies. Older students were more likely to use problem-solving, cognitive restructuring and express emotion coping strategies. In addition, problems in emotion regulation significantly predicted problem-and emotion-focused engagement, problem- and emotion-focused disengagement and coping strategies. There was a unique finding that non-acceptance of emotional responses, a type of emotion suppression, was positively correlated with problem solving, cognitive restructuring, expressing emotion, social support, problem avoidance and wishful thinking coping strategies. Cultural context and implications for student well-being and university support are discussed. PMID:24910491

  17. Managing stress: the influence of gender, age and emotion regulation on coping among university students in Botswana.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Nicole M; Balogun, Shyngle K; Oratile, Kutlo N

    2014-06-01

    This study focused on the influence of gender, age and emotion regulation on coping strategies among university students in Botswana. Sixty-four males and 64 females, ranging in age from 18 to 29 years completed the Difficulty in Emotion Regulation Scale and the Coping Strategy Inventory. Female students used wishful thinking and problem-focused disengagement more than male students; however, there were no other significant gender differences in coping strategies. Older students were more likely to use problem-solving, cognitive restructuring and express emotion coping strategies. In addition, problems in emotion regulation significantly predicted problem-and emotion-focused engagement, problem- and emotion-focused disengagement and coping strategies. There was a unique finding that non-acceptance of emotional responses, a type of emotion suppression, was positively correlated with problem solving, cognitive restructuring, expressing emotion, social support, problem avoidance and wishful thinking coping strategies. Cultural context and implications for student well-being and university support are discussed. PMID:24910491

  18. Psychometric properties of a hurricane coping self-efficacy measure.

    PubMed

    Benight, C C; Ironson, G; Durham, R L

    1999-04-01

    This brief report describes the psychometric properties of an instrument designed to measure Hurricane Coping Self-Efficacy (HCSE). Survivors of Hurricane Andrew (n = 165) and Hurricane Opal (n = 63) completed the HCSE and assessments of optimism, social support, distress, and resource loss. Principal components factor analyses revealed a unidimensional structure for the HCSE. Internal consistency of the HCSE was strong. In both samples, HCSE was positively associated with optimism and social support, but negatively associated with general psychological distress, trauma related distress, and resource loss. Finally, hierarchical regression analyses demonstrated that the HCSE explained a significant amount of experimental variance for intrusive thoughts and avoidance after controlling for social support, lost resources, and optimism. PMID:10378175

  19. Coping with losses, grief, and mourning in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Wittmann, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer is a highly prevalent disease with a high likelihood of survival. If treated, survivors live with significant and lasting treatment-related side effects. Surgical treatment is associated with urinary incontinence and erectile dysfunction, and radiation leads to urinary and bowel irritability as well as erectile dysfunction. Patients who undergo hormonal treatment cope with sexual dysfunction, bone density loss, hot flashes, mood symptoms, and cardiac and metabolic disorders. Functional losses have a significant impact on patients and their partners' quality of life and are associated with distress and psychosocial morbidity. Psychosocial treatment is largely unavailable in usual care, but has been shown to reduce distress, to increase positive reappraisal of the illness, and to contribute to the recovery of sexual intimacy. Treatment for grief and mourning, typical reactions to loss, has not been introduced into psychosocial interventions but is increasingly recognized as a path toward a 'new normal' after prostate cancer treatment. PMID:25832517

  20. Communication Skills Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cruice, Gary G., Jr.

    The first roadblock encountered in an effort to develop an interdisciplinary communications skills course at the university level was the discovery that no suitable textbooks exist for such a course. First, texts widely used for basic speech courses do not attempt to incorporate written and spoken communication, much less computer skills. Second,…

  1. The Employability Skills Portfolio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stemmer, Paul; And Others

    1992-01-01

    During 1990-91, Michigan schools piloted an innovative portfolio approach enabling students to discover, document, and develop employability skills in academics, personal management, and teamwork. Not an improved sorting system, the project encourages students to recognize successes, seek opportunities to improve skills, and gain confidence in…

  2. Survival Skills Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Charlie

    The manual describes a program in survival skills for use with delinquent youth. The program covers the following six areas of functional competency: interpersonal relations, occupational knowledge, consumer awareness, law, health, and community resources. The skills necessary for successful functioning are listed as communication, interpersonal…

  3. Study Skills Managing workload

    E-print Network

    Ainsworth, Mark

    Study Skills Managing workload A useful study skills guide, with advice on how to manage workload, and for reports, it is helpful both to you and to the reader if you provide headings for each of the main sections/or lists of references should be given at the end of the assignment. You should also incorporate page

  4. Critical Skills Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 2010

    2010-01-01

    As the U.S. economy begins to show signs of improvement, executives say they need a workforce fully equipped with skills beyond just the basics of reading, writing, and arithmetic (the three Rs). Skills such as critical thinking and problem solving, communication, collaboration, and creativity and innovation (the four Cs) will become even more…

  5. Building Web Literacy Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinhardt, Jonathon; Isbell, Katherine

    2002-01-01

    Describes web literacy instruction developed and implemented in response to students' needs as part of an English-as-a-Foreign-Language academic skills preparation curriculum. The goals of the instruction are to introduce critical reading strategies and develop computer literacy skills. (Author/VWL)

  6. Simple Number Skills

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jo Edkins

    2010-01-01

    This is a collection of simple interactive activities to help young children practice early number skills. They use visual representations to develop counting and subitizing skills, number sense, place value concepts, and basic whole number operations (addition, subtraction, doubling). A teacher page summarizes the purpose and functions of each activity.

  7. Rural Thinking Skills Catalog.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruse, Janice

    This catalog aims to help educators locate materials which will assist them in effectively teaching thinking skills. Research for Better Schools (RBS) serves as the lead educational laboratory for the Department of Education's national project on thinking skills. A total of 248 resources, including pamphlets, documents of activities, computer…

  8. Critical Thinking Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Word's Worth: A Quarterly Newsletter of the Lifelong Learning Network, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This issue of a quarterly newsletter focuses on the theme of critical thinking skills. "Critical Thinking Skills: An Interview with Dr. Richard Paul" (Barbara Christopher) is the text of an interview in which the director of research at Sonoma State University's Center for Critical Thinking examines the meaning of critical thinking and the ways…

  9. Assessing Employee Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1997

    This document contains four papers from a symposium on assessing employee skills. "Bridging the Training Gap: Identifying Work Place Transferable Skills Needs in Manufacturing Organizations in East Central Minnesota" (K. Peter Kuchinke, James M. Brown, Howie Anderson, Joe Hobson) reports a study of a workplace education program in rural Minnesota…

  10. Not-so-Soft Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curran, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Much recent discussion about the skills needed to secure Britain's economic recovery has focused on skills for employability. However, too often, these fundamental skills are understood in narrow functional or vocational terms. So-called "soft skills", what Penelope Tobin, in her 2008 paper "Soft Skills: the hard facts", terms "traits and…

  11. Host country competition, labor skills, and technology transfer by multinationals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Magnus BlomstriJm; Ari Kokko; Mario Zejan

    1994-01-01

    Host Country Competition, Labor Skills, and Technology Transfer by Multinationals. — This paper examines the impact of local\\u000a competition and the availability of skilled labor on the technology imports of foreign MNC affiliates in Mexican manufacturing\\u000a industries. The authors find that proxies for local competition and labor skills are positively related to the recorded technology\\u000a imports of foreign owned affiliates.

  12. Mentoring, Type, and Coping with Change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fairhurst, A.; Garcia, M.

    1994-01-01

    Formal mentoring programs can help meet organizational goals. A case study at JPL illustrates the dey elements of a successful mentoring program. In the full-day training session, interpretation of two tools (the Meyers-Brigg Type Indicator and Invest in Your Values) helps participants to understand and appreciate the wide range of human norms. Career training within the program helps individuals cope with change.

  13. Wages and Skills Utilization: Effect of Broad Skills and Generic Skills on Wages in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramos, Catherine R.; Ng, Michael Chi Man; Sung, Johnny; Loke, Fiona

    2013-01-01

    Many people go for training to upgrade their skills which is hoped to pave the way for better pay. But what are the kinds of skills that really affect wages? Employers have emphasized the value of generic skills such as interpersonal and communication skills, teamwork and problem solving. Does possession of these skills translate to at least the…

  14. Linking fearfulness and coping styles in fish.

    PubMed

    Martins, Catarina I M; Silva, Patricia I M; Conceiēćo, Luis E C; Costas, Benjamin; Höglund, Erik; Ųverli, Ųyvind; Schrama, Johan W

    2011-01-01

    Consistent individual differences in cognitive appraisal and emotional reactivity, including fearfulness, are important personality traits in humans, non-human mammals, and birds. Comparative studies on teleost fishes support the existence of coping styles and behavioral syndromes also in poikilothermic animals. The functionalist approach to emotions hold that emotions have evolved to ensure appropriate behavioral responses to dangerous or rewarding stimuli. Little information is however available on how evolutionary widespread these putative links between personality and the expression of emotional or affective states such as fear are. Here we disclose that individual variation in coping style predicts fear responses in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus, using the principle of avoidance learning. Fish previously screened for coping style were given the possibility to escape a signalled aversive stimulus. Fearful individuals showed a range of typically reactive traits such as slow recovery of feed intake in a novel environment, neophobia, and high post-stress cortisol levels. Hence, emotional reactivity and appraisal would appear to be an essential component of animal personality in species distributed throughout the vertebrate subphylum. PMID:22140511

  15. Ethnographic assessment of pain coping perceptions.

    PubMed

    Moore, R

    1990-01-01

    A sample consisting of 54 patients and 31 dentists of Chinese, Anglo-American, and Scandinavian ethnic origin were interviewed about their ways of coping with pain. Instruments designed to assess pain coping were constructed from the descriptions elicited by the interviews. The interview data thus served as the basis for cross-cultural quantitative indices. Content analysis of the interviews revealed significant differences between patients and dentists and an East-West ethnic difference between patient groups. Anglo-American patients and all dentists preferred internally applied medicines (pills, injections etc.). Chinese patients preferred external agents (salves, oils, massage, etc.) significantly more than Chinese dentists or Western subjects. Swedish and Chinese patients preferred not to use local anesthesia for dental treatment. These results were corroborated by nonparametric and multidimensional scaling analyses of the cross-cultural quantitative data. Professional socialization had a stronger influence on pain remedy description than did ethnicity, while patient descriptions of remedies appeared to be more ethnospecific, especially showing East-West differences. These anthropologic methods appeared to be valid and reliable in revealing cognitive processes involved in the pain coping preferences of these subjects. PMID:2330390

  16. Predicting Treatment Success in Social Skills Training for Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders: The UCLA Program for the Education and Enrichment of Relational Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Ya-Chih; Laugeson, Elizabeth A.; Gantman, Alexander; Ellingsen, Ruth; Frankel, Fred; Dillon, Ashley R.

    2014-01-01

    This study seeks to examine the predictors of positive social skills outcomes from the University of California, Los Angeles Program for the Education and Enrichment of Relational Skills, an evidence-based parent-assisted social skills program for high-functioning middle school and high school adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. The…

  17. Using Cooperative Learning Strategies To Improve Social Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, Pat Azzolin; Basken, Anne; Engstrom, Linda; Heald, Lori

    This action research project sought to improve the social skills of targeted third-graders. The problem of students exhibiting a lack of social skills was documented by means of student discipline referrals, anecdotal records, and teacher surveys. Evidence indicated that students failed to solve conflicts in positive manners, were unable to work…

  18. The Fair Play Game: Promoting Social Skills in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vidoni, Carla; Ulman, Jerome D.

    2012-01-01

    The implementation of social skills into teaching helps students achieve such important affective outcomes as peer recognition or popularity, respect for others, acceptance of rules, pro-social values, communication skills, and positive social interactions. Within physical education, many professionals believe that students who engage in games and…

  19. Analysis of Essential Skills and Knowledge for Teaching Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jia-Ling; Hirumi, Atsusi

    2004-01-01

    This study identifies and posits guidelines for assessing the skills and knowledge of online distance ducators. Findings derived from Cooper?s (1998) synthesis research method reveal sixteen skills that may be grouped into six areas that are thought to be essential for educators to teach successfully online. The study also shows that factors, like…

  20. Exploring the Relevant Antecedents of Superintendent Leadership Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Lloyd

    2012-01-01

    Understanding antecedents to superintendent leadership development is crucial for the continued improvement of schools. This qualitative study seeks to identify skills superintendents consider critical to their position, antecedents that developed those skills, and provide an increased understanding of the methods needed for developing current and…

  1. Teaching Job Interview Skills to Retarded Clients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Christine; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Six retarded adults were taught job application and interview skills, including introducing oneself, filling out a standard job application form, answering questions, and asking questions. A combination of instructions, modeling, role playing, and positive and corrective feedback was used across a multiple baseline experimental design. (Author)

  2. Job search skills, employer size and wages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel L. Millimet

    2005-01-01

    Many theories concerning the underlying cause of the observed positive correlation between employer size and wages have been evaluated empirically, with a sizeable residual remaining unexplained. This study presents and tests a new theory: successful applicants for vacancies in larger employers possess greater job search skills and therefore are able to obtain a wage closer to their maximum potential wage.

  3. Dying at Home: Can Families Cope?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hine, Virginia H.

    1979-01-01

    Examines five considerations involved in decision for home death: (1) sources of moral support necessary for family; (2) kinds of professional aid available; (3) special equipment necessary; (4) necessary nursing skills; and (5) basic information about death. (Author)

  4. Female adolescent athletes' coping: a season-long investigation.

    PubMed

    Tamminen, Katherine A; Holt, Nicholas L

    2010-01-01

    Athletes' stressors and coping have been studied over relatively short periods or time (i.e. 28 or 31 days; Nicholls, 2007), but little is known about how stressors and coping fluctuate over the course of an entire competitive season. The first objective of this study was to examine recurrent stressors and coping strategies over the course of the season. The second objective was to examine coping as a process. Thirteen female basketball players (mean age 16 years) completed pre- and post-season interviews and maintained audio diaries during the season. Content analyses were completed and themes were analysed longitudinally across three phases of the season (early, mid, and late). Reported stressors changed across phases of the season, and these changes appeared to relate to the team's changing contextual demands. Coping strategies also changed across phases of the season. Individual profiles of each athlete's coping over the season were created. Ten athletes were generally more reactive in their coping, while only three athletes were more proactive. The three athletes identified with a proactive approach planned their coping and used feedback to evaluate coping efforts. Planning and evaluation appeared to distinguish between more reactive and more proactive coping. PMID:20391087

  5. An exploration of adolescent nonsuicidal self-injury and religious coping.

    PubMed

    Westers, Nicholas J; Rehfuss, Mark; Olson, Lynn; Wiemann, Constance M

    2014-01-01

    Many adolescents who engage in nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) self-identify as religious, but the role of religion in their NSSI is not known. This exploratory study examined the relationship between religious coping and religiousness among adolescents who self-injure and the function of their NSSI. Thirty adolescents aged 12-19 years who had engaged in NSSI participated in an interview and completed questionnaires. Multiple regressions were used to examine the relationship between religious coping and NSSI, and Pearson correlations were used to assess the relationship between religiousness and function of NSSI. Greater use of positive religious coping was associated with lower likelihood of engaging in NSSI to rid oneself of unwanted emotions, whereas greater use of negative religious coping was associated with greater likelihood of engaging in NSSI for this reason as well as to avoid punishment or unwanted responsibility. Higher religiousness was associated with greater use of NSSI to communicate with or gain attention from others, whereas lower religiousness was associated with greater use of NSSI to relieve unwanted emotions. Having a greater understanding of how religious constructs are related to the various functions served by NSSI may inform treatment of this population, particularly among religious youth who self-injure. PMID:24114892

  6. Increased HPA axis response to psychosocial stress in remitted depression: the influence of coping style.

    PubMed

    Höhne, Nina; Poidinger, Maximilian; Merz, Franziska; Pfister, Hildegard; Brückl, Tanja; Zimmermann, Petra; Uhr, Manfred; Holsboer, Florian; Ising, Marcus

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the modulating effects of coping style on the response to psychosocial stress in remitted major depression (MD) and healthy controls. Thirty-three participants with a lifetime history of MD, who were in remission, and 32 age- and gender-matched healthy controls were recruited from a longitudinal-epidemiological study, in which the presence or absence of mental disorders was prospectively ascertained. Participants (aged 30-41 years) underwent two consecutive Trier Social Stress Tests (TSSTs). Subjects with a lifetime history of MD showed larger plasma ACTH and cortisol concentrations in response to both TSSTs, confirming a disturbed hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis regulation. Moreover, the MD group reported less positive, adaptive coping strategies and more negative, maladaptive strategies than the control group. The amount of negative coping predicted the size of the plasma cortisol response in the combined group. Our results demonstrate the importance of psychological coping strategies for the investigation of HPA axis response in depression. PMID:25263610

  7. Cope's rule and the evolution of body size in Pinnipedimorpha (Mammalia: Carnivora).

    PubMed

    Churchill, Morgan; Clementz, Mark T; Kohno, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    Cope's rule describes the evolutionary trend for animal lineages to increase in body size over time. In this study, we tested the validity of Cope's rule for a marine mammal clade, the Pinnipedimorpha, which includes the extinct Desmatophocidae, and extant Phocidae (earless seals), Otariidae (fur seals and sea lions), and Odobenidae (walruses). We tested for the presence of Cope's rule by compiling a large dataset of body size data for extant and fossil pinnipeds and then examined how body size evolved through time. We found that there was a positive relationship between geologic age and body size. However, this trend is the result of differences between early assemblages of small-bodied pinnipeds (Oligocene to early Miocene) and later assemblages (middle Miocene to Pliocene) for which species exhibited greater size diversity. No significant differences were found between the number of increases or decreases in body size within Pinnipedimorpha or within specific pinniped clades. This suggests that the pinniped body size increase was driven by passive diversification into vacant niche space, with the common ancestor of Pinnipedimorpha occurring near the minimum adult body size possible for a marine mammal. Based upon the above results, the evolutionary history of pinnipeds does not follow Cope's rule. PMID:25355195

  8. Coping strategies for existencial and spiritual suffering in Israeli patients with advanced cancer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Coping with existential and spiritual concerns is inescapable in end-of-life care although not enough is known about the strategies and mechanisms involved. This pilot study focused on identifying the strategies for coping with existential and spiritual suffering at the end of life of secular Jews with advanced-stage cancer. Using the phenomenological approach to data collection, in-depth interviews were conducted with 22 patients receiving symptom relief care at a daycare oncology clinic. The interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim, and the content was analyzed. Advanced-stage cancer patients employ several approaches to cope with existential and spiritual concerns. The themes emerging from the interviews present five dimensions of coping strategies: openness and choosing to face reality, connectedness and the significance of family, pursuit of meaning, the connection of body, mind and spirit and, lastly, humor and a positive outlook. Conclusions Since these concerns cause suffering and distress, intervention models targeting existential and spiritual suffering should be disseminated among professionals involved in caring for people with life-threatening illnesses. PMID:24984840

  9. Presentation skills for nurses.

    PubMed

    Foulkes, Mark

    2015-02-18

    This article emphasises the importance of effective presentation skills. Such skills allow nurses to share knowledge and expertise and to communicate clearly in a range of workplace scenarios. Nurses are increasingly being asked to present in formal and informal situations, such as conferences, poster presentations, job interviews, case reports and ward-based teaching. This article explores the principles underpinning the development of these skills, discusses the situations in which they could be applied and demonstrates how nurses might improve and develop as presenters. PMID:25690236

  10. Library Skills Unit

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Bolle

    2008-10-20

    The Library Skills Unit teaches library resources and information to 9th grade classes, this is a list of resources that maybe helpful to the students. Take the survey after you have completed all 4 units of library skills. I would love your feedback on the unit so that I can change some things to make it more beneficial for you, the students! Library Skills Unit Survey Use these links to get to databases quickly: eLibrary Facts on File/Issues Controversies CQ Researcher ...

  11. Photojournalists Need Reporting Skills, Too.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsend, Jerry

    1980-01-01

    Argues that journalists and photojournalists require training in the same skills, including the skills needed in news judgment, organization, interviewing, story idea development, and copy writing. (AEA)

  12. Biopharmaceutical Manufacturing Industry Skill Standards

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Wallman, Sonia

    This document from the Northeast Biomanufacturing Center and Collaborative offers an overview of the skills and knowledge necessary for success in the biopharmaceutical job market. It is designed for community college or technical college instructors helping students preparing to work in pharmaceutical companies, biotechnology companies and clinical laboratories. The document includes concrete information to help construct curriculum, courses and modules, and purchase equipment for education and training for ten biomanufacturing jobs including: Process Development Associate, Validation Specialist, Manufacturing Technician Upstream, Manufacturing Technician Downstream, Instrumentation/Calibration Technician, Chemistry QC Technician, Microbiology QC Technician, Environmental Health/Safety Technician, QA Documentation Coordinator, and Facilities Technician positions. A detailed job analysis including job functions, competencies, academic and technical knowledge, and familiarity with specific equipment/tools requirements are systematically presented for each position area.

  13. Testing the 'Teaching Kids to Cope with Anger' Youth Anger Intervention Program in a Rural School-based Sample.

    PubMed

    Puskar, Kathryn Rose; Ren, Dianxu; McFadden, Tricia

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to report the longitudinal effects of the 'Teaching Kids to Cope with Anger' (TKC-A) program on self-reported anger in rural youth. Through a randomized controlled trial, 179 youths of 14-18 years of age, from three rural high schools, were randomized into a control (n  =  86) and an intervention group (n  =  93) for eight TKC-A weekly sessions. These students completed the STAXI-2 anger instrument questionnaires at baseline, post-intervention, 6 months, and at 1 year. T-test statistics were used to analyze and compare the control and intervention groups. Through analysis of the Anger Index sub-scale of the STAXI-2 at 1 year post-intervention, a significant difference was reported between the control and intervention group. Participants reported that the TKC-A intervention was helpful in coping with emotional, behavioral, and social aspects of anger. Future research may utilize the TKC-A with youth who have anger management problems. Psychiatric-mental health nurses can screen youth for anger and be cognizant of coping skills of youth, assess for anger problems and provide health education to youth about approaches for coping with anger. PMID:25898184

  14. Global social skill ratings: measures of social behavior or physical attractiveness?

    PubMed

    Hope, D A; Mindell, J A

    1994-05-01

    Calvert reviewed the literature on social skills and physical attractiveness and concluded that many ratings of social skill may be confounded by the physical attractiveness of the target individual, possibly due to a general perception that physical attractiveness and social competence are positively correlated. In order to examine the influence of physical attractiveness on social skill ratings, Ss made global ratings of social skill and attractiveness for a confederate whose appearance and behavior had been altered to appear attractive or unattractive and socially skilled or unskilled in an assertiveness and heterosocial vignette. The results indicated that the same skilled behavior was viewed as more competent when performed by an attractive person compared to an unattractive person. Attractiveness had no influence on ratings of generally incompetent behavior. Thus, it appears that physical attractiveness does not compensate for poor interpersonal skills, but a skilled, attractive individual may be judged to have particularly good skills. Implications for the assessment of social skills are discussed. PMID:8192645

  15. Componential skills of beginning writing: An exploratory study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Suk; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Puranik, Cynthia; Folsom, Jessica Sidler; Greulich, Luana; Wagner, Richard K.

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined the components of end of kindergarten writing, using data from 242 kindergartners. Specifically of interest was the importance of spelling, letter writing fluency, reading, and word- and syntax-level oral language skills in writing. The results from structural equation modeling revealed that oral language, spelling, and letter writing fluency were positively and uniquely related to writing skill after accounting for reading skills. Reading skill was not uniquely related to writing once oral language, spelling, and letter writing fluency were taken into account. These findings are discussed from a developmental perspective. PMID:22267897

  16. Collaborative dental skills teaching.

    PubMed

    Gardiner, Andrew

    2015-05-01

    Periodontal disease is commonly encountered in companion animal practice and yet receives little coverage in British veterinary curricula. Andrew Gardiner of the Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies explains how Edinburgh vet students polish their skills. PMID:25953886

  17. Social skills, friendship and happiness: a cross-cultural investigation.

    PubMed

    Demir, Melik?ah; Jaafar, Jas; Bilyk, Nicholas; Ariff, Mohammad Raduan Mohd

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the associations between social skills, friendship quality, and happiness, and tested a mediational model positing that friendship quality would mediate the relationship between social skills and happiness among American and Malaysian college students. Although American students reported significantly higher levels of psychosocial well-being than Malaysian students, the study variables were positively associated with each other in both cultures. More importantly, findings supported the proposed model in both groups. Results suggest that part of the reason why social skills are associated with positive psychological well-being is because of friendship experiences. Overall, the findings of the present study reinforce, extend and cross-culturally generalize the presumed benefits of social skills in positive well-being elaborated by Segrin and Taylor (2007). The authors also provided suggestions for future research. PMID:22558831

  18. Understanding Religious\\/Spiritual Coping and Support Resources Among African American Older Adults: A Mixed-Method Approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eun-Kyoung Othelia Lee; Tanya Sharpe

    2007-01-01

    Research has revealed positive effects of faith and spirituality on the physical and mental health of older adults. This phenomenon seems to be more prominent for African American elderly. Using a mixed-method approach, this research examines religious\\/spiritual coping and primary sources of social support for African American as compared with White peers. In Study 1, samples of 264 White and

  19. Stress among Mothers of Children with Intellectual Disabilities in Urban India: Role of Gender and Maternal Coping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    John, Aesha

    2012-01-01

    Background: The study assessed stress among mothers of young children with intellectual disabilities in urban India and examined the extent to which child functioning and maternal coping predict maternal stress. Through qualitative analyses, the study identified negative and positive dimensions of Indian mothers' caregiving experiences. Materials…

  20. Spirituality, Religion, and Substance Coping as Regulators of Emotions and Meaning Making: Different Effects on Pain and Joy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciarrocchi, Joseph W.; Brelsford, Gina M.

    2009-01-01

    This study addresses whether aspects of spirituality and religion predict psychological and emotional well-being in a general population over and above personality and coping through the use of drugs or alcohol. Results are consistent with self-control theory and positive psychology approaches. (Contains 3 tables.)