Sample records for positive feedback mechanisms

  1. Amplification of ABA biosynthesis and signaling through a positive feedback mechanism in seeds.

    PubMed

    Nonogaki, Mariko; Sall, Khadidiatou; Nambara, Eiji; Nonogaki, Hiroyuki

    2014-05-01

    Abscisic acid is an essential hormone for seed dormancy. Our previous study using the plant gene switch system, a chemically induced gene expression system, demonstrated that induction of 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED), a rate-limiting ABA biosynthesis gene, was sufficient to suppress germination in imbibed Arabidopsis seeds. Here, we report development of an efficient experimental system that causes amplification of NCED expression during seed maturation. The system was created with a Triticum aestivum promoter containing ABA responsive elements (ABREs) and a Sorghum bicolor NCED to cause ABA-stimulated ABA biosynthesis and signaling, through a positive feedback mechanism. The chimeric gene pABRE:NCED enhanced NCED and ABF (ABRE-binding factor) expression in Arabidopsis Columbia-0 seeds, which caused 9- to 73-fold increases in ABA levels. The pABRE:NCED seeds exhibited unusually deep dormancy which lasted for more than 3 months. Interestingly, the amplified ABA pathways also caused enhanced expression of Arabidopsis NCED5, revealing the presence of positive feedback in the native system. These results demonstrated the robustness of positive feedback mechanisms and the significance of NCED expression, or single metabolic change, during seed maturation. The pABRE:NCED system provides an excellent experimental system producing dormant and non-dormant seeds of the same maternal origin, which differ only in zygotic ABA. The pABRE:NCED seeds contain a GFP marker which enables seed sorting between transgenic and null segregants and are ideal for comparative analysis. In addition to its utility in basic research, the system can also be applied to prevention of pre-harvest sprouting during crop production, and therefore contributes to translational biology. PMID:24520869

  2. A positive radiative-dynamic feedback mechanism for the maintenance and growth of Martian dust storms

    E-print Network

    Rafkin, Scot C. R.

    and radiative forcing of lifted dust can occur under some conditions. The feedback process is distinctly the dynamical effects of this feedback process occur locally, within the disturbance itself. Optimal conditions theory and a Carnot engine-like mechanism related to the Wind-Induced Sensible Heat Exchange hypothesis

  3. A Positive Feedback Mechanism That Regulates Expression of miR-9 during Neurogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Oni, Eileen N.; Swerdel, Mavis R.; Toro-Ramos, Alana J.; Li, Jiali; Hart, Ronald P.

    2014-01-01

    MiR-9, a neuron-specific miRNA, is an important regulator of neurogenesis. In this study we identify how miR-9 is regulated during early differentiation from a neural stem-like cell. We utilized two immortalized rat precursor clones, one committed to neurogenesis (L2.2) and another capable of producing both neurons and non-neuronal cells (L2.3), to reproducibly study early neurogenesis. Exogenous miR-9 is capable of increasing neurogenesis from L2.3 cells. Only one of three genomic loci capable of encoding miR-9 was regulated during neurogenesis and the promoter region of this locus contains sufficient functional elements to drive expression of a luciferase reporter in a developmentally regulated pattern. Furthermore, among a large number of potential regulatory sites encoded in this sequence, Mef2 stood out because of its known pro-neuronal role. Of four Mef2 paralogs, we found only Mef2C mRNA was regulated during neurogenesis. Removal of predicted Mef2 binding sites or knockdown of Mef2C expression reduced miR-9-2 promoter activity. Finally, the mRNA encoding the Mef2C binding partner HDAC4 was shown to be targeted by miR-9. Since HDAC4 protein could be co-immunoprecipitated with Mef2C protein or with genomic Mef2 binding sequences, we conclude that miR-9 regulation is mediated, at least in part, by Mef2C binding but that expressed miR-9 has the capacity to reduce inhibitory HDAC4, stabilizing its own expression in a positive feedback mechanism. PMID:24714615

  4. On the Mechanism of the Positive Feedback Action of Estradiol on Luteinizing Hormone Secretion in the Rhesus Monkey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JASON R. GOLDSMITH; MING-DAO CHEN; JULANE HOTCHKISS; ERNST KNOBIL

    2010-01-01

    In women and rhesus monkeys, both the negative and positive feedback actions of estradiol (E2) on gonadotropin secretion (inhibi- tion followed by a surge) can be exerted directly at the level of the pituitary gland. We have tested the hypothesis that the positive feed- back action of E2 represents but an \\

  5. Histone demethylase KDM5A is regulated by its reader domain through a positive-feedback mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, Idelisse Ortiz; Kuchenbecker, Kristopher M.; Nnadi, Chimno I.; Fletterick, Robert J.; Kelly, Mark J. S.; Fujimori, Danica Galoni?

    2015-02-01

    The retinoblastoma binding protein KDM5A removes methyl marks from lysine 4 of histone H3 (H3K4). Misregulation of KDM5A contributes to the pathogenesis of lung and gastric cancers. In addition to its catalytic jumonji C domain, KDM5A contains three PHD reader domains, commonly recognized as chromatin recruitment modules. It is unknown whether any of these domains in KDM5A have functions beyond recruitment and whether they regulate the catalytic activity of the demethylase. Here using biochemical and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based structural studies, we show that the PHD1 preferentially recognizes unmethylated H3K4 histone tail, product of KDM5A-mediated demethylation of tri-methylated H3K4 (H3K4me3). Binding of unmodified H3 peptide to the PHD1 stimulates catalytic domain-mediated removal of methyl marks from H3K4me3 peptide and nucleosome substrates. This positive-feedback mechanism—enabled by the functional coupling between a reader and a catalytic domain in KDM5A—suggests a model for the spread of demethylation on chromatin.

  6. Positive feedback, memory, and the predictability of earthquakes.

    PubMed

    Sammis, C G; Sornette, D

    2002-02-19

    We review the "critical point" concept for large earthquakes and enlarge it in the framework of so-called "finite-time singularities." The singular behavior associated with accelerated seismic release is shown to result from a positive feedback of the seismic activity on its release rate. The most important mechanisms for such positive feedback are presented. We solve analytically a simple model of geometrical positive feedback in which the stress shadow cast by the last large earthquake is progressively fragmented by the increasing tectonic stress. PMID:11875202

  7. Digital signal processing for beam position feedback

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Y.; Emery, L.; Kirchman, J.

    1992-04-01

    Stabilization of the particle beam position with respect to the focusing optics in the third generation synchrotron light sources is crucial to achieving low emittance and high brightness. For this purpose, global and local beam orbit correction feedbacks will be implemented in the APS storage ring. In this article, the authors discuss application of digital signal processing to particle/photon beam position feedback using the PID (proportional, integral, and derivative) control algorithm.

  8. Hepatitis B virus replication and sex-determining region Y box 4 production are tightly controlled by a novel positive feedback mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Jian; Zheng, Yuan; Guo, Xiaohong; Mo, Jiayin; Xie, Xueping; Xiong, Ying; Liu, Yingle; Wu, Kailang; Wu, Jianguo

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major cause of liver diseases. However, the mechanisms underlying HBV infection and pathogenesis remain largely unknown. The sex-determining region Y box 4 (Sox4) is a transcriptional factor, which preferentially regulates the development of various organs, tissues, and cancers. But, the role of Sox4 in viral infection and pathogenesis has not been elucidated. Here, we demonstrated that Sox4 is up-regulated by HBV, and revealed the mechanism by which HBV regulates Sox4 expression. First, HBV stimulates Sox4 expression through transcriptional factor Yin Yang 1 (YY1), which binds to Sox4 promoter to activate Sox4 transcriptional activity. Second, miR-335, miR-129-2 and miR-203 inhibit Sox4 expression by targeting its mRNA 3’UTR, while HBV suppresses the microRNAs expression, resulting in up-regulating Sox4 post-transcriptionally. Third, Sox4 protein is degraded by proteasome, while HBV surface protein (HBsAg) prevents Sox4 from degradation by directly interacting with the protein, thereby enhancing Sox4 production post-translationlly. More interestingly, HBV-activated Sox4 in turn facilitates HBV replication by direct binding to the viral genome via its HMG box. Thus, this study revealed a novel positive feedback mechanism by which Sox4 production and HBV replication are tightly correlated. PMID:25970172

  9. Potential macro-detritivore range expansion into the subarctic stimulates litter decomposition: a new positive feedback mechanism to climate change?

    PubMed

    van Geffen, Koert G; Berg, Matty P; Aerts, Rien

    2011-12-01

    As a result of low decomposition rates, high-latitude ecosystems store large amounts of carbon. Litter decomposition in these ecosystems is constrained by harsh abiotic conditions, but also by the absence of macro-detritivores. We have studied the potential effects of their climate change-driven northward range expansion on the decomposition of two contrasting subarctic litter types. Litter of Alnus incana and Betula pubescens was incubated in microcosms together with monocultures and all possible combinations of three functionally different macro-detritivores (the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus, isopod Oniscus asellus, and millipede Julus scandinavius). Our results show that these macro-detritivores stimulated decomposition, especially of the high-quality A. incana litter and that the macro-detritivores tested differed in their decomposition-stimulating effects, with earthworms having the largest influence. Decomposition processes increased with increasing number of macro-detritivore species, and positive net diveristy effects occurred in several macro-detritivore treatments. However, after correction for macro-detritivore biomass, all interspecific differences in macro-detritivore effects, as well as the positive effects of species number on subarctic litter decomposition disappeared. The net diversity effects also appeared to be driven by variation in biomass, with a possible exception of net diversity effects in mass loss. Based on these results, we conclude that the expected climate change-induced range expansion of macro-detritivores into subarctic regions is likely to result in accelerated decomposition rates. Our results also indicate that the magnitude of macro-detritivore effects on subarctic decomposition will mainly depend on macro-detritivore biomass, rather than on macro-detritivore species number or identity. PMID:21735203

  10. A comparison of resonance tuning with positive versus negative sensory feedback.

    PubMed

    Williams, Carrie A; DeWeerth, Stephen P

    2007-06-01

    We used a computational model of rhythmic movement to analyze how the connectivity of sensory feedback affects the tuning of a closed-loop neuromechanical system to the mechanical resonant frequency (omega(r)). Our model includes a Matsuoka half-center oscillator for a central pattern generator (CPG) and a linear, one-degree-of-freedom system for a mechanical component. Using both an open-loop frequency response analysis and closed-loop simulations, we compared resonance tuning with four different feedback configurations as the mechanical resonant frequency, feedback gain, and mechanical damping varied. The feedback configurations consisted of two negative and two positive feedback connectivity schemes. We found that with negative feedback, resonance tuning predominantly occurred when omega(r) was higher than the CPG's endogenous frequency (omega(CPG)). In contrast, with the two positive feedback configurations, resonance tuning only occurred if omega(r) was lower than omega(CPG). Moreover, the differences in resonance tuning between the two positive (negative) feedback configurations increased with increasing feedback gain and with decreasing mechanical damping. Our results indicate that resonance tuning can be achieved with positive feedback. Furthermore, we have shown that the feedback configuration affects the parameter space over which the endogenous frequency of the CPG or resonant frequency the mechanical dynamics dominates the frequency of a rhythmic movement. PMID:17404751

  11. Positioning Mechanism For Hoisting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marlin, John D., III; Moore, Barry J.; Myers, Robert I.

    1992-01-01

    Mechanism positions large, heavy objects in container for lifting out by hoist, crane, or winch. Handles objects gently and ensures they are lifted cleanly away in vertical direction without bumping container. Developed for lifting offset pieces of solid-propellant core out of rocket motor through its propellant port. Similar specialized mechanisms can be developed to lift other specially shaped, specially contained heavy objects. Track in base of mechanism guides each trunnion and piece to which attached to middle as hydraulic rods extend. When mechanism lifted, tilted pieces swing inward and come to rest on energy-absorbing paddle.

  12. Analysis of feedback mechanisms in land-atmosphere interaction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kaye L. Brubaker; Dara Entekhabi

    1996-01-01

    The initiation of a hydrologic drought may depend on large-scale or teleconnective causes; however, local positive feedbacks in the land-atmosphere system are believed to contribute to the observed persistence and intensification of droughts. In this study a basic linearization technique is combined with a nonlinear stochastic model of land-atmosphere interaction to analyze and, more importantly, quantify feedback mechanisms that arise

  13. Stable hopping of a muscle-actuated leg system using positive force feedback

    E-print Network

    Wongviriyawong, Chanikarn Mint

    2007-01-01

    In control of movement, two key components, which are pure mechanical response of the system and response due to sensory feedback, must be thoroughly understood. Recent studies suggest not only the existence of positive ...

  14. Alignment positioning mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fantasia, Peter M. (inventor)

    1991-01-01

    An alignment positioning mechanism for correcting and compensating for misalignment of structures to be coupled is disclosed. The mechanism comprises a power screw with a base portion and a threaded shank portion. A mounting fixture is provided for rigidly coupling said base portion to the mounting interface of a supporting structure with the axis of the screw perpendicular thereto. A traveling ball nut threaded on the power screw is formed with an external annular arcuate surface configured in the form of a spherical segment and enclosed by a ball nut housing with a conforming arcuate surface for permitting gimballed motion thereon. The ball nut housing is provided with a mounting surface which is positionable in cooperable engagement with the mounting interface of a primary structure to be coupled to the supporting structure. Cooperative means are provided on the ball nut and ball nut housing, respectively, for positioning the ball nut and ball nut housing in relative gimballed position within a predetermined range of relative angular relationship whereby severe structural stresses due to unequal loadings and undesirable bending moments on the mechanism are avoided.

  15. Sea ice-albedo climate feedback mechanism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. L. Schramm; J. A. Curry; Elizabeth E. Ebert

    1995-01-01

    The sea ice-albedo feedback mechanism over the Arctic Ocean multiyear sea ice is investigated by conducting a series of experiments using several one-dimensional models of the coupled sea ice-atmosphere system. In its simplest form, ice-albedo feedback is thought to be associated with a decrease in the areal cover of snow and ice and a corresponding increase in the surface temperature,

  16. Sea ice-albedo climate feedback mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Schramm, J.L.; Curry, J.A. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Ebert, E.E. [Bureau of Meterology Research Center, Melbourne (Australia)

    1995-02-01

    The sea ice-albedo feedback mechanism over the Arctic Ocean multiyear sea ice is investigated by conducting a series of experiments using several one-dimensional models of the coupled sea ice-atmosphere system. In its simplest form, ice-albedo feedback is thought to be associated with a decrease in the areal cover of snow and ice and a corresponding increase in the surface temperature, further decreasing the area cover of snow and ice. It is shown that the sea ice-albedo feedback can operate even in multiyear pack ice, without the disappearance of this ice, associated with internal processes occurring within the multiyear ice pack (e.g., duration of the snow cover, ice thickness, ice distribution, lead fraction, and melt pond characteristics). The strength of the ice-albedo feedback mechanism is compared for several different thermodynamic sea ice models: a new model that includes ice thickness distribution., the Ebert and Curry model, the Mayjut and Untersteiner model, and the Semtner level-3 and level-0 models. The climate forcing is chosen to be a perturbation of the surface heat flux, and cloud and water vapor feedbacks are inoperative so that the effects of the sea ice-albedo feedback mechanism can be isolated. The inclusion of melt ponds significantly strengthens the ice-albedo feedback, while the ice thickness distribution decreases the strength of the modeled sea ice-albedo feedback. It is emphasized that accurately modeling present-day sea ice thickness is not adequate for a sea ice parameterization; the correct physical processes must be included so that the sea ice parameterization yields correct sensitivities to external forcing. 22 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  17. A unified approach to global and local beam position feedback

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Y.

    1994-08-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) will implement both global and local beam position feedback systems to stabilize the particle and X-ray beams for the storage ring. The global feedback system uses 40 BPMs and 40 correctors per plane. Singular value decomposition (SVD) of the response matrix is used for closed orbit correction. The local feedback system uses two X-ray BPMS, two rf BPMS, and the four-magnet local bump to control the angle and displacement of the X-ray beam from a bending magnet or an insertion device. Both the global and local feedback systems are based on digital signal processing (DSP) running at 4-kHz sampling rate with a proportional, integral, and derivative (PID) control algorithm. In this paper, we will discuss resolution of the conflict among multiple local feedback systems due to local bump closure error and decoupling of the global and local feedback systems to maximize correction efficiency. In this scheme, the global feedback system absorbs the local bump closure error and the local feedback systems compensate for the effect of global feedback on the local beamlines. The required data sharing between the global and local feedback systems is done through the fiber-optically networked reflective memory.

  18. Sensory feedback mechanism for virtual build methodology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Onan Demirel

    2009-01-01

    This thesis work has two areas of focus, product design and design research\\/methodology. The objectives of this study is to design a new code cart and to develop a new design methodology. (a) Design Research\\/Methodology; A haptic feedback mechanism was integrated into Virtual Build design process to evaluate whether this integration provides similar ergonomics results to physical mockup methods. (b)

  19. A positive feedback cell signaling nucleation model of astrocyte dynamics

    PubMed Central

    MacDonald, Christopher L.; Silva, Gabriel A.

    2013-01-01

    We constructed a model of calcium signaling in astrocyte neural glial cells that incorporates a positive feedback nucleation mechanism, whereby small microdomain increases in local calcium can stochastically produce global cellular and intercellular network scale dynamics. The model is able to simultaneously capture dynamic spatial and temporal heterogeneities associated with intracellular calcium transients in individual cells and intercellular calcium waves (ICW) in spatially realistic networks of astrocytes, i.e., networks where the positions of cells were taken from real in vitro experimental data of spontaneously forming sparse networks, as opposed to artificially constructed grid networks or other non-realistic geometries. This is the first work we are aware of where an intracellular model of calcium signaling that reproduces intracellular dynamics inherently accounts for intercellular network dynamics. These results suggest that a nucleation type mechanism should be further investigated experimentally in order to test its contribution to calcium signaling in astrocytes and in other cells more broadly. It may also be of interest in engineered neuromimetic network systems that attempt to emulate biological signaling and information processing properties in synthetic hardwired neuromorphometric circuits or coded algorithms. PMID:23847529

  20. Position Sensor Performance in Nanometer Resolution Feedback Systems

    E-print Network

    Fleming, Andrew J.

    Position Sensor Performance in Nanometer Resolution Feedback Systems Andrew J. Fleming School and resolution of position sensors. Unfortunately, these parameters may not be available in a form that allows direct comparison between sensors or the prediction of closed- loop performance. This article presents

  1. Positive Feedback and Path Dependence Using the Law of Large Numbers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Peter Hans

    2001-01-01

    Describes interest in the behavior of random processes with positive feedback. Explains that simulation of the law of large numbers with increasing amounts of feedback makes instruction of random processes with positive feedback possible for undergraduate students. (RLH)

  2. Feedback mechanism of low-speed edgetones

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Young-Pil Kwon

    1998-01-01

    A feedback mechanism of low-speed edgetones is analyzed by using the jet edge interaction model in which reaction of the edge\\u000a is regarded as an array of dipoles. From the jet-edge interation model the surface pressure of the edge and the upstream wave\\u000a are estimated by assuming the downstream disturbance as a sinuously oscillating flow with a constant convection speed.

  3. Beam position feedback system for the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Y.

    1993-12-31

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) will implement both global and local beam position feedback systems to stabilize the particle and X-ray beams for the storage ring. The systems consist of 20 VME crates distributed around the ring, each running multiple digital signal processors (DSP) running at 4kHz sampling rate with a proportional, integral, and derivative (PID) control algorithm. The particle and X-ray beam position data is shared by the distributed processors through networked reflective memory. A theory of closed orbit correction using the technique of singular value decomposition (SVD) of the response matrix and simulation of its application to the APS storage ring will be discussed. This technique combines the global and local feedback systems and resolves the conflict among multiple local feedback systems due to local bump closure error. Maximum correction efficiency is achieved by feeding back the global orbit data to the local feedback systems. The effect of the vacuum chamber eddy current induced by the AC corrector magnet field for local feedback systems is compensated by digital filters. Results of experiments conducted on the X-ray ring of the National Synchrotron Light Source and the SPEAR at Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory will be presented.

  4. Effects of positive electrical feedback in the oscillating Belousov–Zhabotinsky reaction: Experiments and simulations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Sriram

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes both the experimental and numerical investigations on the effect of positive electrical feedback in the oscillating Belovsou–Zhabotinsky (BZ) reaction under batch conditions. Positive electrical feedback causes an increase in the amplitude and period of the oscillations with the corresponding increase of the feedback strength. Oregonator model with a positive feedback term suitably incorporated in one of the

  5. Stochastic gene expression with bursting and positive feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platini, Thierry; Pendar, Hodjat; Kulkarni, Rahul

    2012-02-01

    Stochasticity (or noise) in the process of gene expression can play a critical role in cellular circuits that control switching between probabilistic cell-fate decisions in diverse organisms. Such circuits often include positive feedback loops as critical elements. In some cases (e.g. HIV-1 viral infections), switching between different cell fates occurs even in the absence of bistability in the underlying deterministic model. To characterize the role of noise in such systems, we analyze a simple gene expression circuit that includes contributions from both transcriptional and translational bursting and positive feedback effects. Using a combination of analytical approaches and stochastic simulations, we explore how the underlying parameters control the corresponding mean and variance in protein distributions.

  6. Improved Position Sensor for Feedback Control of Levitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyers, Robert; Savage, Larry; Rogers, Jan

    2004-01-01

    An improved optoelectronic apparatus has been developed to provide the position feedback needed for controlling the levitation subsystem of a containerless-processing system. As explained, the advantage of this apparatus over prior optoelectronic apparatuses that have served this purpose stems from the use of an incandescent lamp, instead of a laser, to illuminate the levitated object. In containerless processing, a small object to be processed is levitated (e.g., by use of a microwave, low-frequency electromagnetic, electrostatic, or acoustic field) so that it is not in contact with the wall of the processing chamber or with any other solid object during processing. In the case of electrostatic or low-frequency electromagnetic levitation, real-time measurement of the displacement of the levitated object from its nominal levitation position along the vertical axis (and, in some cases, along one or two horizontal axes) is needed for feedback control of the levitating field.

  7. Mathematical Analysis of Activation Thresholds in Enzyme-Catalyzed Positive Feedbacks: Application to the Feedbacks of Blood Coagulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward Beltrami; Jolyon Jesty

    1995-01-01

    A hierarchy of enzyme-catalyzed positive feedback loops is examined by mathematical and numerical analysis. Four systems are described, from the simplest, in which an enzyme catalyzes its own formation from an inactive precursor, to the most complex, in which two sequential feedback loops act in a cascade. In the latter we also examine the function of a long-range feedback, in

  8. NEGATIVE FEEDBACK AND POSITIVE EVIDENCE IN TASK-BASED INTERACTION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Noriko Iwashita

    2003-01-01

    This study examines the role of task-based conversation in second language (L2) grammatical development, focusing on the short-term effects of both negative feedback and positive evidence on the ac- quisition of two Japanese structures. The data are drawn from 55 L2 learners of Japanese at a beginning level of proficiency in an Austra- lian tertiary institution. Five different types of

  9. Dynamic Compensation for Control of a Rotary wing UAV using Positive Position Feedback

    E-print Network

    Pota, Himanshu Roy

    Dynamic Compensation for Control of a Rotary wing UAV using Positive Position Feedback Bilal Ahmed-rotor mode of a Rotary wing Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (RUAV). The presence of stabilizer bar limits of Engineering and Information Technology, The University of New South Wales at the Australian Defence Force

  10. Active vibration control of smart grid structure by multiinput and multioutput positive position feedback controller

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Moon K. Kwak; Seok Heo

    2007-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the active vibration control of a grid structure equipped with piezoceramic sensors and actuators. The grid structure is a replica of the solar panel commonly mounted on satellites, which contains complex natural mode shapes. The multiinput and multioutput positive position feedback (PPF) controller is considered as an active vibration controller for the grid structure. A

  11. Feedback Mechanism for Microtubule Length Regulation by Stathmin Gradients

    E-print Network

    Maria Zeitz; Jan Kierfeld

    2014-12-09

    We formulate and analyze a theoretical model for the regulation of microtubule (MT) polymerization dynamics by the signaling proteins Rac1 and stathmin. In cells, the MT growth rate is inhibited by cytosolic stathmin, which, in turn, is inactivated by Rac1. Growing MTs activate Rac1 at the cell edge, which closes a positive feedback loop. We investigate both tubulin sequestering and catastrophe promotion as mechanisms for MT growth inhibition by stathmin. For a homogeneous stathmin concentration in the absence of Rac1, we find a switch-like regulation of the MT mean length by stathmin. For constitutively active Rac1 at the cell edge, stathmin is deactivated locally, which establishes a spatial gradient of active stathmin. In this gradient, we find a stationary bimodal MT length distributions for both mechanisms of MT growth inhibition by stathmin. One subpopulation of the bimodal length distribution can be identified with fast growing and long pioneering MTs in the region near the cell edge, which have been observed experimentally. The feedback loop is closed through Rac1 activation by MTs. For tubulin sequestering by stathmin, this establishes a bistable switch with two stable states: one stable state corresponds to upregulated MT mean length and bimodal MT length distributions, i.e., pioneering MTs; the other stable state corresponds to an interrupted feedback with short MTs. Stochastic effects as well as external perturbations can trigger switching events. For catastrophe promoting stathmin we do not find bistability.

  12. Graded Positive Feedback in Elasmobranch Ampullae of Lorenzini

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalmijn, Ad. J.

    2003-05-01

    The acute electrical sensitivity of marine sharks and rays is the greatest known in the Animal Kingdom. I investigate the possibility that the underlying biophysical principles are the very same as those encountered in the central nervous system of animal and man. The elasmobranch ampullae of Lorenzini detect the weak electric fields originating from the oceanic environment, whereas the nerve cells of the brain detect the electric fields arising, well, from the central nervous system. In responding to electrical signals, the cell membranes of excitable cells behave in different regions of the cell as negative or positive conductors. The negative and positive conductances in series, loaded by the cell's electrolytic environment, constitute a positive feedback circuit. The result may be of an all-or-none nature, as in peripheral nerve conduction, or of a graded nature, as in central processing. In this respect, the operation of the elasmobranch ampullae of Lorenzini is more akin to the graded, integrative processes of higher brain centers than to the conduction of nerve action potentials. Hence, the positive-feedback ampullary circuit promises to help elucidate the functioning of the central nervous system as profoundly as the squid giant axon has served to reveal the process of nervous conduction.

  13. Optical position feedback for electrostatically driven MOEMS scanners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tortschanoff, A.; Baumgart, M.; Frank, A.; Wildenhain, M.; Sandner, T.; Schenk, H.; Kenda, A.

    2012-03-01

    For MOEMS devices which do not have intrinsic on-chip feedback, position information can be provided with optical methods, most simply by using a reflection from the backside of a MOEMS scanner. Measurement of timing signals using fast differential photodiodes can be used for resonant scanner mirrors performing sinusoidal motion with large amplitude. While this approach provides excellent accuracy it cannot be directly extended to arbitrary trajectories or static deflection angles. Another approach is based on the measurement of the position of the reflected laser beam with a quadrant diode. In this work, we present position sensing devices based on either principle and compare both approaches showing first experimental results from the implemented devices

  14. Extra domain A-positive fibronectin-positive feedback loops and their association with cutaneous inflammatory disease.

    PubMed

    McFadden, John P; Basketter, David A; Dearman, Rebecca J; Kimber, Ian R

    2011-01-01

    Cutaneous inflammation can show Th1 or Th2 predominance, but the precise mechanisms by which such selectivity is determined are unknown. A recent study has demonstrated that Th1 cells, but not Th2 cells, produce an endogenous ligand for Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4, namely extradomain A+ fibronectin containing extra type III domain A (FnEDA+). As TLR4 stimulation leads to production of proinflammatory cytokines that recruit (via altered endothelial adhesion molecule expression and chemokine production) more Th1/Th17 cells, a positive feedback mechanism for Th1/Th17 inflammation exists. We propose that FnEDA+ positive feedback loops are a potential driver of Th1/Th17 inflammation. Conversely, the inflammatory EDA+ fibronectin loop is negatively regulated in atopic dermatitis, Th2 cytokines actively suppress TLR4 expression of Th1 cytokines, and recruited Th2 cells do not produce FnEDA+. In psoriasis, there are multiple FnEDA+ loops, comprising inflammatory, keratinocyte, and autoimmune loops. In allergic contact dermatitis, a single inflammatory loop operates. In atopic dermatitis, the FnEDA+ loop is actively suppressed by Th2 cytokines, and recruited Th2 cells do not "feedback" FnEDA+. We review endogenous ligands for TLR in relation to inflammatory disease, FnEDA+ function, and the potential role for FnEDA+ in psoriasis, allergic contact dermatitis, and atopic dermatitis. PMID:21496732

  15. 78 FR 36190 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; IT Dashboard Feedback Mechanism

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-17

    ...Activities; Submission for OMB Review; IT Dashboard Feedback Mechanism AGENCY: Office...information collection requirement regarding IT Dashboard Feedback Mechanism. A notice...by Information Collection 3090- 0285, IT Dashboard Feedback Mechanism, by any...

  16. 78 FR 13057 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Information Collection; IT Dashboard Feedback Mechanism

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-26

    ...Collection Activities; Information Collection; IT Dashboard Feedback Mechanism AGENCY: Office...information collection requirement regarding IT Dashboard Feedback Mechanism. DATES: Submit...by Information Collection 3090- 0285, IT Dashboard Feedback Mechanism, by any...

  17. Systems-Level Dissection of the Cell-Cycle Oscillator: Bypassing Positive Feedback Produces Damped Oscillations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph R. Pomerening; Sun Young Kim; James E. Ferrell Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Summary The cell-cycle oscillator includes an essential negative- feedback loop: Cdc2 activates the anaphase-promoting complex (APC), which leads to cyclin destruction and Cdc2 inactivation. Under some circumstances, a neg- ative-feedback loop is sufficient to generate sustained oscillations. However, the Cdc2\\/APC system also in- cludes positive-feedback loops, whose functional im- portance we now assess. We show that short-circuit- ing positive feedback

  18. Positive feedback between increasing atmospheric CO2 and ecosystem productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelfand, I.; Hamilton, S. K.; Robertson, G. P.

    2009-12-01

    Increasing atmospheric CO2 will likely affect both the hydrologic cycle and ecosystem productivity. Current assumptions that increasing CO2 will lead to increased ecosystem productivity and plant water use efficiency (WUE) are driving optimistic predictions of higher crop yields as well as greater availability of freshwater resources due to a decrease in evapotranspiration. The plant physiological response that drives these effects is believed to be an increase in carbon uptake either by (a) stronger CO2 gradient between the stomata and the atmosphere, or by (b) reduced CO2 limitation of enzymatic carboxylation within the leaf. The (a) scenario will lead to increased water use efficiency (WUE) in plants. However, evidence for increased WUE is mostly based on modeling studies, and experiments producing a short duration or step-wise increase in CO2 concentration (e.g. free-air CO2 enrichment). We hypothesize that the increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration is having a positive effect on ecosystem productivity and WUE. To investigate this hypothesis, we analyzed meteorological, ANPP, and soil CO2 flux datasets together with carbon isotopic ratio (13C/12C) of archived plant samples from the long term ecological research (LTER) program at Kellogg Biological Station. The datasets were collected between 1989 and 2007 (corresponding to an increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration of ~33 ppmv at Mauna Loa). Wheat (Triticum aestivum) samples taken from 1989 and 2007 show a significant decrease in the C isotope discrimination factor (?) over time. Stomatal conductance is directly related to ?, and thus ? is inversely related to plant intrinsic WUE (iWUE). Historical changes in the 13C/12C ratio (?13C) in samples of a perennial forb, Canada goldenrod (Solidago canadensis), taken from adjacent successional fields, indicate changes in ? upon uptake of CO2 as well. These temporal trends in ? suggest a positive feedback between the increasing CO2 concentration in the atmosphere, air temperature, and plant iWUE. This positive feedback is expressed by (a) nonparallel changes of ?13C signal of atmospheric CO2 (?a) and plant samples (?p), (b) negative correlation between the ? and average temperatures during the growth season, although only for temperatures up to 21°C. The lack of effect at higher temperatures suggests a negative influence of growing season warming on the iWUE. These results suggest a complex feedback between atmospheric CO2 increase, plant physiology, ecosystem productivity, and soil CO2 fluxes. These complex effects support our hypothesis of a CO2 fertilization effect on plant productivity, and they raise additional questions regarding adaptation of plants to changing atmospheric CO2 and climate.

  19. Altered emotional and BOLD responses to negative, positive and ambiguous performance feedback in OCD.

    PubMed

    Becker, Michael P I; Nitsch, Alexander M; Schlösser, Ralf; Koch, Kathrin; Schachtzabel, Claudia; Wagner, Gerd; Miltner, Wolfgang H R; Straube, Thomas

    2014-08-01

    While abnormal processing of performance feedback has been associated with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), neural responses to different kinds of feedback information, especially to ambiguous feedback are widely unknown. Using fMRI and a performance adaptive time-estimation task, we acquired blood oxygenation level-dependant responses and emotional ratings to positive, negative and ambiguous performance feedback in patients and healthy controls. Negative and ambiguous feedback led to increased levels of anxiety, guilt and shame in patients. Both negative and ambiguous feedback, as compared to positive feedback, induced increased activation of the insular cortex in patients. Furthermore, patients showed no differential activation to negative feedback in the putamen and to ambiguous feedback in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC). Finally, negative feedback induced increased activation in the midcingulate cortex in patients compared to controls. Findings indicate that both negative and ambiguous performance feedbacks are associated with abnormal negative emotions and altered brain activation, in particular increased insula activation, while activation in the putamen and VMPFC does not differentiate between feedback types in OCD patients. This suggests a parallel pattern of increased and decreased neural sensitivity to different kinds of feedback information and a general emotional hyperresponsivity to negative and ambiguous performance feedback in OCD. PMID:23893850

  20. The Neurosteroid Progesterone Underlies Estrogen Positive Feedback of the LH Surge

    PubMed Central

    Micevych, Paul; Sinchak, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Our understanding the steroid regulation of neural function has rapidly evolved in the past decades. Not long ago the prevailing thoughts were that peripheral steroid hormones carried information to the brain which passively responded to these steroids. These steroid actions were slow, taking hours to days to be realized because they regulated gene expression. Over the past three decades, discoveries of new steroid receptors, rapid membrane-initiated signaling mechanisms, and de novo neurosteroidogenesis have shed new light on the complexity of steroids actions within the nervous system. Sexual differentiation of the brain during development occurs predominately through timed steroid-mediated expression of proteins and long term epigenetic modifications. In contrast across the estrous cycle, estradiol release from developing ovarian follicles initially increases slowly and then at proestrus increases rapidly. This pattern of estradiol release acts through both classical genomic mechanisms and rapid membrane-initiated signaling in the brain to coordinate reproductive behavior and physiology. This review focuses on recently discovered estrogen receptor-? membrane signaling mechanisms that estradiol utilizes during estrogen positive feedback to stimulate de novo progesterone synthesis within the hypothalamus to trigger the luteinizing hormone (LH) surge important for ovulation and estrous cyclicity. The activation of these signaling pathways appears to be coordinated by the rising and waning of estradiol throughout the estrous cycle and integral to the negative and positive feedback mechanisms of estradiol. This differential responsiveness is part of the timing mechanism triggering the LH surge. PMID:22654832

  1. Making a commercial atomic force microscope more accurate and faster using positive position feedback control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmood, I. A.; Moheimani, S. O. Reza

    2009-06-01

    This paper presents experimental implementation of a positive position feedback (PPF) control scheme for vibration and cross-coupling compensation of a piezoelectric tube scanner in a commercial atomic force microscope (AFM). The AFM is a device capable of generating images with extremely high resolutions down to the atomic level. It is also being used in applications that involve manipulation of matter at a nanoscale. Early AFMs were operated in open loop. Consequently, they were susceptible to piezoelectric creep, thermal drift, hysteresis nonlinearity, and scan-induced vibration. These effects tend to distort the generated image and slow down the scanning speed of the device. Recently, a new generation of AFMs has emerged that utilizes position sensors to measure displacements of the scanner in three dimensions. These AFMs are equipped with feedback control loops that work to minimize the adverse effects of hysteresis, piezoelectric creep, and thermal drift on the obtained image using proportional-plus-integral (PI) controllers. These feedback controllers are often not designed to deal with the highly resonant nature of an AFM's scanner nor with the cross coupling between various axes. In this paper we illustrate the improvement in accuracy and imaging speed that can be achieved by using a properly designed feedback controller such as a PPF controller. Such controllers can be incorporated into most modern AFMs with minimal effort since they can be implemented in software with the existing hardware. Experimental results show that by implementing the PPF control scheme, relatively good images in comparison with a well-tuned PI controller can still be obtained up to line scan of 60 Hz.

  2. Making a commercial atomic force microscope more accurate and faster using positive position feedback control.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, I A; Moheimani, S O Reza

    2009-06-01

    This paper presents experimental implementation of a positive position feedback (PPF) control scheme for vibration and cross-coupling compensation of a piezoelectric tube scanner in a commercial atomic force microscope (AFM). The AFM is a device capable of generating images with extremely high resolutions down to the atomic level. It is also being used in applications that involve manipulation of matter at a nanoscale. Early AFMs were operated in open loop. Consequently, they were susceptible to piezoelectric creep, thermal drift, hysteresis nonlinearity, and scan-induced vibration. These effects tend to distort the generated image and slow down the scanning speed of the device. Recently, a new generation of AFMs has emerged that utilizes position sensors to measure displacements of the scanner in three dimensions. These AFMs are equipped with feedback control loops that work to minimize the adverse effects of hysteresis, piezoelectric creep, and thermal drift on the obtained image using proportional-plus-integral (PI) controllers. These feedback controllers are often not designed to deal with the highly resonant nature of an AFM's scanner nor with the cross coupling between various axes. In this paper we illustrate the improvement in accuracy and imaging speed that can be achieved by using a properly designed feedback controller such as a PPF controller. Such controllers can be incorporated into most modern AFMs with minimal effort since they can be implemented in software with the existing hardware. Experimental results show that by implementing the PPF control scheme, relatively good images in comparison with a well-tuned PI controller can still be obtained up to line scan of 60 Hz. PMID:19566208

  3. FEEDBACK FROM CENTRAL BLACK HOLES IN ELLIPTICAL GALAXIES. II. CAN PURELY MECHANICAL ENERGY FEEDBACK MODELS WORK?

    SciTech Connect

    Shin Minsu; Ostriker, Jeremiah P. [Princeton University Observatory, Peyton Hall, Princeton, NJ 08544-1001 (United States); Ciotti, Luca [Department of Astronomy, University of Bologna, via Ranzani 1, I-40127, Bologna (Italy)

    2010-03-01

    By using high-resolution one-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations, we investigate the effects of purely mechanical feedback from super massive black holes (SMBHs) in the evolution of elliptical galaxies for a broad range of feedback efficiencies and compare the results to four major observational constraints. In particular, we focus on (1) the central black hole to stellar mass ratio of the host galaxy, (2) the lifetime of the luminous quasar phase, (3) the mass of stars formed in the host galaxy within the last Gyr, and (4) the X-ray luminosity of the hot diffuse gas. As a result, we try to pin down the most successful range of mechanical feedback efficiencies. We find that while low feedback efficiencies result in too much growth of the SMBH, high efficiencies totally blow out the hot interstellar gas, and the models are characterized by very low thermal X-ray luminosity well below the observed range. The net lifetime of the quasar phase is strongly coupled to the mass ratio between SMBH and its host galaxy, while the X-ray luminosity is generally correlated to the recent star formation within the last Gyr. When considering the popularly adopted model of the constant feedback efficiency, the feedback energy deposited into the ambient medium should be more than 0.01% of the SMBH accretion energy to be consistent with the SMBH mass to stellar mass ratio in the local universe. Yet, the X-ray luminosity of the hot gas favors about 0.005% of the accretion energy as the mechanical active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback energy. We conclude that the purely mechanical feedback mode is unlikely to be simultaneously compatible with all four observable tests, even allowing a broad range of feedback efficiencies, and that including both radiative and mechanical feedback together may be a solution to comply with the observational constraints. In addition to the adopted observational constraints, our simulations also show that the ratio of SMBH growth rate over its current mass and the density and temperature distribution of hot gas can be useful observable diagnostics for AGN feedback efficiencies.

  4. The interaction of positive and negative sensory feedback loops in dynamic regulation of a motor pattern

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jessica Ausborn; Harald Wolf; Wolfgang Stein

    2009-01-01

    In many rhythmic behaviors, phasic sensory feedback modifies the motor pattern. This modification is assumed to depend on\\u000a feedback sign (positive vs. negative). While on a phenomenological level feedback sign is well defined, many sensory pathways\\u000a also process antagonistic, and possibly contradictory, sensory information. We here model the locust flight pattern generator\\u000a and proprioceptive feedback provided by the tegula wing

  5. Treatment with a position feedback-controlled head stabilizer.

    PubMed

    Harris, F A

    1979-08-01

    A position feedback-controlled head stabilizer has been developed to provide cerebral palsied individuals with resistive exercise to strengthen the neck musculature. This apparatus detects "involuntary" head motion and stabilizes the head by applying opposing forces; it also can be used to facilitate muscular contraction by resisting the subject's voluntary movements. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether voluntary head control in cerebral palsied individuals can be improved through systematic exercise using the stabilizer to strengthen the muscles of the neck and improve their balance of action. The findings support the author's contention that this is possible. The apparatus consists of a helmet and shoulder pads, interconnected so that the head is supported in the helmet by a manipulator arm. At its lower end, the manipulator arm is attached to the shoulder pad mounting frame via a gimbal assembly which allows head movement in two planes of tilt (pitch, or forward-and back, and roll, or side-to-side). Feedback control circuitry is so arranged that any deviation of the head from the desired position leads to actuation of pneumatic cylinders, which apply torques to the manipulator gimbal axes so as to oppose or conteract the incipient head movement. It is particularly significant that none of these patients participating in these experiments were at all apprehensive about or resisted being placed in the apparatus. (Even the youngest subject to use the apparatus--five year old-- did not mind being restrained by the shoulder pads or having his head gripped by helment.) While JG utilized the safety release valve quite often during the first few head control training sessions, he soon became confident enough in the action of the stabilizer that he did not even bother to grip the handle of the release valve. While DA had the action of safety valve explained and demonstrated for her, she never bothered to use it even from the outset of her experience with the stabilizer. Thus, it seems that the football shoulder pads use to stabilize the shoulders and the hockey helmet used to grip and manipulate the head actually make the apparatus attractive to younger patients, while the padding thereby provided makes it comfortable enough to be tolerated well by older individuals. And, the subject's knowing that he has an override control by means of which he can assert command over the entire system appears to be of psychological benefit in establishing confidence in both the apparatus and the investigator. PMID:464029

  6. Tuning the range and stability of multiple phenotypic states with coupled positive-negative feedback loops.

    PubMed

    Avendaño, Maier S; Leidy, Chad; Pedraza, Juan M

    2013-01-01

    Positive feedback loops can produce multistability, resulting in different phenotypic states. However, many transcription networks contain counteracting positive and negative feedbacks. Here we explore the dynamics of an interlinked positive and negative feedback motif based on the galactose-uptake control system of Saccharomyces cerevisiae modified to make the strength of each feedback externally controllable. Our results show that although the positive feedback loop determines the range of bistability and the width of the regions where intermediate activation is possible, the transition rates between states are mostly sensitive to the negative feedback strength. Thus, our results suggest that the function of the negative loop in this motif is to allow separate tuning of the range and transition rates between phenotypic states. This could enhance fitness by allowing improved matching of the stochastic switching to the frequency of environmental changes. PMID:24189549

  7. Islands of fertility induce co-occurring negative and positive plant-soil feedbacks promoting coexistence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giuliano Bonanomi; Max Rietkerk; Stefan C. Dekker; Stefano Mazzoleni

    2008-01-01

    Positive plant-soil feedback by “ecosystem engineers” is an important driver for the structuring and organization of resource-limited\\u000a ecosystems. Although ample evidence demonstrates that plant-soil feedbacks can range from positive to strongly negative, their\\u000a co-occurrence in plant communities have not yet been investigated. We test the hypothesis that the plant-soil feedback generated\\u000a by the nitrogen-fixer shrub Medicago marina during primary succession

  8. Islands of fertility induce co-occurring negative and positive plant-soil feedbacks promoting coexistence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giuliano Bonanomi; Max Rietkerk; Stefan C. Dekker; Stefano Mazzoleni

    2007-01-01

    Positive plant-soil feedback by ''ecosys- tem engineers'' is an important driver for the structuring and organization of resource-limited eco- systems. Although ample evidence demonstrates that plant-soil feedbacks can range from positive to strongly negative, their co-occurrence in plant com- munities have not yet been investigated. We test the hypothesis that the plant-soil feedback generated by the nitrogen-fixer shrub Medicago marina

  9. Fibrotic extracellular matrix activates a profibrotic positive feedback loop

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Matthew W.; Rossi, Daniel; Peterson, Mark; Smith, Karen; Sikström, Kristina; White, Eric S.; Connett, John E.; Henke, Craig A.; Larsson, Ola; Bitterman, Peter B.

    2014-01-01

    Pathological remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM) by fibroblasts leads to organ failure. Development of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is characterized by a progressive fibrotic scarring in the lung that ultimately leads to asphyxiation; however, the cascade of events that promote IPF are not well defined. Here, we examined how the interplay between the ECM and fibroblasts affects both the transcriptome and translatome by culturing primary fibroblasts generated from IPF patient lung tissue or nonfibrotic lung tissue on decellularized lung ECM from either IPF or control patients. Surprisingly, the origin of the ECM had a greater impact on gene expression than did cell origin, and differences in translational control were more prominent than alterations in transcriptional regulation. Strikingly, genes that were translationally activated by IPF-derived ECM were enriched for those encoding ECM proteins detected in IPF tissue. We determined that genes encoding IPF-associated ECM proteins are targets for miR-29, which was downregulated in fibroblasts grown on IPF-derived ECM, and baseline expression of ECM targets could be restored by overexpression of miR-29. Our data support a model in which fibroblasts are activated to pathologically remodel the ECM in IPF via a positive feedback loop between fibroblasts and aberrant ECM. Interrupting this loop may be a strategy for IPF treatment. PMID:24590289

  10. Positive feedbacks of fire, climate, and vegetation and the conversion of tropical savanna

    E-print Network

    Jackson, Robert B.

    Positive feedbacks of fire, climate, and vegetation and the conversion of tropical savanna William a positive feedback loop in which clearing of tropical savannas results in warmer and drier climate of tropical savannas increases temperatures and wind speeds and decreases precipitation and relative humidity

  11. Time-Delayed Positive Velocity Feedback Control Design for Active Control of Structures

    E-print Network

    Udwadia, Firdaus E.

    Time-Delayed Positive Velocity Feedback Control Design for Active Control of Structures Phailaung and propose a design methodology that uses intentional time delays for the active control of structures. We use here positive velocity-feedback, time-delayed control and show that its performance is, in general

  12. Is Positive Feedback a Forgotten Classroom Practice? Findings and Implications for At-Risk Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprouls, Katie; Mathur, Sarup R.; Upreti, Gita

    2015-01-01

    Although using higher rates of positive to negative feedback is one best practice often recommended to teachers, particularly when it comes to students experiencing behavioral problems in classroom settings, research on the use of positive feedback in classroom teaching practice has revealed inconsistent results. Research has documented…

  13. Positive feedback can lead to dynamic nanometer-scale clustering on cell membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wehrens, Martijn; ten Wolde, Pieter Rein; Mugler, Andrew

    2014-11-01

    Clustering of molecules on biological membranes is a widely observed phenomenon. A key example is the clustering of the oncoprotein Ras, which is known to be important for signal transduction in mammalian cells. Yet, the mechanism by which Ras clusters form and are maintained remains unclear. Recently, it has been discovered that activated Ras promotes further Ras activation. Here we show using particle-based simulation that this positive feedback is sufficient to produce persistent clusters of active Ras molecules at the nanometer scale via a dynamic nucleation mechanism. Furthermore, we find that our cluster statistics are consistent with experimental observations of the Ras system. Interestingly, we show that our model does not support a Turing regime of macroscopic reaction-diffusion patterning, and therefore that the clustering we observe is a purely stochastic effect, arising from the coupling of positive feedback with the discrete nature of individual molecules. These results underscore the importance of stochastic and dynamic properties of reaction diffusion systems for biological behavior.

  14. WIM: A Wage-based Incentive Mechanism for Reinforcing Truthful Feedbacks in Reputation

    E-print Network

    Li, Xiaolin "Andy"

    WIM: A Wage-based Incentive Mechanism for Reinforcing Truthful Feedbacks in Reputation Systems feedback strategies. Thus, to ensure trustworthiness, incentive mechanisms are critically needed, and analyze incentive mechanisms and play- ers' strategies. The extensive simulation results demonstrate

  15. Noise-controlled bistability in an excitable system with positive feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kromer, Justus A.; Pinto, Reynaldo D.; Lindner, Benjamin; Schimansky-Geier, Lutz

    2014-10-01

    We study the interplay between noise and a positive feedback mechanism in an excitable system that generates events. We show that such a system can exhibit a bistability in the dynamics of the event generation (states of low and high activity). The stability of the two states is determined by the strength of the noise such that a change of noise intensity permits complete control over the probabilities with which the two states are occupied. The bistability also has strong implications for the regularity of the event generation. While the irregularity of the interevent interval (short-time variability) and the asymptotic Fano factor of the event count (long-time variability) are limited if the system is only in one of the two states, we show that both measures of variability display giant values if both states are equally likely. The long-time variability is additionally amplified by long-range positive correlations of the interevent intervals.

  16. Feedback mechanisms for global oscillations in Lure systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rodolphe Sepulchre; Guy-Bart Stan

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents two mechanisms for global oscillations in feedback systems, based on bifurcations in absolutely stable systems. The external characterization of the oscillators provides the basis for a (energy-based) dissipativity theory for oscillators, thereby opening new possibilities for rigorous stability analysis of high-dimensional systems and interconnected oscillators.

  17. Cell Mechanics and Feedback Regulation of Actomyosin Networks

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Rodrigo Fernandez-Gonzalez (Sloan-Kettering Institute; Howard Hughes Medical Institute and the Developmental Biology Program REV)

    2009-12-15

    Actomyosin contractility is the major force-generating machinery that shapes cells and tissues during morphogenesis. New evidence from Drosophila demonstrates that these forces are spatially organized by a combination of biochemical and mechanical signals that provide dynamic feedback in a complex cellular environment.

  18. The effect of positive and negative verbal feedback on surgical skills performance and motivation.

    PubMed

    Kannappan, Aarthy; Yip, Dana T; Lodhia, Nayna A; Morton, John; Lau, James N

    2012-01-01

    There is considerable effort and time invested in providing feedback to medical students and residents during their time in training. However, little effort has been made to measure the effects of positive and negative verbal feedback on skills performance and motivation to learn and practice. To probe these questions, first-year medical students (n = 25) were recruited to perform a peg transfer task on Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery box trainers. Time to completion and number of errors were recorded. The students were then randomized to receive either positive or negative verbal feedback from an expert in the field of laparoscopic surgery. After this delivery of feedback, the students repeated the peg transfer task. Differences in performance pre- and post-feedback and also between the groups who received positive feedback (PF) vs negative feedback (NF) were analyzed. A survey was then completed by all the participants. Baseline task times were similar between groups (PF 209.3 seconds; NF 203 seconds, p = 0.58). The PF group averaged 1.83 first-time errors while the NF group 1 (p = 0.84). Post-feedback task times were significantly decreased for both groups (PF 159.75 seconds, p = 0.05; NF 132.08 seconds, p = 0.002). While the NF group demonstrated a greater improvement in mean time than the PF group, this was not statistically significant. Both groups also made fewer errors (PF 0.33 errors, p = 0.04; NF 0.38 errors, p = 0.23). When surveyed about their responses to standardized feedback scenarios, the students stated that both positive and negative verbal feedback could be potent stimulants for improved performance and motivation. Further research is required to better understand the effects of feedback on learner motivation and the interpersonal dynamic between mentors and their trainees. PMID:23111049

  19. Age-related changes in deterministic learning from positive versus negative performance feedback.

    PubMed

    van de Vijver, Irene; Ridderinkhof, K Richard; de Wit, Sanne

    2015-09-01

    Feedback-based learning declines with age. Because older adults are generally biased toward positive information ("positivity effect"), learning from positive feedback may be less impaired than learning from negative outcomes. The literature documents mixed results, due possibly to variability between studies in task design. In the current series of studies, we investigated the influence of feedback valence on reinforcement learning in young and older adults. We used nonprobabilistic learning tasks, to more systematically study the effects of feedback magnitude, learning of stimulus-response (S-R) versus stimulus-outcome (S-O) associations, and working-memory capacity. In most experiments, older adults benefitted more from positive than negative feedback, but only with large feedback magnitudes. Positivity effects were pronounced for S-O learning, whereas S-R learning correlated with working-memory capacity in both age groups. These results underline the context dependence of positivity effects in learning and suggest that older adults focus on high gains when these are informative for behavior. PMID:25761598

  20. A state variable approach to the BESSY II local beam-position-feedback system

    SciTech Connect

    Gilpatrick, J.D.; Khan, S.; Kraemer, D. [BESSY II, Berlin (Germany)

    1996-11-01

    At the BESSY II facility, stability of the electron beam position and angle near insertion devices (IDs) is of utmost importance. Disturbances due to ground motion could result in unwanted broad-bandwidth beam-jitter which decreases the electron (and resultant photon) beam`s effective brightness. Therefore, feedback techniques must be used. Operating over a frequency range of < 1- to > 100-Hz, a local feedback system will correct these beam-trajectory errors using the four bumps around IDs. This paper reviews how the state-variable feedback approach can be applied to real-time correction of these beam position and angle errors. A frequency-domain solution showing beam jitter reduction is presented. Finally, this paper reports results of a beam-feedback test at BESSY I.

  1. Positive feedback regulation of stgR expression for secondary metabolism in Streptomyces coelicolor.

    PubMed

    Mao, Xu-Ming; Sun, Zhi-Hao; Liang, Bi-Rong; Wang, Zhi-Bin; Feng, Wei-Hong; Huang, Fang-Liang; Li, Yong-Quan

    2013-05-01

    LysR-type transcriptional regulators (LTTRs) compose a large family and are responsible for various physiological functions in bacteria, while little is understood about their regulatory mechanism on secondary metabolism in Streptomyces. Here we reported that StgR, a typical LTTR in Streptomyces coelicolor, was a negative regulator of undecylprodigiosin (Red) and ?-actinorhodin (Act) production in the early developmental phase of secondary metabolism by suppressing the expression of two pathway-specific regulator genes, redD and actII-orf4, respectively. Meanwhile, stgR expression was downregulated during secondary metabolism to remove its repressive effects on antibiotic production. Moreover, stgR expression was positively autoregulated by direct binding of StgR to its own promoter (stgRp), and the binding site adjacent to translation start codon was determined by a DNase I footprinting assay. Furthermore, the StgR-stgRp interaction could be destroyed by the antibiotic ?-actinorhodin produced from S. coelicolor. Thus, our results suggested a positive feedback regulatory mechanism of stgR expression and antibiotic production for the rapid and irreversible development of secondary metabolism in Streptomyces. PMID:23457252

  2. Commutation torque ripple minimization for permanent magnet synchronous machines with Hall effect position feedback

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Todd D. Batzel; Kwang Y. Lee

    1998-01-01

    A permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) with sinusoidal flux distribution is commonly commutated using discrete rotor position feedback from Hall sensors. A commonly used stator current excitation strategy used in such a system is a six-step current waveform. Application of sinusoidal current waveforms is shown to produce smooth torque in the PMSM. This paper shows how a pseudo-sensorless rotor position

  3. Positive feedback to a muscle receptor stabilized by concurrent self-inhibition.

    PubMed

    Cannone, A; Bush, B M

    1981-12-14

    The two non-spiking afferent neurones (T and S fibres) of the crab's thoracic-coxal muscle receptor organ mediate antagonistic reflex controls upon the specific receptor motoneurone (Rm1). Depolarization of the 'in-series' T fibre, by receptor muscle stretch or intracellular current injection, reflexly excites Rm1, whereas length- or current-induced S fibre depolarization inhibits Rm1. The latter, autogenetic negative feedback stabilizes the concurrent positive feedback over the physiological range of receptor muscle lengths. PMID:7306808

  4. Computational Modeling of Morphogenesis Regulated by Mechanical Feedback

    PubMed Central

    Ramasubramanian, Ashok; Taber, Larry A.

    2008-01-01

    Mechanical forces cause changes in form during embryogenesis and likely play a role in regulating these changes. This paper explores the idea that changes in homeostatic tissue stress (target stress), possibly modulated by genes, drive some morphogenetic processes. Computational models are presented to illustrate how regional variations in target stress can cause a range of complex behaviors involving the bending of epithelia. These models include growth and cytoskeletal contraction regulated by stress-based mechanical feedback. All simulations were carried out using the commercial finite element code ABAQUS, with growth and contraction included by modifying the zero-stress state in the material constitutive relations. Results presented for bending of bilayered beams and invagination of cylindrical and spherical shells provide insight into some of the mechanical aspects that must be considered in studying morphogenetic mechanisms. PMID:17318485

  5. On the Feed-back Mechanism of Chinese Stock Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Shu Quan; Ito, Takao; Zhang, Jianbo

    Feed-back models in the stock markets research imply an adjustment process toward investors' expectation for current information and past experiences. Error-correction and cointegration are often used to evaluate the long-run relation. The Efficient Capital Market Hypothesis, which had ignored the effect of the accumulation of information, cannot explain some anomalies such as bubbles and partial predictability in the stock markets. In order to investigate the feed-back mechanism and to determine an effective model, we use daily data of the stock index of two Chinese stock markets with the expectational model, which is one kind of geometric lag models. Tests and estimations of error-correction show that long-run equilibrium seems to be seldom achieved in Chinese stock markets. Our result clearly shows the common coefficient of expectations and fourth-order autoregressive disturbance exist in the two Chinese stock markets. Furthermore, we find the same coefficient of expectations has an autoregressive effect on disturbances in the two Chinese stock markets. Therefore the presence of such feed-back is also supported in Chinese stock markets.

  6. Coordination control of dual-arm modular robot based on position feedback using Optotrak3020

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jun Zhou; Yueqing Yu

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to present a novel and accurate coordination control method of dual-arm modular robot based on position feedback using 3D motion measurement system – Optotrak3020. The end-position accuracy of dual-arm modular robot can be improved obviously. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – By means of Optotrak3020, the actual end-position of dual-arm modular robot is acquired and then

  7. Mechanical feedback in the molecular ISM of luminous IR galaxies

    E-print Network

    A. F. Loenen; M. Spaans; W. A. Baan; R. Meijerink

    2008-08-20

    Aims: Molecular emission lines originating in the nuclei of luminous infra-red galaxies are used to determine the physical properties of the nuclear ISM in these systems. Methods: A large observational database of molecular emission lines is compared with model predictions that include heating by UV and X-ray radiation, mechanical heating, and the effects of cosmic rays. Results: The observed line ratios and model predictions imply a separation of the observedsystems into three groups: XDRs, UV-dominated high-density (n>=10^5 cm-3) PDRs, and lower-density (n=10^4.5 cm-3) PDRs that are dominated by mechanical feedback. Conclusions: The division of the two types of PDRs follows naturally from the evolution of the star formation cycle of these sources, which evolves from deeply embedded young stars, resulting in high-density (n>=10^5 cm-3) PDRs, to a stage where the gas density has decreased (n=10^4.5 cm-3) and mechanical feedback from supernova shocks dominates the heating budget.

  8. The effects of positive versus negative feedback on information-integration category learning.

    PubMed

    Ashby, F Gregory; O'Brien, Jeffrey B

    2007-08-01

    A number of studies have shown that in category learning, providing feedback about errors allows faster learning than providing feedback about correct responses. However, these previous studies used explicit, rule-based tasks in which the category structures could be separated by a simple rule that was easily verbalized. Here, the results of the first experiment known to compare the efficacy of positive versus negative feedback during information-integration category learning are reported. Information-integration tasks require participants to integrate perceptual information from incommensurable dimensions, and evidence suggests that optimal responding recruits procedural learning. The results show that although nearly all of the full-feedback control participants demonstrated information-integration learning, participants receiving either positive-only or negative-only feedback generally used explicit, rule-based strategies. It thus appears that, unlike rule-based learning, consistent information-integration learning requires full feedback. The theoretical implications of these findings for current models of information-integration learning are discussed. PMID:18018967

  9. Position and attitude tracking of AUV's: a quaternion feedback approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ola-Erik Fjellstad; Thor I. Fossen

    1994-01-01

    A position and attitude tracking control law for autonomous underwater vehicles (AUV's) in 6 degrees of freedom (DOF) is derived. The 4-parameter unit quaternion (Euler parameters) is used in a singularity-free representation of attitude. Global convergence of the closed-loop system is proven. In addition, several 3-parameter representations in terms of the Euler parameters are discussed with application to the same

  10. Precision position-control of piezoelectric actuators using charge feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Main, John A.; Garcia, Ephrahim; Newton, David V.

    1995-05-01

    The issue of precision position control is critical if piezoelectric actuator technology is to be applied in increasingly demanding applications. In one particular application, the NASA NAOMI project, piezoelectric actuators have been proposed as the pointing and focusing elements for thousands of small mirror-lenslets because of their fast response time and load- carrying ability. In this application the positions of these actuators must be precisely controlled both statically and dynamically to the nanometer level. This requirement necessitates a careful study of the concept and design of the driving electronics of the system. This paper is focused on finding an appropriate method for driving piezoelectric stack actuators for ultraprecision position and motion control. In this paper the theoretical basis of the electrical control of piezoelectric stack actuators is derived using the fundamental physical laws governing dielectrics and piezoceramics. It is shown that the relationships used for voltage control of piezoelectric actuators result from an approximation of the constitutive equations. An exact input/output relationship for piezoelectric actuators is derived and shows that displacement relies fundamentally on charge, not voltage. Experimental verification was obtained to illustrate the differences between driving piezoactuators with voltage control and charge control.

  11. VirB-Mediated Positive Feedback Control of the Virulence Gene Regulatory Cascade of Shigella flexneri

    PubMed Central

    Kane, Kelly A.

    2012-01-01

    Shigella flexneri is a facultative intracellular pathogen that relies on a type III secretion system and its associated effector proteins to cause bacillary dysentery in humans. The genes that encode this virulence system are located on a 230-kbp plasmid and are transcribed in response to thermal, osmotic, and pH signals that are characteristic of the human lower gut. The virulence genes are organized within a regulatory cascade, and the nucleoid-associated protein H-NS represses each of the key promoters. Transcription derepression depends first on the VirF AraC-like transcription factor, a protein that antagonizes H-NS-mediated repression at the intermediate regulatory gene virB. The VirB protein in turn remodels the H-NS–DNA nucleoprotein complexes at the promoters of the genes encoding the type III secretion system and effector proteins, causing these genes to become derepressed. In this study, we show that the VirB protein also positively regulates the expression of its own gene (virB) via a cis-acting regulatory sequence. In addition, VirB positively regulates the gene coding for the VirF protein. This study reveals two hitherto uncharacterized feedback regulatory loops in the S. flexneri virulence cascade that provide a mechanism for the enhanced expression of the principal virulence regulatory genes. PMID:22821978

  12. Positive feedback and alternative stable states in inbreeding, cooperation, sex roles and other evolutionary processes

    PubMed Central

    Lehtonen, Jussi; Kokko, Hanna

    2012-01-01

    A large proportion of studies in systems science focus on processes involving a mixture of positive and negative feedbacks, which are also common themes in evolutionary ecology. Examples of negative feedback are density dependence (population regulation) and frequency-dependent selection (polymorphisms). Positive feedback, in turn, plays a role in Fisherian ‘runaway’ sexual selection, the evolution of cooperation, selfing and inbreeding tolerance under purging of deleterious alleles, and the evolution of sex differences in parental care. All these examples feature self-reinforcing processes where the increase in the value of a trait selects for further increases, sometimes via a coevolutionary feedback loop with another trait. Positive feedback often leads to alternative stable states (evolutionary endpoints), making the interpretation of evolutionary predictions challenging. Here, we discuss conceptual issues such as the relationship between self-reinforcing selection and disruptive selection. We also present an extension of a previous model on parental care, focusing on the relationship between the operational sex ratio and sexual selection, and the influence of this relationship on the evolution of biparental or uniparental care. PMID:22144384

  13. Coupled Positive and Negative Feedbacks Produce Diverse Gene Expression Patterns in Colonies

    PubMed Central

    Mitarai, Namiko; Jensen, Mogens Høgh

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Formation of patterns is a common feature in the development of multicellular organism as well as of microbial communities. To investigate the formation of gene expression patterns in colonies, we build a mathematical model of two-dimensional colony growth, where cells carry a coupled positive-and-negative-feedback circuit. We demonstrate that the model can produce sectored, target (concentric), uniform, and scattered expression patterns of regulators, depending on gene expression dynamics and nutrient diffusion. We reconstructed the same regulatory structure in Escherichia coli cells and found gene expression patterns on the surface of colonies similar to the ones produced by the computer simulations. By comparing computer simulations and experimental results, we observed that very simple rules of gene expression can yield a spectrum of well-defined patterns in a growing colony. Our results suggest that variations of the protein content among cells lead to a high level of heterogeneity in colonies. Importance Formation of patterns is a common feature in the development of microbial communities. In this work, we show that a simple genetic circuit composed of a positive-feedback loop and a negative-feedback loop can produce diverse expression patterns in colonies. We obtained similar sets of gene expression patterns in the simulations and in the experiments. Because the combination of positive feedback and negative feedback is common in intracellular molecular networks, our results suggest that the protein content of cells is highly diversified in colonies. PMID:25852158

  14. A Positive Autoregulatory BDNF Feedback Loop via C/EBP? Mediates Hippocampal Memory Consolidation

    PubMed Central

    Bambah-Mukku, Dhananjay; Travaglia, Alessio; Chen, Dillon Y.; Pollonini, Gabriella

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the temporal progression and regulation of the mechanisms underlying memory consolidation. Brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor (BDNF) has been shown to mediate the maintenance of memory consolidation, but the mechanisms of this regulation remain unclear. Using inhibitory avoidance (IA) in rats, here we show that a hippocampal BDNF-positive autoregulatory feedback loop via CCAAT-enhancer binding protein ? (C/EBP?) is necessary to mediate memory consolidation. At training, a very rapid, learning-induced requirement of BDNF accompanied by rapid de novo translation controls the induction of a persistent activation of cAMP-response element binding-protein (CREB) and C/EBP? expression. The latter, in turn, controls an increase in expression of bdnf exon IV transcripts and BDNF protein, both of which are necessary and, together with the initial BDNF requirement, mediate memory consolidation. The autoregulatory loop terminates by 48 h after training with decreased C/EBP? and pCREB and increased methyl-CpG binding protein-2, histone-deacetylase-2, and switch-independent-3a binding at the bdnf exon IV promoter. PMID:25209292

  15. UBTD1 induces cellular senescence through an UBTD1-Mdm2/p53 positive feedback loop.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Wei; Wang, Xiao-Feng; Ni, Su-Jie; Qin, Wei; Zhao, Li-Qin; Hua, Rui-Xi; Lu, You-Wei; Li, Jin; Dimri, Goberdhan P; Guo, Wei-Jian

    2015-03-01

    The tumour suppressor p53 plays an important role in tumourigenesis. Besides inducing apoptosis, it regulates cellular senescence, which constitutes an important barrier to tumourigenesis. The mechanism of regulation of cellular senescence by p53 and its downstream pathway are poorly understood. Here, we report that the ubiquitin domain-containing 1 (UBTD1) gene, a new downstream target of p53, induces cellular senescence and acts as a novel tumour suppressor by a mechanism that depends on p53. Expression of UBTD1 increased upon cellular senescence induced by serial passageing of cultures, as well as by exposure to DNA-damageing drugs that induce premature senescence. Over-expression of UBTD1 induces senescence in human fibroblasts and cancer cells and attenuation of the transformed phenotype in cancer cells. UBTD1 is down-regulated in gastric and colorectal cancer tissues, and its lower expression correlates with a more aggressive phenotype and worse prognosis. Multivariate analysis revealed that UBTD1 expression was an independent prognostic factor for gastric cancer patients. Furthermore, UBTD1 increased the stability of p53 protein, by promoting the degradation of Mdm2 protein. Importantly, UBTD1 and p53 function mutually depend on each other in regulating cellular senescence and proliferation. Thus, our data suggest that, upon DNA damage, p53 induction by UBTD1 creates a positive feedback mechanism to further increase p53 expression. Our results establish UBTD1 as a regulator of cellular senescence that mediates p53 function, and provide insights into the mechanism of Mdm2 inhibition that impacts p53 dynamics during cellular senescence and tumourigenesis. PMID:25382750

  16. CGILS: Results from the First Phase of an International Project to Understand the Physical Mechanisms of Low Cloud Feedbacks in Single Column Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Minghua; Bretherton, Christopher S.; Blossey, Peter N.; Austin, Phillip H.; Bacmeister, Julio T.; Bony, Sandrine; Brient, Florent; Cheedela, Suvarchal K.; Cheng, Anning; DelGenio, Anthony; DeRoode, Stephan R.; Endo, Satoshi; Franklin, Charmaine N.; Oolaz, Jean-Christophe; Hannay, Cecile; Heus, Thijs; Isotta, Francesco Alessandro; Dufresne, Jean-Louis; Kang, In-Sik; Kawai, Hideaki; Kiehler, Martin; Larson, Vincent E.; Liu, Yangang; Lock, Adrian P.; Lohmann, Ulrike; Molod, Andrea M.; Suarez, Max J.

    2013-01-01

    1] CGILS-the CFMIP-GASS Intercomparison of Large Eddy Models (LESs) and single column models (SCMs)-investigates the mechanisms of cloud feedback in SCMs and LESs under idealized climate change perturbation. This paper describes the CGILS results from 15 SCMs and 8 LES models. Three cloud regimes over the subtropical oceans are studied: shallow cumulus, cumulus under stratocumulus, and well-mixed coastal stratus/stratocumulus. In the stratocumulus and coastal stratus regimes, SCMs without activated shallow convection generally simulated negative cloud feedbacks, while models with active shallow convection generally simulated positive cloud feedbacks. In the shallow cumulus alone regime, this relationship is less clear, likely due to the changes in cloud depth, lateral mixing, and precipitation or a combination of them. The majority of LES models simulated negative cloud feedback in the well-mixed coastal stratus/stratocumulus regime, and positive feedback in the shallow cumulus and stratocumulus regime. A general framework is provided to interpret SCM results: in a warmer climate, the moistening rate of the cloudy layer associated with the surface-based turbulence parameterization is enhanced; together with weaker large-scale subsidence, it causes negative cloud feedback. In contrast, in the warmer climate, the drying rate associated with the shallow convection scheme is enhanced. This causes positive cloud feedback. These mechanisms are summarized as the "NESTS" negative cloud feedback and the "SCOPE" positive cloud feedback (Negative feedback from Surface Turbulence under weaker Subsidence-Shallow Convection PositivE feedback) with the net cloud feedback depending on how the two opposing effects counteract each other. The LES results are consistent with these interpretations

  17. POSITIVE FEEDBACK EFFECTS OF BRAND EXTENSIONS: EXPANDING BRAND MEANING AND THE RANGE OF EXTENDIBILITY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SANDRA J. MILBERG

    2001-01-01

    The focus of this research is on the positive feedback effects of brand extensions. In particular, this study identifies and examines conditions under which brand extendibility is enhanced by expanding product category associations. This is important as it has been argued that the range of a brand’s extendibility is one measure of brand equity. Thus, developing strategies to modify brand

  18. An Improved Minibrain That Learns Through Both Positive and Negative Feedback

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chee Wee Phua; Alan Blair

    2006-01-01

    A new reinforcement learned neural network, that follows the ideas of the minibrain network but includes exploration and learns through both positive and negative feedback, is proposed. The proposed ReL network is evaluated against the minibrain network in the n times n grid world domain and the taxi domain and is shown to perform significantly better than the minibrain network.

  19. Comparing position and force control for interactive molecular simulators with haptic feedback

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Comparing position and force control for interactive molecular simulators with haptic feedback Aude of a molecular simulator and a haptic device. The simulation software deals with systems of hundreds or thousands. For the ease of manipulation and to help the operator understand nanoscale phenomena, a haptic device

  20. Positive Feedback Regulation between -Aminobutyric Acid Type A (GABAA) Receptor Signaling and Brain-derived

    E-print Network

    Cossart, Rosa

    Positive Feedback Regulation between -Aminobutyric Acid Type A (GABAA) Receptor Signaling and Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which, in turn by activating TrkB receptors, mediates the observed increase in cell pathway. Fast synaptic inhibition in the adult brain is largely mediated by GABAA receptors, members

  1. Cellular mechanisms for integral feedback in visually guided behavior.

    PubMed

    Schnell, Bettina; Weir, Peter T; Roth, Eatai; Fairhall, Adrienne L; Dickinson, Michael H

    2014-04-15

    Sensory feedback is a ubiquitous feature of guidance systems in both animals and engineered vehicles. For example, a common strategy for moving along a straight path is to turn such that the measured rate of rotation is zero. This task can be accomplished by using a feedback signal that is proportional to the instantaneous value of the measured sensory signal. In such a system, the addition of an integral term depending on past values of the sensory input is needed to eliminate steady-state error [proportional-integral (PI) control]. However, the means by which nervous systems implement such a computation are poorly understood. Here, we show that the optomotor responses of flying Drosophila follow a time course consistent with temporal integration of horizontal motion input. To investigate the cellular basis of this effect, we performed whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from the set of identified visual interneurons [horizontal system (HS) cells] thought to control this reflex during tethered flight. At high stimulus speeds, HS cells exhibit steady-state responses during flight that are absent during quiescence, a state-dependent difference in physiology that is explained by changes in their presynaptic inputs. However, even during flight, the membrane potential of the large-field interneurons exhibits no evidence for integration that could explain the behavioral responses. However, using a genetically encoded indicator, we found that calcium accumulates in the terminals of the interneurons along a time course consistent with the behavior and propose that this accumulation provides a mechanism for temporal integration of sensory feedback consistent with PI control. PMID:24706794

  2. An incentives' mechanism promoting truthful feedback in peer-to-peer systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thanasis G. Papaioannou; George D. Stamoulis

    2005-01-01

    We propose a mechanism for providing the incentives for reporting truthful feedback in a peer-to-peer system for exchanging services. This mechanism is to complement reputation mechanisms that employ ratings' feedback on the various transactions in order to provide incentives to peers for offering better services to others. Under our approach, both transacting peers (rather than just the client) submit ratings

  3. Playing with positive feedback: external pressure-triggering of a star-forming disc galaxy

    E-print Network

    Bieri, Rebekka; Silk, Joseph; Mamon, Gary A

    2015-01-01

    Feedback in massive galaxies generally involves quenching of star formation, a favored candidate being outflows from a central supermassive black hole. At high redshifts however, explanation of the huge rates of star formation often found in galaxies containing AGN may require a more vigorous mode of star formation than attainable by simply enriching the gas content of galaxies in the usual gravitationally-driven mode that is associated with the nearby Universe. Using hydrodynamical simulations, we demonstrate that AGN-pressure-driven star formation potentially provides the positive feedback that may be required to generate the accelerated star formation rates observed in the distant Universe.

  4. Arf tumor suppressor disrupts the oncogenic positive feedback loop including c-Myc and DDX5.

    PubMed

    Tago, K; Funakoshi-Tago, M; Itoh, H; Furukawa, Y; Kikuchi, J; Kato, T; Suzuki, K; Yanagisawa, K

    2015-01-15

    Tumor suppressor protein p19(ARF) (Arf; p14(ARF) in humans) functions in both p53-dependent and -independent modes to counteract hyper-proliferative signals caused by proto-oncogene activation, but its p53-independent activities remain poorly understood. Using the tandem affinity purification-tag technique, we purified Arf-containing protein complexes and identified p68 DEAD-box protein (DDX5) as a novel interacting protein of Arf. In this study, we found that DDX5 interacts with c-Myc, and harbors essential roles for c-Myc-mediated transcription and its transforming activity. Furthermore, when c-Myc was forcibly expressed, the expression level of DDX5 protein was drastically increased through the acceleration of protein synthesis of DDX5, suggesting the presence of an oncogenic positive feedback loop including c-Myc and DDX5. Strikingly, Arf blocked the physical interaction between DDX5 and c-Myc, and drove away DDX5 from the promoter of c-Myc target genes. These observations most likely indicate the mechanism by which Arf causes p53-independent tumor-suppressive activity. PMID:24469041

  5. ON THE EXTREME POSITIVE STAR FORMATION FEEDBACK CONDITION IN SCUBA SOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    Silich, Sergiy; Tenorio-Tagle, Guillermo; Hueyotl-Zahuantitla, Filiberto [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica Optica y Electronica, AP 51, 72000 Puebla (Mexico); Munoz-Tunon, Casiana [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, E 38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Wuensch, Richard; Palous, Jan, E-mail: silich@inaoep.m [Astronomical Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, BocnI II 1401, 141 31 Prague (Czech Republic)

    2010-03-01

    We present a detailed study of the hydrodynamics of the matter reinserted by massive stars via stellar winds and supernovae explosions in young assembling galaxies. We show that the interplay between the thermalization of the kinetic energy provided by massive stars, radiative cooling of the thermalized plasma, and the gravitational pull of the host galaxy lead to three different hydrodynamic regimes. These are: (1) the quasi-adiabatic supergalactic winds; (2) the bimodal flows, with mass accumulation in the central zones and gas expulsion from the outer zones of the assembling galaxy; and (3) the gravitationally bound regime, for which all of the gas returned by massive stars remains bound to the host galaxy and is likely to be reprocessed into further generations of stars. Which of the three possible solutions takes place depends on the mass of the star-forming region, its mechanical luminosity (or star formation rate), and its size. The model predicts that massive assembling galaxies with large star formation rates similar to those detected in Submillimeter Common-User Bolometric Array sources ({approx}1000 M{sub sun} yr{sup -1}) are likely to evolve in a positive star formation feedback condition, either in the bimodal or in the gravitationally bound regime. This implies that star formation in these sources may have little impact on the intergalactic medium and result instead into a fast interstellar matter enrichment, as observed in high redshift quasars.

  6. Feedback-enhanced parametric squeezing of mechanical motion.

    PubMed

    Vinante, A; Falferi, P

    2013-11-15

    We present a single-quadrature feedback scheme able to overcome the conventional 3 dB limit on parametric squeezing. The method is experimentally demonstrated in a micromechanical system based on a cantilever with a magnetic tip. The cantilever is detected at low temperature by a SQUID susceptometer, while parametric pumping is obtained by modulating the magnetic field gradient at twice the cantilever frequency. A maximum squeezing of 11.5 dB and 11.3 dB is observed, respectively, in the response to a sinusoidal test signal and in the thermomechanical noise. So far, the maximum squeezing factor is limited only by the maximum achievable parametric modulation. The proposed technique might be used to squeeze one quadrature of a mechanical resonator below the quantum noise level, even without the need for a quantum limited detector. PMID:24289708

  7. Neural mechanisms underlying auditory feedback control of speech

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jason A. Tourville; Kevin J. Reilly; Frank H. Guenther

    2008-01-01

    The neural substrates underlying auditory feedback control of speech were investigated using a combination of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and computational modeling. Neural responses were measured while subjects spoke monosyllabic words under two conditions: (i) normal auditory feedback of their speech and (ii) auditory feedback in which the first formant frequency of their speech was unexpectedly shifted in real

  8. A positive feedback loop links circadian clock factor CLOCK-BMAL1 to the basic transcriptional machinery

    PubMed Central

    Lande-Diner, Laura; Boyault, Cyril; Kim, Jin Young; Weitz, Charles J.

    2013-01-01

    Circadian clocks in mammals are built on a negative feedback loop in which the heterodimeric transcription factor circadian locomotor output cycles kaput (CLOCK)-brain, muscle Arnt-like 1 (BMAL1) drives the expression of its own inhibitors, the PERIOD and CRYPTOCHROME proteins. Reactivation of CLOCK-BMAL1 occurs at a specific time several hours after PERIOD and CRYPTOCHROME protein turnover, but the mechanism underlying this process is unknown. We found that mouse BMAL1 complexes include TRAP150 (thyroid hormone receptor-associated protein-150; also known as THRAP3). TRAP150 is a selective coactivator for CLOCK-BMAL1, which oscillates under CLOCK-BMAL1 transcriptional control. TRAP150 promotes CLOCK-BMAL1 binding to target genes and links CLOCK-BMAL1 to the transcriptional machinery at target-gene promoters. Depletion of TRAP150 caused low-amplitude, long-period rhythms, identifying it as a positive clock element. The activity of TRAP150 defines a positive feedback loop within the clock and provides a potential mechanism for timing the reactivation of circadian transcription. PMID:24043798

  9. Positive Feedback of NDT80 Expression Ensures Irreversible Meiotic Commitment in Budding Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Tsuchiya, Dai; Yang, Yang; Lacefield, Soni

    2014-01-01

    In budding yeast, meiotic commitment is the irreversible continuation of the developmental path of meiosis. After reaching meiotic commitment, cells finish meiosis and gametogenesis, even in the absence of the meiosis-inducing signal. In contrast, if the meiosis-inducing signal is removed and the mitosis-inducing signal is provided prior to reaching meiotic commitment, cells exit meiosis and return to mitosis. Previous work has shown that cells commit to meiosis after prophase I but before entering the meiotic divisions. Since the Ndt80 transcription factor induces expression of middle meiosis genes necessary for the meiotic divisions, we examined the role of the NDT80 transcriptional network in meiotic commitment. Using a microfluidic approach to analyze single cells, we found that cells commit to meiosis in prometaphase I, after the induction of the Ndt80-dependent genes. Our results showed that high-level expression of NDT80 is important for the timing and irreversibility of meiotic commitment. A modest reduction in NDT80 levels delayed meiotic commitment based on meiotic stages, although the timing of each meiotic stage was similar to that of wildtype cells. A further reduction of NDT80 resulted in the surprising finding of inappropriately uncommitted cells: withdrawal of the meiosis-inducing signal and addition of the mitosis-inducing signal to cells at stages beyond metaphase I caused return to mitosis, leading to multi-nucleate cells. Since Ndt80 enhances its own transcription through positive feedback, we tested whether positive feedback ensured the irreversibility of meiotic commitment. Ablating positive feedback in NDT80 expression resulted in a complete loss of meiotic commitment. These findings suggest that irreversibility of meiotic commitment is a consequence of the NDT80 transcriptional positive feedback loop, which provides the high-level of Ndt80 required for the developmental switch of meiotic commitment. These results also illustrate the importance of irreversible meiotic commitment for maintaining genome integrity by preventing formation of multi-nucleate cells. PMID:24901499

  10. A state variable approach to the BESSY II local beam-position-feedback system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. D. Gilpatrick; S. Khan; D. Kraemer

    1996-01-01

    At the BESSY II facility, stability of the electron beam position and angle near insertion devices (IDs) is of utmost importance. Disturbances due to ground motion could result in unwanted broad-bandwidth beam-jitter which decreases the electron (and resultant photon) beam`s effective brightness. Therefore, feedback techniques must be used. Operating over a frequency range of < 1- to > 100-Hz, a

  11. Experience Sampling-Based Personalized Feedback and Positive Affect: A Randomized Controlled Trial in Depressed Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, Jessica A.; Wichers, Marieke; Menne-Lothmann, Claudia; Kramer, Ingrid; Viechtbauer, Wolfgang; Peeters, Frenk; Schruers, Koen R. J.; van Bemmel, Alex L.; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Delespaul, Philippe; van Os, Jim; Simons, Claudia J. P.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Positive affect (PA) plays a crucial role in the development, course, and recovery of depression. Recently, we showed that a therapeutic application of the experience sampling method (ESM), consisting of feedback focusing on PA in daily life, was associated with a decrease in depressive symptoms. The present study investigated whether the experience of PA increased during the course of this intervention. Design Multicentre parallel randomized controlled trial. An electronic random sequence generator was used to allocate treatments. Settings University, two local mental health care institutions, one local hospital. Participants 102 pharmacologically treated outpatients with a DSM-IV diagnosis of major depressive disorder, randomized over three treatment arms. Intervention Six weeks of ESM self-monitoring combined with weekly PA-focused feedback sessions (experimental group); six weeks of ESM self-monitoring combined with six weekly sessions without feedback (pseudo-experimental group); or treatment as usual (control group). Main outcome The interaction between treatment allocation and time in predicting positive and negative affect (NA) was investigated in multilevel regression models. Results 102 patients were randomized (mean age 48.0, SD 10.2) of which 81 finished the entire study protocol. All 102 patients were included in the analyses. The experimental group did not show a significant larger increase in momentary PA during or shortly after the intervention compared to the pseudo-experimental or control groups (?2 (2) =0.33, p=.846). The pseudo-experimental group showed a larger decrease in NA compared to the control group (?2 (1) =6.29, p=.012). Conclusion PA-focused feedback did not significantly impact daily life PA during or shortly after the intervention. As the previously reported reduction in depressive symptoms associated with the feedback unveiled itself only after weeks, it is conceivable that the effects on daily life PA also evolve slowly and therefore were not captured by the experience sampling procedure immediately after treatment. Trial Registration Trialregister.nl/trialreg/index.asp. NTR1974 PMID:26034983

  12. An FPGA-based Bunch-by-Bunch Position and Angle Feedback System at ATF2

    E-print Network

    Christian, G B; Bett, D R; Burrows, P N; Constance, B; Davis, M R; Gerbershagen, A; Perry, C; Resta Lopez, J

    2011-01-01

    The FONT5 intra-train feedback system serves as a prototype for an interaction point beam-based feedback system for future electron-positron colliders, such as the International Linear Collider. The system has been tested on the KEK Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) and is deployed to stabilise the beam orbit at the ATF2. The goal of this system is to correct both position and angle jitter in the vertical plane, providing stability of ~1 micron at the entrance to the ATF2 final-focus system. The system comprises three stripline beam position monitors (BPMs) and two stripline kickers, custom low-latency analogue front-end BPM processors, a custom FPGA-based digital processing board with fast ADCs, and custom kicker-drive amplifiers. An overview of the hardware, and the latest results from beam tests at ATF2, will be presented. The total latency of the system with coupled position and angle feedback loops operating simultaneously was measured to be approximately 140 ns. The greatest degree of correction observed ...

  13. Two-axis antenna positioning mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herald, Michelle; Wai, Leilani C.

    1994-01-01

    The two-axis antenna positioning mechanism (TAAPM) is used to position three Ku-band and one C-band spot antennas on the INTELSAT 7 (I-7) spacecraft, which is a commercial telecommunications satellite purchased and operated by INTELSAT, an international consortium. The first I-7 was successfully launched on 22 Oct. 1993 from French Guiana on an Ariane launch vehicle. The TAAPM's on the first I-7 satellite successfully completed their in-orbit functional testing. The TAAPM was an entirely new design for Space Systems/Loral. This paper will describe the spacecraft/system requirements and application of the TAAPM and present the technical findings of TAAPM qualification and protoflight testing.

  14. Position-dependent noncommutativity in quantum mechanics

    E-print Network

    M. Gomes; V. G. Kupriyanov

    2009-06-15

    The model of the position-dependent noncommutativety in quantum mechanics is proposed. We start with a given commutation relations between the operators of coordinates [x^{i},x^{j}]=\\omega^{ij}(x), and construct the complete algebra of commutation relations, including the operators of momenta. The constructed algebra is a deformation of a standard Heisenberg algebra and obey the Jacobi identity. The key point of our construction is a proposed first-order Lagrangian, which after quantization reproduces the desired commutation relations. Also we study the possibility to localize the noncommutativety.

  15. Positive Feedback-Loop of Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase and 15-Lipoxygenase-2 Promotes Pulmonary Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Tingting; Ma, Jun; Zhang, Lei; Yu, Xiufeng; Liu, Mengmeng; Hou, Yunlong; Wang, Yanyan; Ma, Cui; Li, Shuzhen; Zhu, Daling

    2013-01-01

    Objective Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is characterized with pulmonary vasoconstriction and vascular remodeling mediated by 15-lipoxygenase (15-LO)/15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (15-HETE) according to our previous studies. Meanwhile, telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) activity is highly correlated with vascular injury and remodeling, suggesting that TERT may be an essential determinant in the development of PH. The aim of this study was to determine the contribution and molecular mechanisms of TERT in the pathogenesis of PH. Approach and Results We measured the right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP) and ventricular weight, analyzed morphometric change of the pulmonary vessels in the hypoxia or monocrotaline treated rats. Bromodeoxyuridine incorporation, transwell assay and flow cytometry in pulmonary smooth muscle cells were performed to investigate the roles and relationship of TERT and 15-LO/15-HETE in PH. We revealed that the expression of TERT was increased in pulmonary vasculature of patients with PH and in the monocrotaline or hypoxia rat model of PH. The up-regulation of TERT was associated with experimental elevated RVSP and pulmonary vascular remodeling. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments identified TERT as a novel interacting partner of 15-LO-2. TERT and 15-LO-2 augmented protein expression of each other. In addition, the proliferation, migration and cell-cycle transition from G0/G1 phase to S phase induced by hypoxia were inhibited by TERT knockdown, which were rescued by 15-HETE addition. Conclusions These results demonstrate that TERT regulates pulmonary vascular remodeling. TERT and 15-LO-2 form a positive feedback loop and together promote proliferation and migration of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells, creating a self-amplifying circuit which propels pulmonary hypertension. PMID:24376652

  16. Neural mechanisms underlying auditory feedback control of speech

    PubMed Central

    Reilly, Kevin J.; Guenther, Frank H.

    2013-01-01

    The neural substrates underlying auditory feedback control of speech were investigated using a combination of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and computational modeling. Neural responses were measured while subjects spoke monosyllabic words under two conditions: (i) normal auditory feedback of their speech, and (ii) auditory feedback in which the first formant frequency of their speech was unexpectedly shifted in real time. Acoustic measurements showed compensation to the shift within approximately 135 ms of onset. Neuroimaging revealed increased activity in bilateral superior temporal cortex during shifted feedback, indicative of neurons coding mismatches between expected and actual auditory signals, as well as right prefrontal and Rolandic cortical activity. Structural equation modeling revealed increased influence of bilateral auditory cortical areas on right frontal areas during shifted speech, indicating that projections from auditory error cells in posterior superior temporal cortex to motor correction cells in right frontal cortex mediate auditory feedback control of speech. PMID:18035557

  17. Histone Deacetylase-3 Mediates Positive Feedback Relationship between Anaphylaxis and Tumor Metastasis*

    PubMed Central

    Eom, Sangkyung; Kim, Youngmi; Park, Deokbum; Lee, Hansoo; Lee, Yun Sil; Choe, Jongseon; Kim, Young Myeong; Jeoung, Dooil

    2014-01-01

    Allergic inflammation has been known to enhance the metastatic potential of tumor cells. The role of histone deacetylase-3 (HDAC3) in allergic skin inflammation was reported. We investigated HDAC3 involvement in the allergic inflammation-promotion of metastatic potential of tumor cells. Passive systemic anaphylaxis (PSA) induced HDAC3 expression and Fc?RI signaling in BALB/c mice. PSA enhanced the tumorigenic and metastatic potential of mouse melanoma cells in HDAC3- and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1-(MCP1)-dependent manner. The PSA-mediated enhancement of metastatic potential involved the induction of HDAC3, MCP1, and CD11b (a macrophage marker) expression in the lung tumor tissues. We examined an interaction between anaphylaxis and tumor growth and metastasis at the molecular level. Conditioned medium from antigen-stimulated bone marrow-derived mouse mast cell cultures induced the expression of HDAC3, MCP1, and CCR2, a receptor for MCP1, in B16F1 mouse melanoma cells and enhanced migration and invasion potential of B16F1 cells. The conditioned medium from B16F10 cultures induced the activation of Fc?RI signaling in lung mast cells in an HDAC3-dependent manner. Fc?RI signaling was observed in lung tumors derived from B16F10 cells. Target scan analysis predicted HDAC3 to be as a target of miR-384, and miR-384 and HDAC3 were found to form a feedback regulatory loop. miR-384, which is decreased by PSA, negatively regulated HDAC3 expression, allergic inflammation, and the positive feedback regulatory loop between anaphylaxis and tumor metastasis. We show the miR-384/HDAC3 feedback loop to be a novel regulator of the positive feedback relationship between anaphylaxis and tumor metastasis. PMID:24619412

  18. Control of position and movement is simplified by combined muscle spindle and Golgi tendon organ feedback

    PubMed Central

    Van Soest, Arthur J. Knoek; Wong, Jeremy D.; Kurtzer, Isaac; Gribble, Paul L.

    2013-01-01

    Whereas muscle spindles play a prominent role in current theories of human motor control, Golgi tendon organs (GTO) and their associated tendons are often neglected. This is surprising since there is ample evidence that both tendons and GTOs contribute importantly to neuromusculoskeletal dynamics. Using detailed musculoskeletal models, we provide evidence that simple feedback using muscle spindles alone results in very poor control of joint position and movement since muscle spindles cannot sense changes in tendon length that occur with changes in muscle force. We propose that a combination of spindle and GTO afferents can provide an estimate of muscle-tendon complex length, which can be effectively used for low-level feedback during both postural and movement tasks. The feasibility of the proposed scheme was tested using detailed musculoskeletal models of the human arm. Responses to transient and static perturbations were simulated using a 1-degree-of-freedom (DOF) model of the arm and showed that the combined feedback enabled the system to respond faster, reach steady state faster, and achieve smaller static position errors. Finally, we incorporated the proposed scheme in an optimally controlled 2-DOF model of the arm for fast point-to-point shoulder and elbow movements. Simulations showed that the proposed feedback could be easily incorporated in the optimal control framework without complicating the computation of the optimal control solution, yet greatly enhancing the system's response to perturbations. The theoretical analyses in this study might furthermore provide insight about the strong physiological couplings found between muscle spindle and GTO afferents in the human nervous system. PMID:23100138

  19. Distributed mechanical feedback in arthropods and robots simplifies control of rapid running on challenging terrain.

    PubMed

    Spagna, J C; Goldman, D I; Lin, P-C; Koditschek, D E; Full, R J

    2007-03-01

    Terrestrial arthropods negotiate demanding terrain more effectively than any search-and-rescue robot. Slow, precise stepping using distributed neural feedback is one strategy for dealing with challenging terrain. Alternatively, arthropods could simplify control on demanding surfaces by rapid running that uses kinetic energy to bridge gaps between footholds. We demonstrate that this is achieved using distributed mechanical feedback, resulting from passive contacts along legs positioned by pre-programmed trajectories favorable to their attachment mechanisms. We used wire-mesh experimental surfaces to determine how a decrease in foothold probability affects speed and stability. Spiders and insects attained high running speeds on simulated terrain with 90% of the surface contact area removed. Cockroaches maintained high speeds even with their tarsi ablated, by generating horizontally oriented leg trajectories. Spiders with more vertically directed leg placement used leg spines, which resulted in more effective distributed contact by interlocking with asperities during leg extension, but collapsing during flexion, preventing entanglement. Ghost crabs, which naturally lack leg spines, showed increased mobility on wire mesh after the addition of artificial, collapsible spines. A bioinspired robot, RHex, was redesigned to maximize effective distributed leg contact, by changing leg orientation and adding directional spines. These changes improved RHex's agility on challenging surfaces without adding sensors or changing the control system. PMID:17671322

  20. Shifts in a single muscle's control potential of body dynamics are determined by mechanical feedback

    PubMed Central

    Sponberg, Simon; Libby, Thomas; Mullens, Chris H.; Full, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    Muscles are multi-functional structures that interface neural and mechanical systems. Muscle work depends on a large multi-dimensional space of stimulus (neural) and strain (mechanical) parameters. In our companion paper, we rewrote activation to individual muscles in intact, behaving cockroaches (Blaberus discoidalis L.), revealing a specific muscle's potential to control body dynamics in different behaviours. Here, we use those results to provide the biologically relevant parameters for in situ work measurements. We test four hypotheses about how muscle function changes to provide mechanisms for the observed control responses. Under isometric conditions, a graded increase in muscle stress underlies its linear actuation during standing behaviours. Despite typically absorbing energy, this muscle can recruit two separate periods of positive work when controlling running. This functional change arises from mechanical feedback filtering a linear increase in neural activation into nonlinear work output. Changing activation phase again led to positive work recruitment, but at different times, consistent with the muscle's ability to also produce a turn. Changes in muscle work required considering the natural sequence of strides and separating swing and stance contributions of work. Both in vivo control potentials and in situ work loops were necessary to discover the neuromechanical coupling enabling control. PMID:21502130

  1. Movement goals and feedback and feedforward control mechanisms in speech production

    PubMed Central

    Perkell, Joseph S.

    2010-01-01

    Studies of speech motor control are described that support a theoretical framework in which fundamental control variables for phonemic movements are multi-dimensional regions in auditory and somatosensory spaces. Auditory feedback is used to acquire and maintain auditory goals and in the development and function of feedback and feedforward control mechanisms. Several lines of evidence support the idea that speakers with more acute sensory discrimination acquire more distinct goal regions and therefore produce speech sounds with greater contrast. Feedback modification findings indicate that fluently produced sound sequences are encoded as feedforward commands, and feedback control serves to correct mismatches between expected and produced sensory consequences. PMID:22661828

  2. Superconducting Quantum Interference Device Voltage Swing Related to Additional Positive Feedback Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takada, Youichi; Uehara, Gen; Matsuda, Naoki; Kado, Hisashi

    1994-11-01

    The relationship between superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) voltage swing and additional positive feedback (APF) parameters has been investigated. Voltage swing is depressed as APF gain increases. In a symmetric-bias-injection SQUID, the voltage depression can be explained by the voltage divider action of APF resistance and the SQUID dynamic resistance. On the other hand, the voltage depression in an asymmetric-bias-injection SQUID is expressed as the effect of the voltage divider action multiplied by the effect of thermal noise of APF resistance. These two effects should be considered when designing SQUIDs with an APF.

  3. Effect of phase shift position on spectral linewidth of the. pi. /2 distributed feedback laser diode

    SciTech Connect

    Ghafouri-Shiraz, H.; Chu, C.Y.J. (Univ. of Birmingham, School of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Birmingham B15 2TT (GB))

    1990-07-01

    The dependence of the spectral linewidth on the phase shift position (PSP) of a phase-shifted distributed-feedback (DFB) laser diode has been investigated theoretically, using the coupled wave model. In particular, the analysis has been performed to find an optimum PSP so as to minimize the spectral linewidth of the laser diode. This optimum PSP has been compared to that obtained my maximizing the stability of the laser oscillation. Since both narrow spectral linewidth and good stability are essential for the light source in coherent optical communications, the analysis reveals the suitability of using phase-shifted DFB laser diodes in coherent transmissions.

  4. Developmental Programming: Prenatal and Postnatal Contribution of Androgens and Insulin in the Reprogramming of Estradiol Positive Feedback Disruptions in Prenatal Testosterone-Treated Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Abi Salloum, Bachir; Herkimer, Carol; Lee, James S.; Veiga-Lopez, Almudena

    2012-01-01

    Prenatal testosterone (T) excess compromises the estradiol (E2) positive feedback. This study tested the hypothesis that antagonizing androgen action or improving insulin sensitivity prenatally would prevent positive feedback disruptions from developing, whereas postnatal intervention with androgen antagonist or insulin sensitizer would ameliorate the severity of disruptions in prenatal T-treated females. The E2 positive feedback response was tested at 16 wk of age in the following groups of animals: 1) control, 2) prenatal T, 3) prenatal T plus the androgen antagonist, flutamide, 4) prenatal T plus insulin sensitizer, rosiglitazone, 5) prenatal T and postnatal androgen antagonist, and 6) prenatal T and postnatal insulin sensitizer (n = 7–21 animals/group). Prenatal T treatment involved the administration of T propionate (100 mg, im) twice weekly from d 30 to 90 of gestation. Prenatal interventions involved daily sc administration of androgen antagonist (15 mg/kg) or oral administration of insulin sensitizer (8 mg) for the same duration. Postnatal treatments began at 8 wk of age and involved daily oral administration of androgen antagonist (15 mg/kg) or insulin sensitizer (0.11 mg/kg). None of the prenatal/postnatal interventions increased number of animals responding or prevented the time delay in LH surge response to the E2 positive feedback challenge. In contrast, the postnatal treatment with androgen antagonist or insulin sensitizer increased total LH released in response to E2 positive feedback challenge, compared with the T animals. Overall, these interventional studies indicate that timing and magnitude of the LH surge are programmed by different neuroendocrine mechanisms with postnatal androgens and insulin determining the size and prenatal estrogen likely the timing of the LH surge. PMID:22454153

  5. Efficient plant growth using automatic position-feedback laser light irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakinoki, Yoshiaki; Kato, Yuya; Ogawa, Kosuke; Nakao, Akira; Okai, Zenshiro; Katsuyama, Toshio

    2013-05-01

    The plant growth based on the scanning laser beam is newly developed. Three semiconductor lasers with three primary colors, i.e., blue, green and red are used. Here, the laser scanned position is restricted only to the plant leaves, where the light illumination is needed. The feedback system based on the perspective projection is developed. The system consists of the automatic position correction from the camera image. The automatic image extraction of the leaf parts is also introduced. The electric power needed for this system is as small as 6.25% compared with the traditional white fluorescent lamp. Furthermore, experimental results show that the red-color laser light is particularly efficient for the growth of the radish sprouts.

  6. The role of atmosphere feedbacks during ENSO in the CMIP3 models. Part II: using AMIP runs to understand the heat flux feedback mechanisms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James Lloyd; Eric Guilyardi; Hilary Weller

    2010-01-01

    Several studies using ocean–atmosphere general circulation models (GCMs) suggest that the atmospheric component plays a dominant\\u000a role in the modelled El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). To help elucidate these findings, the two main atmosphere feedbacks\\u000a relevant to ENSO, the Bjerknes positive feedback (?) and the heat flux negative feedback (?), are here analysed in nine AMIP runs of the CMIP3 multimodel

  7. A Simple Negative Interaction in the Positive Transcriptional Feedback of a Single Gene Is Sufficient to Produce Reliable Oscillations

    PubMed Central

    Miró-Bueno, Jesús M.; Rodríguez-Patón, Alfonso

    2011-01-01

    Negative and positive transcriptional feedback loops are present in natural and synthetic genetic oscillators. A single gene with negative transcriptional feedback needs a time delay and sufficiently strong nonlinearity in the transmission of the feedback signal in order to produce biochemical rhythms. A single gene with only positive transcriptional feedback does not produce oscillations. Here, we demonstrate that this single-gene network in conjunction with a simple negative interaction can also easily produce rhythms. We examine a model comprised of two well-differentiated parts. The first is a positive feedback created by a protein that binds to the promoter of its own gene and activates the transcription. The second is a negative interaction in which a repressor molecule prevents this protein from binding to its promoter. A stochastic study shows that the system is robust to noise. A deterministic study identifies that the dynamics of the oscillator are mainly driven by two types of biomolecules: the protein, and the complex formed by the repressor and this protein. The main conclusion of this paper is that a simple and usual negative interaction, such as degradation, sequestration or inhibition, acting on the positive transcriptional feedback of a single gene is a sufficient condition to produce reliable oscillations. One gene is enough and the positive transcriptional feedback signal does not need to activate a second repressor gene. This means that at the genetic level an explicit negative feedback loop is not necessary. The model needs neither cooperative binding reactions nor the formation of protein multimers. Therefore, our findings could help to clarify the design principles of cellular clocks and constitute a new efficient tool for engineering synthetic genetic oscillators. PMID:22205920

  8. A simple negative interaction in the positive transcriptional feedback of a single gene is sufficient to produce reliable oscillations.

    PubMed

    Miró-Bueno, Jesús M; Rodríguez-Patón, Alfonso

    2011-01-01

    Negative and positive transcriptional feedback loops are present in natural and synthetic genetic oscillators. A single gene with negative transcriptional feedback needs a time delay and sufficiently strong nonlinearity in the transmission of the feedback signal in order to produce biochemical rhythms. A single gene with only positive transcriptional feedback does not produce oscillations. Here, we demonstrate that this single-gene network in conjunction with a simple negative interaction can also easily produce rhythms. We examine a model comprised of two well-differentiated parts. The first is a positive feedback created by a protein that binds to the promoter of its own gene and activates the transcription. The second is a negative interaction in which a repressor molecule prevents this protein from binding to its promoter. A stochastic study shows that the system is robust to noise. A deterministic study identifies that the dynamics of the oscillator are mainly driven by two types of biomolecules: the protein, and the complex formed by the repressor and this protein. The main conclusion of this paper is that a simple and usual negative interaction, such as degradation, sequestration or inhibition, acting on the positive transcriptional feedback of a single gene is a sufficient condition to produce reliable oscillations. One gene is enough and the positive transcriptional feedback signal does not need to activate a second repressor gene. This means that at the genetic level an explicit negative feedback loop is not necessary. The model needs neither cooperative binding reactions nor the formation of protein multimers. Therefore, our findings could help to clarify the design principles of cellular clocks and constitute a new efficient tool for engineering synthetic genetic oscillators. PMID:22205920

  9. Tenure-Track Faculty Position: Mechanical Engineering School of Engineering

    E-print Network

    Hayden, Nancy J.

    Tenure-Track Faculty Position: Mechanical Engineering School of Engineering College of Engineering) invites applications for a tenure-track faculty position in Mechanical Engineering at the Assistant in mechanical engineering and adoctorate in mechanical engineering, or a closely related engineering field

  10. THE MECHANICAL ACTION OF PROPRIOCEPTIVE LENGTH FEEDBACK IN A MODEL OF THE CAT HINDLIMB

    PubMed Central

    Burkholder, Thomas J.; Nichols, T. Richard

    2007-01-01

    Postural regulation is an important part of a variety of motor tasks, including quiet standing and locomotion. Muscle length feedback, both the autogenic length feedback arising from a muscle’s own spindles, and heterogenic length feedback, arising from its agonists and antagonists, is a strong modulator of muscle force and well suited to postural maintenance. The effects of this reflex feedback on 3-D force generation and limb mechanics are not known. In this paper, we present a mechanical model for relating 3-D changes in cat hindlimb posture to changes in muscle lengths. These changes in muscle length are used to estimate changes in both intrinsic muscle force generation and muscle activation by length feedback pathways. Few muscles are found to have directly agonist mechanical actions, and most differ by more than 20°. Endpoint force fields are largely uniform across the space investigated. Both autogenic and heterogenic feedback contribute to whole limb resistance to perturbation, autogenic pathways being most dramatic. Length feedback strongly reinforced a restoring force in response to endpoint displacement. PMID:11508248

  11. Sahara Heat Low Perturbations and Water Vapor in the Sahel: A Positive Feedback System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caughman, L.; Evan, A. T.

    2013-12-01

    It is necessary to understand the drivers and feedbacks of global desertification, motivated by the increasing need to improve global food production and to sustainably manage ecosystems in the context of climate change. Climate change and land dynamics are the perturbations that are major drivers of an ecosystem shift to a ';';desertified'' state. This shift is typically sustained by positive feedbacks, which stabilize the system in the new state. This research focuses on changes in precipitation resulting from land-atmosphere interactions and changes in vegetation cover. We concentrate on the Sahel region of Africa (a strip of land that is a transitional area between the Sahara desert to the North and the rain forest to the South). It is a dry land, semi arid environment and is a bistable ecosystem that can either be in the state of 'dry' or 'wet'. After an abnormally wet/high precipitation period in the 1950s the Sahel experienced terrible droughts and desertification which peaked in the 1980s. Since then, precipitation has gradually increased and a sinusoidal model has been shown run on a multi decadal cycle. Discrepancies in the data exist, however, and although the overall cycle has been modeled well, the large inter-annual fluctuations in precipitation have yet to be sufficiently modeled or explained. This research offers new evidence as to why such a phenomenon exists and attempts to attribute this behavior to a coupled land-atmosphere feedback system, linking together changes in vegetation cover and precipitation in the Sahel. Using the model output data from a high resolution Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to look at Africa and compare the difference between perturbations and the mean, this research asserts that when the surface of the Saharan Heat Low (SHL) becomes extremely hot the pressure drops substantially. Subsequently, due to the West African Monsoon system, air rushes in from high-pressure areas, and pulls monsoon precipitation/humidity over the Sahel, causing abnormally wet seasons. The more rainfall the area receives, the more vegetation cover increases. Additionally, this increased water vapor coming from evapotranspiration from plants then blankets the SHL, further warming it and continuing the cycle of positive feedback. The reverse effect could also take place, causing an abnormally dry season. This is theorized to be the reason for the inter-annual variation in rainfall within the Sahel and preliminary results support this conclusion.

  12. Development of digital feedback systems for beam position and energy at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Karn, J.; Chowdhary, M.; Hutton, A. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States)] [and others

    1997-06-01

    The development of beam-based digital feedback systems for the CEBAF accelerator has gone through several stages. As the accelerator moved from commissioning to operation for the nuclear physics program, the top priority was to stabilize the beam against slow energy and position drifts (<1 Hz). These slow drifts were corrected using the existing accelerator monitors and actuators driven by software running on top of the EPICS control system. With slow drifts corrected, attention turned to quantifying the higher frequency disturbances on the beam and to designing the required feedback systems needed to achieve the CEBAF design stability requirements. Results from measurements showed the major components in position and energy to be at harmonics of the power line frequencies of 60, 120, and 180 Hz. Hardware and software was installed in two locations of the accelerator as prototypes for the faster feedback systems needed. This paper gives an overview of the measured beam disturbances and the feedback systems developed.

  13. Self-Management of Patient Body Position, Pose, and Motion Using Wide-Field, Real-Time Optical Measurement Feedback: Results of a Volunteer Study

    SciTech Connect

    Parkhurst, James M. [Developing Technologies, Christie Medical Physics and Engineering, The Christie NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester (United Kingdom); Price, Gareth J., E-mail: gareth.price@christie.nhs.uk [Developing Technologies, Christie Medical Physics and Engineering, The Christie NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester (United Kingdom); Faculty of Medical and Human Sciences, Manchester Academic Health Sciences Centre, University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom); Sharrock, Phil J. [Developing Technologies, Christie Medical Physics and Engineering, The Christie NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester (United Kingdom); Jackson, Andrew S.N. [Clinical Oncology, Southampton University Hospitals Foundation Trust, Southampton (United Kingdom); Stratford, Julie [Department of Radiotherapy, The Christie NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester (United Kingdom); Moore, Christopher J. [Developing Technologies, Christie Medical Physics and Engineering, The Christie NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester (United Kingdom); Faculty of Medical and Human Sciences, Manchester Academic Health Sciences Centre, University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: We present the results of a clinical feasibility study, performed in 10 healthy volunteers undergoing a simulated treatment over 3 sessions, to investigate the use of a wide-field visual feedback technique intended to help patients control their pose while reducing motion during radiation therapy treatment. Methods and Materials: An optical surface sensor is used to capture wide-area measurements of a subject's body surface with visualizations of these data displayed back to them in real time. In this study we hypothesize that this active feedback mechanism will enable patients to control their motion and help them maintain their setup pose and position. A capability hierarchy of 3 different level-of-detail abstractions of the measured surface data is systematically compared. Results: Use of the device enabled volunteers to increase their conformance to a reference surface, as measured by decreased variability across their body surfaces. The use of visual feedback also enabled volunteers to reduce their respiratory motion amplitude to 1.7 ± 0.6 mm compared with 2.7 ± 1.4 mm without visual feedback. Conclusions: The use of live feedback of their optically measured body surfaces enabled a set of volunteers to better manage their pose and motion when compared with free breathing. The method is suitable to be taken forward to patient studies.

  14. The impact of mechanical AGN feedback on the formation of massive early-type galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Ena; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.; Naab, Thorsten; Oser, Ludwig; Moster, Benjamin P.

    2015-06-01

    We employ cosmological hydrodynamical simulations to investigate the effects of AGN feedback on the formation of massive galaxies with present-day stellar masses of M_stel= 8.8 × 10^{10}-6.0 × 10^{11} M_{?}. Using smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations with a pressure-entropy formulation that allows an improved treatment of contact discontinuities and fluid mixing, we run three sets of simulations of 20 haloes with different AGN feedback models: (1) no feedback, (2) thermal feedback, and (3) mechanical and radiation feedback. We assume that seed black holes are present at early cosmic epochs at the centre of emerging dark matter haloes and trace their mass growth via gas accretion and mergers with other black holes. Both feedback models successfully recover the observed MBH-? relation and black hole-to-stellar mass ratio for simulated central early-type galaxies. The baryonic conversion efficiencies are reduced by a factor of 2 compared to models without any AGN feedback at all halo masses. However, massive galaxies simulated with thermal AGN feedback show a factor of ˜10-100 higher X-ray luminosities than observed. The mechanical/radiation feedback model reproduces the observed correlation between X-ray luminosities and velocity dispersion, e.g. for galaxies with ? = 200 km s- 1, the X-ray luminosity is reduced from 1042 erg s- 1 to 1040 erg s- 1. It also efficiently suppresses late-time star formation, reducing the specific star formation rate from 10-10.5 yr- 1 to 10-14 yr- 1 on average and resulting in quiescent galaxies since z = 2, whereas the thermal feedback model shows higher late-time in situ star formation rates than observed.

  15. Theory and calculations of synchrotron instabilities and feedback-mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Meijssen, T.E.M.

    1981-08-12

    The properties of the phenomenon synchrotron radiation are given with general theory on the basic processes and betatron and synchrotron oscillations. A more extended theoretical view at transverse instabilities and the influence of a damping feedback system are discussed. The longitudinal case is covered. For the calculations on the longitudinal case with M equally spaced pointbunches, with N electrons each, in the storage ring, the parasitic modes of the radio-frequency cavity were measured. A description of this is given. The values of damping rates of the longitudinal feedback system found, are as expected, but too low to damp the longitudinal instabilities calculated. This might be caused by the input data. The calculated growth rates are very sensitive to changes in frequency and width of the parasitic modes, which were measured under conditions differing slightly from the operating conditions.

  16. A positive feedback regulation of ISL-1 in DLBCL but not in pancreatic ?-cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiao; Yang, Zhe; Wang, Weiping; Guo, Ting; Jia, Zhuqing; Ma, Kangtao; Zhou, Chunyan

    2014-07-01

    Insulin enhancer binding protein-1 (ISL-1), a LIM-homeodomain transcription factor, has been reported to play essential roles in promoting adult pancreatic ?-cells proliferation. Recent studies indicate that ISL-1 may also involve in the occurrence of a variety of tumors. However, whether ISL-1 has any functional effect on tumorigenesis, and what are the differences on ISL-1 function in distinct conditions, are completely unknown. In this study, we found that ISL-1 was highly expressed in human pancreatic ?-cells, as well as in diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL), but to a much less extent in other normal tissues or tumor specimens. Further study revealed that ISL-1 promoted the proliferation of pancreatic ?-cells and DLBCL cells, and also accelerated the tumorigenesis of DLBCL in vivo. We also found that ISL-1 could activate c-Myc transcription not only in pancreatic ?-cells but also in DLBCL cells. However, a cell-specific feedback regulation was detectable only in DLBCL cells. This auto-regulatory loop was established by the interaction of ISL-1 and c-Myc to form an ISL-1/c-Myc transcriptional complex, and synergistically to promote ISL-1 transcription through binding on the ISL-1 promoter. Taken together, our results demonstrate a positive feedback regulation of ISL-1 in DLBCL but not in pancreatic ?-cells, which might result in the functional diversities of ISL-1 in different physiological and pathological processes. PMID:24845569

  17. Will stomatal behavior lead to a positive or negative feedback to anticipated climatic change?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlick, R.; Kleidon, A.

    2007-12-01

    Some coupled climate-vegetation models use the Ball-Berry empirical relationship to simulate the effect of environmental conditions on stomatal conductance. This can lead to a positive feedback in the model, wherein the simulated vegetation closes its stomates due to higher pCO2 concentrations or water stress, resulting in less moisture cycling, enhancing stomatal closure, and eventually contributing to a non-vegetated state. Previous studies at the leaf, canopy, and regional scales have suggested that stomata function optimally to maximize carbon gain. Optimal stomatal functioning would suggest that stomata will react with a negative feedback to climatic change. Here we compare three transient climate-vegetation simulations forced with prescribed pCO2 concentrations over the 1850 -2100 time period. In the control simulation, we maximize the gross primary productivity with respect to the stomatal conductance parameter for pre-industrial conditions. This parameter is then held constant for the remainder of the simulation. In another simulation, we optimize the stomatal conductance parameter at regular intervals throughout the simulation period. In a third simulation, the stomatal conductance is calculated according to the Ball-Berry relationship. We then evaluate the simulations with regards to the modeled productivity and associated surface and boundary-layer characteristics.

  18. Micro Position Control of a 3-RRR Compliant Mechanical Engineering

    E-print Network

    Yanikoglu, Berrin

    Micro Position Control of a 3-RRR Compliant Mechanism Merve Acer Mechanical Engineering Istanbul University Istanbul, Turkey asif@sabanciuniv.edu Abstract--A 3-RRR compliant mechanism is designed to be used. Index Terms-- 3-RRR mechanism, compliant mechanism, sliding mode control, piezoelectric actuator control

  19. Output feedback integral control for nano-positioning using piezoelectric actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shan, Jinjun; Yang, Liu; Li, Zhan

    2015-04-01

    This paper proposes a robust output feedback controller for a piezoelectrically actuated system with only position sensor. This considered piezoelectric actuator (PEA) system is subjected to model imperfection, creep nonlinearity, hysteresis nonlinearity and other external effects. The designed controller employs a second-order auxiliary system and a discontinuous uncertainty and disturbance estimation term to generate filtered error signals and to compensate for the model uncertainties and system disturbance, respectively. The global stability of the proposed controller is proved through Lyapunov-based stability analysis. The feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed control approach are verified experimentally using a PEA stage. Results demonstrate that both set-point and tracking control without/with external loads are realized with good performance and the PEA system with high-accuracy can be achieved. Moreover, the robustness of the controller is verified and analyzed through the sinusoidal tracking with external disturbance.

  20. Optical boundary reconstruction of tokamak plasmas for feedback control of plasma position and shape.

    PubMed

    Hommen, G; de Baar, M; Nuij, P; McArdle, G; Akers, R; Steinbuch, M

    2010-11-01

    A new diagnostic is developed to reconstruct the plasma boundary using visible wavelength images. Exploiting the plasma's edge localized and toroidally symmetric emission profile, a new coordinate transform is presented to reconstruct the plasma boundary from a poloidal view image. The plasma boundary reconstruction is implemented in MATLAB and applied to camera images of Mega-Ampere Spherical Tokamak discharges. The optically reconstructed plasma boundaries are compared to magnetic reconstructions from the offline reconstruction code EFIT, showing very good qualitative and quantitative agreement. Average errors are within 2 cm and correlation is high. In the current software implementation, plasma boundary reconstruction from a single image takes 3 ms. The applicability and system requirements of the new optical boundary reconstruction, called OFIT, for use in both feedback control of plasma position and shape and in offline reconstruction tools are discussed. PMID:21133468

  1. Optical boundary reconstruction of tokamak plasmas for feedback control of plasma position and shape

    SciTech Connect

    Hommen, G.; Baar, M. de [Control Systems Technology Group, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); FOM Institute for Plasma Physics ''Rijnhuizen'', Association EURATOM-FOM, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, P.O. Box 1207, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Nuij, P.; Steinbuch, M. [Control Systems Technology Group, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); McArdle, G.; Akers, R. [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxfordshire OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)

    2010-11-15

    A new diagnostic is developed to reconstruct the plasma boundary using visible wavelength images. Exploiting the plasma's edge localized and toroidally symmetric emission profile, a new coordinate transform is presented to reconstruct the plasma boundary from a poloidal view image. The plasma boundary reconstruction is implemented in MATLAB and applied to camera images of Mega-Ampere Spherical Tokamak discharges. The optically reconstructed plasma boundaries are compared to magnetic reconstructions from the offline reconstruction code EFIT, showing very good qualitative and quantitative agreement. Average errors are within 2 cm and correlation is high. In the current software implementation, plasma boundary reconstruction from a single image takes 3 ms. The applicability and system requirements of the new optical boundary reconstruction, called OFIT, for use in both feedback control of plasma position and shape and in offline reconstruction tools are discussed.

  2. Hybrid MOS-PN photodiode with positive feedback for pulse-modulation imaging.

    PubMed

    Sallin, Denis; Koukab, Adil; Kayal, Maher

    2014-06-16

    A new type of CMOS compatible photodetector, exhibiting intrinsic light-to-time conversion, is proposed. Its main objective is to start the time-to-digital conversion directly at its output, thereby avoiding the cumbersome analog processing. The operation starts with an internal charge integration, followed by a positive feedback, and a sharp switching-current. The device, consisting of a deeply depleted MOS structure controlling the conduction of a forward-based PN diode, is presented and its operation explained. TCAD simulations are used to show the effects of semiconductor parameters and bias conditions. The photodetector and its detection circuit are designed and fabricated in a 0.18µm CMOS process. Measurements of this new device under different biasing and illumination conditions show highly promising properties in terms of linearity, internal gain, and noise performances. PMID:24977541

  3. A Framework to Illustrate Kinematic Behavior of Mechanisms by Haptic Feedback

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Qinqin; Bennis, Fouad; Zhang, Wei

    2007-01-01

    The kinematic properties of mechanisms are well known by the researchers and teachers. The theory based on the study of Jacobian matrices allows us to explain, for example, the singular configuration. However, in many cases, the physical sense of such properties is difficult to explain to students. The aim of this article is to use haptic feedback to render to the user the signification of different kinematic indices. The framework uses a Phantom Omni and a serial and parallel mechanism with two degrees of freedom. The end-effector of both mechanisms can be moved either by classical mouse, or Phantom Omni with or without feedback.

  4. Faculty Position in Mechanical Engineering Water Conservation in Industrial Processes

    E-print Network

    Faculty Position in Mechanical Engineering Water Conservation in Industrial Processes University for a tenure- track faculty position at the rank of Assistant Professor in the area of water conservation

  5. Visual Feedback of the Non-Moving Limb Improves Active Joint-Position Sense of the Impaired Limb in Spastic Hemiparetic Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smorenburg, Ana R. P.; Ledebt, Annick; Deconinck, Frederik J. A.; Savelsbergh, Geert J. P.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the active joint-position sense in children with Spastic Hemiparetic Cerebral Palsy (SHCP) and the effect of static visual feedback and static mirror visual feedback, of the non-moving limb, on the joint-position sense. Participants were asked to match the position of one upper limb with that of the contralateral limb. The task…

  6. Mechanical feedback through E-cadherin promotes direction sensing during collective cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Danfeng; Chen, Shann-Ching; Prasad, Mohit; He, Li; Wang, Xiaobo; Choesmel-Cadamuro, Valerie; Sawyer, Jessica K.; Danuser, Gaudenz; Montell, Denise J.

    2014-01-01

    Summary E-cadherin is a major homophilic cell-cell adhesion molecule that inhibits motility of individual cells on matrix. However its contribution to migration of cells through cell-rich tissues is less clear. We developed an in vivo sensor of mechanical tension across E-cadherin molecules, which we combined with cell-type-specific RNAi, photo-activatable Rac, and morphodynamic profiling, to interrogate how E-cadherin contributes to collective migration of cells between other cells. Using the Drosophila ovary as a model, we found that adhesion between border cells and their substrate, the nurse cells, functions in a positive feedback loop with Rac and actin assembly to stabilize forward-directed protrusion and directionally persistent movement. Adhesion between individual border cells communicates direction from the lead cell to the followers. Adhesion between motile cells and polar cells holds the cluster together and polarizes each individual cell. Thus, E-cadherin is an integral component of the guidance mechanisms that orchestrate collective chemotaxis in vivo. PMID:24855950

  7. Laser-Machined Shape Memory Alloy Sensors for Position Feedback in Active Catheters

    PubMed Central

    Tung, Alexander T.; Park, Byong-Ho; Liang, David H.; Niemeyer, Günter

    2008-01-01

    Catheter-based interventions are a form of minimally invasive surgery that can decrease hospitalization time and greatly lower patient morbidity compared to traditional methods. However, percutaneous catheter procedures are hindered by a lack of precise tip manipulation when actuation forces are transmitted over the length of the catheter. Active catheters with local shape-memory-alloy (SMA) actuation can potentially provide the desired manipulation of a catheter tip, but hysteresis makes it difficult to control the actuators. A method to integrate small-volume, compliant sensors on an active catheter to provide position feedback for control would greatly improve the viability of SMA-based active catheters. In this work, we describe the design, fabrication, and performance of resistance-based position sensors that are laser-machined from superelastic SMA tubing. Combining simple material models and rapid prototyping, we can develop sensors of appropriate stiffness and sensitivity with simple modifications in sensor geometry. The sensors exhibit excellent linearity over the operating range and are designed to be easily integrated onto an active catheter substrate. PMID:19759806

  8. Positive, but not negative feedback actions of estradiol in adult female mice require estrogen receptor ? in kisspeptin neurons.

    PubMed

    Dubois, Sharon L; Acosta-Martínez, Maricedes; DeJoseph, Mary R; Wolfe, Andrew; Radovick, Sally; Boehm, Ulrich; Urban, Janice H; Levine, Jon E

    2015-03-01

    Hypothalamic kisspeptin (Kiss1) neurons express estrogen receptor ? (ER?) and exert control over GnRH/LH secretion in female rodents. It has been proposed that estradiol (E2) activation of ER? in kisspeptin neurons in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) suppresses GnRH/LH secretion (negative feedback), whereas E2 activation of ER? in kisspeptin neurons in the anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV) mediates the release of preovulatory GnRH/LH surges (positive feedback). To test these hypotheses, we generated mice bearing kisspeptin cell-specific deletion of ER? (KER?KO) and treated them with E2 regimens that evoke either negative or positive feedback actions on GnRH/LH secretion. Using negative feedback regimens, as expected, E2 effectively suppressed LH levels in ovariectomized (OVX) wild-type (WT) mice to the levels seen in ovary-intact mice. Surprisingly, however, despite the fact that E2 regulation of Kiss1 mRNA expression was abrogated in both the ARC and AVPV of KER?KO mice, E2 also effectively decreased LH levels in OVX KER?KO mice to the levels seen in ovary-intact mice. Conversely, using a positive feedback regimen, E2 stimulated LH surges in WT mice, but had no effect in KER?KO mice. These experiments clearly demonstrate that ER? in kisspeptin neurons is required for the positive, but not negative feedback actions of E2 on GnRH/LH secretion in adult female mice. It remains to be determined whether the failure of KER?KO mice to exhibit GnRH/LH surges reflects the role of ER? in the development of kisspeptin neurons, in the active signaling processes leading to the release of GnRH/LH surges, or both. PMID:25545386

  9. Construction and Modelling of an Inducible Positive Feedback Loop Stably Integrated in a Mammalian Cell-Line

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Velia Siciliano; Filippo Menolascina; Lucia Marucci; Chiara Fracassi; Immacolata Garzilli; Maria Nicoletta Moretti; Diego di Bernardo

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the relationship between topology and dynamics of transcriptional regulatory networks in mammalian cells is essential to elucidate the biology of complex regulatory and signaling pathways. Here, we characterised, via a synthetic biology approach, a transcriptional positive feedback loop (PFL) by generating a clonal population of mammalian cells (CHO) carrying a stable integration of the construct. The PFL network consists

  10. Video-Feedback Intervention to Promote Positive Parenting Adapted to Autism (VIPP-AUTI): A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poslawsky, Irina E; Naber, Fabiënne BA; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; van Daalen, Emma; van Engeland, Herman; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H

    2015-01-01

    In a randomized controlled trial, we evaluated the early intervention program Video-feedback Intervention to promote Positive Parenting adapted to Autism (VIPP-AUTI) with 78 primary caregivers and their child (16-61 months) with Autism Spectrum Disorder. VIPP-AUTI is a brief attachment-based intervention program, focusing on improving parent-child…

  11. A novel technique for position analysis of planar compliant mechanisms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Venanzi; P. Giesen; V. Parenti-Castelli

    2005-01-01

    An iterative technique to perform the non-linear position analysis of planar compliant mechanisms is presented. The technique makes it possible to find the position and orientation (pose) of each link of a mechanism whose input link deflection is assigned. Unlike most papers, it does not rely on the finite-element method. Its innovative part is in the fact that large deflections

  12. A Rho Scaffold Integrates the Secretory System with Feedback Mechanisms in Regulation of Auxin Distribution

    PubMed Central

    Poraty, Limor; Sternberg, Hasana; Zhang, Jing; Friml, Ji?í; Yalovsky, Shaul

    2010-01-01

    Development in multicellular organisms depends on the ability of individual cells to coordinate their behavior by means of small signaling molecules to form correctly patterned tissues. In plants, a unique mechanism of directional transport of the signaling molecule auxin between cells connects cell polarity and tissue patterning and thus is required for many aspects of plant development. Direction of auxin flow is determined by polar subcellular localization of PIN auxin efflux transporters. Dynamic PIN polar localization results from the constitutive endocytic cycling to and from the plasma membrane, but it is not well understood how this mechanism connects to regulators of cell polarity. The Rho family small GTPases ROPs/RACs are master regulators of cell polarity, however their role in regulating polar protein trafficking and polar auxin transport has not been established. Here, by analysis of mutants and transgenic plants, we show that the ROP interactor and polarity regulator scaffold protein ICR1 is required for recruitment of PIN proteins to the polar domains at the plasma membrane. icr1 mutant embryos and plants display an a array of severe developmental aberrations that are caused by compromised differential auxin distribution. ICR1 functions at the plasma membrane where it is required for exocytosis but does not recycle together with PINs. ICR1 expression is quickly induced by auxin but is suppressed at the positions of stable auxin maxima in the hypophysis and later in the embryonic and mature root meristems. Our results imply that ICR1 is part of an auxin regulated positive feedback loop realized by a unique integration of auxin-dependent transcriptional regulation into ROP-mediated modulation of cell polarity. Thus, ICR1 forms an auxin-modulated link between cell polarity, exocytosis, and auxin transport-dependent tissue patterning. PMID:20098722

  13. Crossveinless 2 is an essential positive feedback regulator of Bmp signaling during zebrafish gastrulation.

    PubMed

    Rentzsch, Fabian; Zhang, Jinli; Kramer, Carina; Sebald, Walter; Hammerschmidt, Matthias

    2006-03-01

    Signaling by bone morphogenetic proteins (Bmps) plays a pivotal role in developmental and pathological processes, and is regulated by a complex interplay with secreted Bmp binding factors, including Crossveinless 2 (Cvl2). Although structurally related to the Bmp antagonist Chordin, Crossveinless 2 has been described to be both a Bmp agonist and antagonist. Here, we present the first loss-of-function study of a vertebrate cvl2 homologue, showing that zebrafish cvl2 is required in a positive feedback loop to promote Bmp signaling during embryonic dorsoventral patterning. In vivo, Cvl2 protein undergoes proteolytic cleavage and this cleavage converts Cvl2 from an anti- to a pro-Bmp factor. Embryonic epistasis analyses and protein interaction assays indicate that the pro-Bmp function of Cvl2 is partly accomplished by competing with Chordin for binding to Bmps. Studies in cell culture and embryos further suggest that the anti-Bmp effect of uncleaved Cvl2 is due to its association with the extracellular matrix, which is not found for cleaved Cvl2. Our data identify Cvl2 as an essential pro-Bmp factor during zebrafish embryogenesis, emphasizing the functional diversity of Bmp binding CR-domain proteins. Differential proteolytic processing as a mode of regulation might account for anti-Bmp effects in other contexts. PMID:16439480

  14. A positive feedback loop between RIP3 and JNK controls non-alcoholic steatohepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Gautheron, Jérémie; Vucur, Mihael; Reisinger, Florian; Cardenas, David Vargas; Roderburg, Christoph; Koppe, Christiane; Kreggenwinkel, Karina; Schneider, Anne Theres; Bartneck, Matthias; Neumann, Ulf Peter; Canbay, Ali; Reeves, Helen Louise; Luedde, Mark; Tacke, Frank; Trautwein, Christian; Heikenwalder, Mathias; Luedde, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) represents the most common liver disease in Western countries and often progresses to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) leading ultimately to liver fibrosis and liver cancer. The occurrence of hepatocyte cell death—so far characterized as hepatocyte apoptosis—represents a fundamental step from benign steatosis toward progressive steatohepatitis. In contrast, the function of RIP3-dependent “necroptosis” in NASH and NASH-induced fibrosis is currently unknown. We show that RIP3 is upregulated in human NASH and in a dietary mouse model of steatohepatitis. RIP3 mediates liver injury, inflammation, induction of hepatic progenitor cells/activated cholangiocytes, and liver fibrosis through a pathway suppressed by Caspase-8. This function of RIP3 is mediated by a positive feedback loop involving activation of Jun-(N)-terminal Kinase (JNK). Furthermore, RIP3-dependent JNK activation promotes the release of pro-inflammatory mediators like MCP-1, thereby attracting macrophages to the injured liver and further augmenting RIP3-dependent signaling, cell death, and liver fibrosis. Thus, RIP3-dependent necroptosis controls NASH-induced liver fibrosis. This pathway might represent a novel and specific target for pharmacological strategies in patients with NASH. Subject Categories Digestive System; Metabolism PMID:24963148

  15. Positive feedback by a potassium-selective inward rectifier enhances tuning in vertebrate hair cells.

    PubMed

    Goodman, M B; Art, J J

    1996-07-01

    Electrical resonance in vertebrate hair cells shapes receptor potentials and tunes each cell to a narrow band of frequencies. We have investigated the contribution of a potassium-selective inward rectifier (IR) to electrical resonance, isolating outward current carried by IR from other ionic currents active in the physiological voltage range (-75 to -30 mV) using a combination of potassium and calcium channel antagonists. IR expression is tightly regulated in the turtle's auditory epithelium, as revealed by the observation that its size declines systematically with resonant frequency. A critical feature of IR is the rapid inhibition produced by depolarization, which results in a negative slope in the steady-state current-voltage relation in the vicinity of the resting potential (-50 mV). The increasing block of outward current produced by depolarization is functionally equivalent to activating an inward current, suggesting that IR provides positive feedback and, in hair cells, serves an electrical function ordinarily reserved for voltage-dependent sodium and calcium currents. Additional support for this idea comes from the observation that superfusion with cesium selectively reduces IR and eliminates resonance in cells tuned to low frequencies and degrades resonant quality in cells tuned to more than 50 Hz. PMID:8804626

  16. Positive feedback by a potassium-selective inward rectifier enhances tuning in vertebrate hair cells.

    PubMed Central

    Goodman, M B; Art, J J

    1996-01-01

    Electrical resonance in vertebrate hair cells shapes receptor potentials and tunes each cell to a narrow band of frequencies. We have investigated the contribution of a potassium-selective inward rectifier (IR) to electrical resonance, isolating outward current carried by IR from other ionic currents active in the physiological voltage range (-75 to -30 mV) using a combination of potassium and calcium channel antagonists. IR expression is tightly regulated in the turtle's auditory epithelium, as revealed by the observation that its size declines systematically with resonant frequency. A critical feature of IR is the rapid inhibition produced by depolarization, which results in a negative slope in the steady-state current-voltage relation in the vicinity of the resting potential (-50 mV). The increasing block of outward current produced by depolarization is functionally equivalent to activating an inward current, suggesting that IR provides positive feedback and, in hair cells, serves an electrical function ordinarily reserved for voltage-dependent sodium and calcium currents. Additional support for this idea comes from the observation that superfusion with cesium selectively reduces IR and eliminates resonance in cells tuned to low frequencies and degrades resonant quality in cells tuned to more than 50 Hz. PMID:8804626

  17. Positive feedback between oncogenic KRAS and HIF-1? confers drug resistance in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yanzhao; Lei, Fuming; Rong, Wanshui; Zeng, Qingmin; Sun, Wenbing

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 30%–50% of colorectal cancers (CRCs) harbor the somatic mutated KRAS gene. KRAS G12V, one of the most common KRAS mutations in CRCs, is linked to increased tumor aggressiveness, less response to anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) therapy, and poor survival rate. In this study, we sought to determine whether resistance to EGFR inhibitors in colorectal cancer cells harboring KRAS G12V mutation is associated with hypoxia. Our data indicated that HIF-1? was induced by KRAS G12V signaling at transcription level. Hypoxia or HIF-1? overexpression could increase KRAS G12V activity. Therefore, a positive feedback between hypoxia and KRAS G12V activation was formed. Cetuximab, an EGFR inhibitor, which has a minor effect on KRAS-mutant CRCs, could effectively inhibit the proliferation of CRC cells harboring KRAS G12V mutation when combined with HIF-1? inhibitor PX-478. Our data indicated that hypoxia was involved in resistance to anti-EGFR therapy, and a combination therapy might be necessary for CRC patients with KRAS mutation.

  18. A computerized tablet with visual feedback of hand position for functional magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Karimpoor, Mahta; Tam, Fred; Strother, Stephen C.; Fischer, Corinne E.; Schweizer, Tom A.; Graham, Simon J.

    2015-01-01

    Neuropsychological tests behavioral tasks that very commonly involve handwriting and drawing are widely used in the clinic to detect abnormal brain function. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) may be useful in increasing the specificity of such tests. However, performing complex pen-and-paper tests during fMRI involves engineering challenges. Previously, we developed an fMRI-compatible, computerized tablet system to address this issue. However, the tablet did not include visual feedback of hand position (VFHP), a human factors component that may be important for fMRI of certain patient populations. A real-time system was thus developed to provide VFHP and integrated with the tablet in an augmented reality display. The effectiveness of the system was initially tested in young healthy adults who performed various handwriting tasks in front of a computer display with and without VFHP. Pilot fMRI of writing tasks were performed by two representative individuals with and without VFHP. Quantitative analysis of the behavioral results indicated improved writing performance with VFHP. The pilot fMRI results suggest that writing with VFHP requires less neural resources compared to the without VFHP condition, to maintain similar behavior. Thus, the tablet system with VFHP is recommended for future fMRI studies involving patients with impaired brain function and where ecologically valid behavior is important. PMID:25859201

  19. Positive feedback between vascular endothelial growth factor-A and autotaxin in ovarian cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Ptaszynska, Malgorzata M.; Pendrak, Michael L.; Bandle, Russell W.; Stracke, Mary L.; Roberts, David D.

    2008-01-01

    Tumor cell migration, invasion, and angiogenesis are important determinants of tumor aggressiveness and these traits have been associated with the motility stimulating protein autotaxin (ATX). This protein is a member of the ecto-nucleotide pyrophosphatase and phosphodiesterase family of enzymes but unlike other members of this group, ATX possesses lysophospholipase D activity. This enzymatic activity hydrolyzes lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) to generate the potent tumor growth factor and motogen, lysophosphatidic acid (LPA). In the current study, we demonstrate a link between ATX expression, LPA, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling in ovarian cancer cell lines. Exogenous addition of VEGF-A to cultured cells induces ATX expression and secretion, resulting in increased extracellular LPA production. This elevated LPA, acting through LPA4, modulates VEGF responsiveness by inducing VEGFR2 expression. Down-regulation of ATX secretion in SKOV3 cells using antisense morpholino oligomers significantly attenuates cell motility responses to VEGF, ATX, LPA, and LPC. These effects are accompanied by decreased LPA4 and VEGFR2 expression as well as by increased release of soluble VEGFR1. Since LPA was previously shown to increase VEGF expression in ovarian cancer, our data suggest a positive feedback loop involving VEGF, ATX, and its product LPA that could affect tumor progression in ovarian cancer cells. PMID:18337445

  20. Negative feedback mechanism for the long-term stabilization of earth's surface temperature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James C. G. Walker; P. B. Hays; J. F. Kasting

    1981-01-01

    We suggest that the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is buffered, over geological time scales, by a negative feedback mechanism in which the rate of weathering of silicate minerals (followed by deposition of carbonate minerals) depends on surface temperature, and surface temperature, in turn, depends on carbon dioxide partial pressure through the green effect. Although the quantitative

  1. Interaction of Apoptotic Cells with Macrophages Upregulates COX-2/PGE2 and HGF Expression via a Positive Feedback Loop

    PubMed Central

    Byun, Ji Yeon; Youn, Young-So; Lee, Ye-Ji; Choi, Youn-Hee; Woo, So-Yeon; Kang, Jihee Lee

    2014-01-01

    Recognition of apoptotic cells by macrophages is crucial for resolution of inflammation, immune tolerance, and tissue repair. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)/prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) play important roles in the tissue repair process. We investigated the characteristics of macrophage COX-2 and PGE2 expression mediated by apoptotic cells and then determined how macrophages exposed to apoptotic cells in vitro and in vivo orchestrate the interaction between COX-2/PGE2 and HGF signaling pathways. Exposure of RAW 264.7 cells and primary peritoneal macrophages to apoptotic cells resulted in induction of COX-2 and PGE2. The COX-2 inhibitor NS-398 suppressed apoptotic cell-induced PGE2 production. Both NS-398 and COX-2-siRNA, as well as the PGE2 receptor EP2 antagonist, blocked HGF expression in response to apoptotic cells. In addition, the HGF receptor antagonist suppressed increases in COX-2 and PGE2 induction. The in vivo relevance of the interaction between the COX-2/PGE2 and HGF pathways through a positive feedback loop was shown in cultured alveolar macrophages following in vivo exposure of bleomycin-stimulated lungs to apoptotic cells. Our results demonstrate that upregulation of the COX-2/PGE2 and HGF in macrophages following exposure to apoptotic cells represents a mechanism for mediating the anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic consequences of apoptotic cell recognition. PMID:24959005

  2. A general non-equilibrium framework for the parameterization of positive and negative feedbacks in atmospheric systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrett, T. J.

    2012-12-01

    For any identifiable system, regardless of its complexity or scale, evolution can be treated as a spontaneous thermodynamic response to a local convergence of down-gradient material flows. In climate studies, examples of identifiable systems might include cloud cover or the global incidence of temperatures warmer than a certain threshold. Here it is shown how the time-dependent evolution of such systems is constrained by positive and negative feedbacks that fall into a few mathematically distinct modes. In general, evolution depends on the time integral of past flows and the current availability of material and energetic resources. More specifically, negative feedbacks arise from the depletion or predation of the material and potential energy reservoirs that supply the system. Positive feedbacks are due to either new reservoir "discovery" or system expansion into existing reservoirs. When positive feedbacks dominate, the time dependent response of system growth falls into a few clearly identifiable behaviors that include a law of diminishing returns, logistic behavior, and, if reservoirs are expanding very rapidly, unstable super-exponential or explosive growth. For open systems (e.g. radiative flows in our atmosphere) that have a resolved sink as well as a source, oscillatory behavior emerges and can be characterized in terms of a slightly modified form of the predator-prey equations commonly employed in ecology. The perturbation formulation of these equations is equivalent to a damped simple harmonic oscillator. Specific examples of non-equilibrium positive and negative feedback response can be described for the sudden development of rain and the oscillatory evolution of open-celled stratocumulus cloud decks.

  3. Noise suppression of on-chip mechanical resonators by chaotic coherent feedback

    E-print Network

    Nan Yang; Jing Zhang; Hui Wang; Yu-xi Liu; Re-Bing Wu; Lian-qing Liu; Chun-Wen Li; Franco Nori

    2015-04-19

    We propose a method to decouple the nanomechanical resonator in optomechanical systems from the environmental noise by introducing a chaotic coherent feedback loop. We find that the chaotic controller in the feedback loop can modulate the dynamics of the controlled optomechanical system and induce a broadband response of the mechanical mode. This broadband response of the mechanical mode will cut off the coupling between the mechanical mode and the environment and thus suppress the environmental noise of the mechanical modes. As an application, we use the protected optomechanical system to act as a quantum memory. It's shown that the noise-decoupled optomechanical quantum memory is efficient for storing information transferred from coherent or squeezed light.

  4. A phase plane graph based model of the ovulatory cycle lacking the "positive feedback" phenomenon

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    When hormones during the ovulatory cycle are shown in phase plane graphs, reported FSH and estrogen values form a specific pattern that resembles the leaning “&" symbol, while LH and progesterone (Pg) values form a "boomerang" shape. Graphs in this paper were made using data reported by Stricker et al. [Clin Chem Lab Med 2006;44:883–887]. These patterns were used to construct a simplistic model of the ovulatory cycle without the conventional "positive feedback" phenomenon. The model is based on few well-established relations: hypothalamic GnRH secretion is increased under estrogen exposure during two weeks that start before the ovulatory surge and lasts till lutheolysis. the pituitary GnRH receptors are so prone to downregulation through ligand binding that this must be important for their function. in several estrogen target tissue progesterone receptor (PgR) expression depends on previous estrogen binding to functional estrogen receptors (ER), while Pg binding to the expressed PgRs reduces both ER and PgR expression. Some key features of the presented model are here listed: High GnRH secretion induced by the recovered estrogen exposure starts in the late follicular phase and lasts till lutheolysis. The LH and FSH surges start due to combination of accumulated pituitary GnRH receptors and increased GnRH secretion. The surges quickly end due to partial downregulation of the pituitary GnRH receptors (64% reduction of the follicular phase pituitary GnRH receptors is needed to explain the reported LH drop after the surge). A strong increase in the lutheal Pg blood level, despite modest decline in LH levels, is explained as delayed expression of pituitary PgRs. Postponed pituitary PgRs expression enforces a negative feedback loop between Pg levels and LH secretions not before the mid lutheal phase. Lutheolysis is explained as a consequence of Pg binding to hypothalamic and pituitary PgRs that reduces local ER expression. When hypothalamic sensitivity to estrogen is diminished due to lack of local ERs, hypothalamus switches back to the low GnRH secretion rate, leading to low secretion of gonadotropins and to lutheolysis. During low GnRH secretion rates, previously downregulated pituitary GnRH receptors recover to normal levels and thus allow the next cycle. Possible implications of the presented model on several topics related to reproductive physiology are shortly discussed with some evolutionary aspects including the emergence of menopause. PMID:22870942

  5. Moisture transport across Central America as a positive feedback on abrupt climatic changes.

    PubMed

    Leduc, Guillaume; Vidal, Laurence; Tachikawa, Kazuyo; Rostek, Frauke; Sonzogni, Corinne; Beaufort, Luc; Bard, Edouard

    2007-02-22

    Moisture transport from the Atlantic to the Pacific ocean across Central America leads to relatively high salinities in the North Atlantic Ocean and contributes to the formation of North Atlantic Deep Water. This deep water formation varied strongly between Dansgaard/Oeschger interstadials and Heinrich events-millennial-scale abrupt warm and cold events, respectively, during the last glacial period. Increases in the moisture transport across Central America have been proposed to coincide with northerly shifts of the Intertropical Convergence Zone and with Dansgaard/Oeschger interstadials, with opposite changes for Heinrich events. Here we reconstruct sea surface salinities in the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean over the past 90,000 years by comparing palaeotemperature estimates from alkenones and Mg/Ca ratios with foraminiferal oxygen isotope ratios that vary with both temperature and salinity. We detect millennial-scale fluctuations of sea surface salinities in the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean of up to two to four practical salinity units. High salinities are associated with the southward migration of the tropical Atlantic Intertropical Convergence Zone, coinciding with Heinrich events and with Greenland stadials. The amplitudes of these salinity variations are significantly larger on the Pacific side of the Panama isthmus, as inferred from a comparison of our data with a palaeoclimate record from the Caribbean basin. We conclude that millennial-scale fluctuations of moisture transport constitute an important feedback mechanism for abrupt climate changes, modulating the North Atlantic freshwater budget and hence North Atlantic Deep Water formation. PMID:17314978

  6. Robustness of system-filter separation for the feedback control of a quantum harmonic oscillator undergoing continuous position measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szigeti, S. S.; Adlong, S. J.; Hush, M. R.; Carvalho, A. R. R.; Hope, J. J.

    2013-01-01

    We consider the effects of experimental imperfections on the problem of estimation-based feedback control of a trapped particle undergoing continuous position measurement. These limitations violate the assumption that the estimator (i.e., filter) accurately models the underlying system, thus requiring a separate analysis of the system and filter dynamics. We quantify the parameter regimes for stable cooling and show that the control scheme is robust to detector inefficiency, time delay, technical noise, and miscalibrated parameters. We apply these results to the specific context of a weakly-interacting Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). Given that this system has previously been shown to be less stable than a feedback-cooled BEC with strong interatomic interactions, this result shows that reasonable experimental imperfections do not limit the feasibility of cooling a BEC by continuous measurement and feedback.

  7. Introduction: Mount Pinatubo as a test of climate feedback mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robock, Alan

    The June 15, 1991 Mount Pinatubo eruption was a large but relatively shortlived shock to the Earth's atmosphere. It thus provided an excellent opportunity to study the workings of the climate system, to test climate models, and to examine the impacts of climate change on life. The largest eruption of the 20th Century inspired a large amount of research on the connection between volcanic eruptions and the Earth's atmosphere in the 12 years since that eruption, as exemplified by the chapters in this book. Here several additional examples of our new understanding of these connections are presented. While the global cooling after Pinatubo was not surprising, the observed winter warming over Northern Hemisphere continents in the two winters following the eruption is now understood as a dynamic response to volcanically produced temperature gradients in the lower stratosphere from aerosol heating and ozone depletion, and to reduced tropospheric storminess. Interactions of the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation of tropical stratospheric winds with the climate system are also now better understood by examining their role in the Pinatubo response. We have more confidence in the sensitivity of climate models used for attribution and projection of anthropogenic effects on climate because the strength of the water vapor feedback has been validated with Pinatubo simulations. The response of the biosphere to the Pinatubo eruption also illustrates its sensitivity to climate change and clarifies portions of the carbon cycle. Death of coral in the Red Sea in the winter of 1991-1992 and an unusually large number of polar bear cubs born in the summer of 1992 were two responses to the characteristic winter and summer temperature responses of the climate system. This strengthens our concern about negative impacts of global warming on polar bears and other wildlife. Enhanced vegetation growth from more diffuse and less direct solar radiation took more carbon dioxide out of the atmosphere than normal, temporarily reducing the observed long-term increase in carbon dioxide. Continued research on the Pinatubo eruption and its aftermath will undoubtedly enhance our understanding of the climate system.

  8. On the dynamic forcing of short-term climate fluctuations by feedback mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reiter, E. R.

    1979-01-01

    Various internal feedback mechanisms in the ocean atmosphere system were studied. A variability pattern of sea surface temperature with a quasibiennial oscillation (QBO) was detected off the coast of Senegal, in the Gulf of Guinea and even in the Gulf Stream as it leaves the North American continental shelf. Possible physical connections between some of these QBO's were pointed out by a hypothetical feedback model. Interaction of a QBO with the annual cycle may lead to beating frequencies resembling climatic trends of a duration of several years.

  9. 30 CFR 33.23 - Mechanical positioning of parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS DUST COLLECTORS FOR USE IN CONNECTION WITH ROCK DRILLING IN COAL MINES Dust-Collector Requirements § 33.23 Mechanical positioning of parts. All parts of a...

  10. 30 CFR 33.23 - Mechanical positioning of parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS DUST COLLECTORS FOR USE IN CONNECTION WITH ROCK DRILLING IN COAL MINES Dust-Collector Requirements § 33.23 Mechanical positioning of parts. All parts of a...

  11. 30 CFR 33.23 - Mechanical positioning of parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS DUST COLLECTORS FOR USE IN CONNECTION WITH ROCK DRILLING IN COAL MINES Dust-Collector Requirements § 33.23 Mechanical positioning of parts. All parts of a...

  12. 30 CFR 33.23 - Mechanical positioning of parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS DUST COLLECTORS FOR USE IN CONNECTION WITH ROCK DRILLING IN COAL MINES Dust-Collector Requirements § 33.23 Mechanical positioning of parts. All parts of a...

  13. 30 CFR 33.23 - Mechanical positioning of parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS DUST COLLECTORS FOR USE IN CONNECTION WITH ROCK DRILLING IN COAL MINES Dust-Collector Requirements § 33.23 Mechanical positioning of parts. All parts of a...

  14. STAT5 and Prolactin Participate in a Positive Autocrine Feedback Loop That Promotes Angiogenesis*

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xinhai; Meyer, Kristy; Friedl, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    We have shown previously that the murine prolactin/growth hormone family member proliferin plays a pivotal role in angiogenesis induced by the FGF2/STAT5 signaling cascade. To delineate the signaling pathway downstream of STAT5 in the human system, where proliferin does not exist, we expressed constitutively active (CA) or dominant-negative (DN) mutant STAT5A in hCMEC/D3 human brain endothelial cells. We found that conditioned medium from CA-STAT5A- but not from DN-STAT5A-overexpressing endothelial cells (EC) is sufficient to induce EC migration and tube formation but not proliferation, indicating that STAT5A regulates the secretion of autocrine proangiogenic factors. We identified prolactin (PRL) as a candidate autocrine factor. CA-STAT5A expression stimulates PRL production at the RNA and protein level, and STAT5A binds to the PRL promoter region, suggesting direct transcriptional regulation. Medium conditioned by CA-STAT5A-overexpressing EC induces phosphorylation of the PRL receptor and activates MAPK. Knockdown of PRL expression by shRNA or blocking of PRL activity with neutralizing antibodies removed the CA-STAT5A-dependent proangiogenic activity from the conditioned medium of EC. The addition of recombinant PRL restores this activity. STAT5A-induced PRL in the conditioned medium can activate STAT5, STAT1, and to a lesser extent STAT3 in hCMEC/D3 cells, suggesting the existence of a positive feedback loop between STAT5 and PRL that promotes angiogenesis. Furthermore, we find that VEGF, a potent proangiogenic factor, is induced by activation of STAT5A, and VEGF induction depends on PRL expression. These observations demonstrate a STAT5/PRL/VEGF signaling cascade in human brain EC and implicate PRL and VEGF as autocrine regulators of EC migration, invasion, and tube formation. PMID:23729680

  15. Landscape urbanization and economic growth in China: positive feedbacks and sustainability dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Bai, Xuemei; Chen, Jing; Shi, Peijun

    2012-01-01

    Accelerating urbanization has been viewed as an important instrument for economic development and reducing regional income disparity in some developing countries, including China. Recent studies (Bloom et al. 2008) indicate that demographic urbanization level has no causal effect on economic growth. However, due to the varying and changing definition of urban population, the use of demographic indicators as a sole representing indicator for urbanization might be misleading. Here, we re-examine the causal relationship between urbanization and economic growth in Chinese cities and provinces in recent decades, using built-up areas as a landscape urbanization indicator. Our analysis shows that (1) larger cities, both in terms of population size and built-up area, and richer cities tend to gain more income, have larger built-up area expansion, and attract more population, than poorer cities or smaller cities; and (2) that there is a long-term bidirectional causality between urban built-up area expansion and GDP per capita at both city and provincial level, and a short-term bidirectional causality at provincial level, revealing a positive feedback between landscape urbanization and urban and regional economic growth in China. Our results suggest that urbanization, if measured by a landscape indicator, does have causal effect on economic growth in China, both within the city and with spillover effect to the region, and that urban land expansion is not only the consequences of economic growth in cities, but also drivers of such growth. The results also suggest that under its current economic growth model, it might be difficult for China to control urban expansion without sacrificing economic growth, and China's policy to stop the loss of agricultural land, for food security, might be challenged by its policy to promote economic growth through urbanization. PMID:22103244

  16. Antimicrobial Peptide Resistance Mechanisms of Gram-Positive Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    McBride, Shonna M.

    2014-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides, or AMPs, play a significant role in many environments as a tool to remove competing organisms. In response, many bacteria have evolved mechanisms to resist these peptides and prevent AMP-mediated killing. The development of AMP resistance mechanisms is driven by direct competition between bacterial species, as well as host and pathogen interactions. Akin to the number of different AMPs found in nature, resistance mechanisms that have evolved are just as varied and may confer broad-range resistance or specific resistance to AMPs. Specific mechanisms of AMP resistance prevent AMP-mediated killing against a single type of AMP, while broad resistance mechanisms often lead to a global change in the bacterial cell surface and protect the bacterium from a large group of AMPs that have similar characteristics. AMP resistance mechanisms can be found in many species of bacteria and can provide a competitive edge against other bacterial species or a host immune response. Gram-positive bacteria are one of the largest AMP producing groups, but characterization of Gram-positive AMP resistance mechanisms lags behind that of Gram-negative species. In this review we present a summary of the AMP resistance mechanisms that have been identified and characterized in Gram-positive bacteria. Understanding the mechanisms of AMP resistance in Gram-positive species can provide guidelines in developing and applying AMPs as therapeutics, and offer insight into the role of resistance in bacterial pathogenesis. PMID:25419466

  17. Development of Positioning Jig for Glass Capillary Bending Mechanism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei Xia; Hung-Yao Hsu; Lingxue Kong

    2006-01-01

    In a bending mechanism for glass capillary, the positioning jig to hold the capillary in place is one of the most important components to ensure the bending quality. The tapered shoulder of the capillary is used as the positioning reference. Since the dimension of the shoulder of individual capillaries varies slightly, the geometry of the capillaries is studied to identify

  18. Position control of a permanent magnet stepper motor by MISO backstepping in semi-strict feedback form

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donghoon Shin; Wonhee Kim; Chung Choo Chung

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present a recursive applica- tion of multiple-input single-output (MISO) backstepping for the position tracking of permanent magnet stepper motors (PMSMs) in the form of semi-strict feedback. This backstepping method does not use direct-quadrature (DQ) transformation but it turns out that the MISO backstepping is equivalent to field oriented control (FOC). In the dynamics of a PMSM,

  19. Performance Analysis of Positive-feedback-based Active Anti-islanding Schemes for Inverter-Based Distributed Generators

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Pengwei; Aponte, Erick E.; Nelson, J. Keith

    2010-06-14

    Recently proposed positive-feedback-based anti-islanding schemes (AI) are highly effective in preventing islanding without causing any degradation in power quality. This paper aims to analyze the performance of these schemes quantitatively in the context of the dynamic models of inverter-based distributed generators (DG). In this study, the characteristics of these active anti-islanding methods are discussed and design guidelines are derived.

  20. Performance characteristics of positive and negative delayed feedback on chaotic dynamics of directly modulated InGaAsP semiconductor lasers

    E-print Network

    Bindu M. Krishna; Manu. P. John; V. M. Nandakumaran

    2008-08-27

    The chaotic dynamics of directly modulated semiconductor lasers with delayed optoelectronic feedback is studied numerically. The effects of positive and negative delayed optoelectronic feedback in producing chaotic outputs from such lasers with nonlinear gain reduction in its optimum value range is investigated using bifurcation diagrams. The results are confirmed by calculating the Lyapunov exponents. A negative delayed optoelectronic feedback configuration is found to be more effective in inducing chaotic dynamics to such systems with nonlinear gain reduction factor in the practical value range.

  1. Feedback as a mechanism for the resurrection of oscillations from death state

    E-print Network

    V. K. Chandrasekar; S. Karthiga; M. Lakshmanan

    2015-07-11

    The quenching of oscillations in interacting systems leads to several unwanted situations, which necessitate a suitable remedy to overcome the quenching. In this connection, this work addresses a mechanism that can resurrect oscillations in a typical situation. Through both numerical and analytical studies, we show the candidate which is capable of resurrecting oscillations is nothing but the feedback, the one which is profoundly used in dynamical control and in bio-therapies. Even in the case of a rather general system, we demonstrate analytically the applicability of the technique over one of the oscillation quenched states called amplitude death state. We also discuss some of the features of this mechanism such as adaptability of the technique with the feedback of only a few of the oscillators.

  2. Feedback as a mechanism for the resurrection of oscillations from death state

    E-print Network

    V. K. Chandrasekar; S. Karthiga; M. Lakshmanan

    2015-06-18

    The quenching of oscillations in interacting systems leads to several unwanted situations, which necessitate a suitable remedy to overcome the quenching. In this connection, this work addresses a mechanism that can resurrect oscillations in a typical situation. Through both numerical and analytical studies, we show the candidate which is capable of resurrecting oscillations is nothing but the feedback, the one which is profoundly used in dynamical control and in bio-therapies. Even in the case of a rather general system, we demonstrate analytically the applicability of the technique over one of the oscillation quenched states called amplitude death state. We also discuss some of the features of this mechanism such as adaptability of the technique with the feedback of only a few of the oscillators.

  3. Temperature-Dependent Thermal Diffusivity of Crustal Minerals, Rocks and Melts: Implications for Positive Thermal Feedback During Crustal Anatexis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whittington, A. G.; Hofmeister, A. M.; Nabelek, P. I.; Pertermann, M.

    2007-12-01

    The thermal evolution of orogenic belts is governed by the rates of heat transfer by advection and conduction. The physical properties governing heat conduction are thermal diffusivity (?) and conductivity (k = ??CP), where ? is density and CP is heat capacity. Numerical models of orogenic belts typically assume constant values for ? (~10-6 m2s-1) and k (~4 Wm- 1K-1), but in fact ?, CP, and hence k), are significantly temperature-dependent. Thermal diffusivity data for orthoclase crystal and glass, haplogranitic glass, leucogranite and garnet schist, were acquired at temperatures up to 1000 °C, using the laser-flash method (LFA). This isolates the phonon component of heat transfer from radiative transfer and avoids thermal contact losses. In all cases, ? decreases rapidly with increasing temperature, asymptotically approaching a high-temperature limit. Glasses and melts have lower ? than chemically equivalent crystalline materials. Dissolved water also has a depressing effect on ? (Hofmeister et al. 2006 Geophys. Res. Lett.), so that hydrous granitic liquids should be particularly efficient insulators. Crustal melting will therefore produce an insulating layer, which will retain heat. This positive feedback between melting and thermal insulation may promote increased melt fraction, and may provide a mechanism for leucogranite generation by shear heating. Steady-state thermal gradients are governed by the conductivity, k. Calculations for orthoclase crystal, glass and liquid indicate that k of crystals decreases with T, while k of glass increases with T. At 1000°C, k is ~2 Wm-1K-1 for the crystal, but only ~1.5 Wm-1K-1 for glass/melt. The low thermal conductivity of melts suggests that steady-state thermal gradients will be higher across partially molten layers than in unmelted crust.

  4. RhoA-mediated inhibition of vascular endothelial cell mobility: positive feedback through reduced cytosolic p21 and p27.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Yung-Ho; Chang, Chih-Cheng; Yang, Nian-Jie; Lee, Yi-Hsuan; Juan, Shu-Hui

    2014-10-01

    We previously identified that activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) by 3-methylcholanthrene (3MC) exerts antiproliferative and antimigratory effects on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) through the upregulation of p21/p27 transcription and RhoA activation. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms of 3MC-mediated downregulation of cytosolic p21/ p27, and the effects of 3MC on RhoA activation and cell migration, in mouse cerebral vascular endothelial cells (MCVECs). Our results indicated that 3MC reduced the phosphorylation of p21/p27 through AhR/RhoA/PTEN-mediated PI3K/Akt inactivation, which reduced cytosolic p21/p27 retention, causing RhoA activation through positive feedback. Downregulation of p21/p27 by siRNA, and cytosolic p21/p27 by the nuclear export blocker leptomycin B, further reduced cell migration in the 3MC-treated cells. Reduced cytosolic p21/p27 expression led to reduced interaction between RhoA and the RhoA inhibitor p190RhoGAP, causing RhoA activation. Treatment with YS-49 activated PI3K/Akt, a downstream target of RhoA, to reduce RhoA/PTEN activation in the 3MC-treated cells, whereas treatment with wortmannin, a PI3K inhibitor, activated RhoA/PTEN. Gain- and loss-of-function analyses revealed that constitutively active (CA) Akt1, but not CA Akt2, inactivated RhoA and stimulated migratory activity. Considering the essential role of RhoA activation in cell migration, we evaluated the potential use of simvastatin, a RhoA inhibitor, as a therapeutic intervention in vivo using matrigel plug formation assays. Our results provide a molecular basis for the therapeutic application of simvastatin to reduce RhoA/PTEN activation, restore cytosolic levels of phosphorylated p21/p27, and induce angiogenic processes. PMID:24535918

  5. Positive feedback regulation of maize NADPH oxidase by mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade in abscisic acid signalling

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Fan; Ding, Haidong; Wang, Jinxiang; Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Aying; Zhang, Yun; Tan, Mingpu; Dong, Wen; Jiang, Mingyi

    2009-01-01

    In maize (Zea mays), abscisic acid (ABA)-induced H2O2 production activates a 46 kDa mitogen-activated protein kinase (p46MAPK), and the activation of p46MAPK also regulates the production of H2O2. However, the mechanism for the regulation of H2O2 production by MAPK in ABA signalling remains to be elucidated. In this study, four reactive oxygen species (ROS)-producing NADPH oxidase (rboh) genes (ZmrbohA–D) were isolated and characterized in maize leaves. ABA treatment induced a biphasic response (phase I and phase II) in the expression of ZmrbohA–D and the activity of NADPH oxidase. Phase II induced by ABA was blocked by pretreatments with two MAPK kinase (MPKKK) inhibitors and two H2O2 scavengers, but phase I was not affected by these inhibitors or scavengers. Treatment with H2O2 alone also only induced phase II, and the induction was arrested by the MAPKK inhibitors. Furthermore, the ABA-activated p46MAPK was partially purified. Using primers corresponding to the sequences of internal tryptic peptides, the p46MAPK gene was cloned. Analysis of the tryptic peptides and the p46MAPK sequence indicate it is the known ZmMPK5. Treatments with ABA and H2O2 led to a significant increase in the activity of ZmMPK5, although ABA treatment only induced a slight increase in the expression of ZmMPK5. The data indicate that H2O2-activated ZmMPK5 is involved in the activation of phase II in ABA signalling, but not in phase I. The results suggest that there is a positive feedback loop involving NADPH oxidase, H2O2, and ZmMPK5 in ABA signalling. PMID:19592501

  6. Positive feedback regulation of type I IFN production by the IFN-inducible DNA sensor cGAS.

    PubMed

    Ma, Feng; Li, Bing; Liu, Su-yang; Iyer, Shankar S; Yu, Yongxin; Wu, Aiping; Cheng, Genhong

    2015-02-15

    Rapid and robust induction of type I IFN (IFN-I) is a critical event in host antiviral innate immune response. It has been well demonstrated that cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP) synthase (cGAS) plays an important role in sensing cytosolic DNA and triggering STING dependent signaling to induce IFN-I. However, it is largely unknown how cGAS itself is regulated during pathogen infection and IFN-I production. In this study, we show that pattern recognition receptor (PRR) ligands, including lipid A, LPS, poly(I:C), poly(dA:dT), and cGAMP, induce cGAS expression in an IFN-I-dependent manner in both mouse and human macrophages. Further experiments indicated that cGAS is an IFN-stimulated gene (ISG), and two adjacent IFN-sensitive response elements (ISREs) in the promoter region of cGAS mediate the induction of cGAS by IFN-I. Additionally, we show that optimal production of IFN-? triggered by poly (dA:dT) or HSV-1 requires IFNAR signaling. Knockdown of the constitutively expressed DNA sensor DDX41 attenuates poly(dA:dT)-triggered IFN-? production and cGAS induction. By analyzing the dynamic expression of poly(dA:dT)-induced IFN-? and cGAS transcripts, we have found that induction of IFN-? is earlier than cGAS. Furthermore, we have provided evidence that induction of cGAS by IFN-I meditates the subsequent positive feedback regulation of DNA-triggered IFN-I production. Thus, our study not only provides a novel mechanism of modulating cGAS expression, but also adds another layer of regulation in DNA-triggered IFN-I production by induction of cGAS. PMID:25609843

  7. A Collaborative Approach to Implement Positive Behavior Support Plans for Children with Problem Behaviors: A Comparison of Consultation versus Consultation and Feedback Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erbas, Dilek

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the effectiveness of consultation alone and consultation plus feedback on the proper use of positive behavior support strategies (PBS) on behaviors of three mothers with children with developmental disabilities. Results indicated that consultation plus feedback was more effective than consultation alone…

  8. Analysis of Links Positions in Landing Gear Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brewczy?ski, D.; Tora, G.

    2014-08-01

    This article contains a kinematic analysis of an aircraft chassis mechanism in a range of positions. The mechanism of the chassis is made up of several smaller subsystems with different functions. The first mechanism is used to eject the chassis before landing (touchdown) and fold it to hatchway after the lift off. The second mechanism is designed to perform rotation of the crossover with the wheel, in order to adjust the position of the wheel to fit it in the limited space in the hold. The third mechanism allows movement of the chassis resulting from the change in length of the damper. To determine the position of the following links of the mechanism calculus of vectors was applied in which unit vectors were used to represent the angular position of the links. The aim of the analysis is to determine the angle of convergence and the angle of heel wheels as a function of the variable length of hydraulic cylinder, length of the shock absorber, length of the regulations rods

  9. 2D tilting MEMS micro mirror integrating a piezoresistive sensor position feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lani, S.; Bayat, D.; Despont, M.

    2015-02-01

    An integrated position sensor for a dual-axis electromagnetic tilting mirror is presented. This tilting mirror is composed of a silicon based mirror directly assembled on a silicon membrane supported by flexible beams. The position sensors are constituted by 4 Wheatstone bridges of piezoresistors which are fabricated by doping locally the flexible beams. A permanent magnet is attached to the membrane and the scanner is mounted above planar coils deposited on a ceramic substrate to achieve electromagnetic actuation. The performances of the piezoresistive sensors are evaluated by measuring the output signal of the piezoresistors as a function of the tilt of the mirror and the temperature. White light interferometry was performed for all measurement to measure the exact tilt angle. The minimum detectable angle with such sensors was 30µrad (around 13bits) in the range of the minimum resolution of the interferometer. The tilt reproducibility was 0.0186%, obtained by measuring the tilt after repeated actuations with a coil current of 50mA during 30 min and the stability over time was 0.05% in 1h without actuation. The maximum measured tilt angle was 6° (mechanical) limited by nonlinearity of the MEMS system.

  10. Basal Ganglia Engagement during Feedback Processing after a Substantial Delay

    PubMed Central

    Dobryakova, Ekaterina; Tricomi, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    The striatum has been shown to play an important role in learning from performance-related feedback that is presented shortly after each response. However, less is known about the neural mechanisms supporting learning from feedback that is substantially delayed from the original response. Since the consequences of one’s actions often do not become known until after a delay, it is important to understand whether delayed feedback can produce neural responses similar to those elicited by immediate feedback presentation. We investigated this issue by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) as participants performed a paired-associate learning task with 180 distinct trials. Feedback indicating response accuracy was presented immediately, after a delay of 25 minutes, or not at all. Both immediate and delayed feedback led to significant gains in accuracy on a post-test, relative to no feedback. Replicating previous work, we found that the caudate nuclei showed greater activation for positive feedback than negative feedback when the feedback was presented immediately. In addition, delayed feedback also led to differential caudate activity to positive versus negative feedback. Delayed negative feedback also produced significant activation of the putamen and globus pallidus (the lentiform nucleus), relative to no feedback and delayed positive feedback. This suggests that the caudate nucleus is sensitive to the affective nature of feedback, across different timescales, while the lentiform nucleus may be particularly involved in processing the information carried by negative feedback after a substantial delay. PMID:23817894

  11. Multidimensional subwavelength position sensing using a semiconductor laser with optical feedback

    E-print Network

    Baranger, Harold U.

    that the 2D posi- tion of an object inside the cavity could be determined with subwavelength precision using feedback for measuring subwavelength changes in each arm of the cavity simultaneously. We exploit to two-dimensional displacements of the arms in the external cavity. Considering a laser diode operating

  12. Robust Output Feedback Trajectory Tracking Control of an Electrodynamic Planar Motion Stage for Precision Positioning

    E-print Network

    Knobloch,Jürgen

    range (cogging- forces) [5], current ripple due to PWM-power-amplifiers [5], eddy current damping PID con- *All authors are with Control Engineering Group, Technische Universit¨at Ilmenau, P.O. Box 10], PID feedback control with reference feedforward combined with a disturbance observer [2], PID control

  13. Wiring for independence: positive feedback motifs facilitate individuation of traits in development and evolution.

    PubMed

    Pavli?ev, Mihaela; Widder, Stefanie

    2015-03-01

    Independent selection response of a trait is contingent on the availability of genetic variation that is not entangled with other traits. Mechanistically, such variational individuation in spite of shared genome results from gene regulation. Changes that increase individuation of traits are likely caused by gene regulatory changes. Yet the effect of regulatory evolution on population variation is understudied. Trait individuation also occurs during development. Developmental differentiation involves two stages-induction of differentiation and the maintenance of differentiated fate. The corresponding gene regulatory transition involves the feed-forward and the regulated feedback motifs. Here we consider analogous transition pattern at the evolutionary scale, establishing an autonomous regulatory sub-network involved in the independent trait variation. A population genetic simulation of regulated feedback loop dynamics under small perturbations shows a decoupling of variation in gene expression between the upstream gene and the responding downstream gene. We furthermore observe that the ranges of dynamics that can be generated by feedback and feed-forward networks overlap. Such phenotypic overlap enables genetic accessibility of network-specific expression dynamics. We suggest that feedback topology may eventually confer selective advantage leading from a gradual process to threshold individuation, i.e., the emergence of a novel trait. PMID:25755143

  14. Velocity and position control of a wheeled inverted pendulum by partial feedback linearization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kaustubh Pathak; Jaume Franch; Sunil Kumar Agrawal

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the dynamic model of a wheeled inverted pendulum (e.g., Segway, Quasimoro, and Joe) is analyzed from a controllability and feedback linearizability point of view. First, a dynamic model of this underactuated system is derived with respect to the wheel motor torques as inputs while taking the nonholonomic no-slip constraints into considerations. This model is compared with the

  15. Early Detection of Online Auction Opportunistic Sellers through the Use of Negative-Positive Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinert, Gregory J.

    2010-01-01

    Apparently fraud is a growth industry. The monetary losses from Internet fraud have increased every year since first officially reported by the Internet Crime Complaint Center (IC3) in 2000. Prior research studies and third-party reports of fraud show rates substantially higher than eBay's reported negative feedback rate of less than 1%. The…

  16. Climate-Vegetation-Feedbacks as a Mechanism for Accelerated Climate Change: The Greening Sahara Case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timm, O.; Koehler, P.; Timmermann, A.

    2007-12-01

    In a set of experiments with global atmosphere-ocean-vegetation models, we analyze the terrestrial vegetation history from the Last Glacial Maximum to the pre-industrial time. In this presentation we explore the mechanisms in the coupled atmosphere-ocean-vegetation system that initiate the migration of the African Monsoon rainfall into the Sahara and the subsequent greening of the Sahara. It is found that the vegetation-albedo-feedback is of crucial importance for the northward extension of the vegetation zone into the Sahara desert. This feedback leads to an amplified response of the African Monsoon to the orbital forcing in the early Holocene. We further discuss the changes in the terrestrial carbon storage and its implications for atmospheric CO2 concentrations. A preliminary comparison between model results and paleoproxy records is presented.

  17. Nucleosome positioning in yeasts: methods, maps, and mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Lieleg, Corinna; Krietenstein, Nils; Walker, Maria; Korber, Philipp

    2015-06-01

    Eukaryotic nuclear DNA is packaged into nucleosomes. During the past decade, genome-wide nucleosome mapping across species revealed the high degree of order in nucleosome positioning. There is a conserved stereotypical nucleosome organization around transcription start sites (TSSs) with a nucleosome-depleted region (NDR) upstream of the TSS and a TSS-aligned regular array of evenly spaced nucleosomes downstream over the gene body. As nucleosomes largely impede access to DNA and thereby provide an important level of genome regulation, it is of general interest to understand the mechanisms generating nucleosome positioning and especially the stereotypical NDR-array pattern. We focus here on the most advanced models, unicellular yeasts, and review the progress in mapping nucleosomes and which nucleosome positioning mechanisms are discussed. There are four mechanistic aspects: How are NDRs generated? How are individual nucleosomes positioned, especially those flanking the NDRs? How are nucleosomes evenly spaced leading to regular arrays? How are regular arrays aligned at TSSs? The main candidates for nucleosome positioning determinants are intrinsic DNA binding preferences of the histone octamer, specific DNA binding factors, nucleosome remodeling enzymes, transcription, and statistical positioning. We summarize the state of the art in an integrative model where nucleosomes are positioned by a combination of all these candidate determinants. We highlight the predominance of active mechanisms involving nucleosome remodeling enzymes which may be recruited by DNA binding factors and the transcription machinery. While this mechanistic framework emerged clearly during recent years, the involved factors and their mechanisms are still poorly understood and require future efforts combining in vivo and in vitro approaches. PMID:25529773

  18. A modular system for robust positioning using feedback from stereo vision

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory D. Hager

    1997-01-01

    This paper introduces a modular framework for robot motion control using stereo vision. The approach is based on a small number of generic motion control operations referred to as primitive skills. Each primitive skill uses visual feedback to enforce a specific task-space kinematic constraint between a robot end-effector and a set of target features. By observing both the end-effector and

  19. The transition of boudinage into brittle low-angle faults - chemical and mechanical feedback mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tschegg, Cornelius; Grasemann, Bernhard; Frehner, Marcel

    2010-05-01

    Slip on mid to upper crustal low-angle normal faults with maximum compressive sub-vertical stress trajectories represents a considerable mechanical problem. Their initiation and subsequent growth is commonly explained by unusual low fault friction caused by either high fluid pressure, weak fault-zone materials and/or aseismic deformation mechanisms. Recently, a reduction of the friction coefficient value of fault rocks has been suggested by fluid triggered phyllosilicate growth, which may lead to a significant fault weakening. On Serifos (Greece) dolomite/calcite mylonites are interlayered with some centimeter-thick quartz mylonites in the footwall of a ductile to brittle low-angle normal fault. Both mylonites have a strong shape and lattice preferred orientation of the mineral grains. Several tens of meters below the fault a reaction front developed between the dolomite/calcite and the quartzite mylonite consisting of fluid assisted stress-induced breakdown of dolomite and nucleation of talc and calcite. Locally also tremolite formed. The source of the fluid was most likely related to the intrusion of a nearby granodiorite pluton, which occurred during movement along the low-angle fault. Importantly, with the formation of this reaction zone the quartz layers started to develop layer perpendicular calcite-filled fractures which develop by antithetic slip co-rotating domino boudins. Where the rotated quartzite boudin necks were juxtaposed against the dolomite/calcite mylonite host, the talc-forming reaction continues. During ongoing co-rotation the boudins reoriented into a position, where the talc-coated top and bottom of two neighbouring boudins connected resulting into synthetic localization of deformation along these planes forming a shearband boudinage. This switch of domino to shearband boudinage leads to the isolation of the boudins and the formation of a continuous talc-rich layer, which developed into low-angle sc and scc'-type shear zones. Slip along numerous of these talc-rich zones continued during decreasing temperatures in the upper crust with cataclastic deformation of the dolomite. Based on these structural and petrological investigations we present a numerical mechanical finite element model, which tests the boudinage of a weaker layer (quartzite) in a stronger host rock (dolomite) by introducing a much weaker reaction zone (talc).

  20. Positive future climate feedback due to changes in oceanic DMS emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tjiputra, Jerry; Six, Katharina; Seland, Øyvind; Heinze, Christoph

    2015-04-01

    The global ocean is the largest natural source of dimethylsulphide (DMS) gas to the atmosphere. DMS is produced by phytoplankton and is released to the surface ocean if cells are degraded. Once it enters the atmosphere, it might contribute to the nucleation particles important for cloud formation, which then effect the Earth's radiation budget and climate. Future global warming and ocean acidification is projected to alter marine DMS production and emission. However the none of the models assessed in the last IPCC report includes the DMS-climate feedback. Recent study indicated that under high CO2 emissions future, the oceanic DMS emission is projected to decrease by 12 to 24% by the end of this century, potentially leading to an equilibrium temperature response of 0.1K to 0.76K. Here, for the first time using a fully interactive Earth system model including a microphysical aerosol module with sulfur chemistry, we perform simulations on future climate projection with coupled DMS feedback. Under the highest pH sensitivity, our simulation shows that projected DMS production and emission decrease relative to the preindustrial state by 50% and 36%, respectively toward the end of the 21st century under the RCP8.5 emissions scenario. The largest emission reduction is simulated in the Southern Ocean. On contrast, emissions at polar latitudes increase owing to the sea ice retreat. This large change in marine sulfur emisson leads to an additional global warming of 0.3K relative to the reference simulation without DMS-climate feedback at the end of the 21st century. Both simulations also produce similar trajectories in atmospheric CO2 concentration, consistent with little change in the cumulative oceanic and terrestrial carbon sinks.

  1. Stochastic Gene Expression in a Lentiviral Positive Feedback Loop: HIV-1 Tat Fluctuations Drive Phenotypic Diversity

    E-print Network

    Leor S. Weinberger; John C. Burnett; Jared E. Toettcher; Adam P. Arkin; David V. Schaffer

    2006-08-01

    Stochastic gene expression has been implicated in a variety of cellular processes, including cell differentiation and disease. In this issue of Cell, Weinberger et al. (2005) take an integrated computational-experimental approach to study the Tat transactivation feedback loop in HIV-1 and show that fluctuations in a key regulator, Tat, can result in a phenotypic bifurcation. This phenomenon is observed in an isogenic population where individual cells display two distinct expression states corresponding to latent and productive infection by HIV-1. These findings demonstrate the importance of stochastic gene expression in molecular "decision-making."

  2. Nearly time-optimal feedback control of a magnetically levitated photolithography positioning system

    SciTech Connect

    Redmond, J.

    1993-12-31

    This paper focuses on the development of an approximate time-optimal feedback strategy for conducting rest-to-rest maneuvers of a magnetically levitated table. Classical switching curves are modified to account for the complexities of magnetic actuation as well as the coupling of the rigid body modes through the control. A smooth blend of time-optimal and proportional-derivative controls is realized near the destination point to correct for inaccuracies produced by the approximate time-optimal strategy. Detailed computer simulations of the system indicate that this hybrid control strategy provides a significant reduction in settling time as compared to proportional-derivative control alone.

  3. Modeling the relativistic runaway electron avalanche and the feedback mechanism with GEANT4

    PubMed Central

    Skeltved, Alexander Broberg; Østgaard, Nikolai; Carlson, Brant; Gjesteland, Thomas; Celestin, Sebastien

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the first study that uses the GEometry ANd Tracking 4 (GEANT4) toolkit to do quantitative comparisons with other modeling results related to the production of terrestrial gamma ray flashes and high-energy particle emission from thunderstorms. We will study the relativistic runaway electron avalanche (RREA) and the relativistic feedback process, as well as the production of bremsstrahlung photons from runaway electrons. The Monte Carlo simulations take into account the effects of electron ionization, electron by electron (Møller), and electron by positron (Bhabha) scattering as well as the bremsstrahlung process and pair production, in the 250 eV to 100 GeV energy range. Our results indicate that the multiplication of electrons during the development of RREAs and under the influence of feedback are consistent with previous estimates. This is important to validate GEANT4 as a tool to model RREAs and feedback in homogeneous electric fields. We also determine the ratio of bremsstrahlung photons to energetic electrons N?/Ne. We then show that the ratio has a dependence on the electric field, which can be expressed by the avalanche time ?(E) and the bremsstrahlung coefficient ?(?). In addition, we present comparisons of GEANT4 simulations performed with a “standard” and a “low-energy” physics list both validated in the 1 keV to 100 GeV energy range. This comparison shows that the choice of physics list used in GEANT4 simulations has a significant effect on the results. Key Points Testing the feedback mechanism with GEANT4 Validating the GEANT4 programming toolkit Study the ratio of bremsstrahlung photons to electrons at TGF source altitude

  4. Characterizing Feedback Control Mechanisms in Nonlinear Microbial Models of Soil Organic Matter Decomposition by Stability Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgiou, K.; Tang, J.; Riley, W. J.; Torn, M. S.

    2014-12-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition is regulated by biotic and abiotic processes. Feedback interactions between such processes may act to dampen oscillatory responses to perturbations from equilibrium. Indeed, although biological oscillations have been observed in small-scale laboratory incubations, the overlying behavior at the plot-scale exhibits a relatively stable response to disturbances in input rates and temperature. Recent studies have demonstrated the ability of microbial models to capture nonlinear feedbacks in SOM decomposition that linear Century-type models are unable to reproduce, such as soil priming in response to increased carbon input. However, these microbial models often exhibit strong oscillatory behavior that is deemed unrealistic. The inherently nonlinear dynamics of SOM decomposition have important implications for global climate-carbon and carbon-concentration feedbacks. It is therefore imperative to represent these dynamics in Earth System Models (ESMs) by introducing sub-models that accurately represent microbial and abiotic processes. In the present study we explore, both analytically and numerically, four microbe-enabled model structures of varying levels of complexity. The most complex model combines microbial physiology, a non-linear mineral sorption isotherm, and enzyme dynamics. Based on detailed stability analysis of the nonlinear dynamics, we calculate the system modes as functions of model parameters. This dependence provides insight into the source of state oscillations. We find that feedback mechanisms that emerge from careful representation of enzyme and mineral interactions, with parameter values in a prescribed range, are critical for both maintaining system stability and capturing realistic responses to disturbances. Corroborating and expanding upon the results of recent studies, we explain the emergence of oscillatory responses and discuss the appropriate microbe-enabled model structure for inclusion in ESMs.

  5. The evolution of different forms of sociality: behavioral mechanisms and eco-evolutionary feedback.

    PubMed

    van der Post, Daniel J; Verbrugge, Rineke; Hemelrijk, Charlotte K

    2015-01-01

    Different forms of sociality have evolved via unique evolutionary trajectories. However, it remains unknown to what extent trajectories of social evolution depend on the specific characteristics of different species. Our approach to studying such trajectories is to use evolutionary case-studies, so that we can investigate how grouping co-evolves with a multitude of individual characteristics. Here we focus on anti-predator vigilance and foraging. We use an individual-based model, where behavioral mechanisms are specified, and costs and benefits are not predefined. We show that evolutionary changes in grouping alter selection pressures on vigilance, and vice versa. This eco-evolutionary feedback generates an evolutionary progression from "leader-follower" societies to "fission-fusion" societies, where cooperative vigilance in groups is maintained via a balance between within- and between-group selection. Group-level selection is generated from an assortment that arises spontaneously when vigilant and non-vigilant foragers have different grouping tendencies. The evolutionary maintenance of small groups, and cooperative vigilance in those groups, is therefore achieved simultaneously. The evolutionary phases, and the transitions between them, depend strongly on behavioral mechanisms. Thus, integrating behavioral mechanisms and eco-evolutionary feedback is critical for understanding what kinds of intermediate stages are involved during the evolution of particular forms of sociality. PMID:25629313

  6. Negative Feedback of Glycolysis and Oxidative Phosphorylation: Mechanisms of and Reasons for It.

    PubMed

    Sokolov, S S; Balakireva, A V; Markova, O V; Severin, F F

    2015-05-01

    There are two main pathways of ATP biosynthesis: glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation. As a rule, the two pathways are not fully active in a single cell. In this review, we discuss mechanisms of glycolytic inhibition of respiration (Warburg and Crabtree effects). What are the reasons for the existence of this negative feedback? It is known that maximal activation of both processes can cause generation of reactive oxygen species. Oxidative phosphorylation is more efficient from the energy point of view, while glycolysis is safer and favors biomass synthesis. This might be the reason why quiescent cells are mainly using oxidative phosphorylation, while the quickly proliferating ones - glycolysis. PMID:26071773

  7. Thermospermine levels are controlled by an auxin-dependent feedback loop mechanism in Populus xylem.

    PubMed

    Milhinhos, Ana; Prestele, Jakob; Bollhöner, Benjamin; Matos, Andreia; Vera-Sirera, Francisco; Rambla, José L; Ljung, Karin; Carbonell, Juan; Blázquez, Miguel A; Tuominen, Hannele; Miguel, Célia M

    2013-08-01

    Polyamines are small polycationic amines that are widespread in living organisms. Thermospermine, synthesized by thermospermine synthase ACAULIS5 (ACL5), was recently shown to be an endogenous plant polyamine. Thermospermine is critical for proper vascular development and xylem cell specification, but it is not known how thermospermine homeostasis is controlled in the xylem. We present data in the Populus model system supporting the existence of a negative feedback control of thermospermine levels in stem xylem tissues, the main site of thermospermine biosynthesis. While over-expression of the ACL5 homologue in Populus, POPACAULIS5, resulted in strong up-regulation of ACL5 expression and thermospermine accumulation in leaves, the corresponding levels in the secondary xylem tissues of the stem were similar or lower than those in the wild-type. POPACAULIS5 over-expression had a negative effect on accumulation of indole-3-acetic acid, while exogenous auxin had a positive effect on POPACAULIS5 expression, thus promoting thermospermine accumulation. Further, over-expression of POPACAULIS5 negatively affected expression of the class III homeodomain leucine zipper (HD-Zip III) transcription factor gene PttHB8, a homologue of AtHB8, while up-regulation of PttHB8 positively affected POPACAULIS5 expression. These results indicate that excessive accumulation of thermospermine is prevented by a negative feedback control of POPACAULIS5 transcript levels through suppression of indole-3-acetic acid levels, and that PttHB8 is involved in the control of POPACAULIS5 expression. We propose that this negative feedback loop functions to maintain steady-state levels of thermospermine, which is required for proper xylem development, and that it is dependent on the presence of high concentrations of endogenous indole-3-acetic acid, such as those present in the secondary xylem tissues. PMID:23647338

  8. CUL4B impedes stress-induced cellular senescence by dampening a p53-reactive oxygen species positive feedback loop.

    PubMed

    Wei, Zhao; Guo, Haiyang; Liu, Zhaojian; Zhang, Xiyu; Liu, Qiao; Qian, Yanyan; Gong, Yaoqin; Shao, Changshun

    2015-02-01

    Tumor suppressor p53 is known to regulate the level of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). It can either alleviate oxidative stress under physiological and mildly stressed conditions or exacerbate oxidative stress under highly stressed conditions. We here report that a p53-ROS positive feedback loop drives a senescence program in normal human fibroblasts (NHFs) and this senescence-driving loop is negatively regulated by CUL4B. CUL4B, which can assemble various ubiquitin E3 ligases, was found to be downregulated in stress-induced senescent cells, but not in replicative senescent cells. We observed that p53-dependent ROS production was significantly augmented and stress-induced senescence was greatly enhanced when CUL4B was absent or depleted. Ectopic expression of CUL4B, on the other hand, blunted p53 activation, reduced ROS production, and attenuated cellular senescence in cells treated with H2O2. CUL4B was shown to promote p53 ubiquitination and proteosomal degradation in NHFs exposed to oxidative stress, thus dampening the p53-dependent cellular senescence. Together, our results established a critical role of CUL4B in negatively regulating the p53-ROS positive feedback loop that drives cellular senescence. PMID:25464270

  9. Diabetes-induced increased oxidative stress in cardiomyocytes is sustained by a positive feedback loop involving Rho kinase and PKC?2

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Hesham; Gador, Anthony; Lu, Yi-Hsuan; Lin, Guorong; Bankar, Girish

    2012-01-01

    We previously reported that acute inhibition of the RhoA/Rho kinase (ROCK) pathway normalized contractile function of diabetic rat hearts, but the underlying mechanism is unclear. Protein kinase C (PKC) ?2 has been proposed to play a major role in diabetic cardiomyopathy at least in part by increasing oxidative stress. Further evidence suggests that PKC positively regulates RhoA expression through induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in diabetes. However, in preliminary studies, we found that inhibition of ROCK itself reduced RhoA expression in diabetic hearts. We hypothesized that there is an interaction between RhoA/ROCK and PKC?2 in the form of a positive feedback loop that sustains their activation and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). This was investigated in cardiomyocytes isolated from diabetic and control rat hearts, incubated with or without cytochalasin D or inhibitors of ROCK, RhoA, PKC?2, or iNOS. Inhibition of RhoA and ROCK markedly attenuated the diabetes-induced increases in PKC?2 activity and iNOS and RhoA expression in diabetic cardiomyocytes, while having no effect in control cells. Inhibition of PKC?2 and iNOS also normalized RhoA expression and ROCK overactivation, whereas iNOS inhibition reversed the increase in PKC?2 activity. Each of these treatments also normalized the diabetes-induced increase in production of ROS. Actin cytoskeleton disruption attenuated the increased expression and/or activity of all of these targets in diabetic cardiomyocytes. These data suggest that, in the diabetic heart, the RhoA/ROCK pathway contributes to contractile dysfunction at least in part by sustaining PKC?2 activation and ROS production via a positive feedback loop that requires an intact cytoskeleton. PMID:22865386

  10. RAS Mutations Impact TNF-Induced Apoptosis in Colon Carcinoma Cells via ERK-Modulatory Negative and Positive Feedback Circuits along with non-ERK Pathway Effects

    PubMed Central

    Kreeger, Pamela K.; Mandhana, Roli; Alford, Shannon K.; Haigis, Kevin M.; Lauffenburger, Douglas A.

    2009-01-01

    Over 40% of colon cancers have a mutation in K-RAS or N-RAS, GTPases that operate as central hubs for multiple key signaling pathways within the cell. Utilizing an isogenic panel of colon carcinoma cells with K-RAS or N-RAS variations, we observed differences in TNF?-induced apoptosis. When the dynamics of phosphorylated ERK (pERK) response to TNF? were examined, K-RAS mutant cells showed lower activation while N-RAS mutant cells exhibited prolonged duration. These divergent trends were partially explained by differential induction of two ERK-modulatory circuits: negative feedback mediated by DUSP5 and positive feedback by autocrine TGF?. Moreover, in the various RAS-mutant colon carcinoma lines, the TGF? autocrine loop differentially elicited a further downstream chemokine (CXCL1/CXCL8) autocrine loop, with the two loops having opposite impacts on apoptosis. While the apoptotic responses of the RAS-mutant panel to TNF? treatment showed significant dependence on the respective pERK dynamics, successful prediction across the various cell lines required contextual information concerning additional pathways including IKK and p38. A quantitative computational model based on weighted linear combinations of these pathway activities successfully predicted not only the spectrum of cell death responses but also the corresponding chemokine production responses. Our findings indicate that diverse RAS mutations yield differential cell behavioral responses to inflammatory cytokine exposure by means of: [a] differential effects on ERK activity via multiple feedback circuit mechanisms; and [b] differential effects on other key signaling pathways contextually modulating ERK-related dependence. PMID:19789336

  11. Adaptation of cardiac structure by mechanical feedback in the environment of the cell: a model study.

    PubMed Central

    Arts, T; Prinzen, F W; Snoeckx, L H; Rijcken, J M; Reneman, R S

    1994-01-01

    In the cardiac left ventricle during systole mechanical load of the myocardial fibers is distributed uniformly. A mechanism is proposed by which control of mechanical load is distributed over many individual control units acting in the environment of the cell. The mechanics of the equatorial region of the left ventricle was modeled by a thick-walled cylinder composed of 6-1500 shells of myocardial fiber material. In each shell a separate control unit was simulated. The direction of the cells was varied so that systolic fiber shortening approached a given optimum of 15%. End-diastolic sarcomere length was maintained at 2.1 microns. Regional early-systolic stretch and global contractility stimulated growth of cellular mass. If systolic shortening was more than normal the passive extracellular matrix stretched. The design of the load-controlling mechanism was derived from biological experiments showing that cellular processes are sensitive to mechanical deformation. After simulating a few hundred adaptation cycles, the macroscopic anatomical arrangement of helical pathways of the myocardial fibers formed automatically. If pump load of the ventricle was changed, wall thickness and cavity volume adapted physiologically. We propose that the cardiac anatomy may be defined and maintained by a multitude of control units for mechanical load, each acting in the cellular environment. Interestingly, feedback through fiber stress is not a compelling condition for such control. PMID:8038399

  12. RADIATIVE AND MOMENTUM-BASED MECHANICAL ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS FEEDBACK IN A THREE-DIMENSIONAL GALAXY EVOLUTION CODE

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Ena; Ostriker, Jeremiah P. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Naab, Thorsten [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 1, 85741 Garching (Germany); Johansson, Peter H. [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, Gustaf Haellstroemin katu 2a, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland)

    2012-08-01

    We study the growth of black holes (BHs) in galaxies using three-dimensional smoothed particle hydrodynamic simulations with new implementations of the momentum mechanical feedback, and restriction of accreted elements to those that are gravitationally bound to the BH. We also include the feedback from the X-ray radiation emitted by the BH, which heats the surrounding gas in the host galaxies, and adds radial momentum to the fluid. We perform simulations of isolated galaxies and merging galaxies and test various feedback models with the new treatment of the Bondi radius criterion. We find that overall the BH growth is similar to what has been obtained by earlier works using the Springel, Di Matteo, and Hernquist algorithms. However, the outflowing wind velocities and mechanical energy emitted by winds are considerably higher (v{sub w} {approx} 1000-3000 km s{sup -1}) compared to the standard thermal feedback model (v{sub w} {approx} 50-100 km s{sup -1}). While the thermal feedback model emits only 0.1% of BH released energy in winds, the momentum feedback model emits more than 30% of the total energy released by the BH in winds. In the momentum feedback model, the degree of fluctuation in both radiant and wind output is considerably larger than in standard treatments. We check that the new model of BH mass accretion agrees with analytic results for the standard Bondi problem.

  13. Positional Reproducibility of Pancreatic Tumors Under End-Exhalation Breath-Hold Conditions Using a Visual Feedback Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, Mitsuhiro, E-mail: m_nkmr@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.j [Department of Radiation Oncology and Image-applied Therapy, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Shibuya, Keiko [Department of Radiation Oncology and Image-applied Therapy, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Shiinoki, Takehiro [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Matsuo, Yukinori; Nakamura, Akira [Department of Radiation Oncology and Image-applied Therapy, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Nakata, Manabu [Clinical Radiology Service Division, Kyoto University Hospital, Kyoto (Japan); Sawada, Akira; Mizowaki, Takashi; Hiraoka, Masahiro [Department of Radiation Oncology and Image-applied Therapy, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)

    2011-04-01

    Purpose: To assess positional reproducibility of pancreatic tumors under end-exhalation (EE) breath-hold (BH) conditions with a visual feedback technique based on computed tomography (CT) images. Methods and Materials: Ten patients with pancreatic cancer were enrolled in an institutional review board-approved trial. All patients were placed in a supine position on an individualized vacuum pillow with both arms raised. At the time of CT scan, they held their breath at EE with the aid of video goggles displaying their abdominal displacement. Each three-consecutive helical CT data set was acquired four times (sessions 1-4; session 1 corresponded to the time of CT simulation). The point of interest within or in proximity to a gross tumor volume was defined based on certain structural features. The positional variations in point of interest and margin size required to cover positional variations were assessed. Results: The means {+-} standard deviations (SDs) of intrafraction positional variations were 0.0 {+-} 1.1, 0.1 {+-} 1.2, and 0.1 {+-} 1.0 mm in the left-right (LR), anterior-posterior (AP), and superior-inferior (SI) directions, respectively (p = 0.726). The means {+-} SDs of interfraction positional variations were 0.3 {+-} 2.0, 0.8 {+-} 1.8, and 0.3 {+-} 1.8 mm in the LR, AP, and SI directions, respectively (p = 0.533). Population-based margin sizes required to cover 95th percentiles of the overall positional variations were 4.7, 5.3, and 4.9 mm in the LR, AP, and SI directions, respectively. Conclusions: A margin size of 5 mm was needed to cover the 95th percentiles of the overall positional variations under EE-BH conditions, using this noninvasive approach to motion management for pancreatic tumors.

  14. Creating a Positive Classroom Atmosphere: Teachers' Use of Effective Praise and Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conroy, Maureen A.; Sutherland, Kevin S.; Snyder, Angela; Al-Hendawi, Maha; Vo, Abigail

    2009-01-01

    Creating a positive and engaging classroom atmosphere is one of the most powerful tools teachers can use to encourage children's learning and prevent problem behaviors from occurring. Teachers' responses to children's appropriate and problem behavior can help set the tone of the classroom environment. Creating positive interactions between a…

  15. Nonlinear output feedback control of dynamically positioned ships using vectorial observer backstepping

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thor I. Fossen; A. Grovlen

    1998-01-01

    Dynamic positioning (DP) systems for ships are usually designed under the assumption that the kinematic equations be linearized about a constant yaw angle such that linear and gain scheduling techniques can be applied. This paper proposes a globally exponentially stable (GES) nonlinear control where this assumption is removed. A nonlinear observer is included in the design such that only position

  16. An ultrasonic contact-type position restoration mechanism.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiaolong; Hu, Junhui; Bhuyan, Satyanarayan; Li, Shiyang

    2014-12-01

    An ultrasonic contact-type position restoration mechanism is proposed and investigated in this paper. In the mechanism, two driving points of an ultrasonic vibrator, excited by an AC voltage, produces a restoring force on a slider so that the slider can be pushed back to its equilibrium after it is perturbed away from its equilibrium. The restoring force is generated by the unbalance of ultrasonic frictional driving forces on the slider, which is caused by a pressure difference on the two driving points. A prototype of this mechanism is fabricated, and the effects of the driving voltage, preload between the slider and vibrator, and slider's size on the restoring characteristics are experimentally measured and analyzed. PMID:25554313

  17. Biological carbon pump revisited: Feedback mechanisms between climate and the Redfield ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omta, Anne Willem; Bruggeman, Jorn; Kooijman, S. A. L. M.; Dijkstra, Henk A.

    2006-07-01

    Biological activity gives rise to a difference in carbon concentration between the ocean surface and the deep waters. This difference is determined by the carbon:nutrient ratio of the sinking organic material and it is crucial in determining the distribution of CO2 between the atmosphere and the ocean. For this reason, it is interesting to determine whether the physical environment affects the carbon:nitrogen ratio of phytoplankton. Using a model with a novel representation of the effect of temperature on phytoplankton stoichiometry, we have investigated the influence of mixed-layer depth and water temperature on the elemental composition of an algal community. In the light-limited regime, the carbon:nutrient ratio turns out to decrease with increasing mixed-layer depth and temperature. Hence our model suggests the existence of a positive feedback between temperature and atmospheric CO2 content through the stoichiometry of phytoplankton. This feedback may have contributed to the glacial/interglacial cycles in the atmospheric CO2 concentration.

  18. HMGB1 modulates Lewis cell autophagy and promotes cell survival via RAGE-HMGB1-Erk1/2 positive feedback during nutrient depletion.

    PubMed

    Su, Zhaoliang; Wang, Ting; Zhu, Haitao; Zhang, Pan; Han, Rongxia; Liu, Yueqin; Ni, Ping; Shen, Huiling; Xu, Wenlin; Xu, Huaxi

    2015-05-01

    Autophagy is a self-digesting mechanism responsible for the removal of long-lived proteins and damaged organelles by lysosomes. It also allows cells to survive during nutrient depletion and/or in the absence of growth factors. High-mobility group protein 1 (HMGB1) is a highly-conserved nuclear protein that has been associated with cell autophagy; however, the mechanisms responsible for this role remain unclear. Many reports have demonstrated that autophagy represents a survival strategy for tumor cells during nutrient depletion, oxidative stress and DNA damage. In the present study, we explored the mechanisms whereby HMGB1 regulates tumor cell autophagy during nutrient depletion (the cells were cultured in Hank's balanced salt solution, HBSS). HMGB1 expression in Lewis cells increased and the protein was shuttled from the nucleus to the cytoplasm and was secreted, coincident with up-regulation of autophagy. Prevention of HMGB1 binding to the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) or knock-down of HMGB1 expression led to inhibition of autophagy and increased apoptosis. These results demonstrated a positive feedback pathway whereby starvation of Lewis cells promoted HMGB1 secretion, allowing cells to survive by regulating autophagy via a RAGE-HMGB1-extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2-dependent pathway. These results also implicate HMGB1 as a potential risk factor for cancer growth and metastasis. PMID:25578401

  19. Mathematical model for positive feedback and temperature induced signal transduction and differential gene regulation in {\\it Bordetella pertussis}}

    E-print Network

    Bandyopadhyay, Arnab

    2011-01-01

    Based on the phosphorelay kinetics operative within BvgAS two component system we propose a mathematical model for signal transduction and differential gene regulation in {\\it Bordetella pertussis}. To understand the system behavior under elevated temperature, the developed model has been studied in two different ways. First, a quasi-steady state analysis has been carried out for the two component system, comprising of sensor BvgS and response regulator BvgA. The quasi-steady state analysis reveals a positive feedback and temperature induced molecular switch, leading to graded response and amplification in the output of BvgA. Accumulation of large pool of BvgA thus results into differential regulation of the downstream genes, including the gene encoding toxin. Furthermore, numerical integration of the full network kinetics has been carried out to explore time dependent behavior of different system components, that qualitatively capture the essential features of experimental results performed {\\it in vivo}.

  20. Cortical feedback depolarization waves: a mechanism of top-down influence on early visual areas.

    PubMed

    Roland, Per E; Hanazawa, Akitoshi; Undeman, Calle; Eriksson, David; Tompa, Tamas; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Valentiniene, Sonata; Ahmed, Bashir

    2006-08-15

    Despite the lack of direct evidence, it is generally believed that top-down signals are mediated by the abundant feedback connections from higher- to lower-order sensory areas. Here we provide direct evidence for a top-down mechanism. We stained the visual cortex of the ferret with a voltage-sensitive dye and presented a short-duration contrast square. This elicited an initial feedforward and lateral spreading depolarization at the square representation in areas 17 and 18. After a delay, a broad feedback wave (FBW) of neuron peak depolarization traveled from areas 21 and 19 toward areas 18 and 17. In areas 18 and 17, the FBW contributed the peak depolarization of dendrites of the neurons representing the square, after which the neurons decreased their depolarization and firing. Thereafter, the peak depolarization surrounded the figure representation over most of areas 17 and 18 representing the background. Thus, the FBW is an example of a well behaved long-range communication from higher-order visual areas to areas 18 and 17, collectively addressing very large populations of neurons representing the visual scene. Through local interaction with feedforward and lateral spreading depolarization, the FBW differentially activates neurons representing the object and neurons representing the background. PMID:16891418

  1. Cortical feedback depolarization waves: A mechanism of top-down influence on early visual areas

    PubMed Central

    Roland, Per E.; Hanazawa, Akitoshi; Undeman, Calle; Eriksson, David; Tompa, Tamas; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Valentiniene, Sonata; Ahmed, Bashir

    2006-01-01

    Despite the lack of direct evidence, it is generally believed that top-down signals are mediated by the abundant feedback connections from higher- to lower-order sensory areas. Here we provide direct evidence for a top-down mechanism. We stained the visual cortex of the ferret with a voltage-sensitive dye and presented a short-duration contrast square. This elicited an initial feedforward and lateral spreading depolarization at the square representation in areas 17 and 18. After a delay, a broad feedback wave (FBW) of neuron peak depolarization traveled from areas 21 and 19 toward areas 18 and 17. In areas 18 and 17, the FBW contributed the peak depolarization of dendrites of the neurons representing the square, after which the neurons decreased their depolarization and firing. Thereafter, the peak depolarization surrounded the figure representation over most of areas 17 and 18 representing the background. Thus, the FBW is an example of a well behaved long-range communication from higher-order visual areas to areas 18 and 17, collectively addressing very large populations of neurons representing the visual scene. Through local interaction with feedforward and lateral spreading depolarization, the FBW differentially activates neurons representing the object and neurons representing the background. PMID:16891418

  2. Margin requirements, positive feedback trading, and stock return autocorrelations: the case of Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toshiaki Watanabe

    2002-01-01

    This article examines the pattern of autocorrelation of daily stock index returns in the Tokyo Stock Exchange (TSE) by estimating the two variants of the EGARCH model by Nelson (1991). We confirm the findings by Sentana and Wadhwani (1992) and Koutmos (1997) that stock returns exhibit positive autocorrelation when volatility is low but they exhibit negative autocorrelation when volatility is

  3. Optical position feedback of quasi-static 2D MOEMS mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tortschanoff, A.; Baumgart, M.; Holzmann, D.; Lenzhofer, M.; Sandner, T.; Kenda, A.

    2013-05-01

    Recently, we have realized a new position sensing device for MOEMS mirrors applicable to arbitrary trajectories, which is based on the measurement of a reflected light beam with a quadrant diode. In this work we present the characteristics of this device, showing first experimental results obtained with a test set-up, but also theoretical considerations and optical ray-tracing simulations.

  4. Visual Feedback Control with Laser for the Position Detection of Crane Hook

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daisuke Miyamoto; S. Nara; S. Takahashi

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce an development device which can measure the working radius of crane truck, automatically. This device is equipped with a laser range finder, a CCD camera and two AC servo motors. Each motor has an encoder. First, we propose the method of object recognition to measure the position of mark set of measurement object, and secondly

  5. Positive feedback of elevated CO2 on soil respiration in late autumn and winter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keidel, L.; Kammann, C.; Grünhage, L.; Moser, G.; Müller, C.

    2015-02-01

    Soil respiration of terrestrial ecosystems, a major component in the global carbon cycle is affected by elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations. However, seasonal differences of feedback effects of elevated CO2 have rarely been studied. At the Gießen Free-Air CO2 Enrichment (GiFACE) site, the effects of +20% above ambient CO2 concentration have been investigated since 1998 in a temperate grassland ecosystem. We defined five distinct annual seasons, with respect to management practices and phenological cycles. For a period of 3 years (2008-2010), weekly measurements of soil respiration were carried out with a survey chamber on vegetation-free subplots. The results revealed a pronounced and repeated increase of soil respiration under elevated CO2 during late autumn and winter dormancy. Increased CO2 losses during the autumn season (September-October) were 15.7% higher and during the winter season (November-March) were 17.4% higher compared to respiration from ambient CO2 plots. However, during spring time and summer, which are characterized by strong above- and below-ground plant growth, no significant change in soil respiration was observed at the GiFACE site under elevated CO2. This suggests (1) that soil respiration measurements, carried out only during the growing season under elevated CO2 may underestimate the true soil-respiratory CO2 loss (i.e. overestimate the C sequestered), and (2) that additional C assimilated by plants during the growing season and transferred below-ground will quickly be lost via enhanced heterotrophic respiration outside the main growing season.

  6. Positive feedback of elevated CO2 on soil respiration in late autumn and winter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keidel, L.; Kammann, C.; Grünhage, L.; Moser, G.; Müller, C.

    2014-06-01

    Soil respiration of terrestrial ecosystems, a major component in the global carbon cycle is affected by elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations. However, seasonal differences of feedback effects of elevated CO2 have rarely been studied. At the Giessen Free-Air CO2 Enrichment (GiFACE) site, the effects of +20% above ambient CO2 concentration (corresponds to conditions reached 2035-2045) have been investigated since 1998 in a temperate grassland ecosystem. We defined five distinct annual periods, with respect to management practices and phenological cycles. For a period of three years (2008-2010), weekly measurements of soil respiration were carried out with a survey chamber on vegetation-free subplots. The results revealed a pronounced and repeated increase of soil respiration during late autumn and winter dormancy. Increased CO2 losses during the autumn period (September-October) were 15.7% higher and during the winter period (November-March) were 17.4% higher compared to respiration from control plots. However, during spring time and summer, which are characterized by strong above- and below-ground plant growth, no significant change in soil respiration was observed at the FACE site under elevated CO2. This suggests (i) that soil respiration measurements, carried out only during the vegetative growth period under elevated CO2 may underestimate the true soil-respiratory CO2 loss (i.e. overestimate the C sequestered) and (ii) that additional C assimilated by plants during the growing period and transferred below-ground will quickly be lost via enhanced heterotrophic respiration outside the main vegetation period.

  7. A mechanical-biochemical feedback loop regulates remodeling in the actin cytoskeleton

    PubMed Central

    Stachowiak, Matthew R.; Smith, Mark A.; Blankman, Elizabeth; Chapin, Laura M.; Wang, Shuyuan; Beckerle, Mary C.; O'Shaughnessy, Ben

    2014-01-01

    Cytoskeletal actin assemblies transmit mechanical stresses that molecular sensors transduce into biochemical signals to trigger cytoskeletal remodeling and other downstream events. How mechanical and biochemical signaling cooperate to orchestrate complex remodeling tasks has not been elucidated. Here, we studied remodeling of contractile actomyosin stress fibers. When fibers spontaneously fractured, they recoiled and disassembled actin synchronously. The disassembly rate was accelerated more than twofold above the resting value, but only when contraction increased the actin density to a threshold value following a time delay. A mathematical model explained this as originating in the increased overlap of actin filaments produced by myosin II-driven contraction. Above a threshold overlap, this mechanical signal is transduced into accelerated disassembly by a mechanism that may sense overlap directly or through associated elastic stresses. This biochemical response lowers the actin density, overlap, and stresses. The model showed that this feedback mechanism, together with rapid stress transmission along the actin bundle, spatiotemporally synchronizes actin disassembly and fiber contraction. Similar actin remodeling kinetics occurred in expanding or contracting intact stress fibers but over much longer timescales. The model accurately described these kinetics, with an almost identical value of the threshold overlap that accelerates disassembly. Finally, we measured resting stress fibers, for which the model predicts constant actin overlap that balances disassembly and assembly. The overlap was indeed regulated, with a value close to that predicted. Our results suggest that coordinated mechanical and biochemical signaling enables extended actomyosin assemblies to adapt dynamically to the mechanical stresses they convey and direct their own remodeling. PMID:25422436

  8. A mechanical-biochemical feedback loop regulates remodeling in the actin cytoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Stachowiak, Matthew R; Smith, Mark A; Blankman, Elizabeth; Chapin, Laura M; Balcioglu, Hayri E; Wang, Shuyuan; Beckerle, Mary C; O'Shaughnessy, Ben

    2014-12-01

    Cytoskeletal actin assemblies transmit mechanical stresses that molecular sensors transduce into biochemical signals to trigger cytoskeletal remodeling and other downstream events. How mechanical and biochemical signaling cooperate to orchestrate complex remodeling tasks has not been elucidated. Here, we studied remodeling of contractile actomyosin stress fibers. When fibers spontaneously fractured, they recoiled and disassembled actin synchronously. The disassembly rate was accelerated more than twofold above the resting value, but only when contraction increased the actin density to a threshold value following a time delay. A mathematical model explained this as originating in the increased overlap of actin filaments produced by myosin II-driven contraction. Above a threshold overlap, this mechanical signal is transduced into accelerated disassembly by a mechanism that may sense overlap directly or through associated elastic stresses. This biochemical response lowers the actin density, overlap, and stresses. The model showed that this feedback mechanism, together with rapid stress transmission along the actin bundle, spatiotemporally synchronizes actin disassembly and fiber contraction. Similar actin remodeling kinetics occurred in expanding or contracting intact stress fibers but over much longer timescales. The model accurately described these kinetics, with an almost identical value of the threshold overlap that accelerates disassembly. Finally, we measured resting stress fibers, for which the model predicts constant actin overlap that balances disassembly and assembly. The overlap was indeed regulated, with a value close to that predicted. Our results suggest that coordinated mechanical and biochemical signaling enables extended actomyosin assemblies to adapt dynamically to the mechanical stresses they convey and direct their own remodeling. PMID:25422436

  9. Positive regulation of the Egr-1/osteopontin positive feedback loop in rat vascular smooth muscle cells by TGF-{beta}, ERK, JNK, and p38 MAPK signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Hong-Wei; Liu, Qi-Feng [Department of Cardiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, 155th North of Nanjing Street, Heping Block, Shenyang, 110001 Liaoning Province (China)] [Department of Cardiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, 155th North of Nanjing Street, Heping Block, Shenyang, 110001 Liaoning Province (China); Liu, Gui-Nan, E-mail: guinanliu@hotmail.com [Department of Cardiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, 155th North of Nanjing Street, Heping Block, Shenyang, 110001 Liaoning Province (China)] [Department of Cardiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, 155th North of Nanjing Street, Heping Block, Shenyang, 110001 Liaoning Province (China)

    2010-05-28

    Previous studies identified a positive feedback loop in rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in which early growth response factor-1 (Egr-1) binds to the osteopontin (OPN) promoter and upregulates OPN expression, and OPN upregulates Egr-1 expression via the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) signaling pathway. The current study examined whether transforming growth factor-{beta} (TGF-{beta}) activity contributes to Egr-1 binding to the OPN promoter, and whether other signaling pathways act downstream of OPN to regulate Egr-1 expression. ChIP assays using an anti-Egr-1 antibody showed that amplification of the OPN promoter sequence decreased in TGF-{beta} DNA enzyme-transfected VSMCs relative to control VSMCs. Treatment of VSMCs with PD98059 (ERK inhibitor), SP600125 (JNK inhibitor), or SB203580 (p38 MAPK inhibitor) significantly inhibited OPN-induced Egr-1 expression, and PD98059 treatment was associated with the most significant decrease in Egr-1 expression. OPN-stimulated VSMC cell migration was inhibited by SP600125 or SB203580, but not by PD98059. Furthermore, MTT assays showed that OPN-mediated cell proliferation was inhibited by PD98059, but not by SP600125 or SB203580. Taken together, the results of the current study show that Egr-1 binding to the OPN promoter is positively regulated by TGF-{beta}, and that the p38 MAPK, JNK, and ERK pathways are involved in OPN-mediated Egr-1 upregulation.

  10. Mechanisms for Generating False Positives for Extrasolar Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domagal-Goldman, Shawn; Meadows, Victoria; Schwieterman, Edward; Luger, Rodrigo; Wordsworth, Robin; Barnes, Rory; Segura, Antigona; Claire, Mark; Virtual Planetary Laboratory

    2015-01-01

    Future mission concepts designed to look for life generally plan to search for oxygen (O2), ozone (O3), and/or methane (CH4). However, mechanisms exist for generating each of these species abiotically. In this presentation, we will review these processes, and discuss the atmospheres that result from them. In general, false positives can form in atmospheres with severe redox imbalance. This redox imbalance can also be thought of as extreme elemental composition, skewed towards very high or very low O/H ratios. Specific examples of this include: 1) loss of H through the top of a planetary atmosphere that leads to high O/H and an atmosphere rich in O2 and O3 2) atmospheres whose volcanism is O-rich and H-poor (i.e., highly oxidized), which leads to an atmosphere that with high O/H that can accumulate O3 and potentially O2 3) atmospheres in which H escape is slow, leading to low O/H and accumulation of CH4 and 4) atmospheres in which volcanic outgassing is H-rich (highly reduced), leading to low O/H and potential accumulation of CH4. Each of these cases would constitute a 'false positive' for life if O2, O3, or CH4 were detected without obtaining the chemical atmospheric context that could indicate a severe redox imbalance exists.Methods exist for discriminating between these 'false positives' where the gases arise from abiotic sources, and 'true positives' where the gases arise by biological sources. The best means of doing this is to obtain measurements of both O-rich (O2/O3) and H-rich (CH4) species, allowing identification of non-extreme O/H ratios in the atmosphere, and eliminating this abiotic source of O2, O3, and CH4. Because this is the most likely cause of abiotic production of these species, the elimination of this explanation would indicate that these gases were instead likely produced by biology.More specific methods to identify each of these false positives mechanisms also exist, but will not be discussed in detail in this presentation.

  11. Reproducibility of The Abdominal and Chest Wall Position by Voluntary Breath-Hold Technique Using a Laser-Based Monitoring and Visual Feedback System

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, Katsumasa [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)]. E-mail: nakam@radiol.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp; Shioyama, Yoshiyuki [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Nomoto, Satoru [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Ohga, Saiji [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Toba, Takashi [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Yoshitake, Tadamasa [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Anai, Shigeo [Radiology Center, School of Medicine, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Terashima, Hiromi [Department of Health Sciences, School of Medicine, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Honda, Hiroshi [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2007-05-01

    Purpose: The voluntary breath-hold (BH) technique is a simple method to control the respiration-related motion of a tumor during irradiation. However, the abdominal and chest wall position may not be accurately reproduced using the BH technique. The purpose of this study was to examine whether visual feedback can reduce the fluctuation in wall motion during BH using a new respiratory monitoring device. Methods and Materials: We developed a laser-based BH monitoring and visual feedback system. For this study, five healthy volunteers were enrolled. The volunteers, practicing abdominal breathing, performed shallow end-expiration BH (SEBH), shallow end-inspiration BH (SIBH), and deep end-inspiration BH (DIBH) with or without visual feedback. The abdominal and chest wall positions were measured at 80-ms intervals during BHs. Results: The fluctuation in the chest wall position was smaller than that of the abdominal wall position. The reproducibility of the wall position was improved by visual feedback. With a monitoring device, visual feedback reduced the mean deviation of the abdominal wall from 2.1 {+-} 1.3 mm to 1.5 {+-} 0.5 mm, 2.5 {+-} 1.9 mm to 1.1 {+-} 0.4 mm, and 6.6 {+-} 2.4 mm to 2.6 {+-} 1.4 mm in SEBH, SIBH, and DIBH, respectively. Conclusions: Volunteers can perform the BH maneuver in a highly reproducible fashion when informed about the position of the wall, although in the case of DIBH, the deviation in the wall position remained substantial.

  12. Investigating feedback mechanisms between stress and grain-size: preliminary findings from finite-element modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, A. J.; Prior, D. J.; Ellis, S. M.

    2012-12-01

    It is widely accepted that changes in stress and grain size can induce a switch between grain-size insensitive (GSI) and sensitive (GSS) creep mechanisms. Under steady-state conditions, grains evolve to an equilibrium size in the boundary region between GSS and GSI, described by the paleopiezometer for a given material. Under these conditions, significant rheological weakening is not expected, as grain size reduction processes are balanced by grain growth processes. However, it has been shown that the stress field surrounding faults varies through the seismic cycle, with both rapid loading and unloading of stress possible in the co- and post-seismic stages. We propose that these changes in stress in the region of the brittle-ductile transition zone may be sufficient to force a deviation from the GSI-GSS boundary and thereby cause a change in grain size and creep mechanism prior to system re-equilibration. Here we present preliminary findings from numerical modelling of stress and grain size changes in response to loading of mechanical inhomogeneities. Our results are attained using a grain-size evolution (GSE) subroutine incorporated into the SULEC finite-element code developed by Susan Ellis and Susanne Buiter, which utilises an iterative approach of solving for spatial and temporal changes in differential stress, grain size and active creep mechanism. Preliminary models demonstrate that stress changes in response to the opening of a fracture in a flowing medium can be significant enough to cause a switch from GSI to GSS creep. These results are significant in the context of understanding spatial variations and feedback between stress, grain size and deformation mechanisms through the seismic cycle.

  13. Hysteresis, feed-back mechanisms, and time-delays in the solar wind -magnetosphere energy circulation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koskinen, Hannu; Palmroth, Minna; Pulkkinen, Tuija

    We discuss various explanations for the asymmetric behaviour of the solar wind energy input to the magnetosphere when the IMF is rotated through due southward orientation, which has been revealed by global solar wind -magnetosphere -ionosphere simulations. When the V Bz electric field first increases and then starts to decrease, the energy input remains higher than it was for the corresponding IMF clock angle before the southward orientation. It appears that to reduce the energy input rate requires reaching smaller V Bz than is the case when increasing the input. Phenomenologically this is analogous to the hysteresis cycle in ferromagnetic media. As the magnetosphere is a complicated non-linear feedback system with several sources of inertia and time delays, the hysteresis itself may not be a big surprise, but we do not yet understand what it is telling us of the magnetospheric dynamics. While the proximate explanation may be possible to find in the local plasma and magnetic field properties at the magnetopause, the ultimate reason for the hysteresis and its quantitative aspects may well lie in the inertia and feed-back mechanisms in the coupling of the outer magnetospheric boundaries to the inner parts of the system, e.g., in the coupling of the Region 1 currents through the polar ionosphere, in the Region 1 -Region 2 -partial ring current system, in the connection of the polar cusp to the noon sector auroral zone, in the changing properties of plasma sheet due to the changing solar wind driver, or in any combination of two or more of these. Experimental confirmation, direct or indirect, of the hysteresis should be considered as one of the great challenges in magnetospheric plasma physics.

  14. Evidence for Letter-Specific Position Coding Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Massol, Stéphanie; Duñabeitia, Jon Andoni; Carreiras, Manuel; Grainger, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    The perceptual matching (same-different judgment) paradigm was used to investigate precision in position coding for strings of letters, digits, and symbols. Reference and target stimuli were 6 characters long and could be identical or differ either by transposing two characters or substituting two characters. The distance separating the two characters was manipulated such that they could either be contiguous, separated by one intervening character, or separated by two intervening characters. Effects of type of character and distance were measured in terms of the difference between the transposition and substitution conditions (transposition cost). Error rates revealed that transposition costs were greater for letters than for digits, which in turn were greater than for symbols. Furthermore, letter stimuli showed a gradual decrease in transposition cost as the distance between the letters increased, whereas the only significant difference for digit and symbol stimuli arose between contiguous and non-contiguous changes, with no effect of distance on the non-contiguous changes. The results are taken as further evidence for letter-specific position coding mechanisms. PMID:23844204

  15. Evidence for letter-specific position coding mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Massol, Stéphanie; Duñabeitia, Jon Andoni; Carreiras, Manuel; Grainger, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    The perceptual matching (same-different judgment) paradigm was used to investigate precision in position coding for strings of letters, digits, and symbols. Reference and target stimuli were 6 characters long and could be identical or differ either by transposing two characters or substituting two characters. The distance separating the two characters was manipulated such that they could either be contiguous, separated by one intervening character, or separated by two intervening characters. Effects of type of character and distance were measured in terms of the difference between the transposition and substitution conditions (transposition cost). Error rates revealed that transposition costs were greater for letters than for digits, which in turn were greater than for symbols. Furthermore, letter stimuli showed a gradual decrease in transposition cost as the distance between the letters increased, whereas the only significant difference for digit and symbol stimuli arose between contiguous and non-contiguous changes, with no effect of distance on the non-contiguous changes. The results are taken as further evidence for letter-specific position coding mechanisms. PMID:23844204

  16. A protonation-coupled feedback mechanism controls the signalling process in bathy phytochromes.

    PubMed

    Velazquez Escobar, Francisco; Piwowarski, Patrick; Salewski, Johannes; Michael, Norbert; Fernandez Lopez, Maria; Rupp, Anna; Muhammad Qureshi, Bilal; Scheerer, Patrick; Bartl, Franz; Frankenberg-Dinkel, Nicole; Siebert, Friedrich; Andrea Mroginski, Maria; Hildebrandt, Peter

    2015-05-01

    Phytochromes are bimodal photoswitches composed of a photosensor and an output module. Photoactivation of the sensor is initiated by a double bond isomerization of the tetrapyrrole chromophore and eventually leads to protein conformational changes. Recently determined structural models of phytochromes identify differences between the inactive and the signalling state but do not reveal the mechanism of photosensor activation or deactivation. Here, we report a vibrational spectroscopic study on bathy phytochromes that demonstrates that the formation of the photoactivated state and thus (de)activation of the output module is based on proton translocations in the chromophore pocket coupling chromophore and protein structural changes. These proton transfer steps, involving the tetrapyrrole and a nearby histidine, also enable thermal back-isomerization of the chromophore via keto-enol tautomerization to afford the initial dark state. Thus, the same proton re-arrangements inducing the (de)activation of the output module simultaneously initiate the reversal of this process, corresponding to a negative feedback mechanism. PMID:25901821

  17. Nonlinear state feedback controller design for underactuated mechanical system: a modified block backstepping approach.

    PubMed

    Rudra, Shubhobrata; Barai, Ranjit Kumar; Maitra, Madhubanti

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents the formulation of a novel block-backstepping based control algorithm to address the stabilization problem for a generalized nonlinear underactuated mechanical system. For the convenience of compact design, first, the state model of the underactuated system has been converted into the block-strict feedback form. Next, we have incorporated backstepping control action to derive the expression of the control input for the generic nonlinear underactuated system. The proposed block backstepping technique has further been enriched by incorporating an integral action additionally for enhancing the steady state performance of the overall system. Asymptotic stability of the overall system has been analyzed using Lyapunov stability criteria. Subsequently, the stability of the zero dynamics has also been analyzed to ensure the global asymptotic stability of the entire nonlinear system at its desired equilibrium point. The proposed control algorithm has been applied for the stabilization of a benchmarked underactuated mechanical system to verify the effectiveness of the proposed control law in real-time environment. PMID:24434123

  18. Mechanisms and Feedbacks Causing Changes in Upper Stratospheric Ozone in the 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oman, Luke; Waugh, D. W.; Kawa, S. R.; Stolarski, R. S.; Douglass, A. R.; Newman, P. A.

    2009-01-01

    Stratospheric ozone is expected to increase during the 21st century as the abundance of halogenated ozone-depleting substances decrease to 1960 values. However, climate change will likely alter this "recovery" of stratospheric ozone by changing stratospheric temperatures, circulation, and abundance of reactive chemical species. Here we quantity the contribution of different mechanisms to changes in upper stratospheric ozone from 1960 to 2100 in the Goddard Earth Observing System Chemistry-Climate Model (GEOS CCM), using multiple linear regression analysis applied to simulations using either Alb or A2 greenhouse gas (GHG) scenarios. In both these scenarios upper stratospheric ozone has a secular increase over the 21st century. For the simulation using the Alb GHG scenario, this increase is determined by the decrease in halogen amounts and the greenhouse gas induced cooling, with roughly equal contributions from each mechanism. There is a larger cooling in the simulation using the A2 GHG scenario, but also enhanced loss from higher NOy and HOx concentrations, which nearly offsets the increase due to cooler temperatures. The resulting ozone evolutions are similar in the A2 and Alb simulations. The response of ozone due to feedbacks from temperature and HOx changes, related to changing halogen concentrations, are also quantified using simulations with fixed halogen concentrations.

  19. Positive feedback between p53 and TRF2 in telomere damage signaling and cellular senescence

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, Kaori; Horikawa, Izumi; Mondal, Abdul M.; Miller Jenkins, Lisa M.; Appella, Ettore; Vojtesek, Borivoj; Bourdon, Jean-Christophe; Lane, David P.; Harris, Curtis C.

    2012-01-01

    The telomere-capping complex (shelterin) protects functional telomeres from initiating unwanted DNA damage response. Uncapped telomeres at the end of cellular replicative lifespan lose this protective mechanism and trigger DNA damage signaling to activate p53 and thereby induce replicative senescence. Here we identify a signaling pathway involving p53, Siah-1, a p53-inducible E3 ubiquitin ligase, and TRF2, a component of the shelterin complex. Endogenous Siah-1 and TRF2 were up- and down-regulated, respectively, at replicative senescence with activated p53. A series of experimental manipulations of p53 showed that p53 induced Siah-1 and repressed TRF2 protein levels. The p53-dependent ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of TRF2 were attributed to the E3 ligase activity of Siah-1. Siah-1 knockdown stabilized TRF2 and delayed the onset of cellular replicative senescence, suggesting the role of Siah-1 and TRF2 in p53-regulated senescence. This study reveals that p53, a downstream effector of the telomere-initiated damage signaling, also functions upstream of the shelterin complex. PMID:21057505

  20. Recurrent-photon feedback in two-dimensional photonic-crystal lasers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Nojima

    2002-01-01

    Theoretical studies are carried out for the close-to-lasing two-dimensional finite-size photonic crystals. On the basis of the simulations on the field-intensity distributions and the photon-energy flux distributions, this paper demonstrates the occurrence of a different type of positive feedback of light, which can be called recurrent-photon feedback. This feedback mechanism can be construed as an extension of the feedback mechanism

  1. The role of feedback mechanisms in the initial development of the constructed catchment Chicken Creek

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaaf, Wolfgang; Hinz, Christoph; Gerwin, Werner; Zaplata, Markus; Hüttl, Reinhard F.

    2015-04-01

    Over a period of ten years, we investigated the initial development of the constructed catchment 'Chicken Creek', south of Cottbus, Germany (Gerwin et al., 2009). Since the boundary conditions and inner structures of the hillslope are well known and documented (Gerwin et al., 2011), the site offers unique possibilities to study the relevant processes of ecosystem development interacting with various structures and patterns. We observed considerable changes within the catchment (Elmer et al., 2013). Both internal and external factors could be identified as driving forces for the formation of structures and patterns in the artificial catchment. Initial structures formed by the construction process and initial substrate characteristics were decisive for the distribution and flow of water. External factors like episodic events triggered erosion and dissection during this initial phase, promoted by the low vegetation cover and the unconsolidated sandy substrate (Schaaf et al., 2013). With time, secondary structures and patterns evolved and became more and more important. Invading biota and vegetation succession initialized abiotic/biotic feedback mechanisms resulting in pattern and habitat formation, and generally in increased differentiation, heterogeneity and complexity that are typical characteristics of ecosystems (Schaaf et al., 2011). The processes and feedback mechanisms in the initial development of a new landscape may deviate in rates, intensity, and dominance from those known from mature ecosystems. It is therefore crucial to understand these early phases of ecosystem development and to disentangle the increasingly complex interactions between the evolving terrestrial and aquatic, biotic, and abiotic compartments of the system. Elmer M, Gerwin W, Schaaf W, Zaplata MK, Hohberg K, Nenov R, Bens O, Hüttl RF (2013): Dynamics of initial ecosystem development at the artificial catchment Chicken Creek, Lusatia, Germany. Environ Earth Sci 69, 491-505. Gerwin W, Schaaf W, Biemelt D, Fischer A, Winter S, Hüttl RF (2009): The artificial catchment "Chicken Creek" (Lusatia, Germany) - A landscape laboratory for interdisciplinary studies of initial ecosystem development, Ecol Eng 35, 1786-1796. Gerwin W, Schaaf W, Biemelt D, Winter S, Fischer A, Veste M, Hüttl RF (2011): Overview and first results of ecological monitoring at the artificial watershed Chicken Creek (Germany). Phys Chem Earth 36, 61-73. Schaaf W, Bens O, Fischer A, Gerke HH, Gerwin W, Grünewald U, Holländer HM, Kögel-Knabner I, Mutz M, Schloter M, Schulin R, Veste M, Winter S, Hüttl, RF (2011): Patterns and processes of initial terrestrial ecosystem development. J Plant Nutr Soil Sci 174, 229-239. Schaaf W, Elmer M, Fischer A, Gerwin W, Nenov R, Pretsch H, Seifert S, Winter S, Zaplata MK (2013): Monitoring the formation of structures and patterns during initial development of an artificial catchment. Environ Monit Assess 185, 5965-5986.

  2. Video-feedback Intervention to promote Positive Parenting adapted to Autism (VIPP-AUTI): A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Poslawsky, Irina E; Naber, Fabiënne Ba; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; van Daalen, Emma; van Engeland, Herman; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H

    2015-07-01

    In a randomized controlled trial, we evaluated the early intervention program Video-feedback Intervention to promote Positive Parenting adapted to Autism (VIPP-AUTI) with 78 primary caregivers and their child (16-61 months) with Autism Spectrum Disorder. VIPP-AUTI is a brief attachment-based intervention program, focusing on improving parent-child interaction and reducing the child's individual Autism Spectrum Disorder-related symptomatology in five home visits. VIPP-AUTI, as compared with usual care, demonstrated efficacy in reducing parental intrusiveness. Moreover, parents who received VIPP-AUTI showed increased feelings of self-efficacy in child rearing. No significant group differences were found on other aspects of parent-child interaction or on child play behavior. At 3-months follow-up, intervention effects were found on child-initiated joint attention skills, not mediated by intervention effects on parenting. Implementation of VIPP-AUTI in clinical practice is facilitated by the use of a detailed manual and a relatively brief training of interveners. PMID:24919961

  3. Elastin-derived peptides stimulate trophoblast migration and invasion: a positive feedback loop to enhance spiral artery remodelling.

    PubMed

    Desforges, Michelle; Harris, Lynda K; Aplin, John D

    2015-01-01

    Elastin breakdown in the walls of uterine spiral arteries during early pregnancy facilitates their transformation into dilated, high-flow, low-resistance channels. Elastin-derived peptides (EDP) can influence cell migration, invasion and protease activity, and so we hypothesized that EDP released during elastolysis promote extravillous trophoblast (EVT) invasion and further elastin breakdown. Treatment of the trophoblast cell line SGHPL4 with the elastin-derived matrikine VGVAPG (1 ?g/ml) significantly increased total elastase activity, promoted migration in a wound healing assay and increased invasion through Matrigel-coated transwells compared with vehicle control (0.1% DMSO) or the scrambled sequence VVGPGA. Furthermore, treatment of first-trimester placental villous explants with this EDP significantly increased both the area of trophoblast outgrowth and distance of migration away from the villous tips. Primary first-trimester cytotrophoblast exposed to VGVAPG (1 ?g/ml) for 30 min showed increased phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and activation of the mitogen activated protein kinase pathway, events also associated with tumour cell migration and invasion. These in vitro observations suggest liberation of bioactive EDP during induction of elastolysis in the uterine spiral arteries may orchestrate a positive feedback loop that promotes EVT invasion and further elastin breakdown, contributing to the process of vascular remodelling. PMID:25245255

  4. Ecological consequences of body size decline in harvested fish species: positive feedback loops in trophic interactions amplify human impact.

    PubMed

    Audzijonyte, Asta; Kuparinen, Anna; Gorton, Rebecca; Fulton, Elizabeth A

    2013-04-23

    Humans are changing marine ecosystems worldwide, both directly through fishing and indirectly through climate change. One of the little explored outcomes of human-induced change involves the decreasing body sizes of fishes. We use a marine ecosystem model to explore how a slow (less than 0.1% per year) decrease in the length of five harvested species could affect species interactions, biomasses and yields. We find that even small decreases in fish sizes are amplified by positive feedback loops in the ecosystem and can lead to major changes in natural mortality. For some species, a total of 4 per cent decrease in length-at-age over 50 years resulted in 50 per cent increase in predation mortality. However, the magnitude and direction in predation mortality changes differed among species and one shrinking species even experienced reduced predation pressure. Nevertheless, 50 years of gradual decrease in body size resulted in 1-35% decrease in biomasses and catches of all shrinking species. Therefore, fisheries management practices that ignore contemporary life-history changes are likely to overestimate long-term yields and can lead to overfishing. PMID:23365151

  5. Oestrogen positive feedback stimulates the synthesis of LHRH mRNA in neurones of the rostral diencephalon of the rat.

    PubMed

    Rosie, R; Thomson, E; Fink, G

    1990-02-01

    Our aim was to determine whether oestrogen administered to ovariectomized rats in a manner which stimulates the release of LHRH also stimulates the synthesis of LHRH mRNA. Adult female Wistar rats were ovariectomized under halothane anaesthesia between 09.00 and 11.00 h of dioestrus, immediately injected with either oil or 10 micrograms oestradiol benzoate (OB) and then killed by cervical dislocation between 16.00 and 17.00 h of the next day (presumptive pro-oestrus). In-situ hybridization carried out with a 30 mer, 32P-labelled, oligonucleotide probe complementary to LHRH mRNA showed that the concentrations of LHRH mRNA in perikarya in the medial preoptic area, diagonal band and medial septum were significantly greater in OB-compared with oil-treated rats. Plasma LH concentrations were significantly increased in three out of four of the OB-treated rats. These results show for the first time that as well as stimulating LHRH and LH release, oestrogen positive feedback also stimulates the synthesis of LHRH mRNA. PMID:2179457

  6. A Positive Feedback Loop Involving Gcm1 and Fzd5 Directs Chorionic Branching Morphogenesis in the Placenta

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jinhua; Zhang, Shuang; Nakano, Haruo; Simmons, David G.; Wang, Shumin; Kong, Shuangbo; Wang, Qiang; Shen, Lianju; Tu, Zhaowei; Wang, Weixiang; Wang, Bingyan; Wang, Hongmei; Wang, Yanling; van Es, Johan H.; Clevers, Hans; Leone, Gustavo; Cross, James C.; Wang, Haibin

    2013-01-01

    Chorioallantoic branching morphogenesis is a key milestone during placental development, creating the large surface area for nutrient and gas exchange, and is therefore critical for the success of term pregnancy. Several Wnt pathway molecules have been shown to regulate placental development. However, it remains largely unknown how Wnt-Frizzled (Fzd) signaling spatiotemporally interacts with other essential regulators, ensuring chorionic branching morphogenesis and angiogenesis during placental development. Employing global and trophoblast-specific Fzd5-null and Gcm1-deficient mouse models, combining trophoblast stem cell lines and tetraploid aggregation assay, we demonstrate here that an amplifying signaling loop between Gcm1 and Fzd5 is essential for normal initiation of branching in the chorionic plate. While Gcm1 upregulates Fzd5 specifically at sites where branching initiates in the basal chorion, this elevated Fzd5 expression via nuclear ?-catenin signaling in turn maintains expression of Gcm1. Moreover, we show that Fzd5-mediated signaling induces the disassociation of cell junctions for branching initiation via downregulating ZO-1, claudin 4, and claudin 7 expressions in trophoblast cells at the base of the chorion. In addition, Fzd5-mediated signaling is also important for upregulation of Vegf expression in chorion trophoblast cells. Finally, we demonstrate that Fzd5-Gcm1 signaling cascade is operative during human trophoblast differentiation. These data indicate that Gcm1 and Fzd5 function in an evolutionary conserved positive feedback loop that regulates trophoblast differentiation and sites of chorionic branching morphogenesis. PMID:23610556

  7. The WIMSD analysis of the positive coolant void mechanism in the CANDU-3 lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Nimnual, S.; Slovik, G.C. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The NRC is in the preliminary phase of evaluating the CANDU-3 reactor design. Brookhaven National Laboratory is supplying support in the analysis of the positive void feedback effect known to be present in the CANDU-3 design. This paper presents some results from the WIMSD code that was used to study a representative lattice cell under a voided condition.

  8. A MDM2-dependent positive-feedback loop is involved in inhibition of miR-375 and miR-106b induced by Helicobacter pylori lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Ye, Feng; Tang, Chunli; Shi, Weijia; Qian, Juan; Xiao, Shuping; Gu, Min; Dang, Yini; Liu, Jianping; Chen, Yan; Shi, Ruihua; Zhang, Guoxin

    2015-05-01

    Dysregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) has been linked to virulence factors of Helicobacter pylori and shown to contribute to the progression of gastric cancer. However, the mechanisms of these processes remain poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms by which lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a virulence factor of H. pylori, regulates miR-375 and miR-106b expression in gastric epithelial cells. The results show that LPS from H. pylori 26695 downregulated the expression of miR-375 and miR-106b in gastric epithelial cells, and low levels of Dicer were also observed. Downregulation of miR-375 was found to increase expression of MDM2 with SP1 activation. Overexpression of MDM2 inhibited Dicer by repressing p63 to create a positive-feedback loop involving SP1/MDM2/p63/Dicer that leads to inhibition of miR-375 and miR-106b expression. In addition, we demonstrated that JAK1 and STAT3 were downstream target genes of miR-106b. H. pylori LPS also enhanced the tyrosine phosphorylation of JAK1, JAK2 and STAT3. Together, these results provide insight into the regulatory mechanisms of MDM2 on H. pylori LPS-induced specific miRNAs, and furthermore, suggest that gastric epithelial cells treated with H. pylori LPS may be susceptible to JAK/STAT3 signal pathway activation via inhibition of miR-375 and miR-106b. PMID:25307786

  9. FoxM1 promotes breast tumorigenesis by activating PDGF-A and forming a positive feedback loop with the PDGF/AKT signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Jianfei; Huang, Chen; Zhang, Xia; Kang, Shin-Hyuk; Chiu, Wen-Tai; Tan, Christina; Xie, Keping; Wang, Jiejun; Huang, Suyun

    2015-01-01

    The autocrine platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)/PDGF receptor (PDGFR) signaling pathway promotes breast cancer tumorigenesis, but the mechanisms for its dysregulation in breast cancer are largely unknown. In the study, we identified PDGF-A as a novel transcriptional target of FoxM1. FoxM1 directly binds to two sites in the promoter of PDGF-A and activates its transcription. Mutation of these FoxM1-binding sites diminished PDGF-A promoter activity. Increased FoxM1 resulted in the upregulation of PDGF-A, which led to activation of the AKT pathway and increased breast cancer cell proliferation and tumorigenesis, whereas knockdown of FoxM1 does the opposite. Blocking AKT activation with a phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKT inhibitor decreased FoxM1-induced cell proliferation. Moreover, PDGF/AKT pathway upregulates the expression of FoxM1 in breast cancer cells. Knockdown of PDGF-A or blockade of AKT activation inhibited the expression of FoxM1 in breast cancer cells. Furthermore, expression of FoxM1 significantly correlated with the expression of PDGF-A and the activated AKT signaling pathway in human breast cancer specimens. Our study demonstrates a novel positive regulatory feedback loop between FoxM1 and the PDGF/AKT signaling pathway; this loop contributes to breast cancer cell growth and tumorigenesis. PMID:25869208

  10. Model of myosin recruitment to the cell equator for cytokinesis: feedback mechanisms and dynamical regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veksler, Alexander; Vavylonis, Dimitrios

    2011-03-01

    The formation and constriction of the contractile ring during cytokinesis, the final step of cell division, depends on the recruitment of motor protein myosin to the cell's equatorial region. During animal cell cytokinesis, cortical myosin filaments (MF) disassemble at the flanking regions and concentrate in the equator. This recruitment depends on myosin motor activity and the Rho proteins that regulate MF assembly and disassembly. Central spindle and astral microtubules help establish a spatial pattern of differential Rho activity. We propose a reaction-diffusion model for the dynamics of MF recruitment to the equatorial region. In the model, the central spindle and mechanical stress promote self-reinforcing MF assembly. Negative feedback is introduced by MF-induced recruitment of inhibitor myosin phosphatase. Our model yields various dynamical regimes and explains both the recruitment of MF to the cleavage furrow and the observed damped MF oscillations in the flanking regions, as well as steady MF assembly. Space and time parameters of MF oscillations are calculated. We predict oscillatory relaxation of cortical MF upon removal of locally-applied external stress.

  11. The mediating role of trees - transfer and feedback mechanisms of wind-driven seismic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietze, Michael; Burtin, Arnaud; Simard, Sonia; Hovius, Niels

    2015-04-01

    There are multiple pathways to deliver energy, necessary to drive geomorphic processes, to the Earth surface. However, the role of vegetation - especially trees - in a wind field has received only limited attention. While tree mechanics above the surface are well investigated, there appears to be a fundamental lack of information on the amount of energy transferred to the subsurface. With modern broadband seismometers it is possible to quantify this energy. In a forest close to natural conditions (Serrahn area of the Müritz National Park, northern Germany) two three-component seismometers were deployed over several winter storm periods to record the patterns of seismic activity with respect to meteorological drivers. Trees emit considerable seismic energy over a broad frequency band (< 0.5 - 50 Hz), in close relation to wind speed (R² = 0.6 to 0.8), which must be compensated within shallow depth. However, lateral attenuation is significant: less than 50 m beyond the forest margin the signal virtually vanished. The relationship of wind speed and seismic activity shows a clockwise hysteresis pattern, which appears to be related to stem water content (as indicated by tree diameter measurements). This results in a time lag of tree response to increasing wind speed as well as a recovery time of several hours until the hysteresis is closed again. These findings show the vital role of vegetation in coupling energy systems (atmosphere and subsurface) and the coupled feedback loops and time-variant properties of wind, trees and ground properties.

  12. A positive feedback loop of phosphodiesterase 3 (PDE3) and inducible cAMP early repressor (ICER) leads to cardiomyocyte apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Bo; Abe, Jun-ichi; Wei, Heng; Xu, Haodong; Che, Wenyi; Aizawa, Toru; Liu, Weimin; Molina, Carlos A.; Sadoshima, Junichi; Blaxall, Burns C.; Berk, Bradford C.; Yan, Chen

    2005-01-01

    cAMP plays crucial roles in cardiac remodeling and the progression of heart failure. Recently, we found that expression of cAMP hydrolyzing phosphodiesterase 3A (PDE3A) was significantly reduced in human failing hearts, accompanied by up-regulation of inducible cAMP early repressor (ICER) expression. Angiotensin II (Ang II) and the ?-adrenergic receptor agonist isoproterenol (ISO) also induced persistent PDE3A down-regulation and concomitant ICER up-regulation in vitro, which is important in Ang II- and ISO-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis. We hypothesized that interactions between PDE3A and ICER may constitute an autoregulatory positive feedback loop (PDE3A-ICER feedback loop), and this loop would cause persistent PDE3A down-regulation and ICER up-regulation. Here, we demonstrate that ICER induction repressed PDE3A gene transcription. PDE3A down-regulation activated cAMP/PKA signaling, leading to ICER up-regulation via PKA-dependent stabilization of ICER. With respect to Ang II, the initiation of the PDE3A-ICER feedback loop depends on activation of Ang II type 1 receptor (AT1R), classical PKC(s), and CREB (cAMP response element binding protein). We further show that the PDE3A-ICER feedback loop is essential for Ang II-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis. ISO and PDE3 inhibitors also induced the PDE3A-ICER feedback loop and subsequent cardiomyocyte apoptosis, highlighting the importance of this PDE3A-ICER feedback loop and cAMP signaling in cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Our findings may provide a therapeutic paradigm to prevent cardiomyocyte apoptosis and the progression of heart failure by inhibiting the PDE3A-ICER feedback loop. PMID:16186489

  13. Oridonin induces apoptosis and autophagy in murine fibrosarcoma L929 cells partly via NO-ERK-p53 positive-feedback loop signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Yuan-chao; Wang, Hong-ju; Xu, Lei; Liu, Wei-wei; Liu, Bin-bin; Tashiro, Shin-Ichi; Onodera, Satoshi; Ikejima, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the role of nitric oxide (NO) in oridonin-induced apoptosis and autophagy in murine fibrosarcoma L929 cells and the underlying molecular mechanisms. Methods: Cell viability was measured using MTT assay. Intracellular NO level, SubG1 cell ratio and autophagy cell ratios were analyzed with flow cytometry after diaminofluorescein-2 diacetate (DAF-2DA), propidium iodide (PI) and monodansylcadaverine (MDC) staining, respectively. Protein expression was examined using Western blot analysis. Results: Exposure of L929 cells to oridonin (50 ?mol/L) for 24 h led to intracellular NO production. Pretreatment with NOS inhibitor 1400w or L-NAME inhibited oridonin-induced apoptosis and autophagy in L929 cells. The pretreatment decreased the apoptosis-related protein Bax translocation and cytochrome c release, increased Bcl-2 level, reversed the autophagy-associated protein Beclin 1 increase and conversion of LC3 I to LC3 II. Furthermore, pretreatment with NO scavenger DTT completely inhibited oridonin-induced apoptosis and autophagy in L929 cells. In addition, oridonin (50 ?mol/L) activated ERK and p53 in L929 cells, and the interruption of ERK and p53 activation by PD 98059, pifithrin-?, or ERK siRNA decreased oridonin-induced apoptosis and autophagy. The inhibition of NO production reduced oridonin-induced ERK and p53 activation, and NO production was down-regulated by blocking ERK and p53 activation. Conclusion: NO played a pivotal role in oridonin-induced apoptosis and autophagy in L929 cells. Taken together with our previous finding that ERK contributes to p53 activation, it appears that NO, ERK, and p53 form a positive feedback loop. Consequently, we suggest that oridonin-induced apoptosis and autophagy are modulated by the NO-ERK-p53 molecular signaling mechanism in L929 cells. PMID:22842735

  14. Pulsed Feedback Defers Cellular Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Levine, Joe H.; Fontes, Michelle E.; Dworkin, Jonathan; Elowitz, Michael B.

    2012-01-01

    Environmental signals induce diverse cellular differentiation programs. In certain systems, cells defer differentiation for extended time periods after the signal appears, proliferating through multiple rounds of cell division before committing to a new fate. How can cells set a deferral time much longer than the cell cycle? Here we study Bacillus subtilis cells that respond to sudden nutrient limitation with multiple rounds of growth and division before differentiating into spores. A well-characterized genetic circuit controls the concentration and phosphorylation of the master regulator Spo0A, which rises to a critical concentration to initiate sporulation. However, it remains unclear how this circuit enables cells to defer sporulation for multiple cell cycles. Using quantitative time-lapse fluorescence microscopy of Spo0A dynamics in individual cells, we observed pulses of Spo0A phosphorylation at a characteristic cell cycle phase. Pulse amplitudes grew systematically and cell-autonomously over multiple cell cycles leading up to sporulation. This pulse growth required a key positive feedback loop involving the sporulation kinases, without which the deferral of sporulation became ultrasensitive to kinase expression. Thus, deferral is controlled by a pulsed positive feedback loop in which kinase expression is activated by pulses of Spo0A phosphorylation. This pulsed positive feedback architecture provides a more robust mechanism for setting deferral times than constitutive kinase expression. Finally, using mathematical modeling, we show how pulsing and time delays together enable “polyphasic” positive feedback, in which different parts of a feedback loop are active at different times. Polyphasic feedback can enable more accurate tuning of long deferral times. Together, these results suggest that Bacillus subtilis uses a pulsed positive feedback loop to implement a “timer” that operates over timescales much longer than a cell cycle. PMID:22303282

  15. Caging Mechanism for a drag-free satellite position sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hacker, R.; Mathiesen, J.; Debra, D. B.

    1976-01-01

    A disturbance compensation system for satellites based on the drag-free concept was mechanized and flown, using a spherical proof mass and a cam-guided caging mechanism. The caging mechanism controls the location of the proof mass for testing and constrains it during launch. Design requirements, design details, and hardware are described.

  16. Quantum-Mechanical Position Operator in Extended Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raffaele Resta; Fisica Teorica; Strada Costiera

    1998-01-01

    The position operator (defined within the Schrödinger representation in the standard way) becomes meaningless when periodic boundary conditions are adopted for the wave function, as usual in condensed matter physics. I show how to define the position expectation value by means of a simple many-body operator acting on the wave function of the extended system. The relationships of the present

  17. LANSCE prototype beam position and phase monitor (BPPM) mechanical design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. F. O'Hara; J. D. Gilpatrick; D. C. Bruhn; M. J. Borden; J. L. Erickson; S. S. Kurennoy

    2007-01-01

    A prototype Beam Position and Phase Monitor (BPPM) beam line device is being designed to go in the LANSCE 805-MHz linear accelerator. The concept is to install two beam line devices in locations where their measurements can be compared with older existing Delta-T loop and wire scanner measurements. The purpose for the new devices is to measure the transverse position,

  18. A physical mechanism of positive ionospheric storms at low latitudes and midlatitudes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Balan; K. Shiokawa; Y. Otsuka; T. Kikuchi; D. Vijaya Lekshmi; S. Kawamura; M. Yamamoto; G. J. Bailey

    2010-01-01

    A physical mechanism of the positive ionospheric storms at low latitudes and midlatitudes is presented through multi-instrument observations, theoretical modeling, and basic principles. According to the mechanism, an equatorward neutral wind is required to produce positive ionospheric storms. The mechanical effects of the wind (1) reduce (or stop) the downward diffusion of plasma along the geomagnetic field lines, (2) raise

  19. Convection and the Soil-Moisture Precipitation Feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schar, C.; Froidevaux, P.; Keller, M.; Schlemmer, L.; Langhans, W.; Schmidli, J.

    2014-12-01

    The soil moisture - precipitation (SMP) feedback is of key importance for climate and climate change. A positive SMP feedback tends to amplify the hydrological response to external forcings (and thereby fosters precipitation and drought extremes), while a negative SMP feedback tends to moderate the influence of external forcings (and thereby stabilizes the hydrological cycle). The sign of the SMP feedback is poorly constrained by the current literature. Theoretical, modeling and observational studies partly disagree, and have suggested both negative and positive feedback loops. Can wet soil anomalies indeed result in either an increase or a decrease of precipitation (positive or negative SMP feedback, respectively)? Here we investigate the local SMP feedback using real-case and idealized convection-resolving simulations. An idealized simulation strategy is developed, which is able to replicate both signs of the feedback loop, depending on the environmental parameters. The mechanism relies on horizontal soil moisture variations, which may develop and intensify spontaneously. The positive expression of the feedback is associated with the initiation of convection over dry soil patches, but the convective cells then propagate over wet patches, where they strengthen and preferentially precipitate. The negative feedback may occur when the wind profile is too weak to support the propagation of convective features from dry to wet areas. Precipitation is then generally weaker and falls preferentially over dry patches. The results highlight the role of the mid-tropospheric flow in determining the sign of the feedback. A key element of the positive feedback is the exploitation of both low convective inhibition (CIN) over dry patches (for the initiation of convection), and high CAPE over wet patches (for the generation of precipitation). The results of this study will also be discussed in relation to climate change scenarios that exhibit large biases in surface temperature and interannual variability over mid-latitude summer climates, both over Europe and North America. It is argued that parameterized convection may contribute towards such biases by overemphasizing a positive SMP feedback.

  20. Carriage-rail assembly for high-resolution mechanical positioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosworth, R. H.; Roney, B. W.

    1970-01-01

    Carriage-rail assembly effects extreme resolution and position accuracy with little friction, and is applicable to such apparatus as optical benches, inspection fixtures, machine tools, and photographic equipment. Directions for assembly construction are given.

  1. LIGHT-REGULATED WD1 and PSEUDO-RESPONSE REGULATOR9 Form a Positive Feedback Regulatory Loop in the Arabidopsis Circadian Clock[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ying; Wu, Jing-Fen; Nakamichi, Norihito; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Nam, Hong-Gil; Wu, Shu-Hsing

    2011-01-01

    In Arabidopsis thaliana, central circadian clock genes constitute several feedback loops. These interlocking loops generate an ~24-h oscillation that enables plants to anticipate the daily diurnal environment. The identification of additional clock proteins can help dissect the complex nature of the circadian clock. Previously, LIGHT-REGULATED WD1 (LWD1) and LWD2 were identified as two clock proteins regulating circadian period length and photoperiodic flowering. Here, we systematically studied the function of LWD1/2 in the Arabidopsis circadian clock. Analysis of the lwd1 lwd2 double mutant revealed that LWD1/2 plays dual functions in the light input pathway and the regulation of the central oscillator. Promoter:luciferase fusion studies showed that activities of LWD1/2 promoters are rhythmic and depend on functional PSEUDO-RESPONSE REGULATOR9 (PRR9) and PRR7. LWD1/2 is also needed for the expression of PRR9, PRR7, and PRR5. LWD1 is preferentially localized within the nucleus and associates with promoters of PRR9, PRR5, and TOC1 in vivo. Our results support the existence of a positive feedback loop within the Arabidopsis circadian clock. Further mechanistic studies of this positive feedback loop and its regulatory effects on the other clock components will further elucidate the complex nature of the Arabidopsis circadian clock. PMID:21357491

  2. Limit positions of compliant mechanisms using the pseudo-rigid-body model concept

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ashok Midha; Larry L Howell; Tony W Norton

    2000-01-01

    Mechanisms which gain some or all of their motion from the relative flexibility of their members rather than from rigid-body joints alone are called compliant mechanisms. Determination of a compliant mechanism’s kinematic mobility, including its degrees of freedom and limit positions, is complicated by geometric nonlinearities due to large deflections and the dependency of deflection on the placement and magnitude

  3. An immune feedback mechanism based adaptive learning of neural network controller

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Sasaki; M. Kawafuku; K. Takahashi

    1999-01-01

    Both neural networks and immunity-based systems are biologically inspired techniques that have the capability of identifying and controlling. The information processing principles of these natural systems inspired the development of intelligent problem solving techniques, namely, the artificial neural network and the artificial immune system. An adaptive learning method for a neural network (NN) controller using an immune feedback law is

  4. APEX-CHAMP+ high-J CO observations of low-mass young stellar objects: IV. Mechanical and radiative feedback

    E-print Network

    Y?ld?z, Umut A; van Dishoeck, Ewine F; Hogerheijde, Michiel R; Karska, Agata; Belloche, Arnaud; Endo, Akira; Frieswijk, Wilfred; Güsten, Rolf; van Kempen, Tim A; Leurini, Silvia; Nagy, Zsofia; Pérez-Beaupuits, Juan-Pablo; Risacher, Christophe; van der Marel, Nienke; van Weeren, Reinout J; Wyrowski, Friedrich

    2015-01-01

    During the embedded stage of star formation, bipolar molecular outflows and UV radiation from the protostar are important feedback processes. Our aim is to quantify the feedback, mechanical and radiative, for a large sample of low-mass sources. The outflow activity is compared to radiative feedback in the form of UV heating by the accreting protostar to search for correlations and evolutionary trends. Large-scale maps of 26 young stellar objects, which are part of the Herschel WISH key program are obtained using the CHAMP+ instrument on the APEX (12CO and 13CO 6-5), and the HARP-B instrument on the JCMT (12CO and 13CO 3-2). Maps are used to determine outflow parameters and envelope models are used to quantify the amount of UV-heated gas and its temperature from 13CO 6-5 observations. All sources in our sample show outflow activity and the outflow force, F_CO, is larger for Class 0 sources than for Class I sources, even if their luminosities are comparable. The outflowing gas typically extends to much greater ...

  5. Mechanical effects of leg position on vertebral structures examined by magnetic resonance imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshihiro Hirabayashi; Takashi Igarashi; Hideo Suzuki; Hirokazu Fukuda; Kazuhiko Saitoh; Norimasa Seo

    2002-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Leg manipulation has been postulated to affect spinal curvature and position of the cauda equina within the dural sac. However, no evidence of such mechanical effects has been shown in living subjects. We used magnetic resonance imaging to evaluate the mechanical effects of leg position on these 2 parameters. Methods: Sagittal and axial magnetic resonance images of

  6. Model Development for the Positioning Mechanisms in an Atomic Force Microscope

    E-print Network

    Model Development for the Positioning Mechanisms in an Atomic Force Microscope Ralph C. Smith models for the piezoceramic positioning mechanisms employed in current atomic force microscope designs Atomic force microscopes (AFM) provide the capability for obtaining angstrom-resolution measure- ments

  7. Molecular Mechanisms Modulating Glutamate Kinase Activity. Identification of the Proline Feedback Inhibitor Binding Site

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Isabel Pérez-Arellano; Francisco Carmona-Álvarez; José Gallego; Javier Cervera

    Proline, the feedback inhibitor of bacterial glutamate kinase (GK) and plant pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthase (P5CS) enzymes, is a key regulator of the osmotic and redox balance of cells. Using kinetic assays, site-directed mutagenesis, structure–activity analyses, and docking calculations, we have identified the binding site of this metabolite in three-dimensional structures of Escherichia coli and Campylobacter jejuni GKs. The proline-binding cavity partially

  8. Getting into position: the catalytic mechanisms of protein ubiquitylation.

    PubMed Central

    Passmore, Lori A; Barford, David

    2004-01-01

    The role of protein ubiquitylation in the control of diverse cellular pathways has recently gained widespread attention. Ubiquitylation not only directs the targeted destruction of tagged proteins by the 26 S proteasome, but it also modulates protein activities, protein-protein interactions and subcellular localization. An understanding of the components involved in protein ubiquitylation (E1s, E2s and E3s) is essential to understand how specificity and regulation are conferred upon these pathways. Much of what we know about the catalytic mechanisms of protein ubiquitylation comes from structural studies of the proteins involved in this process. Indeed, structures of ubiquitin-activating enzymes (E1s) and ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes (E2s) have provided insight into their mechanistic details. E3s (ubiquitin ligases) contain most of the substrate specificity and regulatory elements required for protein ubiquitylation. Although several E3 structures are available, the specific mechanistic role of E3s is still unclear. This review will discuss the different types of ubiquitin signals and how they are generated. Recent advances in the field of protein ubiquitylation will be examined, including the mechanisms of E1, E2 and E3. In particular, we discuss the complexity of molecular recognition required to impose selectivity on substrate selection and topology of poly-ubiquitin chains. PMID:14998368

  9. Herbivory and Stoichiometric Feedbacks to Primary Production

    PubMed Central

    Krumins, Jennifer Adams; Krumins, Valdis; Forgoston, Eric; Billings, Lora; van der Putten, Wim H.

    2015-01-01

    Established theory addresses the idea that herbivory can have positive feedbacks on nutrient flow to plants. Positive feedbacks likely emerge from a greater availability of organic carbon that primes the soil by supporting nutrient turnover through consumer and especially microbially-mediated metabolism in the detrital pool. We developed an entirely novel stoichiometric model that demonstrates the mechanism of a positive feedback. In particular, we show that sloppy or partial feeding by herbivores increases detrital carbon and nitrogen allowing for greater nitrogen mineralization and nutritive feedback to plants. The model consists of differential equations coupling flows among pools of: plants, herbivores, detrital carbon and nitrogen, and inorganic nitrogen. We test the effects of different levels of herbivore grazing completion and of the stoichiometric quality (carbon to nitrogen ratio, C:N) of the host plant. Our model analyses show that partial feeding and plant C:N interact because when herbivores are sloppy and plant biomass is diverted to the detrital pool, more mineral nitrogen is available to plants because of the stoichiometric difference between the organisms in the detrital pool and the herbivore. This model helps to identify how herbivory may feedback positively on primary production, and it mechanistically connects direct and indirect feedbacks from soil to plant production. PMID:26098841

  10. CGILS: Results from the First Phase of an International Project to Understand the Physical Mechanisms of Low Cloud Feedbacks in Single Column Models

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Minghua; Bretherton, Christopher S.; Blossey, Peter; Austin, Phillip A.; Bacmeister, J.; Bony, Sandrine; Brient, Florent; Cheedela, Suvarchal K.; Cheng, Anning; Del Genio, Anthony D.; De Roode, Stephan R.; Endo , Satoshi; Franklin, Charmaine N.; Golaz, Jean-Christophe; Hannay, Cecile; Heus, Thijs; Isotta, Francesco A.; Jean-Louis, Dufresne; Kang, In-Sik; Kawai, Hideaki; Koehler, M.; Larson, Vincent E.; Liu, Yangang; Lock, Adrian; Lohmann, U.; Khairoutdinov, Marat; Molod, Andrea M.; Neggers, Roel; Rasch, Philip J.; Sandu, Irina; Senkbeil, Ryan; Siebesma, A. P.; Siegenthaler-Le Drian, Colombe; Stevens, Bjorn; Suarez, Max; Xu, Kuan-Man; Von Salzen, Knut; Webb, Mark; Wolf, Audrey; Zhao, M.

    2013-12-26

    Large Eddy Models (LES) and Single Column Models (SCM) are used in a surrogate climate change 101 to investigate the physical mechanism of low cloud feedbacks in climate models. Enhanced surface-102 driven boundary layer turbulence and shallow convection in a warmer climate are found to be 103 dominant mechanisms in SCMs.

  11. Positive feedback of NR2B-containing NMDA receptor activity is the initial step toward visual imprinting: a model for juvenile learning.

    PubMed

    Nakamori, Tomoharu; Sato, Katsushige; Kinoshita, Masae; Kanamatsu, Tomoyuki; Sakagami, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Kohichi; Ohki-Hamazaki, Hiroko

    2015-01-01

    Imprinting in chicks is a good model for elucidating the processes underlying neural plasticity changes during juvenile learning. We recently reported that neural activation of a telencephalic region, the core region of the hyperpallium densocellulare (HDCo), was critical for success of visual imprinting, and that N-Methyl-D-aspartic (NMDA) receptors containing the NR2B subunit (NR2B/NR1) in this region were essential for imprinting. Using electrophysiological and multiple-site optical imaging techniques with acute brain slices, we found that long-term potentiation (LTP) and enhancement of NR2B/NR1 currents in HDCo neurons were induced in imprinted chicks. Enhancement of NR2B/NR1 currents as well as an increase in surface NR2B expression occurred even following a brief training that was too weak to induce LTP or imprinting behavior. This means that NR2B/NR1 activation is the initial step of learning, well before the activation of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionate receptors which induces LTP. We also showed that knockdown of NR2B/NR1 inhibited imprinting, and inversely, increasing the surface NR2B expression by treatment with a casein kinase 2 inhibitor successfully reduced training time required for imprinting. These results suggest that imprinting stimuli activate post-synaptic NR2B/NR1 in HDCo cells, increase NR2B/NR1 signaling through up-regulation of its expression, and induce LTP and memory acquisition. The study investigated the neural mechanism underlying juvenile learning. In the initial stage of chick imprinting, NMDA receptors containing the NMDA receptor subunit 2B (NR2B) are activated, surface expression of NR2B/NR1 (NMDA receptor subunit 1) is up-regulated, and consequently long-term potentiation is induced in the telencephalic neurons. We suggest that the positive feedback in the NR2B/NR1 activation is a unique process of juvenile learning, exhibiting rapid memory acquisition. PMID:25270582

  12. WIMSD analysis of the positive coolant void mechanism in the CANDU-3 lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Nimnual, S.; Slovik, G.C.

    1995-12-31

    The Atomic Energy of Canada Technologies (AECLT) of America is submitting the CANDU 3 reactor system for a Design Certification (CD) with the U.S. NRC. The NRC is presently in the preliminary phase of evaluating this natural uranium fueled, heavy water cooled and moderated reactor system. Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is supplying technical assistance and support, particularly in the analysis of the positive void feedback effect known to be inherent in the CANDU 3 design. The purpose of this paper is to present some results from the WIMSD code that was used to study a representative lattice cell of the CANDU 3 reactor under a voided condition.

  13. The Arabidopsis NAC transcription factor NTL4 participates in a positive feedback loop that induces programmed cell death under heat stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sangmin; Lee, Hyo-Jun; Huh, Sung Un; Paek, Kyung-Hee; Ha, Jun-Ho; Park, Chung-Mo

    2014-10-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) is an integral component of plant development and adaptation under adverse environmental conditions. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are one of the most important players that trigger PCD in plants, and ROS-generating machinery is activated in plant cells undergoing PCD. The membrane-bound NAC transcription factor NTL4 has recently been proven to facilitate ROS production in response to drought stress in Arabidopsis. In this work, we show that NTL4 participates in a positive feedback loop that bursts ROS accumulation to modulate PCD under heat stress conditions. Heat stress induces NTL4 gene transcription and NTL4 protein processing. The level of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was elevated in 35S:4?C transgenic plants that overexpress a transcriptionally active nuclear NTL4 form but significantly reduced in NTL4-deficient ntl4 mutants under heat stress conditions. In addition, heat stress-induced cell death was accelerated in the 35S:4?C transgenic plants but decreased in the ntl4 mutants. Notably, H2O2 triggers NTL4 gene transcription and NTL4 protein processing under heat stress conditions. On the basis of these findings, we conclude that NTL4 modulates PCD through a ROS-mediated positive feedback control under heat stress conditions, possibly providing an adaptation strategy by which plants ensure their survival under extreme heat stress conditions. PMID:25219309

  14. Experimental investigations of a trailing edge noise feedback mechanism on a NACA 0012 airfoil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plogmann, B.; Herrig, A.; Würz, W.

    2013-05-01

    Discrete frequency tones in the trailing edge noise spectra of NACA 0012 airfoils are investigated with the Coherent Particle Velocity method. The Reynolds number and angle of attack range, in which these discrete frequency tones are present, are consistent with published results. The discrete tones are composed of a main tone and a set of regularly spaced side peaks resulting in a ladder-type structure for the dependency on the free stream velocity. The occurrence of this discrete frequency noise could be attributed to the presence of a laminar boundary layer on the pressure side opening up into a separation bubble near the trailing edge, which was visualized using oil flow. Wall pressure measurements close to the trailing edge revealed a strong spanwise and streamwise coherence of the flow structures inside this laminar separation bubble. The laminar vortex shedding frequencies inferred from the streamwise velocity fluctuations, which were evaluated from hot-wire measurements at the trailing edge, were seen to coincide with the discrete tone frequencies observed in the trailing edge noise spectra. Previous findings on discrete frequency tones for airfoils with laminar boundary layers up to the trailing edge hint at the existence of a global feedback loop. Hence, sound waves generated at the trailing edge feed back into the laminar boundary layer upstream by receptivity and are, then, convectively amplified downstream. The most dominant amplification of these disturbance modes is observed inside the laminar separation bubble. Therefore, the frequencies of the most pronounced tones in the trailing edge noise spectra are in the frequency range of the convectively most amplified disturbance modes. Modifying the receptivity behavior of the laminar boundary layer on the pressure side by means of very thin, two-dimensional roughness elements considerably changes the discrete tone frequencies. For roughness elements placed closer to the trailing edge, the main tone frequency was seen to decrease, while the frequency spacing in-between two successive tones increased. Based on the stability characteristics of the laminar boundary layer and the characteristics of the upstream traveling sound wave, a method for predicting the discrete tone frequencies was developed showing good agreement with the measured results. Hence, with a controlled modification of the laminar boundary layer receptivity behavior, the existence of the proposed feedback loop could be confirmed. At the same time, no significant influence of a second feedback loop previously proposed for the suction side of the NACA 0012 airfoil was observed neither by influencing the boundary layer with a receptivity-roughness element nor by tripping the boundary layer at the leading edge.

  15. Molecular mechanisms modulating glutamate kinase activity. Identification of the proline feedback inhibitor binding site.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Arellano, Isabel; Carmona-Álvarez, Francisco; Gallego, José; Cervera, Javier

    2010-12-17

    Proline, the feedback inhibitor of bacterial glutamate kinase (GK) and plant pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthase (P5CS) enzymes, is a key regulator of the osmotic and redox balance of cells. Using kinetic assays, site-directed mutagenesis, structure-activity analyses, and docking calculations, we have identified the binding site of this metabolite in three-dimensional structures of Escherichia coli and Campylobacter jejuni GKs. The proline-binding cavity partially overlaps with the glutamate substrate site, and the interaction of both proline and glutamate with GK is modulated by a flexible, 16-residue loop linking ?-sheet 4 and ?-helix E in the active-center cavity. This loop is also critical for regulation of plant and human P5CSs. Furthermore, our results indicate that the functional unit of the E. coli enzyme is dimeric and contains an intermolecular hydrogen-bond network that interconnects the active-center cavities of the monomers and is important for substrate binding. PMID:20970428

  16. Feedback based simultaneous correction of imaging artifacts due to geometrical and mechanical cross-talk and tip-sample stick in atomic force microscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ajit C. Shegaonkar; Srinivasa M. Salapaka

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a feedback scheme that simultaneously corrects, in real time, for the imaging artifacts caused by cantilever and photosensor misalignments as well as misinterpretations in relative lateral position of the tip with respect to the sample due to the tip-sample stick in atomic force microscopy (AFM). The optical beam bounce method, typically used in AFM for imaging, is

  17. Mechanisms of decreased left ventricular preload during continuous positive pressure ventilation in ARDS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. F. Dhainaut; J. Y. Devaux; J. F. Monsallier; F. Brunet; D. Villemant; M. F. Huyghebaert

    1986-01-01

    Continuous positive pressure ventilation is associated with a reduction in left ventricular preload and cardiac output, but the mechanisms responsible are controversial. The decrease in left ventricular preload may result exclusively from a decreased systemic venous return due to increased pleural pressure, or from an additional effect such as decreased left ventricular compliance. To determine the mechanisms responsible, we studied

  18. Mitogenic signaling from the egf receptor is attenuated by a phospholipase C-gamma/protein kinase C feedback mechanism.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, P; Xie, H; Wells, A

    1996-01-01

    We recently demonstrated that epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mediated signaling of cell motility and mitogenesis diverge at the immediate post-receptor level. How these two mutually exclusive cell responses cross-communicate is not known. We investigated a possible role for a phospholipase C (PLC)-dependent feedback mechanism that attenuates EGF-induced mitogenesis. Inhibition of PLC gamma activation by U73122 (1 microM) augmented the EGF-induced [3H]thymidine incorporation by 23-55% in two transduced NR6 fibroblast lines expressing motility-responsive EGFR; increased cell division and mitosis was observed in parallel. The time dependence of this increase revealed that it was due to an increase in maximal incorporation and not a foreshortened cell cycle. Motility-responsive cell lines expressing a dominant-negative PLC gamma fragment (PLCz) also demonstrated augmented mitogenic responses by 25-68% when compared with control cells. PLCz- or U73122-augmented mitogenesis was not observed in three non-PLC gamma activating, nonmotility-responsive EGFR-expressing cell lines. Protein kinase C (PKC), which may be activated by PLC-generated second messengers, has been proposed as mediating feedback attenuation due to its capacity to phosphorylate EGFR and inhibit the receptor's tyrosine kinase activity. Inhibition of PKC by Calphostin C (0.05 microM) resulted in a 57% augmentation in the fold of EGF-induced thymidine incorporation. To further establish PKC's role in this feedback attenuation mechanism, an EGFR point mutation, in which the PKC target threonine654 was replaced by alanine, was expressed. Cells expressing these PKC-resistant EGFR constructs demonstrated EGF-induced motility comparable to cells expressing the threonine-containing EGFR. However, when these cells were treated with U73122 or Calphostin C, the mitogenic responses are not enhanced. These findings suggest a model in which PKC activation subsequent to triggering of motility-associated PLC gamma activity attenuates the EGFR mitogenic response. Images PMID:8816994

  19. The interplay between chemical and mechanical feedback from the first generation of stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maio, Umberto; Khochfar, Sadegh; Johnson, Jarrett L.; Ciardi, Benedetta

    2011-06-01

    We study cosmological simulations of early structure formation, including non-equilibrium molecular chemistry, metal pollution from stellar evolution, transition from Population III (PopIII) to Population II (PopII) star formation, regulated by a given critical metallicity, and feedback effects. We perform analyses of the properties of the gas, and use the PopIII and PopII populations as tracers of the metallicity. This allows us to investigate the properties of early metal spreading from the different stellar populations and its interplay with pristine molecular gas, in terms of the initial mass function and critical metallicity. We find that, independently of the details about PopIII modelling, after the onset of star formation, regions enriched below the critical level are mostly found in isolated environments, while PopII star formation regions are much more clumped. Typical star-forming haloes, at z˜ 15-10, with masses between ˜107 and 108 M?, show average supernova (SN) driven outflow rates of up to ˜10-4 M? yr-1 in enriched gas, initially leaving the original star formation regions almost devoid of metals. The polluted material, which is gravitationally incorporated in overdense environments on time-scales of ˜107 yr, is mostly coming from external, nearby star-forming sites ('gravitational enrichment'). In parallel, the pristine-gas inflow rates are some orders of magnitudes larger, between ˜10-3 and 10-1 M? yr-1. However, thermal feedback from SN destroys molecules within the pristine gas hindering its ability to cool and to condense into high-density star-forming regions. Only the polluted material incorporated via gravitational enrichment can continue to cool by atomic fine-structure transitions on short time-scales, short enough to end the initial PopIII regime within less than 108 yr. Moreover, the interplay between the pristine, cold, infalling gas and the ejected, hot, metal-rich gas leads to turbulent Reynolds numbers of the order of ˜108-1010, and contributes to the suppression of pristine inflow rates into the densest, star-forming regions.

  20. Parametric stability of continuous shafts, connected to mechanisms with position-dependent inertia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turhan, O.; Koser, K.

    2004-10-01

    Stability of the parametrically excited torsional vibrations of shafts connected to mechanisms with position-dependent inertia is studied via a version of Bolotin's method. The shafts are considered to be torsionally elastic, distributed parameter systems and discretized through a finite element scheme. The mechanisms are modelled by a linearized Eksergian equation of motion. A general method of analysis is described and applied to examples with slider-crank and Scotch-yoke mechanisms.

  1. A mathematical approach for analyzing ultra precision positioning system with compliant mechanism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. R. Park; S. H. Yang

    2005-01-01

    A monolithic and symmetric structure is good for reducing mechanical noise, such as thermal and compliant errors. Design and analysis of six-degree freedom ultra precision positioning system with compliant mechanism is described in this paper. An inclined bridge displacement amplifier is developed to achieve out-of-plane motions. A mechanism to amplify displacement is used to overcome short travel range of piezoelectric

  2. Nonlinear feedback control of multiple robot arms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarn, T. J.; Yun, X.; Bejczy, A. K.

    1987-01-01

    Multiple coordinated robot arms are modeled by considering the arms: (1) as closed kinematic chains, and (2) as a force constrained mechanical system working on the same object simultaneously. In both formulations a new dynamic control method is discussed. It is based on a feedback linearization and simultaneous output decoupling technique. Applying a nonlinear feedback and a nonlinear coordinate transformation, the complicated model of the multiple robot arms in either formulation is converted into a linear and output decoupled system. The linear system control theory and optimal control theory are used to design robust controllers in the task space. The first formulation has the advantage of automatically handling the coordination and load distribution among the robot arms. In the second formulation, by choosing a general output equation, researchers can superimpose the position and velocity error feedback with the force-torque error feedback in the task space simultaneously.

  3. Strategies for providing upper extremity amputees with tactile and hand position feedback--moving closer to the bionic arm.

    PubMed

    Riso, R R

    1999-01-01

    A continuing challenge for prostheses developers is to replace the sensory function of the hand. This includes tactile sensitivity such as finger contact, grip force, object slippage, surface texture and temperature, as well as proprioceptive sense. One approach is sensory substitution whereby an intact sensory system such as vision, hearing or cutaneous sensation elsewhere on the body is used as an input channel for information related to the prosthesis. A second technique involves using electrical stimulation to deliver sensor derived information directly to the peripheral afferent nerves within the residual limb. Stimulation of the relevant afferent nerves can ultimately come closest to restoring the original sensory perceptions of the hand, and to this end, researchers have already demonstrated some degree of functionality of the transected sensory nerves in studies with amputee subjects. This paper provides an overview of different types of nerve interface components and the advantages and disadvantages of employing each of them in sensory feedback systems. Issues of sensory perception, neurophysiology and anatomy relevant to hand sensation and function are discussed with respect to the selection of the different types of nerve interfaces. The goal of this paper is to outline what can be accomplished for implementing sensation into artificial arms in the near term by applying what is present or presently attainable technology. PMID:10665673

  4. SIRTF/IRS cryogenic grating drive mechanism (ARC second positioning at 4 K)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kubitschek, Michael J.

    1991-01-01

    The requirements, design, and test results of a grating drive mechanism for the Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) science instrument on the proposed superfluid helium-cooled Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) are described. The IRS grating drive mechanism, tested in the fall of 1989, satisfied all performance requirements in vacuum at 4 K. Measured mechanism performance included: 1.4 arc sec root-mean-square (rms) error positioning resolution; 2.2 arc sec rms position repeatability error, less than 10 millijoules/deg dissipated power; and 170 deg angular range of travel. Mechanisms that precisely position optical elements at very low cryogenic temperatures (at/below 4 K) are vital to the operating success of a number of proposed infrared scientific instruments like those in SIRTF.

  5. A Winner-Take-All Mechanism Based on Presynaptic Inhibition Feedback

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan L. Yuille; Norberto M. Grzywacz

    1989-01-01

    A winner-take-all mechanism is a device that determines the identity and amplitude of its largest input (Feldman and Ballard 1982). Such mechanisms have been proposed for various brain functions. For example, a theory for visual velocity estimate (Grzywacz and Yuille 1989) postulates that a winner-take-all selects the strongest responding cell in the cortex's middle temporal area (MT). This theory proposes

  6. Newton-Wigner position operator and the corresponding spin operator in relativistic quantum mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Taeseung

    2015-03-01

    A relativistic spin operator is the difference between the total and the orbital angular momentum. As the unique position operator for a localized state, the remarkable Newton-Wigner position operator, which has all the desirable commutation relations of a position operator, can give a proper spin operator. Historically, the three important spin operators proposed by Bogolubov et al., Pryce, and Foldy-Woutheysen, respectively were investigated to manifest a spin operator corresponding to the Newton-Wigner position operator. We clarify a unique spin operator in relativistic quantum mechanics, which can be described by using the Dirac Hamiltonian.

  7. REG3A accelerates pancreatic cancer cell growth under IL-6-associated inflammatory condition: Involvement of a REG3A-JAK2/STAT3 positive feedback loop.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiulan; Wang, Jun; Wang, Hongjie; Yin, Guoxiao; Liu, Yang; Lei, Xiang; Xiang, Ming

    2015-06-28

    Regenerating gene protein (REG) 3A is a 19 kD secretory pancreas protein with pro-growth function. Previously we demonstrated that overexpression of REG3A, acting as a key molecule for up-regulation of the JAK2/STAT3 pathway, contributed to inflammation-related pancreatic cancer (PaC) development. However the exact network associated with REG3A signaling still remains unclear. Here we determined that exposure of human PaC cells to cytokine IL-6 activated the oncogenic JAK2/STAT3 pathway, which directly upregulated REG3A expression, accelerated cell cycle progression by promoting CyclinD1 expression, and enhancing the expression of the anti-apoptosis Bcl family. Importantly, the activation of REG3A would instead enhance the JAK2/STAT3 pathway to constitute a REG3A-JAK2/STAT3 positive feedback loop, which leads to the amplification of the oncogenic effects of IL-6/JAK2/STAT3, a classic pathway linking to inflammation-related tumorigenesis, ultimately resulting in PaC cell over-proliferation and tumor formation both in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, EGFR was found to mediate the REG3A signal for PaC cell growth and JAK2/STAT3 activation, thus functioning as a REG3A receptor. Collectively, our results provide the first evidence for the presence of the synergistic effect of REG3A and IL-6 on PaC development via a REG3A-JAK2/STAT3 positive feedback loop. PMID:25779676

  8. A multimodel comparison of the performance of land surface parameterization schemes increases understanding of the landatmosphere feedback mechanisms over West Africa.

    E-print Network

    Guichard, Francoise

    understanding of the land­atmosphere feedback mechanisms over West Africa. T he West African monsoon (WAM). It is the main source of precipitation over a large part of West Africa. However, predominantly relatively wet; Fontaine and Janicot 1996), but there is also evidence that land surface conditions over West Africa make

  9. Time-varying Feedback Stabilization of Car-like Wheeled Mobile Robots

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claude Samson

    1993-01-01

    Many nonholonomic mechanical systems, such as common wheeled mobile robots, are controllable but cannot be stabilized to given positions and orientations bv using smooth pure-state feedback control. However, as shown in Samson (1990), such systems may still be stabilized by using smooth time-varying feedbacks,—i.e., feedbacks that explicitly depend on the time variable. This possibility is here applied to the stabilization

  10. Feedback & Objectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butterworth, James R.

    1975-01-01

    Industrial objectives, if they are employee oriented, produce feedback, and the motivation derived from the feedback helps reduce turnover. Feedback is the power to clarify objectives, to stimulate communication, and to motivate people. (Author/MW)

  11. Multiple feedback mechanisms activating corticotropin-releasing hormone system in the brain during stress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shinya Makino; Kozo Hashimoto; Philip W Gold

    2002-01-01

    Stress-associated disorders such as melancholic depression are characterized by persistent hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenocortical (HPA) axis activation and intensive anxiety. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) appears to play an essential role in pathophysiology of such disorders. In an attempt to elucidate possible mechanisms underlying persistent activation of CRH in the central nervous system (CNS), we examined responses of hypothalamic and extrahypothalamic CRH systems to the

  12. ENSO cycle in a coupled ocean-atmosphere model and its negative feedback mechanism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X.-Q. Yang; Q. Xie; Y.-Q. Ni; S.-S. Huang

    1996-01-01

    Summary A coupled ocean-atmosphere anomaly model has been developed for simulating ENSO cycle and its mechanism-study in this paper. After a long model run, the coupled model is successful in demonstrating ENSO-like irregular interannual variability and corresponding horizontal spatial structures. Based on the simulated results, the dynamics and the thermodynamics of the model ENSO cycle have been investigated, and in

  13. A self-tuning immune feedback controller for controlling mechanical systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Takahashi; T. Yamada

    1997-01-01

    Summary form only given. The application of biological-information processing mechanisms to control systems promises greater flexibility and may make it possible to construct a control system whose performance is better than that of conventional control systems. Biological immune systems have learning, memory, and pattern-recognition abilities. The application of some of these abilities to control\\/sensing systems has been studied; we have

  14. The IUA feedback concentrator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deepak Rana; Charles C. Weems

    1990-01-01

    A feedback concentrator for a massively parallel, multilevel image understanding architecture (IUA) is presented. A brief overview of the IUA is given. The details of the feedback concentrator mechanism, which was implemented using a custom VLSI chip, are presented. The custom chip uses a combination of circuit techniques to achieve high speed. A description of the custom VLSI concentrator chip

  15. Influence of accurate and inaccurate 'split-time' feedback upon 10-mile time trial cycling performance.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Mathew G; Lane, Andy M; Beedie, Chris J; Farooq, Abdulaziz

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the study is to examine the impact of accurate and inaccurate 'split-time' feedback upon a 10-mile time trial (TT) performance and to quantify power output into a practically meaningful unit of variation. Seven well-trained cyclists completed four randomised bouts of a 10-mile TT on a SRM™ cycle ergometer. TTs were performed with (1) accurate performance feedback, (2) without performance feedback, (3) and (4) false negative and false positive 'split-time' feedback showing performance 5% slower or 5% faster than actual performance. There were no significant differences in completion time, average power output, heart rate or blood lactate between the four feedback conditions. There were significantly lower (p < 0.001) average [Formula: see text] (ml min(-1)) and [Formula: see text] (l min(-1)) scores in the false positive (3,485 ± 596; 119 ± 33) and accurate (3,471 ± 513; 117 ± 22) feedback conditions compared to the false negative (3,753 ± 410; 127 ± 27) and blind (3,772 ± 378; 124 ± 21) feedback conditions. Cyclists spent a greater amount of time in a '20 watt zone' 10 W either side of average power in the negative feedback condition (fastest) than the accurate feedback (slowest) condition (39.3 vs. 32.2%, p < 0.05). There were no significant differences in the 10-mile TT performance time between accurate and inaccurate feedback conditions, despite significantly lower average [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] scores in the false positive and accurate feedback conditions. Additionally, cycling with a small variation in power output (10 W either side of average power) produced the fastest TT. Further psycho-physiological research should examine the mechanism(s) why lower [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] scores are observed when cycling in a false positive or accurate feedback condition compared to a false negative or blind feedback condition. PMID:21533806

  16. Positive feedback regulation of maize NADPH oxidase by mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade in abscisic acid signalling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fan Lin; Haidong Ding; Jinxiang Wang; Hong Zhang; Aying Zhang; Yun Zhang; Mingpu Tan; Wen Dong; Mingyi Jiang

    2010-01-01

    In maize (Zea mays), abscisic acid (ABA)-induced H2O2 production activates a 46 kDa mitogen-activated protein kinase (p46MAPK), and the activation of p46MAPK also regulates the production of H2O2. However, the mechanism for the regulation of H2O2 production by MAPK in ABA signalling remains to be elucidated. In this study, four reactive oxygen species (ROS)-producing NADPH oxidase (rboh) genes (ZmrbohA-D) were

  17. Effects of neuron-specific estrogen receptor (ER) ? and ER? deletion on the acute estrogen negative feedback mechanism in adult female mice.

    PubMed

    Cheong, Rachel Y; Porteous, Robert; Chambon, Pierre; Abrahám, István; Herbison, Allan E

    2014-04-01

    The negative feedback mechanism through which 17?-estradiol (E2) acts to suppress the activity of the GnRH neurons remains unclear. Using inducible and cell-specific genetic mouse models, we examined the estrogen receptor (ER) isoforms expressed by neurons that mediate acute estrogen negative feedback. Adult female mutant mice in which ER? was deleted from all neurons in the neonatal period failed to exhibit estrous cycles or negative feedback. Adult mutant female mice with neonatal neuronal ER? deletion exhibited normal estrous cycles, but a failure of E2 to suppress LH secretion was seen in ovariectomized mice. Mutant mice with a GnRH neuron-selective deletion of ER? exhibited normal cycles and negative feedback, suggesting no critical role for ER? in GnRH neurons in acute negative feedback. To examine the adult roles of neurons expressing ER?, an inducible tamoxifen-based Cre-LoxP approach was used to ablate ER? from neurons that express calmodulin kinase II? in adults. This resulted in mice with no estrous cycles, a normal increase in LH after ovariectomy, but an inability of E2 to suppress LH secretion. Finally, acute administration of ER?- and ER?-selective agonists to adult ovariectomized wild-type mice revealed that activation of ER? suppressed LH secretion, whereas ER? agonists had no effect. This study highlights the differences in adult reproductive phenotypes that result from neonatal vs adult ablation of ER? in the brain. Together, these experiments expand previous global knockout studies by demonstrating that neurons expressing ER? are essential and probably sufficient for the acute estrogen negative feedback mechanism in female mice. PMID:24476134

  18. Feedbacks in human-landscape systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin, Anne

    2015-04-01

    As human interactions with Earth systems intensify in the "Anthropocene", understanding the complex relationships among human activity, landscape change, and societal responses to those changes is increasingly important. Interdisciplinary research centered on the theme of "feedbacks" in human-landscape systems serves as a promising focus for unraveling these interactions. Deciphering interacting human-landscape feedbacks extends our traditional approach of considering humans as unidirectional drivers of change. Enormous challenges exist, however, in quantifying impact-feedback loops in landscapes with significant human alterations. This paper illustrates an example of human-landscape interactions following a wildfire in Colorado (USA) that elicited feedback responses. After the 2012 Waldo Canyon Fire, concerns for heightened flood potential and debris flows associated with post-fire hydrologic changes prompted local landowners to construct tall fences at the base of a burned watershed. These actions changed the sediment transport regime and promoted further landscape change and human responses in a positive feedback cycle. The interactions ultimately increase flood and sediment hazards, rather than dampening the effects of fire. A simple agent-based model, capable of integrating social and hydro-geomorphological data, demonstrates how such interacting impacts and feedbacks could be simulated. Challenges for fully capturing human-landscape feedback interactions include the identification of diffuse and subtle feedbacks at a range of scales, the availability of data linking impact with response, the identification of multiple thresholds that trigger feedback mechanisms, and the varied metrics and data needed to represent both the physical and human systems. By collaborating with social scientists with expertise in the human causes of landscape change, as well as the human responses to those changes, geoscientists could more fully recognize and anticipate the coupled human-landscape interactions that will drive the evolution of Earth systems into the future.

  19. Continuous positive airway pressure and conventional mechanical ventilation in the treatment of meconium aspiration syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J P Goldsmith

    2008-01-01

    Meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) is a complex syndrome that ranges in severity from mild respiratory distress to severe respiratory failure, persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn and sometimes death. Understanding of the syndrome's complicated pathophysiology will help determine the appropriate treatment strategy, including the use of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV) and other therapies. Approximately 30

  20. Numerical study of evaporation-induced salt accumulation and precipitation in bare saline soils: Mechanism and feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chenming; Li, Ling; Lockington, David

    2014-10-01

    Evaporation from bare saline soils in coastal wetlands causes salt precipitation in the form of efflorescence and subflorescence. However, it is not clear how much the precipitated salt in turn affects the water transport in the soil and hence the evaporation rate. We hypothesized that efflorescence exerts a mulching resistance to evaporation, while subflorescence reduces the pore space for water vapor to move through the soil. A numerical model is developed to simulate the transport of water, solute, and heat in the soil, and resulting evaporation and salt precipitation with the hypothesized feedback mechanism incorporated. The model was applied to simulate four evaporation experiments in soil columns with and without a fixed shallow water table, and was found to replicate well the experimental observations. The simulated results indicated that as long as the hydraulic connection between the near surface soil layer and the water source in the interior soil layer exists, vaporization occurs near the surface, and salt precipitates exclusively as efflorescence. When such hydraulic connection is absent, the vaporization plane develops downward and salt precipitates as subflorescence. Being more substantial in quantity, efflorescent affects more significantly evaporation than subflorescence during the soil-drying process. Different evaporation stages based on the location of the vaporization plane and the state of salt accumulation can be identified for characterizing the process of evaporation from bare saline soils with or without a fixed shallow water table.

  1. Inhibitory and toxic effects of extracellular self-DNA in litter: a mechanism for negative plant-soil feedbacks?

    PubMed

    Mazzoleni, Stefano; Bonanomi, Giuliano; Incerti, Guido; Chiusano, Maria Luisa; Termolino, Pasquale; Mingo, Antonio; Senatore, Mauro; Giannino, Francesco; Cartenì, Fabrizio; Rietkerk, Max; Lanzotti, Virginia

    2015-02-01

    Plant-soil negative feedback (NF) is recognized as an important factor affecting plant communities. The objectives of this work were to assess the effects of litter phytotoxicity and autotoxicity on root proliferation, and to test the hypothesis that DNA is a driver of litter autotoxicity and plant-soil NF. The inhibitory effect of decomposed litter was studied in different bioassays. Litter biochemical changes were evaluated with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. DNA accumulation in litter and soil was measured and DNA toxicity was assessed in laboratory experiments. Undecomposed litter caused nonspecific inhibition of root growth, while autotoxicity was produced by aged litter. The addition of activated carbon (AC) removed phytotoxicity, but was ineffective against autotoxicity. Phytotoxicity was related to known labile allelopathic compounds. Restricted (13) C NMR signals related to nucleic acids were the only ones negatively correlated with root growth on conspecific substrates. DNA accumulation was observed in both litter decomposition and soil history experiments. Extracted total DNA showed evident species-specific toxicity. Results indicate a general occurrence of litter autotoxicity related to the exposure to fragmented self-DNA. The evidence also suggests the involvement of accumulated extracellular DNA in plant-soil NF. Further studies are needed to further investigate this unexpected function of extracellular DNA at the ecosystem level and related cellular and molecular mechanisms. PMID:25354164

  2. Increasing Induction-Level Teachers' Positive-to-Negative Communication Ratio and Use of Behavior-Specific Praise through E-Mailed Performance Feedback and Its Effect on Students' Task Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rathel, Jeanna M.; Drasgow, Erik; Brown, William H.; Marshall, Kathleen J.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of e-mailed specific performance feedback that included progress monitoring graphs on induction-level teachers' ratios of positive-to-negative communication behaviors and their use of behavior-specific praise in classrooms for students with emotional and behavioral disorders, mild…

  3. Characterizing the mechanisms of improvement for position discrimination in adult amblyopia.

    PubMed

    Li, Roger W; Levi, Dennis M

    2004-06-01

    Adult amblyopes can improve positional acuity through practice; however, the neural mechanisms underlying this improvement are still not clear. In this study, seven adult amblyopes repeatedly practiced a position discrimination task in the presence of positional noise. We found that six of the seven showed systematic and significant improvements in position acuity that were both eye and orientation specific. Using a position-averaging model, we were able to parse the improvement in performance with practice into two factors: improvement in sampling efficiency and reduction of equivalent input noise. Three of the seven showed improved efficiency with no change in equivalent noise, two showed a significant reduction in equivalent noise with no change in efficiency, and one showed both improved efficiency and reduced equivalent noise. Interestingly, all observers showed substantial improvement in visual acuity, and one observer showed substantial improvement in stereoacuity. Three observers were also tested on a counting task, and all three improved after practicing positional discrimination. Our results reveal the mechanisms underlying perceptual learning in amblyopic vision, and may provide a basis for developing more effective and efficient strategies for the treatment of amblyopia. PMID:15330715

  4. A primitive social circuit: vasotocin-substance P interactions modulate social behavior through a peripheral feedback mechanism in goldfish.

    PubMed

    Thompson, R R; Walton, J C; Bhalla, R; George, K C; Beth, E H

    2008-05-01

    At its core, the polyvagal theory proposes that peptides affect simple social behaviors through influences on hindbrain autonomic processes. To test this mechanism, we compared the effects of fore- and hindbrain infusions of vasotocin (VT) on social approach behavior in goldfish. VT infusions into the 4th ventricle, which ink infusions verified did not move rostrally to the forebrain, inhibited social approach at a lower dose than did infusions into the 3rd ventricle, which did diffuse to the hindbrain. Thus, VT actions in the hindbrain appear to modulate this simple social behavior. We then identified a population of substance P (SP)-immunoreactive cells in the hindbrain that are encapsulated by putative VT terminals, and determined that those cells project to the periphery. Injecting SP peripherally, as with infusing VT centrally, inhibited social approach, and peripheral injections of an SP antagonist, but not central infusions, abolished the behavioral effects of central VT infusions. We therefore propose that VT inhibits social approach by activating SP cells in the hindbrain, which then induce changes in body state that feed back to the brain. Central VT infusions did not inhibit feeding, suggesting that this VT mechanism selectively affects appetitive social responses. Because VT projections to the hindbrain are highly conserved in vertebrates, influences on peripheral feedback processes like the one we have described in goldfish may reflect how VT affected simple social behaviors in ancestral vertebrates and thus preadapted members of this peptide family to play increasingly complex roles in social and emotional regulation in modern animals. PMID:18445219

  5. Coevolution of topography, soils, and vegetation in upland landscapes: Using cinder cones to elucidate ecohydrogeomorphic feedback mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuire, L.; Pelletier, J. D.; Rasmussen, C.

    2013-12-01

    The study of landscape evolution in upland environments requires analysis of complex interactions among topography, soil development, and vegetation cover under changing climatic conditions. Earth surface scientists lack a comprehensive understanding of these interactions in part due to their interdisciplinary nature, our limited ability to reconstruct the progression of landscape states through time, and the limited spatially-distributed data available for paleoclimate conditions. In this study, we investigate the interactions and feedbacks among topography, soil development, and vegetation cover in upland environments using remote sensing, geochemistry, and numerical modeling. We focus on quantifying the evolution of late Quaternary cinder cones within several volcanic fields, spanning a range of climates, as a function of age and microclimate, which varies with elevation and slope aspect. Cinder cones are excellent natural laboratories for studying the evolution of upland landscapes because they begin their evolution at a known time in the past (i.e. many cinder cones have been radiometrically dated) and because they often have unusually uniform initial conditions (i.e. they form close to the angle of repose and are comprised of well-sorted volcaniclastic parent materials). As such, cinder cones of different ages with similar size and climatic history can provide an approximate time progression illustrating how a dated hillslope has evolved over geologic time scales. Data suggest that rates of soil development and fluvial erosion are low on younger cones, which have surfaces consisting mostly of permeable cinders, but increase significantly after eolian deposits reduce the permeability of the cone surface. Further, data demonstrate that microclimatic differences between north and south facing slopes lead to systematic variations in biomass. Additionally, north-facing slopes on cinder cones are found to be steeper than corresponding south-facing slopes. The observed asymmetries in hillslope morphology are not present initially, but appear to develop over time as a result of differences in post-emplacement processes that may be attributed to aspect-induced microclimatic effects on long-term sediment transport rates. Results provide additional constraints on the timing and magnitude of feedback mechanisms among topography, biomass, and soil development as well as improve our understanding of cinder cone evolution within different climates.

  6. HD-Zip Proteins GL2 and HDG11 Have Redundant Functions in Arabidopsis Trichomes, and GL2 Activates a Positive Feedback Loop via MYB23[W

    PubMed Central

    Khosla, Aashima; Paper, Janet M.; Boehler, Allison P.; Bradley, Amanda M.; Neumann, Titus R.; Schrick, Kathrin

    2014-01-01

    The class IV homeodomain leucine zipper transcription factor GLABRA2 (GL2) acts in a complex regulatory circuit that regulates the differentiation of trichomes in Arabidopsis thaliana. We describe a genetic interaction with HOMEODOMAIN GLABROUS11 (HDG11), previously identified as a negative regulator of trichome branching. gl2 hdg11 double mutants display enhanced trichome cell-type differentiation defects. Transgenic expression of HDG11 using the GL2 promoter partially suppresses gl2 trichome phenotypes. Vice versa, expression of GL2 under the control of its native promoter partially complements hdg11 ectopic branching. Since gl2 hdg11 and gl2 myb23 double mutants and the triple mutant display similar trichome differentiation defects, we investigated a connection to the R2R3-MYB transcription factor MYB23. We show that MYB23 transcript levels are significantly reduced in shoots from gl2 mutants and that GL2 can drive the expression of a MYB23-promoter fusion to green fluorescent protein. Yeast one-hybrid, chromatin immunoprecipitation, and in planta reporter gene experiments indicate that an L1-box in the MYB23 promoter acts as a GL2 binding site. Taken together, our findings reveal a functional redundancy between GL2 and HDG11, two homeodomain leucine zipper transcription factors previously thought to mediate opposing functions in trichome morphogenesis. A model is proposed in which GL2 transcript levels are maintained through a positive feedback loop involving GL2 activation of MYB23. PMID:24824485

  7. HD-Zip Proteins GL2 and HDG11 Have Redundant Functions in Arabidopsis Trichomes, and GL2 Activates a Positive Feedback Loop via MYB23.

    PubMed

    Khosla, Aashima; Paper, Janet M; Boehler, Allison P; Bradley, Amanda M; Neumann, Titus R; Schrick, Kathrin

    2014-05-13

    The class IV homeodomain leucine zipper transcription factor GLABRA2 (GL2) acts in a complex regulatory circuit that regulates the differentiation of trichomes in Arabidopsis thaliana. We describe a genetic interaction with HOMEODOMAIN GLABROUS11 (HDG11), previously identified as a negative regulator of trichome branching. gl2 hdg11 double mutants display enhanced trichome cell-type differentiation defects. Transgenic expression of HDG11 using the GL2 promoter partially suppresses gl2 trichome phenotypes. Vice versa, expression of GL2 under the control of its native promoter partially complements hdg11 ectopic branching. Since gl2 hdg11 and gl2 myb23 double mutants and the triple mutant display similar trichome differentiation defects, we investigated a connection to the R2R3-MYB transcription factor MYB23. We show that MYB23 transcript levels are significantly reduced in shoots from gl2 mutants and that GL2 can drive the expression of a MYB23-promoter fusion to green fluorescent protein. Yeast one-hybrid, chromatin immunoprecipitation, and in planta reporter gene experiments indicate that an L1-box in the MYB23 promoter acts as a GL2 binding site. Taken together, our findings reveal a functional redundancy between GL2 and HDG11, two homeodomain leucine zipper transcription factors previously thought to mediate opposing functions in trichome morphogenesis. A model is proposed in which GL2 transcript levels are maintained through a positive feedback loop involving GL2 activation of MYB23. PMID:24824485

  8. Mechanisms of decreased left ventricular preload during continuous positive pressure ventilation in ARDS

    SciTech Connect

    Dhainaut, J.F.; Devaux, J.Y.; Monsallier, J.F.; Brunet, F.; Villemant, D.; Huyghebaert, M.F.

    1986-07-01

    Continuous positive pressure ventilation is associated with a reduction in left ventricular preload and cardiac output, but the mechanisms responsible are controversial. The decrease in left ventricular preload may result exclusively from a decreased systemic venous return due to increased pleural pressure, or from an additional effect such as decreased left ventricular compliance. To determine the mechanisms responsible, we studied the changes in cardiac output induced by continuous positive pressure ventilation in eight patients with the adult respiratory distress syndrome. We measured cardiac output by thermodilution, and biventricular ejection fraction by equilibrium gated blood pool scintigraphy. Biventricular end-diastolic volumes were then calculated by dividing stroke volume by ejection fraction. As positive end-expiratory pressure increased from 0 to 20 cm H/sub 2/O, stroke volume and biventricular end-diastolic volumes fell about 25 percent, and biventricular ejection fraction remained unchanged. At 20 cm H/sub 2/O positive end-expiratory pressure, volume expansion for normalizing cardiac output restored biventricular end-diastolic volumes without markedly changing biventricular end-diastolic transmural pressures. The primary cause of the reduction in left ventricular preload with continuous positive pressure ventilation appears to be a fall in venous return and hence in right ventricular stroke volume, without evidence of change in left ventricular diastolic compliance.

  9. Current view of the mechanism of benign paroxysmal positioning vertigo: cupulolithiasis or canalolithiasis?

    PubMed

    Brandt, T; Steddin, S

    1993-01-01

    Theoretical evidence is presented that all the typical features of BPPV (benign paroxysmal positioning vertigo) cannot be explained by cupulolithiasis in that otoconial debris become settled on the cupula of the posterior semicircular canal. A free floating clot of inorganic particles (heavier than endolymph) in the ampullofugal branch of the posterior semicircular canal is more likely to cause the syndrome. The clot always gravitates to the most dependent part of the canal as soon as the patient's head is moved in a way that alters the angle between the canal's plane and the gravity vector. As compared to a plunger (depending on the direction it moves) the clot produces push or pull forces on the cupula, thereby eliciting the BPPV attack. This clot-induced endolymph flow mechanism is compatible with all features of BPPV such as latency, limited duration, fatigability, change in direction of the induced nystagmus, and the efficacy of physical therapy in both posterior and horizontal semicircular canal BPPV. The floating clot is only activated by changes in position of the head relative to the gravitational vector (positioning vertigo) but not by prolonged static positions of the head (positional vertigo), which fits clinical experience. Therefore, canalolithiasis rather than cupulolithiasis provides a better definition of the underlying mechanism in BPPV. PMID:8275271

  10. Use of input shaping technique with a robust feedback control and its application to the position control of surface mount machine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pyung Hun Chang

    1996-01-01

    The input shaping technique (IST) and a robust feedback control law were combined to achieve fast and precise point-to-point motion of the surface mount machine. The time delay control (TDC) was used as a feedback control to overcome the disturbances and parameter variations. And the IST was used to suppress the residual vibration. The TDC was designed first, and the

  11. Wide range force feedback for catheter insertion mechanism for use in minimally invasive mitral valve repair surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadi, Roozbeh; Sokhanvar, Saeed; Packirisamy, Muthukumaran; Dargahi, Javad

    2009-02-01

    Mitral valve regurgitation (MR) is a condition in which heart's mitral valve does not close tightly, which allows blood to leak back into the left atrium. Restoring the dimension of the mitral-valve annulus by percutaneous intervention surgery is a common choice to treat MR. Currently, this kind of open heart annuloplasty surgery is being performed through sternotomy with cardiomyopathy bypass. In order to reduce trauma to the patient and also to eliminate bypass surgery, robotic assisted minimally invasive surgery (MIS) procedure, which requires small keyhole incisions, has a great potential. To perform this surgery through MIS procedure, an accurate computer controlled catheter with wide-range force feedback capabilities is required. There are three types of tissues at the site of operation: mitral leaflet, mitral annulus and left atrium. The maximum allowable applied force to these three types of tissue is totally different. For instance, leaflet tissue is the most sensitive one with the lowest allowable force capacity. For this application, therefore, a wide-range force sensing is highly required. Most of the sensors that have been developed for use in MIS applications have a limited range of sensing. Therefore, they need to be calibrated for different types of tissue. The present work, reports on the design, modeling and simulation of a novel wide-range optical force sensor for measurement of contact pressure between catheter tip and heart tissue. The proposed sensor offers a wide input range with a high resolution and sensitivity over this range. Using Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems (MEMS) technology, this sensor can be microfabricated and integrated with commercially available catheters.

  12. Robot Control Basics Feedback control!

    E-print Network

    Kosecka, Jana

    for ! · linear and angular velocities to reach the desired configuration! ! Problem statement ! · Given arbitrary1! Robot Control Basics CS 685! Feedback control! · More suitable alternative! · Use state feedback and desired position! y #12;2! Kinematic Position Control The kinematic of a differential drive mobile robot

  13. Feedback sandwiches affect perceptions but not performance.

    PubMed

    Parkes, Jay; Abercrombie, Sara; McCarty, Teresita

    2013-08-01

    The feedback sandwich technique-make positive comments; provide critique; end with positive comments-is commonly recommended to feedback givers despite scant evidence of its efficacy. These two studies (N = 20; N = 350) of written peer feedback with third-year medical students on clinical patient note-writing assignments indicate that students think feedback sandwiches positively impact subsequent performance when there is no evidence that they do. The effort necessary to produce feedback sandwiches and students' unwarranted confidence in their performance impact have implications for teaching about how to give feedback. PMID:22581568

  14. Crystal structures of Thermotoga maritima reverse gyrase: inferences for the mechanism of positive DNA supercoiling

    PubMed Central

    Rudolph, Markus G.; del Toro Duany, Yoandris; Jungblut, Stefan P.; Ganguly, Agneyo; Klostermeier, Dagmar

    2013-01-01

    Reverse gyrase is an ATP-dependent topoisomerase that is unique to hyperthermophilic archaea and eubacteria. The only reverse gyrase structure determined to date has revealed the arrangement of the N-terminal helicase domain and the C-terminal topoisomerase domain that intimately cooperate to generate the unique function of positive DNA supercoiling. Although the structure has elicited hypotheses as to how supercoiling may be achieved, it lacks structural elements important for supercoiling and the molecular mechanism of positive supercoiling is still not clear. We present five structures of authentic Thermotoga maritima reverse gyrase that reveal a first view of two interacting zinc fingers that are crucial for positive DNA supercoiling. The so-called latch domain, which connects the helicase and the topoisomerase domains is required for their functional cooperation and presents a novel fold. Structural comparison defines mobile regions in parts of the helicase domain, including a helical insert and the latch that are likely important for DNA binding during catalysis. We show that the latch, the helical insert and the zinc fingers contribute to the binding of DNA to reverse gyrase and are uniquely placed within the reverse gyrase structure to bind and guide DNA during strand passage. A possible mechanism for positive supercoiling by reverse gyrases is presented. PMID:23209025

  15. Ethylene promotes ethylene biosynthesis during pea seed germination by positive feedback regulation of 1-aminocyclo-propane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase.

    PubMed

    Petruzzelli, L; Coraggio, I; Leubner-Metzger, G

    2000-06-01

    Increased ethylene evolution accompanies seed germination of many species including Pisum sativum L., but only a little is known about the regulation of the ethylene biosynthetic pathway in different seed tissues. Biosynthesis of the direct ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), the expression of ACC oxidase (ACO), and ethylene production were investigated in the cotyledons and embryonic axis of germinating pea seeds. An early onset and sequential induction of ACC biosynthesis, accumulation of Ps-ACO1 mRNA and of ACO activity, and ethylene production were localized almost exclusively in the embryonic axis. Maximal levels of ACC, Ps-ACO1 mRNA, ACO enzyme activity and ethylene evolution were found when radicle emergence was just complete. Treatment of germinating seeds with ethylene alone or in combination with the inhibitor of ethylene action 2,5-norbornadiene showed that endogenous ethylene regulates its own biosynthesis through a positive feedback loop that enhances ACO expression. Accumulation of Ps-ACO1 mRNA and of ACO enzyme activity in the embryonic axis during the late phase of germination required ethylene, whereas Ps-ACS1 mRNA levels and overall ACC contents were not induced by ethylene treatment. Ethylene did not induce ACO in the embryonic axis during the early phase of germination. Ethylene-independent signalling pathways regulate the spatial and temporal pattern of ethylene biosynthesis, whereas the ethylene signalling pathway regulates high-level ACO expression in the embryonic axis, and thereby enhances ethylene evolution during seed germination. PMID:10923715

  16. Analysis of Multiple Positive Feedback Paradigms Demonstrates a Complete Absence of LH Surges and GnRH Activation in Mice Lacking Kisspeptin Signaling1

    PubMed Central

    Dror, Tal; Franks, Jennifer; Kauffman, Alexander S.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Kisspeptin stimulates gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons via the kisspeptin receptor, Kiss1r. In rodents, estrogen-responsive kisspeptin neurons in the rostral hypothalamus have been postulated to mediate estrogen-induced positive feedback induction of the preovulatory luteinizing hormone (LH) surge. However, conflicting evidence exists regarding the ability of mice lacking Kiss1r to display LH surges in response to exogenous hormones. Whether the discrepancy reflects different mouse strains used and/or utilization of different surge-induction paradigms is unknown. Here, we tested multiple hormonal paradigms in one Kiss1r knockout (KO) model to see which paradigms, if any, could generate circadian-timed LH surges. Kiss1r KO and wild-type (WT) females were ovariectomized, given sex steroids in various modes, and assessed several days later for LH levels in the morning or evening (when surges occur). Serum LH levels were very low in all morning animals, regardless of genotype or hormonal paradigm. In each paradigm, virtually all WT females displayed clear LH surges in the evening, whereas none of the KO females demonstrated LH surges. The lack of LH surges in KO mice reflects a lack of GnRH secretion rather than diminished pituitary responsiveness from a lifetime lack of GnRH exposure because KO mice responded to GnRH priming with robust LH secretion. Moreover, high cfos-GnRH coexpression was detected in WT females in the evening, whereas low cfos-GnRH coexpression was present in KO females at all time points. Our findings conclusively demonstrate that WT females consistently display LH surges under multiple hormonal paradigms, whereas Kiss1r KO mice do not, indicating that kisspeptin-Kiss1r signaling is mandatory for GnRH/LH surge induction. PMID:23595904

  17. Feedback Sandwiches Affect Perceptions but Not Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkes, Jay; Abercrombie, Sara; McCarty, Teresita

    2013-01-01

    The feedback sandwich technique-make positive comments; provide critique; end with positive comments-is commonly recommended to feedback givers despite scant evidence of its efficacy. These two studies (N = 20; N = 350) of written peer feedback with third-year medical students on clinical patient note-writing assignments indicate that students…

  18. Mechanisms of resistance to antimicrobial drugs in pathogenic Gram-positive cocci.

    PubMed

    Mlynarczyk, B; Mlynarczyk, A; Kmera-Muszynska, M; Majewski, S; Mlynarczyk, G

    2010-09-01

    Many species of Gram-positive cocci are pathogenic. The most important are staphylococci, streptococci, and enterococci. Widespread usage of antibiotics was the main cause for the appearance and spread of resistance to almost all antimicrobials. The occurrence, mechanisms, and genetic background of resistance to antimicrobial drugs other than beta-lactams and glycopeptides among pathogenic staphylococci, streptococci, and enterococci are discussed in the text. Well-established agents (such as macrolides, lincosamides, streptogramins, aminoglycosides, quinolones, mupirocin, chloramphenicol) as well as new agents (linezolid, daptomycin, quinupristine/dalfopristine, ratapamulin, tigecycline, iclaprim and new generations of quinolones) are considered. PMID:20370697

  19. Positive-operator-valued measures in the Hamiltonian formulation of quantum mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arsenovi?, D.; Buri?, N.; Popovi?, D. B.; Radonji?, M.; Prvanovi?, S.

    2015-06-01

    In the Hilbert space formulation of quantum mechanics, ideal measurements of physical variables are discussed using the spectral theory of Hermitian operators and the corresponding projector-valued measures (PVMs). However, more general types of measurements require the treatment in terms of positive-operator-valued measures (POVMs). In the Hamiltonian formulation of quantum mechanics, canonical coordinates are related to PVM. In this paper the results of an analysis of various aspects of applications of POVMs in the Hamiltonian formulation are reported. Several properties of state parameters and quantum observables given by POVMs or represented in an overcomplete basis, including the general Hamiltonian treatment of the Neumark extension, are presented. An analysis of the phase operator, given by the corresponding POVMs, in the Hilbert space and the Hamiltonian frameworks is also given.

  20. Cryogenic optical position encoders for mechanisms in the JWST optical telescope element simulator (OSIM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leviton, Douglas B.; Anderjaska, Thomas; Badger, James; Capon, Tom; Davis, Clinton; Dicks, Brent; Eichhorn, William; Garza, Mario; Guishard, Corina; Haghani, Shadan; Hakun, Claef; Haney, Paul; Happs, David; Hovmand, Lars; Kadari, Madhu; Kirk, Jeffrey; Nyquist, Richard; Robinson, F. David; Sullivan, Joseph; Wilson, Erin

    2013-09-01

    The JWST Optical Telescope Element Simulator (OSIM) is a configurable, cryogenic, optical stimulus for high fidelity ground characterization and calibration of JWST's flight instruments. OSIM and its associated Beam Image Analyzer (BIA) contain several ultra-precise, cryogenic mechanisms that enable OSIM to project point sources into the instruments according to the same optical prescription as the flight telescope will image stars - correct in focal surface position and chief ray angle. OSIM's and BIA's fifteen axes of mechanisms navigate according to redundant, cryogenic, absolute, optical encoders - 32 in all operating at or below 100 K. OSIM's encoder subsystem, the engineering challenges met in its development, and the encoders' sub-micron and sub-arcsecond performance are discussed.

  1. Thermal-chemical-mechanical feedback during fluid-rock interactions: Implications for chemical transport and scales of equilibria in the crust

    SciTech Connect

    Dutrow, Barbara

    2008-08-13

    Our research evaluates the hypothesis that feedback amongst thermal-chemical-mechanical processes operative in fluid-rock systems alters the fluid flow dynamics of the system which, in turn, affects chemical transport and temporal and spatial scales of equilibria, thus impacting the resultant mineral textural development of rocks. Our methods include computational experimentation and detailed analyses of fluid-infiltrated rocks from well-characterized terranes. This work focuses on metamorphic rocks and hydrothermal systems where minerals and their textures are utilized to evaluate pressure (P), temperature (T), and time (t) paths in the evolution of mountain belts and ore deposits, and to interpret tectonic events and the timing of these events. Our work on coupled processes also extends to other areas where subsurface flow and transport in porous media have consequences such as oil and gas movement, geothermal system development, transport of contaminants, nuclear waste disposal, and other systems rich in fluid-rock reactions. Fluid-rock systems are widespread in the geologic record. Correctly deciphering the products resulting from such systems is important to interpreting a number of geologic phenomena. These systems are characterized by complex interactions involving time-dependent, non-linear processes in heterogeneous materials. While many of these interactions have been studied in isolation, they are more appropriately analyzed in the context of a system with feedback. When one process impacts another process, time and space scales as well as the overall outcome of the interaction can be dramatically altered. Our goals to test this hypothesis are: to develop and incorporate algorithms into our 3D heat and mass transport code to allow the effects of feedback to be investigated numerically, to analyze fluid infiltrated rocks from a variety of terranes at differing P-T conditions, to identify subtle features of the infiltration of fluids and/or feedback, and to quantify the importance of feedback in complex fluid-rock systems and its affects on time and space scales and rates of reaction. We have made significant contributions toward understanding feedback and its impacts by numerical experimentation using 3D computational modeling of fluid-rock systems and by chemical and textural analyses of fluid-infiltrated rocks.

  2. A cfr-positive clinical staphylococcal isolate from India with multiple mechanisms of linezolid-resistance

    PubMed Central

    Rajan, Vineeth; Kumar, Vijay Gowdara Shankarappa; Gopal, Shubha

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives: Linezolid, a member of the oxazolidinone class of antibiotics, has been an effective therapeutic option to treat severe infections caused by multidrug resistant Gram positive bacteria. Emergence of linezolid resistant clinical strains is a serious issue in the healthcare settings worldwide. We report here the molecular characterization of a linezolid resistant clinical isolate of Staphylococcus haemolyticus from India. Methods: The species of the clinical isolate was identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of linezolid, clindamycin, chloramphenicol and oxacillin were determined by E-test method. To elucidate the mechanism of linezolid-resistance, presence of cfr gene (chloramphenicol florfenicol resistance) and mutations in 23S rRNA and ribosomal proteins (L3, L4 and L22) were investigated. Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing was performed by multiplex PCR. Results: The study documented a rare clinical S. haemolyticus strain with three independent mechanisms of linezolid-resistance. The strain carried cfr gene, the only known transmissible mechanism of linezolid-resistance. The strain also possessed resistance-conferring mutations such as G2576T in domain V of 23S rRNA gene and Met156Thr in L3 ribosomal protein. The other ribosomal proteins (L4 and L22) did not exhibit mutations accountable for linezolid-resistance. Restriction digestion by NheI revealed that all the alleles of 23S rRNA gene were mutated. The isolate showed elevated MIC values (>256 ?g ml-1 of linezolid, clindamycin, chloramphenicol and oxacillin. Methicillin resistance was conferred by type I SCCmec element. The strain also harboured lsa(B) gene which encodes an ABC transporter that can efflux clindamycin. Interpretation & conclusions: The present study reports the first clinical strain from India with transmissible and multiple mechanisms of linezolid-resistance. Judicious use of linezolid in clinical practice and proper surveillance of cfr-positive strains are of utmost importance to safeguard the efficacy of linezolid. PMID:24820843

  3. A positive feedback loop between HER2 and ADAM12 in human head and neck cancer cells increases migration and invasion

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Velidi H.; Kandel, Amrit; Lynch, Dave; Pena, Zachary; Marwaha, Nitin; Deng, Caishu; Watson, Patrice; Hansen, Laura A.

    2011-01-01

    Increased activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family members such as HER2/Erbb2 can result in more aggressive disease, resistance to chemotherapy and reduced survival of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients. In order to identify mechanisms through which these receptor tyrosine kinases accelerate tumor progression, the regulation of metalloprotease expression by EGFR family members was investigated in 11 SCC cell lines. HER2 expression was significantly correlated with ADAM12 (A Disintegrin And Metalloprotease 12) expression in these cell lines and was co-expressed in human head and neck cancers. Inhibition of HER2 or EGFR decreased ADAM12 transcripts while HER2 transfection up-regulated ADAM12 expression. To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying HER2 regulation of ADAM12, we investigated the signaling pathways directing ADAM12 production in SCC cells. Inhibition of phosphatidyl inositol-3-kinase (PI3K) or mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) decreased ADAM12 transcripts in HER2-expressing SCC cells, while transfection with AKT increased ADAM12 mRNA. Experiments utilizing ADAM12 transfection or siRNA targeting of ADAM12 revealed that the protease increased both the migration and invasiveness of oral SCC cells. Surprisingly, ADAM12 also increased HER2 message, protein levels, and activity through an Ets1-dependent mechanism. Collectively, these results reveal a novel positive activation loop between ADAM12 and HER2 that may contribute to HNSCC progression. PMID:21986939

  4. Activation of Parallel Fiber Feedback by Spatially Diffuse Stimuli Reduces Signal and Noise Correlations via Independent Mechanisms in a Cerebellum-Like Structure

    PubMed Central

    Simmonds, Benjamin; Chacron, Maurice J.

    2015-01-01

    Correlations between the activities of neighboring neurons are observed ubiquitously across systems and species and are dynamically regulated by several factors such as the stimulus' spatiotemporal extent as well as by the brain's internal state. Using the electrosensory system of gymnotiform weakly electric fish, we recorded the activities of pyramidal cell pairs within the electrosensory lateral line lobe (ELL) under spatially localized and diffuse stimulation. We found that both signal and noise correlations were markedly reduced (>40%) under the latter stimulation. Through a network model incorporating key anatomical features of the ELL, we reveal how activation of diffuse parallel fiber feedback from granule cells by spatially diffuse stimulation can explain both the reduction in signal as well as the reduction in noise correlations seen experimentally through independent mechanisms. First, we show that burst-timing dependent plasticity, which leads to a negative image of the stimulus and thereby reduces single neuron responses, decreases signal but not noise correlations. Second, we show trial-to-trial variability in the responses of single granule cells to sensory input reduces noise but not signal correlations. Thus, our model predicts that the same feedback pathway can simultaneously reduce both signal and noise correlations through independent mechanisms. To test this prediction experimentally, we pharmacologically inactivated parallel fiber feedback onto ELL pyramidal cells. In agreement with modeling predictions, we found that inactivation increased both signal and noise correlations but that there was no significant relationship between magnitude of the increase in signal correlations and the magnitude of the increase in noise correlations. The mechanisms reported in this study are expected to be generally applicable to the cerebellum as well as other cerebellum-like structures. We further discuss the implications of such decorrelation on the neural coding strategies used by the electrosensory and by other systems to process natural stimuli. PMID:25569283

  5. Endogenous interleukin 6 production in multiple myeloma patients treated with chimeric monoclonal anti-IL6 antibodies indicates the existence of a positive feed-back loop.

    PubMed Central

    van Zaanen, H C; Koopmans, R P; Aarden, L A; Rensink, H J; Stouthard, J M; Warnaar, S O; Lokhorst, H M; van Oers, M H

    1996-01-01

    In vitro as well as in vivo observations have shown that IL6 plays a key role in the pathogenesis of multiple myeloma. Therefore we started a phase I/II dose escalating study with chimeric monoclonal anti-IL6 antibodies (cMab) in multiple myeloma (MM) patients resistant to second-line chemotherapy. Here we describe the pharmacological data as well as a new method for calculating the endogenous IL6 production. The cMab (CLB IL6/8; Kd: 6.25 x 10(-12) M) was given in two cycles of 14 daily infusions, starting on day 1 and day 28. Daily dose: 5 mg in patients 1-3, 10 mg in patients 4-6, and 20 mg in patients 7-9 (total dose 140, 280, and 560 mg of anti-IL6, respectively). Using the pharmacokinetic data of free IL6 and the binding characteristics of the cMab, the endogenous IL6 production could be calculated from day to day using a one-compartment open model. The median half-life time of this antibody was 17.6 d. No human antichimeric antibodies were induced. Pre-treatment median endogenous IL6 production in the MM patients was 60 micrograms/d (range 13.8-230; normal controls < 7 micrograms/d). During treatment with anti-IL6 cMabs, the endogenous IL6 production immediately decreased in all patients to below 3 micrograms/d and never reached the pre-treatment value during the treatment period, except in two patients who developed an active infection, resulting in an IL6 production of 128 and 1,208 micrograms/d, respectively. We concluded that in MM patients endogenous IL6 production is 2-30 times higher than in healthy individuals. The anti-IL6 cMab strongly suppress this endogenous IL6 production, probably by blocking a positive feed-back loop, but this cMab does not prevent infection-induced IL6 production. The chimeric anti-IL6 Mabs have a long half-life time, a low immunogenicity, and are able to block IL6-dependent processes in vivo. PMID:8823310

  6. MAS promoter regulation: A role of Sry and tyrosine nitration of the KRAB domain of ZNF274 as a feedback mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Prokop, Jeremy W.; Rauscher, Frank J.; Peng, Hongzhuang; Liu, Yuanjie; Araujo, Fabiano C.; Watanabe, Ingrid; Reis, Fernando M.; Milsted, Amy

    2014-01-01

    The ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/MAS axis of the renin-angiotensin system has emerged as a pathway of interest in treating both cardiovascular disorders and cancer. The MAS protein is known to bind to and be activated by Ang-(1-7); however mechanisms of this activation are just starting to be understood. Whereas there are strong biochemical data regarding regulation and activation of the AT1 and AT2 receptors, with models of how Ang II binds each receptor, fewer studies have characterized MAS. We characterize the MAS promoter and provide a potential feedback mechanism that would compensate for the MAS degradation following activation by Ang-(1-7). Analysis of ENCODE data for the MAS promoter revealed potential epigenetic control by KRAB/KAP1. A proximal promoter construct for the MAS gene was repressed by the SOX proteins SRY, SOX2, SOX3, and SOX14, of which SRY is known to interact with the KRAB domain. The proteins KRAB/KAP1 can both be tyrosine nitrated, causing the dissociation of the KAP-1 protein, and thus a potential loss of epigenetic control. Activation of MAS can lead to an increase in nitric oxide, suggesting feedback mechanisms of MAS on its own promoter. These results present a more complete view of MAS regulation and for the first time suggest biochemical outcomes for nitration to the KRAB domain. PMID:24128372

  7. A positive feedback loop between HEAT SHOCK PROTEIN101 and HEAT STRESS-ASSOCIATED 32-KD PROTEIN modulates long-term acquired thermotolerance illustrating diverse heat stress responses in rice varieties.

    PubMed

    Lin, Meng-yi; Chai, Kuo-hsing; Ko, Swee-suak; Kuang, Lin-yun; Lur, Huu-sheng; Charng, Yee-yung

    2014-04-01

    Heat stress is an important factor that has a negative impact on rice (Oryza sativa) production. To alleviate this problem, it is necessary to extensively understand the genetic basis of heat tolerance and adaptability to heat stress in rice. Here, we report the molecular mechanism underlying heat acclimation memory that confers long-term acquired thermotolerance (LAT) in this monocot plant. Our results showed that a positive feedback loop formed by two heat-inducible genes, HEAT SHOCK PROTEIN101 (HSP101) and HEAT STRESS-ASSOCIATED 32-KD PROTEIN (HSA32), at the posttranscriptional level prolongs the effect of heat acclimation in rice seedlings. The interplay between HSP101 and HSA32 also affects basal thermotolerance of rice seeds. These findings are similar to those reported for the dicot plant Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), suggesting a conserved function in plant heat stress response. Comparison between two rice cultivars, japonica Nipponbare and indica N22 showed opposite performance in basal thermotolerance and LAT assays. 'N22' seedlings have a higher basal thermotolerance level than cv Nipponbare and vice versa at the LAT level, indicating that these two types of thermotolerance can be decoupled. The HSP101 and HSA32 protein levels were substantially higher in cv Nipponbare than in cv N22 after a long recovery following heat acclimation treatment, at least partly explaining the difference in the LAT phenotype. Our results point out the complexity of thermotolerance diversity in rice cultivars, which may need to be taken into consideration when breeding for heat tolerance for different climate scenarios. PMID:24520156

  8. A Positive Feedback Loop between HEAT SHOCK PROTEIN101 and HEAT STRESS-ASSOCIATED 32-KD PROTEIN Modulates Long-Term Acquired Thermotolerance Illustrating Diverse Heat Stress Responses in Rice Varieties1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Meng-yi; Chai, Kuo-hsing; Ko, Swee-suak; Kuang, Lin-yun; Lur, Huu-Sheng; Charng, Yee-yung

    2014-01-01

    Heat stress is an important factor that has a negative impact on rice (Oryza sativa) production. To alleviate this problem, it is necessary to extensively understand the genetic basis of heat tolerance and adaptability to heat stress in rice. Here, we report the molecular mechanism underlying heat acclimation memory that confers long-term acquired thermotolerance (LAT) in this monocot plant. Our results showed that a positive feedback loop formed by two heat-inducible genes, HEAT SHOCK PROTEIN101 (HSP101) and HEAT STRESS-ASSOCIATED 32-KD PROTEIN (HSA32), at the posttranscriptional level prolongs the effect of heat acclimation in rice seedlings. The interplay between HSP101 and HSA32 also affects basal thermotolerance of rice seeds. These findings are similar to those reported for the dicot plant Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), suggesting a conserved function in plant heat stress response. Comparison between two rice cultivars, japonica Nipponbare and indica N22 showed opposite performance in basal thermotolerance and LAT assays. ‘N22’ seedlings have a higher basal thermotolerance level than cv Nipponbare and vice versa at the LAT level, indicating that these two types of thermotolerance can be decoupled. The HSP101 and HSA32 protein levels were substantially higher in cv Nipponbare than in cv N22 after a long recovery following heat acclimation treatment, at least partly explaining the difference in the LAT phenotype. Our results point out the complexity of thermotolerance diversity in rice cultivars, which may need to be taken into consideration when breeding for heat tolerance for different climate scenarios. PMID:24520156

  9. Feedback in distance education.

    PubMed

    Hudspeth, D

    1988-01-01

    Some tips, strategies, and techniques are presented for incorporating learner feedback into distance education courses. The most common form of learner feedback is immediate Knowledge of Response (KR). This general term can be delineated further as either Knowledge of Correct Response (KCR) or Knowledge of Incorrect Response (KIR). KCR is most useful for learning tasks that require a high level of automatic response such as vocabulary development and naming chemical structures. It also can be used for higher levels of learning. KIR occurs when the learner makes a response and knows only whether the response was correct or incorrect. If the learner was incorrect, the correct answer is not provided. Distant learners, as well as learners in a typical classroom, benefit from positive feedback, e.g., a few words written on the side of an assignment or a short note of encouragement. Personalized feedback tells students if they are performing satisfactorily and, if provided early in a course, can help reduce student attrition. If immediate feedback after an examination cannot be provided, every effort should be made to score and return the test as soon as possible before the student is expected to begin study on subsequent lessons. If this is not possible, a test review sheet could be mailed back upon receipt of the examination. Microcomputers are devices that can provide rapid and useful feedback, yet many methods that do not rely on computers can provide feedback. These include practice tests, small group exercises, and checklist response sheets. In addition to formally providing feedback after an assignment or examination, it is possible to use the principles of feedback by embedding questions and answers in text, audio, or video materials. PMID:12315710

  10. Using DNA mechanics to predict intrinsic and extrinsic nucleosome positioning signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozov, Alexandre

    2008-03-01

    In eukaryotic genomes, nucleosomes function to compact DNA and to regulate access to it both by simple physical occlusion and by providing the substrate for numerous covalent epigenetic tags. While nucleosome positions in vitro are determined by sequence alone, in vivo competition with other DNA-binding factors and action of chromatin remodeling enzymes play a role that needs to be quantified. We developed a biophysical, DNA mechanics-based model for the sequence dependence of DNA bending energies, and validated it against a collection of in vitro free energies of nucleosome formation and a nucleosome crystal structure; we also successfully designed both strong and poor histone binding sequences ab initio. For in vivo data from S.cerevisiae, the strongest positioning signal came from the competition with other factors rather than intrinsic nucleosome sequence preferences. Based on sequence alone, our model predicts that functional transcription factor binding sites tend to be covered by nucleosomes, yet are uncovered in vivo because functional sites cluster within a single nucleosome footprint and thus make transcription factors bind cooperatively. Similarly a weak enhancement of nucleosome binding in the TATA region becomes a strong depletion when the TATA-binding protein is included, in quantitative agreement with experiment. Our model distinguishes multiple ways in which genomic sequence influences nucleosome positions, and thus provides alternative explanations for several genome-wide experimental findings. In the future our approach will be used to rationally alter gene expression levels in model systems through redesign of nucleosome occupancy profiles.

  11. PID controller tuning using multi-objective optimization based on fused Genetic-Immune algorithm and Immune feedback mechanism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maryam Khoie; Ali Khaki Sedigh; Karim Salahshoor

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a Genetic-AIS (Artificial Immune System) algorithm is introduced for PID (Proportional- Integral-Derivative) controller tuning using a multi-objective optimization framework. This hybrid Genetic-AIS technique is faster and accurate compared to each individual Genetic or AIS approach. The auto-tuned PID algorithm is then fused in an Immune feedback law based on a nonlinear proportional gain to realize a new

  12. Interactive ozone induces a negative feedback in CO2-driven climate change simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietmüller, S.; Ponater, M.; Sausen, R.

    2014-02-01

    Interactively coupled climate chemistry models (CCMs) extend the number of feedback mechanisms in climate change simulations by including chemical feedback. In this study the radiative feedback from ozone changes on climate response and climate sensitivity is quantified for a series of simulations driven by CO2 increases on top of a present-day reference concentration level. Other possibly relevant feedback via atmospheric chemistry, e.g., via CH4 and N2O, is not fully quantified in the CCM setup as their concentrations are essentially fixed at the surface. In case of a CO2-doubling simulation, the ozone feedback reduces the climate sensitivity parameter by 3.4%, from 0.70 K/(W m-2) without interactive chemistry to 0.68 K/(W m-2). In case of a 4*CO2 simulation, the reduction of the climate sensitivity parameter increases to 8.4%. An analysis of feedback reveals that the negative feedback of stratospheric ozone and the associated negative feedback change in stratospheric water vapor are mainly responsible for this damping. The feedback from tropospheric ozone changes is positive but much smaller. The nonlinearity in the climate sensitivity damping with increased CO2 concentrations is shown to be due to nonlinear feedback of ozone and stratospheric water vapor.

  13. Rule-Based Cell Systems Model of Aging using Feedback Loop Motifs Mediated by Stress Responses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andres Kriete; William J. Bosl; Glenn Booker

    2010-01-01

    Investigating the complex systems dynamics of the aging process requires integration of a broad range of cellular processes describing damage and functional decline co-existing with adaptive and protective regulatory mechanisms. We evolve an integrated generic cell network to represent the connectivity of key cellular mechanisms structured into positive and negative feedback loop motifs centrally important for aging. The conceptual network

  14. The organization of plant communities: negative plant-soil feedbacks and semiarid grasslands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Estimates of species losses and evidence of positive plant diversity-productivity relationships have spurred interest in understanding the mechanism(s) regulating species coexistence and relative abundance. Plant-soil biota feedbacks appear to affect plant diversity and community structure by eithe...

  15. Dynamic Ruptures on a Frictional Interface with Off-Fault Brittle Damage: Feedback Mechanisms and Effects on Slip and Near-Fault Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Shiqing; Ben-Zion, Yehuda; Ampuero, Jean-Paul; Lyakhovsky, Vladimir

    2015-05-01

    The spontaneous generation of brittle rock damage near and behind the tip of a propagating rupture can produce dynamic feedback mechanisms that modify significantly the rupture properties, seismic radiation, and generated fault zone structure. In this work, we study such feedback mechanisms for single rupture events and their consequences for earthquake physics and various possible observations. This is done through numerical simulations of in-plane dynamic ruptures on a frictional fault with bulk behavior governed by a brittle damage rheology that incorporates reduction of elastic moduli in off-fault yielding regions. The model simulations produce several features that modify key properties of the ruptures, local wave propagation, and fault zone damage. These include (1) dynamic generation of near-fault regions with lower elastic properties, (2) dynamic changes of normal stress on the fault, (3) rupture transition from crack-like to a detached pulse, (4) emergence of a rupture mode consisting of a train of pulses, (5) quasi-periodic modulation of slip rate on the fault, and (6) asymmetric near-fault ground motion with higher amplitude and longer duration on the side with reduced elastic moduli. The results can have significant implications to multiple topics ranging from rupture directivity and local amplification of seismic motion to near-fault tremor-like signals.

  16. Positive Maladjustment as a Transition from Chaos to Order

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laycraft, Krystyna

    2009-01-01

    Dabrowski's theory of positive disintegration describes patterns and explains mechanisms of human development and has been successfully applied to understanding of gifted individuals. This article shows how the concepts of chaos theory and self-organization such as the sensitivity to initial conditions, positive and negative feedback, bifurcation…

  17. Positive fragile X microsatellite associations point to a common mechanism of dynamic mutation evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, W.T.; Zhong, N.; Dobkin, C. [Institute for Basic Research, Staten Island, NY (United States)

    1996-03-01

    We recently reported that the size of fragile X gene (FMR1) triplet repeats and two nearby microsatellites show positive allele-size associations. The larger alleles of microsatellite DXS548, located {approximately}150 kb proximal to the FMR1 CGG repeat, and of FRAXAC1 (AC1), located 7 kb proximal to the FMR1 CGG repeat, tend to occur together, and smaller alleles also tend to occur together. Also, fragile X chromosomes are more commonly found on the larger combined microsatellite-allele haplotypes. We now have extended these observations to include two other nearby repeats, FRAXAC2 (AC2), a complex three-part polymorphism located 12 kb distal, and the FRAXE triplet repeat, located 600 kb distal. We divided the chromosomes into controls with FMR1 repeats of <60 and fragile X chromosomes with repeats {>=}60, since FMR1 alleles with repeats {>=}60 show high intergenerational instability. In the 133 controls, previously analyzed for AGG interspersions, and in 119 fragile X chromosomes, we found that these repeats show nonrandom size associations. To describe this numerically, we calculated correlation coefficients for the repeat lengths. These repeats showed significantly positive correlations with each other. Although FRAXE alleles showed no correlation with the control repeats, they did have positive correlations with fragile X chromosome microsatellites (AC1 and AC2 but not DXS548), which may reflect the larger recombinational distances involved and the possibly more recent origin of the fragile X mutations. The correlations tended to be higher for the number of 3{prime} pure CGGs than for total FMR1 repeats in controls. These findings strengthen our hypothesis that there may be a common underlying mutational mechanism that simultaneously affects these repeat loci. 13 refs., 1 tab.

  18. Mechanism of Fc? receptor-mediated trogocytosis-based false-positive results in flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Sakiko; Iwasaki, Sari; Tomaru, Utano; Sato, Juri; Kawakami, Ai; Ichijo, Kana; Sogo, Sayuri; Baba, Tomohisa; Katsumata, Kazuaki; Kasahara, Masanori; Ishizu, Akihiro

    2012-01-01

    The whole blood erythrocyte lysis method is the most common protocol of sample preparation for flow cytometry (FCM). Although this method has many virtues, our recent study has demonstrated false-positive results when surface markers of monocytes were examined by this method due to the phenomenon called Fc? receptor (Fc?R)-mediated trogocytosis. In the present study, similar Fc?R-mediated trogocytosis-based false-positive results have been demonstrated when granulocytes were focused on instead of monocytes. These findings indicated that not only monocytes but also granulocytes, the largest population with Fc?R expression in peripheral blood, could perform Fc?R-mediated trogocytosis. Since the capacity of Fc?R-mediated trogocytosis was different among blood samples, identification of factors that could regulate the occurrence of Fc?R-mediated trogocytosis should be important for the quality control of FCM. Our studies have suggested that such factors are present in the serum. In order to identify the serum factors, we employed the in vitro model of Fc?R-mediated trogocytosis using granulocytes. Investigation with this model determined the serum factors as heat-labile molecules with molecular weight of more than 100 kDa. Complements in the classical pathway were initially assumed as candidates; however, the C1 inhibitor did not yield an obvious influence on Fc?R-mediated trogocytosis. On the other hand, although immunoglobulin ought to be resistant to heat inactivation, the inhibitor of human anti-mouse antibodies (HAMA) effectively blocked Fc?R-mediated trogocytosis. Moreover, the inhibition rates were significantly higher in HAMA(high) serum than HAMA(low) serum. The collective findings suggested the involvement of heterophilic antibodies such as HAMA in the mechanism of false-positive results in FCM due to Fc?R-mediated trogocytosis. PMID:23300821

  19. Tracking performance of an H? position controller for current-fed induction motors under mechanical load variations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giuseppe Fusco

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes a systematic procedure to design a position tracking H? controller for current-fed induction motors actuating mechanical loads which ensures robustness with respect to load torque disturbances. This feature is very important in many industrial applications; in fact during normal operating conditions if variations of the mechanical load driven by the induction motor appear the tracking performance achievable

  20. FLT3 Inhibition and Mechanisms of Drug Resistance in mutant FLT3-Positive AML

    PubMed Central

    Weisberg, Ellen; Barrett, Rosemary; Liu, Qingsong; Stone, Richard; Gray, Nathanael; Griffin, James D.

    2015-01-01

    An appealing therapeutic target for AML is constitutively-activated, mutant FLT3, which is expressed in a subpopulation of AML patients and is generally a poor prognostic indicator in patients under the age of 65. There are currently several FLT3 inhibitors that are undergoing clinical investigation. However, the discovery of drug-resistant leukemic blast cells in FLT3 inhibitor-treated AML patients has prompted the search for novel, structurally diverse FLT3 inhibitors that could be alternatively used to circumvent drug resistance. Here, we provide an overview of FLT3 inhibitors under preclinical and clinical investigation, and we discuss mechanisms whereby AML cells develop resistance to FLT3 inhibitors, and the ways in which combination therapy could potentially be utilized to override drug resistance. We discuss how the cross-talk between major downstream signaling pathways, such as PI3K/PTEN/Akt/mTOR, RAS/Raf/MEK/ERK, and Jak/STAT, can be exploited for therapeutic purposes by targeting key signaling molecules with selective inhibitors, such as mTOR inhibitors, HSP90 inhibitors, or farnesyltransferase inhibitors, and identifying those agents with the ability to positively combine with inhibitors of FLT3, such as PKC412 and sunitinib. With the widespread onset of drug resistance associated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors, due to mechanisms involving development of point mutations or gene amplification of target proteins, the use of a multi-targeted therapeutic approach is of potential clinical benefit. PMID:19467916

  1. Molybdenum Trihydride Complexes: Computational Determinations of Hydrogen Positions and Rearrangement Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Szatkowski, Lukasz; Hall, Michael B

    2015-07-01

    In crystal structures of the molybdenum complexes [(1,2,4-C5H2(t)Bu3)Mo(PMe3)2H3] (Cp(t)Bu3) and [(C5H(i)Pr4)Mo(PMe3)2H3] (Cp(i)Pr4), the Mo-bound hydrogen positions were resolved for Cp(t)Bu3, but not for Cp(i)Pr4. NMR experiments revealed the existence of an unknown mechanism for hydrogen atom exchange in these molecules, which can be "frozen out" for Cp(t)Bu3 but not for Cp(i)Pr4. Density functional theory calculations of the most stable conformations for both complexes in the gas phase and in a continuum solvent model indicate that the H's of the Cp(i)Pr4 complex are unresloved because of their disorder, which does not occur for Cp(t)Bu3. A corresponding examination of alternative rearrangement pathways shows that the rearrangements of the H's could occur by two mechanisms: parallel to the cyclopentadienyl (Cp) ring in a single step and perpendicular to the Cp ring in two steps. The parallel pathway is preferred for both molecules, but it has a lower energy barrier for Cp(i)Pr4 than for Cp(t)Bu3. PMID:26102430

  2. Initiation process and propagation mechanism of positive streamer discharge in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, Hidemasa; Kanazawa, Seiji; Ohtani, Kiyonobu; Komiya, Atsuki; Kaneko, Toshiro; Sato, Takehiko

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the initiation process and the propagation mechanism of positive underwater streamers under the application of pulsed voltage with a duration of 10 ?s, focusing on two different theories of electrical discharges in liquids: the bubble theory and the direct ionization theory. The initiation process, which is the time lag from the beginning of voltage application to streamer inception, was found to be related to the bubble theory. In this process, Joule heating resulted in the formation of a bubble cluster at the tip of a needle electrode. Streamer inception was observed from the tip of a protrusion on the surface of this bubble cluster, which acted as a virtual sharp electrode to enhance the local electric field to a level greater than 10 MV/cm. Streak imaging of secondary streamer propagation showed that luminescence preceded gas channel generation, suggesting a mechanism of direct ionization in water. Streak imaging of primary streamer propagation revealed intermittent propagation, synchronized with repetitive pulsed currents. Shadowgraph imaging of streamers synchronized with the light emission signal indicated the possibility of direct ionization in water for primary streamer propagation as well as for secondary streamer propagation.

  3. The Art of Giving Online Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leibold, Nancyruth; Schwarz, Laura Marie

    2015-01-01

    The cultivation of providing online feedback that is positive, effective, and enhances the learning experience is a valuable educator skill. Acquisition of the art of providing feedback is through education, practice, and faculty development. This article provides information about the best practices for delivering online feedback to learners. An…

  4. Video Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonassen, David H.

    1974-01-01

    Author states that participation in TV becomes video feedback to teachers and parents. If radical approaches to TV become the norm, video will be the content of a new awareness that is being generated by this new visual culture. (Author)

  5. Iodothyronine deiodinase gene analysis of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas reveals possible conservation of thyroid hormone feedback regulation mechanism in mollusks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wen; Xu, Fei; Qu, Tao; Li, Li; Que, Huayong; Zhang, Guofan

    2015-04-01

    Iodothyronine deiodinase catalyzes the initiation and termination of thyroid hormones (THs) effects, and plays a central role in the regulation of thyroid hormone level in vertebrates. In non-chordate invertebrates, only one deiodinase has been identified in the scallop Chlamys farreri. Here, two deiodinases were cloned in the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas (CgDx and CgDy). The characteristic in-frame TGA codons and selenocysteine insertion sequence elements in the oyster deiodinase cDNAs supported the activity of them. Furthermore, seven orthologs of deiodinases were found by a tblastn search in the mollusk Lottia gigantea and the annelid Capitella teleta. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that the deiodinase gene originated from an common ancestor and a clade-specific gene duplication occurred independently during the differentiation of the mollusk, annelid, and vertebrate lineages. The distinct spatiotemporal expression patterns implied functional divergence of the two deiodinases. The expression of CgDx and CgDy was influenced by L-thyroxine T4, and putative thyroid hormone responsive elements were found in their promoters, which suggested that the oyster deiodinases were feedback regulated by TH. Epinephrine stimulated the expression level of CgDx and CgDy, suggesting an interaction effect between different hormones. This study provides the first evidence for the existence of a conserved TH feedback regulation mechanism in mollusks, providing insights into TH evolution.

  6. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CONTROL SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 9, NO. 2, MARCH 2001 381 Multivariable Feedback Relevant System Identification of a Wafer Stepper

    E-print Network

    Van den Hof, Paul

    Feedback Relevant System Identification of a Wafer Stepper System Raymond A. de Callafon and Paul M. J. Van of a positioning mechanism present in a wafer stepper. The positioning mechanism in a wafer stepper is used in chip manufacturing processes for accurate posi- tioning of the silicon wafer on which the chips are to be produced

  7. Mechanistic, mathematical model to predict the dynamics of tissue genesis in bone defects via mechanical feedback and mediation of biochemical factors.

    PubMed

    Moore, Shannon R; Saidel, Gerald M; Knothe, Ulf; Knothe Tate, Melissa L

    2014-06-01

    The link between mechanics and biology in the generation and the adaptation of bone has been well studied in context of skeletal development and fracture healing. Yet, the prediction of tissue genesis within - and the spatiotemporal healing of - postnatal defects, necessitates a quantitative evaluation of mechano-biological interactions using experimental and clinical parameters. To address this current gap in knowledge, this study aims to develop a mechanistic mathematical model of tissue genesis using bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) to represent of a class of factors that may coordinate bone healing. Specifically, we developed a mechanistic, mathematical model to predict the dynamics of tissue genesis by periosteal progenitor cells within a long bone defect surrounded by periosteum and stabilized via an intramedullary nail. The emergent material properties and mechanical environment associated with nascent tissue genesis influence the strain stimulus sensed by progenitor cells within the periosteum. Using a mechanical finite element model, periosteal surface strains are predicted as a function of emergent, nascent tissue properties. Strains are then input to a mechanistic mathematical model, where mechanical regulation of BMP-2 production mediates rates of cellular proliferation, differentiation and tissue production, to predict healing outcomes. A parametric approach enables the spatial and temporal prediction of endochondral tissue regeneration, assessed as areas of cartilage and mineralized bone, as functions of radial distance from the periosteum and time. Comparing model results to histological outcomes from two previous studies of periosteum-mediated bone regeneration in a common ovine model, it was shown that mechanistic models incorporating mechanical feedback successfully predict patterns (spatial) and trends (temporal) of bone tissue regeneration. The novel model framework presented here integrates a mechanistic feedback system based on the mechanosensitivity of periosteal progenitor cells, which allows for modeling and prediction of tissue regeneration on multiple length and time scales. Through combination of computational, physical and engineering science approaches, the model platform provides a means to test new hypotheses in silico and to elucidate conditions conducive to endogenous tissue genesis. Next generation models will serve to unravel intrinsic differences in bone genesis by endochondral and intramembranous mechanisms. PMID:24967742

  8. Primary motor cortex and fast feedback responses to mechanical perturbations: a primer on what we know now and some suggestions on what we should find out next

    PubMed Central

    Pruszynski, J. Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Many researchers have drawn a clear distinction between fast feedback responses to mechanical perturbations (e.g., stretch responses) and voluntary control processes. But this simple distinction is difficult to reconcile with growing evidence that long-latency stretch responses share most of the defining capabilities of voluntary control. My general view—and I believe a growing consensus—is that the functional similarities between long-latency stretch responses and voluntary control processes can be readily understood based on their shared neural circuitry, especially a transcortical pathway through primary motor cortex. Here I provide a very brief and selective account of the human and monkey studies linking a transcortical pathway through primary motor cortex to the generation and functional sophistication of the long-latency stretch response. I then lay out some of the notable issues that are ready to be answered. PMID:25309359

  9. Adipocyte Fatty Acid-binding Protein Modulates Inflammatory Responses in Macrophages through a Positive Feedback Loop Involving c-Jun NH2-terminal Kinases and Activator Protein-1*

    PubMed Central

    Hui, Xiaoyan; Li, Huiying; Zhou, Zhiguang; Lam, Karen S. L.; Xiao, Yang; Wu, Donghai; Ding, Ke; Wang, Yu; Vanhoutte, Paul M.; Xu, Aimin

    2010-01-01

    Adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (A-FABP) has emerged as an important mediator of inflammation in macrophages. Macrophage-selective ablation of A-FABP alone is sufficient to prevent the development of high cholesterol diet-induced atherosclerosis in apoE-deficient mice. However, the precise mechanisms whereby A-FABP modulates inflammation remain elusive. Here, we report that A-FABP forms a finely tuned positive loop between JNK and activator protein-1 (AP-1) to exacerbate lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory responses in macrophages. Real time PCR and luciferase reporter analysis showed that LPS induced A-FABP expression through transcriptional activation. This effect was mediated by JNK, which promoted the recruitment of c-Jun to a highly conserved AP-1 consensus binding motif located within the proximal region of the A-FABP promoter. LPS-induced transactivation of the A-FABP gene was diminished by either pharmacological inhibition of JNK or knocking down c-Jun or by mutating the AP-1 recognition site within the proximal region (?122 to ?116 bp) of the A-FABP promoter. Conversely, the LPS-evoked phosphorylation of JNK, activation of AP-1, and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines were markedly attenuated by pharmacological or genetic suppression of A-FABP in macrophages. Furthermore, the LPS-induced elevation in A-FABP expression could also be prevented by the selective A-FABP inhibitor BMS309403. These findings support the notion that pharmacological inhibition of A-FABP represents a valid strategy for treating inflammation-related disorders such as atherosclerosis. PMID:20145251

  10. Adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein modulates inflammatory responses in macrophages through a positive feedback loop involving c-Jun NH2-terminal kinases and activator protein-1.

    PubMed

    Hui, Xiaoyan; Li, Huiying; Zhou, Zhiguang; Lam, Karen S L; Xiao, Yang; Wu, Donghai; Ding, Ke; Wang, Yu; Vanhoutte, Paul M; Xu, Aimin

    2010-04-01

    Adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (A-FABP) has emerged as an important mediator of inflammation in macrophages. Macrophage-selective ablation of A-FABP alone is sufficient to prevent the development of high cholesterol diet-induced atherosclerosis in apoE-deficient mice. However, the precise mechanisms whereby A-FABP modulates inflammation remain elusive. Here, we report that A-FABP forms a finely tuned positive loop between JNK and activator protein-1 (AP-1) to exacerbate lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory responses in macrophages. Real time PCR and luciferase reporter analysis showed that LPS induced A-FABP expression through transcriptional activation. This effect was mediated by JNK, which promoted the recruitment of c-Jun to a highly conserved AP-1 consensus binding motif located within the proximal region of the A-FABP promoter. LPS-induced transactivation of the A-FABP gene was diminished by either pharmacological inhibition of JNK or knocking down c-Jun or by mutating the AP-1 recognition site within the proximal region (-122 to -116 bp) of the A-FABP promoter. Conversely, the LPS-evoked phosphorylation of JNK, activation of AP-1, and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines were markedly attenuated by pharmacological or genetic suppression of A-FABP in macrophages. Furthermore, the LPS-induced elevation in A-FABP expression could also be prevented by the selective A-FABP inhibitor BMS309403. These findings support the notion that pharmacological inhibition of A-FABP represents a valid strategy for treating inflammation-related disorders such as atherosclerosis. PMID:20145251

  11. Mechanisms of active laryngeal closure during noninvasive intermittent positive pressure ventilation in nonsedated lambs.

    PubMed

    Roy, Bianca; Samson, Nathalie; Moreau-Bussière, François; Ouimet, Alain; Dorion, Dominique; Mayer, Sandeep; Praud, Jean-Paul

    2008-11-01

    The present study stems from our recent demonstration (Moreau-Bussiere F, Samson N, St-Hilaire M, Reix P, Lafond JR, Nsegbe E, Praud JP. J Appl Physiol 102: 2149-2157, 2007) that a progressive increase in nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation (nIPPV) leads to active glottal closure in nonsedated, newborn lambs. The aim of the study was to determine whether the mechanisms involved in this glottal narrowing during nIPPV originate from upper airway receptors and/or from bronchopulmonary receptors. Two groups of newborn lambs were chronically instrumented for polysomnographic recording: the first group of five lambs underwent a two-step bilateral thoracic vagotomy using video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (bilateral vagotomy group), while the second group, composed of six lambs, underwent chronic laryngotracheal separation (isolated upper airway group). A few days later, polysomnographic recordings were performed to assess glottal muscle electromyography during step increases in nIPPV (volume control mode). Results show that active glottal narrowing does not develop when nIPPV is applied on the upper airways only, and that this narrowing is prevented by bilateral vagotomy when nIPPV is applied on intact airways. In conclusion, active glottal narrowing in response to increasing nIPPV originates from bronchopulmonary receptors. PMID:18703758

  12. An evolutionarily conserved RNase-based mechanism for repression of transcriptional positive autoregulation

    PubMed Central

    Wurtmann, Elisabeth J.; Ratushny, Alexander V.; Pan, Min; Beer, Karlyn D.; Aitchison, John D.; Baliga, Nitin S.

    2014-01-01

    Summary It is known that environmental context influences the degree of regulation at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. However, the principles governing the differential usage and interplay of regulation at these two levels are not clear. Here, we show that the integration of transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms in a characteristic network motif drives efficient environment-dependent state transitions. Through phenotypic screening, systems analysis, and rigorous experimental validation, we discovered an RNase (VNG2099C) in Halobacterium salinarum that is transcriptionally co-regulated with genes of the aerobic physiologic state but acts on transcripts of the anaerobic state. Through modeling and experimentation we show that this arrangement generates an efficient state-transition switch, within which RNase-repression of a transcriptional positive autoregulation (RPAR) loop is critical for shutting down ATP-consuming active potassium uptake to reserve energy required for salinity adaptation under aerobic, high potassium, or dark conditions. Subsequently, we discovered that many Escherichia coli operons with energy-associated functions are also putatively controlled by RPAR indicating that this network motif may have evolved independently in phylogenetically distant organisms. Thus, our data suggest that interplay of transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation in the RPAR motifis a generalized principle for efficient environment-dependent state transitions across prokaryotes. PMID:24612392

  13. Senescence sensitivity of breast cancer cells is defined by positive feedback loop between CIP2A and E2F1

    PubMed Central

    Laine, Anni; Sihto, Harri; Come, Christophe; Rosenfeldt, Mathias T.; Zwolinska, Aleksandra; Niemelä, Minna; Khanna, Anchit; Chan, Edward K.; Kähäri, Veli-Matti; Kellokumpu-Lehtinen, Pirkko-Liisa; Sansom, Owen J.; Evan, Gerard I.; Junttila, Melissa R.; Ryan, Kevin M.; Marine, Jean-Christophe; Joensuu, Heikki; Westermarck, Jukka

    2013-01-01

    Senescence induction contributes to cancer therapy responses and is crucial for p53-mediated tumor suppression. However, whether p53 inactivation actively suppresses senescence induction has been unclear. Here we demonstrate that E2F1 overexpression, due to p53 or p21 inactivation, promotes expression of human oncoprotein CIP2A, which in turn, by inhibiting PP2A activity, increases stabilizing serine 364 phosphorylation of E2F1. Several lines of evidence demonstrate that increased activity of E2F1-CIP2A feedback renders breast cancer cells resistant to senescence induction. Importantly, mammary tumorigenesis is impaired in a CIP2A deficient mouse model, and CIP2A deficient tumors display markers of senescence induction. Moreover, high CIP2A expression predicts for poor prognosis in a subgroup of breast cancer patients treated with senescence-inducing chemotherapy. Together these results implicate E2F1-CIP2A feedback loop as a key determinant of breast cancer cell sensitivity to senescence induction. It also constitutes a promising pro-senescence target for therapy of cancers with inactivated p53-p21 pathway. PMID:23306062

  14. Comparison of Relative Accuracy Between a Mechanical and an Optical Position Tracker for Image-Guided Neurosurgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Rohling; Patrice Munger; John M. Hollerbach; Terry Peters

    1994-01-01

    An essential component in the execution of image-guided surgery is a hand-held probe whose spatial position is tracked during the procedure and displayed on a workstation-based three dimensions imaging system. This paper describes an experiment performed in order to compare the accuracy of a mechanically linked pointing device (FARO surgical arm) and an optical position tracker (OPTOTRAK) against a "gold

  15. Acceleration feedback control for a flexible manipulator arm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul T. Kotnik; Stephen Yurkovich; U. Ozguner

    1988-01-01

    The authors report laboratory results for a single-link flexible manipulator arm in which three separate control strategies are compared and contrasted: compensation using classical root locus techniques with endpoint position feedback, a full state feedback observer-based design, and compensation using endpoint acceleration feedback. The last technique, using accelerometer feedback, has received little attention to date. The presented results indicate great

  16. Feedback Loops Shape Cellular Signals in Space and Time

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Onn Brandman (University of California-San Francisco and Howard Hughes Medical Institute; Department of Cellular and Molecular Pharmacology)

    2008-10-17

    This article discusses the study of feedback loops in biological systems. Positive and negative feedback loops are common regulatory elements in biological signaling systems. We discuss core feedback motifs that have distinct roles in shaping signaling responses in space and time. We also discuss approaches to experimentally investigate feedback loops in signaling systems.

  17. Feedback Effects 1 Running Head: FEEDBACK EFFECTS

    E-print Network

    Maddox, W. Todd

    Feedback Effects 1 Running Head: FEEDBACK EFFECTS Feedback and Stimulus-Offset Timing Effects We examined how feedback delay and stimulus offset timing affected declarative, rule-based and procedural, information-integration category-learning. We predicted that small feedback delays of several

  18. A Graph Model for the quantum mechanics of a moving cyclic disturbance interacting at a spatial position

    E-print Network

    Daniel Brown

    2006-03-24

    An analysis is made of a moving disturbance using a directed cyclic graph. A statistical approach is used to calculate the alternative positions in space and state of the disturbance with a defined observed time. The probability for a freely moving entity interacting in a particular spatial position is calculated and a formulation is derived for the minimum locus of uncertainty in position and momentum. This is found to accord with calculations for quantum mechanics. The model has proven amenable to computer modelling; a copy of the "SimulTime" program is available on request.

  19. Age differences in feedback reactions: The roles of employee feedback orientation on social awareness and utility.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mo; Burlacu, Gabriela; Truxillo, Donald; James, Keith; Yao, Xiang

    2015-07-01

    Organizations worldwide are currently experiencing shifts in the age composition of their workforces. The workforce is aging and becoming increasingly age-diverse, suggesting that organizational researchers and practitioners need to better understand how age differences may manifest in the workplace and the implications for human resource practice. Integrating socioemotional selectivity theory with the performance feedback literature and using a time-lagged design, the current study examined age differences in moderating the relationships between the characteristics of performance feedback and employee reactions to the feedback event. The results suggest that older workers had higher levels of feedback orientation on social awareness, but lower levels of feedback orientation on utility than younger workers. Furthermore, the positive associations between favorability of feedback and feedback delivery and feedback reactions were stronger for older workers than for younger workers, whereas the positive association between feedback quality and feedback reactions was stronger for younger workers than for older workers. Finally, the current study revealed that age-related differences in employee feedback orientation could explain the different patterns of relationships between feedback characteristics and feedback reactions across older and younger workers. These findings have both theoretical and practical implications for building theory about workplace aging and improving ways that performance feedback is managed across employees from diverse age groups. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25546265

  20. Sex Differences in Reactions to Evaluative Feedback.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Tomi-Ann; Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan

    1989-01-01

    Two studies tested the influence of various types of verbal evaluative feedback on men's and women's self-evaluations of their performance in achievement situations. Results indicate that women's self-evaluations were influenced by both positive and negative evaluative statements, and men were more influenced by positive than negative feedback.…

  1. Detecting Both the Mass and Position of an Accreted Particle by a Micro/Nano-Mechanical Resonator Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yin; Liu, Yun

    2014-01-01

    In the application of a micro-/nano-mechanical resonator, the position of an accreted particle and the resonant frequencies are measured by two different physical systems. Detecting the particle position sometimes can be extremely difficult or even impossible, especially when the particle is as small as an atom or a molecule. Using the resonant frequencies to determine the mass and position of an accreted particle formulates an inverse problem. The Dirac delta function and Galerkin method are used to model and formulate an eigenvalue problem of a beam with an accreted particle. An approximate method is proposed by ignoring the off-diagonal elements of the eigenvalue matrix. Based on the approximate method, the mass and position of an accreted particle can be decoupled and uniquely determined by measuring at most three resonant frequencies. The approximate method is demonstrated to be very accurate when the particle mass is small, which is the application scenario for much of the mass sensing of micro-/nano-mechanical resonators. By solving the inverse problem, the position measurement becomes unnecessary, which is of some help to the mass sensing application of a micro-/nano-mechanical resonator by reducing two measurement systems to one. How to apply the method to the general scenario of multiple accreted particles is also discussed. PMID:25184493

  2. Neocognitron: A self-organizing neural network model for a mechanism of pattern recognition unaffected by shift in position

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kunihiko Fukushima

    1980-01-01

    A neural network model for a mechanism of visual pattern recognition is proposed in this paper. The network is self-organized by “learning without a teacher”, and acquires an ability to recognize stimulus patterns based on the geometrical similarity (Gestalt) of their shapes without affected by their positions. This network is given a nickname “neocognitron”. After completion of self-organization, the network

  3. The Effects of the Reverse Trendelenburg Position on Respiratory Mechanics and Blood Gases in Morbidly Obese Patients During Bariatric Surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Valter Perilli; Liliana Sollazzi; Patrizia Bozza; Cristina Modesti; Angelo Chierichini; Roberto Maria Tacchino; Raffaela Ranieri

    2000-01-01

    Anesthesia adversely affects respiratory function, par- ticularly in morbidly obese patients. Although many studies have been performed to determine the optimal ventilatory settings in these patients, this question has not been answered. The aim of this study was to evalu- ate the effect of reverse Trendelenburg position (RTP) on gas exchange and respiratory mechanics in 15 obese patients undergoing biliopancreatic

  4. The Power of Positional Competition and Market Mechanism: A Case Study of Recent Parental Choice Development in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Xiaoxin

    2008-01-01

    The positional competition reflected in the current parental choice fever in China is highlighted by the introduction of market mechanisms: buying houses near preferred schools, paying choice fees or co-founding fees, giving donations and spending money on spare time training classes, etc. All of these work effectively together with the…

  5. Learning from Feedback: Spacing and the Delay-Retention Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Troy A.; Kimball, Daniel R.

    2010-01-01

    Most modern research on the effects of feedback during learning has assumed that feedback is an error correction mechanism. Recent studies of feedback-timing effects have suggested that feedback might also strengthen initially correct responses. In an experiment involving cued recall of trivia facts, we directly tested several theories of…

  6. A squeeze-like operator approach to position-dependent mass in quantum mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Moya-Cessa, Héctor M.; Soto-Eguibar, Francisco [Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electrónica, Calle Luis Enrique Erro No. 1, Santa María Tonantzintla, San Andrés Cholula, Puebla CP 72840 (Mexico); Christodoulides, Demetrios N. [CREOL/College of Optics and Photonics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida 32816-2700 (United States)

    2014-08-15

    We provide a squeeze-like transformation that allows one to remove a position dependent mass from the Hamiltonian. Methods to solve the Schrödinger equation may then be applied to find the respective eigenvalues and eigenfunctions. As an example, we consider a position-dependent-mass that leads to the integrable Morse potential and therefore to well-known solutions.

  7. Limit position synthesis and analysis of compliant 4-bar mechanisms with specified energy levels using variable parametric pseudo-rigid-body model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohammad H. F. Dado

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides a synthesis and analysis procedure for the limit positions of compliant 4-bar mechanisms. The mechanism compliance is present at the output link which is considered to be fixed to the ground and can experience large non-linear elastic deflection at its pinned end. Under this condition, the mechanism mobility and its limit positions are dependent on the output

  8. The Human Ventromedial Frontal Lobe Is Critical for Learning from Negative Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Elizabeth Z.; Fellows, Lesley K.

    2008-01-01

    Are positive and negative feedback weighed in a common balance in the brain, or do they influence behaviour through distinct neural mechanisms? Recent neuroeconomic studies in both human and non-human primates indicate that the ventromedial frontal lobe carries information about both losses and gains, suggesting that this region may encode value…

  9. Asymmetric interjoint feedback contributes to postural control of redundant multi-link systems

    PubMed Central

    Bunderson, Nathan E.; Ting, Lena H.; Burkholder, Thomas J.

    2008-01-01

    Maintaining the postural configuration of a limb such as an arm or leg is a fundamental neural control task that involves the coordination of multiple linked body segments. Biological systems are known to use a complex network of inter- and intra-joint feedback mechanisms arising from muscles, spinal reflexes, and higher neuronal structures to stabilize the limbs. While previous work has shown that a small amount of asymmetric heterogenic feedback contributes to the behavior of these systems, a satisfactory functional explanation for this nonconservative feedback structure has not been put forth. We hypothesized that an asymmetric multi-joint control strategy would confer both an energetic and stability advantage in maintaining endpoint position of a kinematically redundant system. We tested this hypothesis by using optimal control models incorporating symmetric versus asymmetric feedback with the goal of maintaining the endpoint location of a kinematically redundant, planar limb. Asymmetric feedback improved endpoint control performance of the limb by 16%, reduced energetic cost by 21% and increased interjoint coordination by 40% compared to the symmetric feedback system. The overall effect of the asymmetry was that proximal joint motion resulted in greater torque generation at distal joints than vice versa. The asymmetric organization is consistent with heterogenic stretch reflex gains measured experimentally. We conclude that asymmetric feedback has a functionally relevant role in coordinating redundant degrees of freedom to maintain the position of the hand or foot. PMID:17873426

  10. Blunted feedback processing during risk-taking in adolescents with features of problematic Internet use.

    PubMed

    Yau, Yvonne H C; Potenza, Marc N; Mayes, Linda C; Crowley, Michael J

    2015-06-01

    While the conceptualization of problematic Internet use (PIU) as a "behavioral addiction" resembling substance-use disorders is debated, the neurobiological underpinnings of PIU remain understudied. This study examined whether adolescents displaying features of PIU (at-risk PIU; ARPIU) are more impulsive and exhibit blunted responding in the neural mechanisms underlying feedback processing and outcome evaluation during risk-taking. Event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by positive (i.e. reward) and negative (i.e. loss) feedback were recorded during performance on a modified version of the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART) among ARPIU (n=39) and non-ARPIU subjects (n=27). Compared to non-ARPIU, ARPIU adolescents displayed higher levels of urgency and lack of perseverance on the UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale. Although no between-group difference in BART performance was observed, ERPs demonstrated overall decreased sensitivity to feedback in ARPIU compared to non-ARPIU adolescents, as indexed by blunted feedback-related negativity (FRN) and P300 amplitudes to both negative and positive feedback. The present study provides evidence for feedback processing during risk-taking as a neural correlate of ARPIU. Given recent concerns regarding the growing prevalence of PIU as a health concern, future work should examine the extent to which feedback processing may represent a risk factor for PIU, a consequence of PIU, or possibly both. PMID:25679363

  11. Asymmetric interjoint feedback contributes to postural control of redundant multi-link systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunderson, Nathan E.; Ting, Lena H.; Burkholder, Thomas J.

    2007-09-01

    Maintaining the postural configuration of a limb such as an arm or leg is a fundamental neural control task that involves the coordination of multiple linked body segments. Biological systems are known to use a complex network of inter- and intra-joint feedback mechanisms arising from muscles, spinal reflexes and higher neuronal structures to stabilize the limbs. While previous work has shown that a small amount of asymmetric heterogenic feedback contributes to the behavior of these systems, a satisfactory functional explanation for this non-conservative feedback structure has not been put forth. We hypothesized that an asymmetric multi-joint control strategy would confer both an energetic and stability advantage in maintaining endpoint position of a kinematically redundant system. We tested this hypothesis by using optimal control models incorporating symmetric versus asymmetric feedback with the goal of maintaining the endpoint location of a kinematically redundant, planar limb. Asymmetric feedback improved endpoint control performance of the limb by 16%, reduced energetic cost by 21% and increased interjoint coordination by 40% compared to the symmetric feedback system. The overall effect of the asymmetry was that proximal joint motion resulted in greater torque generation at distal joints than vice versa. The asymmetric organization is consistent with heterogenic stretch reflex gains measured experimentally. We conclude that asymmetric feedback has a functionally relevant role in coordinating redundant degrees of freedom to maintain the position of the hand or foot.

  12. Feedback cooling of a single trapped ion

    E-print Network

    Pavel Bushev; Daniel Rotter; Alex Wilson; Francois Dubin; Christoph Becher; Juergen Eschner; Rainer Blatt; Viktor Steixner; Peter Rabl; Peter Zoller

    2005-09-19

    Based on a real-time measurement of the motion of a single ion in a Paul trap, we demonstrate its electro-mechanical cooling below the Doppler limit by homodyne feedback control (cold damping). The feedback cooling results are well described by a model based on a quantum mechanical Master Equation.

  13. Design and manufacture of an electro-mechanical hand position tracker

    E-print Network

    Tan, Nicola

    2007-01-01

    This thesis discusses the conceptual design, manufacture, and assembly of a device that tracks the movements and position of a user's hand. This device will be used for stroke patients undergoing rehabilitation using robotic ...

  14. Experimental Determination of Unknown Masses and Their Positions in a Mechanical Black Box

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chakrabarti, Bhupati; Pathare, Shirish; Huli, Saurabhee; Nachane, Madhura

    2013-01-01

    An experiment with a mechanical black box containing unknown masses is presented. The experiment involves the determination of these masses and their locations by performing some nondestructive tests. The set-ups are inexpensive and easy to fabricate. They are very useful to gain an understanding of some well-known principles of mechanics.

  15. Beam bunch feedback

    SciTech Connect

    Lambertson, G.

    1995-09-01

    When the electromagnetic fields that are excited by the passage of a bundle of charged particles persist to act upon bunches that follow, then the motions of the bunches are coupled. This action between bunches circulating on a closed orbit can generate growing patterns of bunch excursions. Such growth can often be suppressed by feedback systems that detect the excursion and apply corrective forces to the bunches. To be addressed herein is feedback that acts on motions of the bunch body centers. In addition to being useful for suppressing the spontaneous growth of coupled-bunch motions, such feedback can be used to damp transients in bunches injected into an accelerator or storage ring; for hadrons which lack strong radiation damping, feedback is needed to avoid emittance growth through decoherence. Motions excited by noise in magnetic fields or accelerating rf can also be reduced by using this feedback. Whether the action is on motions that are transverse to the closed orbit or longitudinal, the arrangement is the same. Bunch position is detected by a pickup and that signal is processed and directed to a kicker that may act upon the same bunch or some other portion of the collective beam pattern. Transverse motion is an oscillation with angular frequency {nu}{perpendicular}{omega}{sub o} where {omega}{sub o} is the orbital frequency 2{pi}{line_integral}o. Longitudinal synchrotron oscillation occurs at frequency {omega} {sub s} = {nu}{sub s}{omega}{sub o}. The former is much more rapid, {nu}{perpendicular} being on the order of 10 while {nu}{sub s} is typically about 10{sup minus 1} to 10 {sup minus 2}.

  16. The Important Positive and Negative Regulators of Feedback Loop of Circardian Clock are Conserved in Soybean and Exhibits Similar Diurnal Expression Pattern to Arabidopsis Thaliana Genes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flowering time is a characteristic of great agronomic importance. Relative to such model species as Arabidopsis and rice, little is known of the genetic mechanisms controlling flowering in soybean. Soybean breeders have identified a series of seven loci, known as the E genes that mediated by photope...

  17. A Feedback Mechanism to Control Apoptosis Occurs in the Digestive Gland of the Oyster Crassostrea gigas Exposed to the Paralytic Shellfish Toxins Producer Alexandrium catenella

    PubMed Central

    Rolland, Jean-Luc; Medhioub, Walid; Vergnes, Agnes; Abi-khalil, Celina; Savar, Véronique; Abadie, Eric; Masseret, Estelle; Amzil, Zouher; Laabir, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    To better understand the effect of Paralytic Shellfish Toxins (PSTs) accumulation in the digestive gland of the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, we experimentally exposed individual oysters for 48 h to a PSTs producer, the dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella. In comparison to the effect of the non-toxic Alexandrium tamarense, on the eight apoptotic related genes tested, Bax and BI.1 were significantly upregulated in oysters exposed 48 h to A. catenella. Among the five detoxification related genes tested, the expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP1A) was shown to be correlated with toxin concentration in the digestive gland of oysters exposed to the toxic dinoflagellate. Beside this, we observed a significant increase in ROS production, a decrease in caspase-3/7 activity and normal percentage of apoptotic cells in this tissue. Taken together, these results suggest a feedback mechanism, which may occur in the digestive gland where BI.1 could play a key role in preventing the induction of apoptosis by PSTs. Moreover, the expression of CYP1A, Bax and BI.1 were found to be significantly correlated to the occurrence of natural toxic events, suggesting that the expression of these genes together could be used as biomarker to assess the biological responses of oysters to stress caused by PSTs. PMID:25257788

  18. Inverse Compton X-Ray Halos Around High-z Radio Galaxies: A Feedback Mechanism Powered by Far-Infrared Starbursts or the Cosmic Microwave Background?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Small, Ian; Blundell, Katherine M.; Lehmer, B. D.; Alexander, D. M.

    2012-01-01

    We report the detection of extended X-ray emission around two powerful radio galaxies at z approx. 3.6 (4C 03.24 and 4C 19.71) and use these to investigate the origin of extended, inverse Compton (IC) powered X-ray halos at high redshifts. The halos have X-ray luminosities of L(sub X) approx. 3 x 10(exp 44) erg/s and sizes of approx.60 kpc. Their morphologies are broadly similar to the approx.60 kpc long radio lobes around these galaxies suggesting they are formed from IC scattering by relativistic electrons in the radio lobes, of either cosmic microwave background (CMB) photons or far-infrared photons from the dust-obscured starbursts in these galaxies. These observations double the number of z > 3 radio galaxies with X-ray-detected IC halos. We compare the IC X-ray-to-radio luminosity ratios for the two new detections to the two previously detected z approx. 3.8 radio galaxies. Given the similar redshifts, we would expect comparable X-ray IC luminosities if millimeter photons from the CMB are the dominant seed field for the IC emission (assuming all four galaxies have similar ages and jet powers). Instead we see that the two z approx. 3.6 radio galaxies, which are 4 fainter in the far-infrared than those at z 3.8, also have approx.4x fainter X-ray IC emission. Including data for a further six z > or approx. 2 radio sources with detected IC X-ray halos from the literature, we suggest that in the more compact, majority of radio sources, those with lobe sizes < or approx.100-200 kpc, the bulk of the IC emission may be driven by scattering of locally produced far-infrared photons from luminous, dust-obscured starbursts within these galaxies, rather than millimeter photons from the CMB. The resulting X-ray emission appears sufficient to ionize the gas on approx.100-200 kpc scales around these systems and thus helps form the extended, kinematically quiescent Ly(alpha) emission line halos found around some of these systems. The starburst and active galactic nucleus activity in these galaxies are thus combining to produce an even more effective and widespread "feedback" process, acting on the long-term gas reservoir for the galaxy, than either individually could achieve. If episodic radio activity and co-eval starbursts are common in massive, high-redshift galaxies, then this IC-feedback mechanism may play a role in affecting the star formation histories of the most massive galaxies at the present day.

  19. Biophysical Journal Volume 84 June 2003 35293546 3529 Mechanisms of Microtubule-Based Kinetochore Positioning

    E-print Network

    of microtubule-bound chromosomes about the spindle equator during metaphase (for review, see Mitchison, 1989 Positioning in the Yeast Metaphase Spindle Brian L. Sprague,* Chad G. Pearson,y Paul S. Maddox,y Kerry S instability facilitate mitotic spindle formation and chromosome movement. To test this hypothesis requires

  20. Dual ligand stimulation of RAW 264.7 cells uncovers feedback mechanisms that regulate TLR-mediated gene expression.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaocui; Chang, Mi Sook; Hsueh, Robert C; Taussig, Ron; Smith, Kelly D; Simon, Melvin I; Choi, Sangdun

    2006-10-01

    To characterize how signaling by TLR ligands can be modulated by non-TLR ligands, murine RAW 264.7 cells were treated with LPS, IFN-gamma, 2-methyl-thio-ATP (2MA), PGE(2), and isoproterenol (ISO). Ligands were applied individually and in combination with LPS, for 1, 2, and 4 h, and transcriptional changes were measured using customized oligo arrays. We used nonadditive transcriptional responses to dual ligands (responses that were reproducibly greater or less than the expected additive responses) as a measure of pathway interaction. Our analysis suggests that cross-talk is limited; <24% of the features with significant responses to the single ligands responded nonadditively to a dual ligand pair. PGE(2) and ISO mainly attenuated, while 2MA enhanced, LPS-induced transcriptional changes. IFN-gamma and LPS cross-regulated the transcriptional response induced by each other: while LPS preferentially enhanced IFN-gamma-induced changes in gene expression at 1 h, IFN-gamma signaling primarily attenuated LPS-induced changes at 4 h. Our data suggest specific cross-talk mechanisms: 1) LPS enhances the expression of IFN-gamma-response genes by augmenting STAT1 activity and by activating NF-kappaB, which synergizes with IFN-gamma-induced transcriptional factors; 2) IFN-gamma attenuates the late LPS transcriptional response by increasing the expression of suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 and cytokine-inducible SH2-containing protein expression; 3) 2MA modulates LPS secondary transcriptional response by increasing IFN-beta and inhibiting IL-10 gene expression; 4) PGE(2) and ISO similarly regulate the LPS transcriptional response. They increase IL-10 transcription, resulting in attenuated expression of known IL-10-suppressed genes. PMID:16982864

  1. Detecting vegetation-precipitation feedbacks in mid-Holocene North Africa from two climate models

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yi; Notaro, Michael; Liu, Zhengyu; Gallimore, Robert; Levis, Samuel; Kutzbach, John E.

    2008-03-31

    Using two climate-vegetation model simulations from the Fast Ocean Atmosphere Model (FOAM) and the Community Climate System Model (CCSM, version 2), we investigate vegetation-precipitation feedbacks across North Africa during the mid-Holocene. From mid-Holocene snapshot runs of FOAM and CCSM2, we detect a negative feedback at the annual timescale with our statistical analysis. Using the Monte- Carlo bootstrap method, the annual negative feedback is further confirmed to be significant in both simulations. Additional analysis shows that this negative interaction is partially caused by the competition between evaporation and transpiration in North African grasslands. Furthermore, we find the feedbacks decrease with increasing timescales, and change signs from positive to negative at increasing timescales in FOAM. The proposed mechanism for this sign switch is associated with the different persistent timescales of upper and lower soil water contents, and their interactions with vegetation and atmospheric precipitation.

  2. Rejection sensitivity polarizes striatal-medial prefrontal activity when anticipating social feedback.

    PubMed

    Powers, Katherine E; Somerville, Leah H; Kelley, William M; Heatherton, Todd F

    2013-11-01

    As a social species, humans are acutely aware of cues that signal inclusionary status. This study characterizes behavioral and neural responses when individuals anticipate social feedback. Across two fMRI studies, participants (n = 42) made social judgments about supposed peers and then received feedback from those individuals. Of particular interest was the neural activity occurring when participants were awaiting social feedback. During this anticipatory period, increased neural activity was observed in the ventral striatum, a central component of the brain's reward circuitry, and dorsomedial pFC, a brain region implicated in mentalizing about others. Individuals high in rejection sensitivity exhibited greater responses in both the ventral striatum and dorsomedial pFC when anticipating positive feedback. These findings provide initial insight into the neural mechanisms involved in anticipating social evaluations as well as the cognitive processes that underlie rejection sensitivity. PMID:23859650

  3. Detecting vegetation-precipitation feedbacks in mid-Holocene North Africa from two climate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Notaro, M.; Liu, Z.; Gallimore, R.; Levis, S.; Kutzbach, J. E.

    2007-07-01

    Using two climate-vegetation model simulations from the Fast Ocean Atmosphere Model (FOAM) and the Community Climate System Model (CCSM, version 2), we investigate vegetation-precipitation feedbacks across North Africa during the mid-Holocene. From mid-Holocene snapshot runs of FOAM and CCSM2, we detect a negative feedback at the annual timescale with our statistical analysis. Using the Monte-Carlo bootstrap method, the annual negative feedback is further confirmed to be significant in both simulations. Additional analysis shows that this negative interaction is partially caused by the competition between evaporation and transpiration in North African grasslands. Furthermore, we find the feedbacks decrease with increasing timescales, and change signs from positive to negative at increasing timescales in FOAM. The proposed mechanism for this sign switch is associated with the different persistent timescales of upper and lower soil water contents, and their interactions with vegetation and atmospheric precipitation.

  4. Detecting vegetation-precipitation feedbacks in mid-Holocene North Africa from two climate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Notaro, M.; Liu, Z.; Gallimore, R.; Levis, S.; Kutzbach, J. E.

    2008-03-01

    Using two climate-vegetation model simulations from the Fast Ocean Atmosphere Model (FOAM) and the Community Climate System Model (CCSM, version 2), we investigate vegetation-precipitation feedbacks across North Africa during the mid-Holocene. From mid-Holocene snapshot runs of FOAM and CCSM2, we detect a negative feedback at the annual timescale with our statistical analysis. Using the Monte-Carlo bootstrap method, the annual negative feedback is further confirmed to be significant in both simulations. Additional analysis shows that this negative interaction is partially caused by the competition between evaporation and transpiration in North African grasslands. Furthermore, we find the feedbacks decrease with increasing timescales, and change signs from positive to negative at increasing timescales in FOAM. The proposed mechanism for this sign switch is associated with the different persistent timescales of upper and lower soil water contents, and their interactions with vegetation and atmospheric precipitation.

  5. Bisensory force feedback in telerobotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Lorraine E. P.

    2001-11-01

    Effectively controlling a robot remotely to perform a desired task---teleoperation---offers benefits in improving human safety, reducing workload, providing location accessibility, and in convenience. Because these benefits become more evident under the extreme environmental conditions of space operations, NASA Johnson Space Center has been actively researching the usage of and improvements in teleoperations. Teleoperator task performance has been shown to improve with the addition of sensory feedback. In particular, providing force-feedback to a human operator, has been shown to decrease task completion times and lessen potentially damaging contact forces between the slave robot and its target work environment. We summarize the design, development, and usage of a human interface system built to provide position control as well as both kinesthetic and visual six-axis force-feedback displays to a human teleoperator of a remote manipulator. The system developed is utilized as an experimentation platform evaluating the merit of providing force feedback through both kinesthetic (muscular position and force) and substituted visual displays on a typical space operations task utilizing an anthropomorphic slave robot called "Robonaut". Teleoperator performance of a drill task is measured under four different display scenarios: no force display, visual force display, kinesthetic, and both. Task completion times and contact forces are measured, and subjective questionnaire responses collected. Our results indicate lower maximum force/torque, lower cumulative force/torque, and a greater task consistency with any type of feedback, with no significant differences in task completion time. Cumulative force/torque was reduced between 46--51% with visually substituted force feedback, 69--81% with kinesthetic feedback and 63--92% with both forms of feedback. Maximum force/torque variance between subjects was reduced between 61--90% with any type of force display, indicating improved consistency. Maximum contact force/torque was reduced 23% in the visual case, and between 27--43% for kinesthetic and both cases.

  6. Estimate of the Total Mechanical Feedback Energy from Galaxy Cluster-centered Black Holes: Implications for Black Hole Evolution, Cluster Gas Fraction, and Entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathews, William G.; Guo, Fulai

    2011-09-01

    The total feedback energy injected into hot gas in galaxy clusters by central black holes can be estimated by comparing the potential energy of observed cluster gas profiles with the potential energy of non-radiating, feedback-free hot gas atmospheres resulting from gravitational collapse in clusters of the same total mass. Feedback energy from cluster-centered black holes expands the cluster gas, lowering the gas-to-dark-matter mass ratio below the cosmic value. Feedback energy is unnecessarily delivered by radio-emitting jets to distant gas far beyond the cooling radius where the cooling time equals the cluster lifetime. For clusters of mass (4-11) × 1014 M sun, estimates of the total feedback energy, (1-3) × 1063 erg, far exceed feedback energies estimated from observations of X-ray cavities and shocks in the cluster gas, energies gained from supernovae, and energies lost from cluster gas by radiation. The time-averaged mean feedback luminosity is comparable to those of powerful quasars, implying that some significant fraction of this energy may arise from the spin of the black hole. The universal entropy profile in feedback-free gaseous atmospheres in Navarro-Frenk-White cluster halos can be recovered by multiplying the observed gas entropy profile of any relaxed cluster by a factor involving the gas fraction profile. While the feedback energy and associated mass outflow in the clusters we consider far exceed that necessary to stop cooling inflow, the time-averaged mass outflow at the cooling radius almost exactly balances the mass that cools within this radius, an essential condition to shut down cluster cooling flows.

  7. ESTIMATE OF THE TOTAL MECHANICAL FEEDBACK ENERGY FROM GALAXY CLUSTER-CENTERED BLACK HOLES: IMPLICATIONS FOR BLACK HOLE EVOLUTION, CLUSTER GAS FRACTION, AND ENTROPY

    SciTech Connect

    Mathews, William G.; Guo Fulai, E-mail: mathews@ucolick.org [University of California Observatories/Lick Observatory, Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2011-09-10

    The total feedback energy injected into hot gas in galaxy clusters by central black holes can be estimated by comparing the potential energy of observed cluster gas profiles with the potential energy of non-radiating, feedback-free hot gas atmospheres resulting from gravitational collapse in clusters of the same total mass. Feedback energy from cluster-centered black holes expands the cluster gas, lowering the gas-to-dark-matter mass ratio below the cosmic value. Feedback energy is unnecessarily delivered by radio-emitting jets to distant gas far beyond the cooling radius where the cooling time equals the cluster lifetime. For clusters of mass (4-11) x 10{sup 14} M{sub sun}, estimates of the total feedback energy, (1-3) x 10{sup 63} erg, far exceed feedback energies estimated from observations of X-ray cavities and shocks in the cluster gas, energies gained from supernovae, and energies lost from cluster gas by radiation. The time-averaged mean feedback luminosity is comparable to those of powerful quasars, implying that some significant fraction of this energy may arise from the spin of the black hole. The universal entropy profile in feedback-free gaseous atmospheres in Navarro-Frenk-White cluster halos can be recovered by multiplying the observed gas entropy profile of any relaxed cluster by a factor involving the gas fraction profile. While the feedback energy and associated mass outflow in the clusters we consider far exceed that necessary to stop cooling inflow, the time-averaged mass outflow at the cooling radius almost exactly balances the mass that cools within this radius, an essential condition to shut down cluster cooling flows.

  8. Mechanisms for shaping, orienting, positioning and patterning plant secondary cell walls

    PubMed Central

    Korolev, Andrey V; Calder, Grant; Lloyd, Clive W

    2011-01-01

    Xylem vessels are cells that develop a specifically ornamented secondary cell wall to ensure their vascular function, conferring both structural strength and impermeability. Further plasticity is given to these vascular cells by a range of different patterns described by their secondary cell walls that—as for the growth of all plant organs—are developmentally regulated. Microtubules and their associated proteins, named MAPs, are essential to define the shape, the orientation, the position and the overall pattern of these secondary cell walls. Key actors in this process are the land-plant specific MAP70 proteins which not only allow the secondary cell wall to be positioned at the cell cortex but also determine the overall pattern described by xylem vessel secondary cell walls. PMID:21558816

  9. Facing mortality: exploring the mechanisms of positive growth and the process of recalibration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Clare Inman; Jane Ogden

    2011-01-01

    Interviews with 11 participants who had suffered a range of traumas five or more years ago were analysed using thematic analysis to explore the impact of a negative event and the mechanisms involved in subsequent changes and adjustment. Participants described a sense of mortality reflected in a feeling that life was fragile as though the intellectual knowledge of their future

  10. NOTE ON ASYMPTOTIC STABILITY OF A MECHANICAL ROBOTICS MODEL WITH DELAY AND NEGATIVE AND POSITIVE DAMPING

    Microsoft Academic Search

    BARUCH CAHLON; DARRELL SCHMIDT

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we study the asymptotic stability of a mechanical robotics model with damping and delay. In this paper we deal with a more realistic damping model than that considered in a previous paper (5). This model yields a certain linear third order delay dieren tial equation. In proving our results we make use of Pontryagin's theory for quasi-polynomials.

  11. Evolutionary Optimization of Feedback Controllers for Thermoacoustic Instabilities

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Evolutionary Optimization of Feedback Controllers for Thermoacoustic Instabilities Nikolaus Hansen prone to thermoacoustic instabilities which arise due to a feedback loop involving fluctua- tions in acoustic pressure, velocity and heat release. Thermoacoustic instabilities may cause mechanical damage

  12. Social feedback processing from early to late adolescence: influence of sex, age, and attachment style

    PubMed Central

    Vrti?ka, Pascal; Sander, David; Anderson, Brittany; Badoud, Deborah; Eliez, Stephan; Debbané, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Objective The establishment of an accurate understanding of one's social context is a central developmental task during adolescence. A critical component of such development is to learn how to integrate the objective evaluation of one's behavior with the social response to the latter—here referred to as social feedback processing. Case report We measured brain activity by means of fMRI in 33 healthy adolescents (12–19 years old, 14 females). Participants played a difficult perceptual game with integrated verbal and visual feedback. Verbal feedback provided the participants with objective performance evaluation (won vs. lost). Visual feedback consisted of either smiling or angry faces, representing positive or negative social evaluations. Together, the combination of verbal and visual feedback gave rise to congruent versus incongruent social feedback combinations. In addition to assessing sex differences, we further tested for the effects of age and attachment style on social feedback processing. Results revealed that brain activity during social feedback processing was significantly modulated by sex, age, and attachment style in prefrontal cortical areas, ventral anterior cingulate cortex, anterior insula, caudate, and amygdala/hippocampus. We found indication for heightened activity during incongruent social feedback processing in females, older participants, and individuals with an anxious attachment style. Conversely, we observed stronger activity during processing of congruent social feedback in males and participants with an avoidant attachment style. Conclusion Our findings not only extend knowledge on the typical development of socio-emotional brain function during adolescence, but also provide first clues on how attachment insecurities, and particularly attachment avoidance, could interfere with the latter mechanisms. PMID:25328847

  13. Symmetry-Related Clustering of Positive Charges Is a Common Mechanism for Heparan Sulfate Binding in Enteroviruses

    PubMed Central

    McLeish, Nigel J.; Williams, Çi?dem H.; Kaloudas, Dimitrios; Roivainen, Merja M.

    2012-01-01

    Coxsackievirus A9 (CAV9), a member of the Picornaviridae family, uses an RGD motif in the VP1 capsid protein to bind to integrin ?v?6 during cell entry. Here we report that two CAV9 isolates can bind to the heparan sulfate/heparin class of proteoglycans (HSPG). Sequence analysis identified an arginine (R) at position 132 in VP1 in these two isolates, rather than a threonine (T) as seen in the nonbinding strains tested. We introduced a T132R substitution into the HSPG-nonbinding strain Griggs and recovered infectious virus capable of binding to immobilized heparin, unlike the parental Griggs strain. The known CAV9 structure was used to identify the location of VP1 position 132, 5 copies of which were found to cluster around the 5-fold axis of symmetry, presumably producing a region of positive charge which can interact with the negatively charged HSPG. Analysis of several enteroviruses of the same species as CAV9, Human enterovirus B (HEV-B), identified examples from 5 types in which blocking of infection by heparin was coincident with an arginine (or another basic amino acid, lysine) at a position corresponding to 132 in VP1 in CAV9. Together, these data show that membrane-associated HSPG can serve as a (co)receptor for some CAV9 and other HEV-B strains and identify symmetry-related clustering of positive charges as one mechanism by which HSPG binding can be achieved. This is a potentially powerful mechanism by which a single amino acid change could generate novel receptor binding capabilities, underscoring the plasticity of host-cell interactions in enteroviruses. PMID:22855495

  14. Feedback-assisted ponderomotive squeezing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitali, David; Tombesi, Paolo

    2011-12-01

    We analyze how the radiation pressure interaction between a mechanical element and an intensely driven optical cavity mode can be exploited for generating squeezed light. We study in particular how the performance of the optomechanical device can be improved when a homodyne-based feedback loop is added to control the motion of the mechanical element of the system. We show that, when driving the cavity at resonance, an appropriate proportional feedback control is able to improve the generation of ponderomotive squeezing, which should be detectable with state-of-the-art apparatus.

  15. Feedback-assisted ponderomotive squeezing

    E-print Network

    David Vitali; Paolo Tombesi

    2010-12-11

    We analyze how the radiation pressure interaction between a mechanical element and an intensely driven optical cavity mode can be exploited for generating squeezed light. We study in particular how the performance of the optomechanical device can be improved when a homodyne-based feedback loop is added to control the motion of the mechanical element of the system. We show that, when driving the cavity at resonance, an appropriate proportional feedback control is able to improve the generation of ponderomotive squeezing, which should be detectable with state-of-the-art apparatuses.

  16. 3D Computational Mechanics Elucidate the Evolutionary Implications of Orbit Position and Size Diversity of Early Amphibians.

    PubMed

    Marcé-Nogué, Jordi; Fortuny, Josep; De Esteban-Trivigno, Soledad; Sánchez, Montserrat; Gil, Lluís; Galobart, Àngel

    2015-01-01

    For the first time in vertebrate palaeontology, the potential of joining Finite Element Analysis (FEA) and Parametrical Analysis (PA) is used to shed new light on two different cranial parameters from the orbits to evaluate their biomechanical role and evolutionary patterns. The early tetrapod group of Stereospondyls, one of the largest groups of Temnospondyls is used as a case study because its orbits position and size vary hugely within the members of this group. An adult skull of Edingerella madagascariensis was analysed using two different cases of boundary and loading conditions in order to quantify stress and deformation response under a bilateral bite and during skull raising. Firstly, the variation of the original geometry of its orbits was introduced in the models producing new FEA results, allowing the exploration of the ecomorphology, feeding strategy and evolutionary patterns of these top predators. Secondly, the quantitative results were analysed in order to check if the orbit size and position were correlated with different stress patterns. These results revealed that in most of the cases the stress distribution is not affected by changes in the size and position of the orbit. This finding supports the high mechanical plasticity of this group during the Triassic period. The absence of mechanical constraints regarding the orbit probably promoted the ecomorphological diversity acknowledged for this group, as well as its ecological niche differentiation in the terrestrial Triassic ecosystems in clades as lydekkerinids, trematosaurs, capitosaurs or metoposaurs. PMID:26107295

  17. 3D Computational Mechanics Elucidate the Evolutionary Implications of Orbit Position and Size Diversity of Early Amphibians

    PubMed Central

    Marcé-Nogué, Jordi; Fortuny, Josep; De Esteban-Trivigno, Soledad; Sánchez, Montserrat; Gil, Lluís; Galobart, Àngel

    2015-01-01

    For the first time in vertebrate palaeontology, the potential of joining Finite Element Analysis (FEA) and Parametrical Analysis (PA) is used to shed new light on two different cranial parameters from the orbits to evaluate their biomechanical role and evolutionary patterns. The early tetrapod group of Stereospondyls, one of the largest groups of Temnospondyls is used as a case study because its orbits position and size vary hugely within the members of this group. An adult skull of Edingerella madagascariensis was analysed using two different cases of boundary and loading conditions in order to quantify stress and deformation response under a bilateral bite and during skull raising. Firstly, the variation of the original geometry of its orbits was introduced in the models producing new FEA results, allowing the exploration of the ecomorphology, feeding strategy and evolutionary patterns of these top predators. Secondly, the quantitative results were analysed in order to check if the orbit size and position were correlated with different stress patterns. These results revealed that in most of the cases the stress distribution is not affected by changes in the size and position of the orbit. This finding supports the high mechanical plasticity of this group during the Triassic period. The absence of mechanical constraints regarding the orbit probably promoted the ecomorphological diversity acknowledged for this group, as well as its ecological niche differentiation in the terrestrial Triassic ecosystems in clades as lydekkerinids, trematosaurs, capitosaurs or metoposaurs. PMID:26107295

  18. Enterprise Feedback Survey Tool

    E-print Network

    Dalaq, Akram

    2008-05-16

    Many corporations in the United States are continuously expanding and improving their ability to gather customer feedback and incorporate the feedback into their business processes. It’s fairly easy to obtain reliable feedback within small...

  19. SsaA, a Member of a Novel Class of Transcriptional Regulators, Controls Sansanmycin Production in Streptomyces sp. Strain SS through a Feedback Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qinglian; Wang, Lifei; Xie, Yunying; Wang, Songmei; Chen, Ruxian

    2013-01-01

    Sansanmycins, produced by Streptomyces sp. strain SS, are uridyl peptide antibiotics with activities against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In this work, the biosynthetic gene cluster of sansanmycins, comprised of 25 open reading frames (ORFs) showing considerable amino acid sequence identity to those of the pacidamycin and napsamycin gene cluster, was identified. SsaA, the archetype of a novel class of transcriptional regulators, was characterized in the sansanmycin gene cluster, with an N-terminal fork head-associated (FHA) domain and a C-terminal LuxR-type helix-turn-helix (HTH) motif. The disruption of ssaA abolished sansanmycin production, as well as the expression of the structural genes for sansanmycin biosynthesis, indicating that SsaA is a pivotal activator for sansanmycin biosynthesis. SsaA was proved to directly bind several putative promoter regions of biosynthetic genes, and comparison of sequences of the binding sites allowed the identification of a consensus SsaA binding sequence, GTMCTGACAN2TGTCAGKAC. The DNA binding activity of SsaA was inhibited by sansanmycins A and H in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, sansanmycins A and H were found to directly interact with SsaA. These results indicated that SsaA strictly controls the production of sansanmycins at the transcriptional level in a feedback regulatory mechanism by sensing the accumulation of the end products. As the first characterized regulator of uridyl peptide antibiotic biosynthesis, the understanding of this autoregulatory process involved in sansanmycin biosynthesis will likely provide an effective strategy for rational improvements in the yields of these uridyl peptide antibiotics. PMID:23475969

  20. A feedback circuit between miR-133 and the ERK1/2 pathway involving an exquisite mechanism for regulating myoblast proliferation and differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Y; Niu, L-L; Wei, W; Zhang, W-Y; Li, X-Y; Cao, J-H; Zhao, S-H

    2013-01-01

    MiR-133 was found to be specifically expressed in cardiac and skeletal muscle in previous studies. There are two members in the miR-133 family: miR-133a and miR-133b. Although previous studies indicated that miR-133a was related to myogenesis, the signaling pathways regulated by miR-133 were still not very clear. In this study, we showed that both miR-133a and miR-133b were upregulated during myogenesis through Solexa sequencing. We confirmed that miR-133 could promote myoblast differentiation and inhibit cell proliferation through the regulation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway in C2C12 cells. FGFR1 and PP2AC, which both participate in signal transduction of the ERK1/2 pathway, were found to be negatively regulated by miR-133a and miR-133b at the post-transcriptional level. Also, downregulation of ERK1/2 phosphorylation by miR-133 was detected. FGFR1 and PP2AC were also found to repress C2C12 differentiation by specific siRNAs. In addition, we found that inhibition of ERK1/2 pathway activity can inhibit C2C12 cell proliferation and promote the initiation of differentiation but form short and small myotubes. Furthermore, we found that the expression of miR-133 was negatively regulated by ERK1/2 signaling pathway. In summary, we demonstrated the role of miR-133 in myoblast and further revealed a new feedback loop between miR-133 and the ERK1/2 signaling pathway involving an exquisite mechanism for regulating myogenesis. PMID:24287695

  1. Rotation of DNA around intact strand in human topoisomerase I implies distinct mechanisms for positive and negative supercoil relaxation

    PubMed Central

    Sari, Levent; Andricioaei, Ioan

    2005-01-01

    Topoisomerases are enzymes of quintessence to the upkeep of superhelical DNA, and are vital for replication, transcription and recombination. An atomic-resolution model for human topoisomerase I in covalent complex with DNA is simulated using molecular dynamics with external potentials that mimic torque and bias the DNA duplex downstream of a single-strand cut to rotate around the intact strand, according to the prevailing enzymatic mechanism. The simulations reveal the first dynamical picture of how topoisomerase accommodates large-scale motion of DNA as it changes its supercoiling state, and indicate that relaxation of positive and negative supercoils are fundamentally different. To relax positive supercoils, two separate domains (the ‘lips’) of the protein open up by about 10–14 ?, whereas to relax negative supercoils, a continuous loop connecting the upper and lower parts (and which was a hinge for opening the lips) stretches about 12 ? while the lips remain unseparated. Normal mode analysis is additionally used to characterize the functional flexibility of the protein. Remarkably, the same combination of low-frequency eigenvectors exhibit the dominant contribution for both rotation mechanisms through a see-saw motion. The simulated mechanisms suggest mutations to control the relaxation of either type of supercoiling selectively and advance a hypothesis for the debated role of the N-terminal domain in supercoil relaxation. PMID:16314322

  2. Transcription Factors ER71/ETV2 and SOX9 Participate in a Positive Feedback Loop in Fetal and Adult Mouse Testis*

    PubMed Central

    DiTacchio, Luciano; Bowles, Josephine; Shin, Sook; Lim, Dae-Sik; Koopman, Peter; Janknecht, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    ER71, also known as ETV2, is an ETS transcription factor that is expressed during embryogenesis and in adult testes. We show that Er71 transcription can be up-regulated by SRY, the key determinant of male differentiation. Accordingly, SRY bound to and activated the Er71 promoter, and mutation of a putative SRY binding site abolished this promoter activation. In turn, ER71 was able to bind to the promoter of Sox9, the primary target of SRY and a critical transcription factor for maintenance of the Sertoli cell phenotype. Mutation of the ER71 binding site in the Sox9 promoter suppressed ER71-dependent up-regulation of Sox9 transcription, and a dominant-negative ER71 molecule severely reduced Sox9 transcription in a Sertoli cell line. Conversely, SOX9 bound the Er71 promoter in vivo and Sox9 down-regulation reduced Er71 transcript levels. Together, these data suggest a mechanism by which SRY induces Sox9 and Er71 transcription early in testis differentiation, whereas ER71 and SOX9 participate in an autoregulatory loop to sustain each other's expression after Sry expression has subsided in mice. Thereby, ER71 and SOX9 may affect late testis development as well as the function of the adult male gonad. PMID:22613723

  3. Robust digital tracking controller design for high-speed positioning systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Endo; H. Kobayashi; C. J. Kempf; S. Kobayashi; M. Tomizuka; Y. Hori

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, a robust digital tracking controller for high-speed positioning is proposed.For high-speed tracking problems, the combination of a feedforward controller and a robust feedback controller is desirable, because the feedforward controller anticipates and compensates for closed-loop dynamics and the feedback controller compensates mechanical nonlinearities, parameter variations, and disturbances. A disturbance observer and PD compensation was used as a

  4. Generalized Deformed Commutation Relations with Nonzero Minimal Uncertainties in Position and/or Momentum and Applications to Quantum Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quesne, Christiane; Tkachuk, Volodymyr M.

    2007-01-01

    Two generalizations of Kempf's quadratic canonical commutation relation in one dimension are considered. The first one is the most general quadratic commutation relation. The corresponding nonzero minimal uncertainties in position and momentum are determined and the effect on the energy spectrum and eigenfunctions of the harmonic oscillator in an electric field is studied. The second extension is a function-dependent generalization of the simplest quadratic commutation relation with only a nonzero minimal uncertainty in position. Such an uncertainty now becomes dependent on the average position. With each function-dependent commutation relation we associate a family of potentials whose spectrum can be exactly determined through supersymmetric quantum mechanical and shape invariance techniques. Some representations of the generalized Heisenberg algebras are proposed in terms of conventional position and momentum operators x, p. The resulting Hamiltonians cont! ain a contribution proportional to p4 and their p-dependent terms may also be functions of x. The theory is illustrated by considering Pöschl-Teller and Morse potentials.

  5. Telavancin: an antimicrobial with a multifunctional mechanism of action for the treatment of serious gram-positive infections.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Steven N; Rybak, Michael J

    2008-04-01

    Telavancin is a once-daily lipoglycopeptide antibiotic structurally derived from vancomycin. It has broad-spectrum activity against gram-positive bacteria, including strains with reduced susceptibility to vancomycin. Telavancin's multifunctional mechanism of action, including inhibition of peptidoglycan synthesis and disruption of membrane potential, account for this enhanced activity as well as rapid bactericidal properties. In vitro activity has been demonstrated against a wide range of gram-positive pathogens such as multidrug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae, as well as methicillin-resistant, glycopeptide-intermediate, and vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The agent also displays activity against many gram-positive anaerobic organisms. Predictable linear pharmacokinetics have been demonstrated over a wide range of doses, with the most common adverse effects being taste disturbance and nausea. Clinical experience with telavancin in phase II and III studies for complicated skin and skin structure infections has shown it to have similar efficacy and tolerability compared with vancomycin and antistaphylococcal penicillins, and recently telavancin received an approvable letter from the United States Food and Drug Administration for this indication. Telavancin appears to be a promising agent for the treatment of serious infections caused by gram-positive pathogens, including drug-resistant pathogens. Further clinical experience will clarify its role in therapy. PMID:18363530

  6. You are such a bad child! Appraisals as mechanisms of parental negative and positive affect.

    PubMed

    Gavita, Oana Alexandra; David, Daniel; DiGiuseppe, Raymond

    2014-01-01

    Although parent cognitions are considered important predictors that determine specific emotional reactions and parental practices, models on the cognitive strategies for regulating parental distress or positive emotions are not well developed. Our aim was to investigate the nature of cognitions involved in parental distress and satisfaction, in terms of their specificity (parental or general) and their processing levels (inferential or evaluative cognitions). We hypothesized that parent's specific evaluative cognitions will mediate the impact of more general and inferential cognitive structures on their affective reactions. We used bootstrapping procedures in order to test the mediation models proposed. Results obtained show indeed that rather specific evaluative parental cognitions are mediating the relationship between general cognitions and parental distress. In terms of the cognitive processing levels, it seems that when parents hold both low self-efficacy and parental negative global evaluations for the self/child, this adds significantly to their distress. PMID:24846787

  7. Injury Mechanisms in the Pediatric Cervical Spine During Out-of-Position Airbag Deployments

    PubMed Central

    Nightingale, Roger W.; Winkelstein, Beth A.; Van Ee, Chris A.; Myers, Barry S.

    1998-01-01

    The pediatric cervical spine differs considerably from the adult in both its geometry and its constitutive properties. Therefore, it is susceptible to a different set of injuries, some of which are particularly severe. Recent data from the NHTSA on cervical spine injuries in low speed out-of-position airbag deployments shows that the spectrum of injuries in children is different from that of the adult. Almost all of the children (98%) sustained head or cervical spine injuries, as compared to only 38% of the adults. In addition, the injuries in children were not gender dependent, while injuries in adults occurred in females 72% of the time. The specific loads which result in these injuries are still unclear; however, examination of the biomechanical data for the adult may yield some insights. This examination also points to the need for additional biomechanical testing in order to define tolerances for pediatric cervical spine injury.

  8. Plant roots use a patterning mechanism to position lateral root branches toward available water.

    PubMed

    Bao, Yun; Aggarwal, Pooja; Robbins, Neil E; Sturrock, Craig J; Thompson, Mark C; Tan, Han Qi; Tham, Cliff; Duan, Lina; Rodriguez, Pedro L; Vernoux, Teva; Mooney, Sacha J; Bennett, Malcolm J; Dinneny, José R

    2014-06-24

    The architecture of the branched root system of plants is a major determinant of vigor. Water availability is known to impact root physiology and growth; however, the spatial scale at which this stimulus influences root architecture is poorly understood. Here we reveal that differences in the availability of water across the circumferential axis of the root create spatial cues that determine the position of lateral root branches. We show that roots of several plant species can distinguish between a wet surface and air environments and that this also impacts the patterning of root hairs, anthocyanins, and aerenchyma in a phenomenon we describe as hydropatterning. This environmental response is distinct from a touch response and requires available water to induce lateral roots along a contacted surface. X-ray microscale computed tomography and 3D reconstruction of soil-grown root systems demonstrate that such responses also occur under physiologically relevant conditions. Using early-stage lateral root markers, we show that hydropatterning acts before the initiation stage and likely determines the circumferential position at which lateral root founder cells are specified. Hydropatterning is independent of endogenous abscisic acid signaling, distinguishing it from a classic water-stress response. Higher water availability induces the biosynthesis and transport of the lateral root-inductive signal auxin through local regulation of tryptophan aminotransferase of Arabidopsis 1 and PIN-formed 3, both of which are necessary for normal hydropatterning. Our work suggests that water availability is sensed and interpreted at the suborgan level and locally patterns a wide variety of developmental processes in the root. PMID:24927545

  9. Positive effect of biaxial stretching on the mechanical behavior of PLA-Talc nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouchiar, Saadia; Stoclet, Grégory; Cabaret, Cyrille; Gloaguen, Vincent; Lefebvre, Jean-Marc; UMET-Engineering polymer science Team; UMET / Ecomeris Collaboration; UMET / LCSN Collaboration

    2015-03-01

    Poly (Lactic acid) (PLA), a biodegradable polyester issued from renewable resources, appears as a good candidate for the replacement of petrochemical-based materials due to its good combination of physical properties. However main drawbacks of PLA are its brittle behavior and its low thermal stability. One way to outclass these lacks consists in adding nanofillers into PLA. It is also recognized that the mechanical and barrier properties can be improved by biaxial drawing process. Consequently, this study deals with the enhancing effect of biaxial stretching on mechanical properties of Talc based PLA nanocomposites. The Talc content was varied between 0 to 30 wt%. This high level of talc results in a decrease in material cost, in addition to the enhancement of various physical properties. A main result is that neat PLA, which initially exhibit a brittle behavior upon uniaxial stretching at room temperature, become ductile after being biaxially stretched under appropriate conditions. More surprising is that the same behavior is observed for the filled samples. The origin of these enhancing properties will be also discussed.

  10. Opposite feedbacks in the Hippo pathway for growth control and neural fate.

    PubMed

    Jukam, David; Xie, Baotong; Rister, Jens; Terrell, David; Charlton-Perkins, Mark; Pistillo, Daniela; Gebelein, Brian; Desplan, Claude; Cook, Tiffany

    2013-10-11

    Signaling pathways are reused for multiple purposes in plant and animal development. The Hippo pathway in mammals and Drosophila coordinates proliferation and apoptosis via the coactivator and oncoprotein YAP/Yorkie (Yki), which is homeostatically regulated through negative feedback. In the Drosophila eye, cross-repression between the Hippo pathway kinase LATS/Warts (Wts) and growth regulator Melted generates mutually exclusive photoreceptor subtypes. Here, we show that this all-or-nothing neuronal differentiation results from Hippo pathway positive feedback: Yki both represses its negative regulator, warts, and promotes its positive regulator, melted. This postmitotic Hippo network behavior relies on a tissue-restricted transcription factor network-including a conserved Otx/Orthodenticle-Nrl/Traffic Jam feedforward module-that allows Warts-Yki-Melted to operate as a bistable switch. Altering feedback architecture provides an efficient mechanism to co-opt conserved signaling networks for diverse purposes in development and evolution. PMID:23989952

  11. Feedback Processes in Multimedia Language Learning Software

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kartal, Erdogan

    2010-01-01

    Feedback has been one of the important elements of learning and teaching theories and still pervades the literature and instructional models, especially computer and web-based ones. However, the mechanisms about feedback dominating the fundamentals of all the instructional models designed for self-learning have changed considerably with the…

  12. Increasing the Appeal of Mobile TV Using Haptic Feedback

    E-print Network

    Subramanian, Sriram

    Increasing the Appeal of Mobile TV Using Haptic Feedback Abstract With the abundance of large by the addition of a haptic-feedback channel to supplement the traditional video and audio streams. This position paper describes our work into developing the hardware for a mobile haptic feedback system that uses

  13. Real Time Feedback Control for Nonholonomic Mobile Robots With Obstacles

    E-print Network

    LaValle, Steven M.

    algorithms are excellent for finding feasible trajectories but do not pro- duce global feedback plans. SomeReal Time Feedback Control for Nonholonomic Mobile Robots With Obstacles Stephen R. Lindemann and orientation). The trajectories of the resulting feedback law will be smooth and will stabilize the position

  14. Feedback Services for Exercise Assistants Alex Gerdes1

    E-print Network

    Heeren, Bastiaan

    Feedback Services for Exercise Assistants Alex Gerdes1 , Bastiaan Heeren1 , Johan Jeuring1.heeren@ou.nl johanj@cs.uu.nl sylvia.stuurman@ou.nl Keywords: feedback, service, exercise assistant, strategy, web-based Abstract Immediate feedback has a positive effect on the performance of a stu- dent practising a procedural

  15. Feedback stabilization of unstable propagating waves Eugene Mihaliuk,1

    E-print Network

    Showalter, Kenneth

    Feedback stabilization of unstable propagating waves Eugene Mihaliuk,1 Tatsunari Sakurai,1 Florin segments are stabilized to a constant size and shape by applying negative feedback from the measured wave s : 82.40.Ck, 47.54. r Propagating waves in active media arise from the cou- pling of a positive feedback

  16. Feedback of visual object information to foveal retinotopic cortex

    E-print Network

    Kanwisher, Nancy

    Feedback of visual object information to foveal retinotopic cortex Mark A Williams1,2, Chris I Kanwisher1,5 The mammalian visual system contains an extensive web of feedback connections projecting from by prior theories of feedback. This information was position invariant, correlated with perceptual

  17. Developing First-Year Engagement with Written Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cramp, Andy

    2011-01-01

    Assessment feedback continues to be a relatively under-researched area in higher education despite its fundamental role in learning and teaching. This article positions assessment feedback as a complex meaning-making process requiring dialogue and interpretation.The article outlines an evaluative case study investigating a feedback review meeting…

  18. Enumerating minimal subset feedback vertex sets Fedor V. Fomin

    E-print Network

    Heggernes, Pinar

    a weighted graph G with positive real weights on its vertices and S as input, the Subset Feedback Vertex Set problem is the problem of finding a subset feedback vertex set X of (G, S) such that the sum of weights weight. We will see in the last section that this is a special case of Subset Feedback Vertex Set

  19. An integrated optical sensor for GMAW feedback control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, P. L.; Watkins, A. D.; Larsen, E. D.; Smartt, H. B.

    The integrated optical sensor (IOS) is a multifunction feedback control sensor for arc welding, that is computer automated and independent of significant operator interaction. It is based on three major 'off-the-shelf' components: a charged coupled device (CCD) camera, a diode laser, and a processing computer. The sensor head is compact and lightweight to avoid interference with weld head mobility, hardened to survive the harsh operating environment, and free of specialized cooling and power requirements. The sensor is positioned behind the GMAW torch and measures weld pool position and width, standoff distance, and postweld centerline cooling rate. Weld pool position and width are used in a feedback loop, by the weld controller, to track the weld pool relative to the weld joint, thus allowing compensation for such phenomena as arc blow. Sensor stand off distance is used in a feedback loop to control the contact tip to base metal distance during the welding process. Cooling rate information is used to infer the final metallurgical state of the weld bead and heat affected zone, thereby providing a means of controlling post weld mechanical properties.

  20. Cloud and Star Formation in Disk Galaxy Models with Feedback

    E-print Network

    Rahul Shetty; Eve C. Ostriker

    2008-05-26

    We include feedback in global hydrodynamic simulations in order to study the star formation properties, and gas structure and dynamics, in models of galactic disks. We extend previous models by implementing feedback in gravitationally bound clouds: momentum is injected at a rate proportional to the star formation rate. This mechanical energy disperses cloud gas back into the surrounding ISM, truncating star formation in a given cloud, and raising the overall level of ambient turbulence. Propagating star formation can however occur as expanding shells collide, enhancing the density and triggering new cloud and star formation. By controlling the momentum injection per massive star and the specific star formation rate in dense gas, we find that the negative effects of high turbulence outweigh the positive ones, and in net feedback reduces the fraction of dense gas and thus the overall star formation rate. The properties of the large clouds that form are not, however, very sensitive to feedback, with cutoff masses of a few million solar masses, similar to observations. We find a relationship between the star formation rate surface density and the gas surface density with a power law index ~2 for our models with the largest dynamic range, consistent with theoretical expectations for our model of disk flaring. We point out that the value of the "Kennicutt-Schmidt" index depends on the thickness of the disk. With our simple feedback prescription (a single combined star formation event per cloud), we find that global spiral patterns are not sustained; less correlated feedback and smaller scale turbulence appear to be necessary for spiral patterns to persist.

  1. Differential Effects of Visual Feedback on Subjective Visual Vertical Accuracy and Precision

    PubMed Central

    Bjasch, Daniel; Bockisch, Christopher J.; Straumann, Dominik; Tarnutzer, Alexander A.

    2012-01-01

    The brain constructs an internal estimate of the gravitational vertical by integrating multiple sensory signals. In darkness, systematic head-roll dependent errors in verticality estimates, as measured by the subjective visual vertical (SVV), occur. We hypothesized that visual feedback after each trial results in increased accuracy, as physiological adjustment errors (A?/E-effect) are likely based on central computational mechanisms and investigated whether such improvements were related to adaptational shifts of perceived vertical or to a higher cognitive strategy. We asked 12 healthy human subjects to adjust a luminous arrow to vertical in various head-roll positions (0 to 120deg right-ear down, 15deg steps). After each adjustment visual feedback was provided (lights on, display of previous adjustment and of an earth-vertical cross). Control trials consisted of SVV adjustments without feedback. At head-roll angles with the largest A-effect (90, 105, and 120deg), errors were reduced significantly (p<0.001) by visual feedback, i.e. roll under-compensation decreased, while precision of SVV was not significantly (p>0.05) influenced. In seven subjects an additional session with two consecutive blocks (first with, then without visual feedback) was completed at 90, 105 and 120deg head-roll. In these positions the error-reduction by the previous visual feedback block remained significant over the consecutive 18–24 min (post-feedback block), i.e., was still significantly (p<0.002) different from the control trials. Eleven out of 12 subjects reported having consciously added a bias to their perceived vertical based on visual feedback in order to minimize errors. We conclude that improvements of SVV accuracy by visual feedback, which remained effective after removal of feedback for ?18 min, rather resulted from a cognitive strategy than by adapting the internal estimate of the gravitational vertical. The mechanisms behind the SVV therefore, remained stable, which is also supported by the fact that SVV precision – depending mostly on otolith input - was not affected by visual feedback. PMID:23152894

  2. Characterization of ring-like F-actin structure as a mechanical partner for spindle positioning in mitosis.

    PubMed

    Lu, Huan; Zhao, Qun; Jiang, Hao; Zhu, Tongge; Xia, Peng; Seffens, William; Aikhionbare, Felix; Wang, Dongmei; Dou, Zhen; Yao, Xuebiao

    2014-01-01

    Proper spindle positioning and orientation are essential for accurate mitosis which requires dynamic interactions between microtubule and actin filament (F-actin). Although mounting evidence demonstrates the role of F-actin in cortical cytoskeleton dynamics, it remains elusive as to the structure and function of F-actin-based networks in spindle geometry. Here we showed a ring-like F-actin structure surrounding the mitotic spindle which forms since metaphase and maintains in MG132-arrested metaphase HeLa cells. This cytoplasmic F-actin structure is relatively isotropic and less dynamic. Our computational modeling of spindle position process suggests a possible mechanism by which the ring-like F-actin structure can regulate astral microtubule dynamics and thus mitotic spindle orientation. We further demonstrated that inhibiting Plk1, Mps1 or Myosin, and disruption of microtubules or F-actin polymerization perturbs the formation of the ring-like F-actin structure and alters spindle position and symmetric division. These findings reveal a previously unrecognized but important link between mitotic spindle and ring-like F-actin network in accurate mitosis and enables the development of a method to theoretically illustrate the relationship between mitotic spindle and cytoplasmic F-actin. PMID:25299690

  3. Effects of suture position on left ventricular fluid mechanics under mitral valve edge-to-edge repair.

    PubMed

    Du, Dongxing; Jiang, Song; Wang, Ze; Hu, Yingying; He, Zhaoming

    2014-01-01

    Mitral valve (MV) edge-to-edge repair (ETER) is a surgical procedure for the correction of mitral valve regurgitation by suturing the free edge of the leaflets. The leaflets are often sutured at three different positions: central, lateral and commissural portions. To study the effects of position of suture on left ventricular (LV) fluid mechanics under mitral valve ETER, a parametric model of MV-LV system during diastole was developed. The distribution and development of vortex and atrio-ventricular pressure under different suture position were investigated. Results show that the MV sutured at central and lateral in ETER creates two vortex rings around two jets, compared with single vortex ring around one jet of the MV sutured at commissure. Smaller total orifices lead to a higher pressure difference across the atrio-ventricular leaflets in diastole. The central suture generates smaller wall shear stresses than the lateral suture, while the commissural suture generated the minimum wall shear stresses in ETER. PMID:24211894

  4. Characterization of Ring-Like F-Actin Structure as a Mechanical Partner for Spindle Positioning in Mitosis

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Hao; Zhu, Tongge; Xia, Peng; Seffens, William; Aikhionbare, Felix; Wang, Dongmei; Dou, Zhen; Yao, Xuebiao

    2014-01-01

    Proper spindle positioning and orientation are essential for accurate mitosis which requires dynamic interactions between microtubule and actin filament (F-actin). Although mounting evidence demonstrates the role of F-actin in cortical cytoskeleton dynamics, it remains elusive as to the structure and function of F-actin-based networks in spindle geometry. Here we showed a ring-like F-actin structure surrounding the mitotic spindle which forms since metaphase and maintains in MG132-arrested metaphase HeLa cells. This cytoplasmic F-actin structure is relatively isotropic and less dynamic. Our computational modeling of spindle position process suggests a possible mechanism by which the ring-like F-actin structure can regulate astral microtubule dynamics and thus mitotic spindle orientation. We further demonstrated that inhibiting Plk1, Mps1 or Myosin, and disruption of microtubules or F-actin polymerization perturbs the formation of the ring-like F-actin structure and alters spindle position and symmetric division. These findings reveal a previously unrecognized but important link between mitotic spindle and ring-like F-actin network in accurate mitosis and enables the development of a method to theoretically illustrate the relationship between mitotic spindle and cytoplasmic F-actin. PMID:25299690

  5. Positive allosteric modulation of TRPV1 as a novel analgesic mechanism

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The prevalence of long-term opiate use in treating chronic non-cancer pain is increasing, and prescription opioid abuse and dependence are a major public health concern. To explore alternatives to opioid-based analgesia, the present study investigates a novel allosteric pharmacological approach operating through the cation channel TRPV1. This channel is highly expressed in subpopulations of primary afferent unmyelinated C- and lightly-myelinated A?-fibers that detect low and high rates of noxious heating, respectively, and it is also activated by vanilloid agonists and low pH. Sufficient doses of exogenous vanilloid agonists, such as capsaicin or resiniferatoxin, can inactivate/deactivate primary afferent endings due to calcium overload, and we hypothesized that positive allosteric modulation of agonist-activated TRPV1 could produce a selective, temporary inactivation of nociceptive nerve terminals in vivo. We previously identified MRS1477, a 1,4-dihydropyridine that potentiates vanilloid and pH activation of TRPV1 in vitro, but displays no detectable intrinsic agonist activity of its own. To study the in vivo effects of MRS1477, we injected the hind paws of rats with a non-deactivating dose of capsaicin, MRS1477, or the combination. An infrared diode laser was used to stimulate TRPV1-expressing nerve terminals and the latency and intensity of paw withdrawal responses were recorded. qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry were performed on dorsal root ganglia to examine changes in gene expression and the cellular specificity of such changes following treatment. Results Withdrawal responses of the capsaicin-only or MRS1477-only treated paws were not significantly different from the untreated, contralateral paws. However, rats treated with the combination of capsaicin and MRS1477 exhibited increased withdrawal latency and decreased response intensity consistent with agonist potentiation and inactivation or lesion of TRPV1-containing nerve terminals. The loss of nerve endings was manifested by an increase in levels of axotomy markers assessed by qRT-PCR and colocalization of ATF3 in TRPV1+ cells visualized via immunohistochemistry. Conclusions The present observations suggest a novel, non-narcotic, selective, long-lasting TRPV1-based approach for analgesia that may be effective in acute, persistent, or chronic pain disorders. PMID:22998799

  6. Mechanism of action of recombinant acc-royalisin from royal jelly of Asian honeybee against gram-positive bacteria.

    PubMed

    Shen, Lirong; Liu, Dandan; Li, Meilu; Jin, Feng; Din, Meihui; Parnell, Laurence D; Lai, Chao-Qiang

    2012-01-01

    The antibacterial activity of royalisin, an antimicrobial peptide from the royal jelly produced by honeybees, has been addressed extensively. However, its mechanism of action remains unclear. In this study, a recombinant royalisin, RAcc-royalisin from the royal jelly of Asian honeybee Apis cerana cerana, was expressed by fusing with glutathione S-transferase (GST) in Escherichia coli BL21, isolated and purified. The agar dilution assays with inhibition zone showed that RAcc-royalisin, similar to nisin, inhibits the growth of Gram-positive bacteria. The antibacterial activity of RAcc-royalisin was associated with its concentration, and was weakened by heat treatment ranging from 55°C to 85°C for 15 min. Both RAcc-royalisin and nisin exhibited the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 62.5 µg/ml, 125 µg/ml, and 250 µg/ml against Gram-positive bacterial strains, Bacillus subtilis and Micrococcus flavus and Staphyloccocus aureus in the microplate assay, respectively. However, RAcc-royalisin did not show antimicrobial activity against tested Gram-negative bacterial and fungal strains. The antibacterial activity of RAcc-royalisin agrees well with the decrease in bacterial cell hydrophobicity, the leakage of 260-nm absorbing materials, and the observation by transmission electron microscopy, all indicating that RAcc-royalisin induced the disruption and dysfunction of cell walls and membranes. This is the first report detailing the antibacterial mechanism of royalisin against Gram-positive bacteria, and provides insight into the application of recombinant royalisin in food and pharmaceutical industries as an antimicrobial agent. PMID:23056609

  7. Surface Proteins of Gram-Positive Bacteria and Mechanisms of Their Targeting to the Cell Wall Envelope

    PubMed Central

    Navarre, William Wiley; Schneewind, Olaf

    1999-01-01

    The cell wall envelope of gram-positive bacteria is a macromolecular, exoskeletal organelle that is assembled and turned over at designated sites. The cell wall also functions as a surface organelle that allows gram-positive pathogens to interact with their environment, in particular the tissues of the infected host. All of these functions require that surface proteins and enzymes be properly targeted to the cell wall envelope. Two basic mechanisms, cell wall sorting and targeting, have been identified. Cell well sorting is the covalent attachment of surface proteins to the peptidoglycan via a C-terminal sorting signal that contains a consensus LPXTG sequence. More than 100 proteins that possess cell wall-sorting signals, including the M proteins of Streptococcus pyogenes, protein A of Staphylococcus aureus, and several internalins of Listeria monocytogenes, have been identified. Cell wall targeting involves the noncovalent attachment of proteins to the cell surface via specialized binding domains. Several of these wall-binding domains appear to interact with secondary wall polymers that are associated with the peptidoglycan, for example teichoic acids and polysaccharides. Proteins that are targeted to the cell surface include muralytic enzymes such as autolysins, lysostaphin, and phage lytic enzymes. Other examples for targeted proteins are the surface S-layer proteins of bacilli and clostridia, as well as virulence factors required for the pathogenesis of L. monocytogenes (internalin B) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (PspA) infections. In this review we describe the mechanisms for both sorting and targeting of proteins to the envelope of gram-positive bacteria and review the functions of known surface proteins. PMID:10066836

  8. Preventing Feedback Fizzle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookhart, Susan M.

    2012-01-01

    Feedback is certainly about saying or writing helpful, learning-focused comments. But that is only part of it. What happens beforehand? What happens afterward? Feedback that is helpful and learning-focused fits into a context. Before a teacher gives feedback, students need to know the learning target so they have a purpose for using the feedback

  9. Activity of a New Oral Streptogramin, XRP2868, against Gram-Positive Cocci Harboring Various Mechanisms of Resistance to Streptogramins

    PubMed Central

    Dupuis, Michel; Leclercq, Roland

    2006-01-01

    The antibacterial activity of XRP2868, a new oral streptogramin composed of a combination of RPR132552 (streptogramin A) and RPR202868 (streptogramin B), was evaluated against a collection of clinical gram-positive isolates with characterized phenotypes and genotypes of streptogramin resistance. The effects of genes for resistance to streptogramin A or B on the activity of XRP2868 and its components were also tested by cloning these genes individually or in various combinations in gram-positive recipient strains susceptible to quinupristin-dalfopristin. The species tested included Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-negative staphylococci, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and other species of streptococci. XRP2868 was generally fourfold more potent than quinupristin-dalfopristin against S. aureus, E. faecium, and streptococci and had activity against E. faecalis (MICs = 0.25 to 1 ?g/ml). XRP2868 appeared to be affected by the same mechanisms of resistance as those to quinupristin-dalfopristin. Nevertheless, the strong activity of factor A of the oral streptogramin enabled the combination to be very potent against streptogramin-susceptible staphylococci, streptococci, and E. faecium (MICs = 0.03 to 0.25 ?g/ml) and to retain low MICs against the strains harboring a mechanism of resistance to factor A or factor B of the streptogramin. However, the combination of mechanisms of resistance to factors A and B caused an increase in the MICs of XRP2868, which reached 1 to 4 ?g/ml. As with the other streptogramins, there was a reduction in the bactericidal effect of XRPR2868 when the staphylococcal strains acquired a constitutively expressed erm gene. PMID:16377692

  10. Projected Regime Shift in Arctic Cloud and Water Vapor Feedbacks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Yonghua; Miller, James R.; Francis, Jennifer; Russel, Gary L.

    2011-01-01

    The Arctic climate is changing faster than any other large-scale region on Earth. A variety of positive feedback mechanisms are responsible for the amplification, most of which are linked with changes in snow and ice cover, surface temperature (T(sub s)), atmospheric water vapor (WV), and cloud properties. As greenhouse gases continue to accumulate in the atmosphere, air temperature and water vapor content also increase, leading to a warmer surface and ice loss, which further enhance evaporation and WV. Many details of these interrelated feedbacks are poorly understood, yet are essential for understanding the pace and regional variations in future Arctic change. We use a global climate model (Goddard Institute for Space Studies, Atmosphere-Ocean Model) to examine several components of these feedbacks, how they vary by season, and how they are projected to change through the 21st century. One positive feedback begins with an increase in T(sub s) that produces an increase in WV, which in turn increases the downward longwave flux (DLF) and T(sub s), leading to further evaporation. Another associates the expected increases in cloud cover and optical thickness with increasing DLF and T(sub s). We examine the sensitivities between DLF and other climate variables in these feedbacks and find that they are strongest in the non-summer seasons, leading to the largest amplification in Ts during these months. Later in the 21st century, however, DLF becomes less sensitive to changes in WV and cloud optical thickness, as they cause the atmosphere to emit longwave radiation more nearly as a black body. This regime shift in sensitivity implies that the amplified pace of Arctic change relative to the northern hemisphere could relax in the future.

  11. Positive position control of robotic manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baz, A.; Gumusel, L.

    1989-01-01

    The present, simple and accurate position-control algorithm, which is applicable to fast-moving and lightly damped robot arms, is based on the positive position feedback (PPF) strategy and relies solely on position sensors to monitor joint angles of robotic arms to furnish stable position control. The optimized tuned filters, in the form of a set of difference equations, manipulate position signals for robotic system performance. Attention is given to comparisons between this PPF-algorithm controller's experimentally ascertained performance characteristics and those of a conventional proportional controller.

  12. 360 Degree Feedback: An Integrative Framework for Learning and Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tee, Ding Ding; Ahmed, Pervaiz K.

    2014-01-01

    Feedback is widely acknowledged as the crux of a learning process. Multiplicities of research studies have been advanced to address the common "cri de coeur" of teachers and students for a constructive and effective feedback mechanism in the current higher educational settings. Nevertheless, existing pedagogical approaches in feedback

  13. Modification of piezoelectric vibratory gyroscope resonator parameters by feedback control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philip W. Loveday; Craig A. Rogers

    1998-01-01

    A method for analyzing the effect of feedback control on the dynamics of piezoelectric resonators used in vibratory gyroscopes has been developed. This method can be used to determine the feasibility of replacing the traditional mechanical balancing operations, used to adjust the resonant frequency, by displacement feedback and for determining the velocity feedback required to produce a particular bandwidth. Experiments

  14. Type Feedback for Bytecode Interpreters Position Paper

    E-print Network

    Nierstrasz, Oscar

    Hirschfeld1 , and Marcus Denker2 1 Software Architecture Group Hasso-Plattner-Institut University of Potsdam of Berne, Switzerland {michael.haupt,hirschfeld}@hpi.uni-potsdam.de, denker@iam.unibe.ch Abstract

  15. Blogger Motivations: Power, Pull, and Positive Feedback

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ericka Menchen Trevino

    In the spring of 2005 I spoke with college student bloggers about their motivations for starting and continuing their blog, a frequently modified web page. The content of these blogs ranged from personal to political to poetry, although the majority of those I interviewed kept personal journal blogs. There were several factors that motivated these college students to begin and

  16. Positive feedback stabilization of centrifugal compressor surge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank Willems; W. P. M. H. Heemels; Bram de Jager; Anton A. Stoorvogel

    2002-01-01

    Abstract Stable operation of axial and centrifugal compressors is limited towards low mass 1ows due to the occurrence of surge. The stable operating region can be enlarged by active control. In this study, we use a control valve which is fully closed in the desired operating point and only opens to stabilize the system around this point. As a result,

  17. Feedback between interacting transport channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandes, T.

    2015-05-01

    A model of particle transport through a large number of channels is introduced. Interactions among the particles can lead to a strong suppression of fluctuations in the particle number statistics. Within a mean-field-type limit, this becomes equivalent to a time-dependent (nonautonomous) collective feedback control mechanism. The dynamics can be interpreted as a diffusive spreading of a feedback signal across the channels that displays scaling, can be quantified via the flow of information, and becomes visible, e.g., in the spectral function of the particle noise.

  18. Feedback on Early Module Feedback Exam Format Change

    E-print Network

    Alechina, Natasha

    Feedback on Early Module Feedback Exam Format Change G52PAS 2013-14 G52PAS 2013-14 1 / 3 #12;Feedback on early module feedback about feedback There was an early module feedback taken by Rong at the last lecture I promised to clarify how feedback on student performance for this module will be given

  19. Interfacial force sensor with force-feedback control

    SciTech Connect

    Joyce, S.A.; Houston, J.E.; Smith, B.K.

    1990-01-01

    A new interfacial force microscope capable of measuring the forces between two surfaces over the entire range of surface separations, up to contact, has been developed. The design is centered around a differential capacitance displacement sensor where the common capacitor plate is supported by torsion bars. A force-feedback control system balances the interfacial forces at the sensor, maintaining the common capacitor plate at its rest position. This control eliminates the instability which occurs with the conventional cantilever-based force sensors when the attractive force gradient exceeds the mechanical stiffness of the cantilever. The ability to measure interfacial forces at surface separations smaller than this instability point using the feedback control is demonstrated. 11 refs., 3 figs.

  20. Tactile feedback improves auditory spatial localization

    PubMed Central

    Gori, Monica; Vercillo, Tiziana; Sandini, Giulio; Burr, David

    2014-01-01

    Our recent studies suggest that congenitally blind adults have severely impaired thresholds in an auditory spatial bisection task, pointing to the importance of vision in constructing complex auditory spatial maps (Gori et al., 2014). To explore strategies that may improve the auditory spatial sense in visually impaired people, we investigated the impact of tactile feedback on spatial auditory localization in 48 blindfolded sighted subjects. We measured auditory spatial bisection thresholds before and after training, either with tactile feedback, verbal feedback, or no feedback. Audio thresholds were first measured with a spatial bisection task: subjects judged whether the second sound of a three sound sequence was spatially closer to the first or the third sound. The tactile feedback group underwent two audio-tactile feedback sessions of 100 trials, where each auditory trial was followed by the same spatial sequence played on the subject’s forearm; auditory spatial bisection thresholds were evaluated after each session. In the verbal feedback condition, the positions of the sounds were verbally reported to the subject after each feedback trial. The no feedback group did the same sequence of trials, with no feedback. Performance improved significantly only after audio-tactile feedback. The results suggest that direct tactile feedback interacts with the auditory spatial localization system, possibly by a process of cross-sensory recalibration. Control tests with the subject rotated suggested that this effect occurs only when the tactile and acoustic sequences are spatially congruent. Our results suggest that the tactile system can be used to recalibrate the auditory sense of space. These results encourage the possibility of designing rehabilitation programs to help blind persons establish a robust auditory sense of space, through training with the tactile modality. PMID:25368587

  1. Captured Dynamics Data of 5 Mechanical Knobs

    E-print Network

    MacLean, Karon

    then be simulated by rendering the model on an appropriate haptic device. The haptic camera described in this docu the rendering of feelings on a force-feedback knob. This haptic camera is an extension of similar mechanical identifica- tion and rendering of haptic knobs. Torque, position, velocity, and accelera- tion values

  2. Clustering and Negative Feedback by Endocytosis in Planar Cell Polarity Signaling Is Modulated by Ubiquitinylation of Prickle

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Bomsoo; Pierre-Louis, Gandhy; Sagner, Andreas; Eaton, Suzanne; Axelrod, Jeffrey D.

    2015-01-01

    The core components of the planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling system, including both transmembrane and peripheral membrane associated proteins, form asymmetric complexes that bridge apical intercellular junctions. While these can assemble in either orientation, coordinated cell polarization requires the enrichment of complexes of a given orientation at specific junctions. This might occur by both positive and negative feedback between oppositely oriented complexes, and requires the peripheral membrane associated PCP components. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying feedback are not understood. We find that the E3 ubiquitin ligase complex Cullin1(Cul1)/SkpA/Supernumerary limbs(Slimb) regulates the stability of one of the peripheral membrane components, Prickle (Pk). Excess Pk disrupts PCP feedback and prevents asymmetry. We show that Pk participates in negative feedback by mediating internalization of PCP complexes containing the transmembrane components Van Gogh (Vang) and Flamingo (Fmi), and that internalization is activated by oppositely oriented complexes within clusters. Pk also participates in positive feedback through an unknown mechanism promoting clustering. Our results therefore identify a molecular mechanism underlying generation of asymmetry in PCP signaling. PMID:25996914

  3. Clustering and negative feedback by endocytosis in planar cell polarity signaling is modulated by ubiquitinylation of prickle.

    PubMed

    Cho, Bomsoo; Pierre-Louis, Gandhy; Sagner, Andreas; Eaton, Suzanne; Axelrod, Jeffrey D

    2015-05-01

    The core components of the planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling system, including both transmembrane and peripheral membrane associated proteins, form asymmetric complexes that bridge apical intercellular junctions. While these can assemble in either orientation, coordinated cell polarization requires the enrichment of complexes of a given orientation at specific junctions. This might occur by both positive and negative feedback between oppositely oriented complexes, and requires the peripheral membrane associated PCP components. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying feedback are not understood. We find that the E3 ubiquitin ligase complex Cullin1(Cul1)/SkpA/Supernumerary limbs(Slimb) regulates the stability of one of the peripheral membrane components, Prickle (Pk). Excess Pk disrupts PCP feedback and prevents asymmetry. We show that Pk participates in negative feedback by mediating internalization of PCP complexes containing the transmembrane components Van Gogh (Vang) and Flamingo (Fmi), and that internalization is activated by oppositely oriented complexes within clusters. Pk also participates in positive feedback through an unknown mechanism promoting clustering. Our results therefore identify a molecular mechanism underlying generation of asymmetry in PCP signaling. PMID:25996914

  4. Disruption of the Na+ ion binding site as a mechanism for positive allosteric modulation of the mu-opioid receptor

    PubMed Central

    Livingston, Kathryn E.; Traynor, John R.

    2014-01-01

    Positive allosteric modulation of the mu-opioid receptor (MOPr), the site of action of all clinically used opioids, represents a potential approach for the management of pain. We recently reported on positive allosteric modulators of MOPr (mu-PAMs), a class A G protein coupled receptor (GPCR). This study was designed to examine the mechanism of allostery by comparing the degree to which opioid ligand structure governs modulation. To do this we examined the interaction of the mu-PAM, BMS-986122, with a chemically diverse range of MOPr orthosteric ligands. Generally, for full agonists BMS-986122 enhanced the binding affinity and potency to activate G protein with no alteration in the maximal effect. In contrast, lower efficacy agonists including morphine were insensitive to alterations in binding affinity and showed little to no change in potency to stimulate G protein. Instead, there was an increase in maximal G protein stimulation. Antagonists were unresponsive to the modulatory effects of BMS-986122. Sodium is a known endogenous allosteric modulator of MOPr and alters orthosteric agonist affinity and efficacy. The sensitivity of an orthosteric ligand to BMS-986122 was strongly correlated with its sensitivity to NaCl. In addition, BMS-986122 decreased the ability of NaCl to modulate agonist binding in an allosteric fashion. Overall, BMS-986122 displayed marked probe dependence that was based upon the efficacy of the orthosteric ligand and can be explained using the Monod–Wyman–Changeux two-state model of allostery. Furthermore, disruption of the Na+ ion binding site may represent a common mechanism for allosteric modulation of class A GPCRs. PMID:25489080

  5. Initiation mechanism of a positive streamer in pressurized carbon dioxide up to liquid and supercritical phases with nanosecond pulsed voltages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ihara, T.; Furusato, T.; Kameda, S.; Kiyan, T.; Katsuki, S.; Hara, M.; Akiyama, H.

    2012-02-01

    In this work, the initiation process of an electrical discharge in pressurized carbon dioxide up to the liquid and supercritical phases was investigated using Schlieren and photomultiplier techniques. A pulsed positive voltage with a rise time of about 40 ns and half-width of 150 ns was applied to a point-to-plane gap. The experimental results showed that the discharge started with a primary streamer consisting of a burst primary streamer and a successive primary streamer, and a back discharge followed them. It was predicted from an analysis of the experimental results that the initiation criterion of a burst primary streamer was electron multiplication on the order of 108 independent of the medium conditions. That is, a direct ionization process without bubble formation is supported as an initiation mechanism of nanosecond positive discharges in pressurized carbon dioxide. The medium state in the burst primary streamer channel was a gas or pseudo-gas of 50-200 kg m-3 density.

  6. The Application of Modulation-Frequency Feedback to Signal Detectors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Builder

    1946-01-01

    Positive modulation-frequency feedback to the load circuit of a signal detector may be adjusted to make the effective modulation-frequency admittance of the load circuit equal to its direct-current conductance, thus eliminating peak clipping and improving the efficiency of detection. Conversely, negative feedback to the detector tends to increase peak clipping. Incidental effects in the amplifier from which the positive feedback

  7. Clare Boothe Luce Assistant Professor Position in Hard Materials The Departments of Mechanical Engineering (me.udel.edu) and Materials Science and Engineering

    E-print Network

    Gao, Guang R.

    Engineering (me.udel.edu) and Materials Science and Engineering (mseg.udel.edu) at the University of Delaware appointment will be in Mechanical Engineering or Materials Science and Engineering with additionalClare Boothe Luce Assistant Professor Position in Hard Materials The Departments of Mechanical

  8. State Feedback for a DC Servo Jose Velasquez and Kevin M. Passino

    E-print Network

    State Feedback for a DC Servo Jose Velasquez and Kevin M. Passino Dept. Electrical Engineering state feedback you will design a state-space feedback controller to position the gears of a DC servo as quickly as possible with no overshoot. "Full state feedback" is achieved by using a tachometer and encoder

  9. Types and Frequencies of Feedback Interventions in Classroom Interaction in Secondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voerman, Lia; Meijer, Paulien C.; Korthagen, Fred A. J.; Simons, Robert Jan

    2012-01-01

    Contributing to the growing amount of literature on learning-enhancing feedback, this article attempts to distinguish between progress feedback and discrepancy feedback. Building on relevant literature drawn from psychology, we propose the use of a ratio of 3:1, positive:negative feedback. We analyzed contiguous 10 min blocks of classroom…

  10. Effects of Video Feedback on Early Coercive Parent–Child Interactions: The Intervening Role of Caregivers’ Relational Schemas

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Justin D.; Dishion, Thomas J.; Moore, Kevin J.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Wilson, Melvin N.

    2013-01-01

    Objective We examined the effect of adding a video feedback intervention component to the assessment feedback session of the Family Check-Up intervention (FCU; Dishion & Stormshak, 2007). We hypothesized that the addition of video feedback procedures during the FCU feedback at child age 2 would have a positive effect on caregivers’ negative relational schemas of their child, which in turn would mediate reductions in observed coercive caregiver-child interactions assessed at age 5. Method We observed the caregiver-child interaction videotapes of 79 high-risk families with toddlers exhibiting clinically significant problem behaviors. A quasi-random sample of families were provided with direct feedback on their interactions during the feedback session of the FCU protocol. Results Path analysis indicated that reviewing and engaging in feedback about videotaped age-2 assessment predicted reduced caregivers’ negative relational schemas of the child at age 3, which acted as an intervening variable on the reduction of observed parent–child coercive interactions recorded at age 5. Video feedback predicted improved family functioning over and above level of engagement in the FCU in subsequent years, indicating the important incremental contribution of using video feedback procedures in early family-based preventive interventions for problem behaviors. Conclusions Supportive video feedback on coercive family dynamics is an important strategy for promoting caregiver motivation to reduce negative attributions toward the child, which fuel coercive interactions. Our study also contributes to the clinical and research literature concerning coercion theory and effective intervention strategies by identifying a potential mechanism of change. PMID:23534831

  11. Scalable Feedback Control for Multicast Video Distribution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-chrysostome Bolot; Thierry Turletti; Ian Wakeman

    1994-01-01

    We describe a mechanism for scalable control of multicastcontinuous media streams. The mechanism usesa novel probing mechanism to solicit feedback informationin a scalable manner and to estimate the numberof receivers. In addition, it separates the congestion signalfrom the congestion control algorithm, so as to copewith heterogeneous networks.

  12. Give Better Feedback on Engineering Drawings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, Robert, Jr.; Graham, Tony; Kapur, Arjun; Rhodes, Craig; Blackwell, Ellinor

    2005-01-01

    Most, if not all, systems have a mechanism that collects information to facilitate monitoring performance. This information is primarily used to modify the system to make it more efficient in performing desired tasks and, thus, attaining desired results. Similar to electrical, mechanical, or hydraulic systems, the feedback mechanism in an…

  13. Simplified Design of Haptic Display by Extending One-point Kinesthetic Feedback to Multipoint Tactile Feedback

    E-print Network

    Tachi, Susumu

    Simplified Design of Haptic Display by Extending One-point Kinesthetic Feedback to Multipoint and more realistic haptic feedback system, we propose integrating an underactuated mechanism with one the effectiveness of the proposed method. Keywords: Haptic display, underactuation Index Terms: H.5.2 [INFORMATION

  14. Feedback-enhanced Microrheology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayade, Heev; Bremerich, Marcel; Arimatsu, Hiroshi; Mizuno, Daisuke

    2013-03-01

    An essential feature of the cytoskeleton is their ability to perform variety of mechanical functions in cells. The active force generation by molecular motors keeps the living cytoskeletons far from equilibrium that makes the understanding of cell mechanics and behaviors particularly challenging. Here, we have investigated the non-equilibrium mechanical properties of cells using optical trapping based microrheology, which tracks the motion of phagocytosed probe particles with high spatial and temporal resolution than video tracking microrheology. In order to perform high resolution measurement in cells or active soft materials, the active fluctuations of the beads have to be compensated for in order to keep the bead stably in a highly focused beam spot. We achieve this by implementing a PID-controlled feedback mechanism to reposition the sample chamber with a 3D-piezo stage, for large-scale but slow motions of the probes. The stage motion is recorded as piezo-control, and the motion of the probe from the laser focus is provided as the quadrant photodiode output. Sum of those signals reconstitutes the complete bead trajectory. The method reported here is robust in accessing thermal and athermal fluctuations in active systems.

  15. Serotonin modulates sensitivity to reward and negative feedback in a probabilistic reversal learning task in rats.

    PubMed

    Bari, Andrea; Theobald, David E; Caprioli, Daniele; Mar, Adam C; Aidoo-Micah, Alex; Dalley, Jeffrey W; Robbins, Trevor W

    2010-05-01

    Depressed patients show cognitive deficits that may depend on an abnormal reaction to positive and negative feedback. The precise neurochemical mechanisms responsible for such cognitive abnormalities have not yet been clearly characterized, although serotoninergic dysfunction is frequently associated with depression. In three experiments described here, we investigated the effects of different manipulations of central serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) levels in rats performing a probabilistic reversal learning task that measures response to feedback. Increasing or decreasing 5-HT tone differentially affected behavioral indices of cognitive flexibility (reversals completed), reward sensitivity (win-stay), and reaction to negative feedback (lose-shift). A single low dose of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor citalopram (1 mg/kg) resulted in fewer reversals completed and increased lose-shift behavior. By contrast, a single higher dose of citalopram (10 mg/kg) exerted the opposite effect on both measures. Repeated (5 mg/kg, daily, 7 days) and subchronic (10 mg/kg, b.i.d., 5 days) administration of citalopram increased the number of reversals completed by the animals and increased the frequency of win-stay behavior, whereas global 5-HT depletion had the opposite effect on both indices. These results show that boosting 5-HT neurotransmission decreases negative feedback sensitivity and increases reward (positive feedback) sensitivity, whereas reducing it has the opposite effect. However, these effects depend on the nature of the manipulation used: acute manipulations of the 5-HT system modulate negative feedback sensitivity, whereas long-lasting treatments specifically affect reward sensitivity. These results parallel some of the findings in humans on effects of 5-HT manipulations and are relevant to hypotheses of altered response to feedback in depression. PMID:20107431

  16. Feedback controlled electrostatic and electromagnetic sample positioners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhim, Won-Kyu; Elleman, D. D.

    1990-01-01

    Four different sample positioners are discussed. The four systems share a common operating principle in that the sample positioning is achieved by feedback controlled forces which can be electrostatic, dielectrophoretic, or electromagnetic. The first system is the electrostatic liquid drop positioner which operates at the near ambient position. The second system is the tetrahedral electrostatic positioner which is being developed for the high temperature materials processing in vacuum. The third system is essentially the the same tetrahedral system above except that the position control is achieved by dielectrophoretic forces in the pressurized gas environment. Finally, the feasibility of a feedback controlled electromagnetic positioner is discussed.

  17. Neocognitron: a self organizing neural network model for a mechanism of pattern recognition unaffected by shift in position.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, K

    1980-01-01

    A neural network model for a mechanism of visual pattern recognition is proposed in this paper. The network is self-organized by "learning without a teacher", and acquires an ability to recognize stimulus patterns based on the geometrical similarity (Gestalt) of their shapes without affected by their positions. This network is given a nickname "neocognitron". After completion of self-organization, the network has a structure similar to the hierarchy model of the visual nervous system proposed by Hubel and Wiesel. The network consists of an input layer (photoreceptor array) followed by a cascade connection of a number of modular structures, each of which is composed of two layers of cells connected in a cascade. The first layer of each module consists of "S-cells", which show characteristics similar to simple cells or lower order hypercomplex cells, and the second layer consists of "C-cells" similar to complex cells or higher order hypercomplex cells. The afferent synapses to each S-cell have plasticity and are modifiable. The network has an ability of unsupervised learning: We do not need any "teacher" during the process of self-organization, and it is only needed to present a set of stimulus patterns repeatedly to the input layer of the network. The network has been simulated on a digital computer. After repetitive presentation of a set of stimulus patterns, each stimulus pattern has become to elicit an output only from one of the C-cells of the last layer, and conversely, this C-cell has become selectively responsive only to that stimulus pattern. That is, none of the C-cells of the last layer responds to more than one stimulus pattern. The response of the C-cells of the last layer is not affected by the pattern's position at all. Neither is it affected by a small change in shape nor in size of the stimulus pattern. PMID:7370364

  18. Feedback-assisted homodyne detection of phase shifts Giacomo M. D'Ariano*

    E-print Network

    D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro

    Feedback-assisted homodyne detection of phase shifts Giacomo M. D'Ariano* Department of Electrical external feedback control is addressed for homodyne detection of optical phase shifts. Two different of the feedback mechanism in both schemes is studied versus the feedback coupling parameter and high

  19. Audio Feedback to Physiotherapy Students for Viva Voce: How Effective Is "The Living Voice"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munro, Wendy; Hollingworth, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Assessment and feedback remains one of the categories that students are least satisfied with within the United Kingdom National Student Survey. The Student Charter promotes the use of various formats of feedback to enhance student learning. This study evaluates the use of audio MP3 as an alternative feedback mechanism to written feedback for…

  20. Optical feedback control for mechatronic actuators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dan Necsulescu; Zubair Khatri

    2003-01-01

    The paper investigates optical implementation of feedback control of mechatronic actuators. The goal is to analyze experimentally the feasibility of optical closed loop control using optical components for signal transmission and control loop implementation. The analysis is carried out for position control of an electric actuator. Angular position and velocity are measured with optical sensors. Measurement signals are transmitted through

  1. Visual Feedback Control of Hand Movements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey A. Saunders; David C. Knill

    2004-01-01

    We investigated what visual information contributes to on-line control of hand movements. It has been suggested that motion informa- tion predominates early in movements but that position information predominates for endpoint control. We used a perturbation method to determine the relative contributions of motion and position information to feedback control. Subjects reached to touch targets in a dynamic virtual environment

  2. Developing Sustainable Feedback Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carless, David; Salter, Diane; Yang, Min; Lam, Joy

    2011-01-01

    Feedback is central to the development of student learning, but within the constraints of modularized learning in higher education it is increasingly difficult to handle effectively. This article makes a case for sustainable feedback as a contribution to the reconceptualization of feedback processes. The data derive from the Student Assessment and…

  3. ASSESSMENT AND FEEDBACK POLICY

    E-print Network

    Mottram, Nigel

    ASSESSMENT AND FEEDBACK POLICY Version No. Description Author Approval Effective Date 1.1 Policy on Assessment and Feedback ­ applicable to both undergraduate and postgraduate taught programmes. Assessment and Feedback Working Group Senate (April 2014) Sept 2014 19/03/2014 Version 1.1 the place of useful learning

  4. Chromaticity Feedback at RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Marusic, A.; Minty, M.; Tepikian, S.

    2010-05-23

    Chromaticity feedback during the ramp to high beam energies has been demonstrated in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). In this report we review the feedback design and measurement technique. Commissioning experiences including interaction with existing tune and coupling feedback are presented together with supporting experimental data.

  5. The Mythology of Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adcroft, Andy

    2011-01-01

    Much of the general education and discipline-specific literature on feedback suggests that it is a central and important element of student learning. This paper examines feedback from a social process perspective and suggests that feedback is best understood through an analysis of the interactions between academics and students. The paper argues…

  6. Feedbacks in Human-Landscape Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin, Anne; Florsheim, Joan L.; Wohl, Ellen; Collins, Brian D.

    2014-01-01

    This article identifies key questions and challenges for geomorphologists in investigating coupled feedbacks in human-landscape systems. While feedbacks occur in the absence of human influences, they are also altered by human activity. Feedbacks are a key element to understanding human-influenced geomorphic systems in ways that extend our traditional approach of considering humans as unidirectional drivers of change. Feedbacks have been increasingly identified in Earth-environmental systems, with studies of coupled human-natural systems emphasizing ecological phenomena in producing emerging concepts for social-ecological systems. Enormous gaps or uncertainties in knowledge remain with respect to understanding impact-feedback loops within geomorphic systems with significant human alterations, where the impacted geomorphic systems in turn affect humans. Geomorphology should play an important role in public policy by identifying the many diffuse and subtle feedbacks of both local- and global-scale processes. This role is urgent, while time may still be available to mitigate the impacts that limit the sustainability of human societies. Challenges for geomorphology include identification of the often weak feedbacks that occur over varied time and space scales ranging from geologic time to single isolated events and very short time periods, the lack of available data linking impact with response, the identification of multiple thresholds that trigger feedback mechanisms, the varied tools and metrics needed to represent both physical and human processes, and the need to collaborate with social scientists with expertise in the human causes of geomorphic change, as well as the human responses to such change.

  7. Trastuzumab-based treatment of HER2-positive breast cancer: an antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity mechanism?

    PubMed Central

    Arnould, L; Gelly, M; Penault-Llorca, F; Benoit, L; Bonnetain, F; Migeon, C; Cabaret, V; Fermeaux, V; Bertheau, P; Garnier, J; Jeannin, J-F; Coudert, B

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluated by immunohistochemistry (IHC) immune cell response during neoadjuvant primary systemic therapy (PST) with trastuzumab in patients with HER2-positive primary breast cancer. In all, 23 patients with IHC 3+ primary breast cancer were treated with trastuzumab plus docetaxel. Pathological complete and partial responses were documented for nine (39%) and 14 (61%) patients, respectively. Case-matched controls comprised patients treated with docetaxel-based PST without trastuzumab (D; n=23) or PST without docetaxel or trastuzumab (non-taxane, non-trastuzumab, NT–NT; n=23). All surgical specimens were blind-analysed by two independent pathologists, with immunohistochemical evaluation of B and T lymphocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells and natural killer (NK) cells. Potential cytolytic cells were stained for Granzyme B and TiA1. HER2 expression was also evaluated in residual tumour cells. Trastuzumab treatment was associated with significantly increased numbers of tumour-associated NK cells and increased lymphocyte expression of Granzyme B and TiA1 compared with controls. This study supports an in vivo role for immune (particularly NK cell) responses in the mechanism of trastuzumab action in breast cancer. These results suggest that trastuzumab plus taxanes lead to enhanced NK cell activity, which may partially account for the synergistic activity of trastuzumab and docetaxel in breast cancer. PMID:16404427

  8. The N400 and Late Positive Complex (LPC) Effects Reflect Controlled Rather than Automatic Mechanisms of Sentence Processing

    PubMed Central

    Daltrozzo, Jérôme; Wioland, Norma; Kotchoubey, Boris

    2012-01-01

    This study compared automatic and controlled cognitive processes that underlie event-related potentials (ERPs) effects during speech perception. Sentences were presented to French native speakers, and the final word could be congruent or incongruent, and presented at one of four levels of degradation (using a modulation with pink noise): no degradation, mild degradation (2 levels), or strong degradation. We assumed that degradation impairs controlled more than automatic processes. The N400 and Late Positive Complex (LPC) effects were defined as the differences between the corresponding wave amplitudes to incongruent words minus congruent words. Under mild degradation, where controlled sentence-level processing could still occur (as indicated by behavioral data), both N400 and LPC effects were delayed and the latter effect was reduced. Under strong degradation, where sentence processing was rather automatic (as indicated by behavioral data), no ERP effect remained. These results suggest that ERP effects elicited in complex contexts, such as sentences, reflect controlled rather than automatic mechanisms of speech processing. These results differ from the results of experiments that used word-pair or word-list paradigms. PMID:24961195

  9. Negative feedback contributes to the stochastic expression of the interferon-? gene in virus-triggered type I interferon signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Tian, Tianhai; Zou, Xiufen

    2015-07-01

    Type I interferon (IFN) signaling pathways play an essential role in the defense against early viral infections; however, the diverse and intricate molecular mechanisms of virus-triggered type I IFN responses are still poorly understood. In this study, we analyzed and compared two classes of models i.e., deterministic ordinary differential equations (ODEs) and stochastic models to elucidate the dynamics and stochasticity of type I IFN signaling pathways. Bifurcation analysis based on an ODE model reveals that the system exhibits a bistable switch and a one-way switch at high or low levels when the strengths of the negative and positive feedbacks are tuned. Furthermore, we compared the stochastic simulation results under the Master and Langevin equations. Both of the stochastic equations generate the bistable switch phenomenon, and the distance between two stable states are smaller than normal under the simulation of the Langevin equation. The quantitative computations also show that a moderate ratio between positive and negative feedback strengths is required to ensure a reliable switch between the different IFN concentrations that regulate the immune response. Moreover, we propose a multi-state stochastic model based on the above deterministic model to describe the multi-cellular system coupled with the diffusion of IFNs. The perturbation and inhibition analysis showed that the positive feedback, as well as noises, has little effect on the stochastic expression of IFNs, but the negative feedback of ISG56 on the activation of IRF7 has a great influence on IFN stochastic expression. Together, these results reveal that positive feedback stabilizes IFN gene expression, and negative feedback may be the main contribution to the stochastic expression of the IFN gene in the virus-triggered type I IFN response. These findings will provide new insight into the molecular mechanisms of virus-triggered type I IFN signaling pathways. PMID:25892253

  10. Transcriptional Feedback Oscillators: Maybe, Maybe Not

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patricia L. Lakin-Thomas

    2006-01-01

    The molecular mechanism of circadian rhythmicity is usually modeled by a transcription\\/translation feedback oscillator in which clock proteins negatively feed back on their own transcription to produce rhythmic levels of clock protein mRNAs, which in turn cause the production of rhythmic levels of clock proteins. This mechanism has been applied to all model organisms for which molecular data are available.

  11. Operation of PEP longitudinal feedback system

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, M.A.; Karvonen, L.G.; McConnell, R.A.; Schwarz, H.

    1981-03-01

    In order to suppress longitudinal coupled-bunch oscillations which might limit the capabilities of PEP, the 18 GeV e/sup +/e/sup -/ storage ring at SLAC, a longitudinal feedback system is utilized. A frequency domain feedback system was chosen with the frequency spectrum of the stored beam being sampled close to a symmetry point in the ring where the feedback cavity itself is also located. The symmetry point chosen is symmetry point 5 which lies half-way between interaction regions 4 and 6. The system has been installed in PEP and is now operational. However, at stored currents up to the maximum stored in PEP to date at 14.5 GeV (approximately 40 mA in 6 bunches), the ring has been stable to all modes of longitudinal coupled-bunch oscillations both barycentric and the other fundamental modes. By deliberately detuning the main accelerating cavities, small multibunch oscillations can be introduced which, in turn, can be damped by the feedback system. Under optimized beam conditions the feedback system could be adjusted to positive feedback and excite oscillations with relatively small power to the feedback cavity. This will be described along with other details of the system.

  12. Jumping to Conclusions bias, BADE and Feedback Sensitivity in schizophrenia and schizotypy.

    PubMed

    Juárez-Ramos, V; Rubio, J L; Delpero, C; Mioni, G; Stablum, F; Gómez-Milán, E

    2014-05-01

    Several studies about schizophrenia have shown a cognitive bias named "Jumping to Conclusions" (JTC), defined as a decision made quickly on the basis of little evidence that occurs in these patients when performing probabilistic reasoning paradigms. The main objective of this study is to compare JTC bias and BADE (Bias Against Disconfirmatory Evidence) in patients with schizophrenia vs. participants with high/low schizotypy to understand the underlying mechanism of these cognitive biases. Probabilistic reasoning was assessed using a modified version of Drawing to Decision task. In addition to the traditional parameters of this task (Plausibility Rating (PR), Draws to Decision (DTD), BADE) we also calculated new parameters, overall accuracy and one named Feedback Sensitivity (FS) which lower scores shows greater use of feedback. The results of the study suggest a context effect: in the cued condition, there were not main differences between groups. In the uncued condition, we found higher JTC bias at stage 1 for patients. At the same time, PR at first stages related positively with Feedback Sensitivity and negatively with accuracy for patients and high schizotypy participants (high confidence is associated with worse performance and lower feedback use). BADE seems unrelated to JTC bias and FS. The results are discussed in terms of JTC like as a clinical bias and whether patients with schizophrenia are less able to use feedback. PMID:24747992

  13. Forcing and feedback in the MPI-ESM-LR coupled model under abruptly quadrupled CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Block, K.; Mauritsen, T.

    2013-12-01

    Radiative feedback mechanisms associated with temperature, water vapor, cloud, and surface albedo change determine climate sensitivity to radiative forcing. Here we use the linearized radiative kernel-technique in combination with a Gregory analysis to determine the strength and structure of feedbacks, as well as direct and adjusted CO2 forcings in the coupled Max Planck Institute Earth System Model at base resolution (MPI-ESM-LR). We show that the combined Kernel-Gregory approach yields an elegant separation of surface temperature-dependent feedbacks from contributions to radiative forcing by fast adjustments. MPI-ESM-LR exhibits a relatively large cloud adjustment of nearly 2 W m-2 in direct response to quadrupled CO2, with positive cloud adjustment evident throughout the tropics, subtropics and over most landmasses whereas midlatitude storm tracks contribute negatively. The model features a nonlinear regression of radiation imbalance to global mean surface temperature change, resulting in a significantly increasing effective climate sensitivity after about 20 years which is approximately at temperatures 4-5 K above preindustrial. This feature is not uncommon among climate models and is relevant for future climate projections. We analyze the contribution of the individual feedback processes to this behavior and discuss possible origins such as differential ocean warming patterns associated with deep-ocean heat uptake or state dependencies of the feedback processes.

  14. Contrasting conditions of surface water balance in wet years and dry years as a possible land surface-atmosphere feedback mechanism in the West African Sahel

    SciTech Connect

    Lare, A.R.; Nicholson, S.E. (Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States))

    1994-05-01

    the climate of West Africa, in particular the Sahel, is characterized by multiyear persistence of anomalously wet or dry conditions. Its Southern Hemisphere counterpart, the Kalahari, lacks the persistence that is evident in the Sahel even though both regions are subject to similar large-scale forcing. It has been suggested that land surface-atmosphere feedback contributes to this persistence and to the severity of drought. In this study, surface energy and water balance are quantified for nine stations along a latitudinal transect that extends from the Sahara to the Guinea coast. In the wetter regions of West Africa, the difference between wet and dry years is primarily reflected in the magnitude of runoff. For the Sahel and drier locations, evapotranspiration and soil moisture are more sensitive to rainfall anomalies. The increase in evapotranspiration, and hence latent heating, over the Sahel in wet years alters the thermal structure and gradients of the overlying atmosphere and thus the strength of the African easterly jet (AEJ) at 700 mb. The difference between dry and wet Augusts corresponds to a decrease in magnitude of the AEJ at 15[degrees]N on the order of 2.6 m s[sup [minus]1], which is consistent with previous studies of observed winds. Spatial patterns were also developed for surface water balance parameters for both West Africa and southern Africa. Over southern Africa, the patterns are not as spatially homogeneous as those over West Africa and are lower in magnitude, thus supporting the suggestion that the persistence of rainfall anomalies in the Sahel might be due, at least in part, to land-atmosphere feedback, and that the absence of such persistence in the Kalahari is a consequence of less significant changes in surface water and energy balance. 38 refs., 10 figs. 2 tabs.

  15. Contrasting conditions of surface water balance in wet years and dry years as a possible land surface-atmosphere feedback mechanism in the West African Sahel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lare, A. R.; Nicholson, S. E.

    1994-01-01

    The climate of West Africa, in particular the Sahel, is characterized by multiyear persistence of anomalously wet or dry conditions. Its Southern Hemisphere counterpart, the Kalahari, lacks the persistence that is evident in the Sahel even though both regions are subject to similar large-scale forcing. It has been suggested that land surface-atmosphere feedback contributes to this persistence and to the severity of drought. In this study, surface energy and water balance are quantified for nine stations along a latitudinal transect that extends from the Sahara to the Guinea coast. In the wetter regions of West Africa, the difference between wet and dry years is primarily reflected in the magnitude of runoff. For the Sahel and drier locations, evapotranspiration and soil moisture are more sensitive to rainfall anomalies. The increase in evapotranspiration, and hence latent heating, over the Sahel in wet years alters the thermal structure and gradients of the overlying atmosphere and thus the strength of the African easterly jet (AEJ) at 700 mb. The difference between dry and wet Augusts corresponds to a decrease in magnitude of the AEJ at 15 deg N on the order of 2.6 m/s, which is consistent with previous studies of observed winds. Spatial patterns were also developed for surface water balance parameters for both West Africa and southern Africa. Over southern Africa, the patterns are not as spatially homogeneous as those over West Africa and are lower in magnitude, thus supporting the suggestion that the persistence of rainfall anomalies in the Sahel might be due, at least in part, to land-atmosphere feedback, and that the absence of such persistence in the Kalahari is a consequence of less significant changes in surface water and energy balance.

  16. A nonlinear PID controller based on fuzzy-tuned immune feedback law

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yongsheng Ding

    2000-01-01

    A new nonlinear PID controller is presented in this paper by combining the immune feedback law with conventional PID control. Focusing on the immune feedback mechanism of biological immune systems, we first propose a P-type immune feedback controller. The P-type immune feedback law is tuned online by a fuzzy logic controller. Then we extend it to a PID-type immune feedback

  17. Mechanical analysis and design of a six-degree-of-freedom robotic wrist for space assembly

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1991-01-01

    Deals with the mechanical design of a six degree-of-freedom robotic wrist whose implementation is based on the mechanism of the Stewart Platform. The wrist is composed mainly of two platforms coupled by six linear actuators driven by DC motors. Linear displacement transducers (LDT) are mounted along the actuators to measure their length variations for position feedback. Iterative procedures are developed

  18. Modeling Feedback Loops of the Mammalian Circadian Oscillator

    PubMed Central

    Becker-Weimann, Sabine; Wolf, Jana; Herzel, Hanspeter; Kramer, Achim

    2004-01-01

    The suprachiasmatic nucleus governs daily variations of physiology and behavior in mammals. Within single neurons, interlocked transcriptional/translational feedback loops generate circadian rhythms on the molecular level. We present a mathematical model that reflects the essential features of the mammalian circadian oscillator to characterize the differential roles of negative and positive feedback loops. The oscillations that are obtained have a 24-h period and are robust toward parameter variations even when the positive feedback is replaced by a constantly expressed activator. This demonstrates the crucial role of the negative feedback for rhythm generation. Moreover, it explains the rhythmic phenotype of Rev-erb??/? mutant mice, where a positive feedback is missing. The interplay of negative and positive feedback reveals a complex dynamics. In particular, the model explains the unexpected rescue of circadian oscillations in Per2Brdm1/Cry2?/? double-mutant mice (Per2Brdm1 single-mutant mice are arrhythmic). Here, a decrease of positive feedback strength associated with mutating the Per2 gene is compensated by the Cry2?/? mutation that simultaneously decreases the negative feedback strength. Finally, this model leads us to a testable prediction of a molecular and behavioral phenotype: circadian oscillations should be rescued when arrhythmic Per2Brdm1 mutant mice are crossed with Rev- erb? ?/? mutant mice. PMID:15347590

  19. Thermocline Feedback Influence on Indian Ocean Dipole Skewness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, B.; Cai, W.; Walsh, K. J.

    2014-12-01

    A positive Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) tends to have stronger cold sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTAs) over the eastern Indian Ocean with greater impacts than warm SSTAs that occur during its negative phase. These impacts from positive IODs range from drought over Australia and Indonesia, to flooding over East Africa and India. Two feedbacks have been suggested as the cause of positive IOD skewness, a positive Bjerknes feedback and a negative SST-cloud-radiation (SCR) feedback, but their relative importance is debated. Using models from phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) and inter-model statistics, we show that the most important process for IOD skewness is an asymmetry in the thermocline feedback, whereby SSTAs respond to thermocline depth anomalies more strongly during the positive phase than negative phase. This asymmetric thermocline feedback drives IOD skewness despite positive IODs receiving greater damping from the SCR feedback. In response to global warming, although the thermocline feedback strengthens, its asymmetry between positive and negative IODs weakens. This behaviour change explains the reduction in IOD skewness that many models display under global warming.

  20. Cirrus feedback on interannual climate fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, C.; Dessler, A. E.; Zelinka, M. D.; Yang, P.; Wang, T.

    2014-12-01

    Cirrus clouds are not only important in determining the current climate but also play an important role in climate change and variability. Analysis of satellite observations shows that the amount and altitude of cirrus clouds (cloud optical depth < 3.6, cloud top pressure < 440 hPa) increase in response to interannual surface warming. Using cirrus cloud radiative kernels, the magnitude of the interannual cirrus feedback is estimated to be 0.20 ± 0.21 W/m2/°C, which represents an important component of the cloud feedback. Thus, cirrus clouds are likely to act as a positive feedback on interannual climate fluctuations, by reducing the Earth's ability to radiate longwave radiation to space in response to planetary surface warming. Most of the cirrus feedback comes from increasing cloud amount in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) and subtropical upper troposphere.

  1. Stability and Feedback Stabilization 1639 Stability and Feedback Stabilization

    E-print Network

    Sontag, Eduardo

    Stability and Feedback Stabilization 1639 Stability and Feedback Stabilization EDUARDO D. SONTAG of the Subject Introduction Linear Systems Nonlinear Systems: Continuous Feedback Discontinuous Feedback) if it is possible to find a feedback law that renders that state a globally asymptotically stable equi- librium

  2. Relevance Feedback Personal View Records Retrieval by Relevance Feedback

    E-print Network

    Kameda, Yoshinari

    Relevance Feedback Personal View Records Retrieval by Relevance Feedback Takahiro Koizumi Yuichi Nakamura Yuichi Ohta Yoshinari Kameda 1. [1][2] Relevance Feedback 2. Relevance Feedback 2.1 1 [3] ( ) 2.2 Relevance Freedback Relevance Feedback ( ) 1 O O 1, · · · , l L 1, · · · , k K Rel i Oi Rel

  3. Positive feedback Derivative feedback Pos. + der. feedback Firingrate(Hz)Firingrate(Hz)

    E-print Network

    Pillow, Jonathan

    Neuroscience: doi:10.1038/nn.3492 #12;Contour plots of network Supplementary Figure S2. Negative derivativeIE Unstable a b Supplementary Figure S2 Nature Neuroscience: doi:10.1038/nn.3492 #12;0 1 2 3 4 50 25 50 Time Figure S3 Nature Neuroscience: doi:10.1038/nn.3492 #12;Supplementary Figure S4 0 1 2 3 0 25 50 Firingrate

  4. Supernova Feedback Keeps Galaxies Simple

    E-print Network

    Chakraborti, Sayan

    2011-01-01

    Galaxies evolve continuously under the influence of self-gravity, rotation, accretion, mergers and feedback. The currently favored cold dark matter cosmological framework, suggests a hierarchical process of galaxy formation, wherein the present properties of galaxies are decided by their individual histories of being assembled from smaller pieces. However, recent studies have uncovered surprising correlations among the properties of galaxies, to the extent of forming a one-parameter set lying on a single fundamental line. It has been argued in the literature that such simplicity is hard to explain within the paradigm of hierarchical galaxy mergers. One of the puzzling results, is the simple linear correlation between the neutral hydrogen mass and the surface area, implying that widely different galaxies share very similar neutral hydrogen surface densities. In this work we show that self-regulated star formation, driven by the competition between gravitational instabilities and mechanical feedback from supern...

  5. Haptic feedback for multilayer cutting.

    PubMed

    Rianto, Sugeng; Li, Ling; Hartley, Bruce

    2008-01-01

    An approach in effectively estimating the force feedback for a tactile haptic based on multi-proxy rendering for 3D surface cuttings for a virtual surgery simulation is described in this paper. The force-models representing haptic force-feedback are approximated using D'Alembert's principle in the mechanic case of spring-damper-stiffness interaction of the surfaces. We also propose a combination between mesh refinement and adaptive re-meshing to create a progressive cutting over the layering surfaces. Experimental results prove that the physical interaction to create cutting paths over the multilayer surfaces can be deliver smoothly with haptic in real time with 3D visual stereo on a PC. PMID:18391331

  6. Why do I like you when you behave like me? Neural mechanisms mediating positive consequences of observing someone being imitated

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simone Kühn; Barbara C. N. Müller; Rick B. van Baaren; Anne Wietzker; A. J. Dijksterhuis; Marcel Brass

    2010-01-01

    Social psychological and developmental research revealed that imitation serves a fundamental social function. It has been shown that human beings have the tendency to automatically mirror the behavior of others—the so-called chameleon effect. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that being imitated leads to positive feelings toward the imitator. But why do we feel more positive about someone who imitates us?

  7. Inhibitory GEF phosphorylation provides negative feedback in the yeast polarity circuit

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Chun-Chen; Savage, Natasha S.; Chen, Hsin; Wu, Chi-Fang; Zyla, Trevin R.; Lew, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    Cell polarity is critical for the form and function of many cell types. During polarity establishment, cells define a cortical “front” that behaves differently from the rest of the cortex. The front accumulates high levels of the active form of a polarity-determining Rho-family GTPase (Cdc42, Rac, or Rop), which then orients cytoskeletal elements through various effectors to generate the polarized morphology appropriate to the particular cell type [1, 2]. GTPase accumulation is thought to involve positive feedback, such that active GTPase promotes further delivery and/or activation of more GTPase in its vicinity [3]. Recent studies suggest that once a front forms, the concentration of polarity factors at the front can increase and decrease periodically, first clustering the factors at the cortex and then dispersing them back to the cytoplasm [4–7]. Such oscillatory behavior implies the presence of negative feedback in the polarity circuit [8], but the mechanism of negative feedback was not known. Here we show that, in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the catalytic activity of the Cdc42-directed GEF is inhibited by Cdc42-stimulated effector kinases, thus providing negative feedback. We further show that replacing the GEF with a phosphosite-mutant GEF abolishes oscillations and leads to the accumulation of excess GTP-Cdc42 and other polarity factors at the front. These findings reveal a mechanism for negative feedback and suggest that the function of negative feedback via GEF inhibition is to buffer the level of Cdc42 at the polarity site. PMID:24631237

  8. Mechanism based neurotoxicity of mGlu5 positive allosteric modulators--development challenges for a promising novel antipsychotic target.

    PubMed

    Parmentier-Batteur, Sophie; Hutson, Peter H; Menzel, Karsten; Uslaner, Jason M; Mattson, Britta A; O'Brien, Julie A; Magliaro, Brian C; Forest, Thomas; Stump, Craig A; Tynebor, Robert M; Anthony, Neville J; Tucker, Thomas J; Zhang, Xu-Fang; Gomez, Robert; Huszar, Sarah L; Lambeng, Nathalie; Fauré, H; Le Poul, Emannuel; Poli, Sonia; Rosahl, Thomas W; Rocher, Jean-Philippe; Hargreaves, Richard; Williams, Theresa M

    2014-07-01

    Previous work has suggested that activation of mGlu5 receptor augments NMDA receptor function and thereby may constitute a rational approach addressing glutamate hypofunction in schizophrenia and a target for novel antipsychotic drug development. Here, we report the in vitro activity, in vivo efficacy and safety profile of 5PAM523 (4-Fluorophenyl){(2R,5S)-5-[5-(5-fluoropyridin-2-yl)-1,2,4-oxadiazol-3-yl]-2-methylpiperidin-1-yl}methanone), a structurally novel positive allosteric modulator selective of mGlu5. In cells expressing human mGlu5 receptor, 5PAM523 potentiated threshold responses to glutamate in fluorometric calcium assays, but does not have any intrinsic agonist activity. 5PAM523 acts as an allosteric modulator as suggested by the binding studies showing that 5PAM523 did not displace the binding of the orthosteric ligand quisqualic acid, but did partially compete with the negative allosteric modulator, MPyEP. In vivo, 5PAM523 reversed amphetamine-induced locomotor activity in rats. Therefore, both the in vitro and in vivo data demonstrate that 5PAM523 acts as a selective mGlu5 PAM and exhibits anti-psychotic like activity. To study the potential for adverse effects and particularly neurotoxicity, brain histopathological exams were performed in rats treated for 4 days with 5PAM523 or vehicle. The brain exam revealed moderate to severe neuronal necrosis in the rats treated with the doses of 30 and 50 mg/kg, particularly in the auditory cortex and hippocampus. To investigate whether this neurotoxicity is mechanism specific to 5PAM523, similar safety studies were carried out with three other structurally distinct selective mGlu5 PAMs. Results revealed a comparable pattern of neuronal cell death. Finally, 5PAM523 was tested in mGlu5 knock-out (KO) and wild type (WT) mice. mGlu5 WT mice treated with 5PAM523 for 4 days at 100 mg/kg presented significant neuronal death in the auditory cortex and hippocampus. Conversely, mGlu5 KO mice did not show any neuronal loss by histopathology, suggesting that enhancement of mGlu5 function is responsible for the toxicity of 5PAM523. This study reveals for the first time that augmentation of mGlu5 function with selective allosteric modulators results in neurotoxicity. PMID:23291536

  9. Effects of Video Feedback on Early Coercive Parent-Child Interactions: The Intervening Role of Caregivers' Relational Schemas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Justin D.; Dishion, Thomas J.; Moore, Kevin J.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Wilson, Melvin N.

    2013-01-01

    We examined the effect of adding a video feedback intervention component to the assessment feedback session of the Family Check-Up (FCU) intervention (Dishion & Stormshak, 2007). We hypothesized that the addition of video feedback procedures during the FCU feedback at child age 2 would have a positive effect on caregivers' negative…

  10. Feedback control of heart rate during robotics-assisted treadmill exercise.

    PubMed

    Schindelholz, Matthias; Hunt, Kenneth J

    2012-01-01

    Robotics-assisted treadmill exercise has potential for cardiovascular rehabilitation of patients with miscellaneous neurological deficits. A novel approach is presented here which suggests using heart rate to define and control exercise intensity during robotics-assisted treadmill exercise. The work delineates the design and provides technical validation of the new method. A feedback structure in conjunction with a human-in-the-loop feedback for volitional control of mechanical work rate is proposed which provides automatic regulation of heart rate. A controller computes the target mechanical work rate based on target and actual heart rates. An analytical model-based method was used to design the controller. The overall feedback design process is technically validated through a test series with different control tasks including square-wave tracking, disturbance rejection, ramp tracking and an open loop test. The feedback method and the heart rate control provide close to nominal performance for square-wave and ramp reference tracking tasks below and above the anaerobic threshold, which was estimated by the V-slope method. The controllers provide robust and stable performance as verified by calculation of the root mean square error of the tracked heart rate at different effort levels as well as with the disturbance test. Further work is required to evaluate the robustness of the approach across a group of subjects including neurological patients to show the potential for clinical implementation and to achieve a positive effect for the cardiovascular status of patients. PMID:22735733

  11. Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy for bone and cartilage differentiation - ex vivo study as a prospect for a laser surgery feedback mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Mehari, Fanuel; Rohde, Maximilian; Knipfer, Christian; Kanawade, Rajesh; Klämpfl, Florian; Adler, Werner; Stelzle, Florian; Schmidt, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Laser surgery enables for very accurate, fast and clean modeling of tissue. The specific and controlled cutting and ablation of tissue, however, remains a central challenge in the field of clinical laser applications. The lack of information on what kind of tissue is being ablated at the bottom of the cut may lead to iatrogenic damage of structures that were meant to be preserved. One such example is the shaping or removal of diseased cartilaginous and bone tissue in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). Diseases of the TMJ can induce deformation and perforation of the cartilaginous discus articularis, as well as alterations to the cartilaginous surface of the condyle or even the bone itself. This may result in restrictions of movement and pain. The aim of a surgical intervention ranges from specific ablation and shaping of diseased cartilage, bone or synovial tissues to extensive removal of TMJ structures. One approach to differentiate between these tissues is to use Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS). The ultimate goal is a LIBS guided feedback control system for surgical laser systems that enables real-time tissue identification for tissue specific ablation. In the presented study, the authors focused on the LIBS based differentiation between cartilage tissue and cortical bone tissue using an ex-vivo pig model. PMID:25426327

  12. Use of force feedback to enhance graphical user interfaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Louis B. Rosenberg; Scott Brave

    1996-01-01

    This project focuses on the use of force feedback sensations to enhance user interaction with standard graphical user interface paradigms. While typical joystick and mouse devices are input-only, force feedback controllers allow physical sensations to be reflected to a user. Tasks that require users to position a cursor on a given target can be enhanced by applying physical forces to

  13. What determines the magnitude of carbon cycle-climate feedbacks?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Damon Matthews; Michael Eby; Tracy Ewen; Pierre Friedlingstein; Barbara J. Hawkins

    2007-01-01

    Positive feedbacks between climate change and the carbon cycle have the potential to amplify the growth of atmospheric carbon dioxide and accelerate future climate warming. However, both the magnitude of and the processes which drive future carbon cycle-climate feedbacks remain highly uncertain. In this study, we use a coupled climate-carbon model to investigate how the response of vegetation photosynthesis to

  14. First Experiments of the Digital Global Feedback in SRRC

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. H. Kuo; K. T. Hsu; C. J. Wang; K. K. Lin; K. T. Pan; Jenny Chen; C. S. Chen; K. H. Hu; T. S. Ueng; Y. C. Liu

    The digital global feedback system (DGFB) was implemented to suppress orbit drift, low frequency beam motion, and orbit perturbed by insertion devices. Measured response matrix and singular value decomposition (SVD) (1, 2, 3) techniques were applied in this experiment. The feedback controller is based on PID algorithm (5). Digital filtering techniques were used to removed noise of electron beam position

  15. Sensing Opportunities for Personalized Feedback Technology to Reduce Consumption

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jon Froehlich; Kate Everitt; James Fogarty; Shwetak Patel; James Landay

    Most people are unaware of how their daily activities affect the environment. Previous studies have shown that feedback technology is one of the most effective strategies in reducing electricity usage in the home. In this position paper, we expand the notion of feedback systems to a broad range of human behaviors that have an impact on the environment. In particular,

  16. Feedback and its Feedback Effect on Feedback: Photoionization Suppression and its Impact on Galactic Outflows

    E-print Network

    Matthew M. Pieri; Hugo Martel

    2007-05-02

    We show that radiative feedback due to reionization has a pronounced effect on the extent of mechanical feedback due to galactic outflows. The photoionization of the Intergalactic Medium (IGM) suppresses low-mass galaxy formation by photoheating the gas and limiting atomic line cooling. The number of low-mass galaxies is central for the enrichment of the IGM as these objects have the capacity to enrich a significant fraction (by volume) of the Universe. We use a modified version of our galactic outflow model, combined with a simple criterion for suppression, to investigate the potential impact upon the IGM. We find that this suppression strongly reduces the enrichment of the IGM and is sensitive to the reionization history. We also investigate the contribution of halos of different masses with varying degrees of suppression.

  17. Sample-Clock Phase-Control Feedback

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quirk, Kevin J.; Gin, Jonathan W.; Nguyen, Danh H.; Nguyen, Huy

    2012-01-01

    To demodulate a communication signal, a receiver must recover and synchronize to the symbol timing of a received waveform. In a system that utilizes digital sampling, the fidelity of synchronization is limited by the time between the symbol boundary and closest sample time location. To reduce this error, one typically uses a sample clock in excess of the symbol rate in order to provide multiple samples per symbol, thereby lowering the error limit to a fraction of a symbol time. For systems with a large modulation bandwidth, the required sample clock rate is prohibitive due to current technological barriers and processing complexity. With precise control of the phase of the sample clock, one can sample the received signal at times arbitrarily close to the symbol boundary, thus obviating the need, from a synchronization perspective, for multiple samples per symbol. Sample-clock phase-control feedback was developed for use in the demodulation of an optical communication signal, where multi-GHz modulation bandwidths would require prohibitively large sample clock frequencies for rates in excess of the symbol rate. A custom mixedsignal (RF/digital) offset phase-locked loop circuit was developed to control the phase of the 6.4-GHz clock that samples the photon-counting detector output. The offset phase-locked loop is driven by a feedback mechanism that continuously corrects for variation in the symbol time due to motion between the transmitter and receiver as well as oscillator instability. This innovation will allow significant improvements in receiver throughput; for example, the throughput of a pulse-position modulation (PPM) with 16 slots can increase from 188 Mb/s to 1.5 Gb/s.

  18. Mechanical energy absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wesselski, Clarence J.

    1995-06-01

    An energy absorbing system for controlling the force where a moving object engages a stationary stop and where the system utilized telescopic tubular members, energy absorbing diaphragm elements, force regulating disc springs, and a return spring to return the telescoping member to its start position after stroking is presented. The energy absorbing system has frusto-conical diaphragm elements frictionally engaging the shaft and are opposed by a force regulating set of disc springs. In principle, this force feedback mechanism serves to keep the stroking load at a reasonable level even if the friction coefficient increases greatly. This force feedback device also serves to desensitize the singular and combined effects of manufacturing tolerances, sliding surface wear, temperature changes, dynamic effects, and lubricity.

  19. Mechanical energy absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wesselski, Clarence J.

    1993-07-01

    An energy absorbing system for controlling the force where a moving object engages a stationary stop and where the system utilized telescopic tubular members, energy absorbing diaphragm elements, force regulating disc springs, and a return spring to return the telescoping member to its start position after stroking is presented. The energy absorbing system has frusto-conical diaphragm elements frictionally engaging the shaft and are opposed by a force regulating set of disc springs. In principle, this force feedback mechanism serves to keep the stroking load at a reasonable level even if the friction coefficient increases greatly. This force feedback device also serves to desensitize the singular and combined effects of manufacturing tolerances, sliding surface wear, temperature changes, dynamic effects, and lubricity.

  20. Lung mechanical and vascular changes during positive- and negative-pressure lung inflations: importance of reference pressures in the pulmonary vasculature.

    PubMed

    Peták, Ferenc; Albu, Gergely; Lele, Enikö; Hantos, Zoltán; Morel, Denis R; Fontao, Fabienne; Habre, Walid

    2009-03-01

    The continuous changes in lung mechanics were related to those in pulmonary vascular resistance (Rv) during lung inflations to clarify the mechanical changes in the bronchoalveolar system and the pulmonary vasculature. Rv and low-frequency lung impedance data (Zl) were measured continuously in isolated, perfused rat lungs during 2-min inflation-deflation maneuvers between transpulmonary pressures of 2.5 and 22 cmH(2)O, both by applying positive pressure at the trachea and by generating negative pressure around the lungs in a closed box. ZL was averaged and evaluated for 2-s time windows; airway resistance (Raw), parenchymal damping and elastance (H) were determined in each window. Lung inflation with positive and negative pressures led to very similar changes in lung mechanics, with maximum decreases in Raw [-68 +/- 4 (SE) vs. -64 +/- 18%] and maximum increases in H (379 +/- 36 vs. 348 +/- 37%). Rv, however, increased with positive inflation pressure (15 +/- 1%), whereas it exhibited mild decreases during negative-pressure expansions (-3 +/- 0.3%). These results demonstrate that pulmonary mechanical changes are not affected by the opposing modes of lung inflations and confirm the importance of relating the pulmonary vascular pressures in interpreting changes in Rv. PMID:19112162

  1. Reminders of a positively stereotyped identity when facing stereotype threat: Identity consistency and identity accessibility as mediating mechanisms

    E-print Network

    Danaher, Kelly

    2011-12-31

    this relationship. Undergraduate women were reminded of negative math performance stereotypes associated with their gender, positive math performance stereotypes associated with their college student identity, both identities, or neither identity. In Study 1, math...

  2. Feedback enhanced plasma spray tool

    DOEpatents

    Gevelber, Michael Alan; Wroblewski, Donald Edward; Fincke, James Russell; Swank, William David; Haggard, Delon C.; Bewley, Randy Lee

    2005-11-22

    An improved automatic feedback control scheme enhances plasma spraying of powdered material through reduction of process variability and providing better ability to engineer coating structure. The present inventors discovered that controlling centroid position of the spatial distribution along with other output parameters, such as particle temperature, particle velocity, and molten mass flux rate, vastly increases control over the sprayed coating structure, including vertical and horizontal cracks, voids, and porosity. It also allows improved control over graded layers or compositionally varying layers of material, reduces variations, including variation in coating thickness, and allows increasing deposition rate. Various measurement and system control schemes are provided.

  3. Design and remote control of a Gantry mechanism for the SCARA robot 

    E-print Network

    Surinder Pal,

    2009-05-15

    -level command to the server. The robot performs the task with built in mechanisms and local intelligence. For example, in mobile robots, robot behavior such as collision avoidance, path planning, self- referencing, object recognition etc. is implemented......??..?????????. 32 Feedback control of Gantry Mechanism???????????. 34 Over-distance and over-angle avoidance???...???????. 34 Control of the Gantry Mechanism over the Internet???????? 37 Formulation of position, rotation and direction of Gantry Mechanism.. 38...

  4. A non-linear feedback attitude regulator†

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. V. SALEHI; E. P. RYAN

    1985-01-01

    An asymptotically stabilizing non-linear feedback law is presented for rigid body (spacecraft) attitude regulation. The control law takes the form of a linear combination of non-linear functions of attitude and of angular momentum, each function being positively homogeneous of degree r>0.

  5. The ELETTRA Fast Digital Local Orbit Feedback

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. J. Bocchetta; D. Bulfone; A. Galimberti; D. Giuressi; M. Lonza; C. Scafuri; L. Tosi; R. Visintini

    An overview is given of the ELETTRA Fast Digital Local Orbit Feedback system. The system has been developed to stabilize the electron orbit in the Insertion Device straight sections. It uses two Photon Beam Position Monitors as detectors and four corrector magnets to act on the electron beam. The controller relies on a Digital Signal Processor (DSP) system based on

  6. Feedback stabilization of resistive shell modes in a reversed field pinch R. Fitzpatrick and E. P. Yu

    E-print Network

    Fitzpatrick, Richard

    Feedback stabilization of resistive shell modes in a reversed field pinch R. Fitzpatrick and E. P control mechanism for such modes in a RFP reactor is active feedback. It is demonstrated than an N-fold toroidally symmetric arrangement of feedback coils, combined with a strictly linear feedback algorithm

  7. Social-comparative feedback affects motor skill learning.

    PubMed

    Lewthwaite, Rebecca; Wulf, Gabriele

    2010-04-01

    This study examined motivational effects of feedback on motor learning. Specifically, we investigated the influence of social-comparative feedback on the learning of a balance task (stabilometer). In addition to veridical feedback (error scores reflecting deviation from the target horizontal platform position) about their own performance after each trial, two groups received false normative information about the "average" score of others on that trial. Average performance scores indicated that the participant's performance was either above (better group) or below (worse group) the average, respectively. A control group received veridical feedback about trial performance without normative feedback. Learning as a function of social-comparative feedback was determined in a retention test without feedback, performed on a third day following two days of practice. Normative feedback affected the learning of the balance task: The better group demonstrated more effective balance performance than both the worse and control groups on the retention test. Furthermore, high-frequency/low-amplitude balance adjustments, indicative of more automatic control of movement, were greater in the better than in the worse group. The control group exhibited more limited learning and less automaticity than both the better and the worse groups. The findings indicate that positive normative feedback had a facilitatory effect on motor learning. PMID:19691002

  8. ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS FEEDBACK WORKS BOTH WAYS

    SciTech Connect

    Zinn, P.-C.; Middelberg, E.; Dettmar, R.-J. [Astronomical Institute of Ruhr-University Bochum, Universitaetsstrasse 150, D-44801 Bochum (Germany); Norris, R. P. [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, P.O. Box 76, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia)

    2013-09-01

    Simulations of galaxy growth need to invoke strong negative feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGNs) to suppress the formation of stars and thus prevent the over-production of very massive systems. While some observations provide evidence for such negative feedback, other studies find either no feedback or even positive feedback, with increased star formation associated with higher AGN luminosities. Here we report an analysis of several hundred AGNs and their host galaxies in the Chandra Deep Field South using X-ray and radio data for sample selection. Combined with archival far-infrared data as a reliable tracer of star formation activity in the AGN host galaxies, we find that AGNs with pronounced radio jets exhibit a much higher star formation rate (SFR) than the purely X-ray-selected ones, even at the same X-ray luminosities. This difference implies that positive AGN feedback plays an important role, too, and therefore has to be accounted for in all future simulation work. We interpret this to indicate that the enhanced SFR of radio-selected AGNs arises because of jet-induced star formation, as is suggested by the different jet powers among our AGN samples, while the suppressed SFR of X-ray selected AGN is caused by heating and photo-dissociation of molecular gas by the hot AGN accretion disk.

  9. Local ecosystem feedbacks and critical transitions in the climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rietkerk, M.; Brovkin, V.; van Bodegom, P. M.; Claussen, M.; Dekker, S. C.; Dijkstra, H. A.; Goryachkin, S. V.; Kabat, P.; van Nes, E. H.; Neutel, A.-M.; Nicholson, S. E.; Nobre, C.; Petoukhov, V.; Provenzale, A.; Scheffer, M.; Seneviratne, S. I.

    2009-10-01

    Global and regional climate models, such as those used in IPCC assessments, are the best tools available for climate predictions. Such models typically account for large-scale land-atmosphere feedbacks. However, these models omit local vegetation-environment feedbacks that are crucial for critical transitions in ecosystems. Here, we reveal the hypothesis that, if the balance of feedbacks is positive at all scales, local vegetation-environment feedbacks may trigger a cascade of amplifying effects, propagating from local to large scale, possibly leading to critical transitions in the large-scale climate. We call for linking local ecosystem feedbacks with large-scale land-atmosphere feedbacks in global and regional climate models in order to yield climate predictions that we are more confident about.

  10. Neural correlates of anticipation and processing of performance feedback in social anxiety.

    PubMed

    Heitmann, Carina Y; Peterburs, Jutta; Mothes-Lasch, Martin; Hallfarth, Marlit C; Böhme, Stephanie; Miltner, Wolfgang H R; Straube, Thomas

    2014-12-01

    Fear of negative evaluation, such as negative social performance feedback, is the core symptom of social anxiety. The present study investigated the neural correlates of anticipation and perception of social performance feedback in social anxiety. High (HSA) and low (LSA) socially anxious individuals were asked to give a speech on a personally relevant topic and received standardized but appropriate expert performance feedback in a succeeding experimental session in which neural activity was measured during anticipation and presentation of negative and positive performance feedback concerning the speech performance, or a neutral feedback-unrelated control condition. HSA compared to LSA subjects reported greater anxiety during anticipation of negative feedback. Functional magnetic resonance imaging results showed deactivation of medial prefrontal brain areas during anticipation of negative feedback relative to the control and the positive condition, and medial prefrontal and insular hyperactivation during presentation of negative as well as positive feedback in HSA compared to LSA subjects. The results indicate distinct processes underlying feedback processing during anticipation and presentation of feedback in HSA as compared to LSA individuals. In line with the role of the medial prefrontal cortex in self-referential information processing and the insula in interoception, social anxiety seems to be associated with lower self-monitoring during feedback anticipation, and an increased self-focus and interoception during feedback presentation, regardless of feedback valence. PMID:25099708

  11. Sensory-Feedback Exoskeletal Arm Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    An, Bin; Massie, Thomas H.; Vayner, Vladimir

    2004-01-01

    An electromechanical exoskeletal arm apparatus has been designed for use in controlling a remote robotic manipulator arm. The apparatus, called a force-feedback exoskeleton arm master (F-EAM) is comfortable to wear and easy to don and doff. It provides control signals from the wearer s arm to a robot arm or a computer simulator (e.g., a virtual-reality system); it also provides force and torque feedback from sensors on the robot arm or from the computer simulator to the wearer s arm. The F-EAM enables the wearer to make the robot arm gently touch objects and finely manipulate them without exerting excessive forces. The F-EAM features a lightweight design in which the motors and gear heads that generate force and torque feedback are made smaller than they ordinarily would be: this is achieved by driving the motors to power levels greater than would ordinarily be used in order to obtain higher torques, and by providing active liquid cooling of the motors to prevent overheating at the high drive levels. The F-EAM (see figure) includes an assembly that resembles a backpack and is worn like a backpack, plus an exoskeletal arm mechanism. The FEAM has five degrees of freedom (DOFs) that correspond to those of the human arm: 1. The first DOF is that of the side-to-side rotation of the upper arm about the shoulder (rotation about axis 1). The reflected torque for this DOF is provided by motor 1 via drum 1 and a planar four-bar linkage. 2. The second DOF is that of the up-and-down rotation of the arm about the shoulder. The reflected torque for this DOF is provided by motor 2 via drum 2. 3. The third DOF is that of twisting of the upper arm about its longitudinal axis. This DOF is implemented in a cable remote-center mechanism (CRCM). The reflected torque for this DOF is provided by motor 3, which drives the upper-arm cuff and the mechanism below it. A bladder inflatable by gas or liquid is placed between the cuff and the wearer s upper arm to compensate for misalignment between the exoskeletal mechanism and the shoulder. 4. The fourth DOF is that of flexion and extension of the elbow. The reflected torque for this DOF is provided by motor 4 and drum 4, which are mounted on a bracket that can slide longitudinally by a pin-and-slot engagement with the upper-arm cuff to compensate for slight variations in the position of the kinematic center of the elbow. Attached to drum 4 is an adapter plate to which is attached a CRCM for the lower arm. 5. The lower-arm CRCM implements the fifth DOF, which is the twist of the forearm about its longitudinal axis. Motor 5 provides the reflected torque for this DOF by driving the lower-arm cuff. A rod transmits twist and torsion between the lower-arm cuff and the hand cuff. With this system, the motion of the wearer s joints and the reflected torques applied to these joints can be measured and controlled in a relatively simple manner. This is because the anthropomorphic design of the mechanism imitates the kinematics of the human arm, eliminating the need for kinematic conversion of joint-torque and joint-angle data.

  12. Feedback Algorithms for Turbulence Control---Some Recent Developments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward P. Hammond; Parviz Moin; Petros Koumoutsakos; Thomas R. Bewley

    Some recent developments on the feedback control of turbulentflows are presented. Physical mechanisms associatedwith opposition control algorithms are investigated.A new control method based on the sensing and manipulationof vorticity creation at the wall is presented. Theresults indicate that significant drag reduction can beachieved using wall information only. The potential foroptimization of feedback control algorithms, using neurocomputingmethodologies is outlined.1 Introduction...

  13. Complex Feedback Strategies for Hypothesis Generation and Verification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Majid Mirmehdi; Phil L. Palmer; Josef Kittler; Homam Dabis

    1996-01-01

    We extend the idea of the single-pass feedback framework by employingcomplex feedback strategies for both more robust hypothesisgeneration and hypothesis verification. These strategies are developedat every level of our object recognition application; from low-level parameteroptimisation, through the low level processing chain, to higherlevel recognition stages. The strategies are independent of the techniquesused at each level. We introduce various control mechanisms

  14. Feedback Specificity, Information Processing, and Transfer of Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Jodi S.; Wood, Robert E.; Chen, Zheng

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the effects of feedback specificity on transfer of training and the mechanisms through which feedback can enhance or inhibit transfer. We used concurrent verbal protocol methodology to elicit and operationalize the explicit information processing activities used by 48 trainees performing the Furniture Factory computer…

  15. Interactive Retrieval Based on Faceted Feedback Lanbo Zhang, Yi Zhang

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Yi

    that helps retrieval systems learn more about user information needs with limited user interactions. Faceted- value pair recommendation approaches and two retrieval models that incorporate user feedback on document facets. Evaluated based on user feedback collected through Amazon Mechanical Turk, our experimental

  16. Praise in Public, Criticize in Private? An Assessment of Performance Feedback Transparency in a Classroom Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seevers, Matthew T.; Rowe, William J.; Skinner, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    Conventional wisdom in sales management encourages public delivery of positive feedback, and private delivery of negative feedback. In stark contrast, U.S. educators typically provide all performance feedback in relative (if not strict) privacy to comply with the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA). To investigate this discrepancy,…

  17. Using a Dialogical Approach to Examine Peer Feedback during Chemistry Investigative Task Discussion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gan Joo Seng, Mark; Hill, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Peer feedback is an inherent feature of classroom collaborative learning. Students invariably turn to their peers for feedback when carrying out an investigative task, and this feedback is usually implicit, unstructured and may positively or negatively influence students' learning when they work on a task. This study explored the…

  18. Attenuating Age-Related Learning Deficits: Emotional Valenced Feedback Interacts with Task Complexity

    PubMed Central

    Gorlick, Marissa A.; Giguère, Gyslain; Glass, Brian D.; Nix, Brittany N.; Mather, Mara; Maddox, W. Todd

    2012-01-01

    Previous research reveals that older adults sometimes show enhanced processing of emotionally positive stimuli relative to negative stimuli, but that this positivity bias reverses to become a negativity bias when cognitive control resources are less available. In this study, we test the hypothesis that emotionally positive feedback will attenuate well-established age-related deficits in rule learning while emotionally negative feedback would amplify age deficits—but that this pattern would reverse when the task involved a high cognitive load. Experiment 1 used emotional face feedback and revealed an interaction between age, valence of the feedback and task load. When the task placed minimal load on cognitive control resources, happy face feedback attenuated age-related deficits in initial rule learning and angry face feedback led to age-related deficits in initial rule learning and set shifting. However, when the task placed a high load on cognitive control resources, we found that angry face feedback attenuated age-related deficits in initial rule learning and set shifting, whereas happy face feedback led to age-related deficits in initial rule learning and set shifting. Experiment 2 used less emotional point feedback and revealed age-related deficits in initial rule learning and set shifting under low and high cognitive load for point gain and point loss conditions. The present research demonstrates that emotional feedback can attenuate age-related learning deficits – but only positive feedback for tasks with a low cognitive load and negative feedback for tasks with high cognitive load. PMID:23163707

  19. Terrestrial carbon-cycle feedback to climate warming: experimental evidence on plant regulation and impacts of biofuel feedstock harvest

    Microsoft Academic Search

    YIQI LUO; REBECCA SHERRY; XUHUI ZHOU; SHIQIANG WAN

    2009-01-01

    Feedback between global carbon (C) cycles and climate change is one of the major uncertainties in projecting future global warming. Coupled carbon-climate models all demonstrated a positive feedback between terrestrial C cycle and climate warming. The positive feedback results from decreased net primary production (NPP) in most models and increased respiratory C release by all the models under climate warming.

  20. Feedback Processes [in Massive Star Formation]: A Theoretical Perspective

    E-print Network

    Mordecai-Mark Mac Low

    2007-11-26

    I review the evidence for the importance of feedback from massive stars at small and large scales. The feedback mechanisms include accretion luminosity, ionizing radiation, collimated outflows, and stellar winds. The good news is that feedback doesn't entirely prevent the formation of massive stars, while the bad news is that we don't know what does limit their masses. Feedback from massive stars also influences their surroundings. I argue that this does not produce a triggering efficiency above unity, nor does it prevent lots of prompt star formation in GMCs, though it may preserve massive remnants of the clouds for many dynamical times.