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1

Urine levels of drugs for which Triage DOA screening was positive.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between urine levels of target drugs of abuse for which Triage DOA gave positive results, as well as the cut-off levels for these drugs. Thirty-eight forensic urine samples positive for commonly abused drugs were involved. Of these samples, 12 were positive for barbiturates (BAR), 11 for benzodiazepines (BZO), 8 for opiates (OPI), 7 for amphetamines (AMP), and 4 for tricyclic antidepressants (TCA). In the BAR-positive urine samples, phenobarbital, amobarbital or barbital was detected at concentrations higher than cut-off levels. In the BZO-positive samples, diazepam, nordiazepam, triazolam, nitrazepam and/or midazolam was detected at concentrations lower than cut-off levels; in the triazolam-involved urine, alpha-hydroxytriazolam, a metabolite of triazolam, showed concentrations higher than cut-off level. In the AMP-positive samples, methamphetamine was detected at concentrations higher than cut-off level. Urine samples positive for OPI contained total dihydrocodeine, codeine or morphine at concentrations higher than cut-off levels. In TCA-positive samples, amitriptyline was detected at concentrations higher or lower than cut-off level, and clomipramine was detected at a concentration much lower than cut-off level. Metabolites of BZO and TCA, which are not typically analyzed by instrumental procedures, may cross-react to varying degrees with the antibodies used for Triage DOA. PMID:19261513

Moriya, Fumio

2009-04-01

2

Urine drug screen  

MedlinePLUS

... have no access to your personal items or water. In this environment, you cannot dilute the sample, nor can you use someone else's urine for the test. This test ... hands with soap and water. Dry your hands with a clean towel. Men ...

3

The subversion of urine drug testing.  

PubMed

Since government and private industry have instituted urine drug testing to ensure a drug-free work force, an industry dedicated to subverting the results of those tests has developed. This article describes that industry, the types of products it markets, and efforts to curb the sale of those products. PMID:20862879

Berge, Keith H; Bush, Donna M

2010-08-01

4

INACTIVATION OF MUTAGENIC DRUGS AND THEIR METABOLITES IN THE URINE OF PATIENTS ADMINISTERED ANTINEOPLASTIC THERAPY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urines from patients administered mutagenic antineoplastic drugs were significantly mutagenic in the Ames assay, and hence may pose a genotoxic hazard to hospital personnel or family members caring for the patient. The urines were tested for mutagenicity in several different strains of Salmonella typhimurium that were uvr positive or negative (TA98, TA100, TA102, UTH8413, UTH8414). The urines were fractionated by

DAVID KEITH MONTEITH

1985-01-01

5

49 CFR 40.31 - Who may collect urine specimens for DOT drug testing?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-10-01 false Who may collect urine specimens for DOT drug testing? 40.31...WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Urine Collection Personnel § 40.31 Who may collect urine specimens for DOT drug testing?...

2009-10-01

6

Phencyclidine false positive induced by lamotrigine (Lamictal(R)) on a rapid urine toxicology screen  

PubMed Central

Background This report describes two cases with unexplained positive results for phencyclidine (PCP). Aims This case will correlate lamotrigine (Lamictal®) use with false-positive results for PCP on a rapid urine toxicology screen. Methods Case 1: A 62-year-old male arrived to the emergency department in extreme psychosis. All positive results on the urine drug screen could be accounted for except PCP. A comprehensive drug screen was performed to confirm PCP use, but returned negative. PCP was ruled out as the causative agent. The reason for the PCP false positive remained unknown. Case 2: A 49-year-old female presented to the ED with a history of seizures and depression. Despite positive PCP results on a rapid urine drug screen, PCP use was ruled out due to patient presentation and comprehensive history. Results The differential diagnosis in case 1 included PCP abuse until PCP was ruled out by a comprehensive drug screen. A literature search failed to explain a reason for false-positive results. The patient in case 2 was not psychotic, but returned a positive urinalysis result for PCP. Case 2’s presentation combined with a comprehensive history at the facility ruled out PCP use. Both patients were taking the anti-seizure medication lamotrigine with nothing else in common. Conclusion Lamotrigine has the potential to cause false-positive results for PCP on the Bio-Rad TOX/See urine toxicology screen.

Peele, James; McCoy, Stacey L.; Elias, Brad

2010-01-01

7

Is urine an alternative to cosmetically treated hair for the detection of drugs and alcohol?  

PubMed

This study attempts to assess the utility of the urine matrix as an alternative to cosmetically treated hair for the detection of drugs and alcohol for driving licence re-granting in 1026 cosmetically treated hair samples and 33 262 urine routine samples. No significant difference was observed between the percentage positive samples in cosmetically treated hair to those in urine at both the 95% and 99% significance level for amphetamines, cocaine, opiates, benzodiazepines, and methadone. Significant difference was found between the positivity rates of cannabinoids in cosmetically treated hair and that in urine indicating urine to be a better alternative to the use of the hair matrix even when cosmetically treated. The opposite was observed for the alcohol consumption marker ethyl glucuronide (EtG) for which the positivity rate in cosmetically treated hair was twice that in urine samples. Particularly for alcohol abstinence monitoring, as for the rehabilitative driving licence re-granting medical and psychological assessment (MPA) programme in Germany, it seems that ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in hair presents a much better alternative than urine testing, even when cosmetically treated hair is analyzed. Moreover, segmentation is an additional advantage of hair testing which can provide additional useful information. PMID:24817057

Agius, Ronald; Dufaux, Bertin; Kahl, Hans-Gerhard; Nadulski, Thomas

2014-06-01

8

A method for the confirmation and identification of drugs of misuse in urine using solid phase extraction and gas-liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is described for the confirmation\\/identification of a range of commonly misused drugs in urine samples. The method has been used for two years without problems for a range of purposes including hospital\\/clinic drugs of misuse screening and for toxicology in coroner's cases. Urine samples which have given a positive result on immunochemical screening for a particular drug group

J. H. Galloway; M. Ashford; I. D. Marsh; M. Holden; A. R. Forrest

1998-01-01

9

Trace Contamination of Over-the-Counter Androstenedione and Positive Urine Test Results for a Nandrolone Metabolite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Context Several anabolic steroids are sold over-the-counter (OTC) in the United States, and their production is not regulated by the US Food and Drug Administration. Re- ports have suggested that use of these supplements can cause positive urine test re- sults for metabolites of the prohibited steroid nandrolone.

Don H. Catlin; Benjamin Z. Leder; Brian Ahrens; Borislav Starcevic; Caroline K. Hatton; Gary A. Green; Joel S. Finkelstein

2000-01-01

10

Review: Rational Use and Interpretation of Urine Drug Testing in Chronic Opioid Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urine drug testing (UDT) has become an essential feature of pain management, as physicians seek to verify adherence to prescribed opioid regimens and to detect the use of illicit or unauthorized licit drugs. Results of urine drug tests have important consequences in regard to therapeutic decisions and the trust between physician and patient. However, reliance on UDT to confirm adherence

Gary M. Reisfield; Elaine Salazar; Roger L. Bertholf

2007-01-01

11

False-positive urine pregnancy tests--clinicians as detectives.  

PubMed

Reliably diagnosing pregnancy in women presenting with nonspecific abdominal pain can be lifesaving. If diagnostic tests are unreliable, however, valuable time and resources can be wasted pursuing unnecessary and potentially harmful interventions. After four false positive-urine pregnancy tests in one week, we began investigating the laboratory's entire process involving the UPreg tests. We discovered that, as is common in resource-poor settings, the laboratory repeatedly reused test tubes. We found that the false-positive tests resulted from performing the UPreg tests in test tubes that were improperly cleaned and, for the most part, had been used immediately beforehand to test women coming into the maternity ward. Sufficient residua from the pregnant women's high ß-HCG levels had remained in the test tubes to cause subsequent false-positive results in our emergency ward patients. Although pregnancy can now be reliably diagnosed with inexpensive, disposable and simple tests, these tests must not only be used properly, but also, when used in the laboratory, be accompanied by appropriate cleaning and quality-control procedures. This is particularly essential in resource-constrained environments. PMID:22121449

Valenzuela, Rolando; Iserson, Kenneth V; Punguyire, Damien

2011-01-01

12

Utility of ELISA screening for the monitoring of abstinence from illegal and legal drugs in hair and urine.  

PubMed

Amphetamines, cannabinoids, cocaine, opiates, methadone, and benzodiazepines in authentic hair samples with drug concentrations around the medical and psychological assessment (MPA) guidelines cut-offs were screened by LUCIO-direct ELISA kits. Following confirmation of all positive and a significant number of negatively screened samples with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) or liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) methods accredited for forensic purposes. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) were plotted and the area under the curve (AUC) and overall misclassification rate (OMR) were calculated and compared to those obtained for the same drug classes in urine. While fulfilling the validation criteria of the German forensic guidelines, for almost all screening tests in hair and urine the AUC were greater than 0.8, indicating good to excellent performance. Moreover the AUC calculated for the detection of drugs in hair did not differ significantly to the AUC calculated for the detection of the same drug classes in urine, thus showing a comparable screening performance to the well accepted, previously published application of the same ELISAs for the detection of drugs at unconventionally low cut-offs in urine. For the first time, the validation of the immunoassay tests for the complete 6-drug panel MPA profile in hair and urine using a large population of authentic hair and urine samples with drug concentrations around MPA cut-offs, lower than conventional clinical or workplace drug testing guidelines cut-offs as well as those suggested by the Society of hair testing (SoHT) is presented. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24817055

Agius, Ronald; Nadulski, Thomas

2014-06-01

13

Dimethylamylamine: a drug causing positive immunoassay results for amphetamines.  

PubMed

The Department of Defense (DoD) operates six forensic urine drug-testing laboratories that screen close to 5 million urine samples for amphetamines yearly. Recently, the DoD laboratories have observed a significant decrease in the confirmation rates for amphetamines because of specimens screening positive by two separate immunoassays and confirming negative by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Previous studies conducted by the Division of Forensic Toxicology, Armed Force Institute of Pathology (AFIP) utilizing a GC-MS basic drug screen and a designer drug screen revealed no common compound or compound classes as to the cause of the immunoassay-positive results. Additional information obtained from an immunoassay vendor suggested the anorectic compound dimethylamylamine (DMAA) may be the cause of the false-positive screens. An additional 134 false-positive samples were received and analyzed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) for DMAA. LC-MS-MS analysis revealed the presence of DMAA in 92.3% of the false-positive samples at a concentration of approximately 6.0 mg/L DMAA, causing a positive screen on both immunoassay kits. PMID:21439156

Vorce, Shawn P; Holler, Justin M; Cawrse, Brian M; Magluilo, Joseph

2011-04-01

14

Drug-induced liver injury following positive drug rechallenge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drug rechallenge (or reinitiation), following an event of drug-induced liver injury, can lead to serious or fatal liver injury. A retrospective review of a large pharmaceutical safety database was conducted to assess clinical outcomes of positive drug rechallenge following possible drug-induced liver injury.Positive rechallenge with suspect drug was reported in 770 of 36,795 hepatic adverse events. A total of 88

Julie I. Papay; Dawn Clines; Rezvan Rafi; Nancy Yuen; Susan D. Britt; John S. Walsh; Christine M. Hunt

2009-01-01

15

Simultaneous Screening of 177 Drugs of Abuse in Urine Using Ultra-performance Liquid Chromatography with Tandem Mass Spectrometry in Drug-intoxicated Patients  

PubMed Central

Objective The demand for rapid and broad clinical toxicology screening methods to identify drugs of abuse and medicinal drugs is increasing steadily. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-TMS) is increasingly used to screen for drugs of abuse and to identify a wide range of drugs and metabolites in clinical samples. We revised a high-throughput and rapid ultra-performance (UP) LC-TMS method for simultaneous screening of 177 of the most prevalent medicinal drugs and drugs of abuse in urine and validated the quality of performance using system suitability mixture (SSM) and quality control (QC) materials. Methods We assessed the limits of detection (LOD) using high concentrations of the test substances. The method was applied to 473 urine samples obtained from patients intoxicated with drugs who visited the emergency center. Results The retention time, peak area, and total ion chromatogram of the SSM and QC materials were within the acceptance criteria of the pre-defined acceptance interval. The LODs were <62 ng/ml for 12 commonly encountered drugs. In total, 418 patients (88.4%) tested positive for one or more medicinal drugs or drugs of abuse. Twenty-eight drugs were detected over ten times; the most commonly detected were zolpidem, ephedrine, paracetamol, and chlorpheniramine. Conclusion The UPLC-TMS method provided excellent performance for simultaneous screening of a large number of the drugs of abuse in urine samples. We conclude that this robust technique is useful for screening for a large number of drugs and for rapid screening of the most commonly encountered substances in emergency cases.

2013-01-01

16

49 CFR 40.41 - Where does a urine collection for a DOT drug test take place?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Where does a urine collection for a DOT drug test take place...Forms, Equipment and Supplies Used in DOT Urine Collections § 40.41 Where does a urine collection for a DOT drug test take...

2010-10-01

17

49 CFR 40.41 - Where does a urine collection for a DOT drug test take place?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 2009-10-01 false Where does a urine collection for a DOT drug test take place...Forms, Equipment and Supplies Used in DOT Urine Collections § 40.41 Where does a urine collection for a DOT drug test take...

2009-10-01

18

Concordance between self-report and urine drug screen data in adolescent opioid dependent clinical trial participants.  

PubMed

Objective measures of drug use are very important in treatment outcome studies of persons with substance use disorders, but obtaining and interpreting them can be challenging and not always practical. Thus, it is important to determine if, and when, drug-use self-reports are valid. To this end we explored the relationships between urine drug screen results and self-reported substance use among adolescents and young adults with opioid dependence participating in a clinical trial of buprenorphine-naloxone. In this study, 152 individuals seeking treatment for opioid dependence were randomized to a 2-week detoxification with buprenorphine-naloxone (DETOX) or 12weeks of buprenorphine-naloxone (BUP), each with weekly individual and group drug counseling. Urine drug screens and self-reported frequency of drug use were obtained weekly, and patients were paid $5 for completing weekly assessments. At weeks 4, 8, and 12, more extensive assessments were done, and participants were reimbursed $75. Self-report data were dichotomized (positive vs. negative), and for each major drug class we computed the kappa statistic and the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of self-report using urine drug screens as the "gold standard". Generalized linear mixed models were used to explore the effect of treatment group assignment, compensation amounts, and participant characteristics on self-report. In general, findings supported the validity of self-reported drug use. However, those in the BUP group were more likely to under-report cocaine and opioid use. Therefore, if used alone, self-report would have magnified the treatment effect of the BUP condition. PMID:23811060

Wilcox, Claire E; Bogenschutz, Michael P; Nakazawa, Masato; Woody, George

2013-10-01

19

The outcome of urine culture positive and culture negative staghorn calculi after minimally invasive percutaneous nephrolithotomy.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to compare the treatment outcomes of staghorn stones using minimally invasive percutaneous nephrolithotomy (MPCNL) in patients who had positive preoperative urine culture to patients with negative urine culture. The records of 284 patients with staghorn calculi, who underwent MPCNL in our center from January 2012 to January 2013, were retrospectively analyzed. Patients were divided into positive and negative group, according to the result of preoperative urine culture. Staghorn stones with negative culture received a single dose of broad spectrum antibiotic prophylaxis, whereas stones with positive culture were treated for at least 72 h according to antibiogram. The perioperative findings and postoperative outcomes were compared between the two groups. There were 70 (24.6 %) patients with positive and 214 (75.4 %) patients with negative preoperative urine culture who underwent MPCNL. There were no statistical differences in the duration of hospital stay, operative time, estimated blood loss, final stone free rate (SFR) as well as the incidence of the following infectious complications such as fever, systemic inflammatory response syndrome and septic shock, between both groups. Our retrospective study showed that MPCNL was a safe and effective modality in the treatment of staghorn stones. The morbidity, complication, and SFR were similar between patients with positive and negative preoperative urine cultures, once the culture positive infections were adequately controlled. PMID:24531817

Lei, Ming; Zhu, Wei; Wan, Shaw P; Liu, Yongda; Zeng, Guohua; Yuan, Jian

2014-06-01

20

Optimization and validation of CEDIA drugs of abuse immunoassay tests in serum and urine on an Olympus AU 400.  

PubMed

A preliminary initial cloned enzyme donor immunoassay (CEDIA) was optimized for serum and urine drug testing with respect to the German per se limits for driving under the influence of drugs (serum) and lowered cut-offs in cases of driving licence re-granting (urine). The tests were performed on an Olympus AU 400 auto analyzer. Validation revealed sensitivities between 93% and 100% based on comparison with data from gas or liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Even if specificity ranged between 83% and 98 %, the tests can be considered useful for forensic purposes. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, Youden indices, as well as positive and negative predictive values are presented. PMID:23386567

Musshoff, F; Wolters, T; Lott, S; Ippisch, J; Gradl, S; Madea, B

2013-05-01

21

Urine Drug Testing in Long-term Opioid Therapy: Ethical Considerations.  

PubMed

As long-term opioid analgesic therapy has gained increasing clinical and societal acceptance over the past 2 decades, morbidity and mortality related to the misuse of these drugs have increased in lockstep. Hence, monitoring for opioid-related problems, largely through urine drug testing, has become a central component of risk mitigation in long-term opioid therapy. Despite the increasing use of urine drug testing, little has been written about the ethical aspects of its application. In this paper, we analyze multiple aspects of drug testing-rationale for testing, specimen collection, ordering and interpretation, and response to inappropriate test results-through the principlist lens, using the ethical principles of beneficence, nonmaleficence, justice, and autonomy. PMID:24281293

Reisfield, Gary M; Maschke, Karen J

2014-08-01

22

False-positive detection of recombinant human erythropoietin in urine following strenuous physical exercise.  

PubMed

Erythropoietin (Epo) is a glycoprotein hormone that promotes the production of red blood cells. Recombinant human Epo (rhEpo) is illicitly used to improve performance in endurance sports. Doping in sports is discouraged by the screening of athletes for rhEPO in urine. The adopted test is based on a combination of isoelectric focusing and double immunoblotting, and distinguishes between endogenous and recombinant human Epo. We show here that this widely used test can occasionally lead to the false-positive detection of rhEpo (epoetin-beta) in postexercise, protein-rich urine, probably because the adopted monoclonal anti-Epo antibodies are not monospecific. PMID:16493001

Beullens, Monique; Delanghe, Joris R; Bollen, Mathieu

2006-06-15

23

Comparison of urine and hair testing for drugs of abuse in the control of abstinence in driver's license re-granting.  

PubMed

The purpose of the study was to compare the detection rate of illicit drugs in urine and hair specimens. The samples were taken from subjects trying to regain their revoked driver's license after a drug- or alcohol-related traffic offence. In 2010, we screened 14 000 urine and 3900 hair samples for amphetamines, methamphetamines, cannabinoids, cocaine, opiates, methadone, and benzodiazepines as well as for ethylglucuronide. We used the low threshold values of the new German guidelines for Medical Psychological Assessment (MPA). Positive screening tests were confirmed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) or liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The results show that positivity rates for methamphetamines, MDMA, cocaine, and monoacetylmorphine were 1.7-, 5.7-, 3.8- and 9.3-fold higher in hair than in urine. In contrast, the detection rate for benzodiazepines was higher in urine than in hair (oxazepam, 0.21% versus 0%, nordiazepam 0.10% versus 0.03%). The positivity rate in hair for ethylglucuronide was 6-fold (12.7%) that for urine testing (2.1%). The study reveals that in the control of abstinence in the context of driving license re-granting there are in part large differences of positivity rates for some drugs or metabolites between hair and urine samples. These differences should be kept in mind by physicians and psychologists in traffic medicine who are ordering the drug testing. PMID:22447399

Dufaux, Bertin; Agius, Ronald; Nadulski, Thomas; Kahl, Hans-Gerhard

2012-06-01

24

Determination of phase II drug metabolites in equine urine by micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography.  

PubMed

Micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MECC) using diode array detection has been investigated for the determination of phase I and phase II metabolites of drugs in biofluids. Methods were optimised for the determination of morphine, morphine-3-glucuronide, morphine-6-glucuronide, normorphine, meclofenamic acid and its metabolites in equine urine. Solid-phase extraction procedure were developed to concentrate and purify the analytes from spiked and post administration urines for MECC analysis. A simple on-line procedure for monitoring the kinetics of hydrolysis of morphine-glucuronide conjugates by beta-glucuronidase was demonstrated. PMID:8843684

Taylor, M R; Westwood, S A; Perrett, D

1996-09-20

25

Measurement of nanomolar levels of psychoactive drugs in urine by adsorptive stripping voltammetry.  

PubMed

Adsorptive stripping voltammetry was used to determine nanomolar levels of the benzodiazepines pinazepam, camazepam, bromazepam and thienodiazepine (BrTDO) in urine. Measurements were made by differential pulse voltammetry at a hanging mercury drop electrode. The influences of various operational conditions on the stripping response were examined. The optimum accumulation potentials and accumulation times were -0.40 V and up to 60 sec for pinazepam, -0.60 V and up to 40 sec for camazepam, -0.40 V and up to 30 sec for bromazepam and -0.60 V and up to 60 sec for BrTDO, respectively. The effects of various urine components on the voltammetric response were also studied, and preliminary separation of the drugs was found necessary because of interference by creatinine and uric acid. The proposed method is appropriate for the determination of the four drugs in urine up to the 1000 ng/ml level with short accumulation periods (10-60 sec). The relative standard deviation for the 500 ng/ml level of the drugs in urine (30-sec accumulation) was less than 3%. PMID:18964514

Hernandez, L; Zapardiel, A; Perez Lopez, J A; Bermejo, E

1988-04-01

26

Methotrimeprazine-induced corneal deposits and cataract revealed by urine drug profiling test.  

PubMed

Two schizophrenic patients who had been taking medication for a long period presented with visual disturbance of 6-month duration. Slit-lamp examination revealed fine, discrete, and brownish deposits on the posterior cornea. In addition, bilateral star-shaped anterior subcapsular lens opacities, which were dense, dust-like granular deposits, were noted. Although we strongly suspected that the patient might have taken one of the drugs of the phenothiazine family, we were unable to obtain a history of medications other than haloperidol and risperidone, which were taken for 3 yr. We performed a drug profiling test using urine samples and detected methotrimeprazine. The patient underwent surgery for anterior subcapsular lens opacities. Visual acuity improved in both eyes, but the corneal deposits remained. We report an unusual case of methotrimeprazine-induced corneal deposits and cataract in a patient with psychosis, identified by using the urine drug profiling test. PMID:21060765

Kim, Seong Taeck; Koh, Jae Woong; Kim, Joon Mo; Kim, Won Young; Choi, Gwang Ju

2010-11-01

27

Windows of detection of lorazepam in urine, oral fluid and hair, with a special focus on drug-facilitated crimes.  

PubMed

The purported lowering of sex opposition, coupled with a possible abrupt unconsciousness-inducing effect and ease of administration in spiked drinks have resulted in the use of hypnotics in cases of drug-facilitated offense. Among these compounds, lorazepam possesses amnesic properties and can impair an individual rapidly. The chances to detect this substance increase if the most sensitive methods are used and if the biological fluid which allows the longest possible detection time is available. In order to document the window of detection of lorazepam, we have orally administered 2.5 mg of the drug to three volunteers and collected oral fluid (n = l) over 8 h, urine (n = 2) over 144 h and hair (n = 3) 4 weeks after exposure. Lorazepam was analyzed by LC-MS/MS after alkalinisation (to pH 8.4 with phosphate buffer) and extraction by dichloromethane/diethyl ether in presence of diazepam-d5, used as internal standard. Reversed-phase separation on a XTerra C18 column was achieved in 12 min, under gradient conditions. Molecular ions (m/z 321 and 290 for lorazepam and the IS, respectively) were selected in Ql and the corresponding daughter ions (m/z 303 and 275 for lorazepam and m/z 154 and 198 for the IS) were detected in Q3 after collision with argon. Urine tested positive for lorazepam over 144 h (2-4 ng/ml), with a peak detected after 24 h exposure (411-880 ng/ml). Oral fluid tested positive for lorazepam over 8 h (0.7 ng/ml). Despite a limit of quantitation at 1 pg/mg, we were unable to detect a single lorazepam dose in hair, contrarily to most other benzodiazepines that are detectable. Therefore, in case of drug-facilitated crimes involving lorazepam, urine appears as the best specimen to document exposure, particularly if LC-MS/MS is used. PMID:15451084

Kintz, Pascal; Villain, Marion; Cirimele, Vincent; Pépin, Gilbert; Ludes, Bertrand

2004-10-29

28

Analysis of new designer drugs and common drugs of abuse in urine by a combined targeted and untargeted LC-HR-QTOFMS approach.  

PubMed

The development of a liquid chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry quadrupole-time-of-flight (LC-HRMS-QTOF) method for the analysis of new stimulant designer drugs (e.g. phenethylamine, amphetamine, cathinone and piperazine derivatives) and common drugs of abuse (e.g. ketamine and ritalinic acid) in urine is reported. Sample preparation was carried out by a fast and convenient salting-out liquid-liquid extraction (SALLE) procedure. The data was generated by a preferred target list combined with untargeted data-dependent acquisition recording additional sample information (i.e. not listed metabolites of target compounds or not database-stored drugs). The identification is realised by a fully automated data extraction algorithm, taking into account accurate mass spectra, fragment masses and retention times. Method validation comprised selectivity, linearity, accuracy, stability, determination of the limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) and evaluation of matrix effects and recoveries for a total set of 39 compounds. Acceptable quantitative results were obtained for 35 of the 39 analytes. Exemplarily, application of the additional untargeted data-dependent acquisition mode enabled the identification of metabolites of the preferred target list compounds ketamine and methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) without use of reference standards. Therefore, improvement of the database is feasible with every positive library hit. The approach presented here provides a very useful tool for the combined targeted and untargeted analysis of drugs of abuse in biological matrices such as urine. PMID:24828977

Paul, Michael; Ippisch, Josef; Herrmann, Christian; Guber, Susanne; Schultis, Wolfgang

2014-07-01

29

Urine specimen detection of concurrent nonprescribed medicinal and illicit drug use in patients prescribed buprenorphine.  

PubMed

Patients being treated with buprenorphine usually have a history of opioid dependence and may be predisposed to misuse of drugs. Concurrent drug misuse increases the risk of life-threatening drug interactions. This retrospective data analysis observed which nonprescribed and illicit drugs were most commonly detected in the urine of patients from pain management clinics taking buprenorphine with or without a prescription. GC, LC/MS and LC-MS-MS were used to quantify 20,929 urine specimens. The most prevalent illicit drug used in both the groups (prescribed and nonprescribed buprenorphine) was marijuana, followed by cocaine. The most prevalent nonprescribed medications abused by both the groups were benzodiazepines, followed by oxycodone and hydrocodone. The overall prevalence of illicit and nonprescribed drug use was significantly higher in subjects who used buprenorphine without a prescription versus prescribed use. Of the concurrent use of marijuana and cocaine with buprenorphine, cocaine is most concerning since it decreases exposure to buprenorphine (lower area under the concentration-time curve and maximum concentration). The concurrent use of nonprescribed benzodiazepines with buprenorphine can cause excess sedation leading to respiratory depression and even death. These findings highlight the importance of educating patients about these potential toxicities. Furthermore, pain providers should consider expanding the spectrum of drugs that they monitor in patients under treatment. PMID:24080973

Guo, Alexander Y; Ma, Joseph D; Best, Brookie M; Atayee, Rabia S

2013-01-01

30

Determination of amphetamine, methamphetamine and amphetamine-derived designer drugs or medicaments in blood and urine  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews procedures for the determination of amphetamine, methamphetamine and amphetamine-derived designer drugs or medicaments in blood and urine. Papers published from 1991 to early 1997 were taken into consideration. Gas chromatographic and liquid chromatographic procedures with different detectors (e.g., mass spectrometer or diode array) were considered as well as the seldom used thin-layer chromatography and capillary electrophoresis. Enantioselective

Thomas Kraemer; Hans H Maurer

1998-01-01

31

LC–MS analysis of trimethoxyamphetamine designer drugs (TMA series) from urine samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sensitive liquid chromatography–mass spectrometric (LC–MS) method for quantification of an active psychedelic hallucinogenic drugs (trimethoxyamphetamines) in human urine after solid-phase extraction (SPE) with C18 cartridge was developed and validated. Chromatographic separation was achieved on reversed-phase Phenomenex 3.0?m Polar Plus column (150mm×2.1mm) with acetonitrile ?0.2% acetic acid as mobile-phase and the step gradient elution resulted in a total run time

Maria Nieddu; Gianpiero Boatto; Maria Antonietta Pirisi; Emanuela Azara; Mauro Marchetti

2008-01-01

32

Marijuana-positive urine test results from consumption of hemp seeds in food products.  

PubMed

Commercially available snack bars and other foodstuffs prepared from pressed hemp seeds were ingested by volunteers. Urine specimens were collected for 24 h after ingestion of the foodstuffs containing hemp seeds and tested for marijuana using an EMIT immunoassay and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Specimens from individuals who ate one hemp seed bar demonstrated little marijuana immunoreactivity, and only one specimen screened positive at a 20-ng/mL cutoff. Specimens from individuals who ate two hemp seed bars showed increased immunoreactivity, and five specimens screened positive at a 20-ng/mL cutoff. A single specimen yielded a quantitative GC-MS value (0.6 ng/mL), but it failed to meet reporting criteria. Several specimens from individuals who ate three cookies made from hemp seed flour and butter screened positive at both 50- and 20-ng/mL cutoffs. Two specimens produced quantitative GC-MS values (0.7 and 3.1 ng/mL), but they failed to meet reporting criteria. Several specimens also tested positive with an FDA-approved on-site marijuana-screening device. Hemp seeds similar to those used in the foodstuffs did not demonstrate the presence of marijuana when tested by GC-MS. In this study, ingestion of hemp seed food products resulted in urine specimens that screened positive for marijuana. No specimens gave a GC-MS quantitative value above the limit of detection for marijuana. PMID:9323528

Fortner, N; Fogerson, R; Lindman, D; Iversen, T; Armbruster, D

1997-10-01

33

A validated SPME-GC-MS method for simultaneous quantification of club drugs in human urine.  

PubMed

A solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric (SPME-GC-MS) method has been developed and validated for measuring four club drugs in human urine. These drugs include gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), ketamine (KET), methamphetamine (MAMP), and methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). These drugs are referred to as 'club drugs' because of their prevalence at parties and raves. Deuterium labeled internal standards for each of the four drugs was included in the assay to aid in quantitation. The drugs were spiked into human urine and derivatized using pyridine and hexylchloroformate to make them suitable for GC-MS analysis. The SPME conditions of extraction time/temperature and desorption time/temperature were optimized to yield the highest peak area for each of the four drugs. The final SPME parameters included a 90 degrees C extraction for 20min with a 1min desorption in the GC injector at 225 degrees C using a splitless injection. All SPME work was done using a 100microm PDMS fiber by Supelco. The ratio of pyridine to hexylchloroformate for derivatization was also optimized. The GC separation was carried out on a VF-5ht column by Varian (30m, 0.25mm i.d., 0.10microm film thickness) using a temperature program of 150-270 degrees C at 10 degrees C/min. The instrument used was a ThermoFinnigan Trace GC-Polaris Q interfaced with a LEAP CombiPal autosampler. The data was collected by using extracted ion chromatograms of marker m/z values for each drug from the total ion chromatograms (TIC) (full scan mode). Calibration curves with R(2)>0.99 were generated each day using the peak area ratios (peak area drug/peak area internal standard) versus concentration. The validated method resulted in intra-day and inter-day precision (% R.S.D.) of less than 15% and a % error of less than 15% for four concentrations in the range of 0.05-20microg/mL (MAMP) and 0.10-20microg/mL (GHB, KET, and MDMA). This method has the advantage of an easy sample preparation with acceptable accuracy and precision for the simultaneous quantification of these four drugs of abuse and shows no interference from the urine matrix. PMID:17158009

Brown, Stacy D; Rhodes, Daniel J; Pritchard, Boyd J

2007-09-13

34

Validation of the only commercially available immunoassay for synthetic cathinones in urine: Randox Drugs of Abuse V Biochip Array Technology.  

PubMed

Deterrence of synthetic cathinone abuse is hampered by the lack of a high-throughput immunoassay screen. The Randox Drugs of Abuse V (DOA-V) Biochip Array Technology contains two synthetic cathinone antibodies: Bath Salt I (BSI) targets mephedrone/methcathinone and Bath Salt II (BSII) targets 3',4'-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV)/3',4'-methylenedioxy-?-pyrrolidinobutiophenone (MDPBP). We evaluated DOA-V synthetic cathinones performance and conducted a full validation on the original assay with calibrators reconstituted in water, and the new assay with calibrators prepared in lyophilized urine; both utilized the same antibodies and were run on the fully automated Evidence® Analyzer. We screened 20 017 authentic military urine specimens and confirmed positives by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for 28 synthetic cathinones. Limits of detection (LOD) for the original and new assays were 0.35 and 0.18 (BSI), and 8.5 and 9.2 µg/L (BSII), respectively. Linearity was acceptable (R(2) ?>?0.98); however, a large negative bias was observed with in-house prepared calibrators. Intra-assay imprecision was <20% BSI-II, while inter-assay imprecision was 18-42% BSI and <22% BSII. Precision was acceptable for Randox controls. Cross-reactivities of many additional synthetic cathinones were determined. Authentic drug-free negative urine pH <4 produced false positive results for BSI (6.3 µg/L) and BSII (473 µg/L). Oxidizing agents reduced BSI and increased BSII results. Sensitivity, specificity, and efficiency of 100%, 52.1%, and 53.0% were obtained at manufacturer's proposed cut-offs (BSI 5 µg/L, BSII 30 µg/L). Performance improved if cut-off concentrations increased (BSI 7.5 µg/L, BSII 40 µg/L); however, there were limited confirmed positive specimens. Currently, this is the first and only fully validated immunoassay for preliminary detection of synthetic cathinones in urine. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. PMID:24659527

Ellefsen, Kayla N; Anizan, Sébastien; Castaneto, Marisol S; Desrosiers, Nathalie A; Martin, Thomas M; Klette, Kevin L; Huestis, Marilyn A

2014-07-01

35

Multi-residue analysis of eight thioamphetamine designer drugs in human urine by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

An analytical procedure for the simultaneous determination in human urine of several thioamphetamine designer drugs (2C-T and ALEPH series) is reported. The quantitative analysis was performed by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry and has been fully validated. The mass spectrometer was operated in positive-ion, selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode. In order to minimize interferences with matrix components and to preconcentrate target analytes, solid-phase extraction was introduced in the method as a clean-up step. The entire method was validated for selectivity, linearity, precision and accuracy. The method turned out to be specific, sensitive, and reliable for the analysis of amphetamine derivatives in urine samples. The calibration curves were linear over the concentration range of 1 to 100 ng mL(-1) for all drugs with correlation coefficients that exceeded 0.996. The lower limits of detection (LODs) and quantification (LOQs) ranged from 1.2 to 4.9 ng mL(-1) and from 3.2 to 9.6 ng mL(-1), respectively. PMID:19705383

Nieddu, Maria; Boatto, Gianpiero; Pirisi, Maria Antonietta; Baralla, Elena

2009-10-01

36

Rate of positive urine culture and double-J catheters colonization on the basis of microorganism DNA analysis  

PubMed Central

Introduction The aim of the trial was to estimate the relationship between colonization of the Double–J catheter, and the microorganisms cultured from urine. Material and methods 60 patients, who had Double–J catheters inserted, participated in the study. All the subjects had their midstream urine samples taken prior to the stent insertion and removal. A negative urine culture before catheterization was mandatory to participate in the study. The patients were assigned into three subgroups, according to stenting duration: 1) 20 to 30 days (18 cases); 2) 30 to 90 days (30 cases); 3) longer than 90 days (12 cases). Bacterial and fungal DNA was identified using electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gel with a denaturing gradient (PCR–DGGE). The relationship between the genetic analysis of the catheter and the urine culture was estimated. Results Urine cultures were positive in only 8 patients, while Double–J catheter analyses were positive in all cases. In 2 cases one type of microorganism was isolated from the stent surface while the remaining 58 catheters were colonized by more than one pathogen. In three cases fungi were isolated. There were only three types of pathogens cultured from urine specimens. Urine and stent cultures were consistent in 5 cases. In 3 cases urine culture and stent analysis were not consistent. Conclusions Double–J catheter retention in the urinary tract is associated with an extremely high risk of bacterial colonization, while the risk of urine infection is about 8–fold lower. There is a great inconsistency between urine infection and catheter colonization, indicating a low predictive value of urine culture for estimating stent colonization.

Szymkowiak, Sylwia; Madej, Adam; Blewniewski, Mariusz; Krzeslak, Anna; Forma, Ewa; Brys, Magdalena; Lipinski, Marek; Rozanski, Waldemar

2014-01-01

37

The detection of acetylcodeine and 6-acetylmorphine in opiate positive urines.  

PubMed

Acetylcodeine (AC), an impurity of illicit heroin synthesis, was investigated as a urinary biomarker for detection of illicit heroin use. One hundred criminal justice urine specimens that had been confirmed positive by GC/MS for morphine at concentrations > 5000 ng/ml were analyzed for AC, 6-acetylmorphine (6AM), codeine, norcodeine and morphine. The GC/MS analysis was performed by solid phase extraction and derivatization with propionic anhydride. Total codeine and morphine concentrations were determined by acid hydrolysis and liquid/liquid extraction. AC was detected in 37 samples at concentrations ranging from 2 to 290 ng/ml (median, 11 ng/ml). 6AM was also present in these samples at concentrations ranging from 49 to 12 600 ng/ml (median, 740 ng/ml). Of the 63 specimens negative for AC, 36 were positive for 6AM at concentrations ranging from 12 to 4600 ng/ml (median, 124 ng/ml). When detected, the AC concentrations were an average of 2.2% (0.25 to 10.2%) of the 6AM concentrations. There was a positive relationship between AC concentrations and 6AM concentrations (r = 0.878). Due to its very low concentration in urine, AC was found to be a much less reliable biomarker for illicit heroin use than 6AM in workplace or criminal justice urine screening programs. However, AC detection could play an important role in determining if addicts in heroin maintenance programs are supplementing their supervised diacetylmorphine doses with illicit heroin. PMID:9718666

O'Neal, C L; Poklis, A

1998-07-01

38

On-site testing of saliva and sweat with Drugwipe and determination of concentrations of drugs of abuse in saliva, plasma and urine of suspected users  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potential drug users participated voluntarily in a Belgian study on the usefulness of the non-instrumental immunoassay Drugwipe\\u000a (Securetec, Germany) for the screening of cocaine, opiates, amphetamine and cannabinoids in saliva and sweat. If one of the\\u000a screening assays (urine, oral fluid, sweat) showed a positive result, blood and saliva were collected. The on-site Drugwipe\\u000a results were correlated with the Drugwipe

N. Samyn; C. van Haeren

2000-01-01

39

Family Checkup: Positive Parenting Prevents Drug Abuse  

MedlinePLUS

... Treatment Locator or 1-800-662-HELP . Featured Publication Drugs, Brains, and Behavior - The Science of Addiction ... Teen About Drug Use? Share This Badge NIDA Publications for Parents Preventing Drug Use among Children and ...

40

Detection of drugs of abuse in exhaled breath using a device for rapid collection: comparison with plasma, urine and self-reporting in 47 drug users.  

PubMed

Exhaled breath has recently been identified as a matrix for the detection of drugs of abuse. This work aims to further document this application using a new and simple collection device in patients following recovery from acute intoxication. Breath, plasma and urine samples were collected from 47 patients (38 males, age range 25-74) together with interview data. Analysis of breath and plasma samples was done by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry methods. Urine was screened using immunochemical reagents and positive findings confirmed with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry methods. The 12 analytes investigated were: methadone, amphetamine, methamphetamine, 6-acetylmorphine, morphine, benzoylecgonine, cocaine, diazepam, oxazepam, alprazolam, buprenorphine and tetrahydrocannabinol. In all 47 cases, recent intake of an abused substance prior to admission was reported, but in one case the substance (ketobemidone) was not investigated. In 40 of the remaining cases (87%) breath analysis gave a positive finding of any of the substances that were part of the analytical investigation. Identifications were based on correct chromatographic retention time and product ion ratios obtained in selected reaction monitoring mode. In general, data from breath, plasma, urine and self-reporting were in good agreement, but in 23% of the cases substances were detected that had not been self-reported. All substances covered were detected in a number of breath samples. Considering that breath sampling was often done about 24 h after intake, the detection rate was considered to be high for most substances. Analytes with low detection rates were benzodiazepines, and a further increase in analytical sensitivity is needed to overcome this. This study further supports use of exhaled breath as a new matrix in clinical toxicology. PMID:23619392

Beck, Olof; Stephanson, Niclas; Sandqvist, Sören; Franck, Johan

2013-06-01

41

[A study of the rehabilitation support system for illegal substance use disorder patients from the viewpoint of the designated hospital. 4 case studies focusing on judicial treatment and drug urine monitoring].  

PubMed

This study was designed to reveal the current status of the rehabilitation support system for patients with Illegal Substance Use Disorder (ISUD). From among 465 patients who had been admitted to a psychiatric hospital in Tokyo within the past 10 years by order of the prefectural governor, 65 patients with ISUD were selected for inclusion in this study. Based on whether or not the person was arrested at the time of discharge, whether or not urine drug monitoring was ordered, and the results of the monitoring, each subject was classified into one of the following four types: 1) Arrested; 2) Not arrested and no urine drug monitoring; 3) Not arrested and positive urine drug monitoring results; and 4) Not arrested and negative urine drug monitoring results. In Group 1, every subject underwent urine drug monitoring prior to an involuntary examination; however, even though 10 percent of the subjects in this study were found to have positive results on urine drug monitoring, none of them were arrested. Moreover, 40 percent of the study subjects were not subjected to urine drug monitoring, and about 30 percent of non-arrested subjects were shown not to have used any illegal substances. Based on these results, it appears to be ideal for patients in Group 1 to apply to a diversion program, followed by medical treatment for addiction. To avoid the elimination of patients from medical services due to the vagueness of the classifications, whether or not judicial administration is required at the time of police intervention should be clearly and appropriately clarified for patients in Groups 2 and 3. Patients in Group 4 may experience a relapse of psychiatric symptoms, even if they do not use illegal substances; therefore, it is necessary for designated hospitals to perform medical treatment interventions responsibly for both endogenous psychosis and substance abuse, and to collaborate with appropriate social support facilities within the community regarding the medical discharge of such patients. PMID:24818358

Ikeda, Tomohiro; Koike, Junko; Morita, Nobuaki; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Aikawa, Yuzo; Matsumoto, Toshihiko; Inamoto, Atsuko

2014-02-01

42

Determination of amphetamine-derived designer drugs in human urine by SPE extraction and capillary electrophoresis with mass spectrometry detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, a number of newer designer drugs have entered the illicit drug market. The methylenedioxy-derivates of amphetamine represent the largest group of designer drugs. This paper describes a method for screening for and quantification of ten 2,5-methylenedioxy-derivates of amphetamine and phenylethylamine in human urine, using capillary electrophoresis coupled to electrospray ionisation–mass spectrometry (CE–ESI–MS). Prior to CE–MS analysis, a

Gianpiero Boatto; Maria Nieddu; Antonio Carta; Amedeo Pau; Michele Palomba; Battistina Asproni; Riccardo Cerri

2005-01-01

43

Screening and confirmation of 62 drugs of abuse and metabolites in urine by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

An ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography--quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF-MS) method for the screening and confirmation of 62 drugs of abuse and their metabolites in urine was developed in this study. The most commonly abused drugs, including amphetamines, opioids, cocaine, benzodiazepines (BZDs) and barbiturates, and many other new and emerging abused drugs, were selected as the analytes for this study. Urine samples were diluted 5-fold with deionized water before analysis. Using a superficially porous micro-particulate column and an acetic acid-based mobile phase, 54 basic and 8 acidic analytes could be detected within 15 and 12 min in positive and negative ionization modes, respectively. The MS collision energies for the 62 analytes were optimized, and their respective fragmentation patterns were constructed in the in-house library for confirmatory analysis. The coefficients of variation of the intra- and inter-day precision of the analyte responses all were <17.39%. All analytes, except barbital, showed matrix effects of 77-121%. The limits of detection of the 62 analytes were between 2.8 and 187.5 ng/mL, which were lower than their respective cut-off concentrations (20-500 ng/mL). Ten urine samples from patients undergoing methadone treatment were analyzed by the developed UHPLC-QTOF-MS method, and the results were compared with the immunoassay method. PMID:24084874

Tsai, I-Lin; Weng, Te-I; Tseng, Yufeng J; Tan, Happy Kuy-Lok; Sun, Hsiao-Ju; Kuo, Ching-Hua

2013-01-01

44

Direct and efficient liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric method for opiates in urine drug testing - importance of 6-acetylmorphine and reduction of analytes.  

PubMed

Opiates comprise a class of abused drugs that is of primary interest in clinical and forensic urine drug testing. Determination of heroin, codeine, or a multi-drug ingestion is complicated since both heroin and codeine can lead to urinary excretion of free and conjugated morphine. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) offers advantage over gas chromatography-mass spectrometry by simplifying sample preparation but increases the number of analytes. A method based on direct injection of five-fold diluted urine for confirmation of morphine, morphine-3-glucuronide, morphine-6-glucuronide, codeine, codeine-6-glucuronide and 6-acetylmorphine was validated using LC-MS/MS in positive electrospray mode monitoring two transitions using selected reaction monitoring. The method was applied for the analysis of 3155 unknown urine samples which were positive for opiates in immunochemical screening. A linear response was observed for all compounds in the calibration curves covering more than three orders of magnitude. Cut off was set to 2?ng/ml for 6-acetylmorphine and 150?ng/ml for the other analytes. 6-Acetylmorphine was found to be effective (sensitivity 82%) in detecting samples as heroin intake. Morphine-3-glucuronide and codeine-6-glucuronide was the predominant components of total morphine and codeine, 84% and 93%, respectively. The authors have validated a robust LC-MS/MS method for rapid qualitative and quantitative analysis of opiates in urine. 6-Acetylmorphine has been demonstrated as a sensitive and important parameter for a heroin intake. A possible interpretation strategy to conclude the source of detected analytes was proposed. The method might be further developed by reducing the number of analytes to morphine-3-glucuronide, codeine-6-glucuronide and 6-acetylmorphine without compromising test performance. PMID:23720205

Andersson, Maria; Stephanson, Nikolai; Ohman, Inger; Terzuoli, Tommy; Lindh, Jonatan D; Beck, Olof

2014-04-01

45

Molecularly imprinted microspheres for the anticancer drug aminoglutethimide: synthesis, characterization, and solid-phase extraction applications in human urine samples.  

PubMed

Molecularly imprinted microspheres (MIMs) for the anticancer drug aminoglutethimide (AG) were synthesized by aqueous suspension polymerization. The expected size and diameter of MIMs are controlled easily by changing one of the surfactant types, ratio of organic-to-water phase or stirring rate during polymerization. The obtained MIMs exhibit specific affinity toward AG with imprinting factor of 3.11 evaluated with a chromatographic model. The resultant MIMs were used as the SPE materials for the extraction of AG from human urine. A molecularly imprinted SPE (MISPE) method coupled with HPLC has been developed for the extraction and detection of AG in urine. Our results showed that most impurities from urine can be removed effectively after a washing step and the AG has been enriched effectively after MISPE operation with the recovery of >90% (n = 3). The developed MISPE-HPLC method could be used for enrichment and detection of AG in human urine. PMID:24596062

Lai, Jia-Ping; Chen, Fang; Sun, Hui; Fan, Li; Liu, Gui-Ling

2014-05-01

46

Electrokinetic supercharging in CE for the separation and preconcentration of barbiturate drugs in urine samples.  

PubMed

Three barbiturate drugs, barbital, phenobarbital, and secobarbital were separated and analyzed by electrokinetic supercharging. The influence of different parameters on electrokinetic supercharging performance was evaluated using both univariated and multivariated optimization processes. The parameters studied were sample pH, concentration, and length of the leading and terminating electrolytes, electrokinetic injection of the sample and composition and hydrodynamic injection of the solvent plug. The leading electrolyte (50 mM NaCl) was hydrodynamically injected (50 mbar × 120 s) prior to the sample that was adjusted to pH 9.6 and electrokinetically injected at -8.5 kV for 300 s. The terminating electrolyte (100 mM of 2-(cyclohexylamino) ethanesulphonic acid) was then hydrodynamically injected (50 mbar × 140 s). The results showed that this strategy enhanced detection sensitivity around 1050-fold compared with normal hydrodynamic injection, providing detection limits ranging between 1.5 and 2.1 ng/mL for standard samples with good repeatability in terms of peak area (values of relative standard deviation, %RSD < 3). The applicability of the optimized method was demonstrated by the analysis of human urine samples spiked with the studied compounds at different concentration levels and further liquid-liquid extraction step. The estimated detection limits obtained in the urine samples extract ranged between 8 and 15 ng/mL. PMID:23303599

Botello, Igor; Borrull, Francesc; Calull, Marta; Aguilar, Carme

2013-02-01

47

Catecholamines - urine  

MedlinePLUS

Dopamine-urine test; Epinephrine-urine test; Adrenalin-urine test; Urine metanephrine; Normetanephrine; Norepinephrine-urine test; Urine catecholamines; VMA; HVA; Metanephrine; Homovanillic acid (HVA)

48

A Laboratory Experiment in Pharmaceutical Analysis: Determination of Drugs of Abuse in Human Urine by Thin-Layer Chromatography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An experiment is described that was developed for a course in Inorganic and Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry at Rutgers University to provide pharmacy students with practical experience in the thin-layer chromatography used for the analysis of urine to monitor patient compliance with drug abuse treatment programs. (JMD)

Bailey, Leonard C.

1979-01-01

49

Development of a conductivity-based immunosensor for sensitive detection of methamphetamine (stimulant drug) in human urine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple immunosensor based on a conductivity method was developed for determination of methamphetamine (MA, a stimulant drug) in urine. Anti-MA antibody was immobilized onto the surface of a pair of platinum electrodes. The reaction of MA with the antibody causes a decrease in the conductivity of the anti-MA immobilized layer between the electrodes. A linear relationship was obtained between

Isao Karube

1996-01-01

50

Screening of multiple drugs of abuse and metabolites in urine using LC/MS/MS with polarity switching electrospray ionization.  

PubMed

A recent trend in urine drug testing in forensic and clinical toxicology has been the simultaneous determination of different chemical groups of target drugs, which are selected based on their local popularity. Rapid multiple drug analysis, made possible by the use of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS), has become more widely used, especially in workplace drug testing. Therefore, in the present study, a method for simultaneously analyzing 35 drugs of abuse and relevant metabolites that are most prevalent in Korea, using LC/MS/MS with polarity switching electrospray ionization, was developed and validated. The drugs and metabolites in urine were extracted by using mixed mode strong cation exchange polymeric solid phase extraction cartridges after enzymatic hydrolysis and were then injected into the LC/MS/MS system. The validation results for selectivity, linearity, intra- and inter-assay precision and accuracy for this method were satisfactory, while the results for matrix effects and recovery showed significant variance among the urine samples from different sources. The limits of detection ranged from 0.1 to 10 ng/ml and the limits of quantification were from 1 to 10 ng/ml. To reduce the matrix effects in authentic samples, two different quantitative approaches were compared: quantification using calibration standards prepared by the drug-free pooled urine matrix and quantification using the standard addition. Of these, the latter method was found to be the most suitable. The method developed in this study will be very useful for forensic and clinical toxicology laboratories to adopt for monitoring the inappropriate use of controlled drugs. PMID:23918650

Shin, Miok; Ji, Dajeong; Kang, Soyoung; Yang, Wonkyung; Choi, Hwakyung; Lee, Sooyeun

2014-06-01

51

Determination of drugs used as anti-Parkinson's disease drugs in urine and serum by capillary electrophoresis.  

PubMed

A new capillary electrophoresis method to determine simultaneously eight of the most important anti-Parkinson's disease compounds has been developed. The generic names of the drugs studied are benactyzine (BA), trihexyphenidyl (TP), fenpiverin (FP), diphemin (DF), scopolamine (BL), adiphenine (TS), diethylaminoethylester 1-phenylcyclopentane-1-carboxylate (EKK), and diethylaminoethylester tetramethoxydiphenylacetate (EKO). An untreated fused-silica capillary tube (75 microns i.d., 57 cm total length, 49.5 cm length to the detector) was used with detection at 190 nm. The optimal separation conditions were 50 mM phosphate buffer (pH 2.7) with 7 mM-beta-cyclodextrin, electrokinetic injection for 15 sec at 5 kV, temperature 25 degrees C, and 15-20 kV separation voltage. Complete separation of all compounds was achieved in less than 16 min. The procedure was applied for the determination in urine and serum. The limits of detection (LOD, S/N = 3) for serum were 209 (FP), 234 (EKO), 168 (DF), 182 (BA), 168 (TP), 220 (BL), 174 (TS), and 163 (EKK) ppb. The method can be used for the therapeutic drug monitoring of these central active cholinolytics in clinical laboratories. PMID:10797881

Vargas, G; Havel, J; Babácková, L; Patocka, J

1998-01-01

52

Determination of higenamine in human plasma and urine using liquid chromatography coupled to positive electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Higenamine is an active ingredient of Aconite root in Chinese herbal medicine and might be used as a new agent for a pharmaceutical stress test and was approved to undergo clinical pharmacokinetic study. Therefore, there exists a need to establish a sensitive and rapid method for the determination of higenamine in human plasma and urine. This paper described a sensitive and rapid method based on liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for the determination of higenamine in human plasma and urine. Solid-phase extraction (SPE) was used to isolate the compounds from biological matrices followed by injection of the extracts onto an Atlantis dC18 column with isocratic elution. The mobile phase was 0.05% formic acid in water-methanol (40:60, v/v). The mass spectrometry was carried out using positive electrospray ionization (ESI) and data acquisition was carried out in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The method was fully validated over the concentration range of 0.100-50.0 ng/mL and 1.00-500 ng/mL in plasma and urine, respectively. The lower limits of quantification (LLOQs) were 0.100 and 1.00 ng/mL in plasma and urine, respectively. Inter- and intra-batch precision was less than 15% and the accuracy was within 85-115% for both plasma and urine. Extraction recovery was 82.1% and 56.6% in plasma and urine, respectively. Selectivity, matrix effects and stability were also validated in human plasma and urine. The method was applied to the pharmacokinetic study of higenamine hydrochloride in Chinese healthy subjects. PMID:21393074

Feng, Sheng; Hu, Pei; Jiang, Ji

2011-04-01

53

Development and validation of a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) procedure for screening of urine specimens for 100 analytes relevant in drug-facilitated crime (DFC).  

PubMed

In recent years, drug-facilitated crime (DFC) has become an increasing problem. A minimum list of 80 analytes to be monitored in such cases has been proposed by the Society of Forensic Toxicologists (SOFT) including the recommended minimum performance limits (RMPL). In the present study, two liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry-based screening procedures, one in positive (method I) and one in negative (method II) electrospray ionization mode were developed and validated. Gradient elution was performed on a ZORBAX Eclipse XDB-C18 column after protein precipitation of the urine samples. Detection was carried out in the scheduled multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode monitoring two transitions per compound. A total of 100 analytes (91 basic in method I and nine acidic in method II) could be identified using the described procedure. No interferences were observed in 30 tested blank urine samples. The RMPLs were achieved for all analytes and ranged from 1 ng/mL for fentanyl to 10 ?g/mL for ?-hydroxybutyrate (GHB). Matrix effects (ME) were evaluated using the same 30 urine samples and ranged from -90 % for tetrazepam to >6,000 % for the 11-nor-9-carboxy-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH). The relative standard deviations of ME were below 25 % for the vast majority of analytes. Results for urine specimens from nine authentic DFC cases were always negative with exception of drugs prescribed to the victims. Reanalysis with the developed procedure of 24 urine samples, with a positive screening result during routine clinical toxicology analysis, confirmed the routine findings. In an excretion study after a single oral doxylamine dose (30 mg), the parent drug and its nor metabolite could be detected in urine specimens from a young female volunteer for 10 days. The developed procedure allows a selective and sensitive screening of urine samples for almost all recommended analytes relevant in DFC cases. PMID:24817357

Remane, Daniela; Wetzel, Diana; Peters, Frank T

2014-07-01

54

Hybrid Nanogels for Sustainable Positive Thermosensitive Drug Release  

SciTech Connect

A hybrid nanogel is developed based on interpenetrating networks of thermosensitive PNIPAAm gels and tailored nanoporous silica. Sustainable positive thermo-responsive drug release profile is obtained. When the temperature rises, the polymer gel shrinks, squeezing the drug into the porous channels, and at the same time, opening the pore to the outside media. The drug slowly diffuses out of the porous channels. The overall release rate can be adjusted by changing the composition of the nanogel.

Shin, Yongsoon (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Chang, Jeong H. (ASSOC WESTERN UNIVERSITY); Liu, Jun (Lucent Bell Laboratories); Williford, Rick E. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Shin, Young-Kook (Chungbuk National University); Exarhos, Gregory J. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))

2001-05-18

55

Hybrid nanogels for sustainable positive thermosensitive drug release  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hybrid nanogel has been developed based on interpenetrating networks of thermosensitive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) gels and tailored nanoporous silica. A sustainable positive thermo-responsive drug release profile is obtained. When the temperature rises, the polymer gel shrinks, squeezing the drug into the porous channels, and at the same time, opening the pores to the outside media. The drug slowly diffuses out of

Yongsoon Shin; Jeong Ho Chang; Jun Liu; Rick E. Williford; Young-Kook Shin; Gregory J. Exarhos

2001-01-01

56

Analysis on the go: quantitation of drugs of abuse in dried urine with digital microfluidics and miniature mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

We report the development of a method coupling microfluidics and a miniature mass spectrometer, applied to quantitation of drugs of abuse in urine. A custom digital microfluidic system was designed to deliver droplets of solvent to dried urine samples and then transport extracted analytes to an array of nanoelectrospray emitters for analysis. Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) detection was performed using a fully autonomous 25 kg instrument. Using the new method, cocaine, benzoylecgonine, and codeine can be quantified from four samples in less than 15 min from (dried) sample to analysis. The figures of merit for the new method suggest that it is suitable for on-site screening; for example, the limit of quantitation (LOQ) for cocaine is 40 ng/mL, which is compatible with the performance criteria for laboratory analyses established by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. More importantly, the LOQ of the new method is superior to the 300 ng/mL cutoff values used by the only other portable analysis systems we are aware of (relying on immunoassays). This work serves as a proof-of-concept for integration of microfluidics with miniature mass spectrometry. The system is attractive for the quantitation of drugs of abuse from urine and, more generally, may be useful for a wide range of applications that would benefit from portable, quantitative, on-site analysis. PMID:24906177

Kirby, Andrea E; Lafrenière, Nelson M; Seale, Brendon; Hendricks, Paul I; Cooks, R Graham; Wheeler, Aaron R

2014-06-17

57

False-positive detection of recombinant human erythropoietin in urine following strenuous physical exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Erythropoietin (Epo) is a glycoprotein hor- mone that promotes the production of red blood cells. Recombinant human Epo (rhEpo) is illicitly used to improve perfor- mance in endurance sports. Doping in sports is discouraged by the screening of athletes for rhEPO in urine. The adopted test is based on a combination of isoelec- tric focusing and double immunoblotting, and distinguishes

Monique Beullens; Joris R. Delanghe; Mathieu Bollen

2006-01-01

58

Pseudo-Outbreak of Extremely Drug-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa Urinary Tract Infections Due to Contamination of an Automated Urine Analyzer  

PubMed Central

By the end of May 2010, an increase in the number of urine specimens that were culture positive for extremely drug-resistant (XDR) Pseudomonas aeruginosa was observed in our 800-bed university hospital. This led to an infection control alert. No epidemiological link between the patients and no increase in the frequency of XDR P. aeruginosa in non-urine samples were observed. Therefore, a pseudo-outbreak due to analytical contamination in the laboratory was rapidly suspected. A prospective and retrospective search of cases was initiated, and the sampling of the automated urine analyzers used in the laboratory was performed. Antibiotypes were determined by disc diffusion, and genotypes were determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). From February to July 2010, 17 patients admitted to 12 different departments and 6 outpatients were included. The mixing device of the cytometric analyzer used for the numeration of urinary particles (Sysmex UF1000i) proved to be heavily contaminated. Isolates recovered from 12 patients belonged to the same antibiotype and PFGE type as the isolate recovered from the analyzer. Extensive disinfection with a broad-spectrum disinfectant and the replacement of the entire tubing was necessary to achieve the complete negativity of culture samples taken from the analyzer. A pseudo-outbreak caused by an XDR P. aeruginosa clone was proven to be due to the contamination of the cytometric analyzer for urinary sediment. Users of such analyzers should be aware that contamination can occur and should always perform culture either before the processing of the urine sample on the analyzer or on a distinct sample tube.

Deplano, A.; Roisin, S.; Boyart, V.; De Ryck, R.; Nonhoff, C.; Byl, B.; Glupczynski, Y.; Denis, O.

2012-01-01

59

Studies on the metabolism and toxicological detection of the new designer drug 4?-methyl-?-pyrrolidinopropiophenone in urine using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

4?-Methyl-?-pyrrolidinopropiophenone (MPPP) is a new designer drug which has appeared on the illicit drug market. The aim of our study was to identify the MPPP metabolites and to develop a toxicological detection procedure in urine using solid-phase extraction, ethylation and GC–MS. In urine samples of rats treated with MPPP, MPPP was found to be completely metabolized by oxidative desamination, hydroxylation

Dietmar Springer; Frank T. Peters; Giselher Fritschi; Hans H. Maurer

2002-01-01

60

Metabolism and toxicological detection of the new designer drug 3?,4?-methylenedioxy-?-pyrrolidinopropiophenone studied in urine using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

R,S-3?,4?-Methylenedioxy-?-pyrrolidinopropiophenone (MDPPP) is a new designer drug with assumed amphetamine-like effects, which has appeared on the illicit drug market. The aim of this study was to identify the MDPPP metabolites using solid-phase extraction, ethylation or acetylation as well as to develop a toxicological detection procedure in urine using solid-phase extraction, trimethylsilylation and GC–MS. Analysis of urine samples of rats treated

Dietmar Springer; Giselher Fritschi; Hans H. Maurer

2003-01-01

61

P-Mate, a new device allowing women to urinate in the standing position: urodynamic and satisfaction assessment.  

PubMed

Urodynamic parameters and satisfaction were recorded after micturition in the seated position versus the standing position with a single-use device (P-Mate) in healthy women. Healthy adult women were recruited. Eligibility criteria were: no past urological history and no urological symptoms. Volunteers were given four P-Mates to use during a week and a satisfaction questionnaire to fill. After this trial week, they were invited to perform four flowmetries, two in the seated position and two standing up, with the P-Mate. Seated and standing flowmetry parameters were compared (by paired t-test). Twenty women completed the study. There was no difference in the maximum flow rate (Qmax), voided volume and post-void residual (PVR) in the standing versus the seated position. In terms of Qmax and PVR in healthy women, urinating standing up was as efficient as in the seated position. A majority of participants were satisfied with the device. PMID:18196196

Karsenty, Gilles; Coquet-Reinier, Benjamin; Elzayat, Ehab; Lemieux, Marie-Claude; Corcos, Jacques

2008-06-01

62

High throughput screening various abused drugs and metabolites in urine by liquid chromatography-heated electrospray ionization/tandem mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

An integrated method of liquid chromatography-heated electrospray ionization/tandem mass spectrometry was evaluated for high throughput screening of various abused drugs in urine. Chromatographic analysis was performed on a C18 reverse phase column using a linear gradient of 10mM ammonium acetate containing 0.1% formic acid-methanol as mobile phase and the total separation time was 7 min. A simple and rapid sample preparation method used was by passing urine samples through a 0.22 microm PVDF syringe filter. The detection limits of the studied abused drugs in urine were from 0.6 ng mL(-1) (ketamine) to 9.0 ng mL(-1) (norcodeine). According to the results, the linear range was from 1 to 1200 ng mL(-1) with relative standard deviation (R.S.D.s) value below 14.8% (intra-day) and 24.6% (inter-day). The feasibility of applying the proposed method to determine various abused drugs in real samples was examined by analyzing urine samples from drug-abused suspects. The abused drugs including ketamines and amphetamines were detected in suspected urine samples. The results demonstrate the suitability of LC-HESI-MS/MS for high throughput screening of the various abused drugs in urine. PMID:19084648

Chen, Chung-Yu; Shen, Chien-Chun; Yang, Tzung-Jie; Chang, Yan-Zin; Lee, Maw-Rong

2009-02-15

63

Fabrication of new drug imprinting polymer beads for selective extraction of naproxen in human urine and pharmaceutical samples.  

PubMed

A drug imprinting polymer based on suspension polymerization was prepared with N,N-dimethylacrylamide and 1-(N,N-bis-carboxymethyl) amino-3-allylglycerol as functional monomers, N,N methylene diacrylamid as the cross-linker, naproxen as the template and 2,2'-azobis (2-methylbutyronitrile) as the initiator. The drug imprinted polymer was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, elemental analysis, thermogravimetric analysis and transmission electron microscopy. The imprinted polymer of agglomerated micro-particles with multi-pores was used for solid phase extraction. The drug imprinted polymer sorbent was selective for naproxen. The profile of the naproxen uptake by the sorbent reflects good accessibility of the active sites in the imprinted polymer sorbent. In addition, the equilibrium adsorption data of naproxen by imprinted polymer were analyzed by Langmuir isotherm models. The developed method was utilized for determination of naproxen in pharmaceutical and human urine samples by high performance liquid chromatography with satisfactory results. PMID:23064129

Panahi, Homayon Ahmad; Feizbakhsh, Alireza; Khaledi, Sardar; Moniri, Elham

2013-01-30

64

Analytical sample preparation strategies for the determination of antimalarial drugs in human whole blood, plasma and urine.  

PubMed

Antimalarial drugs commonly referred to as antimalarials, include a variety of compounds with different physicochemical properties. There is a lack of information on antimalarial distribution in the body over time after administration, e.g. the drug concentrations in whole blood, plasma, and urine, which must be improved in order to advance curing the parasitic disease malaria. A key problem also lies in that pharmacokinetic studies not always are performed in patient groups that may benefit most of the treatment such as children, pregnancy and lower-weight ethnic populations. Here we review the available sample preparation strategies combined with liquid chromatographic (LC) analysis to determine antimalarials in whole blood, plasma and urine published over the last decade. Sample preparation can be done by protein precipitation, solid-phase extraction, liquid-liquid extraction or dilution. After LC separation, the preferred detection tool is tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) but other detection methods have been used e.g. UV, fluorescence and electrochemical detection. Major trends for sample preparation of the different groups of antimalarials for each matrix and its detection have been summarized. Finally, the main problems that the researchers have dealt with are highlighted. This information will aid analytical chemists in the development of novel methods for determining existing antimalarials and upcoming new drugs. PMID:24911547

Casas, Monica Escolà; Hansen, Martin; Krogh, Kristine A; Styrishave, Bjarne; Björklund, Erland

2014-07-01

65

Determination of the metabolites of the new designer drugs bk-MBDB and bk-MDEA in human urine  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the first report on identifying the specific metabolites of the new designer drugs 2-methylamino-1-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)butan-1-one (bk-MBDB) and 2-ethylamino-1-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)propan-1-one (bk-MDEA) in human urine using synthesized standards. Based on GC\\/MS and LC\\/MS, we identified N-dealkylation, demethylenation followed by O-methylation, and ?-ketone reduction as their major metabolic pathways. The quantitative analyses by LC\\/MS revealed that both demethylenation followed by O-methylation and ?-ketone

Kei Zaitsu; Munehiro Katagi; Hiroe T. Kamata; Tooru Kamata; Noriaki Shima; Akihiro Miki; Hitoshi Tsuchihashi; Yasushige Mori

2009-01-01

66

Urine and Urination  

MedlinePLUS

Your kidneys make urine by filtering wastes and extra water from your blood. The waste is called urea. Your blood carries it to the kidneys. From the kidneys, urine travels down two thin tubes called ureters to ...

67

Assessment of Antifungal Drug Therapy in Autism by Measurement of Suspected Microbial Metabolites in Urine with Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Context-Certain compounds found by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in urine samples of children with autism might be produced by yeast in the gastrointestinal tract. Therefore, treatment with antifungal drugs might reduce clinical symptoms of autism. Objective-To determine if symptoms of autism and chemical compounds in urine samples of children with autism decreased after antifungal treatment. Design-A number of urinary organic acids

William Shaw; Ellen Kassen; Enrique Chaves

68

Development of an ELISA using a universal method of enzyme-labelling drug-specific antibodies. Part I: Detection of dexamethasone in equine urine.  

PubMed

The development, validation, and application of an ELISA for dexamethasone in equine urine is described. The drug-protein conjugate was immobilised in microtitre plate wells and antiserum raised against the same drug-protein conjugate was allowed to compete with sample or standard drug and the immobilised drug-protein conjugate. The proportion of antiserum binding to the immobilised drug-protein conjugate was detected using a biotinylated protein G/extravidin-alkaline phosphatase complex in situ and measurement of the substrate product. The method was used to detect the presence of drug-derived material in unextracted diluted urine after the administration of a single i.m. dose of dexamethasone at approximately 0.04 mg/kg to a thoroughbred horse. Validation of the method was carried out against a radioimmunoassay and GC/MS analysis. PMID:7745245

Roberts, C J; Jackson, L S

1995-04-26

69

Drug testing by urine and hair analysis: complementary features and scientific issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hair analysis and urinalysis are complementary tests for establishing drug use. Hair analysis provides long-term information, from months to years, concerning both the severity and pattern of drug use. In contrast to this, urinalysis can indicate only drug use, and then generally only that which has occurred within the last 2–3 days. Field studies have demonstrated that hair analysis is

Robert L. DuPont; Werner A. Baumgartner

1995-01-01

70

Krukenberg tumor presenting as back pain and a positive urine pregnancy test: a case report and literature review.  

PubMed

A Krukenberg tumor is a rare and potentially deadly cause of elevated serum ?-hCG as part of a paraneoplastic syndrome. This study aims to describe the unusual case of a 36-year-old woman that presented to the Emergency Department (ED) with back pain and a positive urine pregnancy test. Assessment revealed no intrauterine pregnancy and a small left ovarian cyst. Further investigation showed moderately differentiated gastric adenocarcinoma with distant metastases to the spine. The patient died less than 3 months after her first presentation to the ED. Paraneoplastic syndrome, albeit rare, should be considered in the differential diagnosis of elevated ?-hCG due to the high mortality associated with Krukenberg tumors. PMID:24708577

Moghazy, Dalia; Al-Hendy, Omar; Al-Hendy, Ayman

2014-01-01

71

Factors Associated with Serum HCV RNA Positivity in Anti-HCV Antibody Positive Intravenous Drug Users  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serum hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA, HCV genotypes and liver function tests were evaluated in a series of 189 unselected, consecutive anti-HCV positive intravenous drug users (IVDUs). Serum HCV RNA was detected in 106\\/189 patients. Abnormal liver function tests were associated with alcohol abuse, but not with the presence of serum HCV RNA. Among 109 patients retested after a mean

Mario Pirisi; Pierluigi Toniutto; Carlo Fabris; Tiziana Lombardelli; Edmondo Falleti; Sergio G Tisminetzky; Francisco Baralle; Ettore Bartoli

1998-01-01

72

Analysis of abuse drugs in urine using surfactant-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction.  

PubMed

The process of surfactant-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (SA-DLLME) followed by high-performance liquid chromatography-UV detection was successfully applied for the extraction and determination of selected cannabinoids (cannabidiol, ?(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, and cannabinol) in urine samples. The effective parameters on the extraction efficiency were studied and optimized utilizing two different optimization methods: one variable at a time (OVAT) and face center design (FCD). Under the optimum conditions (extraction solvent and its volume, toluene, 85 ?L; disperser agent and its concentration, 1.0 mL of ultra-pure water containing 0.5 mmol/L tetradecyl tremethyl ammonium bromide (TTAB); sample pH, 2.0 and salt concentration, 11% w/v NaCl), the limits of detection of the method were in the range of 0.1-0.5 ?g/L and the repeatability and reproducibility of the proposed method, expressed as relative deviation, varied between 4.1 and 8.5% and 6.7 and 11.6%, respectively. Linearity was found to be in the range of 1.0-200 ?g/L and under the optimum conditions, the preconcentration factors (PFs) were between 190 and 292. This proposed method was successfully applied in the analysis of three male advocate urine samples and good recoveries were obtained. PMID:21608128

Moradi, Morteza; Yamini, Yadollah; Baheri, Tahmineh

2011-07-01

73

Mutagenicity of urine from mice exposed orally to nitrite and various aminated antiparasitic drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutagenic N-nitroso compound formation from the in vitro reaction of amebicides and anthelmintic drugs, which are pyrimidine derivatives or contain secondary aliphatic amines or heterocyclic nitrogens, has been previously described. Under similar conditions, antiparasitic drugs containing halogenated derivatives of tertiary amines or quaternary ammonium salts do not form mutagenic nitrosated compounds. In the present study the mutagenic activity of mouse

M. Arriaga Alba; J. Espinosa Aguirre; J. Ramirez; C. Cortinas de Nava

1989-01-01

74

Urinating Standing versus Sitting: Position Is of Influence in Men with Prostate Enlargement. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background It is suggested that the body posture during urination can influence urodynamic parameters in patients with Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms (LUTS) to an extent approaching pharmacological interventions. In this article, the influence of body position during micturition on maximum urinary flow rate (Qmax), voiding time (TQ) and post-void residual volume (PVR) in healthy males and patients with LUTS is analyzed by means of a systematic review and meta-analysis. Evidence Acquisition A systematic search was conducted in 14 medical databases. Studies comparing urodynamic parameters in standing versus sitting position were eligible for inclusion. Studies were stratified according to health status of included male participants: healthy individuals and patients with LUTS. Standardized mean differences for Qmax, TQ and PVR were pooled in a random effects model. Results Eleven articles were included. In men with LUTS, a significantly lower PVR (?24.96 ml; 95%CI ?48.70 to ?1.23) was shown in sitting position compared to standing. In accordance, Qmax was increased (1.23 ml/s; 95%CI ?1.02 to 3.48), and TQ was decreased (?0.62 s; 95%CI ?1.66 to 0.42) in sitting position, although these differences did not reach statistical significance. In healthy men, Qmax (0.18 ml/s; 95% CI ?1.67 to 2.02), TQ (0.49 s; 95%CI ?3.30 to 4.27) and PVR (0.43 ml; 95%CI ?0.79 to 1,65) were similar in sitting and standing position. Conclusion For healthy men, no difference is found in any of the urodynamic parameters. In patients with LUTS, the sitting position is linked with an improved urodynamic profile.

Lycklama a Nijeholt, Augustinus Aizo Beent; Dekkers, Olaf Matthijs

2014-01-01

75

Forensic drug testing for opiates. VI. Urine testing for hydromorphone, hydrocodone, oxymorphone, and oxycodone with commercial opiate immunoassays and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Opiate testing for morphine and codeine is performed routinely in forensic urine drug-testing laboratories in an effort to identify illicit opiate abusers. In addition to heroin, the 6-keto-opioids, including hydromorphone, hydrocodone, oxymorphone, and oxycodone, have high abuse liability and are self-administered by opiate abusers, but only limited information is available on detection of these compounds by current immunoassay and gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) methods. In this study, single doses of hydromorphone, hydrocodone, oxymorphone, and oxycodone were administered to human subjects, and urine samples were collected before and periodically after dosing. Opiate levels were determined in a quantitative mode with four commercial immunoassays, TDx opiates (TDx), Abuscreen radioimmunoassay (ABUS), Coat-A-Count morphine in urine (CAC), and EMIT d.a.u. opiate assay (EMIT), and by GC-MS. GC-MS assay results indicated that hydromorphone, hydrocodone, oxymorphone, and oxycodone administration resulted in rapid excretion of parent drug and O-demethylated metabolites in urine. Peak concentrations occurred within 8 h after drug administration and declined below 300 ng/mL within 24-48 h. Immunoassay testing indicated that hydromorphone, hydrocodone, and oxycodone, but not oxymorphone, were detectable in urine by TDx and EMIT (300-ng/mL cutoff) for 6-24 h. ABUS detected only hydrocodone, and CAC failed to detect any of the four 6-keto-opioid analgesics. Generally, immunoassays for opiates in urine displayed substantially lower sensitivities for 6-keto-opioids compared with GC-MS. Consequently, urine samples containing low to moderate concentrations of hydromorphone, hydrocodone, oxymorphone, and oxycodone will likely go undetected when tested by conventional immunoassays. PMID:7536861

Smith, M L; Hughes, R O; Levine, B; Dickerson, S; Darwin, W D; Cone, E J

1995-01-01

76

Frequent Urination  

MedlinePLUS

... to urinate even more frequently. Many pregnant women leak some urine when coughing, laughing, sneezing or exercising. ... urinate. It may also force some urine to leak out, particularly if the muscles around the urethra ...

77

Bilirubin - urine  

MedlinePLUS

Conjugated bilirubin - urine; Direct bilirubin - urine ... Bilirubin is not normally found in the urine. ... Increased levels of bilirubin in the urine may be due to: Biliary tract disease Cirrhosis Gallstones in the biliary tract Hepatitis Liver disease ...

78

Urine chemistry  

MedlinePLUS

Chemistry - urine ... For this test, a clean-catch (midstream) urine sample is needed. For more information, see: Urine collection - clean catch . Some tests require that you collect all of your urine for 24 ...

79

Wide-range screening of banned veterinary drugs in urine by ultra high liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

In this work, an ultra high performance liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS) methodology is proposed for the multi-class multi-residue screening of banned and unauthorized veterinary drugs in bovine urine, using an Orbitrap Exactive™ analyzer working at a resolving power of 50,000 FWHM in full scan, both in positive and negative mode. The method currently covers 87 analytes belonging to different families such as steroid hormones, ?-agonists, resorcylic acid lactones (RAL), stilbens, tranquillizers, nitroimidazoles, corticosteroids, NSAIDs, amphenicoles, thyreostatics and other substances such as dapsone. A database including the elemental composition, the polarity of acquisition, retention time and expected adducts was built for the targeted analysis, and a high mass accuracy (<5 ppm) was set as one of the identification criteria. After comparing different sample preparation procedures, QuEChERS was selected as the most appropriate methodology. An efficient separation of analytes was achieved using ultra high performance liquid chromatography with a column packed with sub-2 ?m particles. The performance of the method has been evaluated in accordance with the EU guidelines for the validation of screening methods for the analysis of veterinary drugs residues. The screening target concentrations were established between 0.2 ?g/l and 20 ?g/l, demonstrating the usefulness of UHPLC-HRMS as an ideal tool for compliance monitoring in regulatory laboratories. PMID:22939377

León, Nuria; Roca, Marta; Igualada, Carmen; Martins, Claudia P B; Pastor, Agustín; Yusá, Vicent

2012-10-01

80

Examining the Relationship between Gender and Drug-Using Behaviors in Adolescents: The Use of Diagnostic Assessments and Biochemical Analyses of Urine Samples.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the relationship between gender and drug use among adolescents using diagnostic assessments and biochemical analyses of urine samples. Statistical significance was found in the relationship between gender and marijuana use. The study confirms that more research is needed in this area. (Author/MKA)

James, William H.; Moore, David D.

1999-01-01

81

Studies on the metabolism and toxicological detection of the designer drug 4-methylthioamphetamine (4MTA) in human urine using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

4-Methylthioamphetamine (4-MTA) is a scheduled designer drug that has appeared on the illicit drug market and led to several non-fatal or even fatal poisonings. Only few data are available on its metabolism. The first aim of this study was to identify the 4-MTA metabolites in human urine and then to study whether the authors’ STA procedure is suitable for screening

Andreas H. Ewald; Frank T. Peters; Magdalene Weise; Hans H. Maurer

2005-01-01

82

The GC\\/MS analysis of some commonly used non-steriodal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in pharmaceutical dosage forms and in urine  

Microsoft Academic Search

All the commonly used non-steriodal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), except mefenamic acid, when extracted from the pharmaceutical dosage forms or the urines of users, and derivatized by silylation and then analysed by GC\\/MS, gave the mono- or the di-trimethylsilyl derivatives (depending on the number of derivatized groups in the drug) as the sole products. Mefenamic acid gave a mixture of products.

B. M El Haj; A. M Al Ainri; M. H Hassan; R. K Bin Khadem; M. S Marzouq

1999-01-01

83

Large volume sample stacking for rapid and sensitive determination of antidiabetic drug metformin in human urine and serum by capillary electrophoresis with contactless conductivity detection.  

PubMed

Two CE methods with contactless conductivity detection have been developed for determining the oral antidiabetic drug metformin in human urine and blood. The determination of metformin is performed on a separation capillary with an effective length of 14 cm, using a maximum voltage of 30 kV and with a small injection of 50-fold diluted urine into the capillary. Under these conditions, the migration time of metformin is 35s and the LOD is 0.3 ?M. Large-volume sample stacking was used to determine low metformin levels in serum. The injection of a sample of serum deproteinized with acetonitrile was 10 times greater compared to the injected amount of urine. This enabled reduction of the LOD to 0.03 ?M and the metformin migration time equalled 86 s. The undesirable solvent from sample zone was forced out of the capillary to ensure rapidity and good repeatability of the determination. The RSD values for the migration time are 0.1% for urine and 0.7% for serum; RSD for the peak areas equalled 1.4% for urine and 2.6% for serum. The developed CE technique was tested on performance of routine analyses of metformin in the urine and serum of patients suffering from type II diabetes mellitus. PMID:24792694

T?ma, Petr

2014-06-01

84

Comparison of different sorbent materials for solid-phase extraction of selected drugs in human urine analyzed by UHPLC-UV.  

PubMed

A procedure based on solid-phase extraction (SPE) followed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) with UV detection has been developed for the analysis of multiple drugs in human urine. The compounds evaluated were aliskiren, prasugrel, rivaroxaban, prednisolone, propranolol, ketoprofen, nifedipine, naproxen, terbinafine, ibuprofen, diclofenac, sildenafil and acenocoumarol. Seventeen different solid phase extraction (SPE) cartridges were tested to evaluate their applicability for the isolation of drugs from human urine. Comparison were recovery of different drugs and reproducibility. The samples were analyzed by UHPLC using a Poroshell 120 EC-C18 column and acetonitrile -0.05% TFA in water as the mobile phase under gradient elution conditions. SPE combined with UHPLC-UV allowed the determination of drugs over a linear range of 0.01-30.0?g/mL, with limits of detection at 0.003-0.217?g/mL and precision of 0.8-7.1%. Phenyl (C6H5) sorbent was found to provide the most effective clean-up, removing the greatest amount of interfering substance and simultaneously ensuring analyte recoveries higher than 85.5% with relative standard deviations (RSD) <10%. The method was applied with good accuracy and precision in the determination of drugs in human urine obtained from patients treated with selected drugs. PMID:24686236

Magiera, Sylwia; Hejniak, Judyta; Baranowski, Jacek

2014-05-01

85

New designer drug alpha-pyrrolidinovalerophenone (PVP): studies on its metabolism and toxicological detection in rat urine using gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric techniques.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to identify the metabolites of the new designer drug alpha-pyrrolidinovalerophenone (PVP) in rat urine using GC/MS techniques. Eleven metabolites of PVP could be identified suggesting the following metabolic steps: hydroxylation of the side chain followed by dehydrogenation to the corresponding ketone; hydroxylation of the 2''-position of the pyrrolidine ring followed by dehydrogenation to the corresponding lactam or followed by ring opening to the respective aliphatic aldehyde and further oxidation to the respective carboxylic acid; degradation of the pyrrolidine ring to the corresponding primary amine; and hydroxylation of the phenyl ring, most probably in the 4'-position. The authors' screening procedure for pyrrolidinophenones allowed the detection of PVP metabolites after application of a dose corresponding to a presumed user's dose. In addition, the involvement of nine different human cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoenzymes in the side chain hydroxylation of PVP was investigated and CYP 2B6, 2C19, 2D6, and 3A4 were found to catalyze this reaction. PMID:19241365

Sauer, Christoph; Peters, Frank T; Haas, Claudia; Meyer, Markus R; Fritschi, Giselher; Maurer, Hans H

2009-06-01

86

Metabolic profiling of urine and blood plasma in rat models of drug addiction on the basis of morphine, methamphetamine, and cocaine-induced conditioned place preference.  

PubMed

The metabolic profiles of urine and blood plasma in drug-addicted rat models based on morphine (MOR), methamphetamine (MA), and cocaine (COC)-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) were investigated. Rewarding effects induced by each drug were assessed by use of the CPP model. A mass spectrometry (MS)-based metabolomics approach was applied to urine and plasma of MOR, MA, and COC-addicted rats. In total, 57 metabolites in plasma and 70 metabolites in urine were identified by gas chromatography-MS. The metabolomics approach revealed that amounts of some metabolites, including tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates, significantly changed in the urine of MOR-addicted rats. This result indicated that disruption of energy metabolism is deeply relevant to MOR addiction. In addition, 3-hydroxybutyric acid, L-tryptophan, cystine, and n-propylamine levels were significantly changed in the plasma of MOR-addicted rats. Lactose, spermidine, and stearic acid levels were significantly changed in the urine of MA-addicted rats. Threonine, cystine, and spermidine levels were significantly increased in the plasma of COC-addicted rats. In conclusion, differences in the metabolic profiles were suggestive of different biological states of MOR, MA, and COC addiction; these may be attributed to the different actions of the drugs on the brain reward circuitry and the resulting adaptation. In addition, the results showed possibility of predict the extent of MOR addiction by metabolic profiling. This is the first study to apply metabolomics to CPP models of drug addiction, and we demonstrated that metabolomics can be a multilateral approach to investigating the mechanism of drug addiction. PMID:23912828

Zaitsu, Kei; Miyawaki, Izuru; Bando, Kiyoko; Horie, Hiroshi; Shima, Noriaki; Katagi, Munehiro; Tatsuno, Michiaki; Bamba, Takeshi; Sato, Takako; Ishii, Akira; Tsuchihashi, Hitoshi; Suzuki, Koichi; Fukusaki, Eiichiro

2014-02-01

87

Influence of anatomy and head position on intranasal drug deposition.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine the influence of individual anatomical differences on intranasal drug deposition. The data of a comparison of seven different administration techniques in ten healthy volunteers was used in this single-blind crossover pilot study. After intranasal administration of a dyed test formulation, endoscopic video imaging was done on seven non-sequential days. The deposition pattern per individual around the head of the middle turbinate was analyzed for each technique and correlated with the individual anatomy. Decreased deposition of dyed test formulation in the target area around the head of the middle turbinate was observed in the presence of minor septal deviations, narrow nasal valve areas, or inferior turbinate hypertrophy; a lateral head position helps to bypass a minor septal deviation. Although results are preliminary, we conclude that anatomy and head position are important factors in the deposition of topical nasal drugs and may be the key to improving individual local nasal (steroid) treatment. PMID:16807754

Merkus, Paul; Ebbens, Fenna A; Muller, Barbara; Fokkens, Wytske J

2006-09-01

88

Retention and selectivity of basic drugs on solid-phase extraction sorbents: Application to direct determination of ?-blockers in urine.  

PubMed

Seven solid phase sorbent materials with reversed-phase, mixed-mode interactions (ion-exchange and reversed-phase), and molecularly imprinted polymers (MIP), namely Oasis HLB, Oasis MAX, Oasis MCX, Bond Elute Plexa, Bond Elute Plexa PAX, Bond Elute Plexa PCX, and SupelMIP sorbents, were investigated. The present study was focused on the retention and elution of pharmaceutically active substances based on several analyte-sorbent interaction properties. Basic drugs, such as ?-blockers (i.e., atenolol, pindolol, acebutolol, metoprolol, labetalol, and propranolol) were selected as the model compounds for this study. These compounds are frequently encountered in anti-doping tests. The extraction efficiencies of the individual sorbents were compared based on the recovery of known amounts of the targeted analytes in a metered elution volume (500 ?L) in three separate elution fractions. The elution efficiency of the total amount of the target analytes on various sorbents was not appreciably influenced by the volume of eluent required for complete elution. Based on the small matrix effects and clear baseline, SupelMIP was the most suitable sorbent for urine analysis. The relative analyte recoveries of the SPE-HPLC procedure proved satisfactory for the range from 94 % to 105 %, with an RSD ranging from 2 % to 4 %. The regression equations for all of the targeted compounds exhibited excellent linearity (r (2) ?>?0.9991) over the range of 10 to 1000 ng mL(-1). The limits of detection and quantification for the selected ?-blocker compounds in urine were in the ranges of 0.6 to 2.0 ng mL(-1) and 2.0 to 6.7 ng mL(-1), respectively. PMID:24788887

Boonjob, Warunya; Sklená?ová, Hana; Lara, Francisco J; García-Campaña, Ana M; Solich, Petr

2014-07-01

89

A comparative study of the excretion of Fujiwara reaction-positive substances in urine of humans and rodents given trichloro- or tetrachloro-derivatives of ethane and ethylene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ikeda, M., and Ohtsuji, H. (1972).Brit. J. industr. Med.,29, 99-104. A comparative study or the excretion of Fujiwara reaction-positive substances in urine of humans and rodents given trichloro- or tetrachloro-derivatives of ethane and ethylene. 1,1,1-Trichloroethane, 1,1,2- trichloroethane, 1,1,1,2-tetrachloroethane, 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane, trichloroethylene, and tetrachloroethylene were administered to rats and mice as vapours at 200 p.p.m. for 8 hours and urine was collected

Masayuki Ikeda; Hatsue Ohtsuji

1972-01-01

90

28 CFR 550.41 - Urine surveillance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Urine surveillance. 550.41 Section 550...MANAGEMENT DRUG PROGRAMS Drug Services (Urine Surveillance and Counseling for Sentenced Inmates in Contract CTCs) § 550.41 Urine surveillance. A program of urine...

2010-07-01

91

28 CFR 550.41 - Urine surveillance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Urine surveillance. 550.41 Section 550...MANAGEMENT DRUG PROGRAMS Drug Services (Urine Surveillance and Counseling for Sentenced Inmates in Contract CTCs) § 550.41 Urine surveillance. A program of urine...

2013-07-01

92

Citric acid urine test  

MedlinePLUS

Urine - citric acid test ... to discontinue drugs that may interfere with the test. On day 1, urinate into the toilet when ... No special preparation is necessary for this test. However, the ... performed while you are eating regularly. Ask your health care ...

93

Legal Position of School Personnel -- Drugs and Narcotics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

California educators have been given broad discretionary powers to control students who misuse drugs or narcotics, and to develop drug education programs. This paper outlines and discusses legislation dealing with disciplinary actions against drug offenders, and delineates school responsibilities for developing and implementing effective drug

Shannon, Thomas A.

94

28 CFR 550.42 - Procedures for urine surveillance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 false Procedures for urine surveillance. 550.42 Section 550...MANAGEMENT DRUG PROGRAMS Drug Services (Urine Surveillance and Counseling for Sentenced...Contract CTCs) § 550.42 Procedures for urine surveillance. (a) Contractor...

2009-07-01

95

28 CFR 550.42 - Procedures for urine surveillance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Procedures for urine surveillance. 550.42 Section 550...MANAGEMENT DRUG PROGRAMS Drug Services (Urine Surveillance and Counseling for Sentenced...Contract CTCs) § 550.42 Procedures for urine surveillance. (a) Contractor...

2010-07-01

96

[Cross-reactivity of Instant-View M-1 for detection of benzodiazepine-related drugs and their metabolites in urine].  

PubMed

Immunoassays are useful methods for the determination of regulated drugs in clinical and forensic laboratories. Although the Instant-View M-1 (IV M-1) immunoassay kit is frequently used to screen drugs in laboratories in Japan, basic information about the IV M-1 such as its specificity and reactivity is not available. In this study, we determined the specificity and cross-reactivity of IV M-1 for the detection of benzodiazepine-related drugs and their metabolites in urine. The IV M-1 could detect triazolobenzodiazepines such as triazolam in urine at concentrations > or = 300 ng/mL. However, thienodiazepines such as etizolam could not be detected because of lack of cross reactivity. A correlation was observed between the structure of the metabolites and the reactivity of the kit; 4-hydroxy metabolites of alprazolam and triazolam were detectable, whereas a-hydroxy metabolites were not. Furthermore, 7-amino metabolites such as nitrazepam could not be detected at any concentration, including high concentrations. The specificity and reactivity of various kits used for detection of drugs in urine are different. Therefore, it is necessary to consider the basic features of the kit used while assessing the results obtained. PMID:24724359

Torikoshi, Aiko; Namera, Akira; Arima, Yousuke; Toubou, Hirokazu; Tajima, Takashi; Shiraishi, Hiroaki; Nagao, Masataka

2014-03-01

97

Determination of the metabolites of the new designer drugs bk-MBDB and bk-MDEA in human urine.  

PubMed

This is the first report on identifying the specific metabolites of the new designer drugs 2-methylamino-1-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)butan-1-one (bk-MBDB) and 2-ethylamino-1-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)propan-1-one (bk-MDEA) in human urine using synthesized standards. Based on GC/MS and LC/MS, we identified N-dealkylation, demethylenation followed by O-methylation, and beta-ketone reduction as their major metabolic pathways. The quantitative analyses by LC/MS revealed that both demethylenation followed by O-methylation and beta-ketone reduction were superior to N-dealkylation and that both bk-MBDB and bk-MDEA were mainly metabolized into their corresponding 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy metabolites (4-OH-3MeO metabolites). After hydrolysis, the concentrations of 4-OH-3MeO metabolites and 3-hydroxy-4-methoxy metabolites of both bk-MBDB and bk-MDEA dramatically increased, suggesting that the metabolites mainly exist as their conjugates. PMID:19406592

Zaitsu, Kei; Katagi, Munehiro; Kamata, Hiroe T; Kamata, Tooru; Shima, Noriaki; Miki, Akihiro; Tsuchihashi, Hitoshi; Mori, Yasushige

2009-07-01

98

Simultaneous screening for and determination of 128 date-rape drugs in urine by gas chromatography-electron ionization-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Date-rape drugs (DRDs) are used for the purpose of "drugging" unsuspected victims and raping or robbing them while under the influence of the drug. The wide variety of substances used for criminal purposes, their low concentrations in body fluids and, often, a long time delay between the event and clinical examination make comprehensive screening analysis of biological materials collected from crime victims for the presence of these drugs very difficult. Detection of a drug used to facilitate sexual assault in biological fluids can be very important evidence of a committed crime. The purpose of this study was to develop a simple GC-EI-MS screening procedure for date-rape drugs in urine. Target analytes were isolated by solid-phase extraction. 2-mL urine samples were extracted and then derivatized by using BSTFA+1%TMCS reagent. Detection of all compounds was based on full-scan mass spectra and for each compound one ion was chosen for further quantification. The method allowed the simultaneous screening, detection and quantification of 128 compounds from different groups (number of compounds): opioids (20), amphetamines (11), GHB and related products (3), hallucinogens (9), benzodiazepines (18), antihistamines (9), antidepressants (14), selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors (4), antipsychotics (7), barbiturates (7), other sedatives (5), muscle relaxants (2) and other drugs (19). The procedure can easily be expanded to encompass more substances. The developed method appeared to be suitable for screening for the target DRDs. The procedure was successfully applied to the analysis of authentic urine samples collected from victims of rapes and other crimes in routine casework. PMID:20207513

Adamowicz, Piotr; Ka?a, Maria

2010-05-20

99

Studies on the metabolism and toxicological detection of the new designer drug 4?-methyl-?-pyrrolidinobutyrophenone (MPBP) in rat urine using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the presented study was to identify the metabolites of the new designer drug 4?-methyl-?-pyrrolidinobutyrophenone (MPBP) in rat urine using GC–MS techniques. After enzymatic hydrolysis, extraction and various derivatizations, seven metabolites of MPBP could be identified suggesting the following metabolic steps: oxidation of the 4?-methyl group to the corresponding alcohol and further oxidation to the respective carboxy compound,

Frank T. Peters; Markus R. Meyer; Giselher Fritschi; Hans H. Maurer

2005-01-01

100

Studies on the metabolism and toxicological detection of the new designer drug N-benzylpiperazine in urine using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies are described on the metabolism and on the toxicological analysis of the piperazine-like designer drug N-benzylpiperazine (BZP, scene name “A2”) in rat and human urine using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). The identified metabolites indicated that BZP was hydroxylated at the aromatic ring and that the piperazine moiety is metabolically degraded. Our systematic toxicological analysis (STA) procedure using full-scan GC–MS

Roland F. Staack; Giselher Fritschi; Hans H. Maurer

2002-01-01

101

New designer drug p-methoxymethamphetamine: studies on its metabolism and toxicological detection in urine using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies are described on the metabolism and the toxicological analysis of the new designer drug rac-p-methoxymethamphetamine (PMMA) in rat urine using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). The identified metabolites indicated that PMMA was extensively metabolized mainly by O-demethylation to pholedrine and to a minor extent to p-methoxyamphetamine (PMA), 1-hydroxypholedrine diastereomers (one being oxilofrine), 4?-hydroxy-3?-methoxymethamphetamine and 4?-hydroxy-3?-methoxyamphetamine. The authors’ systematic toxicological analysis

Roland F. Staack; Josef Fehn; Hans H. Maurer

2003-01-01

102

Toxicological detection of the designer drug 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDE, “Eve”) and its metabolites in urine by gas chromatography — mass spectrometry and fluorescence polarization immunoassay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies are presented on the toxicological detection of the designer drug methylenedioxyethylapphetamine [MDE, rac-N-ethyl-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)-propane-2-amine] in urine after a single oral dose of 140 mg of MDE by GC-MS and fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA). After acid hydrolysis, extraction and acetylation MDE and its metabolites could be detected by mass chromatography with the selected ions m\\/z 72, 86, 114, 150, 162 and

Hartmut K. Ensslin; Karl-Artur Kovar; Hans H. Maurer

1996-01-01

103

Urine melanin  

MedlinePLUS

Thormahlen's test; Melanin - urine ... A clean-catch urine sample is needed. ... this substance that it shows up in the urine. ... Normally, melanin is not present in urine. Normal value ranges may ... measurements or test different samples. Talk to your doctor ...

104

Metabolism of the new designer drug ?-pyrrolidinopropiophenone (PPP) and the toxicological detection of PPP and 4?-methyl-?-pyrrolidinopropiophenone (MPPP) studied in rat urine using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

R,S-?-pyrrolidinopropiophenone (PPP) is a new designer drug with assumed amphetamine-like effects which has appeared on the illicit drug market. The aim of this study was to identify the PPP metabolites using solid-phase extraction, ethylation or acetylation as well as to develop a toxicological detection procedure in urine using solid-phase extraction, trimethylsilylation and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). Analysis of urine samples

Dietmar Springer; Giselher Fritschi; Hans H. Maurer

2003-01-01

105

Quantitative LC-MS/MS method in urine for the detection of drugs used to reverse the effects of chemical castration.  

PubMed

The chemical castration law, which targets child molesters with recidivism, was introduced in Korea in 2011. For this, leuprolide, a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist, is used to decrease testosterone production and suppress libido. In order to achieve efficient law enforcement, it is necessary to monitor intentional ingestion of drugs that antagonize the effect of leuprolide. Therefore, an analytical method for the simultaneous detection of mirodenafil, sildenafil, tadalafil, udenafil, vardenafil, icariin, alprostadil, and yohimbine, which are the major impotence treatment drugs, legitimately or otherwise, in Korea, as well as their selected metabolites, in human urine was established and validated using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). First, different sample preparation methods, two solid-phase extractions with different cartridges and protein precipitation, were compared and protein precipitation was chosen for the entire study because it showed better matrix effects and recoveries. Thus, the drugs and metabolites in urine were extracted by protein precipitation and then filtered and analyzed by LC-MS/MS with polarity switching electrospray ionization. The validation results of selectivity, matrix effect, recovery, linearity, intra- and inter-assay precision and accuracy were satisfactory. The limits of detection ranged from 0.25 to 10 ng/mL, and the limits of quantification were 2.5 to 50 ng/mL. The drugs and metabolites in urine did not show any degradation under storage for 7 and 15 days at 4 and -20 °C as well as after three freeze-thaw cycles. The developed method will be very useful for monitoring the illegal use of impotence treatment drugs. PMID:23371534

Lee, Sooyeun; Kang, So-young; Ji, Dajeong; Baeck, Seungkyung; Lee, Sangki; Oh, Seung Min; Chung, Kyu Hyuck

2013-04-01

106

A novel method for GHB detection in urine and its application in drug-facilitated sexual assaults  

Microsoft Academic Search

A confirmation procedure for the identification and quantification of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) in urine is presented. This method is unique in that it does not involve the conversion of GHB to the gamma-butyrolactone (GBL). The urine samples were extracted using ethyl acetate, evaporated and derivatized with N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA) with 1% trimethylchlorosilane (TMCS), and analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Quantification was

Albert A Elian

2000-01-01

107

Isolation of an X-factor-dependent but porphyrin-positive Escherichia coli from urine of a patient with hemorrhagic cystitis.  

PubMed

An Escherichia coli isolate was recovered from a 92-year-old female patient with urinary tract infection. Gram-stained preparation of the urine sediment manifested some gram-negative rod-shaped cells, and the urine specimen culture yielded nonhemolytic colonies on sheep blood agar plate. However, no visible colonies appeared on modified Drigalski agar plate. The isolate was finally identified as an X-factor-dependent E. coli. The interesting finding was that the isolate revealed a positive reaction for porphyrin test despite the requirement of hemin. This finding suggested that some pyrrol-ring-containing porphyrin compounds or fluorescent porphyrins had been produced as chemical intermediates in the synthetic pathway from ?-amino-levulinic acid (ALA), although the isolate should be devoid of synthesizing hems from ALA. This was the first clinical isolation of such a strain, indicating that the E. coli isolate should possess incomplete synthetic pathways of hems from ALA. PMID:23108428

Matsumoto, Takehisa; Kawakami, Yoshiyuki; Sueki, Akane; Kasuga, Eriko; Oana, Kozue; Horiuchi, Kazuki; Kato, Miyuki; Honda, Takayuki

2013-08-01

108

Factors affecting crystal precipitation from urine in individuals with long-term urinary catheters colonized with urease-positive bacterial species.  

PubMed

Weekly urinalysis was conducted for 12 weeks on a group of 21 long-term catheter users with confirmed catheter encrustation and urinary tract colonization with urease-positive bacteria, in order to explore the cause of considerable variation in the severity of encrustation between sufferers. The rapidity of catheter blockage correlated significantly with the pH above which crystals precipitated from urine (the nucleation pH) but not the pH of the voided urine itself. Linear regression showed the nucleation pH to be significantly predicted by a combination of urinary calcium and magnesium concentrations, with calcium being the more influential variable. Reducing the rate of catheter encrustation could be achieved by lowering the urinary concentration of calcium and magnesium, which may only require catheter users to increase their fluid intake. PMID:16453146

Mathur, Sunil; Suller, Marc T E; Stickler, David J; Feneley, Roger C L

2006-06-01

109

Monolithic spin column: a new extraction device for analysis of drugs in urine and serum by GC/MS and HPLC/MS.  

PubMed

A monolithic spin column was developed for the extraction of analytes from biological materials. This column was constructed by packing a monolithic silica disk into a spin column. Sample loading, washing, and elution of the target drugs were accomplished simply by centrifugation of the column. Opiates and benzodiazepines are abused throughout the world. Identification and quantification of these drugs is very important to solve crimes or the cause of death. Three opiates (morphine, codeine, and dihydrocodeine) were extracted from urine and serum by using the column. After conversion to trimethylsilyl derivatives of the opiates by vigorous mixing with the derivatizing reagent, the solution was subjected to GC/MS. A linear curve was observed for opiates from 10 to 2500 ng/mL in urine and 5 to 1200 ng/mL in serum, respectively (correlation coefficient > 0.996). For benzodiazepines, the hydroxyl metabolites of triazolam and etizolam were extracted from urine using the column, and the eluate was directly analyzed by HPLC/MS without evaporation. The LOD values were at the ppb level, with RSD values lower than 15%. The proposed methods were successfully applied to clinical and forensic cases, and good agreement of results was obtained compared to conventional methods. PMID:21797004

Namera, Akira; Nagao, Masakata; Nakamoto, Akihiro; Miyazaki, Shota; Saito, Takeshi

2011-01-01

110

Porphyrins - urine  

MedlinePLUS

Porphyrins help form many important substances in the body including hemoglobin, the protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen in the blood. Porphyrins can be found in urine. A urine porphyrins ...

111

Urine Metanephrines  

MedlinePLUS

... Urine Metanephrines, Total and Fractionated Related tests: Catecholamines , Plasma Free Metanephrines , VMA At a Glance Test Sample ... be ordered by itself or along with a plasma metanephrines test . Plasma and urine catecholamines testing may ...

112

In silico methods for predicting metabolism and mass fragmentation applied to quetiapine in liquid chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry urine drug screening.  

PubMed

Current in silico tools were evaluated for their ability to predict metabolism and mass spectral fragmentation in the context of analytical toxicology practice. A metabolite prediction program (Lhasa Meteor), a metabolite detection program (Bruker MetaboliteDetect), and a fragmentation prediction program (ACD/MS Fragmenter) were used to assign phase I metabolites of the antipsychotic drug quetiapine in the liquid chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC/TOFMS) accurate mass data from ten autopsy urine samples. In the literature, the main metabolic routes of quetiapine have been reported to be sulfoxidation, oxidation to the corresponding carboxylic acid, N- and O-dealkylation and hydroxylation. Of the 14 metabolites predicted by Meteor, eight were detected by LC/TOFMS in the urine samples with use of MetaboliteDetect software and manual inspection. An additional five hydroxy derivatives were detected, but not predicted by Meteor. The fragment structures provided by ACD/MS Fragmenter software confirmed the identification of the metabolites. Mean mass accuracy and isotopic pattern match (SigmaFit) values for the fragments were 2.40 ppm (0.62 mDa) and 0.010, respectively. ACD/MS Fragmenter, in particular, allowed metabolites with identical molecular formulae to be differentiated without a need to access the respective reference standards or reference spectra. This was well exemplified with the hydroxy/sulfoxy metabolites of quetiapine and their N- and O-dealkylated forms. The procedure resulted in assigning 13 quetiapine metabolites in urine. The present approach is instrumental in developing an extensive database containing exact monoisotopic masses and verified retention times of drugs and their urinary metabolites for LC/TOFMS drug screening. PMID:19142846

Pelander, Anna; Tyrkkö, Elli; Ojanperä, Ilkka

2009-02-01

113

Sexual Risk Taking among HIV-Positive Injection Drug Users: Contexts, Characteristics, and Implications for Prevention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

HIV-positive injection drug users (IDUs) (N = 161) were recruited to complete a qualitative interview and a quantitative survey about sexual behavior and transmission risk. We identified two contexts in which exposure encounters occurred most commonly for HIV-positive IDUs: in intimate serodiscordant relationships and in the drug/sex economy.…

Knight, Kelly R.; Purcell, David; Dawson-Rose, Carol; Halkitis, Perry N.; Gomez, Cynthia A.

2005-01-01

114

Cost-effectiveness of methadone maintenance treatment for HIV-positive drug users in Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) is efficacious in reducing drug use that may improve HIV\\/AIDS care and treatment outcomes. This study evaluated the incremental cost-effectiveness of MMT for HIV-positive drug users from the perspective of health service providers. A sample of 370 HIV-positive drug users (age: mean±SD: 29.5±5.9 years; 95.7% male) taking MMT in multi-sites was assessed at baseline, three, six

Bach Xuan Tran; Arto Ohinmaa; Anh Thuy Duong; Nhan Thi Do; Long Thanh Nguyen; Steve Mills; Stan Houston; Philip Jacobs

2011-01-01

115

Cost-effectiveness of methadone maintenance treatment for HIV-positive drug users in Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) is efficacious in reducing drug use that may improve HIV\\/AIDS care and treatment outcomes. This study evaluated the incremental cost-effectiveness of MMT for HIV-positive drug users from the perspective of health service providers. A sample of 370 HIV-positive drug users (age: mean±SD: 29.5±5.9 years; 95.7% male) taking MMT in multi-sites was assessed at baseline, three, six

Bach Xuan Tran; Arto Ohinmaa; Anh Thuy Duong; Nhan Thi Do; Long Thanh Nguyen; Steve Mills; Stan Houston; Philip Jacobs

2012-01-01

116

Concentration of marijuana metabolites in the urine after ingestion of hemp seed tea.  

PubMed

To determine whether ingestion of hemp seed tea could result in positive urine drug screens for cannabinoids, volunteers were recruited to donate urine after consuming hemp seed or placebo tea. Among the 22 participants, 10 ingested 12 ounces of hemp seed tea, 10 ingested 24 ounces, and 2 ingested 12 ounces of placebo tea. Urine cannabinoid specimens were obtained at baseline and at 4, 8, and 24 hours after ingestion. A total of 10 specimens had trace quantities of cannabinoids detected in 7 subjects on gas chromatography/mass spectrometry testing, all below the Department of Transportation cutoff level of 15 ng/mL. These results demonstrate that under the conditions of this study, hemp seed tea consumption can result in detectable urine cannabinoids but would not trigger a positive EMIT or gas chromatography/mass spectrometry urine drug test for cannabinoids. PMID:10390703

Steinagle, G C; Upfal, M

1999-06-01

117

Patient knows best: blinded assessment of nonadherence with antituberculous therapy by physicians, nurses, and patients compared with urine drug levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Adherence with therapy is a wide spectrum of behavior rather than a categorical state. While extreme nonadherence is readily apparent, it is rare compared to lesser degrees of nonadherence, which are difficult to predict.Aims. To compare the accuracy of doctor, nurse, and patient prediction of adherence with antituberculous therapy with urine isoniazid levels.Methods. A prospective, blinded clinical study was

C. R. MacIntyre; K. Goebel; G. V. Brown

2005-01-01

118

Urine Albumin and Albumin/ Creatinine Ratio  

MedlinePLUS

... may also vary. Creatinine, a byproduct of muscle metabolism, is normally excreted into the urine at a ... exercise, blood in the urine, urinary tract infection , dehydration , and some drugs. ^ Back to top Ask a ...

119

[Evaluation of the ChromID ESBL agar for the detection of ESBL-positive Enterobacteriaceae and vancomycin-resistant enterococcus isolates from urine cultures].  

PubMed

Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae strains are frequent causative agents both in community-acquired infections and in nosocomial infections. The newly developed ChromID ESBL agar (bioMerieux, Marcy I'Etoile, France) is a chromogenic medium that helps rapid identification of ESBL-positive Enterobacteriaceae species from the clinical samples. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of ChromID ESBL agar in the rapid identification of ESBL-positive pathogens from the urine samples of the patients with urinary tract infections. A total of 672 urine samples (437 outpatients, 235 inpatients) were included in the study. All of the samples were inoculated simultaneously to 5% sheep blood agar, McConkey agar and ChromID ESBL agar media, and evaluated after incubation at 37°C for 18-24 hours. Gram-negative pathogens were tested for ESBL both by the standard combined double-disk diffusion (CDD) method using ceftazidime and cefotaxime disks and by doubledisk synergy (DDS) test. Among 672 urine cultures, 199 yielded microbial growth in routine media (sheep blood agar and/or McConkey agar), whereas 57 yielded bacterial growth in ChromID ESBL agar. When CDD method was accepted as the reference method according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) recommendations, the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values for ChromID ESBL agar for the detection of ESBL-positive bacteria in urinary tract infections were estimated as 97%, 92.9%, 89.1%, and 98.1%, respectively. Additionally, we also discovered that Chrom ID ESBL agar could detect vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) as well as ESBL-positive bacteria, in our study. In order to investigate this observation we inoculated a total of 203 stock strains of Enterococcus spp. (118 vancomycin-sensitive, 85 vancomycin-resistant) to this medium. None of the vancomycinsensitive Enterococcus spp. did grow in ChromID ESBL medium, while 83 of the 85 resistant isolates (97.6%) did grow in the medium. As a result, it was concluded that ChromID ESBL agar medium was advantageous since it led to the growth of VRE and ESBL-positive Enterobacteriaceae isolates in different colors and helped in early identification of these two problematic bacteria. We thought that especially early detection of VRE will accelerate the establishment of necessary measures to prevent the nosocomial spread of this microorganism. PMID:22399167

Al??kan, Hikmet Eda; Colako?lu, Sule; Turunç, Tuba; Demiro?lu, Yusuf Ziya

2012-01-01

120

Novel micro-extraction by packed sorbent procedure for the liquid chromatographic analysis of antiepileptic drugs in human plasma and urine.  

PubMed

A method for the simultaneous determination of the antiepileptic drugs, phenobarbital (PHB), phenytoin (PTN), carbamazepine (CBZ), primidone (PRM) and oxcarbazepine (OXC) in human plasma and urine samples by using micro-extraction in a packed syringe as the sample preparation method connected with LC/UV (MEPS/LC/UV) is described. Micro-extraction in a packed syringe (MEPS) is a new miniaturized, solid-phase extraction technique that can be connected online to gas or liquid chromatography without any modifications. In MEPS approximately 1?mg of the solid packing material is inserted into a syringe (100-250??L) as a plug. Sample preparation takes place on the packed bed. The bed can be coated to provide selective and suitable sampling conditions. The new method is very promising, easy to use, fully automated, inexpensive and quick. The standard curves were obtained within the concentration range 1-500?ng/mL in both plasma and urine samples. The results showed high correlation coefficients (R(2) >0.988) for all of the analytes within the calibration range. The extraction recovery was found to be between 88.56 and 99.38%. The limit of quantification was found to be between 0.132 and 1.956?ng/mL. The precision (RSD) values of quality control samples (QC) had a maximum deviation of 4.9%. A comparison of the detection limits with similar methods indicates high sensitivity of the present method. The method is applied for the analysis of these drugs in real urine and plasma samples of epileptic patients. PMID:22258806

Rani, Susheela; Malik, Ashok K; Singh, Baldev

2012-02-01

121

Urine Tests (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... If either the urine dipstick test or the microscopic test shows white blood cells, red blood cells, ... ON THIS TOPIC Urine Test: Calcium Urine Test: Protein Urine Test: Routine Culture Urine Test: Creatinine Urine ...

122

Absorptive constituents and their metabolites in drug-containing urine samples from Wuzhishan miniature pigs orally administered with Buyang Huanwu decoction.  

PubMed

Buyang Huanwu decoction (BYHWD), a famous traditional Chinese medicine prescription for the treatment of cerebrovascular diseases, is composed of seven commonly used Chinese herbs--Astragali Radix, Angelicae Sinensis Radix, Paeoniae Radix Rubra, Chuanxiong Rhizoma, Carthami Flos, Persicae Semen and Pheretima. To determine the main absorptive constituents and the metabolites of BYHWD in vivo, urine samples from Wuzhishan (WZS) miniature pigs orally administered with BYHWD (13.6 g crude drugs/kg) were collected to investigate the characteristic compounds. By comparing the high-performance liquid chromatography of a drug-containing urine sample with that of a drug-free sample, 17 characteristic compounds were isolated from the methanol extract of a drug-containing urine sample by column chromatography. Their structures, including 11 isoflavanoids, 2 pterocarpanoids and 4 isoflavonoids, were identified by spectroscopic means. Of the 17 compounds, 8 (1-8) were new compounds with the following structures: 3S-7,3',4'-trihydroxyisoflavan-3'-O-?-D-glucuronide (1), 3S-7,3',4'-trihydroxyisoflavan-4'-O-?-D-glucuronide (2), 3S-7,2',4'-trihydroxyisoflavan-2'-O-?-D-glucuronide (3), 3R-7,2'-dihydroxy-3',4'-dimethoxyisoflavan-2'-O-?-D-glucuronide (4), 3R-7,2'-dihydroxy-3',4'-dimethoxyisoflavan-2'-O-?-D-glucuronide-6"-methyl ester (5), 3R-7,2'-dihydroxy-3',4'-dimethoxyisoflavan-7-O-?-D-glucuronide-6"-methyl ester (6), 3R-7,2',3'-trihydroxy-4'-methoxyisoflavan-3'-O-?-D-glucuronide-6"-methyl ester (7), and 3S-7,4',5'-trihydroxy-2',3'-dimethoxyisoflavan-5'-O-?-D-glucuronide (8). Based on the possible relationship and metabolic pathways of the 17 compounds in vivo, 3R-7,2'-dihydroxy-3',4'-dimethoxyisoflavan (isomucronulatol, 11), 6aR,11aR-3-hydroxy-9,10-dimethoxypterocarpan (methylnissolin, astrapterocarpan, 13), 7,3'-dihydroxy-4'-methoxyisoflavone (calycosin, 16) and 7-hydroxy-4'-methoxyisoflavone (formononetin, 17) were thought to be the most important absorptive original isoflavonoid constituents of BYHWD in vivo, which underwent reactions of glucuronidation, hydroxylation, demethylation and reduction. The other 13 compounds were deduced to be their metabolites. PMID:23516044

Yang, Dong-Hui; Ren, Xiang-Liang; Xu, Feng; Ma, Xiao-Qing; Liu, Guang-Xue; Li, Cang-Hai; Li, Chen; Cai, Shao-Qing

2014-01-01

123

In silico and in vitro metabolism studies support identification of designer drugs in human urine by liquid chromatography/quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Human phase I metabolism of four designer drugs, 2-desoxypipradrol (2-DPMP), 3,4-dimethylmethcathinone (3,4-DMMC), ?-pyrrolidinovalerophenone (?-PVP), and methiopropamine (MPA), was studied using in silico and in vitro metabolite prediction. The metabolites were identified in drug abusers’ urine samples using liquid chromatography/quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC/Q-TOF/MS). The aim of the study was to evaluate the ability of the in silico and in vitro methods to generate the main urinary metabolites found in vivo. Meteor 14.0.0 software (Lhasa Limited) was used for in silico metabolite prediction, and in vitro metabolites were produced in human liver microsomes (HLMs). 2-DPMP was metabolized by hydroxylation, dehydrogenation, and oxidation, resulting in six phase I metabolites. Six metabolites were identified for 3,4-DMMC formed via N-demethylation, reduction, hydroxylation, and oxidation reactions. ?-PVP was found to undergo reduction, hydroxylation, dehydrogenation, and oxidation reactions, as well as degradation of the pyrrolidine ring, and seven phase I metabolites were identified. For MPA, the nor-MPA metabolite was detected. Meteor software predicted the main human urinary phase I metabolites of 3,4-DMMC, ?-PVP, and MPA and two of the four main metabolites of 2-DPMP. It assisted in the identification of the previously unreported metabolic reactions for ?-PVP. Eight of the 12 most abundant in vivo phase I metabolites were detected in the in vitro HLM experiments. In vitro tests serve as material for exploitation of in silico data when an authentic urine sample is not available. In silico and in vitro designer drug metabolism studies with LC/Q-TOF/MS produced sufficient metabolic information to support identification of the parent compound in vivo. PMID:23797910

Tyrkkö, Elli; Pelander, Anna; Ketola, Raimo A; Ojanperä, Ilkka

2013-08-01

124

Finding meaning: African American injection drug users’ interpretations of testing HIV-positive  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the US, African American injection drug users have increased risk for acquiring HIV and for not having long-term survival post AIDS diagnosis. This study examines the cognitive interpretations African American injection drug users make of an HIV-positive test result and the attitudinal and behavioural patterns that accompany those interpretations. Using snowball sampling techniques, street outreach was used to recruit

M. Valle; J. Levy

2008-01-01

125

Liposomal lurtotecan (NX211): determination of total drug levels in human plasma and urine by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography.  

PubMed

Lurtotecan (GI147211; LRT) is a semisynthetic and water-soluble analogue of the topoisomerase I inhibitor camptothecin. To determine whether the therapeutic efficacy of LRT in patients could be improved, the drug was encapsulated in liposomes (NX211; Gilead Sciences). In order to allow accurate description of the pharmacokinetic behavior of NX211 in cancer patients, we have developed sensitive RP-HPLC assays with fluorescence detection (lambdaex=378 nm; lambdaem=420 nm) for the determination of total LRT levels in human plasma and urine. Sample pretreatment involved deproteinization with 10% (w/v) aqueous perchloric acid-acetonitrile (2:1, v/v), and chromatographic separations were achieved on an Inertsil-ODS 80A analytical column. The lower limit of quantitation (LLQ) was established at 1.00 ng/ml in plasma (200-microl sample) and at 100 ng/ml in urine (200 microl of 40-fold diluted sample). The within-run and between-run precisions were <7.5%. LRT concentrations in urine of <100 ng/ml were determined by a modified procedure comprising a single solvent extraction with n-butanol-diethyl ether (3:4, v/v). In this assay, the fluorescence signal of LRT was increased 14-fold prior to detection by post-column exposure to UV light (254 nm) in a photochemical reaction unit. The LLQ of this assay was 0.500 ng/ml (150-microl sample) and the within-run and between-run precisions were <10%. PMID:10778937

Loos, W J; Kehrer, D; Brouwer, E; Verweij, J; de Bruijn, P; Hamilton, M; Gill, S; Nooter, K; Stoter, G; Sparreboom, A

2000-01-28

126

Some problems with the anti-prohibitionist position on legalization of drugs.  

PubMed

The pro-legal position has mounted cogent arguments to support conclusions that the existing prohibition policy has failed and that legalization, while not a solution to the drug use problem, will effectively eliminate drug related crime. The premise of this article is that a legalization policy is wrong in that the basic assumptions underlying the anti-prohibitionist position are flawed. Prohibition has operated in a social vacuum. It has been an isolated effort substituting for an integrated and well coordinated approach which includes prevention, treatment as well as enforcement and supported by an educated public resolve against illicit drugs. PMID:8204674

De Leon, G

1994-01-01

127

Sensitization to petrolatum: an unusual cause of false-positive drug patch-tests.  

PubMed

We report on an unexpected sensitization to petrolatum diagnosed with the occurrence of multiple nonrelevant and false-positive drug patch-tests performed while investigating a patient suffering from many cutaneous adverse drug reactions. All the positive drug patch-tests were prepared with GILBERT vaseline. This petrolatum reaction is positive as it was tested with five other brands of petrolatums a few months later. As the same petrolatums, but from different batches were tested, patch-tests with GILBERT petrolatum were doubtful, while other petrolatums were positive. White petrolatum is a mixture of semisolid hydrocarbons of the methane series. The sensitizing impurities of petrolatum are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, e.g. phenanthrene derivatives. The purity of petrolatum depends on both the petroleum stock and on the production and packaging methods. Even if rare, contact sensitization to petrolatum can disturb the interpretation of drug patch-tests. It is necessary in the interpretation of drug patch-tests to test both in petrolatum and other vehicles and with all the different petrolatums used in preparing the material for drug patch-tests. So, it is essential to advise the patients sensitized to petrolatum to remove all the topical drugs, such as all the cosmetics, which contain petrolatum in their formulation. PMID:15291911

Ulrich, G; Schmutz, J L; Trechot, Ph; Commun, N; Barbaud, A

2004-09-01

128

Assessment of the ion-trap mass spectrometer for routine qualitative and quantitative analysis of drugs of abuse extracted from urine.  

PubMed

The ion-trap mass spectrometer (MS) has been available as a detector for gas chromatography (GC) for nearly two decades. However, it still occupies a minor role in forensic toxicology drug-testing laboratories. Quadrupole MS instruments make up the majority of GC detectors used in drug confirmation. This work addresses the use of these two MS detectors, comparing the ion ratio precision and quantitative accuracy for the analysis of different classes of abused drugs extracted from urine. Urine specimens were prepared at five concentrations each for amphetamine (AMP), methamphetamine (METH), benzoylecgonine (BZE), delta9-carboxy-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta9-THCCOOH), phencyclidine (PCP), morphine (MOR), codeine (COD), and 6-acetylmorphine (6-AM). Concentration ranges for AMP, METH, BZE, delta9-THCCOOH, PCP, MOR, COD, and 6-AM were 50-2500, 50-5000, 15-800, 1.5-65, 1-250, 500-32000, 250-21000, and 1.5-118 ng/mL, respectively. Sample extracts were injected into a GC-quadrupole MS operating in selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode and a GC-ion-trap MS operating in either selected ion storage (SIS) or full scan (FS) mode. Precision was assessed by the evaluation of five ion ratios for n = 15 injections at each concentration using a single-point calibration. Precision measurements for SIM ion ratios provided coefficients of variation (CV) between 2.6 and 9.8% for all drugs. By comparison, the SIS and FS data yielded CV ranges of 4.0-12.8% and 4.0-11.2%, respectively. The total ion ratio failure rates were 0.2% (SIM), 0.7% (SIS), and 1.2% (FS) for the eight drugs analyzed. Overall, the SIS mode produced stable, comparable mean ratios over the concentration ranges examined, but had greater variance within batch runs. Examination of postmortem and quality-control samples produced forensically accurate quantitation by SIS when compared to SIM. Furthermore, sensitivity of FS was equivalent to SIM for all compounds examined except for 6-AM. PMID:11043665

Vorce, S P; Sklerov, J H; Kalasinsky, K S

2000-10-01

129

Drug testing in the workplace: could a positive test for one of the mandated drugs be for reasons other than illicit use of the drug?  

PubMed

This manuscript reviews data available in the scientific literature relative to drug testing for the five mandated drug classes and circumstances other than abuse of the drug itself that could result in a positive test. For marijuana, passive inhalation, unknowing oral ingestion, and the use of Marinol are discussed. Data are presented on the concentration of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and its precursors, acid-A and acid-B, in illicit marijuana and the extent of extraction of THC in boiled (tea) or cooked products. For cocaine, passive inhalation and passive exposure issues are reviewed. For opiates, poppy seed ingestion and guidelines for exclusion of poppy seeds as a cause for a positive test are discussed. For amphetamines, issues such as the presence of other phenethylamines, l-methamphetamine (Vicks' inhalers), and other prescription drugs are discussed. Although passive inhalation of methamphetamine and phencyclidine is theoretically possible, no data were available on these issues. PMID:8926740

elSohly, M A; Jones, A B

1995-10-01

130

Urine Preservative  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Disclosed is CPG, a combination of a chlorhexidine salt (such as chlorhexidine digluconate, chlorhexidine diacetate, or chlorhexidine dichloride) and n-propyl gallate that can be used at ambient temperatures as a urine preservative.

Smith, Scott M. (Inventor); Nillen, Jeannie (Inventor)

2001-01-01

131

Development and application of carbon nanotubes assisted electromembrane extraction (CNTs/EME) for the determination of buprenorphine as a model of basic drugs from urine samples.  

PubMed

In this work carbon nanotubes assisted electromembrane extraction (CNTs/EME) coupled with capillary electrophoresis (CE) and ultraviolet (UV) detection was developed for the determination of buprenorphine as a model of basic drugs from urine samples. Carbon nanotubes reinforced hollow fiber was used in this research. Here the CNTs serve as a sorbent and provide an additional pathway for solute transport. The presence of CNTs in the hollow fiber wall increased the effective surface area and the overall partition coefficient on the membrane; and lead to an enhancement in the analyte transport. For investigating the influence of the presence of CNTs in the SLM on the extraction efficiency, a comparative study was carried out between EME and CNTs/EME methods. Optimization of the variables affecting these methods was carried out in order to achieve the best extraction efficiency. Optimal extractions were accomplished with NPOE as the SLM, with 200V as the driving force, and with pH 2.0 in the donor and pH 1.0 in the acceptor solutions with the whole assembly agitated at 750rpm after 25min and 15min for EME and CNTs/EME, respectively. Under the optimized conditions, in comparison with the conventional EME method, CNTs/EME provided higher extraction efficiencies in shorter time. This method provided lower limit of detection (1ngmL(-1)), higher preconcentration factor (185) and higher recovery (92). Finally, the applicability of this method was evaluated by the extraction and determination of buprenorphine in patients' urine samples. PMID:23452789

Hasheminasab, Kobra Sadat; Fakhari, Ali Reza

2013-03-12

132

Neurocognitive Aspects of Medication Adherence in HIV-Positive Injecting Drug Users  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive deficits are associated with nonadherence to HIV medications. HIV-positive injecting drug users (IDUs) are at particular risk for nonadherence and cognitive barriers to adherence specific to this population should therefore be identified. The present study assessed the relation of three domains of cognitive functioning, executive functions, memory, and psychomotor speed, to self-reported antiretroviral adherence in a sample of HIV-positive

Drenna Waldrop-Valverde; Raymond L. Ownby; Frances L. Wilkie; Alison Mack; Mahendra Kumar; Lisa Metsch

2006-01-01

133

Finding meaning: African American injection drug users' interpretations of testing HIV-positive.  

PubMed

In the US, African American injection drug users have increased risk for acquiring HIV and for not having long-term survival post AIDS diagnosis. This study examines the cognitive interpretations African American injection drug users make of an HIV-positive test result and the attitudinal and behavioural patterns that accompany those interpretations. Using snowball sampling techniques, street outreach was used to recruit 839 African American injection drug users and their partners for HIV testing and counselling. Subsequently, data were collected for 80 individuals who tested HIV-positive. Individuals who interpreted testing HIV-positive as a 'wake up call' displayed the attitudinal and behavioural patterns of 'being blessed', 'living clean' and 'advocacy'. Those that interpreted the test result as a 'death knell' displayed 'self-destructive', 'pleasure-seeking' and 'vengeance'. Those that interpreted the positive test result as 'just one more problem' displayed 'resignation' and 'minimization'. The period following the diagnosis of HIV provides an opportunity for intervention. A positive HIV status can produce lifestyle changes that either facilitate or militate against a person's health and quality of life. HIV-prevention efforts can be improved by helping individuals living with the virus to interpret and act on their diagnosis in positive ways. PMID:18278624

Valle, M; Levy, J

2008-01-01

134

Positively charged polyethylenimines enhance nasal absorption of the negatively charged drug, low molecular weight heparin  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study tests the hypothesis that positively charged polyethylenimines (PEIs) enhance nasal absorption of low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) by reducing the negative surface charge of the drug molecule. Physical interactions between PEIs and LMWH were studied by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, particle size analysis, conductivity measurements, zeta potential analysis, and azure A assay. The efficacy of PEIs in

Tianzhi Yang; Alamdar Hussain; Shuhua Bai; Ikramy A. Khalil; Hideyoshi Harashima; Fakhrul Ahsan

2006-01-01

135

Sexual Transmission Risk Behavior Reported Among Behaviorally Bisexual HIV-Positive Injection Drug-Using Men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Few research studies have examined the HIV trans- mission risk behaviors of HIV-positive injection drug users (IDUs) who are men who have sex with men and women (MSMW). Methods: We compared unprotected vaginal or anal sex with an HIV-negative or unknown (UNK) status sexual partner of MSMW (n = 118) with men who have sex exclusively with women (MSW;

Kelly R. Knight; Starley B. Shade; David W. Purcell; Carol Dawson Rose; Lisa R. Metsch; Mary H. Latka; Carl A. Latkin; Cynthia A. Gomez

2007-01-01

136

Developing and Implementing a Positive Behavioral Reinforcement Intervention in Prison-Based Drug Treatment: Project BRITE  

PubMed Central

Within prison settings, the reliance on punishment for controlling inappropriate or non-compliant behavior is self-evident. What is not so evident is the similarity between this reliance on punishment and the use of positive reinforcements to increase desired behaviors. However, seldom do inmates receive positive reinforcement for engaging in prosocial behaviors or, for inmates receiving drug treatment, behaviors that are consistent with or support their recovery. This study provides an overview of the development and implementation of a positive behavioral reinforcement intervention in male and female prison-based drug treatment programs. The active involvement of institutional staff, treatment staff, and inmates enrolled in the treatment programs in the development of the intervention along with the successful branding of the intervention were effective at promoting support and participation. However, these factors may also have ultimately impacted the ability of the randomized design to reliably demonstrate the effectiveness of the intervention.

Burdon, William M.; De Lore, Jef St.; Prendergast, Michael L.

2012-01-01

137

Potentiometric sensors enabling fast screening of the benign prostatic hyperplasia drug alfuzosin in pharmaceuticals, urine and serum.  

PubMed

The construction and characterization of potentiometric membrane electrodes are described for the quantification of alfuzosin, a drug used in a mono- and combined therapy of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The membranes of these electrodes consist of alfuzosin hydrochloride-tetraphenyl borate, (Az-TPB), chlorophenyl borate (Az-ClPB), and phosphotungstate (Az(3)-PT) ion associations as molecular recognition reagent dispersed in PVC matrix with dioctylpthalate as plasticizer. The performance characteristics of these electrodes, which were evaluated according to IUPAC recommendations, revealed a fast, stable and liner response for alfuzosin over the concentration ranges of 8.3 x 10(-6) to 1.0 x 10(-2) M, 3.8 x 10(-6) to 1.0 x 10(-2) M, 7.5 x 10(-7) to 1.0 x 10(-2) M AzCl with cationic slopes of 57.0, 56.0 and 58.5 mV/decade, respectively. The solubility product of the ion-pair and the formation constant of the precipitation reaction leading to the ion-pair formation were determined conductometrically. The electrodes, fully characterized in terms of composition, life span and usable pH range, were applied to the potentiometric determination of alfuzosin hydrochloride ion in different pharmaceutical preparations and biological fluids without any interference from excipients or diluents commonly used in drug formulations. The potentiometric method was also used in the determination of alfuzosin hydrochloride in pharmaceutical preparations in four batches with different expiration dates. Validation of the method showed suitability of the proposed electrodes for use in the quality control assessment of alfuzosin hydrochloride. This potentiometric method offers the advantages of high-throughput determination, simplicity, accuracy, automation feasibility, and applicability to turbid and colored sample solutions. PMID:17979639

Gupta, Vinod K; Singh, Ashok K; Gupta, Barkha

2007-08-01

138

Chloride - urine test  

MedlinePLUS

The urine chloride test measures the amount of chloride in urine. ... After you provide a urine sample, it is tested in the lab. If needed, the health care provider may ask you to collect your urine ...

139

HCG in urine  

MedlinePLUS

Beta-HCG - urine; Human chorionic gonadotropin - urine ... urine is the most concentrated and has enough HCG to be detected. ... Urine HCG tests are a common method of determining if a woman is pregnant. The best time to test ...

140

MCM-41 solid phase membrane tip extraction combined with liquid chromatography for the determination of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in human urine.  

PubMed

Mesoporous silica material, MCM-41, was utilized for the first time as an adsorbent in solid phase membrane tip extraction (SPMTE) of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in urine prior to high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet (HPLC-UV) analysis. The prepared MCM-41 material was enclosed in a polypropylene membrane tip and used as an adsorbent in SPMTE. Four NSAIDs namely ketoprofen, diclofenac, mefenamic acid and naproxen were selected as model analytes. Several important parameters, such as conditioning solvent, sample pH, salting-out effect, sample volume, extraction time, desorption solvent and desorption time were optimized. Under the optimum extraction conditions, the MCM-41-SPMTE method showed good linearity in the range of 0.01-10?g/mL with excellent correlation coefficients (r=0.9977-0.9995), acceptable RSDs (0.4-9.4%, n=3), good limits of detection (5.7-10.6?g/L) and relative recoveries (81.4-108.1%). The developed method showed a good tolerance to biological sample matrices. PMID:24140656

Kamaruzaman, Sazlinda; Sanagi, Mohd Marsin; Endud, Salasiah; Wan Ibrahim, Wan Aini; Yahaya, Noorfatimah

2013-12-01

141

Environment-mediated drug resistance in Bcr/Abl-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia  

PubMed Central

Although cure rates for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) have increased, development of resistance to drugs and patient relapse are common. The environment in which the leukemia cells are present during the drug treatment is known to provide significant survival benefit. Here, we have modeled this process by culturing murine Bcr/Abl-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells in the presence of stroma while treating them with a moderate dose of two unrelated drugs, the farnesyltransferase inhibitor lonafarnib and the tyrosine kinase inhibitor nilotinib. This results in an initial large reduction in cell viability of the culture and inhibition of cell proliferation. However, after a number of days, cell death ceases and the culture becomes drug-tolerant, enabling cell division to resume. Using gene expression profiling, we found that the development of drug resistance was accompanied by massive transcriptional upregulation of genes that are associated with general inflammatory responses such as the metalloproteinase MMP9. MMP9 protein levels and enzymatic activity were also increased in ALL cells that had become nilotinib-tolerant. Activation of p38, Akt and Erk correlated with the development of environment-mediated drug resistance (EMDR), and inhibitors of Akt and Erk in combination with nilotinib reduced the ability of the cells to develop resistance. However, inhibition of p38 promoted increased resistance to nilotinib. We conclude that development of EMDR by ALL cells involves changes in numerous intracellular pathways. Development of tolerance to drugs such as nilotinib may therefore be circumvented by simultaneous treatment with other drugs having divergent targets.

Feldhahn, Niklas; Arutyunyan, Anna; Stoddart, Sonia; Zhang, Bin; Schmidhuber, Sabine; Yi, Sun-Ju; Kim, Yong-mi; Groffen, John; Heisterkamp, Nora

2012-01-01

142

Investigation of Immobilized Enzymes for Hydrolysis of Glucuronides in Urine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Metabolism of certain drugs leads to the formation of conjugation products with glucuronic acid prior to excretion in urine. Thus, heroin is converted to morphine, which after conjugation with glucuronic acid, appears in the urine as morphine glucuronide....

D. J. Fink M. K. Bean R. D. Falb

1975-01-01

143

49 CFR 655.46 - Return to duty following refusal to submit to a test, verified positive drug test result and/or...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...verified positive drug test result and/or breath alcohol test result of 0...TRANSPORTATION PREVENTION OF ALCOHOL MISUSE AND PROHIBITED DRUG USE IN TRANSIT OPERATIONS...verified positive drug test result and/or breath alcohol test result of...

2013-10-01

144

Single drop microextraction as a concentrating probe for rapid screening of low molecular weight drugs from human urine in atmospheric-pressure matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

The present work reports the development of a new analytical procedure for simple and rapid screening of low molecular weight drugs (<500 Da) from human urine samples by atmospheric-pressure matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (AP-MALDI-MS) combined with single drop microextraction (SDME). The success of the proposed method is due to the use of methyltrioctylammonium chloride (MTOAC) as additive to avoid the noise arising from the matrix ions (alpha-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (CHCA)). SDME also aided in alleviating the interferences arising from other matrix ions present in the urine samples prior to AP-MALDI-MS analysis. Factors affecting the extraction efficiency of drugs, such as selection of solvent, stirring speed, extraction time, exposure volume of extraction phase and salt addition, have been optimized. The optimum molar ratio of CHCA/MTOAC that gave the minimum background noise of CHCA ions was 700:1. The limit of detection (LOD) and relative standard deviation (RSD) of the method were in the ranges 0.3-1.6 microM and 7.8-11.4%, respectively. The SDME method was compared with liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and hollow fiber liquid-phase microextraction (HF-LPME) to evaluate the compatibility of the present method in the extraction of drugs from urine samples. The role of MTOAC as matrix ion signal suppressor and SDME as analyte-separating device in the rapid screening of low molecular weight drugs from human urine samples using AP-MALDI/MS has been reported. PMID:17708597

Shrivas, Kamlesh; Wu, Hui-Fen

2007-01-01

145

Effect of positively and negatively charged liposomes on skin permeation of drugs.  

PubMed

To clarify the effect of the surface charge of liposomes on percutaneous absorption, the permeation of liposomal drugs through rat skin was investigated in vitro and in vivo. Liposomes were prepared using egg yolk lecithin (EPC, phase transition temperature, -15 to -17 degrees C), cholesterol and dicetylphosphate (DP) or stearylamine (SA) (10:1:1, mol/mol). Also examined was the penetration behavior of positively and negatively charged liposomes, using a fluorescent probe (Nile Red). The in vitro penetration rate of melatonin (MT) entrapped in negatively charged liposomes was higher than that of positively charged ones (p<0.05). When the percutaneous absorption of ethosuximide (ES) encapsulated was estimated in vivo, the absorption of ES from negatively charged liposomes was slightly higher than that from positively charged liposomes. Additionally, the absorption of ES from both types of liposomes was superior to that from the lipid mixtures consisting of the same composition as the vesicles. The percutaneous absorption of betahistine (BH) from a gel formulation containing negatively charged liposomes of BH was much more than that from the formulation with positively charged ones, with 2-fold higher AUC (p<0.05). Histological studies revealed that the negatively charged liposomes diffused to the dermis and the lower portion of hair follicles through the stratum corneum and the follicles much faster than the positive vesicles at the initial time stage after application. Thus, the rapid penetration of negatively charged liposomes would contribute to the increased permeation of drugs through the skin. PMID:11378523

Ogiso, T; Yamaguchi, T; Iwaki, M; Tanino, T; Miyake, Y

2001-01-01

146

Quantitative determination of the novel anticancer drug E7070 (indisulam) and its metabolite (1,4-benzenedisulphonamide) in human plasma, urine and faeces by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

E7070 (indisulam) is a novel anticancer drug currently undergoing clinical investigation. We present a sensitive and specific method for the quantitative determination of E7070 and its metabolite M1 (1,4-benzenedisulphonamide) in human plasma, urine and faeces. The analytes and their tetra-deuterated analogues, which were used as internal standards, were isolated from the biological matrix by solid-phase extraction with OASIS cartridges (0.5 mL plasma or 1 mL urine) and by liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate at pH 5 (1 mL faecal homogenate). The analytes were separated on a C8 reversed-phase chromatographic column and analyzed using electrospray ionization and tandem mass spectrometric detection in the negative ion mode. The validated concentration ranges in plasma were 0.1-20 microg/mL for E7070 and 0.01-2 microg/mL for M1. In urine and faecal homogenate, a concentration range from 0.05-10 microg/mL or microg/g, respectively, was validated for both analytes. Validation of the plasma assay was performed according to the most recent FDA guidelines. The assay fulfilled all generally accepted requirements for linearity (r > 0.99, residuals between -8 and 10%), accuracy (-13.5 to 1.4%) and precision (all less than 11%) in the tested matrices. We investigated recovery, stability (working solutions at -20 degrees C and at room temperature, biological matrices at -20 degrees C, room temperature and after 3 freeze/thaw cycles; final extracts at room temperature) and robustness. All these parameters were found acceptable. This method is suited for mass balance studies or therapeutic drug monitoring, as demonstrated by a case example showing plasma concentrations and cumulative excretion of E7070 and M1 in urine and faeces. Furthermore, we show the presence of E7070 metabolites in patient urine. PMID:15517526

Beumer, Jan Hendrik; Rosing, Hilde; Hillebrand, Michel J X; Nan-Offeringa, Lianda G A H; Foley, Karen; Yule, S Murray; Heck, Albert J R; Schellens, Jan H M; Beijnen, Jos H

2004-01-01

147

Quantification of testosterone and epitestosterone in human urine samples by stir bar sorptive extraction--thermal desorption--gas chromatography/mass spectrometry: application to HIV-positive urine samples.  

PubMed

A simple method is described for the measurement of testosterone (T) and epitestosterone (ET) in human urine samples. The deconjugated steroids were extracted directly from the samples by stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) and derivatized in situ on the stir bar by headspace acylation prior to thermal desorption and GC/MS. Extraction and derivatization parameters, namely salt addition, temperature, and time, were optimized to improve the recovery of T and ET by SBSE. The limits of quantification (S/N 10) were 0.9 ng/mL for T and 2.8 ng/mL for ET. Quantification of the steroids in urine samples was performed using standard addition to avoid the influence of matrix effects. The method was applied for the measurement of urinary T and ET in a group of healthy volunteers and HIV+ patients. Decreased levels of T were detected in the HIV+ group, whereas the excretion of ET was comparable for the two groups. Further clinical research is required to elucidate the biomarker significance of the T/ET ratio in HIV infection. PMID:17390621

Stopforth, Adriana; Grobbelaar, Cornelis J; Crouch, Andrew M; Sandra, Pat

2007-02-01

148

Clinical Validation of a Highly Sensitive GC-MS Platform for Routine Urine Drug Screening and Real-Time Reporting of up to 212 Drugs.  

PubMed

An important role of the clinical toxicology laboratory is to provide continuous diagnostic testing for patients with altered mental status and for other medical indications. To meet these needs, we have developed a new Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) platform that facilitates routine screening and automated reporting of 212 drugs by laboratory technologists around the clock without the need to sign out by an on-site mass spectrometry-trained toxicologist. The platform uses a programmable temperature vaporizer (PTV) injector for large sample volume injection and the free software Automated Mass Spectral Deconvolution and Identification System (AMDIS) for data reduction and spectral matching that facilitates rapid library searching and analyte identification. Method comparison with 118 patient samples demonstrated that this platform and data searching algorithm independently provided improvements in sensitivity compared to an established GC-MS platform. Further examination of the role of the data processing software and the in-house databases used in the established versus the new platform demonstrated that the improved analytical sensitivity of the new platform was attributed to both the technical superiority of the new GC-MS instrumentation and the use of AMDIS in conjunction with the newly generated in-house library for data processing. PMID:23935615

Nair, Hari; Woo, Fred; Hoofnagle, Andrew N; Baird, Geoffrey S

2013-01-01

149

Molecular characterization and drug resistance of Escherichia coli strains isolated from urine from long-term care facility residents in Cracow, Poland  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli and extended-spectrum ?-lactamases (ESBL) pathogens isolated from asymptomatic bacteriuria and urinary tract infections (UTIs), and the relationship between the phylogeny, antimicrobial resistance, and virulence among isolates in residents of 3 long-term care facilities (LTCF) in Krakow, Poland. Material/Methods This was point prevalence study and prospective infection control in a group of 217 people. Urine samples were examined with standard microbiological methods and screened for the presence of blaCTX-M, blaSHV, and blaTEM. E. coli isolates were screened for 6 common virulence factors (VFs) and classified according to the rapid phylogenetic grouping technique. Results Among all the strains tested, 14 isolates (13.9%) expressed ESBL activity. A significant proportion of isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin (32.7%, n=33). Resistance to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole was identified among 45 isolates (44.5%). Independent risk factors for the presence of an ESBL-producing strain were: UTI, urinary and/or fecal incontinence, bedridden, and low values of the Barthel and Katz Indexes. Gene sequencing identified 8 blaCTX-M-15, 1 blaCTX-M-3, 9 blaTEM-1, and 1 blaSHV-12. Among E. coli, no relationship between number of VF genes and phylogeny was found. The most prevalent virulence factor was fimH (82.1%). Conclusions The findings of this study emphasize the need for further research on the epidemiology of multi-drug resistant organisms (MDRO) and ESBL in LTCF, including transmission patterns, rates of infection, and factors associated with infections. It may be necessary to extend the requirements and precautions to MDRO and ESBL-producers.

Pobiega, Monika; Wojkowska-Mach, Jadwiga; Chmielarczyk, Agnieszka; Romaniszyn, Dorota; Adamski, Pawel; Heczko, Piort B.; Gryglewska, Barbara; Grodzicki, Tomasz

2013-01-01

150

Application of statistical experimental design to the optimisation of microextraction by packed sorbent for the analysis of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in human urine by ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography.  

PubMed

A new approach based on microextraction by packed sorbent (MEPS) and a reversed-phase ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC) method was developed and validated for the determination and quantification of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (acetylsalicylic acid, ketoprofen, diclofenac, naproxen and ibuprofen) in human urine. The important factors that could influence the extraction were previously screened using the Plackett-Burman design approach. The optimal MEPS extraction conditions were obtained using C18 phase as a sorbent, small sample volume (20?L) and a short time period (approximately 5min) for the entire sample preparation step. The analytes were separated on a core-shell column (Poroshell 120 EC-C18; 100mm×3.0mm; 2.7?m) using a binary mobile phase composed of aqueous 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid and acetonitrile in the gradient elution mode (4.5min of analysis time). The analytical method was fully validated based on linearity, limits of detection (LOD), limits of quantification (LOQ), inter- and intra-day precision and accuracy, and extraction yield. Under optimised conditions, excellent linearity (R(2)>0.9991), limits of detection (1.07-16.2ngmL(-1)) and precision (0.503-9.15% RSD) were observed for the target drugs. The average absolute recoveries of the analysed compounds extracted from the urine samples were 89.4-107%. The proposed method was also applied to the analysis of NSAIDs in human urine. The new approach offers an attractive alternative for the analysis of selected drugs from urine samples, providing several advantages including fewer sample preparation steps, faster sample throughput and ease of performance compared to traditional methodologies. PMID:23876769

Magiera, Sylwia; Gülmez, ?efika; Michalik, Aleksandra; Baranowska, Irena

2013-08-23

151

Use of Vouchers to Reinforce Abstinence and Positive Behaviors among Clients in a Drug Court Treatment Program  

PubMed Central

In response to growing numbers of drug offenders cycling in and out of the criminal justice system without treatment for underlying drug problems, the judicial system has increasingly adopted drug courts as a strategy to divert these offenders from incarceration to supervised drug treatment. Our aim was to determine if drug court treatment effectiveness could be improved using contingency management, in the form of twice-weekly vouchers, to reinforce abstinence and positive behaviors for 163 clients over 26 weeks. We found no significant differences in outcomes among the study groups, although the Treatment Plan Group that received reinforcement for positive behaviors showed a trend toward poorer performance. We suspect that the influence of the judge within the courtroom had a stronger impact on drug court clients’ attitudes, drug use behaviors and other outcomes than the relatively low-value vouchers awarded as part of the treatment protocol.

Prendergast, Michael L.; Hall, Elizabeth A.; Roll, John; Warda, Umme

2008-01-01

152

Clean catch urine sample  

MedlinePLUS

Urine culture - clean catch; Urinalysis - clean catch; Clean catch urine specimen; Urine collection - clean catch ... If possible, collect the sample when urine has been in your bladder for 2 to 3 hours. You will use a special kit to collect the urine. It will ...

153

New designer drug, 2,5-dimethoxy-4-propylthio-beta-phenethylamine (2C-T-7): studies on its metabolism and toxicological detection in rat urine using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Studies are described on the metabolism and toxicological analysis of the phenethylamine-derived designer drug 2,5-dimethoxy-4-propylthio-beta-phenethylamine (2C-T-7) in rat urine using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The identified metabolites indicated that 2C-T-7 was metabolized by hydroxylation of the propyl side chain followed by N-acetylation and sulfoxidation and also by deamination followed by oxidation to the corresponding acid or by reduction to the corresponding alcohol. To a minor extent, 2C-T-7 was also metabolized by S-dealkylation followed by N-acetylation, S-methylation and sulfoxidation. The authors' systematic toxicological analysis (STA) procedure using full-scan GC/MS after acid hydrolysis, liquid-liquid extraction microwave-assisted acetylation allowed the detection of an intake of a dose of 2C-T-7 in rat urine that corresponds to a common drug users' dose. Assuming similar metabolism, the described STA procedure should be suitable for proof of an intake of 2C-T-7 in human urine. PMID:15643651

Theobald, Denis S; Fehn, Susanna; Maurer, Hans H

2005-01-01

154

Combined quantification of paclitaxel, docetaxel and ritonavir in human feces and urine using LC-MS/MS.  

PubMed

A combined assay for the determination of paclitaxel, docetaxel and ritonavir in human feces and urine is described. The drugs were extracted from 200 ?L urine or 50 mg feces followed by high-performance liquid chromatography analysis coupled with positive ionization electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. The validation program included calibration model, accuracy and precision, carry-over, dilution test, specificity and selectivity, matrix effect, recovery and stability. Acceptance criteria were according to US Food and Drug Administration guidelines on bioanalytical method validation. The validated range was 0.5-500 ng/mL for paclitaxel and docetaxel, 2-2000 ng/mL for ritonavir in urine, 2-2000 ng/mg for paclitaxel and docetaxel, and 8-8000 ng/mg for ritonavir in feces. Inter-assay accuracy and precision were tested for all analytes at four concentration levels and were within 8.5% and <10.2%, respectively, in both matrices. Recovery at three concentration levels was between 77 and 94% in feces samples and between 69 and 85% in urine samples. Method development, including feces homogenization and spiking blank urine samples, are discussed. We demonstrated that each of the applied drugs could be quantified successfully in urine and feces using the described assay. The method was successfully applied for quantification of the analytes in feces and urine samples of patients. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:23996474

Hendrikx, Jeroen J M A; Rosing, Hilde; Schinkel, Alfred H; Schellens, Jan H M; Beijnen, Jos H

2014-02-01

155

Fragmentation of toxicologically relevant drugs in positive-ion liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

The identification of drugs and related compounds by LC-MS-MS is an important analytical challenge in several application areas, including clinical and forensic toxicology, doping control analysis, and environmental analysis. Although target-compound based analytical strategies are most frequently applied, at some point the information content of the MS-MS spectra becomes relevant. In this article, the positive-ion MS-MS spectra of a wide variety of drugs and related substances are discussed. Starting point was an MS-MS mass spectral library of toxicologically relevant compounds, available on the internet. The positive-ion MS-MS spectra of ?570 compounds were interpreted by chemical and therapeutic class, thus involving a wide variety of drug compound classes, such benzodiazepines, beta-blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, phenothiazines, dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers, diuretics, local anesthetics, vasodilators, as well as various subclasses of anti-diabetic, antidepressant, analgesic, and antihistaminic drugs. In addition, the scientific literature was searched for available MS-MS data of these compound classes and the interpretation thereof. The results of this elaborate study are presented in this article. For each individual compound class, the emphasis is on class-specific fragmentation, as discussing fragmentation of all individual compounds would take far too much space. The recognition of class-specific fragmentation may be quite informative in determining the compound class of a specific unknown, which may further help in the identification. In addition, knowledge on (class-specific) fragmentation may further help in the optimization of the selectivity in targeted analytical approaches of compounds of one particular class. PMID:21294151

Niessen, W M A

2011-01-01

156

Determination of four thiophenethylamine designer drugs (2C-T-4, 2C-T-8, 2C-T-13, 2C-T-17) in human urine by capillary electrophoresis/mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

An analytical procedure for the simultaneous determination in human urine of four thiophenethylamine designer drugs (2C-T series) is reported. The quantitative analysis was performed by capillary electrophoresis with mass spectrometric detection (CE/MS), using 2,5-dimethoxy-4-methylthiophenethylamine-D(4) (2C-T-D(4)) as internal standard. In order to minimize interferences with matrix components and to preconcentrate target analytes, solid-phase extraction (SPE) was introduced in the method as a clean-up step. The method was validated according to international guidelines. The data for accuracy and precision were within required limits. Calibration curves were generated over the range from 10 to 500 ng mL(-1) and correlation coefficients always exceeded 0.997. The method was demonstrated to be specific, sensitive, and reliable for the analysis of these derivatives in urine samples. PMID:20635321

Nieddu, Maria; Boatto, Gianpiero; Pirisi, Maria Antonietta; Dessì, Giuseppina

2010-08-30

157

Combination of high-performance liquid chromatography and SERS detection applied to the analysis of drugs in human blood and urine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy was employed to characterise different drugs and some of their degradation products contained in bio-matrices after separation by HPLC. Since acetonitrile, which is contained in the widely used Daldrup type eluents, adsorbs readily to the silver surface and disturbs SERS measurements at low analyte concentration, a gradient technique relying on a methanol/buffer mixture was developed. Application of this eluent helps to lower the detection limit of most of the drugs investigated (e.g. Dihydrocodeine, Doxepine, Citalopram, Trimipramine, Carbamazepine, Methadone) into the 1 ?g/sample domain. The examples presented also demonstrate that the retention times determined by independent runs of reference solutions alone are not always sufficient for a unique identification of all fractions appearing in the chromatogram of a mixture that may contain degradation products. The Raman band patterns of many derivatives are, however, so distinct that in these cases an assignment to certain families of drugs is possible even without a detailed analysis of the spectrum (correlation of band positions with calculated normal mode frequencies). If SERS spectra of reference solutions recorded under similar experimental conditions are available, the described technique can provide a second, independent means of identification next to HPLC/MS for example if necessary during a law suit.

Trachta, Gerd; Schwarze, Bernd; Sägmüller, Bernd; Brehm, Georg; Schneider, Siegfried

2004-05-01

158

A practical strategy for characterization of the metabolic profile of chiral drugs using combinatory liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric techniques: application to tetrahydropalmatine enantiomers and their metabolites in rat urine.  

PubMed

The characterization and quantification of the metabolites of chiral drugs still remain a great challenge due to the complexity of the metabolites and most of them are not commercially available. In this study, a practical approach based on the combinatory liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric techniques has been proposed for the evaluation of metabolism profiles and urinary excretion kinetics of chiral drugs and their metabolites. Racemic tetrahydropalmatine (rac-THP), a biologically active ingredient isolated from a traditional Chinese herb Rhizoma Corydalis, was chosen as the model chiral drug. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF/MS) was applied to characterize the metabolites of THP enantiomers in rat urine after administration of (+)-THP or (-)-THP. Accurate mass measurement was used to determine the elemental composition of metabolites and thus to confirm the proposed structures of these metabolites. More than 30 potential metabolites were found in rat urine, most of which were identified for the first time, and the metabolic pathways in vivo were involved in demethylation, oxidation, glucuronide conjugation and sulfation, etc. And the tridesmethlyzed metabolite and didesmethlyzed coupled with oxidation metabolite were found only in (+)-THP treated rats. Afterwards, a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-QqQ/MS) assay was developed and validated for the determination of the urine level of THP enantiomers and their metabolites. Semi-quantification of three phase I metabolites and two phase II metabolites were performed. Enantiomeric (-/+) cumulative urinary excretion ratios of THP and its five metabolites were obtained, which indicated the stereoselective aspects of metabolites of THP enantiomers in vivo. The study demonstrated the enormous potential of this strategy for the qualitative characterization, quantitative assay and the stereoselectivity of chiral drugs and their metabolites. PMID:24598170

Zhang, Yinying; Dong, Xin; Le, Jian; Wen, Jun; Lin, Zebin; Liu, Yinli; Lou, Ziyang; Chai, Yifeng; Hong, Zhanying

2014-06-01

159

Glucose urine test  

MedlinePLUS

Urine sugar test; Urine glucose test; Glucosuria test; Glycosuria test ... After you provide a urine sample, it is tested right away. The health care provider uses a dipstick made with a color-sensitive pad. The ...

160

Genomic Analysis Identifies Targets of Convergent Positive Selection in Drug Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Mycobacterium tuberculosis is successfully evolving antibiotic resistance, threatening attempts at tuberculosis epidemic control. Mechanisms of resistance, including the genetic changes favored by selection in resistant isolates, are incompletely understood. Using 116 newly and 7 previously sequenced M. tuberculosis genomes, we identified genomewide signatures of positive selection specific to the 47 resistant genomes. By searching for convergent evolution, the independent fixation of mutations at the same nucleotide site or gene, we recovered 100% of a set of known resistance markers. We also found evidence of positive selection in an additional 39 genomic regions in resistant isolates. These regions encode pathways of cell wall biosynthesis, transcriptional regulation and DNA repair. Mutations in these regions could directly confer resistance or compensate for fitness costs associated with resistance. Functional genetic analysis of mutations in one gene, ponA1, demonstrated an in vitro growth advantage in the presence of the drug rifampicin.

Farhat, Maha R; Shapiro, B Jesse; Kieser, Karen J; Sultana, Razvan; Jacobson, Karen R; Victor, Thomas C; Warren, Robin M; Streicher, Elizabeth M; Calver, Alistair; Sloutsky, Alex; Kaur, Devinder; Posey, Jamie E; Plikaytis, Bonnie; Oggioni, Marco R; Gardy, Jennifer L; Johnston, James C; Rodrigues, Mabel; Tang, Patrick K C; Kato-Maeda, Midori; Borowsky, Mark L; Muddukrishna, Bhavana; Kreiswirth, Barry N; Kurepina, Natalia; Galagan, James; Gagneux, Sebastien; Birren, Bruce; Rubin, Eric J; Lander, Eric S; Sabeti, Pardis C; Murray, Megan

2013-01-01

161

Methadone use among HIV-positive injection drug users in a Canadian setting  

PubMed Central

We examined methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) use among HIV-positive injection drug users (IDU) in Vancouver. Among 353 participants, 199 (56.3%) were on MMT at baseline, and 48 initiated MMT during follow-up. Female gender (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.73, 95% CI: 1.14 – 2.62) and antiretroviral therapy use (AOR = 2.04, 95% CI: 1.46 – 2.86) were positively associated with MMT use, while frequent heroin injection (AOR = 0.34, 95% CI: 0.23–0.50), public injection (AOR = 0.76, 95% CI: 0.59 – 0.97), syringe borrowing (AOR = 0.54, 95% CI: 0.32 – 0.90), and non-fatal overdose (AOR = 0.58, 95% CI: 0.36 – 0.92) were negatively associated with MMT use. The rate of discontinuation of MMT was 12.46 (95% CI: 8.28 – 18.00) per 100 person years. Frequent heroin use (adjusted hazards ratio = 4.49, 95%CI: 1.81 – 11.13) was positively associated with subsequent discontinuation of MMT. These findings demonstrate the benefits of MMT among HIV-positive IDU and the need to improve access to and retention in MMT.

Pettes, Tyler; Wood, Evan; Guillemi, Silvia; Lai, Calvin; Montaner, Julio; Kerr, Thomas

2010-01-01

162

Observation of swelling process and diffusion front position during swelling in hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) matrices containing a soluble drug  

Microsoft Academic Search

The behavior of gel layer thickness in swellable hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose matrices loaded with increasing amounts of soluble and colored drug and exhibiting swelling, diffusion and erosion fronts, was studied using a colorimetric technique. The effect of the drug loading on the front position in the gel layer, in particular, on the presence of a diffusion front and its movement,

Paolo Colombo; Ruggero Bettini; Nikolaos A. Peppas

1999-01-01

163

Generation and utilization of anti-drug monoclonal antibodies for screening of 36 drug users by dot-ELISA.  

PubMed

In this study, we prepared monoclonal antibodies against morphine, methadone, babital, methamphetamine, and phencyclidine, then developed a dot-ELISA method by such antibodies to test their efficacy in clinical application and the screening of urine samples. It was found that there were 36 narcotics-positive drug users, including 28 morphine positive, six methamphetamine positive, and two positive for both. All the results were confirmed by commercial drug testing kits. PMID:19382846

Wang, Shuang; Wei, Yuzhi; Chen, Guangyu; Liu, Xiaowei; Jin, Haiming; Yan, Zhaoqi; Wu, Qiaowen; Du, Hongwu

2009-04-01

164

Determination of Aplidin ®, a marine-derived anticancer drug, in human plasma, whole blood and urine by liquid chromatography with electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometric detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sensitive and highly specific liquid chromatographic method with electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometric detection (LC–ESI–MS\\/MS) is reported for the determination in human plasma, whole blood and urine of Aplidin® (APL), a novel depsipeptide derived from the tunicate Aplidium albicans with a potent cytotoxic activity under investigation in clinical studies. Didemnin B was used as internal standard and, after protein

Nicola Celli; Barbara Mariani; Francesco Di Carlo; Massimo Zucchetti; Luis Lopez-Lazaro; Maurizio D’Incalci; Domenico Rotilio

2004-01-01

165

Urine output - decreased  

MedlinePLUS

Decreased urine output means that you produce less than 500 milliliters of urine in 24 hours. ... A large decrease in urine output may be a sign of a serious, or even life-threatening, condition. However, urine output can usually be restored ...

166

Urine - abnormal color  

MedlinePLUS

The usual color of urine is straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine may be cloudy, dark, or blood-colored. ... Abnormal urine color may be caused by infection, disease, medicines, or food you eat. Cloudy or milky urine is a sign ...

167

Spatial Analysis of HIV Positive Injection Drug Users in San Francisco, 1987 to 2005  

PubMed Central

Spatial analyses of HIV/AIDS related outcomes are growing in popularity as a tool to understand geographic changes in the epidemic and inform the effectiveness of community-based prevention and treatment programs. The Urban Health Study was a serial, cross-sectional epidemiological study of injection drug users (IDUs) in San Francisco between 1987 and 2005 (N = 29,914). HIV testing was conducted for every participant. Participant residence was geocoded to the level of the United States Census tract for every observation in dataset. Local indicator of spatial autocorrelation (LISA) tests were used to identify univariate and bivariate Census tract clusters of HIV positive IDUs in two time periods. We further compared three tract level characteristics (% poverty, % African Americans, and % unemployment) across areas of clustered and non-clustered tracts. We identified significant spatial clustering of high numbers of HIV positive IDUs in the early period (1987–1995) and late period (1996–2005). We found significant bivariate clusters of Census tracts where HIV positive IDUs and tract level poverty were above average compared to the surrounding areas. Our data suggest that poverty, rather than race, was an important neighborhood characteristic associated with the spatial distribution of HIV in SF and its spatial diffusion over time.

Martinez, Alexis N.; Mobley, Lee R.; Lorvick, Jennifer; Novak, Scott P.; Lopez, Andrea M.; Kral, Alex H.

2014-01-01

168

Weighing the Consequences: Self-Disclosure of HIV-Positive Status among African American Injection Drug Users  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Theorists posit that personal decisions to disclose being HIV positive are made based on the perceived consequences of that disclosure. This study examines the perceived costs and benefits of self-disclosure among African American injection drug users (IDUs). A total of 80 African American IDUs were interviewed in-depth subsequent to testing HIV…

Valle, Maribel; Levy, Judith

2009-01-01

169

Designer phenethylamines routinely found in human urine: 2-ethylamino-1-phenylbutane and 2-amino-1-phenylbutane.  

PubMed

2-Ethylamino-1-phenylbutane (EAPB) and 2-amino-1-phenylbutane (APB) were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in multiple urine samples submitted for stimulant drug testing and screened positive for amphetamines by enzyme immunoassay. Forty-two samples from all over the USA were found, containing both analytes during a 3-month period May-July 2013. A sports dietary supplement 'CRAZE' has been determined to be one of the sources of EAPB supply. EAPB along with its suggested metabolite APB were detected in a urine sample, obtained from a person known to use 'CRAZE'. PMID:24451085

Uralets, Victor; App, Mike; Rana, Sumandeep; Morgan, Stewart; Ross, Wayne

2014-03-01

170

Purple urine bag syndrome with acidic urine.  

PubMed

Purple discoloration of a urinary catheter bag is very rare. This phenomenon is known as the purple urine bag syndrome. It is associated with urinary tract infections occurring in catheterized patients, generally elderly females with significant co-morbidities and constipation. The urine is usually alkaline. We present a unique case of this rare and interesting phenomenon occurring in acidic urine and discuss the pathophysiology. PMID:18514009

Chung, Shiu-Dong; Liao, Chun-Hou; Sun, Hsu-Dong

2008-09-01

171

Reflex UroVysion testing of bladder cancer surveillance patients with equivocal or negative urine cytology: a prospective study with focus on the natural history of anticipatory positive findings.  

PubMed

A proportion of patients under surveillance for recurrent bladder carcinoma with no immediate evidence of bladder tumor recurrence have positive multitarget fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH; UroVysion, Vysis, Downers Grove, IL) results. The course of these "anticipatory positive" cases and the time to bladder tumor recurrence remains unknown. We followed up 250 patients with urine cytologic results, concurrent multitarget FISH, and cystoscopic examination for recurrent urothelial carcinoma. Of 81 cases (32.4%) with FISH-positive results, tumor recurrence developed in 60 (74.0%). Of 169 (67.6%) FISH-negative cases, recurrent urothelial carcinoma developed in 22 (13.0%). Of 211 patients (84.4%) with negative cystoscopic examination results, 56 (26.5%) had positive FISH results, and in 35 (62.5%) of these patients, recurrent urothelial carcinoma developed. Approximately 27% of patients under bladder carcinoma surveillance without immediate evidence of tumor recurrence will have a positive FISH result, defining the anticipatory positive subset. In about 65% of this anticipatory positive group, recurrent bladder urothelial carcinoma developed within 29 months. PMID:17210520

Yoder, Brian J; Skacel, Marek; Hedgepeth, Ryan; Babineau, Denise; Ulchaker, James C; Liou, Louis S; Brainard, Jennifer A; Biscotti, Charles V; Jones, J Stephen; Tubbs, Raymond R

2007-02-01

172

Multi-drug resistant oral Candida species isolated from HIV-positive patients in South Africa and Cameroon.  

PubMed

Candida species are a common cause of infection in immune-compromised HIV-positive individuals, who are usually treated with the antifungal drug, fluconazole, in public hospitals in Africa. However, information about the prevalence of drug resistance to fluconazole and other antifungal agents on Candida species is very limited. This study examined 128 Candida isolates from South Africa and 126 Cameroonian Candida isolates for determination of species prevalence and antifungal drug susceptibility. The isolates were characterized by growth on chromogenic and selective media and by their susceptibility to 9 antifungal drugs tested using the TREK™ YeastOne9 drug panel (Thermo Scientific, USA). Eighty-three percent (82.8%) of South African isolates were Candida albicans (106 isolates), 9.4% were Candida glabrata (12 isolates), and 7.8% were Candida dubliniensis (10 isolates). Of the Cameroonian isolates, 73.02% were C. albicans (92 isolates); 19.05% C. glabrata (24 isolates); 3.2% Candida tropicalis (4 isolates); 2.4% Candida krusei (3 isolates); 1.59% either Candida kefyr, Candida parapsilopsis, or Candida lusitaneae (2 isolates); and 0.79% C. dubliniensis (1 isolate). Widespread C. albicans resistance to azoles was detected phenotypically in both populations. Differences in drug resistance were seen within C. glabrata found in both populations. Echinocandin drugs were more effective on isolates obtained from the Cameroon than in South Africa. A multiple-drug resistant C. dubliniensis strain isolated from the South African samples was inhibited only by 5-flucytosine in vitro on the YO9 panel. Drug resistance among oral Candida species is common among African HIV patients in these 2 countries. Regional surveillance of Candida species drug susceptibility should be undertaken to ensure effective treatment for HIV-positive patients. PMID:24726686

Dos Santos Abrantes, Pedro Miguel; McArthur, Carole P; Africa, Charlene Wilma Joyce

2014-06-01

173

Early appropriate therapy of Gram-positive bloodstream infections: the conservative use of new drugs.  

PubMed

Among the Gram-positive organisms, meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Enterococcus faecium represent the biggest therapeutic hurdles. The evolution of MRSA exemplifies the genetic adaptation of an organism into a first-class multidrug-resistant pathogen. Glycopeptides such as vancomycin have been the treatment of choice for MRSA, but poor outcomes have frequently been reported, particularly among isolates with higher minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) within the susceptible range (< or =2 mg/L). Further more, vancomycin's limitations as an antibacterial agent include slow bactericidal activity and relatively poor tissue penetration. Inadequate dosing may, however, contribute to vancomycin's poor performance; the standard recommendation for trough concentrations of 5-10 mg/L is inadequate for serious infections such as bacteraemia and endocarditis. Trough levels of 15-20 mg/L are probably necessary; however they are often associated with increased nephrotoxicity. Despite the recent dramatic reduction in antibiotic research by pharmaceutical companies, a few compounds have been developed to treat Gram-positive infections. Quinupristin-dalfopristin, although shown to have in vitro activity against MRSA, is not approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of MRSA, and cannot be recommended for the treatment of S. aureus bacteraemia, except under exceptional circumstances. Although linezolid and tigecycline may be useful in specific situations, they cannot be routinely recommended for the treatment of MRSA bacteraemia because of safety concerns and very limited available clinical data. Daptomycin has recently been proven to be effective and well tolerated for meticillin-sensitive S. aureus and MRSA bacteraemia, including right-sided endocarditis. PMID:19931814

Grossi, Paolo A

2009-01-01

174

Protein urine test  

MedlinePLUS

... diseased, proteins appear in the urine, even if blood protein levels are normal. ... not a cause for concern. Larger amounts of protein in the urine may be ... caused by pregnancy ( preeclampsia ) Urinary tract problems, ...

175

Punitive policing and associated substance use risks among HIV-positive people in Russia who inject drugs  

PubMed Central

Introduction Drug law enforcement is part of the HIV risk environment among people who inject drugs (PWID). Punitive policing practices such as extrajudicial arrests for needle possession and police planting of drugs have been described anecdotally in Russia, but these experiences and their associations with risky drug behaviours have not been quantified. This study aims to quantify the burden of extrajudicial police arrests among a cohort of HIV-positive PWID in Russia and to explore its links to drug-related health outcomes. Methods In a cross-sectional study of 582 HIV-positive people with lifetime injection drug use (IDU) in St. Petersburg, Russia, we estimated the prevalence of self-reported extrajudicial police arrests. We used multiple logistic regression to evaluate associations between arrests and the following outcomes: overdose, recent IDU and receptive needle sharing. Findings This cohort's mean age was 29.8 years, 60.8% were male; 75.3% reported non-fatal drug overdose, 50.3% recent IDU and 47.3% receptive needle sharing. Extrajudicial arrests were reported by more than half (60.5%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 56.5–64.5) and were associated with higher odds of non-fatal drug overdose (AOR 1.52, 95% CI: 1.02–2.25) but not with recent IDU (AOR 1.17, arrests were associated with receptive needle sharing (AOR 1.84, 95% CI: 1.09–3.09). Conclusions Extrajudicial police arrests were common among this cohort of Russian HIV-positive PWID and associated with non-fatal overdose and, among those with recent IDU, receptive needle sharing. As a part of the HIV risk environment of PWIDs, these practices might contribute to HIV transmission and overdose mortality. Further research is needed to relate these findings to the operational environment of law enforcement and to better understand how police interventions among PWIDs can improve the HIV risk environment.

Lunze, Karsten; Raj, Anita; Cheng, Debbie M.; Quinn, Emily K.; Bridden, Carly; Blokhina, Elena; Walley, Alexander Y.; Krupitsky, Evgeny; Samet, Jeffrey H.

2014-01-01

176

NF-?B activation-induced anti-apoptosis renders HER2-positive cells drug resistant and accelerates tumor growth.  

PubMed

Breast cancers with HER2 overexpression are sensitive to drugs targeting the receptor or its kinase activity. HER2-targeting drugs are initially effective against HER2-positive breast cancer, but resistance inevitably occurs. We previously found that NF-?B is hyperactivated in a subset of HER2-positive breast cancer cells and tissue specimens. In this study, we report that constitutively active NF-?B rendered HER2-positive cancer cells resistant to anti-HER2 drugs and cells selected for lapatinib resistance upregulated NF-?B. In both circumstances, cells were antiapoptotic and grew rapidly as xenografts. Lapatinib-resistant cells were refractory to HER2 and NF-?B inhibitors alone but were sensitive to their combination, suggesting a novel therapeutic strategy. A subset of NF-?B-responsive genes was overexpressed in HER2-positive and triple-negative breast cancers, and patients with this NF-?B signature had poor clinical outcome. Anti-HER2 drug resistance may be a consequence of NF-?B activation, and selection for resistance results in NF-?B activation, suggesting that this transcription factor is central to oncogenesis and drug resistance. Clinically, the combined targeting of HER2 and NF-?B suggests a potential treatment paradigm for patients who relapse after anti-HER2 therapy. Patients with these cancers may be treated by simultaneously suppressing HER2 signaling and NF-?B activation. Implications: The combination of an inhibitor of I?B kinase (IKK) inhibitor and anti-HER2 drugs may be a novel treatment strategy for drug-resistant human breast cancers. PMID:24319068

Bailey, Shannon T; Miron, Penelope L; Choi, Yoon J; Kochupurakkal, Bose; Maulik, Gautam; Rodig, Scott J; Tian, Ruiyang; Foley, Kathleen M; Bowman, Teresa; Miron, Alexander; Brown, Myles; Iglehart, J Dirk; Biswas, Debajit K

2014-03-01

177

Urine sample (image)  

MedlinePLUS

A "clean-catch" urine sample is performed by collecting the sample of urine in midstream. Men or boys should wipe clean the head ... water and rinse well. A small amount of urine should initially fall into the toilet bowl before ...

178

24-hour urine copper test  

MedlinePLUS

The 24-hour urine copper test measures the amount of copper in a urine sample. ... A 24-hour urine sample is needed. On day 1, urinate into the toilet when you get up in the morning. Afterwards, collect ...

179

The impact of incarceration upon adherence to HIV treatment among HIV-positive injection drug users: a qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction. HIV-positive injection drug users (IDU) often do not derive the full benefits of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Among IDU, recent incarceration has been associated with discontinuation of HAART for non-clinical reasons. We sought to qualitatively evaluate experiences with HAART among HIV-positive IDU who had been recently incarcerated within provincial prisons in British Columbia in order to identify factors

Will Small; Evan Wood; Glenn Betteridge; Julio Montaner; Thomas Kerr

2009-01-01

180

College on Problems of Drug Dependence taskforce on prescription opioid non-medical use and abuse: position statement  

Microsoft Academic Search

This position paper from the College on Problems of Drug Dependence addresses the issues related to non-medical use and abuse of prescription opioids. A central theme throughout is the need to strike a balance between risk management strategies to prevent and deter prescription opioid abuse and the need for physicians and patients to have appropriate access to opioid pharmaceuticals for

James Zacny; George Bigelow; Peggy Compton; Kathleen Foley; Martin Iguchi; Christine Sannerud

2003-01-01

181

Unsatisfactory Performance of Flow Cytometer UF-100 and Urine Strips in Predicting Outcome of Urine Cultures  

PubMed Central

UF-100 flow cytometer and urine strip results were cross-interpreted to predict culture outcomes. The best negative predictive value was obtained with bacteria at ?1,000/?l, white blood cells at ?20/?l, or leukocyte esterase positivity. Nine of 24 false negatives were clinically significant. Thus, UF-100 and urine strip results do not accurately predict the outcome of cultures.

Zaman, Zahur; Roggeman, Sylvie; Verhaegen, Jan

2001-01-01

182

[Two news drugs (ivacaftor & bedaquiline), one biomarker (florbetapir) and a re-positioned drug (propranolol) on the market].  

PubMed

Among the new molecular entities approved by the EMEA and the FDA in 2012, four have caught our attention for their significant contribution to the health of patient. First of all, among the notable 2012 approvals, is ivacaftor or Kalydeco(®). This is the first treatment that targets one of the gene defects that is underlying cause of cystic fibrosis. This is also an example of the promise of personalized medicine. The benefits with bedaquiline or Sirturo(®) are its ability to likely provide clinically relevant activity as part of multi-drug regimens against tuberculosis (TB) based on clinical data in multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) patients, who were defined as being at least resistant against the two major tuberculostatic medicines (isaoniazide and rifampicine). On December 2012 and then, on December 2013, the FDA and European Medicines Agency's Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) has recommended granting a conditional marketing authorization for Sirturo(®) (bedaquiline), respectively, for use as part of a combination therapy for pulmonary multidrug resistant tuberculosis in adult patients when an effective treatment regimen cannot otherwise be composed for reasons of resistance or tolerability. Amyvid(®), which is a solution for injection that contains the active substance florbetapir ((18)F), is a radiopharmaceutical that emits low amounts of radiation and works by targeting and attaching to ?-amyloid plaques in the brain. This enables doctors to know whether or not significant amount of plaques are present in order to know if the patient is unlikely or not, to have Alzheimer's disease. Finally, the last topics addresses the propranolol, which is a beta-blocker, used alone or together with other medicines to treat high blood pressure. Propranolol is gaining a new lease of life for treating infantile hemangioma. PMID:24997884

Monneret, C

2014-07-01

183

Self-reported drug use and urinalysis results.  

PubMed

The study examined the consistency between retrospective self-reported drug use and urinalysis data among 281 male opioid dependent subjects attending out patient clinic of National Drug Dependence Treatment Centre from January 2001 to December 2001 at All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi. Preliminary analysis indicated that there was moderate to high concordance between the two measures among different drug types. On an average 85% of urine test results matched with self-report. Subject's over-reported drug use as indicated by the low positive predictive value. In contrast, subjects were more accurate when they were reporting no drug use as suggested by the high negative predictive value. The study suggests that urine analysis is a critical variable in substance abuse treatment programs. Clinicians should be cautious while prescribing agonist drug due to frequent over-reporting of drug use by patients in our setting. This will make the substance abuse program more meaningful. PMID:15270376

Jain, Raka

2004-01-01

184

[Combined treatment of patients with erectile dysfunction and urination disorders].  

PubMed

The article presents the results of the study aimed to the evaluation the efficacy of combination therapy with alpha1-blocker (tamsulosin) and phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor (sildenafil) in patients with urination disorders and erectile dysfunction (ED). A pilot observational study involving 60 men aged from 50 and 80 years divided into 3 groups of 20 people was performed. Group 1 of patients received sildenafil 25 mg daily (dynamico), Group 2--tamsulosin 0.4 mg daily (Omnic-Ocas), and Group 3--tamsulosin 0.4 mg (Omnic-Ocas) and sildenafil 25 mg (dynamico) daily. The visits were carried out at the stage of screening, further--every 10 days (a total number--4 visits). Combination therapy of urination disorders and ED contributed to the significant improvement in uroflowmetry, the stopping of complaints according to the IPSS and IIEF-15 questionnaires, and improving the quality of life (according to the QoL questionnaire). Combination therapy significantly decreased obstructive and irritative symptoms, increased the maximum urine flow rate within the period of observation, as well as significantly decreased the residual urine volume, more pronounced when compared with monotherapy. Significant positive effect on erectile component and all components of the overall satisfaction in the sexual sphere were registered, that as a consequence led to the positive impact on the quality of life in patients treated with PDE5 inhibitor. Given the high prevalence of urinary disorders and erectile dysfunction, combined therapy with alpha1-blockers and PDE5 inhibitors in this case should be a promising area for drug therapy. PMID:23987045

Kamalov, A A; Osmolovski?, B E; Okhobotov, D A; Khodyreva, L A; Takhiradze, T B; Takhiradze, A M; Gevorkian, A R

2013-01-01

185

Urine the Know  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity on page 5 of the PDF, learners compare water with artificial urine to see how urinalysis works. Learners use urinalysis test strips to test for glucose and protein in the fake urine. Use this activity to demonstrate why doctors examine urine samples to determine a person's health. Safety notes: Follow the safety notes described in the activity as well as Milli's safety tips on page 2.

Society, American C.

2004-01-01

186

Detection of manipulation in doping control urine sample collection: a multidisciplinary approach to determine identical urine samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Manipulation of urine sampling in sports drug testing is considered a violation of anti-doping rules and is consequently sanctioned\\u000a by regulatory authorities. In 2003, three identical urine specimens were provided by three different athletes, and the identity\\u000a of all urine samples was detected and substantiated using numerous analytical strategies including gas chromatography–mass\\u000a spectrometry with steroid and metabolite profiling, gas chromatography–nitrogen\\/phosphorus

Mario Thevis; Hans Geyer; Ute Mareck; Gerd Sigmund; Jürgen Henke; Lotte Henke; Wilhelm Schänzer

2007-01-01

187

A cost-utility analysis of drug treatments in patients with HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B in Thailand  

PubMed Central

Background Only lamivudine has been included for patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) in the National List of Essential Drugs (NLED), a pharmaceutical reimbursement list in Thailand. There have also been no economic evaluation studies of CHB drug treatments conducted in Thailand yet. In order to fill this gap in policy research, the objective of this study was to compare the cost-utility of each drug therapy (Figure 1) with palliative care in patients with HBeAg-positive CHB. Methods A cost-utility analysis using an economic evaluation model was performed to compare each drug treatment for HBeAg-positive CHB patients. A Markov model was used to estimate the relevant costs and health outcomes during a lifetime horizon based on a societal perspective. Direct medical costs, direct non-medical costs, and indirect costs were included, and health outcomes were denoted in life years (LYs) and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). The results were presented as an incremental cost effectiveness ratio (ICER) in Thai baht (THB) per LY or QALY gained. One-way sensitivity and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were applied to investigate the effects of model parameter uncertainties. Results The ICER values of providing generic lamivudine with the addition of tenofovir when drug resistance occurred, generic lamivudine with the addition of tenofovir based on the road map guideline, and tenofovir monotherapy were -14,000 (USD -467), -8,000 (USD -267) , and -5,000 (USD -167) THB per QALY gained, respectively. However, when taking into account all parameter uncertainties in the model, providing generic lamivudine with the addition of tenofovir when drug resistance occurred (78% and 75%) and tenofovir monotherapy (18% and 24%) would yield higher probabilities of being cost-effective at the societal willingness to pay thresholds of 100,000 (USD 3,333) and 300,000 (USD 10,000) THB per QALY gained in Thailand, respectively. Conclusions Based on the policy recommendations from this study, the Thai government decided to include tenofovir into the NLED in addition to generic lamivudine which is already on the list. Moreover, the results have shown that the preferred treatment regimen involves using generic lamivudine as the first-line drug with tenofovir added if drug resistance occurs in HBeAg-positive CHB patients.

2014-01-01

188

On-line column coupled isotachophoresis-capillary zone electrophoresis hyphenated with tandem mass spectrometry in drug analysis: Varenicline and its metabolite in human urine.  

PubMed

A new highly advanced analytical approach, based on two-dimensional column coupled CE (ITP-CZE) hyphenated with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS, here triple quadrupole, QqQ) was developed, evaluated and applied in biomedical field in the present work. Capillary isotachophoresis (ITP) coupled on-line with capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) used in hydrodynamically closed separation system was favorable for increasing the sample load capacity, increasing the analyte concentration, and removing the deteriorative highly conductive major matrix constituents. These factors considerably reduced the concentration limits of detection (cLOD) and external sample preparation (comparing to single column CZE), and, by that, provided favorable conditions for the mass spectrometry (enhanced signal to noise ratio, reproducibility of measurements, working life of MS). Here, the CZE-ESI combination provided more effective interfacing than ITP-ESI resulting in both a higher obtainable intensity of MS detection signal of the analyte as well as reproducibility of measurements of the analyte's peak area. The optimized ITP-CZE-ESI-QqQ method was successfully evaluated as for its performance parameters (LOD, LOQ, linearity, precision, recovery/accuracy) and applied for the direct identification and ultratrace (pgmL(-1)) determination of varenicline and, in addition, identification of its targeted metabolite, 2-hydroxy-varenicline, in unpretreated/diluted human urine. This application example demonstrated the real analytical potential of this new analytical approach and, at the same time, served as currently the most effective routine clinical method for varenicline. PMID:24793857

Pieš?anský, Juraj; Maráková, Katarína; Veizerová, Lucia; Galba, Jaroslav; Mikuš, Peter

2014-05-15

189

A highly sensitive CE-chemiluminescence method for the determination of sympathomimetic drugs in urine samples by a facile precolumn derivatization using acridinium ester.  

PubMed

As one of the most sensitive detection mode for CE, chemiluminescence (CL) detection is less developed compared to some other detection modes such as MS and LIF, despite its low equipment cost and simple design. The fact is partly due to the limitation of CL systems suitable for CE. In this paper, a highly sensitive CE-CL strategy was established for the determination of dopamine (DA) and cimbuterol (CM) using acridinium ester as derivatization reagent. Catalyst was not required in this CL detection system. Also, a good sensitivity was obtained due to its quite low background and strong signal. Under the optimal conditions, the presented method has been successfully applied to analyze DA and CM with LODs (S/N = 3) of 2.0 and 0.50 ng/mL, respectively. The linear ranges were 5.0–1500 ng/mL and 2.0–1000 ng/mL for DA and CM, respectively. To validate our method, the levels of DA in human urine samples were detected by this method, and the results showed acceptable accordance with those of ELISA. All the analysis procedure could be completed in 400 s, and the results showed satisfactory sensitivity and selectivity.The approach could also be further extended to rapid analysis of many other compounds including primary and second amines in clinical medicine and biopharmaceutical analysis using acridinium ester as CL derivatization reagent. PMID:24812684

Wang, Zuorong; Yue, Huan; Wang, Yonghong; Wang, Lin; Fu, Zhifeng

2014-04-01

190

Purple urine bag syndrome.  

PubMed

The purple urine bag syndrome (PUBS) is a rare condition associated with chronic urinary catheterization. It is characterized by the purple discoloration of the urine, collecting bag, and tubing. A number of factors are involved, but not always present, in its development including female sex, urinary tract infection, constipation, indicanuria, and alkaline urine. Despite multiple theories that involve the complex tryptophan metabolism to the tubing dye, the cause remains elusive. The syndrome resolves usually after treatment of urinary tract infection or changing of the collecting bag. We present a case of a patient with purple urine bag syndrome and a pertinent literature review. PMID:16032624

Vallejo-Manzur, Federico; Mireles-Cabodevila, Eduardo; Varon, Joseph

2005-07-01

191

Urine Pretreat Injection System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new method of introducing the OXONE (Registered Trademark) Monopersulfate Compound for urine pretreat into a two-phase urine/air flow stream has been successfully tested and evaluated. The feasibility of this innovative method has been established for purposes of providing a simple, convenient, and safe method of handling a chemical pretreat required for urine processing in a microgravity space environment. Also, the Oxone portion of the urine pretreat has demonstrated the following advantages during real time collection of 750 pounds of urine in a Space Station design two-phase urine Fan/Separator: Eliminated urine precipitate buildup on internal hardware and plumbing; Minimized odor from collected urine; and Virtually eliminated airborne bacteria. The urine pretreat, as presently defined for the Space Station program for proper downstream processing of urine, is a two-part chemical treatment of 5.0 grams of Oxone and 2.3 ml of H2SO4 per liter of urine. This study program and test demonstrated only the addition of the proper ratio of Oxone into the urine collection system upstream of the Fan/Separator. This program was divided into the following three major tasks: (1) A trade study, to define and recommend the type of Oxone injection method to pursue further; (2) The design and fabrication of the selected method; and (3) A test program using high fidelity hardware and fresh urine to demonstrate the method feasibility. The trade study was conducted which included defining several methods for injecting Oxone in different forms into a urine system. Oxone was considered in a liquid, solid, paste and powered form. The trade study and the resulting recommendation were presented at a trade study review held at Hamilton Standard on 24-25 October 94. An agreement was reached at the meeting to continue the solid tablet in a bag concept which included a series of tablets suspended in the urine/air flow stream. These Oxone tablets would slowly dissolve at a controlled rate providing the proper concentration in the collected urine. To implement the solid tablet in a bag approach, a design concept was completed with prototype drawings of the complete urine pretreat prefilter assembly. A successful fabrication technique was developed for retaining the Oxone tablets in a fabric casing attached to the end of the existing Space Station Waste Collection System urine prefilter assembly. The final pretreat prefilter configuration held sufficient Oxone in a tablet form to allow normal scheduled daily (or twice daily) change out of the urine filter depending on the use rate of the Space Station urine collection system. The actual tests to prove the concept were conducted using the Urine Fan/Separator assembly that was originally used in the STS-52 Design Test Objective (DTO) urinal assembly. Other related tests were conducted to demonstrate the actual minimum ratio of Oxone to urine that will control microbial growth.

1995-01-01

192

Radioimmunologische Bestimmung von Digoxin im Urin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary When separating free and antibody bound digoxin, dextrancoated charcoal suspensions in protein-free urine dilutions develop an improves sieve effect which improves with aging of the suspensions. On addition of albumin to the dilution medium (buffer), the adsorptive capacities become stabilized. In urine dilutions < of 1:50, false positive digoxin concentrations were measured. Determinations of 0–5 ng digoxin\\/ml in the

K. Maertin; N. Rietbrock

1977-01-01

193

Impaired Urine Dilution Capability in HIV Stable Patients  

PubMed Central

Renal disease is a well-recognized complication among patients with HIV infection. Viral infection itself and the use of some antiretroviral drugs contribute to this condition. The thick ascending limb of Henle's loop (TALH) is the tubule segment where free water clearance is generated, determining along with glomerular filtration rate the kidney's ability to dilute urine. Objective. We analyzed the function of the proximal tubule and TALH in patients with HIV infection receiving or not tenofovir-containing antiretroviral treatment in comparison with healthy seronegative controls, by applying a tubular physiological test, hyposaline infusion test (Chaimowitz' test). Material & Methods. Chaimowitz' test was performed on 20 HIV positive volunteers who had normal renal functional parameters. The control group included 10 healthy volunteers. Results. After the test, both HIV groups had a significant reduction of serum sodium and osmolarity compared with the control group. Free water clearance was lower and urine osmolarity was higher in both HIV+ groups. Proximal tubular function was normal in both studied groups. Conclusion. The present study documented that proximal tubule sodium reabsorption was preserved while free water clearance and maximal urine dilution capability were reduced in stable HIV patients treated or not with tenofovir.

Belloso, Waldo H.; de Paz Sierra, Mariana; Navarro, Matilde; Sanchez, Marisa L.; Perelsztein, Ariel G.; Musso, Carlos G.

2014-01-01

194

Impaired Urine Dilution Capability in HIV Stable Patients.  

PubMed

Renal disease is a well-recognized complication among patients with HIV infection. Viral infection itself and the use of some antiretroviral drugs contribute to this condition. The thick ascending limb of Henle's loop (TALH) is the tubule segment where free water clearance is generated, determining along with glomerular filtration rate the kidney's ability to dilute urine. Objective. We analyzed the function of the proximal tubule and TALH in patients with HIV infection receiving or not tenofovir-containing antiretroviral treatment in comparison with healthy seronegative controls, by applying a tubular physiological test, hyposaline infusion test (Chaimowitz' test). Material & Methods. Chaimowitz' test was performed on 20 HIV positive volunteers who had normal renal functional parameters. The control group included 10 healthy volunteers. Results. After the test, both HIV groups had a significant reduction of serum sodium and osmolarity compared with the control group. Free water clearance was lower and urine osmolarity was higher in both HIV+ groups. Proximal tubular function was normal in both studied groups. Conclusion. The present study documented that proximal tubule sodium reabsorption was preserved while free water clearance and maximal urine dilution capability were reduced in stable HIV patients treated or not with tenofovir. PMID:24800076

Belloso, Waldo H; de Paz Sierra, Mariana; Navarro, Matilde; Sanchez, Marisa L; Perelsztein, Ariel G; Musso, Carlos G

2014-01-01

195

[Cardiovascular safety of non-insulin anti-diabetic drugs. Scientific position statement of SEMERGEN].  

PubMed

Diabetes increases the risk of both microvascular and macrovascular complications. Although reducing plasma glucose levels to recommended targets decreases the risk of microvascular outcomes, the effects of anti-diabetic drugs on macrovascular complications and cardiovascular death are of concern. In fact, it has been suggested that some anti-diabetic agents could even be harmful for cardiovascular outcomes. In this context, several health care regulatory agencies have established the need for performing clinical trials specifically designed to assess the cardiovascular safety of anti-diabetic drugs. The results of 2 clinical trials have recently been published that provide important information on the cardiovascular safety of dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors. The aim of this document was to review the available evidence on the cardiovascular safety of non-insulin anti-diabetic drugs and provide practical recommendations on their use in this context. PMID:24882393

Prieto, M Á; Comas Samper, J M; Escobar Cervantes, C; Gasull Molinera, V

2014-01-01

196

Effect of storage temperature on endogenous GHB levels in urine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because ?-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is an endogenous substance present in the body and is rapidly eliminated after ingestion, toxicologists investigating drug-facilitated sexual assault cases are often asked to differentiate between endogenous and exogenous levels of GHB in urine samples.This study was designed to determine the effects of storage temperature on endogenous GHB levels in urine. Specifically, it was designed to ascertain

Marc A LeBeau; Mark L Miller; Barry Levine

2001-01-01

197

Screening pharmaceuticals for possible carcinogenic effects: initial positive results for drugs not previously screened  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To screen commonly used prescription drugs for possible carcinogenic effects.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  In a large health care program we identified 105 commonly used drugs, not previously screened. Recipients were followed for\\u000a up to 12½ years for incident cancer. Nested case–control analyses of 55 cancer sites and all combined included up to ten matched\\u000a controls per case, with lag of at least 2 years between

Gary D. Friedman; Natalia Udaltsova; James Chan; Charles P. Quesenberry Jr; Laurel A. Habel

2009-01-01

198

Detection of cocaine metabolite in serum and urine: frequency and correlation with medical diagnosis.  

PubMed

Review of toxicology screening results in our level 1 trauma center revealed that approximately 15% of urine drug screens were positive for cocaine metabolite. Our objective was to determine the prevalence of true acute cocaine intoxication and if measurement of serum would improve upon the accuracy of toxicology screening for identifying acute cases of cocaine poisoning. Cases were analyzed for cocaine metabolite (benzoylecgonine, BE) in matched serum and urine specimens and for acute cocaine intoxication by retrospective chart review. BE was identified in 3.8% of serum and 14.6% of urine specimens. For the identification of the acutely poisoned patient, the predictive value of toxicology screening was 53.4% for serum and 17.8% for urine. Of patients who screen positive for BE in serum, the odds of intoxication are 44:1 (95% CI 4.85-396.7). We conclude that subjects who test positive for BE in serum have a high probability of acute cocaine intoxication and that analyzing serum improves the predictive value of testing by 3-fold. PMID:10767403

Linder, M W; Bosse, G M; Henderson, M T; Midkiff, G; Valdes, R

2000-05-01

199

Pressure-assisted electrokinetic injection stacking for verteporfin drug to achieve highly sensitive enantioseparation and detection in artificial urine by capillary electrophoresis.  

PubMed

Pressure-assisted electrokinetic injection (PAEKI) was applied for negatively charged verteporfin (VER) overloading and inline stacking, which targeted highly sensitive enantioseparation by CE. The essential step of PAEKI is a constant pressure used to counterbalance the electroosmotic flow (EOF), consequently, the large amount of analyte could be permitted into capillary and concentrated at the motionless boundary of the sample zone and background electrolyte (BGE). Aiming to know the balance, the velocity of the whole BGE in capillary by the impetus of pressure (0.2-2.0psi), and the velocity of EOF depending on the length of sample plug and voltage (5.0-20kV) was investigated, respectively. The velocity of bulk flow in capillary has good linearity with the pressure or applied voltage. Through the pattern of EOF marked peak and analyte peaks (dissolved in pure water), the constant pressure (0.8psi) vs. the added voltage (-10.3kV) during PAEKI was confirmed to immobilize the bulk flow of BGE, thus the sample injection time could sustain 2.0min without compromising separation efficiency. The obtained LOD (S/N=3) of each isomer at UV detection (428nm) was around 10.3?g/L, which was improved to 116 and 39-fold in comparison with normal hydrodynamic injection (HDI) and electrokinetic injection (EKI). The LOD is far below the reported value with LIF detection of VER. The RSD (n=5) of migration time and peak area was, respectively, around 3.5% and 5.7% for the proposed PAEKI method. Finally, PAEKI was used for the detection of VER in artificial urine to investigate the matrix interference. PMID:24951290

Xu, Zhongqi; Li, Aimei; Wang, Yongle; Chen, Zhilong; Hirokawa, Takeshi

2014-08-15

200

Temperature sensitive dopamine-imprinted (N,N-methylene-bis-acrylamide cross-linked) polymer and its potential application to the selective extraction of adrenergic drugs from urine.  

PubMed

A temperature sensitive dopamine-imprinted polymer was prepared in 80% aqueous methanol solution by free-radical cross-linking co-polymerisation of methacrylic acid and acrylamide at 60 degrees C in the presence of N,N-methylene-bis-acrylamide as the cross-linker and dopamine hydrochloride as template molecule. The resulting molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) formed temperature responsive materials, which could be used for the selective separation of appropriate dopamine and adrenergic compounds from a liquid matrix at ambient temperatures. The thermoresponsive MIP exhibited a swelling-deswelling transition in 80% aqueous methanol solution at about 35 degrees C. The capacity of the thermoresponsive MIP to recognise the template molecule when present in aqueous methanol solution changed with temperature, with the highest selectivity found at 35 degrees C. Additionally, binding parameters obtained from Scatchard analyses indicate that increasing temperature resulted in an increased affinity and binding capacity of specific binding sites, but had less effect on non-selective binding sites. Subsequently, the thermoresponsive MIP was tested for its application as a sorbent material, utilisable in the selective solid-phase extraction (SPE) of dopamine and other adrenergic compounds (epinephrine, isoproterenol, salbutamol and serotonin) from urine samples. It was shown that the compounds that were structurally related to dopamine could be removed by elution, while dopamine and serotonin, the analytes of interest, remained strongly adsorbed to the adsorbent during SPE applications. The thermoresponsive MIP displayed different efficiency in clean-up and enrichments using the SPE protocol at different temperatures. PMID:16530207

Suedee, Roongnapa; Seechamnanturakit, Vatcharee; Canyuk, Bhutorn; Ovatlarnporn, Chitchamai; Martin, Gary P

2006-05-12

201

New drugs and indications in 2013: little real progress but regulatory authorities take some positive steps.  

PubMed

2013 saw few therapeutic innovations that really benefitted patients; once again, marketing authorisations were too often granted despite inadequate clinical data. The French health authorities implemented a few measures designed to protect patients from dangerous drugs, including market withdrawals, restrictions on use, and delisting. PMID:24860905

2014-04-01

202

Urine Pretreat Injection System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A new method of introducing the OXONE (Registered Trademark) Monopersulfate Compound for urine pretreat into a two-phase urine/air flow stream has been successfully tested and evaluated. The feasibility of this innovative method has been established for p...

1995-01-01

203

Leukocyte esterase urine test  

MedlinePLUS

Leukocyte esterase is a urine test to look for white blood cells and other signs associated with infection. ... A clean-catch urine sample is preferred. The clean-catch method is used to prevent germs from the penis or vagina from getting ...

204

RBC urine test  

MedlinePLUS

Red blood cells in urine; Hematuria test; Urine - red blood cells ... A normal result is 4 RBC/HPF (red blood cells per high power field) or less when the sample is examined under a microscope. The example above is a common measurement ...

205

Urine collection device  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A urine collection device for females is described. It is comprised of a collection element defining a urine collection chamber and an inlet opening into the chamber and is adapted to be disposed in surrounding relation to the urethral opening of the user. A drainage conduit is connected to the collection element in communication with the chamber whereby the chamber and conduit together comprise a urine flow pathway for carrying urine generally away from the inlet. A first body of wicking material is mounted adjacent the collection element and extends at least partially into the flow pathway. The device preferably also comprise a vaginal insert element including a seal portion for preventing the entry of urine into the vagina.

Michaud, R. B. (inventor)

1981-01-01

206

Urine Monitoring System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Urine Monitoring System (UMS) is a system designed to collect an individual crewmember's void, gently separate urine from air, accurately measure void volume, allow for void sample acquisition, and discharge remaining urine into the Waste Collector Subsystem (WCS) onboard the International Space Station. The Urine Monitoring System (UMS) is a successor design to the existing Space Shuttle system and will resolve anomalies such as: liquid carry-over, inaccurate void volume measurements, and cross contamination in void samples. The crew will perform an evaluation of airflow at the ISS UMS urinal hose interface, a calibration evaluation, and a full user interface evaluation. o The UMS can be used to facilitate non-invasive methods for monitoring crew health, evaluation of countermeasures, and implementation of a variety of biomedical research protocols on future exploration missions.

Feedback, Daniel L.; Cibuzar, Branelle R.

2009-01-01

207

Responses to Positive Results from Suspicionless or Random Drug Tests in U.S. Public School Districts  

PubMed Central

Background Little is known about the context in which school-based suspicionless or random drug testing (SRDT) occurs. The primary purpose of the current study is to describe school districts’ responses to students’ first positive result in districts with SRDT programs. Methods Data were collected in spring 2005 from 1612 drug prevention coordinators in a nationally representative sample of 1922 school districts (83.9% response rate), of which 205 districts reported SRDT in high school grades. Results Respondents reported an array of consequences for students with an initial positive SRDT, including requiring parents or guardians to meet with school officials (88.4%), and requiring students to participate in an education, counseling, or treatment program (60.8%). However, some districts also reported consequences contraindicated by federal advisory guides, such as notifying law enforcement officials (45.1%) and suspending the student from an athletic team (65.0%) or from school (31.0%). Some respondents may have conflated their districts’ responses to for-cause and random tests. Districts generally had available key services for students testing positive, including professional counseling for substance use problems (87.3%) and referrals to counseling services (91.9%). Conclusions More understanding is needed of schools’ responses to students who test positive following the administration of SRDT, available advisory guides concerning best practices should be more effectively disseminated, and appropriate training and technical assistance should be available to schools with SRDTs.

Vincus, Amy A.; Ennett, Susan T.; Hanley, Sean; Bowling, J. Michael; Yacoubian, George S.; Rohrbach, Louise A.

2010-01-01

208

Voided Midstream Urine Culture and Acute Cystitis in Premenopausal Women  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND The cause of acute uncomplicated cystitis is determined on the basis of cultures of voided midstream urine, but few data guide the interpretation of such results, especially when gram-positive bacteria grow. METHODS Women from 18 to 49 years of age with symptoms of cystitis provided specimens of midstream urine, after which we collected urine by means of a urethral catheter for culture (catheter urine). We compared microbial species and colony counts in the paired specimens. The primary outcome was a comparison of positive predictive values and negative predictive values of organisms grown in midstream urine, with the presence or absence of the organism in catheter urine used as the reference. RESULTS The analysis of 236 episodes of cystitis in 226 women yielded 202 paired specimens of midstream urine and catheter urine that could be evaluated. Cultures were positive for uropathogens in 142 catheter specimens (70%), 4 of which had more than one uropathogen, and in 157 midstream specimens (78%). The presence of Escherichia coli in midstream urine was highly predictive of bladder bacteriuria even at very low counts, with a positive predictive value of 102 colony-forming units (CFU) per milliliter of 93% (Spearman’s r = 0.944). In contrast, in midstream urine, enterococci (in 10% of cultures) and group B streptococci (in 12% of cultures) were not predictive of bladder bacteriuria at any colony count (Spearman’s r = 0.322 for enterococci and 0.272 for group B streptococci). Among 41 episodes in which enterococcus, group B streptococci, or both were found in midstream urine, E. coli grew from catheter urine cultures in 61%. CONCLUSIONS Cultures of voided midstream urine in healthy premenopausal women with acute uncomplicated cystitis accurately showed evidence of bladder E. coli but not of enterococci or group B streptococci, which are often isolated with E. coli but appear to rarely cause cystitis by themselves. (Funded by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases.)

Hooton, Thomas M; Roberts, Pacita L.; Cox, Marsha E.; Stapleton, Ann E.

2014-01-01

209

FLT3 inhibition and mechanisms of drug resistance in mutant FLT3-positive AML  

Microsoft Academic Search

An appealing therapeutic target in AML is constitutively activated, mutant FLT3, which is expressed in a subpopulation of AML patients and is generally a poor prognostic indicator in patients under the age of 65. There are currently several FLT3 inhibitors that are undergoing clinical investigation. However, the discovery of drug-resistant leukemic blast cells in FLT3 inhibitor-treated AML patients has prompted

Ellen Weisberg; Rosemary Barrett; Qingsong Liu; Richard Stone; Nathanael Gray; James D. Griffin

2009-01-01

210

Impact of urine concentration adjustment method on associations between urine metals and estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) in adolescents.  

PubMed

Positive associations between urine toxicant levels and measures of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) have been reported recently in a range of populations. The explanation for these associations, in a direction opposite that of traditional nephrotoxicity, is uncertain. Variation in associations by urine concentration adjustment approach has also been observed. Associations of urine cadmium, thallium and uranium in models of serum creatinine- and cystatin-C-based estimated GFR (eGFR) were examined using multiple linear regression in a cross-sectional study of adolescents residing near a lead smelter complex. Urine concentration adjustment approaches compared included urine creatinine, urine osmolality and no adjustment. Median age, blood lead and urine cadmium, thallium and uranium were 13.9 years, 4.0?g/dL, 0.22, 0.27 and 0.04g/g creatinine, respectively, in 512 adolescents. Urine cadmium and thallium were positively associated with serum creatinine-based eGFR only when urine creatinine was used to adjust for urine concentration (? coefficient=3.1mL/min/1.73m(2); 95% confidence interval=1.4, 4.8 per each doubling of urine cadmium). Weaker positive associations, also only with urine creatinine adjustment, were observed between these metals and serum cystatin-C-based eGFR and between urine uranium and serum creatinine-based eGFR. Additional research using non-creatinine-based methods of adjustment for urine concentration is necessary. PMID:24815335

Weaver, Virginia M; Vargas, Gonzalo García; Silbergeld, Ellen K; Rothenberg, Stephen J; Fadrowski, Jeffrey J; Rubio-Andrade, Marisela; Parsons, Patrick J; Steuerwald, Amy J; Navas-Acien, Ana; Guallar, Eliseo

2014-07-01

211

Measurement control program 092: Mercury in urine: Artificial urine versus natural urine external control solutions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An investigation was conducted to determine if any significant differences exist between the use of artificial urine vs. natural urine in the preparation of external control samples for Measurement Control Program Number 092, Mercury in Urine. Artificial ...

A. F. Volesky

1990-01-01

212

49 CFR 40.49 - What materials are used to collect urine specimens?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false What materials are used to collect urine specimens? 40.49 Section 40.49...Forms, Equipment and Supplies Used in DOT Urine Collections § 40.49 What materials are used to collect urine specimens? For each DOT drug...

2013-10-01

213

Mental health and social support among HIV-positive injection drug users and their caregivers in China.  

PubMed

The burden of HIV/AIDS in China is due to injection drug use. Non-clinical caregivers provide much of the care for HIV patients but are often not included in HIV care or research. The objective of this study is to examine the relationships between the caregiver context and mental health of HIV-positive injection drug users and their caregivers. We interviewed 96 patient-caregiver dyads using quantitative methods. A conceptual model was developed as a framework for multivariate linear regression modeling. The strongest predictor of poor patient mental health was lack of social support, which was largely determined by the caregiver's stigma towards HIV/AIDS and caregiver burden. Patient disability and caregiver burden were the primary predictors of poor caregiver mental health. The interrelated nature of caregiver and patient mental health supports the inclusion of caregiver health into the patient's HIV/AIDS treatment to maximize support provision and health for the patient and caregiver. PMID:23283579

Greene, M Claire; Zhang, Jianping; Li, Jianhua; Desai, Mayur; Kershaw, Trace

2013-06-01

214

False positive in the IV drug self-administration test in C57BL/6J mice  

PubMed Central

The objective of the present study was to examine C57BL/6J (B6) mice during extinction conditions, following food training, for rates and patterns of operant behavior that appear similar to behavior maintained by IV cocaine injections. The rationale was to evaluate the potential for false positives in the IV self-administration test using protocols common in studies of knockout mice backcrossed to B6. An additional aim was to assess the influence of food- and drug- associated cues and mouse strain. Mice were allowed to acquire lever pressing reinforced by sweetened condensed milk under a fixed ratio (FR) 1 then FR 2 schedule of reinforcement accompanied by a flashing light. A catheter base was then implanted for simulation of IV self-administration conditions. Mice were allowed to lever press with cues remaining the same as during food training but without further scheduled consequences (i.e., no drug or food reinforcers delivered). All mice sustained lever pressing for several weeks, and over half met commonly used criteria for “self-administration behavior”. Thus B6 mice showed perseveration of a previously reinforced behavior that closely resembled rates and patterns of drug self-administration. This effect in B6 mice was greater than with A/J mice, and the lack of extinction was even more robust in the presence of cocaine-associated cues than with food-associated cues. We suggest that a necessary criteria for positive results in the IV drug self-administration test include an increase in responding when cocaine is made available after extinction with saline self-administration.

Thomsen, Morgane; Caine, S. Barak

2011-01-01

215

An Epstein-Barr virus positive natural killer lymphoma xenograft derived for drug testing.  

PubMed

Natural killer (NK) lymphomas occurring more frequently in the Far East and South America respond poorly to anthracycline-based regimens. Here we report an in vivo NK lymphoma xenograft (NK-S1) derived from the testicular metastasis of a patient with an extranodal NK lymphoma (nasal type). The NK-S1 xenograft, established in severe combined immune deficient (SCID) mice retained the same imunophenotypic features as the original tumor. NK-S1 disseminated intra-abdominally to the testis, intestine and liver. Although doxorubicin, rapamycin, bevacizumab, rapamycin-doxorubicin, and bevacizumab-doxorubicin had no effects on the growth of subcutaneous NK-S1 xenografts, intraperitoneal (IP) delivery of cyclophosphamide caused complete tumor regression; this tumor regression was associated with apoptosis, upregulation of activated caspase-3, and cleaved Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). In an IP model of NK lymphoma, cyclophosphamide also prolonged the survival of mice and potently inhibited tumor dissemination and ascites formation. Our data suggest that the NK-S1 xenograft is a useful tool for screening preclinical drugs, and cyclophosphamide may be a useful drug for the treatment of this disease. PMID:18452087

Loong, Susan Li Er; Hwang, Jacqueline Siok Gek; Lim, Soon-Thye; Yap, Swee Peng; Tao, Miriam; Chong, Tsung-Wen; Tan, Leonard Hwan Cheong; Huynh, Hung

2008-06-01

216

Anti-retrovirals and immunosuppressive drug interactions in a HIV-positive patient after liver transplantation.  

PubMed

We report a case of drug-related toxicity after liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma in a HIV-HCV co-infected patient. Before transplant the patient was on a triple antiretroviral therapy (zidovudine and lamivudine and efavirenz) with a stable CD4+ cell count >500 cells/microL. Liver transplantation was performed with a liver graft showing a 10% of macrosteatosis and with a graft-to-recipient body weight ratio of 1.3. Immunosuppression was achieved with tacrolimus, azathioprine and steroids. The antiretroviral therapy was resumed in the first postoperative day as the early graft function was in the normal range. After a few hours the patient showed myoglobinuria, rhabdomyolysis and a fast-deteriorating graft function. All drugs were withdrawn except steroids and an empiric therapy with riboflavin and glutathione was maintained for five days until myoglobinuria ended. Nevertheless the serum levels of tacrolimus remained in the therapeutic range for six days when it was reintroduced at a reduced dosage (0.01 mg/kg/die). The postoperative course was complicated by tense ascites and severe hyperbilirubinemia without any rejection episodes. The patient was discharged 48 days post-transplantation with a good liver function. During the following year no signs of aggressive HCV-HIV recurrences were observed and the patient is maintaining a CD4+ cells count >400 without antiretroviral therapy. PMID:15143883

Antonini, Mario; Ettorre, Giuseppe Maria; Vennarecci, Giovanni; D'Offizi, Gianpiero; Narciso, Pasquale; Del Nonno, Franca; Perracchio, Letizia; Visco, Giuseppe; Santoro, Eugenio

2004-01-01

217

Drugs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains the third volume of "Today's Delinquent," an annual publication of the National Center for Juvenile Justice. This volume deals with the issue of drugs and includes articles by leading authorities in delinquency and substance abuse who share their views on causes and cures for the drug problem among youth in this country.…

Hurst, Hunter, Ed.; And Others

1984-01-01

218

Selective solid-phase extraction of naproxen drug from human urine samples using molecularly imprinted polymer-coated magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotubes prior to its spectrofluorometric determination.  

PubMed

A drug imprinted polymer based on suspension polymerization on magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MIPMCNTs) was prepared with a synthesized amidoamine as the functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as the cross-linker, naproxen (NAP) as the template and ammonium persulfate as the initiator. The MIPMCNTs were characterized by TEM, FT-IR and XRD measurements. The prepared magnetic adsorbent can be well dispersed in aqueous media and can be easily separated magnetically from the medium after loading with NAP. All the aspects influencing the adsorption (extraction time, adsorbent dosage and pH) and desorption (desorption time and desorption solvent) of the analyte on the MIPMCNTs have been investigated. The extracted NAP could be easily desorbed with a mixture of methanol/sodium hydroxide aqueous solution and determined spectrofluorometrically at ?em = 353 nm (?ex = 271 nm). A linear dynamic range was established from 4.0 to 40.0 ng mL?¹ of NAP and the limit of detection (LOD) was found to be 2.0 ng mL?¹. In addition, the equilibrium adsorption data of NAP by imprinted polymer were analyzed by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The developed method was utilized for the determination of NAP in human urine samples with satisfactory results. PMID:23739162

Madrakian, Tayyebeh; Ahmadi, Mazaher; Afkhami, Abbas; Soleimani, Mohammad

2013-08-21

219

28 CFR 550.43 - Drug counseling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT DRUG PROGRAMS Drug Services (Urine Surveillance and Counseling for Sentenced Inmates in Contract CTCs) § 550.43 Drug counseling. (a) Drug...

2013-07-01

220

Signify ER Drug Screen Test evaluation: comparison to Triage Drug of Abuse Panel plus tricyclic antidepressants.  

PubMed

Signify ER Drug Screen Test (Signify ER) and Triage Drug of Abuse Panel plus TCA (Triage DOA Panel) rapid drug screening devices were compared at four laboratories. Both assay systems are point of care immunoassays, measuring phencyclidine, barbiturates, amphetamine, cocaine metabolite, methamphetamine, tricyclic antidepressants, opiates, marijuana metabolite, and benzodiazepines in human urine. The performance of these two assay systems, including a cutoff verification and cross-reactivity using spiked urine specimens and accuracy using clinical urine samples, was investigated. The cutoff verification study showed that the Signify ER had 95.4% precision for all drugs tested at concentrations of 50%, 75%, 125%, 150%, and 200% of cutoffs compared to 90% precision obtained with Triage DOA Panel. Accuracy studies testing 53 negative urine samples demonstrated that both Signify ER and Triage DOA Panel have 100% specificity. Testing of 693 positive urine samples demonstrated that Signify ER and Triage DOA Panel have sensitivities of 99.8% and 99.3%, respectively, with an accuracy of 99.9% and 99.6%. A total of 527 compounds were tested for the cross-reactivity study. Eighty-seven structurally related drugs and metabolites were found to cross-react with at least one of the nine tests of the Signify ER. Four hundred forty structurally unrelated compounds that can be found in human urine were shown not to cross-react with the Signify ER. In terms of operating characteristics, the Signify ER device is simpler since only a single pipetting step is required, and reaction completed within 8 min. PMID:12559596

Phillips, Jane Ellen; Bogema, Stuart; Fu, Paul; Furmaga, Wieslaw; Wu, Alan H B; Zic, Vlasta; Hammett-Stabler, Catherine

2003-02-01

221

Accuracy of Results Obtained by Performing a Second Ligase Chain Reaction Assay and PCR Analysis on Urine Samples with Positive or Near-Cutoff Results in the LCx Test for Chlamydia trachomatis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nucleic acid amplification assays such as the ligase chain reaction and PCR have encountered reproduc- ibility problems. The initial extract and a newly extracted aliquot of urine specimens (n 120) which had signal-to-cutoff (S\\/CO) ratios above 0.80 by the LCx Chlamydia assay were retested. Nucleic acid was extracted from an additional urine sample for testing by the AMPLICOR PCR Chlamydia

S. Castriciano; K. Luinstra; D. Jang; J. Patel; J. Mahony; J. Kapala; M. Chernesky

2002-01-01

222

Urinating more at night  

MedlinePLUS

... you to urinate more often during the night. Caffeine and alcohol after dinner can also lead to ... or urinary tract Drinking a lot of alcohol, caffeine, or other fluids before bedtime Enlarged prostate gland ( ...

223

Electrolytic Pretreatment of Urine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Electrolysis has been under evaluation for several years as a process to pretreat urine for ultimate recovery of potable water in manned spacecraft applications. The conclusions that were drawn from this investigation are the following: (1) A platinum all...

1977-01-01

224

FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS OF A NOVEL POSITIVE ALLOSTERIC MODULATOR OF AMPA RECEPTORS DERIVED FROM A STRUCTURE-BASED DRUG DESIGN STRATEGY  

PubMed Central

Positive allosteric modulators of ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazole-propionic acid (AMPA) receptors facilitate synaptic plasticity and can improve various forms of learning and memory. These modulators show promise as therapeutic agents for the treatment of neurological disorders such as schizophrenia, ADHD, and mental depression. Three classes of positive modulator, the benzamides, the thiadiazides, and the biarylsulfonamides differentially occupy a solvent accessible binding pocket at the interface between the two subunits that form the AMPA receptor ligand-binding pocket. Here, we describe the electrophysiological properties of a new chemotype derived from a structure-based drug design strategy (SBDD), which makes similar receptor interactions compared to previously reported classes of modulator. This pyrazole amide derivative, JAMI1001A, with a promising developability profile, efficaciously modulates AMPA receptor deactivation and desensitization of both flip and flop receptor isoforms.

Harms, Jonathan E.; Benveniste, Morris; Maclean, John K. F.; Partin, Kathryn M.; Jamieson, Craig

2012-01-01

225

Functional analysis of a novel positive allosteric modulator of AMPA receptors derived from a structure-based drug design strategy.  

PubMed

Positive allosteric modulators of ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazole-propionic acid (AMPA) receptors facilitate synaptic plasticity and can improve various forms of learning and memory. These modulators show promise as therapeutic agents for the treatment of neurological disorders such as schizophrenia, ADHD, and mental depression. Three classes of positive modulator, the benzamides, the thiadiazides, and the biarylsulfonamides differentially occupy a solvent accessible binding pocket at the interface between the two subunits that form the AMPA receptor ligand-binding pocket. Here, we describe the electrophysiological properties of a new chemotype derived from a structure-based drug design strategy (SBDD), which makes similar receptor interactions compared to previously reported classes of modulator. This pyrazole amide derivative, JAMI1001A, with a promising developability profile, efficaciously modulates AMPA receptor deactivation and desensitization of both flip and flop receptor isoforms. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Cognitive Enhancers'. PMID:22735771

Harms, Jonathan E; Benveniste, Morris; Maclean, John K F; Partin, Kathryn M; Jamieson, Craig

2013-01-01

226

Comparison of two drug regimens upon clinical outcome among renal transplant recipients with positive flow cytometric crossmatches.  

PubMed

Renal transplant recipients with positive flow cytometric crossmatches (FCXM) face greater risk of early rejection and graft failure. It is clear that the pharmacologic needs of this high risk group have not been identified. We retrospectively compared the impact of two drug regimens upon early rejection and 5 yr actuarial survival among 324 primary cadaveric transplant recipients with positive and negative FCXM. Patients received either Regimen I (OKT3 induction, cyclosporine and steroids) or Regimen II (mycophenolate mofetil with cyclosporine or Prograf). Recipient gender, age, disease etiology, ethnic distribution and cytotoxic panel reactive antibody (PRA) were equivalent between regimens (p=ns). With Regimen I, the incidence of rejection was greater for FCXM positive vs. FCXM negative patients (51 vs. 21%, p=0.001). In contrast, with Regimen II the incidence of rejection for FCXM positive and FCXM negative patients was equivalent (18 vs. 12%, p=ns) and lower than patients treated with Regimen I (p < 0.01). Ethnic variation was only observed with Regimen I in which African Americans with positive FCXM had more rejections than Caucasians (60 vs. 45%, p < 0.05). Five-year actuarial survival was lower for FCXM positive vs. FCXM negative patients treated with Regimen I (40 vs. 75%, p=0.0006) or Regimen 2 (60 vs. 90%, p=0.001). Allograft survival was equivalent (p=ns) among FCXM positive individuals receiving Regimen I or II. However, allograft survival among FCXM negative individuals improved with Regimen II (p < 0.05). Ethnic variation in survival was not observed with either regimen (p=ns). PMID:12099986

Kimball, Pam; Wagner, Beth; King, Anne; Fisher, Robert A; Dawson, Sherfield; Cotterell, Adrian; Posner, Marc

2002-08-01

227

Prevalence and Drug Resistance Patterns of Mycobacterium tuberculosis among New Smear Positive Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients in Eastern Ethiopia.  

PubMed

The study aimed at determining the prevalence and drug resistance patterns of Mycobacterium tuberculosis among new smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients visiting TB diagnosis and treatment facilities at selected health facilities in eastern Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted between October 2011 and May 2013. A total of 408 new adult pulmonary TB patients (? 18 years) were enrolled in this study. Three consecutive sputum samples (spot, morning, and spot) were collected from each patient and transported to the Armauer Hansen Research Institute TB laboratory located in Addis Ababa for culture on Lowenstein Jensen slant media. DST was performed on 357 (87.5%) of the patient samples for isoniazid (H), rifampicin (R), ethambutol (E), and streptomycin (S) using the standard proportion method. The rate of resistance to any one drug was 23%. Any resistance to H, S, R, and E was 14%, 11.5%, 2.8%, and 0.3%, respectively. The highest proportion of monoresistance was observed against H (9.5%). MDRTB was detected in 1.1% of the patients. Any drug resistance was associated with HIV infection (COR = 3.7, 95% CI 1.905-7.222) (P = 0.000). Although the prevalence of MDRTB is relatively low in the study area, high prevalence of H resistance is a serious concern demanding close monitoring. Expanding diagnostic capacity for mycobacterial culture and DST is a vital step in this regard. PMID:24834351

Seyoum, Berhanu; Demissie, Meaza; Worku, Alemayehu; Bekele, Shiferaw; Aseffa, Abraham

2014-01-01

228

Current Cigarette Smoking Among HIV-Positive Current and Former Drug Users: Associations with Individual and Social Characteristics.  

PubMed

Cigarette smoking is endemic among HIV-positive populations and is related to substantial morbidity and mortality. Research has largely focused on individual-level characteristics associated with smoking, with less attention to social factors. We aimed to explore individual- and social-level characteristics associated with current cigarette smoking among people living with HIV. Data came from 358 individuals on antiretroviral therapy interviewed in a study on informal HIV caregiving, conducted in Baltimore, MD, USA. Most participants (75 %) were current smokers and 45 % reported current illegal drug use. In adjusted logistic regression analyses, current drug use (aOR 2.90, 95 % CI 1.58-5.30), 12-step program participation (aOR 1.74, 95 % CI 1.02-2.97), and having a main Supporter who is a current smoker (aOR 1.93, 95 % CI 1.12-3.33) were associated with current smoking. Findings suggest the importance of social-level factors in cigarette smoking among HIV seropositive drug users and have implications for developing targeted smoking cessation interventions for smokers living with HIV. PMID:24287787

Pacek, Lauren R; Latkin, Carl; Crum, Rosa M; Stuart, Elizabeth A; Knowlton, Amy R

2014-07-01

229

Prevalence and Drug Resistance Patterns of Mycobacterium tuberculosis among New Smear Positive Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients in Eastern Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

The study aimed at determining the prevalence and drug resistance patterns of Mycobacterium tuberculosis among new smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients visiting TB diagnosis and treatment facilities at selected health facilities in eastern Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted between October 2011 and May 2013. A total of 408 new adult pulmonary TB patients (? 18 years) were enrolled in this study. Three consecutive sputum samples (spot, morning, and spot) were collected from each patient and transported to the Armauer Hansen Research Institute TB laboratory located in Addis Ababa for culture on Lowenstein Jensen slant media. DST was performed on 357 (87.5%) of the patient samples for isoniazid (H), rifampicin (R), ethambutol (E), and streptomycin (S) using the standard proportion method. The rate of resistance to any one drug was 23%. Any resistance to H, S, R, and E was 14%, 11.5%, 2.8%, and 0.3%, respectively. The highest proportion of monoresistance was observed against H (9.5%). MDRTB was detected in 1.1% of the patients. Any drug resistance was associated with HIV infection (COR = 3.7, 95% CI 1.905–7.222) (P = 0.000). Although the prevalence of MDRTB is relatively low in the study area, high prevalence of H resistance is a serious concern demanding close monitoring. Expanding diagnostic capacity for mycobacterial culture and DST is a vital step in this regard.

Seyoum, Berhanu; Demissie, Meaza; Worku, Alemayehu; Bekele, Shiferaw; Aseffa, Abraham

2014-01-01

230

Illicit Drug Use, Depression and their Association with Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy in HIV-Positive Women  

PubMed Central

Background We examined the interaction of illicit drug use and depressive symptoms, and how they affect the subsequent likelihood of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) use among women with HIV/AIDS. Methods Subjects included 1,710 HIV-positive women recruited from six sites in the U.S. including Brooklyn, Bronx, Chicago, Los Angeles, San Francisco/Bay Area, and Washington, DC. Cases of probable depression were identified using depressive symptom scores on the Centers for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Crack, cocaine, heroin, and amphetamine use were self-reported at 6-month time intervals. We conducted multivariate logistic random regression analysis of data collected during sixteen waves of semiannual interviews conducted from April 1996 through March 2004. Results We found an interaction effect between illicit drug use and depression that acted to suppress subsequent HAART use, controlling for virologic and immunologic indicators, socio-demographic variables, time, and study site. Conclusions This is the first study to document the interactive effects of drug use and depressive symptoms on reduced likelihood of HAART use in a national cohort of women. Since evidence-based behavioral health and antiretroviral therapies for each of these three conditions are now available, comprehensive HIV treatment is an achievable public health goal.

Cook, Judith A.; Grey, Dennis D.; Burke-Miller, Jane K.; Cohen, Mardge H.; Vlahov, David; Kapadia, Farzana; Wilson, Tracey E.; Cook, Robert; Schwartz, Rebecca; Golub, Elizabeth; Anastos, Kathryn; Ponath, Claudia; Goparaju, Lakshmi; Levine, Alexandra

2014-01-01

231

Traditional Chinese medicine and sports drug testing: identification of natural steroid administration in doping control urine samples resulting from musk (pod) extracts.  

PubMed

The administration of musk extract, that is, ingredients obtained by extraction of the liquid secreted from the preputial gland or resulting grains of the male musk deer (eg, Moschus moschiferus), has been recommended in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) applications and was listed in the Japanese pharmacopoeia for various indications requiring cardiovascular stimulation, anti-inflammatory medication or androgenic hormone therapy. Numerous steroidal components including cholesterol, 5?-androstane-3,17-dione, 5?-androstane-3,17-dione, androsterone, etiocholanolone, epiandrosterone, 3?-hydroxy-androst-5-en-17-one, androst-4-ene-3,17-dione and the corresponding urea adduct 3?-ureido-androst-4-en-17-one were characterised as natural ingredients of musk over several decades, implicating an issue concerning doping controls if used for the treatment of elite athletes. In the present study, the impact of musk extract administration on sports drug testing results of five females competing in an international sporting event is reported. In the course of routine doping controls, adverse analytical findings concerning the athletes' steroid profile, corroborated by isotope-ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) data, were obtained. The athletes' medical advisors admitted the prescription of TCM-based musk pod preparations and provided musk pod samples for comparison purposes to clarify the antidoping rule violation. Steroid profiles, IRMS results, literature data and a musk sample obtained from a living musk deer of a local zoo conclusively demonstrated the use of musk pod extracts in all cases which, however, represented a doping offence as prohibited anabolic-androgenic steroids were administered. PMID:22554845

Thevis, Mario; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Geyer, Hans; Thieme, Detlef; Grosse, Joachim; Rautenberg, Claudia; Flenker, Ulrich; Beuck, Simon; Thomas, Andreas; Holland, Ruben; Dvorak, Jiri

2013-01-01

232

Do Health Professionals have Positive Perception Towards Consumer Reporting of Adverse Drug Reactions?  

PubMed Central

Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the perceptions of general practitioners (GPs) and community pharmacists (CPs) in Penang, Malaysia, towards consumer reporting of Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs). Methodology: A cross-sectional mail survey was adopted for the performance of the study. Survey questionnaires were sent to 192 CPs and 400 GPs in the state of Penang, Malaysia. Reminders were sent to all the non-respondents after 3 weeks of the initial mailing. Data which were collected from the questionnaires were analyzed by using the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS), version 15. The Chi-square test was used to determine as to whether there was any significant difference between expected and observed frequencies at the alpha level of 0.05. Results: Only 104 respondents (47 CPs and 57 GPs) returned the survey, with a response rate of 18.0%- a figure which could be considered to be low. This study indicated that GPs and CPs were aware about the importance and benefits of consumer reporting. A majority of them (88.0%) thought that consumer reporting would add more benefits to the existing pharmacovigilance program. Similarly, 97% of the respondents agreed that reporting of ADRs was necessary and 87.0% respondents had seen ADRs among their patients. However, 57 of them (6.0%), had not been aware that the national program in Malaysia allowed consumers to report ADRs. A majority of them (97.0%) agreed that consumers needed more education regarding ADR reporting. Most of them (84.0%) thought that consumers could not write valid reports which were similar to reports which were made by healthcare professionals (HCPs). A majority of the respondents (68.0%) had not heard about the consumer reporting program in Malaysia and half of them did not believe that consumer reporting could overcome under-reporting, which was the main problem of the national pharmacovigilance program in Malaysia. Conclusion: The GPs and CPs were aware about the importance and benefits of consumer reporting. Such reporting will add more benefits to the existing programmes in Malaysia, although the barrier that we are facing now is the doubt that they hold over patients’ ability to write valid reports which are similar to reports which are made by healthcare professionals (HCPs). Therefore, the consumers need to be educated more about their medications, on how to validate any complaints that they had about the drug consumption and on how to file a proper report and channel it to the ‘right’ person or bodies. Equally importantly, the media and the non-governmental organizations (NGOs) should play an important role in determining the success of consumer reporting.

Alshakka, Mohammed Ahmed; Ibrahim, Mohamed Izham Mohamed; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi Ahmad

2013-01-01

233

Diagnostic Performance of Triagetrade mark for Benzodiazepines: Urine Analysis of the Dose of Therapeutic Cases.  

PubMed

We evaluated the diagnostic performance of Triage for benzodiazepines in 74 urine specimens from outpatients given therapeutic doses of benzodiazepines and compared the results of EMIT assays. Results obtained in all urine samples were confirmed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Overall agreement between results of Triage and EMIT assays was 73%. All of the Triage-positive samples were also positive by EMIT assays. Results of Triage and EMIT assays were different for 20 samples obtained from patients given thienodiazepines (etizolam, brotizolam, and clotiazepam) and nitrobenzodiazepines (nitrazepam, flunitrazepam, and clonazepam). LC-MS confirmed parent drugs in urine specimens, consistent with the prescriptions of drugs. The low agreement between Triage and EMIT results in this study might be due to low sensitivity of Triage for thienodiazepines. Thienodiazines are frequently prescribed benzodiazepines, and Triage panel is the most frequently used screening kit in Japan. It should be noted that negative results obtained by a Triage test might not mean the absence of thienodiazepines. PMID:16297284

Kurisaki, Emiko; Hayashida, Makiko; Nihira, Makoto; Ohno, Youkichi; Mashiko, Hirobumi; Okano, Takaaki; Niwa, Shin-Ichi; Hiraiwa, Kouichi

2005-01-01

234

Diagnostic performance of Triage for benzodiazepines: urine analysis of the dose of therapeutic cases.  

PubMed

We evaluated the diagnostic performance of Triage for benzodiazepines in 74 urine specimens from outpatients given therapeutic doses of benzodiazepines and compared the results of EMIT assays. Results obtained in all urine samples were confirmed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Overall agreement between results of Triage and EMIT assays was 73%. All of the Triage-positive samples were also positive by EMIT assays. Results of Triage and EMIT assays were different for 20 samples obtained from patients given thienodiazepines (etizolam, brotizolam, and clotiazepam) and nitrobenzodiazepines (nitrazepam, flunitrazepam, and clonazepam). LC-MS confirmed parent drugs in urine specimens, consistent with the prescriptions of drugs. The low agreement between Triage and EMIT results in this study might be due to low sensitivity of Triage for thienodiazepines. Thienodiazines are frequently prescribed benzodiazepines, and Triage panel is the most frequently used screening kit in Japan. It should be noted that negative results obtained by a Triage test might not mean the absence of thienodiazepines. PMID:16168176

Kurisaki, Emiko; Hayashida, Makiko; Nihira, Makoto; Ohno, Youkichi; Mashiko, Hirobumi; Okano, Takaaki; Niwa, Shin-ichi; Hiraiwa, Kouichi

2005-09-01

235

Existence of Leukemic Clones Resistant to Both Imatinib Mesylate and Rituximab before Drug Therapies in a Patient with Philadelphia Chromosome-Positive Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Imatinib mesylate and rituximab are molecularly targeted drugs against the BCR-ABL fusion protein and the CD20 antigen, respectively.\\u000a Although these drugs have excellent anticancer effects, a major concern is drug resistance. We have investigated the case\\u000a of a patient with Philadelphia chromosome-positive and CD20+ acute lymphocytic leukemia who acquired resistance to imatinib and rituximab. Imatinib therapy resulted in prompt cytogenetic

Takaaki Hato; Jun Yamanouchi; Tatsushiro Tamura; Norimasa Hojo; Yasunari Niiya; Masashi Kohno; Shiro Bando; Yoshihiro Yakushijin; Kiyonori Takada; Ikuya Sakai; Masaki Yasukawa; Shigeru Fujita

2004-01-01

236

Forfeiture of illegally acquired assets of drug traffickers: the position in India.  

PubMed

Trafficking in drugs and other related crimes generates huge illicit funds which are used to support other criminal activity, corruption, illicit arms trading, the smuggling of goods and currency, and other economic offences. The traditional enforcement techniques aimed only at carriers and confiscation of the seized contraband no longer provide a sufficient deterrent. The problem is international in scope and requires close cooperation of all the agencies concerned. In 1976, India enacted specific legislation providing for the forfeiture of the property and assets of smugglers, including traffickers and foreign-exchange manipulators. This legislation, known as the "Smugglers and Foreign-Exchange Manipulators (Forfeiture of Property) Act, 1976", enables the enforcement authorities to confiscate all property, both movable and immovable, illegally acquired or accumulated, or for which investment is made from unlawful earnings resulting from smuggling and foreign exchange racketeering. It covers all such property held, not only in the names of smugglers and traffickers themselves, but their relatives and associates as well. The Act provides for principles of natural justice to be followed for all forfeiture proceedings and for appeals to a high tribunal. The legislation has enabled forfeiture action in 2,297 cases, covering properties valued at $US 40 million, during the last six years. PMID:6556075

Gujral, B B

1983-01-01

237

Development testing of a shuttle urine collection system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flight tests conducted in December 1973 demonstrated the ability of an unisexual urine collection subsystem to function in a zero-g environment. The urinal, which could be adjusted with three degrees of freedom, accommodated 16 female test subjects with a wide range of stature, as well as five male test subjects. The urinal was in intimate contact with the female and was contoured to form an effective air seal at the periphery. When positioned 2-4 inches forward, the urinal could be used for male collection and contact was not required.

1973-01-01

238

Disaccharides in urine samples as markers of intravenous abuse of methadone and buprenorphine.  

PubMed

Methadone and buprenorphine are commonly used as oral substitutes in opiate maintenance programs to treat persons who are dependent on heroin. During these programs, patients are not allowed to continue using illicit drugs. Abstinence can easily be monitored by urine tests with immunochemical methods. It is well known that the intravenous abuse of heroin substitutes like methadone or buprenorphine has become common as well. The methadone-prescribing physician has no opportunity to check whether the opiate maintenance treatment patient takes his substitution medicines orally as intended or continues with his intravenous misuse now substituting the methadone instead of injecting heroin. In Germany, substitutes are available as liquids and tablets that contain carbohydrates as adjuvants. Sucrose is used to increase viscosity in liquids, while lactose is needed for pressing tablets (e.g., Methaddict® and Subutex®). In case of oral ingestion, disaccharides are broken down into monosaccharides by disaccharidases in the small intestine. These monosaccharides are absorbed into the blood stream by special monosaccharide transporters. Disaccharidases do not exist in blood, thus sucrose and lactose are not split if substitute medicines are injected intravenously. Our assumption, therefore, was that they are excreted unchanged in urine. We investigated a method for the detection of disaccharides in urine as markers of intravenous abuse of substitutes. Urine samples of 26 intravenous substitute abusers showed all positive results for lactose (76.9%) and/or sucrose (73.1%). The method is assumed to be useful to detect intravenous abuse of substitutes. PMID:24099717

Jungen, Hilke; Andresen-Streichert, Hilke; Müller, Alexander; Iwersen-Bergmann, Stefanie

2013-01-01

239

Urine polymerase chain reaction is not as sensitive as urine antigen for the diagnosis of disseminated histoplasmosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed a colorimetric microtiter plate polymerase chain reaction enzyme immunoassay (PCR-EIA) for the detection of Histoplasma capsulatum in urine. The specificity of the PCR assay was confirmed using H. capsulatum (positive control) and Blastomyces dermatitidis (negative control) isolates. The analytical sensitivity of the PCR assay was determined by testing urine samples spiked with freshly grown H. capsulatum organisms and

Yi-Wei Tang; Haijing Li; Michelle M. Durkin; Sefers E. Sefers; Sufang Meng; Patricia A. Connolly; Charles W. Stratton; L. Joseph Wheat

2006-01-01

240

Indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the quantitative estimation of lysergic acid diethylamide in urine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new antibody to lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) was used to develop a novel indirect ELISA for the quanti- fication of drug in urine. Evaluation of the new assay with the commercially available LSD ELISA (STC Di- agnostics) shows improved performance. The test re- quires 50 mL of urine, which is used to measure concen- trations of drug in the

Sarah Kerrigan; E. Brooks

1998-01-01

241

Morphine and codeine concentrations in human urine following controlled poppy seeds administration of known opiate content.  

PubMed

Opiates are an important component for drug testing due to their high abuse potential. Proper urine opiate interpretation includes ruling out poppy seed ingestion; however, detailed elimination studies after controlled poppy seed administration with known morphine and codeine doses are not available. Therefore, we investigated urine opiate pharmacokinetics after controlled oral administration of uncooked poppy seeds with known morphine and codeine content. Participants were administered two 45g oral poppy seed doses 8h apart, each containing 15.7mg morphine and 3mg codeine. Urine was collected ad libitum up to 32h after the first dose. Specimens were analyzed with the Roche Opiates II immunoassay at 2000 and 300?g/L cutoffs, and the ThermoFisher CEDIA(®) heroin metabolite (6-acetylmorphine, 6-AM) and Lin-Zhi 6-AM immunoassays with 10?g/L cutoffs to determine if poppy seed ingestion could produce positive results in these heroin marker assays. In addition, all specimens were quantified for morphine and codeine by GC/MS. Participants (N=22) provided 391 urine specimens over 32h following dosing; 26.6% and 83.4% were positive for morphine at 2000 and 300?g/L GC/MS cutoffs, respectively. For the 19 subjects who completed the study, morphine concentrations ranged from <300 to 7522?g/L with a median peak concentration of 5239?g/L. The median first morphine-positive urine sample at 2000?g/L cutoff concentration occurred at 6.6h (1.2-12.1), with the last positive from 2.6 to 18h after the second dose. No specimens were positive for codeine at a cutoff concentration of 2000?g/L, but 20.2% exceeded 300?g/L, with peak concentrations of 658?g/L (284-1540). The Roche Opiates II immunoassay had efficiencies greater than 96% for the 2000 and 300?g/L cutoffs. The CEDIA 6-AM immunoassay had a specificity of 91%, while the Lin-Zhi assay had no false positive results. These data provide valuable information for interpreting urine opiate results. PMID:24887324

Smith, Michael L; Nichols, Daniel C; Underwood, Paula; Fuller, Zachary; Moser, Matthew A; LoDico, Charles; Gorelick, David A; Newmeyer, Matthew N; Concheiro, Marta; Huestis, Marilyn A

2014-08-01

242

Surface Proteins of Gram-Positive Pathogens: Using Crystallography to Uncover Novel Features in Drug and Vaccine Candidates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Proteins displayed on the cell surfaces of pathogenic organisms are the front-line troops of bacterial attack, playing critical roles in colonization, infection and virulence. Although such proteins can often be recognized from genome sequence data, through characteristic sequence motifs, their functions are often unknown. One such group of surface proteins is attached to the cell surface of Gram-positive pathogens through the action of sortase enzymes. Some of these proteins are now known to form pili: long filamentous structures that mediate attachment to human cells. Crystallographic analyses of these and other cell surface proteins have uncovered novel features in their structure, assembly and stability, including the presence of inter- and intramolecular isopeptide crosslinks. This improved understanding of structures on the bacterial cell surface offers opportunities for the development of some new drug targets and for novel approaches to vaccine design.

Baker, Edward N.; Proft, Thomas; Kang, Haejoo

243

Horizontal transfer of drug-resistant aminoacyl-transfer-RNA synthetases of anthrax and Gram-positive pathogens.  

PubMed

The screening of new antibiotics against several bacterial strains often reveals unexpected occurrences of natural drug resistance. Two examples of this involve specific inhibitors of Staphylococcus aureus isoleucyl-transfer-RNA synthetase 1 (IleRS1) and, more recently, Streptococcus pneumoniae methionyl-tRNA synthetase 1 (MetRS1). In both cases, resistance is due to the presence of a second gene that encodes another synthetase (IleRS2 or MetRS2). Here, we show that both S. pneumoniae MetRS2 and S. aureus IleRS2 have closely related homologues in the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax. Furthermore, similar to drug-resistant pathogens, strains of B. anthracis and its closest relative, B. cereus, also have wild-type ileS1 and metS1 genes. Clostridium perfringens, the causative agent of gangrene, also has two metS genes, whereas Oceanobacillus iheyensis isolated from deep-sea sediments has a single ileS2-type gene. This study shows the importance of understanding complex evolutionary networks of ancient horizontal gene transfer for the development of novel antibiotics. PMID:12792655

Brown, James R; Gentry, Daniel; Becker, Julie A; Ingraham, Karen; Holmes, David J; Stanhope, Michael J

2003-07-01

244

Purple urine bag syndrome.  

PubMed

Purple urine bag syndrome is a rare disorder where the plastic urinary catheter bag and tubing turn purple. The discolouration is due to the presence of indigo and indirubin pigments which are metabolites of tryptophan. It is associated with urinary tract infection. Bacteria that produce sulphatase and phosphatase are involved in the formation of these pigments. Purple urine bag syndrome is associated with higher morbidity and mortality, compared to urinary tract infection without this phenomenon. We present a case report of this rare phenomenon occurring in a 68-year-old woman. PMID:19495508

Pillai, B P; Chong, V H; Yong, A M

2009-05-01

245

Role of 5HT 2A and 5HT 2C receptors in the stimulus effects of hallucinogenic drugs II: reassessment of LSD false positives  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the context of animal studies of hallucinogens, an LSD-false positive is defined as a drug known to be devoid of hallucinogenic activity in humans but which nonetheless fully mimics LSD in animals. Quipazine, MK-212, lisuride, and yohimbine have all been reported to be LSD false positives. The present study was designed to determine whether these compounds also substitute for

David Fiorella; R. A. Rabin; J. C. Winter

1995-01-01

246

Detection and identification of 2-nitro-morphine and 2-nitro-morphine-6-glucuronide in nitrite adulterated urine specimens containing morphine and its glucuronides.  

PubMed

In vitro urine adulteration is a well-documented practice adopted by individuals aiming to evade detection of drug use, when required to undergo mandatory sports and workplace drug testing. Potassium nitrite is an effective urine adulterant due to its oxidizing potential, and has been shown to mask the presence of many drugs of abuse. However, limited research has been conducted to understand its mechanism of action, and to explore the possibility of the drugs undergoing direct oxidation to form stable reaction products. In this study, opiates including morphine, codeine, morphine-3-glucuronide and morphine-6-glucuronide were exposed to potassium nitrite in water and urine to mimic the process of nitrite adulteration. It was found that two stable reaction products were detected by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) when morphine and morphine-6-glucuronide were exposed to nitrite. Isolation and elucidation using spectrometric and spectroscopic techniques revealed that they were 2-nitro-morphine and 2-nitro-morphine-6-glucuronide, respectively. These reaction products were also formed when an authentic morphine-positive urine specimen was fortified with nitrite. 2-Nitro-morphine was found to be stable enough to undergo the enzymatic hydrolysis procedure and also detectable by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) after forming a trimethylsilyl derivative. On the contrary, morphine-3-glucuronide did not appear to be chemically manipulated when exposed to potassium nitrite in urine. These reaction products are not endogenously produced, are relatively stable and can be monitored with both LC-MS and GC-MS confirmatory techniques. As a result, these findings have revealed the possibility for the use of 2-nitro-morphine and 2-nitro-morphine-6-glucuronide as markers for the indirect monitoring of morphine and morphine-6-glucuronide in urine specimens adulterated with nitrite. PMID:23592389

Luong, Susan; Fu, Shanlin

2014-03-01

247

Ambulatory device for measuring urine flow  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

An ambulatory device for measuring urine flow comprises a portable hand-held container and a handgrip mounted thereto. A flow-measuring device is located in the container, and a means for collecting the data measured by the flow-measuring device is also provided. The parameters of the urine flow in the container are measured by the flow-measuring device and are processed by the aforementioned means for collecting data. The handgrip is pivotally mounted to the container by a double-pivot mechanism for maintaining the container substantially vertical in a number of positions of the handgrip. The flow-measuring device includes a sensor that measures a displacement of an air column related to a variation of pressure due to a variation of a urine level in the container.

2010-04-06

248

Bioanalysis of urine samples after manipulation by oxidizing chemicals: technical considerations.  

PubMed

Drug testing programs are established to help achieve a drug-free work environment, promote fair competition in sport, facilitate harm minimization and rehabilitation programs, better manage patient care by clinicians and service law enforcement authorities. Urine remains the most popular and appropriate testing matrix for such purposes. However, urine is prone to adulteration, where chemicals, especially oxidizing chemicals, are purposely added to the collected urine specimens to produce a false-negative test result. This article will describe the effect of various popular oxidizing adulterants on urine drug test results, the countermeasures taken by laboratories in dealing with adulterated urine samples and the prospect of developing more robust and economical methods to combat urine adulteration in the future. PMID:25046053

Fu, Shanlin; Luong, Susan; Pham, Annie; Charlton, Nathan; Kuzhiumparambil, Unnikrishnan

2014-06-01

249

Urine Blockage in Newborns  

MedlinePLUS

... 10 to 12 weeks after conception. However, the mother’s placenta continues to do most of the work until the last few weeks of the pregnancy. Wastes and extra water are removed from the baby’s body through the umbilical cord. The ... womb [ Top ] What causes urine blockage in newborns? ...

250

Purple urine bag syndrome.  

PubMed

Purple urine bag syndrome (PUBS) is rare disease entity, occurs predominantly in constipated women, chronically catheterized and associated with bacterial urinary infections that produce sulphatase/phosphatase. The etiology is due to indigo (blue) and indirubin (red) or to their mixture that becomes purple. We present a case report of this rare phenomenon occurring in an 86-year-old woman. PMID:24479059

Al Montasir, Ahmed; Al Mustaque, Ahmed

2013-01-01

251

Relationship between Food Insecurity and Mortality among HIV-Positive Injection Drug Users Receiving Antiretroviral Therapy in British Columbia, Canada  

PubMed Central

Objectives Little is known about the potential impact of food insecurity on mortality among people living with HIV/AIDS. We examined the potential relationship between food insecurity and all-cause mortality among HIV-positive injection drug users (IDU) initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) across British Columbia (BC). Methods Cross-sectional measurement of food security status was taken at participant ART initiation. Participants were prospectively followed from June 1998 to September 2011 within the fully subsidized ART program. Cox proportional hazard models were used to ascertain the association between food insecurity and mortality, controlling for potential confounders. Results Among 254 IDU, 181 (71.3%) were food insecure and 108 (42.5%) were hungry. After 13.3 years of median follow-up, 105 (41.3%) participants died. In multivariate analyses, food insecurity remained significantly associated with mortality (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR]?=?1.95, 95% CI: 1.07–3.53), after adjusting for potential confounders. Conclusions HIV-positive IDU reporting food insecurity were almost twice as likely to die, compared to food secure IDU. Further research is required to understand how and why food insecurity is associated with excess mortality in this population. Public health organizations should evaluate the possible role of food supplementation and socio-structural supports for IDU within harm reduction and HIV treatment programs.

Anema, Aranka; Chan, Keith; Chen, Yalin; Weiser, Sheri; Montaner, Julio S. G.; Hogg, Robert S.

2013-01-01

252

Indole Compounds Do Not Cause False Positives with the TDx Cannabinoid Assay in a Full-Sized Human Model Exposed to 29.9 MHz in the Near Field,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Drugs-of-abuse screening is becoming more prevalent, and a major technical and legal concern is that individuals may be mistakenly identified as drug users because of a false-positive test result. Marijuana use can be detected by screening a urine specime...

D. Armbruster D. T. Green

1989-01-01

253

Interventions for Seropositive Injectors???Research and Evaluation: An Integrated Behavioral Intervention With HIV-Positive Injection Drug Users to Address Medical Care, Adherence, and Risk Reduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Behavioral interventions to address the complex medical and HIV risk reduction needs of HIV-seropositive (HIV- positive) injection drug users (IDUs) are urgently needed. We de- scribe the development of Interventions for Seropositive Injectors— Research and Evaluation (INSPIRE), a randomized controlled trial of an integrated intervention for HIV-positive IDUs, and the character- istics of the baseline sample. Methods: HIV-positive IDUs

David W. Purcell; Lisa R. Metsch; Mary Latka; Scott Santibanez; Lois Eldred; Carl A. Latkin

2004-01-01

254

The Medicinal Use of Urine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oral intake of freshly voided morning urine has been recommended for many diseases such as viral or bacterial infections. Symptoms reported during the first days of oral intake of urine include nausea, vomiting, headache, palpitations, diarrhea or fever. Several substances in the urine are believed to be important for oral intake such as urea, uric acid, cytokines, hormones or urokinase.

Walter H. Hörl

1999-01-01

255

Incidence of adverse drug reactions in human immune deficiency virus-positive patients using highly active antiretroviral therapy  

PubMed Central

To estimate the incidence of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in Human immune deficiency virus (HIV) patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). To identify the risk factors associated with ADRs in HIV patients. To analyze reported ADRs based on various parameters like causality, severity, predictability, and preventability. Retrospective case-control study. An 18-month retrospective case-control study of 208 patients newly registered in ART center, RIMS hospital, Kadapa, were intensively monitored for ADRs to HAART. Predictability was calculated based on the history of previous exposure to drug. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to identify the risk factors for ADRs. Data were analyzed using the chi-square test for estimating the correlation between ADRs and different variables. All statistical calculations were performed using EpiInfo version 3.5.3. Monitoring of 208 retrospective patients by active Pharmacovigilance identified 105 ADRs that were identified in 71 patients. Skin rash and anemia were the most commonly observed ADRs. The organ system commonly affected by ADR was skin and appendages (31.57%). The ADRs that were moderate were 90.14% of cases. The incidence of ADRs (53.52%) was higher with Zidovudine + Lamivudine + Nevirapine combination. CD4 cell count less than <250 cells/?l were 80.28%, male gender were observed to be the risk factors for ADRs. Our study finding showed that there is a need of active pharmaceutical care with intensive monitoring for ADRs in Indian HIV-positive patients who are illiterate, of male and female gender, with CD4 count ?250 cells/mm3 with comorbid conditions.

Srikanth, B. Akshaya; Babu, S. Chandra; Yadav, Harlokesh Narayan; Jain, Sunil Kumar

2012-01-01

256

Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) Risk Factors and Metabolic Syndrome in HIV-Positive Drug Users in Miami  

PubMed Central

The frequency of coronary heart disease (CHD) is increasing among HIV seropositive persons. This phenomenon may be related to HIV disease itself, the use of antiretroviral medications and increased length of survival, or the synergism of these factors. In this study we have calculated the 10-year CHD risk estimate and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in a cohort of 118 HIV seropositive chronic drug users, including those who are on HAART with or without protease inhibitors (PI). The results showed that the 10-year coronary heart disease risk among the HIV seropositive drug users was 4.8 ± 5.7, which is within the range of results published for other HIV infected cohorts. The 10-year CHD risk was significantly higher in men (5.9±6.1, p<0.001) than in women (1.7±2.4), due to their gender and the pre-menopausal mean age of the women (39.4±7.3 years of age), despite a significantly higher rate of abdominal obesity (54.8% in women vs. 8.1% in men, p<0.001) and lower HDL (61.3% in women vs. 40% in men, p=0.042). The rate of metabolic syndrome among our female HIV seropositive drug users was significantly higher (29% vs 10.3%, p=0.013) compared to men (10.3%). Participants with metabolic syndrome had a significantly higher 10-year CHD risk (27.8% vs. 10.2%, p=0.041) and higher mean BMI (28.6 ± 4.1 vs. 24.2±4, p<0.001) than those without the syndrome. The predominant proportion of the cohort had a high viral load, suggesting that their use of illicit drugs has an influence on either adherence or effectiveness of antiretroviral medication. Increased viral load was significantly associated with metabolic syndrome (OR=2.23, 95% CI:1.12, 4.47; p=0.023), high fasting glucose (OR=1.61, 95% CI: 1.02, 2.55; p=0.042) and low HDL levels (OR=1.41, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.98; p=0.046), after controlling for age gender, smoking, PI exposure, BMI and CD4. HAART with or without PI did not significantly impact the 10-year CHD risk estimate or metabolic syndrome in this cohort. The estimated effect of PI, however, was positively and significantly related to triglyceride levels (effect estimate=95.81; 95% CI:39.40, 152.21; p<0.01) after controlling for age, gender, smoking, viral load, CD4 cell count and BMI. Heavy use of cigarettes and crack/cocaine was inversely associated with obesity (OR=0.84, 95% CI:0.67, 0.99; p=0.049; OR=0.43, 95% CI:0.19, 0.98; p=0.044, respectively), while use of marijuana tended to be associated with increased central obesity (p=0.08). Heavy cigarette smoking was significantly associated with low HDL (OR=3.06, 95% CI:1.18; 7.95, p=0.02). The significant association of higher viral load with CHD risk indicates that controlling viral load may be important in reducing CHD risk in HIV infected drug users.

Baum, Marianna K; Rafie, Carlin; Lai, Shenghan; Xue, Lihua; Sales, Sabrina; Page, J. Bryan; Berkman, Ronald; Karas, Linden; Campa, Adriana

2008-01-01

257

Perinatal screening for drugs of abuse: reassessment of current practice in a high-risk area.  

PubMed

Anonymous urine toxicology screening among parturient women during 1 month in 1990 and selective newborn testing during this and the subsequent 4-month period was done to assess prevalence of drug use among parturients in a municipal hospital in the Bronx and to assess impact of infant urine toxicology screening on discharge placement. Infant testing was performed for maternal history of drug use, poor prenatal care (5 or fewer visits), or infant symptoms. Urine was screened for cocaine, opiates, methadone, barbiturates, amphetamines, and benzodiazepines. Of 204 women screened, 9.3% were positive. Of these, 74% were positive for cocaine and 21% revealed polysubstance use. Only 28.6% of cocaine-positive mothers gave a history of use. Selective testing of 1196 newborns during this 5-month period revealed an apparent prevalence of cocaine exposure of 4.9%. Selective infant testing failed to identify 42.1% of newborns of cocaine-positive women. Social work evaluation was performed on all families and was the basis for reporting to state agencies for protective services. Only 6 of 83 drug-positive infants entered foster care, none because of positive toxicology per se. Selective infant toxicology studies miss many cocaine-exposed infants and has little impact on placement. Universal social work evaluation of families may be as effective and freer of bias than selective urine screening. PMID:8240597

Schulman, M; Morel, M; Karmen, A; Chazotte, C

1993-09-01

258

Pre-employment Drug Testing of Housestaff Physicians at a Large Urban Hospital.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center (New York City) program of preemployment urine toxicology examinations for beginning housestaff physicians has resulted in treatment for two physicians testing positive for illegal drugs. The program's primary purpose is to focus on substance abuse issues in graduate medical education. (Author/MSE)

Lewy, Robert M.

1991-01-01

259

Detectability of new psychoactive substances, 'legal highs', in CEDIA, EMIT, and KIMS immunochemical screening assays for drugs of abuse.  

PubMed

The increasing number of new psychoactive substances made available for recreational drug use has created a challenge for clinical toxicology and drug testing laboratories. As a consequence, the routine immunoassay drug testing may become less effective due to an increased occurrence of false negative and false positive screening results. This work aimed to extend the knowledge about analytical cross-reactivity of new substances in selected CEDIA, EMIT, and KIMS immunoassays for drugs-of-abuse screening. Urine standards were prepared by spiking blank urine with 45 new substances. Authentic urine samples from intoxication cases identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) were also studied. Several new psychoactive substances were demonstrated to display cross-reactivity in the immunoassays. CEDIA Amphetamine/Ecstasy and EMIT d.a.u. Amphetamine Class tests showed the highest reactivity towards the new drugs, which was expected since many have amphetamine-like structure and activity. In the samples from authentic cases, five new substances displayed 100% detection rate in the CEDIA Amphetamine/Ecstasy test. In conclusion, cross-reactivity data in routine urine drug screening immunoassays for a number of new psychoactive substances not studied before were reported. In both spiked and authentic urine samples, some new substances showed significant cross-reactivity and are thus detectable in the routine screening methods. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24665024

Beck, Olof; Rausberg, Linnea; Al-Saffar, Yasir; Villen, Tomas; Karlsson, Lennart; Hansson, Therese; Helander, Anders

2014-05-01

260

A simple and rapid ESI-LC-MS/MS method for simultaneous screening of doping agents in urine samples  

PubMed Central

Objective: The use of performance enhancing substances is banned in sports by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). Though most prohibited substances can be detected by GC/MS, inclusion of corticosteroids and designer drugs has made it essential to detect these critical doping agents on LC/MS/MS due to their better separation and detection. Materials and Methods: A common extraction procedure for the isolation of acidic, basic and neutral drugs from urine samples was developed. A total of 28 doping drugs were analyzed on API 3200 Triple quadrupole mass spectrometer using C18 column in atmospheric pressure electrospray ionization. The mobile phase composition was a mixture of 1% formic acid and acetonitrile with gradient time period. Results: The method developed was very sensitive for detection of 28 doping agents. The linearity was performed for each drug and the total recovery percentage ranged from 57 to 114. Limit of detection is found to be 0.5 ng/ml for carboxy finasteride and 1-5 ng/ml for other drugs. The method was successfully used to detect positive urine samples of 3-OH-stanozolol, methyl phenidate, mesocarb, clomiphene metabolite and carboxy finasteride. Conclusion: The method developed based on controlled pH extraction method and HPLC-mass spectrometry analysis allowed better identification and confirmation of glucocorticosteroids and a few other drugs in different categories. The validated method has been used successfully for testing of 1000 In-competition samples. The method helped in detection of chemically and pharmacologically different banned drugs in urine in a single short run at a minimum required performance limit set by WADA.

Reddy, I. Madhusudhana; Beotra, Alka; Jain, S.; Ahi, S.

2009-01-01

261

RECOVERY OF STRUVITE FROM STORED HUMAN URINE  

Microsoft Academic Search

In previous work, synthetic urine was used as a readily available proxy for real urine for determining the factors which affect the recovery of struvite from urine. Based on these findings with synthetic urine, we recovered struvite from real urine and, thus, showed that a) the synthetic urine served as an adequate model for determining the processes which affect struvite

E. Tilley; J. Atwater; D. Mavinic

2008-01-01

262

Use of illicit drugs by truck drivers arriving at paranaguá port terminal, Brazil.  

PubMed

Objective: The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of recent use of illicit drugs among truck drivers who had parked their vehicles at the terminal port in Paranaguá City at Paraná State, southern Brazil. Methods: This cross-sectional study was part of a larger research project conducted among drivers at a regional Brazilian port. Data on professional characteristics, involvement in road traffic injuries, sleep, and use of alcohol and illicit drugs were collected using a questionnaire. Urine samples were collected and analyzed for amphetamines, cocaine, and cannabis using gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection. Results: Sixty-two drivers were included in the study. Toxicological analyses showed that 8.1 percent (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.7-17.8%) of the urine samples were positive for drugs (4.8% for cocaine, 1.6% for amphetamine, and 1.6% for both); 8.1 percent reported drug use during the preceding 30 days in the questionnaire and only one tested positive for the drug in the urine sample. No sample was positive for cannabinoids. In total, at least 14.5 percent (95% CI, 6.9-25.8%) had used illicit drugs during the preceding 30 days based on self-reports and urine testing. Drivers who reported involvement in traffic injuries the year before more often tested positive for drugs in biological samples (P <.05). Conclusions: This research provides preliminary evidence that the use of illicit stimulants was common among professional truck drivers transporting grain loads. Thus, actions are needed to reduce drug use among truck drivers in order to prevent drug-related road traffic injuries. PMID:24313348

Peixe, Tiago Severo; de Almeida, Rafael Menck; Girotto, Edmarlon; de Andrade, Selma Maffei; Mesas, Arthur Eumann

2014-10-01

263

Electrolytic pretreatment of urine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electrolysis has been under evaluation for several years as a process to pretreat urine for ultimate recovery of potable water in manned spacecraft applications. The conclusions that were drawn from this investigation are the following: (1) A platinum alloy containing 10 percent rhodium has been shown to be an effective, corrosion-resistant anode material for the electrolytic pretreatment of urine. Black platinum has been found to be suitable as a cathode material. (2) The mechanism of the reactions occurring during the electrolysis of urine is two-stage: (a) a total Kjeldahl nitrogen and total organic carbon (TOC) removal in the first stage is the result of electrochemical oxidation of urea to CO2, H2O, and ammonia followed by chloride interaction to produce N2 from ammonia, (b) after the urea has been essentially removed and the chloride ions have no more ammonia to interact with, the chloride ions start to oxidize to higher valence states, thus producing perchlorates. (3) Formation of perchlorates can be suppressed by high/low current operation, elevated temperature, and pH adjustment. (4) UV-radiation showed promise in assisting electrolytic TOC removal in beaker tests, but was not substantiated in limited single cell testing. This may have been due to non-optimum configurations of the single cell test rig and the light source.

1977-01-01

264

[Comparison of four immunoassay screening devices for detection of benzodiazepine and its metabolites in urine: mainly detection of etizolam, thienodiazepine and its metabolites].  

PubMed

The immunoassay screening of benzodiazepines in urine is one of the most important methods of drug analysis in clinical and forensic laboratories. We experienced an unusual case of poisoning wherein the result of Triage DOA immunoassay screening was negative, although Depas (etizolam) was detected in the blood of the victim who had been suspected to prescribe Depas by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Depas has been widely used for the treatment of anxiety in Japan. Three immunoassay screening devices (AccuSign BZO, Monitect-3, and Fastect II) were evaluated for their specificity for etizolam, its 2 major metabolites M-III and M-VI, and other metabolites of benzodiazepines in urine. With AccuSign BZO, etizolam, M-III, and M-VI could be detected at concentrations of 1,000 ng/mL in urine; however, they could not be detected even at concentrations of 25,000 ng/mL with the other kits. In the case of etizolam poisoning, the result of AccuSign BZO was positive; however, Triage DOA, which is mainly used for the detection of drugs in urine at intensive care units (ICUs) or forensic laboratories, showed negative result for benzodiazepines. The concentrations of etizolam and its metabolites in urine were measured by the established high-performance liquid chromatographic method. The concentrations of M-III and M-V were 700 and 1,600 ng/mL, respectively. AccuSign BZO demonstrated higher specificity-than the other screening kits for the detection of etizolam and its metabolites in urine. Therefore, the types of drugs detected would be increased by combining Triage DOA with AccuSign BZO in ICUs or forensic laboratories. PMID:21485120

Namera, Akira; Makita, Ryosuke; Nagao, Masataka

2011-03-01

265

Evaluation of CPS ID 2 chromogenic agar as a single medium for urine culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The CPS ID 2 (CPS) chromogenic agar was compared to routine media for use in the isolation, enumeration, identification, and susceptibility testing of bacteria recovered from urine specimens. Of 487 urine specimens, 318 were culture negative, 12 were positive on CPS only, 16 positive on routine only, and 141 positive on both. The enumeration of microorganisms agreed for 96 of

Barbara S. Reisner; Ellen F. Austin

1997-01-01

266

Evaluation of Tamm-Horsfall protein and uroplakin III for forensic identification of urine.  

PubMed

In this study, Tamm-Horsfall protein (THP), a major component of urinary protein, and uroplakin III (UPIII), a transmembrane protein widely regarded as a urothelium-specific marker, were evaluated for forensic identification of urine by ELISA and/or immunohistochemistry. THP was detected in urine, but not in plasma, saliva, semen, vaginal fluid, or sweat by the simple ELISA method developed in this study. In addition, most aged urine stains showed positive results. The urine specificity of THP was confirmed by gene expression analysis. Therefore, as reported previously, ELISA detection of THP can be used as a presumptive test for urine identification. UPIII was specific for immunohistochemical staining of cells in centrifuged precipitate of urine. However, ELISA and RT-PCR for UPIII were not specific for urine. UPIII may be applicable for forensic urine identification by immunohistochemistry. PMID:20202065

Akutsu, Tomoko; Ikegaya, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Ken; Fukushima, Hisayo; Motani, Hisako; Iwase, Hirotaro; Sakurada, Koichi

2010-05-01

267

Antipsychotic Drug-Like Effects of the Selective M4 Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor Positive Allosteric Modulator VU0152100.  

PubMed

Accumulating evidence suggests that selective M4 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) activators may offer a novel strategy for the treatment of psychosis. However, previous efforts to develop selective M4 activators were unsuccessful because of the lack of M4 mAChR subtype specificity and off-target muscarinic adverse effects. We recently developed VU0152100, a highly selective M4 positive allosteric modulator (PAM) that exerts central effects after systemic administration. We now report that VU0152100 dose-dependently reverses amphetamine-induced hyperlocomotion in rats and wild-type mice, but not in M4 KO mice. VU0152100 also blocks amphetamine-induced disruption of the acquisition of contextual fear conditioning and prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle reflex. These effects were observed at doses that do not produce catalepsy or peripheral adverse effects associated with non-selective mAChR agonists. To further understand the effects of selective potentiation of M4 on region-specific brain activation, VU0152100 alone and in combination with amphetamine were evaluated using pharmacologic magnetic resonance imaging (phMRI). Key neural substrates of M4-mediated modulation of the amphetamine response included the nucleus accumbens (NAS), caudate-putamen (CP), hippocampus, and medial thalamus. Functional connectivity analysis of phMRI data, specifically assessing correlations in activation between regions, revealed several brain networks involved in the M4 modulation of amphetamine-induced brain activation, including the NAS and retrosplenial cortex with motor cortex, hippocampus, and medial thalamus. Using in vivo microdialysis, we found that VU0152100 reversed amphetamine-induced increases in extracellular dopamine levels in NAS and CP. The present data are consistent with an antipsychotic drug-like profile of activity for VU0152100. Taken together, these data support the development of selective M4 PAMs as a new approach to the treatment of psychosis and cognitive impairments associated with psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia. PMID:24442096

Byun, Nellie E; Grannan, Michael; Bubser, Michael; Barry, Robert L; Thompson, Analisa; Rosanelli, John; Gowrishankar, Raajaram; Kelm, Nathaniel D; Damon, Stephen; Bridges, Thomas M; Melancon, Bruce J; Tarr, James C; Brogan, John T; Avison, Malcolm J; Deutch, Ariel Y; Wess, Jürgen; Wood, Michael R; Lindsley, Craig W; Gore, John C; Conn, P Jeffrey; Jones, Carrie K

2014-06-01

268

Positive relationship between dietary fat, ethanol intake, triglycerides and hypothalamic peptides: Counteraction by lipid-lowering drugs  

PubMed Central

Studies in both humans and animals suggest a positive relationship between the intake of ethanol and intake of fat, which may contribute to alcohol abuse. This relationship may be mediated, in part, by hypothalamic orexigenic peptides such as orexin (OX), which stimulate both consumption of ethanol and fat, and circulating triglycerides (TG), which stimulate these peptides and promote consummatory behavior. The present study investigated this vicious cycle between ethanol and fat, to further characterize its relation to TG and to test the effects of lowering TG levels. In Experiment 1, the behavioral relationship between fat intake and ethanol was confirmed. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats, chronically injected with ethanol (1 g/kg i.p.) and tested in terms of their preference for a high-fat compared to low-fat diet, showed a significant increase in their fat preference, compared to rats injected with saline, in measures of 2 h and 24 h intake. Experiment 2 tested the relationship of circulating TG in this positive association between ethanol and fat, in rats chronically consuming 9% ethanol vs. water and given acute meal tests (25 kcal) of a high-fat vs. low-fat diet. Levels of TG were elevated in response to both chronic drinking of ethanol vs. water and acute eating of a high-fat vs. low-fat meal. Most importantly, ethanol and a high-fat diet showed an interaction effect, whereby their combination produced a considerably larger increase in TG levels (+172%) compared to ethanol with a low-fat diet (+111%). In Experiment 3, a direct manipulation of TG levels was found to affect ethanol intake. After administration of gemfibrozil (50 mg/kg i.g.) compared to vehicle, TG levels were lowered by 37%, and ethanol intake was significantly reduced. In Experiment 4, the TG-lowering drug gemfibrozil also caused a significant reduction in the expression of the orexigenic peptide OX, in the perifornical lateral hypothalamus. These results support the existence of a vicious cycle between ethanol and fat whereby each nutrient stimulates intake of the other. Within this vicious cycle, ethanol and fat act synergistically to increase TG levels, which in turn stimulate peptides that promote further consumption, and these phenomena are reversed by gemfibrozil, which lowers TG levels.

Barson, Jessica R.; Karatayev, Olga; Chang, Guo-Qing; Johnson, Deanne F.; Bocarsly, Miriam E.; Hoebel, Bartley G.; Leibowitz, Sarah F.

2009-01-01

269

Changes of proteins induced by anticoagulants can be more sensitively detected in urine than in plasma.  

PubMed

The most fundamental property of biomarkers is change. But changes are hard to maintain in plasma since it is strictly controlled by homeostatic mechanisms of the body. There is no homeostatic mechanism for urine. Besides, urine is partly a filtration of blood, and systematic information can be reflected in urine. We hypothesize that change of blood can be reflected in urine more sensitively. Here we introduce the interference into the blood by two anticoagulants heparin or argatroban. Plasma and urine proteins were profiled by LC-MS/MS and then validated by Western blot in totally six SD female rats before and after the drug treatments. In argatroban treated group, with exactly the same experimental procedure and the same cutoff value for both plasma and urine proteins, 62 proteins changed in urine, only one of which changed in plasma. In heparin treated group, 27 proteins changed in urine but only three other proteins changed in plasma. Both LC-MS/MS and Western blot analyses demonstrated drug-induced increases in transferrin and hemopexin levels in urine but not in plasma. Our data indicates that urine may serve as a source for more sensitive detection of protein biomarkers than plasma. PMID:24907934

Li, MengLin; Zhao, MinDi; Gao, YouHe

2014-07-01

270

Spectrophotometric detection of iodide and chromic (III) in urine after oxidation to iodine and chromate (VI).  

PubMed

Tests for oxidizing adulterants in urine are a continuing challenge to the drug-testing program. Iodine was found to destroy morphine and 6-acetylmorphine almost immediately. The effects were less evident on 11 -nor-delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (THC-acid). When the urine solution was tested for iodine by a chromogenic substrate, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), no iodine was detected. Masking drug and adulterant simultaneously made iodine a preferred oxidizing adulterant for drug abusers. In this study, the reduced iodide was oxidized by sodium nitrite to iodine. The excess nitrite was decomposed by sulfamic acid and the iodine was detected by ABTS. Linearity was 12.7 to 635 mg/L (0.1 to 5 mmol/L, y = 0.9966x + 0.0016, R2 = 1.0000). Precisions (coefficient of variation) were within +/- 4.1% and quantitative accuracies were within 97% of expected values (n=5). Chromate, iodate, periodate, and persulfate interfered with the method. To alleviate the problem, the positive specimens were tested again by an iodine-specific method. After oxidation, the samples were treated with sodium azide and ammonium thiocyanate. In presence of thiocyanate, the azide reduced iodine to iodide almost immediately, and the solutions showed negative response to ABTS. The results were compared with that of a control group tested without thiocyanate. When iodine was present, the ratios of thiocyanate to control were less than 6%. Chromate was also found to destroy THC-acid in urine, and during storage most of the chromate changed to chromic (III). In this study, chromic was oxidized to chromate by hydrogen peroxide and sodium hydroxide and detected by 1,5-diphenylcarbazide. Linearity was 5.2 to 156 mg/L (0.1 to 3.0 mmol/L, y = 1.0285x - 0.0034, R2 = 0.9998). Precisions were within +/- 8.5% and quantitative accuracies were within 92% of expected values (n=5). The test was not interfered by other oxidizing agents. Both iodide and chromic oxidation methods showed urine backgrounds less than 1.27 and 0.52 mg/L, respectively (< 0.01 mmol/L). It indicated that a response more than 10 times of the background could be considered as oxidant contamination or adulteration of urine specimens. PMID:16419396

Paul, Buddha D; Jacobs, Aaron

2005-10-01

271

Genotyping of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from cockroaches and human urine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molecular-epidemiological analysis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from cockroaches captured in hospitals and from patient urine was performed, employing randomly amplified polymorphic\\u000a DNA (RAPD) analysis to investigate the usefulness of RAPD analysis. Four specific bands at positions of 993, 875, 521, and\\u000a 402 bp were commonly detected using primer 272 in 16 of 45 cockroach-derived strains (35.6%), but not in 21 urine-derived

Keiko Saitou; Katsunori Furuhata; Masafumi Fukuyama

2010-01-01

272

Detection of manipulation in doping control urine sample collection: a multidisciplinary approach to determine identical urine samples.  

PubMed

Manipulation of urine sampling in sports drug testing is considered a violation of anti-doping rules and is consequently sanctioned by regulatory authorities. In 2003, three identical urine specimens were provided by three different athletes, and the identity of all urine samples was detected and substantiated using numerous analytical strategies including gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with steroid and metabolite profiling, gas chromatography-nitrogen/phosphorus detector analysis, high-performance liquid chromatography-UV fingerprinting, and DNA-STR (short tandem repeat) analysis. None of the respective athletes was the donor of the urine provided for doping analysis, which proved to be a urine sample collected from other unidentified individual(s). Samples were considered suspicious based on identical steroid profiles, one of the most important parameters for specimen individualization in sports drug testing. A database containing 14,224 urinary steroid profiles of athletes was screened for specific values of 4 characteristic parameters (ratios of testosterone/epitestosterone, androsterone/etiocholanolone, androsterone/testosterone, and 5alpha-androstane-3alpha,17beta-diol/5beta-androstane-3alpha,17beta-diol) and only the three suspicious samples matched all criteria. Further metabolite profiling regarding indicated medications and high-performance liquid chromatography-UV fingerprinting substantiated the assumption of manipulation. DNA-STR analyses unequivocally confirmed that the 3 urine samples were from the same individual and not from the athletes who provided DNA from either buccal cell material or blood specimens. This supportive evidence led to punishment of all three athletes according to the rules of the World Anti-Doping Agency. Application of a new multidisciplinary strategy employing common and new doping control assays enables the detection of urine substitution in sports drug testing. PMID:17260133

Thevis, Mario; Geyer, Hans; Mareck, Ute; Sigmund, Gerd; Henke, Jürgen; Henke, Lotte; Schänzer, Wilhelm

2007-08-01

273

In vitro potency of inhibition by antiviral drugs of hematopoietic progenitor colony formation correlates with exposure at hemotoxic levels in human immunodeficiency virus-positive humans.  

PubMed Central

Inhibition of in vitro colony formation of human hematopoietic progenitors (CFU-granulocyte-macrophage, burst-forming unit-erythroid) by the antiviral nucleoside drugs alovudine, zalcitabine, zidovudine, ganciclovir, stavudine, didanosine, lamivudine, and acyclovir was measured. Significant correlations between in vitro 50% inhibitory concentrations and the daily human exposures (area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 24 h; in micromolar.hour) of these chronically administered drugs in human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients that induced neutropenia or anemia were demonstrated by both linear regression and Spearman rank-order analyses. These quantitative correlations allow estimation of the exposure at which bone marrow toxicity may occur with candidate compounds.

Dornsife, R E; Averett, D R

1996-01-01

274

Urine cup for collection of urine from cows.  

PubMed

A urine cup for continuous and complete collection of urine from cows was constructed from Plastisol, cotton webb strapping, Velcro Brand touch fasteners [corrected], snap-fasteners, denim patches, weather stripping, and vacuum hose. The urine cup was made from Plastisol using a heated lead mold. It was large enough to enclose a 9 cm x 6 cm area around the vulva of a cow and was attached by strapping and Velcro Brand touch fasteners [corrected] to patches glued to the rump. Urine cups were used repeatedly and provided for long-term collection of urine from cows, eliminating the need for indwelling catheters. Applications include long-term nutrient balance, radioisotope, and metabolism studies. PMID:3170866

Fellner, V; Weiss, M F; Belo, A T; Belyea, R L; Martz, F A; Orma, A H

1988-08-01

275

Determination of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in urine by hollow-fiber liquid membrane-protected solid-phase microextraction based on sol-gel fiber coating.  

PubMed

A new rapid, simple and effective cleanup procedure is demonstrated for the determination of ibuprofen, naproxen and diclofenac in urine samples by using hollow-fiber liquid membrane-protected solid-phase microextraction (HFLM-SPME) based on sol-gel technique and gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID). In this technique, a sol-gel coated fiber was protected with a length of porous polypropylene hollow fiber membrane which was filled with water-immiscible organic phase. Subsequently the whole device was immersed into urine sample for extraction. Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) grafted onto multi-walled carbon nanotubes (PEG-g-MWCNTs) was used as extraction phase to prepare the sol-gel SPME fiber. Important parameters influencing the extraction efficiency such as desorption temperature and time, organic solvent, extraction temperature and time, pH, stirring speed and salt effect were investigated and optimized. Under the optimal conditions, the method detection limits (S/N=3) were in the range of 0.03-0.07ngmL(-1) and the limits of quantification (S/N=10) between 0.08 and 0.15ngmL(-1). Relative standard deviations for intra-day and inter-day precisions were 4.8-9.0% and 4.9-8.1%, respectively. Subsequently, the method was successfully applied to human urine fractions after administration of ibuprofen, naproxen and diclofenac. PMID:23122403

Sarafraz-Yazdi, Ali; Amiri, Amirhassan; Rounaghi, Gholamhossein; Eshtiagh-Hosseini, Hossein

2012-11-01

276

Exposure of pharmacy personnel to mutagenic antineoplastic drugs  

SciTech Connect

The Salmonella reversion test was used to measure the mutagenic activities of urine concentrates from individuals preparing cancer chemotherapy agents for intravenous administration. Longitudinal studies were performed in which the total urine produced in 24 hour periods was collected, starting on a Sunday at 7:00 p.m. after a duty-free weekend and extending over an eight day period. There was no detectable increase in mutagenic activity in the urine concentrates of three pharmacy administrators who had no contact with these drugs. All six individuals admixing drugs in open-faced, horizontal laminar flow hoods displayed a two-fold increase in mutagenesis by the fourth day with peak values of 2.7 to 24-fold occurring on days five and six, reduced values by day seven with a return to the spontaneous level by day eight. When four of the six positive individuals in the preceding experiment admixed comparable amounts of chemotherapeutic drugs in a closed-faced, vertical laminar flow hood, no increase in mutagenic activity was detected in their urine concentrates over the eight day period.

Nguyen, T.V.; Theiss, J.C.; Matney, T.S.

1981-01-01

277

NrCAM in Addiction Vulnerability: Positional Cloning, Drug-Regulation, Haplotype-Specific Expression, and Altered Drug Reward in Knockout Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several lines of evidence support roles for the cell adhesion molecule NrCAM in addictions. Fine mapping within a chromosome 7 region that contains previously linked and associated genomic markers identifies NrCAM haplotypes that are associated with substance abuse vulnerabilities in four samples of abusers and controls. Differential display identifies NrCAM as a drug regulated gene. NrCAM is expressed in neurons

Hiroki Ishiguro; Qing-Rong Liu; Jian-Ping Gong; Frank Scott Hall; Hiroshi Ujike; Marisela Morales; Takeshi Sakurai; Martin Grumet; George R Uhl

2006-01-01

278

Hair: A Diagnostic Tool to Complement Blood Serum and Urine.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Trace elements and some drugs can be identified in hair and it seems likely that other organic chemicals will be identifiable in the future. Since hair is so easily collected, stored, and analyzed it promises to be an ideal complement to serum and urine analysis as a diagnostic tool. (BB)

Maugh, Thomas H., II

1978-01-01

279

Urine Pretreatment Configuration and Test Results for Space Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pretreatment of urine using Oxone and sulfuric acid is baselined in the International Space Station (ISS) waste water reclamation system to control odors, fix urea and control microbial growth. In addition, pretreatment is recommended for long term flight use of urine collection and two phase separation to reduce or eliminate fouling of the associated hardware and plumbing with urine precipitates. This is important for ISS application because the amount of maintenance time for cleaning and repairing hardware must be minimized. This paper describes the development of a chemical pretreatment system based on solid tablet shapes which are positioned in the urine collection hose and are dissolved by the intrained urine at the proper ratio of pretreatment to urine. Building upon the prior success of the developed and tested solid Oxone tablet a trade study was completed to confirm if a similar approach, or alternative, would be appropriate for the sulfuric acid injection method. In addition, a recommended handling and packaging approach of the solid tablets for long term, safe and convenient use on ISS was addressed. Consequently, the solid tablet concept with suitable packaging was identified as the Urine Pretreat / Prefilter Assembly (UPPA). Testing of the UPPA configuration confirmed the disolution rates and ratios required by ISS were achieved. This testing included laboratory controlled methods as well as a 'real world' test evaluation that occurred during the 150 day Stage 10 Water Recovery Test (WRT) conducted at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).

Howard, Stanley G.; Hutchens, Cindy F.; Rethke, Donald W.; Swartley, Vernon L.; Marsh, Robert W.

1998-01-01

280

Detection of gram-negative bacteria in urine by the chromogenic limulus assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

The value of the chromogenic limulus assay for detection of gram-negative bacteria in urine was determined. The assay was performed in microtiter plates at room temperature. In 311 consecutively collected urine samples from patients with suspected urinary tract infection, the assay was positive in all 35 samples containing ? 105 bacteria\\/ml. No false positive or false negative results were obtained.

M. Nurminen; M. Karvonen; A. Siitonen

1988-01-01

281

Coyote estrous urine volatiles.  

PubMed

Samples of female coyote urine were taken once or twice each week during the winter and spring for two years. Headspace analysis was employed with Tenax GC trapping and GC-MS. Tenax trapping was started in less than 1 hr after sampling, and mild conditions were used to minimize losses of highly volatile and labile compounds. Thirty-four compounds were identified. They include sulfur compounds, aldehydes and ketones, hydrocarbons, and one alcohol. The principal constituent is methyl 3-methylbut-3-enyl sulfide, which usually comprised 50% or more of the total volatiles observed. The concentration of many constituents varied widely. This appeared to be quasiperiodic for five of the constituents, with a period of a few weeks, and with pronounced maxima at the peak of estrus. Apparently these compounds are 3-methyltetrahydrothiophene, methyl 3-methylbutyl sulfide, octanal, dodecanal, and bis(3-methylbut-3-enyl) disulfide. One or more of these compounds may have pheromonal activity in coyote relationships. PMID:24276012

Schultz, T H; Flath, R A; Stern, D J; Mon, T R; Teranishi, R; Kruse, S M; Butler, B; Howard, W E

1988-02-01

282

Nootropic drugs positively modulate alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid-sensitive glutamate receptors in neuronal cultures.  

PubMed

Micromolar concentrations of piracetam, aniracetam, and oxiracetam enhanced alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA)-stimulated 45Ca2+ influx in primary cultures of cerebellar granule cells. Nootropic drugs increased the efficacy but not the potency of AMPA and their action persisted in the presence of the voltage-sensitive calcium channel blocker nifedipine. Potentiation by oxiracetam was specific for AMPA receptor-mediated signal transduction, as the drug changed neither the stimulation of 45Ca2+ influx by kainate or N-methyl-D-aspartate nor the activation of inositol phospholipid hydrolysis elicited by quisqualate or (+-)-1-aminocyclopentane-trans-1,3-dicarboxylic acid. Piracetam, aniracetam, and oxiracetam increased the maximal density of the specific binding sites for [3H]AMPA in synaptic membranes from rat cerebral cortex. Taken collectively, these results support the view that nootropic drugs act as positive modulators of AMPA-sensitive glutamate receptors in neurons. PMID:1372342

Copani, A; Genazzani, A A; Aleppo, G; Casabona, G; Canonico, P L; Scapagnini, U; Nicoletti, F

1992-04-01

283

Determination of methylphenidate and its metabolite ritalinic acid in urine by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Methylphenidate (MPH) is a drug that is licensed for treatment of ADHD and also narcolepsy. Monitoring of the parent drug and its major metabolite ritalinic acid (RA) in urine is considered necessary to ensure compliance with treatment programmes. A rapid, simple and sensitive liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) assay was developed for the determination of MPH and its metabolite RA in human urine. After urine was diluted with water, methylphenidate, the major metabolite ritalinic acid, and d?-amphetamine as the internal standard were resolved on a PFP propyl column using gradient elution of 0.02% ammonium formate and acetonitrile. The total analysis time was 13.5 min. The three compounds were detected using electrospray ionisation in the positive mode. Standard curves were linear over the concentration range 5-5000 ?g/L (r>0.997), bias was ? ±20%, intra- and inter-day coefficients of variation (imprecision) were <8% and the limit of detection was 5 ?g/L. The limit of quantitation was set at 100 ?g/L. Matrix effects were up to 140% but these were accounted for by the internal standard. The assay is being used successfully in clinical practice to enhance the safe and effective use of methylphenidate. PMID:22204874

Paterson, Sharon M; Moore, Grant A; Florkowski, Chris M; George, Peter M

2012-01-15

284

Uric acid - urine  

MedlinePLUS

... take. These include: Aspirin or aspirin-containing medicines Gout medicines Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, such as ... test may be done to monitor people with gout, and to choose the best medicine to lower ...

285

Elimination of False Negative Results with the FPN Forrest Test for Phenothiazine Derivatives in Urine  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the FPN Forrest test for urinary phenothiazine derivatives, omission of drug intake was found to be the most frequent cause of negative color reactions; accord- ingly, these negative reactions are true negatives. Excessive dilution of urine specimens occasionally yielded \\

Irene S. Forrest; Fred M. Forrest; Saul L. Kanter

286

Radioimmunoassay for the determination of alosetron in human urine and saliva.  

PubMed

The development of a radioimmunoassay (RIA) for the sub-ng ml-1 determination of alosetron, a potent and selective 5HT3 receptor antagonist, in human urine and saliva is described. The antiserum was raised in Soay sheep following primary and booster immunizations with an immunogen prepared by conjugating alosetron-p-azobenzoic acid to bovine serum albumin (BSA). The radioligand consisted of alosetron specifically 125-iodinated on the 2-position of the imidazole group. The mean (+/- standard deviation) theoretical sensitivity (minimum detectable dose corresponding to the imprecision of the zero standard) of the RIA is 3.2 +/- 2.6 pg ml-1 (n = 12) of alosetron in assay diluent (0.1% m/v gelatine-0.05% m/v sodium azide in 0.1 mol l-1 phosphate buffer solution, pH 7.4). The working calibration range using 0.1 ml samples of saliva and 20-fold diluted urine is 0.10-6.40 ng ml-1 of alosetron. Urine samples were diluted prior to assay to overcome adverse matrix effects; consequently, the lower limit of quantification for undiluted urine is 2.0 ng ml-1 of alosetron. Inter- and intra-assay bias and imprecision over the working calibration range were generally < +/- 12% and < 13%, respectively, except at the 0.10 ng ml-1 alosetron level, where the corresponding values were < +/- 17.3% and < 20.2%. The antiserum was free from adverse cross-reactivity with either a synthetic precursor of alosetron or with four major metabolites of the drug.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7872486

Wring, S A; O'Neill, R M; Williams, J L; Birch, H L; Goddard, C P; Andrew, P D; Jenner, W N

1994-11-01

287

[Purple urine bag syndrome (PUBS) associated with strong alkaline urine].  

PubMed

Mechanisms for purple discoloration of the plastic urine bag in purple urine bag syndrome (PUBS) were investigated. Activities of bacterial indoxyl sulfatase catalyzing the conversion of indoxyl sulfate to indigo (or indirubin) were detected in strong alkaline liquid media but not in normal ones. These enzyme activities were particularly high in simple and combined cultures of Proteus mirabilis and/or Klebsiella pneumoniae. These results suggest that occurrence of PUBS is associated with strong alkaline urine as well as urinary tract infections induced by some species of bacteria with indoxyl sulfatase. PMID:8294766

Umeki, S

1993-12-01

288

Evaluation of urine culture screening by light-scatter photometry  

SciTech Connect

Urine screening for bacteriuria by light-scatter photometry (Autobac) was evaluated for accuracy and compared with a colony count by the calibrated loop method. Incubation time, inoculum size, precision, and interference of particulate matter were evaluated in an effort to standardize the screening procedure. Results showed that urines could be accurately screened for Enterobacteriaceae by inoculating a single Autobac cuvette chamber with 0.1 or 0.2 ml of urine and determining the voltage change after four hours. A change of greater than or equal to 0.2 units indicates significant bacteriuria. Decreased accuracy was noted for urines having greater than 10(5) cfu/ml of Pseudomonas species or gram-positive cocci, possibly because these organisms grow more slowly.

Hale, D.C.; Thrupp, L.D.; Matsen, J.M.

1981-08-01

289

49 CFR 40.63 - What steps does the collector take in the collection process before the employee provides a urine...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...collection process before the employee provides a urine specimen? 40.63 Section 40.63...WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Urine Specimen Collections § 40.63 What...collection process before the employee provides a urine specimen? As the collector, you...

2009-10-01

290

49 CFR 40.63 - What steps does the collector take in the collection process before the employee provides a urine...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...collection process before the employee provides a urine specimen? 40.63 Section 40.63...WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Urine Specimen Collections § 40.63 What...collection process before the employee provides a urine specimen? As the collector, you...

2010-10-01

291

[Pastel in the urine bag].  

PubMed

Purple urine bag syndrome is a relatively unknown phenomenon in which the urine bag and the collector of chronically catheterized patients turn purple or blue. It affects predominantly women, and is mainly reported in elderly patients. The mechanism seems to be related to the appearance in the urine of two compounds that have been identified as indigo (blue) and indirubin (red) which bind to the urine bag and the collector. Several associated factors are usually mentioned such as constipation, alkaline urine, bed rest, institutionalization or cognitive impairment. They are risk factor of this phenomenon. On the other hand, an infection or a urinary bacterial colonization is necessary and high bacterial counts seem to be the critical step in the development of the purple urine bag syndrome. We report on two cases of purple urine bag syndrome observed in two patients being treated in a long-term care unit. Both of whom were diagnosed with indwelling urinary bacterial colonization, with Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa respectively. PMID:22414392

Cantaloube, Lucie; Lebaudy, Cécile; Hermabessière, Sophie; Rolland, Yves

2012-03-01

292

Detection and identification of carprofen and its in vivo metabolites in greyhound urine by capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Rimadyl (carprofen) was administered orally to the racing greyhound at a dose of 2.2 mg kg(-1). Following both alkaline and enzymatic hydrolysis, postadministration urine samples were extracted by mixed mode solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridges to identify target analyte(s) for forensic screening and confirmatory analysis methods. The acidic isolates were derivatised as trimethylsilyl ethers (TMS) and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Carprofen and five phase I metabolites were identified. Positive ion electron ionisation (EI(+)) mass spectra of the TMS derivatives of carprofen and its metabolites show a diagnostic base peak at M(+)*. -117 corresponding to the loss of COO-Si-(CH(3))(3) group as a radical. GC-MS with positive ion ammonia chemical ionisation (CI(+)) of the compounds provided both derivatised molecular mass and some structural information. Deutromethylation-TMS derivatisation was used to distinguish between aromatic and aliphatic oxidations of carprofen. The drug is rapidly absorbed, extensively metabolised and excreted as phase II conjugates in urine. Carprofen, three aromatic hydroxy and a minor N-hydroxy metabolite were detected for up to 48 h. For samples collected between 2 and 8 h after administration, the concentration of total carprofen ranged between 200 and 490 ng ml(-1). The major metabolite, alpha-hydroxycarprofen was detected for over 72 h and therefore can also be used as a marker for the forensic screening of carprofen in greyhound urine. PMID:12705970

Dumasia, M C; Ginn, A; Hyde, W; Peterson, J; Houghton, E

2003-05-25

293

On-line coupling of automated solid-phase extraction with high-performance liquid chromatography and electrochemical detection. Quantitation of oxidizable drugs of abuse and their metabolites in plasma and urine.  

PubMed

The concentration effect of automated on-line solid-phase extraction (SPE) in combination with HPLC and very sensitive electrochemical detection was employed for the determination of N-ethyl-4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-amphetamine (HMEA, the main metabolite of the ecstasy analogue MDE), delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and 11-nor-delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol-carboxylic acid (THC-COOH) in plasma and urine in comparison to a previously published psilocin assay. For the SPE either CBA (functional group: carboxypropyl)- or CH (functional group: cyclohexyl)-sorbent was used. The following separation was carried out on a reversed-phase column (LiChroCart, Superspher 60 RP select B from Merck). Depending on the hydrodynamic voltammogram of the analyzed substance the oxidation potential varied from 920 mV up to 1.2 V. In spite of using high potentials, precision and accuracy were always within the accepted statistical requirements. The limits of quantitation were between 5 ng/ml (THC, THC-COOH in plasma) and 20 ng/ml (HMEA in plasma). Advantages of on-line SPE in comparison with off-line methods were less manual effort, evidently smaller volumes (< or = 400 microliters) of plasma or urine and almost always higher recovery rates (> 93%). The assays have been successfully proven with real biological samples and found suitable for use in routine analysis. PMID:10510769

Krämer, E; Kovar, K A

1999-08-20

294

Safely reducing manual urine microscopy analyses by combining urine flow cytometer and strip results.  

PubMed

We aimed to reduce the number of manual urine microscopy examinations safely by cross-interpretation of the Sysmex UF-100 (TOA Medical Electronics, Kobe, Japan) and urine strip results such that microscopy would be performed if there was discordance between the UF-100 and urine strip results. We also evaluated the usefulness of the optional UF-100 expert software. We performed 2 studies: study 1 to establish review rules for eventual microscopic examination; study 2, a validation study. Our review rates were 40% and 48% and those of UF-100 software were 16% and 32% for the 2 studies. Our false-positive and false-negative results, among the samples not flagged for microscopic review, were acceptably low. We did not find a good correlation between the microscopic classification of RBC morphologic features and the classification given by the UF-100. Since incorporation of the automated urine strip reader and the UF-100 in routine use, our manual microscopy has been reduced to less than 40%. PMID:11764076

Roggeman, S; Zaman, Z

2001-12-01

295

Psychosocial and demographic correlates of drug use in a sample of HIV-positive adults ages 50 and older.  

PubMed

The prevalence of HIV among adults 50 and older in the USA is increasing as a result of improvements in treatment and detection of HIV infection. Substance use by this population has implications for physical and mental health outcomes. We examined patterns of demographics, mental health, and recent substance use in a diverse sample of heterosexual, bisexual, and gay adults 50 and older living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in New York City. The most commonly used substances were cigarettes or alcohol; however, the majority of the sample did not report recent use of marijuana, poppers, or hard drugs (crystal methamphetamine, cocaine, crack, heroin, ecstasy, GHB, ketamine, and LSD or PCP). Statistically significant associations between substance use and psychological states (well-being and loneliness) were generally weak, and depression scores were not significantly related to use; instead, drug use was associated with gender/sexual orientation. The study observations support addressing substance use specific to subpopulations within PLWHA. PMID:23408281

Siconolfi, Daniel E; Halkitis, Perry N; Barton, Staci C; Kingdon, Molly J; Perez-Figueroa, Rafael E; Arias-Martinez, Vanessa; Karpiak, Stephen; Brennan-Ing, Mark

2013-12-01

296

Horizontal transfer of drug-resistant aminoacyl-transfer-RNA synthetases of anthrax and Gram-positive pathogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The screening of new antibiotics against several bacterial strains often reveals unexpected occurrences of natural drug resistance. Two examples of this involve specific inhibitors of Staphylococcus aureus isoleucyl-transfer-RNA synthetase 1 (IleRS1) and, more recently, Streptococcus pneumoniae methionyl-tRNA synthetase 1 (MetRS1). In both cases, resistance is due to the presence of a second gene that encodes another synthetase (IleRS2 or MetRS2).

Daniel Gentry; Julie A. Becker; Karen Ingraham; David J. Holmes; James R. Brown; Michael J. Stanhope

2003-01-01

297

Treating urine by Spirulina platensis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper Spirulina platensis with relatively high nutrition was cultivated to treat human urine. Batch culture showed that the consumption of N in human urine could reach to 99%, and the consumption of P was more than 99.9%, and 1.05 g biomass was obtained by treating 12.5 ml synthetic human urine; continuous culture showed that S. platensis could consume N, Cl, K and S in human urine effectively, and the consumption could reach to 99.9%, 75.0%, 83.7% and 96.0%, respectively, and the consumption of P was over 99.9%, which is very important to increase the closure and safety of the bioregenerative life support system (BLSS).

Yang, Chenliang; Liu, Hong; Li, Ming; Yu, Chengying; Yu, Gurevich

298

Urine collection apparatus. [feminine hygiene  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A urine collection device for females comprises an interface body with an interface surface for engagement with the user's body. The interface body comprises a forward portion defining a urine-receiving bore which has an inlet in the interface surface adapted to be disposed in surrounding relation to the urethral opening of the user. The interface body also has a rear portion integrally adjoining the forward portion and a non-invasive vaginal seal on the interface surface for sealing the vagina of the user from communication with the urine-receiving bore. An absorbent pad is removably supported on the interface body and extends laterally therefrom. A garment for supporting the urine collection is also disclosed.

Michaud, R. B. (inventor)

1981-01-01

299

A prototype urine collection device for female aircrew  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Women are gaining increased access to small military cockpits. This shift has stimulated the search for practical urine containment and disposal methods for female aircrew. There are no external urine collection devices (UCD) for women that are comfortable, convenient, and leak free. We describe a prototype UCD that begins to meet this need. Materials used to make custom aviator masks were adapted to mold a perineal mask. First, a perineal cast (negative) was used to make a mold (positive). Next, a perineal mask made of wax was formed to fit the positive mold. Finally, a soft, pliable perineal mask was fabricated using the wax model as a guide. The prototype was tested for comfort, fit, and leakage. In the sitting position, less than 5 cc of urine leakage occurred with each 600 cc of urine collected. Comfort was mostly satisfactory, but ambulation was limited and the outlet design could lead to kinking and obstruction. We concluded that a perineal mask may serve as a comfortable and functional external UCD acceptable for use by females in confined environments. Changes are needed to improve comfort, fit, and urine drainage. Integration into cockpits, pressure suits, chemical defense gear, and environments where access to relief facilities is restricted is planned.

Bisson, Roger U.; Delger, Karlyna L.

1993-01-01

300

A urine volume measurement system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An improved urine volume measurement system for use in the unusual environment of manned space flight is reported. The system utilizes a low time-constant thermal flowmeter. The time integral of the transient response of the flowmeter gives the urine volume during a void as it occurs. In addition, the two phase flows through the flowmeter present no problem. Developments of the thermal flowmeter and a verification of the predicted performance characteristics are summarized.

Poppendiek, H. F.; Mouritzen, G.; Sabin, C. M.

1972-01-01

301

Development and validation of a nonisotopic immunoassay for the detection of LSD in human urine.  

PubMed

A microplate enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for the detection of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) in human urine was developed. The assay kit is designed around an LSD derivative coated on the wall of microplate wells with preservatives and stabilizers. Sample and rabbit anti-LSD are added to the microplate well. The immobilized LSD and LSD present in specimens compete for the opportunity to bind to the anti-LSD antibodies. An anti-rabbit antibody labeled with horseradish peroxidase is used to provide the assay signal, which is inversely proportional to the concentration of LSD in the sample. The assay requires a 25-microL urine sample and three consecutive incubation periods of 60, 30, and 30 min at room temperature. The assay was tested with a variety of drugs, including ergot alkaloids spiked into drug-free urine at up to 100,000 ng/mL without cross-reaction. Nor-LSD was shown to cross-react between 16% and 28%, depending on its concentration. Of the other compounds tested, only ergonovine demonstrated slight cross-reactivity at approximately 0.0008%. The assay is designed to be used with a qualitative cutoff of 0.5 ng/mL. Precision testing at 0.5 ng/mL gave a coefficient of variation (CV) of 6% based on 20 replicates. The CV at 0.375 ng/mL (cutoff, -25%) was 5.2% and at 0.625 ng/mL was 6.6%. Precision at other concentrations within the range of the calibration curve gave similar results both intra- and interassay. Clinical performance of the assay was compared with that of a commercial radioimmunoassay (RIA). Comparable performance was observed with both methods, each screening a total of 458 samples as negative and 17 samples as positive relative to a 0.5 ng/mL cutoff. The EIA found an additional three positive samples that were negative by RIA. The EIA is suitable for the screening of urine samples for the presence of LSD. Preliminary indications are that the assay is also suitable for use with whole blood specimens. The assay can be performed manually or be fully automated and without the need for radioactivity; it can be used in any laboratory. PMID:8889677

Cassells, N P; Craston, D H; Hand, C W; Baldwin, D

1996-10-01

302

Reduced gravity fecal collector seat and urinal  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A waste collection system for use in a reduced gravity including a seat having an opening centrally located with a pair of opposed depressed valleys on opposite sides of said opening for accommodating the ischial tuberosities of a user. The seat has contoured surfaces for providing support of the user's body and includes a prominent ridge towards the rear, which provides forward-aft positioning cue to the user. A curved recess is provided adjacent the forward portion of the seat for accommodating a tubular urinal having an enlarged open mouth.

Brown, J. W. (inventor)

1974-01-01

303

Drug Use During Pregnancy: Validating the Drug Abuse Screening Test Against Physiological Measures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the ability of the Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST-10) to identify prenatal drug use using hair and urine samples as criterion variables. In addition, this study was the first to use \\

Emily R. Grekin; Dace S. Svikis; Phebe Lam; Veronica Connors; James M. LeBreton; David L. Streiner; Courtney Smith; Steven J. Ondersma

2010-01-01

304

Ethanol and drug findings in women consulting a Sexual Assault Center--associations with clinical characteristics and suspicions of drug-facilitated sexual assault.  

PubMed

The purpose of the study was to describe toxicological findings among women seeking health care after sexual assault, and to assess the relationship with so-called proactive DFSA (drug facilitated sexual assault). We also explored associations between ethanol in blood/urine and background data, assault characteristics, and clinical findings. We conducted a retrospective, descriptive study of female patients ? 12 years of age consulting the Sexual Assault Center at St. Olavs University Hospital, Trondheim, Norway. They were examined between July 1, 2003 and December 31, 2010, and urine and/or blood were analyzed for ethanol and selected medicinal/recreational drugs. Among the 264 patients included, ethanol and/or drugs were detected in 155 (59%). Of the 50 patients (19%) testing positive for drugs other than ethanol, benzodiazepines/benzodiazepine-like drugs were found in 31, central stimulants in 14, cannabinoids in 13 and opioids in nine. None tested positive for gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB). In total, 57 patients (22%) suspected proactive DFSA, but only five had findings of sedative drugs that were not accounted for by self-reported voluntary intake. No cases could unequivocally be attributed to proactive DFSA. Among the 120 patients tested for ethanol within 12 h after the assault, 102 were positive. The median estimated blood alcohol concentration (BAC) at the time of assault was 1.87 g/L. Patients testing positive for ethanol more often reported a public place of assault and a stranger assailant. Higher estimated BAC at the time of assault was associated with higher frequency of suspecting proactive DFSA. Ethanol was the most prevalent toxicological finding in urine/blood from victims of sexual assault, and high ethanol concentrations were often detected. Among the patients suspecting proactive DFSA, very few had sedative drug findings not explained by voluntary intake. It seems like opportunistic DFSA, rather than proactive DFSA dominate among the sexually assaulted attending our SAC. PMID:23910880

Hagemann, Cecilie T; Helland, Arne; Spigset, Olav; Espnes, Ketil A; Ormstad, Kari; Schei, Berit

2013-08-01

305

Tracking the extramedullary PML-RAR?-positive cell reservoirs in a preclinical model: biomarker of long-term drug efficacy.  

PubMed

Using an acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) preclinical model, we show that oncogene-specific PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction)-based assays allow to evaluate the efficacy of immunotherapy combining all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and a DNA-based vaccine targeting the promyelocytic leukemia-retinoic acid receptor alpha (PML-RAR?) oncogene. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis according to the peripheral blood PML-RAR? normalized copy number (NCN) clearly shows that ATRA + DNA-treated mice with an NCN lower than 10 (43%) formed the group with a highly significant (p < 0.0001) survival advantage. Furthermore, a PCR assay was used to assess various tissues and organs for the presence of PML-RAR?-positive cells in long-term survivors (n = 15). As expected, the majority of mice (n = 10) had no measurable tissue level of PML-RAR?. However, five mice showed a weak positive signal in both the brain and spleen (n = 2), in the brain only (n = 2) and in the spleen only (n = 1). Thus tracking the oncogene-positive cells in long-term survivors reveals for the first time that extramedullary PML-RAR?-positive cell reservoirs such as the brain may persist and be involved in relapses. PMID:22906630

Pokorna, Katerina; Le Pogam, Carole; Chopin, Martine; Balitrand, Nicole; Reboul, Murielle; Cassinat, Bruno; Chomienne, Christine; Padua, Rose Ann; Pla, Marika

2013-02-01

306

Intraparenchymal drug delivery via positive-pressure infusion: experimental and modeling studies of poroelasticity in brain phantom gels  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have used agarose gel to develop a robust model of the intraparenchymal brain tissues for the purpose of simulating positive-pressure infusion of therapeutic agents directly into the brain. In parallel with that effort, we have synthesized a mathematical description of the infusion process on the basis of a poroelastic theory for the swelling of the tissues under the influence

Zhi-Jian Chen; William C. Broaddus; Raju R. Viswanathan; Raghu Raghavan; George T. Gillies

2002-01-01

307

N-deethylation and N-oxidation of etamiphylline: identification of etamiphylline-N-oxide in greyhound urine by high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Millophyline-V, (etamiphylline camsylate) was administered intramuscularly to two racing greyhounds at a dose of 10 mg kg(-1). Unhydrolysed pre- and post-administration urine samples were extracted using mixed mode solid phase extraction (SPE) cartridges, the basic isolates derivatised as trimethylsilyl ethers and analysed by positive ion electron ionisation gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/EI+/MS). The parent drug and one metabolite, N-desethyletamiphylline, were detected in urine for up to 72 h. For semi-quantification, urine samples were extracted on-line using a Prospekt sample handler. The analytes retained on the C2 SPE cartridge were eluted by the mobile phase directly on to the analytical high performance liquid chromatography column and analysed by positive ion atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation (LC/APCI+) MS in the multiple selective-ion recording mode. A major peak containing both ions (m/z) 280 and (m/z) 252 was observed. Full scan LC/APCI+/MS of the unknown indicated that the ion at (m/z) 280 was formed by the loss of an oxygen atom [MH+ -->(MH+-O)]. Samples were analysed by positive ion electrospray ionisation LC/MS on two different instruments and the unknown compound was identified as an N-oxide of the tert. nitrogen atom of the 2-(diethylamino)ethyl substituent on N7 of the theophylline nucleus. This compound has not been reported previously either as an in vivo or in vitro metabolite of etamiphylline in any species. Thermal decomposition of the N-oxide could lead to an increase the detection period of the parent drug during routine GC/MS screening of post-competition greyhound urine samples. PMID:15620536

Dumasia, M C; Teale, P

2005-01-01

308

Fluoride in the urine, hair, and nails of phosphate fertiliser workers.  

PubMed Central

The fluoride content in the urine, hair, and nails of 106 workers employed in a phosphate fertiliser plant was significantly raised above the control level. Positive correlations were found between the group means for concentrations of fluorides in urine and hair (r = 0.77), urine and nails (r = 0.99), and hair and nails (r = 0.70). Individual values in the whole population gave significant correlations between concentrations in urine and nails (r = 0.73). The obtained results indicate that the fluoride content in hair and nails may be used as an indicator of occupational exposure to fluorides.

Czarnowski, W; Krechniak, J

1990-01-01

309

The influence of social and endocrine factors on urine-marking by captive wolves (Canis lupus)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Although serum hormones varied seasonally in all adult animals, only dominant male and female wolves urine-marked. Serum testosterone and urine-marking rates, which increased during the fall/winter breeding season, were positively correlated in both male and female dominant wolves. Estradiol, which increased in conjunction with proestrus and estrus, was not correlated with female urine-marking. These findings suggest that hormonal influence on urine-marking in the wolf is modulated by social factors and contrast with those for both domestic dogs and coyotes, two other members of the genus Canis.

Asa, C.S.; Mech, L.D.; Seal, U.S.; Plotka, E.D.

1990-01-01

310

U.s. Food and drug administration approval: crizotinib for treatment of advanced or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer that is anaplastic lymphoma kinase positive.  

PubMed

On August 26, 2011, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved crizotinib (XALKORI Capsules, Pfizer Inc.) for treatment of patients with locally advanced or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) that is anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) positive as detected by an FDA-approved test. The Vysis ALK Break-Apart FISH Probe Kit (Abbott Molecular, Inc.) was approved concurrently. In two multicenter, single-arm trials, patients with locally advanced or metastatic ALK-positive NSCLC previously treated with one or more systemic therapies received crizotinib orally at a dose of 250 mg twice daily. In 119 patients with ALK-positive NSCLC by local trial assay, the objective response rate (ORR) was 61% [95% confidence intervals (CI), 52%-70%] with a median response duration of 48 weeks. In 136 patients with ALK-positive NSCLC by the to-be-marketed test, the ORR was 50% (95% CI, 42%-59%) with a median response duration of 42 weeks. The most common adverse reactions (?25%) were vision disorder, nausea, diarrhea, vomiting, edema, and constipation. Accelerated approval was granted on the basis of the high ORRs and durable responses. On November 20, 2013, crizotinib received full approval based on an improvement in progression-free survival in patients with metastatic ALK-positive NSCLC previously treated with one platinum-based chemotherapy regimen. Clin Cancer Res; 20(8); 2029-34. ©2014 AACR. PMID:24573551

Malik, Shakun M; Maher, Virginia Ellen; Bijwaard, Karen E; Becker, Robert L; Zhang, Lijun; Tang, Shenghui W; Song, Pengfei; Liu, Qi; Marathe, Anshu; Gehrke, Brenda; Helms, Whitney; Hanner, Diane; Justice, Robert; Pazdur, Richard

2014-04-15

311

SELENIUM LEVELS IN HUMAN BLOOD, URINE, AND HAIR IN RESPONSE TO EXPOSURE VIA DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Blood, hair, urine and tap water samples were obtained from participants in a population exposed to varying amounts of selenium via water from home wells. Concentrations of selenium in urine and hair produced significant positive correlations with well-water selenium levels. Bloo...

312

Repeat Urine Cultures in Children Who Are Admitted With Urinary Tract Infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE. Urinary tract infections are a common cause of hospitalization in the pediatric population. Hospitalization for urinary tract infections in children usually involves intravenous antibiotics, invasive methods of obtaining sterile urine spec- imens, and imaging studies to assess the anatomy of the urinary system. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of positive repeat urine cultures that

Nicolas M. Oreskovic; Eduardo U. Sembrano

2010-01-01

313

UF1000 i™ flow cytometry is an effective screening method for urine specimens  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was undertaken to evaluate the UF-1000i™ (UF) flow cytometer to count urine constituents including bacteria. The objective was to screen urine samples and determine what white blood cell (WBC) and\\/or bacteria screening criteria would minimize the number of specimens cultured yet ensuring that all true positives were cultured. UF screening and culture on CHROMagar™ Orientation (CO) medium were

Kamran Kadkhoda; Kanchana Manickam; Pat DeGagne; Pat Sokolowski; Paulette Pang; Nick Kontzie; Michelle Alfa

2011-01-01

314

Ciprofloxacin-Induced Acute Generalized Exanthematous Pustulosis Mimicking Bullous Drug Eruption Confirmed by a Positive Patch Test  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the case of an 80-year-old woman presenting with ciprofloxacin-induced acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP) confirmed by a positive patch test. Cutaneous morphology, course and histological findings were consistent with a definite diagnosis according to the AGEP validation score of the EuroSCAR study group. We point to the rarity of quinolone-induced AGEP and discuss immunological mechanisms, the value of

P. Häusermann; K. Scherer; M. Weber; A. J. Bircher

2005-01-01

315

Differential Predictors of Medication Adherence in HIV: Findings from a Sample of African American and Caucasian HIV-Positive Drug-Using Adults  

PubMed Central

Abstract Modest or even occasional nonadherence to combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) can result in adverse clinical outcomes. African Americans demonstrate lower rates of adherence than Caucasians or Latinos. Identifying factors that influence medication adherence among African Americans is a critical step toward reducing HIV/AIDS disease progression and mortality. In a sample of 181 African American (n=144) and Caucasian (n=37) HIV-positive drug-using individuals [age (M=42.31; SD=6.6) education (M=13.41; SD=2.1)], we examined the influence of baseline drug use, literacy, neurocognition, depression, treatment-specific social support, and patient satisfaction with health care provider on medication adherence averaged over the course of 6 months (study dates 2002–2006). Our findings suggest differential baseline predictors of medication adherence for African Americans and Caucasians, such that patient satisfaction with provider was the strongest predictor of follow-up medication adherence for African Americans whereas for Caucasians depressive symptoms and treatment-specific social support were predictive of medication adherence (after controlling for duration of drug use).

Moizel, Jennifer; Panos, Stella E.; Patel, Sapna M.; Byrd, Desiree A.; Myers, Hector F.; Wyatt, Gail E.; Hinkin, Charles H.

2012-01-01

316

Relative Determination Approach to the Metabolites of Protoberberine Alkaloids in Rat Urine by Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry for the Comparative Studies on Rhizome coptidis and Zuojinwan Preparation  

PubMed Central

The lack of authentic standards has limited the quantitative analysis of herbal drugs in biological samples. The present work demonstrated a practicable strategy for the assay of herbs and their metabolites independent of authentic standards. A liquid chromatography– electrospray ionization–mass spectrometry (LC–ESI–MS) method for the qualitative and quantitative determination of the metabolites after oral administration of Rhizome coptidis and Zuojinwan preparation in rat urine has been developed. Urine samples, extracted with a protein precipitation procedure were separated on a C18 column using a mixture of water (containing 0.1% formic acid) and acetonitrile (30:70, v/v) as mobile phase. The detection was performed via MS with electrospray ionization interface in positive selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode. One urine sample after administration was selected as ‹standard›. The method validation was carried out according to a conventional method which was calibrated by authentic standards. The fully validated method was applied to the pharmacokinetic study of 2,9-demethyljateorhizine-3-sulfate, 13-methoxyjateorhizine-3- glucoronide and 6-methyljateorhizine-5-glucoronide in rat urine. The results could provide evidence to explain the combination of Rhizome coptidis and Evodiae fructus in terms of elimination.

Yan, Rui; Mu, Qier; Wang, Yin; Liu, Youping; Di, Xin

2012-01-01

317

Über Pilzbefunde im Stuhl und Urin unter antibiotischer Therapie  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pilzuntersuchungen im Stuhl, im Analabstrich und im Urin (über 1000 Einzelproben bei 47 Patienten) zeigten bei 85% der Probanden vor antibiotischer Therapie negative Befunde, unter antibiotischer Behandlung dagegen bei mehr als 75% positive Ergebnisse. Dies gilt nicht nur für die orale Therapie mit Breitspektrumantibiotica, sondern auch für Mittelspektrumantibiotica und bei längerer Darreichung möglicherweise auch für oral gegebenes Penicillin. Bei 2

K. Lang; G. Oberhoffer; H. P. R. Seeliger

1960-01-01

318

Performance evaluation of on-site oral fluid drug screening devices in normal police procedure in Germany.  

PubMed

There is a need for quick and reliable methods for rapid screening of drug-influenced drivers on the roadside by police. Because the window of detection in oral fluid is more similar to blood than to urine, this matrix should therefore be appropriate for screening procedures. The performance of the Rapid STAT(®) (Mavand Solution GmbH, Mössingen, Germany), DrugWipe5/5+(®) (Securetec Detektions-Systeme AG, Brunnthal, Germany) and Dräger DrugTest(®) 5000 (Draeger Safety AG & Co. KGaA, Luebeck, Germany) on-site oral fluid devices was evaluated with random oral fluid specimens from car drivers in North Rhine-Westphalia (Germany). Additionally, some drivers were checked using an on-site urine device (DrugScreen(®), NAL von Minden, Regensburg, Germany). During a 11-month period, 1.212 drivers were tested. Both OF and urine on-site tests were compared to serum results. The following sensitivities were obtained by the oral fluid devices: THC 71% (DrugWipe(®)), 87% (Dräger), 91% (RapidSTAT); opiates 95% (Dräger), 100% (DrugWipe(®), RapidSTAT(®)); amphetamine 84% (DrugTest(®) 5000), 90% (RapidSTAT(®)), 100% (DrugTest(®) 5000); methamphetamine 50% (DrugTest(®) 5000), 100% (RapidSTAT(®)); cocaine 76% (DrugTest(®) 5000), 100% (DrugWipe(®), RapidSTAT(®)); methadone 33-63%, and benzodiazepines 0-33% (both with a low number of positives). THC specificity was especially low (29% [DrugWipe(®)] and 47% [DrugTest(®) 5000]) due to low cut-off concentrations. These data were similar to those obtained from the literature (e.g., DRUID project). The urine screening device showed a good sensitivity (THC 93%, opiate 94%, amphetamine 94%, methamphetamine 75% (low number of positives), cocaine 100%) and also an acceptable specificity (39%, 86%, 63%, 77%, 47%, respectively). Although oral fluid may be a useful matrix for on-site testing of drugged drivers, it is evident that oral fluid devices still show a lack of sensitivity (methamphetamine, benzodiazepines) and specificity (THC). Poor results for benzodiazepines may be explained by the small positive test number. Although the sensitivity for THC came out higher than compared to the literature, specificity is not yet satisfactory (only <90%). Furthermore, specificity was poor due to lowered cut-offs resulting in multiple false positive tests. PMID:24699311

Musshoff, Frank; Hokamp, Eva Große; Bott, Ulrich; Madea, Burkhard

2014-05-01

319

Adherence to antiretroviral drug therapy in adult patients who are HIV-positive in Northwest Ethiopia: a study protocol  

PubMed Central

Introduction Achievement of optimal medication adherence and management of antiretroviral toxicity pose great challenges among Ethiopian patients with HIV/AIDS. There is currently a lack of long-term follow-up studies that identify the barriers to, and facilitators of, adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) in the Ethiopian setting. Therefore, we aim to investigate the level of adherence to ART and a wide range of potential influencing factors, including adverse drug reactions occurring with ART. Methods and analysis We are conducting a 1-year prospective cohort study involving adult patients with HIV/AIDS starting on ART between December 2012 and March 2013. Data are being collected on patients’ appointment dates in the ART clinics. Adherence to ART is being measured using pill count, medication possession ratio and patient's self-report. The primary outcome of the study will be the proportion of patients who are adherent to their ART regimen at 3, 6 and 12?months using pill count. Taking 95% or more of the dispensed ART regimen using pill count at given points of time will be considered the optimal level of adherence in this study. Data will be analysed using descriptive and inferential statistical procedures. Ethics and dissemination Ethics approval was obtained from the Tasmania Health and Medical Human Research Ethics Committee and Bahir-Dar University's Ethics Committee. The results of the study will be reported in peer-reviewed scientific journals, conferences and seminar presentations.

Bezabhe, Woldesellassie M; Peterson, Gregory M; Bereznicki, Luke; Chalmers, Leanne; Gee, Peter

2013-01-01

320

The impact of a brief motivational intervention on unprotected sex and sex while high among drug-positive emergency department patients who receive STI/HIV VC/T and drug treatment referral as standard of care.  

PubMed

This randomized, controlled trial, conducted among out-of-treatment heroin/cocaine users at an emergency department visit, tests the impact on sexual risk of adding brief motivational intervention (B-MI) to point-of-service testing, counseling and drug treatment referral. 1,030 enrollees aged 18-54 received either voluntary counseling/testing (VC/T) with drug treatment referral, or VC/T, referral, and B-MI, delivered by an outreach worker. We measured number and proportion of non-protected sex acts (last 30 days) at 6 and 12 months (n = 802). At baseline, 70% of past-30-days sex acts were non-protected; 35% of sex acts occurred while high; 64% of sexual acts involved main, 24% casual and 12% transactional sex partners; 1.7% tested positive for an STI, and 8.8% for HIV. At six or 12 month follow-up, 20 enrollees tested positive for Chlamydia and/or Gonorrhea, and 6 enrollees HIV sero-converted. Self-reported high-risk behaviors declined in both groups with no significant between-group differences in behaviors or STI/HIV incidence. PMID:22261830

Bernstein, Edward; Ashong, Desiree; Heeren, Timothy; Winter, Michael; Bliss, Caleb; Madico, Guillermo; Bernstein, Judith

2012-07-01

321

High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of seratrodast and its metabolites in human serum and urine.  

PubMed

A high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method was developed for the simultaneous determination of seratrodast, a new antiasthmatic drug, and its metabolites (M-I to M-III) in human serum and urine. The method for serum and urine with and without enzymatic hydrolysis using beta-glucuronidase involved liquid-liquid extraction and chemical oxidation with iron(III) chloride. The compounds in the extract were analyzed using HPLC with UV detection at 266 nm. The detection limits of seratrodast, M-I, M-II and M-III in serum and urine were 5-10 and 5-20 ng/ml, respectively, and those of deconjugated compounds in urine were 10-50 ng/ml. The method was applicable for human serum and urine from clinical trials. PMID:9518166

Ohta, R; Amano, T; Yamashita, K; Motohashi, M

1997-12-19

322

Discriminative Stimulus Effects of the GABAB Receptor-Positive Modulator rac-BHFF: Comparison with GABAB Receptor Agonists and Drugs of Abuse  

PubMed Central

GABAB receptor-positive modulators are thought to have advantages as potential medications for anxiety, depression, and drug addiction. They may have fewer side effects than GABAB receptor agonists, because selective enhancement of activated receptors could have effects different from nonselective activation of all receptors. To examine this, pigeons were trained to discriminate the GABAB receptor-positive modulator (R,S)-5,7-di-tert-butyl-3-hydroxy-3-trifluoromethyl-3H-benzofuran-2-one (rac-BHFF) from its vehicle. The discriminative stimulus effects of rac-BHFF were not mimicked by the GABAB receptor agonists baclofen and ?-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), not by diazepam, and not by alcohol, cocaine, and nicotine, whose self-administration has been reported to be attenuated by GABAB receptor-positive modulators. The discriminative stimulus effects of rac-BHFF were not antagonized by the GABAB receptor antagonist 3-aminopropyl (diethoxymethyl)phosphinic acid (CGP35348) but were attenuated by the less efficacious GABAB receptor-positive modulator 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-(3-hydroxy-2,2-dimethylpropyl)phenol (CGP7930), suggesting the possibility that rac-BHFF produces its discriminative stimulus effects by directly activating GABAB2 subunits of GABAB receptors. At a dose 10-fold lower than the training dose, rac-BHFF enhanced the discriminative stimulus effects of baclofen, but not of GHB. This study provides evidence that the effects of GABAB receptor-positive modulators are not identical to those of GABAB receptor agonists. In addition, the results suggest that positive modulation of GABAB receptors does not produce discriminative stimulus effects similar to those of benzodiazepines, alcohol, cocaine, and nicotine. Finally, the finding that rac-BHFF enhanced effects of baclofen but not of GHB is consistent with converging evidence that the populations of GABAB receptors mediating the effects of baclofen and GHB are not identical.

Cheng, Kejun; Rice, Kenner C.

2013-01-01

323

A comparison of symptoms and drug use between patients with methamphetamine associated psychoses and patients diagnosed with schizophrenia in two acute psychiatric wards.  

PubMed

Psychosis induced by the use of amphetamine or methamphetamine leads to dramatic symptoms and frequent readmissions and poses diagnostic challenges. Earlier studies have often relied on history taking and/or urine samples to reveal drug use. The aim of this study was to compare the psychotic symptoms of two groups: (1) acutely admitted patients who tested positive for methamphetamines and were diagnosed with drug-induced or methamphetamine-induced psychoses and (2) acutely admitted patients who tested negative for methamphetamines and were diagnosed with schizophrenia. Blood and urine samples were used. In addition, we investigated whether the severity of symptoms, in those who tested positive, was related to the blood concentration of methamphetamine. Of 285 patients who volunteered blood and/or urine samples within 48h of admission, 37 (13%) had recently taken methamphetamine. Positive psychotic symptoms between the two groups were compared by PANSS using the positive subscale. The results showed no differences in positive psychotic symptoms between the two groups. The severity of positive psychotic symptoms in patients with three different levels of urine/blood methamphetamine concentrations, were compared. We found no clinically or statistically significant relationship between blood methamphetamine levels and severity of psychotic symptoms. PMID:23036490

Medhus, Sigrid; Mordal, Jon; Holm, Bjørn; Mørland, Jørg; Bramness, Jørgen G

2013-03-30

324

Acylation of SC4 dodecapeptide increases bactericidal potency against Gram-positive bacteria, including drug-resistant strains.  

PubMed Central

We have conjugated dodecyl and octadecyl fatty acids to the N-terminus of SC4, a potently bactericidal, helix-forming peptide 12-mer (KLFKRHLKWKII), and examined the bactericidal activities of the resultant SC4 'peptide-amphiphile' molecules. SC4 peptide-amphiphiles showed up to a 30-fold increase in bactericidal activity against Gram-positive strains (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes and Bacillus anthracis), including S. aureus strains resistant to conventional antibiotics, but little or no increase in bactericidal activity against Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). Fatty acid conjugation improved endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide) neutralization by 3- to 6-fold. Although acylation somewhat increased lysis of human erythrocytes, it did not increase lysis of endothelial cells, and the haemolytic effects occurred at concentrations 10- to 100-fold higher than those required for bacterial cell lysis. For insight into the mechanism of action of SC4 peptide-amphiphiles, CD, NMR and fluorescence spectroscopy studies were performed in micelle and liposome models of eukaryotic and bacterial cell membranes. CD indicated that SC4 peptide-amphiphiles had the strongest helical tendencies in liposomes mimicking bacterial membranes, and strong membrane integration of the SC4 peptide-amphiphiles was observed using tryptophan fluorescence spectroscopy under these conditions; results that correlated with the increased bactericidal activities of SC4 peptide-amphiphiles. NMR structural analysis in micelles demonstrated that the two-thirds of the peptide closest to the fatty acid tail exhibited a helical conformation, with the positively-charged side of the amphipathic helix interacting more with the model membrane surface. These results indicate that conjugation of a fatty acid chain to the SC4 peptide enhances membrane interactions, stabilizes helical structure in the membrane-bound state and increases bactericidal potency.

Lockwood, Nathan A; Haseman, Judith R; Tirrell, Matthew V; Mayo, Kevin H

2004-01-01

325

LC-ESI-MS/MS on an ion trap for the determination of LSD, iso-LSD, nor-LSD and 2-oxo-3-hydroxy-LSD in blood, urine and vitreous humor.  

PubMed

A method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), its epimer iso-LSD, and its main metabolites nor-LSD and 2-oxo-3-hydroxy LSD in blood, urine, and, for the first time, vitreous humor samples. The method is based on liquid/liquid extraction and liquid chromatography-multiple mass spectrometry detection in an ion trap mass spectrometer, in positive ion electrospray ionization conditions. Five microliter of sample are injected and analysis time is 12 min. The method is specific, selective and sensitive, and achieves limits of quantification of 20 pg/ml for both LSD and nor-LSD in blood, urine, and vitreous humor. No significant interfering substance or ion suppression was identified for LSD, iso-LSD, and nor-LSD. The interassay reproducibilities for LSD at 20 pg/ml and 2 ng/ml in urine were 8.3 and 5.6%, respectively. Within-run precision using control samples at 20 pg/ml and 2 ng/ml was 6.9 and 3.9%. Mean recoveries of two concentrations spiked into drug free samples were in the range 60-107% in blood, 50-105% in urine, and 65-105% in vitreous humor. The method was successfully applied to the forensic determination of postmortem LSD levels in the biological fluids of a multi drug abuser; for the first time, LSD could be detected in vitreous humor. PMID:16496170

Favretto, Donata; Frison, Giampietro; Maietti, Sergio; Ferrara, Santo Davide

2007-07-01

326

[Clinical characteristics in patients with purple urine bag syndrome].  

PubMed

Purple urine bag syndrome (PUBS) occurs predominantly in chronically catheterized and constipated patients. This syndrome is associated with bacterial urinary tract infections that produce sulfatase or phosphatase. Tryptophan is converted to indole and indigo-producing bacteria have indoxyl phosphatase or sulfatase that can produce indigo (blue) and/or indirubin (red) in patients with urinary tract infection. To further explore the metabolism of these amino acids, we evaluated the serum levels of amino acids in patients with PUBS. A total of 15 patients were enrolled in this case-control study (PUBS-positive case group: 5 patients, PUBS-negative control group: 10 patients). Data from urine tests (pH, sugar, protein, leukocyte counts), renal functions (BUN, creatinine), serum levels of amino acids, and performance status were compared between the two groups. No significant differences were seen between the two groups in urine sugar, protein, leukocyte counts, renal functions, and performance status. The mean urine pH was significantly higher in PUBS patients than in control patients (8.5+/-0.0 vs. 7.3+/-1.16, respectively, p=0.0321), and serum levels of alpha-aminobutyric acid were significantly higher in PUBS patients than in control patients (16.2+/-3.08 vs. 12.4+/-3.20, respectively, p=0.0275). These data suggest that strong alkaline urine acts as an important factor in PUBS, in combination with other facilitating factors. PMID:18411773

Tsumura, Hideyasu; Satoh, Takefumi; Kurosaka, Shinji; Fujita, Tetsuo; Matsumoto, Kazumasa; Baba, Shiro

2008-03-01

327

Chemical measurement of urine volume  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Chemical method of measuring volume of urine samples using lithium chloride dilution technique, does not interfere with analysis, is faster, and more accurate than standard volumetric of specific gravity/weight techniques. Adaptation of procedure to urinalysis could prove generally practical for hospital mineral balance and catechoamine determinations.

Sauer, R. L.

1978-01-01

328

Blood in the Urine (Hematuria)  

MedlinePLUS

... without causing any problems. In fact, people might never know they have it unless they get a urine test . Gross hematuria may sound nasty, but it's usually not — in medicine, "gross" is just a word that describes when something is large or happens in bigger amounts. Gross hematuria just means that ...

329

Evaluation of a commercial enzyme immunoassay for HIV screening in urine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate the utility of a commercial enzyme immunoassay (EIA) as a screening test for detecting HIV-1 antibody in urine in a population at risk for HIV infection in Catalonia, Spain. Paired urine and serum samples were collected consecutively from 99 patients who attended two drug-dependency treatment centres and 151 patients who attended a sexually

J. Almeda; J. Casabona; L. Matas; V. González; R. Muga; B. Sanz; F. Bolao; V. Ausina

2004-01-01

330

Using Electronic Drug Monitor Feedback to Improve Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy Among HIV-Positive Patients in China  

PubMed Central

Effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) requires excellent adherence. Little is known about how to improve ART adherence in many HIV/AIDS-affected countries, including China. We therefore assessed an adherence intervention among HIV-positive patients in southwestern China. Eighty subjects were enrolled and monitored for 6 months. Sixty-eight remaining subjects were randomized to intervention/control arms. In months 7–12, intervention subjects were counseled using EDM feedback; controls continued with standard of care. Among randomized subjects, mean adherence and CD4 count were 86.8 vs. 83.8% and 297 vs. 357 cells/?l in intervention vs. control subjects, respectively. At month 12, among 64 subjects who completed the trial, mean adherence had risen significantly among intervention subjects to 96.5% but remained unchanged in controls. Mean CD4 count rose by 90 cells/?l and declined by 9 cells/?l among intervention and control subjects, respectively. EDM feedback as a counseling tool appears promising for management of HIV and other chronic diseases.

DeSilva, Mary Bachman; Hamer, Davidson H.; Xu, Keyi; Zhang, Jianbo; Li, Tao; Wilson, Ira B.; Gill, Christopher J.

2009-01-01

331

Drug testing: technical complications of a complex social issue.  

PubMed

To control the adverse effects of substance abuse, urinary drug testing has become common practice in some occupational settings. Although it is virtually impossible to assess accurately the impact of drug abuse at work, increased accidents and absenteeism as well as impaired productivity have been attributed to drug abuse. The major analytical techniques used to screen for illegal drug use are thin-layer chromatography and enzyme- and radioimmunoassays. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry is uniformly recommended to confirm any positive screening test. The major technical problem in interpreting screening tests is that the presence of a substance in the urine indicates merely exposure to the drug, not necessarily intoxication, habituation, or addiction. Since no certifying criteria are available to insure quality control among laboratories performing urinary drug testing, results may vary widely. In fact, a study conducted by the Centers for Disease Control suggests that poor performance of some laboratories may adversely affect the treatment of drug abuse. The Federal Rehabilitation Act (1973, section 504) prohibits discrimination against the handicapped, which includes both drug abuse and alcoholism. Legal challenges to urinary drug testing have focused on issues related to the right to privacy and freedom from unreasonable searches. Because of the wide-ranging legal, ethical, and medical ramifications of drug-screening programs, careful review of these issues is recommended before an organization establishes such a program. PMID:2741964

McCunney, R J

1989-01-01

332

Determination of Radium-226 in Urine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The method for determining radium-226 in urine that is currently being used by the Bioassay Laboratory has been tested and documented. Radium-226 is coprecipitated from urine by alkaline calcium phosphate. This precipitate is redissolved in hydrochloric a...

G. H. Kramer P. C. Beaulieu

1983-01-01

333

Aviator's Urine Collection Devices: Preliminary Laboratory Trials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Female aircrew personnel identified a lack of adequate, gender- specific urine relief facilities and gender-specific urine collection devices in a previous naval aviation survey effort, Aircrew Modified Equipment Leading to Increased Accommodation (AMELIA...

B. E. Ortel D. G. Erickson J. L. Saxton T. L. Pokorski

1996-01-01

334

A new method to make 24-hour urine collection more convenient: a validity study.  

PubMed

Background and Objectives. This study proposes a novel urine collection device that can divide each urine collection into 20 parts and store and cool just one part. The aim of the current study is to compare measured biomarkers from the proposed urine collection device to those of conventional 24-hour sampling method. We also hypothesized that the new method would significantly increase patients' adherence to the timed urine collection. Methods. Two 24-hour urine samples with the conventional method and with the new automated urine collection device that uses just one-twentieth of each void were obtained from 40 healthy volunteers. Urine parameters including volume, creatinine, and protein levels were compared between the two methods and the agreement of two measurements for each subject was reported through Bland-Altman plots. Results. Our results confirmed that for all three variables, there is a positive correlation (P < 0.001) between the two measurements and high degree of agreement could be seen in Bland-Altman plots. Moreover, more subjects reported the new method as "more convenient" for 24-hour urine collection. Conclusions. Our results clearly indicate that a fixed proportion of each void may significantly reduce the urine volume in timed collections and this, in turn, may increase subjects' adherence to this difficult sampling. PMID:24963405

Nabavizadeh, Pooneh; Ghadermarzi, Shadi; Fakhri, Mohammad

2014-01-01

335

A New Method to Make 24-Hour Urine Collection More Convenient: A Validity Study  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives. This study proposes a novel urine collection device that can divide each urine collection into 20 parts and store and cool just one part. The aim of the current study is to compare measured biomarkers from the proposed urine collection device to those of conventional 24-hour sampling method. We also hypothesized that the new method would significantly increase patients' adherence to the timed urine collection. Methods. Two 24-hour urine samples with the conventional method and with the new automated urine collection device that uses just one-twentieth of each void were obtained from 40 healthy volunteers. Urine parameters including volume, creatinine, and protein levels were compared between the two methods and the agreement of two measurements for each subject was reported through Bland-Altman plots. Results. Our results confirmed that for all three variables, there is a positive correlation (P < 0.001) between the two measurements and high degree of agreement could be seen in Bland-Altman plots. Moreover, more subjects reported the new method as “more convenient” for 24-hour urine collection. Conclusions. Our results clearly indicate that a fixed proportion of each void may significantly reduce the urine volume in timed collections and this, in turn, may increase subjects' adherence to this difficult sampling.

2014-01-01

336

Urine naloxone concentration at different phases of buprenorphine maintenance treatment.  

PubMed

In spite of the benefits of buprenorphine-naloxone co-formulation (BNX) in opioid maintenance treatment, the naloxone component has not prevented parenteral use of BNX. Current laboratory methods are not sufficient to differentiate between therapeutic and illicit use of buprenorphine, and little is known about urine naloxone concentrations. Measurement of urine naloxone, together with buprenorphine and norbuprenorphine, might help to determine the naloxone source and administration route. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for this purpose. Naloxone, buprenorphine, and norbuprenorphine total concentrations were measured in urine samples from opioid-dependent patients before and during stable and unstable phases of maintenance treatment with BNX. The limit of quantification in urine was 1.0?µg/L for naloxone, buprenorphine and norbuprenorphine. Before treatment, all samples contained buprenorphine but the median naloxone concentration was 0?µg/L. During the maintenance treatment with BNX all urine samples were positive for naloxone, buprenorphine and norbuprenorphine. The naloxone concentration at a stable phase of treatment (median 60?µg/L, range 5-200?µg/L) was not different from the naloxone concentration at an unstable phase (70?µg/L, 10-1700?µg/L). Applying an upper limit of 200?µg/L to the sample, the median naloxone/buprenorphine ratio was higher in the high than in the low naloxone concentration group (0.9 vs 0.3, respectively). This study suggests that naloxone in urine can act as an indicator of compliance with BNX. Parenteral use of BNX was associated with a high naloxone/buprenorphine ratio. Negative naloxone with positive buprenorphine suggests the use/abuse of buprenorphine alone. PMID:23512803

Heikman, Pertti; Häkkinen, Margareeta; Gergov, Merja; Ojanperä, Ilkka

2014-03-01

337

Could urine be useful for the diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis pneumonia in infancy?  

PubMed

A 9-week-old infant presented with respiratory distress. The presumptive diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis pneumonia was ultimately made in a novel manner by a positive nucleic acid amplification test on a urine sample. PMID:24768625

Robinson, Joan L; Meier, Kay; Lee, Bonita E; Larke, Bryce

2014-07-01

338

On-line derivatization gas chromatography with furan chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry for screening of amphetamines in urine.  

PubMed

A simple alternative method with minimal sample pretreatment is investigated for screening of amphetamines in small volume (using only 20 microL) of urine sample. The method is sensitive and selective. The method uses gas chromatography (GC) direct sample introduction (DSI) for on-line derivatization (acylation) of amphetamines to improve sensitivity. Furan as chemical ionization (CI) reagent in conjunction with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) is used to improve selectivity. Low background with sharp protonated molecular ion peaks of analytes is the evidence of improvement in sensitivity and selectivity. Blank urine samples spiked with known amounts of amphetamine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine and 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine is analyzed. Selected ion monitoring of the characteristic product ions (m/z 119+136+150+163) using furan CI-MS/MS in positive ion mode is used for quantification. Limits of detection (LOD) between 0.4 and 1.0 ng mL(-1) and limits of quantitation (LOQ) between 1.0 and 2.0 ng mL(-1) are established. Linear response over the range of 1-1000 ng mL(-1) (r(2)>0.997) is observed for all analytes, except for methamphetamine (2.0-1000 ng mL(-1)). Good accuracy between 86 and 113% and precision ranging from 4 to 18% is obtained. The method is also tested on real samples of urine from suspected drug abusers. This method could be used for screening and determination of amphetamines in urine samples, however needs additional work for full validation. PMID:17034801

Tzing, Shin-Hwa; Ghule, Anil; Liu, Jen-Yu; Ling, Yong-Chien

2006-12-22

339

Simultaneous determination of tiopronin and d-penicillamine in human urine by liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

d-Penicillamine and tiopronin are drugs widely used for the treatment of many diseases. Because of the relatively high frequency of side effects to these compounds, some of which are dose-related, drug monitoring in urine samples during treatment is advisable. In this paper, we describe a simple method for the determination of tiopronin and d-penicillamine in human urine. The method was

Krzysztof Ku?mierek; Edward Bald

2007-01-01

340

Bisphenol A levels in human urine.  

PubMed Central

The estrogenic effects of bisphenol A (BPA) have been reported in human cells (E-screen assays) and in (italic)in vivo(/italic) studies of rodents, although the latter reports remain controversial, as do the exposure levels and adverse health effects of BPA in humans. In this study we report on an analytical high-performance liquid chromatography/fluorescence method for BPA and its conjugate in human urine and on the application of this method in two student cohorts. Urine, along with information on smoking, alcohol intake, and coffee/tea consumption, was collected in two different years from two different groups of university students, 50 in 1992 and 56 in 1999. Overall, the urinary BPA levels in the students in 1992 were significantly higher than were those in 1999. The BPA levels were also positively correlated with coffee and tea consumption in the 1992 cohort but not in the 1999 cohort. We speculate that recent changes made in Japan regarding the interior coating of cans used to package these beverages may partly explain these findings.

Matsumoto, Akiko; Kunugita, Naoki; Kitagawa, Kyoko; Isse, Toyohi; Oyama, Tsunehiro; Foureman, Gary L; Morita, Masatoshi; Kawamoto, Toshihiro

2003-01-01

341

The paradigm of universal access to HIV-treatment and human rights violation: how do we treat HIV-positive people who use drugs?  

PubMed

HIV-positive people who use drugs (PWUDs) are particularly vulnerable for suboptimal access to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). We conducted a systematic review to identify factors associated with suboptimal HAART access among this population. Studies evaluating HAART access among active PWUDs as a primary outcome, presenting multivariate analysis and conducted after January 1997 were included. Of 122 studies matching the search criteria, only 14 (11.4 %) met the inclusion criteria. All selected studies were prospective cohorts and included young adults, 13 were conducted in North America or western Europe and one in Ukraine. Selected studies measured HAART access using different strategies, however, all identified PWUDs as less likely to receive HAART, when compared to those who never used drugs or former PWUDs. Additional factors associated with suboptimal HAART access include: recent incarceration, lack of health insurance, unstable housing, depression, non-white ethnicity, female PWUDs, and health professionals stigma/prejudice. Factors associated with higher rates of HIV-treatment access included: alcohol and/or drug addiction treatment (especially methadone maintenance therapy), regular source of primary care, treatment and care from the same provider (most of the time) and larger physician experience in HIV-management. PWUDs face a synergy of social and structural factors that influence their suboptimal access to HAART, struggling with poor living conditions, inadequate access to specialized care and stigma/discrimination from health professionals. Renewed strategies and effective interventions should be developed and scaled-up, in order to assure equitable HAART access, decrease morbidity and mortality among PWUDs. PMID:24369409

Malta, Monica; Ralil da Costa, Michelle; Bastos, Francisco Inácio

2014-03-01

342

Chemical dependency and drug testing in the workplace.  

PubMed

Urine testing for drug use in the workplace is now widespread, with the prevalence of positive drug tests in the work force being 0% to 15%. The prevalence of marijuana use is highest of the illicit drugs being tested. Highly prevalent drugs can be reliably tested. Although it is prudent to rid the workplace of drug use, there is little scientific study on the relationship of drug use and workplace outcomes, such as productivity and safety. Probable-cause testing and preemployment testing are the most common applications. Random testing has been less accepted owing to its higher costs, unresolved legal issues, and predictably poor test reliability. Legal issues have focused on the right to privacy, policy agreements, discrimination, and the lack of due process. The legal cornerstone of a good program is a policy that is planned and agreed on by both labor and management, which serves both as a contract and as a procedure in which expectations and consequences are known. Moreover, NIDA is certifying laboratories doing employee drug testing. Testing methods, when done correctly, are less prone to error than in the past, but screening tests can be defeated by adulterants. Although the incidence of false-positive results is low, such tests are less reliable when the prevalence of drug abuse is also low. PMID:2096185

Osterloh, J D; Becker, C E

1990-01-01

343

Urine Test: Microalbumin-to-Creatinine Ratio (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... in the urine called cretonne. The body normally filters out creatinine in the urine at a steady ... to obtain the urine specimen. A urine collection bag with adhesive tape on one end might instead ...

344

Cost-effectiveness of integrating methadone maintenance and antiretroviral treatment for HIV-positive drug users in Vietnam's injection-driven HIV epidemics.  

PubMed

Drug use negatively affects adherence to and outcomes of antiretroviral treatment (ART). This study evaluated the cost-effectiveness of integrating methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) with ART for HIV-positive drug users (DUs) in Vietnam. A decision analytical model was developed to compare the costs and consequences of 3 HIV/AIDS treatment strategies for DUs: (1) only ART, (2) providing ART and MMT in separated sites (ART-MMT), and (3) integrating ART and MMT with direct administration (DAART-MMT). The model was parameterized using empirical data of costs and outcomes extracted from the MMT and ART cohort studies in Vietnam, and international published sources. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis was conducted to examine the model's robustness. The base-case analysis showed that the cost-effectiveness ratio of ART, DAART-MMT, and ART-MMT strategies was USD 1358.9, 1118.0 and 1327.1 per 1 Quality-Adjusted Life Year (QALY), equivalent to 1.22, 1.00, and 1.19 times Gross Domestic Product per capita (GDPpc). The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for DAART-MMT and ART-MMT versus ART strategy was 569.4 and 1227.8, approximately 0.51 and 1.10 times GDPpc/QALY. At the willingness to pay threshold of 3 times GDPpc, the probability of being cost-effective of DAART-MMT versus ART was 86.1%. These findings indicated that providing MMT along with ART for HIV-positive DUs is a cost-effective intervention in Vietnam. Integrating MMT and ART services could facilitate the use of directly observed therapy that supports treatment adherence and brings about clinically important improvements in health outcomes. This approach is also incrementally cost-effective in this large injection-driven HIV epidemic. PMID:22436971

Tran, Bach Xuan; Ohinmaa, Arto; Duong, Anh Thuy; Nguyen, Long Thanh; Vu, Phu Xuan; Mills, Steve; Houston, Stan; Jacobs, Philip

2012-10-01

345

Rilpivirine resistance and the dangerous liaisons with substitutions at position 184 among patients infected with HIV-1: Analysis from a national drug-resistance database (ARCA).  

PubMed

Rilpivirine (RPV) is a novel NNRTI with a mutational pattern different from first-generation drugs of the same class: 16 resistance-associated mutations (RAM) are listed, but the combination E138K?+?M184I seems to be the most important. Aims of the present study were to evaluate the prevalence of these RAMs in Italian HIV-1 infected patients and to assess if previous drug history could represent a risk to develop RPV-related RAMs. The analysis was performed using the ARCA database, which contains data on resistance and therapy from subjects throughout Italy. Prevalence of RPV-associated and first-generation NNRTI-associated RAMs was evaluated. Linear regression model, odds ratio and 95% Confidence Interval were used to assess factors associated with the development of RPV RAMs, substitutions at position 184 and their combinations. A total of 8,067 tests were selected within the database. In Italian HIV-positive HAART-naïve patients, prevalence of the main RAMs for RPV is low except for E138A (present in 5.1% of subjects). The combination E138K?+?M184I is absent in both naïve and experienced subjects. A previous exposure to NVP might increase the risk to develop RPV-associated RAMs. TDF, EFV, and possibly FTC may predispose to the selection for M184I. Among Italian patients the susceptibility to RPV is widespread since some severe substitutions (e.g., E138K are rare), whereas issues exist for others (i.e., E138A, Y181C) which are more frequent. Appropriate use of RPV within a therapeutic sequencing might be controversial. J. Med. Virol. 86:1459-1466, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24838991

Rossotti, Roberto; Fonte, Luigi; Meini, Genny; Maggiolo, Franco; Zazzi, Maurizio; Rusconi, Stefano

2014-09-01

346

Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in the urine of young Norwegian males by enzyme immunoassay  

Microsoft Academic Search

First-void urine samples from 392 Norwegian military conscripts were investigated for the presence ofChlamydia trachomatis by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) on day 1 and day 5 after collection. Positive samples were subsequently investigated by direct immunofluorescence (IF) microscopy for the presence of chlamydial elementary bodies (EBs) in the urine pellet, and urethral swab material taken from the EIA-positive individuals was cultured.

O. Scheel; G. Ånestad; R. Mundal; B. P. Berdal

1993-01-01

347

Antiretroviral Drug-Related Liver Mortality Among HIV-Positive Persons in the Absence of Hepatitis B or C Virus Coinfection: The Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs Study  

PubMed Central

Background.?Liver diseases are the leading causes of death in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–positive persons since the widespread use of combination antiretroviral treatment (cART). Most of these deaths are due to hepatitis C (HCV) or B (HBV) virus coinfections. Little is known about other causes. Prolonged exposure to some antiretroviral drugs might increase hepatic mortality. Methods.?All patients in the Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs study without HCV or HBV coinfection were prospectively followed from date of entry until death or last follow-up. In patients with liver-related death, clinical charts were reviewed using a structured questionnaire. Results.?We followed 22 910 participants without hepatitis virus coinfection for 114 478 person-years. There were 12 liver-related deaths (incidence, 0.10/1000 person-years); 7 due to severe alcohol use and 5 due to established ART-related toxicity. The rate of ART-related deaths in treatment-experienced persons was 0.04/1000 person-years (95% confidence interval, .01, .10). Conclusions.?We found a low incidence of liver-related deaths in HIV-infected persons without HCV or HBV coinfection. Liver-related mortality because of ART-related toxicity was rare.

Kovari, Helen; Sabin, Caroline A.; Ledergerber, Bruno; Ryom, Lene; Worm, Signe W.; Smith, Colette; Phillips, Andrew; Reiss, Peter; Fontas, Eric; Petoumenos, Kathy; De Wit, Stephane; Morlat, Philippe; Lundgren, Jens D.; Weber, Rainer

2013-01-01

348

Antibiotic Prescribing Practices for Catheter Urine Culture Results  

PubMed Central

Background: The literature suggests that positive results of catheter urine cultures frequently lead to unnecessary antimicrobial prescribing, which therefore represents an important target for stewardship. Objective: To assess the appropriateness of antibiotic prescribing in response to the results of urine cultures from patients with indwelling urinary catheters. Methods: This retrospective study was conducted at a tertiary care centre and involved adults with indwelling urinary catheters from whom urine specimens were obtained for culture. Patients with positive or negative culture results were identified from microbiology laboratory reports. The medical records of consecutive patients were screened to select a sample of 80 inpatients (40 per group). Abstracted patient histories were independently evaluated by an expert panel of 3 infectious diseases consultants blinded to the decisions of prescribers and of fellow panelists. The primary end point was concordance of each patient’s treatment decision (with respect to the indication) between the expert panel (based on majority agreement, i.e., at least 2 of the 3 expert panelists) and the prescriber. The secondary end points were unnecessary days of therapy and selected outcomes over a predefined period after urine was obtained for culture. Results: A total of 591 charts were screened to generate the targeted number of patients. Baseline demographic characteristics were comparable for the 2 groups, except antibiotic exposure before urine collection was significantly more frequent for the group with negative culture results. The treatment decision was concordant in 40% (16/40) of the patients with a positive culture result and 85% (34/40) of those with a negative culture result (p < 0.001). The most common reason for discordance was administration of antibiotics when not indicated (23 of 24 patients with a positive result and 5 of 6 patients with a negative result), which accounted for 165 and 32 unnecessary days of therapy per 1000 inpatient-days, respectively (p < 0.001). Adverse effects occurred in 2 of the 23 patients with a positive result who received antibiotics that were not indicated. Conclusions: Appropriateness of antibiotic prescribing, as measured by concordance of decisions between the expert panel and prescribers, was more common among patients with negative urine culture results than among those with positive results. However, there is an opportunity to improve prescribing for both groups through antimicrobial stewardship initiatives. Unnecessary days of therapy and adverse effects were more common in patients with a positive culture result.

Chiu, Jonathan; Thompson, G William; Austin, Thomas W; Hussain, Zafar; John, Michael; Bombassaro, Anne Marie; Connelly, Sarah E; Elsayed, Sameer

2013-01-01

349

Human papillomavirus detection from human immunodeficiency virus-infected Colombian women's paired urine and cervical samples.  

PubMed

Infection, coinfection and type-specific human papillomavirus (HPV) distribution was evaluated in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive women from paired cervical and urine samples. Paired cervical and urine samples (n?=?204) were taken from HIV-positive women for identifying HPV-DNA presence by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with three generic primer sets (GP5+/6+, MY09/11 and pU1M/2R). HPV-positive samples were typed for six high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) (HPV-16, -18, -31, -33, -45 and -58) and two low-risk (LR-HPV) (HPV-6/11) types. Agreement between paired sample results and diagnostic performance was evaluated. HPV infection prevalence was 70.6% in cervical and 63.2% in urine samples. HPV-16 was the most prevalent HPV type in both types of sample (66.7% in cervical samples and 62.0% in urine) followed by HPV-31(47.2%) in cervical samples and HPV-58 (35.7%) in urine samples. There was 55.4% coinfection (infection by more than one type of HPV) in cervical samples and 40.2% in urine samples. Abnormal Papanicolau smears were observed in 25.3% of the women, presenting significant association with HPV-DNA being identified in urine samples. There was poor agreement of cervical and urine sample results in generic and type-specific detection of HPV. Urine samples provided the best diagnosis when taking cytological findings as reference. In conclusion including urine samples could be a good strategy for ensuring adherence to screening programs aimed at reducing the impact of cervical cancer, since this sample is easy to obtain and showed good diagnostic performance. PMID:23418581

Munoz, Marina; Camargo, Milena; Soto-De Leon, Sara C; Sanchez, Ricardo; Parra, Diana; Pineda, Andrea C; Sussmann, Otto; Perez-Prados, Antonio; Patarroyo, Manuel E; Patarroyo, Manuel A

2013-01-01

350

Drug Dosing in Renal Disease  

PubMed Central

Renal disease alters the effects of many drugs, particularly when active drug moieties are renally cleared. Drug doses should usually be reduced in renal disease in proportion to the predicted reduction in clearance of the active drug moiety. Patient factors to consider in adjusting drug doses include the degree of renal impairment and patient size. Drug factors to consider in adjusting doses include the fraction of the drug excreted unchanged in urine and the drug’s therapeutic index. Estimates of renal function are useful to guide dosing of renally cleared drugs with medium therapeutic indices, but are not precise enough to guide dosing of drugs with narrow therapeutic indices. This article discusses principles of drug dose adjustment in renal disease.

Doogue, Matthew P; Polasek, Thomas M

2011-01-01

351

False-positive buprenorphine by CEDIA in patients prescribed amisulpride or sulpiride.  

PubMed

Buprenorphine is a potent partial opioid agonist that is analyzed in urine to (i) monitor adherence to maintenance or detoxification therapy and (ii) detect illicit use. Buprenorphine analysis is commonly conducted on urine by immunoassay, but is subject to cross-reactivity from other drugs/drug metabolites, including morphine, codeine and dihydrocodeine. This study reports false-positive buprenorphine analysis [Thermo Fisher Scientific cloned enzyme donor immunoassay (CEDIA)] in patients who denied unauthorized buprenorphine use prior to sampling, but who had been prescribed amisulpride. In two cases, confirmatory analysis by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was negative (<0.5 µg/L) for buprenorphine and metabolites and positive for amisulpride. Although the cross-reactivity of amisulpride and sulpiride in the CEDIA buprenorphine assay is low (estimated at 0.003 and 0.002%, respectively), it remains a significant consideration given the likely high concentrations of these compounds in urine relative to the low cutoff of the buprenorphine assay. Neither amisulpride nor sulpiride was listed as potential sources of interference on the CEDIA data sheet when this work was performed. These findings highlight the importance of confirming immunoassay-positive buprenorphine results using a more selective analytical technique. PMID:23471956

Birch, M A; Couchman, L; Pietromartire, S; Karna, T; Paton, C; McAllister, R; Marsh, A; Flanagan, R J

2013-05-01

352

Discriminative stimulus effects of the GABAB receptor-positive modulator rac-BHFF: comparison with GABAB receptor agonists and drugs of abuse.  

PubMed

GABA(B) receptor-positive modulators are thought to have advantages as potential medications for anxiety, depression, and drug addiction. They may have fewer side effects than GABA(B) receptor agonists, because selective enhancement of activated receptors could have effects different from nonselective activation of all receptors. To examine this, pigeons were trained to discriminate the GABA(B) receptor-positive modulator (R,S)-5,7-di-tert-butyl-3-hydroxy-3-trifluoromethyl-3H-benzofuran-2-one (rac-BHFF) from its vehicle. The discriminative stimulus effects of rac-BHFF were not mimicked by the GABA(B) receptor agonists baclofen and ?-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), not by diazepam, and not by alcohol, cocaine, and nicotine, whose self-administration has been reported to be attenuated by GABA(B) receptor-positive modulators. The discriminative stimulus effects of rac-BHFF were not antagonized by the GABA(B) receptor antagonist 3-aminopropyl (diethoxymethyl)phosphinic acid (CGP35348) but were attenuated by the less efficacious GABA(B) receptor-positive modulator 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-(3-hydroxy-2,2-dimethylpropyl)phenol (CGP7930), suggesting the possibility that rac-BHFF produces its discriminative stimulus effects by directly activating GABA(B2) subunits of GABA(B) receptors. At a dose 10-fold lower than the training dose, rac-BHFF enhanced the discriminative stimulus effects of baclofen, but not of GHB. This study provides evidence that the effects of GABA(B) receptor-positive modulators are not identical to those of GABA(B) receptor agonists. In addition, the results suggest that positive modulation of GABA(B) receptors does not produce discriminative stimulus effects similar to those of benzodiazepines, alcohol, cocaine, and nicotine. Finally, the finding that rac-BHFF enhanced effects of baclofen but not of GHB is consistent with converging evidence that the populations of GABA(B) receptors mediating the effects of baclofen and GHB are not identical. PMID:23275067

Koek, Wouter; Cheng, Kejun; Rice, Kenner C

2013-03-01

353

Detection of p-chloroamphetamine in urine samples with mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Designer drugs are introduced periodically to avoid detection and to provide new drugs with different pharmacological activities. During our routine analysis of amphetamine in urine samples, we observed one sample that reacted with immunoassay with high activity. There is one prominent peak in the gas chromatography- mass spectrometry (GC-MS) chromatogram. However, no amphetamine, methamphetamine, MDA, MDMA, MDEA, or ephedrine was detected with GC-MS. Careful examination of the mass spectrum indicated the presence of one fragment ion (m/z 140), which is similar to the base peak of trifluoroacetic anhydride derivative of amphetamine. The characteristic ion cluster representing the presence of one chlorine atom was observed. Investigation with liquid chromatography (LC)-MS detected an unknown compound with molecular ion of m/z 170. This compound was tentatively identified as chloroamphetamine. Pure standard material of p-chloroamphetamine (PCA) was purchased and analyzed with both GC-MS and LC-MS. Identical GC-MS spectra and LC-MS-MS fragmentation patterns were obtained. A GC-MS procedure was developed for the quantitation of PCA. The limits of detection and quantification were 10 ?g/L. Precision was between 1.26% and 4.26%, and bias was between -0.91% and 4.27%. The prevalence PCA positive rate is 0.35% of the samples screened positive for amphetamine. PMID:21513613

Lin, Tsz C; Lin, Dong-Liang; Lua, Ahai C

2011-05-01

354

Urine Bag as a Modern Day Matula  

PubMed Central

Since time immemorial uroscopic analysis has been a staple of diagnostic medicine. It received prominence during the middle ages with the introduction of the matula. Urinary discoloration is generally due to changes in urochrome concentration associated with the presence of other endogenous or exogenous pigments. Observation of urine colors has received less attention due to the advances made in urinalysis. A gamut of urine colors can be seen in urine bags of hospitalized patients that may give clue to presence of infections, medications, poisons, and hemolysis. Although worrisome to the patient, urine discoloration is mostly benign and resolves with removal of the offending agent. Twelve urine bags with discolored urine (and their predisposing causes) have been shown as examples. Urine colors (blue-green, yellow, orange, pink, red, brown, black, white, and purple) and their etiologies have been reviewed following a literature search in these databases: Pubmed, EBSCO, Science Direct, Proquest, Google Scholar, Springer, and Ovid.

Viswanathan, Stalin

2013-01-01

355

Determination of S-1 (combined drug of tegafur, 5-chloro-2,4-dihydroxypyridine and potassium oxonate) and 5-fluorouracil in human plasma and urine using high-performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography-negative ion chemical ionization mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography-negative ion chemical ionization mass spectrometry (GC-NICI-MS) method was developed for the analysis of the combined antitumor drug S-1 (tegafur, 5-chloro-2,4-dihydroxypyridine and potassium oxonate) and active metabolite 5-fluorouracil in human plasma and urine. Tegafur was fractionated from biological fluids by extraction with dichloromethane and analyzed by HPLC. 5-Fluorouracil and 5-chloro-2,4-dihydroxypyridine were extracted with ethyl acetate from the residual layer after extraction of tegafur, and converted to pentafluorobenzyl (PFB) derivatives. Potassium oxonate was cleaned up with an anion-exchange column (Bond Elut NH2). The extracted potassium oxonate was degraded to 5-azauracil and converted to PFB derivatives. The PFB derivatives were analyzed by GC-NICI-MS. A stable isotope was employed as the internal standard in the GC-NICI-MS analysis. The limits of quantitation of tegafur, 5-fluorouracil, 5-chloro-2,4-dihydroxypyridine and potassium oxonate in plasma were 10, 1, 2 and 1 ng/ml, respectively. The reproducibility of the analytical method according to the statistical coefficients is approximately 10%. The accuracy of the method is good; that is, the relative error is < 10%. The methods were applied to pharmacokinetic studies of S-1 in patients. PMID:9140762

Matsushima, E; Yoshida, K; Kitamura, R; Yoshida, K

1997-03-28

356

Chemical dependency and drug testing in the workplace.  

PubMed Central

Urine testing for drug use in the workplace is now widespread, with the prevalence of positive drug tests in the work force being 0% to 15%. The prevalence of marijuana use is highest, and this can be reliably tested. Though it is prudent to rid the workplace of drug use, there is little scientific study on the relationship of drug use and workplace outcomes, such as productivity and safety. Probable-cause testing and preemployment testing are the most common applications. Random testing has been less accepted owing to its higher costs, unresolved legal issues, and predictably poor test reliability. Legal issues have focused on the right to policy, discrimination, and the lack of due process. The legal cornerstone of a good program is a policy that is planned and agreed on by both labor and management, which serves both as a contract and as a procedure in which expectations and consequences are known. The National Institute on Drug Abuse is certifying laboratories doing employee drug testing. Testing methods when done correctly are less prone to error than in the past, but screening tests can be defeated by adulterants. Although the incidence of false-positive results is low, such tests are less reliable when the prevalence of drug abuse is also low.

Osterloh, J D; Becker, C E

1990-01-01

357

Chemical dependency and drug testing in the workplace.  

PubMed

Urine testing for drug use in the workplace is now widespread, with the prevalence of positive drug tests in the work force being 0% to 15%. The prevalence of marijuana use is highest, and this can be reliably tested. Though it is prudent to rid the workplace of drug use, there is little scientific study on the relationship of drug use and workplace outcomes, such as productivity and safety. Probable-cause testing and preemployment testing are the most common applications. Random testing has been less accepted owing to its higher costs, unresolved legal issues, and predictably poor test reliability. Legal issues have focused on the right to policy, discrimination, and the lack of due process. The legal cornerstone of a good program is a policy that is planned and agreed on by both labor and management, which serves both as a contract and as a procedure in which expectations and consequences are known. The National Institute on Drug Abuse is certifying laboratories doing employee drug testing. Testing methods when done correctly are less prone to error than in the past, but screening tests can be defeated by adulterants. Although the incidence of false-positive results is low, such tests are less reliable when the prevalence of drug abuse is also low. PMID:2190418

Osterloh, J D; Becker, C E

1990-05-01

358

Illicit Drug Use Among Pregnant Women Enrolled in Treatment for Cigarette Smoking Cessation  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Smoking during pregnancy is the leading preventable cause of poor pregnancy outcomes in the United States. In population studies and nationwide surveys, pregnant smokers report more illicit drug use than pregnant nonsmokers. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of illicit drug use among pregnant women enrolled in clinical trials for smoking cessation. Methods: Urine specimens from 115 pregnant women were tested for illicit drug use during a study intake visit (~10th week of pregnancy) and during the final antepartum (FAP) smoking-status assessment (~28th week of pregnancy). Participants smoked about 18 cigarettes/day prepregnancy, were generally young (<25 years), Caucasian, with a high school education and without private insurance. Results: About 34% of specimens from the intake visit and 25% of those from the FAP assessment tested positive for an illicit drug. The most common drug detected was marijuana (90% of positive specimens), followed by opioids (18%), cocaine (5%), benzodiazepines (3%), and methadone (3%). None tested positive for amphetamines. The majority of women (53%) who tested positive for an illicit substance at intake also tested positive at the FAP assessment. Conclusions: Approximately a quarter to a third of pregnant women enrolled in these smoking-cessation trials were determined to be using illicit drugs, with marijuana use being the most prevalent. Those providing smoking-cessation services to pregnant women may want to be prepared to assist with obtaining services for other drug use as well.

2013-01-01

359

Potentials of ion trap collisional spectrometry for liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry determination of buprenorphine and nor-buprenorphine in urine, blood and hair samples.  

PubMed

A liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS/MS) method has been developed for the analysis of buprenorphine (BUP) and nor-buprenorphine (NBUP) in biological fluids. Analytes are isolated from urine and blood, after addition of d4-buprenorphine (d4-BUP) as internal standard, by solid-phase extraction. Preparation of hair involves external decontamination, mechanical pulverization, overnight incubation in acidic medium, and neutralization prior to extraction. Enzymatic hydrolysis with beta-glucuronidase may be performed to distinguish between free and total BUP. Chromatographic separation is accomplished by gradient elution on a cyanopropyl 2.1 x 150 mm column. Positive ion ESI and MS analyses are carried out in an ion trap mass spectrometer. The use of this mass analyzer allows effective collisional experiments to be performed on ESI-generated MH+ species. Abundant product ions are produced, which can be monitored together with precursor ions without losing sensitivity. Thus, assay selectivity is definitely increased with respect to LC/ESI-MS/MS methods in which only precursor ions are monitored. The method has good linearity (calibration curves were linear in the range 0.1-10 ng/mL in urine and blood, in the range 10-160 pg/mg in hair) and limits of detection of 0.05 ng/mL for both BUP and NBUP in blood and urine samples, of 4 pg/mg for both analytes in hair. Both intra- and inter-assay precision and accuracy were satisfactory at three concentrations studied: relative standard deviations were <13.7% in urine, <17.3% in blood, <17.8% in hair; percent deviation of the mean from the true value was always <10.5% in urine and blood, <16.1% in hair. The method can be used to determine both analytes in the urine and hair of drug addicts on replacement therapy, and in post-mortem blood specimens when there is suspicion of drug-related death. PMID:16550495

Favretto, Donata; Frison, Giampietro; Vogliardi, Susanna; Ferrara, Santo Davide

2006-01-01

360

Detection of leptospires in urine by polymerase chain reaction.  

PubMed Central

Primers for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were synthesized from clones derived from a Leptospira hardjo (type hardjobovis) library. One pair of synthetic oligonucleotide primers was selected for further analysis. Under experimental conditions an amplification was obtained with DNA of Leptospira interrogans of some serovars belonging to serogroup sejroe. However, very little or no amplification was observed with DNA from other serovars of this group. No amplification was observed with DNA from other serogroups, other bacteria, or eucaryotic organisms. Cattle urine, seeded with hardjobovis, was processed in several ways and subsequently subjected to PCR. Boiling of the samples or treatment with detergents appeared to be most effective. Urine samples containing fewer than 10 leptospires gave a positive result in the PCR assay. Twenty urine samples obtained from a slaughterhouse or farm cows were investigated using the PCR assay, culture isolation, dot and quick blot hybridization, and serological tests. This comparative study suggests that amplification by PCR may be a valuable method for the detection of leptospires in cattle urine. Images

Van Eys, G J; Gravekamp, C; Gerritsen, M J; Quint, W; Cornelissen, M T; Schegget, J T; Terpstra, W J

1989-01-01

361

Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in urine from men with urethritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of a commercial EIA (Chlamydiazyme) for detection ofChlamydia trachomatis in urine specimens was compared with that of culture of urethral samples from men with urethritis. The incidence of chlamydial infection on the basis of culture results was 34 % (56\\/167). The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values for the EIA were 55 % (31\\/56), 98 % (109\\/111),

M. Bäckman; A. K. M. Rudén; O. Ringertz; E. G. Sandström

1993-01-01

362

Plasma and urine concentrations of marbofloxacin following single subcutaneous administration to cats.  

PubMed

The pharmacokinetic properties of marbofoxacin, a third generation fluoroquinolone, were investigated in 12 healthy adult cats after single subcutaneous (SC) administration of 2 mg/kg BW (Part I, n=8 cats) and 4 mg/kg BW (Part II, n=4 cats). In each part of the study blood and urine samples were collected before treatment and thereafter for 5 days. The plasma and urine concentrations of marbofloxacin were determined by HPLC with UV detection. Pharmacokinetic calculations were performed for each treated animal using an open one-compartment-model with first-order elimination after SC dosing. Marbofloxacin in plasma (means): Maximum concentrations (Cmax) of about 1.2 and 3.0 microg/ml were measured 2.3 and 4 hours (tmax) after dosing of 2 and 4 mg/kg BW, respectively. Elimination from the body was low with a total clearance (Cl/F) of approximately 0.1 l/h/kg for both dosages. The half-life (t 1/2) for this process was calculated with 8-10 hours. AUC increased almost proportional when doubling the dose, i.e., 19.77 +/- 6.25 microg * h/ml (2 mg/kg BW) and 51.26 +/- 11.83 microg * h/ml (4 mg/kg BW). Plasma kinetics measured were in accordance with data from literature. Marbofloxacin in urine (means): Maximum drug concentrations were detected 4 and 8 hours after dosing with 70 microg/ml (2 mg/kg BW) and 160 microg/ml (4 mg/kg BW), respectively. Inhibitory effects of the urinary matrix on the antimicrobial activity of the drug were taken into account when performing PK/PD calculations. However, a concentration-dependent bactericidal activity (Cmax/MIC > 8-10) which is claimed for fluoroquinolones was sufficiently met with focus on Escherichia (E.) coli (MIC90 0.5 microg/ml). In the same matrix a threshold value of 1.0 microg/ml was undercut 82 and 116 hours after SC dosing, respectively. Hence, a time-dependent bacteria killing kinetic (T > MIC) which may be of relevance for some Gram-positive germs like Staphylococcus spp. (MIC90 1.0 microg/ml) should be covered, too. PMID:21306059

Kietzmann, Manfred; Niedorf, Frank; Kramer, Sabine; Hoffmann, Marina; Schneider, Marc; Vallé, Marc; Pankow, Rüdiger

2011-01-01

363

Anti-bacterial performance of azithromycin nanoparticles as colloidal drug delivery system against different gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Azithromycin (AZI) is a new macrolide antibiotic with a better activity against intracellular gram negative bacteria in comparison with Erythromycin. The purpose of this research was to prepare AZI nanoparticles (NPs) using PLGA polymer and to compare the effectiveness of prepared nanoparticles with untreated AZI solution. Methods: AZI NPs were prepared by Modified Quasi-Emulsion Solvent Diffusion method. The antibacterial activities of prepared NPs in comparison with AZI solution were assayed against indicator bacteria of Escherichia coli (PTCC 1330), Haemophilus influenzae (PTCC 1623) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (PTCC 1240) using agar well diffusion. Inhibition zone diameters (IZD) of nano-formulation were compared to the corresponding untreated AZI. Mean Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) values of AZI were also determined using serial dilution method in nutrient broth medium. Results: Mean IZD of nano-formulations for all indicator bacteria were significantly higher than that of untreated AZI (P<0.01). The enhanced antibacterial efficacy was more dominant in the gram positive species. The MIC values of NPs against the tested bacteria were reduced 8 times in comparison to those of untreated AZI. Conclusion: These results indicated an improved potency of AZI NPs which could be attributed to the modified surface characteristics as well as increased drug adsorption and uptake.

Azhdarzadeh, Morteza; Lotfipour, Farzaneh; Zakeri-Milani, Parvin; Mohammadi, Ghobad; Valizadeh, Hadi

2012-01-01

364

[The characteristics of Gram-positive bacteria isolated from skin lesions observed in ambulatory patients and the assessment of their susceptibility to antimicrobial drugs].  

PubMed

The bacterial skin and soft-tissue infections occur commonly and are characterized by more or less intensified changes within skin and subcutaneous tissue. The bacterial skin infections give rise to significant therapeutic problems associated with increasing resistance etiological agents of these infections to antibiotics and chemotherapeutics. The aim of this study was to assess the distribution of various Gram-positive microorganisms in skin lesion observed in ambulatory patients in a period from June 2005 to December 2006. There were 116 bacterial strains isolated and identified from clinical samples: Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase - negative staphylococi (S.epidermidis, S. xylosus, S.capitis, S.saccharolyticus), Propionobacterium acnes, Streptococcus spp. (S.agalactiae, S.pyogenes) i Corynebacterium spp. (C. striatum, C. amycolatum, C. aquaticum). In the further part of this study we analyzed a profile of their susceptibility to antibiotics and chemotherapeutics in relation to drugs recommended for the empirical therapy. The resultant resistance patterns among the examined bacterial isolates are indicative of certain divergence between recommended empirical antibiotic therapy and actual antimicrobial susceptibility of many etiologic factors of skin and soft-tissue infections. PMID:21853673

Sikora, Agnieszka; Kozio?-Montewka, Maria; Bogut, Agnieszka

2011-01-01

365

Speeding up the screening of steroids in urine: development of a user-friendly library.  

PubMed

This work presents a novel database search engine - MLibrary - designed to assist the user in the detection and identification of androgenic anabolic steroids (AAS) and its metabolites by matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) and mass spectrometry-based strategies. The detection of the AAS in the samples was accomplished by searching (i) the mass spectrometric (MS) spectra against the library developed to identify possible positives and (ii) by comparison of the tandem mass spectrometric (MS/MS) spectra produced after fragmentation of the possible positives with a complete set of spectra that have previously been assigned to the software. The urinary screening for anabolic agents plays a major role in anti-doping laboratories as they represent the most abused drug class in sports. With the help of the MLibrary software application, the use of MALDI techniques for doping control is simplified and the time for evaluation and interpretation of the results is reduced. To do so, the search engine takes as input several MALDI-TOF-MS and MALDI-TOF-MS/MS spectra. It aids the researcher in an automatic mode by identifying possible positives in a single MS analysis and then confirming their presence in tandem MS analysis by comparing the experimental tandem mass spectrometric data with the database. Furthermore, the search engine can, potentially, be further expanded to other compounds in addition to AASs. The applicability of the MLibrary tool is shown through the analysis of spiked urine samples. PMID:24036418

Galesio, M; López-Fdez, H; Reboiro-Jato, M; Gómez-Meire, Silvana; Glez-Peña, D; Fdez-Riverola, F; Lodeiro, Carlos; Diniz, M E; Capelo, J L

2013-12-11

366

Lithium-induced impairment of urine acidification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lithium-induced impairment of urine acidifcation. The purpose of this study was to clarify the means by which lithium induced a disorder of urine acidification. Rats infused with hydrochloric acid (1 mEq\\/kg) developed acute metabolic acidosis (blood pH = 7.32; bicarbonate, 18 mEq\\/liter) with a urine pH of approximately 5.85. The addition of lithium chloride (4 mEq\\/kg i.p.) caused an increase

Janet M Roscoe; Marc B Goldstein; Mitchell L Halperin; Douglas R Wilson; Bobby J Stinebaugh

1976-01-01

367

A method for urine collection in infants.  

PubMed Central

A simple, inexpensive, non-invasive method for urine collection was used in 28 consecutive infants for periods of 48 hours (n = 10) and 72 hours (n = 18). The incidence of urine collector detachment was low on the first and second days (< 4%) and increased significantly on the third day (28%). Volume of urine leaked was < 4% of the total volume collected daily. This method is applicable to both sexes and is reliable for up to 48 hours.

Pierro, A; Jones, M O; Lloyd, D A

1993-01-01

368

Pentachlorophenol levels in human urine  

SciTech Connect

Pentachlorophenol is perhaps one of the most persistent and widespread pollutants in existence today. The ubiquitous nature of this molecule and its toxicological properties have aroused the interest of numerous researchers in diverse areas of environmental chemistry, occupational health and safety, and environmental and occupational medicine. Unfortunately, due to the unavailability of data indicative of {open_quotes}normal{close_quotes} or background levels of PCP exposure in the general population, researchers have encountered difficulty assessing long-term toxicological effects. It is desirable to be able to determine the minimum level of long-term exposure which will result in an adverse effect to human health. There have been a limited number of studies examining PCP levels in the urine of non-occupationally exposed individuals. In continuation of previous work carried out at our laboratory, we have analyzed a series of urine samples which were collected in the middle of winter as opposed to early in the fall. This work will provide further information regarding background levels of PCP and also determine whether or not there is potentially seasonal variation. 6 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Thompson, T.S.; Treble, R.G. [Saskatchewan Health, Regina (Canada)] [Saskatchewan Health, Regina (Canada)

1996-04-01

369

Prostate cancer diagnosis through electronic nose in the urine headspace setting: a pilot study.  

PubMed

Background:To evaluate the efficacy of prostate cancer (PCa) detection by the electronic nose (EN) on human urine samples.Methods:Urine samples were obtained from candidates of prostate biopsy (PB). Exclusion criteria were a history of urothelial carcinoma or other malignant disease, urine infection, fasting for <12?h before PB or ingestion of alcohol or foods that might alter the urine smell in the last 24?h. The initial part of the voided urine and the midstream were collected separately in two sterile containers. Both samples were analyzed by the EN immediately after the collection. All patients underwent a standard transperineal, transrectal-ultrasound-guided PB. The pathological results were compared with the outcomes of the EN. Sensitivity and specificity of EN were assessed.Results:Forty-one men were included in the study. Fourteen out of the 41 patients were positive for PCa. Midstream urine did not correlate significantly neither with a positive nor with a negative PB. Instead, significantly different results on the initial part of the urine stream between positive and negative PBs were obtained. The EN correctly recognized 10 out of the 14 cases (that is, sensitivity 71.4% (confidence interval (CI) 42-92%)) of PCa while four were false negatives. Moreover, the device recognized as negative 25 out of the 27 (that is, specificity 92.6% (CI 76-99%)) samples of negative PBs, with only two false positives.Conclusions:We believe this is the first demonstration of an olfactory imprinting of the initial part of the urine stream in patients with PCa that was revealed by an EN, with high specificity. PMID:24686772

Asimakopoulos, A D; Del Fabbro, D; Miano, R; Santonico, M; Capuano, R; Pennazza, G; D'Amico, A; Finazzi-Agrò, E

2014-06-01

370

Clinician response to Candida organisms in the urine of patients attending hospital  

Microsoft Academic Search

The epidemiology of 54 episodes of candiduria with respect to clinical risk factors, species of Candida and physician response to the isolation of Candida in urine were studied in an observational survey over 3 months. Candida spp. were isolated from 4.7% of positive urine cultures. Common predisposing conditions included antibiotic use (74.1%),\\u000a urinary drainage devices (57.4%), surgery (51.9%), intensive care unit

S. C. A. Chen; Z. S. Tong; O. C. Lee; C. Halliday; E. G. Playford; F. Widmer; F. R. Kong; C. Wu; T. C. Sorrell

2008-01-01

371

Optimal Recovery of Cytomegalovirus from Urine as a Function of Specimen Preparation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a significant pathogen among immunocompromised patients. We compared supernatant and sediment fractions of centrifuged urine for the optimal recovery of CMV by shell vial culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Of 336 urine specimens, 31 (9.23%) were positive by shell vial culture; of these 29 (93.5%) were identified using the sediment fraction and 17 (54.8%) using the

Debra W Bennion; Larry J Wright; Ryan A Watt; April A Whiting; John F Carlquist

1998-01-01

372

Rapid Screening of Urine Specimens for Bacteriuria by the Cellenium System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the performance of the Cellenium 160US urine screening system in comparison to that of the semiquantitative culture method. The performance characteristics of the Cellenium system for all clinically significant uropathogens were 89.5% sensitivity, 94.4% specificity, 97.1% negative predictive value, and 81% positive predictive value. Urine specimens comprise the largest volume of specimens received for culture in the

Preeti Pancholi; Kathleen Pavletich; Phyllis Della-Latta

373

Serum and urine galactomannan testing for screening in patients with hematological malignancies.  

PubMed

Testing for serum galactomannan (GM) has been established as an important method for diagnosing invasive aspergillosis (IA); however, limited data exist regarding the application of urine GM testing. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of GM screening of urine specimens and to compare results with serum GM. The study was performed between July 2012 and March 2013 in adult patients with underlying hematological malignancies who were hospitalized at the Medical University of Graz, Austria. Serum and urine screening samples were collected and tested twice weekly (always on the same day). In total, 242 serum samples and a similar number of urine samples were collected from 75 patients. A total of 21/242 (8.7%) serum samples from 13 patients were GM positive. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value using a 0.1 optical density index cutoff for urine samples (compared with same-day serum results) were as follows: 47.6%, 86%, 24.4%, and 94.5%, respectively. In 8/10 patients with probable IA, at least one positive GM result was found with this cutoff. After calculating clinical performance of the urine GM test, we found that sensitivity increased to 71.4% and specificity to 88.2%. Spearman-Rho correlation analysis revealed a significant positive correlation between serum and urine samples (P < 0.001; ? = 0.252). In conclusion, GM detection in urine might be a promising method for IA screening. However, further studies are needed. PMID:24939321

Duettmann, Wiebke; Koidl, Christoph; Troppan, Katharina; Seeber, Katharina; Buzina, Walter; Wölfler, Albert; Wagner, Jasmin; Krause, Robert; Hoenigl, Martin

2014-08-01

374

Determination of cefadroxil in rat plasma and urine using LC-MS/MS and its application to pharmacokinetic and urinary excretion studies.  

PubMed

A simple, rapid, and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was developed and validated for the determination of cefadroxil, a first-generation cephalosporin, in rat plasma and urine. Rat samples were deproteinized with methanol, and then injected into the LC-MS/MS system (electro-spray ionization, positive mode) for quantification. Drugs were separated on a Synergi™ 4 ?m Polar-RP 80A column (150 mm × 2.0 mm, 4 ?m) with a mixture of 0.1% formic acid and methanol (62:38, v/v) as the mobile phase at 0.2 mL/min. Detection was performed using multiple reaction-monitoring modes at m/z 364.1?208.1 (for cefadroxil) and m/z 368.1?174.2 (for cefaclor, the internal standard). Method was specific and linear over the concentration range of 10-10,000 ng/mL. Validation parameters for cefadroxil, including accuracy, precision, absolute matrix effect, and stability in rat plasma and urine, were acceptable according to the biological method validation guidelines of the FDA (2001) [16]. Cefadroxil levels in plasma up to 1440 min or 480 min and urine up to 96 h were quantifiable following oral and intravenous cefadroxil administrations to rats at a dose of 2mg/kg, each, suggesting that the method is appropriate for routine pharmacokinetic studies including urinary recovery in rats. PMID:24412692

Jin, Hyo-Eon; Kim, In-Bong; Kim, Yu Chul; Cho, Kwan Hyung; Maeng, Han-Joo

2014-02-01

375

Relative determination of the alkaloid metabolites of Er Miao San in rat urine by LC-MS/MS and its application to pharmacokinetics.  

PubMed

In the present study, five metabolites of Cortex Phellodendri Chinensis, an important herbal drug, were identified using liquid chromatography multi-stage tandem mass spectrometric techniques (LC-MS(n)). A sensitive and rapid high-performance liquid chromatographic tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed for the quantitation of the five metabolites, utilizing chlorobenzylidine as the internal standard in rat urine. Urine samples were precipitated with acetonitrile. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a Waters C18 analytical column. Detection was performed by a multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode via an electrospray ionization (ESI) source operating in the positive ionization mode. The method was linear over the concentration range of 0.05-1.00c for all components. The intra- and inter-day precision values were less than 14.6% and the deviations ranged from -4.4 to 13.8%. The recoveries at three levels were more than 73.7%. The fully validated method was used to determine the metabolites amount in rat urine to investigate the changes caused by coupling with Atractylodes lancea in Er Miao San preparation on metabolism. PMID:24508675

Yan, Fei; He, Huiwen; Yan, Rui

2014-03-01

376

Back to the basics: identifying positive youth development as the theoretical framework for a youth drug prevention program in rural Saskatchewan, Canada amidst a program evaluation  

PubMed Central

Background Despite endorsement by the Saskatchewan government to apply empirically-based approaches to youth drug prevention services in the province, programs are sometimes delivered prior to the establishment of evidence-informed goals and objectives. This paper shares the 'preptory’ outcomes of our team’s program evaluation of the Prince Albert Parkland Health Region Mental Health and Addiction Services’ Outreach Worker Service (OWS) in eight rural, community schools three years following its implementation. Before our independent evaluation team could assess whether expectations of the OWS were being met, we had to assist with establishing its overarching program goals and objectives and 'at-risk’ student population, alongside its alliance with an empirically-informed theoretical framework. Methods A mixed-methods approach was applied, beginning with in-depth focus groups with the OWS staff to identify the program’s goals and objectives and targeted student population. These were supplemented with OWS and school administrator interviews and focus groups with school staff. Alignment with a theoretical focus was determined though a review of the OWS’s work to date and explored in focus groups between our evaluation team and the OWS staff and validated with the school staff and OWS and school administration. Results With improved understanding of the OWS’s goals and objectives, our evaluation team and the OWS staff aligned the program with the Positive Youth Development theoretical evidence-base, emphasizing the program’s universality, systems focus, strength base, and promotion of assets. Together we also gained clarity about the OWS’s definition of and engagement with its 'at-risk’ student population. Conclusions It is important to draw on expert knowledge to develop youth drug prevention programming, but attention must also be paid to aligning professional health care services with a theoretically informed evidence-base for evaluation purposes. If time does not permit for the establishment of evidence-informed goals and objectives at the start-up of a program, obtaining insight and expertise from program personnel and school staff and administrators can bring the program to a point where this can still be achieved and theoretical linkages made after a program has been implemented. This is a necessary foundation for measuring an intervention’s success.

2013-01-01

377

Identification of amygdalin and its major metabolites in rat urine by LC-MS/MS.  

PubMed

Amygdalin and its metabolites in rat urine were identified using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization (ESI) tandem ion-trap mass spectrometry. The purified rat urine sample was separated using a reversed-phase C18 column with 10 mM sodium phosphate buffer (pH 3.1) containing 30% methanol as the mobile phase, amygdalin and its metabolites were detected by on-line mass detector in selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode. The identification of the metabolites and elucidation of their structure were performed by comparing the changes in molecular masses (DeltaM), retention times and MS(2) spectral patterns of metabolites with those of parent drug. At least seven metabolites and the parent drug were found in rat urine after i.v. injection of 100 mg/kg doses of amygdalin. Among them, six metabolites were reported for the first time. PMID:17720632

Ge, B Y; Chen, H X; Han, F M; Chen, Y

2007-10-01

378

Uptake of gamma-valerolactone--detection of gamma-hydroxyvaleric acid in human urine samples.  

PubMed

Gamma-valerolactone (GVL) is reported to be a substance that can be used as a legal substitute for gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), which is currently a controlled substance in several countries. Unlike gamma-butyrolactone and 1,4-butanediol, GVL is not metabolized to GHB, which causes the effects after uptake of these two chemicals. In the case of GVL, the lactone ring is split to gamma-hydroxyvaleric acid (GHV or 4-methyl-GHB) by a lactonase. Because of its affinity for the GHB receptor, GHV reveals similar effects to GHB, although it is less potent. Intoxications with GVL, or its use as a date rape drug, are conceivable. Despite these facts, there are no publications in the literature regarding detections of GHV in human samples. This study reports three cases, including five urine samples, in which GHV could be detected in concentrations between 3 and 5.8 mg/L. In one of these cases, a drug-facilitated sexual assault (DFSA) was assumed; four of these samples were from two people suspected of abusing GHB. The results indicate that GVL is used as an alternative to GHB and its precursors and should be taken seriously. GVL or GHV should be included in toxicological analysis, particularly in DFSA cases. More information is needed regarding the pharmacokinetics of GVL/GHV for the meaningful interpretation of positive or negative results. PMID:23486087

Andresen-Streichert, H; Jungen, H; Gehl, A; Müller, A; Iwersen-Bergmann, S

2013-05-01

379

The Relationship Between Urine PH AND Acid Excretion-the Influence of Urine Flow Rate.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Investigation was carried out in normal men to determine the manner by which urine flow rate influences the relationship between urine pH and acid excretion. Subjects excreting an acid urine as a result of the ingestion of ammonium chloride were studied o...

R. L. Tannen

1969-01-01

380

Urine collection pads: are samples reliable for urine biochemistry and microscopy?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study was to validate the reliability of samples obtained with urine collection pads (UCP) for selected laboratory biochemical analyses, urine cell microscopy, and bedside semi-quantitative stick urinalysis. A series of laboratory experiments was performed to test agreement between urine concentrations, or results, before and after passage through a UCP (incubated for 37°C for 15 min). The following

Peter I. Macfarlane; Robert Ellis; Christopher Hughes; Christine Houghton; Robert Lord

2005-01-01

381

The identification of tuberculosis biomarkers in human urine samples.  

PubMed

We aimed to determine whether shotgun proteomic approaches could be used to identify tuberculosis (TB)-specific biomarkers in the urine of well-characterised patients with active TB versus no TB. Patients with suspected TB (n=63) were classified as: definite TB (Mycobacterium tuberculosis positive culture, n=21); presumed latent-TB infection (LTBI) (M. tuberculosis negative culture, no radiological features of active TB, a positive QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT-IT) test and a positive T-SPOT.TB test, n=24); and presumed non-TB/non-LTBI (M. tuberculosis negative culture, no radiological features of active TB, a negative QFT-IT test and a negative T-SPOT.TB test, n=18). Urine proteins, in the range of 3-50 kDa, were collected, separated by a one-dimensional SDS-PAGE gel and digested using trypsin, after which high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was used to identify the urinary proteome. 10 mycobacterial proteins were observed exclusively in the urine of definite TB patients, while six mycobacterial proteins were found exclusively in the urine of presumed LTBI patients. In addition, a gene ontology enrichment analysis identified a panel of 20 human proteins that were significant discriminators (p<0.05) for TB disease compared to no TB disease. Furthermore, seven common human proteins were differentially over- or under-expressed in the TB versus the non-TB group. These biomarkers hold promise for the development of new point-of-care diagnostics for TB. PMID:24743962

Young, Brandy L; Mlamla, Zandile; Gqamana, Putuma P; Smit, Salome; Roberts, Teri; Peter, Jonathan; Theron, Grant; Govender, Ureshnie; Dheda, Keertan; Blackburn, Jonathan

2014-06-01

382

Variability of urine albumin excretion in normal and diabetic children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The variability of urine albumin excretion (UAE) was studied in normal and diabetic children and, in addition, the best method of expressing the data was investigated. In 39 timed overnight urine samples from diabetic children, the urine albumin creatinine clearance ratio (CA\\/CC) was compared with the urine albumin creatinine concentration ratio (UA\\/UC), the urine albumin excretion rate (UAER) and the

Diana M. Gibb; Vanita Shah; Michael Preece; T. Martin Barratt

1989-01-01

383

The analysis of terbutaline in plasma and urine at therapeutic levels using mass fragmentography.  

PubMed

A sensitive method for the qualitative and semiquantitative determination of terbutaline in plasma and urine has been developed. After a single oral dose of 5 mg terbutaline sulphate the drug could be analysed easily. The detection limit in plasma is less than 1 ng ml-1. PMID:974242

Leferink, J G; Wagemaker-Engels, I; Arendse, W M; Maes, R A; Van Der Straeten, M

1976-10-01

384

Euphorbia hirta leaf extracts increase urine output and electrolytes in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Euphorbia hirta is locally used in Africa and Australia to treat numerous diseases, including hypertension and edema. The diuretic effect of the E. hirta leaf extracts were assessed in rats using acetazolamide and furosemide as standard diuretic drugs. The water and ethanol extracts (50 and 100 mg\\/kg) of the plant produced time-dependent increase in urine output. Electrolyte excretion was also

Patricia B Johnson; Ezzeldin M Abdurahman; Emmanuel A Tiam; Ibrahim Abdu-Aguye; Isa M Hussaini

1999-01-01

385

Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis antigens in urine as an alternative to swabs and cultures.  

PubMed

By using commercially available spectrophotometric and immunofluorescent immunoassays, Chlamydia trachomatis antigens were detected in first-void urine (FVU) sediments from 224 men attending a sexually transmitted disease clinic at a frequency of 81.6%-86.8% compared with 86.8% (33/38) positive by urethral swab culture (P less than .05). Endocervical cultures from 228 women attending a gynecology clinic yielded 92.3% (12/13) positive compared with 61.5%-76.9% for urine samples in three antigen-detection assays. Culturing urine from either gender yielded low positivity rates (23.7% for men, 15.4% for women). Defining truly infected patients as positive by culture or by any two of the three antigen tests, all assays were 100% specific. Immunodiagnostic testing of male FVU sediment appears to be a reliable, rapid, nontraumatic method for diagnosing chlamydia infection. PMID:2404073

Chernesky, M; Castriciano, S; Sellors, J; Stewart, I; Cunningham, I; Landis, S; Seidelman, W; Grant, L; Devlin, C; Mahony, J

1990-01-01

386

Ingested Mineral Fibers: Elimination in Human Urine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sediment in human urine examined by transmission electron microscopy contains amphibole fibers which originate from the ingestion of drinking water contaminated with these mineral fibers. The ingestion of filtered water results in the eventual disappearance of amphibole fibers from urine. These observations provide the first direct evidence for the passage of mineral fibers through the human gastrointestinal mucosa under normal

Philip M. Cook; Gayle F. Olson

1979-01-01

387

Boric Acid Preservation of Urine Samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparison of the results of bacteriological culture and microscopic examination of urine samples transported over a distance by the dip-inoculum transport medium, ice-box, and boric acid preservation with “natural” urine specimens showed that the last, in a final concentration of 1·8%, gives satisfactory preservation.

I. A. Porter; J. Brodie

1969-01-01

388

Advanced imaging technique for automated classification of casts and crystals in urine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the development and demonstration of a novel technique for microscopic analysis of urine particles. Casts and crystals in urine are indicative of clinically important abnormalities. Current urinalysis techniques using flow cytometry and image analysis are limited by their inability to detect, identify and classify crystals and casts. Casts, crystals and yeast cells reported by current automated urine particle analyzers must be confirmed by a second microscopic review involving a human operator to prevent false positives. Human examination of suspect urine samples is resource intensive and time consuming. We introduce a new imaging method to add functionality for recognition of casts and crystals in urine. Our approach uses a polarization microscopy technique to aid classification of crystals, casts and other urine particles. Crystals and casts in urine exhibit unique interference patterns when imaged using a fixed polarizer and analyzer in a crossed configuration. These interference patterns are a measure of birefringence (retardation angle) of the cast or crystal being imaged. Preliminary experiments indicate that uric acid shows a polarization color, and larger crystals exhibit a series of concentric black lines. We show that these unique 'signatures' when used in conjunction with a hierarchical pattern recognition technique can reliably classify the analytes with improved accuracy. The new imaging technique combined with the classification algorithm can address the shortcomings of current urinalysis techniques; and provide quicker and more accurate results.

Paranjape, Amit S.; Castleman, Kenneth; Milner, Thomas E.; Rylander, H. Grady

2007-03-01

389

Review of Biologic Matrices (Urine, Blood, Hair) as Indicators of Recent or Ongoing Cannabis Use  

Microsoft Academic Search

Especially for cannabinoids, analytical procedures for the verification of recent use and generally for the assessment of the extent of drug abuse are of interest in clinical and forensic toxicology. For confirmation of abstinence, urine analysis seems to be a useful tool. Serial monitoring of THC-COOH to creatinine ratios can differentiate between recent drug use and residual THC-COOH excretion (THC-COOH\\/creatinine

Frank Musshoff; Burkhard Madea

2006-01-01

390

Quantitative determinations of levofloxacin and rifampicin in pharmaceutical and urine samples using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapid, specific and simple methods for determining levofloxacin and rifampicin antibiotic drugs in pharmaceutical and human urine samples were developed. The methods are based on 1H NMR spectroscopy using maleic acid as an internal standard and DMSO-d6 as NMR solvent. Integration of NMR signals at 8.9 and 8.2ppm were, respectively, used for calculating the concentration of levofloxacin and rifampicin drugs

A. A. Salem; H. A. Mossa; B. N. Barsoum

2005-01-01

391

Chlamydia trachomatis Testing Sensitivity in Midstream Compared With First-Void Urine Specimens  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE Traditionally first-void urine specimens are used to test for Chlamydia trachomatis. In contrast, midstream urine specimens are traditionally recommended for microscopy and culture of presumptive bacterial urinary tract infections. The ability to test for both C trachomatis and urinary tract infection on a single midstream urine specimen would greatly aid clinical practice, as an urinary tract infection is an extremely common complaint in primary care. This study set out to determine how well positive C trachomatis results obtained on first-void specimens would correlate with positive findings in matched midstream specimens. METHODS One hundred women with a first-void urine specimen positive for C trachomatis also provided midstream specimens for comparison. All specimens had C trachomatis testing performed using a DNA detection method. RESULTS Of the 100 eligible participants with a first-void specimen positive for C trachomatis, 96 (96%) also had a positive midstream specimen (95% exact confidence limits, 90.1%, 98.9%). CONCLUSIONS These results suggest that by using newer nucleic acid amplification techniques (NAATs), timing of specimen collection is not so important in testing for C trachomatis as previously thought. The sensitivity of NAAT testing on midstream urine specimens in women is sufficiently equivalent to testing on first-void specimens to consider in clinical practice and research settings where first-void specimens have formerly been collected.

Mangin, Derelie; Murdoch, David; Wells, J. Elisabeth; Coughlan, Edward; Bagshaw, Sue; Corwin, Paul; Chambers, Stephen; Toop, Les

2012-01-01

392

Enantioselective determination of cetirizine in human urine by HPLC.  

PubMed

In order to study the simultaneous determination of (+)- and (-)-cetirizine in human urine we have developed a chiral separation method by HPLC. A chiral stationary phase of alpha1-acidglycoprotein, the AGP-CSP, was used to separate the enantiomers. The pH of the phosphate buffer, as well as the content of the organic modifier in the mobile phase, markedly affected the chromatographic separation of (+)- and (-)-cetirizine. A mobile phase of 10 mmol/l phosphate buffer (pH 7.0)-acetonitrile (95: 5, v/v) was used for the urine assays. Ultraviolet absorption was monitored at 230 nm and roxatidine was employed as the internal standard for quantification. (+)-Cetirizine, (-)-cetirizine and the internal standard were eluted at retention times of 12, 16, and 32 mins, respectively. The detection limit for cetirizine enantiomers was 400 ng/ml of urine. A pharmacokinetic study was conducted with the help of 5 healthy female volunteers who were administered with a single oral dose of racemic cetirizine (20 mg). The peak area ratios provided by the cetirizine enantiomers were linear (r>0.997) over a concentration range of 2.5-200 microg/ml. The peak of the excreted cetirizine enantiomers appeared in the urine sample during the period of 1-2 hrs following the administration of the oral dose. The excreted level of (+)-cetirizine was slightly higher than (-)-cetirizine but the difference was not statistically significant. However, this method appears to have applications for enantioselective pharmacokinetic studies of racemic drugs. PMID:10836747

Choi, S O; Lee, S H; Kong, H S; Kim, E J; Choo, H Y

2000-04-01

393

An update on purple urine bag syndrome  

PubMed Central

Purple urine bag syndrome is characterized by the urinary drainage bag turning purple in patients on prolonged urinary catheterization, especially those in the bedridden state. It is associated with bacterial urinary tract infections caused by indigo-producing and indirubin-producing bacteria, usually affects women, and is associated with alkaline urine, constipation, and a high bacterial load in the urine. Almost all patients with purple urine bag syndrome are catheterized due to significant disability, and the urinary pH is 7.0 or more. In general, intensive treatment with antibiotics is not recommended. Purple urine bag syndrome per se almost always appears to be asymptomatic and harmless. However, caution is needed, because some cases have been reported to show progression to severe disease states, so further research into the morbidity and mortality of this infection is warranted.

Hadano, Yoshiro; Shimizu, Taro; Takada, Shimon; Inoue, Toshiya; Sorano, Sumire

2012-01-01

394

An update on purple urine bag syndrome.  

PubMed

Purple urine bag syndrome is characterized by the urinary drainage bag turning purple in patients on prolonged urinary catheterization, especially those in the bedridden state. It is associated with bacterial urinary tract infections caused by indigo-producing and indirubin-producing bacteria, usually affects women, and is associated with alkaline urine, constipation, and a high bacterial load in the urine. Almost all patients with purple urine bag syndrome are catheterized due to significant disability, and the urinary pH is 7.0 or more. In general, intensive treatment with antibiotics is not recommended. Purple urine bag syndrome per se almost always appears to be asymptomatic and harmless. However, caution is needed, because some cases have been reported to show progression to severe disease states, so further research into the morbidity and mortality of this infection is warranted. PMID:22969302

Hadano, Yoshiro; Shimizu, Taro; Takada, Shimon; Inoue, Toshiya; Sorano, Sumire

2012-01-01

395

Simultaneous determination of HFBA-derivatized amphetamines and ketamines in urine by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

To facilitate the analysis of targeted drugs under high sample volume testing environment, an extraction, derivatization and gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis method was developed for simultaneously determination of amphetamine (AMP), methamphetamine (MAMP), 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDEA), ketamine, and norketamine in urine. This method utilized solid-phase extraction in conjunction with derivatization using heptafluorobutyric anhydride (HFBA) as the derivatization reagent. Using a 1-mL sample, the limits of quantitation achieved for the analysis of AMP, MAMP, MDA, MDMA, MDEA, ketamine, and norketamine were 25, 15, 60, 60, 70, 25, and 30 ng/mL, respectively. Upper limits of quantitation were 8000 ng/mL for all amphetamines and 6000 ng/mL for ketamine and norketamine. Except for dehydronorketamine (DHNK), within-day and between-day precisions (as expressed in CV%) for quality control samples were ? 3.1% and ? 4.95%, respectively. Except DHNK, the within-day accuracy ranged between 96.0% and 110.7% and the between-day accuracy ranged between 96.9% and 108.7%. A group of 107 urine samples previously determined to contain the target analytes were analyzed by this new approach. Quantitative data produced by both methods agreed well. With this new approach, we were able to use a single analytical protocol to conduct the confirmation test for samples that preliminarily tested positive (by immunoassay) for amphetamines, ketamine, or both. PMID:21439152

Lee, Hei Hwa; Lee, Jong Feng; Lin, Sin Yu; Chen, Ping Ho; Chen, Bai Hsiun

2011-04-01

396

Chimpanzee Urine Biochemic Alterations During 24 Hours of Restraint.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Chimpanzee response to 24 hours of restraint was measured by alteration in urine biochemic values. Values in four consecutive 6-hour urine collections are compared. The values are analyzed for significant deviations in relation to age, sex, urine volume, ...

R. A. Scott

1964-01-01

397

Confirmatory assay for zeranol, taleranol and the Fusarium spp. toxins in bovine urine using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is described for the quantitative determination of the veterinary drug zeranol, its epimer taleranol and the mycotoxins zearalenone, ?-zearalenol and ?-zearalenol in bovine urine. The method is based on liquid chromatography coupled to negative-ion electrospray mass spectrometry-mass spectrometry of urine extracts prepared by solid-phase extraction with C18 columns. Two transition ions at m\\/z 277 and 91 are monitored

F. M. Launay; P. B. Young; S. S. Sterk; M. H. Blokland; D. G. Kennedy

2004-01-01

398

High Resolution Size Analysis of Fetal DNA in the Urine of Pregnant Women by Paired-End Massively Parallel Sequencing  

PubMed Central

Background Fetal DNA in maternal urine, if present, would be a valuable source of fetal genetic material for noninvasive prenatal diagnosis. However, the existence of fetal DNA in maternal urine has remained controversial. The issue is due to the lack of appropriate technology to robustly detect the potentially highly degraded fetal DNA in maternal urine. Methodology We have used massively parallel paired-end sequencing to investigate cell-free DNA molecules in maternal urine. Catheterized urine samples were collected from seven pregnant women during the third trimester of pregnancies. We detected fetal DNA by identifying sequenced reads that contained fetal-specific alleles of the single nucleotide polymorphisms. The sizes of individual urinary DNA fragments were deduced from the alignment positions of the paired reads. We measured the fractional fetal DNA concentration as well as the size distributions of fetal and maternal DNA in maternal urine. Principal Findings Cell-free fetal DNA was detected in five of the seven maternal urine samples, with the fractional fetal DNA concentrations ranged from 1.92% to 4.73%. Fetal DNA became undetectable in maternal urine after delivery. The total urinary cell-free DNA molecules were less intact when compared with plasma DNA. Urinary fetal DNA fragments were very short, and the most dominant fetal sequences were between 29 bp and 45 bp in length. Conclusions With the use of massively parallel sequencing, we have confirmed the existence of transrenal fetal DNA in maternal urine, and have shown that urinary fetal DNA was heavily degraded.

Tsui, Nancy B. Y.; Jiang, Peiyong; Chow, Katherine C. K.; Su, Xiaoxi; Leung, Tak Y.; Sun, Hao; Chan, K. C. Allen; Chiu, Rossa W. K.; Lo, Y. M. Dennis

2012-01-01

399

Urine Metabolites Reflect Time-Dependent Effects of Cyclosporine and Sirolimus on Rat Kidney Function?  

PubMed Central

Background The clinical use of the immunosuppressant calcineurin inhibitor cyclosporine is limited by its nephrotoxicity. This is enhanced when combined with the immunosuppressive mTOR inhibitor sirolimus. Nephrotoxicity of both drugs is not yet fully understood. Methods The goal was to gain more detailed mechanistic insights into the time-dependent effects of cyclosporine and sirolimus on the rat kidney by using a comprehensive approach including metabolic profiling in urine (1H-NMR spectroscopy), kidney histology, kidney function parameters in plasma, measurement of glomerular filtration rates, the oxidative stress marker 15-F2t-isoprostane in urine and immunosuppressant concentrations in blood and kidney. Male Wistar rats were treated with vehicle (controls), cyclosporine (10/25mg/kg/d) and/or sirolimus (1mg/kg/d) by oral gavage once daily for 6 and 28 days. Results Twenty-eight day treatment led to a decrease of glomerular filtration rates (cyclosporine -59%, sirolimus -25%). These were further decreased when both drugs were combined (-86%). Histology revealed tubular damage after treatment with cyclosporine, which was enhanced when sirolimus was added. No other part of the kidney was affected. 1H-NMR spectroscopy analysis of urine (day 6) revealed time-dependent changes of 2-oxoglutarate, citrate and succinate concentrations. In combination with increased urine isoprostane concentrations these changes indicated oxidative stress. After 28 days of cyclosporine treatment, urine metabonomics shifted to patterns typical for proximal tubular damage with reduction of Krebs cycle intermediates and trimethylamine-N-oxide concentrations whereas acetate, lactate, trimethylamine and glucose concentrations increased. Again, sirolimus enhanced these negative effects. Conclusions Our results indicate that cyclosporine and/or sirolimus induce damage of the renal tubular system. This is reflected by urine metabolite patterns, which seem to be more sensitive than currently used clinical kidney function markers such as creatinine concentrations in serum. Metabolic profiling in urine may provide the basis for the development of toxicodynamic monitoring strategies for immunosuppressant nephrotoxicity.

Klawitter, Jost; Bendrick-Peart, Jamie; Rudolph, Birgit; Beckey, Virginia; Klawitter, Jelena; Haschke, Manuel; Rivard, Christopher; Chan, Laurence; Leibfritz, Dieter; Christians, Uwe; Schmitz, Volker

2009-01-01

400

Testing for designer stimulants: metabolic profiles of 16 synthetic cathinones excreted free in human urine.  

PubMed

The study of 34,561 urine specimens, submitted for designer stimulant testing between February 2011 and January 2013, provided an opportunity: to estimate the range of synthetic cathinones (SC) abused in the USA, to observe multiple examples of metabolic profiles for each drug in various stages of excretion in human urine, to evaluate the extent of metabolism of specific SC and to select metabolites or parent drugs for routine testing. Sixteen SC were found in random patient samples: buphedrone; butylone; 3,4-dimethylmethcathinone; ethcathinone; N-ethylbuphedrone; ethylone; flephedrone; mephedrone; 4-methylbuphedrone; 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV); 4-methyl-N-ethylcathinone; methylone; pentedrone; pentylone; ?-pyrrolidinobutiophenone (PBP) and ?-pyrrolidinopentiophenone (PVP). After liquid/liquid extraction and trifluoroacetylation, specimens were screened by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for drugs and metabolites excreted free in urine. Each SC exhibited a characteristic metabolic profile, as shown by multiple examples. Metabolites' structures were postulated on the basis of their mass spectra. A large group of SC appears to metabolize extensively by carbonyl reduction into respective substituted ephedrines and further by N-dealkylation into norephedrines. Abundant metabolites in this group are essential markers of the parent drug use. Unchanged drugs are far less abundant or not found at all. SC with methylenedioxy attachment to the aromatic ring, metabolize by carbonyl reduction to a much lesser extent and are best detected as such in free urine fraction. PBP and PVP can be detected either unchanged or as metabolites, resulting from pyrrolidine ring degradation into primary amine followed by carbonyl reduction. MDPV appears in urine as such with no apparent free metabolites. PMID:24668489

Uralets, Victor; Rana, Sumandeep; Morgan, Stewart; Ross, Wayne

2014-06-01

401

Study of the solid-phase extraction of diclofenac sodium, indomethacin and phenylbutazone for their analysis in human urine by liquid chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

A selective semi-automated solid-phase extraction (SPE) of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs diclofenac sodium, indomethacin and phenylbutazone from urine prior to high-performance liquid chromatography was investigated. The drugs were recovered from urine buffered at pH 5.0 using C18 Bond-Elut cartridges as solid sorbent material and mixtures of methanol–aqueous buffer or acetonitrile–aqueous buffer as washing and elution solvents. The extracts were chromatographed

A Bakkali; E Corta; L. A Berrueta; B Gallo; F Vicente

1999-01-01

402

Detection of Significant Bacteriuria by Use of the iQ200 Automated Urine Microscope.  

PubMed

In the microbiology laboratory, there is an augmented need for rapid screening methods for the detection of bacteria in urine samples, since about two-thirds of these samples will not yield any bacteria or will yield insignificant growth when cultured. Thus, a reliable screening method can free up laboratory resources and can speed up the reporting of a negative urine result. In this study, we have evaluated the detection of leukocytes, bacteria, and a new sediment indicator, the "all small particles" (ASP), by an automated instrument, the iQ200 urine analyzer, to detect negative urine samples that can be excluded from culture. A coupled automated strip reader (iChem Velocity), enabling the detection of nitrite and leukocyte esterase, was tested in parallel. In total, 963 urine samples were processed through both conventional urine culture and the iQ200/iChem Velocity workstation. Using the data, a multivariate regression model was established, and the predicted specificity and the possible reduction in urine cultures were calculated for the indicators and their respective combinations (leukocytes plus bacteria plus ASP and leukocyte esterase plus nitrite). Among all options, diagnostic performance was best using the whole microscopic content of the sample (leukocytes plus bacteria plus ASP). By using a cutoff value of ?10(4) CFU/ml for defining a positive culture, a given sensitivity of 95% resulted in a specificity of 61% and a reduction in urine cultures of 35%. By considering the indicators alone, specificity and the culture savings were both much less satisfactory. The regression model was also used to determine possible cutoff values for running the instrument as part of daily routine. By using a graphical representation of all combinations possible, we derived cutoff values for leukocyte, bacterial, and ASP count, which should enable the iQ200 microscope to screen out approximately one-third of the urine samples, significantly reducing the workload in the microbiology laboratory. PMID:24871218

Stürenburg, Enno; Kramer, Jan; Schön, Gerhard; Cachovan, Georg; Sobottka, Ingo

2014-08-01

403

A case-control study of purple urine bag syndrome in geriatric wards.  

PubMed

The clinical background of purple urine bag syndrome (PUBS) has not yet been well characterized. In previous reports, clinical, biochemical, or bacteriological analyses were carried out using urine or bacteria from a limited number of patients. Other than one report, we are not aware of any case-control studies that compared the clinical, biochemical, or bacteriological background between patients with and without PUBS. To examine the risk of PUBS, we carried out a case-control study. Twenty-six patients, in three long-term care wards, who had been catheterized for more than 3 months with the same types of balloon catheters and who had the same type of disposable plastic urine bags were enrolled as the PUBS-positive case group (14 patients; 2 men and 12 women), and as the PUBS-negative control group (12 patients; 4 men and 8 women) were enrolled. The data for urine tests (pH, sugar, protein, leukocyte counts, and bacterial yields and species) were compared for the two groups. A relatively higher prevalence of PUBS was observed in female and alkaline-urine-producing patients. Bacteriological studies, using fresh urine collected through the catheter, showed that the bacterial counts were significantly higher, by 1 to 2 logs, in most samples from the case group than those from the control group (P = 0.012). Although a total of 66 bacterial strains, belonging to 12 separate species, were isolated from the urine accumulated in bags, no causative relationship between bacterial species and PUBS was observed. These data suggest that a higher bacterial yield in urine acts as the most important factor in PUBS, in combination with other facilitating factors, such as female-specific ones and the alkaline condition of urine. PMID:12673408

Mantani, Naoki; Ochiai, Hiroshi; Imanishi, Nobuko; Kogure, Toshiaki; Terasawa, Katsutoshi; Tamura, Jun'ichi

2003-03-01

404

[Mycrob-1000: an alternative for the rapid determination of urine culture in the primary health level].  

PubMed

The use of equipment Mycrob-1000 in detecting urinary infections in 4 hours in a primary health care center is evaluated. Two hundred fifty eight urine samples obtained from spontaneous miction were processed; the reference method was counting of colony-forming units per urine millimeter inoculated in Petri plaque in CLED medium. The coincidence rate between both methods was 92,31, with sensitivity and specificity rates of 79,00% and 96,95% respectively. The level of sensitivity was affected by factors not directly dependent on the equipment. High values of specificity and of coincidence achieved by this equipment in relation to the reference method facilitates its use in urine culture, making possible to differentiate negative urine samples in 4 or 5 hours and to focus work and resources on positive samples. PMID:15846910

Alarcón, Rolando Contreras; Ruiz, Fernando Travieso; Tamayo, Angela Zayas; Carmona, Gloria Roura; Varela, Estrella Alvarez; Ochoa, Gilberto Tillán; Frómeta, Nardo Ramírez

2004-01-01

405

Excretion of inhibitors of calcification in urine Part II. Findings in patients with chronic renal failure.  

PubMed Central

By means of a semiquantitative method incorporating the rachitic rat cartilage technique, the total urinary inhibitory activity with respect to calcification was compared in 11 control subjects and 20 patients with renal failure. The patients had significantly lower mean values of inhibiting units per day than did the control subjects. Both groups showed a significant positive correlation between the number of inhibiting units per day and urine volume. When urine volume was taken into account in the comparison, the numbers of inhibiting units for patients continued to be lower than the numbers for controls. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the increase of inhibitory activity observed in uremic serum is secondary to a decrease in excretion of the responsible factor (or factors) in the urine, and that the factor (or factors) in serum responsible for the inhibition are identical to those in the urine.

Oreopoulos, D. G.; Walker, D.; Akriotis, D. J.; Roncari, D. A.; Husdan, H.; Symvoulidis, A.; Deveber, G. A.; Rapoport, A.; Reid, D. B.

1975-01-01

406

A rapid urine test for early detection of kidney injury  

PubMed Central

Kidney injury molecule-1 (Kim-1) has been qualified by the Food and Drug Administration and European Medicines Agency as a highly sensitive and specific urinary biomarker to monitor drug-induced kidney injury in preclinical studies and on a case-by-case basis in clinical trials. Here we report the development and evaluation of a rapid direct immunochromatographic lateral flow 15-min assay for detection of urinary Kim-1 (rat) or KIM-1 (human). The urinary Kim-1 band intensity using the rat Kim-1 dipstick significantly correlated with levels of Kim-1 as measured by a microbead-based assay, histopathological damage, and immunohistochemical assessment of renal Kim-1 in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Kim-1 was detected following kidney injury induced in rats by cadmium, gentamicin, or bilateral renal ischemia/reperfusion. In humans, the urinary KIM-1 band intensity was significantly greater in urine from patients with acute kidney injury than in urine from healthy volunteers. The KIM-1 dipstick also enabled temporal evaluation of kidney injury and recovery in two patients who developed postoperative acute kidney injury following cytoreductive surgery for malignant mesothelioma with intraoperative local cisplatin administration. We hope that future, more extensive studies will confirm the utility of these results, which show that the Kim-1/KIM-1 dipsticks can provide a sensitive and accurate detection of Kim-1/KIM-1, thereby providing a rapid diagnostic assay for kidney damage and facilitating the rapid and early detection of kidney injury in preclinical and clinical studies.

Vaidya, Vishal S.; Ford, Glen M.; Waikar, Sushrut S.; Wang, Yizhuo; Clement, Matthew B.; Ramirez, Victoria; Glaab, Warren E.; Troth, Sean P.; Sistare, Frank D.; Prozialeck, Walter C.; Edwards, Joshua R.; Bobadilla, Norma A.; Mefferd, Stephen C.; Bonventre, Joseph V.

2009-01-01

407

Profile of a 24 kDa Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigen in the urine samples of tuberculosis patients under therapy regime  

Microsoft Academic Search

Secretion of a low molecular weight (24 kDa) Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific antigen was analysed in the urine samples of tuberculosis patients under antimycobacterial therapy regime. The urine samples of sputum-positive and culture-positive tuberculosis patients under therapy regime were collected after 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 months of antimycobacterial therapy. After concentration of the samples by ultrafiltration the proteins were resolved

J. S. Grewal; M. P. Reddy; Arvinderjit Singh; Mohinder Singh

2002-01-01

408

Routine Urine Culture at the Time of Percutaneous Urinary Drainage: Does Every Patient Need One?  

SciTech Connect

Purpose. To determine the clinical variables associated with bacteriuria in patients undergoing primary percutaneous antegrade urinary drainage procedures in order to predict the utility of routinely obtaining urine cultures at the time of the procedure. Methods. Betwee