Describes the development, implementation, and evaluation of a theory based copingskills program for people with alcoholism. Based on Shiffman and Wills' (1985) Stress Program Process model, it helped clients effectively respond to conditions that contributed to negative affect and create life- enhancing experiences. Evaluation involved social…
An important human factors research interest area is error reduction. Although pilots placed in highly stressful situations have an increased chance of making errors, they use copingskills to lower their stress level and reduce the likelihood of errors. Typically, copingskills are conceptually separated into three different types: active copingskills which attack and change the situation to make
This study analyzes the contribution of peer attachment in predicting active coping and self-esteem in a sample of 109 institutionalized adolescents. It also explores the mediating role of social skills in the association between peer attachment, coping, and self-esteem. Structural equation modeling identified a model able to predict a positive…
The aim of this study was to examine stressors, coping, and coping effectiveness as a function of gender, type of sport, and skill. The sample consisted of 749 undergraduate athletes (455 males, 294 females) aged 18 – 38 years (mean = 19.8 years). Skill was classified as international\\/national, county, university, and club standard. Participants completed a stressor and coping concept map (Novak & Gowin,
Adam R. Nicholls; Remco Polman; Andrew R. Levy; Jamie Taylor; Stephen Cobley
The Apperceptual Interaction Method (AIM), developed by World Education, teaches copingskills to Adult Basic Education and English as a Second Language students. AIM develops teaching materials locally in the form of leaflets which students build into books. Special emphasis is placed on solving practical life problems. (NHM)
Most cognitive scientists are committed to some version of representationalism, the view that intelligent behavior is caused by internal processes that involve computations over representations. Phenomenologists, however, argue that certain types of intelligent behavior, engaged “coping” skills, are nonrepresentational. Recent neuroscientific work on multiple memory systems indicates that while many types of intelligent behavior are representational, the types of intelligent
There has been a large growth of sport psychology stress\\/coping research in the last decade. However, skilled and moderately skilled golfers have not received much research attention. Therefore, the purposes of this qualitative, descriptive study were to assess the sources of stress and coping responses of skilled and moderately skilled golfers with regard to performance related stress. Semi-structured interviews were
Background: Methods learnt by nursing and midwifery students’ such as communication skills, optimisim and coping with stress would be used in their profeesional life. It is very important to promote their positive thinking and communication skills to raise coping with stress. Objectives: This cross sectional study was performed to examine the nursing and midwifery students’ communication skills and optimistic life orientation and its correlation with coping strategies with stress. Materials and Methods: The study population included 2572 students who were studying in departments of nursing and midwifery in Istanbul. The sample was included 1419 students. Three questionnaires including Communication Skills Test, Life Orientation Test and Ways of Coping Inventory were used for data collection. The data were evaluated by calculating frequency, percentage, arithmetic mean, standard deviation and Pearson correlation coefficient. Results: Students’ total mean score from the Communication Skills Scale was 165.27 ± 15.39 and for the Life Orientation Test was 18.51 ± 4.54. There was a positive correlation between their Life Orientation scores and the scores for self confidence (r = 0.34, P < 0.001), optimistic approach (r = 0.42, P < 0.001), and seeking social help (r = 0.17, P < 0.001). Also there was a significant positive correlation between Communication skill scores and self confidence (r = 0.46, P < 0.001), optimistic (r = 0.37, P < 0.001) and seeking social help approaches (r = 0.29, P < 0.001), but there was a significant negative correlation between communication skill scores and scores for helpless (r = -0.29, P < 0.001) and submissive approaches (r = -0.36, P < 0.001). Conclusions: As scores of students in optimistic life orientation and communication skills increased self confidence approach, optimistic, and social support seeking scores increased, whereas helpless, and submissive scores decreased.
Introduction: Nurses have a considerable role in caring and health promotion. Depressed nurses are deficient in their copingskills that are important in mental health. This study evaluated the effectiveness of training problem-solving skills on copingskills of depressed nursing and midwifery students. Methods: The Beck Depression Scale and copingskills questionnaire were administered in Tabriz and Urmia nursing and midwifery schools. 92 students, who had achieved a score above 10 on the Beck Depression Scale, were selected. 46 students as study group and 46 students as control group were selected randomly. The intervention group received six sessions of problem-solving training within three weeks. Finally, after the end of sessions, copingskills and depression scales were administered and analyzed for both groups. Results: Comparing the mean copingskills showed that before the intervention there were no significant differences between the control and study groups. However, after the intervention, a significant difference was observed between the control group and the study group. By comparing the mean copingskills before and after the intervention, a significant difference was observed in the study group. Conclusion: Training problem-solving skills increased the copingskills of depressed students. According to the role of copingskills in people's mental health, increasing copingskills can promote mental health, provide the basis for caring skills, and improve the quality of nurses’ caring skills.
We tested the effectiveness of a teacher-implemented psychological health education program designed to improve students’ test copingskills in the classroom. Four hundred ninety-seven Israeli students, drawn from 24 fifth- and sixth-grade elementary school classes, were randomly assigned to experimental and control conditions by homeroom class. Students were trained to practice rational self-analysis and exploration, relaxation and deep-breathing exercises, positive
Background Coping Effectively with Heart Failure (COPE-HF) is an ongoing randomized clinical trial funded by the National Institutes of Health to evaluate if a CopingSkills Training (CST) intervention will result in improved health status and quality of life as well as reduced mortality and hospitalizations compared to a Heart Failure Education (HFE) intervention. Methods Two hundred heart failure (HF) patients recruited from Duke University Medical Center and the University of North Carolina Hospital systems will be randomized to a CST intervention (16 weekly, 30 minute telephone counselling sessions including motivational interviewing and individually tailored cognitive behavioral therapy) or to an HFE intervention (16 weekly, 30 minute telephone sessions including education and symptom monitoring). Primary outcomes will include post-intervention effects on HF biomarkers (B-Type naturetic peptide, ejection fraction) and quality of life, as well as long-term clinical outcomes (hospitalizations and death). Secondary analyses will include an evaluation of treatment effects across subpopulations, and potential mechanisms by which CST may improve clinical outcomes. Conclusions COPE-HF is a proof-of-concept study that should provide important insights into the health benefits of a CST intervention designed to enhance HF self-management, improve health behaviors, and reduce psychological distress. PMID:21362527
Sherwood, Andrew; O’Connor, Christopher M.; Routledge, Faye S.; Hinderliter, Alan L.; Watkins, Lana L.; Babyak, Michael A.; Koch, Gary G.; Adams, Kirkwood F.; Dupree, Carla Sueta; Chang, Patricia P.; Hoffman, Benson M.; Johnson, Julie; Bowers, Margaret; Johnson, Kristy S.; Blumenthal, James A.
This study was designed to examine whether brief training in cognitive copingskills would enhance pain coping strategies and alter pain perception in children and adolescents with sickle cell disease (SCD). Forty-nine participants with SCD were randomly assigned to either a cognitive copingskills condition or a standard care control condition. At pre- and posttesting, coping strategies and pain sensitivity using laboratory pain stimulation were measured. Results indicated that in comparison to the randomly assigned control condition, brief training in cognitive copingskills resulted in decreased negative thinking and lower pain ratings during low intensity laboratory pain stimulation. PMID:16250724
Gil, K M; Wilson, J J; Edens, J L; Workman, E; Ready, J; Sedway, J; Redding-Lallinger, R; Daeschner, C W
Objective: To describe the development and initial evaluation of the Coping Course, a cognitive-behavioral group intervention designed to enhance general coping and problem-solving skills among incarcerated youth. Method: Between 2001 and 2002, 76 male adolescents incarcerated at a youth correctional facility were assessed by questionnaire and…
Rohde, Paul; Jorgensen, Jenel S.; Seeley, John R.; Mace, David E.
This document is one of eight in a series of guides designed to help teach and counsel troubled youth. It presents 20 lessons designed to teach the copingskills necessary to control one's temper. The first lesson teaches students the meaning of aggressive behavior; this lesson and several others throughout the guide focus on helping aggressive…
HIV-positive MSM may report high-risk behaviors-including drug use and intentional unprotected anal sex-as a means of coping. We recruited a diverse sample of HIV-positive men (n = 66) at gay community events. One third of these men self-identified as barebackers. Barebackers were more likely to report drug use and sex under the influence of drugs (i.e., PnP). Beyond this, those who identified as barebackers also tended to report greater stigma, gay-related stress, self-blame-related coping, and substance abuse coping. Providers must attend to issues of stress and coping to engage men who may not respond to traditional risk reduction efforts. PMID:19533321
Kelly, Brian C; Bimbi, David S; Izienicki, Hubert; Parsons, Jeffrey T
Background Little is known regarding alcohol use and its correlates in women veterans. An understanding of these variables is of utility to providers in primary care at Veterans Affairs (VA) hospitals, who are among the first to identify and intervene for problem drinking. Objective The objective of this study was to describe and explore the associations between posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, experience of military sexual trauma (MST), expectancies for alcohol use, and copingskills in predicting drinking behavior. Design Each month all women veterans attending appointments in primary care were mailed a letter alerting them to the study. Women then received a call asking them to participate, and many were directly recruited at their primary care appointment. Participants then completed a survey of current alcohol use and related variables in a private room. Participants Participants were 93 women veterans seeking care at VA. Main measures Measures included the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, a modified version of the VA MST screen, the Davidson Trauma Scale; the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations, and the Brief Comprehensive Effects of Alcohol Questionnaire. Key results Positive expectancies and evaluations emerged as significant correlates of AUDIT scores, while PTSD symptoms were not related to AUDIT scores. A hierarchical regression revealed a significant positive interaction between avoidance coping and positive evaluations. Depression, positive evaluations and avoidance coping were significant independent predictors of AUDIT scores in the final model, but MST was not. Conclusions Findings highlight the importance of considering of the function of alcohol use when delivering clinical interventions and the need for further research on the association between MST and drinking in women veterans. PMID:23498717
This document is one of eight in a series of guides designed to help teach and counsel troubled youth. It cuts across the areas covered in the other guides (copingskills, social skills, and school skills) to present 20 important lessons for troubled youth. Individual lessons in this guide focus on gangs and gang membership; special education;…
The purpose of this study is to determine the extent to which gender, age, skill level, and years of practice, serves as predictors of coping styles in judo. Participants in the study consisted of 98 judo competitors (47 females and 51 males, aged 13-21 years). As a result of the Agglomerative Hierarchical Cluster Analysis four coping styles have been established for
Introduces a model that incorporates the skills needed for developing friendships, with the purpose being to help students with disabilities and their nondisabled peers develop the skills necessary for forming lasting friendships. Concludes that positive mainstreaming will be achieved only when nondisabled students accept peers with disabilities.…
The present study examined whether training in cognitive copingskills would enhance pain coping strategies and alter pain perception in adults with sickle cell disease (SCD). Sixty-four African Americans with SCD were randomly assigned to either a cognitive copingskills condition (three 45-min sessions in which patients were trained to use 6 cognitive coping strategies) or a disease-education control condition (three 45-min didactic-discussion sessions about SCD). Pain sensitivity to calibrated noxious stimulation was measured at pre- and posttesting, as were cognitive coping strategies, clinical pain, and health behaviors. Results indicated that, compared with the randomly assigned control condition, brief training in cognitive copingskills resulted in increased coping attempts, decreased negative thinking, and lower tendency to report pain during laboratory-induced noxious stimulation. PMID:8788535
Gil, K M; Wilson, J J; Edens, J L; Webster, D A; Abrams, M A; Orringer, E; Grant, M; Clark, W C; Janal, M N
Objectives Describe and quantify copingskills and prevalence of depressive symptoms in parents of children with special health care\\u000a needs (CSHCN). Describe the association of copingskills with parental depressive symptoms, severity of child’s condition\\u000a and family demographic characteristics. Methods A baseline questionnaire was administered to parents of CSHCN 2–11 years old. Data were analyzed cross-sectionally. Coping\\u000a skills were assessed using
Shervin S. Churchill; Nanci L. Villareale; Teresa A. Monaghan; Virginia L. Sharp; Gail M. Kieckhefer
This study involved the translation, cultural adaptation and validation of the Athletic CopingSkills Inventory (ACSI-28) for a Spanish-speaking sport environment. The sample was made up of 1,253 Spanish athletes, 967 males and 286 females. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) showed that the 7-factor structure found in the English version was replicated in the Spanish translation in both males and females. Likewise, the reliability coefficients were similar to those of the English version, with values exceeding .80 for the total score. Several of the subscales correlated positively with sports experience and performance level. The Spanish version of the ACSI-28 thus maintains the factor structure of the original and exhibits similar psychometric properties. Consequently, it can reliably be applied to Spanish-speaking athletes for research and evaluation purposes. PMID:21774905
Graupera Sanz, José Luis; Ruiz Pérez, Luis Miguel; García Coll, Virginia; Smith, Ronald E
Aims To evaluate the changes over time in quality and quantity of copingskills acquired following cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), and examine potential mediating effects on substance use outcomes. Design A randomized controlled trial (RCT) evaluating the effectiveness of a computerized version of CBT (CBT4CBT) as an adjunct to standard outpatient treatment over an 8-week period. Setting Data were collected from individuals seeking treatment for substance dependence in an outpatient community setting. Participants Fifty-two substance abusing individuals (50% African American), with an average age of 42 years, and a majority reporting cocaine as their primary drug of choice. Measurements Participants’ responses to behavioral role-plays of situations associated with high risk for drug and alcohol use were audio-taped and independently rated to assess their coping responses. Findings There were statistically significant increases in mean ratings of the quality of participants’ coping responses for those assigned to CBT4CBT compared to treatment as usual, and these differences remained significant three months after treatment completion. Moreover, quality of coping responses mediated the effect of treatment on participants’ duration of abstinence during the follow-up period. Conclusions These findings suggest that assignment to the computerized CBT program improved participants’ copingskills, as measured by independent ratings of a role playing task. It is also the first study to test and support quality of copingskills acquired as a mediator of the effect of CBT for substance use. PMID:20854334
Kiluk, Brian D.; Nich, Charla; Babuscio, Theresa; Carroll, Kathleen M.
This study discusses the educational effects of a social skills training on adolescents’ social skills, self-esteem, well-being\\u000a and coping. A group of 14- to 16-year-old normal adolescents followed a social skills training based on social learning principles.\\u000a A pre-test — experiment — post-test design was used and the group’s performance was compared with that of a non-intervention\\u000a control-group. The training
This study examined the 3-month follow-up effects of a pain copingskills intervention in African American adults with sickle cell disease. Sixty-seven participants were randomly assigned to either a copingskills condition or a disease-education control condition. Multivariate analyses applied to summary measures of coping, laboratory pain perception, and clinical measures indicated that participants in the coping intervention reported significantly lower laboratory pain and significantly higher coping attempts at 3-month follow-up in comparison with the control condition. Multilevel random effects models applied to prospective daily diaries of daily pain, health care contacts, and coping practice indicated that on pain days when participants practiced their strategies, they had less major health care contacts in comparison with days when they did not use strategies. PMID:10711591
Gil, K M; Carson, J W; Sedway, J A; Porter, L S; Schaeffer, J J; Orringer, E
BackgroundCopingskills training is an important component of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), yet cognitive impairment and related limitations that are often associated with chronic substance use may interfere with an ability to learn, retain, or use new information. Little previous research has examined the cognitive or neuropsychological factors that may affect substance users’ ability to learn new copingskills in
Veterans' Use of Religion\\/Spirituality as Culturally Relevant CopingSkills for Trauma and Recovery Sean Lincoln, PhD\\u000aBiographical Sketch: Sean Kathleen Lincoln, PhD is an experienced organizational administrator with skills and expertise in diversity, work\\/life initiatives, training and career counseling, clinical psychology, behavioral health, systems design and administration. Experience was gained in the health care and banking industries. She holds a
We present the results of an evaluation of the implementation and short-term effects of "Zippy's Friends," a school-based 24-week mental health promotion program to teach children copingskills. The evaluation was conducted in Denmark (322 children in 17 first grade classes) and Lithuania (314 children in 16 kindergartens classes) with control…
Although early investigations were promising, no controlled follow-up studies have investigated the effectiveness of cue exposure treatment for alcoholics. In this study, inpatient alcoholics received either cue exposure integrated with urge copingskills training (CET, n = 22) or a contrast condition (CC) involving daily contact with assessment only ( n = 18) in addition to standard treatment. Comprehensive assessment
Peter M. Monti; Damaris J. Rohsenow; Anthony V. Rubonis; Raymond S. Niaura
This study examined the relationships among acculturation, coping styles, substance use, sexual risk behavior, and medication non-adherence among 219 Latinas living with HIV/AIDS in Los Angeles, CA. Coping styles were hypothesized to mediate the link between acculturation and health risk behaviors for HIV positive Latinas. Structural equation modeling revealed that greater acculturation was related to less positivecoping and more negative coping. In turn, negative coping was associated with more health risk behaviors and more non-adherence. Positivecoping was associated with less substance use as reflected in use of cigarettes and alcohol and less non-adherence. Coping styles mediated the relationship between acculturation and health risk behaviors. Findings echo previous works examining the Hispanic Health Paradox wherein more acculturated Latinos exhibit increased risk behavior and maladaptive coping styles. HIV/AIDS interventions need to be mindful of cultural differences within Hispanic populations and be tailored to address these differences. PMID:19847637
Sánchez, Mónica; Stein, Judith; Milburn, Norweeta G.; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane
This article discusses how 13-year-old students with above-average numeracy skills and below-average reading skillscope with comprehending word problems. Compared to other students who are proficient in numeracy and are skilled readers, these students are more disadvantaged when solving single-step and multistep arithmetic word problems. The…
For centuries, folk theory has promoted the idea that positive emotions are good for your health. Accumulating empirical ev- idence is providing support for this anecdotal wisdom. We use the broad- en-and-build theory of positive emotions (Fredrickson, 1998; 2001) as a framework to demonstrate that positive emotions contribute to psycho- logical and physical well-being via more effective coping. We argue
Michele M. Tugade; Barbara L. Fredrickson; Lisa Feldman Barrett
Objective. To conduct intensive pain management skills training (IST) in children with sickle cell disease (SCD) and their parents and to comprehensively evaluate pain, coping, and daily functioning in children pre, immediately post, and 3 months following treatment. Methods. Three children who received IST in nonpharmacological and pharmacological pain management strategies completed a Coping Strategies Questionnaire (CSQ) at pre, post,
Scott W. Powers; Monica J. Mitchell; Sally E. Graumlich; Kelly C. Byars; Karen A. Kalinyak
Background: People’s reactions to traumatic events are mediated by their subjective style of coping. This is of particular importance for HIV+ patients, mainly in the first phases of the disease. This work aimed at examining whether an ‘acceptance’ style of coping, as opposed to a ‘mental disengagement’ style, selectively influences the first stages of the processing of neutral, emotional and
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships of coping, attachment style and perceived social support to perceived stress within a sample of HIV-positive persons. Participants were 147 HIV-positive persons (80 men and 67 women). Multiple regression analysis was used to examine the relationships of the demographic variables, AIDS status, three coping styles, three attachment styles and perceived
C. Koopman; C. Gore-Felton; F. Marouf; L. D. Butler; N. Field; M. Gill; X.-H. Chen; D. Israelski; D. Spiegel
The relations between maternal parenting characteristics, child disclosure and secrecy, and child outcomes (positive and negative strategies for coping with distress), were examined in a study of 140 children (10-12-year-olds) and their mothers. Child disclosure and secrecy were shown to be distinct but related constructs with authoritativeness…
Almas, Alisa N.; Grusec, Joan E.; Tackett, Jennifer L.
The study sought to examine the differential effects of a Stress Management Training on the anxiety, self-esteem, self-efficacy, motivation, academic performance, and copingskills for collegiate football athletes. It was hypothesized the Stress Management Training would have a positive effect on outcomes. The study was conducted using collegiate football athletes at a large urban university. Eighty-five collegiate football athletes participated,
The study examined the psychosocial determinants of coping ability in a cohort of 249 HIV positive and HIV negative female injection drug users (IDUs), using a cross-sectional retrospective design. Information collected using a structured questionnaire included data on psychosocial risk and protective factors in the personality, family, and peer domains, HIV status, and coping ability. Coping ability was associated with conventionality, greater control of emotions, less psychopathology, and family cohesion in both HIV positive and HIV negative subjects. The psychosocial factors affected coping in HIV positive and HIV negative IDUs via two different mediational models. The interactional findings supported the influence of risk/protective interactions in both groups. The findings demonstrate the impact of the interplay between personality factors and external support on coping ability in female IDUs. PMID:10407459
Brook, D W; Brook, J S; Whiteman, M; Roberto, J; Masci, J R; Amundsen, F; de Catalogne, J
Aims Cognitive-behavioral treatments (CBT) are among the most popular interventions offered for alcohol and other substance use disorders, but it is not clear how they achieve their effects. CBT is purported to exert its beneficial effects by altering copingskills, but data supporting coping changes as the mechanism of action are mixed. The purpose of this pilot study was to test a treatment in which copingskills were trained in a highly individualized way, allowing us to determine if such training would result in an effective treatment. Design Participants were assigned randomly to a comprehensive packaged CBT program (PCBT), or to an Individualized Assessment and Treatment Program (IATP). The IATP program employed experience sampling via cellphone to assess copingskills prior to treatment, and provided therapists a detailed understanding of patients' coping strengths and deficits. Setting Outpatient treatment. Participants A total of 110 alcohol dependent men and women. Measurements Participants in both conditions completed experience sampling of situations, drinking and coping efforts prior to, and following, 12 weeks of treatment. Timeline follow-back procedures were also used to record drinking at baseline and posttreatment. Findings IATP yielded higher proportion days abstinent (PDA) at posttreatment (p < .05) than did PCBT, and equivalent heavy drinking days. IATP also elicited more momentary coping responses, and less drinking, in high risk situations, as recorded by experience sampling at posttreatment. Posttreatment coping response rates were associated with decreases in drinking. Conclusions The IATP approach was more successful than PCBT at training adaptive coping responses for use in situations presenting high-risk for drinking. The highly individualized IATP approach may prove to be an effective treatment strategy for alcohol dependent patients. PMID:19712124
Litt, Mark D.; Kadden, Ronald M.; Kabela-Cormier, Elise
In order to identify the psychosocial factors related to the use of coping strategies by HIV-positive women diagnosed during pregnancy, four structured interviews were conducted over a period of two years with 224 HIV-positive women at antenatal clinics in Tshwane, South Africa. Two coping styles, active and avoidant coping, were assessed using an adapted version of the Brief COPE. Psychosocial variables associated with changes in coping over time were identified with mixed linear analysis. Increases in active coping were associated with decreasing levels of internalised stigma and depression, increasing self-esteem and positive social support, knowing someone who is living with HIV, being physically healthy and living above the poverty line. Increases in avoidant coping were associated with increasing internalised stigma and depression, lower levels of self-esteem, HIV-knowledge and lower levels of education. Recommendations are made for psychological support services to strengthen women’s ability to cope to enhance their health and that of their infants. PMID:23196861
Kotzé, Marinda; Visser, Maretha; Makin, Jenny; Sikkema, Kathleen; Forsyth, Brian
Introduction The purpose of this paper is to describe components of a health coaching intervention based on copingskills training delivered via telephone. This intervention was provided to urban adolescents at risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), reinforcing a school-based curriculum designed to promote a healthy lifestyle and prevent T2DM. Method Health coaching via telephone was provided to at-risk, urban youth enrolled in a study of an intervention to reduce risk for T2DM. Vignettes are used to describe the use of several copingskills in this high risk youth population. Results A variety of vignettes illustrate how telephone health coaching reinforced lifestyle changes in students by incorporating copingskills training. Discussion Given the benefits and the challenges of the telephone health coaching intervention, several suggestions for others who plan to use a similar method are described. PMID:21514490
Jefferson, Vanessa; Jaser, Sarah S.; Lindemann, Evie; Galasso, Pamela; Beale, Alison; Holl, Marita G.; Grey, Margaret
(ABSTRACT) This study investigated 10 mothers’ perceptions on the transition process, for their children with disabilities, from early intervention to early childhood special education. The issues of related stressors, supports, and copingskills were further explored. This research was guided by the ecological or systems theory. The issue of transition between the two service programs (early intervention to early childhood
The purpose of this study was to compare severity and risk status for anxiety and depression with copingskills among 130 Mexican school children with learning disabilities (LD) and 130 school children without LD. This research is the first to explore the emotional difficulties of Mexican children with LD. Children completed the Spanish version of…
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a songwriting intervention on psychiatric patients' knowledge of copingskills and working alliance. Participants were randomly assigned to scripted and manualized experimental (n=48) or control (n=41) conditions. The experimental condition was a group psychoeducational music therapy songwriting session concerning copingskills while the control condition was a group psychoeducational session concerning copingskills. Both conditions were single-session therapy with patients on an acute adult psychiatric unit. Results indicated no significant between group differences in measures of knowledge of copingskills, consumer working alliance, or perception of enjoyment (p>.05), although the experimental condition tended to have slightly higher mean scores than the control group for these measures. There was a significant between group difference in measures of therapist working alliance (p<.001), with the therapist scoring the experimental group higher than the control group. Although the music therapy group had a higher mean rate of previous psychiatric hospitalizations, their perception of enjoyment scores were still higher than those of the control condition, a finding incongruent in the literature. Furthermore, despite the increased number of previous hospitalizations, the music therapy condition had higher attendance rates than the control condition, thus possibly providing incentives for funding. It seems that group songwriting about copingskills can be as effective a psychosocial intervention as traditional talk-based psychoeducation to teach psychiatric inpatients how to proactively manage their illness. Additionally, music therapy can be as effective as talk-based psychoeducation in establishing working alliance. Implications for clinical practice, limitations, and suggestions for future research are provided. PMID:21866716
Previous research has shown that positive affect (PA) is associated with the coping strategies of "searching for and finding positive meaning." The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the coping strategy of "finding positive meaning" and PA using an intervention method. Additionally, inasmuch as previous research has revealed that PA is associated with physical and mental health status, the current study measured health status in order to carry out a preliminary test as to whether PA increased by the intervention can also improve health. Participants in the intervention group (Japanese graduate students; 13 men and 16 women) reported the most stressful event during the past 3 days and its positive meaning, while those in the control group (13 men and 15 women) reported the most stressful event alone. Both groups reported twice a week for 5 successive weeks using e-mails. Three questionnaires, the Japanese version of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule scales for measuring positive and negative affects (NA), the situational version of the General Coping Questionnaire for coping strategies, and the Japanese version of the General Health Questionnaire for health status, were administered to all participants just before the start of the intervention, after the conclusion of the intervention, and at the 5-week follow-up session. Results revealed that the "finding positive meaning" coping strategy and PA were enhanced by the intervention in the follow-up for men and women with no changes in NA. For the health scales of the General Health Questionnaire, no significant group-related effects were observed. Thus, the intervention had no significant influence on NA or health status. Implications of these findings for future research are discussed along with a few limitations in this study. PMID:22029553
This comparative study explores the incidence of dyslexia in entrepreneurs, corporate managers and the general population. It examines the suggestion that dyslexic entrepreneurs develop coping strategies to manage their weaknesses, which are subsequently of benefit in the new venture creation process. Results of this study suggest that there is a significantly higher incidence of dyslexia in entrepreneurs than in the corporate management and general US and UK populations and some of the strategies they adopt to overcome dyslexia (such as delegation of tasks) may be useful in business. The study was undertaken in two parts. First, entrepreneurs and corporate managers completed an online questionnaire, which combined questions about their company, their management or leadership role and their business skills together with questions that were designed to explore the likely incidence of dyslexia. A follow-up study that made use of a semi-structured questionnaire explored business issues and educational experience in more depth with those who had been diagnosed as dyslexic and those who did not have any history of dyslexia or any other learning difficulty. PMID:19378286
The purpose of this study was to develop an Internet copingskills training program and to evaluate its feasibility and acceptability compared with an Internet education intervention for teenagers with type 1 diabetes. A multiphase mixed-methods design with focus groups, a randomized pilot study, and a program evaluation was used. Teenagers with type 1 diabetes, parents, and health professionals were included in the development and evaluative phases along with the research and information technology team. The pilot study included 12 teenagers with type 1 diabetes (mean [SD] age, 14.4 [.90] years; 58% female; mean [SD] duration of diabetes, 5.9 [3.0] years). Psychosocial data and HbA1c levels were collected at baseline and at 3 and 6 months. Results indicate that the development of a psychosocial Internet intervention was complex and required multiple iterations of development and evaluation. Results of this study also indicate the feasibility and acceptability of translating a group-based intervention for teenagers with type 1 diabetes to the Internet. Thus, this study demonstrates a systematic approach to Internet intervention development. Including teenagers with type 1 diabetes and a multidisciplinary professional team into the intervention design was critical to the success of this project. PMID:20182161
WHITTEMORE, ROBIN; GREY, MARGARET; LINDEMANN, EVIE; AMBROSINO, JODIE; JASER, SARAH
The development of gender-specific programming is gaining attention as the approach that most effectively addresses the needs of female youthful offenders. This study provides a profile of female juvenile offenders, their problems and needs, and suggests psychoeducational approaches for building copingskills to reduce cycles of domestic violence. This is particularly important within a system designed primarily for their male counterparts. PMID:11885222
This study investigated the effectiveness of graduated exposure, verbal copingskills, and their combination in treating fear of the dark in 4- and 5-year-old normal children, using both behavioral and subjective measures of fearfulness. Only those groups which received direct exposure to the dark during treatment demonstrated significant changes in dark tolerance. Non-significant differences in dark tolerance for high versus
David V. Sheslow; Andrew S. Bondy; Rosemary O. Nelson
The purpose of this study was to compare severity and risk status for anxiety and depression with copingskills among 130 Mexican school children with learning disabilities (LD) and 130 school children without LD. This research is the first to explore the emotional difficulties of Mexican children with LD. Children completed the Spanish version of the Spence Children’s Anxiety Scale and Children’s Depression Inventory, and the Cuestionario de Afrontamiento (CopingSkills Questionnaire). Results indicated that a higher percentage of children with LD were at risk for anxiety (22.3% vs. 11.5%) and depression (32% vs. 18%). No statistically significant differences were found for copingskills. Results support the idea that there is an increased awareness of comorbid depression and anxiety among students with LD and a need to promote early identification and intervention in schools. Efforts should focus on better understanding the relationship between social-emotional difficulties and academic achievement and on developing effective interventions to support children with LD. PMID:24223470
Little research has evaluated the validity of the Coping Deficit Index (CDI) of the Rorschach Comprehensive System (CS). Because the CS Depression Index (DEPI) has frequently been found to yield false negatives, the CDI has been proposed as an alternative means of assessing social copingskills that may relate to depression. This study examined…
Ideal coping strategies enhance positive aspects of well-being as well as reduce distress. Although researchers have identified several "positivecoping" strategies, it is unclear which are most strongly associated with well-being or whether all strategies are equally appropriate for all kinds of stressors. Participants completed well-being measures, and described the most negative event of the day and their emotion regulation strategies for the next 7 days. Dispositional use of positive emotion-inducing coping strategies was most strongly associated with positive aspects of well-being. Use of positivecoping did not decrease with increased objective stress during the week, and use of particular strategies was partly predicted by the types of stressors that were reported. Implications for theories of positivecoping are discussed. PMID:16768566
?? Previous research conducted with currently enrolled college students has suggested a relationship between secure attachment style, greater stress coping abilities, and academic success. However,… (more)
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the coping strategies and self-concept of Korean female early adolescents. These adolescents (n = 351) were enrolled in a middle school in Seoul. The subjects completed the Multidimensional Self-Concept Scale and Coping Responses Inventory questionnaires. The subjects exhibited the greatest…
Aggression hinders development in the child and creates numerous problems in the family, school and community. An indigenous Anger Coping Training program for Chinese children with aggressive behavior and their parents aimed to help reactively aggressive children in increasing anger coping methods and enhancing problem-solving abilities. This…
Women (N = 171), distressed from their partners' untreated alcoholism, received either copingskills training (CST), 12-step facilitation (TSF), or delayed treatment (DTC). CST and TSF resulted in lower depression levels than DTC but did not differ from one another. Skill acquisition mediated the treatment effects of CST; Al-Anon attendance did…
The purpose of this study was to investigate the psychometric properties (i.e., reliability and validity) of a battery of scales and subscales used to measure Robert Johnson's mature coping construct. The battery of instruments includes a Program Attitudes Scale, a Coping Strategies Inventory, a Social Problem Solving Inventory, a Self-Esteem Inventory, a Depression Scale, and an Anti-Social Attitudes Scale. Statistical
IRINA R. SODERSTROM; THOMAS C. CASTELLANO; HEATHER R. FIGARO
The marriage and family therapy (MFT) field would benefit from new research about positive subjective experiences, such as\\u000a optimism, in order to construct and nurture strengths for developing more positive emotions. Through a better understanding\\u000a of optimism, marriage and family therapists (MFTs) can explore which strategies might help families and individuals better\\u000a cope with distressing emotions by building buffering strengths.
Z. Seda Sahin; David P. Nalbone; Joseph L. Wetchler; Jerry M. Bercik
In life event research relating to vulnerability and resilience factors, single moderator variables have typically been the focus of study. Little is known about the ways in which moderator variables may interact with one another to increase vulnerability or resilience. We propose a distinction between conjunctive moderation, in which multiple moderators must co-occur in a specific combination or pattern to maximize a relation between a predictor and an outcome variable, and disjunctive moderation, in which any one of a number of moderators maximizes the predictor-criterion relation. Our results indicate that social support and psychological copingskills are statistically independent psychosocial resources and that they operate in a conjunctive manner to influence the relation between life stress and subsequent athletic injury in adolescents. Only athletes low in both copingskills and social support exhibited a significant stress-injury relation, and in that vulnerable subgroup, negative major life events accounted for up to 30% of the injury variance. Methodological considerations in the assessment of conjunctive moderator effects are discussed. PMID:2319448
Finding ways to cope with social stigmatization is an important aspect of achieving adaptation for people living with visible genetic differences. This study describes the way individuals with craniofacial differences use an innovative photography and video experience with Positive Exposure (PE), a non-profit organization based in New York City, as a way to cope with their conditions. Thirty-five individuals between 12 and 61 years of age participated in this study. We administered surveys comprised of open-ended qualitative questions and quantitative measures designed to assess self-esteem, perceived stigma, and hopefulness. Data for this analysis was generated from the written questionnaires and interview transcripts. Most participants reported high levels of self-esteem and hopefulness, suggesting that they were relatively well adapted to their condition. Almost all participants described experiences of stigmatization throughout their lives. However, participants demonstrated their ability to implement a variety of coping strategies to manage stigma. ‘Helping others’ emerged as a prominent strategy among participants, aiding in the often lifelong process of adapting to their genetic difference. PE was described as an avenue through which participants could reach out to individuals and society at large, helping them adapt further to their condition. ‘Helping others’ may also benefit individuals with craniofacial differences who do not consider themselves to be well adapted to their condition. Health care providers can collaborate with PE, advocacy groups and other community or support groups to identify additional ways individuals with craniofacial differences can help themselves by reaching out to others. PMID:18478594
This paper examines the benefits of a metaphorical graphical user interface (GUI) and discusses how metaphorical interfaces can be used to deliver instruction on stress management. A computer-based instructional (CBI) program for college students was developed on the fundamentals of stress and the role of time management as a coping strategy. The…
According to previous research, clinical experience with individuals facing infertility has demonstrated that positive psychological changes can arise from the struggle involved (Paul et al., 2010), which is called posttraumatic growth (PTG). However, little knowledge has been gained about the relationships between PTG and its facilitating factors. The present study examined whether resilience and social support could predict PTG in women with infertility. The role of positivecoping as a potential mediator was also assessed. Using a cross-sectional design, all members of a convenience sample of 182 women with infertility completed self-report measures of PTG, resilience, perceived social support, positivecoping and background information. It was found that resilience, social support and positivecopingpositively correlated with PTG, which explained 34.0% of the total variance. The results suggested that positivecoping partially mediated the impact of resilience on PTG while it totally mediated the relationship between social support and PTG. These findings demonstrated that, in clinical settings, improving positivecoping in women with infertility may be helpful for the attainment of PTG. PMID:24368061
We examined the idea that adolescents' perceptions of their mothers as using parental conditional positive regard (PCPR) to promote academic achievement are associated with maladaptive self feelings and coping. A study of 153 adolescents supported the hypothesis that PCPR predicts self-aggrandizement following success and self devaluation and shame following failure, which then predict compulsive over-investment. PCPR functioned as a unique predictor of maladaptive self feelings and coping also when the effects of perceived parental conditional negative regard or psychological control were controlled for. The findings suggest that the experience of one's mother as using conditional positive regard to promote achievement leads to a non-optimal self-esteem dynamics, in which people vacillate between feelings of grandiosity following success and self-derogation and shame following failure, which in turn promote a rigid and stressful mode of coping. Thus, the practice of PCPR, although seemingly benign, appears to carry significant emotional and coping costs for adolescents. PMID:22078668
Objective To compare the type of life events experienced and coping styles used by adolescents with and without psychopathology, attending\\u000a a primary-care adolescent clinic.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods One hundred adolescents with and without psychopathology attending a drop-in adolescent clinic in a tertiary-care teaching\\u000a hospital were recruited. Face-to-face interview used Child Behaviour Checklist, Life Event Scale, Coddington’s life event scale, Impact of Event Scale and
Sushila Russell; B. Subramanian; P. S. Russell; M. K. C. Nair
This study investigated drug use antecedents, abstinence self-efficacy and copingskills among people with concurrent substance abuse and personality disorders. Fifty inpatients with recent polydrug abuse were divided into two groups based upon the presence (PD) or absence (NPD) of a personality disorder. The PD group reported more often using drugs when experiencing unpleasant emotions, physical discomfort, and conflict with
Many clients with mild to borderline intellectual disability (ID) who are admitted to a treatment facility show serious problems in alcohol and/or drugs use. In the present case file study, we explored differences in coping strategies, adaptive skills and emotional and behavioral problems between clients who showed substance abuse and clients who…
Didden, Robert; Embregts, Petri; van der Toorn, Mirjam; Laarhoven, Nina
This study examined the impact of positive psychological traits (positivecoping, self-efficacy, and self-esteem) on the relationship between seizure severity and life satisfaction among individuals with epilepsy. Hierarchical regression analysis and correlation techniques were used to test a hypothesized tri-mediation model of life satisfaction…
Background Approximately 20% of patients report persistent and disabling pain following total knee arthroplasty (TKA) despite an apparently normally functioning prosthesis. One potential risk factor for unexplained persistent pain is high levels of pain catastrophizing. We designed a three-arm trial to determine if a pain copingskills training program, delivered prior to TKA, effectively reduces function-limiting pain following the procedure in patients with high levels of pain catastrophizing. Methods/design The trial will be conducted at four University-based sites in the US. A sample of 402 patients with high levels of pain catastrophizing will be randomly assigned to either a pain copingskills training arm, an arthritis education control arm or usual care. Pain copingskills will be delivered by physical therapists trained and supervised by clinical psychologist experts. Arthritis education will be delivered by nurses trained in the delivery of arthritis-related content. The primary outcome will be change in Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) Pain scale score 12 months following surgery. A variety of secondary clinical and economic outcomes also will be evaluated. Discussion The trial will be conducted at four University-based sites in the US. A sample of 402 patients with high levels of pain catastrophizing will be randomly assigned to either a pain copingskills training arm, an arthritis education control arm or usual care. Pain copingskills will be delivered by physical therapists trained and supervised by clinical psychologist experts. Arthritis education will be delivered by nurses trained in the delivery of arthritis-related content. The primary outcome will be change in Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) Pain scale score 12 months following surgery. A variety of secondary clinical and economic outcomes also will be evaluated. Trial Registration NCT01620983 PMID:22906061
This booklet, containing 20 lessons that address social skills, is designed for use by teachers and counselors working with female troubled youth. Each lesson plan provides a goal, a list of materials and detailed directions on how to implement the lesson. Several handouts that accompany the lessons are included. Lesson goals include: introducing…
Background Despite many efforts at developing relapse prevention interventions, most smokers relapse to tobacco use within a few months after quitting. Interactive games offer a novel strategy for helping people develop the skills required for successful tobacco cessation. Objective The objective of our study was to develop a video game that enables smokers to practice strategies for coping with smoking urges and maintaining smoking abstinence. Our team of game designers and clinical psychologists are creating a video game that integrates the principles of smoking behavior change and relapse prevention. We have reported the results of expert and end-user feedback on an alpha version of the game. Methods The alpha version of the game consisted of a smoking cue scenario often encountered by smokers. We recruited 5 experts in tobacco cessation research and 20 current and former smokers, who each played through the scenario. Mixed methods were used to gather feedback on the relevance of cessation content and usability of the game modality. Results End-users rated the interface from 3.0 to 4.6/5 in terms of ease of use and from 2.9 to 4.1/5 in terms of helpfulness of cessation content. Qualitative themes showed several user suggestions for improving the user interface, pacing, and diversity of the game characters. In addition, the users confirmed a high degree of game immersion, identification with the characters and situations, and appreciation for the multiple opportunities to practice coping strategies. Conclusions This study highlights the procedures for translating behavioral principles into a game dynamic and shows that our prototype has a strong potential for engaging smokers. A video game modality exemplifies problem-based learning strategies for tobacco cessation and is an innovative step in behavioral management of tobacco use. PMID:24025236
The authors tested whether coping styles and fear of pain mediate the relationship between positive affect and negative affect on one hand and pain-related distress (PD) on the other. Among African American and Caucasian female college students, negative affect, fear of pain, and emotion-oriented coping together accounted for 34% of the variance…
Background: Some studies find that parents of children with Down's syndrome may experience symptoms of depression, while other studies find that parents adapt well. This study aimed to clarify this variability in adaptive strength by investigating a stress-coping model to explain depressive symptoms and positive affect. Method: Questionnaires were…
Van Der Veek, Shelley M. C.; Kraaij, Vivian; Garnefski, Nadia
We examined the idea that adolescents' perceptions of their mothers as using parental conditional positive regard (PCPR) to promote academic achievement are associated with maladaptive self feelings and coping. A study of 153 adolescents supported the hypothesis that PCPR predicts self-aggrandizement following success and self devaluation and…
This research examines the positive aspects of coping experienced by 270 mothers of adolescent children with and without a developmental disability in the Bedouin community. The mothers completed the Sociodemographic Data Questionnaire, the Grandparents Functional Support Assessment, the Gratitude Questionnaire, and the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory. Mothers of adolescent children with developmental disability reported higher levels of social support, gratitude, and personal growth than did mothers of adolescent children without developmental disability. Additionally, mothers demonstrated a higher level of gratitude toward their spouse's parents. Positive correlation was also found between gratitude and personal growth and between gratitude and support from the husband's parents. The findings highlight the important need to develop awareness and culturally appropriate intervention programs based on these positive aspects, to enhance these mothers' coping abilities. PMID:24691353
Objective: An enhanced stress and coping model was used to explain depression among HIV-positive women in healthcare and community settings where highly active anti-retroviral treatment (HAART) was commonplace. Method: HIV-infected women in four cities (N=978) were assessed, cross-sectionally, for mental and physical health, stress, social support, and other background factors. Results: Self-reported level of depressive symptomatology was high. Number of
Robert H. Remien; Theresa Exner; Robert M. Kertzner; Anke A. Ehrhardt; Mary Jane Rotheram-Borus; Mallory O. Johnson; Lance S. Weinhardt; Lauren E. Kittel; Rise B. Goldstein; Rogério M. Pinto; Stephen F. Morin; Margaret A. Chesney; Marguerita Lightfoot; Cheryl Gore-Felton; Brian Dodge; Jeffrey A. Kelly
The purpose of this study was to test child and adolescent psychosocial and psychopathological risk factors as predictors of adult criminal outcomes in a Swiss community sample. In particular, the role of active and avoidant problem coping in youths was analysed. Prevalence rates of young adult crime convictions based on register data were calculated. Univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were used to analyse the prediction of adult criminal convictions 15 years after assessment in a large Swiss community sample of children and adolescents (n = 1,086). Risk factors assessed in childhood and adolescence included socio-economic status (SES), migration background, perceived parental behaviour, familial and other social stressors, coping styles, externalizing and internalizing problems and drug abuse including problematic alcohol consumption. The rate of any young adult conviction was 10.1 %. Besides externalizing problems and problematic alcohol consumption, the presence of any criminal conviction in young adulthood was predicted by low SES and avoidant coping even after controlling for the effects of externalizing problems and problematic alcohol use. The other predictors were significant only when externalizing behaviours and problematic alcohol use were not controlled. In addition to child and adolescent externalizing behaviour problems and substance use, low SES and inadequate problem-solving skills, in terms of avoidant coping, are major risk factors of young adult criminal outcomes and need to be considered in forensic research and criminal prevention programs. PMID:23949100
Effective teaching of dance skills is informed by a variety of theoretical frameworks and individual teaching and learning styles. The purpose of this paper is to present practical teaching strategies that enhance the mastery of skills and promote self-esteem, self-efficacy, and positive self-image. The predominant thinking and primary research…
This study investigated key principal leadership skills associated with socially proactive school environments and examined the relationship between School-Wide Positive Behavior Support (SWPBS) implementation and increased evidence of those skills. Findings indicated the following: (a) certified staff members and principals from all schools rated…
Richter, Mary Miller; Lewis, Timothy J.; Hagar, John
Argumentation skills play a crucial role in science education and in preparing school students to act as informed citizens. While processing conflicting scientific positions regarding topics such as sustainable development in the domain of ecology, argumentation skills such as evaluating arguments or supporting theories with evidence are…
Hefter, Markus H.; Berthold, Kirsten; Renkl, Alexander; Riess, Werner; Schmid, Sebastian; Fries, Stefan
When anticipating future events like an opponent's stroke direction in tennis, players are assumed to rely on both kinematic and contextual cues such as an opponent's on-court position. However, knowledge of position dependency in shot-direction probabilities and experimental evidence of the effect of on-court position on action-outcome anticipation is missing. Here we show that shot-direction probabilities vary as a function of a hitting player's on-court position in professional tennis. Moreover, unlike novices, skilled players in particular relied on information about an opponent's position when anticipating forehand baseline shot direction in a video-based experiment. The position dependency in skilled players' prediction behavior was most evident when little information on an opponent's stroke kinematics was available. Findings suggest that skilled players consider the reliability of different information sources by weighting the available contextual and kinematic cues differently in the course of an opponent's unfolding action. PMID:24501141
Objective Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with increased morbidity and mortality and reduced quality of life. Novel interventions are needed to improve outcomes in COPD patients. The present study assessed the effects of a telephone-based copingskills intervention on psychological and somatic quality of life and on the combined medical endpoint of COPD-related hospitalizations and all-cause mortality. Methods We conducted a dual-site, randomized clinical trial with assessments at baseline and after 16 weeks of treatment. The study population comprised 326 outpatients with COPD aged 38 to 81 years, randomized to CopingSkills training (CST) or to COPD Education (COPD-ED). Patients completed a battery of quality of life (QoL) instruments, pulmonary function tests, and functional measures and were followed for up to 4.4 years to assess medical outcomes. Results The CST group exhibited greater improvements in psychological QoL compared to controls (P = .001), including less depression (Cohen’s d=0.22 [95%CI 0.08, 0.36]) and anxiety (d=0.17 [95%CI 0.02, 0.33]), and better overall mental health (d=0.17 [95%CI 0.03, 0.32]), emotional role functioning (d= 0.29 [95%CI 0.10, 0.48]), vitality (d= 0.27 [95%CI 0.11, 0.42]), and social functioning (d= 0.21 [95%CI 0.03, 0.38]). A significant baseline psychological QoL by Treatment group interaction revealed that CST with lower QoL at baseline achieved even greater improvements in psychological QoL compared to COPE-ED. CST participants also exhibited greater improvements in Somatic QoL (P = .042), including greater improvements in pulmonary QoL (d= 0.13 [95%CI 0.01, 0.24]), less fatigue (d= 0.34 [95%CI 0.18, 0.50]), and less shortness of breath (d= 0.11 [95%CI ?0.01, 0.23]) and greater improvement in distance walked on the 6 Minute Walk Test (d= 0.09 [95%CI 0.01, 0.16]). However, there was no significant difference in risk of time to COPD-related hospitalization or all-cause mortality between CST (34 events) and COPD-ED (32 events) (P= 0.430). Conclusions A telehealth copingskills training intervention produced clinically meaningful improvements in quality of life and functional capacity, but no overall improvement in risk of COPD-related hospitalization and all-cause mortality. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov Identifier NCT00736268 PMID:25251888
Blumenthal, James A.; Emery, Charles F.; Smith, Patrick J.; Keefe, Francis J.; Welty-Wolf, Karen; Mabe, Stephanie; Martinu, Tereza; Johnson, Julie J.; Babyak, Michael A.; O’Hayer, Virginia F.; Diaz, Philip T.; Durheim, Michael; Baucom, Donald; Palmer, Scott M.
Many methodologies to decrease stress in adolescents have been introduced and implemented. However, it seems that the problems in their physical, mental, emotional, and learning conditions still exist, especially for long-term. The proposed program with some booster was used to solve the long run problems. To examine the effectiveness of program developed from cognitive-experiential self-theory and life skills technique on adolescent coping with stress. A quasi-experimental research in two groups is used to modify theoretical concepts of cognitive-experiential self-theory and life skills technique on adolescent coping with stress. The students of secondary schools in Nakhon Sawan Province Thailand were the target population. Two schools were randomly chosen, one for control and the other for experiment. The sample size of 84 students was randomly selected and requested to be volunteers and 44 volunteers were trained on concept of thinking, strategies to resolve the problem and control emotion for 5 days and booster in school for 9 months in every fortnight and was measured 5 times, before and after interventions at 3rd, 6th and 9th months. We used independent t-test, paired t-test, analysis of variance and covariance for data analysis. There were no difference in the mean of summation of knowledge, attitude and practice of pre-test score between treatment and control group (P = 0.124). After the training program, the volunteers showed significant improvement of knowledge, attitude and practice (P < 0.05) and the level of stress decreased was statistically significant (P < 0.05). The results indicated that the training program with modify theoretical concepts of cognitive-experiential self-theory and life skills technique on adolescent enabled the participants to improve knowledge, attitude and practice in coping with stress. PMID:20635598
Monkong, L; Pongpanich, S; Viwatwongkasem, C; Chantavanich, S; Wongpiromsarn, Y; Katz, L S
Background Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) treatment side effects have a deleterious impact on treatment adherence, which is necessary\\u000a to optimize treatment outcomes including morbidity and mortality.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Purpose To examine the effect of the Balance Project intervention, a five-session, individually delivered HIV treatment side effects\\u000a copingskills intervention on antiretroviral medication adherence.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods HIV+ men and women (N?=?249) on antiretroviral therapy (ART) with self-reported
Mallory O. Johnson; Samantha E. Dilworth; Jonelle M. Taylor; Torsten B. Neilands
The present study investigated whether a life skills program (LSP) for the prevention of adolescent substance misuse can have positive influences on a school context and on school bonding. The study also explored whether effects on alcohol use are mediated by positive effects on school bonding resulting from program participation. The LSP IPSY…
Wenzel, Victoria; Weichold, Karina; Silbereisen, Rainer K.
Therapeutic scrapbooking is an intervention being used with parents and caregivers of children with cancer. The purpose of the group is to promote hopefulness, mobilize internal strengths, and thereby enhance the parents' and caregivers' coping abilities to benefit pediatric oncology patients. Facilitators, licensed in medical social work, provide a safe environment for participants to verbalize their stories and share their distress. Scrapbooking is a "normal" activity without the negative stigma that a "support group" may carry, minimizing the reluctance to attend this supportive group. Outcome measurements indicate this therapeutic intervention achieves positive results. PMID:21391072
The goal of this research is to analyze the predictive power level of academic self-efficacy, self-esteem and coping with stress on academic procrastination behavior. Relational screening model is used in the research whose research group is made of 374 students in Kirikkale University, Education Faculty in Turkey. Students in the research group…
Kandemir, Mehmet; Ilhan, Tahsin; Ozpolat, Ahmed Ragip; Palanci, Mehmet
Differentiating perfectionistic strivings and perfectionistic concerns, the present study examined how perfectionism predicts what coping strategies people use, when dealing with failures, and how perfectionism and coping influence people's satisfaction. A sample of 149 students completed daily reports for 3–14 days, reporting the most bothersome failure they experienced during the day, what strategies they used to cope with the failure,
The aim of this study is to investigate the experiences of student teachers participating in an introductory course, designed to stimulate the development of a positive attitude towards research and to stimulate the development of research knowledge and skills by second-year student teachers of an institute of primary teacher education. A…
van der Linden, Wietse; Bakx, Anouke; Ros, Anje; Beijaard, Douwe; Vermeulen, Marc
Describes Positive Peer Culture (PPC), a school-based program for teaching social skills to adolescents, especially those in foster care or juvenile justice residential settings. Outlines problem types, discusses formal and informal group meetings and benefits of PPC (critical thinking, participatory democracy, real-world literacy, business…
Background Previous studies on nutrition counselling self-efficacy assessed small groups of dietitians in focused practice areas or evaluated the effectiveness of skills training on only a few skills. This descriptive study developed a comprehensive scale to examine self-efficacy in a large, cross-sectional sample of practising dietitians in performing various counselling skills that promote dietary behaviour changes. Methods A valid and reliable instrument was developed and administered through the Internet to survey dietitians in the United States from various areas of dietetics and with varying years of experience. Items included counselling self-efficacy, skill usage, and counselling-related job characteristics. Of 612 respondents, one group (n=486) conducted counselling more than 50% of their work week; the other group (n=126) less than 50%. Factor analysis was used for scale development. Independent samples t-tests and chi-square tests were performed for group comparisons. Correlations and multiple regression analyses further assessed the relationships among variables. Results The resultant unidimensional scale contained 25 items. Dietitians reported high self-efficacy scores and frequent skill usage. Those who counsel more than 50% of their work week were more likely to work in outpatient settings and private practice; reported higher self-efficacy scores, and held longer and repeated sessions. Self-efficacy scores were positively correlated with counselling-related job characteristics. Years of counselling experience and skill usage significantly predicted self-efficacy scores. Conclusion Dietitians perceive themselves to be highly self-efficacious in using counselling skills which may contribute positively to their professional practice. However, the relationship between counselling self-efficacy and actual performance warrants future investigation. PMID:20113386
Powered mobility can have an important cognitive and psychosocial impact on young children who are unable to move independently. Twenty-three children with physical disabilities between the ages of 18 months and 6 years participated in this study. Data evaluating social skills, frequency of mobility play activities, frequency of interaction with toys/objects, and play/verbal developmental levels were collected at wheelchair evaluation, wheelchair delivery, and approximately 6 months later. Significant increases were found in parental perceptions of positive social skills for younger children after receiving a wheelchair; slightly older children showed improvements in social skills before the wheelchair was received; no changes were found in negative social skills. Parental ratings also indicated a significantly greater difficulty remaining engaged in tasks after receiving a wheelchair. A significant increase was noted in the number of mobility activities during indoor free play but no difference was seen in interaction with toys or objects. Improvement in the qualitative level of outdoor interactive free play was reported but there was no change in verbal interactions. This article discusses the potential positive impact of early powered mobility. These findings may be helpful in justifying the recommendation of powered mobility to young children and in justifying medical necessity of powered mobility for reimbursement by third party payers. PMID:23527430
There is much evidence that chess skill is based on chunks in memory that represent parts of positions from previously encountered\\u000a games. However, the content of these chunks is a matter for debate. According to one view, (1) the closer two pieces are to\\u000a each other on a board (proximity), the more likely they are to be in the same
Predictors and outcomes of benefit finding, positive reappraisal coping, and posttraumatic growth were examined using interviews and questionnaires from a longitudinal study of women with early-stage breast cancer followed from primary medical treatment completion to 3 (n = 92) and 12 months (n = 60) later. Most women (83%) reported at least 1 benefit of their breast cancer experience. Benefit
Sharon R. Sears; Annette L. Stanton; Sharon Danoff-Burg
Substance use is prevalent among HIV-positive adults and linked to a number of adverse health consequences; however little\\u000a is known about risk and protective factors that influence substance use among HIV-positive adults coping with AIDS-related\\u000a bereavement. Using structural equation modeling (SEM), male gender, diagnostic indications of antisocial and borderline personality\\u000a disorders (PD), and grief severity were tested as risk factors,
Nathan B. Hansen; Courtenay E. Cavanaugh; Ellen L. Vaughan; Christian M. Connell; David C. Tate; Kathleen J. Sikkema
Resolution of the trauma of childhood sexual abuse (CSA), and the current adjustment of 60 adult female CSA survivors were\\u000a explored through qualitative and quantitative analyses of their coping strategies, perceived benefits, and meaning-making\\u000a attempts. While the majority of the women (87%) perceived at least some benefit resulting from coping with the CSA experience,\\u000a many (29%) found it impossible to
Margaret O’Dougherty Wright; Emily Crawford; Katherine Sebastian
Background: Specific coping styles have been shown to modulate stress-induced immune alterations and influence actual health outcomes. This study examined the effects of stressors and coping styles on human T-cell subpopulations and in vitro cytokine production using a cross-sectional design. Methods: Seventy-one men (18–60 years old) were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire that evaluates quantitative workload, mental demand and
A meta-analysis was conducted of studies that measured the effects of both age and skill in chess on the tasks of selecting the best move for chess positions (the best move task) as well as recalling chess game positions (the recall task). Despite a small sample of studies, we demonstrated that there are age and skill effects on both tasks: age being negatively associated with performance on both tasks and skill being positively associated with performance on both tasks. On the best move task, we found that skill was the dominant effect, while on the recall task, skill and age were approximately equally strong effects. We also found that skill was best measured by the best move task. In the case of the best move task, this result is consistent with the argument that it accurately replicates expert performance (Ericsson & Smith, 1991). Results for the recall task argue that this task captures effects related to skill, but also effects likely due to a general aging process. Implications for our understanding of aging in skilled domains are also discussed. PMID:23508364
The potential stress-buffering effects of sensation seeking were assessed in a prospective study involving high school athletes. A significant positive relation between major negative sport-specific life events and subsequent injury time-loss occurred only for athletes low in sensation seeking. No evidence was obtained for a competing hypothesis that high sensation seeking would constitute an injury vulnerability factor by increasing risk-taking
Tests the universal nature of stress and coping behavior among overseas college students in China and provides basic information towards understanding the problems that result from stress and coping which can best be defined in cultural terms. Results indicated that academic and interpersonal sources of stress were the most common Stressors…
Attention was directed towards negative, neutral, and positive word stimuli to explore the effect of emotions on sensorimotor skill performance. Forty novice and 40 experienced basketballers simultaneously completed a free-throw shooting task and a secondary word semantics task. A manipulation check confirmed that the secondary task influenced participants' feelings. Both groups responded faster to neutral and positive words than negative
Many undergraduate and graduate physics students choose to participate in an informal science program at the University of Colorado Boulder (Partnerships for Informal Science Education in the Community (PISEC)). They coach elementary and middle school students in inquiry-based physics activities during weekly, afterschool sessions. Observations from the afterschool sessions, field notes from the students, and pre/post surveys are collected. University students are also pre/post- videotaped explaining a textbook passage on a physics concept to an imagined audience for the Communications in Everyday Language assessment (CELA). We present findings from these data that indicate informal experiences improve the communication and pedagogical skills of the university student as well as positively influence their self-efficacy as scientific communicators and teachers.
Presents the theoretical, empirical, and practical foundations of a group stress management program to increase clients' effective coping with routine daily stressors. The program provides copingskills training through three components--relaxation training, cognitive restructuring, and social skills training. Discusses implications for social…
The incidence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in returning OEF/OIF military personnel is creating a significant healthcare challenge. This has served to motivate research on how to better develop and disseminate evidence-based treatments for PTSD. One emerging form of treatment for combat-related PTSD that has shown promise involves the delivery of exposure therapy using immersive Virtual Reality (VR). Initial outcomes from open clinical trials have been positive and fully randomized controlled trials are currently in progress to further validate this approach. Based on our research group's initial positive outcomes using VR to emotionally engage and successfully treat persons undergoing exposure therapy for PTSD, we have begun development in a similar VR-based approach to deliver stress resilience training with military service members prior to their initial deployment. The Stress Resilience In Virtual Environments (STRIVE) project aims to create a set of combat simulations (derived from our existing Virtual Iraq/Afghanistan exposure therapy system) that are part of a multi-episode narrative experience. Users can be immersed within challenging combat contexts and interact with virtual characters within these episodes as part of an experiential learning approach for training a range of psychoeducational and cognitive-behavioral emotional coping strategies believed to enhance stress resilience. The STRIVE project aims to present this approach to service members prior to deployment as part of a program designed to better prepare military personnel for the types of emotional challenges that are inherent in the combat environment. During these virtual training experiences users are monitored physiologically as part of a larger investigation into the biomarkers of the stress response. One such construct, Allostatic Load, is being directly investigated via physiological and neuro-hormonal analysis from specimen collections taken immediately before and after engagement in the STRIVE virtual experience. PMID:22357022
This study examined the relationship between three HIV-specific coping strategies (cognitive coping strategies, denial, and religious coping) and quality of life (QoL) in 90 HIV+, predominately minority women on highly active antiretroviral therapy. Religious coping was unrelated to QoL; however, use of cognitive coping strategies was related to greater QoL, and denial was related to poorer QoL. Baron and Kenny's
Kathryn E. Weaver; Michael H. Antoni; Suzanne C. Lechner; Ron E. F. Durán; Frank Penedo; M. Isabel Fernandez; Gail Ironson; Neil Schneiderman
This action research project developed a program for improving the social proficiency of art and music students through the use of specifically taught positive social skills. The targeted population consisted of fifth-grade students from two different elementary school districts. Both schools were located in middle class suburban communities near…
A theoretical approach is formulated that connects various theories of why education has an effect on labour market outcomes with institutional settings in which such theories provide the most likely mechanism. Three groups of mechanisms are distinguished: education as an indicator of productive skills, as a positional good and as a means for…
Pupils with special needs can have difficulties in building relationships with peers in inclusive education. An important condition for developing positive relationships with peers is having the age?group appropriate social skills. It seems likely that pupils with an insufficient set of social skills face a larger risk of being excluded. This study describes the social skills of pupils with special
A test was conducted of a supplemental skills training and social-network-development aftercare program with 130 drug abusers from four residential therapeutic communities. The intervention produced positive effects on subjects' performance at the conclusion of treatment. Performance improved in situations involving avoidance of drug use, coping…
All organisms examined to date, respond to a sudden change in environmental temperature with a specific cascade of adaptation reactions that, in some cases, have been identified and monitored at the molecular level. According to the type of temperature change, this response has been termed heat shock response (HSR) or cold shock response (CSR). During the HSR, a specialized sigma factor has been shown to play a central regulatory role in controlling expression of genes predominantly required to cope with heat-induced alteration of protein conformation. In contrast, after cold shock, nucleic acid structure and proteins interacting with the biological information molecules DNA and RNA appear to play a major cellular role. Currently, no cold-specific sigma factor has been identified. Therefore, unlike the HSR, the CSR appears to be organized as a complex stimulon rather than resembling a regulon. This review has been designed to draw a refined picture of our current understanding of the CSR in Bacillus subtilis. Important processes such as temperature sensing, membrane adaptation, modification of the translation apparatus, as well as nucleoid reorganization and some metabolic aspects, are discussed in brief. Special emphasis is placed on recent findings concerning the nucleic acid binding cold shock proteins, which play a fundamental role, not only during cold shock adaptation but also under optimal growth conditions. PMID:12171653
As adolescence is a vulnerable transition phase, especially regarding the development of psychological symptoms, interventions promoting mental health for this age group have been called for. The “Conscious Coping” program (CC) is an intervention based on copingskills from Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, including reappraisal and emotion regulation strategies, and mindfulness practices. The aim of this study is to evaluate the
This article presents Part 2 of a multi-part series offering the most timely educational information, innovative approaches, products and technology solutions as well as coping and stigma-fighting approaches available on the subject of incontinence. In this article, the author contends that it is extremely important to teach children copingskills…
The practice-integrated study of 30 suburban runaways and 30 nonrunaways explored the extent to whcih particular stressful events and inadequate copingskills precipitate runaway episodes. The findings showed that certain types of stressful events combined with inadequate coping patterns led many youths to run away. Conversely, most nonrunaway youths were living in less conflict-ridden homes. Although the level of stress
Powered mobility can have an important cognitive and psychosocial impact on young children who are unable to move independently. Twenty-three children with physical disabilities between the ages of 18 months and 6 years participated in this study. Data evaluating social skills, frequency of mobility play activities, frequency of interaction with…
A sample of 135 first-year university students living in residence completed questionnaires that measured individual differences in mindfulness, coping styles, and perceived stress. Findings revealed significant positive relationships between mindfulness and rational coping, and significant negative relationships with emotional and avoidant coping…
The current study explored the relationship between coping and leadership in a military sample. Data were collected from Air Force officers attending a 6-week professional military education course focusing on leadership development. Correlation analyses illustrate that leadership styles are associated with different styles of coping. Hierarchical regression further demonstrates that transformational leaders use more positive reinterpretation and problem-focused coping strategies
Gene M. Alarcon; Joseph B. Lyons; Bradley R. Schlessman; Alexander J. Barelka
The purpose of this study was to examine neurological impairment in combination with information-motivation-behavioral skills (IMB) variables. The study tests the role of IMB variables as mediators of antecedent variables of demographics, life stress, social support, and neurological impairment with outcome measures of HIV preventive and risk behaviors in a sample of HIV-positive, alcohol-using adults (n = 250) with a history of alcohol abuse/dependence. Neurological impairment was measured with the Color Trails Test (CTT). Average performance on the CTT by the sample was substantially worse than established norms. In a directional latent variable model, neurological impairment directly predicted lower transmission knowledge scores and poorer performance on an observational condom skills assessment. Greater neurological impairment was significantly associated with greater age. Future interventions geared toward HIV+ adults who use alcohol should take into consideration HIV-related and age-related neurological functioning which may impede the facilitation of safe sex behaviors. PMID:22767030
Malow, Robert M; Dévieux, Jessy G; Stein, Judith A; Rosenberg, Rhonda; Lerner, Brenda G; Attonito, Jennifer; Villalba, Karina
The authors examined the effects of situational appraisals (perceived control and intensity), coping styles (monitoring and blunting), and personal dispositions (optimism and self-esteem) on the approach and avoidance coping responses of skilled Greek basketball referees (N = 162) and the consistency of their responses following 3 game-related stressful situations. In an effort to clarify the variables involved in coping and
Purpose A multidimensional intervention integrating alexithymia, negative affect, and type of coping strategy is needed for the effective treatment of somatoform disorder; however, few studies have applied this approach to the three different dimensions of alexithymia in patients with somatoform disorder. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between type of coping strategy and three different dimensions of alexithymia expressed in patients. Patients and methods A total of 196 patients with somatoform disorder completed the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale, the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale, the Spielberger State–Trait Anxiety Inventory, the Somatosensory Amplification Scale, and the Lazarus Stress Coping Inventory. The relationships between alexithymia (Toronto Alexithymia Scale – 20 score and subscales), demographic variables, and psychological inventory scores were analyzed using Pearson’s correlation coefficients and stepwise multiple regression analysis. Results The mean Toronto Alexithymia Scale – 20 total score (56.1±10.57) was positively correlated with the number of physical symptoms as well as with psychopathology scores (Self-Rating Depression Scale, State–Trait Anxiety Inventory trait, state, and Somatosensory Amplification Scale), but negatively correlated with planful problem solving, confrontive coping, seeking social support, and positive reappraisal coping scores. With respect to coping strategy, multiple regression analyses revealed that “difficulty in identifying feelings” was positively associated with an escape–avoidance strategy, “difficulty in describing feelings” was negatively associated with a seeking social support strategy, and “externally oriented thinking” was negatively associated with a confrontive coping strategy. Conclusion Alexithymia was strongly associated with the number of somatic symptoms and negative affect. Patients with high “difficulty in describing feelings” tend to rely less on seeking social support, and patients with high “externally oriented thinking” tend to rely less on confrontive coping strategies. The copingskills intervention implemented should differ across individuals and should be based on the alexithymia dimension of each patient. PMID:24403835
The present study focused on the motivational predictors of coping with academic examination through the test of the contribution of self-determination for academic studies and achievement goals. Coping strategies, academic motivation and achievement goals were assessed among 199 undergraduate students. Regression analysis revealed that problem-focused coping is positively predicted by identified regulation and negatively by amotivation, whereas emotion-focused coping is
Julie Doron; Yannick Stephan; Christophe Maiano; Christine Le Scanff
Obtained reports of coping and goals from 33 children being treated for leukemia. Coping strategies were classified as primary control coping (attempts to alter objective conditions), secondary control coping (attempts to adjust to objective conditions), or relinquished control (no attempt to cope). Secondary control coping was positively…
Pupils with special needs can have difficulties in building relationships with peers in inclusive education. An important condition for developing positive relationships with peers is having the age-group appropriate social skills. It seems likely that pupils with an insufficient set of social skills face a larger risk of being excluded. This…
Literature from the U.S. has documented the importance of spirituality on the psychological health of people living with HIV\\/AIDS; however there is little published data on the ways in which people living with HIV\\/AIDS in Africa turn to religion for support. We conducted 40 in-depth interviews with HIV-positive women who were pregnant or had recently given birth in Kinshasa, Democratic
Coping with the high cost of teaching chemistry, content of organic chemistry, instructional strategies, and approaches in dealing with the changing student population (urban blacks/hispanics, handicapped, and other nontraditional students) are among the topics discussed in 19 papers presented at the Seventh Biennial Conference on Chemical…
limb; m. gluteaus maximus, m. rectus femoris, m. vastus tibialis et fibularis, m. biceps femoris (caput longum), m. gastrocnemius, m. soleus and m. tibialis anterior. The subject was seated in a chair and the position of his head was passively... limb; m. gluteaus maximus, m. rectus femoris, m. vastus tibialis et fibularis, m. biceps femoris (caput longum), m. gastrocnemius, m. soleus and m. tibialis anterior. The subject was seated in a chair and the position of his head was passively...
AIM: To explore (1) intergroup differences in comfortable interpersonal distances (CIDs) and the use of coping strategies; (2) the association of these parameters with individual symptomatology; and (3) the interplay between CIDs and coping styles in patients with depression and schizophrenia. METHODS: The parameters of interest were assessed by means of standardized questionnaires: CID and Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations. Psychopathology was evaluated with the Beck Depression Inventory and Positive and Negative Syndromes Scale. ANOVA, Pearson’s correlations and multiple regression analyses were used to examine relationships among the variables. RESULTS: Compared with controls, depressed patients were more distanced from family members, significant others and self-images, whereas patients with schizophrenia were less distanced from neutral and threat-related stimuli. Distancing from self-images was mostly associated with depression severity in depressed patients, whereas distancing from hostile and threat-related stimuli with the severity of psychotic and affective symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. Both patient groups used more emotion-oriented than task-oriented and avoidance-oriented coping strategies. Self-distancing among patients with schizophrenia was positively associated with the use of the social diversion coping, implying social support seeking. CONCLUSION: Patients with depression and schizophrenia use different maladaptive emotion - regulation strategies to cope with their symptoms and related distress. Training in stress management might provide these patients with skills for more effective emotion regulation. PMID:24255879
Ponizovsky, Alexander M; Finkelstein, Irena; Poliakova, Inna; Mostovoy, Dimitry; Goldberger, Nehama; Rosca, Paula
Introduction: The study of coping among students accounts for an interesting subject, as having copingskills guarantees a healthy lifestyle and quality of life. The present study aims to analyze the role played by age and gender on the coping strategies used by Andalusian school students to cope with situations of daily stress. These situations…
Morales Rodriguez, Francisco Manuel; Trianes Torres, Maria Victoria; Miranda Paez, Jesus
A survey was conducted on a sample of 159 Australian bus drivers to determine the extent to which workload and self-reported driver coping styles predicted their subjective health status. The model that was proposed incorporated the hours spent driving as a measure of workload, both adaptive and maladaptive driver coping styles, and self-report measures of need for recovery (i.e., fatigue),
Background: This article reports on an evaluation study of a project seeking to develop the use of position-linked datalogging with primary pupils in environmental science contexts. Purpose: The study sought to find out the extent to which the project had developed: (1) participant teachers' confidence in using datalogging as an everyday part of…
Davies, Daniel John; Collier, Christopher; Howe, Alan
Research on the relationship between religious coping and psychological well-being in cancer survivors is limited. Forty-eight\\u000a veteran cancer survivors completed measures of psychological distress, posttraumatic growth, and positive and negative religious\\u000a coping. Negative religious coping was associated with greater distress and growth. Positive religious coping was associated\\u000a with greater growth. Gender, race, and religious affiliation were significant predictors of positive
Kelly M. TrevinoElizabeth; Elizabeth Archambault; Jennifer Schuster; Peter Richardson; Jennifer Moye
College student excessive alcohol use is a pressing public health concern, and many of the negative events associated with heavy drinking occur during leisure or free time. Positive use of leisure can lead to copingskills, stress reduction, and healthy development. Negative use of leisure, including heavy alcohol use, is associated with physical…
The Group of Eight (Go8) applauds the government's intention to comprehensively reform the skilled migration program, and it welcomes the opportunity to submit this response to the General Skilled Migration (GSM) Points Test Discussion Paper. The Go8 has argued for some time that it is inappropriate to link international education to the skilled…
Data was collected in five countries from informal carers of older people ( n = 577) via a common protocol. Carers completed: (1) a 17-item version of the Carers of Older People in Europe (COPE) Index, an assessment of carers' perceptions of their role : (2) a questionnaire on demographic and caregiving circumstances : and (3) three instruments included for
K. J. McKee; I. Philp; G. Lamura; C. Prouskas; B. Öberg; B. Krevers; L. Spazzafumo; B. Bien; C. Parker; M. R. Nolan; K. Szczerbinska
Patients with first-episode psychosis (FEP) often show dysfunctional coping patterns, low self-efficacy, and external control beliefs that are considered to be risk factors for the development of psychosis. Therefore, these factors should already be present in patients at-risk for psychosis (AR). We compared frequencies of deficits in coping strategies (Stress-Coping-Questionnaires, SVF-120/SVF-KJ), self-efficacy, and control beliefs (Competence and Control Beliefs Questionnaire, FKK) between AR (n=21) and FEP (n=22) patients using a cross-sectional design. Correlations among coping, self-efficacy, and control beliefs were assessed in both groups. The majority of AR and FEP patients demonstrated deficits in copingskills, self-efficacy, and control beliefs. However, AR patients more frequently reported a lack of positivecoping strategies, low self-efficacy, and a fatalistic externalizing bias. In contrast, FEP patients were characterized by being overly self-confident. These findings suggest that dysfunctional coping, self-efficacy, and control beliefs are already evident in AR patients, though different from those in FEP patients. The pattern of deficits in AR patients closely resembles that of depressive patients, which may reflect high levels of depressiveness in AR patients. Apart from being worthwhile treatment targets, these coping and belief patterns are promising candidates for predicting outcome in AR patients, including the conversion to psychosis. PMID:24878297
Examines the coping strategies adopted by 50 infertile men and women. All interviewed had sought medical help, and many became knowledgeable about reproduction and infertility. Redefining the problem and managing negative concepts about infertility were other coping strategies. Seeking social support, positive identities, and other ways of meeting…
Creating a fertile space for debate and ideas in order to drive innovation in learning and skills is integral to LSN's (Learning and Skills Network's) mission. To achieve this LSN has pioneered a new approach to making learning work from classroom to boardroom--and created the Centre for Innovation in Learning. This new, independent think tank…
In theories and studies of persuasion, people's personal knowledge about persuasion agents' goals and tactics, and about how to skillfullycope with these, has been ignored. We present a model of how people develop and use persuasion knowledge to cope with persuasion attempts. We discuss what the model implies about how consumers use marketers' advertising and selling attempts to refine
This study deals with the development of techniques to measure the area of childhood personality development known as coping ability. Coping ability can be seen in children's ways of handling unfamiliar and stressful situations and is a skill that is seen as likely very influential in an individual's total development, both social-emotional and…
This study assessed impact of Alzheimer's patients' aggressive behavior (AD aggression) on caregiver coping strategies (task-, emotion-, and avoidance-focused) and caregiver resilience, and examined whether coping strategy moderated the AD aggression-caregiver resilience relationship. Informal caregivers across Louisiana (N = 419) completed surveys with measures of demographics, AD aggression, caregiver coping strategies, and caregiver resilience. Task-focused copingpositively related to resilience. Aggression negatively predicted caregiver resilience. Emotion- and avoidance-focused coping strategies separately interacted with aggression and increased its negative relationship to caregiver resilience. Task-focused coping showed no moderation. Implications for social work professionals are discussed. PMID:21462058
Residents (N = 32) of 3 skilled nursing homes participated in a study designed to document the nature of the stressors they experienced and the coping mechanisms they used. Medical issues were the most common stressors. The most common coping responses were prayer, reading, watching television, listening to music, and talking to friends and…
A literature review of research into interventions among street youth is presented along with the results of a qualitative analysis of interviews with 80 street youth on the topic of coping. Themes arising from the qualitative analysis include street youths' negative and positive experiences with social support; and attitudes and beliefs such as self-worth, decreased reactivity to other's opinions, hope
Proactive coping is an innovative coping theory that may help facilitate the design of educational and psychological interventions to overcome adolescent risk behaviors and to promote personal growth. It broadens stress and coping research by including positive strivings which take into account such aspects as goals, purpose, and meaning.…
Using a sample of Chinese college students (n = 216), the present study showed that future-oriented coping negatively correlated with perceived pressure and positively correlated with successful job hunting. The relationship between proactive coping and preventive coping was also explored. Structural equation modeling suggested that a sequence…
Objective?This study tested whether violent victimization by peers was associated with alcohol and tobacco use among adolescents, and whether adaptive coping styles moderated associations. Methods?A total of 247 urban Mexican-American and European-American adolescents aged 16–20 years were interviewed.?Results?Independent of demographics and violent perpetration, adolescents victimized by violence reported greater alcohol and tobacco use. Adolescents who engaged in higher levels of behavioral coping (e.g., problem solving) reported less substance use, independent of violence variables. Interaction effects showed that violent victimization was associated with greater substance use only among adolescents who engaged in lower levels of cognitive coping (e.g., focusing on positive aspects of life). Substance use was relatively low among adolescents who engaged in higher levels of cognitive coping, regardless of whether they had been victimized.?Conclusions?Enhancement of cognitive copingskills may prevent engagement in substance use as a stress response to violent victimization. PMID:18669579
Tschann, Jeanne M.; Pasch, Lauri A.; Flores, Elena; Ozer, Emily J.
Discusses how managers can handle change and cope with stress, describes a number of books that address these issues, and relates them to library administration. Highlights include organizational change; stress reduction; human behavior and the tools of change; communication skills; leadership strategies; and the use of humor. (LRW)
Internet addiction (IA) has become a serious mental health condition in many countries. To better understand the clinical implications of IA, this study tested statistically a new theoretical model illustrating underlying cognitive mechanisms contributing to development and maintenance of the disorder. The model differentiates between a generalized Internet addiction (GIA) and specific forms. This study tested the model on GIA on a population of general Internet users. The findings from 1019 users show that the hypothesized structural equation model explained 63.5% of the variance of GIA symptoms, as measured by the short version of the Internet Addiction Test. Using psychological and personality testing, the results show that a person’s specific cognitions (poor coping and cognitive expectations) increased the risk for GIA. These two factors mediated the symptoms of GIA if other risk factors were present such as depression, social anxiety, low self-esteem, low self-efficacy, and high stress vulnerability to name a few areas that were measured in the study. The model shows that individuals with high copingskills and no expectancies that the Internet can be used to increase positive or reduce negative mood are less likely to engage in problematic Internet use, even when other personality or psychological vulnerabilities are present. The implications for treatment include a clear cognitive component to the development of GIA and the need to assess a patient’s coping style and cognitions and improve faulty thinking to reduce symptoms and engage in recovery.
Brand, Matthias; Laier, Christian; Young, Kimberly S.
This study assessed impact of Alzheimer's patients' aggressive behavior (AD aggression) on caregiver coping strategies (task-, emotion-, and avoidance-focused) and caregiver resilience, and examined whether coping strategy moderated the AD aggression–caregiver resilience relationship. Informal caregivers across Louisiana (N?=?419) completed surveys with measures of demographics, AD aggression, caregiver coping strategies, and caregiver resilience. Task-focused copingpositively related to resilience. Aggression negatively
Scott E. Wilks; Kristina G. Little; Heather R. Gough; Wanda J. Spurlock
This study examined whether a coping-skills-based treatment for marijuana dependence operated by encouraging the use of copingskills or via other mechanisms. Participants were 450 men and women treated in the multisite Marijuana Treatment Project who were randomly assigned to motivational enhancement therapy plus cognitive-behavioral (MET-CB)…
Litt, Mark D.; Kadden, Ronald M.; Stephens, Robert S.
The present study examines the association between coping and personality, by testing the hypothesis that dispositional coping mediates the relationship between personality and psychological distress. Canonical correlations evaluated the degree of the association among personality and coping dimensions in a community sample (N = 489) from Cyprus. Results partially support the hypothesized mediation model with Agreeableness predicting distress through the full mediation of avoidant coping, expression of negative feelings and active-positivecoping. Partial mediation was found for Neuroticism and Openness. Canonical correlations deciphered how coping relates to the Big Five dimensions. Neuroticism was mostly associated with maladaptive coping, whereas Conscientiousness and Extraversion with adaptive coping. PMID:25087318
Panayiotou, Georgia; Kokkinos, Constantinos M; Kapsou, Margarita
Since the incidence of cancer in this country is high and the cancer survival rates are increasing, it is important to study coping strategies in cancer patients. As survival time lengthens, coping strategies that might affect the quality of a patient's life become increasingly important. A study was conducted to examine coping strategies in newly…
Purpose: To examine perceived stigma, coping, disclosure, and self-esteem among adolescents with lesbian mothers.Method: Interviews were conducted with 76 adolescents ages 11–18 years. Standardized measures of self-esteem and copingskills were used. A measure of stigma was adapted for this study and a measure of disclosure was developed. The relationship between perceived stigma and self-esteem was examined. General copingskills
Background The stigma and negative societal views attached to schizophrenia can make the diagnosis distressing. There is evidence that poor insight into symptoms of the disorder and need for treatment may reflect the use of denial as a coping style. However, the relationships between insight and other coping styles have seldom been investigated. Method We examined the associations between insight, distress and a number of coping styles in 65 outpatients with schizophrenia (final n = 57) in a cross-sectional study. Results We found that (i) awareness of symptoms and problems correlated with greater distress, (ii) ‘preference for positive reinterpretation and growth’ coping style correlated with lower distress and with lower symptom awareness (re-labelling), (iii) ‘preference for mental disengagement’ coping style correlated with greater distress and lower awareness of problems, and (iv) ‘social support-seeking’ coping style correlated with greater awareness of illness, but not distress. No relationship occurred between the use of ‘denial’ as a coping style and insight or distress. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that awareness of illness and related problems is associated with greater distress in schizophrenia. However, this investigation has not supported a simple psychological denial explanation for this relationship, as complex relationships emerged between different dimensions of insight and coping styles. The negative association between ‘positive reinterpretation and growth’ and distress suggests that adopting this style may lead to re-labelling symptoms in a less distressing way. Avoidant and isolating styles of coping both appear unhelpful. Psychological interventions should aim to promote more active coping such as discussing a mental health problem with others. PMID:17561377
The adaptational-continuum model of personality and coping suggests a useful context for research areas that emphasize both personality and coping. The present paper used Ferguson's (2001) model integrating personality and coping factors to further conceptualize findings around celebrity worship. Three hundred and seventy-two respondents completed measures of celebrity worship, personality, coping style, general health, stress, positive and negative affect and
John Maltby; Liza Day; Lynn E. McCutcheon; Raphael Gillett; James Houran; Diane D. Ashe
This meta-analytic review examines the role of optimism, social support, and coping strategies in contributing to posttraumatic growth. Results from 103 studies showed that all three systems of variables yielded significant effect sizes. Religious coping and positive reappraisal coping produced the largest effect sizes. Social support, seeking social support coping, spirituality, and optimism were moderately related to posttraumatic growth. Acceptance
This study examined the role of emotions as predictors of children's coping responses to peer rejection experiences. Children ages 7-12 (N = 79) completed questionnaires to assess emotional and coping responses to peer rejection scenarios. This study examined three coping factors specific to peer rejection (positive reappraisal, ruminative coping,…
Background Psychotic symptoms in the context of psychiatric disorders are associated with poor functional outcomes. Environmental stressors are important in the development of psychosis; however, distress may only be pathogenic when it exceeds an individual’s ability to cope with it. Therefore, one interesting factor regarding poor functional outcomes in patients with psychotic symptoms may be poor coping. This paper aimed to address the question whether 1) psychotic symptoms are associated with poorer functioning and 2) whether poor coping moderated the association. Methods In a clinical case-clinical control study of 106 newly-referred adolescent patients with non-psychotic psychiatric disorders, coping was investigated using the Adolescents Coping Scale. Severity of impairment in socio-occupational functioning was assessed with the Children’s Global Assessment Scale. Results Patients with non-psychotic psychiatric disorders and additional psychotic symptoms (N?=?50) had poorer functioning and were more likely to use avoidance-oriented coping compared to patients with non-psychotic psychiatric disorders without psychotic symptoms (N?=?56). No differences were found with respect to approach-oriented coping. When stratifying for poor/good coping, only those adolescent patients with psychotic symptoms who applied poor coping (i.e. less use of approach-oriented coping styles [OR 0.24, p?0.015] and more use of avoidance-oriented coping [OR 0.23, p?0.034]) had poorer functioning. However, these interactions were not significant. Conclusions Non-adaptive coping and poorer functioning were more often present in adolescents with non-psychotic psychiatric disorders and additional psychotic symptoms. Due to small subgroups, our analyses could not give definitive conclusions about the question whether coping moderated the association between psychotic symptoms and functioning. Improvement of copingskills may form an important target for intervention that may contribute to better clinical and functional outcomes in patients with psychotic symptoms. PMID:24690447
-based economy and the wider society. 2. Skills to be acquired The University intends that all students/intellectual skills, which include being able to identify, analyse and solve problems by prioritising tasks, coping Business and organisational skills which include being able to appreciate and understand how businesses
Skills that families gain in coping with transitions at the early ages of their child with visual impairments provide skills necessary for all the life-stage transitions that follow and, thus, are termed marathon skills. The transition programing of the Lighthouse Child Development Center in New York City is designed to develop those skills. (JDD)
Postdoctoral Position: Primary Healthcare and Mental Health A postdoctoral position of research on developing and examining the effectiveness and uptake of interactive, webbased eHealth tools in the area of mental health, primary healthcare and diverse communities including immigrants, refugees
Introduction: Nursing jobs are among the occupations experiencing high levels of stress. Level of psychological well-being and coping style with stressful situations among nurses has large impact on their job performance. Limited information exists about the relationship between coping styles and psychological well-being among nurses, so the present study examined the way of coping and the level of psychological well-being as well as their relationships among nurses. Methods: In this correlational study, 100 nurses from Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences were selected by multi-stage random sampling in 2012. Lazarus and Folkman's coping styles and Ryff's psychological well-being Questionnaires were completed by self-report method. Collected data were entered software SPSS ver. 13 and then analyzed using Pearson correlation test. Results: The results showed EFCSwere more used but PFCSstyle was less used with a little difference by mean (SD) of 87.91 (10.76) vs. 73.12 (12.15). Between EFCSand some psychological well-being dimensions such as purpose in life (P=0.01, r= -0.28) and personal development (P=0.03, r=-0.024), a significant negative association and between PFCSstyle and purpose in life, a significant positive relationship was found (P=0.006, r=0.31). Conclusion: Considering that PFCSstyle is more effective in solving problems and job stress, as well as, the increased use of EFCSis associated with adverse health consequences, improvement of nurses' coping strategies to cope better with stressful events by skill training and promotion of nurses' psychological well-being level is recommended.
The influence of gender roles on coping with workplace stressors was examined among 176 adult undergraduate students (130 females, 46 males) who were concurrently employed while attending college. The majority of participants (91.5%) were White and from working-class backgrounds. As expected, androgynous persons were significantly more likely to report using help-seeking, direct action, and positive-thinking coping mechanisms than were individuals
In this study of 177 people living with HIV, we examined if spiritual coping leads to slower HIV disease progression (CD4 cells, viral load [VL]), and more positive health behaviors (adherence, safer sex, less substance use). Prior research suggests that physicians' assessment of spiritual coping can be an interventional aid in promoting positive spiritual coping. Longitudinal spiritual coping was rated using qualitative content analysis of six-monthly interviews/essays. Positive spiritual coping (65%) was predominant over negative (7%), whereas 28% did not make significant use of spirituality as a means to cope. Spiritual coping was associated with less substance use disorder but not with less sexual risk behavior. Hierarchical linear modeling demonstrated that spiritual coping predicted sustained undetectable VL and CD4-cell preservation over four years, independent of sociodemographics, baseline disease status, and substance use disorder. Achieving undetectable VL significantly increased over time in participants with positive spiritual coping but decreased among those with negative spiritual coping. For every participant with positive spiritual coping achieving undetectable VL, four with negative spiritual coping reported with detectable/transmittable HIV. Notably, even when controlling for the effect of VL suppression, CD4-cell decline was 2.25 times faster among those engaged in negative versus positive spiritual coping. In conclusion, spiritual coping is associated with positive health behaviors, such as maintaining long-term VL suppression and less onset/relapse of substance use disorder over time. Among those who are sexually active, positive spiritual coping reduces the risk of HIV transmission via VL suppression but may not prevent the transmission of other STDs because spiritual coping is not related to safer sexual behavior. Notably, the association between spiritual coping and immune preservation was direct (i.e., not explained by VL suppression), suggesting potential psychoneuroimmunological pathways. Thus, assessment of spiritual coping may be an important area of intervention to achieve undetectable VL, reduce HIV disease progression, and prevent substance use onset/relapse. PMID:25297848
Kremer, Heidemarie; Ironson, Gail; Kaplan, Lauren; Stuetzele, Rick; Baker, Neil; Fletcher, Mary Ann
This study examined the role of emotions as predictors of children’s coping responses to peer rejection experiences. Children\\u000a ages 7–12 (N = 79) completed questionnaires to assess emotional and coping responses to peer rejection scenarios. This study examined\\u000a three coping factors specific to peer rejection (positive reappraisal, ruminative coping, and aggressive coping) and examined\\u000a results separately for two negative peer experiences (teasing
Spiritual pathology, religious coping, and dispositional forgiveness were investigated in two studies with graduate students at a Christian university-based seminary. Spiritual pathology was operationalised using measures of spiritual instability and spiritual grandiosity. Study 1 (N?=?194) examined patterns of correlation between positive and negative religious coping items, spiritual pathology, and dispositional forgiveness. Spiritual instability correlated with numerous positive and negative religious
People who are high in self-compassion treat themselves with kindness and concern when they experience negative events. The present article examines the construct of self-compassion from the standpoint of research on coping in an effort to understand the ways in which people who are high in self-compassion cope with stressful events. Self-compassionate people tend to rely heavily on positive cognitive restructuring but do not appear to differ from less self-compassionate people in the degree to which they cope through problem-solving and distraction. Existing evidence does not show clear differences in the degree to which people who are low vs. high in self-compassion seek support as a coping strategy, but more research is needed. PMID:20686629
Research has found that people with psychiatric disabilities Taiwan tended to utilize passive and emotional-focused strategies to cope with their illness unlike Western studies. A self-reported questionnaire that incorporated categories: socio-demographic characteristics, the self-impact of illness, illness adaptation, and coping strategy scale was administrated to 140 persons with psychiatric disabilities routinely hospitalized over a long period of time to explore the strategies of coping with their mental disorders. Analysis of survey data found the sense of helplessness and the overall illness adaptation significantly impact negative emotion coping utilization. Those who felt highly impact by the illness, more sense of helplessness, less actively managing their illness, and more social support availability were more likely to use positive emotion as a coping strategy. The better overall adaption to the illness significantly impact procrastination and previous illness experience utilization. Only a positivecoping strategy was found significantly to manage the illness. PMID:19826952
Introduction Few studies have described the relationship between the psychological distress associated with head and neck cancer and how\\u000a patients cope with their disease.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Purpose The purpose of this study is to investigate how head and neck cancer patients 6–12 months after their diagnosis cope with\\u000a their disease and how their copingskills are related to their anxiety and depression levels.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods We conducted
This study examined several potential correlates of engagement and disengagement coping, including abuse-related factors, socioeconomic and social coping resources, and childhood trauma variables among a sample of battered women (N = 388). Relationship abuse frequency, particularly psychological aggression, and peritraumatic dissociation were the strongest positive predictors of the use of disengagement coping. Social coping resources, including tangible support and appraisals of social support and belonging, were associated with higher engagement coping and lower disengagement coping. A positive association was also found between interparental domestic violence and disengagement coping, and negative associations were found between both childhood physical and sexual abuse and engagement coping. Results suggest that coping strategies used by battered women are multidetermined and deserve further exploration. PMID:17390560
This study examined several potential correlates of engagement and disengagement coping, including abuse-related factors, socioeconomic and social coping resources, and childhood trauma variables among a sample of battered women (N = 388). Relationship abuse frequency, particularly psychological aggression, and peritraumatic dissociation were the strongest positive predictors of the use of disengagement coping. Social coping resources, including tangible support and appraisals of social support and belonging, were associated with higher engagement coping and lower disengagement coping. A positive association was also found between interparental domestic violence and disengagement coping, and negative associations were found between both childhood physical and sexual abuse and engagement coping. Results suggest that coping strategies used by battered women are multidetermined and deserve further exploration. PMID:17390560
Describes a project based on the Global Positioning System (GPS) that offers students a chance to design and implement a mini-research program to prepare them for an undergraduate research project. Discusses the context of the GPS exercise, teaching and learning outcomes, and advantages and evaluation of the exercise. (CMK)
for the position. pUrpOse Â· Express your strong work ethic and desire to learn. Â· Show that you fit Â· Body language is important: you want to look professional, not uncomfortable; nod while you listen and make eye contact to show that you are listening and understanding; remember to smile Â· Turn your
Our study tested an extension of the social resource model in an urban sample of 129 African American and 114 European American adolescents. Maternal involvement was positively related to the use of active and avoidant coping strategies among youth of both ethnicities. Additionally, use of active coping strategies was related to greater coping…
In a randomized clinical trial with 111 families of parents with a history of major depressive disorder (86% mothers; 86% Caucasian), changes in adolescents’ (mean age 11 years; 42% female) coping and parents’ parenting skills were examined as mediators of the effects of a family group cognitive behavioral preventive intervention on adolescents’ internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Changes in hypothesized mediators were assessed at 6-months and changes in adolescents’ symptoms were measured at 12-month follow-up. Significant differences favoring the family intervention as compared with a written information comparison condition were found for changes in composite measures of parent-adolescent reports of adolescents’ use of secondary control copingskills and direct observations of parents’ positive parenting skills. Changes in adolescents’ secondary control coping and positive parenting mediated the effects of the intervention on depressive, internalizing and externalizing symptoms accounting for approximately half of the effect of the intervention on the outcomes. Further, reciprocal relations between children’s internalizing symptoms and parenting were found from baseline to 6-month follow-up. Implications for the prevention of psychopathology in offspring of depressed parents are highlighted. PMID:20873898
Compas, Bruce E.; Champion, Jennifer E.; Forehand, Rex; Cole, David A.; Reeslund, Kristen L.; Fear, Jessica; Hardcastle, Emily J.; Keller, Gary; Rakow, Aaron; Garai, Emily; Merchant, Mary Jane; Roberts, Lorinda
Recent studies on homeless adolescents suggest that the profiles of homeless adolescents are heterogeneous, and that certain clusters of homeless adolescents demonstrated resiliency and positivecoping strategies. This study examined the relationship between HIV-related risk factors and resiliency (survival skills) of homeless adolescents over a 2-year period. Those who did not engage in unprotected sex reported significantly higher survival skills scores. Similarly, those who were monogamous during the study period reported significantly higher survival skills scores. However, there was a significant decline in survival skills scores after 6 months, regardless of the HIV-related risk factors. Findings from this study point to the urgent need to identify and target resilient adolescents early on to provide interventions to facilitate the transition to stable living situations before their resiliency deteriorates. PMID:22216061
Lee, Sung-Jae; Liang, Li-Jung; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Milburn, Norweeta G.
Many individuals with Substance Use Disorders (SUDs) have been the victims of violence and individuals with SUDs often exhibit copingskills deficits. The extent to which copingskills relate to victimization is unknown. This study evaluated the relationships between physical assault victimization types (i.e., only partner victimization, only non-partner victimization, or both partner and non-partner victimization) and emotion-focused, problem-focused, and avoidant coping among individuals in residential SUD treatment. More frequent use of problem-focused coping was associated with reduced odds of being victimized by partners and non-partners and more frequent use of avoidant coping was associated with increased odds of victimization across both partners and non-partners. These results highlight the potential value of assessing violence across relationship types and bolstering adaptive coping among individuals with SUDs. PMID:24364127
Bonar, Erin E.; Bohnert, Amy S. B.; Ilgen, Mark A.; Sanborn, Michelle L.; Chermack, Stephen T.
Objective The aim of this article is to analyze the relation between dispositional optimism and coping with chronic pain. The study seeks to define the relation between life orientation (optimism vs. pessimism) and coping with pain (believes about pain control and the choice of coping strategy). Material and methods The following questionnaires were used: LOT-R - Life Orientation Test, BPCQ - The Beliefs about Pain Control Questionnaire and CSQ - The Pain Coping Strategies Questionnaire. Results The results show that dispositional optimism correlates positively with: internal locus of pain control r = 0.6, P < 0.01; declared coping with pain r = 0.38, P < 0.05; diverting attention r = 0.93, P < 0.01; and behavioral activity r = 0.82, P < 0.01. Dispositional optimism correlates negatively with catastrophizing r = -0.28, P < 0.05. Conclusions We conclude that dispositional optimism plays a key role in forming the mechanisms of coping with chronic pain and thereby in improving the psychophysical comfort of patients. PMID:20156771
The effectiveness of different strategies of coping and the impact of coping diversity were tested under traumatic stress conditions. Participants were 632 U.S. soldiers stationed in Iraq (mean age = 27.7, 98% male). Results indicate that four of nine functional coping strategies (including some emotion-focused coping) as defined by the COPE scale were inversely related to psychological symptom, whereas five
This paper focuses on the gesture analysis in order to compare two human gestures. The orientations and the positions of the gestures are both taken into account and the similarity rate between two gestures is calculated. In our case, the application is in obstetrics and the aim is to evaluate forceps blade placement. The method is based on the curvature analysis of the paths during the gesture. The 3-D position paths are expressed according to their cumulated chord length and the orientation paths in the quaternion unit space. These parameterizations lead to analyze data in space independently to time as requested by physicians. After filtering data in order to minimize sensor noises, the gestures are then compared by calculating the correlation between the position and the orientation curvatures of a novice gesture and an expert one. The results clearly show that novice skills in handling forceps increase in becoming smoother and closer to the reference placement. A childbirth simulator allows novices to acquire experience without any risks, however the training have to be completed with the extraction gesture evaluation and a compulsory training period in the delivery ward. PMID:18479975
Moreau, R; Ochoa, V; Pham, M T; Boulanger, P; Redarce, T; Dupuis, O
Describes the symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder in students. Suggests ways that teachers can help students cope with catastrophic events such as the September 11 terrorist attack on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon. (PKP)
... and manage it, but sometimes feelings such as depression may stay with you and require you to ... it. Medical reporter John Hammarley discusses anxiety and depression A patient advises coping with emotions John Hammarley ...
Carmenza Robledo brought together a diverse group of experts from resource management to information technology and policy to assess how forest ecosystems help African rural communities cope with extreme weather events.
Coping strategies are emerging as a predictor of treatment outcome for substance users and may be particularly important among computerized and self-change approaches. We used data from a randomized clinical trial of a computer-based version of cognitive–behavioral therapy (CBT4CBT) to: (1) examine the association between observer ratings of copingskills and self-reported coping strategies; (2) evaluate whether participants assigned to
Dawn E. Sugarman; Charla Nich; Kathleen M. Carroll
The study was designed to examine the relations between negative affect, coping, and emotional eating. It was tested whether emotion-oriented coping and avoidance distraction, alone or in interaction with negative affect, were related to increased levels of emotional eating. Participants were 125 eating-disordered women and 132 women representing a community population. Measures included the Positive and Negative Affectivity Schedule (PANAS),
Sonja T. P. Spoor; Marrie H. J. Bekker; Tatjana Van Strien; Guus L. van Heck
Investigated relationship between interpersonal problems, coping style, and suicide risk among 71 adult psychiatric inpatients. Patients admitted with history of suicidal attempts were compared with patients admitted for other reasons. Interpersonal problems were significantly and positively related to suicide risk. Coping style of suppression was…
This exploratory research paper investigated the coping strategies of families of hospitalized psychiatric patients and identified their positive and negative coping strategies. In this paper, the coping strategies of 45 family members were examined using a descriptive, correlational, mixed method research approach. Guided by the Neuman Systems Model and using the Family Crisis Oriented Personal Evaluation Scales and semistructured interviews, this paper found that these family members used more emotion-focused coping strategies than problem-focused coping strategies. The common coping strategies used by family members were communicating with immediate family, acceptance of their situation, passive appraisal, avoidance, and spirituality. The family members also utilized resources and support systems, such as their immediate families, mental health care professionals, and their churches. PMID:21994826
Eaton, Phyllis M.; Davis, Bertha L.; Hammond, Pamela V.; Condon, Esther H.; McGee, Zina T.
The Emotional Approach Coping Scale is frequently used to assess coping, which consists of emotional processing and emotional expression. The present aim was to examine the psychometric properties of this scale by utilizing two independent samples: university students (n = 481) and community members (n = 284). Based on goodness-of-fit indices in confirmatory factor analysis, a two-factor model yielded significant findings in these samples. The results of multi-group analysis revealed that the theoretical structure of the dispositional Emotional Approach Coping Scale was the same for men and women. In addition to sufficient internal consistency and test-retest reliability, the relationships between the Emotional Approach Coping Scale and five conceptually related measures (coping styles, positive affect, negative affect, depression, and trait anxiety) demonstrated concurrent validity. Furthermore, the present study provides a map of emotional approach coping styles in a non-Western culture. PMID:22049657
Increasing demand on aviation industry calls for more pilots. Thus, pilot training systems and pilot-candidate screening systems are essential for civil and military flying training institutes. Before actual flight training, it is not easy to determine whether a flight trainee will be successful in the training. Due to the high cost of actual flight training, it would be better if there were low cost methods for screening and training candidates prior to the actual flight training. This study intended to determine if subject related factors and flight control stick position have an impact on acquisition of simulated flying skills using a PC-based flight simulator. The experimental model was a factorial design with repeated measures. Sixty-four subjects participated in the experiment and were divided into 8 groups. Experiment consisted of 8 sessions in which performance data, such as heading, altitude and airspeed were collected every 15 seconds. Collected data were analyzed using SAS statistical program. Result of multivariate analysis of variance indicated that the three independent variables: nationality, computer game experience, and flight stick position have significant impact on acquiring simulated flying skill. For nationality, Americans recorded higher scores in general (mean: 81.7) than Koreans (mean: 78.9). The difference in mean scores between Americans and Koreans was 2.8 percent. Regarding computer game experience, the difference between high experience group (82.3) and low experience group (78.3) is significant. For high experience group, American side-stick group recorded the highest (mean: 85.6), and Korean side-stick group (mean: 77.2) scored the lowest. For the low experience group, American center-stick group scored the highest (80.6), and the Korean side-stick group (74.2) scored the lowest points. Therefore, there is a significant difference between high experience group and low experience group. The results also reveal that the center-stick position is easier to learn than side-stick position. The difference in performance score between group of center-stick (mean: 82.1) and side-stick (mean: 76.8) is considerable.
In today's unstable market economy, individuals have to be skilled to work efficiently in constantly changing and complex situations. Thus, graduate students have to be trained to cope with unpredictable situations before they enter the workforce. They need to exercise occupational skills, such as leadership skills, during higher education.…
Purpose in life and copingskills are hypothesized to mediate association between cognitive abilities (e.g., fluid and crystallized intelligence) and polydrug use. Results indicated relationship between crystallized intelligence and alcohol use was mediated by purpose in life. Older age predicted higher cognitive abilities, stronger coping…
Minehan, Janet A.; Newcomb, Michael D.; Galaif, Elisha R.
The authors examined the relationship between specific learning styles and stress and coping in a sample of female college students (N = 246). Participants in the study were assessed on the three variables by completing several self-report instruments measuring learning styles, life stress level, and copingskills. There were significant…
Vaughn, L. M.; Hensley, B.; Baker, R. C.; Dearman, L.
Many children are dealing with adult fears, such as death, crime, and war at early ages. School counselors can help children cope with these fears using stories from children's literature. The role that children's literature can play in teaching these copingskills is discussed along with strategies for choosing books. (Contains 33 references.)…
The present study employed a series of stress-diathesis models to examine whether avoidance coping and poor coping self-efficacy contribute to disordered eating attitudes and behaviors in a sample of college students. The sample included one hundred fifteen undergraduate students (28.7% male; 71.3% female). Participants completed self-report measures to assess daily stressors, coping style, coping self-efficacy, and eating disorder attitudes and behaviors. As predicted, among students with an avoidance coping style, those who reported more daily stressors exhibited higher eating disorder attitudes and behaviors than those with less daily hassles. Contrary to study hypothesis, number of daily hassles did not moderate the association between coping self-efficacy and eating disorder attitudes and behaviors. However, there was a significant main effect for coping self-efficacy, suggesting that students who lack confidence in their coping abilities are more likely to have problematic eating attitudes and behaviors, regardless of their level of daily stress. Clinically, results suggest that students who enter college with an avoidance coping style and poor coping self-efficacy may be at risk for disordered eating, particularly with the onset of associated stress. Teaching students active problem-focused copingskills to deal with daily hassles associated with college life, and providing opportunities for repeated practice to bolster self-efficacy, may help prevent and/or reduce disordered eating attitudes and behaviors. PMID:23121777
This study examined the relationship between harmonious and obsessive passion and coping, and assessed whether coping mediated the relationship between passion types and changes in burnout and goal attainment. College- and university-level volleyball players (N = 421) completed measures of passion, coping, burnout, and goal attainment at the start and end of a season. Results of structural equation modeling, using a true latent change approach, supported a model whereby types of passion were indirectly related to changes in burnout and goal attainment via coping. Harmonious passion was positively related to task-oriented coping which, in turn, was positively associated with change in goal attainment. Obsessive passion was positively associated with disengagement-oriented coping which, in turn, was positively and negatively associated with changes in burnout and goal attainment, respectively. This study identifies coping as a reason why passionate athletes may experience changes in burnout and goal attainment over the course of a season. PMID:23798590
Schellenberg, Benjamin J I; Gaudreau, Patrick; Crocker, Peter R E
Despite a growing body of literature documenting beneficial outcomes of religious coping, there are virtually no studies examining sexual assault survivors' use of religious coping. To fill this gap in the literature, the current study examines predictors and outcomes of positive and negative religious coping among 100 sexual assault survivors who…
Ahrens, Courtney E.; Abeling, Samantha; Ahmad, Sarah; Hinman, Jessica
Despite many years of stress and coping research, little is known about how ordinary families cope with daily microstressors and manage their lives. The present study examined the relationship between three dimensions of family daily hassles: time and energy involvement, positive and negative influences, and family resources, coping, and managing strategies. The authors studied families with elementary-school-aged children from a
Examined the relations among self-esteem, perceived competency to cope, and actual coping behaviors following a threat communication. Manipulated threat level of a tetanus communication and fear level of an antismoking film. Results indicated low-esteem subjects showed coping deficits in both experiments, with positive feedback reversing the…
Traditional educational curricula are inadequate for physically disabled students with very severe consequences of disablement, as they are insufficiently geared toward building Independent Living skills. Typical of their post-school situation nowadays, only few of them are in a position of making a direct transition into vocational training. The majority continues to need intensive educational-therapeutic services. The schools for the physically disabled seek to smoothen their transition into adult life by leaving-grade programmes aimed at providing opportunities for work-related experience as well as at building copingskills for day-to-day living. The work and life preparation programme represents a special organizational and didactical conception in this context, where the demands of adult life serve as the starting point for developing the learning and educational goals to be attained. PMID:1386158
In its final year of funding, Project COPE provided instruction in basic skills and career development to 388 students of limited English proficiency (LEP) in grades 9 through 12 at three sites in Brooklyn and the Bronx: 150 Hispanics at John F. Kennedy High School, 150 Haitians at Prospect Heights High School, and 88 Italians at Christopher…
New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Office of Educational Evaluation.
Assertion training is one of cognitive–behavioral psychological methods to deal with mental disorders with psychosomatic diseases. Assertion training represented a prototype for developing social skills of coping with stressful situations. Psychologically, we diagnosed a case as unassertive from the symptoms classified into 4 components, (i) cognitive, (ii) behavioral, (iii) emotional, and (iv) physiological. Recently in Japan, assertion training has been
Copingskills and work motivation were investigated as predictors of academic achievement in Japan, West Germany, and Austin, Texas. Data were gathered from a sample of 3,600 ten and fourteen-year olds. Aptitude was measured by the Raven Progressive Matrices; achievement was measured by standardized tests in reading and mathematics, and by grade…
This Article aims to introduce the translation and the validation of a multidimensional measure of coping strategies: the Brief COPE, in a French population. The coping concept comes from psychological studies that were conducted on stress. In the conceptual analysis of stress by Lazarus and Folkman, coping works with two cognitive appraisals performed by the person concerning the perception of a threatening situation and his or her available resources to deal with it. Coping is defined as "cognitive and behavioural efforts to master, reduce, or tolerate the internal and/or external demands that are created by the stressful transaction". The Brief COPE is the abridged version of the COPE inventory and presents fourteen scales all assessing different coping dimensions: 1) active coping, 2) planning, 3) using instrumental support, 4) using emotional support, 5) venting, 6) behavioural disengagement, 7) self-distraction, 8) self-blame, 9) positive reframing, 10) humor, 11) denial, 12) acceptance, 13) religion, and 14) substance use. Each scale contains two items (28 altogether). This inventory has the advantage of being built from acknowledged theoretical models (Lazarus' transactional model of stress, 1984; behavioral self-regulation model, Carver and Scheier, 1981, 1998). It can be used to assess trait coping (the usual way people cope with stress in everyday life) and state coping (the particular way people cope with a specific stressful situation). As is the COPE inventory, the Brief COPE is a measure used for many health-relevant studies: drugs addiction, ageing, breast cancer, depression, AIDS. Both measures are widely used in Anglophone countries and translated in many Languages. Today, the COPE inventory has been validated among Estonian, Croatian, Chinese, and Italian populations and the Brief COPE is also validated among Spanish people. Thus, the worldwide use of this coping inventory should allow a broad comparison of medical and psychological research for coping strategies regarding every kind of pathologies. Thus, we were led to present the translation and the validation of this measure in a French population. Two studies are presented in this Article: the first one describes the validation of the inventory in a dispositional format (trait coping) and the second one the validation of the inventory in a situational format (state coping). The French version of Brief COPE, which was used for both studies, was back-translated and analysed by the Brief COPE Author: Charles S. Carver. For study 1, 834 first Year university students answered the Brief COPE in its dispositional format. To study the factor structure of the Brief COPE, we used structural equation modeling and the LISREL software. Results show that the expected theoretical structure and the observed one fit adequately (c2=606, p<0,05, RMSEA=0,04, GFI>0,95, AGFI>0,92, RMR<0,03). In order to study convergent and discriminant validity of Brief COPE, self-esteem (SEI, Rosenberg, 1979), perceived stress (PSS, Cohen et al., 1983), and psychological distress (GHQ-12, Goldberg, 1972) measures were used. Results show that functional coping strategies (eg, active coping) are linked to good self-esteem, to lower perceived stress, and to lower psychological distress, whereas less functional strategies (eg, denial or self-blame) are widely linked to poor self-esteem, to a high perceived stress, and to psychological distress. Study 1 shows also several significant gender differences. Study 2 describes the Brief COPE validation in its situational format. 178 additional students answered this version. The method that was used is the same the one developed by Lazarus and his colleagues for the WCC validation. Participants were asked to recall and think about the most stressful event they had experienced during the past two Months. They were also to give an account of how much that situation mattered to them. They had to evaluate their capacity to control the situation and indicated whether they felt the situation was amenable to change. The study inc
The present study examined behavioral coping actions and coping strategies in relation to specific contextual factors (e.g., victim-stalker relationship, stalking violence, duration of stalking, and prior victimization) among Finnish university students. Participants completed a stalking survey, also including items concerning coping. Victims of violent stalking threatened the stalker with the use of certain legal actions significantly more compared with victims of nonviolent stalking, but no difference in the actual use of formal help was found. Instead victims of stalking tried to avoid the stalker or turned to friends and family for help. Victim-stalker relationship, stalker violence, and number of stalking episodes had a significant main effect on certain coping strategies (e.g., positive reappraisal, escape-avoidance, and problem-solving), while no interaction effect was found. The findings suggest that knowledge of victim-coping behavior and strategies is crucial for health care and law enforcement professionals when devising appropriate support for victims and developing multidisciplinary approaches. PMID:20565009
Björklund, Katja; Häkkänen-Nyholm, Helinä; Sheridan, Lorraine; Roberts, Karl
Although current treatments help to alleviate some of the symptoms of schizophrenia, people with schizophrenia often continue to experience residual symptoms. An emotion-focused treatment approach may help to improve well-being in this population by increasing positive experiences and resources. In this article, we discuss the feasibility and acceptability of a skills-based group treatment for people schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. As part of the Awareness and Coping with Emotion in Schizophrenia (ACES) intervention, group members learned eight empirically supported cognitive and behavioural skills covering emotional awareness and coping. Group member feedback and three case illustrations illuminate participants’ experiences with the group, as well as the potential benefits and challenges of this treatment approach. These data suggest that ACES is a feasible and acceptable group intervention. Future research is needed to examine whether ACES has a selective impact on well-being, but these initial findings point to the promise of this intervention to improve quality of life for individuals with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder, thus filling a void in existing treatments options. PMID:23553953
Caponigro, Janelle M.; Moran, Erin K.; Kring, Ann M.; Moskowitz, Judith T.
Assessed the contribution of active participant modeling in copingskills training in children (N=38) highly fearful of dentists. Results provided evidence for the greater efficacy of active practice relative to symbolic modeling for the learning and utilization of coping strategies to reduce stress during aversive procedures. (LLL)
Objective To examine whether (1) Living in the Face of Trauma (LIFT), a group intervention to address coping with HIV and childhood sexual abuse (CSA), significantly reduced traumatic stress over a one-year follow-up period more than an attention-matched support group comparison intervention; and (2) reductions in avoidant coping over time mediated reductions in traumatic stress. Method In a randomized controlled trial, 247 participants completed measures of traumatic stress and avoidant coping at pre- and post- intervention, and at 4, 8, and 12 month follow-ups. Latent growth curve modeling examined changes over the 5 time points; standardized path coefficients provide estimates of effects. Results As compared to the support intervention, the coping intervention led to a reduction in traumatic stress over time (b = ?.20, p<.02). Participants in the coping intervention also reduced their use of avoidant coping strategies more than did participants in the support intervention (b = ?.22, p<.05). Mediation analyses showed reductions in avoidant coping related to reductions in traumatic stress (b = 1.45, p<.001) and the direct effect of the intervention on traumatic stress was no longer significant (b =.04, p=ns), suggesting that changes in avoidant coping completely mediated intervention effects on traumatic stress. Conclusions The LIFT intervention significantly reduced traumatic stress over time, and changes in avoidant coping strategies mediated this effect, suggesting a focus on current stressors and copingskills improvement are an important component in addressing traumatic stress for adults living with HIV and CSA. PMID:23025248
Sikkema, Kathleen J.; Ranby, Krista W.; Meade, Christina S.; Hansen, Nathan B.; Wilson, Patrick A.; Kochman, Arlene
To explore the predictive value of cognitive and coping resources for problem- and emotion-focused coping with age, we collected data from community-dwelling adults between 20 and 90 years old. We hypothesized that age, perceived stress, self-efficacy, working-memory capacity, and mental flexibility were predictors of coping. We collected data…
Trouillet, Raphael; Doan-Van-Hay, Loane-Martine; Launay, Michel; Martin, Sophie
This prospective study of a cohort of human immunodeficiency virus positive (HIV+) and HIV negative (HIV-) caregiving partners\\u000a of men with AIDS examined the contextual effects of caregiving and bereavement on coping and the association between coping\\u000a and positive and negative mood during the five months leading up to their partner's death and the five months following their\\u000a partner's death.
Judith Tedlie Moskowitz; Susan Folkman; Linda Collette; Eric Vittinghoff
... Guidelines Hospital Quality Data Medical Inspector Patient Safety Organizations Administrative Clinical Quick Links Enter ZIP code here Enter ZIP code here Coping with Traumatic Stress Reactions Coping with Traumatic Stress Reactions Available in ...
Anxiety and depression are the most commonly reported mental health problems amongst Australian children and adolescents. The Aussie Optimism: Program-Positive Thinking Skills (AOP-PTS) is a universal intervention program based on cognitive and behavioral strategies and aimed to prevent anxiety and depression in the middle primary school children aged 9–10 years old. 370 students randomly assigned to the intervention and control condition participated in the 42 and 54 months follow-up study. The intervention group received the AOP-PTS 10-week program and the control group received the regular health education curriculum. Students were assessed on anxiety, depression and attribution style at school whilst parents reported on their child’s externalizing and internalizing problems at home. Results showed there were no significant reductions across groups in the depressive and anxiety symptoms, and attribution style at either 42 or 54 months follow-up. These findings suggest that AOP-PTS has short and medium term effects but were not sustained in longer term period. Future strategies to achieve the desirable outcomes in a longitudinal study are discussed. PMID:24904446
Johnstone, Julie; Rooney, Rosanna M.; Hassan, Shari; Kane, Robert T.
The Aussie Optimism: Positive Thinking Skills Program (AOPTP) is a school-based prevention program aimed at addressing anxious and depressive symptoms in children aged 9–10 years. Nine-hundred and ten students from 22 Australian primary schools situated in low socio-economic areas were randomly assigned to either an intervention or control group, and assessed at a 30-month follow up. Those in the intervention group received the AOPTP program, where the control group continued to receive the regular health education course. Students completed self-report measures regarding their levels of depression, anxiety, and attribution style. Parents also reported on their children's externalizing and internalizing problems outside of school. There were no significant differences between groups in regard to anxiety or depression, as well as no significant differences in attributional styles. Parents reported significantly less hyperactive behaviors from children in the intervention group. This finding suggests that AOP-PTS has the capacity to treat externalizing problems at a medium term effect. The decrease in the externalizing problems provides evidence of a partial medium term intervention effect. Future studies should continue to evaluate the program at a long term follow up. PMID:24421776
Rooney, Rosanna M.; Morrison, David; Hassan, Sharinaz; Kane, Robert; Roberts, Clare; Mancini, Vincent
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College student excessive alcohol use is a pressing public health concern, and many of the negative events associated with heavy drinking occur during leisure or free time. Positive use of leisure can lead to copingskills, stress reduction, and healthy development. Negative use of leisure, including heavy alcohol use, is associated with physical inactivity, stress, and short and long-term health concerns. We contend that using the classroom context to help college students understand why it is beneficial to engage in positive leisure pursuits and how that engagement will promote personal growth is of critical importance to healthy development. PMID:24198896
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Children who live with chronic illness are confronted with challenges that frequently force them to cope in myriad ways. The ways in which children face chronic illness are summarized in this literature review. Also covered, are how the effects of family can influence coping strategies and how family members, especially parents, cope with their…
The current study examined how specific coping strategies mediate the relationship between Conscientiousness (C) and positive affect (PA) in a large, multiethnic sample. Using an internet-based daily diary approach, 366 participants (37.6% Caucasian, 30.6% Asian American, 20.7% Hispanic, 9.1% African American) completed measures that assessed daily stressors, coping strategies used to deal with those stressors, and PA over the course of five days. In addition, participants completed a measure of the Five-Factor Model of Personality. Problem-Focused coping partially mediated the relationship between C and PA. Individuals higher in C used more problem-focused coping, which, in turn, was associated with higher PA. The findings of the current study suggest C serves as a protective factor from stress through its influence on coping strategy selection. Other possible mediators in the C-PA relationship are discussed. PMID:21076634
Hope has been correlated with greater pain tolerance and thresholds and less reported pain severity. The present study investigated the effectiveness of a brief hope-based intervention involving guided imagery and skills instruction aimed at enhancing pain copingskills among university students performing the cold pressor task. The intervention resulted in increased hope among females and increased pain tolerance in all
Nurses work in a healthcare system in which different partners in care have different expectations of them. Demands to provide compassionate care that is patient-centred and responsive while adhering to budget constraints are contributing to 'compassion fatigue' and adversely affecting nurses' mood and effectiveness. This article discusses how an understanding of professional practice skills, communication skills and teamwork can help nurses to cope with these conflicting demands and compassion fatigue while performing their professional roles and responsibilities. This approach is discussed in the context of nursing discourse and related professional and government recommendations. PMID:25182923
To explore the predictive value of cognitive and coping resources for problem- and emotion-focused coping with age, we collected data from community-dwelling adults between 20 and 90 years old. We hypothesized that age, perceived stress, self-efficacy, working-memory capacity, and mental flexibility were predictors of coping. We collected data using French versions of the Perceived Stress Scale, General Self-Efficacy Scale, and Way of Coping Checklist. Cognitive assessments comprised the WAIS III digit-span subtest and the Trail Making Test parts A and B. In multivariate analyses, neither working-memory nor mental-flexibility deficit predicted problem-focused coping. Age was found to predict only problem-focused coping. Self-efficacy predicted problem-focused coping, and perceived stress predicted emotion-focused coping. Our results confirmed that use of an emotion-focused coping style would not significantly change with age. Problem-focused coping increases with age and depends primarily on participants' confidence in their ability to successfully solve problems (i.e., self-efficacy). PMID:22041516
Trouillet, Raphaël; Doan-Van-Hay, Loane-Martine; Launay, Michel; Martin, Sophie
In summary, the manner in which an individual and his or her family and friends adapt to the diagnosis of cancer is quite individual and complicated, and depends on a number of factors. It is important that patients realize that they should acknowledge their feelings to their physicians, family and friends so that these feelings can be validated. In this way they can be helped to find resources to enhance their coping abilities. There are many support groups that are now available for patients in various areas of cancer treatment. Efforts are underway to bring more of these issues to light in medical training so that physicians may be better prepared to strengthen a person's ability to cope with cancer and to live to the fullest extent possible. PMID:9260458
Background Burnout in physicians is common, and studies show a prevalence of 30% to 78%. Identifying constructive coping strategies and personal characteristics that protect residents against burnout may be helpful for reducing errors and improving physician satisfaction. Objective We explored the complex relationships between burnout, behaviors, emotional coping, and spirituality among internal medicine and internal medicine-pediatrics residents. Methods We anonymously surveyed 173 internal medicine and medicine-pediatrics residents to explore burnout, coping, and spiritual attitudes. We used 3 validated survey instruments: the Maslach Burnout Inventory, the Carver Coping Orientation to Problems Experienced (COPE) Inventory, and the Hatch Spiritual Involvement and Beliefs Scale (SIBS). Results A total of 108 (63%) residents participated, with 31 (28%) reporting burnout. Residents who employed strategies of acceptance, active coping, and positive reframing had lower emotional exhaustion and depersonalization (all, P < .03). Residents who reported denial or disengagement had higher emotional exhaustion and depersonalization scores. Personal accomplishment was positively correlated with the SIBS total score (r ?=? +.28, P ?=? .003), as well as the internal/fluid domain (r ?=? +.32, P ?=? .001), existential axes (r ?=? +.32, P ?=? .001), and humility/personal application domain (r ?=? +.23, P ?=? .02). The humility/personal application domain also was negatively correlated with emotional exhaustion (r ?=? ?.20, P ?=? .04) and depersonalization (r ?=? ?.25, P ?=? .009). No activity or demographic factor affected any burnout domain. Conclusions Burnout is a heterogeneous syndrome that affects many residents. We identified a range of emotional and spiritual coping strategies that may have protective benefit. PMID:24404269
Doolittle, Benjamin R.; Windish, Donna M.; Seelig, Charles B.
This study represents the first longitudinal effort to use a spiritual stress and coping model to predict adults' psychosocial adjustment following divorce. A community sample of 89 participants completed measures at the time of their divorce and 1 year later. Though the sample endorsed slightly lower levels of religiosity than the general U.S. population, most reported spiritual appraisals and positive and negative religious coping tied to divorce. Hierarchical regression analyses controlling general religiousness and nonreligious forms of coping indicated that (a) appraising divorce as a sacred loss or desecration at the time it occurred predicted more depressive symptoms and dysfunctional conflict tactics with the ex-spouse 1 year later; (b) positive religious coping reported about the year following divorce predicted greater posttraumatic growth 1 year after divorce; and (c) negative religious coping reported about the year following divorce predicted more depressive symptoms 1 year after the divorce. Bootstrapping mediation analyses indicated that negative religious coping fully mediated links between appraising the divorce as a sacred loss or desecration at the time it occurred and depressive symptoms 1 year later. In addition, moderation analyses revealed that negative religious coping is more strongly associated with depressive symptoms among those who form high versus low appraisals of their divorce as a sacred loss or desecration. These findings are relevant to divorce education and intervention provided by professionals in legal, family, mental health, and clerical roles. Implications are discussed for clinical and counseling psychology and religious communities. PMID:22004433
Krumrei, Elizabeth J; Mahoney, Annette; Pargament, Kenneth I
With competition to attract quality students into career and technical education programs and many entrants to the workforce inadequately prepared with employability skills, some community colleges have found a way to answer industry's call--they are launching SkillsUSA chapters on campus. In this article, the author features SkillsUSA, a…
This study supported several predictions for coping and distress during chemotherapy (Time 1), and coping, perceived stress, and posttraumatic growth two years later (Time 2) in women with breast cancer. At T1, the emotion-focused coping strategies of disengagement, denial, self-blame, and venting were positively related to physical and psychological distress. In addition, the cognitive strategies of religion, positive reframing, and
The present study investigated coping in early, mid-, and late pregnancy in 321 ethnically and socioeconomically diverse women of varying medical risk. The goal was to determine how women cope with stress across pregnancy and to explore the association of coping with maternal characteristics, stress perceptions, disposition, and social support. Factor analysis of the Revised Prenatal Coping Inventory revealed three distinct types of coping: Planning-Preparation, Avoidance, and Spiritual-PositiveCoping. Spiritual coping was used most frequently during pregnancy; avoidant coping was used least often. As hypothesized, use of spiritual coping and avoidance differed across pregnancy. Planning was used more consistently across time. Multivariate regression analyses revealed that the strongest predictors of planning were high optimism and pregnancy-specific distress. Avoidance was most strongly predicted by high state anxiety and pregnancy-specific distress. Greater religiosity and optimism were the strongest predictors of spiritual coping. These results add to a body of evidence that women use distinctive and varied strategies to manage stress prenatally. They also suggest that coping is responsive to changing demands across pregnancy and reflective of women's characteristics, perceptions, and social situations. PMID:18484440
Peer, teacher, and self-evaluations of students' school adjustment and copingskills appear to be predictive of students' achievement, self-esteem, and attitudes toward school. Teacher evaluations are most accurate and are sufficient in predicting results. (CJ)
snategies that are rated on a 5-point scale. To develop the scale structure, 259 subjects were sampled and an exploratory principal factor analysis followed by varimax rotation was performed. This analysis identified a two-factor model that accounted.... In general, the evidence for the concurrent validity of the active coping scale is weaker, as this scale is correlated with few measures of adjustment and these correlations are less consistent. Brown and Nicassio (1987) found acdve coping to be positively...
Using self-report data from 157 college students, we tested hypotheses regarding the relative importance of perceived security in early parental relationships vs. security in adult (nonparental) relationships for understanding respondents' coping dispositions and explanatory styles. In general, more secure attachments were positively related to support-seeking and active problem-solving coping styles and to females' but not males' tendency to explain hypothetical
Imagination is an important ability for adolescents that is related to cognitive, affective, and copingskills (Donahue & Tuber, 1993; Pikard, 1990; Singer & Singer, 1981). This study involved eleven 12 to 14-year-old lower socioeconomic youth involved in a delinquency prevention program in a small, rural midwestem community. The first segment of the study involved a structured interview with each
Children require a variety of skills to cope with the stresses of growth and development, including the ability to think independently, to make choices, to solve problems effectively, to communicate clearly, to develop and maintain high self-esteem, and to prevent injurious events. These life skills are best learned through curriculum-centered…
Arctic skills College of Rural and Community Development Department of Emergency Services and Public Safety 907-455-2895 www.uaf.edu/rural/ Minor only The minor in arctic skills is designed for anyone who lives and works in a northern climate and wishes to learn to cope with the outdoor arctic
Previous accounts of cognitive skill acquisition have demonstrated how procedural knowledge can be obtained and transformed over time into skilled task performance. This article focuses on a complementary aspect of skill acquisition, namely the integration and reuse of previously known component skills. The article posits that, in addition to…
Four studies employed path analysis to examine how measures of occupational stressors, coping resources, and negative affectivity (NA) and positive affectivity (PA) interact to predict occupational strain. The Occupational Stress Inventory (Osipow & Spokane, 1987) was used to measure stress, strain, and coping. The Positive and Negative Affectivity Schedule (Watson, Clark, & Tellegen, 1988) was used for the affectivity variables.
Gerard J. Fogarty; M. Anthony Machin; Majella J. Albion; Lynette F. Sutherland; Gabrielle I. Lalor; Susan Revitt
Background: There is a growing evidence base for how people use religious and spiritual coping, and how coping patterns differ between ethnic groups. Aims: To describe what constitutes religious coping and compare patterns of religious coping across ethnic groups. Methods: In-depth interviews were completed by 116 people recruited from six ethnic groups. Subjects described how they cope with mental distress;
Kamaldeep Bhui; Michael King; Simon Dein; William O'Connor
The authors assessed connections among adolescents' emotional dispositions, negative academic affect, coping strategies, academic stress, and overall grade point average (GPA). A total of 119 ninth through 12th-grade students completed assessments for (a) overall positive and negative moods, (b) GPA, and (c) academically related variables involving stress, negative emotions, and engaged and disengaged coping strategies. Greater negative academic affect and disengaged coping were related to lower GPAs, and disengaged coping mediated the connection between negative academic affect and GPA. By contrast, higher academic stress was related to students' overall moods, negative academic affect, and disengaged coping; disengaged coping mediated the connection between academic stress and negative overall moods. Discussion focused on the especially problematic nature of disengaged academic coping. PMID:24796156
In order to examine job stress and coping among self-employed and organizationally employed professionals, job-related stressors and coping strategies were assessed among self-employed (n?=?149) and organizationally employed (n?=?159) professionals working as accountants, lawyers, pharmacists and psychologists. Results indicate that although self-employed workers complained about lack of security and organizationally employed workers complained about lack of autonomy, no differences were found in overall stress levels or overload. Examination of workers' coping strategies provided a partial explanation for these findings. Stress levels negatively correlated with active coping and positively correlated with passive/avoidance coping; self-employed workers were found to cope by confronting problems, whereas organizationally employed workers were found to cope by avoiding them. These findings qualify previous research findings on self-employed and organizationally employed workers. PMID:22282343
This study tested the effects of two group-oriented supportive and educational approaches on the parents of children with cystic fibrosis (CF). Thirteen families were randomly assigned either to a group which received information on medical and technical aspects of CF or to a group which received instruction in communication skills in addition to…
The Finance MBA at Rutgers Business School provides broad professional competence and skills.C., an MBA in finance from Rutgers connects students with excellent job opportunities with the best and financial institutions who serve as guest speakers and hire Rutgers grads. Finance focuses on all aspects
Shop Skills is a lesson plan which provides instruction in the safety procedures and work processes for hand and machine tools used in a metal machine shop. Specific skills include sawing, drilling, boring, grinding, lathing, and milling. After completing this module, students should be able to demonstrate proficiency in these skills through a variety of shop projects and in a final exercise that uses a combination of these skills. Note: This module is part of a modularized manufacturing technology curriculum created by the PSCME, found at www.pscme.org/educators.html.
This study presents a structural model of coping with dating violence. The model integrates abuse frequency and solution attribution to relate to college women's choices of coping strategies. Three hundred and twenty-four undergraduate women reported being targets of some physical abuse from a boyfriend and responded to questions regarding the abuse, their solution attribution, and their coping behaviors. Solution attribution mediated the relation between frequency of the abuse and coping. Abuse frequency had a positive effect on external solution attribution, and external solution attribution had a positive effect on the level of use of active coping, utilization of social support, denial, and acceptance. PMID:22852435
A study was conducted at Southern Alberta Institute of Technology (SAIT) to investigate gender influences on coping strategies by tracking multiple episodes of demands and coping strategies throughout an academic year. The study sample consisted of 94 students enrolled in 2-year academic programs having at least a 70/30 gender ratio. From a pool…
Coping resources are what people bring to situations (as opposed to what they do) that enable them to deal with stressors more effectively, allow them to recover faster, or experience fewer or less intense symptoms upon exposure to stressors. The Coping Resources Inventory (CRI) measures resources in the following domains: cognitive, social,…
This study investigated relationships among proactive coping, positive emotions, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity for 182 undergraduate women with trauma histories. Participants were administered the Life Events Checklist (LEC), PTSD Checklist, Proactive Coping Inventory, Proactive Attitude Scale, General Perceived Self-Efficacy Scale, and measures of posttrauma gratitude and emotional growth. An Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) with proactive coping, proactive attitude, and self-efficacy items indicated a one-factor solution. The proactive coping style factor and posttrauma gratitude were independently negatively associated with current PTSD symptom level, above and beyond the effects of trauma severity, trauma history, and time elapsed since the trauma. The implications of these results for future research and understanding of the development of PTSD and its treatment are discussed. PMID:18791902
Vernon, Laura L; Dillon, Jacqueline M; Steiner, Amanda R W
In the face of seismic shifts in technology and social organization, librarians and library staff face changing roles. A focus on competencies--the skills, knowledge, behaviors, and attitudes that are involved in a job--can help the library profession keep its footing as well as help librarians stick to values. When well done, they can define a…
Positive and negative religious coping strategies and their relation with posttraumatic stress (PTS), psychological distress, and posttraumatic growth (PTG) were examined in the context of Hurricane Katrina. Positive religious coping was hypothesized to be associated with PTG, whereas negative religious coping was hypothesized to be associated with PTS and psychological distress. Low-income mothers (N = 386, mean age = 25.4 years, SD = 4.43) were surveyed before, and 1 and 4 years after the storm. Results from structural regression modeling indicated that negative religious coping was associated with psychological distress, but not PTS. Positive religious coping was associated with PTG. Further analysis indicated significant indirect effects of pre- and postdisaster religiousness on postdisaster PTG through positive religious coping. Findings underscore the positive and negative effect of religious variables in the context of a natural disaster. PMID:23529889
Examined children's coping and involuntary responses to the stress of living with a depressed parent in relation to their symptoms of anxiety/depression and aggression. Sixty-six clinically depressed adults rated their children's (ages 7 to 17 years old; N = 101) coping and involuntary responses to parental stressors and anxiety/depressive and aggressive behavior symptoms. Based on parent report, children of depressed parents had high rates of symptoms of anxiety/depression and aggression, were exposed to moderate levels of parental stressors (parental intrusiveness, parental withdrawal), and responded to the stress of living with a depressed parent in ways that were associated with symptoms of psychopathology. Children's use of secondary control coping (e.g., positive thinking, acceptance, distraction) was associated with fewer anxiety/depression and aggression symptoms. In contrast, involuntary engagement responses (e.g., rumination, intrusive thoughts) were associated with more anxiety/depression and aggression symptoms. Path analyses revealed that a model in which secondary control coping and involuntary engagement stress responses mediated the relation between family stressors and child symptoms provided the best fit with the data. Implications of these findings for developing interventions for children to reduce the risk of psychopathology are discussed. PMID:12149969
Langrock, Adela M; Compas, Bruce E; Keller, Gary; Merchant, Mary Jane; Copeland, Mary Ellen
There is limited research directly examining the process of how Mexican American college students cope with unique experiences of racial discrimination. The present study used a multiple mediation model to collectively examine the indirect effects of engagement (i.e., problem solving, cognitive restructuring, expression of emotion, and social support) and disengagement (i.e., social withdrawal, self-criticism, problem avoidance, and wishful thinking) coping strategies on the relationship between perceived racial discrimination and subjective well-being of 302 Mexican American college students. Results suggested that perceived racial discrimination was negatively correlated with subjective well-being. Moreover, of the engagement coping strategies examined, only problem solving had a significant mediating effect that was associated with elevations in subjective well-being. Specifically, perceptions of racial discrimination were positively related to problem solving, which, in turn, was positively related to subjective well-being. Of the disengagement coping strategies examined, self-criticism, wishful thinking, and social withdrawal had a significant mediating effect that was negatively associated with subjective well-being. Specifically, perceptions of racial discrimination were positively related to self-criticism, wishful thinking, and social withdrawal, which, in turn, were negatively related to subjective well-being. Ultimately, these findings highlight the indirect and complex ways in which multiple coping strategies are used to effectively, and sometimes not effectively, deal with racism experienced by Mexican Americans college students. PMID:25019544
Context: Nursing is a stressful job that could create physical and psychological disorders. Many studies presented information on stress, effects of coping strategies, and job satisfaction of nurses within health setting. We aimed to identify and describe nursing stresses, coping strategies and job satisfaction of Iranian nurses who are working or worked in different wards. Evidence Acquisition: In this review, we studied peer-reviewed journal articles on the field of stress, coping strategies and job satisfaction in nursing practice, especially Iranian nurses, which were published between 2000 and 2013. In this regard, we searched databases of PubMed, Elsevier, Google, BMJ, PMC, and MEDLINE. Results: The majority of the studies (60%) had analyzed the effect of coping strategies, experiences and perception of job-related stresses in Iranian nurses working in hospitals. In some of the reviewed studies (60%), the majority of the samples enrolled Iranian nurses. Forty percent of studies selected a maximum sample size of 565 (44%) participants in 2011. Nursing stress scale employed at 30% of the studies was the most commonly used strategy. This reviewed studies also revealed a combined measurement (60% of studies), based on categorical stress measurement, effects of coping strategies, and job satisfaction methods. Three studies explored the relationship between job stress and job satisfaction. For instance, the majority (74.4%) of nurses reported job satisfaction. Conclusions: Effect of coping strategies and job satisfaction on Iranian nurses is a well-accepted issue and has important positive outcomes on several areas of health discipline. PMID:25068050
Context: Different risk factors associated with adolescent suicide attempts have been identified including those of socio-demographic and clinical variables. Relatively, little research has been done in the area of their stressors and coping patterns. Aims: To study the recent psychosocial stressors and patterns of coping associated with adolescent suicide attempts. Settings and Design: Tertiary care hospital, case-control study. Materials and Methods: One hundred consecutive cases of adolescent attempted suicide admitted to the hospital and an equal number of controls, matched individually for age and sex, from the relatives and friends of other patients in the ward, were studied. Assessment included details regarding socio-demographic data, psychiatric and physical morbidity, their recent stressors, and patterns of coping. Stressors were assessed using Presumptive Stressful Life Event Scale and coping strategies by Ways of Coping Questionnaire (revised). Statistical Analysis: Chi-square test and multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results: The number of stressful life events and mean stress scores in the preceding 1 month and certain coping strategies such as confronting, distancing, and escape-avoidance were found to be significant risk factors associated with adolescent suicide attempts. Strategies such as self-control, seeking social support, accepting responsibilities, problem solving, and positive appraisal act as protective factors. Conclusions: Recent stressors and strategies such as confronting, distancing, and escape-avoidance are significant risk factors associated with adolescent suicide attempts, whereas certain coping strategies act as protective factors. Teaching adolescents these protective coping patterns may be a promising strategy for prevention of adolescent suicide attempts. PMID:23833341
The aim of this research is to develop and validate a self-report measure of mindfulness and coping, the mindful coping scale (MCS). Dimensions of mindful coping were theoretically deduced from mindfulness theory and coping theory. The MCS was empirically evaluated by use of factor analyses, reliability testing and nomological network validation.…
Coping style may partially account for the frequent co-occurrence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alcohol-use disorder (AUD). We hypothesized that avoidant and action-oriented coping styles would moderate the association between PTSD symptom severity and alcohol outcomes among U.S. Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom veterans, such that PTSD symptoms would be most strongly and positively associated with negative alcohol-related consequences and drinking quantity when action-oriented coping was low and avoidant coping was high. The sample (N = 128; 85.2% male, M = 37.8 years old, 63.3% Caucasian) completed a diagnostic assessment for PTSD and AUD and self-report surveys measuring coping styles, drinking quantity, and negative alcohol-related consequences. Consistent with the main hypothesis, a 3-way interaction among PTSD symptom severity, avoidant coping, and action-oriented coping was found in the predicted direction (d = 0.47-0.55). Post hoc descriptive analyses indicated that veterans with a current diagnosis of PTSD, low action-oriented coping, and high avoidant coping had worse alcohol outcomes and were twice as likely to meet criteria for current AUD compared with veterans with fewer risk factors. Findings suggest that the combination of PTSD and maladaptive coping styles may be more important for understanding alcohol-related outcomes than the presence of any of these variables in isolation. PMID:25158641
Grosso, Justine A; Kimbrel, Nathan A; Dolan, Sara; Meyer, Eric C; Kruse, Marc I; Gulliver, Suzy B; Morissette, Sandra B
This study tested gender differences in a model positing relationships between work and family demands, overload, 4 coping mechanisms, and stress. The coping mechanisms were hypothesized to moderate the relationship between overload and stress. The sample consisted of 1,404 men and 1,623 women in dual-earner families. Respondents relied on 2…
Higgins, Chris A.; Duxbury, Linda E.; Lyons, Sean T.
Many elementary school children may cope with difficult life struggles such as disabilities, abuse, loss, and identity issues. This article details original, student generated, biblio-therapeutic book creations and how this genre teaches positive ways for children at-risk to cope with tough life circumstances. Pre-service, elementary college…
Depressive symptoms are associated with increased levels of cigarette smoking, yet not every individual experiencing depressive symptoms smokes. This study examined whether religious coping moderated the impact of depressive symptoms on past 30-day cigarette use among a racially/ethnically diverse sample of 963 post-secondary vocational students (46.8% women; mean age = 25 years). Results from negative binomial regression analyses indicated that depressive symptoms increased the likelihood of cigarette smoking (quantity-frequency measure of cigarette use) for female students, whereas positive religious coping decreased the likelihood of smoking for female students. Consistent with religious coping theory and as expected, negative religious coping moderated the depressive symptoms-smoking relationship such that negative religious coping exacerbated the impact of depressive symptoms on cigarette smoking among females. Positive religious coping also moderated the depressive symptoms-cigarette smoking relationship for females. However, contrary to expectations, high levels of positive religious coping exacerbated the likelihood of cigarette smoking among females with high levels of depressive symptoms. Surprisingly, neither depressive symptoms nor positive or negative religious coping contributed to the likelihood of males’ smoking. Study limitations and suggestions for directions in future research are discussed. PMID:23276324
Urban African American first-year high school students' absenteeism was found to be negatively related to grade point average (GPA) and avoidance as a means of coping (use of substances as a way to escape--food, alcohol, smoking, caffeine, etc.) and positively related to use of social support as a means of coping (efforts to stay emotionally…
Steward, Robbie J.; Steward, Astin Devine; Blair, Jonathan; Jo, Hanik; Hill, Martin F.
The authors examined the relationship of perceived stress, specific types of coping resources, the working alliance, and the supervisory working alliance among 232 counselor supervisees. The working alliance and the supervisory working alliance were negatively related to perceived stress and positively related to multiple coping resources. Two…
Gnilka, Philip B.; Chang, Catherine Y.; Dew, Brian J.
Many school teachers suffer from stress and burnout, and perfectionism is a personality characteristic that has been associated with increased stress, maladaptive coping, and burnout. Recent findings, however, show that perfectionism has both positive and negative facets. To investigate how these facets are related to stress, coping, and burnout in teachers, a sample of 118 secondary school teachers completed multidimensional
Compared stress, coping, and psychological adjustment in single (divorced or separated) and married mothers and their young adolescent children. Single mothers reported more daily hassles related to economic, family, and personal health problems, and more symptoms of depression, anxiety, and psychoticism. Single mothers also reported using more coping strategies related to accepting responsibility and positive reappraisal. After controlling for level
Recent research indicates that some dimensions of perfectionism are positively related to athlete burnout, whereas others are negatively related to athlete burnout. The divergent relationship between these dimensions of perfectionism and athlete burnout may be explained by different coping tendencies. The present investigation examined whether different coping tendencies mediate the relationship between self-oriented and socially prescribed perfectionism and burnout. Two-hundred
Experiential avoidance (EA) is considered a risk factor for psychopathology. This study explores whether EA mediates the relationship between maladaptive coping styles (palliative, avoidance, and passive coping) and psychopathology and positive mental health. A total of 93 adults with mild to moderate psychological distress completed measures…
Fledderus, Martine; Bohlmeijer, Ernst T.; Pieterse, Marcel E.
Purpose: We tested the effectiveness of a brief educational program that is based on proactive coping theory. The program entails a four-session group intervention for people aged between 50 and 75 years and was intended to improve proactive coping competencies. Furthermore, we investigated the positive as well as negative side effects and…
Bode, Christina; de Ridder, Denise T. D.; Kuijer, Roeline G.; Bensing, Jozien M.
In this study, we examined associations among romantic attachment anxiety and avoidance, positive and negative religious coping, and marital adjustment in a community sample of 81 heterosexual couples. Multilevel modeling (MLM) for the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model (APIM; Cook & Kenny, 2005) was used to analyze data from both spouses. Romantic attachment avoidance was associated with less positive religious coping, and romantic attachment anxiety was associated with more negative religious coping. Findings are discussed in light of Hall, Fujikawa, Halcrow, Hill, and Delaney's (2009) Implicit Internal Working Model Correspondence framework. We also found support for Sullivan's (2001) compensation model for attachment avoidance but not for attachment anxiety. That is, positive religious coping buffered the deleterious relationship between attachment avoidance and marital adjustment. However, positive religious coping did not attenuate the negative impact of attachment anxiety on marital adjustment and was associated with higher marital adjustment only for those individuals with low attachment anxiety. Surprisingly, negative religious coping reduced the negative impact of the partner's attachment anxiety on respondents' marital adjustment. Results suggest that attachment theory is one useful approach to conceptualizing religious coping, highlight the complexity of these associations, and point to future research directions. Findings also support the consideration of both attachment dimensions and religious coping in research and applied work with adults and couples. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24798813
Fatigue is a common complaint among medical students and researchers consider it to be related to poor academic outcomes. The authors' goal in the present study was to determine whether stress and coping strategies were associated with fatigue in medical students. The study group consisted of 73 second-year healthy students attending the Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine. Participants completed a questionnaire about fatigue (Japanese version of Chalder Fatigue Scale), stress, stress coping (Japanese version of the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations), overwork, and nocturnal sleeping hours. On univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses adjusted for age and gender, stress was positively associated with fatigue. In addition, after adjustment for age, gender, and emotion- and task-oriented stress coping activities, avoidance-oriented stress coping activity was associated with fatigue. The results suggest that stress and the coping style are correlated with fatigue in medical students. PMID:19812026
Objective: To investigate the relationship between family history of cancer, coping style and psychological distress. Methods: Total 80 patients with family history of cancer and 72 normal controls were analyzed using self-reporting inventory (SCL-90), coping style scale and impact of event scale-revised (IES-R). Results: 1. Between the two groups of patients, there were significant differences in anxiety, depression, cancer-specific distress and coping style. 2. Psychological distress (anxiety, depression and cancer-specific distress) had positive correlation with negative coping style and family history. 3. Negative coping style played an intermediary role in the family history and psychological distress. Conclusion: The negative coping style will predispose to a more stronger psychological distress among the individuals with family history of cancer. PMID:24948968
The events of September 11, 2001 triggered a widespread national response that was two-fold: a posttraumatic stress reaction and an increase in attendance in religious services and practices immediately following the tragic events. The following discussion traces the existing research to distinguish this posttraumatic stress reaction from posttraumatic stress disorder as a recognized psychiatric diagnosis. This disaster reaction is then examined in light of the research on religious coping, delineating both its positive and negative aspects and the respective outcomes. A conceptual model illustrates the benefits in seeking religious comfort for managing a postdisaster stress response. Nursing implications for practice are discussed. PMID:12523954
Collaborative coping (i.e., spouses pooling resources and problem solving jointly) may be associated with better daily mood because of heightened perceptions of efficacy in coping with stressful events. The study examined the daily processes of collaborative coping (individuals' perceptions that the spouse collaborated), perceived coping effectiveness (ratings of how well they dealt with the event), and mood (i.e., Positive and Negative Affect Scale) across 14 days in 57 older couples coping with stressors involving the husband's prostate cancer and daily life in general. In hierarchical multivariate linear models, collaborative coping was associated with more positive same-day mood for both husbands and wives and less negative mood for wives only. These associations were partially mediated by heightened perceptions of coping effectiveness. Exploratory analyses revealed that collaborative coping was more frequent among wives who performed more poorly on cognitive tests and couples who reported greater marital satisfaction and more frequently using collaboration to make decisions. The results suggest that older couples may benefit from collaborative coping in dealing with problems surrounding illness. PMID:18808241
Relapse rates remain high among people with opioid dependence. Identifying psychosocial factors associated with outcomes is\\u000a important for informing behavioral treatments. This study examined religious coping, opioid use, and 12-step participation\\u000a among 45 participants receiving inpatient opioid detoxification at baseline and follow-up. At baseline, higher positivecoping\\u000a was related to less frequent opioid use pre-admission (? = ?.44, p p p p < .05). Positive religious coping
Eve S. Puffer; Linda M. Skalski; Christina S. Meade
Background Few studies have addressed the challenges that international medical students face and there is a dearth of information on the behavioural strategies these students adopt to successfully progress through their academic program in the face of substantial difficulties of language barrier, curriculum overload, financial constraints and assessment tasks that require high proficiency in communication skills. Methods This study was designed primarily with the aim of enhancing understanding of the coping strategies, skill perceptions and knowledge of assessment expectations of international students as they progress through the third and fourth years of their medical degree at the School of Medicine, University of Tasmania, Australia. Results Survey, focus group discussion and individual interviews revealed that language barriers, communication skills, cultural differences, financial burdens, heavy workloads and discriminatory bottlenecks were key factors that hindered their adaptation to the Australian culture. Quantitative analyses of their examination results showed that there were highly significant (p < 0.001) variations between student performances in multiple choice questions, short answer questions and objective structured clinical examinations (70.3%, 49.7% & 61.7% respectively), indicating existence of communication issues. Conclusions Despite the challenges, these students have adopted commendable coping strategies and progressed through the course largely due to their high sense of responsibility towards their family, their focus on the goal of graduating as medical doctors and their support networks. It was concluded that faculty needs to provide both academic and moral support to their international medical students at three major intervention points, namely point of entry, mid way through the course and at the end of the course to enhance their copingskills and academic progression. Finally, appropriate recommendations were made. PMID:21702988
The purpose of this study was to evaluate Zippy's Friends, a universal school programme that aims at strengthening children's copingskills. The sample consisted of 1483 children (aged 7-8 years) from 91 second-grade classes in 35 schools. The schools were matched and randomly assigned to intervention or control conditions. Coping was assessed by…
Sexuality and reproductive healthcare represent relevant issues for comprehensive care of HIV-positive adolescents. However, public policies and health services give this issue insufficient attention. The scope of this article is to assess how HIV-positive young people and teenagers cope with their sexuality, dating and the urge to have children and start a family. In a qualitative study, in-depth interviews were staged with 21 HIV-positive (contracted by vertical, sexual or intravenous transmission) teenagers and 13 caregivers of children and youths living in Sao Paulo and Santos. The interviews revealed the different ways teenagers cope with their sexuality and with the anxiety of HIV disclosure in this context. Lack of information about HIV prevention, lack of support and skills to cope with their sexuality were revealed in the reports. Furthermore, stigma and discrimination were the most frequently reported difficulties. The main challenges to be faced in Brazil in regard to this issue are discussed, especially the need to consider HIV-positive youth as entitled to sexual rights. Recommendations are also made for incorporating the issue into a humanized and comprehensive care approach for HIV-positive children and young people. PMID:22031149
Paiva, Vera; Ayres, José Ricardo Carvalho de Mesquita; Segurado, Aluísio C; Lacerda, Regina; Silva, Neide Gravato da; Silva, Mariliza Henrique da; Galano, Eliana; Gutierrez, Pilar Lecussan; Marques, Heloisa Helena de Souza; Negra, Marinella Della; França-Jr, Ivan
Fifty-six mothers of premature infants who participated in a study to reduce symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) completed the Brief COPE, a self-report inventory of coping mechanisms, the Stanford Acute Stress Reaction Questionnaire to assess acute stress (ASD) disorder and the Davidson Trauma Scale (DTS) to assess PTSD. 18% of mothers had baseline ASD while 30% of mothers met the criteria for PTSD at the one-month follow-up. Dysfunctional coping as measured by the Brief COPE was positively associated with elevated risk of PTSD in these mothers (RR = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.15; p=.008). Maternal education was positively associated with PTSD; each year increase in education was associated with a 17% increase in the relative risk of PTSD at one month follow-up (RR = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.35; p = .03). Results suggest that dysfunctional coping is an important issue to consider in the development of PTSD in parents of premature infants. PMID:22990746
Shaw, Richard J; Bernard, Rebecca S.; Storfer-Isser, Amy; Rhine, William; Horwitz, Sarah M.
Background Successfully coping with a chronic disease depends significantly on social support, particularly that of a significant other. Thus, it depends on the ways of dealing with stress within a couple (dyadic coping). In this study, the relationship between dyadic coping and well-being was investigated among couples in which one partner suffers from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods A total of 43 couples participated. They were mailed questionnaires on anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), quality of life (World Health Organization Quality of Life Questionnaire-BREF), and dyadic coping (Dyadic Coping Inventory). Results Low scores of positive and high scores of negative dyadic coping were associated with poorer quality of life and higher psychological distress among couples. Delegated coping (assistance with daily tasks) was higher among partners. When estimated by patients, high delegated partner coping (frequent provision of support by partners) and low delegated personal coping (low provision of support by patients) were associated with poorer quality of life for both patient and partner. COPD patients suffering from depression were supported more often and attributed deficits in dyadic coping primarily to themselves, whereas partners with higher scores of depression provided higher estimates of both their own negative coping and the negative coping of their partner. Conclusion The higher the patient perceived the imbalance in delegated dyadic coping, the lower the couple’s quality of life. More negative and less positive dyadic coping were associated with lower quality of life and higher psychological distress. Psychotherapeutic interventions to improve dyadic coping may lead to better quality of life and less psychological distress among COPD patients and their partners. PMID:22135491
Meier, Caroline; Bodenmann, Guy; Morgeli, Hanspeter; Jenewein, Josef
Investigated models relating coping efficacy, coping efforts, and psychological problems of children of divorce. Structural equation model supported coping efficacy as mediating between active coping, avoiding coping, and psychological problems. Prospective longitudinal model supported coping efficacy as mediating between active coping and…
Relapse rates remain high among people with opioid dependence. Identifying psychosocial factors associated with outcomes is important for informing behavioral treatments. This study examined religious coping, opioid use, and 12-step participation among 45 participants receiving inpatient opioid detoxification at baseline and follow-up. At baseline, higher positivecoping was related to less frequent opioid use pre-admission (? = ?.44, p < .001) and history of 12-step participation (OR = 2.33, p < .05). Decreases in negative coping after discharge predicted less opioid use (? = .55, p < .001), and increases in positivecoping predicted more frequent 12-step program participation (? = .42, p < .05). Positive religious coping may be protective, while negative religious coping may be a barrier to treatment. PMID:21125425
The study applied a stress and coping model including acculturation to understanding the predictors of depressive symptoms, alcohol use, and life satisfaction of 108 native Salvadorans who immigrated to the United States in the past 5 years. Acculturation was negatively related to depression and alcohol use, and positively related to life…
Scores of 125 adolescents on the Coping with Career Indecision, Problem Solving Inventory, Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy Scale, Career Decision Scale, Career Barriers Inventory, and Positive and Negative Affect Schedule were subjected to factor and cluster analyses. Four dimensions were identified related to level of agency (low/high) and…
Acceptance as a coping reaction to unchangeable negative events has been discussed controversially. While some studies suggest it is adaptive, others report negative effects on mental health. We propose a distinction between two forms of acceptance reactions: active acceptance, which is associated with positive psychological outcomes, and resigning acceptance, which is associated with negative psychological outcomes. In this study, 534
This study examines stress and coping in relation to mental health and spiritual outcomes following the 9\\/11 terrorist attacks. In November 2001, a survey was mailed to a stratified, randomized sample of registered voters from six communities in Massachusetts (n = 231) and New York City (n = 58). The Short PTSD Rating Interview (SPRINT) posttraumatic stress scale, positive and
The Study Habits Inventory examined strengths and weaknesses in secondary education majors' notetaking, studying, and test-taking skills and found students were well-prepared to teach important studying and testing skills. Research indicates that prospective teachers' academic skills may positively affect their achievement in academic settings.…
Background: It is known that success of a student is affected by the skills of motivation, time management. Studies have showed that there is positive relationship between academic achievement and study skills of a student. Purpose: It is thought that study skills of learners should be defined to be more successful on teaching-learning process.…
The study's aim was to obtain an overview of all relevant variables involved in ineffective coping behavior and improvement in coping behavior as it pertains to cyberbullying among adolescents, in order to systematically develop a theory- and evidence-based intervention. This was done by means of a three round online Delphi study. First, 20 key experts listed possible relevant determinants. Next, 70 experts scored these determinants on their relevance and finally, experts rerated relevance of each determinant based on group median scores. The experts agreed that 115 items are relevant for ineffective (62) or improvement in (53) coping behavior. New found determinants were the extent to which one can adjust behavior upon feedback, impulsivity, self-confidence, communication style, personality, decision-making skills, conflict resolution skills, previous participation in personal resilience training, social relationships, rumors and self-disclosure. We conclude that the Delphi technique is useful in discovering new and relevant determinants of behavior. PMID:24793384
Jacobs, Niels C L; Dehue, Francine; Völlink, Trijntje; Lechner, Lilian
The present study measured the effects of catastrophizing self-statements and positivecoping self-statements on cold pressor-induced pain. Participants were 58 adult chronic pain patients with current facial pain. It was hypothesized that catastrophizing would lead to a decrease in pain endurance whereas positivecoping would lead to an increase in pain endurance. It was also hypothesized that catastrophizing would lead to an increase in peak pain intensity whereas positivecoping would lead to a decrease in peak pain intensity. At pretest, participants submerged their nondominant hand in the cold pressor. Pain sensitivity ranges (PSR) were subsequently determined by calculating the difference between tolerance and threshold times. Ratings of peak pain intensity were measured using a pressure sensitive bladder/transducer. Participants underwent random assignment to either a catastrophizing group or a positivecoping self-statement group. ANCOVA results revealed that on average, participants employing catastrophizing statements as a coping strategy experienced significantly lower PSR (M = 35.53, SD = 39.71) compared to participants employing positivecoping self-statements (M = 73.70, SD = 86.14) when controlling for pretest PSR. Group assignment had no significant influence on peak pain intensity ratings. Thus, our results reveal that manipulation of coping causes changes in pain endurance. PMID:21197299
Roditi, Daniela; Robinson, Michael E; Litwins, Nola
This article outlines an 8-week curriculum that was created to help outpatients develop cognitive and behavioral skills for coping with delusions and hallucinations as well as to reduce patients' comorbid subjective levels of distress (e.g., depression, anxiety). The manualized protocol consisted of psychoeducation and training in a variety of CBT…
Goldberg, Joel O.; Wheeler, Heather; Lubinsky, Tobi; Van Exan, Jessica
This guide presents information and clinical tools to implement the Anger Coping Program, an empirically supported intervention for students in grades 3-6. Practitioners are taken step by step through setting up treatment groups, teaching vital skills for reducing aggression and disruptive behavior, and building strong partnerships with teachers…
Described in this paper are the multiple injuries the author sustained as a result of a serious motor vehicle accident 5 years previously and the subsequent surgical and medical treatment. Also described are the different coping and adaptive skills he utilised during and after hospitalisation and how the nature of surgical and medical intervention…
Children are continuously confronted with everyday stressors in their daily routine, and their ability to deal with these stressors has been found to be significantly related to their psychological adjustment. In fact, numerous studies have indicated that having a repertoire of copingskills at a young age can be a "buffer" or "moderator" of the…
The purpose of this study was to determine whether uncontrollable stress related to levels of subjective well-being (SWB) in a group of ethnically diverse urban adolescents. Additionally, the researchers examined what types of copingskills were utilized in the face of high levels of uncontrollable stress. Finally, a moderation model was proposed,…
Evaluated the emotional consequences of using wish-fulfilling fantasy (palliative) and information-seeking (instrumental) coping strategies among patients (N=151) faced with chronic illness. Results showed information-seeking to have positive effects on adjustment and wish-fulfilling fantasy to have deleterious consequences. (LLL)
This module from the Florida Advanced Technological Education (FL-ATE) Center will help students understand and develop their own set of personal employability skills, such as communication and teamwork. The activity aims to help students understand the importance of communication and teamwork in a business setting. The lesson should require one class period to complete.
The services of the Living Skills Center for the Visually Handicapped, a habilitative service for blind young adults, are described. It is explained that the Center houses its participants in their own apartments in a large complex and has served over 70 young people in 4 years. The evaluation section describes such assessment instruments as an…
Cope's Rule states that the size of species tends to increase along an evolutionary lineage. A basic statistical framework is elucidated for testing Cope's Rule and some surprising complications are pointed out. If Cope's Rule is formulated in terms of mean size, then it is not invariant to the way in which size is measured. If Cope's Rule is formulated in terms of median size, then it is not invariant to the degree of separation between ancestral and descendant species. Some practical problems in assessing Cope's Rule are also described. These results have implications for the empirical assessment of Cope's Rule. PMID:18452576
This study investigated predictors of anticipatory grief among 70 caregivers using hospice services to care for a dying individual. Anticipatory grief (AG) was positively associated with disengagement coping; more specifically, it was negatively...
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Loneliness is a universal experience which transcends age, sex, geography, and culture. Religion, and often one's religiosity, are known to affect one's approach to life, behaviour, and social involvement. The present, preliminary study aimed to explore whether coping with loneliness is influenced by one's religious observance. The present study focused on Israeli Jews. 250 participants identified themselves as Secular, Conservative, or Orthodox, by answering a 34-item yes/no questionnaire on loneliness. The three groups statistically significantly differed in their manner of coping with loneliness only on the Religion and Faith subscale, as hypothesized. Similar studies with people of other religious denominations could further highlight that issue. PMID:22897080
A California superintendent with a district embroiled in a creationism/evolution debate advises how to overcome divisiveness through communication with all stakeholders. Supervisors with contentious school boards should be positive, listen carefully, ferret the truth, and keep information flowing. Suggestions are provided for managing community,…
Aim: Mental Health Promotion among adolescents in schools using life skills education (LSE) and teachers as life skill educators is a novel idea. Implementation and impact of the NIMHANS model of life skills education program studied. Materials and Methods: The impact of the program is evaluated at the end of 1 year in 605 adolescents from two secondary schools in comparison to 423 age, sex, socioeconomic status-matched adolescents from nearby schools not in the program. Results: The adolescents in the program had significantly better self-esteem (P=0.002), perceived adequate coping (P=0.000), better adjustment generally (P=0.000), specifically with teachers (P=0.000), in school (P=0.001), and prosocial behavior (P=0.001). There was no difference between the two groups in psychopathology (P - and adjustment at home and with peers (P=0.088 and 0.921). Randomly selected 100 life skill educator-teachers also perceived positive changes in the students in the program in class room behavior and interaction. LSE integrated into the school mental health program using available resources of schools and teachers is seen as an effective way of empowering adolescents. PMID:21267369
These are short exercises that allow students practice with concepts in Structural Geology, Tectonics, or Geophysics. (Many of them were designed with Eric Horsman.) The basic idea is to give students opportunities for frequent practice with difficult concepts, many of which require spatial visualization skills. These activities nearly always fit on a half-sheet of paper, and include a visual and verbal component. Instructors may use them for formative assessment or as group activities in class.
Although prevention of relationship distress and dissolution has potential to strengthen the well-being of partners and any children they are raising, dissemination of prevention programs can be limited because couples face many barriers to in-person participation. An alternative strategy, providing couples with an instructional DVD, is tested in the present study, in which 330 Caucasian couples (N = 660 participants; mean age: men 41.4 years, women 40.0 years) were randomly assigned to a DVD group without any further support, a DVD group with technical telephone coaching, or a wait-list control group. Couples completed questionnaires at pretest, posttest, and 3 and 6 months after completion of the intervention. Self-report measures of dyadic coping, communication quality, ineffective arguing, and relationship satisfaction were used to test whether the intervention groups improved in comparison with the control group. Women in both intervention groups increased in dyadic coping, reduced conflict behavior, and were more satisfied with their relationship 6 months after the intervention. Effects for men were mixed. Participants with poorer skills reported stronger improvement. Intimate relationships can, within limits, be positively influenced by a self-directed approach. Effective dissemination of principles underlying successful relationships can be facilitated through the use of emerging low-cost tools and technologies. PMID:24660673
Bodenmann, Guy; Hilpert, Peter; Nussbeck, Fridtjof W; Bradbury, Thomas N
It is important to study how children and adolescents cope with stressors in sport because effective coping enhances sport experiences and prevents psychological and physiological problems that can lead to sport withdrawal. The purpose of this review was to summarize the existing child and adolescent coping research to establish how coping changes with development in the achievement context of sport.
Individuals with different drinking motives show distinctive patterns of alcohol use and problems. Drinking to cope, or endorsing strong coping motives for alcohol use, has been shown to be particularly hazardous. It is important to determine the unique triggers associated with coping drinking. One limitation of past research has been the failure to contend with the complexities inherent in coping
Valerie V. Grant; Sherry H. Stewart; Cynthia D. Mohr
This article focuses on the complex nature of eating disorders, specifically highlighting their use as coping mechanisms for underlying emotional and psychological concerns. Case examples of college counseling center clients are discussed in order to illustrate common ways in which eating disorders are utilized by clients with varying…
Reviews the need for and appropriate use of individual assessment in physical education and explains how computerized data management can combat the logistical difficulties of using the data. Describes project COPE (Computer Organized Physical Education), a computerized data management system for improving recordkeeping, planning, and…
Copingskills correlate directly with the success of alcohol abstinence. Brazil previously lacked an instrument to identify alcohol users' specific copingskills. The current study therefore aimed to perform the translation, cross-cultural adaptation, and content validation of the Coping Behaviours Inventory (CBI). Procedures included translation and back-translation, cross-cultural adaptation, content evaluation, and a pilot study. The final Portuguese version was administered by telephone to 40 alcohol users seeking help through a telephone hotline called VIVAVOZ. The retranslated version was close to the original. As for content validation, most of the items proved satisfactory and acceptable. The theoretical dimension showed a mean kappa index of 0.666 between evaluators, which was considered a substantial level of agreement. The results were satisfactory and acceptable, demonstrating that the inventory is appropriate for investigating copingskills in Brazilian alcohol users. PMID:25388308
Constant, Hilda Maria Rodrigues Moleda; Figueiró, Luciana Rizzieri; Signor, Luciana; Bisch, Nadia Krubskaya; Barros, Helena Maria Tanhauser; Ferigolo, Maristela
This study explored the coping processes of couples experiencing infertility. Participants included 420 couples referred for advanced reproductive treatments. Couples were divided into groups based on the frequency of their use of eight coping strategies. Findings suggest that coping processes, which are beneficial to individuals, may be…
Peterson, Brennan D.; Newton, Christopher R.; Rosen, Karen H.; Schulman, Robert S.
While most lifespan developmental theories of personality predict age-related changes in coping, little direct evidence exists for determining whether age differences in coping style are due to intrinsic developmental processes or to age differences in the kinds of stresses encountered. To evaluate age differences in coping strategies and whether…
Background: Stress and social support influence adolescents' coping strategies. Adolescents need to acquire a large repertoire of coping strategies in light of a rapidly changing socio-economic and political situation. Aim: This study reports on the coping strategies of Zimbabwean adolescents and highlights some major stressors they face. The…
Magaya, Lindiwe; Asner-Self, Kimberly K.; Schreiber, James B.
The goals of the study were to examine the relations between maternal coping and hope among mothers who participated in early intervention program for their infants. Earlier studies focused attention on mothers' experiences of stress and their coping. Within the salutogenic construct, we aim at examining relations between mothers' coping and hope…
A total of 228 9th and 10th graders completed a questionnaire that measured (among other variables) the use and perceived effectiveness of strategies for coping with scary films (distraction, unreality, momentary avoidance, interpersonal comfort), coping style (monitoring, blunting), and two dimensions of empathy (empathic concern, personal distress). Regression analyses identified predictors of each strategy for coping with scary films. In
The general aim of this study is to analyze diverse aspects relating to the use of coping strategies among prison inmates. The specific objectives are (a) to analyze which type of coping strategies predominate among prisoners, considering both the focus and the method; (b) to relate the use of coping strategies with variables related to the prison…
The more effectively a child copes, the more effectively he or she learns. This premise was validated in a two year study of Leaming through Coping, a preschool program for 3- to 5-year-old children with diverse handicapping conditions. Learning through Coping has three critical elements: the child's classroom program, the parent program, and the school system's involvement with the child.
Objective: This report describes the design and evaluation of a software application to help carers cope when faced with caring problems and emergencies. Design: The design process involved users at each stage to ensure the content of the software application was appropriate, and the research team carefully considered the requirements of disabled and elderly users. Measurements: Focus group discussions and individual interviews were conducted in five European countries to ascertain the needs of caregivers in this area. The findings were used to design a three-part multimedia software application to help family caregivers prepare to cope with sudden, unexpected, and difficult situations that may arise during their time as a caregiver. This prototype then was evaluated via user trials and usability questionnaires to consider the usability and acceptance of the application and any changes that may be required. Results: User acceptance of the software application was high, and the key features of usability such as content, appearance, and navigation were highly rated. In general, comments were positive and enthusiastic regarding the content of the software application and relevance to the caring situation. Conclusion: The software application has the potential to offer information and support to those who are caring for the elderly and disabled at home and to help them prepare for a crisis. PMID:12807815
Chambers, Mary G.; Connor, Samantha L.; McGonigle, Mary; Diver, Mike G.
It is accepted among scholars that coping changes as people mature during adolescence, but little is known about the relationship between maturity and coping. The purpose of this paper was to assess a model, which included dispositional coping, coping effectiveness, and cognitive social maturity. We predicted that cognitive social maturity would have a direct effect on coping effectiveness, and also an indirect impact via dispositional coping. Two hundred forty-five adolescent athletes completed measures of dispositional coping, coping effectiveness, and cognitive social maturity, which has three dimensions: conscientiousness, peer influence on behavior, and rule following. Using structural equation modeling, we found support for our model, suggesting that coping is related to cognitive social maturity. This information can be used to influence the content of coping interventions for adolescents of different maturational levels. PMID:23798586
Nicholls, Adam R; Perry, John L; Jones, Leigh; Morley, Dave; Carson, Fraser
Purpose of this study was to externally validate and test a conceptual transient model involving six paths that linked sources of acute stress to avoidance and approach coping styles among Turkish basketball referees. The sample consisted of 125 Turkish basketball referees ranging in age from 18 to 36 years (mean = 25.58. ? = 3.69). The path analysis tested the relationships simultaneously from stressors, in consecutive order, distractions, subpar performance and verbal abuse, to coping styles, first both avoidance-cognitive and approach-cognitive, and then approach-behaviour. Results indicated that the model achieved a good fit and that all paths tested simultaneously were significant. The distractions stressor was positively related to subpar performance, which, in turn, was positively related to verbal abuse. Verbal abuse was negatively associated with an avoidance-cognitive coping style and positively related to the approach-cognitive coping style. The results also supported a crossover effect of both avoidance-cognitive and approach-cognitive on approach-behaviour. One implication of this study is that coping should be studied in naturally occurring stages, a process-oriented approach. Another implication is that approach and avoidance coping styles, each sub-divided into cognitive and behavioural categories, provide a meaningful framework which provides sports officials a coherent structure for learning and improving ways to cope with acute stress experienced during the contest. PMID:24015999
Anshel, Mark Howard; Sutarso, Toto; Ekmekci, Ridvan; Saraswati, Intan W
The extent to which engaged maternal coping styles moderate the association between toddler’s temperamental reactivity and mothers’ sensitivity to children’s negative emotions was examined in 89 mother-child dyads. Primiparous mothers completed a measure of coping styles prenatally. When toddlers were 16 months old, mothers completed a measure of perceived toddler temperament and a self-report of how they respond to toddler negative emotions, and maternal sensitivity and temperamental reactivity were observed during emotionally arousing tasks in the laboratory. Mothers’ disengaged coping style was positively associated with self-reported insensitive responses to children’s negative emotions. Engaged coping moderated the association between toddler temperamental reactivity and both self-reported insensitive responses and observed maternal sensitivity, such that temperamental reactivity was more strongly linked with less sensitive maternal behavior when engaged coping was low. PMID:21903276
Optimism, coping strategies, and psychological and functional outcomes were measured in 55 women undergoing coronary artery surgery. Data were collected in-hospital and at 1, 6, and 12 months after surgery. Optimism was related to positive moods and life satisfaction, and inversely related to negative moods. Few relationships were found between optimism and functional ability. Cognitive coping strategies accounted for a mediating effect between optimism and negative mood. Optimists were more likely to accept their situation, and less likely to use escapism. In turn, these coping strategies were inversely related to negative mood and mediated the relationship between optimism and this outcome. Optimism was not related to problem-focused coping strategies; this, these coping strategies cannot explain the relationship between optimism and outcomes. PMID:9472234
This workshop guide is designed for facilitators of programs that assist women in coping with their newly independent status as a result of divorce, widowhood, or other life transitions. The guide reviews the leadership skills needed for organizing a workshop, planning tips, recruitment, resources and other preparations. A format for the workshop…
This instructor's manual contains 21 lesson plans to teach advanced skills to cope with emergency outdoor living situations and emphasizes being prepared, rather than survival. Written for the classroom teacher, but adaptable for other youth groups, the module contains subject information, lesson plans with activities, student handouts, a written…
The clinical features of Celiac Disease (CD) are heterogeneous and both severity and extent of villous atrophy do not correlate with clinical presentation. This study aims to evaluate the psychological wellbeing of CD patients with a similar clinical pattern and to explore whether patients with different levels of wellbeing differed in illness perception and coping strategies. CD outpatients with proven diagnosis filled in validated questionnaires to investigate wellbeing (PGWBI), illness perception (IPQ-R) and coping style (COPE). One hundred and four patients underwent data analysis. Compared to Italian reference sample, CD patients reported a significantly reduced PGWBI total score (p<0.001), self-control (p<0.001), general health (p=0.002) and vitality (p<0.001) and increased anxiety (p=0.009). 7.7% of patients reported a positive wellbeing, 40.4% distress absence, 28.8% a moderate distress and 23.1% a severe distress. Patients with distress showed a different illness perception and reported more frequently two dysfunctional strategies: focus on and venting emotions (p= 0.009) and substance abuse (p= 0.01) compared to those having a positive wellbeing. A high percentage of CD patients experience distress and differ from those who reach wellbeing in illness perception and use of coping strategies. Assessing subjective viewpoint with standardized methods can provide useful information for a better management of CD patients. PMID:23298509
Baiardini, I; Braido, F; Menoni, S; Bellandi, G; Savi, E; Canonica, G W; Macchia, D
This paper describes the architecture and discusses implementation issues of a scalable Internet-based teaching and learning system (SKILL) being developed at the University of Essen (Germany). The primary objective of SKILL is to cope with the different knowledge levels and learning preferences of the students, providing them with a collaborative…
Cognitive skills predict academic performance, so schools that improve academic performance might also improve cognitive skills. To investigate the impact schools have on both academic performance and cognitive skills, we related standardized achievement-test scores to measures of cognitive skills in a large sample (N = 1,367) of eighth-grade students attending traditional, exam, and charter public schools. Test scores and gains in test scores over time correlated with measures of cognitive skills. Despite wide variation in test scores across schools, differences in cognitive skills across schools were negligible after we controlled for fourth-grade test scores. Random offers of enrollment to oversubscribed charter schools resulted in positive impacts of such school attendance on math achievement but had no impact on cognitive skills. These findings suggest that schools that improve standardized achievement-test scores do so primarily through channels other than improving cognitive skills. PMID:24434238
Finn, Amy S; Kraft, Matthew A; West, Martin R; Leonard, Julia A; Bish, Crystal E; Martin, Rebecca E; Sheridan, Margaret A; Gabrieli, Christopher F O; Gabrieli, John D E
Purpose Spiritual coping is an important determinant of adjustment in youth with chronic illness, but the mechanisms through which it affects outcomes have not been elucidated. It is also unknown whether the role of spiritual coping varies by age or disease group. This study evaluated whether general cognitive attributions explain the effects of spiritual coping on internalizing and externalizing problems in adolescents with cystic fibrosis and diabetes and whether these relationships vary by age or disease group. Methods In this cross-sectional study, adolescents (N=128; M=14.7 yrs) diagnosed with cystic fibrosis or diabetes completed measures of spiritual coping and attributional style. Adolescents and their caregivers reported on adolescents’ internalizing and externalizing problems. Results Overall, positive spiritual coping was associated with fewer internalizing and externalizing problems. Negative spiritual coping was related to more externalizing problems, and for adolescents with cystic fibrosis only, also internalizing problems. Optimistic attributions mediated the effects of positive spiritual coping among adolescents with diabetes. The results did not vary by age. Conclusions An optimistic attribution style may help explain the effects of positive, but not negative, spiritual coping on adjustment of youth with diabetes. Youth with progressive, life-threatening illnesses, such as cystic fibrosis, may be more vulnerable to the harmful effects of negative spiritual coping. Future research should examine if addressing spiritual concerns and promoting optimistic attributions improves adolescents’ emotional and behavioral functioning. PMID:23298988
Social skills are necessary for developing successful relationships and promoting learning. "Interpersonal skills" (IPS) are needed for maintaining friendships while "learning-related skills" (LRS) are required for positive classroom behaviours. In this study, we investigated the construct validity of LRS and IPS within two existing assessments:…
This document of skill standards for the machining skills cluster serves as a guide to workforce preparation program providers in defining content for their programs and to employers to establish the skills and standards necessary for job acquisition. These 67 occupational skill standards describe what people should know and be able to do in an…
Illinois Occupational Skill Standards and Credentialing Council, Carbondale.
This study examined a number of factors believed to influence community involvement. Residents of a rural community near Phoenix, Arizona, where a hazardous waste facility had been proposed to built, were interviewed at home in August 1982. Most residents were chosen at random (n = 70) while a smaller number (n = 29) were selected because of known involvement in activities regarding the hazardous waste facility. Residents who perceived the facility as a threat to their health, safety, and general well-being employed a number of coping strategies. Strategies to change or alter the source of stress, problem-focused coping, were associated with greater community involvement. Strategies to regulate one's emotional response to stress, emotion-focused coping, were associated with less community involvement. Increased self-efficacy and sense of community led to increased community involvement. Both measures indirectly influenced community involvement through different modes of coping. Self-efficacy was negatively related to emotion-focused coping while sense of community was positively related to problem-focused coping. Increased demoralization was associated with decreased self-efficacy, increased emotion-focused coping, and decreased community involvement. The results suggest that the psychologically most fragile residents are underrepresented in community activities, and that the use of high levels of emotion-focused coping may have been maladaptive.
Families are influential systems and may be an important context in which to consider the stress and coping process. To date, many studies have focused on modeling the stress and coping process for the individual, isolated from the family. The purpose of this secondary analysis was to investigate a cross-sectional stress and coping model for HIV-positive African-American mothers recruited from HIV service facilities in South Florida (n=214) and their family members (n=294). Avoidance coping was hypothesized to mediate the relationship between stress and psychological distress. In addition, the family average of individual stress was hypothesized to moderate the relationship between avoidance coping and psychological distress. For all constructs, individuals reported on themselves and multilevel modeling techniques were used to account for similarities between members of the same family. The estimated mediation effect was significant. Aggregated family stress significantly moderated the relationship between avoidance coping and psychological distress. This study suggests that individuals exhibit different relationships between avoidance coping and psychological outcomes and that average stress reported by members of a family moderates the relationship between avoidance coping and psychological distress. PMID:21083552
Brincks, Ahnalee M.; Feaster, Daniel J.; Mitrani, Victoria B.
Recent research indicates that some dimensions of perfectionism are positively related to athlete burnout, whereas others are negatively related to athlete burnout. The divergent relationship between these dimensions of perfectionism and athlete burnout may be explained by different coping tendencies. The present investigation examined whether different coping tendencies mediate the relationship between self-oriented and socially prescribed perfectionism and burnout. Two-hundred and six junior elite athletes (M age=15.15 years, SD=1.88 years, range=11-22 years) completed measures of self-oriented and socially prescribed perfectionism, coping tendencies, and athlete burnout. Structural equation modeling indicated that the relationship between dimensions of perfectionism and athlete burnout was mediated by different coping tendencies. Higher levels of socially prescribed perfectionism was related to higher levels of avoidant coping which, in turn, was related to higher levels of athlete burnout. In contrast, higher levels of self-oriented perfectionism was related to higher levels of problem-focused coping and lower levels of avoidant coping which, in turn, was related to lower levels of athlete burnout. The findings suggest that different coping tendencies may underpin the divergent relationship between self-oriented and socially prescribed dimensions of perfectionism and athlete burnout. PMID:19823957
One important way in which persons with severe mental illness, such as schizophrenia, can influence the recovery process is by coping with the profoundly negative effects of mental illness. Despite accumulating evidence on the active role of the person in his or her recovery, there remains much conceptual confusion regarding the nature and categorization of the concept of coping. The present article constructs a clinically useful framework of coping that describes parallel and consecutive types of coping processes by applying Schwarzer’s proactive coping theory to severe mental illness. Four coping modes including reactive, anticipatory, preventive, and proactive are described, and the role of meaning making is elaborated on as an integrative framework. Future research can be directed at validating the presented model and investigating the relationship between these types of coping and other relevant dimensions such as symptoms, functioning, and recovery. PMID:17164630
The purpose of this qualitative study was to investigate registered nurses' coping processes when working with terminally ill and dying cancer patients, with special focus on religious aspects of coping resources. What religious components can be identified as coping resources in oncology nurses' orienting system and what function has religiosity in the nurse's work? The theoretical reference is care philosophy and the psychology of religion and coping. The material consists of interviews with 15 Swedish registered oncology nurses. The results highlight different dynamic aspects of the nurses' life orientation such as caritas, religiosity, spirituality and atheism and demonstrate that religiosity can have a protective function that facilitates coping, as the nurse has something to turn to. Religious coping dominated by basic trust where prayer is used as a coping strategy may support the nurse. PMID:20030696
To examine whether afferent stimulation of hand muscles has a facilitating effect on motor performance, learning and cortical excitability, healthy subjects were trained on the grooved pegboard test (GTP) while wearing a mesh glove (MG) with incorporated electrical stimulation. Three study groups (n=12) were compared in a between subjects design, the bare handed (BH), gloved (MG) and gloved with electrical stimulation (MGS) groups. Motor performance was assessed by the GPT completion time across 4 training blocks, and further one block was retested 7 days later to determine the off-line effects. On-line learning was obtained by normalizing the completion time values to the first training block, and off-line learning was obtained by normalizing the retest values to the last training block. Cortical excitability was assessed via single and paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) at pre-training, post-training and 30 min post-training. Motor evoked potential recruitment curve, short-latency intracortical inhibition and intracortical facilitation were estimated from the TMS assessments. Motor performance across all 4 training blocks was poor in the MG and MGS groups, while on-line learning was not affected by wearing the glove or by afferent stimulation. However, off-line learning, tested 7 days after training, was improved in the MGS group compared to the MG group. In addition, post-training corticospinal excitability was increased in the MGS group. It can be concluded that afferent stimulation improves off-line learning and thus has a positive effect on motor memory, likely due to LTP-like cortical plasticity in the consolidation phase. PMID:24844752
Christova, Monica; Rafolt, Dietmar; Golaszewski, Stefan; Nardone, Raffaele; Gallasch, Eugen
The relationship between military combat and postdeployment family functioning difficulties has been frequently investigated in the literature, as has the relationship between types of coping and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Few studies, however, have examined these variables together, and no studies of which we are aware have examined the effect of coping on family functioning after combat exposure. This study examined coping style measured immediately after return from deployment, and PTSD symptoms and family functioning 18-24 months after return from deployment in a sample of Operation Desert Shield/Storm veterans (N = 2,949). Structural equation models suggested that the relationships between distinct coping styles on family functioning were differentially mediated by postdeployment PTSD symptoms. Results are consistent with full mediation for avoidant coping (?direct = -.09, p = .07; ?indirect = -.17, p < .001) and partial mediation for approach coping (?direct = .16, p < .001; ?indirect = .09, p < .001). Results suggest that the strategies used to cope with a combat stress event may impact both PTSD and family functioning outcomes, and highlight the potential utility of pre- and postdeployment copingskills training. PMID:23893396
The current article offers suggestions for ways to adapt empirically supported treatments (ESTs). A specific manualized EST (Coping Cat; Kendall & Hedtke, 2006a) is used to illustrate the concept of “flexibility within fidelity” (Kendall & Beidas, 2007; Kendall, Gosch, Furr, & Sood, 2008). Flexibility within fidelity stresses the importance of using ESTs while considering and taking into account individual client presentations. In this discussion, recommendations are offered for the use of the Coping Cat with younger youth, adolescents, and youth with secondary comorbidities (i.e., social skills deficits, inattentive symptoms, and depressive symptoms). PMID:20936081
Beidas, Rinad S.; Benjamin, Courtney L.; Puleo, Connor M.; Edmunds, Julie M.; Kendall, Philip C.
This article reports on the generalizability, reliability, and construct validity of the Parent Situation Inventory (PSI), a role-play measure of copingskills in parents experiencing problems from an adolescent’s drug and alcohol use. Generalizability was robust (.80) and alternate form and test–retest reliability were satisfactory. PSI skillfulness was negatively related to the parent’s own substance use and to the adolescent’s alcohol use. The PSI shows promise as a reliable and potentially valid measure of coping in this population and has direct implications for developing and evaluating skill-based parent training programs. PMID:15584798
McGillicuddy, Neil B.; Rychtarik, Robert G.; Morsheimer, Elizabeth T.
This study examines if event-exposure stress has a significant effect on the latent mediating factors of problem-based coping, emotion-based coping, and intrinsic religious motivation, as well as on psychological distress. The study used a single-group correlational design. Data were collected from graduate social work students (N=642) in the New York metropolitan area six months after September 11, 2001. In a structural equation model, event-exposure stress was found to be positively related to problem-focused coping. The model also supported that event-exposure stress had a positive direct effect on psychological distress. While both forms of coping were positively related to levels of distress, higher levels of intrinsic religious motivation were related to lower levels of psychological distress. Professionals should provide guidance to help individuals reduce psychological distress by building upon different coping strategies to best fit the person and the situation. PMID:19437172
Objective To summarise the evidence on the effect of psychological coping styles (including fighting spirit, helplessness/hopelessness, denial, and avoidance) on survival and recurrence in patients with cancer. Design Systematic review of published and unpublished prospective observational studies. Main outcome measures Survival from or recurrence of cancer. Results 26 studies investigated the association between psychological coping styles and survival from cancer, and 11 studies investigated recurrence. Most of the studies that investigated fighting spirit (10 studies) or helplessness/hopelessness (12 studies) found no significant associations with survival or recurrence. The evidence that other coping styles play an important part was also weak. Positive findings tended to be confined to small or methodologically flawed studies; lack of adjustment for potential confounding variables was common. Positive conclusions seemed to be more commonly reported by smaller studies, indicating potential publication bias. Conclusion There is little consistent evidence that psychological coping styles play an important part in survival from or recurrence of cancer. People with cancer should not feel pressured into adopting particular coping styles to improve survival or reduce the risk of recurrence. What is already known on this topicSurvival from cancer is commonly thought to be influenced by a person's psychological coping styleSome studies have shown that a coping style involving fighting spirit rather than helplessness/hopelessness is associated with survival and recurrence, though the evidence is inconsistentWhat this study addsThis systematic review suggests that there is no consistent association between psychological coping and outcome of cancerPublication bias and methodological flaws in some of the primary studies may explain some of the previous positive findingsThere is no good evidence to support the development of psychological interventions to promote particular types of coping in an attempt to prolong survival PMID:12424165
This study examines whether problem-focused, emotion-focused, and avoidant coping strategies predict key outcomes in a sample of 354 high school students. The four outcomes considered are: academic achievement, life satisfaction, positive feelings towards school, and negative feelings towards school. Results demonstrate that coping incrementally…
MacCann, Carolyn; Lipnevich, Anastasiya A.; Burrus, Jeremy; Roberts, Richard D.
This study examines the relationships among stressors, coping strategies, self-efficacy and burnout in a sample of 724 Spanish primary and secondary teachers. We understood stressors as barriers perceived by teachers that interfere with their work meeting learning objectives and which cause them stress and burnout. An analysis of teacher responses using hierarchical regression revealed that pedagogical barriers had significant positive effects on the burnout dimensions. Furthermore, the results show not only the moderator role played by coping strategies in the pedagogical barriers-burnout dimensions relationship, but also the association between self-efficacy and the coping strategies used by teachers. Practical implications are discussed. PMID:20977014
Background Self-care skills for persons living with HIV (PLWH) are needed to better cope with the common symptoms and emotional challenges of living with this chronic illness. Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility and acceptability of Mindful Awareness in Body-oriented Therapy (MABT) for individuals receiving medical management for HIV at an outpatient program. Setting A nonprofit outpatient day program that provided medical management to low-income individuals with HIV. Research Design A one group pre–post study design, nine participants were recruited to receive eight weekly MABT sessions of 1.25 hours each. Intervention MABT is designed to facilitate emotion regulation through teaching somatically-based self-care skills to respond to daily stressors. Main Outcome Measures To assess participant characteristics and study feasibility, a battery of health questionnaires and one week of wrist actigraphy was administered pre- and postintervention. A satisfaction survey and written questionnaire was administered postintervention to assess MABT acceptability. Results The results demonstrated recruitment and retention feasibility. The sample had psychological and physical health symptoms that are characteristic of PLWH. MABT acceptability was high, and participants perceived that they learned new mind-body self-care skills that improved HIV symptoms and their ability to manage symptoms. Conclusion The positive findings support a larger future study to examine MABT efficacy to improve coping with HIV symptoms among PLWH. PMID:23730396
Price, Cynthia J.; Diana, Taibi M.; Smith-DiJulio, Kathleen L.; Voss, Joachim G.
This study examined whether religious coping moderates the impact of racial/ethnic discrimination on current (past 30 day) cigarette and cigar/cigarillo use among a racially/ethnically diverse sample of 984 technical/vocational school students (47.1% women; mean age = 25 years). Results indicate that discrimination increased the likelihood of current cigarette use among African American students and current cigar/cigarillo use among white and African American students. Positive religious coping decreased the likelihood of cigarette and cigar/cigarillo smoking for white students only. Negative religious coping increased the likelihood of cigarette use for white students and cigar/cigarillo use for white and African American students. Two 2-way interactions indicate that positive and negative religious coping moderate the discrimination-cigarette smoking relationship for African American and Mexican American students, respectively. PMID:21249522
The study aims to investigate the relationship of suicidal ideation with coping and resilience in a sample of adolescents who survived an earthquake. Three hundred forty-three adolescents who had experienced the L'Aquila earthquake were investigated for a screening distinguishing Suicidal Screen-Negative (SSN) from the Positive (SSP) subjects. Resilience Scale for Adolescents (READ) and Brief Cope were administered. Emotion-focused coping score was significantly higher in SSP subjects. In the SSN but not in the SSP sample the READ total score correlated with problem-focused total score. A positive correlation was seen between emotion-focused and problem-focused scores in both samples, with a higher coefficient in SSP sample. Externalising problems and maladaptive behaviours can arise in adolescents exposed to traumatic events. Attention should be paid in reducing risk factors and in the development of psychological abilities, improving the coping strategies that can protect from emotional despair and suicidal ideation. PMID:24931563
This investigation had two purposes: (a) to identify and describe the coping strategies used by national champion figure skaters and (b) to examine the relationship between coping strategies and particular stress sources. Participants were 17 of 20 (85%) Senior U.S. National Champion figure skaters who won titles between 1985 and 1990. All skaters were interviewed, and the interview transcripts were content analyzed. General coping dimensions reported by at least 40% of the skaters included (a) rational thinking and self-talk, (b) positive focus and orientation, (c) social support (e.g., receiving support from coach, talking with friends and family), (d) time management and prioritization, (e) precompetitive mental preparation and anxiety management (e.g., relaxation, visualization), (f) training hard and smart, (g) isolation and deflection (e.g., not letting things get to me, avoiding/screening media), and (h) ignoring the stressor(s). It was also found that the skaters implemented different coping strategies depending on the specific stressors encountered. PMID:8278672
This study used a computer-based emotional word-recognition task to assess the emotional processing styles of repressive–defensive youth. A hypothesis was tested proposing that adolescent repressive–defensive coping style is associated with rapid engagement and disengagement of emotional stimuli (negative and positive). Data were collected on a male adolescent sample enrolled in a juvenile diversion program allowing for the comparison of anxious,
Bryan R. Loney; John P. Kline; Thomas E. Joiner; Paul J. Frick; Steven D. LaRowe
A burgeoning body of cultural coping research has begun to identify the prevalence and the functional importance of collective coping behaviors among culturally diverse populations in North America and internationally. These emerging findings are highly significant as they evidence culture's impacts on the stress-coping process via collectivistic values and orientation. They provide a critical counterpoint to the prevailing Western, individualistic stress and coping paradigm. However, current research and understanding about collective coping appear to be piecemeal and not well integrated. To address this issue, this review attempts to comprehensively survey, summarize, and evaluate existing research related to collective coping and its implications for coping research with culturally diverse populations from multiple domains. Specifically, this paper reviews relevant research and knowledge on collective coping in terms of: (a) operational definitions; (b) theories; (c) empirical evidence based on studies of specific cultural groups and broad cultural values/dimensions; (d) measurements; and (e) implications for future cultural coping research. Overall, collective coping behaviors are conceived as a product of the communal/relational norms and values of a cultural group across studies. They also encompass a wide array of stress responses ranging from value-driven to interpersonally based to culturally conditioned emotional/cognitive to religion- and spirituality-grounded coping strategies. In addition, this review highlights: (a) the relevance and the potential of cultural coping theories to guide future collective coping research; (b) growing evidence for the prominence of collective coping behaviors particularly among Asian nationals, Asian Americans/Canadians and African Americans/Canadians; (c) preference for collective coping behaviors as a function of collectivism and interdependent cultural value and orientation; and (d) six cultural coping scales. This study brings to light the present theoretical and methodological contributions as well as limitations of this body of literature and the implications it holds for future coping research. PMID:22335198
Using a cross-sectional design, this research aimed to assess whether a three-factor model of Positive Reappraisal, Escape-Avoidance, and Seeking Social Support based on the Ways of Coping Questionnaire (WOCQ) appropriately depicts coping within a sample of women with spinal cord injury (SCI). Forty-four community-dwelling women with spinal cord injury were interviewed from two urban rehabilitation facilities in the Midwestern United
Anthony H. Lequerica; Martin Forschheimer; Denise G. Tate; Sunny Roller; Loren Toussaint
Trait self-control is related to a number of positive outcomes, including mental health, interpersonal success, academic success and health-related behaviours. This study sought to explore the relationships between self-control, reports of mental and physical health symptoms and coping styles. The results revealed that higher self-control was related to fewer mental and physical health symptoms and less avoidance coping. There was
Adriel Boals; Michelle R. vanDellen; Jonathan B. Banks
The current study examined the impact of racial discrimination stress on internalizing symptoms and coping strategies in a\\u000a sample of 268 African American early adolescents (mean age = 12.90; 56% female) from low-income communities. Information about\\u000a discrimination stress, coping, and internalizing symptoms was obtained via adolescents’ self-report. It was predicted that\\u000a discrimination stress would be positively associated with depression and anxiety, as
Skeptics may view DSM as a convenient cover for using ratepayer funds (in the form of rebates and other financial inducements) to keep customers on the grid, thus providing electric utilities with an unfair competitive advantage. Actually, the most powerful advantages may result from the marketing skills DSM fosters. Put simply, DSM teaches utilities to understand and meet customer needs more effectively. Managing customers use of electricity has taught utilities unprecedented amounts about specific end-use technologies, about customers fuel and equipment selection practices and preferences, and about what it costs to serve their customers. As DSM programs have become more market-driven, utilities have become better communicators and salesmen in order to win customer participation. The result: DSM departments play an increasingly central role in managing customer relationships overall and in developing and implementing competitive strategies.
Stone, C. (Easton Consultants, Inc., Stamford, CT (United States))
Communication and interpersonal effectiveness skills training can help older adults adapt to aging. Skills include expressing feelings in "I" statements, reflecting, validating self and others, and giving and receiving positive feedback. (SK)
The First Year Communication Skills Program (FYCSP) focuses on the basic skills of English language communication or beginning reading at the kindergarten level. This R and D product is based on a general recognition of basic behaviorist positions regardi...
The aim of this paper was to systematically review the literature on coping in sport, examining evidence for both the trait and process perspectives, the types of coping strategies used by athletes, gender differences, age-related differences, and coping effectiveness. A comprehensive literature search of SPORTdiscus, PsychLIT, and PsychINFO in November 2004 yielded 64 studies spanning 16 years (1988 – 2004). The results
Objective To examine the impact of Veterans’ coping strategies on mental health treatment engagement following a positive screen for depression. Methods A mixed methods observational study using a mailed survey and semi structured interviews. Sample included 271 Veterans who screened positive for depression during a primary care visit at one of three VA medical centers and had not received a diagnosis of depression or prescribed antidepressants 12 months prior to screening. A subsample of 23 Veterans was interviewed. Results Logistic regression models showed that Veterans who reported more instrumental support and active coping were more likely to receive depression or other mental health treatment within three months of their positive depression screen. Those who reported emotional support or self distraction as coping strategies were less likely to receive any treatment in the same time frame. Qualitative analyses revealed that how Veterans use these and other coping strategies can impact treatment engagement in a variety of ways. Conclusions The relationship between Veterans’ use of coping strategies and treatment engagement for depression may not be readily apparent without in depth exploration. Practice implications In VA primary care clinics, nurse care managers and behavioral health providers should explore how Veterans’ methods of coping may impact treatment engagement. PMID:24315160
Osei-Bonsu, Princess E.; Bokhour, Barbara G.; Glickman, Mark E.; Rodrigues, Stephanie; Mueller, Nora M.; Dell, Natalie S.; Zhao, Shibei; Eisen, Susan V.; Elwy, A. Rani
This study examines a proposed theoretical model examining the interrelationships between stigma, disclosure, coping, and medication adherence among 158 HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) in northern Tanzania. Perceived and self-stigma, voluntary and involuntary disclosure, positive and negative coping, and demographics were assessed by trained interviewers, and self-reported adherence was collected during 5 months follow-up. Data were examined using correlation and regression analyses. The analyses showed that perceived stigma is primarily related to involuntary disclosure, whereas self-stigma is related to voluntary disclosure. Religious copingpositively relates to acceptance, whereas perceived stigma explains higher levels of denial of HIV status. Lastly, adherence was negatively affected by alcohol use, self-stigma, and denial. We conclude that adherence is predominantly predicted by negative rather than positivecoping mechanisms. Therefore, substituting maladaptive coping mechanisms like denial and alcohol use with a more adaptive coping style may be an important strategy to improve long-term ART adherence and well-being of patients. Moreover, this study showed that it is useful to examine both involuntary and voluntary disclosure when studying its relation with stigma. PMID:24517541
Lyimo, Ramsey A; Stutterheim, Sarah E; Hospers, Harm J; de Glee, Teuntje; van der Ven, Andre; de Bruin, Marijn
In order to investigate gender role differences in coping and expectancies within a diathesis-stress framework, 106 undergraduate students were assessed on their gender role orientation, coping styles, and negative mood ...
Focuses on the communication instructor's role in helping students avoid or cope with relationship distress and dysfunctional domestic-communication patterns. Suggests interpersonal-communication instructors include units on destructive-relationship patterns, predictors of negative-relationship cycles, and skills training to correct these…
Objective: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most frequent psychiatric disorders of childhood, characterized by an increased risk for the development of parent-child relationship problems. The aim of this study is to compare the depression and anxiety levels and copingskills used by the mothers of children with ADHD with healthy controls. Methods: The research included 36
Ibrahim DURUKAN; Murat ERDEM; A. Evren TUFAN; Ayhan CONGOLOGLU; Ozgur YORBIK; Tumer TURKBAY
Research suggests that victims of bullying may lack skills in emotional regulation, a process which facilitates coping with provocative situations to lessen the stress of negative emotions (Cicchetti, Ackerman, & Izard, 1995). The present study ex- amined the emotional regulation and display patterns of victims during classroom bul- lying episodes. Children in grades one through six were observed during free
Melissa M. Mahady Wilton; Wendy M. Craig; Debra J. Pepler
Cope's Rule refers to the tendency of body size to increase along an evolutionary lineage. This rule is commonly tested by comparing size differences in pairs of taxa, one of which is assumed to be ancestral to the other. It has recently been pointed out that this approach fails to account for the unknown number of speciation events separating each pair. Here, a test that does account for this degree of separation is described and applied to some published data for dinosaurs. A by-product of the analysis is an estimate of the origination rate of dinosaur species. PMID:19744122
This study used Lazarus and Folkman's (1984) model of appraisal and coping to explore people's emotional response to the possibility of nuclear war. Sixty-seven women and 49 men participated in a questionnaire study. The sample represented a cross-section of Americans by age and ethnic group but had more education and higher occupational status scores than is typical for the greater population. Sampling limitations and the political climate at the time of questionnaire administration suggested that the present findings be interpreted cautiously. Nevertheless, results suggested the importance of appraisal, defined in this study as the estimated probability of nuclear war and beliefs that citizen efforts to reduce the likelihood of nuclear war can be effective, and coping as factors in people's nuclear threat related emotional response. Six of the study's 11 hypotheses received at least partial confirmation. One or more measures of nuclear threat-related emotional distress were positively correlated with probability estimates of nuclear war, individual and collective response efficacy beliefs, and seeking social support in regard to the nuclear threat. Negative correlations were found between measures of threat-related distress and both trust in political leaders and distancing. Statistically significant relationships contrary to the other five hypotheses were also obtained. Measures of threat-related distress were positively, rather than negatively, correlated with escape avoidance and positive reappraisal coping efforts. Appraisal, coping, and emotion variables, acting together, predicted the extent of political activism regarding the nuclear arms race. It is useful to consider attitudes toward the nuclear arms race, distinguishing between intensity and frequency of emotional distress, and between measures of trait, state, and concept-specific emotionality in understanding emotional responses.
Women are found to be more religious than men and more likely to use religious coping. Only few studies have explored religious gender differences in more secular societies. This population-based study comprised 3,000 Danish men and women (response rate 45 %) between 20 and 40 years of age. Information about demographics, religiousness and religious coping was obtained through a web-based questionnaire. We organized religiousness in the three dimensions: Cognition, Practice and Importance, and we assessed religious coping using the brief RCOPE questionnaire. We found substantial gender differences in both religiousness and religious coping. Nearly, 60 % of the women believed in some sort of spirit or in God compared to 40 % of the men. Generally, both men and women scored low on the RCOPE scale. However, for respondents reporting high levels of religiousness, the proportion of men who scored high in the RCOPE exceeded the proportion of women in using positive and especially negative coping strategies. Also, in a secular society, women are found to be more religious than men, but in a subset of the most religious respondents, men were more inclined to use religious coping. Further studies on religious coping in secular societies are required. PMID:23625173
Women are found to be more religious than men and more likely to use religious coping. Only few studies have explored religious gender differences in more secular societies. This population-based study comprised 3,000 Danish men and women (response rate 45 %) between 20 and 40 years of age. Information about demographics, religiousness and religious coping was obtained through a web-based questionnaire. We organized religiousness in the three dimensions: Cognition, Practice and Importance, and we assessed religious coping using the brief RCOPE questionnaire. We found substantial gender differences in both religiousness and religious coping. Nearly, 60 % of the women believed in some sort of spirit or in God compared to 40 % of the men. Generally, both men and women scored low on the RCOPE scale. However, for respondents reporting high levels of religiousness, the proportion of men who scored high in the RCOPE exceeded the proportion of women in using positive and especially negative coping strategies. Also, in a secular society, women are found to be more religious than men, but in a subset of the most religious respondents, men were more inclined to use religious coping. Further studies on religious coping in secular societies are required. PMID:23625173
Research into how dyslexics cope and the effects of their coping has received little attention in the 100 years since dyslexia has been recognized. Why is this? Well it is not an easy area to investigate, partly as most qualitative studies have looked only at coping strategies of specific dyslexics. These are individuals and are unsuitable for…
In a longitudinal community survey of 291 adults, we explored the relation between coping strategies and psychological symptoms. Respondents completed the revised Ways of Coping Scale (Folkman & Lazarus, 1985) for a self-named stressful episode. Factor analysis produced eight coping factors: three problem focused, four emotion focused, and one (support mobilization) that contained elements of both. Multiple regression analyses indicated
Coping is a complex process. It is variously described as a situational and as a trait-like response, as a response to stress and as a disposition to respond to change. In this article, we review the current research on coping within the context of considering the contributions of the articles presented in this series. We present two broad views of coping, the more general one under the title of "coping response" defines coping as containing emotional, behavioral, and cognitive qualitites. It is generally considered to be a stress-specific pattern by which an individual's perceptions, emotions, and behaviors prepare for adapting and changing. The more narrow view of coping is described here as "coping style" and represents a more observable but general style of interacting. In this usage, coping is a trait-like variable that is activated when an environment changes in some way. It resembles other personality qualities and describes dispositions to respond in certain ways. In this article, we consider the implications and extant knowledge about coping within these two definitions, with special consideration to the prediction of treatment processes and outcomes. The articles in this series are discussed both in terms of extant research on these two views of coping and in terms of their contributions to the available literature on coping and coping responses. PMID:12968268
Using the Adolescent Coping Scale, ACS (Frydenberg & Lewis, 1993) we surveyed 45 randomly selected foreign adolescents in Australian schools. The coping strategies used most by the participants were: focus on solving the problem; seeking relaxing diversions; focusing on the positive; seeking social support; worry; seeking to belong; investing in close friends; wishful thinking; and keep to self (Table 4). With regard to coping styles, the most widely used was the productive coping followed by non-productive coping while the least used style was reference to others (Table 4). In terms of both genders the four coping strategies used most often were: work hard to achieve; seeking relaxing diversions; focus on solving the problem; and focus on the positive (Table 5). The most noticeable gender difference was the use of the physical recreation coping strategy in which male students engaged more (Fig 1). The usage of four coping strategies (solving problem; work hard; focus on positive; and social support) was higher for students who have been away from family more than once as compared to those who have been away once only while the usage of seeking relaxing diversions was higher for the first timers (Table 6). No significant differences were obtained on the sample's performance on the ACS subscales by gender (Table 7), frequency of leaving own country (Table 8), country of origin (Table 9), and length of stay in Australia (Table 11). However, foundation students scored significantly higher on the reference to others variable than their secondary school peers (Table 10). We recommended counseling for students with high support needs and further large-scale mixed-methods research to gain additional insights. PMID:24373267
Life Space Crisis Intervention (LSCI) is a set of skills that helps adults turn problem situations into learning opportunities for kids. LSCI views conflicts or stressful incidents as opportunities for learning, growth, insight, and change. This training provides parents with tools for building positive relationships with their children and…
Four behaviorally disordered boys from an elementary school special education classroom received social skills training. They were selected on the basis of high negative nominations on the Class Pay sociometric measure. Training was designed to increase the rate at which the boys emitted prosocial behaviors toward their peers. Verbal instructions, modeling, role-play, and feedback were used to coach positive social
Notes that good communications skills are becoming a requirement for almost any job and that corporate leaders and human resources managers are realizing the importance of strong interpersonal communication skills to the performance of all employees not just those in supervisory and managerial positions. Discusses a variety of interpersonal…
Introduction: Recent research suggests that effective interprofessional communication and collaboration can positively influence patient satisfaction and outcomes. Health professional communication skills do not necessarily improve over time but can improve with formal communication skills training (CST). This article describes the development,…
of them a try, seeing which ones work best for you. In developing any new skill or habit, practice, persistence, and a positive mindset is the key to learning a new skill or habit. Course Mission and Objectives changes to your plan. #12;2 Grading Scale Based on 1000 total points A ............................... 90
The effects of a social skill training program on socially isolated children are reported. The training program was derived from the results of a previous study of the specific social skills that discriminated popular from unpopular children. Training effects in the present investigation were assessed on sociometric position, and on the quality, frequency, and distribution of social interaction to peers.
THE EDUCATION AND SKILLS CASE FOR SPACE PAUL SPENCER AND GRAHAM HULBERT JUNE 2006 #12;#12;Contents: IMechE Survey 40 References 42 #12;The Education and Skills Case for Space Executive Summary Our survey found that space has a direct, positive effect on educational and career decisions and on participation
Police Academy trainees participated in a stress management program which focused on developing skills for coping with anxiety and anger. Stress management training took place in six 2-hour sessions and included instruction and practice in the self-monitoring of reactions to stressful situations, muscular relaxation, and the development of adaptive self-statements. Self-report measures of anxiety and anger were obtained before and
Irwin G. Sarason; James H. Johnson; John P. Berberich; Judith M. Siegel
The psychosocial adaptation of patients awaiting heart transplantation has not been defined. Forty-one patients (36 men, 5 women; mean age, 48 years) completed standardized questionnaires before transplantation to assess quality of life, physical symptoms, marital/social adjustment, psychiatric morbidity, coping, and compliance to medical regimens. Also, data were obtained from spouses/partners and the transplantation nurse coordinator. Unlike previously reported findings with patients after transplantation, those awaiting transplantation report moderate dissatisfaction with quality of life. Patients report physical symptoms, functional disabilities, sexual dysfunction, and psychological distress. Nonetheless, reported levels of compliance with the medical regimens and of social support were high, and both patients and spouses/partners provided marital adjustment ratings on the Dyadic Adjustment Scale that were comparable to those of well-adjusted, happily married couples. High levels of coping also were recorded. Having a positive attitude and seeking social support were the most common coping strategies, whereas confrontation, acceptance, and escapism were relatively uncommon. In conclusion, patients awaiting heart transplantation, although dissatisfied with quality of life, maintain positive psychological and social adjustment. PMID:1576132
Muirhead, J; Meyerowitz, B E; Leedham, B; Eastburn, T E; Merrill, W H; Frist, W H
Liver and kidney transplant recipients report elevated psychological distress following transplant in comparison to other types of organ transplant recipients. Negative affective states can lead to immune dysregulation and adverse health behaviors, and therefore may contribute to disease. In contrast, positive affective states can broaden individuals' thoughts and actions to promote the accumulation of coping resources. Coping strategies have traditionally been conceived of as being either problem-focused or emotion-focused in nature, while contemporary theory and research supports a different division: approach-oriented strategies versus avoidance-oriented strategies. Emotional expression and processing may function as an approach-oriented coping strategy. Emotional-approach coping relates to the use of emotional expression, awareness and understanding to facilitate coping with significant life stressors. The current study evaluated the impact of music therapy with and without a specific emphasis on emotional-approach coping. This randomized, controlled trial aimed to use Active Music Engagement with Emotional-Approach Coping to improve well-being in post-operative liver and kidney transplant recipients (N = 29). Results indicated that music therapy using Emotional-Approach Coping led to significant increases in positive affect, music therapy using Active Music Engagement led to significant decreases in pain, and both conditions led to significant decreases in negative affect, an indicator of perceived stress/anxiety. PMID:22506300
Alzheimer's disease (AD) robs persons living with the disease of their independence and self-esteem, which can lead to depression, anxiety, and loneliness. Understanding how people with early-stage AD cope is a critical step in enhancing their adaptive abilities and ultimately improving their quality of life. This qualitative study describes how individuals with early-stage AD use spirituality to cope with the losses of self-esteem, independence, and social interaction that they face. The purposive sample for this focused ethnographic study consisted of 15 participants living at home in central Arkansas. Holding onto faith, seeking reassurance and hope, and staying connected were the global themes. Personal faith, prayer, connection to church, and family support enhanced the ability of people with early-stage AD to keep a positive attitude as they face living with AD. PMID:19282270
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) robs persons living with this disease of their independence and self-esteem, which can lead to depression, anxiety, and loneliness. Understanding how people with early stage AD cope is a critical step to enhance their adaptive abilities and ultimately improve their quality of life. This qualitative study describes how individuals with early stage AD use spirituality to cope with the losses of self-esteem, independence, and social interaction that they face. The purposive sample for this focused ethnography study consisted of 15 participants living at home in central Arkansas. Holding onto faith, seeking reassurance and hope, and staying connected were the global themes. Personal faith, prayer, connection to church, and family support enhanced the ability for people with early stage AD to keep a positive attitude as they face living with Alzheimer’s. PMID:19282270
Introduction Sexual disorders impact up to 43% of women. However, the relationship between sexual dysfunction and psychological variables such as personality traits and coping mechanisms is not well understood. Aim To examine personality domains and coping strategies utilized by women with sexual dysfunction in a clinical sample. Methods Patients seeking care for female sexual dysfunction (FSD) from a sexual medicine specialist were identified using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes. Packets containing informed consent, Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI), Female Sexual Distress Scale-Revised (FSDS-R), Ten Item Personality Index (TIPI), and Brief COPE were mailed to subjects. Main Outcome Measures Correlations among FSFI, FSDS-R, TIPI, and Brief COPE. Results Of 79 eligible subjects, 50 (63.2%) returned completed questionnaires. The mean age was 40 years (standard deviation 14). Total FSFI and FSDS-R scores confirmed FSD. Correlations between the FSFI and TIPI illustrated trends with the domain of extraversion, suggesting better function in those exhibiting more of this trait (r = 0.285, P = 0.079). Similarly, FSDS-R scores correlated with openness to experience (r = ?0.305, P = 0.037) and approached significance for extraversion (r = ?0.258, P = 0.080), indicating lower distress in such personality types. When assessing the Brief COPE, use of emotional support, a positivecoping strategy, correlated with better orgasm (r = 0.303, P = 0.048) and higher satisfaction (r = 0.331, P = 0.03). Finally, when evaluating TIPI with COPE scores, several significant associations were noted, establishing that personality may influence these adaptive behaviors. Conclusion Many notable relationships between sexual function, personality, and coping are presented. These support a role for consideration of psychological variables when evaluating women presenting for sexual dysfunction. Crisp CC, Vaccaro CM, Pancholy A, Kleeman S, Fellner AN, and Pauls R. Is female sexual dysfunction related to personality and coping? An exploratory study. Sex Med 2013;1:69–75.
Developing a comprehensive understanding of resilience across the lifespan is potentially important for mental health promotion, yet resilience has been vastly understudied compared to disease and vulnerability. The present study investigated the relationship of resilience to personality traits, coping styles, and psychiatric symptoms in a sample of college students. Measures included the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, NEO Five Factor Inventory, Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations, and Brief Symptom Inventory. Results supported hypotheses regarding the relationship of resilience to personality dimensions and coping styles. Resilience was negatively associated with neuroticism, and positively related to extraversion and conscientiousness. Coping styles also predicted variance in resilience above and beyond the contributions of these personality traits. Task-oriented coping was positively related to resilience, and mediated the relationship between conscientiousness and resilience. Emotion-oriented coping was associated with low resilience. Finally, resilience was shown to moderate the relationship between a form of childhood maltreatment (emotional neglect) and current psychiatric symptoms. These results augment the literature that seeks to better define resilience and provide evidence for the construct validity of the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale. PMID:15998508
Campbell-Sills, Laura; Cohan, Sharon L; Stein, Murray B
Objectives Ambulance workers are regularly exposed to call-outs, which are potentially psychologically traumatic. The ability to remain objective and make adaptive appraisals during call-outs may be beneficial to this at-risk population. This pilot study investigated the links between cognitive appraisals, objectivity and coping in ambulance workers. Methods Forty-five ambulance workers from the London Ambulance Service, UK, were studied. Trauma exposure, post-traumatic stress disorder and depression symptoms were assessed using self-report measures. Positive and negative appraisals were measured in relation to two previous call-outs: one during which they coped well and one during which they did not. Results Enhanced coping was associated with making more positive appraisals during the call-out. Better coping was also related to greater levels of objectivity during these call-outs. Coping less well was associated with the use of more negative appraisals during the call-out. Conclusions Ambulance workers may benefit from psychological interventions, which focus on cognitive reappraisal and enhancing objectivity to improve coping and resilience. PMID:23307756
Interpersonal trauma is pervasive globally and may result in long-term consequences physically, cognitively, behaviorally, socially, and spiritually (Bryant-Davis, 2005b). One of the protective factors that have emerged in the literature is religious coping. Religious coping, spirituality, and faith-based approaches to trauma recovery include endorsement of beliefs, engagement in behaviors, and access to support from faith communities. Compared with negative religious coping, spirituality and positive religious coping have been associated with decreased psychological distress, a finding established with survivors of child abuse, sexual violence, intimate partner violence, community violence, and war. This article focuses on spiritual and religious coping among survivors of child abuse, sexual violence, and war; however, research demonstrates increased use of positive religious coping among some survivors with higher rates of posttraumatic stress disorder. Much of the scholarship in this area includes qualitative studies with populations who face increased vulnerability to interpersonal trauma. Research in this area covers the life span from childhood to later adulthood and encompasses both domestic and international studies. The implications of research findings are explored, and future research needs are described. This line of research supports the American Psychological Association (2010) ethical standards that note the recognition of spiritual and religious faith traditions as important aspects of the provision of ethical treatment. Researchers, clinicians, and advocates for trauma survivors are encouraged to attend to the faith traditions and beliefs of persons confronting the potential devastation of traumatic events. PMID:24320650
This paper presents research and clinical findings regarding how people cope with traumatic events. In the short run people may cope with trauma by trying to maintain the status quo via utilization of familiar behavioral repertoires and defensive behaviors like denial. While this strategy may control initial stress and anxiety, it could eventually lead to long-term maladjustment since it does
Focuses on how to help young people cope with the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. Discusses the reactions of students and social studies teachers. Explores how to discuss the students' feelings about the events to help them cope. Includes a list of Web sites. (CMK)
Cope's rule is the tendency for body size to increase over time along a lineage. A set of 65 phylogenetically independent comparisons, between earlier and later genera, show that Cope's rule applied in dinosaurs: later genera were on average about 25% longer than the related earlier genera to which they were compared. The tendency for size to increase was not
A Depression Coping Questionnaire (DCQ) was devised to compare strategies for coping with depression reported by male and female college students. Discriminant analysis showed that females were significantly more likely than males to report crying, eating, smoking cigarettes, becoming irritable, and confronting their feelings when depressed. Males were significantly more likely than females to report becoming aggressive and engaging in
Chris L. Kleinke; Richard A. Staneski; Jeanne K. Mason
BackgroundThe stigma and negative societal views attached to schizophrenia can make the diagnosis distressing. There is evidence that poor insight into symptoms of the disorder and need for treatment may reflect the use of denial as a coping style. However, the relationships between insight and other coping styles have seldom been investigated.
Michael Cooke; Emmanuelle Peters; Dominic Fannon; Anantha P. P. Anilkumar; Ingrid Aasen; Elizabeth Kuipers; Veena Kumari
This research examines the level of stress experienced by IT project managers and determines the types of coping strategies used to handle their stress. Sixty-four South African IT project managers completed an online questionnaire. The findings indicate that IT project managers are highly stressed and tend to utilize maladaptive coping strategies more as their stress levels increase. These strategies included
Purpose – The purpose of this study is to analyze entrepreneurs' coping strategies used to face stakeholders' expectations. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper draws from the general management, role theory, and entrepreneurship literature to develop hypotheses that are tested by using hierarchical regression techniques on a sample of 183 Slovenian entrepreneurs. The paper develops and tests four coping strategies (structural role
Objective: The authors investigate self-reported coping with interpersonal stressors among boys with and without ADHD in two studies and provide initial evidence for effects of different subgroups of ADHD on coping in Study 2. Method: In Study 1, 20 Austrian adolescents with ADHD were compared to 20 healthy controls. In Study 2, 44 German children…
Traffic engineering plays a critical role in determining the perfor- mance and reliability of a network. A major challenge in traffic en- gineering is how to cope with dynamic and unpredictable changes in traffic demand. In this paper, we propose COPE, a class of traf- fic engineering algorithms that optimize for the expected scenarios while providing a worst-case guarantee for
Hao Wang; Haiyong Xie; Lili Qiu; Yang Richard Yang; Yin Zhang; Albert G. Greenberg
This study tested a possible explanatory framework of the coping and adaptation of 159 academically able seventh graders by exploring their strengths and vulnerabilities in coping with their differences, their peer relationship styles, and their patterns of achievement motivation. All of the youth in this sample scored in the 97th percentile on grade-level standardized tests with one fourth scoring at
Elizabeth M. Timberlake; Linda B. Barnett; Elizabeth M. Plionis
This document consists of two modules extracted from a six-module larger work. Module 1 presents six articles on the topic of "helping students to cope with fears and crises." Module 2 contains 17 articles on "programs and practices for helping students cope with fears and crises." Article titles and authors are as follows: (1) "Worries of…
This review identifies key issues in research on adolescent coping with stress with parents, friends, and romantic partners during the past decade. An analysis of 78 studies revealed findings on relationship stressors and the potential links between the use of different coping styles for different relationship types. Research has confirmed…
Background. When teachers employ ineffective ways of coping with stressful encounters with pupils, this may result in feelings of distress and diminished learning opportunities for pupils. In the case of beginning teachers, in partic- ular, problematic classroom interactions cause feelings of distress and may result in dysfunctional teaching. Aim. This study examined the functional relationship between student teach- ers' coping
Wilfried F. Admiraal; Fred A. J. Korthagen; Theo Wubbels
Examined the effects of demographic variables, variables specific to marriage and divorce, and coping resources (internal and external) on the adjustment of single mothers. Results indicate that four classes of variables have an effect on the mother's adjustment: phase of divorce and/or separation; numbers and ages of children; style of coping;…
The aim of the present study was to examine the impact of coping strategies and basic personality styles on the one hand and timely recovery of homesickness on the other hand in female students. In order to study whether certain coping strategies and personality styles were associated with chronicity of homesickness, a sample of homesick female students was split up
Miranda A. l. Van Tilburg; Ad J. J. M. Vingerhoets; Guus L. Van Heck
Both behavioral and cognitive coping strategies are determined by an individual's perception of the stressful stimuli. To investigate the relationship of an individual's usual coping style to differential responses to a behavioral or cognitive stressor in four response systems (heart rate, muscle tension, galvanic skin response, and subjective…
Objectives: Caring for a family member with Alzheimer's disease is associated with increased burden and depression. Effective coping with the hardships and demands of caring may help to sustain the caregiver and lessen the effect of the stressors. The objective of this study was to examine caregivers’ coping styles and the relationship with reported levels of burden and depression.Method: A
The study reported in this paper examined the relationships between social workers' experiences when interfacing with managed care organizations, coping strategies, burnout, and somatic symptoms associated with stress. A sample of 591 social workers completed questionnaires that included demographic questions and measures of perceived competence in the context of managed care, coping strategies, burnout, and somatic symptoms. Multiple regression analyses
As part of a comparative study, school administrators were asked to describe the techniques they found useful for handling the tension and pressure of their jobs. Exercise or physical activity was the most frequently mentioned stress-reduction technique. Psychological activities and development of interpersonal skills were also cited. (PP)
During the time around menarche, young women must make many emotional and social adjustments to adapt to a new life stage. We compared depressive symptomatology and coping strategies between early and average maturer Mexican adolescents girls. The relationships between elapsed time since menarche and both depressive symptomatology and coping strategies were also studied. Three hundred eighty post-menarcheal students from 11 to 15 years completed the Children's Depression Scale and the Children's Situational Coping Scale. Early maturers showed more depressive symptoms than their peers, but they reported having used fewer non-productive coping strategies. Early maturers who experienced menarche one to three years previously reported more non-productive coping strategies than those who had experienced menarche four to six years ago. However, no differences were found in the results of the average maturers depending on the time elapsed since menarche. These findings are discussed in light of the psychosocial context of early maturers. PMID:25019174
Coping responses to stress can be divided into three broad categories. The first coping category involves voluntarily mobilizing social supports. The second category involves voluntary coping strategies like rehearsing responses to danger. The third coping category, like fever and leukocytosis, is involuntary. It entails deploying unconscious homeostatic mechanisms that reduce the disorganizing effects of sudden stress, DSM-5 offers a tentative hierarchy of defenses, from psychotic to immature to mature. The 70-year prospective Study of Development at Harvard provides a clinical validation of this hierarchy Maturity of coping predicted psychosocial adjustment to aging 25 years later, and was associated with not developing symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder after very severe WWII combat. PMID:22034454
Core competence 8 5~8 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 PPS003 Ver. 1.1 2011/03/07 #12; 2 (knowledge) (skill) (attitude) Set of skill, knowledge or attitude which should be learned or acquired by each, 2000) (knowledge) (skill) (attitude) Set of skill, knowledge or attitude which should be learned
When someone is criticized for some failure or deficiency, he or she is faced with a dilemma about whether or how to respond. To date, most research on responses to criticism has adopted a communication approach and has focused on general social complaints. The present study instead adopted the perspective of stress and coping and aimed to delineate possible responses to criticism pertaining to one's physical appearance. We investigated the efficacy of three coping styles, namely acceptance, avoidance, and retaliation in explaining emotional reactions towards such criticism, and we additionally controlled for personality characteristics, in particular assertion and harmony beliefs. A sample of Taiwanese university students (N = 300) was surveyed for their coping styles and psychological outcomes, and personality traits were examined as possible predictors of response options. We found that (1) acceptance, retaliation, and avoidance were three broad coping styles in this problematic social situation; (2) the individual trait of assertion was negatively related to the use of avoidance, while harmony beliefs were positively related to acceptance and avoidance, but negatively related to retaliation; and (3) the use of acceptance and avoidance were positively related to positive emotions, whereas retaliation was positively related to negative emotions. Males tended to use more acceptance. Implications of these findings were discussed in relation to existing studies of communication, stress and coping. Possible influences of the Chinese collectivist culture on people's responses to criticism were also delineated, such as valuing interpersonal harmony and face-work in social situations. PMID:22029556
There is accumulating evidence that mindfulness-based interventions are useful in reducing food cravings. However, existing studies have applied many mindfulness skills together, rendering it unclear which skills are essential and which are unnecessary. Based on recent investigations into the efficacy of individual mindfulness skills at managing cravings, the goal of the present study was to compare the efficacy of two-week mindfulness-based interventions, targeting different combinations of specific mindfulness skills (awareness, acceptance, disidentification), at reducing trait and state chocolate cravings. We compared the efficacy of the mindfulness interventions to an active control intervention (distraction). Overall, disidentification emerged as the most efficacious mindfulness skill. After two weeks of practice, those trained in disidentification reported less intense state cravings after a craving induction task compared with those trained in distraction. Mediation analyses revealed that this effect was mediated first by a greater increase in the disidentification skill, and subsequently by a greater decrease in trait chocolate cravings. Manipulation checks revealed that training the disidentification skill was more successful than training the other skills. Disidentification is shown to be a crucial mindfulness skill that can be taught to help better cope with food cravings. PMID:24503333
We describe a prototype introductory physics laboratory designed to teach students some general intellectual skills widely useful in scientific work. These skills include both basic skills (such as estimating quantities, determining errors, or applying useful measuring techniques) and higher-level skills (such as effectively describing experiments and flexibly adapting the resulting knowledge to different conditions). The teaching methods emphasize the utility of organizing information in hierarchical and goal-directed fashion. Furthermore, they strive to use an optimum combination of instruction means ("minilabs," more major "group labs," and integrated assessment devices) to achieve the desired ends. A careful evaluation showed (i) that the prototype course is indeed quite successful in teaching the desired general intellectual skills, and (ii) that these skills are ordinarily not acquired by students in traditional courses. Students' attitudes toward the prototype course are also appreciably more positive.
The present study examined the moderating effects of procedural and distributive justice on the relationships between political skill and task performance and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) among 175 supervisor-subordinate dyads of a government organization. Using Mischel's (1968) situationist perspective, high justice conditions were considered "strong situations," whereas low justice conditions were construed as "weak situations." We found that when both procedural and distributive justice were low, political skill was positively related to performance. Under conditions of both high procedural and high distributive justice, political skill was negatively related to performance. Finally, under conditions of low distributive justice, political skill was positively related to OCB, whereas under conditions of high distributive justice, political skill had little effect on OCB. These results highlight the importance of possessing political skill in weak but not strong situations. PMID:19916653
Andrews, Martha C; Kacmar, K Michele; Harris, Kenneth J
Information technology (IT) skill shortages appear at the market level occasionally—usually for emerging technologies, unanticipated challenges, and\\/or unresolved issues such as systems security. Even when a market- level skill shortage does not exist, a firm can still suffer from skill shortages for its critical information system (IS) project and\\/or IT operations unless the firm plans and manages its needs for
Contemporary research has suggested that bereavement is a paramount issue in college populations, a group which has historically been underrepresented in grief research (Balk. in Death studies 25:67-84, 2001; Balk et al. in Death Studies 34:459-468, 2010). Indeed, there has been a call to generate new research on grief with specific populations and age groups (Center for the Advancement of Health. in Death Studies 28:568-575, 2004). Religion is often described as a primary way that individuals cope with bereavement in particular (Frantz et al. in Pastor Psychol 44(3):151-163, 1996) and has been shown to effect college student reactions to stress in general (Merrill et al. in Mental Health, Religion & Culture 12(5):501-511, 2009). The RCOPE (Pargament et al. in J Clin Psychol 56(4):519-543, 2000, J Health Psychol 9:713-730, 2004) is a frequently used measure of religious coping, but has not been evaluated with a bereaved undergraduate population. Given that emerging adulthood is a critical developmental phase of religious identity (Fowler. in New Directions for Child Development 3(52):27-45, 1991), the current study examined the factor structure of the RCOPE within a sample of bereaved college students. An exploratory factor analysis was performed, which approximated the factor structure proposed by Pargament et al. (J Clin Psychol 56(4):519-543, 2000). However, a high correlation between the positive and negative religious coping subscales (r = 0.71) detracted from the predictive utility of Pargament et al.'s (2000) two overarching subscales. Therefore, an exploratory factor analysis with an orthogonal rotation was used to identify two uncorrelated subscales (adaptive religious coping and maladaptive religious coping). This new two-factor, 39-item version of the RCOPE was found to demonstrate good internal consistency (? > 0.8) as well as convergent and discriminant validity. The interaction between religious coping strategies and core beliefs about the predictability of the world is explored, and directions for future research and clinical practice are suggested. PMID:22581317
Objective The diagnosis and treatment of cancer present children and adolescents with significant stress. However, research on the ways that children and adolescents cope with cancer-related stress has not yielded clear findings on the efficacy of different coping strategies, and has been limited by reliance primarily on self-reports of both coping and distress. To address this gap, the current study used a control-based model of coping to examine self- and parent reports of child/adolescent coping and symptoms of anxiety and depression in a sample of children with cancer. Method Children and adolescents (5 to 17 years old) and their parents were recruited near the time of a child’s diagnosis or relapse of cancer (M = 1.30 months postdiagnosis). Child self-reports (n = 153), mother reports (n = 297), and father reports (n = 161) of children’s coping and symptoms of anxiety/depression were obtained. Results Bivariate correlations revealed significant associations for secondary control coping (efforts to adapt to source of stress; e.g., acceptance, cognitive reappraisal) and disengagement coping (e.g., avoidance, denial) with anxiety/depression within and across informants. Linear multiple regression analyses indicated that secondary control coping accounted for unique variance in symptoms of anxiety/ depression both within and across informants. Conclusions Secondary control coping appears important for children and adolescents during early phases of treatment for cancer, and it may serve as an important target for future interventions to enhance adjustment in these children. PMID:25068455
Compas, Bruce E.; Desjardins, Leandra; Vannatta, Kathryn; Young-Saleme, Tammi; Rodriguez, Erin M.; Dunn, Madeleine; Bemis, Heather; Snyder, Sarah; Gerhardt, Cynthia A.
Objective This study examines the relationships between methods of coping with advanced cancer, completion of advance care directives, and receipt of intensive, life-prolonging care near death. Methods The analysis is based on a sample of 345 patients interviewed between January 1, 2003, and August 31, 2007, and followed until death as part of the Coping with Cancer Study, an NCI/NIMH-funded, multi-site, prospective, longitudinal, cohort study of patients with advanced cancer. The Brief COPE was used to assess active coping, use of emotional-support, and behavioral disengagement. The Brief RCOPE was used to assess positive and negative religious coping. The main outcome was intensive, life-prolonging care near death, defined as receipt of ventilation or resuscitation in the last week of life. Results Positive religious coping was associated with lower rates of having a living will (AOR=0.39, p=0.003) and predicted higher rates of intensive, life-prolonging care near death (AOR, 5.43; p<0.001), adjusting for other coping methods and potential socio-demographic and health status confounds. Behavioral disengagement was associated with higher rates of DNR order completion (AOR, 2.78; p=0.003) and predicted lower rates of intensive life-prolonging care near death (AOR, 0.20; p=0.036). Not having a living will partially mediated the influence of positive religious coping on receipt of intensive, life-prolonging care near death. Conclusion Positive religious coping and behavioral disengagement are important determinants of completion of advance care directives and receipt of intensive, life-prolonging care near death. PMID:21449037
Maciejewski, Paul K.; Phelps, Andrea C.; Kacel, Elizabeth L.; Balboni, Tracy A.; Balboni, Michael; Wright, Alexi A.; Pirl, William; Prigerson, Holly G.
Introduction: The puerperium is a stage that produces changes and adaptations in women, couples and family. Effective coping, during this stage, depends on the relationship between the demands of stressful or difficult situations and the recourses that the puerperal individual has. Roy (2004), in her Middle Range Theory about the Coping and Adaptation Processing, defines Coping as the ''behavioral and cognitive efforts that a person makes to meet the environment demands''. For the puerperal individual, the correct coping is necessary to maintain her physical and mental well being, especially against situations that can be stressful like breastfeeding and return to work. According to Lazarus and Folkman (1986), a resource for coping is to have someone who receives emotional support, informative and / or tangible. Objective: To review the issue of women coping and adaptation during the puerperium stage and the strategies that enhance this adaptation. Methods: search and selection of database articles: Cochrane, Medline, Ovid, ProQuest, Scielo, and Blackwell Synergy. Other sources: unpublished documents by Roy, published books on Roy´s Model, Websites from of international health organizations. Results: the need to recognize the puerperium as a stage that requires comprehensive care is evident, where nurses must be protagonist with the care offered to women and their families, considering the specific demands of this situation and recourses that promote effective coping and the family, education and health services. PMID:24893059
Munoz de Rodriguez, Lucy; Ruiz de Cardenas, Carmen Helena
"Skills for Action," a program to build positive character values and life and citizenship skills for students in grades 9-12, includes classroom lessons and service learning. The program, with more than 100 lessons focused around 26 personal, social, and thinking skills, ranges from one semester to four years in length. Students explore personal…
Although research indicates associations between social skills deficits and poor social outcomes (Deniz et al., 2005; Segrin, 1990), and such outcomes and paranoid thinking (Freeman et al., 2005), few studies have investigated links between social skills, paranoid thinking, and social outcomes. Undergraduate students (N=182) completed self-report measures of paranoid thinking, social skills, loneliness, and social support. Paranoid thinking was positively
Objective This study investigated the relationship between positive and negative religious coping and quality of life among outpatients with schizophrenia. Methods Interviews were conducted with 63 adults in the southeastern United States. Religious coping was measured by the 14-item RCOPE and quality of life by the World Health Organization Quality of Life–BREF. Data were examined via descriptive bivariate statistics and controlled analyses. Results Most participants reported participation in private religious or spiritual activities (91%) and participation in public religious services or activities (68%). Positive religious coping was related to the quality-of-life facet of psychological health (r=.28, p=.03). Negative religious coping and quality of life were inversely related (r=?.30, p=.02). Positive religious coping was associated with psychological health in the reduced univariate general linear model (B=.72, p=.03, adjusted R2=.08). Conclusions Greater awareness of the importance of religion in this population may improve cultural competence in treatment and community support. PMID:23032680
Nolan, Jennifer A.; McEvoy, Joseph P.; Koenig, Harold G.; Hooten, Elizabeth G.; Whetten, Kathryn; Pieper, Carl F.
The psychosocial effects of terrorist threat and close protection have never been studied systematically in political leaders. We conducted a study among 12 Dutch politicians and their partners who were living under terrorist threat and close protection in the aftermath of two political murders. Interviews revealed that their coping with the situation varied and consisted of emotion-focused, defensive, palliative and instrumental coping strategies. Symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder occurred in some individuals, and tendencies to express milder or stronger opinions on sensitive issues were reported. Psychosocial knowledge can be useful in helping to cope with the situation in the best possible way. PMID:20884958
Nijdam, Mirjam J; Gersons, Berthold P R; Olff, Miranda
Recent research indicates that young adult college students experience increased levels of depression, anxiety, and stress. It is less clear what strategies college health care providers might use to assist students in decreasing these mental health concerns. In this paper, we examine the relative importance of coping style, life satisfaction, and selected demographics in predicting undergraduates' depression, anxiety, and stress. A total of 508 full-time undergraduate students aged 18-24 years completed the study measures and a short demographics information questionnaire. Coping strategies and life satisfaction were assessed using the Brief COPE Inventory and an adapted version of the Brief Students' Multidimensional Life Satisfaction Scale. Depression, anxiety, and stress were measured using the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21). Multiple regression analyses were used to examine the relative influence of each of the independent variables on depression, anxiety, and stress. Maladaptive coping was the main predictor of depression, anxiety, and stress. Adaptive coping was not a significant predictor of any of the three outcome variables. Reducing maladaptive coping behaviors may have the most positive impact on reducing depression, anxiety, and stress in this population. PMID:22364426
Mahmoud, Jihan Saber Raja; Staten, Ruth; Hall, Lynne A; Lennie, Terry A
The quiet eye is a perceptual skill associated with expertise and superior performance; however, little is known about the transfer of quiet eye across domains. We attempted to replicate previous skill-based differences in quiet eye and investigated whether transfer of motor and perceptual skills occurs between similar tasks. Throwing accuracy and quiet eye duration for skilled and less-skilled basketball players were examined in basketball free throw shooting and the transfer task of dart throwing. Skilled basketball players showed significantly higher throwing accuracy and longer quiet eye duration in the basketball free throw task compared to their less-skilled counterparts. Further, skilled basketball players showed positive transfer from basketball to dart throwing in accuracy but not in quiet eye duration. Our results raise interesting questions regarding the measurement of transfer between skills. PMID:24062703
The current study compared the relative importance of proactive coping and preventive coping in the adjustment to university life among 403 freshmen at a Chinese university and evaluated the function of proactive coping in the stress process. Participants completed the Future-Oriented Coping Inventory (Gan, Yang, Zhou, & Zhang, 2007), the…
Investigated relationship of mild depression, stress, and coping based on Lazarus's model of stress and coping. Examined two coping styles (problem and emotion focused), two measures of stress, and mild depression in college students (N=227). Found mildly depressed persons relied more on emotion-focused coping and experience more stress than did…
Affect regulation models of alcohol use posit individuals use alcohol to modify mood states. Importantly, these models hypothesize that individual difference in coping motives for drinking moderate the relation between drinking and negative moods. Despite consistently significant correlations among negative moods, coping motives, and alcohol involvement in numerous between-level studies, within-person analyses have yielded results inconsistent with theoretical models. Analytic techniques modeling time-to-drink have provided results more consistent with theory, though there remains a paucity of research using these methods. The purpose of the current study was to explore whether coping motives moderate the relation between negative moods and the immediacy of drinking using methodology outlined by Hussong (2007) and Armeli, Todd, Conner, and Tennen (2008). Overall, our study showed little evidence for hypothesized mood-motive-alcohol use relations, thus demonstrating that time-to-drink approaches may not provide more consistent support for these hypotheses. PMID:22867813
Littlefield, Andrew K.; Jackson, Kristina M.; Talley, Amelia E.
... Articles » My ACS » Coping With Cancer in Everyday Life Download Printable Version [PDF] » ( En español ) Nearly 14. ... cancer For spouses, families, and friends Finding support Life after cancer treatment Finding hope To learn more ...
... Search Help? Coping with Test Pain, Discomfort, and Anxiety Share this page: Was this page helpful? Introduction | ... though they may feel some embarrassment, discomfort, or anxiety at the outset. If undergoing medical tests makes ...
. The financial model, Cogeneration Options Evaluation (COPE), is designed to consider the financial and regulatory implications for the utility, the industry and where relevant, third parties, for all practically feasible combinations of ownership....
The aim of this article is to briefly review the literature on stigmatization and more generally identity threats, to focus more specifically of the way people appraise and cope with those threatening situations. Based on the transactional model of stress and coping of Lazarus and Folkman (1984), we propose a model of coping with identity threats that takes into accounts the principle characteristic of stigma, its devaluing aspect. We present a model with specific antecedents, a refined appraisal phase and a new classification of coping strategies based on the motives that may be elicited by the threatening situation, those of protecting and/or enhancing the personal and/or social identity. PMID:21713247
In a longitudinal community survey of 291 adults, we explored the relation between coping strategies and psychological symptoms. Respondents completed the revised Ways of Coping Scale (Folkman & Lazarus, 1985) for a self-named stressful episode. Factor analysis produced eight coping factors: three problem focused, four emotion focused, and one (support mobilization) that contained elements of both. Multiple regression analyses indicated bidirectionality in the relation between coping and psychological symptoms. Those in poorer mental health and under greater stress used less adaptive coping strategies, such as escapism, but coping efforts still affected mental health independent of prior symptom levels and degree of stress. We compared main versus interactive effects models of stress buffering. Main effects were confined primarily to the emotion-focused coping scales and showed little or negative impacts of coping on mental health; interactive effects, though small, were found with the problem-focused scales. The direction of the relation between problem-focused scales and symptoms may depend in part on perceived efficacy, or how the respondent thought he or she handled the problem. Implications for the measurement of adaptive coping mechanisms and their contextual appropriateness are discussed. PMID:3625471
OBJECTIVE—To assess separate and combined effects of work factors and behavioural coping in relation to withdrawal from the labour force among patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA).?METHODS—A cross sectional study was conducted in a Dutch nationwide random sample of 720 patients with RA. Information about work factors and behavioural coping was collected by a self-administered postal questionnaire. A broad variety of work factors and coping styles were evaluated separately and in combination using multivariate logistic regression analyses, controlling for sociodemographic and disease related variables. Attributable and preventable fractions were calculated from the combined analyses to assess the relative importance of the contributing factors.?RESULTS—Additional job training, equal career opportunities, letting the disease influence the choice of the current job position, and informing colleagues about having the disease were negatively associated with withdrawal from the labour force. The most relevant factor in terms of decreasing the risk was adjusting job demands which accounted for 63% of the patients still in the labour force. Decreasing activities and diverting attention in order to cope with pain, and pacing in order to cope with limitations were the coping styles which were positively associated with withdrawal from the labour force. The most relevant factor in terms of increasing the risk of withdrawal was pacing which accounted for 67% of the withdrawals.?CONCLUSION—Work factors are potentially important modifiable risk factors for withdrawal from the labour force in patients with RA. Behavioural coping is also relevant.?? PMID:11602473
Chorus, A; Miedema, H; Wevers, C; van der Linden, S
The objectives of this study were to (a) determine prevalence of the dispositional repressive coping style as well as other\\u000a situational coping styles in a sample of asthmatic patients and (b) to analyze the capacity of these styles to predict subsequent\\u000a morbidity (emergency room visits or hospitalizations due to asthma) during a 12-month follow-up. A sample of 75 adult asthmatic
Beatriz González-Freire; Isabel Vázquez-Rodríguez; Pedro Marcos-Velázquez; Carlos González de la Cuesta
This mail survey measured post-traumatic stress symptoms, spiritual and non-spiritual coping strategies, and positive spiritual\\u000a outcomes following the tragedies of 9\\/11\\/01 in a national, random sample of 1,056 Presbyterians. Respondents reported mild\\u000a to moderate degrees of re-experiencing and hyper-arousal symptoms of post-traumatic stress, unrelated to location or knowing\\u000a someone involved. People experiencing high stress used greater frequency and variety of
Marital separation and divorce are stressful transitions for families. Due to the multitude of stressors imposed, parents and children are at risk for negative emotional, behavioral, and psychological outcomes. Advanced practice nurses are in an excellent position to provide early interventions to separated families that may prevent the need for mental health services that are costly to families and communities. This article discusses the effects of divorce on children and parents and provides guidelines for assessment and intervention with separated families. A description of the Creating Opportunities for Parent Empowerment (COPE) program, a newly developed intervention program for separated parents and their young children, is also included. PMID:9447103
Although perceived discrimination has been associated with depressive symptoms among Hispanic adults, not all individuals who report discrimination will report elevated levels of depression. This study examined whether acculturation and religious coping would moderate the association between past-year perceived discrimination and depressive symptoms in a sample of 247 Mexican-American post-secondary vocational students (59.6 % males; mean age = 26.81). Results from hierarchical regression analyses indicated that perceived discrimination, positive religious coping, and negative religious coping were significantly associated with depressive symptoms. Further analyses indicated that positive religious coping moderated the perceived discrimination-depressive symptoms association. Students reporting using positive religious coping were protected from experiencing heightened levels of depressive symptoms when faced with discrimination. Acculturation was not directly associated with depressive symptoms nor did it function as a moderator. The salutary influences of positive religious coping for Mexican-American students are discussed. Study limitations and future directions for research are also discussed. PMID:24271112
Manufacturing Engineering Skills provides an assessment of what the key manufacturing skills along with skill gaps are in the marketplace. Joe Loughrey is president and chief operating officer of Cummins Inc. and chairman of The Manufacturing Institute, the research and education arm of the National Association of Manufacturers. Additionally, Manufacturing Engineering Skills was shared by Mike Mohlar and by Roger Lang at an SME mfg executive roundtable in 2005 to provide clarity and encouragement about careers in manufacturing.
\\u000a The term “social skills” encompasses an array of learned behaviors that share the common goal of maintaining or increasing\\u000a reinforcement within a social context. Deficits in social skills can occur at any developmental period and are not likely\\u000a to improve spontaneously because impaired social skills impede interactions with other people. In turn, unsatisfying or disruptive\\u000a interactions exacerbate social skill deficits
Ashley J. Smith; Judith A. Jordan; Mary Fran Flood; David J. Hansen
Oncology nurses may experience intense physical and emotional exhaustion, identified in the literature as symptoms of cumulative grief and compassion fatigue, with significant consequences for both nurses and organizations. The first step in preventing these consequences is recognition. Organizations should provide nurses with resources including education, counseling, and opportunities to grieve. Nurses need to learn the importance of work-life balance, self-care strategies, and communication skills. Using recommendations from the literature, an educational intervention was designed with the purpose of providing nurses with knowledge, skills, and resources to practice effective self-care and recognize when assistance is needed. The program's objective was to help nurses develop the copingskills and inner resources necessary to maintain their emotional and physical health. PMID:25095300
As APICS practitioners, we all must share a common goal. How can we contribute to our company's success? Success can be measured in positive terms of market share, growth, profitability, return on investment, or some combination thereof. Each company must establish its own definition of success. For the purposes of this article, success will be equated to one word that we can all readily identify with: survival. What skills do we need to survive in the marketplace of the next millennium? PMID:10623133
In this article, Bates, the Inmate Programs Manager of the Hillsborough County Sheriff's Office in Tampa, Florida, describes her office's Life Skills Project, a comprehensive program that has significantly enhanced three existing programs by adding extensive life skills components. The added life skills modules reinforce the importance of…
#12;Knowledge & Skills Foundations In the social sciences, incoming students succeed when they are armed with specific knowledge and skills--but above all, when they are ready to embrace the learning process. Basic Knowledge & Skills Students who are ready for entry-level courses are familiar
Describes methods used in the nursing curriculum at the University of Iowa College of Nursing to evaluate inclusion of physical assessment skills and to test students' use of cognitive, perceptual, and psychomotor assessment skills in nursing diagnosis. Includes an example of motor and perceptual skill objectives for examining thorax and lungs.…
This document contains four symposium papers on enhancing employee skills. "The Effect of Study Skills Training Intervention on United States Air Force Aeromedical Apprentices" (John C. Griffith) demonstrates how study skills intervention resulted in a significant increase in the end-of-course scores of a sample of 90 randomly selected Air Force…
Behavioral skills training (BST) is effective to train staff to provide intervention to people with developmental disabilities. The purpose of this study was to assess whether: (a) prior studies demonstrating the effectiveness of BST could be systematically replicated while teaching multiple teaching instructors to implement discrete trial teaching, incidental teaching and activity schedules; (b) instructional skills that staff acquired during training on one response generalized to a variety of instructional programs, (c) positive changes in staff performance produced positive behavior change in learners; and (d) positive changes in learner behavior generalized to novel programs. BST resulted in positive behavior change across staff, learners, instructional programs, and various teaching skills. Further, staff generalized teaching skills to novel responses and learners displayed increases in correct responding for all three instructional procedures. Social validity data indicated they these staff training procedures were highly acceptable and effective. Thus, BST is an effective and acceptable staff training procedure. PMID:24374896
Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have demonstrated an association between various functions of reminiscence and well-being in later adulthood. This study investigates to what extent the links between reminiscence (self-positive and self-negative functions) and psychological well-being (depressive symptoms, anxiety level and life satisfaction) are mediated by assimilative and accommodative coping. This mediational model was tested using structural equation modelling. The results support the hypothesis that coping completely mediates the links between reminiscence and psychological well-being. Specifically, self-positive reminiscences are related to improved psychological well-being via assimilative and accommodative coping, while, in contrast, self-negative reminiscences are associated to reduced psychological well-being through their negative relationships with both coping modes. These findings suggest that reminiscence contributes to psychological well-being in part because it promotes assimilative and accommodative coping, which are protective mechanisms through which the self-system constructs continuity and meaning over the life course. PMID:20635233
The purpose of this investigation was to understand the varied health care provider responses to traumas by identifying perceptions of control and self-efficacy, appraisal styles, and postevent coping strategies in active duty military nurses and physicians deployed to combat/terrorist regions. Twenty purposively sampled military health care providers completed a descriptive questionnaire, the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist, the General Self-Efficacy Scale, and a recorded semistructured interview that was later transcribed and content analyzed. Cognitive-behavioral determinants of healthy response to trauma were used to frame this descriptive interpretive study and to assist with developing a model for healthy adaptation in trauma-exposed health care providers. Participants felt they had the greatest control over their health care provider role in theater, and most expressed a belief that a sense of control and a sense of purpose were important to their coping. All used some form of social support to cope and many found calming activities that allowed for self-reflection to be helpful. Results from this analysis can be used to inform interventions and promote postevent coping behaviors that increase social support, strengthen important bonds, and enhance involvement in activities that elicit positive emotions. Health care providers experienced positive outcomes despite considerable traumatic exposure by using coping strategies that map closely to several principles of psychological first aid. This suggests a need to train all medical personnel in these concepts as they appear helpful in mitigating responses to the stress of combat-related exposures. PMID:23855421
Gibbons, Susanne W; Shafer, Michaela; Aramanda, Larry; Hickling, Edward J; Benedek, David M
and communication skills, in addition to your ability to balance outside interests with academic demands. Therefore: ..................................................................................................................... 1.2 Membership of clubs/societies (excluding sports) e.g. chess club, choir member, music club/school/university newspaper 10. Director/Producer of plays 1.3 Participation in sports at high school or university. Please
The aim was to explore the predictive ability of sources of stress and a range of dispositional and coping behaviours on student satisfaction and motivation. Most research exploring sources of stress and coping in students construes stress as psychological distress, with little attempt to consider positive experiences of stress. A questionnaire…
Objective: To use principal-components analysis to obtain a shorter and therefore more clinically useful version of the Coping Strategies Questionnaire (CSQ). Subjects: A British sample of 214 chronic back pain patients attending outpatient spinal assessment. Results: A 4-factor solution was discovered that incorporates Catastrophizing, Diversion, Cognitive Coping, and Reinterpreting factors. Apart from the absence of a Praying and Hoping factor,
Students is a very specific population according to their manner to cope with stress. A coping questionnaire for students was developed and administered to 1100 French students at the beginning of the term (T1). Principal Component Analysis of responses, followed by varimax rotations, yielded three factors accounting for 50.5% of the total…
This study tested a model that links stress, social support, problem-focused coping, and well-being. First, it looks at how high support significantly moderated the association between stress and well-being. Next, the students' problem-focused coping was seen as mediating this moderated association. Finally, a 3-way interaction of stress, social…
Study examined adolescents' participation in sports, school, and community extracurricular activities to assess the influence of different involvement roles and adult support on leadership skills. The study found that males and females who perceived their adult support more positively had more positive perceptions of their leadership skills.…
The intersection of work and family life has always been a popular topic of discussion among family theorists. This study examined human service employees in direct service positionscoping with work stress, family stress, and work-family conflict. The effects of work stress, family stress and work-family conflict on depression were examined.…
This study investigates the relationships among stress, coping, and mental health in 139 students participating in an International Baccalaureate (IB) high school diploma program. Mental health was assessed using both positive indicators (life satisfaction, academic achievement, academic self-efficacy) and negative indicators (psychopathology) of…
Suldo, Shannon M.; Shaunessy, Elizabeth; Hardesty, Robin
Presents findings from a survey of 236 graduates of eight community college nursing programs in Oregon, concerning graduates' perceptions of the level of stress they felt and their personal health status as students in the program, their responses to stress, and positive methods of coping (e.g., physical activity). (DMM)
A study was conducted to examine the role of positive and negative life circumstances and individual coping factors in the psychological adjustment of older individuals. Interviews were conducted with 32 men and 32 women between the ages of 65 and 75 who were retired from mid-level or managerial jobs at the University of Texas. Most of the…
A positivecoping style can be critical to successful rehabilitation of psychiatric consumers. Using structural equation modeling, this study examined the relationships among consumers' psychological characteristics, self-esteem, and behaviors, and the role of self-esteem in mediating the relationships between psychological characteristics and…
The author takes the position that the foundational value of the counseling profession is an ethic of appreciation for human differences. The professional tool that is used to actualize this value is language. In this regard, the philosophical distinction between copying and coping conceptualizations of language is overviewed. The author argues…
The present study explored the experiences of three football goalkeepers coping with negative media coverage. Goalkeeping is a hard position to play as you become scrutinized from all angles, and keepers are often blamed for losses by the media. The study of the media as a stressor is a relatively unexplored field. In this investigation, we chose qualitative semi-structured interviews
The current longitudinal study tested the premise that Latino adolescents' (N = 323) proactive coping with discrimination would mediate the relationship between ethnic identity and self-esteem. Each component of ethnic identity (i.e., exploration, resolution, and affirmation) was positively associated with concurrent assessments of adolescents'…
The purpose of this study was to examine the potential moderating and mediating roles of positive and negative religious coping styles in the relationship between external and internalized racism and African American persons' psychological distress. Participants included 269 African Americans who completed a web-based Internet survey. Results…
This study examined the study habits and skills of subjects taking basic science courses at a two year, postsecondary institution. The instrument used was the Study Behavior Inventory. This 46?item Inventory addressed these issues: general study attitudes and behavior, reading and note?taking techniques, and coping with examinations. The data suggest that the subjects had difficulty with time management and keeping
The ability to build arguments is a crucial skill and a central educational goal in all school subjects including science as it enables students to formulate reasoned opinions and thus to cope with the increasing complexity of knowledge. In the present cross-sectional study, we examined the domain-specificity of argumentative writing in science by…
Heitmann, Patricia; Hecht, Martin; Schwanewedel, Julia; Schipolowski, Stefan
The purpose of this study was to examine patterns of appraisal, coping, and coping effectiveness in sport. Ten players from a collegiate female volleyball team were interviewed on two occasions, first in the week before a provincial final playoff tournament and in the week following the tournament. Data were transcribed verbatim and subjected to content and idiographic analyses. Athletes generally did not predict or anticipate the stressors they actually experienced during the tournament. Subjective appraisals of effective coping were associated with consistency between proactive and actual coping attempts. Reported effective coping was associated with the attainment of personal performance goals and use of cognitive, behavioral, and emotional coping strategies in the absence of behavioral avoidance. Reported ineffective and partially effective coping was associated with not attaining personal performance goals, and the use of cognitive coping strategies with behavioral avoidance. Finally, older, more experienced athletes reported they coped better than younger, less experienced athletes during the tournament. PMID:17479580
Holt, Nicholas L; Berg, Kylie-Joy; Tamminen, Katherine A
This study examined an important but rarely investigated aspect of the dissemination process: the intensity of training provided to practitioners. Counselors in 57 schools were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 conditions: Coping Power-training plus feedback (CP-TF), Coping Power-basic training (CP-BT), or a comparison condition. CP-TF counselors produced reductions in children's externalizing behavior problems and improvements in children's social and academic skills in comparison to results for target children in both the comparison and the CP-BT conditions. Training intensity was critical for successful dissemination, although the implementation mechanism underlying this effect remains unclear, as condition effects were not significant for completion of session objectives but were significant for the quality of counselors' engagement with children. PMID:19485582
Lochman, John E; Boxmeyer, Caroline; Powell, Nicole; Qu, Lixin; Wells, Karen; Windle, Michael
This article reports on the generalizability, reliability, and construct validity of the Parent Situation Inventory (PSI), a role-play measure of copingskills in parents experiencing problems from an adolescent's drug and alcohol use. Generalizability was robust (.80) and alternate form and test-retest reliability were satisfactory. PSI…
McGillicuddy, Neil B.; Rychtarik, Robert G.; Morsheimer, Elizabeth T.
The authors replicate Kruger and Dunning (1999) by demonstrating that the most unskilled students overestimate their skill level, whereas highly skilled students underestimate their skill level. Furthermore, this misestimation of skill is related to academic performance. Misestimation was positively related to first year college GPA, persistence to the fourth year of college, and graduation. At times, this effect can lead
Theorists have hypothesized that skill in critical thinking is positively correlated with the consistent internal motivation to think; and, moreover, that specific critical thinking skills are matched with specific critical thinking dispositions. If true, these assumptions suggest that a skill-focused curriculum would lead persons to be both willing and able to think. New instruments to measure critical thinking skills and
Peter A. Facione; Noreen C. Facione; Carol A. Giancarlo
A literature review identifies a partial list of leadership skills to include developing higher-order cognitive skills, team working skills, positive attitude, and ability to transfer these skills to future environment. This paper discusses the results of research conducted on the use of multiple instructional methodologies in two different…
Sankar, Chetan S.; Kawulich, Barbara; Clayton, Howard; Raju, P. K.
The purpose of this longitudinal panel study was to investigate developmental and gender influences on stress and coping in adolescents attending a suburban high school in Tennessee. Data were collected from the same 167 subjects during the freshman year and again during the senior year. Life events stress was measured through the Adolescent Life Change Event Scale (ALCES) and ways of coping were categorized from data gathered from an open-ended questionnaire. Girls reported more life events stress at both testings than boys. Life events stress was greater at senior testing for both girls and boys, but girls' scores increased more. The "gender intensification" phenomenon may account for the greater disparity in types of stress reported by boys and girls as seniors. Girls generally reported more life events associated with interpersonal and family relationships. Both girls and boys reported coping with stress mostly through active distraction techniques such as exercise. However, girls' use of active distraction decreased over time, while passive distraction increased. Self-destructive and aggressive coping behaviors increased for boys. There were no relationships between amounts or types of life events stress and ways of coping for subjects at either time. PMID:1509113
Disasters and terrorism present significant and often overwhelming challenges for children and families worldwide. Individual, family, and social factors influence disaster reactions and the diverse ways in which children cope. This article links conceptualizations of stress and coping to empirical knowledge of children’s disaster reactions, identifies limitations in our current understanding, and suggests areas for future study of disaster coping. Coping strategies, developmental trajectories influencing coping, and the interplay between parent and child coping represent critical areas for advancing the field and for informing programs and services that benefit children’s preparedness and foster resilience in the face of mass trauma. PMID:24683315
PFEFFERBAUM, BETTY; NOFFSINGER, MARY A.; WIND, LESLIE H.; ALLEN, JAMES R.
Maximizing rewards per unit time is ideal for success and survival in humans and animals. This goal can be approached by speeding up behavior aiming at rewards and this is done most efficiently by acquiring skills. Importantly, reward-directed skills consist of two components: finding a good object (i.e., object skill) and acting on the object (i.e., action skill), which occur sequentially. Recent studies suggest that object skill is based on high-capacity memory for object-value associations. When a learned object is encountered the corresponding memory is quickly expressed as a value-based gaze bias, leading to the automatic acquisition or avoidance of the object. Object skill thus plays a crucial role in increasing rewards per unit time. PMID:23911579
Hikosaka, Okihide; Yamamoto, Shinya; Yasuda, Masaharu; Kim, Hyoung F
Background: Internet-based methods for provision of psychological support and intervention to cancer survivors hold promise for increasing\\u000a the public impact of such treatments.Purpose: The goal of this controlled pilot study was to examine the effect and potential mechanisms of action of a self-guided, Internet-based\\u000a coping-skills training group on quality of life outcomes in women with early-stage breast cancer.Methods: Sixty-two women
Jason E. Owen; Joshua C. Klapow; David L. Roth; John L. Shuster; Jeff Bellis; Ron Meredith; Diane C. Tucker
BACKGROUND: Despite a U.S. prevalence of 9%, less than 25% of depressed adolescents receive treatment because of time constraints in clinical practice and lack of mental health providers available to deliver it. OBJECTIVE: To assess the feasibility and effects of a brief manualized seven-session cognitive—behavioral skills building intervention entitled COPE (Creating Opportunities for Personal Empowerment) delivered to 15 depressed adolescents
The prejudice and discrimination that overweight and obese individuals experience as a result of their weight (i.e. weight stigma) often leads to psychological consequences, such as depression. The present study examined whether coping with stigmatizing experiences mediated the relationship between perceived weight stigma and depression among overweight/obese treatment seeking adults. Fifty-four overweight and obese (mean BMI=37.2) weight loss treatment seeking participants (87.3% Caucasian, 79.6% female) participated in the study. Results from this study indicate that greater stigmatizing experiences were significantly related to depression. Both adaptive and maladaptive coping significantly mediated the relationship between weight stigma and depression. Surprisingly however, greater adaptive coping was positively related to depression. Coping responses appear to mediate the association between experiencing bias and discrimination because of one's weight and adverse psychological outcomes. Results suggest that obese individuals are at considerable risk for psychological complications secondary to weight-based mistreatment by others and their responses to cope with the mistreatment. PMID:21727777
This study aims to find the relationship between quality of life and coping strategies in coronary heart disease patients. Two hundred coronary heart disease patients at Tehran Heart Center, who had been diagnosed with the disease 3 months before, were selected and filled out The Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS) and Quality of Life-SF36. Results showed a discrepancy between quality of life indices and coping strategies. Task-oriented strategy had a positive and significant relationship with total quality of life and PF indices while it had a negative and significant relationship with MH, RE and RP indices. Emotional-oriented strategy had a positive and significant relationship with RP and RE indices while it had a negative and significant relationship with PF, GH, PH, total psychological health and total quality of life indices. Avoidance-oriented strategy had a negative and significant relationship only with MH index. Furthermore, quality of life aspects (physical and psychological) had a positive and significant relationship with emotional-oriented strategy, but it did not have a significant relationship with task-oriented and avoidance-oriented strategies. Also, the social aspect of quality of life did not have a significant relationship with any of the strategies. Considering the effect of stress on decreasing the quality of life, we recommend a psychologist train coping strategies to coronary heart disease patients along with medical treatments in order to improve recovery, maintain health and reduce recurrence.
Yazdi, Seyedeh-Monavar; Hosseinian, Simin; Eslami, Mansoure; Fathi-Ashtiani, Ali
The grief experiences of young children and the interactional dynamics between parents and children leading to healthy grieving remain comparatively under researched. This article reports a qualitative evaluation of a Norwegian Bereavement Support Program where 8 parents described their young child's grief reactions and coping and how these intersected with their own grief. Successful parental coping with their child's grief involves understanding the child's genuine concerns following the death and an intricately holistic balance between shielding and including, between informing and frightening, and between creating a new life while cherishing the old. PMID:24521044
Bugge, Kari E; Darbyshire, Philip; Røkholt, Eline Grelland; Haugstvedt, Karen Therese Sulheim; Helseth, Solvi
Lake Meadow Drive Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology Apex, North Carolina 27502 Box-515-7169 CURRENT POSITIONS Associate Professor of Environmental Toxicology Associate Faculty Graduate Faculty;2 PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCE Associate Professor of Environmental Toxicology (38% Research) and Department Extension
The present study addressed a fundamental gap between research and clinical work by advancing longitudinal explanatory conceptualizations of stress and coping processes that trigger daily affect in the short- and long-term for individuals with higher levels of personality vulnerability. Community adults completed measures of 2 higher order dimensions of perfectionism (personal standards [PS], self-criticism [SC]), neuroticism, and conscientiousness. Then, 6 months later and again 3 years later, participants completed daily questionnaires of stress, coping, and affect for 14 consecutive days. PS was associated with aggregated daily problem-focused coping and positive reinterpretation, whereas SC was uniquely associated with daily negative social interactions, avoidant coping, negative affect, and sadness at Month 6 and Year 3. Multilevel modeling results demonstrated that both individuals with higher PS and those with higher SC were emotionally reactive to event stress, negative social interactions, and avoidant coping at Month 6 and Year 3 and to less perceived control at Year 3. Positive reinterpretation was especially effective for individuals with higher SC at Month 6 and Year 3. The effects of PS on daily stress reactivity and coping (in)effectiveness were clearly distinguished from the effects of neuroticism and conscientiousness, whereas the SC effects were due to shared overlap with PS and neuroticism. The present findings demonstrate the promise of using repeated daily diary methodologies to help therapists and clients reliably predict future client reactions to daily stressors, which, in turn, could help guide interventions to break apart dysfunctional patterns connected to distress and build resilience for vulnerable individuals. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25111703
The purpose of this study was to examine psychosocial correlates of adjustment to HIV\\/AIDS in a sample of 137 HIV-positive persons (78 men and 59 women). Multiple regression analysis was used to examine relationships between perceived quality of general social support, three attachment styles, and three coping styles with total score on Positive States of Mind Scale (PSOMS), our measure
Julie M. Turner-Cobb; Cheryl Gore-Felton; Feyza Marouf; Cheryl Koopman; Peea Kim; Dennis Israelski; David Spiegel
situations with great interpersonal skills Use your business, leadership and people skills to inspire Target Bachelors, Masters Use your business, leadership and people skills to inspire exceptional a significant knowledge base during your comprehensive training program -Work closely with the senior leadership
The current body of evidence supporting the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills (IMB) model of antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence rests exclusively on data collected from people living with HIV (PLWH) at point-of-HIV-care services. The aims of this study were to: (1) determine if the IMB model is a useful predictive model of ART adherence among PLWH who were primarily recruited in out-of-HIV-care settings; and (2) assess whether the theorized associations between IMB model constructs and adherence persist in the presence of depression and current drug use. PLWH (n = 312) responding to a one-time online survey completed the Life Windows IMB-ART-Adherence Questionnaire, and demographic, depression (CES-D 10), and drug use items. Path models were used to assess the fit of a saturated versus fully mediated IMB model of adherence and examined for moderating effects of depression and current drug use. Participants were on average 43 years of age, had been living with HIV for 9 or more years, and mostly male (84.0%), Caucasian (68.8%), and gay-identified (74.8%). The a priori measurement models for information and behavioral skills did not have acceptable fit to the data and were modified accordingly. Using the revised IMB scales, IMB constructs were associated with adherence as predicted by the theory in all but one model (i.e., the IMB model operated as predicted among nondrug users and those with and without depression). Among drug users, information exerted a direct effect on adherence but was not significantly associated with behavioral skills. Results of this study suggest that the fully or partially mediated IMB model is supported for use with samples of PLWH recruited primarily out-of-HIV-care service settings and is robust in the presence of depression and drug use. PMID:23724908
Horvath, Keith J; Smolenski, Derek; Amico, K Rivet
This book provides practical suggestions on conducting a skills analysis that identifies the skills required for each job or a skills audit that identifies the skills held by the individual. Chapter 1 describes the contribution of these two types of skills projects to the implementation of major industrial changes in Australia. Chapter 2 defines…
A basic tenet of information literacy programs is that the skills needed to use computers and the skills needed to find and evaluate information are two separate sets of skills. Outside the library this is not always the view. The claim is sometimes made that information skills are acquired by learning computer skills. All that is needed is a…
The school-based Children’s Support Group procedure teaches skills to cope with divorce-related events and provides strategies for mastering disrupted developmental tasks. Ss were 103 3rd- through 5th-grade children of separated or divorced parents who were assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups: support; support and skill building; support, skill building, transfer, and parent training procedures; or no-treatment control. Twenty-six children
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Chronic illnesses and medical conditions present millions of children and adolescents with significant stress that is associated with risk for emotional and behavioral problems and interferes with adherence to treatment regimens. We review research on the role of child and adolescent coping with stress as an important feature of the process of adaptation to illness. Recent findings support a control-based model of coping that includes primary control or active coping (efforts to act on the source of stress or one’s emotions), secondary control or accommodative coping (efforts to adapt to the source of stress), and disengagement or passive coping (efforts to avoid or deny the stressor). Evidence suggests the efficacy of secondary control coping in successful adaptation to chronic illness in children and adolescents, disengagement coping is associated with poorer adjustment, and findings for primary control coping are mixed. Avenues for future research are highlighted. PMID:22224836
Compas, Bruce E.; Jaser, Sarah S.; Dunn, Madeleine J.; Rodriguez, Erin M.
1. The loss or threat of losing a job may have profound physiological, psychological, and behavioral effects on employees. 2. Middle aged men deteriorate more in the first year after losing a job than younger or older men. 3. It is important that unemployed people make a commitment to purposeful activity and see work in a broader definition. 4. Parents may need reminding to praise their children more than usual and continue positive family activities and routines during times of unemployment. PMID:8397552
An exploratory study was conducted of the strategies that schizophrenia patients and their relatives employ to cope with negative symptoms. Coping strategies and their perceived efficacy were elicited in semistructured interviews conducted separately with patients and relatives. Coping responses were coded according to th