Sample records for positive urine drug

  1. Urine levels of drugs for which Triage DOA screening was positive.

    PubMed

    Moriya, Fumio

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between urine levels of target drugs of abuse for which Triage DOA gave positive results, as well as the cut-off levels for these drugs. Thirty-eight forensic urine samples positive for commonly abused drugs were involved. Of these samples, 12 were positive for barbiturates (BAR), 11 for benzodiazepines (BZO), 8 for opiates (OPI), 7 for amphetamines (AMP), and 4 for tricyclic antidepressants (TCA). In the BAR-positive urine samples, phenobarbital, amobarbital or barbital was detected at concentrations higher than cut-off levels. In the BZO-positive samples, diazepam, nordiazepam, triazolam, nitrazepam and/or midazolam was detected at concentrations lower than cut-off levels; in the triazolam-involved urine, alpha-hydroxytriazolam, a metabolite of triazolam, showed concentrations higher than cut-off level. In the AMP-positive samples, methamphetamine was detected at concentrations higher than cut-off level. Urine samples positive for OPI contained total dihydrocodeine, codeine or morphine at concentrations higher than cut-off levels. In TCA-positive samples, amitriptyline was detected at concentrations higher or lower than cut-off level, and clomipramine was detected at a concentration much lower than cut-off level. Metabolites of BZO and TCA, which are not typically analyzed by instrumental procedures, may cross-react to varying degrees with the antibodies used for Triage DOA. PMID:19261513

  2. Evaluating the athlete's claim of an unintentional positive urine drug test.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Jeffrey M

    2011-07-01

    During a urine drug testing program, an athlete may make a claim that the results of a positive test have arisen from factors that were out of his or her control, and therefore, he or she should not be held responsible for the results. Some of these claims may include classic claims of passive inhalation of marijuana smoke or ingestion of poppy seeds leading to positive tests. In addition, with the proliferation of nutritional supplements on the market, many athletes claim that they accidentally ingested a banned substance contained in one of these. It is important that any sports medicine physician involved with sports drug testing be informed of the data that either support or refute these claims and that he or she contribute to a program wherein adequate education and policy establishment help to limit the likelihood of such claims. This article will review the data to help address these claims. PMID:23531893

  3. Urine drug screen

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a "clean-catch" (midstream) urine sample: Wash your hands with soap and water. Dry your hands with a clean ... the health care provider or assistant. Wash your hands again with soap and water. The sample is then taken to ...

  4. Hospital length of stay in individuals with schizophrenia with and without cocaine-positive urine drug screens at hospital admission.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hanjing Emily; Mohite, Satyajit; Ngana, Ikenna; Burns, Wilma; Shah, Nurun; Schneider, Laurie; Schmitz, Joy M; Lane, Scott D; Okusaga, Olaoluwa O

    2015-01-01

    Despite the high prevalence of cocaine use disorder (CUD) in individuals with schizophrenia, current understanding of the effect of cocaine on psychiatric hospital length of stay (LOS) in individuals with schizophrenia is limited. We therefore retrospectively examined the medical records of 5106 hospital admissions due to exacerbation of schizophrenia. Linear regression and t-test were used to compare LOS between individuals with schizophrenia with cocaine-positive urine drug test results and those with negative test results. Individuals with schizophrenia who were also positive for cocaine had shorter LOS from both unadjusted (geometric mean LOS, 8.07 ± 1.92 vs. 11.83 ± 1.83 days; p < 0.001) and adjusted (? = 0.69; confidence interval, 0.63-0.76; p < 0.001) analyses. Our results suggest that individuals with schizophrenia who also have comorbid CUD may require shorter inpatient treatment during periods of exacerbation of symptoms. Replication of this finding has relevance in treatment planning and resource allocation for the subpopulation of individuals with schizophrenia who also have stimulant use disorders. PMID:25489749

  5. Position Paper on urine alkalinization.

    PubMed

    Proudfoot, A T; Krenzelok, E P; Vale, J A

    2004-01-01

    This Position Paper was prepared using the methodology agreed by the American Academy of Clinical Toxicology (AACT) and the European Association of Poisons Centres and Clinical Toxicologists (EAPCCT). All relevant scientific literature was identified and reviewed critically by acknowledged experts using set criteria. Well-conducted clinical and experimental studies were given precedence over anecdotal case reports and abstracts were not considered. A draft Position Paper was then produced and presented at the North American Congress of Clinical Toxicology in October 2001 and at the EAPCCT Congress in May 2002 to allow participants to comment on the draft after which a revised draft was produced. The Position Paper was subjected to detailed peer review by an international group of clinical toxicologists chosen by the AACT and the EAPCCT, and a final draft was approved by the boards of the two societies. The Position Paper includes a summary statement (Position Statement) for ease of use, which will also be published separately, as well as the detailed scientific evidence on which the conclusions of the Position Paper are based. Urine alkalinization is a treatment regimen that increases poison elimination by the administration of intravenous sodium bicarbonate to produce urine with a pH > or = 7.5. The term urine alkalinization emphasizes that urine pH manipulation rather than a diuresis is the prime objective of treatment; the terms forced alkaline diuresis and alkaline diuresis should therefore be discontinued. Urine alkalinization increases the urine elimination of chlorpropamide, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, diflunisal, fluoride, mecoprop, methotrexate, phenobarbital, and salicylate. Based on volunteer and clinical studies, urine alkalinization should be considered as first line treatment for patients with moderately severe salicylate poisoning who do not meet the criteria for hemodialysis. Urine alkalinization cannot be recommended as first line treatment in cases of phenobarbital poisoning as multiple-dose activated charcoal is superior. Supportive care, including the infusion of dextrose, is invariably adequate in chlorpropamide poisoning. A substantial diuresis is required in addition to urine alkalinization in the chlorophenoxy herbicides, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, and mecoprop, if clinically important herbicide elimination is to be achieved. Volunteer studies strongly suggest that urine alkalinization increases fluoride elimination, but this is yet to be confirmed in clinical studies. Although urine alkalinization is employed clinically in methotrexate toxicity, currently there is only one study that supports its use. Urine alkalinization enhances diflunisal excretion, but this technique is unlikely to be of value in diflunisal poisoning. In conclusion, urine alkalinization should be considered first line treatment in patients with moderately severe salicylate poisoning who do not meet the criteria for hemodialysis. Urine alkalinization and high urine flow (approximately 600 mL/h) should also be considered in patients with severe 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and mecoprop poisoning. Administration of bicarbonate to alkalinize the urine results in alkalemia (an increase in blood pH or reduction in its hydrogen ion concentration); pH values approaching 7.70 have been recorded. Hypokalemia is the most common complication but can be corrected by giving potassium supplements. Alkalotic tetany occurs occasionally, but hypocalcemia is rare. There is no evidence to suggest that relatively short-duration alkalemia (more than a few hours) poses a risk to life in normal individuals or in those with coronary and cerebral arterial disease. PMID:15083932

  6. Adolescents and Drug Abuse: Clinical Use of Urine Drug Screening.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, William H.; Moore, David D.

    1997-01-01

    Study examines the use of urine screening as a clinical diagnostic procedure to assess and monitor adolescents in a school-based outpatient program (N=296). Random screening provides little information regarding diagnostic level and pattern of drug use; however it may be helpful in bringing about positive behavior change. (EMK)

  7. Shortcomings of Urine-Preferred Drug Screening on Post-Mortem Specimens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henry J. Carson; Mary H. Dudley; Steven W. Fleming; Donald J. Linder

    2011-01-01

    In counties with limited budgets, in order to save money on toxicology work, the request often comes from local medical examiners that screening for drugs on decedents be performed initially on urine and, if positive, to send blood for confirmation; negative urine results are not further evaluated. A study of known urine and blood drug screens was performed to evaluate

  8. Urine drug testing for pain management.

    PubMed

    Magnani, Barbarajean; Kwong, Tai

    2012-09-01

    An epidemic of prescription drug abuse in the United States has increased the burden on clinical toxicology testing laboratories. Urine drug testing provides objective evidence for compliance and aberrant drug behavior in patients on chronic (non-cancer) pain management. This article describes the testing menu, drug testing assays including tandem mass spectrometry and their limitations, interpretation of opiate results and clinical considerations. PMID:22939297

  9. The implications of urine drug testing in pain management.

    PubMed

    Vadivelu, Nalini; Chen, Isabel L; Kodumudi, Vijay; Ortigosa, Esperanza; Gudin, Maria Teresa

    2010-07-01

    In the treatment of pain management, physicians employ a variety of drugs, ranging from low-impact to highly potent, and to maximize patient health, urine toxicology analyses can significantly improve the delivery of pain treatment. Drugs such as opioids that are used for pain management are peculiar in that they provide effective pain relief and have a high risk of addiction. The use of illicit drugs in the general population has been on the rise; however, self-reporting and close monitoring of patient behavior are insufficient means to detect drug abuse and confirm compliance. Therefore, in order to create more effective drug treatment plans, physicians must understand and account for the implications of patient drug use history. Urine toxicology analysis is an important tool for pain physicians because it is more sensitive than most alternative blood tests, more efficient and cost-effective. Urine testing in addition to improving patient pain management also has forensic and legal implications. There are however limitations to urine toxicology methods as they can produce false-positive and false-negative results and are prone to human error and sample contamination There is also a need for more specific and rapid urine drug testing. Healthcare professionals should therefore be familiar with the limitations of various urine drug testing methods, and possess skills necessary to properly interpret these results. This review suggests that the overall benefits incurred by both the patient's short-term and long-term health support the routine integration of urine toxicology analysis in routine clinical care. In addition to improving health care and patient health, it has a strong potential to improve patient-physician relationships and protects the interest of involved healthcare practitioners. PMID:20394568

  10. Analysis of codeine positivity in urine of pain management patients.

    PubMed

    Colby, Jennifer M; Wu, Alan H B; Lynch, Kara L

    2015-06-01

    The opioids codeine and morphine have legitimate uses in managing chronic pain conditions, but they are frequently abused. Patients prescribed opioids submit urine samples for medication compliance monitoring, and the interpretation of the results is complex. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the percentage of codeine- and morphine-positive urine drug tests that result from morphine use only, with the positive codeine result arising from low levels of codeine present in pharmaceutical formulations of morphine. This study included 80 urine samples which tested positive for codeine and morphine after pre-analytical hydrolysis and analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Quantitative results were correlated with patient prescription information and immunoassay results to classify patients into one of four categories: heroin users (50%), codeine users (34%), codeine and morphine users (5%), and morphine users (11%). The percentage of codeine-positive resulting from morphine use was higher than previous estimates. Urine from patients prescribed morphine only was found to contain codeine at <1% of the morphine concentration, a ratio that was also observed in patients who used heroin. Careful analysis of urine drug testing results, including assessing the ratio of codeine to morphine (C/M), can help providers determine if patients are compliant with their pain management regimens. PMID:25840440

  11. Urine drug testing in pain medicine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Howard A Heit; Douglas L Gourlay

    2004-01-01

    The use of urine drug testing (UDT) has increased over recent years. UDT results have traditionally been used in legal proceedings under supervision of a medical review officer (MRO). In this context, testing has been required by statute or regulation and so is typically not in the “donor's” interest. Physicians, however, can use UDT to assist in monitoring their patient's

  12. Ethical considerations in urine drug testing.

    PubMed

    Passik, Steven D; Kirsh, Kenneth L

    2011-01-01

    Recent passage of a House Bill in the state of Washington led to a commentary on whether mandates for urine drug testing of pain patients represented a breach of the Fourth and Fourteenth Amendment rights of patients. Issues over true consent to such tests and potential view of warrantless searches were discussed. The authors address these concerns in a broader context of risk management and stratification efforts, along with discussion about the need for a tailored approach in this arena and consideration of cost burden for such tests. Finally, the argument is made that social justice issues need to be considered (along with issues of autonomy, beneficence, and nonmaleficence). PMID:21810007

  13. Urine drug testing in chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Christo, Paul J; Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Ruan, Xiulu; Bottros, Michael; Hansen, Hans; Solanki, Daneshvari R; Jordan, Arthur E; Colson, James

    2011-01-01

    Therapeutic use, overuse, abuse, and diversion of controlled substances in managing chronic non-cancer pain continue to be an issue for physicians and patients. The challenge is to eliminate or significantly curtail abuse of controlled prescription drugs while still assuring the proper treatment of those patients. Some physicians are apprehensive regarding the use of chronic opioid therapy in chronic non-cancer pain due to a perceived lack of proven evidence, the misuse of opioids, tolerance, dependence, and hyperalgesia. However, others have criticized the underuse of opioids, resulting in the undertreatment of pain. It has been the convention that federal, state, and local governments; professional associations; as well as pharmaceutical companies, physicians, accrediting bodies, medical licensure boards, and the public all share responsibility for preventing abuse of controlled prescription drugs. To overcome the critical challenge of eliminating or significantly curtailing abuse of controlled prescription drugs and at the same time assuring the appropriate treatment for those patients who can be helped by these medications, it is crucial to practice adherence or compliance monitoring of opioid therapy. Compliance monitoring has been shown to be crucial in delivering proper opioid therapy and preserving this therapy for the future. Urine drug testing (UDT) is considered one of the mainstays of adherence monitoring in conjunction with prescription monitoring programs and other screening tools, however, UDT is associated with multiple limitations secondary to potential pitfalls related to drug metabolism, reliability of the tests, and the knowledge of the pain physician. UDT is a widely available and familiar method for monitoring opioid use in chronic pain patients. UDT can provide tools for tracking patient compliance and expose possible drug misuse and abuse. UDT is one of the major tools of adherence monitoring in the assessment of the patient's predisposition to, and patterns of, drug misuse/abuse--a vital first step towards establishing and maintaining the safe and effective use of opioid analgesics in the treatment of chronic pain. This comprehensive review provides the role of UDT in monitoring chronic opioid therapy along with reliability and accuracy, appropriate use, overuse, misuse, and abuse. PMID:21412368

  14. Fluorescence And Alternative Methods In Urine Drug Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Naresh C.

    1988-04-01

    Drug abuse has become-one of the most compelling realities _ ot contemporary society. It has penetrated every segment ot our population: trom schools to sports and trom organized crime to board rooms . Drugs in tie w9rkplace allegedly cost government agencies and business millions ot dollars each year in increased absenteeism,. poor work performance, thefts,accidents andwastedtime. The President's Commission on Organized Crime and the federal government are in tavor ot urine drug testing. In fact many employers are now resorting to urine drug testing on current and prospective employees. This presep.tation discusses different laboratory methods used in urine drug.testing, including immunoassays, fluorescence polarization, thin layer chromatography, high pressure liquid chromatography, gas chromatography and gas-chromatography-mass spectrometry.

  15. 49 CFR 40.31 - Who may collect urine specimens for DOT drug testing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Urine Collection...collect urine specimens for DOT drug testing? (a) Collectors...permitted to do so under DOT agency drug and alcohol regulations. (d) You...

  16. 49 CFR 40.31 - Who may collect urine specimens for DOT drug testing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Urine Collection...collect urine specimens for DOT drug testing? (a) Collectors...permitted to do so under DOT agency drug and alcohol regulations. (d) You...

  17. 49 CFR 40.31 - Who may collect urine specimens for DOT drug testing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Urine Collection...collect urine specimens for DOT drug testing? (a) Collectors...permitted to do so under DOT agency drug and alcohol regulations. (d) You...

  18. 49 CFR 40.31 - Who may collect urine specimens for DOT drug testing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Urine Collection...collect urine specimens for DOT drug testing? (a) Collectors...permitted to do so under DOT agency drug and alcohol regulations. (d) You...

  19. 49 CFR 40.31 - Who may collect urine specimens for DOT drug testing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Urine Collection...collect urine specimens for DOT drug testing? (a) Collectors...permitted to do so under DOT agency drug and alcohol regulations. (d) You...

  20. Clinical significance of low-positive histoplasma urine antigen results.

    PubMed

    Theel, Elitza S; Ramanan, Poornima

    2014-09-01

    Histoplasma urine antigen (UAg) detection is an important biomarker for histoplasmosis. The clinical significance of low-positive (<0.6 ng/ml) UAg results was evaluated in 25 patients without evidence of prior Histoplasma infection. UAg results from 12/25 (48%) patients were considered falsely positive, suggesting that low-positive UAg values should be interpreted cautiously. PMID:25031433

  1. Is urine an alternative to cosmetically treated hair for the detection of drugs and alcohol?

    PubMed

    Agius, Ronald; Dufaux, Bertin; Kahl, Hans-Gerhard; Nadulski, Thomas

    2014-06-01

    This study attempts to assess the utility of the urine matrix as an alternative to cosmetically treated hair for the detection of drugs and alcohol for driving licence re-granting in 1026 cosmetically treated hair samples and 33 262 urine routine samples. No significant difference was observed between the percentage positive samples in cosmetically treated hair to those in urine at both the 95% and 99% significance level for amphetamines, cocaine, opiates, benzodiazepines, and methadone. Significant difference was found between the positivity rates of cannabinoids in cosmetically treated hair and that in urine indicating urine to be a better alternative to the use of the hair matrix even when cosmetically treated. The opposite was observed for the alcohol consumption marker ethyl glucuronide (EtG) for which the positivity rate in cosmetically treated hair was twice that in urine samples. Particularly for alcohol abstinence monitoring, as for the rehabilitative driving licence re-granting medical and psychological assessment (MPA) programme in Germany, it seems that ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in hair presents a much better alternative than urine testing, even when cosmetically treated hair is analyzed. Moreover, segmentation is an additional advantage of hair testing which can provide additional useful information. PMID:24817057

  2. Experience with urine drug testing by the Correctional Service of Canada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. D. Fraser; J. Zamecnik; J. Keravel; L. McGrath; J. Wells

    2001-01-01

    The Correctional Service of Canada implemented a urine drug-screening program over 10 years ago. The objective of this report is to describe the program and drug test results in this program for 1999. Offenders in Canadian federal correctional institutions and those living in the community on conditional release were subject to urine drug testing. Urine specimens were collected at correctional

  3. Thyreostatic drugs, stability in bovine and porcine urine.

    PubMed

    Vanden Bussche, J; Sterk, S S; De Brabander, H F; Blokland, M H; Deceuninck, Y; Le Bizec, B; Vanhaecke, L

    2012-07-01

    Thyreostatic drugs, illegally administrated to livestock for fattening purposes, are banned in the European Union since 1981. For monitoring their illegal use, sensitive and specific analytical methods are required. In this context, the knowledge of the stability in a matrix is of primary importance. This study aimed at evaluating the effects of preservation, number of freeze-thaw cycles, and matrix-related variables on the stability of thyreostatic drugs in the urine of livestock. Finally, the developed conservation approach was applied on incurred urine samples, which displayed traces of the thyreostat thiouracil below the recommended concentration of 10 ?g L(-1). The stability study confirmed the negative influence of preservation (8 h) at room temperature and at -70 °C, decreases in concentration of more than 78.0% were observed for all thyreostats, except for 1-methyl-2-mercaptoimidazole and 2-mercaptobenzimidazole. Additionally, investigation of matrix-related variables indicated significant impacts of the presence of copper (p = 0.001) and the pH (p = 0.002). Next, an optimised pre-treatment (pH 1 and 0.1 M ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid disodium salt dehydrate) significantly differing from the original conservation approach (p < 0.05) was developed, which proved capable of delaying the decrease in concentration and improved the detection in time for both spiked as well as incurred urine samples. In the future, it seems highly advisable to apply the developed pre-treatment on incurred urines upon sampling, before thyreostat analysis. Additionally, it is recommendable to limit preservation of urine samples at room temperature, but also in the freezer prior to thyreostat analysis. PMID:22349321

  4. Positive interference of the analgesic nefopam in the urine immunoassay for benzodiazepines in a secure setting.

    PubMed

    Reid, K S

    2009-11-01

    An inpatient on a secure unit with a history of bipolar affective disorder and physical complaints including pain was prescribed carbamazepine, quetiapine, dihydrocodeine, nefopam, paracetamol and various aperients. A benzodiazepine urine test by immunoassay was positive. Initial literature searches did not suggest a candidate drug for positive interference. Other explanations were excluded. Positive results continued, despite room searches and other disruptive security measures. Further literature searches revealed one experimental series demonstrating positive interference of nefopam in the relevant assay. Benzodiazepine assays were negative after cessation of nefopam. This is the first such clinical case to our knowledge. PMID:18635712

  5. Biochip array technology immunoassay performance and quantitative confirmation of designer piperazines for urine workplace drug testing.

    PubMed

    Castaneto, Marisol S; Barnes, Allan J; Concheiro, Marta; Klette, Kevin L; Martin, Thomas A; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2015-06-01

    Designer piperazines are emerging novel psychoactive substances (NPS) with few high-throughput screening methods for their identification. We evaluated a biochip array technology (BAT) immunoassay for phenylpiperazines (PNP) and benzylpiperazines (BZP) and analyzed 20,017 randomly collected urine workplace specimens. Immunoassay performance at recommended cutoffs was evaluated for PNPI (5 ?g/L), PNPII (7.5 ?g/L), and BZP (5 ?g/L) antibodies. Eight hundred forty positive and 206 randomly selected presumptive negative specimens were confirmed by liquid chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS). Assay limits of detection for PNPI, PNPII, and BZP were 2.9, 6.3, and 2.1 ?g/L, respectively. Calibration curves were linear (R (2)?>?0.99) with upper limits of 42 ?g/L for PNPI/PNII and 100 ?g/L for BZP. Quality control samples demonstrated imprecision <19.3 %CV and accuracies 86.0-94.5 % of target. There were no interferences from 106 non-piperazine substances. Seventy-eight of 840 presumptive positive specimens (9.3 %) were LC-HRMS positive, with 72 positive for 1-(3-chlorophenyl)piperazine (mCPP), a designer piperazine and antidepressant trazodone metabolite. Of 206 presumptive negative specimens, one confirmed positive for mCPP (3.3 ?g/L) and one for BZP (3.6 ?g/L). BAT specificity (21.1 to 91.4 %) and efficiency (27.0 to 91.6 %) increased, and sensitivity slightly decreased (97.5 to 93.8 %) with optimized cutoffs of 25 ?g/L PNPI, 42 ?g/L PNPI, and 100 ?g/L BZP. A high-throughput screening method is needed to identify piperazine NPS. We evaluated performance of the Randox BAT immunoassay to identify urinary piperazines and documented improved performance when antibody cutoffs were raised. In addition, in randomized workplace urine specimens, all but two positive specimens contained mCPP and/or trazodone, most likely from legitimate medical prescriptions. Graphical Abstract Biochip array technology (BAT) immunoassay for designer piperazines detection in urine. In chemiluminescent immunoassay, the labeled-drug (antigen) competes with the drug in the urine. In the absence of drug, the labeled-drug binds to the antibody releasing an enzyme (horseradish peroxidase) to react with the substrate and producing chemiluminescence. The higher the drug concentration in urine, the weaker the chemiluminescent signal is produced. All presumptive positive specimens and randomly selected presumptive negative specimens were analyzed and confirmed by a liquid chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry with limit of quantification of 2.5 or 5 ?g/L. PMID:25903022

  6. Review: Rational Use and Interpretation of Urine Drug Testing in Chronic Opioid Therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary M. Reisfield; Elaine Salazar; Roger L. Bertholf

    2007-01-01

    Urine drug testing (UDT) has become an essential feature of pain management, as physicians seek to verify adherence to prescribed opioid regimens and to detect the use of illicit or unauthorized licit drugs. Results of urine drug tests have important consequences in regard to therapeutic decisions and the trust between physician and patient. However, reliance on UDT to confirm adherence

  7. The Role of Urine Drug Testing for Patients on Opioid Therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph Pergolizzi; Macro Pappagallo; Joseph Stauffer; Christopher Gharibo; Neil Fortner; Mathew N. de Jesus; Michael J. Brennan; Charlotte Richmond; Desmond Hussey

    2010-01-01

    Opioid analgesics must be prescribed with discernment and their appropriate use should be periodically assessed. Urine drug testing, although not designed specifically for this role, is a widely available and familiar method for monitoring opioid use in chronic pain patients. Urine drug testing can help track patient compliance and expose possible drug misuse and abuse. We sought to evaluate current

  8. Trace Contamination of Over-the-Counter Androstenedione and Positive Urine Test Results for a Nandrolone Metabolite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Don H. Catlin; Benjamin Z. Leder; Brian Ahrens; Borislav Starcevic; Caroline K. Hatton; Gary A. Green; Joel S. Finkelstein

    2000-01-01

    Context Several anabolic steroids are sold over-the-counter (OTC) in the United States, and their production is not regulated by the US Food and Drug Administration. Re- ports have suggested that use of these supplements can cause positive urine test re- sults for metabolites of the prohibited steroid nandrolone.

  9. Demystifying analytical approaches for urine drug testing to evaluate medication adherence in chronic pain management.

    PubMed

    McMillin, Gwendolyn A; Slawson, Matthew H; Marin, Stephanie J; Johnson-Davis, Kamisha L

    2013-12-01

    This comprehensive review of analytical methods used for urine drug testing for the support of pain management describes the methods, their strengths and limitations, and types of analyses used in clinical laboratories today. Specific applications to analysis of opioid levels are addressed. Qualitative versus quantitative testing, immunoassays, chromatographic methods, and spectrometry are discussed. The importance of proper urine sample collection and processing is addressed. Analytical explanations for unexpected results are described. This article describes the scientific basis for urine drug testing providing information which will allow clinicians to differentiate between valid and questionable claims for urine drug testing to monitor medication adherence among chronic pain patients. PMID:24147959

  10. False-positive urine pregnancy tests--clinicians as detectives.

    PubMed

    Valenzuela, Rolando; Iserson, Kenneth V; Punguyire, Damien

    2011-01-01

    Reliably diagnosing pregnancy in women presenting with nonspecific abdominal pain can be lifesaving. If diagnostic tests are unreliable, however, valuable time and resources can be wasted pursuing unnecessary and potentially harmful interventions. After four false positive-urine pregnancy tests in one week, we began investigating the laboratory's entire process involving the UPreg tests. We discovered that, as is common in resource-poor settings, the laboratory repeatedly reused test tubes. We found that the false-positive tests resulted from performing the UPreg tests in test tubes that were improperly cleaned and, for the most part, had been used immediately beforehand to test women coming into the maternity ward. Sufficient residua from the pregnant women's high ß-HCG levels had remained in the test tubes to cause subsequent false-positive results in our emergency ward patients. Although pregnancy can now be reliably diagnosed with inexpensive, disposable and simple tests, these tests must not only be used properly, but also, when used in the laboratory, be accompanied by appropriate cleaning and quality-control procedures. This is particularly essential in resource-constrained environments. PMID:22121449

  11. Evaluation of the integrated E-Z split key(®) cup II for rapid detection of twelve drug classes in urine.

    PubMed

    Greene, Dina N; Lehman, Christopher M; McMillin, Gwendolyn A

    2011-01-01

    The availability of point-of-care (POC) medical devices for drug testing has surged. Reduction in turnaround time, and hence, rapid results are attractive, particularly to acute care facilities, rehabilitation facilities and specialized clinics such as pain management clinics. Here we describe our validation results for the Integrated E-Z Split Key Cup II, a low-cost, rapid urine test that utilizes competitive immunoassay technology to detect 12 drugs or drug classes of commonly abused drugs. Positivity is based on the absence of a colored band at a labeled portion of the detection strip; a negative result produces a distinct, colored band. Using reagent-grade standards, the apparent cut-off for each of the drugs was challenged. The stability of the results was monitored over time. Five urine samples known to be negative for all drug categories and 24 patient samples confirmed positive for a total of 95 drugs and/or drug metabolites claimed to be detected by the device were tested. Adulterants and potential cross-reacting compounds were also evaluated. One false-positive result for benzodizepines was observed. One false-negative result for barbiturates was observed, but was resolved. Overall, the cups demonstrated excellent sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic efficiency for all drugs represented. PMID:21219703

  12. A validated SPME-GC–MS method for simultaneous quantification of club drugs in human urine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stacy D. Brown; Daniel J. Rhodes; Boyd J. Pritchard

    2007-01-01

    A solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatographic–mass spectrometric (SPME-GC–MS) method has been developed and validated for measuring four club drugs in human urine. These drugs include gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), ketamine (KET), methamphetamine (MAMP), and methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). These drugs are referred to as ‘club drugs’ because of their prevalence at parties and raves. Deuterium labeled internal standards for each of the four drugs was included

  13. Family Checkup: Positive Parenting Prevents Drug Abuse

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Email Facebook Twitter Family Checkup: Positive Parenting Prevents Drug Abuse Could your kids be at risk for substance ... drugs. Research supported by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) has shown the important role that parents ...

  14. A Case for Mandatory Urine Testing for Drugs in Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sultanik, Jeffrey T.

    1990-01-01

    In response to an earlier article by Eugene Lincoln, presents two hypothetical cases that respectively deal with the possible effects of drug use on school premises and with a policy governing mandatory urine testing for student athletes. Cites factors that should be incorporated in any mandatory drug testing policy. (MLF)

  15. Evaluation of Abnormal Urine Drug Screens Among Patients with Chronic NonMalignant Pain Treated with Opioids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sairam Atluri; Gururau Sudarshan

    2003-01-01

    In this study, failed urine drug screens of 89 patients in an interventional pain man- agement practice were analyzed. The results showed that 55% were not taking the pre- scribed opioid, whereas 39% were taking opi- oids which were not prescribed. In addition, 46% of the patients were using illicit drugs. Urine drug screens can be very useful in preventing

  16. Clinical False-Positive Drug Test Results

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tai C. Kwong

    A confirmed positive drug test reassures all the parties involved in the drug testing process that the reported positive result\\u000a is an analytical true positive and as such is evidence that the individual has been exposed to the drug. That individual may\\u000a not be a drug abuser and may have a valid alternative explanation for the positive result. In this

  17. Mutagenicity of urine from mice exposed orally to nitrite and various aminated antiparasitic drugs

    SciTech Connect

    Alba, M.A.; Aguirre, J.E.; Ramirez, J.; de Nava, C.C. (U.N.A.M. (Mexico))

    1989-01-01

    Mutagenic N-nitroso compound formation from the in vitro reaction of amebicides and anthelmintic drugs, which are pyrimidine derivatives or contain secondary aliphatic amines or heterocyclic nitrogens, has been previously described. Under similar conditions, antiparasitic drugs containing halogenated derivatives of tertiary amines or quaternary ammonium salts do not form mutagenic nitrosated compounds. In the present study the mutagenic activity of mouse urine was determined after oral administration of sodium nitrite and the two above-mentioned groups of drugs. Results show that the simultaneous administration of piperazine or chloroquine with sodium nitrite produced urinary mutagens that appeared conjugated as glucuronides, whereas pyrantel pamoate and dehydroemetine in the presence of nitrite caused only slightly mutagenic urine. No mutagenic activity was detected in the urine of mice to which halogenated derivatives of tertiary amines (iodochlorhydroxyquin) or quaternary ammonium salts (bephenium hydroxynaphthoate) were administered together with nitrite.

  18. Dystrophin-deficient cardiomyocytes derived from human urine: new biologic reagents for drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Guan, Xuan; Mack, David L; Moreno, Claudia M; Strande, Jennifer L; Mathieu, Julie; Shi, Yingai; Markert, Chad D; Wang, Zejing; Liu, Guihua; Lawlor, Michael W; Moorefield, Emily C; Jones, Tara N; Fugate, James A; Furth, Mark E; Murry, Charles E; Ruohola-Baker, Hannele; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Santana, Luis F; Childers, Martin K

    2014-03-01

    The ability to extract somatic cells from a patient and reprogram them to pluripotency opens up new possibilities for personalized medicine. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have been employed to generate beating cardiomyocytes from a patient's skin or blood cells. Here, iPSC methods were used to generate cardiomyocytes starting from the urine of a patient with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Urine was chosen as a starting material because it contains adult stem cells called urine-derived stem cells (USCs). USCs express the canonical reprogramming factors c-myc and klf4, and possess high telomerase activity. Pluripotency of urine-derived iPSC clones was confirmed by immunocytochemistry, RT-PCR and teratoma formation. Urine-derived iPSC clones generated from healthy volunteers and a DMD patient were differentiated into beating cardiomyocytes using a series of small molecules in monolayer culture. Results indicate that cardiomyocytes retain the DMD patient's dystrophin mutation. Physiological assays suggest that dystrophin-deficient cardiomyocytes possess phenotypic differences from normal cardiomyocytes. These results demonstrate the feasibility of generating cardiomyocytes from a urine sample and that urine-derived cardiomyocytes retain characteristic features that might be further exploited for mechanistic studies and drug discovery. PMID:24434629

  19. Excretion profile of opiates in dependent patients in relation to route of administration and type of drug measured in urine with immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Taracha, Ewa; Habrat, Boguslaw; Chmielewska, Karina; Baran-Furga, Helena

    2005-01-01

    It is accepted that opiates are detectable in urine within three days from the last dose at a cut-off value of 300 ng/mL. In our clinical practice, some patients tested positive for morphine even after a week of detoxification. The present study evaluates the time course of opiate excretion in urine of dependent subjects (F11.25 according to ICD-10) in relation to route of administration and a kind of street heroin. The group comprised 71 men treated for opiate dependency: 33 of them used heroin exclusively by inhalation; 26 i.v.; 12 used i.v. homemade poppy straw decoctions. Opiate levels were measured once a day by fluorescence polarization immunoassay (TDx Abbott). Detection time ranged from 3 to 10 days for cut-off value 300 ng/mL and from less than one up to seven days for cut-off value 2000 ng/mL. The increases in urine drug concentration that result from changes in urinary output may be mistakenly interpreted as a new drug use. Normalization of drug excretion to urine creatinine concentration reduces the variability of drug measurement attributable to urine dilution. The time function of creatinine normalized opiate concentration has a log-linear character, and decreases at a rate of 2.5 per day on average. New "normalized" cut-off values were proposed: 225 ng/mg creatinine, 1500 ng/mg creatinine, and 3750 ng/mg creatinine that corresponds to 300 ng/mL urine, 2000 ng/mL urine, and 5000 ng/mL urine. PMID:15808008

  20. Analysis of Catecholamines in Urine by Positive Ion Electrospray Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark M. Kushnir; Francis M. Urry; Elizabeth L. Frank; William L. Roberts; Bori Shushan

    Background: Determination of urinary catecholamines (CATs) is considered important for clinical diagnosis of pheochromocytoma, paraganglioma, and neuroblas- toma. The major disadvantages of existing tests include relatively long instrumental analysis time and potential interference from drugs and drug metabolites that are structurally similar to CATs. Methods: CATs were extracted from a 300-L aliquot of urine by a two-step liquid-liquid extraction method

  1. Analysis on the Go: Quantitation of Drugs of Abuse in Dried Urine with Digital Microfluidics and Miniature Mass Spectrometry

    E-print Network

    Zandstra, Peter W.

    Analysis on the Go: Quantitation of Drugs of Abuse in Dried Urine with Digital Microfluidics the development of a method coupling microfluidics and a miniature mass spectrometer, applied to quantitation of drugs of abuse in urine. A custom digital microfluidic system was designed to deliver droplets

  2. Toxicity from the use of niacin to beat urine drug screening.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Manoj K; Florin, Todd; Perrone, Jeanmarie; Delgado, João H; Osterhoudt, Kevin C

    2007-11-01

    Niacin (vitamin B3) is promoted for rapidly clearing the body of drugs of abuse, such as cocaine and cannabis, and is alleged to interfere with urine drug screening. We present 4 cases of such novel use associated with significant adverse effects. Two cases had isolated skin manifestations, whereas the other 2 presented with life-threatening manifestations, including nausea, vomiting, dizziness, hepatotoxicity, metabolic acidosis, and hypoglycemia evolving into hyperglycemia. One patient also had profound neutrophilia and QT(C)-interval prolongation. All patients improved after cessation of the drug use and supportive treatment. Health care providers should be aware of these potential adverse effects of niacin and of the misguided use of this vitamin by patients seeking to interfere with urine drug screening. PMID:17418450

  3. Determination of selected drugs in human urine by differential pulse voltammetry technique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Irena Baranowska; Piotr Markowski; Anna Gerle; Jacek Baranowski

    2008-01-01

    A new, simple and selective differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) method for the simultaneous determination of selected drugs in model solutions and spiked human urine samples with prior extraction was developed and validated. The objects of analysis were paracetamol, furosemide, dipyrone, cefazolin and dexamethasone belonging to four different therapeutic groups (antibiotics, analgesic, demulcent and diuretic). Analytical methods for the preparation of

  4. Urine drug testing of chronic pain patients. II. Prevalence patterns of prescription opiates and metabolites.

    PubMed

    Heltsley, Rebecca; Zichterman, Anne; Black, David L; Cawthon, Beverly; Robert, Tim; Moser, Frank; Caplan, Yale H; Cone, Edward J

    2010-01-01

    This study of 20,089 urine specimens from chronic pain patients provided a unique opportunity to evaluate the prevalence of prescription opiates and metabolites, assess the usefulness of inclusion of normetabolites in the test panel, and compare opiate and oxycodone screening results to liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) results. All specimens were screened by an opiate [enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), 100 ng/mL] and oxycodone assay [ELISA, 100 ng/mL or enzyme immunoassay (EIA), 50 ng/mL] and simultaneously tested by LC-MS-MS [limit of quantitation (LOQ) = 50 ng/mL] for 10 opiate analytes (codeine, norcodeine, morphine, hydrocodone, dihydrocodeine, norhydrocodone, hydromorphone, oxycodone, noroxycodone, and oxymorphone). Approximately two-thirds of the specimens were positive for one or more opiate analytes. The number of analytes detected in each specimen varied from 1 to 8 with 3 (34.8%) being most prevalent. Hydrocodone and oxycodone (in combination with metabolites) were most prevalent followed by morphine. Norcodeine was only infrequently detected whereas the prevalence of norhydrocodone and noroxycodone was approximately equal to the prevalence of the parent drug. A substantial number of specimens were identified that contained norhydrocodone (n = 943) or noroxycodone (n = 702) but not the parent drug, thereby establishing their interpretative value as biomarkers of parent drug use. Comparison of the two oxycodone screening assays revealed that the oxycodone ELISA had broader cross-reactivity with opiate analytes, and the oxycodone EIA was more specific for oxycodone. Specimens containing only norhydrocodone were best detected with the opiate ELISA whereas noroxycodone (only) specimens were best detected by the oxycodone EIA. PMID:20109300

  5. Biological monitoring of cyclophosphamide and ifosfamide in urine of hospital personnel occupationally exposed to cytostatic drugs.

    PubMed Central

    Ensslin, A S; Stoll, Y; Pethran, A; Pfaller, A; Römmelt, H; Fruhmann, G

    1994-01-01

    The occupational exposure of 21 nurses and pharmacy personnel from eight hospitals to cyclophosphamide and ifosfamide was determined by quantifying the amount of the drugs handled and by measuring the urinary excretion of the unmetabolised substances. Preparing antineoplastic drugs for intravenous treatment was the major task of all study participants. Twenty four hour urine was collected on days when cyclophosphamide and/or ifosfamide were mixed, on average 3900 mg cyclophosphamide and/or 5900 mg ifosfamide. The analyses were performed by gas chromatography with electron capture, detection limit 2.5 micrograms/24 hour urine. Despite standard safety precautions, including a vertical laminar air flow safety cabinet and gloves, cyclophosphamide was detected in 12 of 31 and ifosfamide in four of 21 urine samples on days when the drugs were handled. Excretion of cyclophosphamide ranged from 3.5 to 38 micrograms/24 h (mean 11.4 micrograms/24 h) urine, ifosfamide from 5 to 12.7 micrograms/24 h (mean 9 micrograms/24 h) urine. Based on an excretion rate of 11.3% unmetabolised cyclophosphamide, the average amount excreted corresponded to an uptake of 101 micrograms cyclophosphamide. For ifosfamide the mean quantity incorporated was 20 micrograms assuming that 45% of the drug was excreted. Pertaining to the doses handled, the uptake of cyclophosphamide and ifosfamide was estimated to be approximately 0.0025% and 0.0004% respectively. Despite time-consuming purification procedures, gas chromatographic analysis is a suitable method for monitoring personnel occupationally exposed to cyclophosphamide and ifosfamide and is a major contribution to the evaluation of potential health risks of exposed personnel. PMID:8199663

  6. Precipitation of Struvite in Urine Medium by Urease-Positive and Urease-Negative Yersinia Strains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Rivadeneyra; C. Calvo; M. C. González-Torres; I. Pérez-García; A. Ramos-Cormenzana

    1990-01-01

    Yersinia strains either urease-positive or urease-negative were examined for precipitation of struvite in human urine at 25 and 37 °C. All urease-positive strains and 8 out of 10 urease-negative strains showed the ability to produce these crystals. Incubation time required for precipitation was longer for urease-negative strains and quantity of struvite formed was higher in urease-positive ones. Regarding incubation temperature,

  7. Positive reinforcement methods to train chimpanzees to cooperate with urine collection.

    PubMed

    Bloomsmith, Mollie; Neu, Kim; Franklin, Andrea; Griffis, Caroline; McMillan, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Positive reinforcement training can be used in many ways to enhance the welfare of captive primates. Training for biologic sample collection is one application of positive reinforcement training. In this study, 35 adult female chimpanzees were trained to cooperate with the collection of urine samples needed to facilitate a research study. A median of 35 training sessions was required for the subjects to reach reliable performance (4 of 5 sequential attempts successful) of the urine collection behavior. Adult age had no effect on the speed of learning as indicated by a rank order correlation. Individual differences in the rate of learning were pronounced but did not vary with the age of the chimpanzees. Approximately 2 y after the initial training, and with continual sample collection taking place twice weekly, we assessed the reliability of their performance and found that the chimpanzees cooperated 100% of the time and that collection of a urine sample required about 5 min. Positive reinforcement training can markedly reduce staff time, particularly for studies such as this that require frequent biologic sample collection over long durations. Similar approaches could be used to train other laboratory primates to cooperate with urine collection procedures. Animal training programs that emphasize positive reinforcement training are an important refinement in the care of laboratory primates. PMID:25651093

  8. Determination of amphetamine, methamphetamine and amphetamine-derived designer drugs or medicaments in blood and urine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Kraemer; Hans H Maurer

    1998-01-01

    This paper reviews procedures for the determination of amphetamine, methamphetamine and amphetamine-derived designer drugs or medicaments in blood and urine. Papers published from 1991 to early 1997 were taken into consideration. Gas chromatographic and liquid chromatographic procedures with different detectors (e.g., mass spectrometer or diode array) were considered as well as the seldom used thin-layer chromatography and capillary electrophoresis. Enantioselective

  9. A drug rape case involving triazolam detected in hair and urine.

    PubMed

    Johansen, S Stybe; Dahl-Sørensen, R

    2012-07-01

    In recent years, there has been heightened awareness regarding the use of drugs to modify a person's behavior to facilitate crime. A drug rape case involving the potent, short-acting sedative triazolam will be presented. On three occasions, the victim consumed green tea and chocolate before being massaged and ultimately sexually abused. Screening for alcohol, commonly used drugs and illicit substances in blood and urine sampled during the forensic examination 20 h after the last incident, was negative. Consequently, hair samples for chemical analysis were taken from the assaulted individual 34 days after the last incidents. The hair was cut into three 2-cm segments (0-6 cm) that were washed, dissolved in extraction solvent and screened and verified by ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with time of flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-TOF-MS) and with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS), respectively. In the 2-cm hair segment corresponding to the period of the alleged assaults, the presence of the sedative triazolam was revealed at a concentration of 1.0 pg/mg hair. The preserved urine sample, taken 20 h after the last incident, was reanalyzed by UPLC-MS/MS for metabolites of triazolam, and 39 ?g/l ?-hydroxytriazolam was detected in the hydrolyzed urine. This case illustrates that hair is a valuable forensic specimen in situations where natural processes have eliminated the drug from typical biological specimens due to delays in the crime being reported. Furthermore, it was possible to verify the hair finding with a urine sample by detection of a metabolite of triazolam. PMID:22160334

  10. 75 FR 22150 - Current List of Laboratories Which Meet Minimum Standards To Engage in Urine Drug Testing for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-27

    ...and Mental Health Services Administration Current List of Laboratories Which Meet Minimum Standards To Engage in Urine Drug Testing for Federal Agencies Correction In notice document 2010-7170 beginning on page 16813 in the issue of Friday,...

  11. Determination of gallium originated from a gallium-based anticancer drug in human urine using ICP-MS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Darya G. Filatova; Irina F. Seregina; Lidia S. Foteeva; Vladimir V. Pukhov; Andrei R. Timerbaev; Mikhail A. Bolshov

    2011-01-01

    Urine analysis gives an insight into the excretion of the administered drug which is related to its reactivity and toxicity.\\u000a In this work, the capability of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to measure ultratrace metal levels was\\u000a utilized for rapid assaying of gallium originating from the novel gallium anticancer drug, tris(8-quinolinolato)gallium(III) (GaQ3), in human urine. Sample dilution with 1%

  12. Positive predictive values of abused drug immunoassays on the Beckman Synchron in a veteran population.

    PubMed

    Dietzen, D J; Ecos, K; Friedman, D; Beason, S

    2001-04-01

    The pressure to reduce the cost of analytic testing makes it tempting to discontinue routine confirmation of urine specimens positive for drugs of abuse by immunoassay. Beyond the economic motivation, the requirement for confirmation should be driven by the positive predictive value of the screening tests. We have quantitated positive predictive values of our screening immunoassays in a large metropolitan Veterans Affairs Medical Center. We reviewed the confirmatory rate of urine specimens positive for drugs of abuse with Beckman Synchron reagents from June 1998 to June 1999 and tabulated the false-positive screening rate. There were 175 instances of false-positive screens during the 13 months we analyzed. Positive predictive values ranged from 0% (amphetamine) to 100% (THC). We determined that the low positive predictive value of the amphetamine assay in our laboratory was primarily due to the use of ranitidine (Zantac). Urine specimens containing greater than 43 microg/mL ranitidine were positive in our amphetamine assay. This concentration is routinely exceeded in our patients taking ranitidine. In our clinical and analytic setting, the Beckman THC assay did not require confirmation. The positive predictive values of the Beckman opiate, cocaine, barbiturate, propoxyphene, and methadone immunoassays dictate routine confirmatory testing in specimens that screen positive for these substances. Finally, because of its extreme sensitivity to ranitidine, the Beckman amphetamine assay has little utility in our laboratory setting. PMID:11327349

  13. A qualitative/quantitative approach for the detection of 37 tryptamine-derived designer drugs, 5 ?-carbolines, ibogaine, and yohimbine in human urine and plasma using standard urine screening and multi-analyte approaches.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Markus R; Caspar, Achim; Brandt, Simon D; Maurer, Hans H

    2014-01-01

    The first synthetic tryptamines have entered the designer drug market in the late 1990s and were distributed as psychedelic recreational drugs. In the meantime, several analogs have been brought onto the market indicating a growing interest in this drug class. So far, only scarce analytical data were available on the detectability of tryptamines in human biosamples. Therefore, the aim of the presented study was the development and full validation of a method for their detection in human urine and plasma and their quantification in human plasma. The liquid chromatography-linear ion trap mass spectrometry method presented covered 37 tryptamines as well as five ?-carbolines, ibogaine, and yohimbine. Compounds were analyzed after protein precipitation of urine or fast liquid-liquid extraction of plasma using an LXQ linear ion trap coupled to an Accela ultra ultra high-performance liquid chromatography system. Data mining was performed via information-dependent acquisition or targeted product ion scan mode with positive electrospray ionization. The assay was selective for all tested substances with limits of detection in urine between 10 and 100 ng/mL and in plasma between 1 and 100 ng/mL. A validated quantification in plasma according to international recommendation could be demonstrated for 33 out of 44 analytes. PMID:24173660

  14. Using urine drug testing to support healthy boundaries in clinical care.

    PubMed

    Heit, Howard A; Gourlay, Douglas L

    2015-01-01

    Risk management is first and foremost about protecting patients. This article will examine risk management in general, and urine drug testing (UDT) in particular, as core constituents in an effective, comprehensive risk management strategy. The article will explore UDT as a tool to help practitioners and patients make better choices in the clinical management of chronic pain. How one makes these difficult clinical decisions based on UDT results as well common barriers encountered in conducting patient-centered UDT will also be examined. PMID:25750160

  15. Advanced urine toxicology testing.

    PubMed

    Tenore, Peter L

    2010-10-01

    Urine toxicology screening testing is an important standard of care in the addiction and pain treatment setting, offering a reproducible, unbiased, and accurate laboratory test to monitor patients and provide objective support for clinical observations. It has been shown that physicians do not have proficiency in the ordering or interpretation of these tests. This article is an attempt to respond to that need. Current antibody-based enzymatic immunoassays (EIAs) used for urine toxicology screening are useful to detect classes of drugs (ex., opiate) but cannot determine which specific drug (ex., morphine) is present. Gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy can determine exactly which drugs are present, allowing prescribed (or illicit) opiates and benzodiazepines to be identified. This article will discuss principles and details of opiate and benzodiazepine EIA and gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy urine toxicology testing. The approach to detecting patients attributing positive opiate EIAs to prescription opiates who are using heroin or other opioids will be reviewed. Cases of controlled prescription drugs that do not produce the expected positive urine tests (ex., oxycodone producing negative opiate screening tests) will be discussed. How to differentiate codeine from heroin and the role of poppy seeds in toxicology will be examined. The case of an anti-depressant drug that produces false-positive benzodiazepine results and antibiotics that cause positive opiate urine toxicology results will be reviewed. Common benzodiazepines (ex., clonazepam and lorazepam) that do not reliably produce positive benzodiazepine EIAs will be discussed. The approach to detection and management of all these types of toxicology cases will be reviewed, and it is hoped that the analyses presented will impart an adequate information base to medical providers and staff members of drug treatment and pain centers, enabling them to order and interpret these tests in the clinic more effectively as an integrated part of whole patient care. PMID:20924879

  16. Ruling out False-Positive Urinary Legionella pneumophila Serogroup 1 and Streptococcus pneumoniae Antigen Test Results by Heating Urine

    PubMed Central

    Pontoizeau, C.; Dangers, L.; Jarlier, V.; Luyt, C. E.; Guiller, E.; Fievet, M. H.; Lecsö-Bornet, M.; Aubry, A.

    2014-01-01

    We report here false-positive urinary Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 and Streptococcus pneumoniae antigen test results due to rabbit antilymphocyte serum treatment and provide a simple and fast solution to rule them out by heating urine. PMID:25253788

  17. Simultaneous Quantitation of 78 Drugs and Metabolites in Urine with a Dilute-And-Shoot LC-MS-MS Assay.

    PubMed

    Cao, Zheng; Kaleta, Erin; Wang, Ping

    2015-06-01

    A novel LC-MS-MS assay that simultaneously detects and quantitates 78 drugs and metabolites was developed and validated for chronic pain management. Urine specimen was diluted and mixed with internal standards (ISs) before injected into LC-MS-MS. Seventy-two analytes were detected with positive electrospray ionization mode and the remaining six analytes with negative mode. Two separate gradient elution chromatographic programs were established with the same mobile phases on the same bi-phenyl HPLC column. The assay was linear for all analytes with linear regression coefficient ranging 0.994-1.000. The intra-assay precision was between 1.7 and 8.8% and inter-assay precision between 1.9 and 12.2%, with bias <20% for all but six analytes. All analytes in urine specimens were stable for 7 days at 4°C, and no significant matrix effect or carryover was observed. A suboptimal recovery rate (60.0-156.8%) was observed for six analytes, potentially due to the lack of available deuterated ISs, requiring comparison to a chemically different IS. Method comparison using patient and proficiency testing samples demonstrated that this assay was sensitive and accurate. The assay improves on currently existing assays by including glucuronide conjugates, allowing direct detection of metabolites that might otherwise be missed by existing methods. PMID:25833899

  18. Simultaneous detection of 93 conventional and emerging drugs of abuse and their metabolites in urine by UHPLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Tang, Magdalene H Y; Ching, C K; Lee, Caroline Y W; Lam, Ying-Hoo; Mak, Tony W L

    2014-10-15

    Novel psychoactive substances (NPS) are becoming increasingly popular worldwide in recent years, some of which have been reported to cause considerable harm and even fatalities. Currently, simultaneous screening for a comprehensive panel of conventional and novel drugs of abuse is not widely available in most clinical laboratories. The aim of this study was to establish a chromatography/mass spectrometry-based analytical system for the simultaneous detection of conventional drugs of abuse and NPS in urine. Sample preparation entails enzyme digestion and solid phase extraction; analytes were then detected by liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) with multiple reaction monitoring. Forty-seven conventional drugs (28 parent drugs, 19 metabolites) and 46 NPS analytes (44 parent drugs, two metabolites) are covered by the established method, which has been validated according to international guidelines. The method was then applied to 964 urine samples collected from drug abusers and the results revealed the presence of two NPS - TFMPP and methcathinone - as well as conventional drugs of abuse. To conclude, an LC-MS/MS method has been established that allows the simultaneous detection of over 90 conventional as well as novel psychoactive substances and metabolites in urine samples. The method was successfully applied to authentic specimens revealing the presence of conventional as well as novel drugs of abuse in the local population. PMID:25203724

  19. In-line solid-phase extraction-capillary zone electrophoresis for the determination of barbiturate drugs in human urine.

    PubMed

    Botello, Igor; Borrull, Francesc; Aguilar, Carme; Calull, Marta

    2014-01-01

    The abuse of barbiturate drugs is widespread, and the development of methods for their efficient separation and quantification is needed. Three barbiturate drugs were preconcentrated and determined by in-line solid-phase extraction (SPE) capillary electrophoresis (CE) in urine samples. Different parameters affecting preconcentration were evaluated, such as the sample pH, the volume of the elution plug and the sample injection time. This strategy enhanced the detection sensitivity in the range of 170- to 1840-fold, compared with normal hydrodynamic injection. The method provides limits of detection (LODs) for standard samples in the range of 0.5 to 5 ng/mL with good repeatability and reproducibility values. The LODs obtained for urine samples were in the range of 5 to 60 ng/mL. The validation with human urine samples spiked with the studied compounds demonstrated the applicability of the optimized method. This method provides a reproducible and sensitive analysis of urine samples in the determination of barbiturates drugs. PMID:25312627

  20. Evidence for false-positive results for boldenone testing of veal urine due to faecal cross-contamination during sampling.

    PubMed

    Sgoifo Rossi, C A; Arioli, F; Bassini, A; Chiesa, L M; Dell'Orto, V; Montana, M; Pompa, G

    2004-08-01

    European Directive 96/22/EC, which controls veterinary residues in animals, does not permit the presence of synthetic growth promoters in products of animal origin or in livestock. Boldenone is categorized in class A3 (growth promoters -- steroids) and is thus a banned substance. Testing of veal urine for banned substances is part of the European Union statutory programme for animals going into the food chain. In relation to this monitoring, three studies were conducted to investigate the apparent presence of the banned growth promoter boldenone in veal urine, which was suspected as being caused by interference from faecal contamination of the sample. In the first study, urine samples were collected at different times (time 0 and after 30 min) using (1) a conventional zoonotechnical apron and (2) a technique designed specifically to avoid faecal contamination ('kettle'). This resulted in samples that were, respectively, positive and negative for the presence of alpha-boldenone (alpha-BOL). In a second study, urine samples negative to alpha-BOL were collected from eight veal calves, but became positive after deliberate faecal contamination. In a third study, data obtained from the Italian RNP (Residual National Program) indicated that 18.1% of 3295 urine samples collected using the zootechnical apron were positive for alpha-BOL and 2.1% for beta-boldenone (beta-BOL), whilst of 902 samples collected using the kettle, beta-BOL was not detected in any samples and only 0.2% were positive to alpha-BOL, in concentrations lower than 2 ng ml(-1). These results further support the supposition that faecal contamination of the urine during sample collection can lead to false-positive results during boldenone analysis. PMID:15370825

  1. Development and validation of a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) procedure for screening of urine specimens for 100 analytes relevant in drug-facilitated crime (DFC).

    PubMed

    Remane, Daniela; Wetzel, Diana; Peters, Frank T

    2014-07-01

    In recent years, drug-facilitated crime (DFC) has become an increasing problem. A minimum list of 80 analytes to be monitored in such cases has been proposed by the Society of Forensic Toxicologists (SOFT) including the recommended minimum performance limits (RMPL). In the present study, two liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry-based screening procedures, one in positive (method I) and one in negative (method II) electrospray ionization mode were developed and validated. Gradient elution was performed on a ZORBAX Eclipse XDB-C18 column after protein precipitation of the urine samples. Detection was carried out in the scheduled multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode monitoring two transitions per compound. A total of 100 analytes (91 basic in method I and nine acidic in method II) could be identified using the described procedure. No interferences were observed in 30 tested blank urine samples. The RMPLs were achieved for all analytes and ranged from 1 ng/mL for fentanyl to 10 ?g/mL for ?-hydroxybutyrate (GHB). Matrix effects (ME) were evaluated using the same 30 urine samples and ranged from -90 % for tetrazepam to >6,000 % for the 11-nor-9-carboxy-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH). The relative standard deviations of ME were below 25 % for the vast majority of analytes. Results for urine specimens from nine authentic DFC cases were always negative with exception of drugs prescribed to the victims. Reanalysis with the developed procedure of 24 urine samples, with a positive screening result during routine clinical toxicology analysis, confirmed the routine findings. In an excretion study after a single oral doxylamine dose (30 mg), the parent drug and its nor metabolite could be detected in urine specimens from a young female volunteer for 10 days. The developed procedure allows a selective and sensitive screening of urine samples for almost all recommended analytes relevant in DFC cases. PMID:24817357

  2. Describing prescription opioid adherence among individuals with chronic pain using urine drug testing.

    PubMed

    Matteliano, Deborah; Chang, Yu-Ping

    2015-02-01

    Adherence monitoring for prescription opioid use is a clinical imperative for individuals prescribed opioids for chronic pain. Urine drug testing (UDT) provides objective evidence for prescription opioid adherence, as recommended by national guidelines to be part of adherence monitoring. The aim of this study was to describe prescription opioid adherence using UDT results in chronic pain patients and to examine the association between demographic characteristics and adherence to their prescribed opiate regimens. We used a retrospective chart review of 120 consecutive patients at an urban pain management clinic. Data collected included UDT results, pain level, and demographic characteristics. Descriptive and correlational statistics were used for data analysis. About 54% of the individuals appeared nonadherent to their prescribed opiate regimen as defined by absence or inappropriate level of prescribed controlled medication, presence of additional nonprescribed controlled substance(s), presence of illicit substance(s), or presence of adulterant in the urine sample. Of the participants, 23% had absence of one or more of their prescribed controlled medications and 12.5% had presence of one or more other opioids. Marijuana was the main illicit substance used (24.2%), followed by cocaine (11.7%). Patients' age, pain level, sex, ethnicity, and injury compensation were not associated with UDT results. UDT results could be useful to educate and guide patients on the proper use of controlled medications. Results from UDT are highly contextual and easily misinterpreted, requiring comparison with a variety of clinical indicators over time before deciding if there is adherence to a prescribed opiate regimen for individuals with chronic pain. PMID:24939349

  3. Use of niacin in attempts to defeat urine drug testing--five states, January-September 2006.

    PubMed

    2007-04-20

    In addition to its use as a nutritional supplement, niacin (nicotinic acid or vitamin B3) is medically prescribed to treat hyperlipidemia and hypercholesterolemia. Use of niacin in low doses usually leads to few adverse drug reactions (ADRs); however, at larger doses, niacin can cause skin flushing, itching, and occasionally more serious effects. The 2005 annual report of the American Association of Poison Control Centers documented 3,109 reports of exposures to niacin. During 2006, the Rocky Mountain Poison and Drug Center (RMPDC) in Denver, Colorado, received multiple calls regarding ADRs after nonmedical use of niacin. A review of call records indicated various uses of niacin, including attempts to alter or mask results of urine drug tests, although no scientific evidence exists that ingestion of niacin can alter a drug test result. To determine the extent of niacin use in attempts to alter drug test results, reports to RMPDC of niacin ADRs were reviewed for the period January--September 2006. The results identified 18 persons who reported nonsuicidal, intentional, nonmedical reasons for using niacin, including eight who specified altering drug test results as their reason for using niacin. Ten other persons, among an additional 18 who offered no reason for niacin use, were categorized as possible users of niacin to try to alter drug test results because of their ages or the amount of niacin ingested. Clinicians, especially those whose patients include teens and young adults, should be aware of the potential use of niacin in attempts to defeat urine drug tests. PMID:17443121

  4. High throughput analysis of drugs of abuse in hair by combining purposely designed sample extraction compatible with immunometric methods used for drug testing in urine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. de la Torre; E. Civit; F. Svaizer; A. Lotti; M. Gottardi; M. Miozzo

    2010-01-01

    Drug testing in hair usually requires a rather complex sample treatment before drugs are amenable to analysis by either immunological and\\/or chromatographic coupled to mass spectrometry methods. Immunological methods applied are usually dedicated to hair analysis as analytes present in this matrix are not always the same present in urine. Comedical s.a.s. laboratories recently commercialized reagents (VMA-T) purposely designed for

  5. Are False-Positive Urine Markers for the Detection of Bladder Carcinoma Really Wrong or Do They Predict Tumor Recurrence?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin G Friedrich; Angelika Hellstern; Marieta I Toma; Peter Hammerer; Hartwig Huland

    2003-01-01

    Introduction and Objectives: A problem in the interpretation of noninvasive urine tests for detection of bladder carcinoma is the finding of false-positive results. Several authors have described that patients with false-positive results are at high risk for tumor recurrence or progression. Only few data are available for comparing the clinical course of patients with false-positive test results and patients with

  6. Rethinking drug policy: an integrity preserving compromise position 

    E-print Network

    Crispino, Azzurra

    2006-10-30

    The "War on Drugs" has been raging for twenty years without resolution. This work attempts to provide a compromise position between the prohibitionists and the legalizers that preserves the integrity of both positions. This compromise position...

  7. Multicomponent LC-MS/MS screening method for detection of new psychoactive drugs, legal highs, in urine-experience from the Swedish population.

    PubMed

    Al-Saffar, Yasir; Stephanson, Niclas Nikolai; Beck, Olof

    2013-07-01

    The advent of new not yet legally regulated psychoactive substances sold over the Internet has created a challenge for clinical toxicology and drug testing laboratories. The routine use of immunoassay screening may no longer be the optimal solution in many instances since the number of analytes covered is becoming insufficient. The aim of this work was to design, validate and apply a multi-component LC-MS/MS method suitable for screening of a large number of target analytes belonging to the class of new psychoactive substances - legal highs. The analytical method was using a five-fold dilution of urine with internal standard (pethidine-d5) and injection of 2?L. The chromatographic system was using a 1.7-?m 100mm×2.1mm Ethylene Bridged Hybrid (BEH) C18 column and gradient elution with a flow rate of 600?L/min. Solvent A consisted of 0.1% formic acid and Solvent B was 100% acetonitrile. The gradient elution application was designed to have a wide polarity coverage with total run time of 4.0min. The tandem mass spectrometer was using an electrospray interface and operated in positive mode. Selected reaction monitoring of two ion transitions was used for each of 26 analytes. Method validation demonstrated limited influence from urine matrix, linear response within the measuring range (0.1-10?g/mL), acceptable imprecision in quantification (CV<15%). Some analytes were found not to be stable in urine upon storage. The method was successfully applied in routine drug testing. A total of 87 positive samples with 100 analytical findings were found to contain O-desmethyl-cis-tramadol (mostly without mitragynine), methylenedioxypyrovalerone, 4-fluoroamphetamine, methoxetamine, desoxypipradol, 4-fluoromethcathinone, 5,6-methylenedioxy-2-aminoindane, 4-methylmethcathinone, 3-fluoromethcathinone, 4-hydroxy-N-methyl-N-ethyltryptamine, ?-methylamino-butyrophenone and 4-methoxymethcathinone. PMID:23727875

  8. Analysis on the go: quantitation of drugs of abuse in dried urine with digital microfluidics and miniature mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kirby, Andrea E; Lafrenière, Nelson M; Seale, Brendon; Hendricks, Paul I; Cooks, R Graham; Wheeler, Aaron R

    2014-06-17

    We report the development of a method coupling microfluidics and a miniature mass spectrometer, applied to quantitation of drugs of abuse in urine. A custom digital microfluidic system was designed to deliver droplets of solvent to dried urine samples and then transport extracted analytes to an array of nanoelectrospray emitters for analysis. Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) detection was performed using a fully autonomous 25 kg instrument. Using the new method, cocaine, benzoylecgonine, and codeine can be quantified from four samples in less than 15 min from (dried) sample to analysis. The figures of merit for the new method suggest that it is suitable for on-site screening; for example, the limit of quantitation (LOQ) for cocaine is 40 ng/mL, which is compatible with the performance criteria for laboratory analyses established by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. More importantly, the LOQ of the new method is superior to the 300 ng/mL cutoff values used by the only other portable analysis systems we are aware of (relying on immunoassays). This work serves as a proof-of-concept for integration of microfluidics with miniature mass spectrometry. The system is attractive for the quantitation of drugs of abuse from urine and, more generally, may be useful for a wide range of applications that would benefit from portable, quantitative, on-site analysis. PMID:24906177

  9. Urine tested positive for ethyl glucuronide and ethyl sulphate after the consumption of "non-alcoholic" beer.

    PubMed

    Thierauf, Annette; Gnann, Heike; Wohlfarth, Ariane; Auwärter, Volker; Perdekamp, Markus Grosse; Buttler, Klaus-Juergen; Wurst, Friedrich M; Weinmann, Wolfgang

    2010-10-10

    In abstinence maintenance programs, for reissuing the driving licence and in workplace monitoring programs abstinence from ethanol and its proof are demanded. Various monitoring programs that mainly use ethyl glucuronide (EtG) as alcohol consumption marker have been established. To abstain from ethanol, but not from the taste of alcoholic beverages, in particular non-alcoholic beer has become more and more popular. In Germany, these "alcohol-free" beverages may still have an ethanol content of up to 0.5vol.% without the duty of declaration. Due to severe negative consequences resulting from positive EtG tests, a drinking experiment with 2.5L of non-alcoholic beer per person was performed to address the question of measurable concentrations of the direct metabolites EtG and EtS (ethyl sulphate) in urine and blood. Both alcohol consumption markers - determined by LC-MS/MS - were found in high concentrations: maximum concentrations in urine found in three volunteers were EtG 0.30-0.87mg/L and EtS 0.04-0.07mg/L, i.e., above the often applied cut-off value for the proof of abstinence of 0.1mg EtG/L. In the urine samples of one further volunteer, EtG and EtS concentrations cumulated over-night and reached up to 14.1mg/L EtG and 16.1mg/L EtS in the next morning's urine. Ethanol concentrations in blood and urine samples were negative (determined by HS-GC-FID and by an ADH-based method). PMID:20457499

  10. The Sociological and Mathematical Implications of Mandatory Urine Tests for Drug Use in the Work Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Janell; Campbell, Richard

    1987-01-01

    Mandatory drug testing of workers will create problems due to the low predictive ability of urinalysis. The predictive value of drug testing in populations of low drug incidence is illustrated using Bayes' Theorem. (MT)

  11. Assessment of Antifungal Drug Therapy in Autism by Measurement of Suspected Microbial Metabolites in Urine with Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William Shaw; Ellen Kassen; Enrique Chaves

    Context-Certain compounds found by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in urine samples of children with autism might be produced by yeast in the gastrointestinal tract. Therefore, treatment with antifungal drugs might reduce clinical symptoms of autism. Objective-To determine if symptoms of autism and chemical compounds in urine samples of children with autism decreased after antifungal treatment. Design-A number of urinary organic acids

  12. Presence of salicylic acid in standardbred horse urine and plasma after various feed and drug administrations.

    PubMed

    Beaumier, P M; Fenwick, J D; Stevenson, A J; Weber, M P; Young, L M

    1987-05-01

    Plasma and urinary levels of salicylic acid were examined in Standardbred mares after administration of various feeds, containing different compositions of hay. In addition, horses were administered acetylsalicylic acid orally and methyl salicylate topically. Elevated salicylic acid levels were observed in horse urine and plasma in animals fed lucerne hay. The plasma and urinary elimination of salicylic acid exhibited a diurnal pattern which was related to the type of feed and the feeding schedule. Within 24 h after oral administration of acetylsalicylic acid, plasma and urine salicylic acid levels were consistent with residual levels observed after feeding lucerne hay. Elimination of salicylic acid was rapid and complete, with a half-life between 5 and 7 h. Topical administration of methyl salicylate (8.4 g) produced elevated urinary salicylic acid levels for 6 h. A smaller dose of methyl salicylate (3.4 g) did not elevate plasma or urine salicylic acid levels above those observed following administration of lucerne hay. PMID:3608958

  13. Identification and quantification of 34 drugs and toxic compounds in blood, urine, and gastric content using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Liang, Chen; Ye, Haiying; Wang, Rong; Ni, Chunfang; Rao, Yulan; Zhang, Yurong

    2015-05-01

    A liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method was developed for the simultaneous screening of 34 drugs and poisons in forensic cases. Blood (0.5 mL, diluted 1:1 with water) or 1.0 mL of urine was purified by solid-phase extraction. Gastric contents (diluted 1:1 with water) were treated with acetonitrile, centrifuged, and supernatant injected. Detection was achieved using a Waters Alliance 2695/Quattro Premier XE liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry system equipped with electrospray ionization, operated in the multiple reaction monitoring modes. The method was validated for accuracy, precision, linearity, and recovery. The absolute recovery of drugs and toxic compounds in blood was greater than 51% with the limit of detection in the range of 0.02-20 ng/mL. The absolute recovery of drugs and toxic compounds in urine was greater than 61% with limit of detection in the range of 0.01-10 ng/mL. The matrix effect of drugs and toxic compounds in urine was 65-117% and 67-121% in blood. The limit of detection of drugs and toxic compounds in gastric content samples were in the range of 0.05-20 ng/mL. This method was applied to the routine analysis of drugs and toxic compounds in postmortem blood, urine, and gastric content samples. The method was applied to actual forensic cases with examples given. PMID:25781422

  14. Drug testing by urine and hair analysis: complementary features and scientific issues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert L. DuPont; Werner A. Baumgartner

    1995-01-01

    Hair analysis and urinalysis are complementary tests for establishing drug use. Hair analysis provides long-term information, from months to years, concerning both the severity and pattern of drug use. In contrast to this, urinalysis can indicate only drug use, and then generally only that which has occurred within the last 2–3 days. Field studies have demonstrated that hair analysis is

  15. Choosing the right laboratory: a review of clinical and forensic toxicology services for urine drug testing in pain management.

    PubMed

    Reisfield, Gary M; Goldberger, Bruce A; Bertholf, Roger L

    2015-01-01

    Urine drug testing (UDT) services are provided by a variety of clinical, forensic, and reference/specialty laboratories. These UDT services differ based on the principal activity of the laboratory. Clinical laboratories provide testing primarily focused on medical care (eg, emergency care, inpatients, and outpatient clinics), whereas forensic laboratories perform toxicology tests related to postmortem and criminal investigations, and drug-free workplace programs. Some laboratories now provide UDT specifically designed for monitoring patients on chronic opioid therapy. Accreditation programs for clinical laboratories have existed for nearly half a century, and a federal certification program for drug-testing laboratories was established in the 1980s. Standards of practice for forensic toxicology services other than workplace drug testing have been established in recent years. However, no accreditation program currently exists for UDT in pain management, and this review considers several aspects of laboratory accreditation and certification relevant to toxicology services, with the intention to provide guidance to clinicians in their selection of the appropriate laboratory for UDT surveillance of their patients on opioid therapy. PMID:25750163

  16. The use of urine drug testing to monitor patients receiving chronic opioid therapy for persistent pain conditions.

    PubMed

    Tellioglu, Tahir

    2008-09-01

    Urine testing is a practical, inexpensive, and valuable tool in general medical practice for patient guidance, treatment planning, and dosage determination in opioid-treated chronic pain patients. (Table 2) However, UDTs are under-utilized in clinical practice. In a recent survey among 248 primary care practitioners, only 6.9% reported obtaining this test before prescribing opioids and only 15% performed urine toxicology tests on patients already prescribed opioids. Since the UDT is mainly done for the benefit of the patient, the test results should not be the only means to detect substance abuse or monitor treatment compliance. Katz et al suggested that behavioral monitoring and UDTs for patients receiving chronic opioids creates a more comprehensive monitoring system than either alone. Inappropriate testing and overreliance on laboratory results would detract from the clinical management of and damage the clinical relationship with the patient. Therefore, training and education about the benefits and limitations of drug tests are essential to help staff members understand the importance of using test reports appropriately. This would also help the practitioners' concerns of iatrogenic addiction or relapse of previously addicted patients. PMID:18834046

  17. Methods for urine drug testing using one-step dilution and direct injection in combination with LC-MS/MS and LC-HRMS.

    PubMed

    Beck, Olof; Ericsson, Magnus

    2014-08-01

    The advent of LC combined with MS made it possible to design analytical methods for urine drug testing based on the very simple concept of diluting urine with an internal standard as the sole preparation procedure prior to instrumental analysis. The number of publications using this method design increased after the development of high-efficiency LC based on sub-2 ?m particles. The success of this method design for drug testing, doping control and toxicological investigations of urine is now well documented and comprise both screening and confirmation methods. The nondiscriminating nature of this method design makes it even more attractive in combination with high-resolution MS for multicomponent target and general unknown analysis applications. PMID:25383734

  18. Quantitative urine confirmatory testing for synthetic cannabinoids in randomly collected urine specimens.

    PubMed

    Castaneto, Marisol S; Scheidweiler, Karl B; Gandhi, Adarsh; Wohlfarth, Ariane; Klette, Kevin L; Martin, Thomas M; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2015-06-01

    Synthetic cannabinoid intake is an ongoing health issue worldwide, with new compounds continually emerging, making drug testing complex. Parent synthetic cannabinoids are rarely detected in urine, the most common matrix employed in workplace drug testing. Optimal identification of synthetic cannabinoid markers in authentic urine specimens and correlation of metabolite concentrations and toxicities would improve synthetic cannabinoid result interpretation. We screened 20?017 randomly collected US military urine specimens between July 2011 and June 2012 with a synthetic cannabinoid immunoassay yielding 1432 presumptive positive specimens. We analyzed all presumptive positive and 1069 negative specimens with our qualitative synthetic cannabinoid liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method, which confirmed 290 positive specimens. All 290 positive and 487 randomly selected negative specimens were quantified with the most comprehensive urine quantitative LC-MS/MS method published to date; 290 specimens confirmed positive for 22 metabolites from 11 parent synthetic cannabinoids. The five most predominant metabolites were JWH-018 pentanoic acid (93%), JWH-N-hydroxypentyl (84%), AM2201 N-hydroxypentyl (69%), JWH-073 butanoic acid (69%), and JWH-122?N-hydroxypentyl (45%) with 11.1 (0.1-2,434), 5.1 (0.1-1,239), 2.0 (0.1-321), 1.1 (0.1-48.6), and 1.1 (0.1-250) µg/L median (range) concentrations, respectively. Alkyl hydroxy and carboxy metabolites provided suitable biomarkers for 11 parent synthetic cannabinoids; although hydroxyindoles were also observed. This is by far the largest data set of synthetic cannabinoid metabolites urine concentrations from randomly collected workplace drug testing specimens rather than acute intoxications or driving under the influence of drugs. These data improve the interpretation of synthetic cannabinoid urine test results and suggest suitable urine markers of synthetic cannabinoid intake. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. PMID:25231213

  19. Examining the Relationship between Gender and Drug-Using Behaviors in Adolescents: The Use of Diagnostic Assessments and Biochemical Analyses of Urine Samples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, William H.; Moore, David D.

    1999-01-01

    Examines the relationship between gender and drug use among adolescents using diagnostic assessments and biochemical analyses of urine samples. Statistical significance was found in the relationship between gender and marijuana use. The study confirms that more research is needed in this area. (Author/MKA)

  20. Approach to a Positive Urine Culture in a Patient Without Urinary Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Trautner, Barbara W.; Grigoryan, Larissa

    2013-01-01

    Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) is a condition in which bacteria are present in a noncontaminated urine sample collected from a patient without signs or symptoms related to the urinary tract. ASB must be distinguished from symptomatic UTI by the absence of signs and symptoms compatible with UTI or by clinical determination that a nonurinary etiology accounts for the patient's symptoms. ABU is a very common condition that is often treated unnecessarily with antibiotics. Pregnant women and persons undergoing urologic procedures expected to cause mucosal bleeding are the only two groups with convincing evidence that screening for and treating ASB is beneficial. Randomized, controlled trials of ASB screening and/or treatment have established the lack of efficacy in premenopausal adult women, diabetic women, patients with spinal cord injury, catheterized patients, older adults living in the community, and elderly institutionalized adults. The overall purpose of this review is to promote an awareness of ASB as a distinct condition from UTI and to empower clinicians to withhold antibiotics in situations in which antimicrobial treatment of bacteriuria is not indicated. PMID:24484572

  1. Krukenberg tumor presenting as back pain and a positive urine pregnancy test: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Moghazy, Dalia; Al-Hendy, Omar; Al-Hendy, Ayman

    2014-01-01

    A Krukenberg tumor is a rare and potentially deadly cause of elevated serum ?-hCG as part of a paraneoplastic syndrome. This study aims to describe the unusual case of a 36-year-old woman that presented to the Emergency Department (ED) with back pain and a positive urine pregnancy test. Assessment revealed no intrauterine pregnancy and a small left ovarian cyst. Further investigation showed moderately differentiated gastric adenocarcinoma with distant metastases to the spine. The patient died less than 3 months after her first presentation to the ED. Paraneoplastic syndrome, albeit rare, should be considered in the differential diagnosis of elevated ?-hCG due to the high mortality associated with Krukenberg tumors. PMID:24708577

  2. Krukenberg tumor presenting as back pain and a positive urine pregnancy test: a case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A Krukenberg tumor is a rare and potentially deadly cause of elevated serum ?-hCG as part of a paraneoplastic syndrome. This study aims to describe the unusual case of a 36-year-old woman that presented to the Emergency Department (ED) with back pain and a positive urine pregnancy test. Assessment revealed no intrauterine pregnancy and a small left ovarian cyst. Further investigation showed moderately differentiated gastric adenocarcinoma with distant metastases to the spine. The patient died less than 3 months after her first presentation to the ED. Paraneoplastic syndrome, albeit rare, should be considered in the differential diagnosis of elevated ?-hCG due to the high mortality associated with Krukenberg tumors. PMID:24708577

  3. 28 CFR 550.42 - Procedures for urine surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Procedures for urine surveillance. 550.42 Section 550.42 ...DRUG PROGRAMS Drug Services (Urine Surveillance and Counseling for Sentenced Inmates... § 550.42 Procedures for urine surveillance. (a) Contractor...

  4. Urine Trouble: Drug Testing of Students and Teachers in Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Non-individualized (so-called "random") drug testing in public schools presents issues of Constitutional law on both the federal and state levels, particularly with regard to citizens' freedom from "unreasonable searches and seizures." The trend toward increasing acceptance of such testing by the courts (and particularly the U.S. Supreme Court)…

  5. 62 FR 45292 - Urine Surveillance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1997-08-26

    ...28 CFR Part 550 Urine Surveillance; Final Rule Federal Register / Vol...BOP-1072-F] RIN 1120-AA68 Urine Surveillance AGENCY: Bureau of Prisons, Justice...its regulations on the use of urine surveillance to detect and deter illegal drug...

  6. Studies on the metabolism of mitragynine, the main alkaloid of the herbal drug Kratom, in rat and human urine using liquid chromatography-linear ion trap mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Philipp, Anika A; Wissenbach, Dirk K; Zoerntlein, Siegfried W; Klein, Oliver N; Kanogsunthornrat, Jidapha; Maurer, Hans H

    2009-08-01

    Mitragynine (MG) is an indole alkaloid of the Thai medicinal plant Mitragyna speciosa (Kratom in Thai) and reported to have opioid agonistic properties. Because of its stimulant and euphoric effects, Kratom is used as a herbal drug of abuse. The aim of the presented study is to identify the phase I and II metabolites of MG in rat and human urine after solid-phase extraction (SPE) using liquid chromatography-linear ion trap mass spectrometry providing detailed structure information in the MSn mode particularly with high resolution. The seven identified phase I metabolites indicated that MG was metabolized by hydrolysis of the methylester in position 16, O-demethylation of the 9-methoxy group and of the 17-methoxy group, followed, via the intermediate aldehydes, by oxidation to carboxylic acids or reduction to alcohols and combinations of some steps. In rats, four metabolites were additionally conjugated to glucuronides and one to sulfate, but in humans, three metabolites to glucuronides and three to sulfates. PMID:19536806

  7. [Cross-reactivity of Instant-View M-1 for detection of benzodiazepine-related drugs and their metabolites in urine].

    PubMed

    Torikoshi, Aiko; Namera, Akira; Arima, Yousuke; Toubou, Hirokazu; Tajima, Takashi; Shiraishi, Hiroaki; Nagao, Masataka

    2014-03-01

    Immunoassays are useful methods for the determination of regulated drugs in clinical and forensic laboratories. Although the Instant-View M-1 (IV M-1) immunoassay kit is frequently used to screen drugs in laboratories in Japan, basic information about the IV M-1 such as its specificity and reactivity is not available. In this study, we determined the specificity and cross-reactivity of IV M-1 for the detection of benzodiazepine-related drugs and their metabolites in urine. The IV M-1 could detect triazolobenzodiazepines such as triazolam in urine at concentrations > or = 300 ng/mL. However, thienodiazepines such as etizolam could not be detected because of lack of cross reactivity. A correlation was observed between the structure of the metabolites and the reactivity of the kit; 4-hydroxy metabolites of alprazolam and triazolam were detectable, whereas a-hydroxy metabolites were not. Furthermore, 7-amino metabolites such as nitrazepam could not be detected at any concentration, including high concentrations. The specificity and reactivity of various kits used for detection of drugs in urine are different. Therefore, it is necessary to consider the basic features of the kit used while assessing the results obtained. PMID:24724359

  8. Urine tested positive for ethyl glucuronide and ethyl sulfate after the consumption of yeast and sugar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Annette Thierauf; Ariane Wohlfarth; Volker Auwärter; Markus Große Perdekamp; Friedrich Martin Wurst; Wolfgang Weinmann

    2010-01-01

    BackgroundTo an increasing degree, EtG and EtS are routinely used for the proof of abstinence for purposes of traffic, occupational, addiction and social medicine. This routine use demands further investigations on the sensitivity and specificity of these analytes and the examination of possible genesis of positive EtG and EtS concentrations even without the consumption of ethanol. In vivo fermentation with

  9. Use of liquid chromatography coupled to low- and high-resolution linear ion trap mass spectrometry for studying the metabolism of paynantheine, an alkaloid of the herbal drug Kratom in rat and human urine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anika A. Philipp; Dirk K. Wissenbach; Armin. A. Weber; Josef Zapp; Siegfried W. Zoerntlein; Jidapha Kanogsunthornrat; Hans H. Maurer

    2010-01-01

    The Thai medicinal plant Mitragyna speciosa (Kratom in Thai) is misused as a herbal drug of abuse. During studies on the main Kratom alkaloid mitragynine (MG) in rats and humans, several dehydro analogs could be detected in urine of Kratom users, which were not found in rat urine after administration of pure MG. Questions arose as to whether these compounds

  10. Procedure for microbial identification based on Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry from screening-positive urine samples.

    PubMed

    March Rosselló, Gabriel A; Gutiérrez Rodríguez, María P; de Lejarazu Leonardo, Raúl Ortiz; Orduña Domingo, Antonio; Bratos Pérez, Miguel A

    2014-09-01

    Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry is a widely used proteomic technique in clinical microbiology laboratories, and enables microbial identification directly from clinical samples. This study seeks to establish a protocol for bacterial identification from monomicrobial urine samples that have tested positive in the screening with Sysmex UF-1000i (Sysmex Corporation, Kobe, Japan). Sysmex UF-1000i counts ?1 × 10(7) bacteria/mL indicate a sufficient bacterial concentration to allow direct identification from urine, with 87.5% sensitivity. Microbial identification from urine with Sysmex UF-1000i counts between 1 × 10(5) and 1 × 10(7) bacteria/ml requires preincubation to obtain the adequate amount of bacteria needed for analysis, and 91.7% sensitivity thus being achieved. PMID:24320741

  11. A Case of Psychosis After Use of a Detoxification Kit and a Review of Techniques, Risks, and Regulations Associated With the Subversion of Urine Drug Tests

    PubMed Central

    Mittal, Moneeshindra Singh; Kalia, Rachna

    2011-01-01

    Context: The practice of drug testing in the workplace has been adopted for US federal government employees, and many state and local governments as well as private businesses have followed suit. However, a parallel industry dedicated to subverting the results of urine drug testing has emerged with little or no regulation. Evidence Acquisition: First, the case of a 19-year-old man who developed psychosis after the use of a detoxification kit is presented. Second, a review of the existing literature on the techniques, risks, and regulations associated with the use of drug tampering kits is provided. PubMed, Cochrane Database, and Google Scholar were searched using the keywords UDS, urine toxicology, pass the drug test, and clean UA, with no restrictions on publication date. Case reports, letters to the editor, and original research and review articles in multiple languages were reviewed, as were federal regulations and acts on the topic. The search yielded 4,082 results, of which 49 articles were selected for relevance. Some articles were later omitted as they had cited the original article and had nothing new to offer. Results: Three commonly used tampering techniques are in vivo adulteration, urine substitution, and in vitro adulteration. Review of the literature regarding the risks involved with use of tampering kits yielded no results. In 1986, an executive order was issued requiring all federal employees to refrain from illicit drug use, and the 1988 Drug-Free Workplace Act precipitated the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration guidelines and their subsequent revisions. Recently, many states have made regulatory efforts to bring drug test defrauding under the ambit of law. Conclusions: Clinicians need to be aware of the tampering techniques and the possibility of false-negative urine drug tests. Cognizance of inherent risks involved with using these techniques including psychiatric and/or medical complications is also warranted. The manufacture, sale, and use of these products have little or no regulation by state or federal authorities, making them potentially dangerous and imposing new challenges in testing for abused drugs. The extent of use of these products and techniques is not known at this time and is an area that warrants further research. PMID:22295274

  12. [A rapid test of urine microflora sensitivity to antibacterial drugs in the treatment of children with nonspecific inflammatory diseases of the kidney and urinary tract].

    PubMed

    Rodoman, V E; Laberko, L A; Korotaev, A L; Zarma, A A

    1989-01-01

    The authors describe their own method for rapid determination of urine microflora sensitivity to antibacterial drugs. The method is based on the capacity of the microorganisms (as a totality of particles with the refractive index different from that of the medium) of increasing the optical density of the medium under the conditions of unlimited resources of the nutrition and space at the expense of reproduction in a liquid culture medium. The lack of the optical density increase in the urine sample after addition to it of a certain amount of antibacterial substances evidences the death of the population of the microorganisms and of its sensitivity to the antibacterial drug under study. The method proposed by the authors was compared to those widely used in clinical practice. With special reference to a concrete patient, the results obtained with the authors' method turned out to correlate with those derived with the use of the conventional methods for urine microflora sensitivity to antibacterial drugs (the disc method and the triphenyltetrazolium chloride test). That the final result of the investigation can be obtained after 2--6 hours and low labour intensivity of the method permit the institution of adequate antibiotic therapy within the first day since the patient's admission to the hospital. PMID:2762056

  13. Programmable flow-based dynamic sorptive microextraction exploiting an octadecyl chemically modified rotating disk extraction system for the determination of acidic drugs in urine.

    PubMed

    Manzo, Valentina; Miró, Manuel; Richter, Pablo

    2014-11-14

    A novel automatic sorptive microextraction approach combining sequential injection-based programmable flow with rotating disk sorptive extraction (RDSE) is proposed for the clean-up and concentration of low polarity organic species in urine samples. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), namely, ketoprofen, naproxen, diclofenac and ibuprofen, were selected as model analytes in a proof-of-concept design, and they were further determined by liquid chromatographic (LC) assays. The extracting phase consisted of octadecyl (C18) chemically bonded silica embedded in a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) substrate. The thin film was immobilized onto the surface of an in-house prepared rotating PTFE disk in a dedicated flow-through chamber. The programmable flow-based microextraction method operates under kinetic principles and features software-controlled sample loading and dynamic sorptive unidirectional-flow microextraction for as little as 10 min, followed by matrix clean-up and in-line elution with methanol. The hydrophobic thin-film extracting phase was demonstrated to be reusable for at least 15 consecutive extractions in urine without removing or changing the disk. The relative recoveries of the NSAIDs in urine ranged from 101 to 106% using a matrix-matched calibration curve, with extraction efficiencies of 30-38% using a dynamic regime, an enrichment factor of approximately 17 for 10 mL sample and relative standard deviations (RSD) between 3 and 6%. The detection limits (3 × S/N ratio) of the in-line sample preparation method coupled to LC-UV detection ranged from 0.022 to 0.044 mg L(-1). Using NSAID monitored in urine from individuals who received oral administration of ibuprofen and diclofenac, the automatic sample handling method was proven to be efficient for urine clean-up and the determination of acidic drugs at biologically relevant levels. PMID:25441344

  14. 28 CFR 550.42 - Procedures for urine surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Center staff shall have each positive urine test validated to substantiate the...disciplinary report if the inmate's urine test shows a positive result for...disciplinary hearings and a copy of positive urine testing results which the inmate cannot...

  15. 28 CFR 550.42 - Procedures for urine surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Center staff shall have each positive urine test validated to substantiate the...disciplinary report if the inmate's urine test shows a positive result for...disciplinary hearings and a copy of positive urine testing results which the inmate cannot...

  16. Monolithic spin column: a new extraction device for analysis of drugs in urine and serum by GC/MS and HPLC/MS.

    PubMed

    Namera, Akira; Nagao, Masakata; Nakamoto, Akihiro; Miyazaki, Shota; Saito, Takeshi

    2011-01-01

    A monolithic spin column was developed for the extraction of analytes from biological materials. This column was constructed by packing a monolithic silica disk into a spin column. Sample loading, washing, and elution of the target drugs were accomplished simply by centrifugation of the column. Opiates and benzodiazepines are abused throughout the world. Identification and quantification of these drugs is very important to solve crimes or the cause of death. Three opiates (morphine, codeine, and dihydrocodeine) were extracted from urine and serum by using the column. After conversion to trimethylsilyl derivatives of the opiates by vigorous mixing with the derivatizing reagent, the solution was subjected to GC/MS. A linear curve was observed for opiates from 10 to 2500 ng/mL in urine and 5 to 1200 ng/mL in serum, respectively (correlation coefficient > 0.996). For benzodiazepines, the hydroxyl metabolites of triazolam and etizolam were extracted from urine using the column, and the eluate was directly analyzed by HPLC/MS without evaporation. The LOD values were at the ppb level, with RSD values lower than 15%. The proposed methods were successfully applied to clinical and forensic cases, and good agreement of results was obtained compared to conventional methods. PMID:21797004

  17. Nanostructural systems developed with positive charge generation to drug delivery.

    PubMed

    An, Fei-Fei; Cao, Weipeng; Liang, Xing-Jie

    2014-08-01

    The surface charge of a nanostructure plays a critical role in modulating blood circulation time, nanostructure-cell interaction, and intracellular events. It is unfavorable to have positive charges on the nanostructure surface before arriving at the disease site because positively charged nanostructures interact strongly with blood components, resulting in rapid clearance from the blood, and suboptimal targeted accumulation at the tumor site. Once at the tumor site, however, the positive charge on the nanostructure surface accelerates uptake by tumor cells and promotes the release of payloads from the lysosomes to the cytosol or nucleus inside cells. Thus, the ideal nanocarrier systems for drug delivery would maintain a neutral or negatively charged surface during blood circulation but would then generate a positive surface charge after accumulation at the tumor site or inside the cancer cells. This Progress Report focuses on the design and application of various neutral or negatively charged nanostructures that can generate a positive charge in response to the tumor microenvironment or an external stimulus. PMID:24550201

  18. A novel method for GHB detection in urine and its application in drug-facilitated sexual assaults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Albert A Elian

    2000-01-01

    A confirmation procedure for the identification and quantification of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) in urine is presented. This method is unique in that it does not involve the conversion of GHB to the gamma-butyrolactone (GBL). The urine samples were extracted using ethyl acetate, evaporated and derivatized with N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA) with 1% trimethylchlorosilane (TMCS), and analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Quantification was

  19. Porphyrins - urine

    MedlinePLUS

    Porphyrins help form many important substances in the body. One of these is hemoglobin, the protein in ... blood cells that carries oxygen in the blood. Porphyrins can be found in urine. A urine porphyrins ...

  20. Immunofixation - urine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... infant: Thoroughly wash the area where the urine exits the body. Open a urine collection bag (a ... eds. Henry's Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods. 22nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap ...

  1. 10 CFR 26.113 - Splitting the urine specimen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.113 Splitting the urine specimen. ...drug and validity testing; and (3) The...splitting of the urine specimen and...only if sufficient urine is available for this testing after the...

  2. 10 CFR 26.113 - Splitting the urine specimen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.113 Splitting the urine specimen. ...drug and validity testing; and (3) The...splitting of the urine specimen and...only if sufficient urine is available for this testing after the...

  3. 10 CFR 26.113 - Splitting the urine specimen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.113 Splitting the urine specimen. ...drug and validity testing; and (3) The...splitting of the urine specimen and...only if sufficient urine is available for this testing after the...

  4. 10 CFR 26.113 - Splitting the urine specimen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.113 Splitting the urine specimen. ...drug and validity testing; and (3) The...splitting of the urine specimen and...only if sufficient urine is available for this testing after the...

  5. Cheimical Dependency and Drug Testing in the Workplace

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John D. Osterloh; Charles E. Becker

    1990-01-01

    Urine testing for drug use in the workplace is now widespread, with the prevalence of positive drug tests in the work force being 0% to 15%. The prevalence of marijuana use is highest of the illicit drugs being tested. Highly prevalent drugs can be reliably tested. Although it is prudent to rid the workplace of drug use, there is little

  6. High-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry for the determination of nine hallucinogenic 25-NBOMe designer drugs in urine specimens.

    PubMed

    Poklis, Justin L; Clay, Deborah J; Poklis, Alphonse

    2014-04-01

    We present a high-performance liquid chromatography triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS-MS) method for the identification and quantification of nine serotonin 5-HT2A receptor agonist hallucinogenic substances from a new class of N-methoxybenzyl derivatives of methoxyphenylethylamine (NBOMe) designer drugs in human urine: 25H-NBOMe, 2CC-NBOMe, 25I-NBF, 25D-NBOMe, 25B-NBOMe, 2CT-NBOMe, 25I-NBMD, 25G-NBOMe and 25I-NBOMe. This assay was developed for the Virginia Commonwealth University Clinical and Forensic Toxicology laboratory to screen emergency department specimens in response to an outbreak of N-benzyl-phenethylamine derivative abuse and overdose cases in Virginia. The NBOMe derivatives were rapidly extracted from the urine specimens by use of FASt™ solid-phase extraction columns. Assay performance was determined as recommended for validation by the Scientific Working Group for Forensic Toxicology (SWGTOX) for linearity, lower limit of quantification, lower limit of detection, accuracy/bias, precision, dilution integrity, carryover, selectivity, absolute recovery, ion suppression and stability. Linearity was verified to be from 1 to 100 ng/mL for each of the nine analytes. The bias determined for the NBOMe derivatives was 86-116% with a <14% coefficient of variation over the linear range of the assay. Four different NBOMe derivatives were detected using the presented method in patient urine specimens. PMID:24535338

  7. Determination of chemotherapeutic drugs in human urine by capillary electrophoresis with UV and fluorimetric detection using solid-supported liquid-liquid extraction for sample clean-up.

    PubMed

    Del Carmen Hurtado-Sánchez, María; Acedo-Valenzuela, María Isabel; Durán-Merás, Isabel; Rodríguez-Cáceres, María Isabel

    2015-06-01

    Capillary electrophoresis was used for the rapid determination of three chemotherapeutic drugs employed to treat colorectal cancer: irinotecan, tegafur, and leucovorin, and their main metabolites (7-ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin and 5-fluorouracil), in human urine samples. A phosphate buffer (pH 11.34; 20 mM) was selected as the background electrolyte. A hydrodynamic injection (9 s, 30 mbar) was applied and the separation was carried out using a separation temperature and voltage of 25°C and 25 kV, respectively. A capillary with two detection windows for serial online UV and fluorescence detection was satisfactorily employed. A solid-supported liquid-liquid extraction procedure was optimized for the clean-up of the urine samples and the extraction of the analytes. Matrix effects were assessed and signal suppression was observed for three of the analytes, thus, matrix-matched calibration was used for compensating residual matrix effects on these analytes. The proposed method allows the separation and quantification of the chemotherapeutics in less than 6 min. Detection limits range between 0.01 and 0.30 mg/L. The method was satisfactorily applied to the determination of the target compounds in human urine samples, with recoveries of 92.4-107.7%. PMID:25820908

  8. Legal Position of School Personnel -- Drugs and Narcotics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shannon, Thomas A.

    California educators have been given broad discretionary powers to control students who misuse drugs or narcotics, and to develop drug education programs. This paper outlines and discusses legislation dealing with disciplinary actions against drug offenders, and delineates school responsibilities for developing and implementing effective drug

  9. Mandatory Urine Testing for Drugs in Public Schools and the Fourth Amendment: Some Thoughts for School Officials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lincoln, Eugene A.

    1989-01-01

    In 1985 the United States Supreme Court concluded that the Fourth Amendment's prohibition against unreasonable searches and seizures does apply to public school officials. Offers some hypothetical examples for public school officials to consider regarding mandatory urine testing and the reasonable suspicion standard. (MLF)

  10. Biotransformation and detectability of the designer drug 2,5-dimethoxy-4-propylphenethylamine (2C-P) studied in urine by GC-MS, LC-MS(n), and LC-high-resolution-MS(n).

    PubMed

    Wink, Carina S D; Meyer, Markus R; Braun, Tina; Turcant, Alain; Maurer, Hans H

    2015-01-01

    2,5-Dimethoxy-4-propylphenethylamine (2C-P) is a hallucinogenic designer drug of the phenethylamine class, the so-called 2Cs, named according to the ethyl spacer between the nitrogen and the aromatic ring. The aims of the present work were to identify the phases I and II metabolites of 2C-P. In addition, the detectability of 2C-P and its metabolites in urine as proof of an intake in clinical or forensic cases was tested. According to the identified metabolites, the following pathways were proposed: N-acetylation; deamination followed by reduction to the corresponding alcohol and oxidation to carbonic acid; mono- and bis-hydroxylation at different positions; mono- and bis-O-demethylation, followed by glucuronidation, sulfation, or both; and combination of these steps. Proof of an intake of a common user's dose of 2C-P was possible by both standard urine screening approaches, the GC-MS as well as the LC-MS(n) approach. PMID:25120185

  11. Drug testing of adolescents in general medical clinics, in school and at home: physician attitudes and practices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sharon Levy; Sion K. Harris; Lon Sherritt; Michelle Angulo; John R. Knight

    2006-01-01

    PurposeTo determine (1) whether physicians agree with recommendations for home and school drug screening, (2) under what circumstances physicians recommend urine drug tests for adolescents, and (3) how physicians manage adolescent patients with positive results. Few clinical practice guidelines have been published on urine drug testing of adolescents, and it is not known when physicians recommend this procedure or how

  12. Nutritional status assessment of HIV-positive drug addicts.

    PubMed

    Varela, P; Marcos, A; Ripoll, S; Requejo, A; Herrera, P; Casas, A

    1990-05-01

    Since human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is known to lead to modifications of immune function and interrelationships among malnutrition, anergy and drug addiction have been shown, the aim of this work was to assess the nutritional status of 36 male heroin addicts under a period of detoxication (3 months). They were divided into two groups: (1) HIV negative (n = 20) and (2) HIV positive (n = 16); heights, weights and serum albumin concentration were measured and immune function was tested, using delayed hypersensitivity skin tests containing 7 antigens. No significant differences in anthropometric measurements were found between both groups, but anthropometric improvement was shown in every patient after the detoxication period. Serum albumin, often used as a classical index of malnutrition, remained within the normal values in both groups. The whole response to skin tests was depressed in both groups and no significant differences were shown between them. Therefore, these results might suggest that in spite of the apparent anthropometric recovery and the normal values of albumin, a subclinical malnutrition was indicated by the depressed immune function, which was more noticeable in the HIV-positive group. PMID:2387276

  13. Detection and quantification of tricyclic antidepressants and other psychoactive drugs in urine by HPLC/MS/MS for pain management compliance testing.

    PubMed

    Poklis, Justin L; Wolf, Carl E; Goldstein, Ashley; Wolfe, M Lauren; Poklis, Alphonse

    2012-07-01

    A sensitive, specific, and rapid high-pressure liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry method was developed for the quantitation of 11 tricyclic antidepressants and/or their metabolites; fluoxetine and norfluoxetine; cyclobenzaprine; and trazodone in urine. Samples were alkalinized with 0.2 N NaOH and extracted into 2 ml of hexane: ethyl acetate (1:1), evaporated to dryness, and reconstituted with 100 ?l of 20 mM ammonium formate: methanol (20:80). The chromatographic separation was performed using an Allure Biphenyl 100 × 3.2 mm, 5-? column with a mobile phase consisting of 20 mM ammonium formate: methanol (20:80 v/v) at a flow rate of 0.5 ml/min. The detection was accomplished by multiple-reaction monitoring via electrospray ionization source operating in the positive ionization mode. The calibration curve was linear over the investigated concentration range, 25-2,000 ng/ml, for each analyte using 1.0 ml of urine. The lower limit of quantitation for each analyte was 25 ng/ml. The intra- and inter-day precisions had coefficient of variation less than 15% and the accuracy was within the range from 88% to 109%. The method proved adequate for the tricyclic antidepressants analysis of urine for emergency clinical toxicology and pain management compliance testing. PMID:22811363

  14. Bilirubin - urine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... jaundice. Bilirubin may also be measured with a blood test. ... urinated into it. Drain the urine from the bag into the container provided by your health care provider. Deliver the sample to the laboratory or to your health care provider as soon as possible.

  15. Microextraction by packed sorbent and high performance liquid chromatography determination of seven non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in human plasma and urine.

    PubMed

    Locatelli, Marcello; Ferrone, Vincenzo; Cifelli, Roberta; Barbacane, Renato Carmine; Carlucci, Giuseppe

    2014-11-01

    This paper reports a new MEPS-HPLC-PDA method for the simultaneous analysis of seven non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (Furprofen, Indoprofen, Ketoprofen, Fenbufen, Flurbiprofen, Indomethacin, and Ibuprofen) in human plasma and urine. NSAIDs were resolved on a Gemini C18 column (4.6 mm × 250 mm; 5 ?m particle size) using a gradient elution mode with a run time of 25 min, comprising re-equilibration, without further purification. The method was validated over the concentration range from 0.1 to 10 ?g/mL for all the analytes both in human plasma and urine, using Benzyl 4-hydroxybenzoate as the internal standards. This method was successfully tested to NSAIDs analyses in real matrices, in order to check the method potentiality and the correct response. The results from assay validations show that the method is selective, sensitive and robust. The limit of quantification of the method was 0.1 ?g/mL for all analytes, and weighted-matrix-matched standard curves showed a good linearity up to 10 ?g/mL. In order to check the correct response for over-range samples, parallelism tests were also assessed. In the entire analytical range the intra and inter-day precision (RSD%) values were ? 7.31% and ? 13.5%, respectively. For all the analytes the intra and inter-day trueness (Bias%) values ranged from -11.3% to 10.2%. To our knowledge, this is the first MEPS-HPLC-PDA based method that uses MEPS procedure for simultaneous determination of these seven NSAIDs in plasma and urine samples. PMID:25278162

  16. Fabrication of aluminum terephthalate metal-organic framework incorporated polymer monolith for the microextraction of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in water and urine samples.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Dan-Ya; Yang, Cheng-Xiong; Yan, Xiu-Ping

    2015-05-01

    Polymer monolith microextraction (PMME) based on capillary monolithic column is an effective and useful technique to preconcentrate trace analytes from environmental and biological samples. Here, we report the fabrication of a novel aluminum terephthalate metal-organic framework (MIL-53(Al)) incorporated capillary monolithic column via in situ polymerization for the PMME of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (ketoprofen, fenbufen and ibuprofen) in water and urine samples. The fabricated MIL-53(Al) incorporated monolith was characterized by X-ray powder diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, and nitrogen adsorption experiment. The MIL-53(Al) incorporated monolith gave larger surface area than the neat polymer monolith. A 2-cm long MIL-53(Al) incorporated capillary monolith was applied for PMME coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography for the determination of the NSAIDs. Potential factors affecting the PMME were studied in detail. Under the optimized conditions, the developed method gave the enhancement factors of 46-51, the linear range of 0.40-200?gL(-1), the detection limits (S/N=3) of 0.12-0.24?gL(-1), and the quantification limits (S/N=10) of 0.40-0.85?gL(-1). The recoveries for spiked NSAIDs (20?gL(-1)) in water and urine samples were in the range of 77.3-104%. Besides, the MIL-53(Al) incorporated monolith was stable enough for 120 extraction cycles without significant loss of extraction efficiency. The developed method was successfully applied to the determination of NSAIDs in water and urine samples. PMID:25840660

  17. Nonhazardous Urine Pretreatment Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akse, James R.; Holtsnider, John T.

    2012-01-01

    A method combines solid phase acidification with two non-toxic biocides to prevent ammonia volatilization and microbial proliferation. The safe, non-oxidizing biocide combination consists of a quaternary amine and a food preservative. This combination has exhibited excellent stabilization of both acidified and unacidified urine. During pretreatment tests, composite urine collected from donors was challenged with a microorganism known to proliferate in urine, and then was processed using the nonhazardous urine pre-treatment method. The challenge microorganisms included Escherichia coli, a common gram-negative bacteria; Enterococcus faecalis, a ureolytic gram-positive bacteria; Candida albicans, a yeast commonly found in urine; and Aspergillus niger, a problematic mold that resists urine pre-treatment. Urine processed in this manner remained microbially stable for over 57 days. Such effective urine stabilization was achieved using non-toxic, non-oxidizing biocides at higher pH (3.6 to 5.8) than previous methods in use or projected for use aboard the International Space Station (ISS). ISS urine pretreatment methods employ strong oxidants including ozone and hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)), a carcinogenic material, under very acidic conditions (pH = 1.8 to 2.4). The method described here offers a much more benign chemical environment than previous pretreatment methods, and will lower equivalent system mass (ESM) by reducing containment volume and mass, system complexity, and crew time needed to handle pre-treatment chemicals. The biocides, being non-oxidizing, minimize the potential for chemical reactions with urine constituents to produce volatile, airborne contaminants such as cyanogen chloride. Additionally, the biocides are active under significantly less acidic conditions than those used in the current system, thereby reducing the degree of required acidification. A simple flow-through solid phase acidification (SPA) bed is employed to overcome the natural buffering capacity of urine, and to lower the pH to levels that fix ammoniacal nitrogen in the non-volatile and highly water soluble NH4 + form. Citric acid, a highly soluble, solid tricarboxylic acid essential to cellular metabolism, and typically used as a food preservative, has also been shown to efficiently acidify urine in conjunction with non-oxidizing biocides to provide effective stabilization with respect to both microbial growth and ammonia volatilization.

  18. Student/Research assistant position: Detection of potential drug targets in

    E-print Network

    Rostock, Universität

    Student/Research assistant position: Detection of potential drug targets in cancer signaling for drug discovery in metabolic diseases (OPDD, Vera et al. 2007) to investigate new drug targets in cell signaling pathways involved in cancer progression. Precisely the student must deal with the following tasks

  19. Osmolality - urine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... body fluids (dehydration) Narrowing of the kidney artery (renal artery stenosis) Shock Sugar, or glucose, in the urine Syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion ( SIADH ) Lower-than-normal ... renal tubular necrosis ) Drinking too much fluid Kidney failure ...

  20. Amylase - urine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... is a test that measures the amount of amylase in urine. Amylase is an enzyme that helps digest carbohydrates. It ... the pancreas and the glands that make saliva. Amylase may also be measured with a blood test .

  1. Frequent Urination

    MedlinePLUS

    ... make you urinate more frequently. Avoid beverages like coffee, tea, colas and other caffeinated drinks. Do Kegel ... them. more Explore Prematurity Research Peristats Product catalog Shop Professionals Partners Careers Annual Report © March of Dimes ...

  2. Urine Preservative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M. (Inventor); Nillen, Jeannie (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    Disclosed is CPG, a combination of a chlorhexidine salt (such as chlorhexidine digluconate, chlorhexidine diacetate, or chlorhexidine dichloride) and n-propyl gallate that can be used at ambient temperatures as a urine preservative.

  3. Comparison of LUCIO®-direct ELISA with CEDIA immunoassay for 'zero tolerance' drug screening in urine as required by the German re-licensing guidelines.

    PubMed

    Agius, Ronald; Nadulski, Thomas; Kahl, Hans-Gerhard; Dufaux, Bertin

    2013-06-01

    The performance of the previously validated LUCIO(®)-Direct-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (direct ELISA) screening tests according to forensic guidelines is compared to that of cloned enzyme donor immunoassays (CEDIA) test for drugs of abuse in urine as defined in the new re-licensing German medical and psychological assessment (MPA) guidelines. The MPA screening cut-offs correspond to 10?ng/ml 11-nor-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (THC-COOH), 50?ng/ml amphetamine and designer amphetamines, 25?ng/ml morphine, codeine and dihydrocodeine, 30?ng/ml benzoylecgonine, 50?ng/ml methadone metabolite, 2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine (EDDP) and metabolites of diazepam, oxazepam, bromazepam, alprazolam, flunitrazepam and lorazepam at 50?ng/ml. Average relative sensitivities and relative specificities were 99.7 % and 98.4 % for direct ELISA and 66 % and 91.4 % for CEDIA, respectively. PMID:23349145

  4. Strut Position, Blood Flow, and Drug Deposition Implications for Single and Overlapping Drug-Eluting Stents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brinda Balakrishnan; Abraham R. Tzafriri; Philip Seifert; Adam Groothuis; Campbell Rogers; Elazer R. Edelman

    2010-01-01

    Background—The intricacies of stent design, local pharmacology, tissue biology, and rheology preclude an intuitive understanding of drug distribution and deposition from drug-eluting stents (DES). Methods and Results—A coupled computational fluid dynamics and mass transfer model was applied to predict drug deposition for single and overlapping DES. Drug deposition appeared not only beneath regions of arterial contact with the strut but

  5. Extraction-Free Ion-Pair Methods for the Assay of Trifluoperazine Dihydrochloride in Bulk Drug, Tablets, and Spiked Human Urine Using Three Sulfonphthalein Dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prashanth, K. N.; Swamy, N.; Basavaiah, K.

    2014-11-01

    Three simple and sensitive extraction-free spectrophotometric methods are described for the determination of trifluoperazine dihydrochloride (TFH). The methods are based on ion pair complex formation between the nitrogenous compound trifluoperazine (TFP) converted from trifluoperazine dihydrochloride and sulfonphthalein dyes, namely, bromocresol green (BCG), bromothymol blue (BTB), and bromophenol blue (BPB) in dichloromethane medium in which all the above experimental variables were circumvented. The colored products are measured at 425 nm in the BCG method, 415 nm in the BTB method, and 420 nm in the BPB method. The stoichiometry of the ion-pair complexes formed between the drug and dye (1:1) was determined by Job's continuous variations method, and the stability constants of the complexes were also calculated. These methods quantify TFP over the concentration ranges of 1.25-20.0 ?g/ml in the BCG method, 1.5-21.0 ?g/ml in the BTB method, and 1.5-18.0 ?g/ml in the BPB method. The molar absorptivity (l·mol-1·cm-1) and Sandell sensitivity (ng/cm2) were calculated to be 2.06·104 and 0.0197; 1.82·104 and 0.0224; and 2.22·104 and 0.0183 for the BCG, BTB, and BPB methods, respectively. The methods were successfully applied to the determination of TFP in pure drug, pharmaceuticals, and in spiked human urine with good accuracy and precision.

  6. Urination - difficulty with flow

    MedlinePLUS

    Difficulty starting or maintaining a urine stream is called urinary hesitancy. ... men have some trouble with dribbling, weak urine stream, and starting urination. Another common cause is infection ...

  7. Sensitive determination of positional isomers of benzenediols in human urine by boronate affinity capillary electrophoresis with chemiluminescence detection.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zian; Sun, Xiaobo; Hu, Wenli; Yin, Yuqing; Chen, Guonan

    2014-04-01

    A boronate ACE coupled with chemiluminescence (CL) detection was developed for sensitive determination of three isomeric benzenediols, which was based on the principle of an inhibited effect of borate complexation on the CL reaction between luminol and potassium hexacyanoferrate (K3 Fe(CN)6 ) in alkaline solution. The effects of some important factors on CE separation and CL intensity were systemically investigated. Baseline separation of isomeric benzenediols including o-benzenediol, m-benzenediol, and p-benzenediol was achieved by using a mobile phase of 40 mmol/L glycine-NaOH buffer at pH 9.4 containing 0.8 mmol/L luminol and 0.4 mol/L 4-iodophenylboronic acid. The calibration curves of the analytes by plotting the peak height against corresponding concentration were linear over the range of 4.5 × 10(-8) ? 4.5 × 10(-5) mol/L for p-benzenediol, 6.8 × 10(-8) ? 2.7 × 10(-5) mol/L for m-benzenediol, and 9.0 × 10(-8) ? 4.5 × 10(-5) mol/L for o-benzenediol. The corresponding detection limits for p-, m-, and o-benzenediols were 2.8 × 10(-8) mol/L (68 amol), 3.2 × 10(-8) mol/L (108.4 amol), and 3.7 × 10(-8) mol/L (125.8 amol; S/N = 3), respectively. The proposed method has been successfully applied to the analysis of trace benzenediols in spiked human urine sample and the recoveries were >97.2%. Our primary result demonstrated the proposed CE-CL method has great potential for biomarker determination in clinical diagnosis. PMID:24115126

  8. Windows of detection of lorazepam in urine, oral fluid and hair, with a special focus on drug-facilitated crimes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pascal Kintz; Marion Villain; Vincent Cirimele; Gilbert Pépin; Bertrand Ludes

    2004-01-01

    The purported lowering of sex opposition, coupled with a possible abrupt unconsciousness-inducing effect and ease of administration in spiked drinks have resulted in the use of hypnotics in cases of drug-facilitated offense. Among these compounds, lorazepam possesses amnesic properties and can impair an individual rapidly.The chances to detect this substance increase if the most sensitive methods are used and if

  9. The Human Urine Metabolome

    PubMed Central

    Bouatra, Souhaila; Aziat, Farid; Mandal, Rupasri; Guo, An Chi; Wilson, Michael R.; Knox, Craig; Bjorndahl, Trent C.; Krishnamurthy, Ramanarayan; Saleem, Fozia; Liu, Philip; Dame, Zerihun T.; Poelzer, Jenna; Huynh, Jessica; Yallou, Faizath S.; Psychogios, Nick; Dong, Edison; Bogumil, Ralf; Roehring, Cornelia; Wishart, David S.

    2013-01-01

    Urine has long been a “favored” biofluid among metabolomics researchers. It is sterile, easy-to-obtain in large volumes, largely free from interfering proteins or lipids and chemically complex. However, this chemical complexity has also made urine a particularly difficult substrate to fully understand. As a biological waste material, urine typically contains metabolic breakdown products from a wide range of foods, drinks, drugs, environmental contaminants, endogenous waste metabolites and bacterial by-products. Many of these compounds are poorly characterized and poorly understood. In an effort to improve our understanding of this biofluid we have undertaken a comprehensive, quantitative, metabolome-wide characterization of human urine. This involved both computer-aided literature mining and comprehensive, quantitative experimental assessment/validation. The experimental portion employed NMR spectroscopy, gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS), direct flow injection mass spectrometry (DFI/LC-MS/MS), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) experiments performed on multiple human urine samples. This multi-platform metabolomic analysis allowed us to identify 445 and quantify 378 unique urine metabolites or metabolite species. The different analytical platforms were able to identify (quantify) a total of: 209 (209) by NMR, 179 (85) by GC-MS, 127 (127) by DFI/LC-MS/MS, 40 (40) by ICP-MS and 10 (10) by HPLC. Our use of multiple metabolomics platforms and technologies allowed us to identify several previously unknown urine metabolites and to substantially enhance the level of metabolome coverage. It also allowed us to critically assess the relative strengths and weaknesses of different platforms or technologies. The literature review led to the identification and annotation of another 2206 urinary compounds and was used to help guide the subsequent experimental studies. An online database containing the complete set of 2651 confirmed human urine metabolite species, their structures (3079 in total), concentrations, related literature references and links to their known disease associations are freely available at http://www.urinemetabolome.ca. PMID:24023812

  10. Physical activity in a cohort of HIV-positive and HIV-negative injection drug users

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Smit; C. J. Crespo; R. D. Semba; D. Jaworowicz; D. Vlahov; E. P. Ricketts; F. A. Ramirez-Marrero; A. M. Tang

    2006-01-01

    Physical activity is beneficial for persons with HIV infection but little is known about the relationships between physical activity, HIV treatment and injection drug use (IDU). This study compared physical activity levels between HIV-negative and HIV-positive injection drug users (IDUs) and between HIV-positive participants not on any treatment and participants on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Anthropometric measurements were obtained

  11. Simultaneous determination of the phase II metabolites of the non steroidal anti-inflammatory drug etodolac in human urine.

    PubMed

    Berendes, U; Blaschke, G

    1996-01-01

    Etodolac, an antirheumatic and analgetic drug, is metabolized in humans by hydroxylation and acyl glucuronidation to yield the corresponding 1-O-glucuronides. The acylglucuronides of etodolac and one of its hydroxylated metabolites were determined by HPLC using a RP18 column. In order to increase the lipophilicity of these metabolites the hydroxy groups were acetylated and the carboxylic functions were methylated. In a study with five human volunteers a stereoselective excretion of the acylglucuronides could be observed. The S-etodolac-glucuronide is mainly excreted during the first 6 hours after administration of 400 mg of etodolac whereas the elimination of the R-glucuronide predominates at longer periods of time. The S-glucuronide of 7-hydroxy-etodolac was preferenetively excreted during the period of time observed. An unknown metabolite of etodolac could be characterized by chemical and enzymatically hydrolysis and by MS and NMR. PMID:9676278

  12. Diagnostic yield of hair and urine toxicology testing in potential child abuse cases.

    PubMed

    Stauffer, Stephanie L; Wood, Stephanie M; Krasowski, Matthew D

    2015-07-01

    Detection of drugs in a child may be the first objective finding that can be reported in cases of suspected child abuse. Hair and urine toxicology testing, when performed as part of the initial clinical evaluation for suspected child abuse or maltreatment, may serve to facilitate the identification of at-risk children. Furthermore, significant environmental exposure to a drug (considered by law to constitute child abuse in some states) may be identified by toxicology testing of unwashed hair specimens. In order to determine the clinical utility of hair and urine toxicology testing in this population we performed a retrospective chart review on all children for whom hair toxicology testing was ordered at our academic medical center between January 2004 and April 2014. The medical records of 616 children aged 0-17.5 years were reviewed for injury history, previous medication and illicit drug use by caregiver(s), urine drug screen result (if performed), hair toxicology result, medication list, and outcome of any child abuse evaluation. Hair toxicology testing was positive for at least one compound in 106 cases (17.2%), with unexplained drugs in 82 cases (13.3%). Of these, there were 48 cases in which multiple compounds (including combination of parent drugs and/or metabolites within the same drug class) were identified in the sample of one patient. The compounds most frequently identified in the hair of our study population included cocaine, benzoylecgonine, native (unmetabolized) tetrahydrocannabinol, and methamphetamine. There were 68 instances in which a parent drug was identified in the hair without any of its potential metabolites, suggesting environmental exposure. Among the 82 cases in which hair toxicology testing was positive for unexplained drugs, a change in clinical outcome was noted in 71 cases (86.5%). Urine drug screens (UDS) were performed in 457 of the 616 reviewed cases. Of these, over 95% of positive UDS results could be explained by iatrogenic drug administration. There were no cases in which a urine drug screen alone altered the outcome of a case. In summary, hair toxicology testing proved clinically useful in the evaluation of a child for suspected abuse; in contrast, urine drug testing showed low clinical yield. PMID:26048499

  13. Impact of a positive hepatitis C diagnosis on homeless injecting drug users: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Tompkins, Charlotte NE; Wright, Nat MJ; Jones, Lesley

    2005-01-01

    Background Increasing numbers of injecting drug users are presenting to primary care and a growing number of general practices are specifically providing care for homeless people. Injecting drug users are at the greatest risk of hepatitis C infection and homeless drug misusers, because of their drug-taking behaviour and patterns, have been identified as being at greater risk of harm of blood-borne diseases than the general population. However, little work has been conducted with injecting drug users or homeless people who have hepatitis C and little is known about how the virus may affect them. Aim To explore the impact of a positive hepatitis C diagnosis on homeless injecting drug users. Design of study This study employed qualitative research. In-depth interviews allowed the exploration of the impact of a potentially life-threatening diagnosis within the context of a person's expressed hierarchy of needs. Setting A primary care centre for homeless people in the north of England. Method In-depth interviews about the impact of a positive hepatitis C diagnosis on their lives were conducted with 17 homeless injecting drug users who had received a positive hepatitis C diagnosis. The interviews were audiotaped, transcribed, and analysed using the framework approach. Results Receiving a positive diagnosis for hepatitis C resulted in feelings of shock, devastation, disbelief, anger, and questioning. A positive diagnosis had lasting social, emotional, psychological, behavioural, and physical effects on homeless injecting drug users, even years after the initial diagnosis. Most responders were diagnosed by a doctor in primary care or by hospital staff; however, not all had sought testing and a number were tested while inpatients and were unaware that blood had been taken for hepatitis C virus serology. Conclusions The implications for clinical policy and primary care practice are discussed, including the issues of patient choice, confidentiality, and pre- and post-test discussions. Post-test discussions should be followed up with additional social, psychological, and medical support and counselling. PMID:15826432

  14. A high-sensitivity ultra-high performance liquid chromatography/high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HR-TOFMS) method for screening synthetic cannabinoids and other drugs of abuse in urine.

    PubMed

    Sundström, Mira; Pelander, Anna; Angerer, Verena; Hutter, Melanie; Kneisel, Stefan; Ojanperä, Ilkka

    2013-10-01

    The continuing emergence of designer drugs imposes high demands on the scope and sensitivity of toxicological drug screening procedures. An ultra-high performance liquid chromatography/high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HR-TOFMS) method was developed for screening and simultaneous confirmation of both designer drugs and other drugs of abuse in urine samples in a single run. The method covered selected synthetic cannabinoids and cathinones, amphetamines, natural cannabinoids, opioids, cocaine and other important drugs of abuse, together with their main urinary metabolites. The database consisted of 277 compounds with molecular formula and exact monoisotopic mass; retention time was included for 192 compounds, and primary and secondary qualifier ion exact mass for 191 and 95 compounds, respectively. Following a solid-phase extraction, separation was performed by UHPLC and mass analysis by HR-TOFMS. MS, and broad-band collision-induced dissociation data were acquired at m/z range 50-700. Compound identification was based on a reverse database search with acceptance criteria for retention time, precursor ion mass accuracy, isotopic pattern and abundance of qualifier ions. Mass resolving power in spiked urine samples was on average FWHM 23,500 and mass accuracy 0.3 mDa. The mean and median cut-off concentrations determined for 75 compounds were 4.2 and 1 ng/mL, respectively. The range of cut-off concentrations for synthetic cannabinoids was 0.2-60 ng/mL and for cathinones 0.7-15 ng/mL. The method proved to combine high sensitivity and a wide scope in a manner not previously reported in drugs of abuse screening. The method's feasibility was demonstrated with 50 authentic urine samples. PMID:23954996

  15. Molecular characterization and drug resistance of Escherichia coli strains isolated from urine from long-term care facility residents in Cracow, Poland

    PubMed Central

    Pobiega, Monika; Wojkowska-Mach, Jadwiga; Chmielarczyk, Agnieszka; Romaniszyn, Dorota; Adamski, Pawe?; Heczko, Piort B.; Gryglewska, Barbara; Grodzicki, Tomasz

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli and extended-spectrum ?-lactamases (ESBL) pathogens isolated from asymptomatic bacteriuria and urinary tract infections (UTIs), and the relationship between the phylogeny, antimicrobial resistance, and virulence among isolates in residents of 3 long-term care facilities (LTCF) in Krakow, Poland. Material/Methods This was point prevalence study and prospective infection control in a group of 217 people. Urine samples were examined with standard microbiological methods and screened for the presence of blaCTX-M, blaSHV, and blaTEM. E. coli isolates were screened for 6 common virulence factors (VFs) and classified according to the rapid phylogenetic grouping technique. Results Among all the strains tested, 14 isolates (13.9%) expressed ESBL activity. A significant proportion of isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin (32.7%, n=33). Resistance to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole was identified among 45 isolates (44.5%). Independent risk factors for the presence of an ESBL-producing strain were: UTI, urinary and/or fecal incontinence, bedridden, and low values of the Barthel and Katz Indexes. Gene sequencing identified 8 blaCTX-M-15, 1 blaCTX-M-3, 9 blaTEM-1, and 1 blaSHV-12. Among E. coli, no relationship between number of VF genes and phylogeny was found. The most prevalent virulence factor was fimH (82.1%). Conclusions The findings of this study emphasize the need for further research on the epidemiology of multi-drug resistant organisms (MDRO) and ESBL in LTCF, including transmission patterns, rates of infection, and factors associated with infections. It may be necessary to extend the requirements and precautions to MDRO and ESBL-producers. PMID:23632427

  16. Effects of urinary metabolites of etodolac on diagnostic tests of bilirubin in urine.

    PubMed

    Sho, Y; Ishiodori, T; Oketani, M; Kubozono, O; Nakamura, A; Takeuchi, A; Morino, A; Arima, T

    1999-07-01

    Etodolac (CAS 41340-25-4) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug used clinically. The bilirubin levels in urine samples from patients treated with etodolac were determined with diagnostic tests (diazo and oxidized methods). The urine samples gave a positive reaction with a diazo method, but not with an oxidized method. The serum concentrations of bilirubin in the patients were also in the normal range. These results indicate that the positive reaction of the urine samples from patients treated with etodolac is false and caused by urinary metabolites of etodolac. To identify the false positive substance in the urine samples, the urinary metabolites of etodolac were extracted with ethyl acetate. The extract was injected into a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) column and the eluate was mixed with the diazo reagent. Three positive fractions were found. The retention times of the two metabolites in HPLC matched with those of the 6- and 7-hydroxylated metabolites of etodolac. In addition, authentic compounds of the 6- and 7-hydroxylated metabolites gave a positive reaction in the diazo methods. These results indicate that the 6- and 7-hydroxylated metabolites are mainly responsible for the false positive reactions of the urine sample from patients treated with etodolac. PMID:10442203

  17. Clinical Validation of a Highly Sensitive GC-MS Platform for Routine Urine Drug Screening and Real-Time Reporting of up to 212 Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Hoofnagle, Andrew N.; Baird, Geoffrey S.

    2013-01-01

    An important role of the clinical toxicology laboratory is to provide continuous diagnostic testing for patients with altered mental status and for other medical indications. To meet these needs, we have developed a new Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) platform that facilitates routine screening and automated reporting of 212 drugs by laboratory technologists around the clock without the need to sign out by an on-site mass spectrometry-trained toxicologist. The platform uses a programmable temperature vaporizer (PTV) injector for large sample volume injection and the free software Automated Mass Spectral Deconvolution and Identification System (AMDIS) for data reduction and spectral matching that facilitates rapid library searching and analyte identification. Method comparison with 118 patient samples demonstrated that this platform and data searching algorithm independently provided improvements in sensitivity compared to an established GC-MS platform. Further examination of the role of the data processing software and the in-house databases used in the established versus the new platform demonstrated that the improved analytical sensitivity of the new platform was attributed to both the technical superiority of the new GC-MS instrumentation and the use of AMDIS in conjunction with the newly generated in-house library for data processing. PMID:23935615

  18. Clinical Validation of a Highly Sensitive GC-MS Platform for Routine Urine Drug Screening and Real-Time Reporting of up to 212 Drugs.

    PubMed

    Nair, Hari; Woo, Fred; Hoofnagle, Andrew N; Baird, Geoffrey S

    2013-01-01

    An important role of the clinical toxicology laboratory is to provide continuous diagnostic testing for patients with altered mental status and for other medical indications. To meet these needs, we have developed a new Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) platform that facilitates routine screening and automated reporting of 212 drugs by laboratory technologists around the clock without the need to sign out by an on-site mass spectrometry-trained toxicologist. The platform uses a programmable temperature vaporizer (PTV) injector for large sample volume injection and the free software Automated Mass Spectral Deconvolution and Identification System (AMDIS) for data reduction and spectral matching that facilitates rapid library searching and analyte identification. Method comparison with 118 patient samples demonstrated that this platform and data searching algorithm independently provided improvements in sensitivity compared to an established GC-MS platform. Further examination of the role of the data processing software and the in-house databases used in the established versus the new platform demonstrated that the improved analytical sensitivity of the new platform was attributed to both the technical superiority of the new GC-MS instrumentation and the use of AMDIS in conjunction with the newly generated in-house library for data processing. PMID:23935615

  19. Urine specific gravity test

    MedlinePLUS

    Urine specific gravity is a laboratory test that shows the concentration of all chemical particles in the urine. ... changes to will tell the provider the specific gravity of your urine. The dipstick test gives only ...

  20. 49 CFR 40.45 - What form is used to document a DOT urine collection?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...to document a DOT urine collection? (a) The Federal Drug Testing Custody and Control...to document every urine collection required by the DOT drug testing program. The...expired CCF for DOT urine collections...participant in the DOT drug testing program, you...

  1. 49 CFR 40.45 - What form is used to document a DOT urine collection?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...to document a DOT urine collection? (a) The Federal Drug Testing Custody and Control...to document every urine collection required by the DOT drug testing program. The...expired CCF for DOT urine collections...participant in the DOT drug testing program, you...

  2. 49 CFR 40.45 - What form is used to document a DOT urine collection?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...to document a DOT urine collection? (a) The Federal Drug Testing Custody and Control...to document every urine collection required by the DOT drug testing program. The...expired CCF for DOT urine collections...participant in the DOT drug testing program, you...

  3. Genomic analysis identifies targets of convergent positive selection in drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Farhat, Maha R; Shapiro, B Jesse; Kieser, Karen J; Sultana, Razvan; Jacobson, Karen R; Victor, Thomas C; Warren, Robin M; Streicher, Elizabeth M; Calver, Alistair; Sloutsky, Alex; Kaur, Devinder; Posey, Jamie E; Plikaytis, Bonnie; Oggioni, Marco R; Gardy, Jennifer L; Johnston, James C; Rodrigues, Mabel; Tang, Patrick K C; Kato-Maeda, Midori; Borowsky, Mark L; Muddukrishna, Bhavana; Kreiswirth, Barry N; Kurepina, Natalia; Galagan, James; Gagneux, Sebastien; Birren, Bruce; Rubin, Eric J; Lander, Eric S; Sabeti, Pardis C; Murray, Megan

    2013-10-01

    M. tuberculosis is evolving antibiotic resistance, threatening attempts at tuberculosis epidemic control. Mechanisms of resistance, including genetic changes favored by selection in resistant isolates, are incompletely understood. Using 116 newly sequenced and 7 previously sequenced M. tuberculosis whole genomes, we identified genome-wide signatures of positive selection specific to the 47 drug-resistant strains. By searching for convergent evolution--the independent fixation of mutations in the same nucleotide position or gene--we recovered 100% of a set of known resistance markers. We also found evidence of positive selection in an additional 39 genomic regions in resistant isolates. These regions encode components in cell wall biosynthesis, transcriptional regulation and DNA repair pathways. Mutations in these regions could directly confer resistance or compensate for fitness costs associated with resistance. Functional genetic analysis of mutations in one gene, ponA1, demonstrated an in vitro growth advantage in the presence of the drug rifampicin. PMID:23995135

  4. Workplace drug testing, different matrices different objectives.

    PubMed

    Tsanaclis, Lolita M; Wicks, John F C; Chasin, Alice A M

    2012-02-01

    Drug testing is used by employers to detect drug use by employees or job candidates. It can identify recent use of alcohol, prescription drugs, and illicit drugs as a screening tool for potential health and safety and performance issues. Urine is the most commonly used sample for illicit drugs. It detects the use of a drug within the last few days and as such is evidence of recent use; but a positive test does not necessarily mean that the individual was impaired at the time of the test. Abstention from use for three days will often produce a negative test result. Analysis of hair provides a much longer window of detection, typically 1 to 3 months. Hence the likelihood of a falsely negative test using hair is very much less than with a urine test. Conversely, a negative hair test is a substantially stronger indicator of a non-drug user than a negative urine test. Oral fluid (saliva) is also easy to collect. Drugs remain in oral fluid for a similar time as in blood. The method is a good way of detecting current use and is more likely to reflect current impairment. It offers promise as a test in post-accident, for cause, and on-duty situations. Studies have shown that within the same industrial settings, hair testing can detect twice as many drug users as urine testing. PMID:22362574

  5. Etoricoxib-induced fixed drug eruption with positive lesional patch tests.

    PubMed

    Calistru, Ana Maria; Cunha, Ana Paula; Nogueira, Ana; Azevedo, Filomena

    2011-06-01

    Fixed drug eruption (FDE) is most commonly associated with antibiotics, anticonvulsants, and nonnarcotic analgens, including nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). However, the newer cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) inhibitors have been rarely reported to cause FDE. We report the case of a 52-year-old Caucasian woman with erythematous pruritic plaques on the neck, left forearm, and second finger of the right hand, healing with hyperpigmentation and recurring in the same locations. The patient was sporadically taking oral etoricoxib 90 mg for her back pain and noticed the relation between administration of the drug and skin lesions, the time interval decreasing progressively from 1 week to 30 minutes. No other signs, symptoms, or drug intake was mentioned. The patch tests with etoricoxib 1% and 5% in petrolatum were positive at the location of the lesions and negative on the back (nonlesional skin). Standard European and NSAID series were negative. Patch tests of 10 healthy controls with etoricoxib 1% and 5% in petrolatum were negative. After the avoidance of the drug, no relapse was mentioned. The patch test was reliable for the diagnosis of FDE, avoiding the need for subsequent oral provocation testing and therefore preventing the possible adverse effects. Despite being regarded as a safe drug, the occurrence of cutaneous adverse reactions to etoricoxib should be considered, especially in the setting of its increasing use in pain control. PMID:21108578

  6. Student Drug Testing in the Context of Positive and Negative School Climates: Results from a National Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sznitman, Sharon R.; Dunlop, Sally M.; Nalkur, Priya; Khurana, Atika; Romer, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Positive school climates and student drug testing have been separately proposed as strategies to reduce student substance use in high schools. However, the effects of drug testing programs may depend on the favorability of school climates. This study examined the association between school drug testing programs and student substance use in schools…

  7. Urine testing for norcodeine, norhydrocodone, and noroxycodone facilitates interpretation and reduces false negatives.

    PubMed

    Cone, Edward J; Zichterman, Anne; Heltsley, Rebecca; Black, David L; Cawthon, Beverly; Robert, Tim; Moser, Frank; Caplan, Yale H

    2010-05-20

    Urine drug testing of pain patients provides objective information to health specialists regarding patient compliance, diversion, and concurrent illicit drug use. Interpretation of urine test results for semi-synthetic opiates can be difficult because of complex biotransformations of parent drug to metabolites that are also available commercially and may be abused. Normetabolites such as norcodeine, norhydrocodone and noroxycodone are unique metabolites that are not available commercially. Consequently, detection of normetabolite in specimens not containing parent drug, provides conclusive evidence that the parent drug was consumed. The goal of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and patterns of the three normetabolites, norcodeine, norhydrocodone and noroxycodone, in urine specimens of pain patients treated with opiates. Urine specimens were hydrolyzed with beta-glucuronidase and analyzed by a validated liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) assay for the presence of codeine, norcodeine, morphine, hydrocodone, norhydrocodone, hydromorphone, dihydrocodeine, oxycodone, noroxycodone, and oxymorphone. The limit of quantitation (LOQ) for these analytes was 50ng/mL. The study was approved by an Institutional Review Board. Of the total specimens (N=2654) tested, 71.4% (N=1895) were positive (>or=LOQ) for one or more of the analytes. The prevalence (%) of positive results for codeine, hydrocodone and oxycodone was 1.2%, 26.1%, and 36.2%, respectively, and the prevalence of norcodeine, norhydrocodone and noroxycodone was 0.5%, 22.1%, and 31.3%, respectively. For specimens containing normetabolite, the prevalence of norcodeine, norhydrocodone and noroxycodone in the absence of parent drug was 8.6%, 7.8% and 9.4%, respectively. From one-third to two-thirds of these specimens also did not contain other metabolites that could have originated from the parent drug. Consequently, the authors conclude that inclusion of norcodeine, norhydrocodone and noroxycodone is useful in interpretation of opiate drug source and reduces potential false negatives that would occur without tests for these unique metabolites. PMID:20036472

  8. Environment-mediated drug resistance in Bcr/Abl-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Feldhahn, Niklas; Arutyunyan, Anna; Stoddart, Sonia; Zhang, Bin; Schmidhuber, Sabine; Yi, Sun-Ju; Kim, Yong-Mi; Groffen, John; Heisterkamp, Nora

    2012-08-01

    Although cure rates for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) have increased, development of resistance to drugs and patient relapse are common. The environment in which the leukemia cells are present during the drug treatment is known to provide significant survival benefit. Here, we have modeled this process by culturing murine Bcr/Abl-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells in the presence of stroma while treating them with a moderate dose of two unrelated drugs, the farnesyltransferase inhibitor lonafarnib and the tyrosine kinase inhibitor nilotinib. This results in an initial large reduction in cell viability of the culture and inhibition of cell proliferation. However, after a number of days, cell death ceases and the culture becomes drug-tolerant, enabling cell division to resume. Using gene expression profiling, we found that the development of drug resistance was accompanied by massive transcriptional upregulation of genes that are associated with general inflammatory responses such as the metalloproteinase MMP9. MMP9 protein levels and enzymatic activity were also increased in ALL cells that had become nilotinib-tolerant. Activation of p38, Akt and Erk correlated with the development of environment-mediated drug resistance (EMDR), and inhibitors of Akt and Erk in combination with nilotinib reduced the ability of the cells to develop resistance. However, inhibition of p38 promoted increased resistance to nilotinib. We conclude that development of EMDR by ALL cells involves changes in numerous intracellular pathways. Development of tolerance to drugs such as nilotinib may therefore be circumvented by simultaneous treatment with other drugs having divergent targets. PMID:22934254

  9. Studies on the metabolism and the toxicological analysis of the nootropic drug fipexide in rat urine using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roland F. Staack; Hans H. Maurer

    2004-01-01

    Qualitative studies are described on the metabolism and the toxicological analysis of the nootropic fipexide (FIP) in rat urine using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). FIP was extensively metabolized to 1-(3,4-methylenedioxybenzyl)piperazine (MDBP), 4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid, 1-[2-(4-chlorophenoxy)acetyl]piperazine, N-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-benzyl)piperazine, piperazine, N-(3,4-methylenedioxybenzyl)ethylenediamine, and N-[2-(4-chlorophenoxy)acetyl]ethylenediamine. The authors’ systematic toxicological analysis (STA) procedure using full-scan GC–MS after acid hydrolysis of one urine aliquot, liquid-liquid extraction and acetylation

  10. Drug Testing in a University Athletic Program: Protocol and Implementation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rovere, George D.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    An athletic drug education, counseling, and screening program at Wake Forest University is described. Decisions regarding which athletes to test, which drugs to test for and how to test for them, how to collect urine samples, and measures taken for a positive result are discussed. (MT)

  11. Detecting Cocaine and Opiates in Urine: Comparing Three Commercial Assays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert F. Schilling; Balmatee Bidassie; Nabila El-Bassel

    1999-01-01

    Urine screening is a potentially useful tool for detecting drugs of abuse in treatment, criminal justice, and other human service settings. This article examines the relative accuracy and other features of three drug screening assays sold by commercial laboratories: (1) Abbott Diagnostics ADx machine and reagents; (2) ONTRAK, manufactured by Roche Diagnostics; and (3) EZ-SCREEN, manufactured by Environmental Diagnostics. Urine

  12. Use of liquid chromatography coupled to low- and high-resolution linear ion trap mass spectrometry for studying the metabolism of paynantheine, an alkaloid of the herbal drug Kratom in rat and human urine.

    PubMed

    Philipp, Anika A; Wissenbach, Dirk K; Weber, Armin A; Zapp, Josef; Zoerntlein, Siegfried W; Kanogsunthornrat, Jidapha; Maurer, Hans H

    2010-04-01

    The Thai medicinal plant Mitragyna speciosa (Kratom in Thai) is misused as a herbal drug of abuse. During studies on the main Kratom alkaloid mitragynine (MG) in rats and humans, several dehydro analogs could be detected in urine of Kratom users, which were not found in rat urine after administration of pure MG. Questions arose as to whether these compounds are formed from MG only by humans or whether they are metabolites formed from the second abundant Kratom alkaloid paynantheine (PAY), the dehydro analog of MG. Therefore, the aim of the presented study was to identify the phase I and II metabolites of PAY in rat urine after administration of the pure alkaloid. This was first isolated from Kratom leaves. Liquid chromatography-linear ion trap mass spectrometry provided detailed structure information of the metabolites in the MS(n) mode particularly with high resolution. Besides PAY, the following phase I metabolites could be identified: 9-O-demethyl PAY, 16-carboxy PAY, 9-O-demethyl-16-carboxy PAY, 17-O-demethyl PAY, 17-O-demethyl-16,17-dihydro PAY, 9,17-O-bisdemethyl PAY, 9,17-O-bisdemethyl-16,17-dihydro PAY, 17-carboxy-16,17-dihydro PAY, and 9-O-demethyl-17-carboxy-16,17-dihydro PAY. These metabolites indicated that PAY was metabolized via the same pathways as MG. Several metabolites were excreted as glucuronides or sulfates. The metabolism studies in rats showed that PAY and its metabolites corresponded to the MG-related dehydro compounds detected in urine of the Kratom users. In conclusion, PAY and its metabolites may be further markers for a Kratom abuse in addition of MG and its metabolites. PMID:19902190

  13. Safe Syringe Disposal is Related to Safe Syringe Access among HIV-positive Injection Drug Users

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Phillip O. Coffin; Mary H. Latka; Carl Latkin; Yingfeng Wu; David W. Purcell; Lisa Metsch; Cynthia Gomez; Marc N. Gourevitch

    2007-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of syringe acquisition on syringe disposal among HIV-positive injection drug users (IDUs) in Baltimore,\\u000a New York City, and San Francisco (N = 680; mean age 42 years, 62% male, 59% African-American, 21% Hispanic, 12% White). Independent predictors of safe disposal\\u000a were acquiring syringes through a safe source and ever visiting a syringe exchange program. Weaker predictors included living\\u000a in

  14. Drug hypersensitivity in clonal mast cell disorders: ENDA/EAACI position paper.

    PubMed

    Bonadonna, P; Pagani, M; Aberer, W; Bilò, M B; Brockow, K; Oude Elberink, H; Garvey, L; Mosbech, H; Romano, A; Zanotti, R; Torres, M J

    2015-07-01

    Mastocytosis is a clonal disorder characterized by the proliferation and accumulation of mast cells (MC) in different tissues, with a preferential localization in skin and bone marrow (BM). The excess of MC in mastocytosis as well as the increased releasability of MC may lead to a higher frequency and severity of immediate hypersensitivity reactions. Mastocytosis in adults is associated with a history of anaphylaxis in 22-49%. Fatal anaphylaxis has been described particularly following hymenoptera stings, but also occasionally after the intake of drugs such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, opioids and drugs in the perioperative setting. However, data on the frequency of drug hypersensitivity in mastocytosis and vice versa are scarce and evidence for an association appears to be limited. Nevertheless, clonal MC disorders should be ruled out in cases of severe anaphylaxis: basal serum tryptase determination, physical examination for cutaneous mastocytosis lesions, and clinical characteristics of anaphylactic reaction might be useful for differential diagnosis. In this position paper, the ENDA group performed a literature search on immediate drug hypersensitivity reactions in clonal MC disorders using MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library, reviewed and evaluated the literature in five languages using the GRADE system for quality of evidence and strength of recommendation. PMID:25824492

  15. Use of Vouchers to Reinforce Abstinence and Positive Behaviors among Clients in a Drug Court Treatment Program

    PubMed Central

    Prendergast, Michael L.; Hall, Elizabeth A.; Roll, John; Warda, Umme

    2008-01-01

    In response to growing numbers of drug offenders cycling in and out of the criminal justice system without treatment for underlying drug problems, the judicial system has increasingly adopted drug courts as a strategy to divert these offenders from incarceration to supervised drug treatment. Our aim was to determine if drug court treatment effectiveness could be improved using contingency management, in the form of twice-weekly vouchers, to reinforce abstinence and positive behaviors for 163 clients over 26 weeks. We found no significant differences in outcomes among the study groups, although the Treatment Plan Group that received reinforcement for positive behaviors showed a trend toward poorer performance. We suspect that the influence of the judge within the courtroom had a stronger impact on drug court clients’ attitudes, drug use behaviors and other outcomes than the relatively low-value vouchers awarded as part of the treatment protocol. PMID:17997267

  16. Detection and prevalence of drug use in arrested drivers using the Dräger Drug Test 5000 and Affiniton DrugWipe oral fluid drug screening devices.

    PubMed

    Logan, Barry K; Mohr, Amanda L A; Talpins, Stephen K

    2014-09-01

    The use of oral fluid (OF) drug testing devices offers the ability to rapidly obtain a drug screening result at the time of a traffic stop. We describe an evaluation of two such devices, the Dräger Drug Test 5000 and the Affiniton DrugWipe, to detect drug use in a cohort of drivers arrested from an investigation of drug impaired driving (n = 92). Overall, 41% of these drivers were ultimately confirmed positive by mass spectrometry for the presence of one or more drugs. The most frequently detected drugs were cannabinoids (30%), benzodiazepines (11%) and cocaine (10%). Thirty-nine percent of drivers with blood alcohol concentrations >0.08 g/100 mL were found to be drug positive. Field test results obtained from OF samples were compared with collected OF and urine samples subsequently analyzed in the laboratory by gas or liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The Dräger Drug Test 5000 (DDT5000) and DrugWipe returned overall sensitivities of 51 and 53%, and positive predictive values of 93 and 63%, respectively. The most notable difference in performance was the DDT5000's better sensitivity in detecting marijuana use. Both devices failed to detect benzodiazepine use. Oral fluid proved to be a more effective confirmatory specimen, with more drugs being confirmed in OF than urine. PMID:24894458

  17. Evaluation of urine acidification by urine anion gap and urine osmolal gap in chronic metabolic acidosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gheun-Ho Kim; Jin Suk Han; Yon Su Kim; Kwon Wook Joo; Suhnggwon Kim; Jung Sang Lee

    1996-01-01

    To investigate the clinical significance of urine anion gap and urine osmolal gap as indirect markers of urine acidification in chronic metabolic acidosis, we evaluated urine ammonium (NH4+), net acid excretion (NAE), urine anion gap (Na+ + K+ ? Cl?), and urine osmolal gap (urine osmolality ? [2(Na+ + K+) + urea]) in 24 patients with chronic renal failure (CRF),

  18. Oral Fluid Testing for Drugs of Abuse: Positive Prevalence Rates by Intercept™ Immunoassay Screening and GC-MS-MS Confirmation and Suggested Cutoff Concentrations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward J. Cone; Lance Presley; Michael Lehrer; William Seiter; Melissa Smith; Keith W. Kardos; Dean Fritch; Sal Salamone; R. Sam Niedbala

    Draft guidelines for the use of oral fluid for workplace drug testing are under development by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) in cooperation with industry and researchers. Comparison studies of the effectiveness of oral fluid testing versus urine testing are needed to establish scientifically reliable cutoff concentrations for oral fluid testing. We present the results of

  19. Scientific issues in drug testing: council on scientific affairs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-06-12

    Testing for drugs in biologic fluids, especially urine, is a practice that has become widespread. The technology of testing for drugs in urine has greatly improved in recent years. Inexpensive screening techniques are not sufficiently accurate for forensic testing standards, which must be met wihen a person's employment or reputation may be affected by results. This is particularly a concern during screening of a population in which the prevalence of drug use is very low, in which the predictive value of a positive result would be quite low. Physicians should be aware that results from drug testing can yield accurate evidence of prior exposure to drugs, but they do not provide information about patterns of drug use, about abuse of or dependence on drugs, or about mental or physical impairments that may result from drug use.

  20. Social networks and HCV viremia among anti-HCV positive rural drug users

    PubMed Central

    YOUNG, A. M.; JONAS, A. B.; HAVENS, J. R.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Though social networks are known to play an important role in drug-using behaviors associated with HCV infection, literature on social networks and HCV is inconsistent. This exploratory study examined HCV RNA distribution within a social network of anti-HCV positive rural Appalachia nonmedical prescription opioid users (NMPOUs). Participants were tested serologically for HCV RNA, and behavioral, demographic, and network data were collecting using interview-administered questionnaires. Multivariate analyses were performed using logistic regression. Behavioral and demographic characteristics did not differ by RNA status. In the multivariate model, recent injection drug users were more likely to be RNA-positive (OR: 4.06, 95% CI: 1.04 – 15.83), and turnover into one’s drug network was significantly protective (OR: 0.15, 95% CI: 0.03-0.75). This is the first study to date to examine HCV distribution among rural NMPOUs from a network perspective and demonstrates that network characteristics significantly contribute to the epidemiology of HCV in this understudied, high-risk population. PMID:22717190

  1. FLT3 Inhibition and Mechanisms of Drug Resistance in mutant FLT3-Positive AML

    PubMed Central

    Weisberg, Ellen; Barrett, Rosemary; Liu, Qingsong; Stone, Richard; Gray, Nathanael; Griffin, James D.

    2015-01-01

    An appealing therapeutic target for AML is constitutively-activated, mutant FLT3, which is expressed in a subpopulation of AML patients and is generally a poor prognostic indicator in patients under the age of 65. There are currently several FLT3 inhibitors that are undergoing clinical investigation. However, the discovery of drug-resistant leukemic blast cells in FLT3 inhibitor-treated AML patients has prompted the search for novel, structurally diverse FLT3 inhibitors that could be alternatively used to circumvent drug resistance. Here, we provide an overview of FLT3 inhibitors under preclinical and clinical investigation, and we discuss mechanisms whereby AML cells develop resistance to FLT3 inhibitors, and the ways in which combination therapy could potentially be utilized to override drug resistance. We discuss how the cross-talk between major downstream signaling pathways, such as PI3K/PTEN/Akt/mTOR, RAS/Raf/MEK/ERK, and Jak/STAT, can be exploited for therapeutic purposes by targeting key signaling molecules with selective inhibitors, such as mTOR inhibitors, HSP90 inhibitors, or farnesyltransferase inhibitors, and identifying those agents with the ability to positively combine with inhibitors of FLT3, such as PKC412 and sunitinib. With the widespread onset of drug resistance associated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors, due to mechanisms involving development of point mutations or gene amplification of target proteins, the use of a multi-targeted therapeutic approach is of potential clinical benefit. PMID:19467916

  2. Waterless Urinals: Features, Benefits and Applications

    E-print Network

    Bristow, G.; McClure, J. D.; Fisher, D.

    2004-01-01

    with generally positive results. This paper will discuss the design, applications, operation, maintenance, advantages, and disadvantages of waterless urinals. The results of two surveys of current users will be shared. A case study from a Texas school district...

  3. Urine concentration test

    MedlinePLUS

    A urine concentration test measures the ability of the kidneys to appropriately conserve or excrete water. ... Increased urine concentration may be due to different conditions, such as: Heart failure Loss of body fluids (dehydration) from diarrhea or ...

  4. PH urine test (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    The urine is tested for acidity or alkalinity (pH) because certain medications are more effective in acidic or alkaline environments. Medications for urinary tract infections are more effective when the urine ...

  5. A polyphenylene dendrimer drug transporter with precisely positioned amphiphilic surface patches.

    PubMed

    Stangenberg, René; Wu, Yuzhou; Hedrich, Jana; Kurzbach, Dennis; Wehner, Daniel; Weidinger, Gilbert; Kuan, Seah Ling; Jansen, Malin Insa; Jelezko, Fedor; Luhmann, Heiko J; Hinderberger, Dariush; Weil, Tanja; Müllen, Klaus

    2015-02-18

    The design and synthesis of a polyphenylene dendrimer (PPD 3) with discrete binding sites for lipophilic guest molecules and characteristic surface patterns is presented. Its semi-rigidity in combination with a precise positioning of hydrophilic and hydrophobic groups at the periphery yields a refined architecture with lipophilic binding pockets that accommodate defined numbers of biologically relevant guest molecules such as fatty acids or the drug doxorubicin. The size, architecture, and surface textures allow to even penetrate brain endothelial cells that are a major component of the extremely tight blood-brain barrier. In addition, low to no toxicity is observed in in vivo studies using zebrafish embryos. The unique PPD scaffold allows the precise placement of functional groups in a given environment and offers a universal platform for designing drug transporters that closely mimic many features of proteins. PMID:25182694

  6. Getting a Urine Test

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... the Body Works Main Page Getting a Urine Test (Video) KidsHealth > Kids > Movies & More > Movies > Getting a Urine Test (Video) Print A A A Text Size It ... cup, but docs learn a lot from urine tests. Obviously, this test doesn't hurt. And if ...

  7. Fragmentation of toxicologically relevant drugs in positive-ion liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Niessen, W M A

    2011-01-01

    The identification of drugs and related compounds by LC-MS-MS is an important analytical challenge in several application areas, including clinical and forensic toxicology, doping control analysis, and environmental analysis. Although target-compound based analytical strategies are most frequently applied, at some point the information content of the MS-MS spectra becomes relevant. In this article, the positive-ion MS-MS spectra of a wide variety of drugs and related substances are discussed. Starting point was an MS-MS mass spectral library of toxicologically relevant compounds, available on the internet. The positive-ion MS-MS spectra of ?570 compounds were interpreted by chemical and therapeutic class, thus involving a wide variety of drug compound classes, such benzodiazepines, beta-blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, phenothiazines, dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers, diuretics, local anesthetics, vasodilators, as well as various subclasses of anti-diabetic, antidepressant, analgesic, and antihistaminic drugs. In addition, the scientific literature was searched for available MS-MS data of these compound classes and the interpretation thereof. The results of this elaborate study are presented in this article. For each individual compound class, the emphasis is on class-specific fragmentation, as discussing fragmentation of all individual compounds would take far too much space. The recognition of class-specific fragmentation may be quite informative in determining the compound class of a specific unknown, which may further help in the identification. In addition, knowledge on (class-specific) fragmentation may further help in the optimization of the selectivity in targeted analytical approaches of compounds of one particular class. PMID:21294151

  8. Positive-charged solid lipid nanoparticles as paclitaxel drug delivery system in glioblastoma treatment.

    PubMed

    Chirio, Daniela; Gallarate, Marina; Peira, Elena; Battaglia, Luigi; Muntoni, Elisabetta; Riganti, Chiara; Biasibetti, Elena; Capucchio, Maria Teresa; Valazza, Alberto; Panciani, Pierpaolo; Lanotte, Michele; Annovazzi, Laura; Caldera, Valentina; Mellai, Marta; Filice, Gaetano; Corona, Silvia; Schiffer, Davide

    2014-11-01

    Paclitaxel loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) of behenic acid were prepared with the coacervation technique. Generally, spherical shaped SLN with mean diameters in the range 300–600 nm were obtained. The introduction of charged molecules, such as stearylamine and glycol chitosan into the formulation allowed to obtain positive SLN with Zeta potential in the 8-20 mV range and encapsulation efficiency in the 25–90% range.Blood–brain barrier (BBB) permeability, tested in vitro through hCMEC/D3 cells monolayer, showed a significantly increase in the permeation of Coumarin-6, used as model drug, when vehicled in SLN. Positive-charged SLN do not seem to enhance permeation although stearylamine-positive SLN resulted the best permeable formulation after 24 h.Cytotoxicity studies on NO3 glioblastoma cell line demonstrated the maintenance of cytotoxic activity of all paclitaxel-loaded SLN that was always unmodified or greater compared with free drug. No difference in cytotoxicity was noted between neutral and charged SLN.Co-culture experiments with hCMEC/D3 and different glioblastoma cells evidenced that, when delivered in SLN, paclitaxel increased its cytotoxicity towards glioblastoma cells. PMID:25445304

  9. Student Drug Testing in the Context of Positive and Negative School Climates: Results from a National Survey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sharon R. SznitmanSally; Sally M. Dunlop; Priya Nalkur; Atika Khurana; Daniel Romer

    Positive school climates and student drug testing have been separately proposed as strategies to reduce student substance\\u000a use in high schools. However, the effects of drug testing programs may depend on the favorability of school climates. This\\u000a study examined the association between school drug testing programs and student substance use in schools with different climates.\\u000a The analysis was based on

  10. Mechanisms of resistance to antimicrobial drugs in pathogenic Gram-positive cocci.

    PubMed

    Mlynarczyk, B; Mlynarczyk, A; Kmera-Muszynska, M; Majewski, S; Mlynarczyk, G

    2010-09-01

    Many species of Gram-positive cocci are pathogenic. The most important are staphylococci, streptococci, and enterococci. Widespread usage of antibiotics was the main cause for the appearance and spread of resistance to almost all antimicrobials. The occurrence, mechanisms, and genetic background of resistance to antimicrobial drugs other than beta-lactams and glycopeptides among pathogenic staphylococci, streptococci, and enterococci are discussed in the text. Well-established agents (such as macrolides, lincosamides, streptogramins, aminoglycosides, quinolones, mupirocin, chloramphenicol) as well as new agents (linezolid, daptomycin, quinupristine/dalfopristine, ratapamulin, tigecycline, iclaprim and new generations of quinolones) are considered. PMID:20370697

  11. Observation of swelling process and diffusion front position during swelling in hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) matrices containing a soluble drug

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paolo Colombo; Ruggero Bettini; Nikolaos A. Peppas

    1999-01-01

    The behavior of gel layer thickness in swellable hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose matrices loaded with increasing amounts of soluble and colored drug and exhibiting swelling, diffusion and erosion fronts, was studied using a colorimetric technique. The effect of the drug loading on the front position in the gel layer, in particular, on the presence of a diffusion front and its movement,

  12. The Drug User's Identity and How It Relates to Being Hepatitis C Antibody Positive: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copeland, Lorraine

    2004-01-01

    The increasing health problem of hepatitis C virus infection has only recently attracted the attention of psychosocial research, especially among subjects at higher risk (e.g. injecting drug users). There is a lack of information about the knowledge, perceptions and feelings that injecting drug users hold about their hepatitis C antibody positive

  13. On-Demand Urine Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farquharson, Stuart; Inscore, Frank; Shende, Chetan

    2010-01-01

    A lab-on-a-chip was developed that is capable of extracting biochemical indicators from urine samples and generating their surface-enhanced Raman spectra (SERS) so that the indicators can be quantified and identified. The development was motivated by the need to monitor and assess the effects of extended weightlessness, which include space motion sickness and loss of bone and muscle mass. The results may lead to developments of effective exercise programs and drug regimes that would maintain astronaut health. The analyzer containing the lab-on-a- chip includes materials to extract 3- methylhistidine (a muscle-loss indicator) and Risedronate (a bone-loss indicator) from the urine sample and detect them at the required concentrations using a Raman analyzer. The lab-on- a-chip has both an extractive material and a SERS-active material. The analyzer could be used to monitor the onset of diseases, such as osteoporosis.

  14. Application of non-linear angle synchronous spectrofluorimetry to the determination of complex mixtures of drugs in urine: A comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murillo Pulgarín, J. A.; Alañón Molina, A.; Boras, N.

    2012-12-01

    Synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy (SFS) is a rapid, sensitive and non-destructive method suitable for the analysis of multifluorophoric mixtures. In this study non linear variable angle synchronous spectrofluorimetry was applied to the determination of three fluoroquinololes in urine. Although this technique provides very good results, total resolution of multicomponent mixtures is not always achieved when the spectral profiles strongly overlap. Partial least-squares regression (PLS-1) was utilized to a develop calibration model that related synchronous fluorescence spectra to the analytical concentration of fluoroquinolones in the presence of urine. The same multicomponent mixture was determined using excitation emission matrix fluorescence (EEMF) along with N-way partial least squares regression (N-PLS and U-PLS). The determination was carried out in micellar medium 0.01 M with a pH of 4.8 provided by 0.2 M sodium acetate/acetic acid buffer. A central composite design was selected to obtain a calibration matrix of 25 standards plus a blank sample. The proposed methods were validated by application to a test set of synthetic samples. The results show that SFS with PLS-1 is a better method compared to EEMF with N-PLS or U-PLS because of the low RMSEP values of the former.

  15. Positive allosteric modulators to peptide GPCRs: a promising class of drugs

    PubMed Central

    Bartfai, Tamas; Wang, Ming-wei

    2013-01-01

    The task of finding selective and stable peptide receptor agonists with low molecular weight, desirable pharmacokinetic properties and penetrable to the blood-brain barrier has proven too difficult for many highly coveted drug targets, including receptors for endothelin, vasoactive intestinal peptide and galanin. These receptors and ligand-gated ion channels activated by structurally simple agonists such as glutamate, glycine and GABA present such a narrow chemical space that the design of subtype-selective molecules capable of distinguishing a dozen of glutamate and GABA receptor subtypes and possessing desirable pharmacokinetic properties has also been problematic. In contrast, the pharmaceutical industry demonstrates a remarkable success in developing 1,4-benzodiazepines, positive allosteric modulators (PMAs) of the GABAA receptor. They were synthesized over 50 years ago and discovered to have anxiolytic potential through an in vivo assay. As exemplified by Librium, Valium and Dormicum, these allosteric ligands of the receptor became the world's first blockbuster drugs. Through molecular manipulation over the past 2 decades, including mutations and knockouts of the endogenous ligands or their receptors, and by in-depth physiological and pharmacological studies, more peptide and glutamate receptors have become well-validated drug targets for which an agonist is sought. In such cases, the pursuit for PAMs has also intensified, and a working paradigm to identify drug candidates that are designed as PAMs has emerged. This review, which focuses on the general principles of finding PAMs of peptide receptors in the 21st century, describes the workflow and some of its resulting compounds such as PAMs of galanin receptor 2 that act as potent anticonvulsant agents. PMID:23624758

  16. Positive allosteric modulators to peptide GPCRs: a promising class of drugs.

    PubMed

    Bartfai, Tamas; Wang, Ming-wei

    2013-07-01

    The task of finding selective and stable peptide receptor agonists with low molecular weight, desirable pharmacokinetic properties and penetrable to the blood-brain barrier has proven too difficult for many highly coveted drug targets, including receptors for endothelin, vasoactive intestinal peptide and galanin. These receptors and ligand-gated ion channels activated by structurally simple agonists such as glutamate, glycine and GABA present such a narrow chemical space that the design of subtype-selective molecules capable of distinguishing a dozen of glutamate and GABA receptor subtypes and possessing desirable pharmacokinetic properties has also been problematic. In contrast, the pharmaceutical industry demonstrates a remarkable success in developing 1,4-benzodiazepines, positive allosteric modulators (PMAs) of the GABAA receptor. They were synthesized over 50 years ago and discovered to have anxiolytic potential through an in vivo assay. As exemplified by Librium, Valium and Dormicum, these allosteric ligands of the receptor became the world's first blockbuster drugs. Through molecular manipulation over the past 2 decades, including mutations and knockouts of the endogenous ligands or their receptors, and by in-depth physiological and pharmacological studies, more peptide and glutamate receptors have become well-validated drug targets for which an agonist is sought. In such cases, the pursuit for PAMs has also intensified, and a working paradigm to identify drug candidates that are designed as PAMs has emerged. This review, which focuses on the general principles of finding PAMs of peptide receptors in the 21st century, describes the workflow and some of its resulting compounds such as PAMs of galanin receptor 2 that act as potent anticonvulsant agents. PMID:23624758

  17. Analysis of cocaethylene, benzoylecgonine and cocaine in human urine by high-performance thin-layer chromatography with ultraviolet detection: a comparison with high-performance liquid chromatography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Letizia Antonilli; Carmen Suriano; Maria Caterina Grassi; Paolo Nencini

    2001-01-01

    Cocaine and ethanol are frequently used at the same time, resulting in the formation of cocaethylene by transesterification. We studied the capability of high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) to simultaneously detect cocaethylene, cocaine and benzoylecgonine in 16 urine specimens of drug addicts, previously tested as positive for benzoylecgonine at immunoenzymatic screening. Accuracy and precision, as well as detection and quantitation limits

  18. Purification of clenbuterol-like beta2-agonist drugs of new generation from bovine urine and hair by alpha1-acid glycoprotein affinity chromatography and determination by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Gallo, Pasquale; Brambilla, Gianfranco; Neri, Bruno; Fiori, Maurizio; Testa, Cecilia; Serpe, Luigi

    2007-03-21

    The control of illegal use of clenbuterol and other beta(2)-agonist drugs as growth promoters in the European Union countries has led to outlaw practices for synthesizing new concept molecules, showing similar biological activity but not detectable by test methods usually employed to perform the official monitoring programmes. The synthesis schemes of some beta(2)-agonist compounds, formally derived from clenbuterol, were found out by Italian detective authorities. These compounds were synthesised ex novo in our laboratories: then, both their molecular structures and biological activities were characterised. In this paper, we describe different strategies for purifying some beta(2)-agonist drugs of new concept, more hydrophobic than clenbuterol. A two-step clean up procedure, prior to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis, was developed for the multi-residue determination of these beta(2)-agonists from bovine hair and urine. The purification strategy we chose was based on adsorption solid phase extraction and, subsequently, on specific molecular recognition by affinity chromatography. The affinity columns were homemade by coupling bovine alpha(1)-acid glycoprotein, a plasmatic acceptor for basic drugs, to a chromatographic support; their effectiveness for purifying new beta(2)-agonists was discussed. The data about method recoveries and repeatability were also reported. PMID:17386755

  19. Usability application of multiplex polymerase chain reaction in the diagnosis of microorganisms isolated from urine of patients treated in cancer hospital

    PubMed Central

    Cybulski, Zefiryn; Schmidt, Katarzyna; Grabiec, Alicja; Talaga, Zofia; Boci?g, Piotr; Wojciechowicz, Jacek; Roszak, Andrzej; Kycler, Witold

    2013-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was: i) to compare the results of urine culture with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) -based detection of microorganisms using two commercially available kits, ii) to assess antimicrobial susceptibility of urine isolates from cancer patients to chosen antimicrobial drugs and, if necessary, to update the recommendation of empirical therapy. Materials and methods. A one-year hospital-based prospective study has been conducted in Greater Poland Cancer Centre and Genetic Medicine Laboratory CBDNA Research Centre in 2011. Urine cultures and urine PCR assay from 72 patients were examined Results Urine cultures and urine PCR assay from 72 patients were examined. Urine samples were positive for 128 strains from which 95 (74%) were identical in both tests. The most frequently isolated bacteria in both culture and PCR assay were coliform organisms and Enterococcus spp. The Gram negative bacilli were most resistant to cotrimoxazol. 77.2% of these bacilli and 100% of E. faecalis and S. agalactiae were sensitive to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid. 4.7% of Gram positive cocci were resistant to nitrofurantoin. Conclusions The PCR method quickly finds the causative agent of urinary tract infection (UTI) and, therefore, it can help with making the choice of the proper antimicrobial therapy at an early stage. It appears to be a viable alternative to the recommendations made in general treatment guidelines, in cases where diversified sensitivity patterns of microorganisms have been found. PMID:24133395

  20. Impaired Urine Dilution Capability in HIV Stable Patients

    PubMed Central

    Belloso, Waldo H.; de Paz Sierra, Mariana; Navarro, Matilde; Sanchez, Marisa L.; Perelsztein, Ariel G.; Musso, Carlos G.

    2014-01-01

    Renal disease is a well-recognized complication among patients with HIV infection. Viral infection itself and the use of some antiretroviral drugs contribute to this condition. The thick ascending limb of Henle's loop (TALH) is the tubule segment where free water clearance is generated, determining along with glomerular filtration rate the kidney's ability to dilute urine. Objective. We analyzed the function of the proximal tubule and TALH in patients with HIV infection receiving or not tenofovir-containing antiretroviral treatment in comparison with healthy seronegative controls, by applying a tubular physiological test, hyposaline infusion test (Chaimowitz' test). Material & Methods. Chaimowitz' test was performed on 20 HIV positive volunteers who had normal renal functional parameters. The control group included 10 healthy volunteers. Results. After the test, both HIV groups had a significant reduction of serum sodium and osmolarity compared with the control group. Free water clearance was lower and urine osmolarity was higher in both HIV+ groups. Proximal tubular function was normal in both studied groups. Conclusion. The present study documented that proximal tubule sodium reabsorption was preserved while free water clearance and maximal urine dilution capability were reduced in stable HIV patients treated or not with tenofovir. PMID:24800076

  1. Effect of storage temperature on endogenous GHB levels in urine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc A LeBeau; Mark L Miller; Barry Levine

    2001-01-01

    Because ?-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is an endogenous substance present in the body and is rapidly eliminated after ingestion, toxicologists investigating drug-facilitated sexual assault cases are often asked to differentiate between endogenous and exogenous levels of GHB in urine samples.This study was designed to determine the effects of storage temperature on endogenous GHB levels in urine. Specifically, it was designed to ascertain

  2. Evaluation of adverse drug reactions in HIV positive patients in a tertiary care hospital

    PubMed Central

    Jha, Anshu Kumar; Gadgade, Akash; Shenoy, Ashok K.; Chowta, Mukta N.; Ramapuram, John T.

    2015-01-01

    Context: The advancement and development of new drugs and treatment strategies increase the risk of unusual Adverse Events (AEs) in HIV patients. Aims: The objective of our study was to assess the incidence, types and nature of AEs in HIV positive subjects. Settings and Design: Patients with WHO stage IV disease irrespective of the CD4 cell count, or WHO stage III disease with a CD4 cell count <350 cell/cu. Mm, or, WHO stage I or II disease with a CD4 cell count of <200 cells/cu. mm, and on prior anti-retroviral therapy for not more than six months preceding the observation date, were included in the study. After initiation of therapy, the patients were examined for the occurrence any adverse events including the type and severity, or any other abnormal laboratory findings. Causality assessment of the adverse events was done using the Naranjo's scale. Results: Out of 327 patients studied prospectively, 43 patients developed AEs. Out of these, 23 (53.5%) were males and 20 (46.5%) were females. A total of 53 (16.21%) AEs were reported. Antitubercular drugs caused the maximum AEs (28.3%) followed by zidovudine (20.7%), nevirapine (15.0%) and efavirenz (5.6%). Stavudine, ethambutol, sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim, and atazanavir were also responsible for 3.7% of AEs individually. Causality assessment done according to the Naranjo's scale revealed that 66.04% AEs were ‘probable’ and 33.96% were ‘possible’. Conclusions: Anemia, hepatitis and dermatological adverse effects are the most common AEs. Antitubercular drugs contributed significantly for the incidence of AEs in these patients. Frequency of AEs was slightly more in males compared to females. PMID:25657900

  3. Urine Pretreat Injection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    A new method of introducing the OXONE (Registered Trademark) Monopersulfate Compound for urine pretreat into a two-phase urine/air flow stream has been successfully tested and evaluated. The feasibility of this innovative method has been established for purposes of providing a simple, convenient, and safe method of handling a chemical pretreat required for urine processing in a microgravity space environment. Also, the Oxone portion of the urine pretreat has demonstrated the following advantages during real time collection of 750 pounds of urine in a Space Station design two-phase urine Fan/Separator: Eliminated urine precipitate buildup on internal hardware and plumbing; Minimized odor from collected urine; and Virtually eliminated airborne bacteria. The urine pretreat, as presently defined for the Space Station program for proper downstream processing of urine, is a two-part chemical treatment of 5.0 grams of Oxone and 2.3 ml of H2SO4 per liter of urine. This study program and test demonstrated only the addition of the proper ratio of Oxone into the urine collection system upstream of the Fan/Separator. This program was divided into the following three major tasks: (1) A trade study, to define and recommend the type of Oxone injection method to pursue further; (2) The design and fabrication of the selected method; and (3) A test program using high fidelity hardware and fresh urine to demonstrate the method feasibility. The trade study was conducted which included defining several methods for injecting Oxone in different forms into a urine system. Oxone was considered in a liquid, solid, paste and powered form. The trade study and the resulting recommendation were presented at a trade study review held at Hamilton Standard on 24-25 October 94. An agreement was reached at the meeting to continue the solid tablet in a bag concept which included a series of tablets suspended in the urine/air flow stream. These Oxone tablets would slowly dissolve at a controlled rate providing the proper concentration in the collected urine. To implement the solid tablet in a bag approach, a design concept was completed with prototype drawings of the complete urine pretreat prefilter assembly. A successful fabrication technique was developed for retaining the Oxone tablets in a fabric casing attached to the end of the existing Space Station Waste Collection System urine prefilter assembly. The final pretreat prefilter configuration held sufficient Oxone in a tablet form to allow normal scheduled daily (or twice daily) change out of the urine filter depending on the use rate of the Space Station urine collection system. The actual tests to prove the concept were conducted using the Urine Fan/Separator assembly that was originally used in the STS-52 Design Test Objective (DTO) urinal assembly. Other related tests were conducted to demonstrate the actual minimum ratio of Oxone to urine that will control microbial growth.

  4. Urine testing for norcodeine, norhydrocodone, and noroxycodone facilitates interpretation and reduces false negatives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward J. Cone; Anne Zichterman; Rebecca Heltsley; David L. Black; Beverly Cawthon; Tim Robert; Frank Moser; Yale H. Caplan

    2010-01-01

    Urine drug testing of pain patients provides objective information to health specialists regarding patient compliance, diversion, and concurrent illicit drug use. Interpretation of urine test results for semi-synthetic opiates can be difficult because of complex biotransformations of parent drug to metabolites that are also available commercially and may be abused. Normetabolites such as norcodeine, norhydrocodone and noroxycodone are unique metabolites

  5. Human Urine as a Noninvasive Source of Kidney Cells

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira Arcolino, Fanny; Tort Piella, Agnès; Papadimitriou, Elli; Bussolati, Benedetta; Antonie, Daniel J.; Murray, Patricia; van den Heuvel, Lamberthus; Levtchenko, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Urine represents an unlimited source of patient-specific kidney cells that can be harvested noninvasively. Urine derived podocytes and proximal tubule cells have been used to study disease mechanisms and to screen for novel drug therapies in a variety of human kidney disorders. The urinary kidney stem/progenitor cells and extracellular vesicles, instead, might be promising for therapeutic treatments of kidney injury. The greatest advantages of urine as a source of viable cells are the easy collection and less complicated ethical issues. However, extensive characterization and in vivo studies still have to be performed before the clinical use of urine-derived kidney progenitors.

  6. Overall false positive rates in tests for linear trend in tumor incidence in animal carcinogenicity studies of new drugs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karl K. Lin; Mohammad A. Rahman

    1998-01-01

    Based on results of simulation and empirical studies conducted within the divisions of biometrics, center for drug evaluation and research, food and drug administration, and in collaboration with the national toxicology program, the center has recently changed the significance levels for testing positive linear trend in incidence rate for common and rare tumors, respectively, from 0.01 and 0.05 to 0.005

  7. Impact of urine concentration adjustment method on associations between urine metals and estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) in adolescents?

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, Virginia M.; Vargas, Gonzalo García; Silbergeld, Ellen K.; Rothenberg, Stephen J.; Fadrowski, Jeffrey J.; Rubio-Andrade, Marisela; Parsons, Patrick J.; Steuerwald, Amy J.; Navas-Acien, Ana; Guallar, Eliseo

    2014-01-01

    Positive associations between urine toxicant levels and measures of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) have been reported recently in a range of populations. The explanation for these associations, in a direction opposite that of traditional nephrotoxicity, is uncertain. Variation in associations by urine concentration adjustment approach has also been observed. Associations of urine cadmium, thallium and uranium in models of serum creatinine- and cystatin-C-based estimated GFR (eGFR) were examined using multiple linear regression in a cross-sectional study of adolescents residing near a lead smelter complex. Urine concentration adjustment approaches compared included urine creatinine, urine osmolality and no adjustment. Median age, blood lead and urine cadmium, thallium and uranium were 13.9 years, 4.0 ?g/dL, 0.22, 0.27 and 0.04 g/g creatinine, respectively, in 512 adolescents. Urine cadmium and thallium were positively associated with serum creatinine-based eGFR only when urine creatinine was used to adjust for urine concentration (? coefficient=3.1 mL/min/1.73 m2; 95% confidence interval=1.4, 4.8 per each doubling of urine cadmium). Weaker positive associations, also only with urine creatinine adjustment, were observed between these metals and serum cystatin-C-based eGFR and between urine uranium and serum creatinine-based eGFR. Additional research using non-creatinine-based methods of adjustment for urine concentration is necessary. PMID:24815335

  8. Impact of urine concentration adjustment method on associations between urine metals and estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Virginia M; Vargas, Gonzalo García; Silbergeld, Ellen K; Rothenberg, Stephen J; Fadrowski, Jeffrey J; Rubio-Andrade, Marisela; Parsons, Patrick J; Steuerwald, Amy J; Navas-Acien, Ana; Guallar, Eliseo

    2014-07-01

    Positive associations between urine toxicant levels and measures of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) have been reported recently in a range of populations. The explanation for these associations, in a direction opposite that of traditional nephrotoxicity, is uncertain. Variation in associations by urine concentration adjustment approach has also been observed. Associations of urine cadmium, thallium and uranium in models of serum creatinine- and cystatin-C-based estimated GFR (eGFR) were examined using multiple linear regression in a cross-sectional study of adolescents residing near a lead smelter complex. Urine concentration adjustment approaches compared included urine creatinine, urine osmolality and no adjustment. Median age, blood lead and urine cadmium, thallium and uranium were 13.9 years, 4.0 ?g/dL, 0.22, 0.27 and 0.04 g/g creatinine, respectively, in 512 adolescents. Urine cadmium and thallium were positively associated with serum creatinine-based eGFR only when urine creatinine was used to adjust for urine concentration (? coefficient=3.1 mL/min/1.73 m(2); 95% confidence interval=1.4, 4.8 per each doubling of urine cadmium). Weaker positive associations, also only with urine creatinine adjustment, were observed between these metals and serum cystatin-C-based eGFR and between urine uranium and serum creatinine-based eGFR. Additional research using non-creatinine-based methods of adjustment for urine concentration is necessary. PMID:24815335

  9. RBC urine test

    MedlinePLUS

    Red blood cells in urine; Hematuria test; Urine - red blood cells ... A normal result is 4 RBC/HPF (red blood cells per high power field) or less when the sample is examined under a microscope. The example above is a common measurement ...

  10. Construction of an Integrated Positive Youth Development Conceptual Framework for the Prevention of the Use of Psychotropic Drugs among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Tak Yan

    2011-01-01

    This is a theoretical paper with an aim to construct an integrated conceptual framework for the prevention of adolescents' use and abuse of psychotropic drugs. This paper first reports the subjective reasons for adolescents' drug use and abuse in Hong Kong and reviews the theoretical underpinnings. Theories of drug use and abuse, including neurological, pharmacological, genetic predisposition, psychological, and sociological theories, were reviewed. It provides a critical re-examination of crucial factors that support the construction of a conceptual framework for primary prevention of adolescents' drug use and abuse building on, with minor revision, the model of victimization and substance abuse among women presented by Logan et al. This revised model provides a comprehensive and coherent framework synthesized from theories of drug abuse. This paper then provides empirical support for integrating a positive youth development perspective in the revised model. It further explains how the 15 empirically sound constructs identified by Catalano et al. and used in a positive youth development program, the Project P.A.T.H.S., relate generally to the components of the revised model to formulate an integrated positive youth development conceptual framework for primary prevention of adolescent drug use. Theoretical and practical implications as well as limitations and recommendations are discussed. PMID:22194671

  11. Comparison of ultrasound-enhanced air-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction and low-density solvent-based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction methods for determination of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in human urine samples.

    PubMed

    Barfi, Behruz; Asghari, Alireza; Rajabi, Maryam; Goochani Moghadam, Ahmad; Mirkhani, Nasim; Ahmadi, Farhad

    2015-07-10

    Two dispersive-based liquid-liquid microextraction methods including ultrasound-enhanced air-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction (USE-AALLME) and low-density solvent-based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (LDS-DLLME) were compared for the extraction of salicylic acid (the hydrolysis product of acetylsalicylic acid), diclofenac and ibuprofen, as instances of the most commonly used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), in human urine prior to their determination by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID). The influence of different parameters affecting the USE-AALLME (including type and volume of the extraction solvent, sample pH, ionic strength, and simultaneous sonication and number of extraction cycles) and the LDS-DLLME (including type and volume of the extraction and disperser solvents, sample pH, and ionic strength) were investigated to optimize their extraction efficiencies. Both methods are fast, simple and convenient with organic solvent consumption at ?L level. However, the best results were obtained using the USE-AALLME method, applying 30?L of 1-octanol as extraction solvent, 5.0mL of sample at pH 3.0, without salt addition, and 5 extraction cycles during 20s of sonication. This method was validated based on linearities (r(2)>0.971), limits of detection (0.1-1.0?gL(-1)), linear dynamic ranges (0.4-1000.0?gL(-1)), enrichment factors (115±3-135±3), consumptive indices (0.043-0.037), inter- and intra-day precisions (4.3-4.8 and 5.6-6.1, respectively), and relative recoveries (94-103%). The USE-AALLME in combination with GC-FID, and with no need to derivatization step, was demonstrated to be a simple, inexpensive, sensitive and efficient method to determine NSAIDs in human urine samples. PMID:25916913

  12. Validity of the self-report on drug use by university students: Correspondence between self-reported use and use detected in urine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Flor Zaldívar Basurto; José Manuel García Montes; Pilar Flores Cubos; Fernando Sánchez Santed; Francisca López Ríos; Antonio Molina Moreno

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to determine the validity of a self-report on recent drug use (cocaine and cannabis) in a sample of university students of both sexes and to explore the role of attitudes toward substance use as related to this report. The subjects (506) were volunteers aged 17-35 years (who received an economic incentive) recruited at the

  13. Urine collection device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michaud, R. B. (inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A urine collection device for females is described. It is comprised of a collection element defining a urine collection chamber and an inlet opening into the chamber and is adapted to be disposed in surrounding relation to the urethral opening of the user. A drainage conduit is connected to the collection element in communication with the chamber whereby the chamber and conduit together comprise a urine flow pathway for carrying urine generally away from the inlet. A first body of wicking material is mounted adjacent the collection element and extends at least partially into the flow pathway. The device preferably also comprise a vaginal insert element including a seal portion for preventing the entry of urine into the vagina.

  14. 49 CFR 40.49 - What materials are used to collect urine specimens?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...materials are used to collect urine specimens? 40.49 Section...TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Collection Sites...Equipment and Supplies Used in DOT Urine Collections § 40.49 What materials are used to collect urine specimens? For each...

  15. 49 CFR 40.51 - What materials are used to send urine specimens to the laboratory?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...What materials are used to send urine specimens to the laboratory...TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Collection Sites...Equipment and Supplies Used in DOT Urine Collections § 40.51 What materials are used to send urine specimens to the...

  16. 49 CFR 40.49 - What materials are used to collect urine specimens?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...materials are used to collect urine specimens? 40.49 Section...TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Collection Sites...Equipment and Supplies Used in DOT Urine Collections § 40.49 What materials are used to collect urine specimens? For each...

  17. 49 CFR 40.51 - What materials are used to send urine specimens to the laboratory?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...What materials are used to send urine specimens to the laboratory...TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Collection Sites...Equipment and Supplies Used in DOT Urine Collections § 40.51 What materials are used to send urine specimens to the...

  18. 49 CFR 40.51 - What materials are used to send urine specimens to the laboratory?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...What materials are used to send urine specimens to the laboratory...TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Collection Sites...Equipment and Supplies Used in DOT Urine Collections § 40.51 What materials are used to send urine specimens to the...

  19. 49 CFR 40.49 - What materials are used to collect urine specimens?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...materials are used to collect urine specimens? 40.49 Section...TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Collection Sites...Equipment and Supplies Used in DOT Urine Collections § 40.49 What materials are used to collect urine specimens? For each...

  20. 49 CFR 40.51 - What materials are used to send urine specimens to the laboratory?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...What materials are used to send urine specimens to the laboratory...TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Collection Sites...Equipment and Supplies Used in DOT Urine Collections § 40.51 What materials are used to send urine specimens to the...

  1. 49 CFR 40.49 - What materials are used to collect urine specimens?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...materials are used to collect urine specimens? 40.49 Section...TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Collection Sites...Equipment and Supplies Used in DOT Urine Collections § 40.49 What materials are used to collect urine specimens? For each...

  2. 49 CFR 40.49 - What materials are used to collect urine specimens?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...materials are used to collect urine specimens? 40.49 Section...TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Collection Sites...Equipment and Supplies Used in DOT Urine Collections § 40.49 What materials are used to collect urine specimens? For each...

  3. 49 CFR 40.51 - What materials are used to send urine specimens to the laboratory?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...What materials are used to send urine specimens to the laboratory...TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Collection Sites...Equipment and Supplies Used in DOT Urine Collections § 40.51 What materials are used to send urine specimens to the...

  4. Lefetamine-derived designer drugs N-ethyl-1,2-diphenylethylamine (NEDPA) and N-iso-propyl-1,2-diphenylethylamine (NPDPA): metabolism and detectability in rat urine using GC-MS, LC-MSn and LC-HR-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Wink, Carina S D; Meyer, Golo M J; Wissenbach, Dirk K; Jacobsen-Bauer, Andrea; Meyer, Markus R; Maurer, Hans H

    2014-10-01

    N-Ethyl-1,2-diphenylethylamine (NEDPA) and N-iso-propyl-1,2-diphenylethylamine (NPDPA) are two designer drugs, which were confiscated in Germany in 2008. Lefetamine (N,N-dimethyl-1,2-diphenylethylamine, also named L-SPA), the pharmaceutical lead of these designer drugs, is a controlled substance in many countries. The aim of the present work was to study the phase I and phase II metabolism of these drugs in rats and to check for their detectability in urine using the authors' standard urine screening approaches (SUSA). For the elucidation of the metabolism, rat urine samples were worked up with and without enzymatic cleavage, separated and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-high resolution-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-HR-MS/MS). According to the identified metabolites, the following metabolic pathways for NEDPA and NPDPA could be proposed: N-dealkylation, mono- and bis-hydroxylation of the benzyl ring followed by methylation of one of the two hydroxy groups, combinations of these steps, hydroxylation of the phenyl ring after N-dealkylation, glucuronidation and sulfation of all hydroxylated metabolites. Application of a 0.3 mg/kg BW dose of NEDPA or NPDPA, corresponding to a common lefetamine single dose, could be monitored in rat urine using the authors' GC-MS and LC-MS(n) SUSA. However, only the metabolites could be detected, namely N-deethyl-NEDPA, N-deethyl-hydroxy-NEDPA, hydroxy-NEDPA, and hydroxy-methoxy-NEDPA or N-de-iso-propyl-NPDPA, N-de-iso-propyl-hydroxy-NPDPA, and hydroxy-NPDPA. Assuming similar kinetics, an intake of these drugs should also be detectable in human urine. PMID:24591097

  5. Punitive policing and associated substance use risks among HIV-positive people in Russia who inject drugs

    PubMed Central

    Lunze, Karsten; Raj, Anita; Cheng, Debbie M.; Quinn, Emily K.; Bridden, Carly; Blokhina, Elena; Walley, Alexander Y.; Krupitsky, Evgeny; Samet, Jeffrey H.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Drug law enforcement is part of the HIV risk environment among people who inject drugs (PWID). Punitive policing practices such as extrajudicial arrests for needle possession and police planting of drugs have been described anecdotally in Russia, but these experiences and their associations with risky drug behaviours have not been quantified. This study aims to quantify the burden of extrajudicial police arrests among a cohort of HIV-positive PWID in Russia and to explore its links to drug-related health outcomes. Methods In a cross-sectional study of 582 HIV-positive people with lifetime injection drug use (IDU) in St. Petersburg, Russia, we estimated the prevalence of self-reported extrajudicial police arrests. We used multiple logistic regression to evaluate associations between arrests and the following outcomes: overdose, recent IDU and receptive needle sharing. Findings This cohort's mean age was 29.8 years, 60.8% were male; 75.3% reported non-fatal drug overdose, 50.3% recent IDU and 47.3% receptive needle sharing. Extrajudicial arrests were reported by more than half (60.5%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 56.5–64.5) and were associated with higher odds of non-fatal drug overdose (AOR 1.52, 95% CI: 1.02–2.25) but not with recent IDU (AOR 1.17, arrests were associated with receptive needle sharing (AOR 1.84, 95% CI: 1.09–3.09). Conclusions Extrajudicial police arrests were common among this cohort of Russian HIV-positive PWID and associated with non-fatal overdose and, among those with recent IDU, receptive needle sharing. As a part of the HIV risk environment of PWIDs, these practices might contribute to HIV transmission and overdose mortality. Further research is needed to relate these findings to the operational environment of law enforcement and to better understand how police interventions among PWIDs can improve the HIV risk environment. PMID:25014321

  6. Detection of hydatid antigen in urine by countercurrent immunoelectrophoresis.

    PubMed Central

    Parija, S C; Ravinder, P T; Rao, K S

    1997-01-01

    Hydatid antigen was demonstrated for the first time in the urine of patients with hydatid disease by countercurrent immunoelectrophoresis (CIEP). The antigen was detected in the concentrated urine of 7 of 16 (43.75% positive) patients with surgically confirmed hydatid disease, 4 of 10 (40% positive) patients with ultrasound-proven hydatid disease (daughter cysts or prominent septation and hydatid sands demonstrated by ultrasound), and 8 of 14 (57.14% positive) patients with clinically diagnosed (presumptive) hydatid disease. No antigen was detected in the concentrated urine from 24 patients with parasitic diseases other than hydatid disease. However, antigen was detected in 2 (8% false positive) of 25 concentrated urine samples collected from healthy control subjects (blood donors and students). These result suggest that the detection of hydatid antigen in the urine by CIEP is a simple, rapid, and noninvasive method of diagnosis of hydatid disease. PMID:9163484

  7. 28 CFR 550.43 - Drug counseling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drug counseling. 550.43 Section 550.43 ...Drug Services (Urine Surveillance and Counseling for Sentenced Inmates in Contract CTCs) § 550.43 Drug counseling. (a) Drug counseling...

  8. 28 CFR 550.43 - Drug counseling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drug counseling. 550.43 Section 550.43 ...Drug Services (Urine Surveillance and Counseling for Sentenced Inmates in Contract CTCs) § 550.43 Drug counseling. (a) Drug counseling...

  9. 28 CFR 550.43 - Drug counseling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drug counseling. 550.43 Section 550.43 ...Drug Services (Urine Surveillance and Counseling for Sentenced Inmates in Contract CTCs) § 550.43 Drug counseling. (a) Drug counseling...

  10. 28 CFR 550.43 - Drug counseling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drug counseling. 550.43 Section 550.43 ...Drug Services (Urine Surveillance and Counseling for Sentenced Inmates in Contract CTCs) § 550.43 Drug counseling. (a) Drug counseling...

  11. 28 CFR 550.43 - Drug counseling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drug counseling. 550.43 Section 550.43 ...Drug Services (Urine Surveillance and Counseling for Sentenced Inmates in Contract CTCs) § 550.43 Drug counseling. (a) Drug counseling...

  12. College on Problems of Drug Dependence taskforce on prescription opioid non-medical use and abuse: position statement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James Zacny; George Bigelow; Peggy Compton; Kathleen Foley; Martin Iguchi; Christine Sannerud

    2003-01-01

    This position paper from the College on Problems of Drug Dependence addresses the issues related to non-medical use and abuse of prescription opioids. A central theme throughout is the need to strike a balance between risk management strategies to prevent and deter prescription opioid abuse and the need for physicians and patients to have appropriate access to opioid pharmaceuticals for

  13. Prevalence of drug use in commercial tractor-trailer drivers.

    PubMed

    Couper, Fiona J; Pemberton, Melissa; Jarvis, Anjanette; Hughes, Marty; Logan, Barry K

    2002-05-01

    An enforcement emphasis project, "Operation Trucker Check," was established in order to determine the extent to which commercial tractor-trailer drivers were operating their vehicles while impaired by drugs. A total of 1079 drivers and their vehicles were assessed for driver and equipment violations, and drivers additionally underwent preliminary field sobriety tests conducted by drug recognition expert (DRE) officers. Anonymous urine specimens for drug analysis were requested, and 822 urine specimens were obtained in total. Compliance with the drug-testing portion was voluntary, and there was a 19% refusal rate. Overall, 21% of the urine specimens tested positive for either illicit, prescription, and/or over-the-counter drugs, and 7% tested positive for more than one drug. Excluding caffeine and nicotine, the largest number of positive findings (9.5%) were for CNS stimulants, such as methamphetamine, amphetamine, phentermine, ephedrine/pseudoephedrine, and cocaine. The second most frequently encountered drug class were the cannabinoids, with 4.3% of drivers testing positive for marijuana metabolites. Only 11 drivers (1.3%) were positive for alcohol. Sixteen truck drivers (1.6%) were charged with driving under the influence of drugs after a full DRE evaluation was conducted. The results indicate that in spite of comprehensive drug testing in the trucking industry, some tractor-trailer drivers are continuing to take illicit and other drugs with the potential of having a negative effect on their driving ability. On the other hand, only a few drivers were, in fact, deemed to be under the influence of drugs at the time of driving when evaluated by DRE officers. PMID:12051337

  14. Diagnostic Performance of Triagetrade mark for Benzodiazepines: Urine Analysis of the Dose of Therapeutic Cases.

    PubMed

    Kurisaki, Emiko; Hayashida, Makiko; Nihira, Makoto; Ohno, Youkichi; Mashiko, Hirobumi; Okano, Takaaki; Niwa, Shin-Ichi; Hiraiwa, Kouichi

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated the diagnostic performance of Triage for benzodiazepines in 74 urine specimens from outpatients given therapeutic doses of benzodiazepines and compared the results of EMIT assays. Results obtained in all urine samples were confirmed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Overall agreement between results of Triage and EMIT assays was 73%. All of the Triage-positive samples were also positive by EMIT assays. Results of Triage and EMIT assays were different for 20 samples obtained from patients given thienodiazepines (etizolam, brotizolam, and clotiazepam) and nitrobenzodiazepines (nitrazepam, flunitrazepam, and clonazepam). LC-MS confirmed parent drugs in urine specimens, consistent with the prescriptions of drugs. The low agreement between Triage and EMIT results in this study might be due to low sensitivity of Triage for thienodiazepines. Thienodiazines are frequently prescribed benzodiazepines, and Triage panel is the most frequently used screening kit in Japan. It should be noted that negative results obtained by a Triage test might not mean the absence of thienodiazepines. PMID:16297284

  15. Diagnostic performance of Triage for benzodiazepines: urine analysis of the dose of therapeutic cases.

    PubMed

    Kurisaki, Emiko; Hayashida, Makiko; Nihira, Makoto; Ohno, Youkichi; Mashiko, Hirobumi; Okano, Takaaki; Niwa, Shin-ichi; Hiraiwa, Kouichi

    2005-09-01

    We evaluated the diagnostic performance of Triage for benzodiazepines in 74 urine specimens from outpatients given therapeutic doses of benzodiazepines and compared the results of EMIT assays. Results obtained in all urine samples were confirmed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Overall agreement between results of Triage and EMIT assays was 73%. All of the Triage-positive samples were also positive by EMIT assays. Results of Triage and EMIT assays were different for 20 samples obtained from patients given thienodiazepines (etizolam, brotizolam, and clotiazepam) and nitrobenzodiazepines (nitrazepam, flunitrazepam, and clonazepam). LC-MS confirmed parent drugs in urine specimens, consistent with the prescriptions of drugs. The low agreement between Triage and EMIT results in this study might be due to low sensitivity of Triage for thienodiazepines. Thienodiazines are frequently prescribed benzodiazepines, and Triage panel is the most frequently used screening kit in Japan. It should be noted that negative results obtained by a Triage test might not mean the absence of thienodiazepines. PMID:16168176

  16. HCG in urine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... in blood serum - qualitative HCG in blood serum - quantitative Pregnancy test ... Urine HCG tests are a common method of determining if a woman is pregnant. The best time to test for pregnancy at home is after you miss your period.

  17. Leukocyte esterase urine test

    MedlinePLUS

    Leukocyte esterase is a urine test to look for white blood cells and other signs of infection. ... Leukocyte esterase is a screening test used to detect a substance that suggests there are white blood ...

  18. Urine Blockage in Newborns

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the ureter joins the kidney, only the kidney swells. The ureter remains a normal size. UPJ obstruction ... urine backs up and causes the ureters to swell, called hydroureter, and hydronephrosis. Swelling in the kidney ...

  19. Urinating more at night

    MedlinePLUS

    ... you to urinate more often during the night. Caffeine and alcohol after dinner can also lead to ... or urinary tract Drinking a lot of alcohol, caffeine, or other fluids before bedtime Enlarged prostate gland ( ...

  20. Alcohol and drug use in teenagers with diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Glasgow, A M; Tynan, D; Schwartz, R; Hicks, J M; Turek, J; Driscol, C; O'Donnell, R M; Getson, P R

    1991-01-01

    Alcohol and drug use in adolescents with diabetes mellitus was assessed by an anonymous self-administered questionnaire with verification by urine drug screening. Approximately 50% of these adolescents report having tried alcohol and 25% report ongoing use. Almost 25% have tried drugs of abuse and 5% report ongoing use. One of 97 consecutive urine specimens was positive for marijuana. In general, the frequency of alcohol and drug use was less than expected based on other studies of different clinical groups of patients in the same age range. Patients with diabetes who reported drug use or who reported they live in an environment of substance abuse had poorer diabetes control than patients who did not. PMID:2007146

  1. Development testing of a shuttle urine collection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Flight tests conducted in December 1973 demonstrated the ability of an unisexual urine collection subsystem to function in a zero-g environment. The urinal, which could be adjusted with three degrees of freedom, accommodated 16 female test subjects with a wide range of stature, as well as five male test subjects. The urinal was in intimate contact with the female and was contoured to form an effective air seal at the periphery. When positioned 2-4 inches forward, the urinal could be used for male collection and contact was not required.

  2. Direct tandem mass spectrometry for the simultaneous assay of opioids, cocaine and metabolites in dried urine spots.

    PubMed

    Otero-Fernández, Mara; Cocho, José Ángel; Tabernero, María Jesús; Bermejo, Ana María; Bermejo-Barrera, Pilar; Moreda-Piñeiro, Antonio

    2013-06-19

    A micro-analytical method based on spotting urine samples (20?L) onto blood/urine spot collection cards followed by air-drying and extraction (dried urine spot, DUS) was developed and validated for the screening/confirmation assay of morphine, 6-methylacetylmorphine (6-MAM), codeine, cocaine and benzoylecgonine (BZE). Acetonitrile (3 mL) was found to be a useful solvent for target extraction from DUSs under an orbital-horizontal stirring at 180 rpm for 10 min. Determinations were performed by direct electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) under positive electrospray ionization conditions, and by using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) with one precursor ion/product ion transition for the identification and quantification (deuterated analogs of each target as internal standards) of each analyte. The limits of detection of the method were 0.26, 0.94, 1.5, 1.1, and 2.0 ng mL(-1), for cocaine, BZE, codeine, morphine and 6-MAM, respectively; whereas, relative standard deviations of intra- and inter-day precision were lower than 8 and 11%, respectively, and intra- and inter-day analytical recoveries ranged from 94±4 to 105±3%. The small volume of urine required (20 ?L), combined with the simplicity of the analytical technique makes it a useful procedure for screening/quantifying drugs of abuse. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of urine from polydrug abusers. PMID:23746404

  3. The prevalence of alcohol, cannabinoids, benzodiazepines and stimulants amongst injured drivers and their role in driver culpability: part i: the prevalence of drug use in drive the drug-positive group.

    PubMed

    Longo, M C; Hunter, C E; Lokan, R J; White, J M; White, M A

    2000-09-01

    Blood samples from 2,500 injured drivers were analysed for alcohol, cannabinnoids, benzodiazepines and stimulants. Overall, three-quarters of drivers tested negative for drugs. Alcohol was the most frequently detected drug. Cannabinoids were also detected at high rates, but the majority of drivers tested positive for THC-acid, the inactive metabolite of THC. Benzodiazepines and stimulants were detected at low rates, and detection rates for combinations of drugs were also low. Males were more likely to test positive for drugs, especially alcohol and THC, whereas females were more likely to test positive for benzodiazepines. A similar proportion of car drivers and motorcycle riders tested positive for drugs, although riders were more likely to test positive for THC. Single-vehicle crashes were particularly associated with alcohol for both car driver and riders, and for riders, multiple-vehicle crashes were particularly associated with THC. PMID:10908133

  4. Detection and identification of 2-nitro-morphine and 2-nitro-morphine-6-glucuronide in nitrite adulterated urine specimens containing morphine and its glucuronides.

    PubMed

    Luong, Susan; Fu, Shanlin

    2014-03-01

    In vitro urine adulteration is a well-documented practice adopted by individuals aiming to evade detection of drug use, when required to undergo mandatory sports and workplace drug testing. Potassium nitrite is an effective urine adulterant due to its oxidizing potential, and has been shown to mask the presence of many drugs of abuse. However, limited research has been conducted to understand its mechanism of action, and to explore the possibility of the drugs undergoing direct oxidation to form stable reaction products. In this study, opiates including morphine, codeine, morphine-3-glucuronide and morphine-6-glucuronide were exposed to potassium nitrite in water and urine to mimic the process of nitrite adulteration. It was found that two stable reaction products were detected by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) when morphine and morphine-6-glucuronide were exposed to nitrite. Isolation and elucidation using spectrometric and spectroscopic techniques revealed that they were 2-nitro-morphine and 2-nitro-morphine-6-glucuronide, respectively. These reaction products were also formed when an authentic morphine-positive urine specimen was fortified with nitrite. 2-Nitro-morphine was found to be stable enough to undergo the enzymatic hydrolysis procedure and also detectable by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) after forming a trimethylsilyl derivative. On the contrary, morphine-3-glucuronide did not appear to be chemically manipulated when exposed to potassium nitrite in urine. These reaction products are not endogenously produced, are relatively stable and can be monitored with both LC-MS and GC-MS confirmatory techniques. As a result, these findings have revealed the possibility for the use of 2-nitro-morphine and 2-nitro-morphine-6-glucuronide as markers for the indirect monitoring of morphine and morphine-6-glucuronide in urine specimens adulterated with nitrite. PMID:23592389

  5. A preliminary study of spiritual self-schema (3-S(+)) therapy for reducing impulsivity in HIV-positive drug users

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arthur Margolin; Zev Schuman-Olivier; Mark Beitel; Ruth M. Arnold; Carl E. Fulwiler; S. Kelly Avants

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was twofold. First, pretreatment correlations are presented among impulsivity, intoxicant use, HIV risk behavior, spirituality, and motivation in a sample of 38 HIV-positive drug users. Second, treatment outcomes are presented from a preliminary study of spiritual self-schema (3-S(+)) therapy - a manual-guided psychotherapy integrating cognitive and Buddhist psychologies - for increasing motivation for abstinence, HIV

  6. Prevalence of illicit drug use in patients without controlled substance abuse in interventional pain management.

    PubMed

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Pampati, Vidyasagar; Damron, Kim S; Beyer, Carla D; Barnhill, Renee C

    2003-04-01

    Drug abuse with illicit drugs and licit drugs has been increasing steadily over the past decade. A recent National Household Survey on Drug Abuse found statistically significant increases between 2000 and 2001 in the use of multiple drugs, including marijuana, cocaine, and non-medical use of pain relievers and tranquilizers. Prescription controlled substance abuse is a major issue in chronic pain management. Various means suggested to avoid or monitor abuse in patients in treatment include urine/serum drug screening whenever requested, along with other precautions including one prescribing physician and one designated pharmacy, etc. Based on the present evidence, physicians assume that patients adhering to controlled substance agreements and without obvious dependency behavior do not abuse either illicit or licit drugs. Thus, it is accepted that there is no necessity to perform routine urine/drug testing in this specific group of the patient population. One hundred patients undergoing interventional pain management and receiving controlled substances were randomly selected for evaluation of illicit drug abuse by urine drug testing. They were selected from a total of 250 patients who were identified as non-abusers of prescription drugs. Results showed that illicit drug abuse in patients without history of controlled substance abuse was seen in 16 patients. Thirteen of the 16 patients tested positive for marijuana and 3 patients tested positive for cocaine. Only one patient tested positive for a combined use of both marijuana and cocaine. This study showed that, in an interventional pain management setting, there is significant use of illicit drugs (16%) with 13% use of marijuana and 3% use of cocaine in patients who are considered as non-abusers of prescription controlled substances and those who are adherent to controlled substance agreements. However, if cocaine is considered as a hardcore drug in contrast to marijuana, abuse of hardcore illicit drugs is only 3%. PMID:16883377

  7. Influence of lower body positive pressure on upper airway cross-sectional area in drug-resistant hypertension.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Oded; Bradley, T Douglas; Logan, Alexander G

    2013-01-01

    We previously showed that in hypertensive patients the amount of fluid displaced from the legs overnight is directly related to the severity of obstructive sleep apnea and that the rostral fluid shift was greater in drug-resistant hypertensive patients. The findings suggested that this fluid redistribution increases upper airway collapsibility, yet more direct evidence is lacking. The present study examines the effects of graded lower body positive pressure on leg fluid volume, upper airway cross-sectional area, and neck circumference in patients with drug-resistant hypertension (n=25) and controlled hypertension (n=15). In both groups, the reduction in mean upper airway cross-sectional area and oropharyngeal junction area, assessed by acoustic pharyngometry, and the increase in neck circumference, determined by mercury strain gauge plethysmography, were related to the amount of fluid displaced from the legs (R(2)=0.41, P<0.0001; R(2)=0.42, P<0.0001; and R(2)=0.47, P<0.0001, respectively). Displacement of leg fluid volume was significantly greater in patients with drug-resistant hypertension than in controlled hypertension (P<0.0001), and as a consequence, the former experienced greater reductions in mean upper airway cross-sectional area and oropharyngeal junction area (P=0.001 and P<0.0001, respectively). The findings support the concept that in hypertensive subjects, rostral fluid displacement may participate in the pathogenesis of obstructive sleep apnea by narrowing the upper airway and making it more susceptible to collapse during sleep. The exaggerated fluid volume displacement from the legs and upper airway response to lower body positive pressure in patients with drug-resistant hypertension provide additional evidence of an important link between drug-resistant hypertension and obstructive sleep apnea. PMID:23150515

  8. Advanced Urine Toxicology Testing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter L. Tenore

    2010-01-01

    Urine toxicology screening testing is an important standard of care in the addiction and pain treatment setting, offering a reproducible, unbiased, and accurate laboratory test to monitor patients and provide objective support for clinical observations. It has been shown that physicians do not have proficiency in the ordering or interpretation of these tests. This article is an attempt to respond

  9. Screening pharmaceuticals for possible carcinogenic effects: initial positive results for drugs not previously screened

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary D. Friedman; Natalia Udaltsova; James Chan; Charles P. Quesenberry Jr; Laurel A. Habel

    2009-01-01

    Objective  To screen commonly used prescription drugs for possible carcinogenic effects.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  In a large health care program we identified 105 commonly used drugs, not previously screened. Recipients were followed for\\u000a up to 12½ years for incident cancer. Nested case–control analyses of 55 cancer sites and all combined included up to ten matched\\u000a controls per case, with lag of at least 2 years between

  10. Urine Isn't Free of Bacteria

    MedlinePLUS

    ... fullstory_151843.html Urine Isn't Free of Bacteria New study links bacteria found in urine in bladder to urinary incontinence ... News) -- Though it's commonly believed that urine is bacteria-free, normal urine is not sterile, a new ...

  11. Evaluation of six commercial amphetamine and methamphetamine immunoassays for cross-reactivity to phenylpropanolamine and ephedrine in urine.

    PubMed

    D'Nicuola, J; Jones, R; Levine, B; Smith, M L

    1992-01-01

    We evaluated six commercially available amphetamine (A) and methamphetamine (MA) immunoassays for their relative cross-reactivities to isomers of phenylpropanolamine (PPA) and ephedrine (E) in urine: Syva EMIT, Abbott fluorescence polarization (FPIA), Roche, and Diagnostic Products Corporation (DPC) radioimmunoassays for A and MA. Two stereoisomers of PPA and four stereoisomers of E were tested using (1) drug-free urine spiked at 1,000 mg/L or 100 mg/L of each compound and (2) 60 clinical urine specimens not containing A or MA but having varying amounts of PPA and/or E. Specimens responding greater than the 1-mg/L A or MA cutoff were defined as positive. All specimens spiked at 100 mg/L were negative by all immunoassays. All specimens spiked at 1,000 mg/L were positive by EMIT and negative by FPIA, Roche A, and DPC A; 1,000 mg/L/-E and d-pseudoephedrine were also positive by Roche MA and DPC MA. Three of the 60 clinical specimens tested positive by EMIT and one specimen tested positive by DPC A and DPC MA. PMID:1501473

  12. New drugs and indications in 2013: little real progress but regulatory authorities take some positive steps.

    PubMed

    2014-04-01

    2013 saw few therapeutic innovations that really benefitted patients; once again, marketing authorisations were too often granted despite inadequate clinical data. The French health authorities implemented a few measures designed to protect patients from dangerous drugs, including market withdrawals, restrictions on use, and delisting. PMID:24860905

  13. Towards Gram-positive antivirulence drugs: New inhibitors of Streptococcus agalactiae Stk1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mayalen Oxoby; François Moreau; Lionel Durant; Alexis Denis; Jean-Marie Genevard; Vanida Vongsouthi; Sonia Escaich; Vincent Gerusz

    2010-01-01

    A structure–activity relationship study from a screening hit and structure-based design strategy has led to the identification of bisarylureas as potent inhibitors of Streptococcus agalactiae Stk1. As this target has been directly linked to bacterial virulence, these inhibitors can be considered as a promising step towards antivirulence drugs.

  14. A simple and rapid ESI-LC-MS/MS method for simultaneous screening of doping agents in urine samples

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, I. Madhusudhana; Beotra, Alka; Jain, S.; Ahi, S.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The use of performance enhancing substances is banned in sports by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). Though most prohibited substances can be detected by GC/MS, inclusion of corticosteroids and designer drugs has made it essential to detect these critical doping agents on LC/MS/MS due to their better separation and detection. Materials and Methods: A common extraction procedure for the isolation of acidic, basic and neutral drugs from urine samples was developed. A total of 28 doping drugs were analyzed on API 3200 Triple quadrupole mass spectrometer using C18 column in atmospheric pressure electrospray ionization. The mobile phase composition was a mixture of 1% formic acid and acetonitrile with gradient time period. Results: The method developed was very sensitive for detection of 28 doping agents. The linearity was performed for each drug and the total recovery percentage ranged from 57 to 114. Limit of detection is found to be 0.5 ng/ml for carboxy finasteride and 1-5 ng/ml for other drugs. The method was successfully used to detect positive urine samples of 3-OH-stanozolol, methyl phenidate, mesocarb, clomiphene metabolite and carboxy finasteride. Conclusion: The method developed based on controlled pH extraction method and HPLC-mass spectrometry analysis allowed better identification and confirmation of glucocorticosteroids and a few other drugs in different categories. The validated method has been used successfully for testing of 1000 In-competition samples. The method helped in detection of chemically and pharmacologically different banned drugs in urine in a single short run at a minimum required performance limit set by WADA. PMID:20336223

  15. Detectability of new psychoactive substances, 'legal highs', in CEDIA, EMIT, and KIMS immunochemical screening assays for drugs of abuse.

    PubMed

    Beck, Olof; Rausberg, Linnea; Al-Saffar, Yasir; Villen, Tomas; Karlsson, Lennart; Hansson, Therese; Helander, Anders

    2014-05-01

    The increasing number of new psychoactive substances made available for recreational drug use has created a challenge for clinical toxicology and drug testing laboratories. As a consequence, the routine immunoassay drug testing may become less effective due to an increased occurrence of false negative and false positive screening results. This work aimed to extend the knowledge about analytical cross-reactivity of new substances in selected CEDIA, EMIT, and KIMS immunoassays for drugs-of-abuse screening. Urine standards were prepared by spiking blank urine with 45 new substances. Authentic urine samples from intoxication cases identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) were also studied. Several new psychoactive substances were demonstrated to display cross-reactivity in the immunoassays. CEDIA Amphetamine/Ecstasy and EMIT d.a.u. Amphetamine Class tests showed the highest reactivity towards the new drugs, which was expected since many have amphetamine-like structure and activity. In the samples from authentic cases, five new substances displayed 100% detection rate in the CEDIA Amphetamine/Ecstasy test. In conclusion, cross-reactivity data in routine urine drug screening immunoassays for a number of new psychoactive substances not studied before were reported. In both spiked and authentic urine samples, some new substances showed significant cross-reactivity and are thus detectable in the routine screening methods. PMID:24665024

  16. Predicting aberrant drug behavior in patients treated for chronic pain: importance of abuse history

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward Michna; Edgar L. Ross; Wilfred L. Hynes; Srdjan S. Nedeljkovic; Sharonah Soumekh; David Janfaza; Diane Palombi; Robert N. Jamison

    2004-01-01

    Physicians can encounter problems in prescribing opioids for some patients with chronic pain such as multiple unsanctioned dose escalations, episodes of lost or stolen prescriptions, and positive urine drug screenings for illicit substances. This study explored the usefulness of questions on abuse history in predicting problems with prescribing opioids for patients at a hospital-based pain management program. One hundred forty-five

  17. Comparison of spot tests with AdultaCheck 6 and Intect 7 urine test strips for detecting the presence of adulterants in urine specimens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amitava Dasgupta; Omar Chughtai; Christina Hannah; Bonnette Davis; Alice Wells

    2004-01-01

    Background: Several adulterants are used to mask tests for abused drugs in urine. Adulterants such as “Klear” and “Whizzies” contain potassium nitrite while “Urine Luck” contains pyridinium chlorochromate (PCC). The presence of these adulterants cannot be detected by routine specimen integrity check (pH, specific gravity, creatinine and temperature). We previously reported the development of rapid spot tests to detect the

  18. Crenolanib is active against models of drug-resistant FLT3-ITD?positive acute myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerman, Eric I.; Turner, David C.; Buaboonnam, Jassada; Hu, Shuiying; Orwick, Shelley; Roberts, Michael S.; Janke, Laura J.; Ramachandran, Abhijit; Stewart, Clinton F.; Inaba, Hiroto

    2013-01-01

    FLT3 kinase internal tandem duplication (ITD) mutations are common in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and are associated with poor clinical outcomes. Although initial responses to FLT3 tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are observed in FLT3-ITD?positive patients, subsequent relapse often occurs upon acquisition of secondary FLT3 kinase domain (KD) mutations, primarily at residues D835 and F691. Using biochemical assays, we determined that crenolanib, a novel TKI, demonstrates type I properties and is active against FLT3 containing ITD and/or D835- or F691-activating mutations. Potent activity was observed in FLT3-ITD?positive AML cell lines. Crenolanib delayed the outgrowth of MV4-11 cells in a xenograft mouse model, whereas in combination with the type II TKI sorafenib, a significant decrease in leukemic burden (P < .001) and prolonged survival (P < .01) was observed compared with either type I or II TKI alone. Crenolanib was active against Ba/F3 cells harboring FLT3-ITD and secondary KD mutations and sorafenib-resistant MOLM-13 cells containing FLT3-ITD/D835Y both in vitro and in vivo. In addition, crenolanib inhibited drug-resistant AML primary blasts with FLT3-ITD and D835H/Y mutations. These preclinical data demonstrate that crenolanib is effective against FLT3-ITD containing secondary KD mutations, suggesting that crenolanib may be a useful therapeutic agent for TKI-naive and drug-resistant FLT3-ITD?positive AML. PMID:24046014

  19. 10 CFR 707.7 - Random drug testing requirements and identification of testing designated positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...707.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKPLACE SUBSTANCE ABUSE PROGRAMS AT DOE SITES Procedures § 707.7...designated positions. (a)(1) Each workplace substance abuse program will provide for random testing for...

  20. 10 CFR 707.7 - Random drug testing requirements and identification of testing designated positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...707.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKPLACE SUBSTANCE ABUSE PROGRAMS AT DOE SITES Procedures § 707.7...designated positions. (a)(1) Each workplace substance abuse program will provide for random testing for...

  1. 10 CFR 707.7 - Random drug testing requirements and identification of testing designated positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...707.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKPLACE SUBSTANCE ABUSE PROGRAMS AT DOE SITES Procedures § 707.7...designated positions. (a)(1) Each workplace substance abuse program will provide for random testing for...

  2. Electrolytic pretreatment of urine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Electrolysis has been under evaluation for several years as a process to pretreat urine for ultimate recovery of potable water in manned spacecraft applications. The conclusions that were drawn from this investigation are the following: (1) A platinum alloy containing 10 percent rhodium has been shown to be an effective, corrosion-resistant anode material for the electrolytic pretreatment of urine. Black platinum has been found to be suitable as a cathode material. (2) The mechanism of the reactions occurring during the electrolysis of urine is two-stage: (a) a total Kjeldahl nitrogen and total organic carbon (TOC) removal in the first stage is the result of electrochemical oxidation of urea to CO2, H2O, and ammonia followed by chloride interaction to produce N2 from ammonia, (b) after the urea has been essentially removed and the chloride ions have no more ammonia to interact with, the chloride ions start to oxidize to higher valence states, thus producing perchlorates. (3) Formation of perchlorates can be suppressed by high/low current operation, elevated temperature, and pH adjustment. (4) UV-radiation showed promise in assisting electrolytic TOC removal in beaker tests, but was not substantiated in limited single cell testing. This may have been due to non-optimum configurations of the single cell test rig and the light source.

  3. The context of HIV risk behaviours among HIV-positive injection drug users in Viet Nam: Moving toward effective harm reduction

    PubMed Central

    Thanh, Duong Cong; Moland, Karen Marie; Fylkesnes, Knut

    2009-01-01

    Background Injection drug users represent the largest proportion of all HIV reported cases in Viet Nam. This study aimed to explore the perceptions of risk and risk behaviours among HIV-positive injection drug users, and their experiences related to safe injection and safe sex practices. Methods This study used multiple qualitative methods in data collection including in-depth interviews, focus group discussions and participant observation with HIV-positive injection drug users. Results The informants described a change in the sharing practices among injection drug users towards more precautions and what was considered 'low risk sharing', like sharing among seroconcordant partners and borrowing rather than lending. However risky practices like re-use of injection equipment and 'syringe pulling' i.e. the use of left-over drugs in particular, were frequently described and observed. Needle and syringe distribution programmes were in place but carrying needles and syringes and particularly drugs could result in being arrested and fined. Fear of rejection and of loss of intimacy made disclosure difficult and was perceived as a major obstacle for condom use among recently diagnosed HIV infected individuals. Conclusion HIV-positive injection drug users continue to practice HIV risk behaviours. The anti-drug law and the police crack-down policy appeared as critical factors hampering ongoing prevention efforts with needle and syringe distribution programmes in Viet Nam. Drastic policy measures are needed to reduce the very high HIV prevalence among injection drug users. PMID:19348681

  4. Please see the job posting listed below. Postdoctoral Position in the Neuroscience of Drug and Alcohol Addiction at the University of Pittsburgh.

    E-print Network

    Pillow, Jonathan

    and Alcohol Addiction at the University of Pittsburgh. Up to two postdoctoral positions are currently (particularly in the PFC) and increases susceptibility to alcoholism and drug addiction. Studies include both

  5. Positive Selection Detection in 40,000 Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Type 1 Sequences Automatically Identifies Drug Resistance and Positive Fitness Mutations in HIV Protease and Reverse Transcriptase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lamei Chen; Alla Perlina; Christopher J. Lee

    2004-01-01

    Drug resistance is a major problem in the treatment of AIDS, due to the very high mutation rate of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and subsequent rapid development of resistance to new drugs. Identification of mutations associated with drug resistance is critical for both individualized treatment selection and new drug design. We have performed an automated mutation analysis of HIV Type

  6. Perceptions of community and family level IDU and HIV related stigma, disclosure decisions and experiences with layered stigma among HIV positive injection drug users in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Rudolph, A.E.; Davis, W.W.; Quan, V.M.; Ha, T.V.; Minh, N.L.; Gregowski, A.; Salter, Megan; Celentano, D.D.; Go, V.

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores how perceived stigma and layered stigma related to injection drug use and being HIV positive influence the decision to disclose one’s HIV status to family and community and experiences with stigma following disclosure among a population of HIV positive male injection drug users (IDUs) in Thai Nguyen, Vietnam. In qualitative interviews conducted between 2007 and 2008, 25 HIV positive male IDUs described layered stigma in their community but an absence of layered stigma within their families. These findings suggest the importance of community level HIV prevention interventions that counter stigma and support families caring for HIV positive relatives. PMID:21777075

  7. Functional analysis of a novel positive allosteric modulator of AMPA receptors derived from a structure-based drug design strategy.

    PubMed

    Harms, Jonathan E; Benveniste, Morris; Maclean, John K F; Partin, Kathryn M; Jamieson, Craig

    2013-01-01

    Positive allosteric modulators of ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazole-propionic acid (AMPA) receptors facilitate synaptic plasticity and can improve various forms of learning and memory. These modulators show promise as therapeutic agents for the treatment of neurological disorders such as schizophrenia, ADHD, and mental depression. Three classes of positive modulator, the benzamides, the thiadiazides, and the biarylsulfonamides differentially occupy a solvent accessible binding pocket at the interface between the two subunits that form the AMPA receptor ligand-binding pocket. Here, we describe the electrophysiological properties of a new chemotype derived from a structure-based drug design strategy (SBDD), which makes similar receptor interactions compared to previously reported classes of modulator. This pyrazole amide derivative, JAMI1001A, with a promising developability profile, efficaciously modulates AMPA receptor deactivation and desensitization of both flip and flop receptor isoforms. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Cognitive Enhancers'. PMID:22735771

  8. False-positive tests for syphilis associated with human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis B virus infection among intravenous drug abusers. Valencian Study Group on HIV Epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Aguado, I; Bolumar, F; Moreno, R; Pardo, F J; Torres, N; Belda, J; Espacio, A

    1998-11-01

    The role of HIV, hepatitis C virus, and hepatitis B virus infections in the production of biological false-positive reactions for syphilis was evaluated in two large samples of intravenous drug abusers and homosexual men attending AIDS prevention centers in Spain. A significantly increased odds ratio (OR) for false-positive tests for syphilis [OR 2.23, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.76-2.83] was observed for HIV-seropositive intravenous drug abusers; biological false-positive reactions were also more frequent (OR 1.73, 95% CI 1.30-2.31) among intravenous drug abusers who were hepatitis B virus seropositive but not among those who were hepatitis C virus seropositive (OR 0.90; 95% CI 0.48-1.69). Among homosexuals, the association between HIV and biological false-positive reactions was restricted to subjects who were also intravenous drug abusers, indicating the crucial role of intravenous drug abuse. Only 20.5% of intravenous drug abusers with a previous biological false-positive reaction yielded a false-positive result in their subsequent visit. PMID:9923520

  9. Antibacterial activity of human urine

    PubMed Central

    Kaye, Donald

    1968-01-01

    The fate of bacteria in human urine was studied after inoculation of small numbers of Escherichia coli and other bacterial strains commonly implicated in urinary tract infection. Urine from normal individuals was often inhibitory and sometimes bactericidal for growth of these organisms. Antibacterial activity of urine was not related to lack of nutrient material as addition of broth did not decrease inhibitory activity. Antibacterial activity was correlated with osmolality, urea concentration and ammonium concentration, but not with organic acid, sodium, or potassium concentration. Between a pH range of 5.0-6.5 antibacterial activity of urine was greater at lower pH. Ultrafiltration and column chromatography to remove protein did not decrease antibacterial activity. Urea concentration was a more important determinant of antibacterial activity than osmolality or ammonium concentration. Increasing the urea of a noninhibitory urine to equal that of an inhibitory urine made the urine inhibitory. However, increasing osmolality (with sodium chloride) or increasing ammonium to equal the osmolality or ammonium of an inhibitory urine did not increase antibacterial activity. Similarly, dialysis to decrease osmolality or ammonium but preserve urea did not decrease inhibitory activity. Decreasing urea with preservation of ammonium and osmolality decreased antibacterial activity. Removal of ammonium with an ion exchanger did not decrease antibacterial activity, whereas conversion of urea to ammonium with urease and subsequent removal of the ammonium decreased antibacterial activity. Urine collected from volunteers after ingestion of urea demonstrated a marked increase in antibacterial activity, as compared with urine collected before ingestion of urea. PMID:4877682

  10. Estimate of dietary phosphorus intake using 24-h urine collection

    PubMed Central

    Morimoto, Yuuka; Sakuma, Masae; Ohta, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Akitsu; Matsushita, Asami; Umeda, Minako; Ishikawa, Makoto; Taketani, Yutaka; Takeda, Eiji; Arai, Hidekazu

    2014-01-01

    Increases in serum phosphorus levels and dietary phosphorus intake induces vascular calcification, arterial sclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. Limiting phosphorus intake is advisable, however, no assessment methods are capable of estimating dietary phosphorus intake. We hypothesized that urinary phosphorus excretion can be translated into estimation of dietary phosphorus intake, and we evaluated whether a 24-h urine collection method could estimate dietary phosphorus intake. Thirty two healthy subjects were recruited for this study. Subjects collected urine samples over 24 h and weighed dietary records. We calculated dietary protein intake and phosphorus intake from dietary records and urine collection, and investigated associations between the two methods in estimating protein and phosphorus intake. Significant positive correlations were observed between dietary records and UC for protein and phosphorus intake. The average intakes determined from dietary records were significantly higher than from urine collection for both protein and phosphorus. There was a significant positive correlation between both the phosphorus and protein difference in dietary records and urine collection. The phosphorus-protein ratio in urine collection was significantly higher than in dietary records. Our data indicated that the 24-h urine collection method can estimate the amount of dietary phosphorus intake, and the results were superior to estimation by weighed dietary record. PMID:25120281

  11. The effect of methadone on immunological parameters among HIV-positive and HIV-negative drug users.

    PubMed

    Carballo-Diéguez, A; Sahs, J; Goetz, R; el Sadr, W; Sorell, S; Gorman, J

    1994-08-01

    Our objective was to assess the effects of methadone use on immune parameters. A convenience sample of men and women drug injectors who knew their HIV serostatus were enrolled in a longitudinal observational study of HIV illness. During analysis of baseline data, differences were noted in immune parameters among Methadone users. Study participants were recruited in Manhattan, New York, from a methadone maintenance clinic, and infectious disease clinic of an inner city hospital, and a drug-free community center. The participants were 220 men and women, current or former drug injectors, approximately half of them HIV-antibody positive and the rest HIV-antibody negative. Candidates with opportunistic infections and secondary neoplasms were excluded. Methadone users were compared to nonmethadone users for absolute and percentage counts of CD4, CD8, and activated T lymphocytes; CD4/CD8 ratio; an HIV symptom check list; and medical staging. The results discussed in this paper were formulated after data collection was complete. Our data indicate that methadone treatment, while not significantly affecting absolute CD4 lymphocyte count, is associated with a lower CD4 percentage and CD4/CD8 cell ratio, and with a higher CD8 absolute count and percentage. These differences are present regardless of HIV serostatus. Our findings should be interpreted with caution since we did not set out to investigate the effects of methadone on the immune system. Nevertheless, if it is corroborated that methadone has a detrimental effect on the immune system, finding alternatives to methadone-maintenance treatment for drug injectors will be a necessity. PMID:7977217

  12. Quantitative analysis of mitragynine in human urine by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shijun; Tran, Buu N; Nelsen, Jamie L; Aldous, Kenneth M

    2009-08-15

    Mitragynine is the primary active alkaloid extracted from the leaves of Mitragyna speciosa Korth, a plant that originates in South-East Asia and is commonly known as kratom in Thailand. Kratom has been used for many centuries for their medicinal and psychoactive qualities, which are comparable to that of opiate-based drugs. Kratom abuse can lead to a detectable content of mitragynine residue in urine. Ultra trace amount of mitragynine in human urine was determined by a high performance liquid chromatography coupled to an electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI/MS/MS). Mitragynine was extracted by methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE) and separated on a HILIC column. The ESI/MS/MS was accomplished using a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer in positive ion detection and multiple reactions monitoring (MRM) mode. Ajmalicine, a mitragynine's structure analog was selected as internal standard (IS) for method development. Quality control (QC) performed at three levels 0.1, 1 and 5 ng/ml of mitragynine in urine gave mean recoveries of 90, 109, and 98% with average relative standard deviation of 22, 12 and 16%, respectively. The regression linearity of mitragynine calibration ranged from 0.01 to 5.0 ng/ml was achieved with correlation coefficient greater than 0.995. A detection limit of 0.02 ng/ml and high precision data within-day and between days analysis were obtained. PMID:19577523

  13. Confirmation and quantification of clenbuterol in horse urine using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry triple quadrupole.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Jennifer; Heffron, Brendan; Taddei, Lisa; Benoit, Marc; Hurt, Laura; Costello, Sara; Gross, Melissa; Negrusz, Adam

    2015-03-01

    Clenbuterol (CLE) is used in horses as a bronchodilator and for its anabolic steroid-like effects. CLE is a Class 3 drug according to current Association of Racing Commissioners International (ARCI) Uniform Classification Guidelines. The Racing Medication and Testing Consortium recommended a urine CLE threshold of 140 pg/mL after careful scientific review of the results of studies describing the disposition of CLE in the horse and this threshold was adopted by the ARCI. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was previously used to screen samples for CLE in Illinois, but could not detect such low concentrations in urine. Thus, a liquid-liquid extraction of CLE from urine followed by quantification by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was developed and validated. Method validation included testing stability, ion suppression and enhancement, precision, accuracy and uncertainty. Intra-, interday and total precision and accuracy were calculated for each control and found to be within the ±15% acceptance range. The Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement approach was used to calculate uncertainty, which was 11% at the 95% confidence level. In the past 5 years, only 15 samples were reported as positive for CLE in Illinois. This new method was used in a pilot program to screen and confirm samples received from thoroughbred and harness horses. PMID:25505053

  14. Excretion of afobazole and its metabolites with urine and feces in rats.

    PubMed

    Viglinskaya, A O; Kolyvanov, G B; Litvin, A A; Zherdev, V P; Seredenin, S B

    2008-04-01

    The amount of afobazole and identified metabolites was measured in the urine and feces of rats after intraperitoneal and peroral administration of the drug in a dose of 25 mg/kg. Over 1 day after intraperitoneal or peroral treatment with afobazole, urine and feces contained 0.1% initial compound (from administered dose) and 42.1% metabolites. PMID:19110588

  15. Daptomycin: a new drug class for the treatment of Gram-positive infections.

    PubMed

    Alder, Jeffrey D

    2005-02-01

    Daptomycin is the first member of a new class of bactericidal antibiotics, the cyclic lipopeptides. In September 2003, daptomycin was approved for the treatment of Gram-positive infections associated with complicated skin and skin structure infections. A key feature of daptomycin is its rapid, concentration-dependent bactericidal activity against significant Gram-positive pathogens, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, glycopeptide-intermediate and -resistant S. aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium (VRE). Daptomycin also has a unique mechanism of action, no cross-resistance with any other class of antibiotic and a relatively prolonged concentration-dependent postantibiotic effect in vitro. In the United States, daptomycin has been approved for use at a dose of 4 mg/ kg once daily in the treatment of S. aureus (including methicillin-resistant strains), three beta-hemolytic streptococci (S. pyogenes, S. agalactiae and S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis) and E. faecalis associated with complicated skin and skin structure infections. In addition, daptomycin is undergoing a phase III evaluation for the treatment of bacteremia and endocarditis due to S. aureus. With its once-daily dosing, favorable safety profile and low potential for resistance, daptomycin is a powerful new antibiotic therapy against Gram-positive infections. PMID:15821781

  16. Do Health Professionals have Positive Perception Towards Consumer Reporting of Adverse Drug Reactions?

    PubMed Central

    Alshakka, Mohammed Ahmed; Ibrahim, Mohamed Izham Mohamed; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the perceptions of general practitioners (GPs) and community pharmacists (CPs) in Penang, Malaysia, towards consumer reporting of Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs). Methodology: A cross-sectional mail survey was adopted for the performance of the study. Survey questionnaires were sent to 192 CPs and 400 GPs in the state of Penang, Malaysia. Reminders were sent to all the non-respondents after 3 weeks of the initial mailing. Data which were collected from the questionnaires were analyzed by using the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS), version 15. The Chi-square test was used to determine as to whether there was any significant difference between expected and observed frequencies at the alpha level of 0.05. Results: Only 104 respondents (47 CPs and 57 GPs) returned the survey, with a response rate of 18.0%- a figure which could be considered to be low. This study indicated that GPs and CPs were aware about the importance and benefits of consumer reporting. A majority of them (88.0%) thought that consumer reporting would add more benefits to the existing pharmacovigilance program. Similarly, 97% of the respondents agreed that reporting of ADRs was necessary and 87.0% respondents had seen ADRs among their patients. However, 57 of them (6.0%), had not been aware that the national program in Malaysia allowed consumers to report ADRs. A majority of them (97.0%) agreed that consumers needed more education regarding ADR reporting. Most of them (84.0%) thought that consumers could not write valid reports which were similar to reports which were made by healthcare professionals (HCPs). A majority of the respondents (68.0%) had not heard about the consumer reporting program in Malaysia and half of them did not believe that consumer reporting could overcome under-reporting, which was the main problem of the national pharmacovigilance program in Malaysia. Conclusion: The GPs and CPs were aware about the importance and benefits of consumer reporting. Such reporting will add more benefits to the existing programmes in Malaysia, although the barrier that we are facing now is the doubt that they hold over patients’ ability to write valid reports which are similar to reports which are made by healthcare professionals (HCPs). Therefore, the consumers need to be educated more about their medications, on how to validate any complaints that they had about the drug consumption and on how to file a proper report and channel it to the ‘right’ person or bodies. Equally importantly, the media and the non-governmental organizations (NGOs) should play an important role in determining the success of consumer reporting. PMID:24298470

  17. UNDERLYING PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF HCV INFECTION IN HIV-POSITIVE DRUG USERS

    PubMed Central

    Balasubramanian, Anuradha; Groopman, Jerome E.; Ganju, Ramesh K.

    2009-01-01

    HCV and HIV infections are very common among injection drug users (IDUs). It is well known that 80–90% of HIV-infected IDUs are also infected with HCV. Furthermore, patients with HCV/HIV co-infection are at a higher risk of progressing to end-stage liver disease, namely cirrhosis. Even though there is increasing global awareness of HCV/HIV co-infection and extended therapeutic programs for this infected population, little is known about the HCV/HIV pathophysiology that mediates the rapid progression to hepatic disease. Liver disease caused by HCV/HIV co-infection is characterized by inflammation and cell-death. Recent reports suggest that the HIV and HCV envelope proteins may induce apoptosis and inflammation in hepatocytes via a novel pathway involving collaborative signaling. Moreover, HCV/HIV co-infection may also alter the cytokine production in vivo. Further studies to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of HCV and HIV-mediated pathogenesis will help in the development of therapeutic strategies against HCV/HIV co-infection in these patients. PMID:18681194

  18. Role of 5HT 2A and 5HT 2C receptors in the stimulus effects of hallucinogenic drugs II: reassessment of LSD false positives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Fiorella; R. A. Rabin; J. C. Winter

    1995-01-01

    In the context of animal studies of hallucinogens, an LSD-false positive is defined as a drug known to be devoid of hallucinogenic activity in humans but which nonetheless fully mimics LSD in animals. Quipazine, MK-212, lisuride, and yohimbine have all been reported to be LSD false positives. The present study was designed to determine whether these compounds also substitute for

  19. Validation of the Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST-10): A study on illicit drug use among Chinese pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Lam, Lap Po; Leung, Wing Cheong; Ip, Patrick; Chow, Chun Bong; Chan, Mei Fung; Ng, Judy Wai Ying; Sing, Chu; Lam, Ying Hoo; Mak, Wing Lai Tony; Chow, Kam Ming; Chin, Robert Kien Howe

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the Chinese version of the Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST-10) for identifying illicit drug use during pregnancy among Chinese population. Chinese pregnant women attending their first antenatal visit or their first unbooked visit to the maternity ward were recruited during a 4-month study period in 2011. The participants completed self-administered questionnaires on demographic information, a single question on illicit drug use during pregnancy and the DAST-10. Urine samples screened positive by the urine Point-of-Care Test were confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. DAST-10 performance was compared with three different gold standards: urinalysis, self-reported drug use, and evidence of drug use by urinalysis or self-report. 1214 Chinese pregnant women participated in the study and 1085 complete DAST-10 forms were collected. Women who had used illicit drugs had significantly different DAST-10 scores than those who had not. The sensitivity of DAST-10 for identify illicit drug use in pregnant women ranged from 79.2% to 33.3% and specificity ranged from 67.7% to 99.7% using cut-off scores from ?1 to ?3. The ~80% sensitivity of DAST-10 using a cut-off score of ?1 should be sufficient for screening of illicit drug use in Chinese pregnant women, but validation tests for drug use are needed. PMID:26091290

  20. Validation of the Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST-10): A study on illicit drug use among Chinese pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Lap Po; Leung, Wing Cheong; Ip, Patrick; Chow, Chun Bong; Chan, Mei Fung; Ng, Judy Wai Ying; Sing, Chu; Lam, Ying Hoo; Mak, Wing Lai Tony; Chow, Kam Ming; Chin, Robert Kien Howe

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the Chinese version of the Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST-10) for identifying illicit drug use during pregnancy among Chinese population. Chinese pregnant women attending their first antenatal visit or their first unbooked visit to the maternity ward were recruited during a 4-month study period in 2011. The participants completed self-administered questionnaires on demographic information, a single question on illicit drug use during pregnancy and the DAST-10. Urine samples screened positive by the urine Point-of-Care Test were confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. DAST-10 performance was compared with three different gold standards: urinalysis, self-reported drug use, and evidence of drug use by urinalysis or self-report. 1214 Chinese pregnant women participated in the study and 1085 complete DAST-10 forms were collected. Women who had used illicit drugs had significantly different DAST-10 scores than those who had not. The sensitivity of DAST-10 for identify illicit drug use in pregnant women ranged from 79.2% to 33.3% and specificity ranged from 67.7% to 99.7% using cut-off scores from ?1 to ?3. The ~80% sensitivity of DAST-10 using a cut-off score of ?1 should be sufficient for screening of illicit drug use in Chinese pregnant women, but validation tests for drug use are needed. PMID:26091290

  1. Urine testing in methadone maintenance treatment: applications and limitations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Avram Goldstein; Byron W. Brown

    2003-01-01

    We consider here the applications and limitations of urine testing schedules used in methadone maintenance treatment programs. We show that for patients attending clinic daily, any practical testing schedule will only reliably detect those who are using heroin or other illicit drugs very frequently (e.g., daily). For patients with take-home privileges no testing schedule can effectively detect either skipped doses

  2. Technical note: A noninvasive urine collection device for female cattle: modification of the urine cup collection method.

    PubMed

    Lascano, G J; Zanton, G I; Heinrichs, A J; Weiss, W P

    2010-06-01

    Total urine collection from female cattle requires the use of indwelling urinary catheters or an external device requiring secure attachment with adhesive to the animal; neither method is ideal for the welfare of the cattle. A urine collection device was developed to enable total urine collection in female dairy cattle without the use of adhesive to attach the device to the vulva of the animal; the device was a modification of one described previously for female cattle. The urine collection device was made from polypropylene with maximum dimensions (height x width x depth) of 17.5 x 11.0 x 6.0 cm and an opening of approximately 42 cm(2) to cover the vulva. The device was secured using a commercially available udder support harness that provided snap-fasteners and support for the device to be positioned at the level of the vulva. At the point of attachment, a metal brace surrounded the device and was connected to the udder support by metal rings, which kept the urine cup in proper position as the animal arched to urinate. A metal O-clamp and pieces of rubber, serving as leak-proof washers, connected the bottom of the device to Gooch tubing. Another metal clamp was attached to a polyvinyl chloride adapter that was connected to a rubber hose, and urine was collected into carboys located on the floor approximately 1.5 m behind the animals. This modification of a urine cup allows several noninvasive total feces and urine collection studies of unrestricted length to be undertaken without the use of adhesive to attach the device. The floor-level collection system is a practical, portable, and handy system that will permit researchers to perform nutrient balance and metabolic studies on female cattle. PMID:20494178

  3. 21 CFR 876.1800 - Urine flow or volume measuring system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 876.1800 Urine flow or volume measuring system. (a) Identification....

  4. 21 CFR 876.1800 - Urine flow or volume measuring system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 876.1800 Urine flow or volume measuring system. (a) Identification....

  5. 21 CFR 876.1800 - Urine flow or volume measuring system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 876.1800 Urine flow or volume measuring system. (a) Identification....

  6. 21 CFR 876.1800 - Urine flow or volume measuring system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 876.1800 Urine flow or volume measuring system. (a) Identification....

  7. 21 CFR 876.1800 - Urine flow or volume measuring system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 876.1800 Urine flow or volume measuring system. (a) Identification....

  8. Urine Pretreatment Configuration and Test Results for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Stanley G.; Hutchens, Cindy F.; Rethke, Donald W.; Swartley, Vernon L.; Marsh, Robert W.

    1998-01-01

    Pretreatment of urine using Oxone and sulfuric acid is baselined in the International Space Station (ISS) waste water reclamation system to control odors, fix urea and control microbial growth. In addition, pretreatment is recommended for long term flight use of urine collection and two phase separation to reduce or eliminate fouling of the associated hardware and plumbing with urine precipitates. This is important for ISS application because the amount of maintenance time for cleaning and repairing hardware must be minimized. This paper describes the development of a chemical pretreatment system based on solid tablet shapes which are positioned in the urine collection hose and are dissolved by the intrained urine at the proper ratio of pretreatment to urine. Building upon the prior success of the developed and tested solid Oxone tablet a trade study was completed to confirm if a similar approach, or alternative, would be appropriate for the sulfuric acid injection method. In addition, a recommended handling and packaging approach of the solid tablets for long term, safe and convenient use on ISS was addressed. Consequently, the solid tablet concept with suitable packaging was identified as the Urine Pretreat / Prefilter Assembly (UPPA). Testing of the UPPA configuration confirmed the disolution rates and ratios required by ISS were achieved. This testing included laboratory controlled methods as well as a 'real world' test evaluation that occurred during the 150 day Stage 10 Water Recovery Test (WRT) conducted at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).

  9. Budget impact analysis of antiretroviral less drug regimen simplification in HIV-positive patients on the Italian National Health Service

    PubMed Central

    Restelli, Umberto; Andreoni, Massimo; Antinori, Andrea; Bonfanti, Marzia; Di Perri, Giovanni; Galli, Massimo; Lazzarin, Adriano; Rizzardini, Giuliano; Croce, Davide

    2014-01-01

    Background Deintensification and less drug regimen (LDR) antiretroviral therapy (ART) strategies have proved to be effective in terms of maintaining viral suppression in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients, increasing tolerability, and reducing toxicity of antiretroviral drugs administered to patients. However, the economic impact of these strategies have not been widely investigated. The aim of the study is to evaluate the economic impact that ART LDR could have on the Italian National Health Service (INHS) budget. Methods A budget impact model was structured to assess the potential savings for the INHS by the use of ART LDR for HIV-positive patients with a 3 year perspective. Data concerning ART cost, patient distribution within different ARTs, and probabilities for patients to change ART on a yearly basis were collected within four Italian infectious diseases departments, providing ART to 13.7% of the total number of patients receiving ART in Italy. Results The LDR investigated (protease inhibitor-based dual and monotherapies) led to savings for the hospitals involved when compared to the “do nothing” scenario on a 3 year basis, between 6.7% (23.11 million €) and 12.8% (44.32 million €) of the total ART expenditures. The mean yearly cost per patient is reduced from 9,875 € in the do nothing scenario to a range between 9,218 € and 8,615 €. The use of these strategies within the four departments involved would have led to a reduction of ART expenditures for the INHS of between 1.1% and 2.1% in 3 years. Conclusion ART LDR simplification would have a significant impact in the reduction of ART-related costs within the hospitals involved in the study. These strategies could therefore be addressed as a sustainable answer to the public financing reduction observed within the INHS in the last year, allowing therapies to be dispensed without affecting the quality of the services provided. PMID:25285019

  10. Hematuria (Blood in the Urine)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... tract is the body’s drainage system for removing wastes and extra water. The urinary tract includes two kidneys, two ureters, ... 1 to 2 quarts of urine, composed of wastes and extra water. The urine flows from the kidneys to the ...

  11. Urine Albumin and Albumin/ Creatinine Ratio

    MedlinePLUS

    ... limited. Search Help? Urine Albumin and Albumin/Creatinine Ratio Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also ... UACR Formal name: Urine Albumin; Albumin-to-Creatinine Ratio Related tests: Albumin ; Creatinine ; Glucose ; A1c ; Urine Protein ; ...

  12. Positive feedback between oncogenic KRAS and HIF-1? confers drug resistance in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yanzhao; Lei, Fuming; Rong, Wanshui; Zeng, Qingmin; Sun, Wenbing

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 30%–50% of colorectal cancers (CRCs) harbor the somatic mutated KRAS gene. KRAS G12V, one of the most common KRAS mutations in CRCs, is linked to increased tumor aggressiveness, less response to anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) therapy, and poor survival rate. In this study, we sought to determine whether resistance to EGFR inhibitors in colorectal cancer cells harboring KRAS G12V mutation is associated with hypoxia. Our data indicated that HIF-1? was induced by KRAS G12V signaling at transcription level. Hypoxia or HIF-1? overexpression could increase KRAS G12V activity. Therefore, a positive feedback between hypoxia and KRAS G12V activation was formed. Cetuximab, an EGFR inhibitor, which has a minor effect on KRAS-mutant CRCs, could effectively inhibit the proliferation of CRC cells harboring KRAS G12V mutation when combined with HIF-1? inhibitor PX-478. Our data indicated that hypoxia was involved in resistance to anti-EGFR therapy, and a combination therapy might be necessary for CRC patients with KRAS mutation.

  13. Drug assertiveness and sexual risk-taking behavior in a sample of HIV-positive, methamphetamine-using men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Semple, Shirley J; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Zians, Jim; McQuaid, John R; Patterson, Thomas L

    2011-10-01

    Drug assertiveness skills have been demonstrated to be effective in reducing substance use behaviors among patients with alcohol or heroin use disorders. This study examined the association between drug assertiveness and methamphetamine use, psychological factors, and sexual risk behaviors in a sample of 250 HIV-positive men who have sex with men enrolled in a safer sex intervention in San Diego, CA. Less assertiveness in turning down drugs was associated with greater frequency and larger amounts of methamphetamine use, lower self-esteem, higher scores on a measure of sexual sensation seeking, and greater attendance at risky sexual venues. These data suggest that drug assertiveness training should be incorporated into drug abuse treatment programs and other risk reduction interventions for methamphetamine users. PMID:21550758

  14. Predictors of Weight Change in Male HIV-Positive Injection Drug Users Initiating Antiretroviral Therapy in Hanoi, Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Alice M.; Sheehan, Heidi B.; Jordan, Michael R.; Duong, Dang Van; Terrin, Norma; Dong, Kimberly; Lien, Trinh Thi Minh; Trung, Nguyen Vu; Wanke, Christine A.; Hien, Nguyen Duc

    2011-01-01

    We examined clinical and nutritional predictors of weight change over two consecutive 6-month intervals among 99 HIV-positive male injection drug users initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Hanoi, Vietnam. The average weight gain was 3.1 ± 4.8?kg in the first six months after ART and 0.8 ± 3.0?kg in the following six months. Predictors of weight change differed by interval. In the first interval, CD4 < 200?cells/?L, excellent/very good adherence to ART, bothersome nausea, and liquid supplement use were all associated with positive weight changes. Moderate to heavy alcohol use and tobacco smoking were associated with negative weight changes. In the second interval, having a CD4 count <200?cells/?L at the beginning of the interval and tobacco smoking were the only significant predictors and both were associated with negative weight changes. We identified several potential areas for interventions to promote weight gain immediately after starting ART in this population. Studies are needed to determine whether improving weight prior to, or at, ART initiation will result in improved outcomes on ART. PMID:21776380

  15. Definition of the "Drug-Angiogenic-Activity-Index" that allows the quantification of the positive and negative angiogenic active drugs: a study based on the chorioallantoic membrane model.

    PubMed

    Demir, Resit; Peros, Georgios; Hohenberger, Werner

    2011-06-01

    Since the introduction of the angiogenic therapy by Folkman et al. in the 1970'ies many antiangiogenic drugs were identified. Only few of them are still now in clinical use. Also the Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF), the cytokine with the highest angiogenic activity, has been identified. Its antagonist, Bevacizumab, is produced and admitted for the angiogenic therapy in first line for metastatic colorectal cancer. When we look at preclinical studies, they fail of in vivo models that define the "Drug-Angiogenic-Activity-Index" of angiogenic or antiangiogenic drugs. This work proposes a possible standardized procedure to define the "Drug Angiogenic Activity Index" by counting the vascular intersections (VIS) on the Chorioallantoic Membrane after drug application. The equation was defined as follows: {?VIS[Drug]-?VIS[Control]} / ? VIS[Control]. For VEGF a Drug-Angiogenic-Activity-Index of 0.92 was found and for Bevacizumab a -1. This means almost that double of the naturally angiogenic activity was achieved by VEGF on the Chorioallantoic membrane. A complete blocking of naturally angiogenic activity was observed after Bevacizumabs application. Establishing the "Drug-Angiogenic-Activity-Index" in the preclinical phase will give us an impact of effectiveness for the new constructed antiangiogenic drugs like the impact of effectiveness in the cortisone family. PMID:21221880

  16. 28 CFR 550.44 - Procedures for arranging drug counseling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...false Procedures for arranging drug counseling. 550.44 Section 550.44 Judicial...Drug Services (Urine Surveillance and Counseling for Sentenced Inmates in Contract CTCs...44 Procedures for arranging drug counseling. The contract center staff...

  17. 28 CFR 550.44 - Procedures for arranging drug counseling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...false Procedures for arranging drug counseling. 550.44 Section 550.44 Judicial...Drug Services (Urine Surveillance and Counseling for Sentenced Inmates in Contract CTCs...44 Procedures for arranging drug counseling. The contract center staff...

  18. 28 CFR 550.44 - Procedures for arranging drug counseling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...false Procedures for arranging drug counseling. 550.44 Section 550.44 Judicial...Drug Services (Urine Surveillance and Counseling for Sentenced Inmates in Contract CTCs...44 Procedures for arranging drug counseling. The contract center staff...

  19. 28 CFR 550.44 - Procedures for arranging drug counseling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...false Procedures for arranging drug counseling. 550.44 Section 550.44 Judicial...Drug Services (Urine Surveillance and Counseling for Sentenced Inmates in Contract CTCs...44 Procedures for arranging drug counseling. The contract center staff...

  20. 28 CFR 550.44 - Procedures for arranging drug counseling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...false Procedures for arranging drug counseling. 550.44 Section 550.44 Judicial...Drug Services (Urine Surveillance and Counseling for Sentenced Inmates in Contract CTCs...44 Procedures for arranging drug counseling. The contract center staff...

  1. Effects of urine testing frequency on outcome in a methadone take-home contingency program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary Ann Chutuape; Kenneth Silverman; Maxine L Stitzer

    2001-01-01

    We examined the effects of urine testing frequency on treatment outcome in a contingent methadone take-home program. Study patients who submitted<80% opiate and\\/or cocaine positive urines during a 5-week baseline received 60 mg methadone throughout the study, submitted urine samples on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday, and were randomized into one of three take-home incentive conditions. Study patients could receive three

  2. Automated drug identification system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campen, C. F., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    System speeds up analysis of blood and urine and is capable of identifying 100 commonly abused drugs. System includes computer that controls entire analytical process by ordering various steps in specific sequences. Computer processes data output and has readout of identified drugs.

  3. A prototype urine collection device for female aircrew

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bisson, Roger U.; Delger, Karlyna L.

    1993-01-01

    Women are gaining increased access to small military cockpits. This shift has stimulated the search for practical urine containment and disposal methods for female aircrew. There are no external urine collection devices (UCD) for women that are comfortable, convenient, and leak free. We describe a prototype UCD that begins to meet this need. Materials used to make custom aviator masks were adapted to mold a perineal mask. First, a perineal cast (negative) was used to make a mold (positive). Next, a perineal mask made of wax was formed to fit the positive mold. Finally, a soft, pliable perineal mask was fabricated using the wax model as a guide. The prototype was tested for comfort, fit, and leakage. In the sitting position, less than 5 cc of urine leakage occurred with each 600 cc of urine collected. Comfort was mostly satisfactory, but ambulation was limited and the outlet design could lead to kinking and obstruction. We concluded that a perineal mask may serve as a comfortable and functional external UCD acceptable for use by females in confined environments. Changes are needed to improve comfort, fit, and urine drainage. Integration into cockpits, pressure suits, chemical defense gear, and environments where access to relief facilities is restricted is planned.

  4. Treating urine by Spirulina platensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chenliang; Liu, Hong; Li, Ming; Yu, Chengying; Yu, Gurevich

    In this paper Spirulina platensis with relatively high nutrition was cultivated to treat human urine. Batch culture showed that the consumption of N in human urine could reach to 99%, and the consumption of P was more than 99.9%, and 1.05 g biomass was obtained by treating 12.5 ml synthetic human urine; continuous culture showed that S. platensis could consume N, Cl, K and S in human urine effectively, and the consumption could reach to 99.9%, 75.0%, 83.7% and 96.0%, respectively, and the consumption of P was over 99.9%, which is very important to increase the closure and safety of the bioregenerative life support system (BLSS).

  5. Pavlovian drug discrimination with bupropion as a feature positive occasion setter: Substitution by methamphetamine and nicotine, but not cocaine

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Jamie L.; Li, Chia; Bevins, Rick A.

    2010-01-01

    Bupropion can serve as a discriminative stimulus (SD) in an operant drug discrimination task, and a variety of stimulants substitute for the bupropion SD. There are no reports, however, of bupropion functioning as a Pavlovian occasion setter (i.e., feature positive modulator). The present experiment seeks to fill this gap in the literature by training bupropion in rats as a feature positive modulator that disambiguates when a light will be paired with sucrose. Specifically, on bupropion (10 mg/kg IP) sessions, offset of 15-sec cue lights were followed by brief delivery of liquid sucrose; saline sessions were similar except no sucrose was available. Rats readily acquired the discrimination with more conditioned responding to the light on bupropion sessions. Bupropion is approved for use as a smoking cessation aid, and more recently has drawn attention as a potential pharmacotherapy for cocaine and methamphetamine abuse. Accordingly, after discrimination training we tested the ability of cocaine (1 to 10 mg/kg), methamphetamine (0.1 to 1 mg/kg), and nicotine (0.00625 to 0.2 mg/kg) to substitute for the bupropion feature. Nicotine (0.05 mg/kg) and methamphetamine (0.3 mg/kg) substituted fully for bupropion; cocaine did not substitute. These results extend previous research on shared stimulus properties between bupropion and other stimulants to a Pavlovian occasion setting function. Further, this is the first report of nicotine and methamphetamine substitution for bupropion. The overlap in stimulus properties might explain the effectiveness of bupropion as a smoking cessation aid and highlight the possible utility of bupropion for treatment of stimulant use disorder. PMID:19076926

  6. Uncertainties of Mayak urine data

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Guthrie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Vostrotin, Vadim [SUBI; Vvdensky, Vladimir [SUBI

    2008-01-01

    For internal dose calculations for the Mayak worker epidemiological study, quantitative estimates of uncertainty of the urine measurements are necessary. Some of the data consist of measurements of 24h urine excretion on successive days (e.g. 3 or 4 days). In a recent publication, dose calculations were done where the uncertainty of the urine measurements was estimated starting from the statistical standard deviation of these replicate mesurements. This approach is straightforward and accurate when the number of replicate measurements is large, however, a Monte Carlo study showed it to be problematic for the actual number of replicate measurements (median from 3 to 4). Also, it is sometimes important to characterize the uncertainty of a single urine measurement. Therefore this alternate method has been developed. A method of parameterizing the uncertainty of Mayak urine bioassay measmements is described. The Poisson lognormal model is assumed and data from 63 cases (1099 urine measurements in all) are used to empirically determine the lognormal normalization uncertainty, given the measurement uncertainties obtained from count quantities. The natural logarithm of the geometric standard deviation of the normalization uncertainty is found to be in the range 0.31 to 0.35 including a measurement component estimated to be 0.2.

  7. Prevalence of psychoactive drug use among drivers in Thailand: a roadside survey.

    PubMed

    Ingsathit, Atiporn; Woratanarat, Patarawan; Anukarahanonta, Tongtavuch; Rattanasiri, Sasivimol; Chatchaipun, Porntip; Wattayakorn, Kanokporn; Lim, Stephen; Suriyawongpaisal, Paibul

    2009-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of psychoactive drug and alcohol use among general drivers and predictors of the drug use in Thailand. One thousand six hundred and thirty-five motor vehicle drivers were randomly selected from five geographical regions of Thailand between December 2005 and May 2006. The prevalence of psychoactive drugs was determined using urine tests by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Among 1635 drivers, 5.5% were tested positive for breath alcohol with 2% having a level exceeding the legal limit (> or =50mg%). Psychoactive drug was presented in 158 (9.7%) urine samples for drug analysis. The top 3 most frequently detected licit drugs were antihistamines (2.0%), sedative cough suppressant (0.7%) and benzodiazepines (0.2%). Illicit drugs detected included amphetamine (1.8%), cannabis (1.1%), mitragynine (Kratom) (0.9%) and morphine (0.1%). Only type of driver (commercial/non-commercial) was a significant predictor with psychoactive drug use. The prevalence of psychoactive drug use among drivers not involved in road crashes in Thailand was not as low as an earlier study in Europe using objective measurements, particularly among commercial drivers. However, for illicit drugs, the prevalence detected in this study was lower than those of earlier studies from high-income countries. PMID:19393795

  8. On-site drug testing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. H. DRUMMER

    Drug testing outside the laboratory environment has become widespread and provides presumptive results within minutes of collection of the specimen. This has become particularly useful for testing of urine and oral fluid. Applications include workplaces where drug use has safety implications, drivers of vehicles at the road- side and situations where drug impairment is suspected. The present article explores the

  9. Pharmacokinetic Modeling of Intranasal Scopolamine in Plasma Saliva and Urine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, L.; Tam, V. H.; Chow, D. S. L.; Putcha, L.

    2015-01-01

    An intranasal gel dosage formulation of scopolamine (INSCOP) was developed for the treatment of Space Motion Sickness (SMS). The bioavailability and pharmacokinetics (PK) were evaluated under IND (Investigational New Drug) guidelines. The aim of the project was to develop a PK model that can predict the relationships among plasma, saliva and urinary scopolamine concentrations using data collected from the IND clinical trial protocol with INSCOP. Twelve healthy human subjects were administered at three dose levels (0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 mg) of INSCOP. Serial blood, saliva and urine samples were collected between 5 min to 24 h after dosing and scopolamine concentrations were measured by using a validated LC-MS-MS assay. PK compartmental models, using actual dosing and sampling time, were established using Phoenix (version 1.2). Model selection was based on a likelihood ratio test on the difference of criteria (-2LL (i.e. log-likelihood ratio test)) and comparison of the quality of fit plots. The results: Predictable correlations among scopolamine concentrations in compartments of plasma, saliva and urine were established, and for the first time the model satisfactorily predicted the population and individual PK of INSCOP in plasma, saliva and urine. The model can be utilized to predict the INSCOP plasma concentration by saliva and urine data, and it will be useful for monitoring the PK of scopolamine in space and other remote environments using non-invasive sampling of saliva and/or urine.

  10. Ethanol and drug findings in women consulting a Sexual Assault Center--associations with clinical characteristics and suspicions of drug-facilitated sexual assault.

    PubMed

    Hagemann, Cecilie T; Helland, Arne; Spigset, Olav; Espnes, Ketil A; Ormstad, Kari; Schei, Berit

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to describe toxicological findings among women seeking health care after sexual assault, and to assess the relationship with so-called proactive DFSA (drug facilitated sexual assault). We also explored associations between ethanol in blood/urine and background data, assault characteristics, and clinical findings. We conducted a retrospective, descriptive study of female patients ? 12 years of age consulting the Sexual Assault Center at St. Olavs University Hospital, Trondheim, Norway. They were examined between July 1, 2003 and December 31, 2010, and urine and/or blood were analyzed for ethanol and selected medicinal/recreational drugs. Among the 264 patients included, ethanol and/or drugs were detected in 155 (59%). Of the 50 patients (19%) testing positive for drugs other than ethanol, benzodiazepines/benzodiazepine-like drugs were found in 31, central stimulants in 14, cannabinoids in 13 and opioids in nine. None tested positive for gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB). In total, 57 patients (22%) suspected proactive DFSA, but only five had findings of sedative drugs that were not accounted for by self-reported voluntary intake. No cases could unequivocally be attributed to proactive DFSA. Among the 120 patients tested for ethanol within 12 h after the assault, 102 were positive. The median estimated blood alcohol concentration (BAC) at the time of assault was 1.87 g/L. Patients testing positive for ethanol more often reported a public place of assault and a stranger assailant. Higher estimated BAC at the time of assault was associated with higher frequency of suspecting proactive DFSA. Ethanol was the most prevalent toxicological finding in urine/blood from victims of sexual assault, and high ethanol concentrations were often detected. Among the patients suspecting proactive DFSA, very few had sedative drug findings not explained by voluntary intake. It seems like opportunistic DFSA, rather than proactive DFSA dominate among the sexually assaulted attending our SAC. PMID:23910880

  11. Repeat Urine Cultures in Children Who Are Admitted With Urinary Tract Infections

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicolas M. Oreskovic; Eduardo U. Sembrano

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. Urinary tract infections are a common cause of hospitalization in the pediatric population. Hospitalization for urinary tract infections in children usually involves intravenous antibiotics, invasive methods of obtaining sterile urine spec- imens, and imaging studies to assess the anatomy of the urinary system. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of positive repeat urine cultures that

  12. Positive direct antiglobulin tests and haemolytic anaemia following therapy with beta-lactamase inhibitor containing drugs may be associated with nonimmunologic adsorption of protein onto red blood cells.

    PubMed

    Garratty, G; Arndt, P A

    1998-03-01

    A high incidence (39%) of positive direct antiglobulin tests (DATs) has been reported in patients taking Unasyn [ampicillin sodium plus sulbactam sodium (a beta-lactamase inhibitor)]. Three of four patients, with positive DATs, receiving Unasyn or Timentin [ticarcillin disodium plus clavulanate potassium (also a beta-lactamase inhibitor)] developed a haemolytic anaemia (HA) associated with a positive DAT, which resolved when drug therapy was stopped. The patients' sera did not react with red blood cells (RBCs) in the presence of Unasyn or Timentin, but when drug-treated RBCs were tested, patients' sera and normal sera reacted equally by indirect antiglobulin test. Following incubation in normal sera, RBCs treated with Unasyn, Timentin, Augmentin (amoxicillin + clavulanate), sulbactam and clavulanate reacted with anti-human globulin and anti-human albumin (an index of non-specific adsorption); RBCs treated with ampicillin and amoxicillin were nonreactive. The beta-lactamase inhibitors sulbactam and clavulanate seem to cause nonimmunologic adsorption of protein onto RBCs in vitro. This may explain the high incidence of positive DATs detected in patients taking Unasyn, which contains sulbactam. It was not possible to prove that there was a direct association between the nonspecific uptake of protein onto drug-treated RBCs in vitro with the positive DATs or the HA. PMID:9531349

  13. Analysis of mitragynine and metabolites in human urine for detecting the use of the psychoactive plant kratom.

    PubMed

    Le, David; Goggin, Melissa M; Janis, Gregory C

    2012-01-01

    The leaves of the South Asian plant kratom are described as having stimulating effects at low doses, and opiate-like analgesic and euphoric effects at high doses. A long history of use and abuse has led to the classification of kratom as a controlled substance in its native Thailand and other South Asian countries. However, kratom is not controlled in the United States, and the ready availability of kratom has led to its emergence as an herbal drug of abuse. With the growing popularity of kratom, efficient procedures are needed to detect kratom use. In the current study, both ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry methods have been developed and validated for monitoring the major alkaloids and metabolites found in urine following kratom use. The primary unique alkaloid mitragynine is quantified in human urine from 1.00-500.00 ng/mL using mitraphylline as an internal standard. In addition, two metabolites (5-desmethylmitragynine and 17-desmethyldihydromitragynine) and the related active, alkaloid 7-hydroxy-mitragynine, are simultaneously qualitatively monitored. The presence of analytes are confirmed by an information-dependent acquisition-enhanced product ion procedure generating full fragmentation data used to positively identify detected analytes. The validated method has been utilized for clinical and forensic analyses of urine for the detection of kratom use. PMID:23024321

  14. Antipsychotic Drug-Like Effects of the Selective M4 Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor Positive Allosteric Modulator VU0152100

    PubMed Central

    Byun, Nellie E; Grannan, Michael; Bubser, Michael; Barry, Robert L; Thompson, Analisa; Rosanelli, John; Gowrishankar, Raajaram; Kelm, Nathaniel D; Damon, Stephen; Bridges, Thomas M; Melancon, Bruce J; Tarr, James C; Brogan, John T; Avison, Malcolm J; Deutch, Ariel Y; Wess, Jürgen; Wood, Michael R; Lindsley, Craig W; Gore, John C; Conn, P Jeffrey; Jones, Carrie K

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that selective M4 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) activators may offer a novel strategy for the treatment of psychosis. However, previous efforts to develop selective M4 activators were unsuccessful because of the lack of M4 mAChR subtype specificity and off-target muscarinic adverse effects. We recently developed VU0152100, a highly selective M4 positive allosteric modulator (PAM) that exerts central effects after systemic administration. We now report that VU0152100 dose-dependently reverses amphetamine-induced hyperlocomotion in rats and wild-type mice, but not in M4 KO mice. VU0152100 also blocks amphetamine-induced disruption of the acquisition of contextual fear conditioning and prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle reflex. These effects were observed at doses that do not produce catalepsy or peripheral adverse effects associated with non-selective mAChR agonists. To further understand the effects of selective potentiation of M4 on region-specific brain activation, VU0152100 alone and in combination with amphetamine were evaluated using pharmacologic magnetic resonance imaging (phMRI). Key neural substrates of M4-mediated modulation of the amphetamine response included the nucleus accumbens (NAS), caudate-putamen (CP), hippocampus, and medial thalamus. Functional connectivity analysis of phMRI data, specifically assessing correlations in activation between regions, revealed several brain networks involved in the M4 modulation of amphetamine-induced brain activation, including the NAS and retrosplenial cortex with motor cortex, hippocampus, and medial thalamus. Using in vivo microdialysis, we found that VU0152100 reversed amphetamine-induced increases in extracellular dopamine levels in NAS and CP. The present data are consistent with an antipsychotic drug-like profile of activity for VU0152100. Taken together, these data support the development of selective M4 PAMs as a new approach to the treatment of psychosis and cognitive impairments associated with psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia. PMID:24442096

  15. Urine therapy through the centuries.

    PubMed

    Savica, Vincenzo; Calò, Lorenzo A; Santoro, Domenico; Monardo, Paolo; Mallamace, Agostino; Bellinghieri, Guido

    2011-01-01

    Urine has always interested and attracted the attention of people. It was in fact never considered a waste product of the body but rather as a distilled product selected from the blood and containing useful substances for the care of the body. It was referred to as the "gold of the blood" and "elixir of long life," indicating its therapeutic potential. This paper reports on the practice of urine therapy since its origin attributed to the Indian culture, and briefly reviews its use through the centuries and different cultures and traditions. Records from the Egyptians to Jews, Greeks, Romans and from the Middle Ages and the Renaissance testify to the practice of urine therapy--a practice that continues to be found in more recent times, from the 18th century to the present. Experiences with the practice of urine therapy have even been discussed and shared recently in 2 different conferences: in 1996 in India and in 1999 in Germany, where people from different countries shared and presented their own research on urine therapy. PMID:21614793

  16. Excretion of afobazole and its metabolites with urine and feces in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. O. Viglinskaya; G. B. Kolyvanov; A. A. Litvin; V. P. Zherdev; S. B. Seredenin

    2008-01-01

    The amount of afobazole and identified metabolites was measured in the urine and feces of rats after intraperitoneal and peroral\\u000a administration of the drug in a dose of 25 mg\\/kg. Over 1 day after intraperitoneal or peroral treatment with afobazole, urine\\u000a and feces contained 0.1% initial compound (from administered dose) and 42.1% metabolites.

  17. NrCAM in Addiction Vulnerability: Positional Cloning, Drug-Regulation, Haplotype-Specific Expression, and Altered Drug Reward in Knockout Mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroki Ishiguro; Qing-Rong Liu; Jian-Ping Gong; Frank Scott Hall; Hiroshi Ujike; Marisela Morales; Takeshi Sakurai; Martin Grumet; George R Uhl

    2006-01-01

    Several lines of evidence support roles for the cell adhesion molecule NrCAM in addictions. Fine mapping within a chromosome 7 region that contains previously linked and associated genomic markers identifies NrCAM haplotypes that are associated with substance abuse vulnerabilities in four samples of abusers and controls. Differential display identifies NrCAM as a drug regulated gene. NrCAM is expressed in neurons

  18. A New Method to Make 24-Hour Urine Collection More Convenient: A Validity Study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives. This study proposes a novel urine collection device that can divide each urine collection into 20 parts and store and cool just one part. The aim of the current study is to compare measured biomarkers from the proposed urine collection device to those of conventional 24-hour sampling method. We also hypothesized that the new method would significantly increase patients' adherence to the timed urine collection. Methods. Two 24-hour urine samples with the conventional method and with the new automated urine collection device that uses just one-twentieth of each void were obtained from 40 healthy volunteers. Urine parameters including volume, creatinine, and protein levels were compared between the two methods and the agreement of two measurements for each subject was reported through Bland-Altman plots. Results. Our results confirmed that for all three variables, there is a positive correlation (P < 0.001) between the two measurements and high degree of agreement could be seen in Bland-Altman plots. Moreover, more subjects reported the new method as “more convenient” for 24-hour urine collection. Conclusions. Our results clearly indicate that a fixed proportion of each void may significantly reduce the urine volume in timed collections and this, in turn, may increase subjects' adherence to this difficult sampling. PMID:24963405

  19. Investigation of the origin of prednisolone in cow urine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Pompa; F. Arioli; A. Casati; M. Fidani; L. Bertocchi; G. Dusi

    2011-01-01

    After a two-year period of the frequent detection of prednisolone-positive bovine urine samples in the Italian region of Lombardy, studies were initiated to investigate the source. Because the majority of positive samples were detected at the slaughterhouse, researchers hypothesised that, together with increased cortisol and cortisone, a small quantity of prednisolone could be produced by the cows in stressful situations.In

  20. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Urination Changes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... anD human services national institutes of health Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Urination Changes Call your doctor or ... urine to change color or smell different during chemotherapy. Talk with your doctor or nurse to learn ...

  1. Blood in the Urine (Hematuria)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from Nemours for Parents for Kids for Teens Teens Home Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Q&A School & ... Date reviewed: May 2013 Back 1 ? 2 For Teens For ... Tract Infections Urine Test (Video) Kidneys and Urinary Tract Glomerulonephritis Kidney Stones Contact ...

  2. Chemical measurement of urine volume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauer, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    Chemical method of measuring volume of urine samples using lithium chloride dilution technique, does not interfere with analysis, is faster, and more accurate than standard volumetric of specific gravity/weight techniques. Adaptation of procedure to urinalysis could prove generally practical for hospital mineral balance and catechoamine determinations.

  3. Purification of clenbuterol-like ? 2-agonist drugs of new generation from bovine urine and hair by ? 1-acid glycoprotein affinity chromatography and determination by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pasquale Gallo; Gianfranco Brambilla; Bruno Neri; Maurizio Fiori; Cecilia Testa; Luigi Serpe

    2007-01-01

    The control of illegal use of clenbuterol and other ?2-agonist drugs as growth promoters in the European Union countries has led to outlaw practices for synthesizing new concept molecules, showing similar biological activity but not detectable by test methods usually employed to perform the official monitoring programmes. The synthesis schemes of some ?2-agonist compounds, formally derived from clenbuterol, were found

  4. Interactive ``Video Doctor'' Counseling Reduces Drug and Sexual Risk Behaviors among HIV-Positive Patients in Diverse Outpatient Settings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Gilbert; Daniel Ciccarone; Stuart A. Gansky; David R. Bangsberg; Kathleen Clanon; Stephen J. McPhee; Sophia H. Calderón; Alyssa Bogetz; Barbara Gerbert; Landon Myer

    2008-01-01

    BackgroundReducing substance use and unprotected sex by HIV-positive persons improves individual health status while decreasing the risk of HIV transmission. Despite recommendations that health care providers screen and counsel their HIV-positive patients for ongoing behavioral risks, it is unknown how to best provide “prevention with positives” in clinical settings. Positive Choice, an interactive, patient-tailored computer program, was developed in the

  5. Experimental animal urine collection: a review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Biji T. Kurien; Nancy E. Everds; R. Hal Scofield

    2004-01-01

    Summary Animal urine collection is a vital part of veterinary practice for ascertaining animal health and in scientific investigations for assessing the results of experimental manipulations. Untainted animal urine collection is very challenging, especially with small rodents, and is an almost impossible task under conditions of microgravity. The fundamental aspects of urine collection are: (1) ease of collection, (2) quality

  6. Comparison of the binding stoichiometries of positively charged DNA-binding drugs using positive and negative ion electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rajesh Gupta; Jennifer L. Beck; Stephen F. Ralph; Margaret M. Sheil; Janice R. Aldrich-Wright

    2004-01-01

    Positive and negative ion electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectra of complexes of positively charged small molecules (distamycin,\\u000a Hoechst 33258, [Ru(phen)2dpq]Cl2 and [Ru(phen)2dpqC]Cl2) have been compared. [Ru(phen)2dpq]Cl2 and [Ru(phen)2dpqC]Cl2 bind to DNA by intercalation. Negative ion ESI mass spectra of mixtures of [Ru(phen)2dpq]Cl2 or [Ru(phen)2dpqC]Cl2 with DNA showed ions from DNA-ligand complexes consistent with solution studies. In contrast, only ions from

  7. An Experimental Trial of Adaptive Programming in Drug Court: Outcomes at 6, 12 and 18 Months

    PubMed Central

    Marlowe, Douglas B.; Festinger, David S.; Dugosh, Karen L.; Benasutti, Kathleen M.; Fox, Gloria; Harron, Ashley

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Test whether an adaptive program improves outcomes in drug court by adjusting the schedule of court hearings and clinical case-management sessions pursuant to a priori performance criteria. Methods Consenting participants in a misdemeanor drug court were randomly assigned to the adaptive program (n = 62) or to a baseline-matching condition (n = 63) in which they attended court hearings based on the results of a criminal risk assessment. Outcome measures were re-arrest rates at 18 months post-entry to the drug court and urine drug test results and structured interview results at 6 and 12 months post-entry. Results Although previously published analyses revealed significantly fewer positive drug tests for participants in the adaptive condition during the first 18 weeks of drug court, current analyses indicate the effects converged during the ensuing year. Between-group differences in new arrest rates, urine drug test results and self-reported psychosocial problems were small and non-statistically significant at 6, 12 and 18 months post-entry. A non-significant trend (p = .10) suggests there may have been a small residual impact (Cramer's ? = .15) on new misdemeanor arrests after 18 months. Conclusions Adaptive programming shows promise for enhancing short-term outcomes in drug courts; however, additional efforts are needed to extend the effects beyond the first 4 to 6 months of enrollment. PMID:25346652

  8. Simple and sensitive determination of urea in serum and urine.

    PubMed

    Orsonneau, J L; Massoubre, C; Cabanes, M; Lustenberger, P

    1992-05-01

    In this method for serum and urinary urea determination, the same reagent is used without predilution of urine samples. The method is based on the pH increase resulting from the ammonia released by urease hydrolysis of urea. o-Cresolphthalein complexone is used to monitor the pH change colorimetrically. Urea concentration and absorbance at 570 nm are linearly related for concentrations as great as 600 mmol/L for urine samples and 100 mmol/L for serum. There are no clinically significant interferences from physiological substances or drugs, and precision and accuracy are excellent (CV approximately 2%, except at very low concentrations in serum; analytical recovery was 99% in urine, 100% in serum). Results by this method (y) and by the Astra method (x) for urine correlated well (y = 0.991x - 2.87, Sy/x = 9.21, r = 0.994), as did the results by this method and by the total enzymatic method (x') for serum (y = 1.002x' + 0.192, Sy/x' = 0.598, r = 0.997). This method is applicable to automated as well as manual instruments, and one-reagent or two-reagent formats can be used. PMID:1582010

  9. Antibiotic Exposure in a Low-Income Country: Screening Urine Samples for Presence of Antibiotics and Antibiotic Resistance in Coagulase Negative Staphylococcal Contaminants

    PubMed Central

    Lerbech, Anne Mette; Opintan, Japheth A.; Bekoe, Samuel Oppong; Ahiabu, Mary-Anne; Tersbøl, Britt Pinkowski; Hansen, Martin; Brightson, Kennedy T. C.; Ametepeh, Samuel; Frimodt-Møller, Niels; Styrishave, Bjarne

    2014-01-01

    Development of antimicrobial resistance has been assigned to excess and misuse of antimicrobial agents. Staphylococci are part of the normal flora but are also potential pathogens that have become essentially resistant to many known antibiotics. Resistances in coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS) are suggested to evolve due to positive selective pressure following antibiotic treatment. This study investigated the presence of the nine most commonly used antimicrobial agents in human urine from outpatients in two hospitals in Ghana in relation to CoNS resistance. Urine and CoNS were sampled (n?=?246 and n?=?96 respectively) from patients in two hospitals in Ghana. CoNS were identified using Gram staining, coagulase test, and MALDI-TOF/MS, and the antimicrobial susceptibility to 12 commonly used antimicrobials was determined by disk diffusion. Moreover an analytical method was developed for the determination of the nine most commonly used antimicrobial agents in Ghana by using solid-phase extraction in combination with HPLC-MS/MS using electron spray ionization. The highest frequency of resistance to CoNS was observed for penicillin V (98%), trimethoprim (67%), and tetracycline (63%). S. haemolyticus was the most common isolate (75%), followed by S. epidermidis (13%) and S. hominis (6%). S. haemolyticus was also the species displaying the highest resistance prevalence (82%). 69% of the isolated CoNS were multiple drug resistant (?4 antibiotics) and 45% of the CoNS were methicillin resistant. Antimicrobial agents were detected in 64% of the analysed urine samples (n?=?121) where the most frequently detected antimicrobials were ciprofloxacin (30%), trimethoprim (27%), and metronidazole (17%). The major findings of this study was that the prevalence of detected antimicrobials in urine was more frequent than the use reported by the patients and the prevalence of resistant S. haemolyticus was more frequent than other resistant CoNS species when antimicrobial agents were detected in the urine. PMID:25462162

  10. A rapid GC–MS method for the determination of dihydrocodeine, codeine, norcodeine, morphine, normorphine and 6-MAM in urine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C Meadway; S George; R Braithwaite

    2002-01-01

    The presence of the heroin metabolite 6-monoacetylmorphine (6-MAM) in urine is used to definitively identify recent heroin abuse. A rapid and sensitive GC–MS method for the simultaneous analysis of codeine, norcodeine, morphine, normorphine and 6-MAM in urine was developed and successfully applied to the analysis of 321 ‘heroin-positiveurine specimens from individual subjects (identified by the presence of 6-MAM), to

  11. [Potentials for the combined therapy of urination disorders in men: the choice of optimal scheme of treatment].

    PubMed

    Golubtsova, E N; Tomilov, A A; Veliev, E I

    2013-01-01

    Moderate to severe urination disorders occur in 13-29% of men, and their frequency increases progressively with age. The key for successful use of the capabilities of modern drug therapy is the understanding of the pathophysiological bases of urination disorders. Despite some successes of monotherapy with alpha-adrenoblockers and 5alpha-reductase inhibitors, combined use of drugs is appropriate, because the differences in mechanisms of action allows to simultaneously act on the smooth muscle tissue, causing its relax, and reduce the size of prostate by the induction of apoptosis, which ultimately allows to expect the maximum therapeutic effect. The goal of therapy in patients with BPH is not only a reduction in the severity of urination disorders, but the prevention of disease progression. Obviously, urination disorders in men are not always caused by an benign prostate hyperplasia. Hyperactive symptoms (primary and secondary, due to metabolic disorders in detrusor against the background of prolonged existence of bladder outlet obstruction) are revealed in significant proportion of men. In this cases, the use of M-anticholinergics is indicated. Administration of alpha-adrenoblockers and antimuscarinic drugs is one of potential variant of combined therapy. Thus, it is important to follow the principles of selectivity in patients with urination disorders. Modern pharmacotherapy has an arsenal of drugs, allowing to choose the drug therapy for patients with urination disorders depending on the prevalence of their types. PMID:24437251

  12. Serum and Urine Biomarkers for Human Renal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Pastore, A. L.; Palleschi, G.; Silvestri, L.; Moschese, D.; Ricci, S.; Petrozza, V.; Carbone, A.; Di Carlo, A.

    2015-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) diagnosis is mostly achieved incidentally by imaging provided for unrelated clinical reasons. The surgical management of localized tumors has reported excellent results. The therapy of advanced RCC has evolved considerably over recent years with the widespread use of the so-called “targeted therapies.” The identification of molecular markers in body fluids (e.g., sera and urine), which can be used for screening, diagnosis, follow-up, and monitoring of drug-based therapy in RCC patients, is one of the most ambitious challenges in oncologic research. Although there are some promising reports about potential biomarkers in sera, there is limited available data regarding urine markers for RCC. The following review reports some of the most promising biomarkers identified in the biological fluids of RCC patients. PMID:25922552

  13. Resistance to antiretroviral drugs in newly diagnosed, young treatment-naïve HIV-positive pregnant women in the province of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Parboosing, R; Naidoo, A; Gordon, M; Taylor, M; Vella, V

    2011-09-01

    In 2004, KwaZulu-Natal initiated one of the world's largest HIV/AIDS treatment programs. Studies in South Africa have shown that patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) develop rapidly and transmit drug resistant mutations. Since resistance testing is not widely available in Kwazulu-Natal, the Department of Health conducted the first HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) threshold survey in 2005, which did not identify any mutations associated with HIVDR. The objective of this study was to conduct a follow-up threshold survey to update the information on HIVDR. This study was conducted in 2009 in five antenatal care sites in Kwazulu-Natal using the HIVDR threshold survey method developed by WHO. Two hundred and thirteen newly-diagnosed HIV positive, drug-naïve primigravidae, less than 22 years of age were included in the survey. Of the 82 HIV positive specimens, 17 had insufficient volume for genotyping and, of the remaining 65, 47 were genotyped sequentially. Drug resistance was identified by sequencing the HIV-1 pol gene, using the ViroSeq® HIV-1 genotyping system v2.0. Of the 47 samples that were genotyped, only one presented with a K103N mutation, which equates to a prevalence of transmitted HIVDR of <5%. The low prevalence of transmitted HIVDR is in keeping with statistical models of the early stages of ART rollout. As ART coverage is increasing continuously, there is a need to ensure that vigilance of HIVDR continues so that the emergence and spread of HIVDR is minimized. PMID:21739439

  14. Psychosocial and demographic correlates of drug use in a sample of HIV-positive adults ages 50 and older.

    PubMed

    Siconolfi, Daniel E; Halkitis, Perry N; Barton, Staci C; Kingdon, Molly J; Perez-Figueroa, Rafael E; Arias-Martinez, Vanessa; Karpiak, Stephen; Brennan-Ing, Mark

    2013-12-01

    The prevalence of HIV among adults 50 and older in the USA is increasing as a result of improvements in treatment and detection of HIV infection. Substance use by this population has implications for physical and mental health outcomes. We examined patterns of demographics, mental health, and recent substance use in a diverse sample of heterosexual, bisexual, and gay adults 50 and older living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in New York City. The most commonly used substances were cigarettes or alcohol; however, the majority of the sample did not report recent use of marijuana, poppers, or hard drugs (crystal methamphetamine, cocaine, crack, heroin, ecstasy, GHB, ketamine, and LSD or PCP). Statistically significant associations between substance use and psychological states (well-being and loneliness) were generally weak, and depression scores were not significantly related to use; instead, drug use was associated with gender/sexual orientation. The study observations support addressing substance use specific to subpopulations within PLWHA. PMID:23408281

  15. Screening for urinary amphetamine in truck drivers and drug addicts.

    PubMed

    Pidetcha, P; Congpuong, P; Putriprawan, T; Rekakanakul, R; Suwanton, L; Tantrarongroj, S

    1995-10-01

    Sixty-two urine samples from truck drivers and drug addicts were analysed by TDx (Abbott Laboratories) for amphetamines. Eighteen samples were found to be positive while the rest were negative. The eighteen samples were simultaneously determined for amphetamines by EMIT (Syva Company). Sixteen samples were found to be positive and 2 of negative samples had amphetamines levels of 0.48-0.85 micrograms/mL. When the same samples were subjected to qualitative screening and some were found false negative as follows: 7 cases in Color Test by using test solution kits amphetamine in urine (the Department of Medical Science, Ministry of Public Health), 8 cases by Albuscreen Ontrax for amphetamine (Roche Diagnostic System), 5 cases by amphetamine Double Antibody 125I-RIA (Diagnostic Products Corporation-DPC) and 3 cases by the method of Ten-One (DPC) respectively. But when forty four samples which gave negative results by TDx were subjected to Testing by EMIT and Ontrax. The results of both EMIT and Ontrax were negative. Some of forty four samples were false positive by the Color Test solution kit amphetamines in urine and amphetamine Double Antibody 125I-RIA. Reliability of results reported not only depends on the methodology or principle but also the sensitivity of the method. PMID:8576663

  16. Metabolism studies of the Kratom alkaloid speciociliatine, a diastereomer of the main alkaloid mitragynine, in rat and human urine using liquid chromatography-linear ion trap mass spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anika A. Philipp; Dirk K. Wissenbach; Armin A. Weber; Josef Zapp; Hans H. Maurer

    2011-01-01

    Mitragyna speciosa (Kratom) is currently used as a drug of abuse. When monitoring its abuse in urine, several alkaloids and their metabolites must be\\u000a considered. In former studies, mitragynine (MG), its diastereomer speciogynine (SG), and paynantheine and their metabolites\\u000a could be identified in rat and human urine using LC-MSn. In Kratom users' urines, besides MG and SG, further isomeric compounds

  17. Pharmacokinetic Modeling of Intranasal Scopolamine in Plasma Saliva and Urine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, L.; Chow, D. S. L.; Tam, V.; Putcha, L.

    2014-01-01

    An intranasal gel formulation of scopolamine (INSCOP) was developed for the treatment of Space Motion Sickness. The bioavailability and pharmacokinetics (PK) were evaluated under the Food and Drug Administration guidelines for clinical trials for an Investigative New Drug (IND). The aim of this project was to develop a PK model that can predict the relationship between plasma, saliva and urinary scopolamine concentrations using data collected from the IND clinical trial with INSCOP. METHODS: Twelve healthy human subjects were administered three dose levels (0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 mg) of INSCOP. Serial blood, saliva and urine samples were collected between 5 min to 24 h after dosing and scopolamine concentrations measured by using a validated LC-MS-MS assay. Pharmacokinetic Compartmental models, using actual dosing and sampling times, were built using Phoenix (version 1.2). Model discrimination was performed, by minimizing the Akaike Information Criteria (AIC), maximizing the coefficient of determination (r²) and by comparison of the quality of fit plots. RESULTS: The best structural model to describe scopolamine disposition after INSCOP administration (minimal AIC =907.2) consisted of one compartment for plasma, saliva and urine respectively that were inter-connected with different rate constants. The estimated values of PK parameters were compiled in Table 1. The model fitting exercises revealed a nonlinear PK for scopolamine between plasma and saliva compartments for K21, Vmax and Km. CONCLUSION: PK model for INSCOP was developed and for the first time it satisfactorily predicted the PK of scopolamine in plasma, saliva and urine after INSCOP administration. Using non-linear PK yielded the best structural model to describe scopolamine disposition between plasma and saliva compartments, and inclusion of non-linear PK resulted in a significant improved model fitting. The model can be utilized to predict scopolamine plasma concentration using saliva and/or urine data that allows non-invasive assessment of pharmacotherapeutics of scopolamine in space and other remote environments without requiring blood sampling.

  18. A simple high performance liquid chromatography method for determination of rebamipide in rat urine

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Dustin L.; Harirforoosh, Sam

    2014-01-01

    Rebamipide is a mucoprotective agent commonly used to prevent nonsteriodal anti-inflammatory drug-induced gastrointenstinal side effects [1]. Human plasma and urine analysis of rebamipide utilizing high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) have been reported [2]. Recently, we reported on the plasma levels of rebamipide in presense or absence of celecoxib or diclofenac in rats [3] using a modified HPLC method of detection developed by Jeoung et al. [4]. To tailor the method towards use in urinary rebamipide extraction and analysis, the following modifications were made:•To compensate for high concentrations of rebamipide found in urine, a new rebamipide stock solution was prepared with a final concentration of 50,000 ng/mL.•Rat urine calibration standards were obtained within the range of 50–1000 ng/mL and 1000–50,000 ng/mL.•Plasma samples were replaced with urine samples.

  19. Chemical dependency and drug testing in the workplace.

    PubMed Central

    Osterloh, J D; Becker, C E

    1990-01-01

    Urine testing for drug use in the workplace is now widespread, with the prevalence of positive drug tests in the work force being 0% to 15%. The prevalence of marijuana use is highest, and this can be reliably tested. Though it is prudent to rid the workplace of drug use, there is little scientific study on the relationship of drug use and workplace outcomes, such as productivity and safety. Probable-cause testing and preemployment testing are the most common applications. Random testing has been less accepted owing to its higher costs, unresolved legal issues, and predictably poor test reliability. Legal issues have focused on the right to policy, discrimination, and the lack of due process. The legal cornerstone of a good program is a policy that is planned and agreed on by both labor and management, which serves both as a contract and as a procedure in which expectations and consequences are known. The National Institute on Drug Abuse is certifying laboratories doing employee drug testing. Testing methods when done correctly are less prone to error than in the past, but screening tests can be defeated by adulterants. Although the incidence of false-positive results is low, such tests are less reliable when the prevalence of drug abuse is also low. PMID:2190418

  20. Plasma and urine concentrations of marbofloxacin following single subcutaneous administration to cats.

    PubMed

    Kietzmann, Manfred; Niedorf, Frank; Kramer, Sabine; Hoffmann, Marina; Schneider, Marc; Vallé, Marc; Pankow, Rüdiger

    2011-01-01

    The pharmacokinetic properties of marbofoxacin, a third generation fluoroquinolone, were investigated in 12 healthy adult cats after single subcutaneous (SC) administration of 2 mg/kg BW (Part I, n=8 cats) and 4 mg/kg BW (Part II, n=4 cats). In each part of the study blood and urine samples were collected before treatment and thereafter for 5 days. The plasma and urine concentrations of marbofloxacin were determined by HPLC with UV detection. Pharmacokinetic calculations were performed for each treated animal using an open one-compartment-model with first-order elimination after SC dosing. Marbofloxacin in plasma (means): Maximum concentrations (Cmax) of about 1.2 and 3.0 microg/ml were measured 2.3 and 4 hours (tmax) after dosing of 2 and 4 mg/kg BW, respectively. Elimination from the body was low with a total clearance (Cl/F) of approximately 0.1 l/h/kg for both dosages. The half-life (t 1/2) for this process was calculated with 8-10 hours. AUC increased almost proportional when doubling the dose, i.e., 19.77 +/- 6.25 microg * h/ml (2 mg/kg BW) and 51.26 +/- 11.83 microg * h/ml (4 mg/kg BW). Plasma kinetics measured were in accordance with data from literature. Marbofloxacin in urine (means): Maximum drug concentrations were detected 4 and 8 hours after dosing with 70 microg/ml (2 mg/kg BW) and 160 microg/ml (4 mg/kg BW), respectively. Inhibitory effects of the urinary matrix on the antimicrobial activity of the drug were taken into account when performing PK/PD calculations. However, a concentration-dependent bactericidal activity (Cmax/MIC > 8-10) which is claimed for fluoroquinolones was sufficiently met with focus on Escherichia (E.) coli (MIC90 0.5 microg/ml). In the same matrix a threshold value of 1.0 microg/ml was undercut 82 and 116 hours after SC dosing, respectively. Hence, a time-dependent bacteria killing kinetic (T > MIC) which may be of relevance for some Gram-positive germs like Staphylococcus spp. (MIC90 1.0 microg/ml) should be covered, too. PMID:21306059

  1. Can clinical pharmacy services have a positive impact on drug-related problems and health outcomes in community-based older adults?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph T Hanlon; Catherine I Lindblad; Shelly L Gray

    2004-01-01

    Background: Although pharmacotherapy can be beneficial in the elderly, it can also lead to drug-related problems (DRPs), including untreated indications, drug use without an indication, improper drug selection, subtherapeutic dosage, overdosage, medication error, medication nonadherence, drug interactions, adverse drug reactions, adverse drug withdrawal events, and therapeutic failure.Objective: The goal of this article was to review evidence from randomized controlled studies

  2. Hair-testing for illicit drugs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Parkes

    2004-01-01

    Human hair may contain deposits of illicit drugs. Testing of hair will provide an indicator of drug use at the time the hair was grown. Hair samples have several advantages over urine samples, particularly length of surveillance period (months rather than days) and resistance to tampering. Any form of drug-testing must be seen as a component of a clinical plan

  3. Efficacy of urine screening at school: experience in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Yi-Hui; Xu, Hong; Zhu, Guang-Hua; Wei, Min-Jiang; Hua, Bing-Chun; Shen, Qian; Rao, Jia; Ge, Jie

    2007-12-01

    To explore the prevalence of hematuria or proteinuria in school children in Shanghai and to evaluate the screening methods, we conducted urine screening in more than 40,000 school children between 2003 and 2005. Children were tested with dipsticks read manually (method A) or dipsticks read by machines (method B) combined with a sulfosalicylic acid test or microscopy. Some children were tested once, and others who had abnormal results in the first screening were tested again 2 weeks later. The prevalence of urine abnormalities in the first screening was more than 5.00% and of the second screening about 1.00%. Either method B or testing two urine samples for each child had higher specificity. As to the direct cost, that of screening twice with method A was lower than just screening once with method B. So using method A to screen twice for each child was not only convenient and economical, but also could reduce the false positive rate effectively. More than 10 months of follow-up diagnosed two cases of IgA nephropathy. Asymptomatic chronic renal diseases in school children could be detected through school urine screening. For Shanghai, China, screening twice using method A might be the best choice. PMID:17943322

  4. False-positive buprenorphine by CEDIA in patients prescribed amisulpride or sulpiride.

    PubMed

    Birch, M A; Couchman, L; Pietromartire, S; Karna, T; Paton, C; McAllister, R; Marsh, A; Flanagan, R J

    2013-05-01

    Buprenorphine is a potent partial opioid agonist that is analyzed in urine to (i) monitor adherence to maintenance or detoxification therapy and (ii) detect illicit use. Buprenorphine analysis is commonly conducted on urine by immunoassay, but is subject to cross-reactivity from other drugs/drug metabolites, including morphine, codeine and dihydrocodeine. This study reports false-positive buprenorphine analysis [Thermo Fisher Scientific cloned enzyme donor immunoassay (CEDIA)] in patients who denied unauthorized buprenorphine use prior to sampling, but who had been prescribed amisulpride. In two cases, confirmatory analysis by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was negative (<0.5 µg/L) for buprenorphine and metabolites and positive for amisulpride. Although the cross-reactivity of amisulpride and sulpiride in the CEDIA buprenorphine assay is low (estimated at 0.003 and 0.002%, respectively), it remains a significant consideration given the likely high concentrations of these compounds in urine relative to the low cutoff of the buprenorphine assay. Neither amisulpride nor sulpiride was listed as potential sources of interference on the CEDIA data sheet when this work was performed. These findings highlight the importance of confirming immunoassay-positive buprenorphine results using a more selective analytical technique. PMID:23471956

  5. Speeding up the screening of steroids in urine: development of a user-friendly library.

    PubMed

    Galesio, M; López-Fdez, H; Reboiro-Jato, M; Gómez-Meire, Silvana; Glez-Peña, D; Fdez-Riverola, F; Lodeiro, Carlos; Diniz, M E; Capelo, J L

    2013-12-11

    This work presents a novel database search engine - MLibrary - designed to assist the user in the detection and identification of androgenic anabolic steroids (AAS) and its metabolites by matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) and mass spectrometry-based strategies. The detection of the AAS in the samples was accomplished by searching (i) the mass spectrometric (MS) spectra against the library developed to identify possible positives and (ii) by comparison of the tandem mass spectrometric (MS/MS) spectra produced after fragmentation of the possible positives with a complete set of spectra that have previously been assigned to the software. The urinary screening for anabolic agents plays a major role in anti-doping laboratories as they represent the most abused drug class in sports. With the help of the MLibrary software application, the use of MALDI techniques for doping control is simplified and the time for evaluation and interpretation of the results is reduced. To do so, the search engine takes as input several MALDI-TOF-MS and MALDI-TOF-MS/MS spectra. It aids the researcher in an automatic mode by identifying possible positives in a single MS analysis and then confirming their presence in tandem MS analysis by comparing the experimental tandem mass spectrometric data with the database. Furthermore, the search engine can, potentially, be further expanded to other compounds in addition to AASs. The applicability of the MLibrary tool is shown through the analysis of spiked urine samples. PMID:24036418

  6. Unusual false-positive case of urinary screening for buprenorphine.

    PubMed

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Romero, Araelsis; Cervellin, Gianfranco; Mercadanti, Mariella

    2011-01-01

    Buprenorphine is a centrally acting analgesic drug that is administered for the management of opioid dependence and as an analgesic drug for the treatment of chronic pain. The growing use of this substance has determined an increased need for laboratory testing for either detection and confirmation of the illicit use or monitoring compliance as a substitution therapy for opioid dependence. We describe here the case of urinary sample adulteration with exogenous buprenorphine (6,952?ng/ml), which has led to afalse-positive immunoassay test result (14.9?ng/ml) on a subsequent sample due to a phenomenon of instrumental carry-over. This unusual case confirms the importance to take into account adulteration when screening urines for buprenorphine in patients undergoing substitution therapy for opioid dependence, routinely perform a confirmation assay on positive samples, and rule out instrumental carry-over. PMID:21786326

  7. Etodolac in equine urine and serum: determination by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection, confirmation, and metabolite identification by atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Koupai-Abyazani, M R; Esaw, B; Laviolette, B

    1999-01-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatographic method was used for the detection of etodolac in equine serum and urine. The method consisted of a one-step liquid-liquid extraction, separation on a reversed-phase (RP-18) column and detection using an ultraviolet detector. Additional confirmation methods included a HPLC coupled with an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometer (APCI-MS). Free (unbound) etodolac and its conjugates were present in the samples. Concentrations of the drug in the serum and urine samples collected from four standardbred mares after a single oral administration of Ultradol were determined. Maximum etodolac concentrations of 712, 716, 568, and 767 microg/mL in urine and 4.1, 3.6, 3.1, and 2.2 microg/mL in serum were observed. The peak concentrations of the drug were detected 2-10 h (urine) and 40 min-6 h (serum) after administration to four horses. The maximum detection time was 79 h in urine and 48 h in serum after the drug administration. The drug-elimination profiles for both urine and serum are presented and discussed. Method ruggedness and precision and stability studies of etodolac in serum and urine are presented. Three major metabolites were detected in the urine by liquid chromatography-APCI-MS. All three metabolites were identified as monohydroxylated etodolac. PMID:10369330

  8. A specific ELISA method for determining chloroquine in urine or dried blood spots*

    PubMed Central

    Rowell, V.; Rowell, F. J.; Baker, A.; Laurie, D.; Sidki, A. M.

    1988-01-01

    Reported is an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that has been optimized and validated for the determination of chloroquine in urine or dried blood spots. The assay employs antisera raised in sheep to a chloroquine derivative conjugated to keyhole limpet haemocyanin and chloroquine conjugated to porcine thyroglobulin adsorbed onto the wells of a microtitration plate. The competitive binding of the antiserum to the wells was monitored using an alkaline-phosphatase-conjugated second antibody and a specific substrate. The assay exhibits no cross-reactivity with known chloroquine metabolites, other antimalarials, and commonly used drugs. The method was used to determine chloroquine in dried blood spot extracts and urine from a patient who was receiving a prescribed prophylactic chloroquine regimen. The drug was detected in the urine for 17 weeks and in the dried blood spots for 4 weeks after termination of the therapy. PMID:3260830

  9. Rapid Screening of Urine Specimens for Bacteriuria by the Cellenium System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Preeti Pancholi; Kathleen Pavletich; Phyllis Della-Latta

    This study evaluated the performance of the Cellenium 160US urine screening system in comparison to that of the semiquantitative culture method. The performance characteristics of the Cellenium system for all clinically significant uropathogens were 89.5% sensitivity, 94.4% specificity, 97.1% negative predictive value, and 81% positive predictive value. Urine specimens comprise the largest volume of specimens received for culture in the

  10. Crystallization of calcium oxalate from synthetic urine.

    PubMed

    Doremus, R H; Teich, S; Silvis, P X

    1978-05-01

    The precipitation of calcium oxalate from synthetic urine was followed from the disappearance of radioactive oxalate from solution. Rates of precipitation were also estimated from the time of appearance of crystals. Synthetic urine inhibited the rate of crystallization of calcium oxalate; this inhibition was a combined effect of ionic strength and specific inhibition by one or mroe components of the synthetic urine. Polyphosphate and polyacrylate ions strongly inhibited crystallization of calcium oxalate from synthetic urine; phosphonates, heparin, and polystyrene sulfonate showed much less inhibition. Inasmuch as citrate and pyrophosphate ions showed some inhibition, it seems that carboxylate and phosphate groups on a polymer chain are the most effective inhibitors. PMID:649296

  11. Nanoparticle mediated drug delivery of rolipram to tyrosine kinase B positive cells in the inner ear with targeting peptides and agonistic antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Glueckert, Rudolf; Pritz, Christian O.; Roy, Soumen; Dudas, Jozsef; Schrott-Fischer, Anneliese

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Systemic pharmacotherapies have limitation due to blood-labyrinth barrier, so local delivery via the round window membrane opens a path for effective treatment. Multifunctional nanoparticle (NP)-mediated cell specific drug delivery may enhance efficacy and reduce side effects. Different NPs with ligands to target TrkB receptor were tested. Distribution, uptake mechanisms, trafficking, and bioefficacy of drug release of rolipram loaded NPs were evaluated. Methods: We tested lipid based nanocapsules (LNCs), Quantum Dot, silica NPs with surface modification by peptides mimicking TrkB or TrkB activating antibodies. Bioefficacy of drug release was tested with rolipram loaded LNCs to prevent cisplatin-induced apoptosis. We established different cell culture models with SH-SY-5Y and inner ear derived cell lines and used neonatal and adult mouse explants. Uptake and trafficking was evaluated with FACS and confocal as well as transmission electron microscopy. Results: Plain NPs show some selectivity in uptake related to the in vitro system properties, carrier material, and NP size. Some peptide ligands provide enhanced targeted uptake to neuronal cells but failed to show this in cell cultures. Agonistic antibodies linked to silica NPs showed TrkB activation and enhanced binding to inner ear derived cells. Rolipram loaded LNCs proved as effective carriers to prevent cisplatin-induced apoptosis. Discussion: Most NPs with targeting ligands showed limited effects to enhance uptake. NP aggregation and unspecific binding may change uptake mechanisms and impair endocytosis by an overload of NPs. This may affect survival signaling. NPs with antibodies activate survival signaling and show effective binding to TrkB positive cells but needs further optimization for specific internalization. Bioefficiacy of rolipram release confirms LNCs as encouraging vectors for drug delivery of lipophilic agents to the inner ear with ideal release characteristics independent of endocytosis. PMID:26042029

  12. Prevalence of dihydrocodeine in hydrocodone positive postmortem specimens.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Amanda J; Lavins, Eric S; Hunek, Courtney

    2009-02-01

    Hydrocodone (HC) has received renewed interest in the US due to reported increases in opiate related deaths involving psychotherapeutic drugs. The relative contribution of dihydrocodeine (DHC) in these deaths is unknown since little testing of this compound is performed. The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of DHC in HC positive decedents and report the range of concentrations detected in these cases in order to evaluate the potential role of DHC in the deaths and determine the usefulness of including this analyte in opioid testing protocols. Specimens were assayed by liquid-liquid or solid phase extraction followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry operated in the selected ion monitoring mode. A multipoint calibration was utilized in the linear range 2-600ng/mL. Accuracy for HC, DHC and hydromorphone (HM) was 101-106% and between day precision at 160ng/mL between 7% and 11%. One hundred and thirty six cases were identified with the majority male (62%) and white (83%). A search of HC positive cases identified 64 with DHC (47%). The range of HC concentrations was 9-3039ng/mL heart blood (n=43) and 42-12353ng/mL urine (n=21). DHC concentrations in these cases ranged 3-243ng/mL in heart blood and 5-1842ng/mL in urine. DHC/HC ratios ranged 0.00(7)-2.90 in blood (n=43), and 0.01-5.04 in urine (n=21) with 16% and 24% of these cases with ratios >0.50, respectively. HM was detected in only 9 HC cases with the majority positive in urine. PMID:19134999

  13. Variability of urine albumin excretion in normal and diabetic children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diana M. Gibb; Vanita Shah; Michael Preece; T. Martin Barratt

    1989-01-01

    The variability of urine albumin excretion (UAE) was studied in normal and diabetic children and, in addition, the best method of expressing the data was investigated. In 39 timed overnight urine samples from diabetic children, the urine albumin creatinine clearance ratio (CA\\/CC) was compared with the urine albumin creatinine concentration ratio (UA\\/UC), the urine albumin excretion rate (UAER) and the

  14. Spot Urine Estimations Are Equivalent to 24-Hour Urine Assessments of Urine Protein Excretion for Predicting Clinical Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Teo, Boon Wee; Loh, Ping Tyug; Wong, Weng Kin; Ho, Peh Joo; Choi, Kwok Pui; Toh, Qi Chun; Xu, Hui; Saw, Sharon; Lau, Titus; Sethi, Sunil; Lee, Evan J. C.

    2015-01-01

    Background. The use of spot urine protein to creatinine ratios in estimating 24?hr urine protein excretion rates for diagnosing and managing chronic kidney disease (CKD) predated the standardization of creatinine assays. The comparative predictive performance of spot urine ratios and 24?hr urine collections (of albumin or protein) for the clinical outcomes of CKD progression, end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and mortality in Asians is unclear. We compared 4 methods of assessing urine protein excretion in a multiethnic population of CKD patients. Methods. Patients with CKD (n = 232) provided 24?hr urine collections followed by spot urine samples the next morning. We created multiple linear regression models to assess the factors associated with GFR decline (median follow-up: 37 months, IQR 26–41) and constructed Cox proportional-hazards models for predicting the combined outcome of ESRD and death. Results. The linear regression models showed that 24?hr urine protein excretion was most predictive of GFR decline but all other methods were similar. For the combined outcomes of ESRD and death, the proportional hazards models had similar predictive performance. Conclusions. We showed that all methods of assessments were comparable for clinical end-points, and any method can be used in clinical practice or research. PMID:25649135

  15. Novel imidazoline antimicrobial scaffold that inhibits DNA replication with activity against mycobacteria and drug resistant Gram-positive cocci.

    PubMed

    Harris, Kendra K; Fay, Allison; Yan, Han-Guang; Kunwar, Pratima; Socci, Nicholas D; Pottabathini, Narender; Juventhala, Ramakrishna R; Djaballah, Hakim; Glickman, Michael S

    2014-11-21

    Bacterial antimicrobial resistance is an escalating public health threat, yet the current antimicrobial pipeline remains alarmingly depleted, making the development of new antimicrobials an urgent need. Here, we identify a novel, potent, imidazoline antimicrobial compound, SKI-356313, with bactericidal activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Gram-positive cocci, including vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). SKI-356313 is active in murine models of Streptococcus pneumoniae and MRSA infection and is potently bactericidal for both replicating and nonreplicating M. tuberculosis. Using a combination of genetics, whole genome sequencing, and a novel target ID approach using real time imaging of core macromolecular biosynthesis, we show that SKI-356313 inhibits DNA replication and displaces the replisome from the bacterial nucleoid. These results identify a new antimicrobial scaffold with a novel mechanism of action and potential therapeutic utility against nonreplicating M. tuberculosis and antibiotic resistant Gram-positive cocci. PMID:25222597

  16. Determination of triamcinolone acetonide in equine serum and urine by liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Koupai-Abyazani, M R; Yu, N; Esaw, B; Laviolette, B

    1995-01-01

    Urine and serum samples collected from four standard-bred mares after 30-mg intraarticular administrations of triamcinolone acetonide were analyzed using combined high-performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry. Maximum triamcinolone acetonide concentrations of 32.3, 14.8, 24.3, and 29.4 ng/mL in the urine and 2.7, 1.9, 2.3, and 2.5 ng/mL in the serum samples were observed. The peak concentrations of the drug were detected approximately 22 h (urine) and 12 h (serum) after administration. The drug elimination profiles for both urine and serum are presented and discussed. PMID:7564297

  17. A Chart Review of the Ordering and Documentation of Urine Toxicology Screens in a Cancer Center

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven D Passik; Jennifer Schreiber; Kenneth L Kirsh; Russell K Portenoy

    2000-01-01

    Urine toxicology screens (UTSs) may be useful in the diagnosis or monitoring of patients with established or suspected substance abuse. In the medically ill, including those with cancer, the test may help clinicians manage therapy with controlled prescription drugs. To describe the current use of UTSs in a cancer center, the medical records of 111 patients who underwent UTS were

  18. Urine as a material for evaluation of exposure to manganese in methcathinone users.

    PubMed

    Golasik, Magdalena; Wodowski, Grzegorz; Gomó?ka, Ewa; Herman, Ma?gorzata; Piekoszewski, Wojciech

    2014-07-01

    Chronic exposure even to low doses of manganese may lead to development of neurological syndrome similar to parkinsonism. The aim of this research is to assess the possibility of manganese poisoning based on the level of metal in the urine of long-term methcathinone users from Poland. Graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy (GFAAS) was used to determine manganese in urine, while the detection of the psychoactive drugs was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Results of survey on longitudinal patterns of drug use showed that users of traditional illicit drugs now turn to cheaper alternatives, such as methcathinone. Parkinsonian features were observed in almost half of methcathinone users. The subjects had a higher mean level of Mn in their urine (8.68±9.27 ?g L(-1)) than the controls (4.27±1.91 ?g L(-1)). The presence of numerous psychoactive substances (in unchanged forms and their metabolites) was confirmed in all of the samples, with only one exception. The elevated level of manganese in urine (in 29.2% of patients) can be used as a primary marker of recent methcathinone administration, especially in the case of long time intravenous drug users where blood sampling is complicated. PMID:24867657

  19. Review of Biologic Matrices (Urine, Blood, Hair) as Indicators of Recent or Ongoing Cannabis Use

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank Musshoff; Burkhard Madea

    2006-01-01

    Especially for cannabinoids, analytical procedures for the verification of recent use and generally for the assessment of the extent of drug abuse are of interest in clinical and forensic toxicology. For confirmation of abstinence, urine analysis seems to be a useful tool. Serial monitoring of THC-COOH to creatinine ratios can differentiate between recent drug use and residual THC-COOH excretion (THC-COOH\\/creatinine

  20. Reliability of Nucleic Acid Amplification Methods for Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in Urine: Results of the First International Collaborative Quality Control Study among 96 Laboratories

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roel P. Verkooyen; Gerda T. Noordhoek; Paul E. Klapper; Jim Reid; Jurjen Schirm

    The first European Quality Control Concerted Action study was organized to assess the ability of labora- tories to detect Chlamydia trachomatis in a panel of urine samples by nucleic acid amplification tests (NATs). The panel consisted of lyophilized urine samples, including three negative, two strongly positive, and five weakly positive samples. Ninety-six laboratories in 22 countries participated with a total

  1. Advanced imaging technique for automated classification of casts and crystals in urine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paranjape, Amit S.; Castleman, Kenneth; Milner, Thomas E.; Rylander, H. Grady

    2007-02-01

    We present the development and demonstration of a novel technique for microscopic analysis of urine particles. Casts and crystals in urine are indicative of clinically important abnormalities. Current urinalysis techniques using flow cytometry and image analysis are limited by their inability to detect, identify and classify crystals and casts. Casts, crystals and yeast cells reported by current automated urine particle analyzers must be confirmed by a second microscopic review involving a human operator to prevent false positives. Human examination of suspect urine samples is resource intensive and time consuming. We introduce a new imaging method to add functionality for recognition of casts and crystals in urine. Our approach uses a polarization microscopy technique to aid classification of crystals, casts and other urine particles. Crystals and casts in urine exhibit unique interference patterns when imaged using a fixed polarizer and analyzer in a crossed configuration. These interference patterns are a measure of birefringence (retardation angle) of the cast or crystal being imaged. Preliminary experiments indicate that uric acid shows a polarization color, and larger crystals exhibit a series of concentric black lines. We show that these unique 'signatures' when used in conjunction with a hierarchical pattern recognition technique can reliably classify the analytes with improved accuracy. The new imaging technique combined with the classification algorithm can address the shortcomings of current urinalysis techniques; and provide quicker and more accurate results.

  2. Validity of bag urine culture for predicting urinary tract infections in febrile infants: a paired comparison of urine collection methods

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Geun-A

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Catheter urine (CATH-U) and suprapubic aspiration (SPA) are reliable urine collection methods for confirming urinary tract infections (UTI) in infants. However, noninvasive and easily accessible collecting bag urine (CBU) is widely used, despite its high contamination rate. This study investigated the validity of CBU cultures for diagnosing UTIs, using CATH-U culture results as the gold standard. Methods We retrospectively analyzed 210 infants, 2- to 24-month-old, who presented to a tertiary care hospital's pediatrics department between September 2008 and August 2013. We reviewed the results of CBU and CATH-U cultures from the same infants. Results CBU results, relative to CATH-U culture results (?104 colony-forming units [CFU]/mL) were widely variable, ranging from no growth to ?105 CFU/mL. A CBU cutoff value of ?105 CFU/mL resulted in false-positive and false-negative rates of 18% and 24%, respectively. The probability of a UTI increased when the CBU bacterial count was ?105/mL for all infants, both uncircumcised male infants and female infants (likelihood ratios [LRs], 4.16, 4.11, and 4.11, respectively). UTIs could not be excluded for female infants with a CBU bacterial density of 104-105 (LR, 1.40). The LRs for predicting UTIs based on a positive dipstick test and a positive urinalysis were 4.19 and 3.11, respectively. Conclusion The validity of obtaining urine sample from a sterile bag remains questionable. Inconclusive culture results from CBU should be confirmed with a more reliable method. PMID:26124849

  3. Adherence to antiretroviral drug therapy in adult patients who are HIV-positive in Northwest Ethiopia: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Bezabhe, Woldesellassie M; Peterson, Gregory M; Bereznicki, Luke; Chalmers, Leanne; Gee, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Achievement of optimal medication adherence and management of antiretroviral toxicity pose great challenges among Ethiopian patients with HIV/AIDS. There is currently a lack of long-term follow-up studies that identify the barriers to, and facilitators of, adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) in the Ethiopian setting. Therefore, we aim to investigate the level of adherence to ART and a wide range of potential influencing factors, including adverse drug reactions occurring with ART. Methods and analysis We are conducting a 1-year prospective cohort study involving adult patients with HIV/AIDS starting on ART between December 2012 and March 2013. Data are being collected on patients’ appointment dates in the ART clinics. Adherence to ART is being measured using pill count, medication possession ratio and patient's self-report. The primary outcome of the study will be the proportion of patients who are adherent to their ART regimen at 3, 6 and 12?months using pill count. Taking 95% or more of the dispensed ART regimen using pill count at given points of time will be considered the optimal level of adherence in this study. Data will be analysed using descriptive and inferential statistical procedures. Ethics and dissemination Ethics approval was obtained from the Tasmania Health and Medical Human Research Ethics Committee and Bahir-Dar University's Ethics Committee. The results of the study will be reported in peer-reviewed scientific journals, conferences and seminar presentations. PMID:24176794

  4. Drug Testing Notification Form RV 2 May 22, 2013 DRUG TESTING NOTIFICATION FORM

    E-print Network

    testing collector. You are required to undergo urine drug testing as a condition of hiring. You must haveDrug Testing Notification Form RV 2 May 22, 2013 DRUG TESTING NOTIFICATION FORM Section 1: Employer of Collection: ___________________________ Date and time of Test* * For testing out side of Louisiana testing

  5. Dietary Ammonium Chloride for the Acidification of Mouse Urine

    PubMed Central

    Reisinger, Amy J; Tannehill-Gregg, Sarah H; Waites, C Robbie; Dominick, Mark A; Schilling, Beth E; Jackson, Todd A

    2009-01-01

    A novel therapeutic compound was found to induce bladder tumors in male rats. Given the location of the tumors and the increased amounts of calcium- and magnesium-containing solids found in the urine of treated animals, we hypothesized that tumorigenesis was secondary to urine crystal formation rather than a direct effect of the drug on urothelium. To investigate the basis for the response, a method of acidifying rodent urine was needed. This study tested the efficacy of 1% dietary NH4Cl in reducing the urinary pH of male mice. After 1 wk, urinary pH (mean ± SD) at 1 h after light onset was 7.51 ± 0.32 among controls compared with 6.21 ± 0.31 for the NH4Cl-fed group. After 2 wk of supplementation, urinary pH was 7.78 ± 0.41 for controls and 6.20 ± 0.30 for the NH4Cl-fed group. To investigate whether the time of collection altered urinary pH, samples also were collected 8 h after the start of the light cycle on the day of the 2-wk collection. Urinary pH was 7.12 ± 0.28 for the control group and 5.80 ± 0.23 for the NH4Cl-fed mice. The pH differences between control and NH4Cl-fed groups and the differences in pH within groups at 1 and 8 h were statistically significant. Dietary NH4Cl is an effective urinary acidifier for mice. When evaluating the pH of mouse urine, care should be taken to compare samples collected at the same time after the start of the light cycle. PMID:19383209

  6. Odors from evaporation of acidified pig urine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. C. Willers; P. J. Hobbs; N. W. M. Ogink

    2004-01-01

    In the Dutch Hercules project feces and urine from pigs are collected separately underneath the slatted floor in a pig house and treated in two processes. Feces are composted and urine is concentrated by water evaporation in a packed bed. Exhaust air from the pig house is used for the evaporation in a packed bed scrubber. Before entering the scrubber,

  7. Boric Acid Preservation of Urine Samples

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. A. Porter; J. Brodie

    1969-01-01

    Comparison of the results of bacteriological culture and microscopic examination of urine samples transported over a distance by the dip-inoculum transport medium, ice-box, and boric acid preservation with “natural” urine specimens showed that the last, in a final concentration of 1·8%, gives satisfactory preservation.

  8. drug discovery drug discovery

    E-print Network

    drug discovery at Purdue #12;drug discovery 2 #12;drug discovery 3 Introduction The drug discovery and innovative drug candidates to treat chronic and acute illnesses. Our researchers also continue to be invested in various approaches to drug discovery, which include understanding of drug targets for future drug

  9. 10 CFR 26.107 - Collecting a urine specimen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Collecting a urine specimen. 26.107 Section...PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.107 Collecting a urine specimen. (a) The...donor shall provide his or her urine specimen in the privacy...

  10. 10 CFR 26.107 - Collecting a urine specimen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Collecting a urine specimen. 26.107 Section...PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.107 Collecting a urine specimen. (a) The...donor shall provide his or her urine specimen in the privacy...

  11. Green urine in a critically ill patient.

    PubMed

    Carpenito, Gerardo; Kurtz, Ira

    2002-04-01

    The development of discolored urine in the critically ill patient, although uncommon, may have many possible causes, with the most likely source related to medication administration. Studies were undertaken in a 39-year-old man who developed dark green urine while in the intensive care unit for neutropenic sepsis. Although the patient had developed prior nonoliguric renal failure stemming from his sepsis, his renal function at the time of presentation of urine discoloration was considered normal. Review of his medications and intravenous infusions suggested the most likely cause was the food dye placed in his enteral tube feedings. Spectrophotometric evaluation of the urine confirmed the presence of Food Dye and Color Blue Number 1 (FD&C Blue No. 1). This case shows that significant gastrointestinal absorption of FD&C Blue No. 1 can occur. FD&C Blue No. 1 should be considered in the differential diagnosis of dark green discolored urine. PMID:11920362

  12. Antiretroviral Drug-Related Liver Mortality Among HIV-Positive Persons in the Absence of Hepatitis B or C Virus Coinfection: The Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs Study

    PubMed Central

    Kovari, Helen; Sabin, Caroline A.; Ledergerber, Bruno; Ryom, Lene; Worm, Signe W.; Smith, Colette; Phillips, Andrew; Reiss, Peter; Fontas, Eric; Petoumenos, Kathy; De Wit, Stéphane; Morlat, Philippe; Lundgren, Jens D.; Weber, Rainer

    2013-01-01

    Background.?Liver diseases are the leading causes of death in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–positive persons since the widespread use of combination antiretroviral treatment (cART). Most of these deaths are due to hepatitis C (HCV) or B (HBV) virus coinfections. Little is known about other causes. Prolonged exposure to some antiretroviral drugs might increase hepatic mortality. Methods.?All patients in the Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs study without HCV or HBV coinfection were prospectively followed from date of entry until death or last follow-up. In patients with liver-related death, clinical charts were reviewed using a structured questionnaire. Results.?We followed 22 910 participants without hepatitis virus coinfection for 114 478 person-years. There were 12 liver-related deaths (incidence, 0.10/1000 person-years); 7 due to severe alcohol use and 5 due to established ART-related toxicity. The rate of ART-related deaths in treatment-experienced persons was 0.04/1000 person-years (95% confidence interval, .01, .10). Conclusions.?We found a low incidence of liver-related deaths in HIV-infected persons without HCV or HBV coinfection. Liver-related mortality because of ART-related toxicity was rare. PMID:23090925

  13. Comparison of one-day versus two-day incubation of urine cultures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kim L. Joho; Hesham Soliman; Melvin P. Weinstein

    1995-01-01

    The value of incubating urine cultures for 1 versus 2 days was evaluated prospectively for 1526 consecutive specimens. A total of 507 cultures (33.2%) were positive after 1 day; 41 (2.7%) showed different results after 2 days. Only yeasts and corynebacteria were detected more often with longer incubation. Patient charts were available for review from 27 of 41 late positives;

  14. Detection of significant bacteriuria by use of the iQ200 automated urine microscope.

    PubMed

    Stürenburg, Enno; Kramer, Jan; Schön, Gerhard; Cachovan, Georg; Sobottka, Ingo

    2014-08-01

    In the microbiology laboratory, there is an augmented need for rapid screening methods for the detection of bacteria in urine samples, since about two-thirds of these samples will not yield any bacteria or will yield insignificant growth when cultured. Thus, a reliable screening method can free up laboratory resources and can speed up the reporting of a negative urine result. In this study, we have evaluated the detection of leukocytes, bacteria, and a new sediment indicator, the "all small particles" (ASP), by an automated instrument, the iQ200 urine analyzer, to detect negative urine samples that can be excluded from culture. A coupled automated strip reader (iChem Velocity), enabling the detection of nitrite and leukocyte esterase, was tested in parallel. In total, 963 urine samples were processed through both conventional urine culture and the iQ200/iChem Velocity workstation. Using the data, a multivariate regression model was established, and the predicted specificity and the possible reduction in urine cultures were calculated for the indicators and their respective combinations (leukocytes plus bacteria plus ASP and leukocyte esterase plus nitrite). Among all options, diagnostic performance was best using the whole microscopic content of the sample (leukocytes plus bacteria plus ASP). By using a cutoff value of ? 10(4) CFU/ml for defining a positive culture, a given sensitivity of 95% resulted in a specificity of 61% and a reduction in urine cultures of 35%. By considering the indicators alone, specificity and the culture savings were both much less satisfactory. The regression model was also used to determine possible cutoff values for running the instrument as part of daily routine. By using a graphical representation of all combinations possible, we derived cutoff values for leukocyte, bacterial, and ASP count, which should enable the iQ200 microscope to screen out approximately one-third of the urine samples, significantly reducing the workload in the microbiology laboratory. PMID:24871218

  15. Recovery of dengue virus from urine samples by real-time RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Van den Bossche, D; Cnops, L; Van Esbroeck, M

    2015-07-01

    Recently, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for dengue virus (DENV) has been reported to test positive in urine samples for a longer time frame than in serum. We evaluated two RNA extraction procedures from urine and investigated the stability of DENV RNA in urine and serum up to 1 year at different storage temperatures. In addition, 24 urine samples collected from patients with a recent infection were tested with DENV real-time RT-PCR and compared to the RT-PCR results on serum. Five patients with an acute DENV infection were followed up for 6 months by RT-PCR on urine. The automated extraction method with the MagNA Pure LC 2.0 device had a higher yield of DENV RNA compared to the manual QIAGEN method, explained by the higher volume used in the former method. DENV RNA in both serum and urine was stable at room temperature up to 1 month and at 4 °C and -20 °C for at least 1 year. The detection rate by RT-PCR on urine was 50 % (4/8) until day 7, 100 % (6/6) between 1 and 3 weeks after symptom onset, and 25 % (2/8) thereafter. Generally, DENV RNA concentrations are higher in serum than in urine up till day 7, switching to lower concentrations in serum thereafter. Peak concentrations in urine are reached around day 10, and RNA becomes undetectable 3 to 4 weeks following disease onset. This diagnostic tool is of added value in clinical settings by extending the period during which DENV infections are diagnosed by RT-PCR. PMID:25794553

  16. [Test strips for the rapid determination of alpha-amylase in urine. A cooperative study].

    PubMed

    1983-09-01

    The value of a test-strip for the rapid determination of alpha-amylase in urine (Rapignost-Amylase) was tested at eleven different centres in four countries (Austria, Germany, Sweden, Switzerland) on a total of 1294 urine samples. Results were compared with those obtained by chromolytic and saccharogenic methods. The analytical efficiency of amylase determination in urine with the test-strip was 96%. There were 3.7% false-positive and 0.4% false-negative results. The test-strip readings were not influenced by erythrocytes or haemoglobin, glucose, protein, urobilinogen, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, codeine, amphetamine and ascorbic acid. Only bilirubin in very dark urine samples interfered with a correct reading of the test-strip. PMID:6192986

  17. Cost-effectiveness of integrating methadone maintenance and antiretroviral treatment for HIV-positive drug users in Vietnam's injection-driven HIV epidemics.

    PubMed

    Tran, Bach Xuan; Ohinmaa, Arto; Duong, Anh Thuy; Nguyen, Long Thanh; Vu, Phu Xuan; Mills, Steve; Houston, Stan; Jacobs, Philip

    2012-10-01

    Drug use negatively affects adherence to and outcomes of antiretroviral treatment (ART). This study evaluated the cost-effectiveness of integrating methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) with ART for HIV-positive drug users (DUs) in Vietnam. A decision analytical model was developed to compare the costs and consequences of 3 HIV/AIDS treatment strategies for DUs: (1) only ART, (2) providing ART and MMT in separated sites (ART-MMT), and (3) integrating ART and MMT with direct administration (DAART-MMT). The model was parameterized using empirical data of costs and outcomes extracted from the MMT and ART cohort studies in Vietnam, and international published sources. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis was conducted to examine the model's robustness. The base-case analysis showed that the cost-effectiveness ratio of ART, DAART-MMT, and ART-MMT strategies was USD 1358.9, 1118.0 and 1327.1 per 1 Quality-Adjusted Life Year (QALY), equivalent to 1.22, 1.00, and 1.19 times Gross Domestic Product per capita (GDPpc). The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for DAART-MMT and ART-MMT versus ART strategy was 569.4 and 1227.8, approximately 0.51 and 1.10 times GDPpc/QALY. At the willingness to pay threshold of 3 times GDPpc, the probability of being cost-effective of DAART-MMT versus ART was 86.1%. These findings indicated that providing MMT along with ART for HIV-positive DUs is a cost-effective intervention in Vietnam. Integrating MMT and ART services could facilitate the use of directly observed therapy that supports treatment adherence and brings about clinically important improvements in health outcomes. This approach is also incrementally cost-effective in this large injection-driven HIV epidemic. PMID:22436971

  18. The impact of drug testing on the morale and well-being of mandatory participants.

    PubMed

    Coombs, R H; Coombs, C J

    1991-09-01

    The impact of drug testing on the morale of mandatory participants was assessed through interviews and questionnaire responses of 500 intercollegiate athletes required to participate in a urine testing program. Subjects varied widely in their experiences. Most were not greatly affected, but some were embarrassed, humiliated, upset, and anxious about being inaccurately identified as drug users. Others experienced positive benefits: new information, a novel and interesting conversation piece, and a socially acceptable way to refuse drugs offered in friendship. Some said that testing benefited their athletic performance and school work. A number of recommendations were made to humanize and improve the experience: a better orientation about what to expect, more effective educational sessions, a warmer, more comfortable testing setting, more reasonable drug testing objectives, and more rigorous testing standards. PMID:1743826

  19. Attitudes of Matriculating First-Year Pharmacy Students Toward a Mandatory, Random Drug-Screening Program

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, Maggee; Hogue, Michael D.; Alverson, Susan P.; Woolley, Thomas W.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To determine the attitudes of incoming pharmacy students toward a mandatory, random urine drug-screening program. Methods. This was an anonymous, voluntary survey of students at the McWhorter School of Pharmacy (MSOP) using an instrument composed of 40 items. The instrument was administered during orientation week prior to the session during which the policies and procedures of MSOP's drug-screening program were to be discussed. Results. The survey instrument was completed by all 129 (100%) students in the class. Two-thirds of the students were aware of MSOP's drug-screening program prior to applying, but only a few felt uneasy about applying to the school because of the program. The greatest concerns expressed by the students included what would happen if a student unintentionally missed a drug screen or was busy with other matters when called for screening, how much time a drug-screening would take, and the possibility of false-positive drug screen results. The vast majority of students agreed with statements regarding the potential benefits of drug testing. Students who consumed alcohol in a typical week and those with current or past use of an illegal substance held less favorable attitudes toward MSOP’s mandatory drug-screening program compared with students who did not share those characteristics. Conclusion. Although there were definite concerns expressed regarding pragmatic issues surrounding drug screening, the first-year pharmacy students held generally favorable opinions about the school's mandatory drug-screening program. PMID:23193335

  20. THE CONTROL OF VETERINARY DRUGS AND ANTIBIOTICS IN THE PRODUCTION OF VEAL CALVES: IDENTIFICATION OF RESIDUES OF VETERINARY DRUGS BY LCMS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. van Rhijn; J. Nouws; H. J. van Egmond; H. H. Heskamp; B. J. A. Berendsen

    An LC-MS based analytical approach is presented to perform confirmatory analysis of a broad range of veterinary drugs in calf urine. This method has been applied in the framework of a control programme to monitor the use of veterinary drugs in the production of veal calves. Based on previous research concerning the correlation between urine content and occurrence of residues

  1. Routine Urine Culture at the Time of Percutaneous Urinary Drainage: Does Every Patient Need One?

    SciTech Connect

    Brody, L.A., E-mail: brodyl@mskcc.org; Brown, K.T.; Covey, A.M. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, Section of Interventional Radiology and Image Guided Therapy (United States); Brown, A.E. [Service of Infectious Disease, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Medicine (United States); Getrajdman, G.I. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, Section of Interventional Radiology and Image Guided Therapy (United States)

    2006-08-15

    Purpose. To determine the clinical variables associated with bacteriuria in patients undergoing primary percutaneous antegrade urinary drainage procedures in order to predict the utility of routinely obtaining urine cultures at the time of the procedure. Methods. Between October 1995 and March 1998 urine cultures were prospectively obtained in all patients undergoing a primary percutaneous antegrade urinary drainage procedure. One hundred and eighty-seven patients underwent 264 procedures. Results were available in 252 cases. Culture results were correlated with clinical, laboratory, and demographic variables. Anaerobic cultures were not uniformly performed. Results. Urine cultures were positive in 24 of 252 (9.5%) cases. An indwelling or recently removed ipsilateral device (catheter or stent) and a history of previous cystectomy with urinary diversion were significant predictors of a positive culture. Patients without either of these predictors, and without clinical or laboratory evidence of infection, were rarely found to have positive cultures. Conclusion. The likelihood of a positive urine culture can be predicted on the basis of the aforementioned clinical variables. In the absence of these clinical indicators routine urine cultures are neither useful nor cost-effective.

  2. Monitoring of kratom or Krypton intake in urine using GC-MS in clinical and forensic toxicology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anika A. Philipp; Markus R. Meyer; Dirk K. Wissenbach; Armin A. Weber; Siegfried W. Zoerntlein; Peter G. M. Zweipfenning; Hans H. Maurer

    2011-01-01

    The Thai medicinal plant Mitragyna speciosa (kratom) is misused as a herbal drug. Besides this, a new herbal blend has appeared on the drugs of abuse market, named Krypton,\\u000a a mixture of O-demethyltramadol (ODT) and kratom. Therefore, urine drug screenings should include ODT and focus on the metabolites of the kratom alkaloids mitragynine (MG), paynantheine (PAY), speciogynine (SG), and speciociliatine

  3. Racial differences in the validity of self-reported drug use among men who have sex with men in Atlanta, GA

    PubMed Central

    White, Darcy; Rosenberg, Eli S.; Cooper, Hannah L.F.; del Rio, Carlos; Sanchez, Travis H.; Salazar, Laura F.; Sullivan, Patrick S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Men who have sex with men (MSM), particularly young black MSM, are disproportionately affected in the United States’ HIV epidemic. Drug use may contribute to these disparities, yet previous studies have failed to provide evidence of elevated use among black MSM, relying exclusively on self-reported usage. This study uses biological assays to validate self-reports of drug use and explore the potential for misclassification to distort findings on racial patterns of use in this population. Methods From an Atlanta-based cohort study of 454 black and 349 white MSM from 2010 to 2012, participants’ self-reported drug use was compared to urine drug screening findings. The sensitivity of self-report was calculated as the proportion reporting recent usage among those who screened positive. Multivariable regression models were constructed to examine racial patterns in self-report, urine-detection, and self-report sensitivity of marijuana and cocaine usage, adjusted for socio-demographic factors. Results In analyses that adjusted for age, education, income, sexual orientation, and history of arrest, black MSM were less likely to report recent use of marijuana (P<0.001) and cocaine (P=0.02), but equally likely to screen positive for either drug. This discrepancy between self-reported and urine-detected drug use was explained by significantly lower sensitivity of self-report for black participants (P<0.001 for marijuana, P<0.05 for cocaine). Conclusions The contribution of individual drug-related risk behaviors to the HIV disparities between black and white MSM should be revisited with methods that validate self-reports of illegal drug use. PMID:24629628

  4. Urine toxicology testing in chronic pain management.

    PubMed

    Cone, Edward J; Caplan, Yale H

    2009-07-01

    Treatment guidelines for chronic noncancer pain recommend opioids for carefully selected, closely monitored patients. However, many primary care physicians have a limited understanding of urine toxicology testing, which is the standard for monitoring opioid therapy. This article describes the technical aspects of urine toxicology testing and provides recommendations for monitoring patients to maximize the safety of opioid therapy. Articles were identified in PubMed, Medline, and EMBASE (January 1980-November 2008) using the search term opioid in combination with the terms urine toxicology, compliance monitoring, abuse, and diversion. Articles characterizing the pharmacology of individual opioids and practice guidelines for the management of chronic pain were also identified. Articles selected for inclusion discussed technical aspects of urine toxicology testing, clinical aspects of monitoring, and issues related to abuse and diversion. Urine tests can detect prescribed and illicit substances that are present above a specific threshold, but they provide limited data about the source, dose, or route of administration of substances detected. Effective monitoring requires careful test selection, an understanding of pharmacologic and metabolic factors influencing test results, and awareness of methods by which patients who are substance abusers may tamper with test specimens to escape detection. All patients prescribed opioids, not just those considered at risk for abuse, should undergo urine toxicology testing. Given its inherent complexities, effective urine testing requires close collaboration between the primary care physician and a reliable laboratory to develop an appropriate test protocol for each patient and to interpret test results. PMID:19641275

  5. First-line anti-tubercular drug resistance of mycobacterial strains from re-treatment cases that were smear-positive at 4th month onwards under the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Program

    PubMed Central

    Lahiri, Surajit; Mukherjee, Abhijit; Hazra, Supabitra; Jana, Pulak; Roy, Sandip; Saha, Brojo Kishore

    2015-01-01

    Background: Programmatic management of drug-resistant TB (PMDT) under the RNTCP is being implemented in West Bengal in a phased manner since 2011. During the initial years MDR-TB cases were identified based on criteria A. This study examines the first line anti-tubercular drug resistance pattern of mycobacteria cultured from sputum samples of MDR suspects who were retreatment cases smear positive from 4th month onwards. Materials and Methods: In the following retrospective record based study, data on Drug Sensitivity Testing (DST) of sputum samples of MDR suspects between September 2011 and August 2012 were collected from the IRL Kolkata and analysed. Sputum samples, collected in the districts maintaining adequate aseptic containment measures, were decontaminated and centrifuged and the sediment inoculated on LJ medium. Probable M. tuberculosis colonies were identified by typical colony characteristics and Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) staining. Sensitivity of the four 1st line drugs (Streptomycin, Isoniazid, Ethambutol and Rifampicin) was deduced by the economic variant of the proportion method. Results: Of all the 917 MDR suspects whose sputum was examined, 64 mycobacteria culture positive strains (6.98%) were mono-resistant to any of the four first line anti-tubercular drugs. Among the mono-resistant strains 43 (4.69%) were resistant to Rifampicin while 12 (1.31%) were resistant to INH. There were a total 78 (8.51%) poly drug-resistant strains. MDR-TB strains were seen in 741 (80.81%) samples. Conclusion: The magnitude of drug resistance were very high among retreatment patients that were smear positive from 4th months onwards probably because of repeated courses of anti-tubercular drugs prior to drug sensitivity testing (DST). The decision of the PMDT to enlist all retreatment patients as MDR suspects at initiation will result in early identification and treatment of MDR-TB patients. PMID:25814796

  6. Programmable probiotics for detection of cancer in urine.

    PubMed

    Danino, Tal; Prindle, Arthur; Kwong, Gabriel A; Skalak, Matthew; Li, Howard; Allen, Kaitlin; Hasty, Jeff; Bhatia, Sangeeta N

    2015-05-27

    Rapid advances in the forward engineering of genetic circuitry in living cells has positioned synthetic biology as a potential means to solve numerous biomedical problems, including disease diagnosis and therapy. One challenge in exploiting synthetic biology for translational applications is to engineer microbes that are well tolerated by patients and seamlessly integrate with existing clinical methods. We use the safe and widely used probiotic Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 to develop an orally administered diagnostic that can noninvasively indicate the presence of liver metastasis by producing easily detectable signals in urine. Our microbial diagnostic generated a high-contrast urine signal through selective expansion in liver metastases (10(6)-fold enrichment) and high expression of a lacZ reporter maintained by engineering a stable plasmid system. The lacZ reporter cleaves a substrate to produce a small molecule that can be detected in urine. E. coli Nissle 1917 robustly colonized tumor tissue in rodent models of liver metastasis after oral delivery but did not colonize healthy organs or fibrotic liver tissue. We saw no deleterious health effects on the mice for more than 12 months after oral delivery. Our results demonstrate that probiotics can be programmed to safely and selectively deliver synthetic gene circuits to diseased tissue microenvironments in vivo. PMID:26019220

  7. Programmable probiotics for detection of cancer in urine

    PubMed Central

    Danino, Tal; Prindle, Arthur; Kwong, Gabriel A.; Skalak, Matthew; Li, Howard; Allen, Kaitlin; Hasty, Jeff; Bhatia, Sangeeta N.

    2015-01-01

    Rapid advances in the forward engineering of genetic circuitry in living cells has positioned synthetic biology as a potential means to solve numerous biomedical problems, including disease diagnosis and therapy. One challenge in exploiting synthetic biology for translational applications is to engineer microbes that are well tolerated by patients and seamlessly integrate with existing clinical methods. We use the safe and widely used probiotic Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 to develop an orally administered diagnostic that can noninvasively indicate the presence of liver metastasis by producing easily detectable signals in urine. Our microbial diagnostic generated a high-contrast urine signal through selective expansion in liver metastases (106-fold enrichment) and high expression of a lacZ reporter maintained by engineering a stable plasmid system. The lacZ reporter cleaves a substrate to produce a small molecule that can be detected in urine. E. coli Nissle 1917 robustly colonized tumor tissue in rodent models of liver metastasis after oral delivery but did not colonize healthy organs or fibrotic liver tissue. We saw no deleterious health effects on the mice for more than 12 months after oral delivery. Our results demonstrate that probiotics can be programmed to safely and selectively deliver synthetic gene circuits to diseased tissue microenvironments in vivo. PMID:26019220

  8. A hybrid liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry strategy in a forensic laboratory for opioid, cocaine and amphetamine classes in human urine using a hybrid linear ion trap-triple quadrupole mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Dowling, Geraldine; Regan, Liam; Tierney, Julie; Nangle, Michael

    2010-10-29

    A rapid method has been developed to analyse morphine, codeine, morphine-3-glucuronide, 6-monoacetylmorphine, cocaine, benzoylegonine, buprenorphine, dihydrocodeine, cocaethylene, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine, ketamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, pseudoephedrine, lignocaine, benzylpiperazine, methamphetamine, amphetamine, 2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine and methadone in human urine. Urine samples were diluted with methanol:water (1:1, v/v) and sample aliquots were analysed by hybrid linear ion trap-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry with a runtime of 12.5 min. Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) as survey scan and an enhanced product ion (EPI) scan as dependent scan were performed in an information-dependent acquisition (IDA) experiment. Finally, drug identification and confirmation was carried out by library search with a developed in-house MS/MS library based on EPI spectra at a collision energy spread of 35±15 in positive mode and MRM ratios. The method was validated in urine, according to the criteria defined in Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. At least two MRM transitions for each substance were monitored in addition to EPI spectra and deuterated analytes were used as internal standards for quantitation. The reporting level was 0.05 ?g mL(-1) for the range of analytes tested. The regression coefficients (r(2)) for the calibration curves (0-4 ?g mL(-1)) in the study were ?0.98. The method proved to be simple and time efficient and was implemented as an analytical strategy for the illicit drug monitoring of opioids, cocaines and amphetamines in criminal samples from crime offenders, abusers or victims in the Republic of Ireland. To the best of our knowledge there are no hybrid LC-MS applications using MRM mode and product ion spectra in the linear ion trap mode for opioids, cocaines or amphetamines with validation data in urine. PMID:20855077

  9. Clinical trial of a new technique for drugs of abuse testing: a new possible sampling technique.

    PubMed

    Skoglund, Charlotte; Hermansson, Ulric; Beck, Olof

    2015-01-01

    Exhaled breath has recently been proposed as a matrix for drug testing. This study aims to further explore, develop and validate exhaled breath as a safe and effective non-invasive method for drug testing in a clinical setting. Self-reported drug use was recorded and drug testing was performed by mass spectrometry and immunochemical methods using breath, plasma and urine samples from 45 individuals voluntarily seeking treatment for recreational drug use. Cannabis was the most prevalent drug detected by any method. Urine sampling detected most cases. The exhaled breath technique was less sensitive (73%) than plasma analysis for detection of cannabis uses but captures a more recent drug intake than both plasma and urine. Exhaled breath was the preferred specimen to donate according to interview data of the participants. Testing illicit drugs with the exhaled breath sampling technique is a sufficient, non-invasive and safe alternative and complement to plasma and/or urine sampling. PMID:25312474

  10. Urine dipstick analysis for identification of runners susceptible to acute kidney injury following an ultramarathon.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Martin D; Stuempfle, Kristin J; Fogard, Kevin; Hew-Butler, Tamara; Winger, James; Weiss, Robert H

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether urine dipstick testing might be useful to predict the development of acute kidney injury after an ultramarathon. Participants in the 2011 161-km Western States Endurance Run underwent post-race blood and urine dipstick analyses. Of the 310 race finishers, post-race urine dipstick testing was completed on 152 (49%) and post-race blood also was obtained from 150 of those runners. Based on "injury" and "risk" criteria for acute kidney injury of blood creatinine 2.0 and 1.5 times estimated baseline, respectively, 4% met the criteria for injury and an additional 29-30% met the criteria for risk of injury. Those meeting the injury criteria had higher creatine kinase concentrations (P < 0.001) than those not meeting the criteria. Urine dipstick tests that read positive for at least 1+ protein, 3+ blood, and specific gravity ? 1.025 predicted those meeting the injury criteria with sensitivity of 1.00 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.54-1.00), specificity of 0.76 (95% CI 0.69-0.83), positive predictive value of 0.15 (95% CI 0.06-0.30), negative predictive value of 1.00 (95% CI 0.97-1.00), and likelihood ratio for a positive test of 4.2. We conclude that urine dipstick testing was successfully able to identify those individuals meeting injury criteria for acute kidney injury with excellent sensitivity and specificity. PMID:23035796

  11. The role of cow urine in the oviposition site preference of culicine and Anopheles mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Chemical and behavioural ecology of mosquitoes plays an important role in the development of chemical cue based vector control. To date, studies available have focused on evaluating mosquito attractants and repellents of synthetic and human origins. This study, however, was aimed at seasonal evaluation of the efficiency of cow urine in producing oviposition cues to Anopheles gambiae s.l. and Culex quinquefasciatus in both laboratory and field conditions. Methods Oviposition response evaluation in laboratory conditions was carried out in mosquito rearing cages. The oviposition substrates were located in parallel or in diagonal positions inside the cage. Urine evaluation against gravid females of An. arabiensis and Cx. quinquefasciatus was carried out at Day 1, Day 3 and Day 7. Five millilitres (mls) of cow urine was added to oviposition substrate while de-chlorinated water was used as a control. In field experiments, 500 mls of cow urine was added in artificial habitats with 2500 mls of de-chlorinated water and 2 kgs of soil. The experiment was monitored for thirty consecutive days, eggs were collected daily from the habitats at 7.00 hrs. Data analysis was performed using parametric and non-parametric tests for treatments and controls while attraction of the oviposition substrate in each species was presented using Oviposition Activity Index (OAI). Results The OAI was positive with ageing of cattle urine in culicine species in both laboratory and field experiments. The OAI for anopheline species was positive with fresh urine. The OAI during the rainy season was positive for all species tested while in the dry season the OAI for culicine spp and Anopheles gambiae s.l., changed with time from positive to negative values. Based on linear model analysis, seasons and treatments had a significant effect on the number of eggs laid in habitats, even though the number of days had no effect. Conclusion Oviposition substrates treated with cow urine in both laboratory and field conditions have shown that cow urine left to age from 1-7 days has an influence on oviposition behavioural response in mosquitoes. The analysis of microbial colonies for decaying urine should be investigated along with its associated by-products. PMID:21943071

  12. Simultaneous quantification of 28 synthetic cathinones and metabolites in urine by liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Concheiro, Marta; Anizan, Sebastien; Ellefsen, Kayla; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2013-11-01

    Synthetic cathinones are novel stimulants derived from cathinone, with amphetamines or cocaine-like effects, often labeled "not for human consumption" and considered "legal highs". Emergence of these new designer drugs complicate interpretation of forensic and clinical cases, with introduction of many new analogs designed to circumvent legislation and vary effects and potencies. We developed a method for the simultaneous quantification of 28 synthetic cathinones, including four metabolites, in urine by liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS). These cathinones include cathinone, methcathinone, and synthetic cathinones position-3'-substituted, N-alkyl-substituted, ring-substituted, methylenedioxy-substituted, and pyrrolidinyl-substituted. One mL phosphate buffer pH 6 and 25 ?L IStd solution were combined with 0.25 mL urine, and subjected to solid phase cation exchange extraction (SOLA SCX). The chromatographic reverse-phase separation was achieved with a gradient mobile phase of 0.1 % formic acid in water and in acetonitrile in 20 min. We employed a Q Exactive high resolution mass spectrometer, with compounds identified and quantified by target-MSMS experiments. The assay was linear from 0.5-1 to 100 ?g/L, with limits of detection of 0.25-1 ?g/L. Imprecision (n?=?20) was <15.9 % and accuracy (n?=?20) 85.2-118.1 %. Extraction efficiency was 78.9-116.7 % (CV 1.4-16.7 %, n?=?5), process efficiency 57.7-104.9 %, and matrix effects from -29.5 % to 1.5 % (CV 1.9-13.1 %, n?=?10). Most synthetic cathinones were stable at 4 °C for 72 h (n?=?27) and after 3 freeze-thaw cycles (n?=?26), but many (n?=?19) were not stable at room temperature for 24 h (losses up to -67.6 %). The method was applied to authentic urine specimens from synthetic cathinone users. This method provides a comprehensive confirmation method for 28 synthetic cathinones in urine, with good selectivity and specificity. PMID:24196122

  13. INGESTED MINERAL FIBERS: ELIMINATION IN HUMAN URINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sediment in human urine examined by transmission electron microscopy contains amphibole fibers which originate from the ingestion of drinking water contaminated with these mineral fibers. The ingestion of filtered water results in the eventual disappearance of amphibole fibers fr...

  14. Waterless Urinals: Features, Benefits and Applications 

    E-print Network

    Bristow, G.; McClure, J. D.; Fisher, D.

    2004-01-01

    . Regular upkeep includes cleaning all surfaces, and drain care, whether the drain contains a cartridge type trap or one cast into the urinal. Custodial staffs can perform these tasks. Cleaning involves using a nonabrasive cleanser, followed by wiping... with waterless urinals, proper maintenance is the key to satisfaction. Since there is no flushing to clean the fixtures, they must be wiped down and cleaned regularly. Cleaning must be done according to manufacturer?s instructions for the best results...

  15. Diagnostic monitoring of urine by means of synchronous fluorescence spectrum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katar??na Dubayová; Jaroslav Kušn??r; L'udmila Podracká

    2003-01-01

    A novel approach to clinical–biochemical analysis of urine is presented in this work. Urine composition is defined graphically as a record of synchronous fluorescence spectra (SFS). The graphical standard has been made from SFS of urine samples from healthy children. Simple comparison of a standard record with that of an analyzed urine sample will immediately reveal changes in its composition.Reproducibility

  16. Improved screen and confirmation test of 7-aminoflunitrazepam in urine specimens for monitoring flunitrazepam (Rohypnol) exposure.

    PubMed

    Wang, Perng-Haur; Liu, Chiareiy; Tsay, Wen-Ing; Li, Jih-Heng; Liu, Ray H; Wu, Tai-Guang; Cheng, Wen-Jing; Lin, Dong-Liang; Huang, Tsun-Ying; Chen, Cheng-Hsing

    2002-10-01

    Confirmed and alleged misuses of flunitrazepam (FM2, Rohypnol) have brought about serious interest in the development of an analytical methodology that can be effectively used for preliminary screen and confirmatory test of FM2 (or its metabolites) in urine specimens under high-volume settings. Reported methods do not serve this need well for the following reasons: (1) common benzodiazepine (BZ) immunoassays (IAs) have broad cross-reactivities toward widely prescribed BZs (and their metabolites) and are therefore likely to generate an unacceptable number of false positives and (2) because FM2 is typically used at low doses (1-4 mg), IAs with low cross-reactivities toward FM2 (and its metabolites) are likely to generate false-negative results. In this current study, a familiar and effective two-step IA/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) approach is successfully developed and applied to clinical specimens. Cross-reacting characteristics of the following BZ IAs toward various BZs (and their metabolites) are evaluated focusing on their effectiveness in serving as the preliminary test reagent in a two-step testing protocol: TDx, Beckman, CEDIA, Roche Cobas Integra, Emit II Plus, and Cozart ELISA. Although other IAs show broad cross-reactivities toward various BZs and their metabolites, diazepam is the only non-FM2 derived compound that exhibits noticeable cross-reactivity toward Cozart ELISA reagent. Cross-reactivity data and data derived from studies conducted on a limited number of clinical specimens demonstrate that, when used to monitor FM2 exposure in a large population group (including those exposed to other BZs), Cozart ELISA has the potential of being as effective as (or better than) those currently used in various workplace drug-testing programs for monitoring respectively targeted drugs. Data derived from this study further suggest that 50 ng/mL apparent 7-aminoflunitrazepam (Cozart ELISA) and 30 ng/mL free 7-aminoflunitrazepam (GC-MS) are potentially effective preliminary test and confirmation test cut-offs. To maximize efficiency, it is further suggested that urine specimens are first diluted by a factor of 5 for the preliminary test in which a 10-ng/mL 7-aminoflunitrazepam standard is used as the assay's cut-off standard. PMID:12422994

  17. The Diagnostic Accuracy of Urine Lipoarabinomannan Test for Tuberculosis Screening in a South African Correctional Facility

    PubMed Central

    Hanifa, Yasmeen; Telisinghe, Lilanganee; Fielding, Katherine L.; Malden, Justin L.; Churchyard, Gavin J.; Grant, Alison D.; Charalambous, Salome

    2015-01-01

    Background We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of the urine lipoarabinomannan (LAM) antigen detection assay (Clearview TB-ELISA) to screen for tuberculosis in a South African correctional facility. Methods Between September 2009 and October 2010, male offenders were screened for tuberculosis (symptoms, chest radiograph, two spot sputum specimens for microscopy and culture), and urine tested for LAM. Sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of LAM were calculated using definite and probable tuberculosis combined as our gold standard. Findings 33/871 (3.8%) participants (26% HIV-positive) had tuberculosis. Amongst HIV-positive vs. HIV-negative offenders the sensitivity and specificity of LAM was 7.1% vs. 0% and 98.5% vs. 99.8% respectively. Conclusion Urine LAM ELISA has inadequate sensitivity for TB screening in this population. PMID:26010840

  18. Plasma disappearance, urine excretion, and tissue distribution of ribavirin in rats and rhesus monkeys

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrara, E.A.; Oishi, J.S.; Wannemacher, R.W. Jr.; Stephen, E.L.

    1981-06-01

    Ribavirin has been shown to have broad-spectrum antiviral. To study its tissue distribution and disappearance rate, a single dose of 10 mg/kg which contained 10 microCi of (14C)ribavirin was injected intravenously into rhesus monkeys and intramuscularly into monkeys and rats. Except for peak plasma concentrations and the initial phases of the plasma disappearance and urine excretion curves, no significant difference was observed between plasma, tissue, or urine values for intramuscularly or intravenously injected monkeys. Plasma disappearance curves were triphasic; plasma concentrations of ribavirin were similar for both monkeys and rats. Rats excreted ribavirin in the urine more rapidly and to a greater extent (82% excreted in 24 h) than did monkeys (60% excreted in 72 h). In the rat, only 3% of the injected (14C)ribavirin was detected in expired CO2. Therefore, for both species, urine was the major route for the elimination of labeled ribavirin and its metabolites from the body. In monkeys, the amount of parent drug in blood cells increased through 48 h and remained stable for 72 h, whereas in rats, ribavirin decreased at a rate similar to the plasma disappearance curve. Concentrations of ribavirin at 8 h were consistently higher in monkeys than in rats for all tissues except the brain. Thus, these differences in blood cellular components and organ content and in urine excretion suggested that there was greater tissue retention of ribavirin in monkeys than in rats.

  19. Clinically relevant characteristics associated with early treatment drug use versus abstinence

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study describes early treatment drug use status and associated clinical characteristics in a diverse sample of patients entering outpatient substance abuse psychosocial counseling treatment. The goal is to more fully characterize those entering treatment with and without active use of their primary drug in order to better understand associated treatment needs and resilience factors. Methods We examined baseline data from a NIDA Clinical Trials Network (CTN) study (Web-delivery of Treatment for Substance Use) with an all-comers sample of patients (N?=?494) entering 10 outpatient treatment centers. Patients were categorized according to self-identified primary drug of abuse (alcohol, cocaine/stimulants, opioids, marijuana) and by baseline drug use status (positive/negative) based on urine testing or self-reports of recent use (alcohol). Characteristics were examined by primary drug and early use status. Results Classified as drug-negative were 84%, 76%, 62%, and 33% of primary opioid, stimulant, alcohol, and marijuana users; respectively. Drug-positive versus -negative patients did not differ on demographics or rates of substance abuse/dependence diagnoses. However, those negative for active use had better physical and mental health profiles, were less likely to be using a secondary drug, and were more likely to be attending 12-step self-help meetings. Conclusions Early treatment drug abstinence is common among substance users entering outpatient psychosocial counseling programs, regardless of primary abused drug. Abstinence (by negative UA) is associated with better health and mental health profiles, less secondary drug use, and more days of 12-step attendance. These data highlight differential treatment needs and resiliencies associated with early treatment drug use status. Trial registration NCT01104805. PMID:24708748

  20. [Urination disorders. Do we know all about them?].

    PubMed

    Gadzhieva, Z K; Kazilov, Iu B; Aliaev, Iu G; Aboian, I A; Kazilov, B R

    2014-01-01

    The article presents the results of the pilot questionnaire survey of doctors of various specialties, living in some cities in the Southern Federal District, in the diagnosis and treatment of various urination disorders. The survey involved 101 urologists, 33 obstetricians, 37 internists, 35 surgeons, 9 neurologists and 1 infectiologist. Inadequate training of doctors of various specialties regarding the diagnosis and treatment of various disorders of urination of inflammatory and non-inflammatory nature should be noted. Misunderstanding of differential diagnosis of various forms of urinary incontinence and tactics of management of each of them come under notice. Most urologists (95.46%), obstetricians (92.3%), physicians (100%), neurologists (66.6%), and surgeons (88.58%) did not have a thorough knowledge about the symptoms of overactive bladder (OB). Only 63.37 % of the entire group of respondents, and 81% of urologists using conservative therapies, has prescribed M-anticholinergics for the treatment of OB. In the treatment of urgent forms of urinary incontinence, only 64.5% of urologists use M-anticholinergics. Excessive use of M-anticholinergics for the treatment of stress urinary incontinence still persists--38% of urologists. alpha-blockers are the main group of drugs (96.6%) used in medical treatment of LUTS in benign prostatic hyperplasia. However, there is reduced (14.8%) understanding of the need to designate combination therapy with M-cholinergic antagonists when indicated. The issues of therapy of patients with lower urinary tract infections, namely the choice of antibiotics without considering antibiotic sensitivity and antibiotic resistance and knowledge of Russian and national guidelines and recommendations of the European Association of Urology are of particular concern. Curiously enough, there is underestimation of this issue by urologists (23%) compared to obstetricians (45%) and physicians (40.7%). These findings can determine the need for education programs for professionals in different areas of medicine, because patients with urination disorders occur in practice of doctors of various related specialties. PMID:24772770

  1. Diagnosis by AMPLICOR PCR of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in urine samples from women and men attending sexually transmitted disease clinics.

    PubMed Central

    Quinn, T C; Welsh, L; Lentz, A; Crotchfelt, K; Zenilman, J; Newhall, J; Gaydos, C

    1996-01-01

    Screening of urine specimens from men for Chlamydia trachomatis infection by a commercial PCR assay (AMPLICOR C. trachomatis Test; Roche Diagnostic Systems, Inc., Branchburg, N.J.) is a sensitive and specific noninvasive diagnostic assay. Since screening of women for C. trachomatis infection with the AMPLICOR C. trachomatis Test has been limited to use with endocervical swab specimens, we conducted an evaluation of the AMPLICOR C. trachomatis Test for the detection of C. trachomatis using female urine samples and compared the results of those obtained by in vitro culture and PCR of endocervical swab specimens. For 713 men we compared the performance of AMPLICOR C. trachomatis Test with urine specimens with that of culture of urethral specimens. For specimens that were PCR positive and culture negative, two additional tests were used to resolve the discrepancies: direct fluorescent-antibody assay (DFA) of sediment from a spun endocervical specimen culture vial and major outer membrane protein-based PCR of the sediment from the endocervical specimen culture vial. Of 525 urine specimens from females, 67 (12.8%) were PCR positive, and 41 (7.8%) endocervical specimens from the 525 women were culture positive. After resolution of the discrepancies, the resolved sensitivity of the urine PCR was 93.3%, whereas the sensitivity of endocervical swab specimen culture was 67.3%. Of 468 female endocervical swab specimens, 47 (10.0%) had a positive PCR result and 33 (7.0%) were culture positive. The resolved sensitivity of the endocervical swab specimen PCR was 86%. Of 415 matched female urine and endocervical swab specimens, there were 49 confirmed infections; 30 (61.2%) specimens were positive by culture of the endocervical swab specimen, 40 (81.6%) were positive by confirmed endocervical swab specimen PCR, 43 (87.8%) were positive by confirmed urine PCR, and all 49 (100%) were positive by either endocervical swab specimen PCR or urine PCR. For men, the resolved sensitivity of the urine PCR was 88%, and the sensitivity of culture was only 50.7%. These results indicate that urine PCR is highly sensitive for the detection of C. trachomatis in both women and men and provides a noninvasive technique for routine screening for chlamydial infection. PMID:8735088

  2. Noninvasive quantification of drug delivery from an implantable MEMS device

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Audrey M., 1976-

    2005-01-01

    (cont.) sensors in vivo in real time and corroborated by scintillation of urine samples. The goal of monitoring drug delivery from an implant in vivo, in real time and without disturbing the tissue environment, was ...

  3. 49 CFR 219.603 - Participation in drug testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Programs § 219.603 Participation in drug testing. A railroad shall, under the conditions...covered employee selected through the random testing program to cooperate in urine testing to determine compliance with § 219.102,...

  4. 49 CFR 219.603 - Participation in drug testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...Programs § 219.603 Participation in drug testing. A railroad shall, under the conditions...covered employee selected through the random testing program to cooperate in urine testing to determine compliance with § 219.102,...

  5. 49 CFR 219.603 - Participation in drug testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Programs § 219.603 Participation in drug testing. A railroad shall, under the conditions...covered employee selected through the random testing program to cooperate in urine testing to determine compliance with § 219.102,...

  6. 49 CFR 219.603 - Participation in drug testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...Programs § 219.603 Participation in drug testing. A railroad shall, under the conditions...covered employee selected through the random testing program to cooperate in urine testing to determine compliance with § 219.102,...

  7. 49 CFR 219.603 - Participation in drug testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Programs § 219.603 Participation in drug testing. A railroad shall, under the conditions...covered employee selected through the random testing program to cooperate in urine testing to determine compliance with § 219.102,...

  8. Measurement of sodium ion concentration in undiluted urine with cation-selective polymeric membrane electrodes after the removal of interfering compounds

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Feyisayo; Kaczor, Kim; Gandhi, Neel; Pendley, Bradford D.; Danish, Robert K.; Neuman, Michael R.; Toth, Blanka; Horvath, Viola; Lindner, Erno

    2007-01-01

    The measurement of sodium ion concentration in urine can provide diagnostic information and guide therapy. Unfortunately, neutral-carrier-based ion-selective electrodes show a large positive drift and loss in selectivity in undiluted urine. The extraction of electrically neutral lipids from the urine into the sensing membrane was suggested as the main source of the drift, loss of selectivity and the consequent incorrect concentration readings. In this work, (i) solvent-solvent extraction, (ii) membrane-immobilized solvent extraction, and (iii) solid phase extraction were used to remove interfering compounds from urine samples. The “cleaned” urine samples were subsequently analyzed using a calixarene (sodium ionophore X)-based, solid-contact, sodium-selective electrode in a flow-through manifold. The solid-contact sodium sensors had excellent stability in cleaned urine and an acceptable bias compared to commercial clinical analyzers. PMID:18371638

  9. Detection of chrysotile asbestos in workers' urine.

    PubMed

    Finn, M B; Hallenbeck, W H

    1985-03-01

    Urinary asbestos concentrations were evaluated as an indicator of occupational exposure to chrysotile asbestos via inhalation and ingestion. Detection of asbestos in the urine represents the first step in developing a biological indicator of exposure. Such an indicator could be used to supplement exposure data from workplace air sampling. A biological indicator would be particularly valuable in evaluating workers with intermittent airborne asbestos exposures and in determining if airborne exposure results in penetration of asbestos through the lung or gastro-intestinal tract. Transmission electron microscopy was selected as the most sensitive technique for identification of all sizes of asbestos fibers which might appear in the urine. First morning void urine samples were obtained from six workers (occupationally exposed to chrysotile asbestos in a factory producing roof coatings) and from a control group (six individuals with no occupational exposure). The levels of chrysotile asbestos detected in the urine of five workers were significantly greater than the asbestos concentrations in matched field blanks (both on a number and mass basis). Field blanks were designed to detect asbestos in the urine samples due to contamination which might occur during urine collection. Also, the workers' urinary asbestos levels were significantly greater than the concentrations found in the control group (both on a number and mass basis). Finally, the levels of chrysotile asbestos detected in the urine of two of six controls were significantly greater than those in matched field blanks (both on a number and mass basis). Although the project was not specifically designed to correlate urinary and airborne asbestos concentrations, preliminary data indicated that a correlation did not exist between these factors. PMID:2986442

  10. Detection of chrysotile asbestos in workers' urine.

    PubMed

    Finn, M B; Hallenbeck, W H

    1984-11-01

    Urinary asbestos concentrations were evaluated as an indicator of occupational exposure to chrysotile asbestos via inhalation and ingestion. Detection of asbestos in the urine represents the first step in developing a biological indicator of exposure. Such an indicator could be used to supplement exposure data from workplace air sampling. A biological indicator would be particularly valuable in evaluating workers with intermittent airborne asbestos exposures and in determining if airborne exposure results in penetration through the lung or gastrointestinal tract. Transmission electron microscopy was selected as the most sensitive technique for identification of all sizes of asbestos fibers which might appear in the urine. First morning void urine samples were obtained from six workers (occupationally exposed to chrysotile asbestos in a factory producing roof coatings) and from a control group (six individuals with no occupational exposure). The levels of chrysotile asbestos detected in the urine of five workers were significantly greater than the asbestos concentrations in matched field blanks (both on a number and mass basis). Field blanks were designed to detect asbestos in the urine samples due to contamination which might occur during urine collection. Also, the workers' urinary asbestos levels were significantly greater than the concentrations found in the control group (both on a number and mass basis). Finally, the levels of chrysotile asbestos detected in the urine of two of six controls were significantly greater than those in matched field blanks (both on a number and mass basis). Although the project was not specifically designed to correlate urinary and airborne asbestos concentrations, preliminary data indicated that a correlation did not exist between these factors. PMID:6095633

  11. Comparison of 3 Methods to Assess Urine Specific Gravity in Collegiate Wrestlers.

    PubMed

    Stuempfle, Kristin J.; Drury, Daniel G.

    2003-12-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the reliability and validity of refractometry, hydrometry, and reagent strips in assessing urine specific gravity in collegiate wrestlers. DESIGN AND SETTING: We assessed the reliability of refractometry, hydrometry, and reagent strips between 2 trials and among 4 testers. The validity of hydrometry and reagent strips was assessed by comparison with refractometry, the criterion measure for urine specific gravity. SUBJECTS: Twenty-one National Collegiate Athletic Association Division III collegiate wrestlers provided fresh urine samples. MEASUREMENTS: Four testers measured the specific gravity of each urine sample 6 times: twice by refractometry, twice by hydrometry, and twice by reagent strips. RESULTS: Refractometer measurements were consistent between trials (R =.998) and among testers; hydrometer measurements were consistent between trials (R =.987) but not among testers; and reagent-strip measurements were not consistent between trials or among testers. Hydrometer (1.018 +/- 0.006) and reagent-strip (1.017 +/- 0.007) measurements were significantly higher than refractometer (1.015 +/- 0.006) measurements. Intraclass correlation coefficients were moderate between refractometry and hydrometry (R =.869) and low between refractometry and reagent strips (R =.573). The hydrometer produced 28% false positives and 2% false negatives, and reagent strips produced 15% false positives and 9% false negatives. CONCLUSIONS: Only the refractometer should be used to determine urine specific gravity in collegiate wrestlers during the weight-certification process. PMID:14737213

  12. Drug Testing in Children with Excessive Daytime Sleepiness During Multiple Sleep Latency Testing

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Eliot S.; Maski, Kiran; Jenkins, Amanda J.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objective: To determine the incidence of positive drug screens in children undergoing a multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) for evaluation of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS). Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed in children evaluated at the Boston Children's Hospital Sleep Center between 1998 and 2013 who underwent MSLT for EDS with a concurrent urine and/or serum drug screen. Results: A total of 210 MSLTs were accompanied by drug testing. Children were 12.7 ± 3.7 years old (mean ± SD), 43% were female, and 24% had narcolepsy. Positive tests were obtained in 32% for caffeine, 5% for prescription medications, and 4% for over-the-counter drugs. No drugs of abuse were identified. Children testing positive for caffeine were older (13.8 ± 3.5 vs. 12.4 ± 3.7) and more likely female (59% vs. 36%), but did not differ in MSLT or overnight polysomnographic parameters compared to children without caffeine detected. Overall, only 14% had specific documentation regarding caffeine intake, though 90% were referred from a sleep clinic. Of the children testing positive for caffeine, 5% acknowledged use, 3% denied use, and 92% did not have a documented caffeine intake history during their sleep clinic visit. Conclusions: Routine drug testing for drugs of abuse during an MSLT for EDS yielded no positive results over a 15-year period, indicating that this routine practice is unnecessary in our pediatric population without specific concerns. However, objective evidence for caffeine exposure was found in 32% of tested children undergoing an MSLT. Sleep physicians rarely documented the caffeine intake history during clinic visits for EDS. Citation: Katz ES, Maski K, Jenkins AJ. Drug testing in children with excessive daytime sleepiness during multiple sleep latency testing. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(8):897-901. PMID:25126037

  13. Back to the basics: identifying positive youth development as the theoretical framework for a youth drug prevention program in rural Saskatchewan, Canada amidst a program evaluation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite endorsement by the Saskatchewan government to apply empirically-based approaches to youth drug prevention services in the province, programs are sometimes delivered prior to the establishment of evidence-informed goals and objectives. This paper shares the 'preptory’ outcomes of our team’s program evaluation of the Prince Albert Parkland Health Region Mental Health and Addiction Services’ Outreach Worker Service (OWS) in eight rural, community schools three years following its implementation. Before our independent evaluation team could assess whether expectations of the OWS were being met, we had to assist with establishing its overarching program goals and objectives and 'at-risk’ student population, alongside its alliance with an empirically-informed theoretical framework. Methods A mixed-methods approach was applied, beginning with in-depth focus groups with the OWS staff to identify the program’s goals and objectives and targeted student population. These were supplemented with OWS and school administrator interviews and focus groups with school staff. Alignment with a theoretical focus was determined though a review of the OWS’s work to date and explored in focus groups between our evaluation team and the OWS staff and validated with the school staff and OWS and school administration. Results With improved understanding of the OWS’s goals and objectives, our evaluation team and the OWS staff aligned the program with the Positive Youth Development theoretical evidence-base, emphasizing the program’s universality, systems focus, strength base, and promotion of assets. Together we also gained clarity about the OWS’s definition of and engagement with its 'at-risk’ student population. Conclusions It is important to draw on expert knowledge to develop youth drug prevention programming, but attention must also be paid to aligning professional health care services with a theoretically informed evidence-base for evaluation purposes. If time does not permit for the establishment of evidence-informed goals and objectives at the start-up of a program, obtaining insight and expertise from program personnel and school staff and administrators can bring the program to a point where this can still be achieved and theoretical linkages made after a program has been implemented. This is a necessary foundation for measuring an intervention’s success. PMID:24148918

  14. A sensitive urine-test method for monitoring the ingestion of isoniazid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G A Ellard; Greenfield

    1977-01-01

    A method is described for monitoring the ingestion of isoniazid based on detecting its metabolites, isonicotinic acid, and isonicotinylglycine in the urine. The sensitivity of the method is high so that reliably positive results were obtained up to about 24 hours after the ingestion of 100 mg isoniazid. The method should facilitate monitoring the taking of isoniazid by tuberculosis patients

  15. Predicting success and failure in juvenile drug treatment court: a meta-analytic review.

    PubMed

    Stein, David M; Deberard, Scott; Homan, Kendra

    2013-02-01

    This meta-analysis summarizes 41 studies that examined associations between characteristics of adolescent participants in juvenile drug treatment court and outcomes (i.e., premature termination, recidivism). A summary of within- and post-program recidivism rates was calculated, as was a global estimate of the premature drop-out rate. One clear trend in the available studies was the dramatic difference in recidivism rates for adolescents who succeed in graduating from drug court, relative to those who do not. In addition, the review revealed that behavior patterns evidenced during drug court participation were most strongly associated with both the probability of graduating successfully from drug court and recidivism (e.g., few in-program arrests, citations, detentions, and referrals; greater length of time in program or amount of treatment; lower use of drug and alcohol use, few positive urine screens, greater school attendance). Unfortunately, non-white participants tend to have a lower probability of graduation from drug court and experience higher recidivism during and following the program. Available juvenile drug treatment court studies confirm a number of reputed adolescent risk factors associated with substance abuse, criminality, treatment failure, and recidivism among adolescents (e.g., higher levels of emotional and behavioral problems, higher levels and severity of pre-program substance abuse, male gender). Suggestions for improving the effects of juvenile drug treatment court based on key results of the meta-analysis are offered. PMID:22980448

  16. Specimens for Drugs-of-Abuse Testing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leo J. Kadehjian

    A wide variety of body fluid specimens have been utilized for analysis for the presence of drugs of abuse. Urine has been\\u000a and remains the most widely used body fluid specimen for routine testing for drugs of abuse, but several alternative specimens\\u000a are establishing their place as suitable for drug testing. Hair, sweat, and oral fluid have reached a sufficient

  17. Concentration of urine by the hibernating marmot.

    PubMed

    Zatzman, M L; South, F E

    1975-05-01

    Studies wer performed with marmots (Marmota flaviventris) of both sexes that had chronic arterial, venous, and bladder catheters. Urine collection was performed during hibernation and urine osmolalities (611.6 not equal to 166.1 SD) were found to be lower than those of aroused animals (1264 not equal to 472.9 SD), but hypertonic to plasma. Peak osmolality of meduallary slices was found to be in the range of osmotic pressures of urine obtained from hibernating or aroused animals. After single injections of a mixture of rho-aminohippurate and inulin, or during constant infusion of inulin, steady-state excretion by hibernators was not achieved for several days. Indirect evidence indicateds that the hibernating marmot is capable of PAH secretion. PMID:1130537

  18. Color recognition system for urine analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Lianqing; Wang, Zicai; Lin, Qian; Dong, Mingli

    2010-08-01

    In order to increase the speed of photoelectric conversion, a linear CCD is applied as the photoelectric converter instead of the traditional photodiode. A white LED is used as the light source of the system. The color information of the urine test strip is transferred into the CCD through a reflecting optical system. It is then converted to digital signals by an A/D converter. The test results of urine analysis are obtained by a data processing system. An ARM microprocessor is selected as the CPU of the system and a CPLD is employed to provide a driving timing for the CCD drive and the A/D converter. Active HDL7.2 and Verilog HDL are used to simulate the driving timing of the CPLD. Experimental results show that the correctness rate of the test results is better than 90%. The system satisfies the requirements of the color information collection of urine analyzer.

  19. [ 15 N]Methacetin urine test: A method to study the development of hepatic detoxification capacity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Krumbiegel; B. Teichmann; G. Boehm

    1990-01-01

    The [15N]methacetin urine test was used to study human O-demethylase activities to characterize the maturation of hepatic detoxification capacity. The study involved 43 healthy subjects aged 1 day?47 years. The urinary15N elimination rates were measured following oral administrations of an aqueous [15N]methacetin solution. Age-dependent normal values of hepatic drug elimination capacity were established. Parameters were the15N elimination half-life and cumulative

  20. Instrumented Urine Point-of-Collection Testing Using the eScreen® System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Murray Lappe

    New federal regulations proposed by the Department of Health and Human Services for drug testing of federal employees includes\\u000a the addition of alternative specimens as well as the addition of alternative technologies for screening samples at the point\\u000a of collection. Alternative technologies called point-of-collection tests (POCT) may use urine or oral fluids, and are either\\u000a visually read or instrumented. eScreen®

  1. Determination of naproxen in human urine by solid-phase microextraction coupled to liquid chromatography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonella Aresta; Francesco Palmisano; Carlo G. Zambonin

    2005-01-01

    An SPME–LC–UV method for the determination of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) naproxen and, after hydrolysis, its glucuronide in human urine samples was developed for the first time using a carbowax\\/templated resin (CW\\/TPR-100)-coated fibre. The procedure required a very simple sample pre-treatment, an isocratic elution, and provides a highly selective extraction. All the aspects influencing adsorption (extraction time, temperature, pH

  2. Menatetrenone versus alfacalcidol in the treatment of Chinese postmenopausal women with osteoporosis: a multicenter, randomized, double-blinded, double-dummy, positive drug-controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yan; Zhang, Zhen-Lin; Zhang, Zhong-Lan; Zhu, Han-Min; Wu, Yi-Yong; Cheng, Qun; Wu, Feng-Li; Xing, Xiao-Ping; Liu, Jian-Li; Yu, Wei; Meng, Xun-Wu

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate whether the efficacy and safety of menatetrenone for the treatment of osteoporosis is noninferior to alfacalcidol in Chinese postmenopausal women. Method This multicenter, randomized, double-blinded, double-dummy, noninferiority, positive drug-controlled clinical trial was conducted in five Chinese sites. Eligible Chinese women with postmenopausal osteoporosis (N=236) were randomized to Group M or Group A and received menatetrenone 45 mg/day or alfacalcidol 0.5 ?g/day, respectively, for 1 year. Additionally, all patients received calcium 500 mg/day. Posttreatment bone mineral density (BMD), new fracture onsets, and serum osteocalcin (OC) and undercarboxylated OC (ucOC) levels were compared with the baseline value in patients of both groups. Results A total of 213 patients (90.3%) completed the study. After 1 year of treatment, BMD among patients in Group M significantly increased from baseline by 1.2% and 2.7% at the lumbar spine and trochanter, respectively (P<0.001); and the percentage increase of BMD in Group A was 2.2% and 1.8%, respectively (P<0.001). No difference was observed between groups. There were no changes in femoral neck BMD in both groups. Two patients (1.9%, 2/108) in Group M and four patients (3.8%, 4/105) in Group A had new fracture onsets (P>0.05). In Group M, OC and ucOC decreased from baseline by 38.7% and 82.3%, respectively (P<0.001). In Group A, OC and ucOC decreased by 25.8% and 34.8%, respectively (P<0.001). Decreases in serum OC and ucOC were more obvious in Group M than in Group A (P<0.001). The safety profile of menatetrenone was similar to alfacalcidol. Conclusion Menatetrenone is an effective and safe choice in the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis in Chinese women. PMID:24426779

  3. Predictive value of urine cultures in evaluation of bacterial colonization of ureteral stents.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M A; Alam, M M; Shahjamal, S; Islam, M R; Haque, M E

    2012-04-01

    To evaluate the predictive value of urine cultures in the assessment of ureteral stent colonization and to investigate the frequency of double J stent colonization and stent associated bacteriuria. This observational study was conducted in the department of Urology, Dhaka Medical College Hospital from December 2006 to March 2009. A total of 100 patients (mean age 39.2 ± 9.9 years, range 18-60 years, 69 male and 31 female) needing internal ureteral stent placement for different sorts of urinary tract operations were included in the study. Sterile urine samples were obtained from each patient before stenting and all patients had been given short-term prophylactic antibiotic (5-12 days). On the day of stent removal midstream urine were obtained from all patients for microbiological culture. Stents removed by aseptic precaution. Proximal and distal tip segments (3-5 cm) were also sent for culture. The lowest and highest durations of stenting were 10 and 86 days respectively (median 35 days). Both bacteriuria and bacterial colonization was significantly higher as duration of stenting increases (p=0.045 and p<0.001). E. coli was the most common microorganism isolated from both urine and stent culture. However, colonization rate of stents was much higher (45%) than positive urine cultures (21%) indicating that urine culture is less sensitive to diagnose stent colonization (k-value = 0.49). The study concludes that bacterial colonization significantly increases with indwelling time of stent and sterile culture of urine does not rule out that the stent itself is colonized. PMID:22561775

  4. An Examination of Current and Proposed Drug-Testing Policies at U.S. Colleges and Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fudala, Paul J.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Administrators at 332 colleges and universities completed surveys about their schools' current or proposed policies for urine drug testing of employees, applicants, and students. Fewer than 7% of schools reported urine drug testing of employees and applicants, and only 2% tested students. Few additional institutions were planning to adopt testing…

  5. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of use of the synthetic cannabinoid agonists UR-144 and XLR-11 in human urine.

    PubMed

    Mohr, Amanda L A; Ofsa, Bill; Keil, Alyssa Marie; Simon, John R; McMullin, Matthew; Logan, Barry K

    2014-09-01

    Ongoing changes in the synthetic cannabinoid drug market create the need for relevant targeted immunoassays for rapid screening of biological samples. We describe the validation and performance characteristics of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay designed to detect use of one of the most prevalent synthetic cannabinoids in urine, UR-144, by targeting its pentanoic acid metabolite. Fluorinated UR-144 (XLR-11) has been demonstrated to metabolize to this common product. The assay has significant cross-reactivity with UR-144-5-OH, UR-144-4-OH and XLR-11-4-OH metabolites, but <10% cross-reactivity with the parent compounds, and no measurable cross-reactivity with other synthetic cannabinoids and their metabolites at concentrations of <1,000 ng/mL. The assay's cutoff is 5 ng/mL relative to the pentanoic acid metabolite of UR-144, which is used as the calibrator. The method was validated with 90 positive and negative control urine samples for UR-144, XLR-11 and its metabolites tested versus liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The accuracy, sensitivity and specificity were determined to be 100% for the assay at the specified cutoff. PMID:24908262

  6. Separation and identification of zaleplon metabolites in human urine using capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection and liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian Horstkötter; Dirk Schepmann; Gottfried Blaschke

    2003-01-01

    A capillary electrophoresis (CE) method using laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) detection for the determination of the hypnotic drug zaleplon and its metabolites in human urine could be developed using carboxymethyl-?-cyclodextrin as a charged carrier. By the help of a complementary HPLC method coupled to mass spectrometry, three metabolites present in human urine could be identified as 5-oxozaleplon, 5-oxo-N-deethylzaleplon and 5-oxozaleplon glucuronide.

  7. [Evaluation of the coagglutination reaction with urine in generalized forms of meningococcal infection].

    PubMed

    Kostiukova, N N; Merzeniuk, Z A

    1991-01-01

    The coagglutination test with concentrated urine was tried in 59 patients with validated generalized forms of meningococcal infection and in 23 ones with meningitides and pneumonia of a different etiology to assess the diagnostic value of this test. Positive results were obtained in 64.4% of the test group patient and in 4.3% of the reference patients (in a case with pneumococcal meningitis). The antigen serologic group in the urine coincided with the serologic group of the meningococcus that induced the disease in only 19 (50%) of the 38 patients in whom antigenuria+ was detected. In the rest cases urine samples reacted parallel with 2-7 antisera, in 5 patients with the antisera heterologic towards the serologic group of the meningococcus responsible for the disease. Antigenuria was observed between the second and ninth days of the illness, its peak was recorded on days 4-6. Repeated urine tests are more likely to yield positive results. The authors come to a conclusion that the test is simple and harmless for patients, but the presence of false positive results permits regarding it as but an auxiliary one. PMID:1721968

  8. Determination of Gabapentin in Human Plasma and Urine by Capillary Electrophoresis with Laser-Induced Fluorescence Detection.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xia; Cai, Yuanli; Yan, Jin; Zhang, Lili; Wu, Di; Li, Hui

    2015-07-01

    A simple and reliable method based on capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection was developed for the analysis of the antiepileptic drug Gabapentin in human plasma and urine. 4-Chloro-7-nitrobenzofurazan was used for precolumn derivatization of the drug. With an uncoated fused silica capillary (40.0 cm effective length, 50.2 cm total length and 75 ?m internal diameter), optimal separation was achieved with 30 mM sodium dodecyl sulfate, 40 mM sodium borate (pH 10.25) and acetonitrile 10% (v/v) as running buffer. The applied voltage was 20 kV and the samples were injected by pressure (3.45 kPa × 3 s). The method was fully validated with regard to linear range, sensitivity, precision, limit of detection and limit of quantification in human plasma and urine samples. Linear ranges were 0.1-15 ?g mL(-1) for plasma and urine. The intra- and interday precisions were ?9.02 and 13.90%, respectively. The recoveries were 96.0-109.3% for plasma and 94.3-98.0% for urine. The method was successfully applied for the determination of Gabapentin in human plasma and urine. PMID:25352536

  9. High performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric assay of dexmedetomidine in plasma, urine and amniotic fluid samples for pregnant ewe model.

    PubMed

    Cui, Z; Chow, D S-L; Wu, L; Lazar, D A; Rodrigo, R; Olutoye, O O; Olutoye, O A

    2014-06-15

    Dexmedetomidine (DEX; Precedex(®)), approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1999 as a sedative for use in the intensive care unit, is a potent and highly selective ?2-adrenoceptor agonist with significant sedative, analgesic and anxiolytic effects. However, the research of DEX use during pregnancy is limited and the impact of DEX on the fetal development is unclear. This article describes a high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) assay suitable for various biomatrices of plasma, urine and amniotic fluid, as a prerequisite for pharmacokinetic characterization of DEX in the pregnant ewe model. DEX and testosterone (internal standard; IS) were extracted from 200?L of plasma, urine or amniotic fluid with ethyl acetate. The HPLC resolution was achieved on an Agilent ZORBAX SB-CN column with a gradient elution at a flow rate of 0.5mL/min using a mobile phase of 5-100% of acetonitrile with 0.5% formic acid (mobile phase B) in water (mobile phase A). The detection was performed by a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer with positive electrospray ionization. The precursor/product transitions (m/z) in the positive ion mode [M+H](+) were m/z 201.5?95.4 for DEX and m/z 289.2?109.1 for IS. The method was validated in the concentration range of 25 (lower limit of quantification; LLOQ)-5000pg/mL for both maternal and fetal plasma, and of 50 (LLOQ)-5000pg/mL for urine and amniotic fluid, respectively. The intra- and inter-day precision and accuracy were within ±9%. The overall recoveries of DEX were 82.9-87.2%, 85.7-88.4%, 86.2-89.7% and 83.7-88.1% for maternal plasma, urine, fetal plasma and amniotic fluid, respectively. The percentage matrix factors in different biomatrices were less than 120%. Stability studies demonstrated that DEX was stable after three freeze/thaw cycles, in the autosampler tray at 20°C for 24h and during the 3h sample preparation at room temperature. The validated HPLC-MS/MS method has been successfully employed for pharmacokinetic evaluation of DEX in pregnant ewes and fetuses. PMID:24854710

  10. Urine Test: Microalbumin-to-Creatinine Ratio (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... What to Know Urine Test: Microalbumin-to-Creatinine Ratio KidsHealth > Parents > Doctors & Hospitals > Medical Tests & Exams > Urine Test: Microalbumin-to-Creatinine Ratio Print A A A Text Size What's in ...

  11. 10 CFR 26.105 - Preparing for urine collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Preparing for urine collection. 26.105 Section 26.105 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.105 Preparing for urine collection. (a) The...

  12. 10 CFR 26.113 - Splitting the urine specimen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Splitting the urine specimen. 26.113 Section 26.113 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.113 Splitting the urine specimen. (a) Licensees...

  13. 10 CFR 26.107 - Collecting a urine specimen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Collecting a urine specimen. 26.107 Section 26.107 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.107 Collecting a urine specimen. (a) The...

  14. Urine--a waste or the future of regenerative medicine?

    PubMed

    Kloskowski, T; Nowacki, M; Pokrywczy?ska, M; Drewa, T

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, urine has emerged as a source of urine cells. Two different types of cells can be isolated from urine: urine derived stem cells (USCs) and renal tubular cells called urine cells (UCs). USCs have great differentiation properties and can be potentially used in genitourinary tract regeneration. Within this paper, we attempt to demonstrate that such as easily accessible source of cells, collected during completely non-invasive procedures, can be better utilized. Cells derived from urine can be isolated, stored, and used for the creation of urine stem cell banks. In the future, urine holds great potential to become a main source of cells for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. PMID:25649852

  15. A simple, inexpensive urine test of smoking

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H Peach; G A Ellard; P J Jenner; R W Morris

    1985-01-01

    Three novel colorimetric methods of detecting urinary nicotine metabolites called the barbituric acid, diethylthiobarbituric acid (DETB), and DETB extraction methods were evaluated for use as a simple, cheap, objective test of smoking. Urine samples were collected from 103 male smokers and 78 male non-smokers working at two London factories. The smokers recorded the number of cigarettes smoked over the previous

  16. Ophthalmoplegia in Maple Syrup Urine Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zee, David S.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Reported is the case of a female infant whose early symptom of ophthalmoplegia (paralysis of one or more motor nerves in the eye) led to eventual diagnosis and treatment for maple syrup urine disease, a condition in which early dietary restrictions can prevent severe mental retardation and neurologic disability. (DB)

  17. A simple pharmacokinetic model of alendronate developed using plasma concentration and urine excretion data from healthy men.

    PubMed

    Chae, Jung-Woo; Seo, Jeong-Won; Mahat, Bimit; Yun, Hwi-Yeol; Baek, In-Hwan; Lee, Byung-Yo; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Kwon, Kwang-Il

    2014-10-01

    The study of pharmacokinetics of alendronate has been hampered by difficulties in accurately and reproducibly determining their concentrations in serum and urine. Thus, pharmacokinetic characteristics of alendronate have been described in many reports based on urinary excretion data; and plasma pharmacokinetics and the simultaneous pharmacokinetic models of alendronate in plasma and urine are not available. The aims of this study were to measure alendronate concentration in plasma and excretion in urine concurrently and to develop compartmental pharmacokinetic model using urine data. In open-label, single-dose pharmacokinetic study, 10 healthy male volunteers received oral dose of alendronate (70?mg tablet). Blood and urine alendronate concentrations were determined using validated high-performance liquid chromatography method. Non-compartmental analysis was performed using WinNonlin program (Pharsight Inc., Apex, NC). A one-compartment pharmacokinetic model was applied to describe pharmacokinetics of alendronate. A peak plasma alendronate concentration of 33.10?±?14.32?ng/mL was attained after 1.00?±?0.16?h. The cumulative amount of alendronate excreted in urine and peak excretion rate were 731.28?±?654.57??g and 314.68?±?395.43??g/h, respectively. The model, which included first-order absorption rate for oral dosing, showed good fit to alendronate data obtained from plasma and urine. The absorption rate constant was 2.68?±?0.95?h(-1). The elimination rate constants Kurine and Knon-ur were 0.005?±?0.004?h(-1) and 0.42?±?0.08?h(-1), respectively. The pharmacokinetics of alendronate in plasma and urine of healthy men can be predicted using one-compartment model, and thus the behavior of drug in plasma can be estimated from urinary excretion data. PMID:23886303

  18. Sensitivity of an opiate immunoassay for detecting hydrocodone and hydromorphone in urine from a clinical population: analysis of subthreshold results.

    PubMed

    Bertholf, Roger L; Johannsen, Laura M; Reisfield, Gary M

    2015-01-01

    Urine drug testing (UDT) is an emerging standard of care in the evaluation and treatment of chronic non-cancer pain patients with opioid analgesics. UDT may be used both to verify adherence with the opioid analgesic regimen and to monitor abstinence from non-prescribed or illicit controlled substances. In the former scenario, it is vital to determine whether the drug is present in the urine, even at low concentrations, because failure to detect the drug may lead to accusations of opioid abuse or diversion. Opiate immunoassays typically are developed to detect morphine and are most sensitive to morphine and codeine. Although many opiate immunoassays also detect hydrocodone (HC) and/or hydromorphone (HM), sensitivities for these analytes are often much lower, increasing the possibility of negative screening results when the drug is present in the urine. We selected 112 urine specimens from patients who had been prescribed HC or hydromorphone but were presumptive negative by the Roche Online DAT Opiate II™ urine drug screening assay, which is calibrated to 300 ng/mL morphine. Using a GC/MS confirmatory method with a detection limit of 50 ng/mL both for HC and for HM, one or both of these opiates were detected in 81 (72.3%) of the urine specimens. Examination of the raw data from these presumptive negative opiate screens revealed that, in many cases, the turbidity signal was greater than the signal obtained for the negative control, but less than the signal for the 300 ng/mL (morphine) threshold calibrator. A receiver operating characteristic curve generated for the reciprocal of the ratio of turbidity measurements in the patient specimens and negative (drug-free) controls, against the presence or absence of HC and/or HM by confirmatory analyses, produced an area under the curve of 0.910. We conclude that this opiate immunoassay has sufficient sensitivity to detect HC and/or HM in some urine specimens that screen presumptive negative for these commonly prescribed opiates at the established threshold. PMID:25288720

  19. Reliability of nucleic acid amplification methods for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in urine: results of the first international collaborative quality control study among 96 laboratories

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roel P. Verkooyen; Gerda T. Noordhoek; Paul E. Klapper; Jim Reid; Jurjen Schirm; Graham M. Cleator; Margareta Ieven; Gunnar Hoddevik

    2003-01-01

    The first European Quality Control Concerted Action study was organized to\\u000a assess the ability of laboratories to detect Chlamydia trachomatis in a\\u000a panel of urine samples by nucleic acid amplification tests (NATs). The\\u000a panel consisted of lyophilized urine samples, including three negative,\\u000a two strongly positive, and five weakly positive samples. Ninety-six\\u000a laboratories in 22 countries participated with a total of

  20. A method for studying inhibitory activity in whole urine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. L. Ryall; C. M. Hibberd; V. R. Marshall

    1985-01-01

    A method has been developed for inducing and quantifying calcium oxalate crystallisation in whole human urine. The propensity of a given urine to induce crystal formation was described in two ways: 1) its ability to resist spontaneous nucleation of calcium oxalate crystals was assessed by titrating 20 mls of the urine with increasing quantities of sodium oxalate (0–150 µmol) to

  1. Detection of (1?3)-?-D-glucan in same-day urine and serum samples obtained from patients with haematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Raggam, Reinhard B; Fischbach, Lara M L; Prattes, Juergen; Duettmann, Wiebke; Eigl, Susanne; Reischies, Frederike; Wölfler, Albert; Rabensteiner, Jasmin; Prueller, Florian; Krause, Robert; Hoenigl, Martin

    2015-07-01

    Serum 1,3-beta-d-glucan (BDG) testing is an established diagnostic marker for invasive fungal infections (IFI) among patients with haematological malignancies. In contrast limited data exist regarding the application of urine BDG testing. Same-day midstream urine and serum screening samples were collected in adult patients with underlying haematological malignancies. A total of 80 urine samples from 46 patients were investigated: Twenty-six had positive corresponding serum BDG >120 pg ml(-1) , 27 intermediate (60-80 pg ml(-1) ), and 27 negative serum BDG (<25 pg ml(-1) ). A significant positive correlation between BDG in serum and urine samples was observed (P = 0.025; r = 0.252). Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value (compared with same-day serum results) were: 42%, 76%, 46%, 73% when using an 80 pg ml(-1) urine cut-off, and 35%, 96%, 82%, 75% for a 250 pg ml(-1) cut-off. Urine BDG seemed to be higher in samples obtained from patients with probable IFI (n = 13, median 145, IQR 22-253) compared to those from patients without IFI (n = 56, median 24, IQR 15-88) but the difference was not significant (P = 0.069). Overall correlation of same-day urine BDG and serum BDG was moderate. However, urine BDG testing may warrant further investigation in larger studies, as high-positive urine results correlated with high-positive corresponding serum levels and clinical performance was comparable to serum BDG. PMID:25959065

  2. Development and validation of two LC-MS/MS methods for the detection and quantification of amphetamines, designer amphetamines, benzoylecgonine, benzodiazepines, opiates, and opioids in urine using turbulent flow chromatography.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Nadine; Peters, Benjamin; Schmidt, Peter; Ewald, Andreas H

    2013-01-01

    In the context of driving ability diagnostics in Germany, administrative cutoffs for various drugs and pharmaceuticals in urine have been established. Two liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry methods for simultaneous detection and quantification of amphetamines, designer amphetamines, benzoylecgonine, benzodiazepines, opiates, and opioids in urine were developed and validated. A 500-?L aliquot of urine was diluted and fortified with an internal standard solution. After enzymatic cleavage, online extraction was performed by an ion-exchange/reversed-phase turbulent flow column. Separation was achieved by using a reversed-phase column and gradient elution. For detection, a Thermo Fisher TSQ Quantum Ultra Accurate Mass tandem mass spectrometer with positive electrospray ionization was used, and the analytes were measured in multiple-reaction monitoring mode detecting two transitions per precursor ion. The total run time for both methods was about 15 min. Validation was performed according to the guidelines of the Society of Toxicological and Forensic Chemistry. The results of matrix effect determination were between 78% and 116%. The limits of detection and quantification for all drugs, except zopiclone, were less than 10 ng/mL and less than 25 ng/mL, respectively. Calibration curves ranged from 25 to 200 ng/mL for amphetamines, designer amphetamines, and benzoylecgonine, from 25 to 250 ng/mL for benzodiazepines, from 12.5 to 100 ng/mL for morphine, codeine, and dihydrocodeine, and from 5 to 50 ng/mL for buprenorphine and norbuprenorphine. Intraday and interday precision values were lower than 15%, and bias values within ± 15% were achieved. Turbulent flow chromatography needs no laborious sample preparation, so the workup is less time-consuming compared with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry methods. The methods are suitable for quantification of multiple analytes at the cutoff concentrations required for driving ability diagnostics in Germany. PMID:23076398

  3. Impact of closed-system drug transfer device on exposure of environment and healthcare provider to cyclophosphamide in Japanese hospital.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Tomohiro; Iwamoto, Takuya; Tanimura, Manabu; Okuda, Masahiro

    2013-12-01

    In spite of current recommended safe handling procedures, the potential for the exposure of healthcare providers to hazardous drugs exists in the workplace. A reliance on biological safety cabinets to provide total protection against the exposure to hazardous drugs is insufficient. Preventing workplace contamination is the best strategy to minimize cytotoxic drug exposure in healthcare providers. This study was conducted to compare surface contamination and personnel exposure to cyclophosphamide before and after the implementation of a closed-system drug transfer device, PhaSeal, under the influence of cleaning according to the Japanese guidelines. Personnel exposure was evaluated by collecting 24 h urine samples from 4 pharmacists. Surface contamination was assessed by the wiping test. Four of 6 wipe samples collected before PhaSeal indicated a detectable level of cyclophosphamide. About 7 months after the initiation of PhaSeal, only one of 6 wipe samples indicated a detectable level of cyclophosphamide. Although all 4 employees who provided urine samples had positive results for the urinary excretion of cyclophosphamide before PhaSeal, these levels returned to minimal levels in 2 pharmacists after PhaSeal. In combination with the biological safety cabinet and cleaning according to the Japanese guidelines, PhaSeal further reduces surface contamination and healthcare providers exposure to cyclophosphamide to almost undetectable levels. PMID:23853750

  4. Enantiomeric separation and quantitation of (+/-)-amphetamine, (+/-)-methamphetamine, (+/-)-MDA, (+/-)-MDMA, and (+/-)-MDEA in urine specimens by GC-EI-MS after derivatization with (R)-(-)- or (S)-(+)-alpha-methoxy-alpha-(trifluoromethy)phenylacetyl chloride (MTPA).

    PubMed

    Paul, Buddha D; Jemionek, John; Lesser, David; Jacobs, Aaron; Searles, Douglas A

    2004-09-01

    In drug testing, the presence of methamphetamine in urine is generally confirmed by a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method. Derivatization of the compound to a perfluoroalkylamide, prior to confirmation, typically yields better chromatographic separation. Once methamphetamine is detected, a second GC-MS test is necessary to distinguish positive results from the use of over-the-counter medication, Vicks inhaler, or from use of a prescription drug, selegiline (Deprenyl). R-(-)-Methamphetamine is the urinary product from legitimate use of these medications. The second GC-MS test is to confirm illicit use of (S)-(+)-methamphetamine. In the procedure, the two methamphetamine isomers are changed to the chromatographically separable diastereomers by a chiral derivatizing agent, (S)-(-)-trifluoroacetylprolyl chloride (TPC). But the method has inherent limitations. Racemization of the reagent produces mixed diastereomers even from pure (S)-(+)-methamphetamine. Instead of using TPC, we utilized (R)-(-)-alpha-methoxy-alpha-(trifluoromethyl)phenylacetyl chloride (MTPA) to prepare the amides of diastereomers of methamphetamine. No racemization was observed with this reagent. The method was extended to resolve GC peaks of (R)-(-)- and (S)-(+)-isomers of amphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), N-methyl-MDA (MDMA), and N-ethyl-MDA (MDEA). Three ions from the drug and two ions from the deuterated internal standard were monitored to characterize and quantitate the drugs. For MDEA, only one ion was used. The quantitation was linear over 25 to 5000 ng/mL for MDEA and 25 to 10,000 ng/mL for all other drugs. Correlation coefficients were > 0.996. Precision calculated as the coefficient of variation at the calibrator concentration of 500 ng/mL was within +/- 11% for all drugs. The method was applied to test 43 urine specimens. In 91% of the methamphetamine-positive specimens, only the (S)-(+)-isomer was detected. In all MDMA-positive specimens, the concentrations of (R)-(-)-isomer were greater than the (S)-(+)-isomer indicating longer retention of (R)-(-)-isomer in the human body. The specimen concentrations (R + S) compared well with that of a non-chiral method that used 4-carboethoxyhexafluorobutyryl chloride as derivatizing agent. But the MTPA method has some advantage. It alone can replace the two GC-MS methods needed to confirm the presence of (S)-(+)-isomers of amphetamine and methamphetamine. PMID:15516295

  5. Detection of congenital cytomegalovirus infection by real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis of saliva or urine specimens.

    PubMed

    Ross, Shannon A; Ahmed, Amina; Palmer, April L; Michaels, Marian G; Sánchez, Pablo J; Bernstein, David I; Tolan, Robert W; Novak, Zdenek; Chowdhury, Nazma; Fowler, Karen B; Boppana, Suresh B

    2014-11-01

    Viral culture of urine or saliva has been the gold standard technique for the diagnosis of congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. Results of rapid culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of urine and saliva specimens from 80 children were compared to determine the clinical utility of a real-time PCR assay for diagnosis of congenital CMV infection. Results of urine PCR were positive in 98.8% of specimens. Three PCR-positive urine samples were culture negative. Results of saliva PCR and culture were concordant in 78 specimens (97.5%). Two PCR-positive saliva samples were culture negative. These findings demonstrate that PCR performs as well as rapid culture of urine or saliva specimens for diagnosing congenital CMV infection and saliva specimens are easier to collect. Because PCR also offers more rapid turnaround, is unlikely to be affected by storage and transport conditions, has lower cost, and may be adapted to high-throughput situations, it is well suited for targeted testing and large-scale screening for CMV. PMID:24799600

  6. Random Drug Tests at Work

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert L DuPont; David W. Griffin; Bernard R. Siskin; Sarah Shiraki; Edward Katz

    1995-01-01

    Random drug testing in the workplace has become more common since federal guidelines were issued in 1988, despite the criticism that most positive tests are the result of occasional use of illicit drugs. In order to determine the relative probabilities of detecting frequent versus infrequent users of illicit drugs, a survey of 15 experts in the drug abuse field was

  7. New drugs of abuse.

    PubMed

    Rech, Megan A; Donahey, Elisabeth; Cappiello Dziedzic, Jacqueline M; Oh, Laura; Greenhalgh, Elizabeth

    2015-02-01

    Drug abuse is a common problem and growing concern in the United States, and over the past decade, novel or atypical drugs have emerged and have become increasingly popular. Recognition and treatment of new drugs of abuse pose many challenges for health care providers due to lack of quantitative reporting and routine surveillance, and the difficulty of detection in routine blood and urine analyses. Furthermore, street manufacturers are able to rapidly adapt and develop new synthetic isolates of older drugs as soon as law enforcement agencies render them illegal. In this article, we describe the clinical and adverse effects and purported pharmacology of several new classes of drugs of abuse including synthetic cannabinoids, synthetic cathinones, salvia, desomorphine, and kratom. Because many of these substances can have severe or life-threatening adverse effects, knowledge of general toxicology is key in recognizing acute intoxication and overdose; however, typical toxidromes (e.g., cholinergic, sympathomimetic, opioid, etc.) are not precipitated by many of these agents. Medical management of patients who abuse or overdose on these drugs largely consists of supportive care, although naloxone may be used as an antidote for desomorphine overdose. Symptoms of aggression and psychosis may be treated with sedation (benzodiazepines, propofol) and antipsychotics (haloperidol or atypical agents such as quetiapine or ziprasidone). Other facets of management to consider include treatment for withdrawal or addiction, nutrition support, and potential for transmission of infectious diseases. PMID:25471045

  8. Heavy injection drug use is associated with lower percent body fat in a multi-ethnic cohort of HIV-positive and HIV-negative drug users from three U.S. cities

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Alice M.; Forrester, Janet E.; Spiegelman, Donna; Flanigan, Timothy; Dobs, Adrian; Skinner, Sally; Wanke, Christine

    2010-01-01

    Background The clinical implications of lower body weight in drug using populations are uncertain given that lower mean weights may still fall within the healthy range. Objectives To determine the effect of type, mode and frequency of drug use on underlying body composition after accounting for differences in body shape and size. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 511 participants from the Tufts Nutrition Collaborative (TNC) Study. Data included measures of body composition, a 24-hour dietary recall, and a detailed health history and lifestyle questionnaire. Multivariate regression analysis was used to determine the independent effect of drug use on percent body fat (BF) after adjusting for BMI and waist circumference. Results Heavy injection drug users (IDUs) had a 2.6% lower percent BF than non-users after adjusting for BMI, waist circumference, and other confounders. (p=0.0006). Differences in percent BF were predominantly due to higher lean mass, rather than lower fat mass. Cocaine and heroin had similar effects on body composition. Conclusions In the U.S., where the general population is prone to over-nutrition, the average percent BF for heavy injectors does not fall into a range low enough to suggest harmful effects. However, in populations with substantial levels of under-nutrition, small differences in percent BF among drug users will have a greater impact on health status. Scientific Significance Differences in BMI, weight and body composition are not always straightforward. Accounting for underlying nutritional status and relative differences in fat and FFM is critical when interpreting results. PMID:20141402

  9. Andes Virus Antigens Are Shed in Urine of Patients with Acute Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome? ‡

    PubMed Central

    Godoy, Paula; Marsac, Delphine; Stefas, Elias; Ferrer, Pablo; Tischler, Nicole D.; Pino, Karla; Ramdohr, Pablo; Vial, Pablo; Valenzuela, Pablo D. T.; Ferrés, Marcela; Veas, Francisco; López-Lastra, Marcelo

    2009-01-01

    Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) is a highly pathogenic emerging disease (40% case fatality rate) caused by New World hantaviruses. Hantavirus infections are transmitted to humans mainly by inhalation of virus-contaminated aerosol particles of rodent excreta and secretions. At present, there are no antiviral drugs or immunotherapeutic agents available for the treatment of hantaviral infection, and the survival rates for infected patients hinge largely on early virus recognition and hospital admission and aggressive pulmonary and hemodynamic support. In this study, we show that Andes virus (ANDV) interacts with human apolipoprotein H (ApoH) and that ApoH-coated magnetic beads or ApoH-coated enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay plates can be used to capture and concentrate the virus from complex biological mixtures, such as serum and urine, allowing it to be detected by both immunological and molecular approaches. In addition, we report that ANDV-antigens and infectious virus are shed in urine of HCPS patients. PMID:19279096

  10. Is urine leukocyte esterase test a useful screening method to predict Chlamydia trachomatis infection in women?

    PubMed Central

    Chow, J M; Moncada, J; Brooks, D; Bolan, G; Shaw, H; Schachter, J

    1996-01-01

    We evaluated the use of the leukocyte esterase test (LET) on first-catch urine specimens from women as a screening test to predict infection with Chlamydia trachomatis. For diagnosis, we used Abbott's ligase chain reaction (LCR) on urine specimens and isolation by tissue culture (TC) on cervical brushes. Of 4,053 women attending sexually transmitted disease and family planning clinics, 4.3% (n = 174) were positive by TC and 5.9% (n = 239) were positive by LCR. When LET was compared to TC, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were 54.0, 67.0, 6.8, and 97.0%, respectively. The corresponding performance of LET versus LCR was 53.1, 67.3, 10.1, and 95.8%. Almost half of the laboratory-confirmed chlamydial infections were negative by LET. The low specificity probably reflects multiple causes of pyuria in women and results in a low positive predictive value. LET is neither sensitive nor specific as a predictor of chlamydial infection and cannot be recommended for use as a screening test for C. trachomatis with first-catch urine samples from females from low- or moderate-prevalence populations. PMID:8904409

  11. Biological Exposure Indices of Pyrrole Adducts in Serum and Urine for Hazard Assessment of n-Hexane Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Hongyin; Zhang, Chunling; Guo, Ying; Shao, Xiaoying; Zeng, Tao; Zhao, Xiulan; Xie, Keqin

    2014-01-01

    Background Pyrrole adducts might be used as a biomarker for monitoring occupational exposure to n-hexane, but the Biological Exposure Indices of pyrrole adducts in serum and urine are still unknown. The current study was designed to investigate the biological exposure limit of pyrrole adducts for hazard assessment of n-hexane. Methods Male Wistar rats were given daily dose of 500, 1000, 1500, 2000, 4000 mg/kg bw n-hexane by gavage for 24 weeks. The levels of pyrrole adducts in serum and urine were determined at 8, 24 hours postdose once a week. The Biological Exposure Indices was evaluated by neurological evaluation and the levels of pyrrole adducts. The difference in pyrrole adducts formation between humans and rats were estimated by using in vitro test. Results Dose-dependent effects were observed between the doses of n-hexane and pyrrole adducts in serum and urine, and the levels of pyrrole adduct in serum and urine approached a plateau at week 4. There was a significantly negative correlation between the time to paralysis and the level of pyrrole adducts in serum and urine, while a positive correlation between gait score and levels of pyrrole adducts in serum and urine was observed. In vitro, pyrrole adducts formed in human serum was about two times more than those in rat serum at the same level of 2,5-HD. Conclusion It was concluded that the BEIs of pyrrole adducts in humans were 23.1±5.91 nmol/ml in serum 8 h postdose, 11.7±2.64 nmol/ml in serum 24 h postdose, 253.8±36.3 nmol/ml in urine 8 h postdose and 54.6±15.42 nmol/ml in urine 24 h postdose. PMID:24465904

  12. Evaluation of the Drug Free Youth in Town Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strusinski, Marianne; Collins, Robert A.

    1999-01-01

    Evaluates a program that rewards Miami-area youths for adhering to a drug-free lifestyle. Students may belong to the Drug Free Youth in Town Club by presenting clear urine samples and agreeing to random testing. Principals and students like the program, which includes a community-service component. (MLH)

  13. The antimalarial drug artemisinin alkylates heme in infected mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne Robert; Françoise Benoit-Vical; Catherine Claparols; Bernard Meunier

    2005-01-01

    Heme alkylation by the antimalarial drug artemisinin is reported in vivo, within infected mice that have been treated at pharmacologically relevant doses. Adducts resulting from the alkylation of heme by the drug were characterized in the spleen of treated mice, and their glucuroconjugated derivatives were present in the urine. Because these heme-artemisinin adducts were not observed in noninfected mice, this

  14. Drug-Testing Methods and Reliability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David W. Fretthold

    1990-01-01

    The methods used by laboratories to analyze urine collected from employees are described. Federally designed procedures designed for analyzing government employee samples have become the highest standard for performing such tests, although at present there are no guidelines that specifically address drug testing in the private sector. Samples and analysis should be handled in a manner that ensures that test

  15. An epidemiological study on alcohol/drugs related fatal traffic crash cases of deceased drivers in Hong Kong between 1996 and 2000.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jack Y K; Chan, David T W; Mok, Vincent K K

    2005-10-29

    This study is designed to evaluate the correlation between fatal vehicle crashes (FVC) and consumption of alcohol and/or drugs among drivers. Between 1996 and 2000 in Hong Kong, a total of 197 FVC cases of deceased drivers were investigated. The blood and/or urine samples of the victims were examined for the presence of alcohol and drugs. The 197 cases were then classified into two groups: single-vehicle crashes (SVC) and multiple-vehicle crashes (MVC). Out of the 106 cases for the latter group, alcohol and/or drugs were detected in 22 cases (21%) while the remaining 84 cases (79%) were regarded as no significant finding. As for the 91 cases in SVC group, 51 cases (56%) were positive for alcohol and/or drugs. The findings indicate that a driver consuming alcohol and/or drugs has a higher risk of being involved in a FVC. The most frequently detected drugs for SVC group (11 cases) were: 46% central nervous system (CNS) stimulants (including designer drugs like MDMA); 36% cannabis; 18% benzodiazepines and 9% ketamine. The detected drug for the only case in the MVC group was a CNS stimulant. The number of cases with ketamine, methamphetamine and MDMA detected has increased in recent years as these party drugs have gained popularity in Hong Kong. PMID:16139110

  16. Elimination of ephedrines in urine following administration of a Sho-seiryu-to preparation.

    PubMed

    Chan, Kuei Hui; Hsu, Mei-Chich; Chen, Fu-An; Hsu, Ku-Fu

    2009-04-01

    Sho-seiryu-to is one of the most common Traditional Chinese Medicine preparations for the attenuation of colds. Ephedrae Herba is one of the prescriptions of Sho-seiryu-to. The major ingredients of Ephedrae Herba, ephedrines, are banned substances on the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) list. The purpose of this study was to investigate the elimination of urinary ephedrines after administering Sho-seiryu-to preparation and to determine the possibility of positive ephedrines test results in urine. Six healthy volunteers took a single 2.5-g dose of concentrated Sho-seiryu-to preparation. All urine was collected for 48 h. The concentrations of urinary ephedrines were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography and the elimination half-life of the ephedrines was estimated. The results show that ephedrine and cathine (norpseudoephedrine), the prohibited substances of the WADA, were excreted in the urine after taking a single dose of Sho-seiryuto preparation. The peak concentration of ephedrine was 3.88 +/- 1.87 mg/mL (mean +/- SD), which was lower than the WADA permitted value (10 mg/mL). The estimated elimination half-lives of ephedrine, norephedrine, pseudoephedrine, and norpseudoephedrine following administration of this preparation were 5.3 +/- 1.2, 4.9 +/- 0.9, 4.4 +/- 1.0, and 5.4 +/- 1.8 h, respectively. This study concluded that the urine would not violate the antidoping rules after administering a single dose of Sho-seiryu-to preparation. Nevertheless, an applied multiple-dose study upon administering the preparation for three times per day for three days showed a positive urine ephedrine result (13.7 mg/mL). Athletes should be careful when taking more than a single dose of Sho-seiryu-to preparation. PMID:19371465

  17. Mechanisms of Drug-Induced Nephrotoxicity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas D. Nolin; Jonathan Himmelfarb

    Drug-induced nephrotoxicity is a common complication of several medications and diagnostic agents. It is seen in both inpatient\\u000a and outpatient settings with variable presentations ranging from mild, reversible injury to advanced kidney disease. Manifestations\\u000a of drug-induced nephrotoxicity include acid–base abnormalities, electrolyte imbalances, urine sediment abnormalities, proteinuria,\\u000a pyuria, hematuria, and, most commonly, a decline in the glomerular filtration rate. The mechanisms

  18. Looking at the urine: the renaissance of an unbroken tradition.

    PubMed

    Eknoyan, Garabed

    2007-06-01

    The science of looking at the urine for diagnostic purposes, uroscopy, is as ancient as disease. Throughout history, urine, the first bodily fluid to be examined, has continuously and persistently provided medicine with an increasing body of knowledge about the workings of the inner body. For most of its history, uroscopy was a visual science; this focus peaked in the Middle Ages, when the vessel used to examine urine, the matula, became a symbol of the medical profession. Over time, the practice of uroscopy spread into the hands of quacks and apothecaries, who prescribed and sold their potions by merely looking at the urine. The consequent reformation measures of the 16th and 17th centuries coincided with the first attempts at analyzing the contents of urine. As a result, many of the chemical components now reported in metabolic profiles were first analyzed and identified in urine during the first half of the 18th century. In the process, what started as a science that bordered on divination laid the foundations of chemical analysis and spawned the disciplines of urology, endocrinology, and, after the use of urine in clearance studies, nephrology. The analytical methods and remarkable achievements of each of these disciplines have increased the value of examining urine. A renaissance of this oldest diagnostic tool of medicine is now under way in the proteomic profiling and detection of biomarkers in the urine, an approach which promises to further extend the merits of the unbroken tradition of looking at the urine. PMID:17533032

  19. Comparison of Human Papillomavirus Detections in Urine, Vulvar, and Cervical Samples from Women Attending a Colposcopy Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Gravitt, Patti E.; Dunn, S. Terence; Brown, David; Allen, Richard A.; Eby, Yolanda J.; Smith, Katie; Zuna, Rosemary E.; Zhang, Roy R.; Gold, Michael A.; Schiffman, Mark; Walker, Joan L.; Castle, Philip E.; Wentzensen, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    While urine-based sampling for human papillomavirus (HPV) is being explored as a simple and noninvasive approach for cervical cancer screening, data comparing HPV genotyping in urine and those in cellular sampling of the cervix and vulva, and their correlation with rigorously confirmed cervical disease status, are sparse. We performed HPV genotyping on voided-urine and clinician-collected vulvar and cervical samples from 72 women undergoing colposcopy. Although urine-based HPV carcinogenic HPV detection was lower (58.3%) than cervical (73.6%) and vulvar (72.1%) detection (P = 0.05 and 0.07, respectively), the agreement of urine HPV with cervical and vulvar HPV was moderate (kappa = 0.55) and substantial (kappa = 0.62), respectively. Urine-based carcinogenic HPV detection had a clinical sensitivity of 80.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 60.7 to 93.5) and a specificity of 53.3% (95% CI = 37.9 to 68.3) for diagnosing cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grades 2/3 (CIN2/3) on histology; 90.0% of CIN3 was positive for urine HPV. The corresponding sensitivity and specificity values for vulvar sampling were 92% (95% CI = 74 to 99) and 40.5% (95% CI = 25.6 to 56.7), and those for cervical sampling were 96.2% (95% CI = 80.4 to 99.9) and 40% (95% CI = 25.7 to 55.7), respectively. HPV16 was the most common carcinogenic genotype detectable in 25% of urine, 33.8% of vulvar, and 31.9% of cervical samples overall, with prevalence increasing with cervical disease grade, regardless of the sampling method. Stronger cervical HPV PCR signal strengths were associated with increased frequency of urine HPV detection. In summary, the relatively lower detection rates but comparable clinical performance of urine-based HPV sampling underscore the need for larger studies to evaluate urine-based sampling for cervical cancer screening, epidemiologic studies, and postvaccination HPV disease surveillance. PMID:24197879

  20. First confirmation of imported dengue virus serotype 2 complete genome in urine from a Chinese traveler returning from India

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is a mosquito-borne virus that has four serotypes. Collection of serum from patients is time- and labor- consuming, and presents a high injury risk for infants and children. The genomic and serological diagnosis of imported dengue fever from a urine sample was used as a non-invasive diagnostic method in this study. A serum sample was collected on disease day 5, and a serum and urine sample were collected on disease day 8 and 18. The results of serological tests for DENV IgM revealed that the serum samples were positive for DENV. The results of RT-qPCR assay revealed that the serum sample collected on day 5 was DENV-positive; however, the serum sample collected on day 8 and 18 were negative for DENV. The urine sample collected on day 8 and 18 were DENV-positive. We also sequenced the complete DENV genome (10723 bp) from the urine sample (GenBank KF479233). The results of phylogenetic and epidemiological analysis indicated strong confirmation that the strain was located within the DENV-2 group with a 100% bootstrap value. In this report, we (1) provided the first evidence of a DENV infection that was imported from India to a non-endemic city of China, (2) investigated the DENV genome detection having a longer timeframe for positive detection in urine sample compared to previous studies, (3) provided the sequence results for the complete DENV-2 genome from a concentrated urine sample (4) discussed how virus-typing results could be used to manage the risk of sero-specific and re-infected travel-associated dengue fever. PMID:24666930

  1. The Total Urine Protein-to-Creatinine Ratio Can Predict the Presence of Microalbuminuria

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Kyoko; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Katsumi; Niwa, Koichiro; Nishi, Yutaro; Mizuno, Atsushi; Kuwabara, Masanari; Asano, Taku; Sakoda, Kunihiro; Niinuma, Hiroyuki; Nakahara, Fumiko; Takeda, Kyoko; Shindoh, Chiyohiko; Komatsu, Yasuhiro

    2014-01-01

    Background The Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes chronic kidney disease (CKD) guidelines recommend that CKD be classified based on the etiology, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and degree of albuminuria. The present study aimed to establish a method that predicts the presence of microalbuminuria by measuring the total urine protein-to-creatinine ratio (TPCR) in patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Methods and Results We obtained urine samples from 1,033 patients who visited the cardiovascular clinic at St. Luke's International Hospital from February 2012 to August 2012. We measured the TPCR and the urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) from random spot urine samples. We performed correlation, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, sensitivity, and subgroup analyses. There was a strong positive correlation between the TPCR and ACR (R2?=?0.861, p<0.001). A ROC curve analysis for the TPCR revealed a sensitivity of 94.4%, a specificity of 86.1%, and an area under the curve of 0.903 for detecting microalbuminuria for a TPCR cut-off value of 84 mg/g of creatinine. The subgroup analysis indicated that the cut-off value could be used for patients with CVD risk factors. Conclusions These results suggest that the TPCR with an appropriate cut-off value could be used to screen for the presence of microalbuminuria in patients with CVD risk factors. This simple, inexpensive measurement has broader applications, leading to earlier intervention and public benefit. PMID:24614247

  2. Association of Alcohol Abuse and Injection Drug Use with Immunologic and Virologic Responses to HAART in HIV-positive Patients from Urban Community Health Clinics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy J. Henrich; Naudia Lauder; Mayur M. Desai; Andre N. Sofair

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the association of alcohol abuse and injection drug use (IDU) with the immunologic\\u000a and virologic responses to highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) in urban community health clinics. The medical records\\u000a of 293 HIV-infected adult patients who visited either of two urban health clinics in New Haven, Connecticut, from June 2003\\u000a to December

  3. Acceptability of Global Positioning System technology to survey injecting drug users’ movements and social interactions: a pilot study from San Francisco, USA

    PubMed Central

    Mirzazadeh, A; Grasso, M; Johnson, K; Briceno, A; Navadeh, S; McFarland, W; Page, K

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite potential applications for improving health services using GPS technology, little is known about ethical concerns, acceptability, and logistical barriers for their use, particularly among marginalized groups. Objectives We garnered the insights of people who inject drug (PWID) in San Francisco on these topics. Methods PWID were enrolled through street-outreach (n=20) and an ongoing study (n=4) for 4 focus group discussions. Participants also completed a self-administered questionnaire on demographic characteristics and their numbers and types of interactions with other PWID. Results Median age was 30.5 years, majorities were male (83.3%) and white (68.2%). Most interacted with other PWID for eating meals and purchasing drugs over the last week; fewer reported interactions such as sexual contact, drug treatment, or work. Participants identified several concerns about carrying GPS devices, including what authorities might do with the data, that other PWID and dealers may suspect them as informants, and adherence to carrying and use. Most felt concerns were surmountable with detailed informed consent on the purpose of the study and practical ways to carry, charge, and hide devices. Conclusions PWID felt data collection on their movements and social interactions with other PWID using GPS can be acceptable with addressing specific concerns. The technology is now in hand to greatly expand the ability to monitor health conditions with respect to the environment and improve the location of prevention, care, and treatment facilities to serve hard to reach, mobile, and hidden populations. PMID:24990173

  4. Estriol Excretion in the First-Voided Urine of Male Newborns

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Fenner; G.-U. Lange; D. Moenkemeier; G. Ohlenroth

    1974-01-01

    Estriol concentration values in the first urine of 161 asymptomatic premature and mature newborns (mean birth weight, BW=3,312 g, range 1,350–4,320 g; mean gestational age, GA = 39.08 weeks, range 28–42 weeks) showed a positive correlation with increasing BW(r = 0.401, p < 0.001) as well as with GA (r = 0.432 p < 0.001). When urinary estriol levels were

  5. Chloramphenicol drug failure in typhoid fever.

    PubMed

    El-Din, S S; Haseeb, N M; Hussein, M M; Abdel Wahab, M F; Helmy, A Z; El-Sagheer, M

    1996-01-01

    Two hundred positive blood culture typhoid patients admitted to Embaba Fever Hospital, Giza province, were subjected to: 1) Careful history and thorough clinical examination. 2) Complete blood picture. 3) Widal agglutination test. 4) Urine and stool cultures for Salmonellae. 5) To the isolates of the cultures, disk diffusion chloramphenicol susceptibility test, minimum inhibitory concentrations and chloramphenicol acetyl transferase test were performed. The dose of chloramphenicol was restricted to 50 mg per Kg body weight daily, whatever the route used; whether oral, rectal or intravenous. When fever did not drop up to 5 days or the patient presented with typhoid complications or the blood culture revealed resistant Salmonellae, quinolones or third generation, cephalosporins were administered. Measurement of the level of chloramphenicol in the blood was performed for every patient. Fifty (25%) patients were found to be resistant in vitro and in vivo to chloramphenicol. All their Salmonellae isolates were resistant to chloramphenicol, the mean zone size was 10 mm, the mean inhibitory concentration was 64 microgram per ml. and all were positive for chloramphenicol acetyl transferase. There was no significant difference in the serum level of chloramphenicol between susceptible and resistant groups to the drug. Results were interpreted and discussed. PMID:17217002

  6. Excretion of corticosteroid metabolites in urine and faeces of rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Bamberg; R. Palme; J. G. Meingassner

    2001-01-01

    Summary Stress enhances the production of corticosteroids by the adrenal cortex, resulting in the increased excretion of their metabolites in urine and faeces. An intraperitoneal injection of radioactive corticosterone was applied to adult, male Sprague-Dawley rats to monitor the route and delay of excreted metabolites in urine and faeces. Peak concentrations appeared in urine after 3.2 1.9 h and in

  7. Water recovery by catalytic treatment of urine vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Budininkas, P.; Quattrone, P. D.; Leban, M. I.

    1980-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to demonstrate the feasibility of water recovery on a man-rated scale by the catalytic processing of untreated urine vapor. For this purpose, two catalytic systems, one capable of processing an air stream containing low urine vapor concentrations and another to process streams with high urine vapor concentrations, were designed, constructed, and tested to establish the quality of the recovered water.

  8. Monitoring human papillomavirus prevalence in urine samples: a review

    PubMed Central

    Enerly, Espen; Olofsson, Cecilia; Nygård, Mari

    2013-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the main cause of cervical cancer, and many countries now offer vaccination against HPV to girls by way of government-funded national immunization programs. Monitoring HPV prevalence in adolescents could offer a near-term biological measure of vaccine impact, and urine sampling may be an attractive large-scale method that could be used for this purpose. Our objective was to provide an overview of the literature on HPV DNA detection in urine samples, with an emphasis on adolescents. We searched the PubMed database using the terms “HPV” and “urine” and identified 21 female and 14 male study populations in which HPV prevalence in urine samples was reported, four of which included only asymptomatic female adolescents. We provide herein an overview of the recruitment setting, age, urine sampling procedure, lesion type, HPV assay, and HPV prevalence in urine samples and other urogenital samples for the studies included in this review. In female study populations, concordance for any HPV type and type-specific concordance in paired urine and cervical samples are provided in addition to sensitivity and specificity. We concluded that few studies on HPV prevalence in urine samples have been performed in asymptomatic female adolescent populations but that urine samples may be a useful alternative to cervical samples to monitor changes in HPV prevalence in females in the post-HPV vaccination era. However, care should be taken when extrapolating HPV findings from urine samples to the cervix. In males, urine samples do not seem to be optimal for monitoring HPV prevalence due to a low human genomic DNA content and HPV DNA detection rate compared to other urogenital sites. In each situation the costs and benefits of HPV DNA detection in urine compared to alternative monitoring options should be carefully considered. PMID:23516174

  9. Prevalence of psychoactive drug use among drivers in Thailand: A roadside survey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Atiporn Ingsathit; Patarawan Woratanarat; Tongtavuch Anukarahanonta; Sasivimol Rattanasiri; Porntip Chatchaipun; Kanokporn Wattayakorn; Stephen Lim; Paibul Suriyawongpaisal

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of psychoactive drug and alcohol use among general drivers and predictors of the drug use in Thailand. One thousand six hundred and thirty-five motor vehicle drivers were randomly selected from five geographical regions of Thailand between December 2005 and May 2006.The prevalence of psychoactive drugs was determined using urine tests

  10. Role of drug testing as an early warning programme: the experience of the Republic of Korea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    HEESUN CHUNG

    Drug testing plays an important role in the provision of information to health authorities on trends in drug abuse. In the Republic of Korea, the testing of urine and postmortem specimens has been used as part of a programme to monitor and control the abuse of non-controlled drugs, i.e. substances that were not originally included in the lists of controlled

  11. Performance of circulating cathodic antigen (CCA) urine-dipsticks for rapid detection of intestinal schistosomiasis in schoolchildren from shoreline communities of Lake Victoria

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    For disease surveillance and mapping within large-scale control programmes, RDTs are becoming popular. For intestinal schistosomiasis, a commercially available urine-dipstick which detects schistosome circulating cathodic antigen (CCA) in host urine is being increasingly applied, however, further validation is needed. In this study, we compared the CCA urine-dipstick test against double thick Kato-Katz faecal smears from 171 schoolchildren examined along the Tanzanian and Kenyan shorelines of Lake Victoria. Diagnostic methods were in broad agreement; the mean prevalence of intestinal schistosomiasis inferred by Kato-Katz examination was 68.6% (95% confidence intervals (CIs) = 60.7-75.7%) and 71.3% (95% CIs = 63.9-78.8%) by CCA urine-dipsticks. There were, however, difficulties in precisely 'calling' the CCA test result, particularly in discrimination of 'trace' reactions as either putative infection positive or putative infection negative, which has important bearing upon estimation of mean infection prevalence; considering 'trace' as infection positive mean prevalence was 94.2% (95% CIs = 89.5-97.2%). A positive association between increasing intensity of the CCA urine-dipstick test band and faecal egg count was observed. Assigning trace reactions as putative infection negative, overall diagnostic sensitivity (SS) of the CCA urine-dipstick was 87.7% (95% CIs = 80.6-93.0%), specificity (SP) was 68.1% (95% CIs = 54.3-80.0%), positive predictive value (PPV) was 86.1% (95% CIs = 78.8-91.7%) and negative predictive value (NPV) was 71.1% (95% CIs = 57.2-82.8%). To assist in objective defining of the CCA urine-dipstick result, we propose the use of a simple colour chart and conclude that the CCA urine-dipstick is a satisfactory alternative, or supplement, to Kato-Katz examination for rapid detection of intestinal schistosomiasis. PMID:20181101

  12. Carisoprodol: an unrecognized drug of abuse.

    PubMed

    Bailey, David N; Briggs, John R

    2002-03-01

    During a 6-month monitoring period, carisoprodol was detected in the urine specimens of 19 patients for whom drug screening had been ordered for purposes of patient care. The clinical history suggested that in 7 cases the drug was abused or implicated in a suicide attempt or gesture. In another 7 cases, the drug was used primarily for medical purposes, and in 5 cases the reason for use could not be determined. One patient ingested homemade tablets that were found to contain carisoprodol. In an additional case, the drug was detected in breast milk. Physical findings, clinical history, and treatment are described, and the profile of a typical carisoprodol user is discussed. It seems that carisoprodol has become an unrecognized drug of abuse, at least in our community. This drug and its metabolite, meprobamate, should be included in comprehensive drug screening. PMID:11888078

  13. Simpler spectrophotometric assay of paracetamol in tablets and urine samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirajuddin; Khaskheli, Abdul Rauf; Shah, Afzal; Bhanger, Muhammad Iqbal; Niaz, Abdul; Mahesar, Sarfaraz

    2007-11-01

    A very fast, economical and simpler direct spectrophotometric method was investigated for paracetamol (PC) determination in aqueous medium without using any chemical reagents. The method is based on the photo-absorption of the analyte at 243 nm after dissolution in water. The change in structure of PC after addition of water was studied by comparing the corresponding FTIR spectra. Optimization studies were conducted by using a 5 ?g ml -1 standard solution of the analyte. Various parameters studied include, time for stability and measurement of spectra, effect of HCl, NaOH, CH 3COOH and NH 3 for change in absorbance and shift in spectra, interference by some analgesic drugs and some polar solvents and temperature effect. After optimization, Beer's law was obeyed in the range of 0.3-20 ?g ml -1 PC solution with a correlation coefficient of 0.9999 and detection limit of 0.1 ?g ml -1. The newly developed method was successfully applied for PC determination in some locally available tablets and urine samples. The proposed method is very useful for quick analysis of various types of solid and liquid samples containing PC.

  14. An unusual case of acute cystitis associated with mixed flora in voided urine in an adult male.

    PubMed

    Kunin, Calvin M

    2014-01-01

    This report describes two episodes of acute cystitis associated with "mixed flora" in an elderly male following a cystoscopy. The initial episode was accompanied by pyuria and a positive nitrite test. Both episodes responded to treatment with nitrofurantoin. Urine cultures were negative prior to the episodes and at a 1-year follow-up. PMID:24153123

  15. Effect of zinc and vitamin A supplementation on antibody responses to a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in HIV-positive injection drug users: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Deloria-Knoll, Maria; Steinhoff, Mark; Semba, Richard D; Nelson, Kenrad; Vlahov, David; Meinert, Curtis L

    2006-03-01

    HIV-infected individuals have impaired immune responses to vaccines and high rates of pneumococcal disease. The effect of vitamin A and zinc supplementation on the immunogenicity of a 7-valent pneumococcal CRM-197 conjugate vaccine (PC-7) was evaluated in 118 HIV+ injection drug users. Subjects were randomized to oral 400,000 IU vitamin A, 300 mg zinc, vitamin A + zinc, or placebo, then immunized. Geometric mean titer increased 1.3-3.3-fold for all pneumococcal serotypes. PC-7 elicited an immune response in HIV-infected adults but neither vitamin A nor zinc altered the immunogenicity of the evaluated vaccines. PMID:16256250

  16. Taking drugs very seriously.

    PubMed

    Corlett, J Angelo

    2013-04-01

    Neither anti-illegal drug proponents nor their detractors have wholly plausible arguments for their positions, because neither takes responsibility for drug use sufficiently seriously. Instead, only a policy that places users' responsibility at the forefront of the problem is acceptable, one that is sufficiently respectful of actual or potential nonusers' rights not to be wrongfully harmed, directly or indirectly, by drug use, or coerced to support it in any way. PMID:23449363

  17. Microelements in stones, urine, and hair of stone formers: a new key to the puzzle of lithogenesis?

    PubMed

    S?ojewski, Marcin; Czerny, Bogus?aw; Safranow, Krzysztof; Jakubowska, Katarzyna; Olszewska, Maria; Pawlik, Andrzej; Go??b, Adam; Dro?dzik, Marek; Chlubek, Dariusz; Sikorski, Andrzej

    2010-12-01

    The role of trace elements in lithogenesis is still unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the levels of elements in urinary stones and in the urine and hair of stone formers to identify these elements that have synergic correlations in studied materials and may contribute to lithogenesis. A total of 219 consecutive patients with idiopathic upper urinary tract stones were prospectively enrolled in the study. Urine and hair samples were collected from all patients. The content of the stone was evaluated using atomic absorption spectrometry, spectrophotometry, and colorimetric methods. The analysis of 29 elements in stones and hair and 21 elements in urine was performed using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry. The strength of correlation was described with the value of Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. The positive correlation between concentration of sodium, potassium, magnesium, barium, vanadium, zinc, silicon, phosphorus, and iodine in phosphate stones was observed. Only a few incidental correlations between the composition of stones and the distribution of elements in urine and in hair were found. There were 109 positive two-element correlations between two materials. The most common were observed for vanadium, aluminum, lead, cobalt, and molybdenum. Two-element positive correlations for all samples were established only for three elements: vanadium, lead, and aluminum. Results indicate that analysis of particular elements in hair and urine cannot predict the composition of urinary stones. This study showed, for the first time, correlations between the levels of vanadium, lead, and aluminum in the stones, urine, and hair of stone formers. PMID:20024629

  18. Drug Safety

    MedlinePLUS

    ... over-the-counter drug. The FDA evaluates the safety of a drug by looking at Side effects ... clinical trials The FDA also monitors a drug's safety after approval. For you, drug safety means buying ...

  19. Drug allergies

    MedlinePLUS

    Allergic reaction - drug (medication); Drug hypersensitivity; Medication hypersensitivity ... Adverse reactions to drugs are common. (adverse means unwanted or unexpected.) Almost any drug can cause an adverse reaction. Reactions range from irritating ...

  20. Urine-activated paper batteries for biosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bang Lee, Ki

    2005-09-01

    The first urine-activated laminated paper batteries have been demonstrated and reported in this paper. A simple and cheap fabrication process for the paper batteries has been developed which is compatible with the existing plastic laminating technologies or plastic molding technologies. In this battery, a magnesium (Mg) layer and copper chloride (CuCl) in the filter paper are used as the anode and the cathode, respectively. A stack consisting of a Mg layer, CuCl-doped filter paper and a copper (Cu) layer sandwiched between two plastic layers is laminated into the paper batteries by passing through the heating roller at 120 °C. The paper battery is tested and it can deliver a power greater than 1.5 mW. In addition, these urine-activated laminated paper batteries could be integrated with bioMEMS devices such as home-based health test kits providing a power source for the electronic circuit. A portion of this paper was presented at The 4th International Workshop on Micro and Nanotechnology for Power Generation and Energy Conversion Applications (PowerMEMS 2004), 28 30 November, 2004, Kyoto, Japan.

  1. Ethyl glucuronide, ethyl sulfate, and ethanol in urine after intensive exposure to high ethanol content mouthwash.

    PubMed

    Reisfield, Gary M; Goldberger, Bruce A; Pesce, Amadeo J; Crews, Bridgit O; Wilson, George R; Teitelbaum, Scott A; Bertholf, Roger L

    2011-06-01

    To determine the degree of ethanol absorption and the resultant formation and urinary excretion of its conjugated metabolites following intensive use of high ethanol content mouthwash, 10 subjects gargled with Listerine(®) antiseptic 4 times daily for 3¼ days. First morning void urine specimens were collected on each of the four study days and post-gargle specimens were collected at 2, 4, and 6 h after the final gargle of the study. Urine ethanol, ethyl glucuronide (EtG), ethyl sulfate (EtS), and creatinine were measured. Ethanol was below the positive threshold of 20 mg/dL in all of the urine specimens. EtG was undetectable in all pre-study urine specimens, but two pre-study specimens had detectable EtS (6 and 82 ng/mL; 16 and 83 ?g/g creatinine). Only one specimen contained detectable EtG (173 ng/mL; 117 ?g/g creatinine). EtS was detected in the urine of seven study subjects, but was not detected in the single specimen that had detectable EtG. The maximum EtS concentrations were 104 ng/mL and 112 ?g/g creatinine (in different subjects). Three subjects produced a total of eight (non-baseline) urinary EtS concentrations above 50 ng/mL or 50 ?g/g creatinine and three EtS concentrations exceeding 100 ng/mL or 100 ?g/g creatinine. In patients being monitored for ethanol use by urinary EtG and EtS concentrations, currently accepted EtG and EtS cutoffs of 500 ng/mL are adequate to distinguish between ethanol consumption and four times daily use of high ethanol content mouthwash. PMID:21619720

  2. SELDI-TOF-MS Proteomic Profiling of Serum, Urine, and Amniotic Fluid in Neural Tube Defects

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhenjiang; Yuan, Zhengwei; Zhao, Qun

    2014-01-01

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) are common birth defects, whose specific biomarkers are needed. The purpose of this pilot study is to determine whether protein profiling in NTD-mothers differ from normal controls using SELDI-TOF-MS. ProteinChip Biomarker System was used to evaluate 82 maternal serum samples, 78 urine samples and 76 amniotic fluid samples. The validity of classification tree was then challenged with a blind test set including another 20 NTD-mothers and 18 controls in serum samples, and another 19 NTD-mothers and 17 controls in urine samples, and another 20 NTD-mothers and 17 controls in amniotic fluid samples. Eight proteins detected in serum samples were up-regulated and four proteins were down-regulated in the NTD group. Four proteins detected in urine samples were up-regulated and one protein was down-regulated in the NTD group. Six proteins detected in amniotic fluid samples were up-regulated and one protein was down-regulated in the NTD group. The classification tree for serum samples separated NTDs from healthy individuals, achieving a sensitivity of 91% and a specificity of 97% in the training set, and achieving a sensitivity of 90% and a specificity of 97% and a positive predictive value of 95% in the test set. The classification tree for urine samples separated NTDs from controls, achieving a sensitivity of 95% and a specificity of 94% in the training set, and achieving a sensitivity of 89% and a specificity of 82% and a positive predictive value of 85% in the test set. The classification tree for amniotic fluid samples separated NTDs from controls, achieving a sensitivity of 93% and a specificity of 89% in the training set, and achieving a sensitivity of 90% and a specificity of 88% and a positive predictive value of 90% in the test set. These suggest that SELDI-TOF-MS is an additional method for NTDs pregnancies detection. PMID:25054433

  3. Surveillance of transmitted HIV type 1 drug resistance among HIV type 1-positive women attending an antenatal clinic in Kakinada, India.

    PubMed

    Thorat, Smita R; Chaturbhuj, Devidas N; Hingankar, Nitin K; Chandrasekhar, Velura; Koppada, Rajasekhar; Datkar, Sharda R; Srikantiah, Padmini; Garg, Renu; Kabra, Sandhya; Haldar, Partha; Reddy, Dandu C S; Bachani, Damodar; Tripathy, Srikanth P; Paranjape, Ramesh S

    2011-12-01

    The World Health Organizations HIV Drug Resistance (WHO HIVDR) Threshold survey method was used to assess transmitted HIVDR in newly diagnosed HIV-1-infected primigravida women attending the Prevention of Parent to Child Transmission (PPTCT) centers in Kakinada, in whom it is likely that the infection had recently occurred. Out of the 56 consecutively collected eligible specimens, 51 were tested using the ViroSeq RT-PCR method (Abbott Germany) to obtain 47 consecutive sequences for the HIV-1 protease (PR) and reverse transcriptase (RT) region. As per the 2009 WHO list of mutations for surveillance of transmitted HIVDR, only one nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) mutation was detected at K101E from all specimens tested, suggesting a low prevalence (<5%) of resistance to NNRTIs and no mutations were detected at other sites, suggesting a low prevalence (<5%) of resistance to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI) and protease inhibitors (PI) drug classes as well. Phylogenetic analysis showed all sequences belonged to HIV-1 subtype C. In the wake of antiretroviral treatment (ART) scale-up, future evaluation of transmitted HIVDR is essential in Kakinada as well as in other regions of India. PMID:21568760

  4. Determination of nicotine and cotinine in tobacco harvesters’ urine by solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. B; V. N. Gokani; P. K. Kulkarni; J. R. Parikh; H. N. Saiyed

    2004-01-01

    A solid-phase extraction method using Drug Test-1 column containing chemically modified silica as a solid support for sample clean up and reversed phase ion-paired high-pressure liquid chromatography method have been developed for the simultaneous determination of nicotine and its metabolite cotinine from the urine samples. Mobile phase was consisted of acetate buffer (containing 0.03M sodium acetate and 0.1M acetic acid)

  5. Stereoselective determination of ofloxacin and its metabolites in human urine by capillary electrophoresis using laser-induced fluorescence detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian Horstkötter; Gottfried Blaschke

    2001-01-01

    A capillary electrophoresis method for the simultaneous separation and enantioseparation of the antibacterial drug ofloxacin and its metabolites desmethyl ofloxacin and ofloxacin N-oxide in human urine has been developed and validated. Enantioseparation was achieved by adding sulfobutyl ?-cyclodextrin to the running buffer. The detection of the analytes was performed by laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) detection using a HeCd-laser with an excitation

  6. Determination of clenbuterol in human urine and serum by solid-phase microextraction coupled to liquid chromatography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Aresta; C. D. Calvano; F. Palmisano; C. G. Zambonin

    2008-01-01

    A solid-phase microextraction (SPME)–LC–UV method for the determination of the beta-adrenergic drug clenbuterol in human urine and serum samples was developed for the first time using a polydimethylsiloxane\\/divinylbenzene (PDMS\\/DVB) coated fiber. The procedure required very simple sample pretreatments, isocratic elution, and provided highly selective extractions. All the aspects influencing fiber adsorption (extraction time, temperature, pH, salt addition) and desorption (desorption

  7. Drugs, Alcohol and HIV

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Keep in mind that recreational drugs aren't regulated, so you never know exactly how much you ... HIV positive (AIDSmap). The Drinkers Check-up A self-evaluation tool for people who drink alcohol and ...

  8. Analysis of Fluconazole in Human Urine Sample by High Performance Liquid Chromatography Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermawan, D.; Ali, N. A. Md; Ibrahim, W. A. Wan; Sanagi, M. M.

    2013-04-01

    A method for determination of fluconazole, antifungal drug in human urine by using reversed-phased high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) with ultraviolet (UV) detector was developed. Optimization HPLC conditions were carried out by changing the flow rate and composition of mobile phase. The optimum separation conditions at a flow rate 0.85 mL/min with a composition of mobile phase containing methanol:water (70:30, v/v) with UV detection at a wavelength 254 nm was able to analyze fluconazole within 3 min. The excellent linearity was obtained in the range of concentration 1 to 10 ?g/mL with r2 = 0.998. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantitation (LOQ) were 0.39 ?g/mL and 1.28 ?g/mL, respectively. Solid phase extraction (SPE) method using octadecylsilane (C18) as a sorbent was used to clean-up and pre-concentrated of the urine sample prior to HPLC analysis. The average recoveries of fluconazole in spiked urine sample was 72.4% with RSD of 3.21% (n=3).

  9. Analysis of codeine, dihydrocodeine and their glucuronides in human urine by electrokinetic capillary immunoassays and capillary electrophoresis–ion trap mass spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anita B. Wey; Jitka Caslavska; Wolfgang Thormann

    2000-01-01

    Screening for and confirmation of illicit, abused and banned drugs in human urine is a timely topic in which capillary separation techniques play a key role. Capillary electrophoresis (CE) represents the newest technology employed in this field of analysis. Two rapid competitive binding, electrokinetic capillary-based immunoassays are shown to be capable of recognizing the presence, but not the identity, of

  10. A Sensitive and Specific Liquid-Chromatographic Assay for Determination of Ganciclovir in Plasma and Urine and Its Application to Pharmacokinetic Studies in the Rabbit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohsen A. Hedaya; Ronald J. Sawchuk

    1990-01-01

    A liquid-chromatographic assay for the analysis of ganciclovir in plasma and urine is described. This assay involves the use of acyclovir, an antiviral drug structurally related to ganciclovir, as the internal standard. A two-step sample preparation method is used. After protein is precipitated with acetonitrile and the addition of diethyl ether, ganciclovir and the internal standard are back extracted into

  11. Extraction and preconcentration of ?-blockers in human urine for analysis with high performance liquid chromatography by means of carrier-mediated liquid phase microextraction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Li Zhang; Xiaoli Su; Chenggong Zhang; Li Ouyang; Qingji Xie; Ming Ma; Shouzhuo Yao

    2010-01-01

    A novel method was developed for the analysis of four ?-blockers, namely sotalol, carteolol, bisoprolol, and propranolol, in human urine by coupling carrier-mediated liquid phase microextraction (CM-LPME) to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). By adding an appropriate carrier in organic phase, simultaneous extraction and enrichment of hydrophilic (sotalol, carteolol, and bisoprolol) and hydrophobic (propranolol) drugs were achieved. High enrichment factors

  12. Hepatitis B virus DNA in saliva, urine, and seminal fluid of carriers of hepatitis B e antigen.

    PubMed Central

    Karayiannis, P; Novick, D M; Lok, A S; Fowler, M J; Monjardino, J; Thomas, H C

    1985-01-01

    Concentrated samples of saliva, urine, and seminal fluid from 23 men with chronic liver disease who were positive for hepatitis B e antigen were examined for the presence of hepatitis B virus deoxyribonucleic acid (HBV-DNA) by molecular hybridisation. HBV-DNA was detected in saliva from 15 of 17 men (88%), urine from 12 of 22 men (55%), and seminal fluid from 13 of 21 men (62%). The presence of hepatitis B virus in such secretions has important epidemiological implications for heterosexual and homosexual contact. Images p1854-a PMID:3924282

  13. Ethyl glucuronide and ethyl sulfate in urine after consumption of various beverages and foods—misleading results?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank Musshoff; Elena Albermann; Burkhard Madea

    2010-01-01

    Urine testing for ethyl glucuronide (EtG) is used to spot recent alcohol intake and is utilized to document alcohol abstinence.\\u000a However, other possible sources of ethanol existed when special beverages or foods were ingested. EtG concentration curves\\u000a in urine were measured after the consumption of non-alcoholic beers, fruit juices, sauerkraut, and matured bananas. Using\\u000a a cutoff of 0.1 mg\\/l, positive EtG

  14. Keys to a drug-free workplace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortuna, Joseph J.; Fortuna, Patricia B.

    1997-01-01

    What does it take to establish a drug free work place. Are technologies available other than urine testing for pre- employment screening and monitoring of employees. Various methods are now available to screen for illicit drug residues on items handled by individuals. The residues can be acquired from the surfaces of items such as telephones, door knobs, steering wheels, lockers, clothing, identification cards, etc. Test kits are also available for urine testing at NIDA threshold levels. Analysis of hair, saliva, and sweat is now possible. How good ar these methods and kits. What value are they to the public. What are the legal concerns facing employers. What do the screening test show. These questions and others are addressed in this paper. The authors review for the reader how drug abuse by US workers costs businesses. The paper then addresses the various aspects of the DOT regulations to determine why urine analysis (UA) is insufficient to eliminate drug abuse. The authors present applications of screening technologies in addition to UA. Finally, the authors provide a conclusion of findings and recommendations for businesses that truly want or need drug free work places.

  15. Evaluation of pancreatic lipase activity by simple urine analysis after oral administration of a new iodine-131-labeled triglyceride.

    PubMed

    Kropp, J; Knapp, F F; Weyenberg, A; McPherson, D W; Ambrose, K R; Callahan, A P; von Bergmann, K; Biersack, H J

    1994-11-01

    A new iodine-131-labeled triglyceride analogue called "MIPAG" [1,2-dipalmitoyl-3-[(15-p-iodophenyl) pentadecan-1-oyl]rac-glycerol] has been prepared in which 15-(p-iodophenyl)pentadecanoic acid (IPPA) is attached to position-3. MIPAG has been developed for the evaluation of pancreatic exocrine function by simple urine analysis and has been evaluated in rats and humans. After oral administration, IPPA is released from the triglyceride by the action of pancreatic lipases followed by intestinal absorption and the principal IPPA metabolite (p-iodobenzoic acid, IBA) is primarily excreted in the urine. Excretion in the urine and feces was evaluated in rats, as well as the biodistribution in various organs over 21 days. Twenty patients without pancreatic disease (normals) and four patients without pancreatic insufficiency were also investigated. Following oral administration of 30 microCi of MIPAG, urine was collected for two successive 24-h periods. Blood samples were drawn and thin-layer chromatographic (TLC) analysis was performed on the serum lipid extracts. Urine from normals contained 44.9% +/- 7.7% and 61.8% +/- 8.4% of the administered activity after 24 and 48 h, respectively. The patients with pancreatic insufficiency excreted 13.1 +/- 5.6% and 18.9% +/- 6.2%, respectively, which was significantly decreased (P < 0.001) compared with normals. The TLC profiles showed an increasing proportion of IBA with time. Urine analysis after oral administration of MIPAG thus appears to be an attractive new techniques for the evaluation of pancreatic lipase activity by a simple urine analysis. PMID:7859776

  16. Trace drug analysis by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farquharson, Stuart; Lee, Vincent Y.

    2000-12-01

    Drug overdose involves more than 10 percent of emergency room (ER) cases, and a method to rapidly identify and quantify the abused drug is critical to the ability of the ER physician to administer the appropriate care. To this end, we have been developing a surface-enhanced Raman (SER) active material capable of detecting target drugs at physiological concentrations in urine. The SER-active material consists of a metal-doped sol-gel that provides not only a million fold increase in sensitivity but also reproducible measurements. The porous silica network offers a unique environment for stabilizing SER active metal particles and the high surface area increase the interaction between the analyte and metal particles. The sol-gel has been coated on the inside walls of glass samples vials, such that urine specimens may simply be introduced for analysis. Here we present the surface-enhanced Raman spectra of a series of barbiturates, actual urine specimens, and a drug 'spiked' urine specimen. The utility of pH adjustment to suppress dominant biochemicals associated with urine is also presented.

  17. Analysis of quazepam and its metabolites in human urine by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry: application to a forensic case.

    PubMed

    Terada, Masaru; Shinozuka, Tatsuo; Hasegawa, Chika; Tanaka, Einosuke; Hayashida, Makiko; Ohno, Youkichi; Kurosaki, Kunihiko

    2013-04-10

    A sensitive method for the simultaneous determination of quazepam and two of its metabolites, 2-oxoquazepam and 3-hydroxy-2-oxoquazepam, in human urine was developed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) with an Rtx-5MS capillary column. The quazepam and its metabolites were extracted from human urine using a simple solid-phase extraction Oasis(®) HLB cartridge column, and the 3-hydroxy-2-oxoquazepam was derivatised using BSTFA/1%TMCS and pyridine at 60 °C for 30 min. The mass spectrometric detection of the analytes was performed in the full scan mode, m/z 60-480, and selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode, m/z 386, for quazepam; m/z 342, for 2-oxoquazepam; m/z 429, for 3-hydroxy-2-oxoquazepam-TMS; and m/z 284, for alprazolam-d5 (internal standard), by electron ionization. The calibration curves of quazepam and its metabolites in urine showed good linearity in the concentration range of 2.5-500 ng/0.2 ml of urine. The average recoveries of quazepam and its metabolites from 0.2 ml of urine containing 500 ng and 50 ng of each drug were 71-83% and 88-90%, respectively. The limits of detection of quazepam, 2-oxoquazepam and 3-hydroxy-2-quazepam in urine by the selected ion monitoring mode were 0.096-0.37 ng/ml. This method would be applicable to other forensic biological materials containing low concentrations of quazepam and its metabolites. PMID:23290298

  18. Quantitative determination of BAF312, a S1PR modulator, in human urine by LC–MS\\/MS: Prevention and recovery of lost analyte due to container surface adsorption

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wenkui Li; Suyi Luo; Harold T. Smith; Francis L. S. Tse

    2010-01-01

    Analyte loss due to non-specific binding, especially container surface adsorption, is not uncommon in the quantitative analysis of urine samples. In developing a sensitive LC–MS\\/MS method for the determination of a drug candidate, BAF312, in human urine, a simple procedure was outlined for identification, confirmation and prevention of analyte non-specific binding to a container surface and to recover the ‘non-specific

  19. The significance of antibody coated bacteria in neuropathic bladder urines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rosemary Lindan

    1981-01-01

    A total of 234 patients with neuropathic bladder dysfunction and bacteria in the urine have been studied for the presence of antibody coating on the bacteria. Approximately one third of the patients so studied were found to have antibody coated bacteria in the urine (ACB + ) by fluorescent microscopy. No correlation could be found between evidence of active tissue

  20. Mercury Values in Urine from Inhabitants of St. Petersburg

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. E. Pogarev; V. V. Ryzhov; N. R. Mashyanov; M. B. Sobolev

    1997-01-01

    The results of 3000 urine analyses are presented. The observational data were obtained for the reference group of school children and adults and for groups of people suffered from indoor mercury pollution. A novel Zeeman atomic absorption spectrometer and cold vapour and piroliz methods were used for determination of total mercury. A background mercury value in urine for St. Petersburg

  1. Urine testing to monitor adherence to TB preventive therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sharon Perry; Melbourne F. Hovell; Elaine Blumberg; Jill Berg; Alicia Vera; Carol Sipan; Norma Kelley; Kathleen Moser; Antonino Catanzaro; Larry Friedman

    2002-01-01

    This study examined the validity of the Arkansas urine test. One hundred ninety-four adolescents submitted an unannounced urine specimen monthly (for 6 to 8 months). Duplicate specimens were blindly tested with high agreement (kappa >90%). Sensitivity and specificity were estimated. In 68% of test runs, adolescents recalled taking INH within 24 hr of specimen collection. For recall intervals of 24,

  2. Microchemical urinalysis. IX - Determination of hydroxyproline in urine.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grunbaum, B. W.; Pace, N.

    1973-01-01

    A simplified procedure is described for the determination of hydroxyproline in human or monkey urine. In this procedure 1 ml of urine is subjected in succession to hydrolysis, oxidation, extraction, and color development. During these steps impurities and interfering substances are eliminated, thus resulting in a chromophore due to hydroxyproline alone.

  3. NOTE / NOTE New observations on urine contents in water-

    E-print Network

    Vatnick, Itzick

    allantoin precipitate in their urine. Shifting nitrogen excretion from urea to allantoin allows them to save. We found no allantoin precipitate in the urine of any of five additional species of water (Gerbillinae) was not allantoin. This preliminary study suggests that not all gerbilline rodents have

  4. Isolation of substances from urine by affinity chromatography.

    PubMed

    Boguslaski, R C; Smith, R S

    1977-04-21

    The applications of affinity chromatography for the isolation and purification of physiological substances from urine have been reviewed. The use of affinity supports for the detection and measurement of various urinary components has also been briefly examined. These examples illustrate the usefulness of urine as a source of fine reagents and the versatility, simplicity and practicality of affinity isolation procedures. PMID:885972

  5. Quantitative Estimation and Identification of Estrogens in Bovine Urine1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. N. Mellin; R. E. Erb; V. L. Estergreen

    1965-01-01

    This work was conducted to further develop methodology for the chemical assay of estrogen in bovine urine. The method includes use of ~C intenlal standards, a combination of enzyme and acid hydrolysis, paper chromatography, and fluorimetry for the assay of four estrogens in bovine pregnancy urine. Enzyme hydrolysis liberated approximately 90% of the 17 a-estradiol but only about 10% of

  6. NEW COLUMN SEPARATION METHOD FOR EMERGENCY URINE SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, S; Brian Culligan, B

    2007-08-28

    The Savannah River Site Environmental Bioassay Lab participated in the 2007 NRIP Emergency Response program administered by the National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) in May, 2007. A new rapid column separation method was applied directly to the NRIP 2007 emergency urine samples, with only minimal sample preparation to reduce preparation time. Calcium phosphate precipitation, previously used to pre-concentrate actinides and Sr-90 in NRIP 2006 urine and water samples, was not used for the NRIP 2007 urine samples. Instead, the raw urine was acidified and passed directly through the stacked resin columns (TEVA+TRU+SR Resins) to separate the actinides and strontium from the NRIP urine samples more quickly. This improvement reduced sample preparation time for the NRIP 2007 emergency urine analyses significantly. This approach works well for small volume urine samples expected during an emergency response event. Based on initial feedback from NIST, the SRS Environmental Bioassay Lab had the most rapid analysis times for actinides and strontium-90 analyses for NRIP 2007 urine samples.

  7. Evaluation of new medium with chromogenic substrates for members of the family Enterobacteriaceae in urine samples.

    PubMed Central

    Kodaka, H; Ishikawa, M; Iwata, M; Kashitani, F; Mizuochi, S; Yamaguchi, K

    1995-01-01

    A new medium containing 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-beta-D-glucuronide cyclohexylammonium salt (Glu agar) for Escherichia coli and a new medium containing 5-bromo-3-indolyl-beta-D-galactoside (Gal agar) for beta-galactosidase-positive members of the family Enterobacteriaceae were compared with MacConkey agar in a diagnostic trial with 3,562 urine specimens. The isolation rates of E. coli and beta-galactosidase-positive Enterobacteriaceae were increased 8.4 and 19.5%, respectively. The sensitivities and specificities of Glu agar and Gal agar were 98.5 and 100% and 99.2 and 99.5%, respectively. PMID:7699041

  8. Evaluation of an Automated Rapid Diagnostic Assay for Detection of Gram-Negative Bacteria and Their Drug-Resistance Genes in Positive Blood Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Tojo, Masayoshi; Fujita, Takahiro; Ainoda, Yusuke; Nagamatsu, Maki; Hayakawa, Kayoko; Mezaki, Kazuhisa; Sakurai, Aki; Masui, Yoshinori; Yazaki, Hirohisa; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Miyoshi-Akiyama, Tohru; Totsuka, Kyoichi; Kirikae, Teruo; Ohmagari, Norio

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the performance of the Verigene Gram-Negative Blood Culture Nucleic Acid Test (BC-GN; Nanosphere, Northbrook, IL, USA), an automated multiplex assay for rapid identification of positive blood cultures caused by 9 Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) and for detection of 9 genes associated with ?-lactam resistance. The BC-GN assay can be performed directly from positive blood cultures with 5 minutes of hands-on and 2 hours of run time per sample. A total of 397 GNB positive blood cultures were analyzed using the BC-GN assay. Of the 397 samples, 295 were simulated samples prepared by inoculating GNB into blood culture bottles, and the remaining were clinical samples from 102 patients with positive blood cultures. Aliquots of the positive blood cultures were tested by the BC-GN assay. The results of bacterial identification between the BC-GN assay and standard laboratory methods were as follows: Acinetobacter spp. (39 isolates for the BC-GN assay/39 for the standard methods), Citrobacter spp. (7/7), Escherichia coli (87/87), Klebsiella oxytoca (13/13), and Proteus spp. (11/11); Enterobacter spp. (29/30); Klebsiella pneumoniae (62/72); Pseudomonas aeruginosa (124/125); and Serratia marcescens (18/21); respectively. From the 102 clinical samples, 104 bacterial species were identified with the BC-GN assay, whereas 110 were identified with the standard methods. The BC-GN assay also detected all ?-lactam resistance genes tested (233 genes), including 54 blaCTX-M, 119 blaIMP, 8 blaKPC, 16 blaNDM, 24 blaOXA-23, 1 blaOXA-24/40, 1 blaOXA-48, 4 blaOXA-58, and 6 blaVIM. The data shows that the BC-GN assay provides rapid detection of GNB and ?-lactam resistance genes in positive blood cultures and has the potential to contributing to optimal patient management by earlier detection of major antimicrobial resistance genes. PMID:24705449

  9. Microbial stabilization of antibiotic-containing urine samples by using the FLORA-STAT urine transport system.

    PubMed Central

    Dorn, G L

    1991-01-01

    The FLORA-STAT Urine Transport System (Wadley Biosciences Corp./Lymphokine Partners Ltd., Dallas, Tex.) was evaluated for its efficacy in maintaining organism count and in effectively blocking the bactericidal action of therapeutic antimicrobial agents in urine samples when the urine samples were held at room temperature. Reconstructions with 53 organism-antimicrobial combinations were performed at 0, 4, 8, and 24 h in which the FLORA-STAT system was compared with two boric acid-based systems (Urine C&S Transport Kit [Becton Dickinson VACUTAINER Systems, Rutherford, N.J.]; Sage Urine Collection Kit for Culture [Sage Products, Inc., Cary, Ill.]) and untreated urine. At 24 h, less than 1-log-unit changes in organism counts were found in 100, 92, and 10% of the urine samples without antimicrobial agents and in 97, 65, and 16% of the urine samples with antimicrobial agents for FLORA-STAT-treated, boric acid-treated, and untreated urine samples, respectively. The FLORA-STAT system was further evaluated by sending split samples prepared from laboratory-inoculated patient urine samples (57 without and 50 with antimicrobial agents) to four commercial laboratories by using their respective transport devices and procedures. Samples were also sent to a local reference laboratory which provided prompt processing. Each laboratory received independently labeled transport devices containing untreated, FLORA-STAT-treated, and preservative-treated (if provided by the commercial laboratory) samples prepared from the same urine specimen of a patient. Average estimated transport times ranged from 13 to 24 h for the commercial laboratories; the transport time was less than 4 h for the local reference laboratory.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1939568

  10. Metabolism studies of the Kratom alkaloid speciociliatine, a diastereomer of the main alkaloid mitragynine, in rat and human urine using liquid chromatography-linear ion trap mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Philipp, Anika A; Wissenbach, Dirk K; Weber, Armin A; Zapp, Josef; Maurer, Hans H

    2011-03-01

    Mitragyna speciosa (Kratom) is currently used as a drug of abuse. When monitoring its abuse in urine, several alkaloids and their metabolites must be considered. In former studies, mitragynine (MG), its diastereomer speciogynine (SG), and paynantheine and their metabolites could be identified in rat and human urine using LC-MS(n). In Kratom users' urines, besides MG and SG, further isomeric compounds were detected. To elucidate whether the MG and SG diastereomer speciociliatine (SC) and its metabolites represent further compounds, the phase I and II metabolites of SC were identified first in rat urine after the administration of the pure alkaloid. Then, the identified rat metabolites were screened for in the urine of Kratom users using the above-mentioned LC-MS(n) procedure. Considering the mass spectra and retention times, it could be confirmed that SC and its metabolites are so far the unidentified isomers in human urine. In conclusion, SC and its metabolites can be used as further markers for Kratom use, especially by consumption of raw material or products that contain a high amount of fruits of the Malaysian plant M. speciosa. PMID:21249338

  11. Cardboard versus sterile containers: more nitrite-positive urinalysis results?

    PubMed

    Eley, Rhiannon

    2015-05-13

    Urinalysis is a frequently performed test that provides valuable information as to the health of individuals. The presence of nitrites in the urine may indicate infection. Antibiotic therapy is commonly started following the results of dipstick urine taken from non-sterile urine samples. This is especially prevalent in men who are immobile, because sterile containers large enough to hold a full bladder of urine are not available (at the author's trust). Urine samples were taken from 25 male A&E patients in a sterile container. Half of each sample was decanted into an ordinary cardboard urine bottle and both samples were then tested using dipstick urinalysis after 1 minute and after 10 minutes to see if there was a difference in the presence of nitrites between the two container types. After 10 minutes, 21 of the 25 samples showed a positive nitrite dipstick in the cardboard container while it remained negative when the urine remained in the sterile container. These results demonstrate that care needs to be taken when collecting urine samples, and the results of dipstick urinalysis should be used with caution depending on the collection method. PMID:25978475

  12. Detection of Wuchereria bancrofti DNA in paired serum and urine samples using polymerase chain reaction-based systems

    PubMed Central

    Ximenes, Camila; Brandão, Eduardo; Oliveira, Paula; Rocha, Abraham; Rego, Tamisa; Medeiros, Rafael; Aguiar-Santos, Ana; Ferraz, João; Reis, Christian; Araujo, Paulo; Carvalho, Luiz; Melo, Fabio L

    2014-01-01

    The Global Program for the Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF) aims to eliminate this disease by the year 2020. However, the development of more specific and sensitive tests is important for the success of the GPELF. The present study aimed to standardise polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based systems for the diagnosis of filariasis in serum and urine. Twenty paired biological urine and serum samples from individuals already known to be positive for Wuchereria bancrofti were collected during the day. Conventional PCR and semi-nested PCR assays were optimised. The detection limit of the technique for purified W. bancrofti DNA extracted from adult worms was 10 fg for the internal systems (WbF/Wb2) and 0.1 fg by using semi-nested PCR. The specificity of the primers was confirmed experimentally by amplification of 1 ng of purified genomic DNA from other species of parasites. Evaluation of the paired urine and serum samples by the semi-nested PCR technique indicated only two of the 20 tested individuals were positive, whereas the simple internal PCR system (WbF/Wb2), which has highly promising performance, revealed that all the patients were positive using both samples. This study successfully demonstrated the possibility of using the PCR technique on urine for the diagnosis of W. bancrofti infection. PMID:25424447

  13. 10 CFR 26.117 - Preparing urine specimens for storage and shipping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... false Preparing urine specimens for storage...Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.117 Preparing urine specimens for storage...with its associated urine specimen bottle. Unless...site and a licensee testing facility are...

  14. 10 CFR 26.117 - Preparing urine specimens for storage and shipping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... false Preparing urine specimens for storage...Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.117 Preparing urine specimens for storage...with its associated urine specimen bottle. Unless...site and a licensee testing facility are...

  15. 10 CFR 26.115 - Collecting a urine specimen under direct observation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...false Collecting a urine specimen under direct...Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.115 Collecting a urine specimen under direct...observer shall watch the urine go from the donor's...act to subvert the testing process....

  16. Urine biomarkers of schistosomiais and its associated bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Eissa, Sanaa; Matboli, Marwa; Shawky, Sherif; Essawy, Nada Oe

    2015-08-01

    Schistosomiasis (SCH) is the second only to malaria among the parasitic diseases affecting humans regarding the prevalence of infection worldwide. In this nonsystematic review, we summarize the existing data on commercially available and promising investigational urine markers for the detection of SCH and its associated bladder cancer (BC). We searched PubMed, Scopus and Cochran without time limits. We reviewed the recent literatures on urine-based markers for SCH and its associated BC. Many studies identified several urine biomarkers of Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma mansoni worms and their associated BC using automated, inexpensive, quantitative assays in urine. These markers may aid in early detection of bladder carcinoma and have the potential to reduce the number of follow-up cystoscopy, thus reducing healthcare costs and patient discomfort, at the same time. Nevertheless, clinical evidence is insufficient to warrant the substitution of the cystoscopic follow-up scheme by any of the currently available urine marker tests. PMID:26105083

  17. Forgotten hardware: how to urinate in a spacesuit.

    PubMed

    Hollins, Hunter

    2013-06-01

    On May 5, 1961, astronaut Alan Shepard became the first American to fly in space. Although National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) had discounted the need for him to urinate, Shepard did, in his spacesuit, short circuiting his electronic biosensors. With the development of the pressure suit needed for high-altitude and space flight during the 1950s, technicians had developed the means for urine collection. However, cultural mores, combined with a lack of interagency communication, and the technical difficulties of spaceflight made human waste collection a difficult task. Despite the difficulties, technicians at NASA created a successful urine collection device that John Glenn wore on the first Mercury orbital flight on February 20, 1962. With minor modifications, male astronauts used this system to collect urine until the Space Shuttle program. John Glenn's urine collection device is at the National Air and Space Museum and has been on view to the public since 1976. PMID:23728129

  18. Tritium analysis of urine samples from the general Korean public.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Seokwon; Ha, Wi-Ho; Lee, Seung-Sook

    2013-11-01

    The tritium concentrations of urine samples and the effective dose of the general Korean public were evaluated. To achieve accurate HTO analysis of urine samples, we established the optimal conditions for measuring the HTO content of urine samples. Urine samples from 50 Koreans who do not work at a nuclear facility were analyzed on the basis of the results. The average urine analysis result was 2.8 ±1 .4 Bq/L, and the range was 1.8-5.6 Bq/L. The measured values were lower than those reported for other countries. These results show that environmental factors and lifestyle differences are the main factors affecting the tritium level of the general public. PMID:23557676

  19. Impact of introduction of the BD Kiestra InoqulA on urine culture results in a hospital clinical microbiology laboratory.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Sharon; Bourbeau, Paul P

    2015-05-01

    This study compared results from plating urine specimens with the BD InoqulA instrument using a 10-?l inoculum with results from cultures plated manually with a 1-?l loop for comparable 2-month periods. The positivity rates, turnaround times for positive cultures, and BD Phoenix identification and antimicrobial susceptibility test results were comparable for both time periods. We experienced no problems with culture interpretation as the result of moving to the 10-?l inoculum. PMID:25740766

  20. Drugs, drugs--who has the drugs?

    PubMed

    Blair, James

    2012-01-01

    Drug diversion, although on the increase, is not the only problem involving drugs that hospital security officials should be concerned with. Growing drug shortages, offshore production, counterfeiting, and weaknesses in the drug supply chain in case of a world-wide pandemic, are even greater causes for concern, the author claims. PMID:22423518