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Women in medicine are perceived by the general public neither as physicians nor as women, and they are disconcerting to nearly everyone, maintains the author. She discusses several factors that will improve women's copingskills. (Author/KC)
Describes the development, implementation, and evaluation of a theory based copingskills program for people with alcoholism. Based on Shiffman and Wills' (1985) Stress Program Process model, it helped clients effectively respond to conditions that contributed to negative affect and create life- enhancing experiences. Evaluation involved social…
Recent controlled studies have supported the effectiveness of anger management training for people with intellectual disabilities (IDs). This report describes an evaluation instrument designed to assess their usage of specific anger copingskills. The Profile of Anger CopingSkills (PACS) is designed for completion by a staff member or carer.…
The aim of this study was to examine stressors, coping, and coping effectiveness as a function of gender, type of sport, and skill. The sample consisted of 749 undergraduate athletes (455 males, 294 females) aged 18 – 38 years (mean = 19.8 years). Skill was classified as international\\/national, county, university, and club standard. Participants completed a stressor and coping concept map (Novak & Gowin,
Adam R. Nicholls; Remco Polman; Andrew R. Levy; Jamie Taylor; Stephen Cobley
The strain theory of suicide postulates that psychological strains usually precede mental disorders including suicidal behavior. Lack of copingskills is one of the four strains. This article focuses on the effect of lack of copingskills on individual mental disorders and suicide. Data including 392 suicide cases and 416 community-living controls were from a large psychological autopsy study conducted in rural China. The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R were used for the diagnosis of mental disorders. Copingskills were measured by the Coping Response Inventory. The logical analysis and cognitive avoidance copingskills were negatively associated with mental disorders, whereas the taking problem-solving action and acceptance/resignation copingskills were positively associated with mental disorders. This study supports the hypothesis that lack of copingskills to certain strains is likely to lead to mental disorders and suicidal behavior. Improving people's coping strategies may be an effective way to lower the prevalence of mental disorders and suicide. PMID:22986278
Background Coping Effectively with Heart Failure (COPE-HF) is an ongoing randomized clinical trial funded by the National Institutes of Health to evaluate if a CopingSkills Training (CST) intervention will result in improved health status and quality of life as well as reduced mortality and hospitalizations compared to a Heart Failure Education (HFE) intervention. Methods Two hundred heart failure (HF) patients recruited from Duke University Medical Center and the University of North Carolina Hospital systems will be randomized to a CST intervention (16 weekly, 30 minute telephone counselling sessions including motivational interviewing and individually tailored cognitive behavioral therapy) or to an HFE intervention (16 weekly, 30 minute telephone sessions including education and symptom monitoring). Primary outcomes will include post-intervention effects on HF biomarkers (B-Type naturetic peptide, ejection fraction) and quality of life, as well as long-term clinical outcomes (hospitalizations and death). Secondary analyses will include an evaluation of treatment effects across subpopulations, and potential mechanisms by which CST may improve clinical outcomes. Conclusions COPE-HF is a proof-of-concept study that should provide important insights into the health benefits of a CST intervention designed to enhance HF self-management, improve health behaviors, and reduce psychological distress.
Sherwood, Andrew; O'Connor, Christopher M.; Routledge, Faye S.; Hinderliter, Alan L.; Watkins, Lana L.; Babyak, Michael A.; Koch, Gary G.; Adams, Kirkwood F.; Dupree, Carla Sueta; Chang, Patricia P.; Hoffman, Benson M.; Johnson, Julie; Bowers, Margaret; Johnson, Kristy S.; Blumenthal, James A.
Objective The purpose of this study was to examine the quality of copingskills as a predictor of change in depressive symptoms surrounding a series of naturally occurring stressors. Method A total of 213 undergraduate students completed study measures surrounding 3 stressors (involving 6 assessments per participant). Primary analyses focused on occasions of disappointing exam performance. Results Consistent with expectations, copingskill quality was predictive of more adaptive responses (i.e., less depressive symptom reactivity), with this relation being particularly strong among participants with high initial levels of depressive symptoms and on occasions when participants had a marked worsening of mood. The quality of skills used in coping with specific stressors continued to predict depressive symptom reactivity after controlling for a one-time measure of copingskill quality. Conclusions Our results support the importance of both stressor-specific copingskill quality and consideration of key contextual factors in understanding depressive symptom reactivity surrounding stressors.
Describes and evaluates an intervention to reduce anger in college students (N=29) which combines cognitive, relaxation, and behavioral copingskills. Results indicated the intervention seemed to be generally effective. (Author/ABL)
This article describes a model for school-based group designed to enhance the social and copingskills of depressed or subclinically depressed middle-school students. Primarily drawing from a cognitive-behavioral theoretical base, goals for treatment and correspondent topics, techniques, and homework assignments are detailed in a format that accommodates the school setting. Weekly themes reflect central features of copingskill and depression
Rita Sommers-flanagan; Tina Barrett-hakanson; Christie Clarke; John Sommers-flanagan
This study evaluated the differential effects of the Grief and Trauma Intervention (GTI) with copingskills and trauma narrative processing (CN) and copingskills only (C). Seventy African American children (6-12 years old) were randomly assigned to GTI-CN or GTI-C. Both treatments consisted of a manualized 11-session intervention and a parent meeting. Measures of trauma exposure, posttraumatic stress symptoms, depression, traumatic grief, global distress, social support, and parent reported behavioral problems were administered at pre, post, 3 and 12 months post intervention. In general, children in both treatment groups demonstrated significant improvements in distress related symptoms and social support, which, with the exception of externalizing symptoms for GTI-C, were maintained up to 12 months post intervention. Results suggest that building copingskills without the structured trauma narrative may be a viable intervention to achieve symptom relief in children experiencing trauma-related distress. However, it may be that highly distressed children experience more symptom relief with copingskills plus narrative processing than with copingskills alone. More research on the differential effects of copingskills and trauma narration on child distress and adaptive functioning outcomes is needed. PMID:22317753
Background Addiction as a biopsychosocial problem has been dramatically increased in our country. Adverse consequences of the addiction in women have been shown to be more than men, which in turn can affect family members’ health and wellbeing. The current study examined the efficacy of stress copingskills training in addicted women referring to an outpatient centre of addiction prevention located in Welfare Organization of Gorgan, Iran. Methods 30 women with low levels of social adjustment measured by Social Adjustment Scale were randomly assigned to copingskills training with detoxification treatments (experimental) or detoxification alone groups. Both groups (n = 15) completed pre-post assessments of Bell’s adjustment Inventory. Experimental group received copingskills training program in ten sessions, each session last 90 minutes. Findings Social adjustment was considerably improved more in addicted women who followed copingskills training program with detoxification treatment in comparison with the women who was undergone only detoxification treatment. Conclusion Skills training program can help addicted women to better cope with their adjustment problem and these skills should be integrated into detoxification programs for this population.
The purpose of this phenomenological study was to examine the coping techniques utilized by hospice volunteers. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15 hospice volunteers who had at least 1 year of experience, working as a hospice volunteer with direct patient care. The interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed, and analyzed utilizing qualitative research methods. The results indicated the volunteers used problem-focused coping (seeking advice from members of the hospice interdisciplinary team), emotion-focused coping (talking with others, going to funerals), meaning making through appraisal (religious beliefs, downward comparison), and physical techniques (walking, deep breathing). The most significant coping mechanism utilized for the volunteer was talking with the volunteer coordinator. Implications for hospice volunteer coordinators are also discussed. PMID:21262760
This study discusses the educational effects of a social skills training on adolescents’ social skills, self-esteem, well-being\\u000a and coping. A group of 14- to 16-year-old normal adolescents followed a social skills training based on social learning principles.\\u000a A pre-test — experiment — post-test design was used and the group’s performance was compared with that of a non-intervention\\u000a control-group. The training
Description of technique to enhance the development of learning skills, called Developing Skilled Learners (DSL), focuses on two case studies in British industry. The effects of change generated by new technology are discussed and the emphasis on learning processes rather than training methods is explained. (LRW)
This document consists of a narrative final project report and the project product, a new edition of five booklets in the "Coping with Crisis" series. The report describes the process of redesigning and repackaging existing adult basic education materials; comments from three students are given. The five booklets are as follows: (1) "Dealing with…
Background Copingskills training is an important component of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), yet cognitive impairment and related limitations that are often associated with chronic substance use may interfere with an ability to learn, retain, or use new information. Little previous research has examined the cognitive or neuropsychological factors that may affect substance users' ability to learn new copingskills in CBT. Methods Fifty-two substance dependent individuals randomized to receive a computerized version of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT4CBT) or treatment as usual (TAU) were administered several cognitive and neuropsychological measures, as well as a copingskills measure prior to and upon completing an 8-week treatment period. Results Across treatment conditions, participants who scored above the median on a measure of IQ demonstrated greater improvement in the quality of their copingskills than those below the median on IQ (Group × Time, F(1,49) = 4.31, p<.05). Also, IQ had a significant indirect effect on substance use outcomes through an effect on the quality of copingskills acquired, specifically for those who received CBT4CBT. Conclusion Individuals with higher IQ at baseline improved the quality of their copingskills more than those with lower IQ, which in turn reduced rates of substance use following treatment. This highlights the impact of substance users' cognitive functioning and abilities on the acquisition of copingskills from CBT, and suggests need for greater awareness and tailoring of copingskills training for those with poorer functioning.
Kiluk, Brian D.; Nich, Charla; Carroll, Kathleen M.
This study examined the effectiveness of a universal school-based prevention program that was designed to increase coping resources in preadolescents through the modeling and teaching of optimistic thinking skills. School psychologists, together with classroom teachers, implemented an eight-week program in eight Year 5 and 6 class groups as part of the regular school curricula. One hundred and sixty children who
Alcoholics received cue exposure and urge copingskills training (CET, n=22) or contrast condition involving daily contact with assessment (n=18) in addition to standard treatment. After treatment, CET group included more patients who were abstinent, had higher percentage of abstinent days, and tended to report fewer drinks per day than did…
Psychosocial character traits and copingskills were examined in 12 children with end-stage renal failure. Six of the children were maintained on in-center hemodialysis and 6 were treated with home peritoneal dialysis. All of the patients felt a lack of ability to control their lives. The incidence of anxiety, depression, and hostility did not appear to vary from a population
Andrew S. Brem; Francine S. Brem; Margaret McGrath; Anthony Spirito
We present the results of an evaluation of the implementation and short-term effects of "Zippy's Friends," a school-based 24-week mental health promotion program to teach children copingskills. The evaluation was conducted in Denmark (322 children in 17 first grade classes) and Lithuania (314 children in 16 kindergartens classes) with control…
Focuses upon the wording of position listings and the methods two companies used to evaluate applicant communication skills in order to provide business communication educators with insight into business practices regarding communication expectations, needs, and assessment. Concludes that while employers may use general phrasing when referencing…
For centuries, folk theory has promoted the idea that positive emotions are good for your health. Accumulating empirical ev- idence is providing support for this anecdotal wisdom. We use the broad- en-and-build theory of positive emotions (Fredrickson, 1998; 2001) as a framework to demonstrate that positive emotions contribute to psycho- logical and physical well-being via more effective coping. We argue
Michele M. Tugade; Barbara L. Fredrickson; Lisa Feldman Barrett
This study examines the effectiveness of a 15-session worksite copingskills intervention aimed at modifying work- and family-related risk and protective factors and at reducing negative health outcomes among mothers employed in secretarial positions. A sample of 142 mothers employed at one of four corporate worksites was assessed at pretest, immediately following the intervention, and at 6-month follow-up using multiple self-report measures. Results showed that at immediate posttest, intervention participants reported significantly lower employee role stress, higher social support from work sources, and lower levels of alcohol and tobacco use. They also tended to report less use of avoidance coping and lower psychological symptomatology. At 6-month follow-up, intervention participants reported significantly lower work-family and work environment stress, higher social support from work sources, less avoidance coping, and lower psychological symptomatology. Attrition analyses provided support for the external and internal validity of the study findings. Results were discussed in relation to issues of longitudinal prevention research and worksite-based interventions. PMID:24254465
The purpose of this study was to examine the mechanisms responsible for the beneficial psychological effects of a coping-focused group intervention for HIV-positive individuals who had lost loved ones to AIDS. Data from 235 HIV-positive men and women enrolled in a randomized controlled clinical trial testing a coping-focused group intervention were analyzed using a multiple-indicator-multiple-cause (MIMIC) structural equation model. Results revealed that the effects of the intervention on decreases in depression and grief were mediated by decreases in avoidant coping. Specifically, participants in the intervention condition decreased their use of avoidant coping. Decreases in avoidant coping, in turn, were related to decreased depression and grief. The results of this study help to validate the use of coping-focused interventions for HIV-positive bereaved individuals.
Abstract Background Although religions is important to many people with cancer, few studies have explored the relationship between religious coping and well-being in a prospective manner, using validated measures, while controlling for important covariates. Methods One hundred ninety-eight women with stage I or II and 86 women with stage IV stage breast cancer were recruited. Standardized assessment instruments and structured questions were used to collect data at study entry and 8 to 12 months later. Religious coping was measured with validated measures of positive and negative religious coping. Linear regression models were used to explore the relationships between positive and negative religious coping and overall physical and mental well-being, depression, and life satisfaction. Results The percentage of women who used positive religious coping (i.e., partnering with God or looking to God for strength, support, or guidance) “a moderate amount” or “a lot” was 76%. Negative religious coping (i.e., feeling abandoned by or anger at God) was much less prevalent; 15% of women reported feeling abandoned by or angry at God at least “a little.” Positive religious coping was not associated with any measures of well-being. Negative religious coping predicted worse overall mental health, depressive symptoms, and lower life satisfaction after controlling for sociodemographics and other covariates. In addition, changes in negative religious coping from study entry to follow-up predicted changes in these well-being measures over the same time period. Cancer stage did not moderate the relationships between religious coping and well-being. Conclusions Negative religious coping methods predict worse mental heath and life satisfaction in women with breast cancer.
Zdaniuk, Bozena; Schulz, Richard; Scheier, Michael
This study examined relations between stress and coping predictors and distress and positive outcomes in multiple sclerosis (MS). A total of 502 people with MS completed a questionnaire at Time 1 and, 3 months later, Time 2 (n?=?404). Predictors included Time 1 illness (duration, number of symptoms, course), number of problems, appraisal and coping (acceptance, problem solving, emotional release, avoidance,
This study examined whether emotions and coping explain (mediate) the association between mother-child attachment and peer relationships. Attachment, positive and negative emotion experience, coping, and peer relationships were examined in 106 fourth-grade through sixth-grade girls attending a 6-day residential camp. Attachment, experience of…
Aims Cognitive-behavioral treatments (CBT) are among the most popular interventions offered for alcohol and other substance use disorders, but it is not clear how they achieve their effects. CBT is purported to exert its beneficial effects by altering copingskills, but data supporting coping changes as the mechanism of action are mixed. The purpose of this pilot study was to test a treatment in which copingskills were trained in a highly individualized way, allowing us to determine if such training would result in an effective treatment. Design Participants were assigned randomly to a comprehensive packaged CBT program (PCBT), or to an Individualized Assessment and Treatment Program (IATP). The IATP program employed experience sampling via cellphone to assess copingskills prior to treatment, and provided therapists a detailed understanding of patients' coping strengths and deficits. Setting Outpatient treatment. Participants A total of 110 alcohol dependent men and women. Measurements Participants in both conditions completed experience sampling of situations, drinking and coping efforts prior to, and following, 12 weeks of treatment. Timeline follow-back procedures were also used to record drinking at baseline and posttreatment. Findings IATP yielded higher proportion days abstinent (PDA) at posttreatment (p < .05) than did PCBT, and equivalent heavy drinking days. IATP also elicited more momentary coping responses, and less drinking, in high risk situations, as recorded by experience sampling at posttreatment. Posttreatment coping response rates were associated with decreases in drinking. Conclusions The IATP approach was more successful than PCBT at training adaptive coping responses for use in situations presenting high-risk for drinking. The highly individualized IATP approach may prove to be an effective treatment strategy for alcohol dependent patients.
Litt, Mark D.; Kadden, Ronald M.; Kabela-Cormier, Elise
Evidence gathered through interviews with members of trade associations, unions, professional societies, business, and industry as well as data obtained from the Department of Labor, congressional testimony, and publications of the commerical and trade press reveals that the shortage of skilled workers in America is reaching crisis proportions.…
(ABSTRACT) This study investigated 10 mothers’ perceptions on the transition process, for their children with disabilities, from early intervention to early childhood special education. The issues of related stressors, supports, and copingskills were further explored. This research was guided by the ecological or systems theory. The issue of transition between the two service programs (early intervention to early childhood
Curriculum materials are provided for three areas within the adult learning program in the state of Utah: preliteracy, literacy, and community/home copingskills. The preliteracy segment is designed for students (especially refugees) who have not been raised in an American cultural environment. The three sections are listening, speaking, and…
The purpose of this study was to compare severity and risk status for anxiety and depression with copingskills among 130 Mexican school children with learning disabilities (LD) and 130 school children without LD. This research is the first to explore the emotional difficulties of Mexican children with LD. Children completed the Spanish version of…
This paper reports two studies designed to probe the link between speech anxiety and positive thinking. The first study reconfirms earlier research that speech anxiety is positively correlated with negative thoughts and negatively related to positive thoughts. The second study found that students trained to use visualization reported a higher proportion of positive to negative thoughts and lower speech anxiety
The current study examined the relations of measures of cognitive reappraisal and secondary control coping with working memory abilities, positive and negative affect, and symptoms of anxiety and depression in young adults (N=124). Results indicate significant relations between working memory abilities and reports of secondary control coping and between reports of secondary control coping and cognitive reappraisal. Associations were also found between measures of secondary control coping and cognitive reappraisal and positive and negative affect and symptoms of depression and anxiety. Further, the findings suggest that reports of cognitive reappraisal may be more strongly predictive of positive affect whereas secondary control coping may be more strongly predictive of negative affect and symptoms of depression and anxiety. Overall, the results suggest that current measures of secondary control coping and cognitive reappraisal capture related but distinct constructs and suggest that the assessment of working memory may be more strongly related to secondary control coping in predicting individual differences in distress. PMID:22091879
Andreotti, Charissa; Thigpen, Jennifer E; Dunn, Madeleine J; Watson, Kelly; Potts, Jennifer; Reising, Michelle M; Robinson, Kristen E; Rodriguez, Erin M; Roubinov, Danielle; Luecken, Linda; Compas, Bruce E
Previous research has shown that positive affect (PA) is associated with the coping strategies of "searching for and finding positive meaning." The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the coping strategy of "finding positive meaning" and PA using an intervention method. Additionally, inasmuch as previous research has revealed that PA is associated with physical and mental health status, the current study measured health status in order to carry out a preliminary test as to whether PA increased by the intervention can also improve health. Participants in the intervention group (Japanese graduate students; 13 men and 16 women) reported the most stressful event during the past 3 days and its positive meaning, while those in the control group (13 men and 15 women) reported the most stressful event alone. Both groups reported twice a week for 5 successive weeks using e-mails. Three questionnaires, the Japanese version of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule scales for measuring positive and negative affects (NA), the situational version of the General Coping Questionnaire for coping strategies, and the Japanese version of the General Health Questionnaire for health status, were administered to all participants just before the start of the intervention, after the conclusion of the intervention, and at the 5-week follow-up session. Results revealed that the "finding positive meaning" coping strategy and PA were enhanced by the intervention in the follow-up for men and women with no changes in NA. For the health scales of the General Health Questionnaire, no significant group-related effects were observed. Thus, the intervention had no significant influence on NA or health status. Implications of these findings for future research are discussed along with a few limitations in this study. PMID:22029553
The purpose of this study was to compare severity and risk status for anxiety and depression with copingskills among 130 Mexican school children with learning disabilities (LD) and 130 school children without LD. This research is the first to explore the emotional difficulties of Mexican children with LD. Children completed the Spanish version of the Spence Children’s Anxiety Scale and Children’s Depression Inventory, and the Cuestionario de Afrontamiento (CopingSkills Questionnaire). Results indicated that a higher percentage of children with LD were at risk for anxiety (22.3% vs. 11.5%) and depression (32% vs. 18%). No statistically significant differences were found for copingskills. Results support the idea that there is an increased awareness of comorbid depression and anxiety among students with LD and a need to promote early identification and intervention in schools. Efforts should focus on better understanding the relationship between social-emotional difficulties and academic achievement and on developing effective interventions to support children with LD.
The adolescent children of depressed mothers are at increased risk for depression, but little is known about protective factors for these children. Maintenance of positive affect in a stressful context may be an important marker of resilience. Mothers with (n = 34) and without (n = 38) a history of depression and their adolescent children completed questionnaires regarding adolescents' coping and depressive symptoms and engaged in a 15 min videotaped interaction about family stress. Adolescents' observed behaviors were coded using the Iowa Family Interaction Rating Scales. No significant differences emerged in observed behavior between adolescents of mothers with and without a history of depression. Higher levels of primary and secondary control coping and lower levels of disengagement coping were related to higher levels of observed positive mood and fewer depressive symptoms in adolescents. Observed positive mood was related to fewer depressive symptoms in adolescents, even after accounting for maternal history of depression and current maternal depressive symptoms. Results suggest the importance of considering positive affect in the context of family stress as a marker of resilience in adolescents at risk for depression. The current study provides evidence for coping as a protective factor, related to higher levels of positive affect and fewer depressive symptoms, in adolescents exposed to maternal depressive symptoms. PMID:21731408
Jaser, Sarah S; Champion, Jennifer E; Dharamsi, Kristen R; Riesing, Michele M; Compas, Bruce E
The adolescent children of depressed mothers are at increased risk for depression, but little is known about protective factors for these children. Maintenance of positive affect in a stressful context may be an important marker of resilience. Mothers with (n = 34) and without (n = 38) a history of depression and their adolescent children completed questionnaires regarding adolescents' coping and depressive symptoms and engaged in a 15 min videotaped interaction about family stress. Adolescents' observed behaviors were coded using the Iowa Family Interaction Rating Scales. No significant differences emerged in observed behavior between adolescents of mothers with and without a history of depression. Higher levels of primary and secondary control coping and lower levels of disengagement coping were related to higher levels of observed positive mood and fewer depressive symptoms in adolescents. Observed positive mood was related to fewer depressive symptoms in adolescents, even after accounting for maternal history of depression and current maternal depressive symptoms. Results suggest the importance of considering positive affect in the context of family stress as a marker of resilience in adolescents at risk for depression. The current study provides evidence for coping as a protective factor, related to higher levels of positive affect and fewer depressive symptoms, in adolescents exposed to maternal depressive symptoms.
Champion, Jennifer E.; Dharamsi, Kristen R.; Riesing, Michele M.; Compas, Bruce E.
Little research has investigated the role of positive emotions among youth in the school setting. Fredrickson’s (2001) broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions hypothesizes that frequent positive emotions broaden individuals’ thinking\\u000a and behavior resulting in enhanced psychological resources, such as a high level of school satisfaction. This study used Fredrickson’s\\u000a theory to investigate whether approach coping behaviors mediated the relationship between
Little research has evaluated the validity of the Coping Deficit Index (CDI) of the Rorschach Comprehensive System (CS). Because the CS Depression Index (DEPI) has frequently been found to yield false negatives, the CDI has been proposed as an alternative means of assessing social copingskills that may relate to depression. This study examined potential correlates of the CDI using
This study examined relations between stress and coping predictors and negative and positive outcomes in MS caregiving. A total of 222 carers and their care-recipients completed questionnaires at Time 1 and three months later, Time 2 (n = 155). Predictors included care-recipient characteristics (age, time since diagnosis, course and life satisfaction), and Times 1 and 2 carer problems, stress appraisal
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the coping strategies and self-concept of Korean female early adolescents. These adolescents (n = 351) were enrolled in a middle school in Seoul. The subjects completed the Multidimensional Self-Concept Scale and Coping Responses Inventory questionnaires. The subjects exhibited the greatest…
Women (N = 171), distressed from their partners' untreated alcoholism, received either copingskills training (CST), 12-step facilitation (TSF), or delayed treatment (DTC). CST and TSF resulted in lower depression levels than DTC but did not differ from one another. Skill acquisition mediated the treatment effects of CST; Al-Anon attendance did not mediate the TSF effect. Lower depression levels were
Women (N = 171), distressed from their partners' untreated alcoholism, received either copingskills training (CST), 12-step facilitation (TSF), or delayed treatment (DTC). CST and TSF resulted in lower depression levels than DTC but did not differ from one another. Skill acquisition mediated the treatment effects of CST; Al-Anon attendance did…
This study examined the relations of positive affect (PA) to the coping strategy of 'finding positive meaning' and to health. Participants in the intervention group (29 university students) wrote about a happy event once a week in an experimental room and noted happy events each day as homework for four consecutive weeks. In addition, they received a small present each time they left the room after writing. Participants in the control group (29 university students) wrote about and noted trivial neutral events instead of happy events, and they did not receive any small presents. Results showed that PA induced by this manipulation did not significantly enhance coping but did significantly improve health status on several self-report scales. PMID:18942013
Yamasaki, Katsuyuki; Uchida, Kanako; Katsuma, Lisa
Background Research has demonstrated that optimism and “positive illusions” can be used a coping mechanism among those facing adversity.\\u000a Gamblers are a little studied group who also experience adversity and uncertainty. They often feel considerable levels of\\u000a frustration, guilt, anger and a sense of feeling cheated after making significant losses. In order to deal with such feelings\\u000a it is hypothesized that
Overweight and obese patients with osteoarthritis (OA) experience more OA pain and disability than patients who are not overweight. This study examined the long-term efficacy of a combined pain copingskills training (PCST) and lifestyle behavioral weight management (BWM) intervention in overweight and obese OA patients. Patients (N=232) were randomized to a 6-month program of: 1) PCST + BWM; 2) PCST-only; 3) BWM-only; or 4) standard care control. Assessments of pain, physical disability (Arthritis Impact Measurement Scales [AIMS] physical disability, stiffness, activity, and gait), psychological disability (AIMS psychological disability, pain catastrophizing, arthritis self-efficacy, weight self-efficacy), and body weight were collected at four time points (pretreatment, post-treatment, and 6 months and 12 months after the completion of treatment). Patients randomized to PCST+ BWM demonstrated significantly better treatment outcomes (average of all three post-treatment values) in terms of pain, physical disability, stiffness, activity, weight self-efficacy, and weight when compared to the other three conditions (p’s <.05). PCST+BWM also did significantly better than at least one of the other conditions (i.e., PCST-only, BWM-only, or standard care) in terms of psychological disability, pain catastrophizing, and arthritis self-efficacy. Interventions teaching overweight and obese OA patients pain copingskills and weight management simultaneously may provide the more comprehensive long-term benefits.
Somers, Tamara J.; Blumenthal, James A.; Guilak, Farshid; Kraus, Virginia B.; Schmitt, Daniel O.; Babyak, Michael A.; Craighead, Linda W.; Caldwell, David S.; Rice, John R.; McKee, Daphne C.; Shelby, Rebecca A.; Campbell, Lisa C.; Pells, Jennifer J.; Sims, Ershela L.; Queen, Robin; Carson, James W.; Connelly, Mark; Dixon, Kim E.; LaCaille, Lara J.; Huebner, Janet L.; Rejeski, W. Jack; Keefe, Francis J.
Purpose Survivors of acute lung injury (ALI) and their informal caregivers have difficulty coping with the physical and emotional challenges of recovery from critical illness. We aimed to develop and pilot test a telephone-based copingskills training intervention for this population. Methods 58 participants were enrolled overall. 21 patients and 23 caregivers participated in a cross-sectional study to assess coping and its association with psychological distress. This also informed the development of an ALI copingskills training intervention in an iterative process involving content and methodological experts. The intervention was then evaluated in 7 patients and 7 caregivers in an uncontrolled, prospective, pre-post study. Outcomes included acceptability, feasibility, and symptoms of psychological distress measured with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and Post-Traumatic Symptom Scale (PTSS). Results Survivors and their caregivers used adaptive coping infrequently, a pattern that was strongly associated with psychological distress. These findings informed the development of a 12-session intervention for acquiring, applying, and maintaining copingskills. In the evaluation phase, participants completed 77 (92%) of a possible 84 telephone sessions and all (100%) reported that the intervention’s usefulness in their daily routine. Mean change scores reflecting improvements in the HADS (7.8 units) and PTSS (10.3 units) were associated with adaptive coping (r=0.50–0.70) and high self-efficacy (r=0.67–0.79). Conclusions A novel telephone-based copingskills training intervention was acceptable, feasible, and may have been associated with a reduction in psychological distress among survivors of ALI and their informal caregivers. A randomized trial is needed to evaluate the intervention.
Cox, Christopher E.; Porter, Laura S.; Hough, Catherine L.; White, Douglas B.; Kahn, Jeremy M.; Carson, Shannon S.; Tulsky, James A.; Keefe, Francis J.
Aims. Cue exposure treatment (CET) has shown promise in preliminary studies with alcoholics, and Communication Skills Training (CST) has been found beneé cial, especially in intensive treatment programs. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of CET and CST in a larger controlled study when both were added to intensive treatment programs. Design and interventions. A
Damaris J. Rohsenow; Peter M. Monti; Anthony V. Rubonis; Suzy B. Gulliver; Suzanne M. Colby; Jody A. Binkoff; David B. Abrams
This comparative study explores the incidence of dyslexia in entrepreneurs, corporate managers and the general population. It examines the suggestion that dyslexic entrepreneurs develop coping strategies to manage their weaknesses, which are subsequently of benefit in the new venture creation process. Results of this study suggest that there is a…
Differentiating perfectionistic strivings and perfectionistic concerns, the present study examined how perfectionism predicts what coping strategies people use, when dealing with failures, and how perfectionism and coping influence people's satisfaction. A sample of 149 students completed daily reports for 3-14 days, reporting the most bothersome failure they experienced during the day, what strategies they used to cope with the failure, and how satisfied they felt at the end of the day. Multilevel regression analyses showed that perfectionistic concerns predicted more frequent use of self-blame, less frequent use of active coping and acceptance, and higher satisfaction at the end of the day, whereas perfectionistic strivings predicted less frequent use of self-blame and higher satisfaction. Although positive reframing, acceptance, and humor predicted higher satisfaction for all students, further analyses showed that positive reframing coping was particularly helpful for students high in perfectionistic concern. The findings suggest that accommodative coping strategies are generally helpful in dealing with personal failures, with positive reframing being a coping strategy that works particularly well for people high in perfectionistic concerns (who are prone to dissatisfaction) to achieve higher satisfaction at the end of the day. PMID:21424944
According to previous research, clinical experience with individuals facing infertility has demonstrated that positive psychological changes can arise from the struggle involved (Paul et al., 2010), which is called posttraumatic growth (PTG). However, little knowledge has been gained about the relationships between PTG and its facilitating factors. The present study examined whether resilience and social support could predict PTG in women with infertility. The role of positivecoping as a potential mediator was also assessed. Using a cross-sectional design, all members of a convenience sample of 182 women with infertility completed self-report measures of PTG, resilience, perceived social support, positivecoping and background information. It was found that resilience, social support and positivecopingpositively correlated with PTG, which explained 34.0% of the total variance. The results suggested that positivecoping partially mediated the impact of resilience on PTG while it totally mediated the relationship between social support and PTG. These findings demonstrated that, in clinical settings, improving positivecoping in women with infertility may be helpful for the attainment of PTG. PMID:24368061
The Teaching-Learning Interaction Study tested the separate and interactive effects of teacher and student entry characteristics on their subsequent classroom behavior, and the effect of that behavior on students' regressed gain, over a school year, in achievement, attitudes toward school, self-esteem, and copingskills. Fifty-three tri-ethnic…
The "Dynamics of Relationships" program was originally designed as a preventive approach to the many social ills affecting young people and families today. This teacher's manual for the program provides objectives and activities for helping students develop and maintain a strong and secure self-image, effective communication and copingskills, and…
Few studies have examined the relation between race, social support, and coping, particularly among HIV?infected individuals. We examined the relation of race and social support to coping with HIV infection in a sample of 121 gay and bisexual men (64 African American, 57 White). Compared to White participants, African Americans reported higher use of multiple coping strategies. High levels of
David C. Tate; Jacob J. Van Den Berg; Nathan B. Hansen; Arlene Kochman; Kathleen J. Sikkema
This study examined the longitudinal effects of coping on outcome one year following completion of a randomized, controlled trial of a group coping intervention for AIDS-related bereavement. Bereaved HIV-positive participants (N = 267) were administered measures of grief, psychiatric distress, quality of life, and coping at baseline,…
This study examined the longitudinal effects of coping on outcome one year following completion of a randomized, controlled trial of a group coping intervention for AIDS-related bereavement. Bereaved HIV-positive participants (N = 267) were administered measures of grief, psychiatric distress, quality of life, and coping at baseline, post-intervention, and at 4-, 8-, and 12-month follow-ups. Coping strategies directly impacted all outcome variables
Nathan B. Hansen; Nalini Tarakeshwar; Musie Ghebremichael; Heping Zhang; Arlene Kochman; Kathleen J. Sikkema
This study examined the impact of positive psychological traits (positivecoping, self-efficacy, and self-esteem) on the relationship between seizure severity and life satisfaction among individuals with epilepsy. Hierarchical regression analysis and correlation techniques were used to test a hypothesized tri-mediation model of life satisfaction…
Background Despite many efforts at developing relapse prevention interventions, most smokers relapse to tobacco use within a few months after quitting. Interactive games offer a novel strategy for helping people develop the skills required for successful tobacco cessation. Objective The objective of our study was to develop a video game that enables smokers to practice strategies for coping with smoking urges and maintaining smoking abstinence. Our team of game designers and clinical psychologists are creating a video game that integrates the principles of smoking behavior change and relapse prevention. We have reported the results of expert and end-user feedback on an alpha version of the game. Methods The alpha version of the game consisted of a smoking cue scenario often encountered by smokers. We recruited 5 experts in tobacco cessation research and 20 current and former smokers, who each played through the scenario. Mixed methods were used to gather feedback on the relevance of cessation content and usability of the game modality. Results End-users rated the interface from 3.0 to 4.6/5 in terms of ease of use and from 2.9 to 4.1/5 in terms of helpfulness of cessation content. Qualitative themes showed several user suggestions for improving the user interface, pacing, and diversity of the game characters. In addition, the users confirmed a high degree of game immersion, identification with the characters and situations, and appreciation for the multiple opportunities to practice coping strategies. Conclusions This study highlights the procedures for translating behavioral principles into a game dynamic and shows that our prototype has a strong potential for engaging smokers. A video game modality exemplifies problem-based learning strategies for tobacco cessation and is an innovative step in behavioral management of tobacco use.
This study examined the association between social skills and psychological well-being, operationalized through a variety of positive psychological states. It was hypothesized that positive relations with other people would mediate the association between social skills and psychological well-being. A community based sample of 703 adults, aged 18–87 completed measures of social skills, positive relations with others, and the following indicators
A modified replication of Southworth's 1972 survey was designed to identify changes in availability and desirability of skills among doctoral candidates for counseling center positions. Results indicated a significant change in the availability of skills, the greatest change occurring in increased availability of behavior modification skills.…
The authors tested whether coping styles and fear of pain mediate the relationship between positive affect and negative affect on one hand and pain-related distress (PD) on the other. Among African American and Caucasian female college students, negative affect, fear of pain, and emotion-oriented coping together accounted for 34% of the variance…
Non-cardiac chest pain (NCCP) is a common and distressing condition. Prior studies suggest that psychotropic medication or pain copingskills training (CST) may benefit NCCP patients. To our knowledge, no clinical trials have examined the separate and combined effects of CST and psychotropic medication in the management of NCCP. This randomized clinical trial examined the separate and combined effects of CST and antidepressant medication (sertraline) in participants with non-cardiac chest pain. A sample of individuals diagnosed with NCCP was randomly assigned to one of four treatments: (1) CST plus sertraline (CST + sertraline), (2) CST plus placebo (CST + placebo), (3) sertraline alone, or (4) placebo alone. Assessments of pain intensity, pain unpleasantness, anxiety, pain catastrophizing, depression, and physical disability were collected prior to treatment, and at 10- and 34-weeks following randomization. Data analyses revealed that CST and sertraline either alone or in combination significantly reduced pain intensity and pain unpleasantness. The combination of CST plus sertraline may have the greatest promise in that, when compared to placebo alone, it not only significantly reduced pain but also pain catastrophizing and anxiety. Overall, these findings support the importance of further research on the effects of CST and sertraline for non-cardiac chest pain.
Background Although it is known both patients’ and partners’ reactions to a prostate cancer diagnosis include fear, uncertainty, anxiety and depression with patients’ partners’ reactions mutually determining how they cope with and adjust to the illness, few psychosocial interventions target couples. Those that are available tend to be led by highly trained professionals, limiting their accessibility and long-term sustainability. In addition, it is recognised that patients who might benefit from conventional face-to-face psychosocial interventions do not access these, either by preference or because of geographical or mobility barriers. Self-directed interventions can overcome some of these limitations and have been shown to contribute to patient well-being. This study will examine the feasibility of a self-directed, copingskills intervention for couples affected by cancer, called Coping-Together, and begin to explore its potential impact on couples’ illness adjustment. The pilot version of Coping-Together includes a series of four booklets, a DVD, and a relaxation audio CD. Methods/design In this double-blind, two-group, parallel, randomized controlled trial, 70 couples will be recruited within 4 months of a prostate cancer diagnosis through urology private practices and randomized to: 1) Coping-Together or 2) a minimal ethical care condition. Minimal ethical care condition couples will be mailed information booklets available at the Cancer Council New South Wales and a brochure for the Cancer Council Helpline. The primary outcome (anxiety) and additional secondary outcomes (distress, depression, dyadic adjustment, quality of life, illness or caregiving appraisal, self-efficacy, and dyadic and individual coping) will be assessed at baseline (before receiving study material) and 2 months post-baseline. Intention-to-treat and per protocol analysis will be conducted. Discussion As partners’ distress rates exceed not only population norms, but also those reported by patients themselves, it is imperative that copingskills interventions target the couple as a unit and enhance both partners’ ability to overcome cancer challenges. This pilot study will examine the feasibility and potential efficacy of Coping-Together in optimising couples’ illness adjustment. This is one of the first feasibility studies to test this innovative coping intervention, which in turn will contribute to the larger literature advocating for psychosocial care of couples affected by prostate cancer. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12611000438954
Background: Some studies find that parents of children with Down's syndrome may experience symptoms of depression, while other studies find that parents adapt well. This study aimed to clarify this variability in adaptive strength by investigating a stress-coping model to explain depressive symptoms and positive affect. Method: Questionnaires were…
Van Der Veek, Shelley M. C.; Kraaij, Vivian; Garnefski, Nadia
Younger and older highly skilled and moderately skilled miniature golf players were studied in training and competition. All of the players showed an increase of heart rate and rated anxiety from training to competition. A performance decline in competition was observed for both older players and less accomplished players. Results from a cognitive task (incidental recall of shots) suggest that older players are less proficient in coping with the high-stress conditions in competition, due to an age-related decline in task-relevant cognitive abilities. PMID:3267415
An 11-week culturally relevant group diabetes self-management training (DSMT), copingskills training (CST), and diabetes care intervention was compared to a 10-week usual diabetes education and diabetes care intervention on physiological and psychosocial outcomes in 109 Black women (aged 48 ± 10 years) with type 2 diabetes in primary care (PC). Strong time effects for hemoglobin A1c improvement were seen
Using alcohol to cope (i.e., coping motivation) and general coping style both are theorized and demonstrated empirically to lead to problematic drinking. In the present study, we sought to examine whether these factors interact to predict alcohol use, both retrospectively reported and in the lab following a stressor task. Social drinkers (N=50, 50% women) received the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), and then consumed beer under the guise of a taste-test. A Timeline Followback interview to assess past month alcohol use, the Drinking Motives Questionnaire (DMQ), and the COPE (to assess adaptive coping) were administered prior to the laboratory challenge. Multiple regression models were used to examine DMQ coping motives, adaptive coping, and their interaction as predictors of milliliters (mls) of beer consumed in a clinical laboratory setting. The association between coping motives and mls beer was positive at both high and low levels of adaptive coping, but at low levels of adaptive coping, this association was stronger. In contrast, there was no interaction between adaptive coping and coping motives in predicting quantity and frequency of drinking in the prior month. Findings suggest that stronger coping motives for drinking predict greater alcohol consumption following a stress provocation to a greater extent when an individual is lacking in adaptive coping strategies. As both general copingskills and coping motives for alcohol use are responsive to intervention, study of the conditions under which they exert unique and interactive effects is important.
This research examines the positive aspects of coping experienced by 270 mothers of adolescent children with and without a developmental disability in the Bedouin community. The mothers completed the Sociodemographic Data Questionnaire, the Grandparents Functional Support Assessment, the Gratitude Questionnaire, and the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory. Mothers of adolescent children with developmental disability reported higher levels of social support, gratitude, and personal growth than did mothers of adolescent children without developmental disability. Additionally, mothers demonstrated a higher level of gratitude toward their spouse's parents. Positive correlation was also found between gratitude and personal growth and between gratitude and support from the husband's parents. The findings highlight the important need to develop awareness and culturally appropriate intervention programs based on these positive aspects, to enhance these mothers' coping abilities. PMID:24691353
The purpose of this study was to test child and adolescent psychosocial and psychopathological risk factors as predictors of adult criminal outcomes in a Swiss community sample. In particular, the role of active and avoidant problem coping in youths was analysed. Prevalence rates of young adult crime convictions based on register data were calculated. Univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were used to analyse the prediction of adult criminal convictions 15 years after assessment in a large Swiss community sample of children and adolescents (n = 1,086). Risk factors assessed in childhood and adolescence included socio-economic status (SES), migration background, perceived parental behaviour, familial and other social stressors, coping styles, externalizing and internalizing problems and drug abuse including problematic alcohol consumption. The rate of any young adult conviction was 10.1 %. Besides externalizing problems and problematic alcohol consumption, the presence of any criminal conviction in young adulthood was predicted by low SES and avoidant coping even after controlling for the effects of externalizing problems and problematic alcohol use. The other predictors were significant only when externalizing behaviours and problematic alcohol use were not controlled. In addition to child and adolescent externalizing behaviour problems and substance use, low SES and inadequate problem-solving skills, in terms of avoidant coping, are major risk factors of young adult criminal outcomes and need to be considered in forensic research and criminal prevention programs. PMID:23949100
Effective teaching of dance skills is informed by a variety of theoretical frameworks and individual teaching and learning styles. The purpose of this paper is to present practical teaching strategies that enhance the mastery of skills and promote self-esteem, self-efficacy, and positive self-image. The predominant thinking and primary research…
Two studies were conducted to evaluate interventions, based upon the extended contact hypothesis and multiple classification skills training, which aimed to promote children's positive intergroup attitudes towards two stigmatized groups. Study 1 tested whether extended contact and multiple classification skills training changed out-group attitudes…
Neuropsychological impairment occurs in many persons with AIDS and in a smaller proportion of asymptomatic HIV-1 carriers, but the implications of such impairments in terms of psychosocial functioning are poorly understood. We explored potential differences in coping activity (e.g., cognitive and behavioral efforts to manage, alter, or regulate emotional responses to stressful situations) in a group of 275 medically symptomatic
Jennifer J. Manly; Thomas L. Patterson; Robert K. Heaton; Shirley J. Semple; Desiree A. White; Robert A. Velin; J. Hampton Atkinson; J. Allen McCutchan; James L. Chandler; Igor Grant
Parenting a child with a disability is a lifelong journey. The coping strategies utilized by parents impact the well-being of the family, especially the mothers. The purpose of this dissertation was to explore the maternal well-being of Latina and Anglo mothers who have a child with severe to profound disabilities. Predictive variables, such as…
Interviews with two Cambodian immigrant families over 2 years revealed how they relied on each other more than formal service providers to cope with difficulties. They focused on children's education and safety, insulation of the family from external influences, and interdependence with the immigrant community. (SK)
Participants scoring high and low on a measure of repressive coping style (Mendolia, 2002) first learned a series of related word pairs (cue–target). Half of the cues were homographs. In the subsequent think\\/no-think phase (Anderson & Green, 2001), they responded with targets on some trials and suppressed thoughts of targets on others. Suppressed targets were always emotionally negative, as were
Background Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) treatment side effects have a deleterious impact on treatment adherence, which is necessary\\u000a to optimize treatment outcomes including morbidity and mortality.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Purpose To examine the effect of the Balance Project intervention, a five-session, individually delivered HIV treatment side effects\\u000a copingskills intervention on antiretroviral medication adherence.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods HIV+ men and women (N?=?249) on antiretroviral therapy (ART) with self-reported
Mallory O. Johnson; Samantha E. Dilworth; Jonelle M. Taylor; Torsten B. Neilands
Two studies were conducted to evaluate interventions, based upon the extended contact hypothesis and multiple classification skills training, which aimed to promote children's positive intergroup attitudes towards two stigmatized groups. Study 1 tested whether extended contact and multiple classification skills training changed out-group attitudes towards the disabled among 6—9 year-old children. Out-group attitudes were significantly more positive only in the
Women (N=171), distressed from their partners' untreated alcoholism, received either copingskills training (CST), 12-step facilitation (TSF), or delayed treatment (DTC). CST and TSF resulted in lower depression levels than DTC but did not differ from one another. Skill acquisition mediated the treatment effects of CST; Al-Anon attendance did not mediate the TSF effect. Lower depression levels were maintained at 12 months with no differences between groups. Partner drinking decreased from pretreatment to follow-up in the CST and TSF conditions. However, for partners with a history of relationship violence, drinking improved across follow-up in the CST condition but worsened in the TSF condition. Partner relationship violence was less in the CST condition. CST may be particularly useful for women experiencing physical violence from a partner with alcoholism. PMID:15796632
The effects of position (upright vs reclining) and support (held vs chair) on the development and maintenance of feeding behavior were examined in a child with bronchopulmonary dysplasia and gastroesophageal reflux. A reclining position initially facilitated acceptance and swallowing with relatively rapid generalization to an upright position. Oral-motor skills did not differ across levels of support. Practice of emerging motor
MaryLouise E. Kerwin; Mary Osborne; Peggy S. Eicher
Objectives Religious coping arguably prevents negative health outcomes for stressed persons. This study examined the moderating role of religious coping (positive, negative, and combined) in the connection of care recipient functional status with diurnal salivary cortisol patterns among dementia family caregivers. Methods Thirty African-American (AA) female dementia caregivers and 48 AA noncaregivers completed the Religious Coping (RCOPE) scale, Activities of Daily Living (ADL) scale and Revised Memory and Behavior Problem checklist (RMBPC) and collected five saliva samples daily (at awakening, 9am, 12pm, 5pm, and 9pm) for two straight days. Results Hierarchical regression tests with mean diurnal cortisol slope as the outcome illustrated surprisingly that higher combined and positive (but not negative) RCOPE scores were associated with increasingly flatter or worse cortisol slope scores for caregivers (but not non-caregivers). Of note, the RCOPE by RMBPC interaction was significant. Among caregivers who reported higher RMBPC scores, higher combined and positive (but not negative) RCOPE scores were unexpectedly associated with increasingly flatter cortisol slopes. Conclusions These results extend current findings by showing that being AA, a caregiver, and high in positive religious coping may predict increased daily stress responses, mainly for those with higher patient behavioral problems. Since religious coping is a central coping strategy for AA caregivers, it is vital that epidemiological assessments of religious coping in health and aging as well as tailored interventions focus on the unique reasons for this disparity.
When anticipating future events like an opponent's stroke direction in tennis, players are assumed to rely on both kinematic and contextual cues such as an opponent's on-court position. However, knowledge of position dependency in shot-direction probabilities and experimental evidence of the effect of on-court position on action-outcome anticipation is missing. Here we show that shot-direction probabilities vary as a function of a hitting player's on-court position in professional tennis. Moreover, unlike novices, skilled players in particular relied on information about an opponent's position when anticipating forehand baseline shot direction in a video-based experiment. The position dependency in skilled players' prediction behavior was most evident when little information on an opponent's stroke kinematics was available. Findings suggest that skilled players consider the reliability of different information sources by weighting the available contextual and kinematic cues differently in the course of an opponent's unfolding action. PMID:24501141
The authors examined associations between psychosocial variables (coping self-efficacy, social support, and cognitive depression) and subjective health status among a large national sample (N = 3,670) of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive persons with different sexual identities. After controlling for ethnicity, heterosexual men reported fewer symptoms than did either bisexual or gay men and heterosexual women reported fewer symptoms than did bisexual women. Heterosexual and bisexual women reported greater symptom intrusiveness than did heterosexual or gay men. Coping self-efficacy and cognitive depression independently explained symptom reports and symptom intrusiveness for heterosexual, gay, and bisexual men. Coping self-efficacy and cognitive depression explained symptom intrusiveness among heterosexual women. Cognitive depression significantly contributed to the number of symptom reports for heterosexual and bisexual women and to symptom intrusiveness for lesbian and bisexual women. Individuals likely experience HIV differently on the basis of sociocultural realities associated with sexual identity. Further, symptom intrusiveness may be a more sensitive measure of subjective health status for these groups.
Mosack, Katie E.; Weinhardt, Lance S.; Kelly, Jeffrey A.; Gore-Felton, Cheryl; McAuliffe, Timothy L.; Johnson, Mallory O.; Remien, Robert H.; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Ehrhardt, Anke A.; Chesney, Margaret A.; Morin, Stephen F.
Therapeutic scrapbooking is an intervention being used with parents and caregivers of children with cancer. The purpose of the group is to promote hopefulness, mobilize internal strengths, and thereby enhance the parents' and caregivers' coping abilities to benefit pediatric oncology patients. Facilitators, licensed in medical social work, provide a safe environment for participants to verbalize their stories and share their distress. Scrapbooking is a "normal" activity without the negative stigma that a "support group" may carry, minimizing the reluctance to attend this supportive group. Outcome measurements indicate this therapeutic intervention achieves positive results. PMID:21391072
The goal of this research is to analyze the predictive power level of academic self-efficacy, self-esteem and coping with stress on academic procrastination behavior. Relational screening model is used in the research whose research group is made of 374 students in Kirikkale University, Education Faculty in Turkey. Students in the research group…
Kandemir, Mehmet; Ilhan, Tahsin; Ozpolat, Ahmed Ragip; Palanci, Mehmet
Emerging research suggests the importance of psychosocial characteristics (e.g., coping and social support) for positive adaptation among youth with behaviorally acquired HIV. However, little is known about how these traits interact with cognitive abilities to impact emotional and behavioral adjustment. This study examined whether copingskills and executive functioning interact in their association with psychological adjustment in HIV-positive youth. Data
Christina Salama; Mary Morris; Lisa Armistead; Linda J. Koenig; Penelope Demas; Corinne Ferdon; Pamela Bachanas
The present study investigated whether a life skills program (LSP) for the prevention of adolescent substance misuse can have positive influences on a school context and on school bonding. The study also explored whether effects on alcohol use are mediated by positive effects on school bonding resulting from program participation. The LSP IPSY…
Wenzel, Victoria; Weichold, Karina; Silbereisen, Rainer K.
Empirical studies of early childhood educators' experiences with learning and implementing positive guidance skills are absent from the extant literature. This study explored this topic with 63 junior and senior level university students who were involved in concurrent instructional lecture and practicum experiences. Participants defined “positive guidance” diversely with definitions ranging from accurate to inaccurate. Most participants held inaccurate or
This learning module is one of a series that teaches the competencies of "Job Search Skills," part of the "Work Skills" package--a set of competency-based instructional materials written for low-level readers that prepares students with specific job search and job keeping skills. ("Work Skills" is part of the "Connections" package, which…
Background: This study was aimed to investigate the main and buffering effects of positive religious coping on the association between the number of chronic medical conditions and major depressive disorder (MDD) among African Americans, Caribbean Blacks and Non-Hispanic Whites. Methods: This cross-sectional study used data from the National Survey of American Life, 2001 and 2003. This study enrolled 3,570 African Americans, 1,438 Caribbean Blacks and 891 Non-Hispanic Whites. Number of chronic conditions and positive religious coping were independent variables, 12-month MDD was the outcome and socio-economic characteristics were controls. We fitted the following three ethnic-specific logistic regressions for data analysis. In Model I, we included the number of chronic conditions and controls. In Model II, we added the main effect of religious coping. In Model III, we included an interaction between religious coping and number of chronic conditions. Results: Based on Model I, number of chronic conditions was associated with higher odds of 12-month MDD among all race/ethnic groups. Model II showed a significant and negative association between religious coping and MDD among Caribbean Blacks (odds ratio [OR] =0.55, 95% confidence Interval [CI] =0.39-0.77), but not African Americans or Hispanic Whites. Model III suggested that, only among Caribbean Blacks, the effect of chronic medical conditions on MDD is smaller in the presence of high positive religious coping (OR for interaction = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.55-0.96). Conclusions: Although the association between multiple chronic conditions and MDD may exist regardless of race and ethnicity, race/ethnicity may shape how positive religious coping buffers this association. This finding sheds more light onto race and ethnic differences in protective effects of religiosity on mental health of populations.
In this study, the authors evaluated the empirical properties of the 33-item Teacher Knowledge and Skills Survey (TKSS) 2.0 for positive behavioral support (PBS) in schools. Through an examination of internal consistency and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) of the theorized construct, the construct validity of the survey was evaluated. Results…
The aim of this study is to investigate the experiences of student teachers participating in an introductory course, designed to stimulate the development of a positive attitude towards research and to stimulate the development of research knowledge and skills by second-year student teachers of an institute of primary teacher education. A…
van der Linden, Wietse; Bakx, Anouke; Ros, Anje; Beijaard, Douwe; Vermeulen, Marc
Performance-based measures of hand preference have been developed as an objective method of examining handedness. Previous research using this method by Bryden, Roy, and Mamolo (2003) showed that both skill demands and the position of the object in working space affect preferential hand reaching. Specifically, preferred hand reaches predominated…
Mamolo, Carla M.; Roy, Eric A.; Bryden, Pamela J.; Rohr, Linda E.
The present study examines the associations between coping efforts and psychological (internalizing and externalizing symptoms) and behavioral adjustment in a sample of 373 male juvenile offenders (ages 14-17) during the first month of incarceration. Social support seeking was associated with a more rapid decline in internalizing symptoms and lower levels of externalizing symptoms. Acceptance had a stress-buffering effect with regard to internalizing symptoms, whereas denial predicted higher levels of these symptoms. The only coping variable related to violent behavior was active coping, which was associated with lower rates of violent offending among youth with any violent incidents. The importance of fostering copingskills and increasing positivecoping options for incarcerated adolescents is discussed.
During acculturation, Asian immigrant adolescents have numerous challenges such as language barriers, cultural and ethnic differences, different school environments, discrimination experiences, and intergroup conflicts and tension. These challenges generate acculturative stress, which negatively affects the perception of health and well-being among Asian immigrant adolescents. This article explored how Asian immigrant adolescents perceive and cope with acculturative stress. In particular, this study examined the stress-coping strategies in the adaptation process as experienced by Korean immigrant adolescents. Three main themes associated with the stress-coping strategies were captured: (a) engagement in meaningful activities; (b) social support; and (c) positive emotion. This finding implies that Asian immigrant adolescents create and develop their own strategies to deal with acculturative stress, which results in a sense of happiness and psychological well-being. This study discuss the future implications on how to improve the perception of health and well-being among Asian immigrant adolescents.
This document provides detailed qualification criteria for contractor key radiation protection personnel. Although federal key radiation protection positions are also identified, qualification standards for federal positions are provided in DOE O 360.1 and the DOE Technical Qualifications Program. Appendices B and D provide detailed listings for knowledge, skills, and abilities for contractor and DOE federal key radiation protection positions. This information may be used in developing position descriptions and individual development plans. Information provided in Appendix C may be useful in developing performance measures and assessing an individual`s performance in his or her specific position. Additionally, Federal personnel may use this information to augment their Office/facility qualification standards under the Technical Qualifications Program.
Objective To determine whether video-based copingskills (VCS) training with telephone coaching reduces psychosocial and biological markers of distress in primary caregivers of a relative with Alzheimer’s Disease or related dementia (ADRD) Methods A controlled clinical trial was conducted with 116 ADRD caregivers who were assigned, alternately as they qualified for the study, to a Wait List control condition or the VCS training arm in which they viewed two modules/week of a version of the Williams LifeSkills Video adapted for ADRD family care contexts, did the exercises and homework for each module presented in an accompanying Workbook, and received one telephone coaching call per week for five weeks on each week’s two modules. Questionnaire-assessed depressive symptoms, state and trait anger and anxiety, perceived stress, hostility, caregiver self-efficacy, salivary cortisol across the day and before and after a stress protocol, and blood pressure and heart rate during a stress protocol were assessed prior to VCS training, seven weeks after training was completed and at three and six months follow-up. Results Compared to controls, participants who received VCS training plus telephone coaching showed significantly greater improvements in depressive symptoms, trait anxiety, perceived stress, and average systolic and diastolic blood pressure that were maintained over the six-month follow-up period. Conclusions VCS training augmented by telephone coaching reduced psychosocial and biological indicators of distress in ADRD caregivers. Future studies should determine the long-term benefits to mental and physical health from this intervention.
Williams, Virginia P.; Bishop-Fitzpatrick, Lauren; Lane, James D.; Gwyther, Lisa P.; Ballard, Edna L.; Vendittelli, Analise P.; Hutchins, Tiffany C.; Williams, Redford B.
Literature from the U.S. has documented the importance of spirituality on the psychological health of people living with HIV/AIDS; however there is little published data on the ways in which people living with HIV/AIDS in Africa turn to religion for support. We conducted 40 in-depth interviews with HIV-positive women who were pregnant or had recently given birth in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo to inform the development of a comprehensive family-centered HIV treatment and care program. Women described how they relied upon their faith and turned to church leaders when they were diagnosed with HIV and prepared to share their diagnosis with others. The women used prayer to overcome the initial shock, sadness and anger of learning their HIV diagnosis. They turned to their church leaders to help them prepare for disclosing their diagnosis to others, including their partners. Church leaders were also important targets for disclosure by some women. Women's faith played an important role in their long-term coping strategies. Conceptualizing their infection as a path chosen by God, and believing that God has the power to cure their infection comforted women and provided them with hope. In settings like the Democratic Republic of the Congo, where there is a strong foundation of faith, we need to recognize how individuals draw upon their different health belief systems in order to develop and implement coherent and effective prevention, treatment and care strategies. PMID:19136188
A meta-analysis was conducted of studies that measured the effects of both age and skill in chess on the tasks of selecting the best move for chess positions (the best move task) as well as recalling chess game positions (the recall task). Despite a small sample of studies, we demonstrated that there are age and skill effects on both tasks: age being negatively associated with performance on both tasks and skill being positively associated with performance on both tasks. On the best move task, we found that skill was the dominant effect, while on the recall task, skill and age were approximately equally strong effects. We also found that skill was best measured by the best move task. In the case of the best move task, this result is consistent with the argument that it accurately replicates expert performance (Ericsson & Smith, 1991). Results for the recall task argue that this task captures effects related to skill, but also effects likely due to a general aging process. Implications for our understanding of aging in skilled domains are also discussed. PMID:23508364
... can help you expand and strengthen your copingskills. I have a supportive family around me. I pursue a hobby or project for work, church, or my community. I take part in a social or activity group more than once a month. I am within ...
The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of a group coping intervention for HIV-positive men and women who have lost a loved one(s) to AIDS in the past 2 years. Two hundred thirty-five participants, diverse with respect to race/ethnicity and sexual orientation, were randomly assigned to a 12-week cognitive-behavioral group intervention…
Sikkema, Kathleen J.; Hansen, Nathan B.; Kochman, Arlene; Tate, David C.; DiFranceisco, Wayne
Background In academic medicine, women physicians lag behind their male counterparts in advancement and promotion to leadership positions. Lack of mentoring, among other factors, has been reported to contribute to this disparity. Peer mentoring has been reported as a successful alternative to the dyadic mentoring model for women interested in improving their academic productivity. We describe a facilitated peer mentoring program in our institution's department of medicine. Methods Nineteen women enrolled in the program were divided into 5 groups. Each group had an assigned facilitator. Members of the respective groups met together with their facilitators at regular intervals during the 12 months of the project. A pre- and post-program evaluation consisting of a 25-item self-assessment of academic skills, self-efficacy, and academic career satisfaction was administered to each participant. Results At the end of 12 months, a total of 9 manuscripts were submitted to peer-reviewed journals, 6 of which are in press or have been published, and another 2 of which have been invited to be revised and resubmitted. At the end of the program, participants reported an increase in their satisfaction with academic achievement (mean score increase, 2.32 to 3.63; P = 0.0001), improvement in skills necessary to effectively search the medical literature (mean score increase, 3.32 to 4.05; P = 0.0009), an improvement in their ability to write a comprehensive review article (mean score increase, 2.89 to 3.63; P = 0.0017), and an improvement in their ability to critically evaluate the medical literature (mean score increased from 3.11 to 3.89; P = 0.0008). Conclusions This facilitated peer mentoring program demonstrated a positive impact on the academic skills and manuscript writing for junior women faculty. This 1-year program required minimal institutional resources, and suggests a need for further study of this and other mentoring programs for women faculty.
Many undergraduate and graduate physics students choose to participate in an informal science program at the University of Colorado Boulder (Partnerships for Informal Science Education in the Community (PISEC)). They coach elementary and middle school students in inquiry-based physics activities during weekly, afterschool sessions. Observations from the afterschool sessions, field notes from the students, and pre/post surveys are collected. University students are also pre/post- videotaped explaining a textbook passage on a physics concept to an imagined audience for the Communications in Everyday Language assessment (CELA). We present findings from these data that indicate informal experiences improve the communication and pedagogical skills of the university student as well as positively influence their self-efficacy as scientific communicators and teachers.
Examined contingent positive and negative reinforcement and adaptive behavior and mood among 36 chronic, psychiatric outpatients who received either contingent positive token reinforcement to improve daily living skills, negative reinforcement procedure based on removal of free-tokens, or no treatment. Found significant differences between control…
Background Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is a prevalent chronic musculoskeletal condition with no cure. Pain is the primary symptom and results from a complex interaction between structural changes, physical impairments and psychological factors. Much evidence supports the use of strengthening exercises to improve pain and physical function in this patient population. There is also a growing body of research examining the effects of psychologist-delivered pain copingskills training (PCST) particularly in other chronic pain conditions. Though typically provided separately, there are symptom, resource and personnel advantages of exercise and PCST being delivered together by a single healthcare professional. Physiotherapists are a logical choice to be trained to deliver a PCST intervention as they already have expertise in administering exercise for knee OA and are cognisant of the need for a biopsychosocial approach to management. No studies to date have examined the effects of an integrated exercise and PCST program delivered solely by physiotherapists in this population. The primary aim of this multisite randomised controlled trial is to investigate whether an integrated 12-week PCST and exercise treatment program delivered by physiotherapists is more efficacious than either program alone in treating pain and physical function in individuals with knee OA. Methods/design This will be an assessor-blinded, 3-arm randomised controlled trial of a 12-week intervention involving 10 physiotherapy visits together with home practice. Participants with symptomatic and radiographic knee OA will be recruited from the community in two cities in Australia and randomized into one of three groups: exercise alone, PCST alone, or integrated PCST and exercise. Randomisation will be stratified by city (Melbourne or Brisbane) and gender. Primary outcomes are overall average pain in the past week measured by a Visual Analogue Scale and physical function measured by the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index subscale. Secondary outcomes include global rating of change, muscle strength, functional performance, physical activity levels, health related quality of life and psychological factors. Measurements will be taken at baseline and immediately following the intervention (12 weeks) as well as at 32 weeks and 52 weeks to examine maintenance of any intervention effects. Specific assessment of adherence to the treatment program will also be made at weeks 22 and 42. Relative cost-effectiveness will be determined from health service usage and outcome data. Discussion The findings from this randomised controlled trial will provide evidence for the efficacy of an integrated PCST and exercise program delivered by physiotherapists in the management of painful and functionally limiting knee OA compared to either program alone. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry reference number: ACTRN12610000533099
Background: Having a set of effective copingskills can prevent suicidal behavior by increasing self-control and self-direction. This study examines coping styles used by suicidal patients. Objectives: The researchers in this study try to identify coping strategies used by suicide attempters admitted to Shiraz Shahid Faghihi Hospital emergency room. Materials and Methods: This is a analytical cross-sectional study. Participants consisted of 50 suicide-attempted people admitted to Shiraz Faghihi Hospital. Instruments for data collections were a demographic checklist and the coping styles scale of Carver, Schier and Wintrope. Data were collected conveniently and analyzed using descriptive and analytic (Pearson Correlation, Student’s t-tests, and ANOVA) statistical methods. Results: Suicide attempted people used less useful coping strategies (Mean = 49.32) more than the other strategies (respectively mean of problem focused and emotion focused strategies were 30.27 and 27.83). Using ANOVA, in different educational level, problem focused and less effective copingskills of samples differed significantly (P = 0.009, P = 0.006, respectively). People with low educational level used less effective copingskills. There was a significant difference between men and women scores in use of less effective copingskills (P = 0.029). Conclusions: Teaching effective copingskills by psychological consultants in suicide attempted people, especially for women and people with low educational level, is important
Substance use is prevalent among HIV-positive adults and linked to a number of adverse health consequences; however little is known about risk and protective factors that influence substance use among HIV-positive adults coping with AIDS-related bereavement. Using structural equation modeling (SEM), male gender, diagnostic indications of antisocial and borderline personality disorders (PD), and grief severity were tested as risk factors, and social support as a protective factor, for alcohol and cocaine use among a diverse sample of 268 HIV-positive adults enrolled in an intervention for AIDS-related bereavement. Results indicated that the hypothesized model fit the study data. Male gender, PD indication, and social support had direct effects on substance use. PD had significant indirect effects on both alcohol and cocaine use, mediated by social support, but not by grief. Finally, both PD and social support had significant, but opposite, effects on grief. Implications for intervention and prevention efforts are discussed.
Hansen, Nathan B.; Cavanaugh, Courtenay E.; Vaughan, Ellen L.; Connell, Christian M.; Tate, David C.; Sikkema, Kathleen J.
Pupils with special needs can have difficulties in building relationships with peers in inclusive education. An important condition for developing positive relationships with peers is having the age?group appropriate social skills. It seems likely that pupils with an insufficient set of social skills face a larger risk of being excluded. This study describes the social skills of pupils with special
This paper reports an action research project in a school in the UK designed to investigate the impact of a brief Video Interaction Guidance (VIG) intervention in promoting skills of non-teaching staff in positive behaviour management. A summary of the literature in relation to VIG is provided before describing the project and data collected. Ten…
The present research used data from Grades 8, 9, and 10 of the 4-H Study of Positive Youth Development, a longitudinal study involving U.S. adolescents, in order to better elucidate the process through which the strengths of youth and the ecological resources promoting healthy development (such as out-of-school-time programs) may contribute to thriving. We examined the relationship between adolescents' self-regulation skills (selection, optimization, and compensation) and their participation in youth development (YD) programs across Grades 8 and 9 in predicting Grade 10 PYD and Contribution. Results indicated that while self-regulation skills alone predicted PYD, self regulation and YD program participation both predicted Contribution. In addition, Grade 8 YD participation positively predicted Grade 9 self regulation, which, in turn, predicted Grade 10 PYD and Contribution. We discuss how the alignment of youth strengths and resources within the environment may promote positive youth development. PMID:22118505
Mueller, Megan Kiely; Phelps, Erin; Bowers, Edmond P; Agans, Jennifer P; Urban, Jennifer Brown; Lerner, Richard M
The investigation (1) evaluates distributed/massed practice schedules for learning a physically complex psychomotor skill within the constraints of a real-world learning environment and (2) determines if there are interaction effects between practice and ...
A test was conducted of a supplemental skills training and social-network-development aftercare program with 130 drug abusers from four residential therapeutic communities. The intervention produced positive effects on subjects' performance at the conclusion of treatment. Performance improved in situations involving avoidance of drug use, coping…
BACKGROUND The present study examined the efficacy of various specific lifestyle and situation-specific copingskills by determining the relationship of each of these strategies to drinking outcomes. METHODS Patients with alcohol dependence in intensive day treatment were participating in a randomized trial naltrexone versus placebo and adjunctive communication and copingskills training or a control treatment. The alcohol version of the Urge-Specific Strategies (USS) questionnaire and the General Strategies for Alcoholics (GSA) were administered early in treatment. The USS assesses 16 situation-specific strategies taught in cue exposure treatment, communication skills training, or relaxation/meditation training to cope with experiencing an urge to drink (e.g., think of positive and negative consequences of drinking, use mastery messages, engage in an alternative behavior); the 21-item GSA assesses lifestyle change strategies taught in communication skills training and in the general treatment program (e.g., keep busy, exercise regularly, attend 12-Step meetings, avoid high-risk situations). Alcohol use and frequency of use of the skills were assessed 6 and 12 months following treatment. RESULTS Many specific behavioral and cognitive coping strategies were significantly related to drinking outcomes, including 13 urge-specific and 18 general lifestyle strategies, while other strategies were unrelated. CONCLUSIONS Since some strategies taught in treatment are more effective in preventing relapse than others, treatment may be improved by focusing on these specific strategies. Since results may be limited to this population, replication is needed in more diverse settings and without medication.
Dolan, Sara L.; Rohsenow, Damaris J.; Martin, Rosemarie A.; Monti, Peter M.
The quality of the verbal environment sets the stage for young children's developing perceptions of themselves and others. This document provides hands-on, practical advice for practitioners to support children's self-perception and copingskills by establishing and maintaining a positive verbal environment. Positive verbal environments enhance…
This paper reports on long term follow-up data—12 months post intervention—from a clinical trial of an intervention designed to enhance teen resilience by supporting the development of social skills needed to make positive connections and overcome the influence of negative environmental influences. Sixteen adolescents aged 12 to 16 (10 boys and 6 girls) attending an inner city urban secondary school participated in a 32 week intervention study. Subjects were randomly assigned within sex to Teen Club plus Positive Adolescent Life Skills (PALS) or Teen Club intervention groups. The Problem Oriented Screening Instrument for Teenagers (POSIT) was used to measure the dependent variables (problems related to substance use, health, mental health, family relations, peer relations, education status, vocational status, social skills, leisure and recreation, and aggression). The small sample size limited the ability to determine statistical differences between the POSIT subscale scores for PALS plus Teen Club or Teen Club only interventions. Descriptive data suggest mixed results for both interventions and sex groups. Most important were reductions in mental health problems for all boys in both groups and only slightly increased numbers of problems in substance use for PALS boys and girls over time. Other trends by group and sex are reported.
Campbell-Heider, Nancy; Tuttle, Jane; Knapp, Thomas R.
The paper describes the Coping Inventory, an observation instrument that provides an index of handicapped children's adaptive behavior by assessing the behaviors and skills they use to meet their own needs and adapt to the demands of their environment. Coping is defined as an active, adaptive process of using strategies to manage one's world.…
We examined whether gratitude was correlated with distinct coping styles, and whether coping styles mediated the relationship between gratitude and well-be- ing. Participants (n = 236) completed measures of coping styles, dispositional grati- tude, and measures of well-being. Gratitude correlated positively with seeking both emotional and instrumental social support, positive reinterpretation and growth, active coping, and planning. Gratitude correlated negatively
A sample of 135 first-year university students living in residence completed questionnaires that measured individual differences in mindfulness, coping styles, and perceived stress. Findings revealed significant positive relationships between mindfulness and rational coping, and significant negative relationships with emotional and avoidant coping…
We describe a psychoeducational program integrated in a basic computer skills course for participants suffering from social anxiety. The two main aims of the course were: that the participants learn basic computer skills, and that the participants learn to cope better with social anxiety. Computer skills were taught by a qualified teacher. Psychoeducation and cognitive therapy skills, including topics such as anxiety coping, self-accept, and self-regulation, were taught by a clinical psychologist. Thirteen of 16 participants completed the course, which lasted 11 weeks. A qualitative analysis was performed, drawing on observations during the course and on interviews with the participants. The participants were positive about the integration of psychoeducation sessions in the computer course, and described positive outcomes for both elements, including improved computer skills, improved self-esteem, and reduced social anxiety. Most participants were motivated to undertake further occupational rehabilitation after the course.
This book constitutes the teacher's manual for "The Dynamics of Relationships," a program designed as a preventive approach to the many social problems affecting young people and their families today. The book notes that the major causes of young people acting in negative and destructive ways include low self-esteem, poor communication skills,…
The present study focused on the motivational predictors of coping with academic examination through the test of the contribution of self-determination for academic studies and achievement goals. Coping strategies, academic motivation and achievement goals were assessed among 199 undergraduate students. Regression analysis revealed that problem-focused coping is positively predicted by identified regulation and negatively by amotivation, whereas emotion-focused coping is
Julie Doron; Yannick Stephan; Christophe Maiano; Christine Le Scanff
Purpose A multidimensional intervention integrating alexithymia, negative affect, and type of coping strategy is needed for the effective treatment of somatoform disorder; however, few studies have applied this approach to the three different dimensions of alexithymia in patients with somatoform disorder. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between type of coping strategy and three different dimensions of alexithymia expressed in patients. Patients and methods A total of 196 patients with somatoform disorder completed the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale, the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale, the Spielberger State–Trait Anxiety Inventory, the Somatosensory Amplification Scale, and the Lazarus Stress Coping Inventory. The relationships between alexithymia (Toronto Alexithymia Scale – 20 score and subscales), demographic variables, and psychological inventory scores were analyzed using Pearson’s correlation coefficients and stepwise multiple regression analysis. Results The mean Toronto Alexithymia Scale – 20 total score (56.1±10.57) was positively correlated with the number of physical symptoms as well as with psychopathology scores (Self-Rating Depression Scale, State–Trait Anxiety Inventory trait, state, and Somatosensory Amplification Scale), but negatively correlated with planful problem solving, confrontive coping, seeking social support, and positive reappraisal coping scores. With respect to coping strategy, multiple regression analyses revealed that “difficulty in identifying feelings” was positively associated with an escape–avoidance strategy, “difficulty in describing feelings” was negatively associated with a seeking social support strategy, and “externally oriented thinking” was negatively associated with a confrontive coping strategy. Conclusion Alexithymia was strongly associated with the number of somatic symptoms and negative affect. Patients with high “difficulty in describing feelings” tend to rely less on seeking social support, and patients with high “externally oriented thinking” tend to rely less on confrontive coping strategies. The copingskills intervention implemented should differ across individuals and should be based on the alexithymia dimension of each patient.
Obtained reports of coping and goals from 33 children being treated for leukemia. Coping strategies were classified as primary control coping (attempts to alter objective conditions), secondary control coping (attempts to adjust to objective conditions), or relinquished control (no attempt to cope). Secondary control coping was positively…
Pupils with special needs can have difficulties in building relationships with peers in inclusive education. An important condition for developing positive relationships with peers is having the age-group appropriate social skills. It seems likely that pupils with an insufficient set of social skills face a larger risk of being excluded. This…
Context: Athletic training has expanded from traditional sport-team settings to varied settings involving active populations. Athletic trainers also use their education and abilities in administration to take on roles of management in hospitals and health care clinics. Objective: To begin to explore the knowledge, skills, and abilities needed in the emerging practice setting of health care management. Design: Delphi study. Setting: Directed surveys. Patients or Other Participants: Eight athletic trainers working as hospital and health care clinic managers in varied geographic settings. Data Collection and Analysis: Three rounds of directed surveys were used and included (1) a series of demographic questions and 1 focused, open-ended question, (2) 32 statements scored on a 6-point Likert-type scale with no neutral statement, and (3) 10 statements ranked in order of importance for the athletic trainer working as a health care manager. Results: I grouped the results into 2 categories: leadership skills and management tools. Conclusions: According to participants, effective health care managers need a strong understanding of business and management tools along with more interpersonal skills in communication and leadership. The results are consistent with the literature and may be applied in athletic training education programs and by athletic trainers seeking health care management positions.
Many different strategies and skills for anger management intervention have been tried and tested. Some of the most empirically supported interventions are cognitive-behavioral interventions including relaxation copingskills, cognitive interventions, behavioral coping and social skills training, and problem-solving skills training. This digest…
In this study gender differences in coping were explored, using the Ways of Coping Checklist (WCC; Folkman & Lazarus, 1980). In addition, the focus was on sex differences in the predictive value of coping strategies in relation to psychosomatic symptoms. Males preferred problem-focused coping strategies, planned and rational actions, positive thinking, personal growth and humour, day-dreaming and fantasies. Women preferred emotion-focused coping solutions, self-blame, expression of emotions/seeking of social support, and wishful thinking/emotionality. In spite of the gender differences the results of multiple regression analyses indicated congruous relationships between coping and complaints for both sexes. Stressors and coping factors contributed in much the same way to the explained variance of symptoms and the results were generally similar for males and females. The present data also emphasize the bidirectionality of the coping-symptoms link. This holds especially for self-blame, day-dreaming and fantasizing, and wishful thinking/emotionality. In contrast, distancing was found to be associated with self-reported psychosocial load. Future prospective studies should explicitly pay attention to this bidirectional relationship. PMID:2320691
Introduction: The study of coping among students accounts for an interesting subject, as having copingskills guarantees a healthy lifestyle and quality of life. The present study aims to analyze the role played by age and gender on the coping strategies used by Andalusian school students to cope with situations of daily stress. These situations…
Morales Rodriguez, Francisco Manuel; Trianes Torres, Maria Victoria; Miranda Paez, Jesus
AIM: To explore (1) intergroup differences in comfortable interpersonal distances (CIDs) and the use of coping strategies; (2) the association of these parameters with individual symptomatology; and (3) the interplay between CIDs and coping styles in patients with depression and schizophrenia. METHODS: The parameters of interest were assessed by means of standardized questionnaires: CID and Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations. Psychopathology was evaluated with the Beck Depression Inventory and Positive and Negative Syndromes Scale. ANOVA, Pearson’s correlations and multiple regression analyses were used to examine relationships among the variables. RESULTS: Compared with controls, depressed patients were more distanced from family members, significant others and self-images, whereas patients with schizophrenia were less distanced from neutral and threat-related stimuli. Distancing from self-images was mostly associated with depression severity in depressed patients, whereas distancing from hostile and threat-related stimuli with the severity of psychotic and affective symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. Both patient groups used more emotion-oriented than task-oriented and avoidance-oriented coping strategies. Self-distancing among patients with schizophrenia was positively associated with the use of the social diversion coping, implying social support seeking. CONCLUSION: Patients with depression and schizophrenia use different maladaptive emotion - regulation strategies to cope with their symptoms and related distress. Training in stress management might provide these patients with skills for more effective emotion regulation.
Ponizovsky, Alexander M; Finkelstein, Irena; Poliakova, Inna; Mostovoy, Dimitry; Goldberger, Nehama; Rosca, Paula
An observational, questionnaire-based, cross-sectional study was performed to assess whether differences in coping behaviour (positive and negative strategies) between patients with either a recent diagnosis of malignant melanoma (MM) or with benign dermatological disease, were predictive of the diagnosis. Coping strategies were assessed with the German version of the stress-coping questionnaire (SVF 120) in 46 inpatients for whom surgery was planned at the Department of Dermatology, Medical University of Graz, Austria. Subjects were divided into two groups: patients with non-metastatic MM, and patients with benign dermatological diseases (controls). The risk for the diagnosis "melanoma" decreased with higher values of "situation control" (p?=?0.007) and increased with higher values of resignation (p?=?0.035) and trivialisation (p?=?0.039). More-over, the risk for having a MM with thickness >?1 mm decreased in patients with higher values in positivecoping strategies (p?0.34). These results suggest differences in coping behaviour between patients with MM and those with benign skin diseases and, amidst patients with MM, between patients with different MM thickness; the results may hence lead to earlier, more specific and more effective psychological interventions to improve coping in patients with MM, as differences in coping behaviour seem to appear even in the non-metastatic stage of the disease. PMID:22772950
Trapp, Michael; Trapp, Eva-Maria; Richtig, Erika; Egger, Josef Wilhelm; Zampetti, Anna; Sampogna, Francesca; Rohrer, Peter Michael; Komericki, Peter; Strimitzer, Tanja; Linder, Michael Dennis
Background Coping styles utilized by family caregivers of persons with schizophrenia have been implicated in the mental health of those\\u000a caregivers and in the course of schizophrenia. We tested the relation between caregivers’ coping efficacy, defined as the\\u000a caregiver’s perceptions of how successful they were in modifying their relative’s behavior, and caregiver’s psychological\\u000a distress as well as criticisms and positivity toward
Jorge I. Ramírez García; Brenda Hernández; Marina Dorian
Background: This article reports on an evaluation study of a project seeking to develop the use of position-linked datalogging with primary pupils in environmental science contexts. Purpose: The study sought to find out the extent to which the project had developed: (1) participant teachers' confidence in using datalogging as an everyday part of…
Davies, Daniel John; Collier, Christopher; Howe, Alan
The Group of Eight (Go8) applauds the government's intention to comprehensively reform the skilled migration program, and it welcomes the opportunity to submit this response to the General Skilled Migration (GSM) Points Test Discussion Paper. The Go8 has argued for some time that it is inappropriate to link international education to the skilled…
College student excessive alcohol use is a pressing public health concern, and many of the negative events associated with heavy drinking occur during leisure or free time. Positive use of leisure can lead to copingskills, stress reduction, and healthy development. Negative use of leisure, including heavy alcohol use, is associated with physical…
Suicide among adolescents is an emerging global public health problem as well as a socioeconomic problem. Stress-coping strategies have been shown to be associated with suicidal ideation. We examined coping behaviors related to suicidal ideation and gender differences in adolescents using the data from the 2010 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Survey (ages 12-19 years; N = 73,238). Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate associations between suicidal ideation and specific coping behaviors while controlling for potentially confounding variables. In both male and female groups, the coping behavior "drinking alcoholic beverages" and "smoking cigarettes" were positively associated with suicidal ideation. "Watching TV," "playing online/mobile games," and "sleeping" were negatively associated with suicidal ideation in both groups. In males, "engaging in sports" was negatively related to suicidal ideation. In females, "venting by talking to others" and "eating" were negatively related to suicidal ideation. The results indicate that there are gender differences in the effects of coping behaviors on adolescent suicidal ideation, and that developing adaptive coping strategies may function to reduce suicidality. Future studies are needed to examine whether improving copingskills can reduce suicidal ideation in a gender-specific manner. PMID:24344782
Kim, Sun Mi; Han, Doug Hyun; Trksak, George H; Lee, Young Sik
Patients with first-episode psychosis (FEP) often show dysfunctional coping patterns, low self-efficacy, and external control beliefs that are considered to be risk factors for the development of psychosis. Therefore, these factors should already be present in patients at-risk for psychosis (AR). We compared frequencies of deficits in coping strategies (Stress-Coping-Questionnaires, SVF-120/SVF-KJ), self-efficacy, and control beliefs (Competence and Control Beliefs Questionnaire, FKK) between AR (n=21) and FEP (n=22) patients using a cross-sectional design. Correlations among coping, self-efficacy, and control beliefs were assessed in both groups. The majority of AR and FEP patients demonstrated deficits in copingskills, self-efficacy, and control beliefs. However, AR patients more frequently reported a lack of positivecoping strategies, low self-efficacy, and a fatalistic externalizing bias. In contrast, FEP patients were characterized by being overly self-confident. These findings suggest that dysfunctional coping, self-efficacy, and control beliefs are already evident in AR patients, though different from those in FEP patients. The pattern of deficits in AR patients closely resembles that of depressive patients, which may reflect high levels of depressiveness in AR patients. Apart from being worthwhile treatment targets, these coping and belief patterns are promising candidates for predicting outcome in AR patients, including the conversion to psychosis. PMID:24878297
Aim The aim of this study was to identify the coping strategies Hispanic adolescents employed to deal with parental cancer, looking specifically at how gender and psychological symptoms such as depression and anxiety relate to such strategies. Methods Participants were 51 Puerto Rican adolescents who have a parent living with cancer. Adolescents completed a structured questionnaire with scales measuring depression (CES-D), anxiety (STAI), and coping strategies (COPE). Results The strategies used with the highest frequency were those generally viewed as positive and emotion-focused: emotional support, acceptance, and religion. The means for these coping strategies indicated that they occurred with high frequency. The findings revealed no differences in coping strategies between girls and boys. Depression was related to two maladaptive coping strategies: denial and behavioral disengagement; and one emotion-focused strategy: acceptance. Anxiety had significant correlations with one emotion-focused strategy: acceptance; and two dys-functional strategies: substance use and behavioral disengagement. The best predictors of adolescents’ depression and anxiety were dysfunctional coping and problem-focused strategies. Conclusions The study contributes to the knowledge about the coping strategies of Hispanic adolescents experiencing parental cancer and the importance of taking individual coping strategies into account when evaluating the impact of parental cancer on psychological well-being. This is especially true for adolescents who are likely to use dysfunctional strategies such as denial, substance use, and behavioral disengagement. Through psychosocial interventions, professionals need to assist these adolescents to improve and learn better coping strategies.
Research on children's perceptions of control has identified both changes and consistencies in control beliefs during childhood and early adolescence. Developmental changes in coping have also been documented. Implications of research for interventions aimed at enhancing children's problem-solving and copingskills are discussed. (SLD)
In theories and studies of persuasion, people's personal knowledge about persuasion agents' goals and tactics, and about how to skillfullycope with these, has been ignored. We present a model of how people develop and use persuasion knowledge to cope with persuasion attempts. We discuss what the model implies about how consumers use marketers' advertising and selling attempts to refine
Objective: Mothers who had physically abused their children were assessed to determine whether these mothers had a general copingskills deficit.Method: Abusing mothers (n = 17) were compared to nonabusing mothers of conduct problem children (n = 16). Coping was measured by several different methods, each designed to address the insufficiencies of the others.Results: In comparison to the nonabusing mothers,
Project COPE provides supportive services, basic skills, career development, and occupational training to limited English proficient (LEP) students at three New York City high schools. Many COPE students are also limited in their ability to read and write in their native languages. Program participants in 1983-84 included: 173 Spanish-dominant…
New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn. Office of Educational Assessment.
This study examined how high school students cope with stress as a function of their attachment style. Data were gathered from 75 adolescent-parent pairs in Texas and included measures of attachment, coping style, life stress, and whom the respondent would turn to in times of stress. Adolescents' attachment security was positively related to…
Residents (N = 32) of 3 skilled nursing homes participated in a study designed to document the nature of the stressors they experienced and the coping mechanisms they used. Medical issues were the most common stressors. The most common coping responses were prayer, reading, watching television, listening to music, and talking to friends and…
There is anecdotal evidence that a significant number of students studying computing related courses at degree level have difficulty with sub-GCE mathematics. Testing of students' skills is often performed using diagnostic tests and a number of computer-based diagnostic tests exist, which work, essentially, by testing one specific diagnostic skill…
This practicum was designed to focus on: (1) the improvement of the confidence of pre-adolescent girls; (2) the establishment of a positive body image; and (3) the strengthening of assertiveness skills. The writer worked in a group of 20 girls over a period of 8 months using exercises designed to facilitate their growth. A curriculum was developed…
Background: Children of bipolar parents are at elevated risk for psychiatric disorders including bipolar disorder. Helping bipolar parents to optimize parenting skills may improve their children's mental health outcomes. Clear evidence exists for benefits of behavioural parenting programmes, including those for depressed mothers. However, no studies have explored web-based self-directed parenting interventions for bipolar parents. Aims: The aim of this research was to conduct a pilot study of a web-based parenting intervention based on the Triple P-Positive Parenting Programme. Method: Thirty-nine self-diagnosed bipolar parents were randomly allocated to the web-based intervention or a waiting list control condition. Parents reported on their index child (entry criterion age 4-10 years old). Perceived parenting behaviour and child behaviour problems (internalizing and externalizing) were assessed at inception and 10 weeks later (at course completion). Fifteen participants (4 control group and 11 intervention group) did not provide follow-up data. Results: Levels of child behaviour problems (parent rated; Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire) were above clinical thresholds at baseline, and problematic perceived parenting (self-rated; Parenting Scale) was at similar levels to those in previous studies of children with clinically significant emotional and behavioural problems. Parents in the intervention group reported improvements in child behaviour problems and problematic perceived parenting compared to controls. Conclusions: A web-based positive parenting intervention may have benefits for bipolar parents and their children. Initial results support improvement in child behaviour and perceived parenting. A more definitive study addressing the limitations of the current work is now called for. PMID:23544953
Discusses how managers can handle change and cope with stress, describes a number of books that address these issues, and relates them to library administration. Highlights include organizational change; stress reduction; human behavior and the tools of change; communication skills; leadership strategies; and the use of humor. (LRW)
Background Knowledge of coping styles is useful in clinical diagnosis and suggesting specific therapeutic interventions. However, the latent structures and relationships between different aspects of coping styles have not been fully clarified. A full information item bifactor model will be beneficial to future research. Objective One goal of this study is identification of the best fit statistical model of coping styles. A second goal is entails extended analyses of latent relationships among different coping styles. In general, such research should offer greater understanding of the mechanisms of coping styles and provide insights into coping with stress. Methods Coping Styles Questionnaire (CSQ) and Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES) were administrated to officers suffering from military stress. Confirmatory Factor Analyses was performed to indentify the best fit model. A hierarchical item response model (bifactor model) was adopted to analyze the data. Additionally, correlations among coping styles and self-efficacy were compared using both original and bifactor models. Results Results showed a bifactor model best fit the data. Item loadings on general and specific factors varied among different coping styles. All items loaded significantly on the general factor, and most items also had moderate to large loadings on specific factors. The correlation between coping styles and self-efficacy and the correlation among different coping styles changed significantly after extracting the general factor of coping stress using bifactor analysis. This was seen in changes from positive (r?=?0.714, p<0.01) correlation to negative (r?=??0.335, p<0.01) and also from negative (r?=??0.296, p<0.01) to positive (r?=?0.331, p<0.01). Conclusion Our results reveal that coping styles have a bifactor structure. They also provide direct evidence of coexisting coping resources and styles. This further clarifies that dimensions of coping styles should include coping resources and specific coping styles. This finding has implications for measurement of coping mechanisms, health maintenance, and stress reduction.
This study examined whether a coping-skills-based treatment for marijuana dependence operated by encouraging the use of copingskills or via other mechanisms. Participants were 450 men and women treated in the multisite Marijuana Treatment Project who were randomly assigned to motivational enhancement therapy plus cognitive-behavioral (MET-CB)…
Litt, Mark D.; Kadden, Ronald M.; Stephens, Robert S.
Since the incidence of cancer in this country is high and the cancer survival rates are increasing, it is important to study coping strategies in cancer patients. As survival time lengthens, coping strategies that might affect the quality of a patient's life become increasingly important. A study was conducted to examine coping strategies in newly…
The present study examined coping flexibility and correlates of this style of approaching stressful situations. Two methods for assessing coping flexibility, the Flex (Schwartz and Daltroy, 1991) and a modification of the Ways of Coping Checklist (Folkman and Lazarus. 1980) were administered to 28 men and 32 women, who were also asked questions about their age, gender, style of impression
Background Negative premenstrual change can result in distress for a significant proportion of women. Previous research has suggested that women employ a range of coping strategies and behaviours in order to manage and reduce premenstrual distress. However, as yet there has been no specific scale available to measure premenstrual coping. This research aimed to develop and validate a measure of premenstrual coping which can be used in future investigations of negative premenstrual experience. Methods A sample of 250 women living in Australia, reporting mild to severe premenstrual distress, completed an online survey containing 64 items related to premenstrual coping. The items were generated by reviewing past literature related to premenstrual experience, in particular recent qualitative research on premenstrual coping. A principal components factor analysis with varimax rotation was conducted to determine item clusters that would form a measure. Reliability and validity were tested using calculations of Cronbach alphas, correlational analysis with psychological coping scales and a content analysis of participant reports of coping strategies. Results The factor analysis, which involved two principal component analyses, resulted in five factors containing 32 premenstrual coping behaviours. Interpretation of the factor solution drew on empirical and theoretical accounts of premenstrual coping and the emergent factors were labelled Avoiding Harm, Awareness and Acceptance of Premenstrual Change, Adjusting Energy, Self-Care, and Communicating. These factors form the subscales of the Premenstrual Coping Measure (PMCM). The subscales demonstrated acceptable to very good reliability and tests of construct, concurrent and content validity were supportive of sound validity. Conclusions The PMCM provides a valid and reliable scale for quantifying ways of coping specific to negative premenstrual change. Conceptual similarity was found between some coping behaviours and behaviours positioned as symptoms of premenstrual change. Explanations for this overlap may be found in cultural discourses associated with idealised femininity and PMS (premenstrual syndrome). Further psychometric investigation of the PMCM will enhance knowledge of the role of coping with negative premenstrual experience.
There is a substantial body of literature that demonstrates that substance use and lower educational attainment are associated with poorer antiretroviral (ART) adherence, however, the nature of these relationships are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to explore whether coping styles mediate the relationship between substance use and educational attainment and ART adherence in order to better understand how these variables relate to adherence. The sample consisted of 192 HIV-positive patients (mean age = 41 years; 75.5 % male, 46.9 % heterosexual; 52.6 % with a high school/GED education or less) who were on ART. Path analysis revealed that active and avoidant coping significantly mediated the relationship between drug use and ART adherence. No form of coping was found to mediate the relationship between either binge drinking or educational attainment and adherence. Findings suggest that a focus on copingskills should be included in any multimodal intervention to increase ART adherence among HIV-positive drug using patients.
Goggin, Kathy; Catley, Delwyn; Gerkovich, Mary M.; Williams, Karen; Wright, Julie; Berkley-Patton, Jannette
Background Psychotic symptoms in the context of psychiatric disorders are associated with poor functional outcomes. Environmental stressors are important in the development of psychosis; however, distress may only be pathogenic when it exceeds an individual’s ability to cope with it. Therefore, one interesting factor regarding poor functional outcomes in patients with psychotic symptoms may be poor coping. This paper aimed to address the question whether 1) psychotic symptoms are associated with poorer functioning and 2) whether poor coping moderated the association. Methods In a clinical case-clinical control study of 106 newly-referred adolescent patients with non-psychotic psychiatric disorders, coping was investigated using the Adolescents Coping Scale. Severity of impairment in socio-occupational functioning was assessed with the Children’s Global Assessment Scale. Results Patients with non-psychotic psychiatric disorders and additional psychotic symptoms (N?=?50) had poorer functioning and were more likely to use avoidance-oriented coping compared to patients with non-psychotic psychiatric disorders without psychotic symptoms (N?=?56). No differences were found with respect to approach-oriented coping. When stratifying for poor/good coping, only those adolescent patients with psychotic symptoms who applied poor coping (i.e. less use of approach-oriented coping styles [OR 0.24, p?0.015] and more use of avoidance-oriented coping [OR 0.23, p?0.034]) had poorer functioning. However, these interactions were not significant. Conclusions Non-adaptive coping and poorer functioning were more often present in adolescents with non-psychotic psychiatric disorders and additional psychotic symptoms. Due to small subgroups, our analyses could not give definitive conclusions about the question whether coping moderated the association between psychotic symptoms and functioning. Improvement of copingskills may form an important target for intervention that may contribute to better clinical and functional outcomes in patients with psychotic symptoms.
In recent times, many key host nations have made it easier for foreign graduates to migrate after graduation. These students are often considered ideal migrants, possessing local qualifications along with a degree of acculturation, language skills and, in many cases, relevant local work experience. For the student, the opportunity to obtain…
A study evaluated a therapeutic intervention program for young adults with severe autism at the Oasi Institute in Troina, Sicily. The program, which integrates gentle teaching, humanistic applied behavior analysis, and functional communication training, provides opportunities to acquire functional skills through errorless learning activities.…
Polirstok, Susan Rovet; Dana, Lawrence; Buono, Serafino; Mongelli, Vita; Trubia, Grazia
This prospective study of children with recurrent abdominal pain (N = 133; ages 8–15 years) used path analysis to examine relations among dispositional pain beliefs and coping styles, cognitions and behavior related to a specific pain episode, and short- and long-term outcomes. Children believing they could not reduce or accept pain appraised their episode-specific coping ability as low and reported passive coping behavior. Dispositional passive coping had direct effects on both episode-specific passive coping and long-term symptoms and disability. Accommodative coping (acceptance and self-encouragement) was associated with reduced episode-specific distress, which itself predicted reduced depressive symptoms 3 months later. Results suggest that coping-skill interventions for children with chronic pain should target reductions in passive coping and consider the potential benefits of accommodative coping strategies.
The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between various coping-related variables and the evaluation of self-worth and subjective well-being among persons with spinal cord injury. Positivecoping variables included hope, proactive coping style, and sense of humor, whereas negative coping variables included perceptions of stress,…
Smedema, Susan Miller; Catalano, Denise; Ebener, Deborah J.
Reports of adolescents' coping with recurrent pain, symptoms of anxiety\\/depression, and somatic complaints were obtained from a sample of 164 adolescents with recurrent abdominal pain and their parents. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed that coping consisted of 3 nonorthogonal factors: Primary Control Engagement Coping (problem solving, emotional expression, and emotional regulation), Secondary Control Engagement Coping (positive thinking, cognitive restructuring, acceptance, and
Bruce E. Compas; Margaret C. Boyer; Catherine Stanger; Richard B. Colletti; Alexandra H. Thomsen; Lynette M. Dufton; David A. Cole
The primary aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between confidence and subjective performance in addition to exploring whether coping mediated this relationship. A sample of 414 athletes completed a measure of confidence before performance. Athletes also completed a measure of coping and subjective performance after competing. Correlational findings revealed that confidence was positively and significantly associated with subjective performance. Furthermore, mediational analysis found that coping partly mediated this relationship. In particular, task-oriented coping (i.e., mental imagery) and disengagement-oriented coping (i.e., resignation) had positive and negative mediational effects, respectively. Additionally, athletes who employed mental imagery generally coped more effectively than those using resignation. These findings imply mental imagery has the potential not only to improve confidence, but also subsequent performance, while resignation coping may have the opposite effect. Overall, these results lend some credence to Vealey's integrated sports confidence model. PMID:20459476
Skills that families gain in coping with transitions at the early ages of their child with visual impairments provide skills necessary for all the life-stage transitions that follow and, thus, are termed marathon skills. The transition programing of the Lighthouse Child Development Center in New York City is designed to develop those skills. (JDD)
Milieu relationships provide the critical background presence to staff's attempts to motivate, regulate, and teach patients how to cope with stress. Forging a connection with hospitalized children and adolescents demands attention to how they respond to adults and engage with staff around milieu expectations. Assessment guides that deal with these issues are presented. Important aspects of children's relatedness are presented in the context of their working models of adults and the influence of these representations on their response to staff. Copingskills are explained with particular emphasis on behavioral coping strategies. Tied to the assessment process are interventions that emphasize staff's role in helping patients manage strong affects and avoid the use of nonproductive behavior regulation strategies. PMID:17118054
The coping strategies used by adolescents to deal with stress may have implications for the development of depression and suicidal ideation. This study examined coping categories and specific coping behaviors used by adolescents to assess the relation of coping to depression and suicidal ideation. In hierarchical regression models, the specific coping behaviors of behavioral disengagement and self-blame were predictive of higher levels of depression; depression and using emotional support were predictive of suicidal ideation. Results suggest that specific behaviors within the broad coping categories of emotion-focused coping (e.g., self-blame) and avoidant coping (e.g., behavioral disengagement) account for these categories’ associations with depression and suicidal ideation. Specific problem-focused coping strategies did not independently predict lower levels of depression or suicidal ideation. It may be beneficial for interventions to focus on eliminating maladaptive coping behaviors in addition to introducing or enhancing positivecoping behaviors.
The influence of gender roles on coping with workplace stressors was examined among 176 adult undergraduate students (130 females, 46 males) who were concurrently employed while attending college. The majority of participants (91.5%) were White and from working-class backgrounds. As expected, androgynous persons were significantly more likely to report using help-seeking, direct action, and positive-thinking coping mechanisms than were individuals
This study examined the role of emotions as predictors of children’s coping responses to peer rejection experiences. Children\\u000a ages 7–12 (N = 79) completed questionnaires to assess emotional and coping responses to peer rejection scenarios. This study examined\\u000a three coping factors specific to peer rejection (positive reappraisal, ruminative coping, and aggressive coping) and examined\\u000a results separately for two negative peer experiences (teasing
People who are high in self-compassion treat themselves with kindness and concern when they experience negative events. The present article examines the construct of self-compassion from the standpoint of research on coping in an effort to understand the ways in which people who are high in self-compassion cope with stressful events. Self-compassionate people tend to rely heavily on positive cognitive restructuring but do not appear to differ from less self-compassionate people in the degree to which they cope through problem-solving and distraction. Existing evidence does not show clear differences in the degree to which people who are low vs. high in self-compassion seek support as a coping strategy, but more research is needed.
Different individuals use different coping styles to cope with their problems. In patients with anxiety and/or depression, these have important implications. The primary objective of our study was to estimate the frequency of different coping mechanisms used by patients with symptoms of anxiety and depression. A descriptive, cross-sectional survey was conducted and patients with symptoms of anxiety and depression were identified using the Aga Khan University's Anxiety and Depression Scale (AKUADS). Coping styles were determined by using the 28-item Brief COPE inventory. We were able to recruit 162 people. The prevalence of anxiety and depression was found to be 34%. Females were more than 2 times likely to have anxiety and depression (P value = 0.024, OR = 2.62). In patients screening positive for AKUADS, “religion” was the most common coping mechanism identified. “Acceptance”, “Use of instrumental support”, and “Active coping” were other commonly used coping styles. Our findings suggest that religious coping is a common behavior in patients presenting with symptoms anxiety and depression in Pakistan. Knowledge of these coping styles is important in the care of such patients, as these coping methods can be identified and to some extent modified by the treating clinician/psychiatrist.
Kasi, Pashtoon Murtaza; Naqvi, Haider Ali; Afghan, Abaseen Khan; Khawar, Talha; Khan, Farooq Hasan; Khan, Umber Zaheer; Khuwaja, Urooj Bakht; Kiani, Jawad; Khan, Hadi Mohammad
Objectives We tested whether emotional skills and headache management self-efficacy (HMSE) moderated effects of written emotional disclosure (WED) compared to control writing and a different intervention, relaxation training (RT). Design/Methods Undergraduates with migraine headaches reported emotional approach coping (EAC) and HMSE; were randomized to WED, RT, or control; and assessed on health measures at baseline and 3-month follow-up. Results Greater EAC predicted improvement following WED compared to RT and control, whereas low HMSE predicted improvement following both WED and RT, compared to control. Conclusions Emotional skill may specifically—and low health management self-efficacy may generally—predict positive responses to WED.
Kraft, Christina A.; Lumley, Mark A.; D'Souza, Pamela J.; Dooley, John A.
When individuals face uncontrollable situations such as natural disasters, meaning-focused coping (MFC) can contribute to individuals' adjustment. The objectives of the current study were to examine the role of MFC in post-traumatic growth and to explore how three different types of coping (problem-focused coping, emotion-focused coping, and MFC) affected the mental health of earthquake victims following the 2008 Sichuan Earthquake. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that MFC had a significantly incremental value in predicting positive affect (?R2=7.6%, p<.01) and well-being (?R2=3.1%, p<.01), above and beyond problem-focused coping and emotion-focused coping. In contrast, for negative affect and depression, these incremental effects were not significant. Path analysis was conducted to test the mediating role of post-traumatic growth among the three coping styles and the outcome variables (well-being, positive affect, negative affect, and depression). The results showed that post-traumatic growth mediated the path from MFC to well-being and positive affect (for positive affect: Sobel z = 3.74, p<.001; for well-being: Sobel z = 5.02, p<.001). In addition, post-traumatic growth mediated the path from problem-focused coping to depression (Sobel z = 2.21, p<.001). The hypothetical model of emotion-focused coping did not converge. PMID:22091795
Religion is an important aspect of Tanzanian culture, and is often used to cope with adversity and distress. This study aimed to examine religious coping among women with obstetric fistulae. Fifty-four women receiving fistula repair at a Tanzanian hospital completed a structured survey. The Brief RCOPE assessed positive and negative religious coping strategies. Analyses included associations between negative religious coping and key variables (demographics, religiosity, depression, social support and stigma). Forty-five women also completed individual in-depth interviews where religion was discussed. Although participants utilised positive religious coping strategies more frequently than negative strategies (p < .001), 76% reported at least one form of negative religious coping. In univariate analysis, negative religious coping was associated with stigma, depression and low social support. In multivariate analysis, only depression remained significant, explaining 42% of the variance in coping. Qualitative data confirmed reliance upon religion to deal with fistula-related distress, and suggested that negative forms of religious coping may be an expression of depressive symptoms. Results suggest that negative religious coping could reflect cognitive distortions and negative emotionality, characteristic of depression. Religious leaders should be engaged to recognise signs of depression and provide appropriate pastoral/spiritual counselling and general psychosocial support for this population. PMID:24735435
Watt, Melissa H; Wilson, Sarah M; Joseph, Mercykutty; Masenga, Gileard; MacFarlane, Jessica C; Oneko, Olola; Sikkema, Kathleen J
The listening skills component of the Interpersonal Skills Training Program for staff of the University of Georgia Cooperative Extension Service was evaluated. Such services can help individuals and client families explore alternatives and develop resources for coping with crises. An instrument developed by J. E. Jones and L. Mohr (1986) was used…
Substance abusers demonstrate high rates of recidivism and deviant behavior despite participation in rehabilitation and community education programs. These findings may, in part, be attributed to the significant cognitive and behavioral skill deficits evident among substance abuse high-risk groups. Two social competency models of habilitation are proposed as means to increase the abuser's life management skills and coping abilities. \\
Research has identified that coping strategies used by individuals depend on temporal locations of stressors. Dispositional attributes are also identified as predictors of coping. The current study identified commonalities of proactive coping, reactive coping, and learned resourcefulness measures. The analysis yielded three factors reflective of…
Moring, John; Fuhrman, Robert; Zauszniewski, Jaclene A.
Many individuals with Substance Use Disorders (SUDs) have been the victims of violence and individuals with SUDs often exhibit copingskills deficits. The extent to which copingskills relate to victimization is unknown. This study evaluated the relationships between physical assault victimization types (i.e., only partner victimization, only non-partner victimization, or both partner and non-partner victimization) and emotion-focused, problem-focused, and avoidant coping among individuals in residential SUD treatment. More frequent use of problem-focused coping was associated with reduced odds of being victimized by partners and non-partners and more frequent use of avoidant coping was associated with increased odds of victimization across both partners and non-partners. These results highlight the potential value of assessing violence across relationship types and bolstering adaptive coping among individuals with SUDs.
Bonar, Erin E.; Bohnert, Amy S. B.; Ilgen, Mark A.; Sanborn, Michelle L.; Chermack, Stephen T.
The purpose was to examine age and sex differences in psychological skills among Greek badminton players. 85 badminton players completed a Greek version of the Athletic CopingSkills Inventory-28 by Smith, Schutz, Smoll, and Ptacek, during the 2002 Greek Men's and Women's National Badminton Championship Tournament. Analysis yielded differences between age groups on two factors (adversity and coachability) but no statistically significant differences between sexes. Older athletes were better prepared to cope with the psychological distress involved in the game of badminton and reported better emotional self-control. Overall, results could help badminton athletes and coaches become more familiar with the sport-specific psychological skills involved in badminton. PMID:15002873
Objective Psychological stress can upregulate inflammatory processes and increase disease risk. In the context of stress, differences in how individuals cope might have implications for health. The goal of this study was to evaluate associations among stress, coping, and inflammation in a sample of African-American and white adolescents. Methods Adolescents (n = 245) completed self-report measures of stressful life events and coping, provided daily diary reports of interpersonal conflict over seven days, and provided fasting blood samples for assessment of C-reactive protein (CRP). Results In regression analyses adjusted for age, sex, race, body mass index, smoking, and socioeconomic status, there were no significant associations between stress and CRP, but significant interactions between stress and coping emerged. For adolescents reporting more unpleasant stressful life events in the past 12 months, positive engagement coping was inversely associated with CRP (? = ?.19, p < .05), whereas coping was not significantly associated with CRP for adolescents reporting fewer stressful life events. Positive engagement coping was significantly and inversely associated with CRP in the context of interpersonal stress, whether measured as stressful life events reflecting interpersonal conflict (e.g., arguments with parents or siblings, conflict between adults in the home, friendship ended) or frequency of arguments with others reported in daily diaries. Disengagement coping was unrelated to CRP. Conclusion Findings suggest that positive engagement coping is associated with lower levels of inflammation, but only when adolescents are challenged by significant stress.
In a randomized clinical trial with 111 families of parents with a history of major depressive disorder (86% mothers; 86% Caucasian), changes in adolescents’ (mean age 11 years; 42% female) coping and parents’ parenting skills were examined as mediators of the effects of a family group cognitive behavioral preventive intervention on adolescents’ internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Changes in hypothesized mediators were assessed at 6-months and changes in adolescents’ symptoms were measured at 12-month follow-up. Significant differences favoring the family intervention as compared with a written information comparison condition were found for changes in composite measures of parent-adolescent reports of adolescents’ use of secondary control copingskills and direct observations of parents’ positive parenting skills. Changes in adolescents’ secondary control coping and positive parenting mediated the effects of the intervention on depressive, internalizing and externalizing symptoms accounting for approximately half of the effect of the intervention on the outcomes. Further, reciprocal relations between children’s internalizing symptoms and parenting were found from baseline to 6-month follow-up. Implications for the prevention of psychopathology in offspring of depressed parents are highlighted.
Compas, Bruce E.; Champion, Jennifer E.; Forehand, Rex; Cole, David A.; Reeslund, Kristen L.; Fear, Jessica; Hardcastle, Emily J.; Keller, Gary; Rakow, Aaron; Garai, Emily; Merchant, Mary Jane; Roberts, Lorinda
Within gerontological caregiving research, there is a major emphasis on stresses and burdens of this role. Yet there has been little attention directed toward the coping strategies that caregivers engage in to cope with this role and the factors that influence their adoption of different coping strategies. This article examines coping strategies…
... hopeless feelings, as well as a decrease in energy. experience helping people deal with chronic disease) help ... the prescribe a medication that will help your energy Bargaining and Acceptance While trying to cope with ...
Describes the symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder in students. Suggests ways that teachers can help students cope with catastrophic events such as the September 11 terrorist attack on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon. (PKP)
Consumers' and family members' involvement was indispensable to create social support networks promoted by the comprehensive mental health services resulting from the closure and subsequent complete reconversion of the mental hospital in Trieste. Despite long term consumers' disabilities and the families' heavy burden the individuals' positiveskills and resources can be, and indeed are, 'valorized'. Mutual help groups, social clubs and solidarity initiatives in the community were the outcome of the individual consumer's active daily involvement in the service therapeutic programmes and of stimulation of social and communication skills. The service considers these forms of supported self-organisation of consumers and family members as new instruments for further deinstitutionalisation and demedicalisation of therapeutic and rehabilitative practices, for the overcoming of social isolation and learning of coping strategies from the mutual experience. PMID:1577573
Mezzina, R; Mazzuia, P; Vidoni, D; Impagnatiello, M
According to various diathesis-stress models of schizophrenia, life stress plays a defining role in the onset and course of schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. In this regard, individual differences in coping strategies and affective traits, variables related to the management and experience of stress, may play a large role in susceptibility to the disorder and symptom exacerbation. Furthermore, it has been posited that cognitive deficits may limit an individuals' ability to effectively respond to stressful situations. We investigated the relationships between attention, immediate memory, trait negative affect (NA), trait positive affect (PA) and specific coping strategies within three groups: chronic schizophrenia patients (n=27), psychometrically-defined schizotypy (n=89), and schizotypy demographically-matched controls (n=26). As hypothesized affective traits displayed predictable relationships with specific coping strategies, such that NA was associated with the greater use of avoidant coping strategies within the schizophrenia and schizotypy group, while PA was associated with greater use of approach coping styles within all groups. The schizotypy group reported significantly higher levels of NA and also greater use of avoidant coping strategies than both the control and schizophrenia group. As expected group differences were found in trait affect, coping strategies, and cognitive functioning. Importantly, these group differences remained significant even when demographic variables were entered as covariates. Contrary to our expectations, cognitive functioning displayed only a few tenuous relationships with coping strategies within the schizophrenia and schizotypy groups. Overall, results support the notion that affective traits and not cognitive functioning is the best predictor of approach and avoidant coping strategies. PMID:23680466
Describes a project based on the Global Positioning System (GPS) that offers students a chance to design and implement a mini-research program to prepare them for an undergraduate research project. Discusses the context of the GPS exercise, teaching and learning outcomes, and advantages and evaluation of the exercise. (CMK)
The present research used data from Grades 8, 9, and 10 of the 4-H Study of Positive Youth Development, a longitudinal study involving U.S. adolescents, in order to better elucidate the process through which the strengths of youth and the ecological resources promoting healthy development (such as out-of-school-time programs) may contribute to…
Mueller, Megan Kiely; Phelps, Erin; Bowers, Edmond P.; Agans, Jennifer P.; Urban, Jennifer Brown; Lerner, Richard M.
Focus groups were conducted to determine changes in self- esteem and coping strategies of 10 mothers of children with special needs. Participants in a short-term occupational therapy intervention gained copingskills, improved self-image, and increased self-care. (Contains 37 references.) (JOW)
Helitzer, Deborah L.; Cunningham-Sabo, Leslie D.; VanLeit, Betsy; Crowe, Terry K.
The authors examined the relationship between specific learning styles and stress and coping in a sample of female college students (N = 246). Participants in the study were assessed on the three variables by completing several self-report instruments measuring learning styles, life stress level, and copingskills. There were significant…
Vaughn, L. M.; Hensley, B.; Baker, R. C.; Dearman, L.
This exploratory research paper investigated the coping strategies of families of hospitalized psychiatric patients and identified their positive and negative coping strategies. In this paper, the coping strategies of 45 family members were examined using a descriptive, correlational, mixed method research approach. Guided by the Neuman Systems Model and using the Family Crisis Oriented Personal Evaluation Scales and semistructured interviews, this paper found that these family members used more emotion-focused coping strategies than problem-focused coping strategies. The common coping strategies used by family members were communicating with immediate family, acceptance of their situation, passive appraisal, avoidance, and spirituality. The family members also utilized resources and support systems, such as their immediate families, mental health care professionals, and their churches.
Eaton, Phyllis M.; Davis, Bertha L.; Hammond, Pamela V.; Condon, Esther H.; McGee, Zina T.
In today's unstable market economy, individuals have to be skilled to work efficiently in constantly changing and complex situations. Thus, graduate students have to be trained to cope with unpredictable situations before they enter the workforce. They need to exercise occupational skills, such as leadership skills, during higher education.…
This study examined whether a coping-skills-based treatment for marijuana dependence operated by encouraging the use of copingskills or via other mechanisms. Participants were 450 men and women treated in the multisite Marijuana Treatment Project who were randomly assigned to motivational enhancement therapy plus cognitive–behavioral (MET-CB) treatment, motivational enhancement therapy (MET), or a delayed treatment control group. Marijuana use and
Mark D. Litt; Ronald M. Kadden; Robert S. Stephens
The document summarizes a study on stress and coping in a group of college students. In this study, 30 community college students, who were enrolled in an experientially taught stress reduction course, completed measures of stress, support, and coping strategies. The purpose of this study was to explore the possible positive effects of…
This study of 90 adults (aged 55?80) who lost their vision assessed their dispositional optimism, social comparisons, coping strategies, and wellbeing. The findings suggest that optimism and positive social comparisons play an important role in stimulating the motivation to cope adaptively with vision loss and that enhancing optimism and social…
Asserts that, in some situations, one of the most useful strategies for helping cancer patients to cope can be denial. Presents definitions of coping in general and denial in particular. Discusses potential positive functions of denial for cancer patients and provides an overview of potential negative consequences. Concludes with brief summary and…
Increasing demand on aviation industry calls for more pilots. Thus, pilot training systems and pilot-candidate screening systems are essential for civil and military flying training institutes. Before actual flight training, it is not easy to determine whether a flight trainee will be successful in the training. Due to the high cost of actual flight training, it would be better if there were low cost methods for screening and training candidates prior to the actual flight training. This study intended to determine if subject related factors and flight control stick position have an impact on acquisition of simulated flying skills using a PC-based flight simulator. The experimental model was a factorial design with repeated measures. Sixty-four subjects participated in the experiment and were divided into 8 groups. Experiment consisted of 8 sessions in which performance data, such as heading, altitude and airspeed were collected every 15 seconds. Collected data were analyzed using SAS statistical program. Result of multivariate analysis of variance indicated that the three independent variables: nationality, computer game experience, and flight stick position have significant impact on acquiring simulated flying skill. For nationality, Americans recorded higher scores in general (mean: 81.7) than Koreans (mean: 78.9). The difference in mean scores between Americans and Koreans was 2.8 percent. Regarding computer game experience, the difference between high experience group (82.3) and low experience group (78.3) is significant. For high experience group, American side-stick group recorded the highest (mean: 85.6), and Korean side-stick group (mean: 77.2) scored the lowest. For the low experience group, American center-stick group scored the highest (80.6), and the Korean side-stick group (74.2) scored the lowest points. Therefore, there is a significant difference between high experience group and low experience group. The results also reveal that the center-stick position is easier to learn than side-stick position. The difference in performance score between group of center-stick (mean: 82.1) and side-stick (mean: 76.8) is considerable.
Although many studies have documented age-linked shifts in values, few studies have demonstrated the relationship between values and psychological adjustment. To explore the relationship between values, daily stressful experiences, positive experiences, and coping strategies, 100 white, middle-aged adults (ages 45-64 years) completed the Ways of…
This Article aims to introduce the translation and the validation of a multidimensional measure of coping strategies: the Brief COPE, in a French population. The coping concept comes from psychological studies that were conducted on stress. In the conceptual analysis of stress by Lazarus and Folkman, coping works with two cognitive appraisals performed by the person concerning the perception of a threatening situation and his or her available resources to deal with it. Coping is defined as "cognitive and behavioural efforts to master, reduce, or tolerate the internal and/or external demands that are created by the stressful transaction". The Brief COPE is the abridged version of the COPE inventory and presents fourteen scales all assessing different coping dimensions: 1) active coping, 2) planning, 3) using instrumental support, 4) using emotional support, 5) venting, 6) behavioural disengagement, 7) self-distraction, 8) self-blame, 9) positive reframing, 10) humor, 11) denial, 12) acceptance, 13) religion, and 14) substance use. Each scale contains two items (28 altogether). This inventory has the advantage of being built from acknowledged theoretical models (Lazarus' transactional model of stress, 1984; behavioral self-regulation model, Carver and Scheier, 1981, 1998). It can be used to assess trait coping (the usual way people cope with stress in everyday life) and state coping (the particular way people cope with a specific stressful situation). As is the COPE inventory, the Brief COPE is a measure used for many health-relevant studies: drugs addiction, ageing, breast cancer, depression, AIDS. Both measures are widely used in Anglophone countries and translated in many Languages. Today, the COPE inventory has been validated among Estonian, Croatian, Chinese, and Italian populations and the Brief COPE is also validated among Spanish people. Thus, the worldwide use of this coping inventory should allow a broad comparison of medical and psychological research for coping strategies regarding every kind of pathologies. Thus, we were led to present the translation and the validation of this measure in a French population. Two studies are presented in this Article: the first one describes the validation of the inventory in a dispositional format (trait coping) and the second one the validation of the inventory in a situational format (state coping). The French version of Brief COPE, which was used for both studies, was back-translated and analysed by the Brief COPE Author: Charles S. Carver. For study 1, 834 first Year university students answered the Brief COPE in its dispositional format. To study the factor structure of the Brief COPE, we used structural equation modeling and the LISREL software. Results show that the expected theoretical structure and the observed one fit adequately (c2=606, p<0,05, RMSEA=0,04, GFI>0,95, AGFI>0,92, RMR<0,03). In order to study convergent and discriminant validity of Brief COPE, self-esteem (SEI, Rosenberg, 1979), perceived stress (PSS, Cohen et al., 1983), and psychological distress (GHQ-12, Goldberg, 1972) measures were used. Results show that functional coping strategies (eg, active coping) are linked to good self-esteem, to lower perceived stress, and to lower psychological distress, whereas less functional strategies (eg, denial or self-blame) are widely linked to poor self-esteem, to a high perceived stress, and to psychological distress. Study 1 shows also several significant gender differences. Study 2 describes the Brief COPE validation in its situational format. 178 additional students answered this version. The method that was used is the same the one developed by Lazarus and his colleagues for the WCC validation. Participants were asked to recall and think about the most stressful event they had experienced during the past two Months. They were also to give an account of how much that situation mattered to them. They had to evaluate their capacity to control the situation and indicated whether they felt the situation was amenable to change. The study inc
Family and youth violence are increasingly recognized as key public health issues in developing countries. Parenting interventions form an important evidence-based strategy for preventing violence, both against and by children, yet most rigorous trials of parenting interventions have been conducted in high-income countries, with far fewer in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). This systematic review, conducted in line with Cochrane Handbook guidelines, investigated the effectiveness of parenting interventions for reducing harsh/abusive parenting, increasing positive parenting practices, and improving parent-child relationships in LMICs. Attitudes and knowledge were examined as secondary outcomes. A range of databases were systematically searched, and randomized trials included. High heterogeneity precluded meta-analysis, but characteristics of included studies were described according to type of delivery mode and outcome. Twelve studies with 1580 parents in nine countries reported results favoring intervention on a range of parenting measures. The validity of results for most studies is unclear due to substantial or unclear risks of bias. However, findings from the two largest, highest-quality trials suggest parenting interventions may be feasible and effective in improving parent-child interaction and parental knowledge in relation to child development in LMICs, and therefore may be instrumental in addressing prevention of child maltreatment in these settings. Given the well-established evidence base for parenting interventions in high-income countries, and increasingly good evidence for their applicability across cultures and countries, there is now an urgent need for more rigorously evaluated and reported studies, focusing on youth outcomes as well as parenting, adapted for contexts of considerable resource constraints. PMID:23315023
We analyzed family dynamics and coping behaviors of parents with a child with an autistic spectrum disorder. Previous research suggests that moderate levels of cohesion and adaptability are associated with higher levels of positivecoping, and that the more coping strategies a family implements, the greater their satisfaction with family…
This study examines the types of religious\\/spiritual coping used by women trauma survivors with co-occurring mental health and substance use disorders. Analyses based on data from 2 large racially diverse samples indicate that women from the study population rely considerably more on positive, than negative, religious coping, and that their reliance on religious coping, in general, is significantly higher than
The present study focused on coping strategies among African Americans, Latinos, and European Americans with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and idiopathic chronic fatigue (ICF). The coping strategies examined were measured by using the COPE Scales, which assess Seeking Emotional Social Support, Positive Reinterpretation and Growth, Acceptance, Denial, Turning to Religion, Behavioral Disengagement, and Focusing on and Venting Emotions. In addition,
Mary Gloria C. Njoku; Leonard A. Jason; Susan R. Torres-Harding
\\u000a How persons prefer to cope with stressful life events play an important role in one’s ability to adapt to stressful life conditions\\u000a such as schizophrenia. Cross-sectional studies have shown that schizophrenia patients utilize several different (task-, emotion-\\u000a and avoidance-oriented) coping strategies, both favorable and unfavorable, to cope with their disorder. Coping resources then\\u000a come to play an important role in
The present study examined behavioral coping actions and coping strategies in relation to specific contextual factors (e.g., victim-stalker relationship, stalking violence, duration of stalking, and prior victimization) among Finnish university students. Participants completed a stalking survey, also including items concerning coping. Victims of violent stalking threatened the stalker with the use of certain legal actions significantly more compared with victims of nonviolent stalking, but no difference in the actual use of formal help was found. Instead victims of stalking tried to avoid the stalker or turned to friends and family for help. Victim-stalker relationship, stalker violence, and number of stalking episodes had a significant main effect on certain coping strategies (e.g., positive reappraisal, escape-avoidance, and problem-solving), while no interaction effect was found. The findings suggest that knowledge of victim-coping behavior and strategies is crucial for health care and law enforcement professionals when devising appropriate support for victims and developing multidisciplinary approaches. PMID:20565009
Björklund, Katja; Häkkänen-Nyholm, Helinä; Sheridan, Lorraine; Roberts, Karl
The authors suggest that the best way to deal effectively with stress is better management of one's life style. Some of the coping strategies include developing good eating and exercise habits, learning relaxation techniques, building an emotional support system, and anticipating and managing stressful life events. (SK)
Children who live with chronic illness are confronted with challenges that frequently force them to cope in myriad ways. The ways in which children face chronic illness are summarized in this literature review. Also covered, are how the effects of family can influence coping strategies and how family members, especially parents, cope with their…
The purpose of this study was to examine patterns of relationships between identity processing styles and a range of beneficial and problematic coping strategies. Participants completed self-report measures of identity styles (informational, normative, and diffuse-avoidant), identity commitment, and 15 different coping strategies. The diffuse-avoidant style was positively associated with denial, disengagement, and substance use, and it was also positively related
Anxiety and depression are the most commonly reported mental health problems amongst Australian children and adolescents. The Aussie Optimism: Program-Positive Thinking Skills (AOP-PTS) is a universal intervention program based on cognitive and behavioral strategies and aimed to prevent anxiety and depression in the middle primary school children aged 9–10 years old. 370 students randomly assigned to the intervention and control condition participated in the 42 and 54 months follow-up study. The intervention group received the AOP-PTS 10-week program and the control group received the regular health education curriculum. Students were assessed on anxiety, depression and attribution style at school whilst parents reported on their child’s externalizing and internalizing problems at home. Results showed there were no significant reductions across groups in the depressive and anxiety symptoms, and attribution style at either 42 or 54 months follow-up. These findings suggest that AOP-PTS has short and medium term effects but were not sustained in longer term period. Future strategies to achieve the desirable outcomes in a longitudinal study are discussed.
Johnstone, Julie; Rooney, Rosanna M.; Hassan, Shari; Kane, Robert T.
The current study examined how specific coping strategies mediate the relationship between Conscientiousness (C) and positive affect (PA) in a large, multiethnic sample. Using an internet-based daily diary approach, 366 participants (37.6% Caucasian, 30.6% Asian American, 20.7% Hispanic, 9.1% African American) completed measures that assessed daily stressors, coping strategies used to deal with those stressors, and PA over the course of five days. In addition, participants completed a measure of the Five-Factor Model of Personality. Problem-Focused coping partially mediated the relationship between C and PA. Individuals higher in C used more problem-focused coping, which, in turn, was associated with higher PA. The findings of the current study suggest C serves as a protective factor from stress through its influence on coping strategy selection. Other possible mediators in the C-PA relationship are discussed.
Introduction In South Africa where HIV prevalence is high, mentor mother programmes have been used to promote the health and wellbeing of women enrolled in government programmes preventing vertical transmission. The Masihambisane Project trained mentors to be educators and facilitators as “expert patients” in self-help groups. While this and other similar interventions demonstrate positive outcomes for mothers and their children, the long-term repercussions for mentors delivering the intervention are seldom considered. This article explores the personal impact of being a mentor, the potentially traumatizing effects of repeatedly sharing their experiences of living with HIV and the coping strategies they adopt. Results Towards the end of the Masihambisane intervention, 10 semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with locally recruited mentors living with HIV and were thematically analysed. Mentors found the repeated telling of their stories a painful reminder of adverse personal experiences. In some cases, retelling caused a physical reaction. Mentors relied on coping strategies like taking breaks, writing their experiences down and debriefing sessions. Despite the difficulties associated with their role, some mentors found being advisors and the group sessions therapeutic and empowering. Conclusions These findings indicate that the inclusion of peer mentors comes with certain responsibilities. While the mentors were resilient and some found the experience therapeutic and empowering found creative ways to cope with secondary trauma, the negative implications cannot be ignored. To effectively deliver a mentor-driven intervention to mothers enrolled in a programme to prevent vertical transmission, the possibilities of secondary trauma should be considered and mentors provided with ongoing counselling, training on copingskills and regular debriefing sessions.
Dhlamini, Lebohang; Knight, Lucia; van Rooyen, Heidi; van Heerden, Alastair; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane
Reports of adolescents' coping with recurrent pain, symptoms of anxiety/depression, and somatic complaints were obtained from a sample of 164 adolescents with recurrent abdominal pain and their parents. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed that coping consisted of 3 nonorthogonal factors: Primary Control Engagement Coping (problem solving, emotional expression, and emotional regulation), Secondary Control Engagement Coping (positive thinking, cognitive restructuring, acceptance, and distraction), and Disengagement Coping (denial, avoidance, and wishful thinking). Structural equation modeling using latent variables revealed that secondary control engagement coping predicted lower levels of anxiety/depression symptoms and somatic complaints, and disengagement coping was related to higher levels of anxiety/depression and somatic complaints. Implications for understanding child and adolescent coping with pain are highlighted. PMID:17154742
Compas, Bruce E; Boyer, Margaret C; Stanger, Catherine; Colletti, Richard B; Thomsen, Alexandra H; Dufton, Lynette M; Cole, David A
Background Burnout in physicians is common, and studies show a prevalence of 30% to 78%. Identifying constructive coping strategies and personal characteristics that protect residents against burnout may be helpful for reducing errors and improving physician satisfaction. Objective We explored the complex relationships between burnout, behaviors, emotional coping, and spirituality among internal medicine and internal medicine-pediatrics residents. Methods We anonymously surveyed 173 internal medicine and medicine-pediatrics residents to explore burnout, coping, and spiritual attitudes. We used 3 validated survey instruments: the Maslach Burnout Inventory, the Carver Coping Orientation to Problems Experienced (COPE) Inventory, and the Hatch Spiritual Involvement and Beliefs Scale (SIBS). Results A total of 108 (63%) residents participated, with 31 (28%) reporting burnout. Residents who employed strategies of acceptance, active coping, and positive reframing had lower emotional exhaustion and depersonalization (all, P < .03). Residents who reported denial or disengagement had higher emotional exhaustion and depersonalization scores. Personal accomplishment was positively correlated with the SIBS total score (r ?=? +.28, P ?=? .003), as well as the internal/fluid domain (r ?=? +.32, P ?=? .001), existential axes (r ?=? +.32, P ?=? .001), and humility/personal application domain (r ?=? +.23, P ?=? .02). The humility/personal application domain also was negatively correlated with emotional exhaustion (r ?=? ?.20, P ?=? .04) and depersonalization (r ?=? ?.25, P ?=? .009). No activity or demographic factor affected any burnout domain. Conclusions Burnout is a heterogeneous syndrome that affects many residents. We identified a range of emotional and spiritual coping strategies that may have protective benefit.
Doolittle, Benjamin R.; Windish, Donna M.; Seelig, Charles B.
With competition to attract quality students into career and technical education programs and many entrants to the workforce inadequately prepared with employability skills, some community colleges have found a way to answer industry's call--they are launching SkillsUSA chapters on campus. In this article, the author features SkillsUSA, a…
Using self-report data from 157 college students, we tested hypotheses regarding the relative importance of perceived security in early parental relationships vs. security in adult (nonparental) relationships for understanding respondents' coping dispositions and explanatory styles. In general, more secure attachments were positively related to support-seeking and active problem-solving coping styles and to females' but not males' tendency to explain hypothetical
Much of the research on children's coping styles is based on a downward extension of adult coping theories. In a departure from this approach, coping competence theory seeks to account for children's ability to cope with daily challenges on the basis of developmental research. The theory, which states that challenges call for distinct coping…
Our study tested an extension of the social resource model in an urban sample of 129 African American and 114 European American\\u000a adolescents. Maternal involvement was positively related to the use of active and avoidant coping strategies among youth of\\u000a both ethnicities. Additionally, use of active coping strategies was related to greater coping efficacy, which, in turn, was\\u000a associated with
"Coping flexibility" was defined as the ability to discontinue an ineffective coping strategy (i.e., evaluation coping) and produce and implement an alternative coping strategy (i.e., adaptive coping). The Coping Flexibility Scale (CFS) was developed on the basis of this definition. Five studies involving approximately 4,400 Japanese college…
Background The aim of the present study was to explore the prospective relationship between anxiety symptoms and coping strategies during late pregnancy and early postpartum. Methods Participants completed the Hospital Anxiety Depression-Anxiety subscale and Carver’s Brief COPE at two time points, namely during the last trimester of pregnancy (N?=?400) and at two months postpartum (N?=?158). Results Antenatally, 18.8% of pregnant women presented severe anxiety symptoms while 20.2% of women presented severe anxiety symptoms after birth. Carver's proposed coping styles allowed to significantly distinguish between anxious and non anxious women during these two periods. Anxious women used significantly more inappropriate coping and less adaptive coping responses, such as self-blame and denial of reality, which remained associated with anxiety in the perinatal period. Our results also indicated a decrease in adaptive coping in women without anxiety after birth (e.g. acceptance, positive reframing). Conclusion Our findings confirm that antenatal and postnatal anxiety symptoms occur frequently and that inappropriate and/or non functional coping may account for persisting anxiety after childbirth. Limitations: Data were based on self-reports and participating women were predominantly primiparous. A high drop-out rate at two months postpartum must also be acknowledged.
INTRODUCTION A diagnosis of breast cancer regardless of the stage can be stressful, impact multiple spheres of life, and disrupt physical status, emotional and spiritual well-being, and personal relationships for the patient and family. In order to adapt, the patient ought to employ certain coping mechanisms. Individuals with terminal illness who utilize coping strategies have better quality of life compared to those who do not. PATIENTS AND METHODS This study aimed to determine the strategies used by females with breast cancer to cope with such stress by using Brief COPE scale and the hospital anxiety and depression scale. The study included 56 female patients diagnosed with operable breast cancer at Mansoura Oncology Center before surgery. RESULTS Large proportion of patients used acceptance, religion, and emotional support in coping with the stress of having breast cancer. Patients with depressive symptoms scored significantly higher venting while those with anxiety scored higher positive reframing, planning, and venting. CONCLUSION Efforts should be made to encourage women with breast cancer to use coping strategies that have been found to be helpful (eg, acceptance, emotional support, distraction, and active coping strategies).
Elsheshtawy, Eman A.; Abo-Elez, Warda F.; Ashour, Hala S.; Farouk, Omar; El zaafarany, Maha I. Esmael
We longitudinally investigated coping among male military veterans (n=98) with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomatology and a co-occurring substance use disorder (SUD) who participated in a randomized controlled trial of seeking safety (SS). Participants were randomized to SS or intensive treatment-as-usual (TAU) for SUD. Coping (active, avoidant, emotional discharge), and PTSD and SUD symptomatology were measured prior to and at the end of treatment, and at 6- and 12-month follow-ups. Among the total sample, we found that: (a) avoidant and emotional discharge, but not active, coping tended to be positively associated with PTSD and SUD symptomatology at baseline; (b) active coping increased and avoidant and emotional discharge coping decreased during the 12-month time-period; and (c) avoidant and emotional discharge, but not active, coping longitudinally covaried with PTSD and SUD symptomatology. Results suggest the utility of targeting maladaptive coping in treatments for individuals with co-occurring PTSD and SUD. PMID:24854218
Expectancy Theory has offered much in the way of understanding alcohol use and abuse, and has contributed greatly to prevention and treatment initiatives. However although many cognitive-behavioural treatment approaches are based on expectancy constructs, such as outcome expectancies and self-efficacy, high relapse rates imply that expectancy theory may be too narrow in scope, and that additional variables need to be examined if a comprehensive understanding of drinking behaviour, and better treatment outcomes, are to be achieved. We suggest that the coping strategies an individual employs present one such set of variables that have largely been neglected from an expectancy framework. Although copingskills training is routinely used in prevention and treatment of alcohol problems, coping research has suffered from a poor theoretical framework. In this paper we review the existing research relating expectancies, self-efficacy and coping to drinking behaviour and propose a model which explains both social and dependent drinking, by incorporating coping into an expectancy theory framework. We also outline research and clinical implications of the proposed model. PMID:19630702
Many studies have investigated the consequences of child sexual abuse (CSA) but few have examined the intergenerational effects of poly-victimization and maladaptive coping. The purpose of this investigation was to examine patterns of maltreatment and maladaptive coping among second-generation CSA survivors. It is hypothesized that: (a) maternal…
Coping resources are what people bring to situations (as opposed to what they do) that enable them to deal with stressors more effectively, allow them to recover faster, or experience fewer or less intense symptoms upon exposure to stressors. The Coping Resources Inventory (CRI) measures resources in the following domains: cognitive, social,…
This paper outlines the developing consensus on the nature of stress. It offers a definition of stress as a psychological state derived from the person's appraisal of their ability to cope with the demands which are made of them. The paper then examines the concept of coping and explores its role in stress theory. It contrasts two different approaches to
Unique stressors can prompt child adjustment difficulties. Coping strategies and emotion regulation that impact the adjustment of children in general and military family children were investigated. Eighty children, 36 with deployed parents, their parents and teachers participated. All experienced stress related to hurricane Katrina. Correlational analyses indicate that children with more hurricane-related losses or moves, use some coping strategies less
Background. Patients recovering from a myocardial infarction (MI) are faced with a number of serious challenges. Aim. To create a substantive theory on myocardial infarction patients' coping as a continuum. Methods. Grounded theory method was used. Data were collected by using individual interviews. The informants were 28 MI patients. Results. The core category "coping experiences-a pathway towards different coping orientations" includes 2 main categories: "positive and negative coping experiences" (4 months after MI) and "different coping orientations" (12 months after MI). Conclusion. Coping with a myocardial infarction is a long-term dynamic process of dealing with varied emotions and adjustment needs. Coping is threatened, if the patient denies the seriousness of the situation, suffers from depression and emotional exhaustion, or if there are serious problems in the interaction with family members. This study stresses the importance of recognizing the patient's depressive state of mind and the psychological aspects which affect family dynamics. A more family-centered approach involving a posthospital counseling intervention is recommended. Relevance to Clinical Practice. The results of this study can be used in nursing care practice when organizing support interventions for myocardial infarction patients. PMID:23304483
Background. Patients recovering from a myocardial infarction (MI) are faced with a number of serious challenges. Aim. To create a substantive theory on myocardial infarction patients' coping as a continuum. Methods. Grounded theory method was used. Data were collected by using individual interviews. The informants were 28 MI patients. Results. The core category “coping experiences—a pathway towards different coping orientations” includes 2 main categories: “positive and negative coping experiences” (4 months after MI) and “different coping orientations” (12 months after MI). Conclusion. Coping with a myocardial infarction is a long-term dynamic process of dealing with varied emotions and adjustment needs. Coping is threatened, if the patient denies the seriousness of the situation, suffers from depression and emotional exhaustion, or if there are serious problems in the interaction with family members. This study stresses the importance of recognizing the patient's depressive state of mind and the psychological aspects which affect family dynamics. A more family-centered approach involving a posthospital counseling intervention is recommended. Relevance to Clinical Practice. The results of this study can be used in nursing care practice when organizing support interventions for myocardial infarction patients.
In this study, a variety of coping styles and defense mechanisms were assessed in a population of normal subjects. It was investigated whether global defense\\/coping categories could be identified. When a factor analytic procedure was employed, three coping\\/defense categories emerged: Immature and Problem-Avoiding Coping and Defense, Emotion-Venting Coping and Defense, and Mature and Problem-Oriented Coping and Defense. Furthermore, it was
The purpose of this study was to determine whether cognitive-process approach based social skills program was effective on learning and generalizing three social skills (apologizing, coping with teasing and avoiding inappropriate touching) of the nine students with mental retardation. Social skills program covered dimensions of the cognitive…
Context: The two ubiquitous factors that have been identified in medical courses to underlie mental health are stress and different coping styles adopted to combat stress. Aim: To find the association between coping styles and stress in undergraduate medical students. Settings and Design: A medical college in Central Kerala. A cross-sectional study design was adopted. Materials and Methods: Source and Severity of Stress Scale, Medical Student Version, was used to assess the source and nature of stress. Brief Cope was used to find out the coping styles adopted. Statistical Analysis: The statistical analysis was done using Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 20 and SAS. Chi-square analysis was used to find the association between coping styles and stress domains and with the overall stress score. Results: There is a significant positive association between overall stress score and coping styles (P=0.001) of ‘Negative cope’, ‘Blame’, and ‘Humor’. ‘Positivecope‘ and ‘Religion’ has significant positive association with ‘Academics’ (P=0.047) and 'self Expectations’ (P=0.009). ‘Blame’ (P<0.001) has very high significant positive association with ‘Academics’, 'self expectation’, and ‘Relationships’. Very high significant positive association is further found between ‘Humor’ (P<0.001) and 'self expectations’, ‘Living conditions’, and ‘Health and Value conflict’. ‘substance Use’ is positively associated in high significance to ‘Health and Value conflict’ (P<0.001). Conclusions: The outcome of the study emphasizes the need for stress management techniques in the medical school.
This study examines the relationship between coping mechanisms and suicide attempts among 84 adolescents in the Quebec youth residential services. A new measure based on in-depth interviews is used to identify coping mechanisms. The suicidal youths used fewer adequate coping mechanisms than nonsuicidal youths when faced with comparable stressful events. Negative cognitive reframing, anger, and blaming others were more frequently reported by the suicidal youths. Contrary to certain theoretical conceptions, coping mechanisms were not stable and varied according to the context of the suicidal crisis. These findings indicate the usefulness of this approach to measure coping mechanisms and support the importance of programs aimed at developing copingskills for suicide prevention. PMID:17896884
Abstract Objective. To study coping differences between young and experienced GPs in primary care who experience medical errors and uncertainty. Design. Questionnaire-based survey (self-assessment) conducted in 2011. Setting. Finnish primary practice offices in Southern Finland. Subjects. Finnish GPs engaged in primary health care from two different respondent groups: young (working experience ? 5years, n = 85) and experienced (working experience > 5 years, n = 80). Main outcome measures. Outcome measures included experiences and attitudes expressed by the included participants towards medical errors and tolerance of uncertainty, their coping strategies, and factors that may influence (positively or negatively) sources of errors. Results. In total, 165/244 GPs responded (response rate: 68%). Young GPs expressed significantly more often fear of committing a medical error (70.2% vs. 48.1%, p = 0.004) and admitted more often than experienced GPs that they had committed a medical error during the past year (83.5% vs. 68.8%, p = 0.026). Young GPs were less prone to apologize to a patient for an error (44.7% vs. 65.0%, p = 0.009) and found, more often than their more experienced colleagues, on-site consultations and electronic databases useful for avoiding mistakes. Conclusion. Experienced GPs seem to better tolerate uncertainty and also seem to fear medical errors less than their young colleagues. Young and more experienced GPs use different coping strategies for dealing with medical errors. Implications. When GPs become more experienced, they seem to get better at coping with medical errors. Means to support these skills should be studied in future research. PMID:24914458
According to the broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions, negative emotions narrow one's thought–action repertoire. In contrast, positive emotions have a broadening effect, expanding cognitive capacity, increasing potential coping strategies that come to mind, and enhancing decision-making, reaction, and adaptation to adversity. Fredrickson and Losada determined that a positivity ratio – the ratio of experienced positive to negative emotions – at
Kathryn E. Faulk; Christian T. Gloria; Mary A. Steinhardt
Positive and negative religious coping strategies and their relation with posttraumatic stress (PTS), psychological distress, and posttraumatic growth (PTG) were examined in the context of Hurricane Katrina. Positive religious coping was hypothesized to be associated with PTG, whereas negative religious coping was hypothesized to be associated with PTS and psychological distress. Low-income mothers (N = 386, mean age = 25.4 years, SD = 4.43) were surveyed before, and 1 and 4 years after the storm. Results from structural regression modeling indicated that negative religious coping was associated with psychological distress, but not PTS. Positive religious coping was associated with PTG. Further analysis indicated significant indirect effects of pre- and postdisaster religiousness on postdisaster PTG through positive religious coping. Findings underscore the positive and negative effect of religious variables in the context of a natural disaster. PMID:23529889
This study examined the coping behavior of a sample of young professional engineers in response to stress “incidents” experienced at work. Subjects were specifically asked to limit their recall to an incident occurring within the preceding 14 days. A primary analysis was made of the coping behavior exhibited, from which five classes of coping behavior were derived. Coping behavior was
The aim of this research is to develop and validate a self-report measure of mindfulness and coping, the mindful coping scale (MCS). Dimensions of mindful coping were theoretically deduced from mindfulness theory and coping theory. The MCS was empirically evaluated by use of factor analyses, reliability testing and nomological network validation.…
The aim of this research is to develop and validate a self-report measure of mindfulness and coping, the mindful coping scale (MCS). Dimensions of mindful coping were theoretically deduced from mindfulness theory and coping theory. The MCS was empirically evaluated by use of factor analyses, reliability testing and nomological network validation. The study's participants were high school students from two
Presents six suggestions on how teachers can help students cope with the Persian Gulf crisis, as well as information on additional resources and a list of organizations and activities that provide an outlet for students' anxiety. (SM)
Context: Nursing is a stressful job that could create physical and psychological disorders. Many studies presented information on stress, effects of coping strategies, and job satisfaction of nurses within health setting. We aimed to identify and describe nursing stresses, coping strategies and job satisfaction of Iranian nurses who are working or worked in different wards. Evidence Acquisition: In this review, we studied peer-reviewed journal articles on the field of stress, coping strategies and job satisfaction in nursing practice, especially Iranian nurses, which were published between 2000 and 2013. In this regard, we searched databases of PubMed, Elsevier, Google, BMJ, PMC, and MEDLINE. Results: The majority of the studies (60%) had analyzed the effect of coping strategies, experiences and perception of job-related stresses in Iranian nurses working in hospitals. In some of the reviewed studies (60%), the majority of the samples enrolled Iranian nurses. Forty percent of studies selected a maximum sample size of 565 (44%) participants in 2011. Nursing stress scale employed at 30% of the studies was the most commonly used strategy. This reviewed studies also revealed a combined measurement (60% of studies), based on categorical stress measurement, effects of coping strategies, and job satisfaction methods. Three studies explored the relationship between job stress and job satisfaction. For instance, the majority (74.4%) of nurses reported job satisfaction. Conclusions: Effect of coping strategies and job satisfaction on Iranian nurses is a well-accepted issue and has important positive outcomes on several areas of health discipline.
Our study investigated interrelationships between problems in psychosocial adjustment, coping and epilepsy variables. Establishing the cross-cultural applicability of the Washington Psychosocial Seizure Inventory (WPSI) was an additional objective. The WPSI, Ways of Coping Scale, Modified Version, as well as scales measuring depression and anxiety were administered to 310 outpatients with epilepsy. When the scores of patients with high Lie scores were eliminated, the WPSI profiles were found to be similar to former studies, with some score elevations in emotional adjustment and interpersonal adjustment. When relationships between adjustment variables and coping were modelled, coping was found to be a mediator between the effects of interpersonal and emotional adjustment and integration to the broader social context (vocational adjustment). Family background was found to be a significant predictor of the emotional well-being and interpersonal adjustment scores of the patients. Results support the central role of coping and emotional well-being and emphasize the importance of family factors in adjustment to epilepsy. Psychotherapy and psychological interventions could support coping with illness, primarily through elimination of negative family and social effects and treatment of emotional problems. PMID:11437616
We hypothesized that the effects of personality (self-esteem, control, and optimism) on postabortion adaptation (distress, well-being, and decision satisfaction) would be fully mediated by preabortion cognitive appraisals (stress appraisals and self-efficacy appraisals) and postabortion coping. We further proposed that the effects of preabortion appraisals on adaptation would be fully mediated by postabortion coping. Results of a longitudinal study of 527 women who had first-trimester abortions supported our hypotheses. Women with more resilient personalities appraised their abortion as less stressful and had higher self-efficacy for coping with the abortion. More positive appraisals predicted greater acceptance/reframing coping and lesser avoidance/denial, venting, support seeking, and religious coping. Acceptance-reframing predicted better adjustment on all measures, whereas avoidance-denial and venting related to poorer adjustment on all measures. Greater support seeking was associated with reduced distress, and greater religious coping was associated with less decision satisfaction. PMID:9523416
The purpose of this study was to describe the process of coping with the experience of receiving intracavity radiation treatment (ICR) for gynecologic cancer. Data were collected on the outcomes of coping, emotion (Profile of Mood States) and level of function (Sickness Impact Profile), and symptom severity and upset the evening before, during, the day after, and 1 to 2 weeks after treatment. The subjects (N = 28) had a mean age of 52 years, 39% were employed full-time, 56% had occupations as manual workers, 57% had completed 12 or more years of education, and 68% were married or widowed. The treatment required the subjects to be hospitalized on complete bedrest with radiation precautions for an average of 48 hours. Intrauterine devices were used to treat 18 subjects and vaginal applications were used to treat 10 subjects. Negative mood and level of disruption in function were generally low. Repeated measures ANOVA showed no change in negative mood over time while the change in function was attributable to the increase in disruption during treatment. Utilization of affective coping strategies and problem-oriented coping strategies was positively correlated with negative mood and disruption in function over the points of measurement. The results indicate that subjects tolerated ICR well and rapidly resumed usual function following discharge from the hospital, despite the persistence of some symptoms 1 to 2 weeks after treatment. The positive association between the utilization of coping strategies and negative outcomes of coping suggests a need to examine the measurement of coping strategies and consider the possibility that these actions represent a response to a stressful situation rather than a method of dealing with the situation.
This study considers the interrelationships among coping, conflictual social interactions, and social support, as well as their combined associations with positive and negative mood. Research has shown that each of these variables affects adjustment to stressful circumstances. Few studies, however, examine this full set of variables simultaneously. One hundred forty HIV-infected persons completed a questionnaire containing measures of coping, social
John A. Fleishman; Cathy Donald Sherbourne; Stephen Crystal; Rebecca L. Collins; Grant N. Marshall; Mark Kelly; Samuel A. Bozzette; Martin F. Shapiro; Ron D. Hays
This study examined the relationship between self-esteem, self-concept clarity, and preferred coping strategies for stressful events and ongoing situations in 175 undergraduate students. It was hypothesized that higher self-esteem would be related to a clearer self-concept and that a clearer self-concept would be related to more positivecoping…
The authors examined the relationship of perceived stress, specific types of coping resources, the working alliance, and the supervisory working alliance among 232 counselor supervisees. The working alliance and the supervisory working alliance were negatively related to perceived stress and positively related to multiple coping resources. Two…
Gnilka, Philip B.; Chang, Catherine Y.; Dew, Brian J.
This study tested gender differences in a model positing relationships between work and family demands, overload, 4 coping mechanisms, and stress. The coping mechanisms were hypothesized to moderate the relationship between overload and stress. The sample consisted of 1,404 men and 1,623 women in dual-earner families. Respondents relied on 2…
Higgins, Chris A.; Duxbury, Linda E.; Lyons, Sean T.
Compared stress, coping, and psychological adjustment in single (divorced or separated) and married mothers and their young adolescent children. Single mothers reported more daily hassles related to economic, family, and personal health problems, and more symptoms of depression, anxiety, and psychoticism. Single mothers also reported using more coping strategies related to accepting responsibility and positive reappraisal. After controlling for level
Purpose: We tested the effectiveness of a brief educational program that is based on proactive coping theory. The program entails a four-session group intervention for people aged between 50 and 75 years and was intended to improve proactive coping competencies. Furthermore, we investigated the positive as well as negative side effects and…
Bode, Christina; de Ridder, Denise T. D.; Kuijer, Roeline G.; Bensing, Jozien M.
PURPOSE: We tested the effectiveness of a brief educational program that is based on proactive coping theory. The program entails a four-session group intervention for people aged between 50 and 75 years and was intended to improve proactive coping competencies. Furthermore, we investigated the positive as well as negative side effects and differential effectiveness of the program. DESIGN AND METHODS:
Christina Bode; D. T. D. de Ridder; R. G. Kuijer; J. M. Bensing
Using the stress and coping model, this article explores how older adults prepared for and coped with the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina. Interviews with a sample of 122 displaced adults, 60 years of age or older, provided insights regarding the daily hassles they faced that included securing basic resources, facing communication difficulties, and finding transportation. Positive thinking, modified thinking, staying
Tammy L. Henderson; Karen A. Roberto; Yoshinori Kamo
Experiential avoidance (EA) is considered a risk factor for psychopathology. This study explores whether EA mediates the relationship between maladaptive coping styles (palliative, avoidance, and passive coping) and psychopathology and positive mental health. A total of 93 adults with mild to moderate psychological distress completed measures…
Fledderus, Martine; Bohlmeijer, Ernst T.; Pieterse, Marcel E.
Superintendent offers several practical suggestions for dealing more effectively with negative school personnel and situations: Visualize success, know the realities, appreciate humor, surround negative people with positive staff members, be an absolute role model, understand psychology, reframe negative into positive energy, and use your…
This study examined the effects of Supporter Endurance Training (SET) on family supporters of elderly demented patients. Single case methodology was used in evaluating the outcome of providing eight supporters with eight weekly training sessions in meditative relaxation and assertiveness. Four such supporters received no special training. A videotape dramatizing typical problem situations encountered with a demented family member was used to elicit information about supporters' coping styles. Post-training and six-month follow-up evaluation indicated improvements among trained individuals on measures related to assertiveness, problem solving, and stress reduction. Trained subjects' estimates of the length of time they would be able to cope with problems involved in caring for their relatives also increased. Few such improvements occurred among untrained subjects. These results suggest the usefulness of brief structured skills training programs in helping supporters to improve their coping abilities. PMID:3537095
Gendron, C E; Poitras, L R; Engels, M L; Dastoor, D P; Sirota, S E; Barza, S L; Davis, J C; Levine, N B
Relapse rates remain high among people with opioid dependence. Identifying psychosocial factors associated with outcomes is\\u000a important for informing behavioral treatments. This study examined religious coping, opioid use, and 12-step participation\\u000a among 45 participants receiving inpatient opioid detoxification at baseline and follow-up. At baseline, higher positivecoping\\u000a was related to less frequent opioid use pre-admission (? = ?.44, p p p p < .05). Positive religious coping
Eve S. Puffer; Linda M. Skalski; Christina S. Meade
The study's aim was to obtain an overview of all relevant variables involved in ineffective coping behavior and improvement in coping behavior as it pertains to cyberbullying among adolescents, in order to systematically develop a theory- and evidence-based intervention. This was done by means of a three round online Delphi study. First, 20 key experts listed possible relevant determinants. Next, 70 experts scored these determinants on their relevance and finally, experts rerated relevance of each determinant based on group median scores. The experts agreed that 115 items are relevant for ineffective (62) or improvement in (53) coping behavior. New found determinants were the extent to which one can adjust behavior upon feedback, impulsivity, self-confidence, communication style, personality, decision-making skills, conflict resolution skills, previous participation in personal resilience training, social relationships, rumors and self-disclosure. We conclude that the Delphi technique is useful in discovering new and relevant determinants of behavior. PMID:24793384
Jacobs, Niels C L; Dehue, Francine; Völlink, Trijntje; Lechner, Lilian
Research was undertaken to compare problem-solving treatment for primary care (PST-PC) with usual care for minor depression and to examine whether treatment effectiveness was moderated by coping style. PST-PC is a 6-session, manual-based, psychosocial skills intervention. A randomized controlled trial was conducted in 2 academic, primary care…
Oxman, Thomas E.; Hegel, Mark T.; Hull, Jay G.; Dietrich, Allen J.
This article outlines an 8-week curriculum that was created to help outpatients develop cognitive and behavioral skills for coping with delusions and hallucinations as well as to reduce patients' comorbid subjective levels of distress (e.g., depression, anxiety). The manualized protocol consisted of psychoeducation and training in a variety of CBT…
Goldberg, Joel O.; Wheeler, Heather; Lubinsky, Tobi; Van Exan, Jessica
Family-centered intervention after the death of a baby due to sudden infant death syndrome facilitates reorganization, growth, and development of the family system. A potentially defeating crisis becomes an opportunity to develop copingskills and strengthen family members. Public health nursing is an essential component of the program.…
This study examined the correlation between various coping strategies and sexual functioning and the likelihood of conception from in vitro fertilization (IVF). Self-reported questionnaires were distributed randomly among the 102 women enrolled in an IVF program, 96 of whom were recruited. Of the studied parameters, positive reinterpretation, and growth, and active coping strategies were found to be positively associated with sexual functioning, while there was a significantly (p < .05) adverse influence of planning and self-restraint. Being sexually active during the IVF-treatment period was found to be positively associated (p < .05) with the likelihood of conception and with adaptive coping strategies. PMID:11554198
Previous research has shown that dispositional optimism is a prospective predictor of successful adaptation to stressful encounters. In this research we attempted to identify possible mechanisms underlying these effects by examining how optimists differ from pessimists in the kinds of coping strategies that they use. The results of two separate studies revealed modest but reliable positive correlations between optimism and
Michael F. Scheier; Jagdish Kumari Weintraub; Charles S. Carver
This research examined cognitive coping strategies associated with resilience in a nonclinical sample of child sexual abuse (CSA) survivors. In Study 1, 180 college women completed surveys assessing self-enhancing cognitive distortions of reality, known as positive illusions, and CSA history. CSA survivors and nonvictimized women were found to be equally likely to engage in illusion, and for both groups, measures
Sexuality and reproductive healthcare represent relevant issues for comprehensive care of HIV-positive adolescents. However, public policies and health services give this issue insufficient attention. The scope of this article is to assess how HIV-positive young people and teenagers cope with their sexuality, dating and the urge to have children and start a family. In a qualitative study, in-depth interviews were staged with 21 HIV-positive (contracted by vertical, sexual or intravenous transmission) teenagers and 13 caregivers of children and youths living in Sao Paulo and Santos. The interviews revealed the different ways teenagers cope with their sexuality and with the anxiety of HIV disclosure in this context. Lack of information about HIV prevention, lack of support and skills to cope with their sexuality were revealed in the reports. Furthermore, stigma and discrimination were the most frequently reported difficulties. The main challenges to be faced in Brazil in regard to this issue are discussed, especially the need to consider HIV-positive youth as entitled to sexual rights. Recommendations are also made for incorporating the issue into a humanized and comprehensive care approach for HIV-positive children and young people. PMID:22031149
Paiva, Vera; Ayres, José Ricardo Carvalho de Mesquita; Segurado, Aluísio C; Lacerda, Regina; Silva, Neide Gravato da; Silva, Mariliza Henrique da; Galano, Eliana; Gutierrez, Pilar Lecussan; Marques, Heloisa Helena de Souza; Negra, Marinella Della; França-Jr, Ivan
To cope with some social problems, Japanese educational planners are drafting some proposals for research into innovations in the educational system. This paper reports on some research recently done which looked into the relationships of the Japanese educational environment and the reasoning/thinking skills and process skills of students in…
In a pilot study about medical, psychological and psychosocial factors in spontaneous and recurrent spontaneous abortions, coping strategies of 83 women were investigated and compared with a control group (n = 69). Two further subgroups were selected (31 women with recurrent spontaneous abortions and 30 without pregnancy complications). A modified form of a stress-investigation-scale (SVF from Janke et al.) was used. The results indicated that women with spontaneous abortions had increased depressive and lowered positive and cognitive coping modes. According to the hypothesis most psychological disturbances and depressive coping strategies were found in recurrent spontaneous abortions. In pregnancy depressive withdrawal, need of social support and information seeking was further increased, but emotional self-control lowered. A connection between psychological disturbances and negative coping strategies was shown. After pregnancy loss psychological support and building up positive and efficient coping strategies are therefore indicated. PMID:2678214
Many school teachers suffer from stress and burnout, and perfectionism is a personality characteristic that has been associated with increased stress, maladaptive coping, and burnout. Recent findings, however, show that perfectionism has both positive and negative facets. To investigate how these facets are related to stress, coping, and burnout in teachers, a sample of 118 secondary school teachers completed multidimensional measures of perfectionism, stress appraisals, coping styles, and burnout. Multiple regression analyses showed that striving for perfection was positively related to challenge appraisals and active coping and inversely to threat/loss appraisals, avoidant coping, and burnout whereas negative reactions to imperfection were positively related to threat/loss appraisals, avoidant coping, and burnout and inversely to challenge appraisals and active coping. Perceived pressure to be perfect showed differential relationships depending on the source of pressure: Whereas pressure from students was positively related to loss appraisals and pressure from students' parents was positively related to burnout, pressure from colleagues was inversely related to threat appraisals and burnout. The findings suggest that striving for perfection and perceived pressure from colleagues do not contribute to stress and burnout in teachers, whereas negative reactions to imperfection and perceived pressure from students and students' parents may be contributing factors. PMID:18027123
The guide introduces a method of identifying problems associated with rapid community growth; outlines several growth management options, and some challenges to be faced when attempting to influence related policy choices; and examines how people being impacted might cope more effectively. Part I, "Growth Impacts Assessment," provides an overview…
Three articles describe methods for teaching library skills. The first presents a song used to teach students the Dewey Decimal system; the second describes a reading program incorporating Halloween and foreign countries; and the third includes short poems designed to teach students to care for library books properly. (CLB)
A California superintendent with a district embroiled in a creationism/evolution debate advises how to overcome divisiveness through communication with all stakeholders. Supervisors with contentious school boards should be positive, listen carefully, ferret the truth, and keep information flowing. Suggestions are provided for managing community,…
This paper examined whether adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs) would report more depressive mood symptoms as compared to non-ACOAs, whether coping behaviors differed as a function of ACOA status, and whether specific coping behaviors were related to depressive mood symptoms in ACOAs. Participants were 136 college students categorized as ACOAs and 436 college students categorized as non-ACOAs as determined by scores on the Children of Alcoholics Screening Test (CAST; J.W.Jones, 1983 The children of alcoholics screening test: test manual. Chicago: Camelot). As compared to non-ACOAs, ACOAs reported significantly more symptoms of depressive mood as measured by the Profile of Mood States (POMS; McNair, Lorr, and Droppleman, 1992 POMS manual: profile of mood states. San Diego, CA: Edits). On the COPE Inventory (Carver, Scheier, and Weintraub, 1989 Assessing coping strategies: a theoretically based approach. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 56:267-283), ACOAs reported higher use of the following coping strategies: Behavior Disengagement, Denial, Focus on and Venting of Emotions, Humor, and Substance Use. For both the ACOA and non-ACOA groups, the use of Positive Reinterpretation and Growth and the use of Planning were significantly associated with fewer depressive symptoms, whereas Mental Disengagement, Focus on and Venting of Emotions, Denial, Behavior Disengagement, Substance Use, and Suppression of Competing Activities were associated with higher depressive mood scores. PMID:21449712
PsoriasisNet Article Helping Your Child Cope With Psoriasis Like adults affected by psoriasis, children who have the skin condition often have a difficult time coping with the realities of the diagnosis. ...
Practicing physicians on the full-time academic and clinical (volunteer) faculty of an urban university department of medicine (N = 211) completed questionnaires that examined their coping behaviors, health habits, life satisfaction, job stress, conflict between work and home life, health status and moods. Attempts to organize and restructure work activities were more frequently practiced by physicians who were more satisfied with work. Socializing, exercising and discussing feelings with others were not associated with any measures of physician health status, job stress, conflict or satisfaction. Those with higher scores on a health habits index tended to be less anxious, experienced less job stress, less conflict between work and home life and were more satisfied with their lives in general. Full-time academic faculty engaged in fewer positive or negative coping behaviors than clinical faculty. There were few strong intercorrelations among the various positive and negative coping behaviors or health habits; physicians often simultaneously engaged in both positive and negative activities, indicating complex patterns of coping behaviors that were not dramatically associated with life or work satisfaction. PMID:3716413
In this article, research on how children and adolescents cope with stress and coping's role in reducing the adverse psychological states associated with stress is reviewed. Child and adolescent coping is reflected in seven different lines of research—infants' responses to maternal separation, social support, interpersonal cognitive problem-solving, coping in achievement contexts, Type A behavior pattern in children, repression-sensitization, and resilience
This is a participant's workbook for a workshop on coping with conflicts and targeted to married couples, especially those in young marriages, and to employees of businesses or corporations. The session titles are: (1) Mismatching Scripts; (2) Changing Scripts; (3) PIESS (Physical, Intellectual, Emotional, Social, Spiritual) Needs; (4) Getting…
This is a leader's guide for a workshop on coping with conflicts and targeted to married couples, especially those in young marriages, and to employees of businesses or corporations. The session titles are: (1) Mismatching Scripts; (2) Changing Scripts; (3) PIESS (Physical, Intellectual, Emotional, Social, Spiritual) Needs; (4) Getting Needs Met;…
... Death Healthy Living Listen Helping Children Cope with Death Article Body We have had a death in the family. How do we help our ... to the death of someone in their lives: Death of a grandparent When a grandparent dies, children ...
Individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are at elevated risk for depressive conditions, which in turn can negatively impact health-related behaviours and the course of illness. The present study tested the role of autobiographical memory specificity and its interaction with perceived stress in the persistence of depressive symptoms among dysphoric HIV-positive individuals. Additionally, we examined whether rumination and social
Paula K. Yanes; Gene Morse; Chiu-Bin Hsiao; Leonard Simms; John E. Roberts
The goals of the study were to examine the relations between maternal coping and hope among mothers who participated in early intervention program for their infants. Earlier studies focused attention on mothers’ experiences of stress and their coping. Within the salutogenic construct, we aim at examining relations between mothers’ coping and hope while considering individual resources (sense of coherence) and
The goals of the study were to examine the relations between maternal coping and hope among mothers who participated in early intervention program for their infants. Earlier studies focused attention on mothers' experiences of stress and their coping. Within the salutogenic construct, we aim at examining relations between mothers' coping and hope…
This study was conducted to examine how old and very old people cope with the difficult situations in their lives. The main goals of the study were to develop a measure for the identification of coping patterns in the old and very old, identify coping patterns, and investigate those patterns with respect to age and subjective well-being.…
While most lifespan developmental theories of personality predict age-related changes in coping, little direct evidence exists for determining whether age differences in coping style are due to intrinsic developmental processes or to age differences in the kinds of stresses encountered. To evaluate age differences in coping strategies and whether…
The general aim of this study is to analyze diverse aspects relating to the use of coping strategies among prison inmates. The specific objectives are (a) to analyze which type of coping strategies predominate among prisoners, considering both the focus and the method; (b) to relate the use of coping strategies with variables related to the prison…
This study explored the coping processes of couples experiencing infertility. Participants included 420 couples referred for advanced reproductive treatments. Couples were divided into groups based on the frequency of their use of eight coping strategies. Findings suggest that coping processes, which are beneficial to individuals, may be…
Peterson, Brennan D.; Newton, Christopher R.; Rosen, Karen H.; Schulman, Robert S.
Investigates the use and perceived effectiveness of strategies for coping with scary films, coping style, and two dimensions of empathy. Confirms evidence that "blunting" is characterized by distraction or reinterpretation of scary events, whereas "monitoring" is characterized by attention to threat cues. Interprets gender differences in coping as…
This study explores coping, a core construct in the cognitive appraisal theory of crisis communication, from the public's perspective. The study proposed and tested the hierarchical framework of publics’ crisis coping that examined the relationship among four types of publics’ crisis coping strategies (i.e., relational thinking, emotional venting, instrumental support, and action). For this purpose, a survey was conducted among
The study of stress and coping points to two concepts central to an understanding of the response to trauma: approach and avoidance. This pair of concepts refers to two basic modes of coping with stress. Approach and avoidance are simply metaphors for cognitive and emotional activity that is oriented either toward or away from threat. An approach-avoidance model of coping
Sources of perceived stress, coping style and coping efficacy were investigated among psychiatric patients being discharged to the community. The study's purpose was to (i) qualitatively characterize sources of perceived stress; (ii) identify preferred coping styles, and (iii) test the effectiveness of coping styles. Thematic coding of participants' narratives revealed that dominant stressors were family relationships, mental health symptoms, and employment issues. Consistent with previous findings among non-clinical samples, problem-focused coping styles were predictive of decreased perceived stress and increased perceived efficacy, whereas emotion-oriented coping styles were negatively associated with these outcomes. Contrary to hypotheses, avoidance coping styles was unrelated to outcomes. PMID:23915696
It is accepted among scholars that coping changes as people mature during adolescence, but little is known about the relationship between maturity and coping. The purpose of this paper was to assess a model, which included dispositional coping, coping effectiveness, and cognitive social maturity. We predicted that cognitive social maturity would have a direct effect on coping effectiveness, and also an indirect impact via dispositional coping. Two hundred forty-five adolescent athletes completed measures of dispositional coping, coping effectiveness, and cognitive social maturity, which has three dimensions: conscientiousness, peer influence on behavior, and rule following. Using structural equation modeling, we found support for our model, suggesting that coping is related to cognitive social maturity. This information can be used to influence the content of coping interventions for adolescents of different maturational levels. PMID:23798586
Nicholls, Adam R; Perry, John L; Jones, Leigh; Morley, Dave; Carson, Fraser
In an earlier paper, Kowalewski and Leeds showed that free agency and the salary cap brought profound changes to the level and nature of players' salaries in the National Football League (NFL). Their study is limited, however, by the fact that--unlike most other professional athletes--football players are evaluated by position-specific statistics. The authors improve on their earlier work by performing
Within the next years a new generation of humanoid robots is going to be developed being able to manage autonomously sophisticated tasks in a complex, time variant domestic environment. To cope with these advanced requirements a new multi-sensor based discrete-continuous supervisory control concept is proposed, which is able to accomplish even complex human skills. Each skill is divided into a
Integration of subject areas with technology and thinking skills is a way to help teachers cope with today's overloaded curriculum and to help students see the connectedness of different curriculum areas. This study compares three authentic approaches to teaching a science unit on bird adaptations for habitat that integrate thinking skills and…
Argues that adult basic educators should assist psychiatric clients in protecting themselves from unwanted intrusion. Identifies skills to be developed through social literacy training: coping with emotional distress, expressing oneself, interpreting social cues, and exercising legal rights. (Contains 12 references.) (SK)
This instructor's manual contains 21 lesson plans to teach advanced skills to cope with emergency outdoor living situations and emphasizes being prepared, rather than survival. Written for the classroom teacher, but adaptable for other youth groups, the module contains subject information, lesson plans with activities, student handouts, a written…
This document presents skill standards for library technicians. Introductory sections describe the industry and the job, what skill standards are, how the library technician skill standards were developed, employability skills and critical competencies, and the SCANS (Secretary's Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills) foundation skills profile.…
The clinical features of Celiac Disease (CD) are heterogeneous and both severity and extent of villous atrophy do not correlate with clinical presentation. This study aims to evaluate the psychological wellbeing of CD patients with a similar clinical pattern and to explore whether patients with different levels of wellbeing differed in illness perception and coping strategies. CD outpatients with proven diagnosis filled in validated questionnaires to investigate wellbeing (PGWBI), illness perception (IPQ-R) and coping style (COPE). One hundred and four patients underwent data analysis. Compared to Italian reference sample, CD patients reported a significantly reduced PGWBI total score (p<0.001), self-control (p<0.001), general health (p=0.002) and vitality (p<0.001) and increased anxiety (p=0.009). 7.7% of patients reported a positive wellbeing, 40.4% distress absence, 28.8% a moderate distress and 23.1% a severe distress. Patients with distress showed a different illness perception and reported more frequently two dysfunctional strategies: focus on and venting emotions (p= 0.009) and substance abuse (p= 0.01) compared to those having a positive wellbeing. A high percentage of CD patients experience distress and differ from those who reach wellbeing in illness perception and use of coping strategies. Assessing subjective viewpoint with standardized methods can provide useful information for a better management of CD patients. PMID:23298509
Baiardini, I; Braido, F; Menoni, S; Bellandi, G; Savi, E; Canonica, G W; Macchia, D
We investigated the associations of appraisal and coping styles with emotion regulation in a community sample of preadolescents (N = 196, 9–12 years), with appraisal, coping styles and emotion regulation measured at a single time point. In a previous study, we identified five frustration and four anxiety emotion regulation profiles based on children’s physiological, behavioral and self-reported reactions to emotion eliciting tasks. In this study, preadolescents’ self-reported appraisal and coping styles were associated with those emotion regulation profiles. Overall, findings revealed that children who were more effective at regulating their emotions during the emotion-eliciting tasks had higher levels of positive appraisal and active coping when dealing with their own problems. Conversely, children who regulated their emotions less effectively had higher levels of threat appraisal and avoidant coping.
Purpose of this study was to externally validate and test a conceptual transient model involving six paths that linked sources of acute stress to avoidance and approach coping styles among Turkish basketball referees. The sample consisted of 125 Turkish basketball referees ranging in age from 18 to 36 years (mean = 25.58. ? = 3.69). The path analysis tested the relationships simultaneously from stressors, in consecutive order, distractions, subpar performance and verbal abuse, to coping styles, first both avoidance-cognitive and approach-cognitive, and then approach-behaviour. Results indicated that the model achieved a good fit and that all paths tested simultaneously were significant. The distractions stressor was positively related to subpar performance, which, in turn, was positively related to verbal abuse. Verbal abuse was negatively associated with an avoidance-cognitive coping style and positively related to the approach-cognitive coping style. The results also supported a crossover effect of both avoidance-cognitive and approach-cognitive on approach-behaviour. One implication of this study is that coping should be studied in naturally occurring stages, a process-oriented approach. Another implication is that approach and avoidance coping styles, each sub-divided into cognitive and behavioural categories, provide a meaningful framework which provides sports officials a coherent structure for learning and improving ways to cope with acute stress experienced during the contest. PMID:24015999
Anshel, Mark Howard; Sutarso, Toto; Ekmekci, Ridvan; Saraswati, Intan W
Using experimental, observational and interview-assessment methods, we examined relations among mother–child discussion skills\\u000a and suggested strategies for coping with postdivorce interparental conflict in a conflict task, children’s memory for those\\u000a strategies in a later recall interview, and children’s self-reported use of coping strategies in response to parental conflict\\u000a at home. Participants included 50, 9–12 year-old children (50% female, 11% Mexican-American, 81%
Paul A. MillerWendy; Wendy Kliewer; Jenifer Partch
Ordinarily, when stressors are encountered, a cascade of cognitive and behavioural responses is evoked that serves to protect the individual from compromised well-being. When coping resources or skills are limited or ineffective, then psychological disturbances, such as depression, may ensue (Paykel, 2001). Although any number of factors could account for variations of stress resilience, this paper argues that early life experiences and relationships, and particularly those with parents or primary caregivers, may contribute to the development of appropriate styles of coping, which, in turn, influence affective responses in the face of stressors encountered in adulthood. PMID:16238845
The relationship between military combat and postdeployment family functioning difficulties has been frequently investigated in the literature, as has the relationship between types of coping and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Few studies, however, have examined these variables together, and no studies of which we are aware have examined the effect of coping on family functioning after combat exposure. This study examined coping style measured immediately after return from deployment, and PTSD symptoms and family functioning 18-24 months after return from deployment in a sample of Operation Desert Shield/Storm veterans (N = 2,949). Structural equation models suggested that the relationships between distinct coping styles on family functioning were differentially mediated by postdeployment PTSD symptoms. Results are consistent with full mediation for avoidant coping (?direct = -.09, p = .07; ?indirect = -.17, p < .001) and partial mediation for approach coping (?direct = .16, p < .001; ?indirect = .09, p < .001). Results suggest that the strategies used to cope with a combat stress event may impact both PTSD and family functioning outcomes, and highlight the potential utility of pre- and postdeployment copingskills training. PMID:23893396
Social skills are necessary for developing successful relationships and promoting learning. "Interpersonal skills" (IPS) are needed for maintaining friendships while "learning-related skills" (LRS) are required for positive classroom behaviours. In this study, we investigated the construct validity of LRS and IPS within two existing assessments:…
Previous research has suggested a positive intergenerational relationship between a parent's childhood cognitive skill level and their own children's skill levels. Yet we also know that individuals' skill levels change during childhood and into adulthood, not least as a result of their education, training and work experience. Thus parents' adult skill levels are potentially as important in predicting the cognitive
Families are influential systems and may be an important context in which to consider the stress and coping process. To date, many studies have focused on modeling the stress and coping process for the individual, isolated from the family. The purpose of this secondary analysis was to investigate a cross-sectional stress and coping model for HIV-positive African-American mothers recruited from HIV service facilities in South Florida (n=214) and their family members (n=294). Avoidance coping was hypothesized to mediate the relationship between stress and psychological distress. In addition, the family average of individual stress was hypothesized to moderate the relationship between avoidance coping and psychological distress. For all constructs, individuals reported on themselves and multilevel modeling techniques were used to account for similarities between members of the same family. The estimated mediation effect was significant. Aggregated family stress significantly moderated the relationship between avoidance coping and psychological distress. This study suggests that individuals exhibit different relationships between avoidance coping and psychological outcomes and that average stress reported by members of a family moderates the relationship between avoidance coping and psychological distress.
Brincks, Ahnalee M.; Feaster, Daniel J.; Mitrani, Victoria B.
Recent efforts have increased research on alcoholic women. Few studies have examined the coping mechanisms characteristic of alcoholic women relative to their nonalcoholic controls. Conforming to DSM-IV criteria for alcohol dependence, 159 alcoholic women stratified by race (black and white) and age (20–29, 30–39, and 40–49 years) were compared to 150 nonalcoholic women from a variety of public and private
Philip J. Michels; N. Peter Johnson; Robert Mallin; J. T. Thornhill; Sunil Sharma; Harold Gonzales; Robert Kellett
This article reports pre–post intervention results from a randomized controlled trial evaluating the initial efficacy of a\\u000a couples-based intervention aimed at teaching skills for coping with stress and improving relationship skills in a sample of\\u000a 173 ethnically diverse low-income co-resident mothers and fathers who were raising at least one child together. Couples were\\u000a randomly assigned to one of three interventions
Martha E. WadsworthCatherine; Catherine DeCarlo Santiago; Lindsey Einhorn; Erica M. Etter; Shauna Rienks; Howard Markman
To examine whether afferent stimulation of hand muscles has a facilitating effect on motor performance, learning and cortical excitability, healthy subjects were trained on the grooved pegboard test (GTP) while wearing a mesh glove (MG) with incorporated electrical stimulation. Three study groups (n=12) were compared in a between subjects design, the bare handed (BH), gloved (MG) and gloved with electrical stimulation (MGS) groups. Motor performance was assessed by the GPT completion time across 4 training blocks, and further one block was retested 7 days later to determine the off-line effects. On-line learning was obtained by normalizing the completion time values to the first training block, and off-line learning was obtained by normalizing the retest values to the last training block. Cortical excitability was assessed via single and paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) at pre-training, post-training and 30min post-training. Motor evoked potential recruitment curve, short-latency intracortical inhibition and intracortical facilitation were estimated from the TMS assessments. Motor performance across all 4 training blocks was poor in the MG and MGS groups, while on-line learning was not affected by wearing the glove or by afferent stimulation. However, off-line learning, tested 7 days after training, was improved in the MGS group compared to the MG group. In addition, post-training corticospinal excitability was increased in the MGS group. It can be concluded that afferent stimulation improves off-line learning and thus has a positive effect on motor memory, likely due to LTP-like cortical plasticity in the consolidation phase. PMID:24844752
Christova, Monica; Rafolt, Dietmar; Golaszewski, Stefan; Nardone, Raffaele; Gallasch, Eugen
This study focused on the influence of gender, age and emotion regulation on coping strategies among university students in Botswana. Sixty-four males and 64 females, ranging in age from 18 to 29 years completed the Difficulty in Emotion Regulation Scale and the Coping Strategy Inventory. Female students used wishful thinking and problem-focused disengagement more than male students; however, there were no other significant gender differences in coping strategies. Older students were more likely to use problem-solving, cognitive restructuring and express emotion coping strategies. In addition, problems in emotion regulation significantly predicted problem-and emotion-focused engagement, problem- and emotion-focused disengagement and coping strategies. There was a unique finding that non-acceptance of emotional responses, a type of emotion suppression, was positively correlated with problem solving, cognitive restructuring, expressing emotion, social support, problem avoidance and wishful thinking coping strategies. Cultural context and implications for student well-being and university support are discussed.
Monteiro, Nicole M.; Balogun, Shyngle K.; Oratile, Kutlo N.
In this study we examined the relations between guilt and shame and coping strategies in response to gambling loss. Based on H.B. Lewis's (Shame & guilt in neurosis. New York: International Universities Press, 1971) account of guilt and shame, we proposed that unlike guilt, the experience of shame involves the attribution of gambling loss to stable and global internal factors (i.e., self-devaluation). We hypothesized that problem gambling severity would be more strongly associated with the intensity of shame than with the intensity of guilt following gambling loss. Further, we hypothesized that the intensity of shame would be positively associated with the use of avoidant coping strategies following gambling loss. Finally, we hypothesized that the intensity of shame would mediate the association between problem gambling severity and the use of avoidant coping. These hypotheses were supported by a retrospective survey of recent gambling losses. Our finding suggests that the experience of shame and the use of avoidant coping strategies to deal with this emotion are central to problem gambling severity. PMID:20857182
The Coping With Discrimination Scale (CDS) shows promise as a self-report measure of strategies for coping with racial discrimination. To assess the psychometric properties of the measure for use with sexual minorities (i.e., gay, lesbian, bisexual, or GLB persons), a nonprobability sample of 371 GLB adults completed the instrument along with several standardized, self-report measures. Confirmatory factor analyses supported the five-factor structure of the original scale with the exclusion of five items. Adequate internal consistency reliability was found. Internalization, drug and alcohol use, and detachment subscales were correlated positively with measures of psychological distress and negatively with a measure of life satisfaction, providing evidence of construct validity. The education/advocacy and resistance subscales were largely unrelated to concurrently administered validation measures, consistent with prior findings. Coping strategy use varied as a function of primary sources of social support. The CDS appears to be a psychometrically sound measure of several discrimination coping strategies for use with sexual minorities. PMID:24325286
Ngamake, Sakkaphat T; Walch, Susan E; Raveepatarakul, Jirapattara
BACKGROUND: There is increasing focus on patient-centred communicative approaches in medical consultations, but few studies have shown the extent to which patients' positivecoping strategies and psychological assets are addressed by general practitioners (GPs) on a regular day at the office. This study measures the frequency of GPs' use of questions and comments addressing their patients' coping strategies or resources.
One hundred and ten patients with epilepsy with a mean age of 45.9 were assessed by a clinical-neurological evaluation, Quality of Life in Epilepsy Inventory-31 (QOLIE-31), and the Spiritual/Religious Coping (SRCOPE) Scale. The objective of this study was to evaluate if patients with epilepsy used positive and/or negative spiritual/religious coping and the relationships between this type of coping and the sociodemographic and clinical aspects of epilepsy and the QOLIE-31. A greater use of positivecoping (3.0±0.7) than negative coping (2.3±0.7) was found. The use of the positive factor was greater in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) than in other types of epilepsy. The ratio of negative/positivecoping was associated with lower scores in the QOLIE-31 (-0.222; p=0.036). Patients with epilepsy appear to use spiritual/religious coping, especially those with MTLE, and a predominance of negative coping was associated with a reduced quality of life. Future studies should evaluate interventions considering the knowledge of spiritual/religious strategies by the patients. PMID:23860472
Tedrus, Glória Maria Almeida Souza; Fonseca, Lineu Corrêa; De Pietro Magri, Fabiane; Mendes, Pedro Henrique Magalhães
This paper addresses whether theoretical skills, meaning skills in evaluating and improving existing theories and in creating new theories, should be taught in psychology programs. Three questions are posed: (1) Should theoretical skills be taught at all?; (2) How are theoretical skills best taught?; and (3) Which theoretical skills should be…
The study aims to investigate the relationship of suicidal ideation with coping and resilience in a sample of adolescents who survived an earthquake. Three hundred forty-three adolescents who had experienced the L'Aquila earthquake were investigated for a screening distinguishing Suicidal Screen-Negative (SSN) from the Positive (SSP) subjects. Resilience Scale for Adolescents (READ) and Brief Cope were administered. Emotion-focused coping score was significantly higher in SSP subjects. In the SSN but not in the SSP sample the READ total score correlated with problem-focused total score. A positive correlation was seen between emotion-focused and problem-focused scores in both samples, with a higher coefficient in SSP sample. Externalising problems and maladaptive behaviours can arise in adolescents exposed to traumatic events. Attention should be paid in reducing risk factors and in the development of psychological abilities, improving the coping strategies that can protect from emotional despair and suicidal ideation. PMID:24931563
Two studies examined the relationship between self-compassion, academic achievement goals, and coping with perceived academic failure among undergraduates. Self-compassion entails being kind to oneself in instances of failure, perceiving one's experiences as part of the larger human experience, and holding painful feelings in mindful awareness. Study 1 (N?=?222) found that self-compassion was positively associated with mastery goals and negatively associated
KRISTIN D. NEFF; Ya-Ping Hsieh; Kullaya Dejitterat
In a weekly managerial newspaper survey the abbreviated German version of the Occupational Stress Indicator’s Coping scale was completed anonymously by over 200 readers. Of these we selected only those who were categorised as management (n = 160) in our study. The mean coping score for the full Coping scale was 36.98 (SD 8.65) with a split half reliability of
The aim of this article is to briefly review the literature on stigmatization and more generally identity threats, to focus more specifically of the way people appraise and cope with those threatening situations. Based on the transactional model of stress and coping of Lazarus and Folkman (1984), we propose a model of coping with identity threats that takes into accounts the principle characteristic of stigma, its devaluing aspect. We present a model with specific antecedents, a refined appraisal phase and a new classification of coping strategies based on the motives that may be elicited by the threatening situation, those of protecting and/or enhancing the personal and/or social identity.
The purpose of this study was to explore religious coping methods employed by Taiwanese folk religious believers. This study applied qualitative research methods in data collection and data analysis by conducting semi-structured interviews with participants and analyzing the interview contents. We have identified fourteen coping methods that can be categorized into five different religious dimensions: belief, ritual, ethical, emotional and material. The findings not only expanded our knowledge about how believers of Taiwanese folk religion employ the religion to cope with difficulties but also discovered that some coping methods employed by them are also reported in Western countries, only in different forms. PMID:23568406
The authors examine the relationships between dimensions of collective self-esteem and Africultural coping styles in a sample of African American adolescents. They found that African American adolescents with higher public collective self-esteem (i.e., the belief that others feel positively about their cultural group) reported greater use of spiritual-centered Africultural coping styles to deal with stressful situations. Results also revealed that
Madonna G. Constantine; Peter C. Donnelly; Linda James Myers
The purpose of this study was to examine general life stressors and emotion-focused and problem-focused coping strategies as prospective predictors of psychological distress in a sample of 209, low-income, urban, HIV-positive, African-American women. A secondary aim was to determine whether coping strategies mediated the relationship between life stressors and psychological distress. This study involved a secondary data analysis from a
In a longitudinal community survey of 291 adults, we explored the relation between coping strategies and psychological symptoms. Respondents completed the revised Ways of Coping Scale (Folkman & Lazarus, 1985) for a self-named stressful episode. Factor analysis produced eight coping factors: three problem focused, four emotion focused, and one (support mobilization) that contained elements of both. Multiple regression analyses indicated
This study examines a proposed theoretical model examining the interrelationships between stigma, disclosure, coping, and medication adherence among 158 HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) in northern Tanzania. Perceived and self-stigma, voluntary and involuntary disclosure, positive and negative coping, and demographics were assessed by trained interviewers, and self-reported adherence was collected during 5 months follow-up. Data were examined using correlation and regression analyses. The analyses showed that perceived stigma is primarily related to involuntary disclosure, whereas self-stigma is related to voluntary disclosure. Religious copingpositively relates to acceptance, whereas perceived stigma explains higher levels of denial of HIV status. Lastly, adherence was negatively affected by alcohol use, self-stigma, and denial. We conclude that adherence is predominantly predicted by negative rather than positivecoping mechanisms. Therefore, substituting maladaptive coping mechanisms like denial and alcohol use with a more adaptive coping style may be an important strategy to improve long-term ART adherence and well-being of patients. Moreover, this study showed that it is useful to examine both involuntary and voluntary disclosure when studying its relation with stigma. PMID:24517541
Lyimo, Ramsey A; Stutterheim, Sarah E; Hospers, Harm J; de Glee, Teuntje; van der Ven, Andre; de Bruin, Marijn
Here users will find an assortment of Bioscience/Agricultural Biotechnology Skills Standards. These should be useful for development of new programs as well as for comparisons with existing programs. The sections discussed are: Biopharmaceutical Manufacturing Skill Standards, Combined Bioscience/Agricultural Biotechnology Skill Standards, Agricultural Biotechnology Skill Standards, Bioscience Industry Skill Standards, National Association of Scientific Materials Managers, ACAP Austin Competency Analysis Profile - Biotechnology, Making Skill Standards Work, and Window on the Workplace.
This study evaluates the utility of a stress and coping paradigm for explaining individual differences in psychological adjustment to chronic illness. Using data from the first wave of a longitudinal study of 170 middle-aged and elderly adults faced with one of four chronic illnesses (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, cancer and rheumatoid arthritis), this paper examines the relationship between the stresses of chronic illness and coping, and the ability of coping to explain psychological adjustment. Results show coping strategy use tends to be minimally explained by medical diagnosis. Cognitive strategies, including information seeking, are related to positive affect while emotional strategies, particularly those involving avoidance, blame and emotional ventilation, are related to negative affect, lowered self-esteem and poorer adjustment to illness. While the findings suggest that a stress and coping model may be valuable in understanding adjustment among the chronically ill, the general modesty of coping effects and the failure of the stress buffering hypothesis to explain adjustment indicates a need for new research approaches and some modification of current theories of coping. PMID:6729517
Over the past decade the U.S. Army has identified an emerging need to train and develop leaders who are more adaptive and capable of responding effectively to a wide range of military operations. In response, the U.S. Army Research Institute for the Behav...
B. T. Crabb J. W. Lussier S. B. Shadrick T. J. Burke
Using the Adolescent Coping Scale, ACS (Frydenberg & Lewis, 1993) we surveyed 45 randomly selected foreign adolescents in Australian schools. The coping strategies used most by the participants were: focus on solving the problem; seeking relaxing diversions; focusing on the positive; seeking social support; worry; seeking to belong; investing in close friends; wishful thinking; and keep to self (Table 4). With regard to coping styles, the most widely used was the productive coping followed by non-productive coping while the least used style was reference to others (Table 4). In terms of both genders the four coping strategies used most often were: work hard to achieve; seeking relaxing diversions; focus on solving the problem; and focus on the positive (Table 5). The most noticeable gender difference was the use of the physical recreation coping strategy in which male students engaged more (Fig 1). The usage of four coping strategies (solving problem; work hard; focus on positive; and social support) was higher for students who have been away from family more than once as compared to those who have been away once only while the usage of seeking relaxing diversions was higher for the first timers (Table 6). No significant differences were obtained on the sample's performance on the ACS subscales by gender (Table 7), frequency of leaving own country (Table 8), country of origin (Table 9), and length of stay in Australia (Table 11). However, foundation students scored significantly higher on the reference to others variable than their secondary school peers (Table 10). We recommended counseling for students with high support needs and further large-scale mixed-methods research to gain additional insights. PMID:24373267
The stigma associated with HIV/AIDS poses a psychological challenge to people living with HIV/AIDS. We hypothesized that that the consequences of stigma-related stressors on psychological well-being would depend on how people cope with the stress of HIV/AIDS stigma. Two hundred participants with HIV/AIDS completed a self-report measure of enacted stigma and felt stigma, a measure of how they coped with HIV/AIDS stigma, and measures of depression and anxiety, and self-esteem. In general, increases in felt stigma (concerns with public attitudes, negative self-image, and disclosure concerns) coupled with how participants reported coping with stigma (by disengaging from or engaging with the stigma stressor) predicted self-reported depression, anxiety, and self-esteem. Increases in felt stigma were associated with increases in anxiety and depression among participants who reported relatively high levels of disengagement coping compared to participants who reported relatively low levels of disengagement coping. Increases in felt stigma were associated with decreased self-esteem, but this association was attenuated among participants who reported relatively high levels of engagement control coping. The data also suggested a trend that increases in enacted stigma predicted increases in anxiety, but not depression, among participants who reported using more disengagement coping. Mental health professionals working with people who are HIV positive should consider how their clients cope with HIV/AIDS stigma and consider tailoring current therapies to address the relationship between stigma, coping, and psychological well-being.
Varni, Susan E.; Miller, Carol T.; McCuin, Tara; Solomon, Sondra E.
Cancer in the family may affect the psycho-social adjustment of the children involved. Children who have survived childhood cancer or with a parent or sibling with cancer, may find protection from the risk of emotional and behavioural difficulties from effective external support systems. A training course was developed by the Cancer Research Campaign to help professionals who make up potential external support systems, cope with children experiencing cancer-related life crises. The course was offered to, and evaluated with, practising teachers, student teachers and Cancer Aid and Listening Line workers. Results from interviews and pre and post course questionnaires indicated that after the course all three groups felt more confident in dealing with children under stress. Participants felt that specific skills such as 'attentive listening' had increased as a result of the course. Of the three groups the practising teachers have found the course the most useful in their work and have been able to disseminate their newly acquired skills throughout their schools. Teachers are expected to cope with students' various life crises as they arise in schools. Basic counselling skills training for teachers could help them cope with these in a more confident manner, thereby reducing the risk of emotional and behavioural difficulties and contributing towards a Health Promoting School ethos. PMID:9339767
Much research has examined how individuals cope with work and life stress. Findings have suggested that stress, generally measured as major life events or daily hassles, may be less important to both physical and psychological well-being than are other individual appraisal and coping processes. This study was conducted to examine the effects of…
Tests Coleman's (1995) hypotheses that the strategies adolescents use to cope with cultural diversity will be organized in a sequential manner and that adolescents will use different strategies depending on the situation. To test these hypotheses, 398 adolescents rated the likelihood of using 6 strategies for coping with cultural diversity. Makes…
Coleman, Hardin L. K.; Casali, Sherry B.; Wampold, Bruce E.
This research examines the level of stress experienced by IT project managers and determines the types of coping strategies used to handle their stress. Sixty-four South African IT project managers completed an online questionnaire. The findings indicate that IT project managers are highly stressed and tend to utilize maladaptive coping strategies more as their stress levels increase. These strategies included
When foreign language education is compulsory, competitive, or coercive, how learners cope with stress can determine outcomes, including value of the subject, persistence on task, and level of proficiency. The development of adaptive or maladaptive coping processes toward situated learning goals is influenced by learners' beliefs about themselves…
Both behavioral and cognitive coping strategies are determined by an individual's perception of the stressful stimuli. To investigate the relationship of an individual's usual coping style to differential responses to a behavioral or cognitive stressor in four response systems (heart rate, muscle tension, galvanic skin response, and subjective…
The main challenge for autonomic systems operating in remote environments is how to deal with uncertainties. This paper develops a framework of coping strategies for autonomic systems to deal with uncertain situations, new environments, conflicting sensory inputs and diverse mission objectives. Important aspects of the coping strategies include learning mechanisms, for which the concept of dream functions is presented. More
Constructs a theoretical model for analyzing the social context and genesis of teacher and student classroom-coping strategies. The author develops the model by integrating the macrofactors identified by Andy Hargreaves and the microfactors identified by Peter Woods that influence classroom-coping strategies. (AM)
Cope's rule is the tendency for body size to increase over time along a lineage. A set of 65 phylogenetically independent comparisons, between earlier and later genera, show that Cope's rule applied in dinosaurs: later genera were on average about 25% longer than the related earlier genera to which they were compared. The tendency for size to increase was not
This review identifies key issues in research on adolescent coping with stress with parents, friends, and romantic partners during the past decade. An analysis of 78 studies revealed findings on relationship stressors and the potential links between the use of different coping styles for different relationship types. Research has confirmed…
This document consists of two modules extracted from a six-module larger work. Module 1 presents six articles on the topic of "helping students to cope with fears and crises." Module 2 contains 17 articles on "programs and practices for helping students cope with fears and crises." Article titles and authors are as follows: (1) "Worries of…
Coping responses to stress can be divided into three broad categories. The first coping category involves voluntarily mobilizing social supports. The second category involves voluntary coping strategies like rehearsing responses to danger. The third coping category, like fever and leukocytosis, is involuntary. It entails deploying unconscious homeostatic mechanisms that reduce the disorganizing effects of sudden stress, DSM-5 offers a tentative hierarchy of defenses, from psychotic to immature to mature. The 70-year prospective Study of Development at Harvard provides a clinical validation of this hierarchy Maturity of coping predicted psychosocial adjustment to aging 25 years later, and was associated with not developing symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder after very severe WWII combat.
Notes that good communications skills are becoming a requirement for almost any job and that corporate leaders and human resources managers are realizing the importance of strong interpersonal communication skills to the performance of all employees not just those in supervisory and managerial positions. Discusses a variety of interpersonal…
Rapidly changing technology makes the information systems (IS) field a highly dynamic one. IS professionals must possess the requisite skills to be successful in this environment. At an April 1988 meeting of The University of Georgia - MIS Industry Advisory Board, twenty Board members ranked the skills that new MIS graduates should have if they seek an entry-level position as
Hugh J. Watson; Dale Young; Shaila Miranda; Barry Robichaux; Ron Seerley
Introduction: Recent research suggests that effective interprofessional communication and collaboration can positively influence patient satisfaction and outcomes. Health professional communication skills do not necessarily improve over time but can improve with formal communication skills training (CST). This article describes the development,…
Introduction: Adolescence is a period when at-risk health behaviors often begin, such as tobacco and alcohol use; thus, it is a critical period for implementing preventive strategies. Method: In this context, 106 adolescents took part in this research (54 females and 52 males; mean age for both groups = 14.10). The main objectives were to first…
Lara, M. Dolores; Bermudez, Jose; Perez-Garcia, Ana M.
In the author's experience, lessons that are clearly meaningful for students beyond the classroom can foster positive attitudes, increase enjoyment, and enhance learning. In this paper she offers suggestions on how to plan for meaningful mathematics lessons using the topic of map skills as an example. She also presents some specific ideas for…
Scientists and engineers in all positions have to be able to communicate the purpose and relevance of their work, both orally and in writing Good communication skills are often needed to get a good job in the first place. If one is clear in expressing ones thoughts and articulating ones accomplishments and attributes, an interviewer is more likely to form
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) robs persons living with this disease of their independence and self-esteem, which can lead to depression, anxiety, and loneliness. Understanding how people with early stage AD cope is a critical step to enhance their adaptive abilities and ultimately improve their quality of life. This qualitative study describes how individuals with early stage AD use spirituality to cope with the losses of self-esteem, independence, and social interaction that they face. The purposive sample for this focused ethnography study consisted of 15 participants living at home in central Arkansas. Holding onto faith, seeking reassurance and hope, and staying connected were the global themes. Personal faith, prayer, connection to church, and family support enhanced the ability for people with early stage AD to keep a positive attitude as they face living with Alzheimer’s.
The adult leukemia patient in a drug-induced remission possesses a unique set of emotional responses as he adjusts to an altered life-style and a life-threatening disease. Six patients, ranging in age from 24 to 62 years and being treated with monthly maintenance chemotherapy, were interviewed over a six-month period. The adaptive coping mechanisms most frequently identified were denial of being sick, identification with fellow patients to form a "hospital family," and anticipatory grief of one's own losses by participation in grieving another patient's death. The means of adjustment was to adapt to the "hospital family" and benefit from the therapeutic milieu established on the ward. The patient's total response to remission in acute leukemia can be influenced positively by appropriate intervention based on an assessment of his previous and present patterns of coping. PMID:577988
This study examined relationships between emotional adjustment and a number of coping styles and strategies in people with cancer. Two-hundred eighty-three adults completed measures of positive and negative emotions, subjective ratings of cancer-related symptoms and functional impairment, coping strategies, hope, benefit finding, emotional approach/avoidance, and cancer-related social support. Among the coping strategies, self-blame and behavioral disengagement were consistently associated with poor adjustment, while acceptance and humor were consistently associated with good adjustment. Among the broader measures of coping style, there were associations between poor adjustment and emotional processing, and between good adjustment and hope, benefit finding, and cancer-related social support. PMID:20391063
Shapiro, Jeremy P; McCue, Kathleen; Heyman, Ellen N; Dey, Tanujit; Haller, Harold S
Interpersonal trauma is pervasive globally and may result in long-term consequences physically, cognitively, behaviorally, socially, and spiritually (Bryant-Davis, 2005b). One of the protective factors that have emerged in the literature is religious coping. Religious coping, spirituality, and faith-based approaches to trauma recovery include endorsement of beliefs, engagement in behaviors, and access to support from faith communities. Compared with negative religious coping, spirituality and positive religious coping have been associated with decreased psychological distress, a finding established with survivors of child abuse, sexual violence, intimate partner violence, community violence, and war. This article focuses on spiritual and religious coping among survivors of child abuse, sexual violence, and war; however, research demonstrates increased use of positive religious coping among some survivors with higher rates of posttraumatic stress disorder. Much of the scholarship in this area includes qualitative studies with populations who face increased vulnerability to interpersonal trauma. Research in this area covers the life span from childhood to later adulthood and encompasses both domestic and international studies. The implications of research findings are explored, and future research needs are described. This line of research supports the American Psychological Association (2010) ethical standards that note the recognition of spiritual and religious faith traditions as important aspects of the provision of ethical treatment. Researchers, clinicians, and advocates for trauma survivors are encouraged to attend to the faith traditions and beliefs of persons confronting the potential devastation of traumatic events. PMID:24320650
This study was carried out to elucidate the predictive value of tail skin temperatures (TSTs) assessed in naïve rats as a non-invasive pre-experimental method of classification of coping style. Male Lewis rats were classified according to tail skin temperatures (TST), and relative size within cage-groups. TSTs were monitored over two-hour periods following exposure to physical and emotional stressors. Bodyweight-shifts associated to the experiments were analysed. Six organs of neuroendocrine relevance to allostasis were weighed. Challenge-specific TST-profiles were size-related and consistent with proactive or reactive coping. Pro-active (A) rats showed a more pronounced TST-response to unknown conspecifics, but reactive (B) rats to environmental novelties. B-rats showed challenge-specific weight-losses while A-rats gained more after experiments. Second size males showed rapidly decreased TSTs (vasoconstriction) after nociceptive stimulation. Males that showed the highest basal TSTs and weight-loss in emotionality tests had lost a first rank position during a pre-experimental period, suggesting long-lasting effects of social defeat. Pre-experimental growth correlated positively to adiposisity post-experimentally, but negatively to testes relative weight in B-rats. Scaling effects explained heart-size in B-rats and pituitary-size in A-rats. The overall patterns that emerged, in factor analyses including organ sizes, were consistent with pro-active coping in A-rats and reactive in B-rats. Our results, controlling for rank-effects, suggest that non-invasively assessed TSTs may predict individual stress-coping phenotypes pre-experimentally in rats housed in groups. PMID:19041659
Agren, Greta; Lund, Irene; Thiblin, Ingemar; Lundeberg, Thomas
There is accumulating evidence that mindfulness-based interventions are useful in reducing food cravings. However, existing studies have applied many mindfulness skills together, rendering it unclear which skills are essential and which are unnecessary. Based on recent investigations into the efficacy of individual mindfulness skills at managing cravings, the goal of the present study was to compare the efficacy of two-week mindfulness-based interventions, targeting different combinations of specific mindfulness skills (awareness, acceptance, disidentification), at reducing trait and state chocolate cravings. We compared the efficacy of the mindfulness interventions to an active control intervention (distraction). Overall, disidentification emerged as the most efficacious mindfulness skill. After two weeks of practice, those trained in disidentification reported less intense state cravings after a craving induction task compared with those trained in distraction. Mediation analyses revealed that this effect was mediated first by a greater increase in the disidentification skill, and subsequently by a greater decrease in trait chocolate cravings. Manipulation checks revealed that training the disidentification skill was more successful than training the other skills. Disidentification is shown to be a crucial mindfulness skill that can be taught to help better cope with food cravings. PMID:24503333
Social skills training procedures that can be used in a group format are described. These procedures are contained in the Social Skills Intervention Guide (Elliott & Gresham, 1991) which is a systematic approach to teaching social skills to children between the ages of 6 and 16 years. A system for classifying social skills deficits based on acquisition performance deficits and
This study examined the prediction of preoperative faith factors for perceived spiritual support, indicating existential relationship as a dimension of eudemonic well-being (EWB), at 30 months after cardiac surgery (N=226). The study capitalized on data from preoperative surveys and the Society of Thoracic Surgeons' National Database. Controlling for demographics, cardiac indices, and mental health, hierarchical regression showed that preoperative prayer coping, subjective religiousness, and internal control were positive predictors of spiritual support. Negative religious coping was a negative predictor. Internal control mediated the role of positive religious coping. Certain faith-based experiences may enhance aspects of EWB, but future research should investigate mechanisms. PMID:22544157
Ai, Amy Lee; Hopp, Faith; Tice, Terrence N; Koenig, Harold
Adolescence is a developmental period during which young teenagers are particularly susceptible to shifting from well-defined behavioral intentions to abstain from substance use to intentions that include experimentation with substance use and in many cases engagement substance use. Coping mechanisms are often an important determinant of adolescent well-being, and the style of coping adopted by the individual can influence positive or negative health behavior. The goal of this study was to examine how the levels of positivecoping style (i.e., engagement) and negative coping style (i.e., disengagement) associated with increased risk for tobacco and marijuana use, and intentions to use among those who have never tried. Higher levels of engagement coping were associated with lower odds of tobacco and marijuana use (AOR=0.96 (95% CI: 0.94-0.98), p<0.001 and AOR=0.95 (95% CI: 0.93-0.97) p<0.001, respectively). Higher levels of disengagement coping were associated with greater odds of tobacco and marijuana use (AOR=1.03 (95% CI: 1.01-1.05), p<0.001 and AOR=1.05 (95% CI: 1.03-1.07), p<0.001, respectively). Engagement coping was also protective against the intention to use tobacco (AOR=0.97 (95% CI: 0.96-0.99), p<0.001) or marijuana (AOR=0.98 (95% CI: 0.96-0.99), p<0.01). These findings suggest that psychoeducational programs supporting the development of engagement oriented coping strategies may contribute not only to reductions in adolescents' use of tobacco and marijuana, but also to reductions in adolescents' intentions to use in the future. PMID:24922529
The sociocultural milieu provides HIV positive women with fewer resources and more role responsibilities. The present research aimed at studying the psychosocial problems encountered in living, post HIV infection, and the coping patterns adopted by HIV seropositive wives of men with HIV\\/AIDS. In the background of an exploratory research design, thirty (n = 30) HIV positive women, attending Counseling Clinics
Asserts that training in social research methods is a central part of sociology education. Maintains that, while social and communication skills are managerially and epistemologically important to successful research, they often are ignored. Argues for the inclusion of these skills in research methods courses. (CFR)
When someone is criticized for some failure or deficiency, he or she is faced with a dilemma about whether or how to respond. To date, most research on responses to criticism has adopted a communication approach and has focused on general social complaints. The present study instead adopted the perspective of stress and coping and aimed to delineate possible responses to criticism pertaining to one's physical appearance. We investigated the efficacy of three coping styles, namely acceptance, avoidance, and retaliation in explaining emotional reactions towards such criticism, and we additionally controlled for personality characteristics, in particular assertion and harmony beliefs. A sample of Taiwanese university students (N = 300) was surveyed for their coping styles and psychological outcomes, and personality traits were examined as possible predictors of response options. We found that (1) acceptance, retaliation, and avoidance were three broad coping styles in this problematic social situation; (2) the individual trait of assertion was negatively related to the use of avoidance, while harmony beliefs were positively related to acceptance and avoidance, but negatively related to retaliation; and (3) the use of acceptance and avoidance were positively related to positive emotions, whereas retaliation was positively related to negative emotions. Males tended to use more acceptance. Implications of these findings were discussed in relation to existing studies of communication, stress and coping. Possible influences of the Chinese collectivist culture on people's responses to criticism were also delineated, such as valuing interpersonal harmony and face-work in social situations. PMID:22029556
Introduction: The puerperium is a stage that produces changes and adaptations in women, couples and family. Effective coping, during this stage, depends on the relationship between the demands of stressful or difficult situations and the recourses that the puerperal individual has. Roy (2004), in her Middle Range Theory about the Coping and Adaptation Processing, defines Coping as the ''behavioral and cognitive efforts that a person makes to meet the environment demands''. For the puerperal individual, the correct coping is necessary to maintain her physical and mental well being, especially against situations that can be stressful like breastfeeding and return to work. According to Lazarus and Folkman (1986), a resource for coping is to have someone who receives emotional support, informative and / or tangible. Objective: To review the issue of women coping and adaptation during the puerperium stage and the strategies that enhance this adaptation. Methods: search and selection of database articles: Cochrane, Medline, Ovid, ProQuest, Scielo, and Blackwell Synergy. Other sources: unpublished documents by Roy, published books on Roy´s Model, Websites from of international health organizations. Results: the need to recognize the puerperium as a stage that requires comprehensive care is evident, where nurses must be protagonist with the care offered to women and their families, considering the specific demands of this situation and recourses that promote effective coping and the family, education and health services.
Munoz de Rodriguez, Lucy; Ruiz de Cardenas, Carmen Helena
Background: Nursing requires high self-esteem and effective coping strategies for the quality of health services that they deliver. Self -esteem and stress coping mechanism developed during education period is foundation for professional practice. So, this study was conducted to identify self-esteem, coping activities, and their relationship. Methods: Descriptive cross sectional study was conducted among 287 PCL nursing students currently studying in different level in nursing campuses of the Institute of Medicine during June and July 2013. Self administered semi structured questionnaire and rating scales were used for the data collection. Results: Findings showed that 21 (7.31%), 194 (67.5%), and 67 (23.34%), students had have very high, high and moderate, self-esteem and only five (1.74%) have low self-esteem.The difference in self-esteem level was insignificant with the level of the students. Students most frequently used problem focused (3.36±0.54) followed by emotion focused (3.04±0.45) and avoidance coping activities (2.91±0.63). The relationship of use of coping activities and level of students was statistically insignificant. Self-esteem level had positive relation with problem focused and emotion focused coping activities (Pearson r: 0.114 and 0.118), though the correlation was significant with emotion focused coping activities only.Bicytopenia and pancytopenia were seen in two cases each of myelodysplastic syndrome. Chronic myeloid leukemia and Non-Hodgkin lymphoma showed anemia and pancytopenia respectively. Conclusions: Majority of PCL nursing students have high level of self-esteem. They used problem focused coping activities most however, use of it decreased with increased level of students. Students with high self -esteem used problem focused followed by emotion focused coping activities. Students should be encouraged to use problem focused coping activities. Keywords: PCL nursing students; self-esteem;stress coping. PMID:24908532
The authors review converging lines of evidence from behavioral, kinematic, and neuroimaging data that point to limitations in speech motor skills in people who stutter (PWS). From their review, they conclude that PWS differ from those who do not in terms of their ability to improve with practice and retain practiced changes in the long term, and that they are less efficient and less flexible in their adaptation to lower (motor) and higher (cognitive-linguistic) order requirements that impact on speech motor functions. These findings in general provide empirical support for the position that PWS may occupy the low end of the speech motor skill continuum as argued in the Speech Motor Skills approach (Van Lieshout, Hulstijn, & Peters, 2004). PMID:22106825
Millions of children incur potentially traumatic physical injuries every year. Most children recover well from their injury but many go on to develop persistent traumatic stress reactions. This study aimed to describe children’s coping and coping assistance (i.e., the ways in which parents and peers help children cope) strategies and to explore the association between coping and acute stress reactions following an injury. Children (N = 243) rated their acute traumatic stress reactions within one month of injury and reported on coping and coping assistance six months later. Parents completed a measure of coping assistance at the six month assessment. Children used an average of 5–6 coping strategies (out of 10), with wishful thinking, social support, and distraction endorsed most frequently. Child coping was associated with parent and peer coping assistance strategies. Significant acute stress reactions were related to subsequent child use of coping strategies (distraction, social withdrawal, problem-solving, blaming others) and to child-report of parent use of distraction (as a coping assistance strategy). Findings suggest that children’s acute stress reactions may influence their selection of coping and coping assistance strategies. To best inform interventions, research is needed to examine change in coping behaviors and coping assistance over time, including potential bidirectional relationships between trauma reactions and coping.
Although research indicates associations between social skills deficits and poor social outcomes (Deniz et al., 2005; Segrin, 1990), and such outcomes and paranoid thinking (Freeman et al., 2005), few studies have investigated links between social skills, paranoid thinking, and social outcomes. Undergraduate students (N=182) completed self-report measures of paranoid thinking, social skills, loneliness, and social support. Paranoid thinking was positively
Social skills development is an important area of research in psychology. The development of social skills has been related to positive life outcomes, while interpersonal difficulties have been related to negative life consequences. In the past two decades, researchers have begun to examine parenting roles, characteristics and behaviors as they relate to the development of social skills in children. ^
The present study qualitatively assessed the psychosocial impacts experienced by stage III melanoma patients and caregivers throughout the course of the disease, and the coping responses they utilized in an attempt to promote psychosocial adjustment. The purpose of the study was to inform the development of a supportive care strategy for this population. Nineteen stage III melanoma patients and 14 of their caregivers were recruited from the clinical research database of the Melanoma Institute Australia. Data were collected using semistructured telephone interviews and analysed using thematic analysis. Participants reported psychosocial impacts related to diagnosis (shock, panic and devastation), treatment (challenges and unsatisfactory care, pain and limitation, practical impacts, new roles and responsibilities for the caregiver, caregiver inadequacy) and survivorship (ongoing physical problems, watchful waiting, feeling abandoned). They also reported global themes relevant to multiple phases of the disease (emotional distress, disfigurement, injustice, caregiver devaluation). Coping responses were identified related to diagnosis (avoidance), treatment (confidence in the treatment team, taking action) and survivorship (finding a positive meaning, acceptance and moving on) as well as global themes pertaining to multiple disease phases (receiving support, helpful thinking, putting on a brave face, redirecting attention, religion). The current findings support routine screening for the presence of symptoms and psychological distress and appropriate referral when necessary, and for provision of psychosocial interventions to provide information and support to stage III melanoma patients and caregivers. In addition, provision of communication skills training to all health professionals treating melanoma, use of evidence-based strategies for improving patient/caregiver understanding and recall, and routine assessment of patient-reported outcomes to inform clinical practice would be helpful. PMID:24584097
Tan, Jason D; Butow, Phyllis N; Boyle, Frances M; Saw, Robyn P M; O'Reilly, Amanda J
The current study compared the relative importance of proactive coping and preventive coping in the adjustment to university life among 403 freshmen at a Chinese university and evaluated the function of proactive coping in the stress process. Participants completed the Future-Oriented Coping Inventory (Gan, Yang, Zhou, & Zhang, 2007), the…
This paper discusses some of the conceptual and methodological issues involved in the study of coping. It focuses on individual coping with work and work-related problems, and adopts a transactional framework for the definition of the key concepts of stress, appraisal and coping. It identifies and reviews 17 recent papers which are representative of the coping literature, as defined by
Examined data from 153 married couples to determine their patterns of coping with stress and association between couples' coping and psychological symptoms in each spouse. Found pattern of dyadic coping marked by strong reliance on escape-avoidance coping by both husband and wife was associated with high levels of symptoms in both spouses.…
A study of the effects of the Teton Dam Disaster in 1976 suggests that elderly persons cope quite well with disaster situations and tend to report fewer adverse emotional effects and feelings of relative deprivation than younger victims. (Author)
The Military Family Coping Project has been designed to examine the stress and adjustment issues surrounding deployments for Soldiers, Spouses and Parents of Soldiers. This project has the luxury of seeing soldiers in the context of their nuclear families...
Background Belief in divine control is often assumed to be fatalistic. However, the assumption has rarely been investigated in racial/ethnic minorities. Objectives This study aims to examine the association between belief in divine control and coping and how the association was moderated by ethnicity/acculturation in a multi-ethnic sample of breast cancer patients. Methods Latina, African American, and non-Hispanic White older women with newly diagnosed breast cancer (N=257) from a population-based survey completed the scale of Belief in Divine Control and the Brief COPE. Results Belief in divine control was positively related to approach coping (i.e., positive reframing, active coping, and planning) in all ethnic groups. Belief in divine control was positively related to acceptance and negatively related to avoidance coping (i.e., denial and behavioral disengagement) among low-acculturated Latinas. Conclusions Negative presumptions about fatalistic implications of belief in divine control should be critically reappraised, especially when such skepticism is applied to racial/ethnic minority patients.
Umezawa, Yoshiko; You, Jin; Kagawa-Singer, Marjorie; Leake, Barbara; Maly, Rose C.
Objective. To investigate the relationship between coping and atherothrombotic biomarkers of an increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in the elderly. Methods. We studied 136 elderly caregiving and noncaregiving men and women who completed the Ways of Coping Checklist to assess problem-focused coping, seeking social support (SSS), blamed self, wishful thinking, and avoidance coping. They had circulating levels of 12 biomarkers measured. We also probed for potential mediator and moderator variables (chronic stress, affect, health behavior, autonomic activity) for the relation between coping and biomarkers. Results. After controlling for demographic and CVD risk factors, greater use of SSS was associated with elevated levels of serum amyloid A (P = 0.001), C-reactive protein (CRP) (P = 0.002), vascular cellular adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1 (P = 0.021), and D-dimer (P = 0.032). There were several moderator effects. For instance, greater use of SSS was associated with elevated VCAM-1 (P < 0.001) and CRP (P = 0.001) levels in subjects with low levels of perceived social support and positive affect, respectively. The other coping styles were not significantly associated with any biomarker. Conclusions. Greater use of SSS might compromise cardiovascular health through atherothrombotic mechanisms, including elevated inflammation (i.e., serum amyloid A, CRP, VCAM-1) and coagulation (i.e., D-dimer) activity. Moderating variables need to be considered in this relationship. PMID:22848795
von Känel, Roland; Mausbach, Brent T; Dimsdale, Joel E; Mills, Paul J; Patterson, Thomas L; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Ziegler, Michael G; Roepke, Susan K; Allison, Matthew; Grant, Igor
Objective. To investigate the relationship between coping and atherothrombotic biomarkers of an increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in the elderly. Methods. We studied 136 elderly caregiving and noncaregiving men and women who completed the Ways of Coping Checklist to assess problem-focused coping, seeking social support (SSS), blamed self, wishful thinking, and avoidance coping. They had circulating levels of 12 biomarkers measured. We also probed for potential mediator and moderator variables (chronic stress, affect, health behavior, autonomic activity) for the relation between coping and biomarkers. Results. After controlling for demographic and CVD risk factors, greater use of SSS was associated with elevated levels of serum amyloid A (P = 0.001), C-reactive protein (CRP) (P = 0.002), vascular cellular adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1 (P = 0.021), and D-dimer (P = 0.032). There were several moderator effects. For instance, greater use of SSS was associated with elevated VCAM-1 (P < 0.001) and CRP (P = 0.001) levels in subjects with low levels of perceived social support and positive affect, respectively. The other coping styles were not significantly associated with any biomarker. Conclusions. Greater use of SSS might compromise cardiovascular health through atherothrombotic mechanisms, including elevated inflammation (i.e., serum amyloid A, CRP, VCAM-1) and coagulation (i.e., D-dimer) activity. Moderating variables need to be considered in this relationship.
von Kanel, Roland; Mausbach, Brent T.; Dimsdale, Joel E.; Mills, Paul J.; Patterson, Thomas L.; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Ziegler, Michael G.; Roepke, Susan K.; Allison, Matthew; Grant, Igor
The use of approach and avoidance coping styles and task-focused and emotion-focused coping strategies in competitive sport was explored. Four hundred twenty-one adolescent males from New South Wales, Australia, who were currently competing in team sports indicated their usual responses to each of 8 acute stressors commonly experienced in sport, using a 128-item inventory. The reliability coefficient (Cronbach's ?) for
Affect regulation models of alcohol use posit individuals use alcohol to modify mood states. Importantly, these models hypothesize that individual difference in coping motives for drinking moderate the relation between drinking and negative moods. Despite consistently significant correlations among negative moods, coping motives, and alcohol involvement in numerous between-level studies, within-person analyses have yielded results inconsistent with theoretical models. Analytic techniques modeling time-to-drink have provided results more consistent with theory, though there remains a paucity of research using these methods. The purpose of the current study was to explore whether coping motives moderate the relation between negative moods and the immediacy of drinking using methodology outlined by Hussong (2007) and Armeli, Todd, Conner, and Tennen (2008). Overall, our study showed little evidence for hypothesized mood-motive-alcohol use relations, thus demonstrating that time-to-drink approaches may not provide more consistent support for these hypotheses.
Littlefield, Andrew K.; Jackson, Kristina M.; Talley, Amelia E.
Coping with stress is a major focus for chemically dependent persons in relapse prevention programs. The relationships among\\u000a coping and psychological distress were investigated in 71 men with substance use disorders, at both pre—and post-treatment.\\u000a It was predicted that low task-oriented coping, high emotion-oriented coping, and high avoidance-oriented coping would predict\\u000a psychological distress (e.g., anxiety and depression). It was also
M. A. Courbasson Christine; S. Endler Norman; L. Kocovski Nancy
... Skills HealthDay March 5, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Page Infant and Newborn Development Transcript Armed with an arsenal ... Educational Psychology tracked reading skills among 117 healthy infants between 10 and 18 months old. For 7 ...
\\u000a The term “social skills” encompasses an array of learned behaviors that share the common goal of maintaining or increasing\\u000a reinforcement within a social context. Deficits in social skills can occur at any developmental period and are not likely\\u000a to improve spontaneously because impaired social skills impede interactions with other people. In turn, unsatisfying or disruptive\\u000a interactions exacerbate social skill deficits
Ashley J. Smith; Judith A. Jordan; Mary Fran Flood; David J. Hansen
Manufacturing Engineering Skills provides an assessment of what the key manufacturing skills along with skill gaps are in the marketplace. Joe Loughrey is president and chief operating officer of Cummins Inc. and chairman of The Manufacturing Institute, the research and education arm of the National Association of Manufacturers. Additionally, Manufacturing Engineering Skills was shared by Mike Mohlar and by Roger Lang at an SME mfg executive roundtable in 2005 to provide clarity and encouragement about careers in manufacturing.
Objective: To assess the relationship of coping style with depression, burden and life satisfaction in caregivers of patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage. Design: Cross-sectional study. Participants: Forty-one primary caregivers of patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage. Methods: Caregivers completed several questionnaires within the first year after subarachnoid haemorrhage. Coping style was assessed using the Utrecht Coping List, depression with the Goldberg Depression Scale (GDS), burden with the Sense of Competence Questionnaire, and life satisfaction with the Life Satisfaction Questionnaire. Results: Caregivers had a mean burden score of 37.8 (standard deviation (SD)?=?7.4) and a life satisfaction score of 5.0 (SD?=?0.6). Nine caregivers (23%) had depressive symptoms (GDS ??2). A palliative coping style was positively associated with the presence of depressive symptoms (odds ratio (OR)?=?1.45, p?=?0.016). A passive coping style was positively related to burden (ß?=?1.61, p?=?0.024), adjusted for morbidity of the caregiver (ß?=?11.90, p?=?0.013), and inversely related to life satisfaction (ß?=?-0.10, p?=?0.025). Conclusion: In caregivers of patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage palliative or passive coping styles are related to depressive symptoms, higher burden and life dissatisfaction. This implies that rehabilitation programmes for patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage should also include caregiver support programmes that focus on coping style. PMID:24626873
Boerboom, Wendy; Jacobs, Esther A C; Khajeh, Ladbon; van Kooten, Fop; Ribbers, Gerard M; Heijenbrok-Kal, Majanka H
As life expectancy for persons living with HIV has increased due to antiretroviral therapy, quality of life (QOL) has become an emerging issue for older gay men with HIV, who comprise more than 50% of older adults living with HIV in the United States. The purpose of this study was to determine predictors of QOL in older gay men with HIV. Sixty gay men ages 50-65 participated. Age, social support, and problem-focused coping were significantly and positively correlated with QOL, while medical comorbidities, social stigma, and emotion-focused coping were all significantly and negatively associated with QOL (p < .01). In stepwise linear regression analysis, emotional/informational support remained as a significant positive predictor, and medical comorbidities, HIV stigma, and emotion-focused coping remained as significant negative predictors, accounting for 64% of the variance in QOL. Study findings may help researchers develop interventions aimed at increasing QOL in this population. PMID:22687445
Slater, Larry Z; Moneyham, Linda; Vance, David E; Raper, James L; Mugavero, Michael J; Childs, Gwendolyn
Developmentally relevant high-risk dietary situations (e.g., parties where tempting foods are available) may influence overweight youth’s weight control, as they increase risk for overeating. Better self-efficacy for coping with these situations—which preadolescents may learn from their parents—could foster successful weight control. Overweight preadolescents (N=204) ages 7–12 years (67% female), each with one parent, separately completed the Hypothetical High-Risk Situation Inventory (HHRSI) pre- and post-weight loss treatment. The HHRSI assesses temptation to overeat and confidence in refraining from overeating in response to four high-risk dietary scenarios. Participants generated coping strategies for each scenario. Coping strategies and confidence increased and temptation decreased from pre- to post-weight loss treatment. Parents’ increase in confidence from pre- to post-treatment was associated with preadolescents’ and parents’ weight loss. Tailoring treatments to enhance parents’ copingskills (e.g., building strategies, targeting high temptation/low confidence scenarios) may maximize preadolescents’ weight control.
Theim, Kelly R.; Sinton, Meghan M.; Stein, Richard I.; Saelens, Brian E.; Thekkedam, Sucheta C.; Welch, R. Robinson; Epstein, Leonard H.; Wilfley, Denise E.
This document contains four symposium papers on enhancing employee skills. "The Effect of Study Skills Training Intervention on United States Air Force Aeromedical Apprentices" (John C. Griffith) demonstrates how study skills intervention resulted in a significant increase in the end-of-course scores of a sample of 90 randomly selected Air Force…
This document reports on how key stakeholders in work force preparedness nationwide are responding to pressures of the skills race. Part 1 presents an overview of the skills challenge and the economic and social consequences of failing to meet the challenge. Part 2 examines the impact of the skills shortage on major stakeholders and explains how…
This book discusses the causes and impact of global skill shortages, focusing on data from skill shortages measured in the period 1995-1998 in 19 developed and emerging economies. Chapter one contains a brief introduction. Chapter two is a review of theoretical literature on skill shortages, including static and dynamic shortages, efficiency wage…
This project designed and developed a specialized student skill module for providing rudimentary time management skills, and implemented and evaluated the effectiveness of this skill module for reducing course completion times and promoting positive stude...
Objective:Spinal Cord Lesion-Related Coping Strategies Questionnaire (SCL CSQ) is a specific test that is developed for evaluating the coping strategies of the persons with spinal cord injury (SCI). The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability and validity of the Turkish version of SCL CSQ (SCL CSQ-T) in persons with SCI.Methods:One hundred persons with SCI were included in the study. All participants were evaluated with SCL CSQ-T and Brief Coping Styles Inventory (BCSI) at the baseline. SCL CSQ-T was repeated twice in 15 days. American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale and Functional Independence Measurement were used for the evaluation of the neurological loss severity and functional status. Emotional status was assessed by Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Internal consistency reliability, test-retest reliability and construct validity of SCL CSQ-T were evaluated.Results:Intraclass correlation coefficients of the SCL CSQ-T were between 0.51-0.86. Cronbach's alpha values and test-retest reliability of the acceptance, fighting spirit and social reliance subscales were good. Three factors were found in exploratory factor analysis. There was a positive correlation between the subscales of SCL CSQ-T. There was a statistically significant positive correlation between acceptance strategy of SCL CSQ-T and self-confidence and optimism of BCSI. The fighting spirit strategy positively correlated with self-confidence and optimistic strategies. The social reliance strategy positively correlated with helplessness and seeking social support. Coping strategies did not correlate with HADS.Conclusion:The results of this study revealed good internal consistency reliability, test-retest reliability and concurrent validity of the SCL CSQ-T factors acceptance and fighting spirit in relation to general coping strategies. The coping strategy social reliance needs revisions. PMID:24322215
Paker, N; Bugdayci, D; Kesiktas, N; Sahin, M; Elfström, M L
Students is a very specific population according to their manner to cope with stress. A coping questionnaire for students was developed and administered to 1100 French students at the beginning of the term (T1). Principal Component Analysis of responses, followed by varimax rotations, yielded three factors accounting for 50.5% of the total…
We used Rotter's (1954, 1982) social learning theory and Kirsch's (1985, 1999) response expectancy extension thereof to clarify distinctions between coping-related expectancies (beliefs about the outcomes of coping efforts) and coping dispositions (tendencies to use particular coping responses), specifically focusing on the role of generalized expectancies for negative mood regulation (NMR) as a predictor of individual differences in coping and well-being. Two studies using structural equation modeling provided support for direct and indirect associations between NMR expectancies and symptoms of depression. In Study 1 NMR expectancies predicted situational avoidance coping responses and symptoms of depression and anxiety, independent of dispositional avoidance coping tendencies. In Study 2, NMR expectancies were associated with depressive symptoms, concurrently and prospectively, independent of dispositional optimism and pessimism. Both studies indicated that NMR expectancies are more strongly associated with depressive symptoms than with symptoms of anxiety and physical illness. Results underscore the importance of distinguishing between expectancies and other personality variables related to coping. PMID:10934689
Investigated needs and coping strategies of 124 university students, five university staff, and five other persons involved in long-distance relationships. Most effective coping strategies appeared to be frequency of visits and quality of verbal communication. Results support the importance of relationship subtypes and frequent visits. (Author/NB)
The Cross-Cultural Coping Scale, a scenario-based instrument, was developed in 3 studies. Exploratory factor analyses with Chinese Canadian adolescents (N = 506) showed a 3-factor structure: Collective, Avoidance, and Engagement Coping. The model was reproduced very well in a confirmatory factor analysis. Participant acculturation,…
Kuo, Ben C. H.; Roysircar, Gargi; Newby-Clark, Ian R.
The purpose of this investigation was to understand the varied health care provider responses to traumas by identifying perceptions of control and self-efficacy, appraisal styles, and postevent coping strategies in active duty military nurses and physicians deployed to combat/terrorist regions. Twenty purposively sampled military health care providers completed a descriptive questionnaire, the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist, the General Self-Efficacy Scale, and a recorded semistructured interview that was later transcribed and content analyzed. Cognitive-behavioral determinants of healthy response to trauma were used to frame this descriptive interpretive study and to assist with developing a model for healthy adaptation in trauma-exposed health care providers. Participants felt they had the greatest control over their health care provider role in theater, and most expressed a belief that a sense of control and a sense of purpose were important to their coping. All used some form of social support to cope and many found calming activities that allowed for self-reflection to be helpful. Results from this analysis can be used to inform interventions and promote postevent coping behaviors that increase social support, strengthen important bonds, and enhance involvement in activities that elicit positive emotions. Health care providers experienced positive outcomes despite considerable traumatic exposure by using coping strategies that map closely to several principles of psychological first aid. This suggests a need to train all medical personnel in these concepts as they appear helpful in mitigating responses to the stress of combat-related exposures. PMID:23855421
Gibbons, Susanne W; Shafer, Michaela; Aramanda, Larry; Hickling, Edward J; Benedek, David M
In a rapidly changing society like Botswana, the competition for employment, training and progression on the job has become very high. The development of skills is therefore a crucial and integral part of nation building, which needs a direct link to a training programme to continuously help staff to cope with the different needs they meet in the…
According to (Koppitz, 1975) manual suggests, "the use of the BVMGT is a rough test of intelligence. The BVMGT is not an intelligence test but a measure of a child's skill in coping geometric designs. It provides a very limited sample of behavior. Although perceptual motor development has emerged as a very important instrument for the development…
The Army has a current need to provide literacy and life-copingskills training for many soldiers to enable them to perform in their MOSs. General literacy training has been found ineffective in improving job performance, and a military job specific funct...
For an educational reform to succeed, teachers need to adjust their perceptions to the reform's new curricula and strategies and cope with new content, as well as new teaching and assessment strategies. Developing students' scientific literacy through context-based chemistry and higher order thinking skills was the framework for establishing a new…
Expert performers in striking sports can hit objects moving at high speed with incredible precision. Exceptionally well developed anticipation skills are necessary to cope with the severe constraints on interception. In this paper, we provide a review of the empirical evidence regarding expert interception in striking sports and propose a…
IntroductionHaving a health care home has been shown to be associated with positive health outcomes for children with special health care needs (CSHCN), but its relationship to parental coping has not been established. The purpose of this study was to explore the health care home as a process of care related to parental coping with day-to-day demands of raising a
... Meditation Swimming, stretching, yoga Prayer Listening to quiet music Spending time in nature While relaxation techniques can ... may want to try mixing relaxation in with music, walking, or other activities. Distract yourself with positive ...
Children of mentally ill parents are often vulnerable, partly because they may not receive adequate nurturing and partly because they feel stigmatized by their parents' disabilities. The author recommends use in treatment of several children's books that show realistic, positive role models of children coping with parental mental illness. PMID:4064794
An integrative predictive model was applied to responses of 241 college freshmen to examine interrelationships among parental support, adaptive coping strategies, and psychological adjustment. Social support from both parents and a nonconflictual parental relationship were positively associated with adolescents' psychological adjustment. (SLD)
Predictions by social identity theory (SIT) and relative deprivation theory (RDT) concerning preferences for strategies to cope with a negative in-group status position were tested. The focus of the present research was a comparison of the theories regarding their differential patterns of prediction. For this purpose, a natural sample within a specific historical situation was investigated: East Germans after the
Amélie Mummendey; Thomas Kessler; Andreas Klink; Rosemarie Mielke
This study examined 100 male Latino undergraduates' cultural self-esteem, perceived educational barriers, cultural fit, coping responses (CRs), and subsequent well-being within higher education. The most commonly reported CR for Latino males was to actively find out more about the situation and take a positive planned action. Assessing group mean…
Gloria, Alberta M.; Castellanos, Jeanett; Scull, Nicholas C.; Villegas, Francisco J.
The author takes the position that the foundational value of the counseling profession is an ethic of appreciation for human differences. The professional tool that is used to actualize this value is language. In this regard, the philosophical distinction between copying and coping conceptualizations of language is overviewed. The author argues…
This study examined age and gender differences and similarities in stress responses to September 11th. Adolescents, young adults, and adults reported using a variety of strategies to cope with the terrorist attacks including acceptance, positive thinking, and emotional expression. In addition, involuntary stress responses such as physiological…
A positivecoping style can be critical to successful rehabilitation of psychiatric consumers. Using structural equation modeling, this study examined the relationships among consumers' psychological characteristics, self-esteem, and behaviors, and the role of self-esteem in mediating the relationships between psychological characteristics and…
This study investigates the relationships among stress, coping, and mental health in 139 students participating in an International Baccalaureate (IB) high school diploma program. Mental health was assessed using both positive indicators (life satisfaction, academic achievement, academic self-efficacy) and negative indicators (psychopathology) of…
Suldo, Shannon M.; Shaunessy, Elizabeth; Hardesty, Robin
Analyses examined whether information about the coping strategies used by family members adds to an understanding about the psychological well-being of individuals. Data from 140 women and their husbands and children who were living in multigenerational households that included a disabled older relative indicated that for the women and children, the best predictors of depression, positive affect, and mastery were
Rachel A. Pruchno; Christopher J. Burant; Norah D. Peters
Two studies showed that positive and negative affectivity influenced occupational stress, role strain, and coping. Study 3 added job satisfaction to the model, strengthening its predictive validity. Study 4's addition of personality measures did not improve prediction of job satisfaction and strain. (SK)
Fogarty, Gerard J.; Machin, M. Anthony; Albion, Majella J.; Sutherland, Lynette F.; Lalor, Gabrielle I.; Revitt, Susan
The current longitudinal study tested the premise that Latino adolescents' (N = 323) proactive coping with discrimination would mediate the relationship between ethnic identity and self-esteem. Each component of ethnic identity (i.e., exploration, resolution, and affirmation) was positively associated with concurrent assessments of adolescents'…
Addressing spiritual needs is acknowledged as an essential component of holistic nursing care. Findings are emerging that suggest that chronic illness demands significant changes in patients' lifestyle. In such circumstances it is claimed that spiritual care can be therapeutic to patients (Cohen et al, 2000; Sherwood, 2000). This study was carried out in order to understand further the spiritual coping mechanisms of patients suffering from chronic illness. A qualitative methodology based on descriptive phenomenology was used to capture participants' lived experience. The main themes emerging from this study suggest that chronic illness led participants to use the following spiritual coping mechanisms: faith, prayer, and related sources of support. Patients coping with chronic illness were engaged in both a personal and private struggle. Patients may benefit from nursing interventions that are sensitive, supportive, and responsive to their spiritual needs. PMID:12514485
A fundamental goal of stress research is to understand how individuals cope with challenges. Studies on a range of vertebrate species suggest that three groups of behaviour--affiliative, aggressive and self-directed behaviours--serve as coping strategies. To date, experimental studies of coping behaviour have tended to be conducted in captive conditions; the limited number of studies in free-ranging or wild settings have been observational in nature. We investigated coping behaviours in free-ranging female Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus) at Trentham Monkey Forest, UK, using an experimental playback approach to quantify subjects' responses to mildly aversive threat-grunts. Compared to silent control trials, playbacks of threat-grunts increased aggressive behaviours and one of the two self-directed behaviours examined (self-scratching). No such differences were seen for self-grooming, or for any affiliative behaviour. Elevations in the rate of one measure of aggression, lunging, were positively related to an average measure of adrenocortical activity (median faecal glucocorticoid metabolite levels over the study period). Evidence from females in a variety of Old World monkey species, including Barbary macaques, indicates that affiliative behaviours have an important role in coping with stressful events in the medium to longer term. Our results suggest that, in the short term, female Barbary macaques may use aggressive rather than affiliative behaviours in response to mild stress. These findings highlight the importance of considering how coping mechanisms may vary over time after a stressor, and how coping mechanisms relate to adrenocortical activity. Playback approaches like ours provide a powerful, flexible tool to explore issues such as this in free-ranging and wild animal populations. PMID:22356252
Gustison, Morgan L; MacLarnon, Ann; Wiper, Sue; Semple, Stuart
This study analysed mechanisms through which stress-coping and temptation-coping strategies were associated with lapses. Furthermore, we explored whether distinct coping strategies differentially predicted reduced lapse risk, lower urge levels, or a weaker association between urge levels and lapses during the first week of an unassisted smoking cessation attempt. Participants were recruited via the internet and mass media in Switzerland. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) with mobile devices was used to assess urge levels and lapses. Online questionnaires were used to measure smoking behaviours and coping variables at baseline, as well as smoking behaviour at the three-month follow-up. The sample consisted of 243 individuals, aged 20 to 40, who reported 4199 observations. Findings of multilevel regression analyses show that coping was mainly associated with a reduced lapse risk and not with lower urge levels or a weaker association between urge levels and lapses. 'Calming down' and 'commitment to change' predicted a lower lapse risk and also a weaker relation between urge levels and lapses. 'Stimulus control' predicted a lower lapse risk and lower urge levels. Conversely, 'task-orientation' and 'risk assessment' were related to higher lapse risk and 'risk assessment' also to higher urge levels. Disengagement coping i.e. 'eating or shopping', 'distraction', and 'mobilising social support' did not affect lapse risk. Promising coping strategies during the initial stage of smoking cessation attempt are targeted directly at reducing the lapse risk and are characterised by engagement with the stressor or one's reactions towards the stressor and a focus on positive consequences instead of health risks. PMID:23501139
Previous research has suggested a positive intergenerational relationship between a parent’s childhood cognitive skill level and their own children’s skill levels. Yet we also know that individuals’ skill levels change during childhood and into adulthood, not least as a result of their education, training and work experience. Thus parents’ adult skill levels are potentially as important in predicting the cognitive
Employers of 2007-2009 graduates from Iowa State University College of Veterinary Medicine were asked to respond to a survey regarding their overall satisfaction with their new employees as well as their new employees' preparation in several technical and non-technical skill areas. Seventy-five responses contained complete data and were used in the analysis. Four technical skill areas (data collection, data interpretation, planning, and taking action) and five non-technical skill areas (interpersonal skills, ability to deal with legal issues, business skills, making referrals, and problem solving) were identified. All of the skill area subscales listed above had appropriate reliability (Cronbach's alpha>0.70) and were positively and significantly correlated with overall employer satisfaction. Results of two simultaneous regression analyses indicated that of the four technical skill areas, taking action is the most salient predictor of employer satisfaction. Of the five non-technical skill areas, interpersonal skills, business skills, making referrals, and problem solving were the most important skills in predicting employer satisfaction. Hierarchical regression analysis revealed that all technical skills explained 25% of the variation in employer satisfaction; non-technical skills explained an additional 42% of the variation in employer satisfaction. PMID:22433741
Danielson, Jared A; Wu, Tsui-Feng; Fales-Williams, Amanda J; Kirk, Ryan A; Preast, Vanessa A
This study examined predictors of symptom trajectories of 93 adult survivors of Hurricane Katrina who were displaced and relocated to Colorado. Survivors were interviewed within six months of the hurricane and then again six months later. Four symptom trajectories were identified for clinical levels of depression and post-traumatic stress: resilient, recovered, delayed onset, and chronic. High levels of adaptive coping and coping efficacy characterized the resilient groups and low levels of both characterized the chronic groups. The recovered groups were characterized by low levels of adaptive coping coupled with high coping efficacy, and the delayed groups were characterized by high secondary control coping in the presence of low primary control coping, though some symptom-specific differences were found for these two groups. African American (67%) participants did not differ from European American (28%) participants in terms of membership in trajectory groups, though analyses revealed that displacement stress and positive religious coping were especially relevant predictors for African American participants. The results are interpreted in light of the Conservation of Resources Theory (Hobfoll, 2001) and implications for treatment and preventive intervention are discussed. PMID:19343597
Individuals from some minority cultures are at greater risk of experiencing childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and are also at heightened risk of negative outcomes from abuse. Coping strategies, which may mediate the relationship between CSA and outcomes, are also impacted by culture. This study examined the use of coping strategies in female survivors of CSA across 4 cultural groupings from 2 countries-86 European Canadians, 40 Native Canadians, 129 European New Zealanders, and 35 M?ori New Zealanders-who all completed the Coping Responses Inventory. The 4 groups differed significantly on 7 of the 8 Coping Responses Inventory scales (Logical Analysis, Positive Reappraisal, Problem Solving, Cognitive Avoidance, Acceptance or Resignation, Seeking Alternative Rewards, Emotional Discharge). Whereas New Zealanders differed significantly from Canadians (p<.001), Europeans did not differ significantly from indigenous cultural groups, nor did nationality and culture grouping interact (p>.05). The profile of coping in New Zealand Europeans was relatively flat, with average scores across coping types close to the mean of the t-score distribution. M?ori New Zealanders produced a similar profile, with only slight increases on 2 scales of avoidant coping. The findings raise questions about the extent to which generalizations can be made about there being either a "Western/European" culture or a particular "indigenous" culture. This in turn also raises the issue of whether cross-validation and replication of findings are needed if the findings are to be applied outside of the country in which the data were gathered. PMID:22651678
Expressed emotion (EE) is a measure of the amount of criticism and emotional over involvement expressed by a key relative towards a relative with a disorder or illness (Hooley, 2007). Research has established that living in a high EE environment, which is characterized by increased levels of critical and emotionally exaggerated communication, leads to a poorer prognosis for patients with a mental illness when compared to low EE environments. Despite evidence that EE is a strong predictor of course of illness, there continue to be questions concerning why some family members express excessive levels of high EE attitudes about their mentally ill relatives while others do not. Based on indirect evidence from previous research, the current study tested whether religious and nonreligious coping serve as predictors of EE. A sample of 72 family members of patients with schizophrenia completed an EE interview, along with questionnaires assessing situational nonreligious coping and religious coping. In line with hypotheses, results indicated that nonreligious coping predicted EE. Specifically, less use of adaptive emotion-focused coping predicted high EE. Also consistent with predictions, maladaptive religious coping predicted high EE above and beyond nonreligious coping.
Expressed emotion (EE) is a measure of the amount of criticism and emotional over involvement expressed by a key relative towards a relative with a disorder or illness (Hooley, 2007). Research has established that living in a high EE environment, which is characterized by increased levels of critical and emotionally exaggerated communication, leads to a poorer prognosis for patients with a mental illness when compared to low EE environments. Despite evidence that EE is a strong predictor of course of illness, there continue to be questions concerning why some family members express excessive levels of high EE attitudes about their mentally ill relatives while others do not. Based on indirect evidence from previous research, the current study tested whether religious and nonreligious coping serve as predictors of EE. A sample of 72 family members of patients with schizophrenia completed an EE interview, along with questionnaires assessing situational nonreligious coping and religious coping. In line with hypotheses, results indicated that nonreligious coping predicted EE. Specifically, less use of adaptive emotion-focused coping predicted high EE. Also consistent with predictions, maladaptive religious coping predicted high EE above and beyond nonreligious coping. PMID:23393424
The aim was to explore the predictive ability of sources of stress and a range of dispositional and coping behaviours on student satisfaction and motivation. Most research exploring sources of stress and coping in students construes stress as psychological distress, with little attempt to consider positive experiences of stress. A questionnaire…
In 1998, Onwuegbuzie reported a negative relationship between scores on hope and anxiety about statistics among graduate students who were enrolled in statistics classes. In 1999, Snyder posited that hope theory provides a useful framework for assessing students' coping strategies. In support of the utility of hope theory for identifying students with debilitating test-related anxieties, lower scores on the Pathways and Agency subscales which assess hope were related to 87 graduate students' problematic coping strategies for studying and taking statistics examinations. After a brief review of other recent data linking hope to academic performance at both public school and college levels, further research seems appropriate. PMID:10876327
Four potential pressures are likely to determine whether the NHS will be able to cope in future: the change in population structure, changes in level of morbidity, introduction of new technologies, and increasing expectations of patients and NHS providers. New technology and changes in expectations are likely to have the biggest effect and are also the most difficult to quantify. Nevertheless, these pressures are to some extent amenable to control. If the growth in funding continues as it has in the past there is no convincing evidence that the NHS will not continue to cope.
Purpose To provide a state-of-the-art review of communication skills training (CST) that will guide the establishment of a universal curriculum for fellows of all cancer specialties undertaking training as oncology professionals today. Methods Extensive literature review including meta-analyses of trials, conceptual models, techniques, and potential curricula provides evidence for the development of an appropriate curriculum and CST approach. Examples from the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center CST program are incorporated. Results A core curriculum embraces CST modules in breaking bad news and discussing unanticipated adverse events, discussing prognosis, reaching a shared treatment decision, responding to difficult emotions, coping with survivorship, running a family meeting, and transitioning to palliative care and end of life. Achievable outcomes are growth in clinician's self-efficacy, uptake of new communication strategies and skills, and transfer of these strategies and skills into the clinic. Outcomes impacting patient satisfaction, improved adaptation, and enhanced quality of life are still lacking. Conclusion Future communication challenges include genetic risk communication, concepts like watchful waiting, cumulative radiation risk, late effects of treatment, discussing Internet information and unproven therapies, phase I trial enrollment, and working as a multidisciplinary team. Patient benefits, such as increased treatment adherence and enhanced adaptation, need to be demonstrated from CST.
Kissane, David W.; Bylund, Carma L.; Banerjee, Smita C.; Bialer, Philip A.; Levin, Tomer T.; Maloney, Erin K.; D'Agostino, Thomas A.
Engineering faculty recognize the value of assessment instruments to measure student learningand to evaluate changes in teaching. As a result, a number of engineering subject assessmentinstruments formulated as Ã¢ÂÂconceptÃ¢ÂÂ inventories have been developed. Taking a different tack,the authors of this paper decided to focus on assessment of student skills in statics and this paperprovides details of the development of a statics skills assessment tool. The use of only conceptinventories to provide proof of student learning is an incomplete assessment as effectiveapplication of engineering knowledge consists of both a sound understanding of conceptualknowledge and skill intertwined. For instance, while demonstrating understanding of theconcept of equilibrium is valuable, it is also important students are able to generate correctequations of equilibrium. A multi-step Delphi process involving statics educators was used toreach consensus on the important skills of statics. The Delphi rankings, including the importanceof the skill as judged by the Delphi participants as well as an estimate of the proportion ofstudents whom can perform the skill, were used to develop the final list of top ranked skills.Initial skill-based questions were developed to probe these areas and tested with students. Thecurrent status of the skill assessment instrument is discussed.
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Coping with long range stress of trauma and migration was studied among offspring of Nazi Holocaust survivors. It was found that coping patterns are neither rigid nor randomly fluctuating, but reflect the characteristics of the individual and the changing...
Chronic illnesses and medical conditions present millions of children and adolescents with significant stress that is associated with risk for emotional and behavioral problems and interferes with adherence to treatment regimens. We review research on the role of child and adolescent coping with stress as an important feature of the process of adaptation to illness. Recent findings support a control-based model of coping that includes primary control or active coping (efforts to act on the source of stress or one's emotions), secondary control or accommodative coping (efforts to adapt to the source of stress), and disengagement or passive coping (efforts to avoid or deny the stressor). Evidence suggests the efficacy of secondary control coping in successful adaptation to chronic illness in children and adolescents, disengagement coping is associated with poorer adjustment, and findings for primary control coping are mixed. Avenues for future research are highlighted. PMID:22224836
Compas, Bruce E; Jaser, Sarah S; Dunn, Madeleine J; Rodriguez, Erin M
Chronic illnesses and medical conditions present millions of children and adolescents with significant stress that is associated with risk for emotional and behavioral problems and interferes with adherence to treatment regimens. We review research on the role of child and adolescent coping with stress as an important feature of the process of adaptation to illness. Recent findings support a control-based model of coping that includes primary control or active coping (efforts to act on the source of stress or one’s emotions), secondary control or accommodative coping (efforts to adapt to the source of stress), and disengagement or passive coping (efforts to avoid or deny the stressor). Evidence suggests the efficacy of secondary control coping in successful adaptation to chronic illness in children and adolescents, disengagement coping is associated with poorer adjustment, and findings for primary control coping are mixed. Avenues for future research are highlighted.
Compas, Bruce E.; Jaser, Sarah S.; Dunn, Madeleine J.; Rodriguez, Erin M.
Background To date, no study has evaluated the impact of specific healthcare provider and parent behaviors on children’s distress during anesthesia induction. Method Extensive digital video data were collected on 293, 2 to 10 year old children undergoing anesthesia induction with a parent present. Anesthesiologist, nurse, and parent behavior and children’s distress and coping were coded using the Revised Preoperative Child-Adult Medical Procedure Interaction Scale administered using specialized coding software. Results Anesthesiologists and parents engaged in higher rates of most behaviors than nurses. Overall, adult emotion-focused behavior such as Empathy and Reassurance was significantly positively related to children’s distress and negatively related to children’s coping behaviors. Adult distracting behavior such as humor and distracting talk showed the opposite pattern. Medical reinterpretation by anesthesiologists was significantly positively related to children’s coping behaviors, but the same behavior by parents was significantly positively related to children’s distress. Conclusions The data presented here provide evidence for a relation between adult behaviors and children’s distress and coping at anesthesia induction. These behaviors are trainable and hence it is possible to test if modifying physician behavior can influence child behavior in future studies.
Objectives The purpose of this study is to clarify causal relations between coping strategies and burnout in family caregivers of frail elders in Japan. Methods Baseline and 1-year follow-up interviews were conducted with 546 caregivers living in suburban Tokyo. Using newly refined measures, five coping strategies of caregivers (Keeping Their Own Pace, Positive Acceptance of Caregiving Role, Diversion, Informal Support Seeking, and Formal Support Seeking), and caregiver burnout were measured, as well as several confounding factors. Results After controlling for these confounding factors, results of cross-lagged effects modelling showed that adoption of a Diversion coping strategy decreased caregiver burnout, while increases in burnout decreased caregiver Positive Acceptance of Caregiving Role. Conclusions The beneficial effect of an Adaptive Avoidance Coping strategy, Diversion, on caregiver mental health was confirmed in this two-wave longitudinal study. The mechanism by which Diversion appears to work is by containing caregiving stressors from completely spilling over into caregivers’ personal lives. In addition, we also show that preventing a decline in caregiver mental health (i.e. an increase in burnout) allowed caregivers to more easily embrace the caregiving role and, as a result, elder care-recipients were better positioned to receive high quality care.
The present study used a cross-sectional survey design to examine how adolescent depressive mood was related to attributional styles and coping strategies with a sample of 326 youths (aged 8-14 years). With the cutting point adopted in the West, 20.9% of the current sample reported depressive symptoms. Regression analysis results show that, with the asymptomatic group, seeking social support strategy mediated the effects of positive-global and positive-stable attribution, and internalization strategy mediated the effects of negative-global attribution on depression mood. In the dysphoric adolescents, attributing positive events to global factors and seeking social support strategy predicted depressive mood in the negative direction whereas attributing negative events to global factors, problem solving strategy and internalization strategy, the positive direction. The current study confirmed that both attributional styles and coping strategies were significant predictors of depressive mood but different dimensions of attribution related to depressive symptoms in different magnitude. PMID:22198642
... coping with the most common cosmetic side effects. Hair Loss Hair thinning or hair loss is often one of the first real outward ... chemotherapy or radiation treatment. Although some kids take hair loss in stride, others find it very traumatic. In ...
Responses of 218 urban husbands and wives and 202 rural husbands and wives were used to test the hypotheses that these two populations would use different coping strategies to deal with the stressors they faced in their different environments and that women would use different strategies than men. Neither hypothesis was supported. (Author/BL)
The present study investigated differences in cognitive coping strategies between anxiety-disordered and non-anxious adolescents. In addition, the interaction effect with gender as well as differences between specific anxiety diagnoses was examined. A clinical sample of 159 anxiety-disordered adolescents and a general community sample of 370…
Legerstee, Jeroen S.; Garnefski, Nadia; Verhulst, Frank C.; Utens, Elisabeth M. W. J.
The literature on coping with chronic illness and disability (CID) has grown exponentially during the past 40 years. The reasons for this growth are manifold. First, as people of industrialized societies live longer, the probability of their encountering the experience of CID increases dramatically. Indeed, with the life expectancy in the U.S. now averaging 77.6 years (Centers for Disease Control
A large proportion of the American and European work-force is engaged in night and shift work. The aim of this brief article is to present those involved with some practical advice regarding how they might best cope. The advice is presented in terms of a theoretical framework involving a triad of mutually interactive factors.
Understanding what teachers need to be more comfortable and confident in their profession is crucial to the future of effective teachers and scientific literacy in public schools. This study focuses on the experiences of Arizona biology teachers in teaching evolution, using a clinical model of stress to identify sources of pressure, the resulting stresses, and coping strategies they employ to
Despite the fact that blacks are disproportionately exposed to social conditions considered to be antecedents of psychiatric disorder, epidemiologic studies have not conclusively demonstrated that blacks exhibit higher rates of mental illness than whites. The present paper employed a research approach which considered not only rates of psychological distress, but also the stressors that blacks face and thc various coping
Harold W. Neighbors; James S. Jackson; Phillip J. Bowman; Gerald Gurin
Evaluation of 11 children from 5 exile families with at least 1 parent having been subjected to torture found children were anxious, depressive, and regressive with psychosomatic symptoms, sleep disorders, and family and school problems. Coping strategies including isolation and withdrawal, mental flight, eagerness to acclimatize, and strength of…
Loneliness is a universal phenomenon, and its pain is intensified by a diagnosis of a terminal illness. The present study is an investigation of the strategies used by patients with Multiple sclerosis (MS), by individuals diagnosed with cancer, and by the general population to cope with loneliness. Three hundred and twenty nine MS patients, 315…
Parents of disabled children who experience chronic pain can help children cope by: assuring the child that they are aware of the pain; talking about the pain with the child; avoiding overreactions to pain; planning or modifying activities according to intensity of pain; and ensuring that the child gets sufficient rest. (CB)
Objective: The cognitive–behavioral model of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) proposes that rigidly held beliefs act to defend individuals against low self-esteem. This study is the first to investigate the prevalence of a potential mechanism, the Defensive High Anxious coping style, among individuals with CFS. Methods: The study comprised 68 participants (24 CFS; 24 healthy volunteers; 20 chronic illness volunteers). Participants
Discusses a project developed to gain understanding of the experiences of people suffering from a chronic pain condition with no visible symptoms. Results suggest that narrative approaches helped participants find their own strengths and means of coping and helped them find identities other than as patients. (RJM)
Examined situational antecedents of dieting relapse crises and dieters'attempts to cope with temptations to overeat among obese type II diabetics (N=57). Found three categories of relapse crises: mealtime, low-arousal, and emotional upset situations. Found upset situations most frequently produced negative outcome while strong cognitive and…
157 community couples and 157 couples in which one of the partners was clinically depressed were studied within the framework of an expanded stress-illness paradigm that encompassed life events, ongoing strains, coping responses, family support, and depression. Ss completed the Health and Daily Living Form, Family Environment Scale, and Work Environment Scale. Depressed patients were at a disadvantage relative to
Roger E. Mitchell; Ruth C. Cronkite; Rudolf H. Moos
The thermometer is rising as coal-fired plants cope with the uncertainties of mercury regulation. The paper deals with a diagnosis and a suggested cure. It describes the state of mercury emission rules in the different US states, many of which had laws or rules in place before the Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) was promulgated.
Young children may experience stress and emotional problems in reaction to natural and other disasters. This brochure presents a number of strategies for teachers and caregivers to use to help children cope with this stress. These strategies include: (1) providing reassurance and physical comfort; (2) being aware of separation anxiety; (3)…
Investigated interrole and intrarole conflict reported by lesbian working women (N=79) and factors influencing the types of coping strategies these women used. Responses to a questionnaire showed most interrole conflicts were between the work and lover roles, and intrarole conflicts involved the work and daughter roles. (Author/JAC)
Do many Spanish human service practitioners suffer from burnout? What coping strategies are used to combat work stress, and are they associated with lower burnout? Which strategies may the psychologist promote to improve organizations? With an eye toward helping organizations improve their workers' quality of work life and service delivery, 211 professionals, either child protection workers or in-home caregivers, completed
Coping with Late-Stage AD When a person moves to the later stages of AD, caregiving may become even harder. This section offers ways to ... possible sources of help. When the person with AD can't move "Even though my wife is ...
Loneliness is a prevailing experience which is particularly familiar to adolescents and young adults. It is a subjective experience which is influenced by one's personality, life experiences, and situational variables. The present study examined the influence of drug cessation on coping with loneliness. Drug abusers, during their stay in detox…
Evaluated ability of self-regulation and emotional-drive theories to explain effects of informational intervention entailing objective descriptions of experience on outcomes of coping with radiation therapy among 84 men with prostate cancer. Consistent with self-regulation theory, similarity between expectations and experience and degree of…
According to beginning teachers, early phases of actual classroom practice involve a uniformly characteristic and decidedly intense preoccupation with their professional or preprofessional performance. Support for this view is offered by an educator-trainer and practicing psychologist who have adapted cognitive coping techniques and developed a…
The Social coping Questionnaire (SCQ) measures strategies used by gifted adolescents to minimize the negative effect they believe their high ability has on their social interactions. Previous studies have supported the factor structure, internal consistency, and test-retest reliability of the SCQ. The current study provides construct validity…
This book addresses the causes and consequences of stress in college sports and offers effective coping mechanisms to help individuals understand and control stressors and emotions in their environment. The chapters are: (1) "Understanding Stress"; (2) "Perceptions of Stress in College Athletics"; (3) "Stress among College Athletes"; (4) "Stress…
Humphrey, James H.; Yow, Deborah A.; Bowden, William W.
Children's feelings of anger, jealousy, and even hatred need to be acknowledged and accepted by parents. This article suggests methods for teaching acceptable ways to express strong feelings. Because parents are role models for children, guidelines are also provided for parents on coping with their own anger. (IAH)
In this study, we explored how adolescents in rural Kenya apply religious coping in sexual decision-making in the context of high rates of poverty and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 34 adolescents. One-third (13) reported religious coping related to economic stress, HIV, or sexual decision-making; the majority (29) reported religious coping with these or other stressors. Adolescents reported praying for God to partner with them to engage in positive behaviors, praying for strength to resist unwanted behaviors, and passive strategies characterized by waiting for God to provide resources or protection from HIV. Adolescents in Sub-Saharan Africa may benefit from HIV prevention interventions that integrate and build upon their use of religious coping.
Watt, Melissa H.; Sikkema, Kathleen J.; Ogwang-Odhiambo, Rose A.; Broverman, Sherryl A.
Evaluated relationships between two coping styles and two health outcomes in 135 youth with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). Found that poor adherence to treatment, older adolescent age, and long duration of IDDM correlated with ventilation and avoidance coping. High ventilation and avoidance coping was predicted by high stress, low…
Investigated the degree to which current alcohol abuse and psychopathology in adult children of alcoholics (COAs) are associated with the COAs' reports of family disruption, family coping, and individual child coping when the child lived with the parent. Family disruption and coping strategies were found to influence the subsequent adult…
Spirituality and coping behaviors were measured in 85 individuals with visual impairments aged 23 to 97. A regression analysis indicated that the religious well-being subscale of the Spiritual Well-Being Scale is a significant predictor of adaptive coping behaviors, indicating that higher religious well-being facilitates adaptive coping. (Contains…
Yampolsky, Maya A.; Wittich, Walter; Webb, Gail; Overbury, Olga
Examined role of pain episodes and active and passive pain coping strategies in predicting depression in 287 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Findings revealed pain, passive coping, and interaction between the 2 accounted for higher depression. Results also indicated that frequent use of passive pain coping strategies in face of high pain…
Used a stress and coping paradigm to guide the development of indices of coping responses and to explore the roles of stress, social resources, and coping among 424 men and women (mean age 40.7 yrs) entering treatment for depression. An expanded concept of multiple domains of life stress was used to develop several indices of ongoing life strains. A variety
Reviews research concerned with stress and coping during adolescence, using depression as example of consequence of stress and coping processes. Hypothesizes that exposure to and appraisals of interpersonal stress combine with aspects of biological development and use of maladaptive coping strategies to account for emergence of significant gender…
Examined capacity to generate solutions to cope with stressful events and strategies used to cope with interpersonal and academic stressors among 130 middle school students. Found subjects consistent in generation and use of problem- and emotion-focused coping. Problem-focused alternatives generated and used were negatively related and…
Both the capacity to generate alternative solutions to cope with stressful events and the strategies actually used to cope with interpersonal and academic stressors were examined in a sample of junior high school age youngsters. Subjects were moderately consistent in the generation and use of problem- and emotion-focused coping with the two types of events, and they adjusted the number
Bruce E. Compas; Vanessa L. Malcarne; Karen M. Fondacaro
The Preventive Coping Resources Inventory (PRI) was developed to assess specific coping resources most useful for stress prevention and also applicable to education settings. Undergraduates (N=501) at a large, southwestern university completed the inventory and other measures of adjustment and coping. Exploratory factor analysis revealed five…
McCarthy, Christopher J.; Lambert, Richard G.; Beard, Michelle; Canipe, Kara
This study investigated the role of the situation in the appraisal and coping processes of a sample of 84 college football players. The athletes' appraisals and coping behavior were assessed in both an academically and athletically stressful situation using a modified version of the Ways of Coping scale. The athletes appraised the academic situation as being more relevant to the
The standardized assessment of pediatric pain coping strategies may substantively contribute to the conceptual understanding of individual differences in pediatric pain perception and report. The Waldron\\/Varni Pediatric Pain Coping Inventory (PPCI) was developed to be a standardized questionnaire to assess systematically children's pain coping strategies. The PPCI was administered to 187 children and adolescents experiencing musculoskeletal pain associated with rheumatologic
James W. Varni; Stacy A. Waldron; Rod A. Gragg; Michael A. Rapoff; Bram H. Bernstein; Carol B. Lindsley; Michael D. Newcomb