These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

False-positive interferences of common urine drug screen immunoassays: a review.  

PubMed

Urine drug screen (UDS) immunoassays are a quick and inexpensive method for determining the presence of drugs of abuse. Many cross-reactivities exist with other analytes, potentially causing a false-positive result in an initial drug screen. Knowledge of these potential interferents is important in determining a course of action for patient care. We present an inclusive review of analytes causing false-positive interferences with drugs-of-abuse UDS immunoassays, which covers the literature from the year 2000 to present. English language articles were searched via the SciFinder platform with the strings 'false positive [drug] urine' yielding 173 articles. These articles were then carefully analyzed and condensed to 62 that included data on causes of false-positive results. The discussion is separated into six sections by drug class with a corresponding table of cross-reacting compounds for quick reference. False-positive results were described for amphetamines, opiates, benzodiazepines, cannabinoids, tricyclic antidepressants, phencyclidine, lysergic acid diethylamide and barbiturates. These false-positive results support the generally accepted practice that immunoassay positive results are considered presumptive until confirmed by a second independent chemical technique. PMID:24986836

Saitman, Alec; Park, Hyung-Doo; Fitzgerald, Robert L

2014-09-01

2

Evaluating the athlete's claim of an unintentional positive urine drug test.  

PubMed

During a urine drug testing program, an athlete may make a claim that the results of a positive test have arisen from factors that were out of his or her control, and therefore, he or she should not be held responsible for the results. Some of these claims may include classic claims of passive inhalation of marijuana smoke or ingestion of poppy seeds leading to positive tests. In addition, with the proliferation of nutritional supplements on the market, many athletes claim that they accidentally ingested a banned substance contained in one of these. It is important that any sports medicine physician involved with sports drug testing be informed of the data that either support or refute these claims and that he or she contribute to a program wherein adequate education and policy establishment help to limit the likelihood of such claims. This article will review the data to help address these claims. PMID:23531893

Anderson, Jeffrey M

2011-07-01

3

Amphetamine Positive Urine Toxicology Screen Secondary to Atomoxetine  

PubMed Central

The aim of this paper is to report the first case of atomoxetine leading to false-positive urine drug screen. An otherwise healthy 27-year-old female with a history of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) treated with atomoxetine had an acute onset tonic-clonic seizure. On arrival to the hospital, a urine toxicological drug screen with immunochemical cloned enzyme donor immunoassay (CEDIA) was performed. Results were positive for amphetamines; however, the presence of these substances could not be confirmed with urine gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). She denied any illicit drug use, herbal medications, or supplements, and her other prescription medications have not been previously known to cause a false-positive result for amphetamines. While stimulant treatments for ADHD could certainly result in a positive result on urine screen for amphetamines, there have been no reports of false-positive results for amphetamines secondary to patients using atomoxetine. We implicate atomoxetine, and/or its metabolites, as a compound or compounds which may interfere with urine drug immunoassays leading to false-positive results for amphetamines CEDIA assays. PMID:23424703

Fenderson, Joshua L.; Stratton, Amy N.; Domingo, Jennifer S.; Matthews, Gerald O.; Tan, Christopher D.

2013-01-01

4

Ethical considerations in urine drug testing.  

PubMed

Recent passage of a House Bill in the state of Washington led to a commentary on whether mandates for urine drug testing of pain patients represented a breach of the Fourth and Fourteenth Amendment rights of patients. Issues over true consent to such tests and potential view of warrantless searches were discussed. The authors address these concerns in a broader context of risk management and stratification efforts, along with discussion about the need for a tailored approach in this arena and consideration of cost burden for such tests. Finally, the argument is made that social justice issues need to be considered (along with issues of autonomy, beneficence, and nonmaleficence). PMID:21810007

Passik, Steven D; Kirsh, Kenneth L

2011-01-01

5

Clinical evaluation and use of urine screening for drug abuse.  

PubMed Central

Urine drug screening is indicated to evaluate patients who show mental status or behavioral changes and to monitor the abstinence of drug abusers. The appropriate timing for collecting urine specimens may vary depending on the suspected drug of abuse and on laboratory factors. Laboratories use a variety of techniques to do urine screens, and these must be understood by clinicians ordering the screens to interpret results correctly. In treating drug-abusing patients, clinicians must apply structured reinforcement in conjunction with urine screen results to aid patients in achieving abstinence. PMID:3176489

Saxon, A J; Calsyn, D A; Haver, V M; Delaney, C J

1988-01-01

6

Marijuana and workplace safety: an examination of urine drug tests.  

PubMed

Although the decriminalization of recreational marijuana and medical marijuana laws provide a compassionate answer for treatment-related issues in patients' lives, they leave questions open as to the impact on other realms of life, such as employment and safety. This is a case-control study comparing the proportion of marijuana positive urine specimens for post-accident verses random samples. The marijuana concentration of each sample underwent creatinine normalization to account for in vivo dilution. Any sample that tested positive for one or more substances other than marijuana was eliminated from the study. The prevalence of marijuana violations, the odds ratio and 95% confidence interval of accident involvement and the population attributable risk were calculated. A two-by-two table was created with the remaining data and the data were used to calculate the odds ratio, resulting in a value of 0.814 with a 95% confidence interval between 0.625 and 1.060. The Fisher exact probability test generated a 2-tailed P of .139. The subsequent population attributable risk was found to be -1.83%. These findings fail to reject the null hypothesis, and this study failed to demonstrate a statistically significant difference between the numbers of laboratory positive marijuana urine drug tests for a group of random drug tests compared with a group of post-accident drug tests. PMID:24467478

Price, James W

2014-01-01

7

The utility of immunoassays for urine drug testing.  

PubMed

Substance abuse is a significant problem in the United States, with cocaine, marijuana, alcohol and heroin as the most commonly abused drugs. This article focuses on urine drug testing to evaluate potential drug abuse or overdose in the emergent care setting using qualitative immunoassays. Discussion is included regarding the principles of how to validate qualitative immunoassays; how to decide on appropriate specimen type, test menu and cutoff; the limitations of immunoassays; how to communicate test results to clinicians; and use of urine drug testing at point of care. PMID:22939301

Melanson, Stacy E F

2012-09-01

8

49 CFR 40.31 - Who may collect urine specimens for DOT drug testing?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Urine Collection...collect urine specimens for DOT drug testing? (a) Collectors...permitted to do so under DOT agency drug and alcohol regulations. (d) You...

2010-10-01

9

Acute water intoxication during military urine drug screening.  

PubMed

Random mandatory urine drug screening is a routine practice in the military. The pressure to produce a urine specimen creates a temptation to consume large volumes of water, putting those individuals at risk of acute water intoxication. This occurs when the amount of water consumed exceeds the kidney's ability to excrete it, resulting in hyponatremia owing to excess amount of water compared to serum solutes. The acute drop in serum osmolality leads to cerebral edema, causing headaches, confusion, seizures, and death. There has been increasing awareness of the danger of overhydration among performance athletes, but dangers in other groups can be underappreciated. We present the case of a 37-year-old male Air Force officer who developed acute water intoxication during urine drug screening. Our case demonstrates the need for a clear Air Force policy for mandatory drug testing to minimize the risk of developing this potentially fatal condition. PMID:21539169

Tilley, Molly A; Cotant, Casey L

2011-04-01

10

Is urine an alternative to cosmetically treated hair for the detection of drugs and alcohol?  

PubMed

This study attempts to assess the utility of the urine matrix as an alternative to cosmetically treated hair for the detection of drugs and alcohol for driving licence re-granting in 1026 cosmetically treated hair samples and 33 262 urine routine samples. No significant difference was observed between the percentage positive samples in cosmetically treated hair to those in urine at both the 95% and 99% significance level for amphetamines, cocaine, opiates, benzodiazepines, and methadone. Significant difference was found between the positivity rates of cannabinoids in cosmetically treated hair and that in urine indicating urine to be a better alternative to the use of the hair matrix even when cosmetically treated. The opposite was observed for the alcohol consumption marker ethyl glucuronide (EtG) for which the positivity rate in cosmetically treated hair was twice that in urine samples. Particularly for alcohol abstinence monitoring, as for the rehabilitative driving licence re-granting medical and psychological assessment (MPA) programme in Germany, it seems that ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in hair presents a much better alternative than urine testing, even when cosmetically treated hair is analyzed. Moreover, segmentation is an additional advantage of hair testing which can provide additional useful information. PMID:24817057

Agius, Ronald; Dufaux, Bertin; Kahl, Hans-Gerhard; Nadulski, Thomas

2014-06-01

11

Solid-phase extraction and HPLC-UV confirmation of drugs of abuse in urine.  

PubMed

A series of six liquid chromatographic methods were developed to confirm the presence of six classes of drugs of abuse in urine. The chromatographic separations were performed with a reversed-phase C8 column, except in the case of morphine, which was separated on a normal phase column. Isocratic and gradient elutions, ion pair technique, and UV detection were employed. Sample pretreatment involved the extensive application of solid-phase extractions and liquid-liquid extractions on solid supports. The specificity and sensitivity enabled the confirmation of morphine, benzoylecgonine, THC-COOH, amphetamine, and methamphetamine, six barbiturates, and nine benzodiazepines screened positive by EMIT in urine. PMID:1323732

Ferrara, S D; Tedeschi, L; Frison, G; Castagna, F

1992-01-01

12

Thyreostatic drugs, stability in bovine and porcine urine.  

PubMed

Thyreostatic drugs, illegally administrated to livestock for fattening purposes, are banned in the European Union since 1981. For monitoring their illegal use, sensitive and specific analytical methods are required. In this context, the knowledge of the stability in a matrix is of primary importance. This study aimed at evaluating the effects of preservation, number of freeze-thaw cycles, and matrix-related variables on the stability of thyreostatic drugs in the urine of livestock. Finally, the developed conservation approach was applied on incurred urine samples, which displayed traces of the thyreostat thiouracil below the recommended concentration of 10 ?g L(-1). The stability study confirmed the negative influence of preservation (8 h) at room temperature and at -70 °C, decreases in concentration of more than 78.0% were observed for all thyreostats, except for 1-methyl-2-mercaptoimidazole and 2-mercaptobenzimidazole. Additionally, investigation of matrix-related variables indicated significant impacts of the presence of copper (p = 0.001) and the pH (p = 0.002). Next, an optimised pre-treatment (pH 1 and 0.1 M ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid disodium salt dehydrate) significantly differing from the original conservation approach (p < 0.05) was developed, which proved capable of delaying the decrease in concentration and improved the detection in time for both spiked as well as incurred urine samples. In the future, it seems highly advisable to apply the developed pre-treatment on incurred urines upon sampling, before thyreostat analysis. Additionally, it is recommendable to limit preservation of urine samples at room temperature, but also in the freezer prior to thyreostat analysis. PMID:22349321

Vanden Bussche, J; Sterk, S S; De Brabander, H F; Blokland, M H; Deceuninck, Y; Le Bizec, B; Vanhaecke, L

2012-07-01

13

False positivity of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase measurement in urine.  

PubMed

Although enzymuria tends to be associated to renal injury, there are no studies that have evaluated the presence of the enzyme gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) spectrophotometry in the urine using a non-nephrotoxic agent (Nerium oleander) in order to evaluate the possibility of false positive results. The urinary GGT/urinary creatinine concentration ratio (uGGT/uCr) of 10 healthy dogs was calculated and posteriorly confronted with data from clinical evaluation, hematological and serum biochemical profiles, creatinine clearance (CrC), urinalysis, urine protein/creatinine ratio (UPC), electrocardiogram, systemic blood pressure (SBP) and light and electron microscopy. The results for kidney histology, SBP, UPC and CrC were not significantly different in any of the time-points analyzed. However, uGGT/uCr was significantly higher when measured 4 hours and 24 hours after administration of N. oleander. The measurement of the urinary GGT enzyme, as performed in many studies, yielded false positive results in dogs poisoned by a non-nephrotoxic agent. PMID:24456228

Crivellenti, Leandro Zuccolotto; Mesa, Javier Sousa; Meirelles, Adriana Érica Wilkes Burton; Borin Crivellenti, Sofia; Mireya, Edna Gomes; Canola, Julio Carlos; Hatayde, Mário Roberto; Santana, Aureo Evangelista; Dantas, Márcio; Silva, Gyl Eanes Barros

2014-05-01

14

Laboratory and clinical evaluation of on-site urine drug testing.  

PubMed

Abstract Aim. Products for on-site urine drug testing offer the possibility to perform screening for drugs of abuse directly at the point-of-care. This is a well-established routine in emergency and dependency clinics but further evaluation of performance is needed due to inherent limitations with the available products. Methods. Urine drug testing by an on-site product was compared with routine laboratory methods. First, on-site testing was performed at the laboratory in addition to the routine method. Second, the on-site testing was performed at a dependency clinic and urine samples were subsequently sent to the laboratory for additional analytical investigation. Results. The on-site testing products did not perform with assigned cut-off levels. The subjective reading between the presence of a spot (i.e. negative test result) being present or no spot (positive result) was difficult in 3.2% of the cases, and occurred for all parameters. The tests performed more accurately in drug negative samples (specificity 96%) but less accurately for detecting positives (sensitivity 79%). Of all incorrect results by the on-site test the proportion of false negatives was 42%. The overall agreement between on-site and laboratory testing was 95% in the laboratory study and 98% in the clinical study. Conclusion. Although a high degree of agreement was observed between on-site and routine laboratory urine drug testing, the performance of on-site testing was not acceptable due to significant number of false negative results. The limited sensitivity of on-site testing compared to laboratory testing reduces the applicability of these tests. PMID:25046332

Beck, Olof; Carlsson, Sten; Tusic, Marinela; Olsson, Robert; Franzen, Lisa; Hulten, Peter

2014-11-01

15

Trace Contamination of Over-the-Counter Androstenedione and Positive Urine Test Results for a Nandrolone Metabolite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Context Several anabolic steroids are sold over-the-counter (OTC) in the United States, and their production is not regulated by the US Food and Drug Administration. Re- ports have suggested that use of these supplements can cause positive urine test re- sults for metabolites of the prohibited steroid nandrolone.

Don H. Catlin; Benjamin Z. Leder; Brian Ahrens; Borislav Starcevic; Caroline K. Hatton; Gary A. Green; Joel S. Finkelstein

2000-01-01

16

Microwave assisted extraction of drugs of abuse from human urine.  

PubMed

Microwave assisted extraction (MAE) was used to extract drugs of abuse from urine samples for the simultaneous determination of morphine, codeine, 6-acetylmorphine (6AM), cocaine, cocaethylene, benzoylecgonine (BEG), methadone and 2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine (EDDP) by high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD). The working wavelengths used were 285 nm for morphine, codeine and 6AM; 233 nm for cocaine, cocaethylene and BEG; and 292 nm for methadone and EDDP. The mobile phase was a gradient of acetonitrile and phosphate buffer at pH 6.5. A full factorial design was used to identify the most suitable extraction conditions as regards pH, solvent and time of extraction. The optimum conditions thus established provided analyte recoveries from 61% to 109%. The detector response was linear over the drug concentration range 0.1-4.0 microg ml(-1) in urine. The within- and between-day precision and accuracy were less than 8% and 6.5%, respectively. The method was applied successfully to samples obtained from Galician hospitals and courts. PMID:17265433

Fernández, Purificación; Lago, Marta; Lorenzo, Rosa Antonia; Carro, Antonia María; Bermejo, Ana María; Tabernero, María Jesús

2007-01-01

17

[Urine checks as a supportive measure with drug abuse patients to supplement current therapy models].  

PubMed

Urine samples of 120 heroin-addicted probands who had to take part in urinanalysis tests were analysed during a 26 months' period. Up to 7 substances (morphine/diamorphie, codeine, cocain, LSD, cannabinoides, barbiturates and amphetamines) were tested. The results were compared to the results of a group of 177 cannabies-smokers. The purpose of this study was to find out in how far urinanalysis tests can change drug-consuming behaviour. More than 80% of the cannabis-smokers showed evidently a decrease of THC-positive urine samples at the end of the investigation period. Only about 13% had positive samples during the whole period. 12 out of 120 heroin-addicted probands (= 10%) had morphine-positive urine samples at the beginning of investigations. For 104 out of 1423 tested samples (46 probands) an unmistakable distinction between morphine/diamorphine- or codeine-intake was not possible because the concentrations found were too low. About 20% of the samples indicated a shift to a substitutional used drug like codeine. Further more a slightly significant increase of cannabis-intake was to be observed. PMID:1811517

Friedrich, G; Leber, D; Weigend, M

1991-01-01

18

Utility of ELISA screening for the monitoring of abstinence from illegal and legal drugs in hair and urine.  

PubMed

Amphetamines, cannabinoids, cocaine, opiates, methadone, and benzodiazepines in authentic hair samples with drug concentrations around the medical and psychological assessment (MPA) guidelines cut-offs were screened by LUCIO-direct ELISA kits. Following confirmation of all positive and a significant number of negatively screened samples with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) or liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) methods accredited for forensic purposes. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) were plotted and the area under the curve (AUC) and overall misclassification rate (OMR) were calculated and compared to those obtained for the same drug classes in urine. While fulfilling the validation criteria of the German forensic guidelines, for almost all screening tests in hair and urine the AUC were greater than 0.8, indicating good to excellent performance. Moreover the AUC calculated for the detection of drugs in hair did not differ significantly to the AUC calculated for the detection of the same drug classes in urine, thus showing a comparable screening performance to the well accepted, previously published application of the same ELISAs for the detection of drugs at unconventionally low cut-offs in urine. For the first time, the validation of the immunoassay tests for the complete 6-drug panel MPA profile in hair and urine using a large population of authentic hair and urine samples with drug concentrations around MPA cut-offs, lower than conventional clinical or workplace drug testing guidelines cut-offs as well as those suggested by the Society of hair testing (SoHT) is presented. PMID:24817055

Agius, Ronald; Nadulski, Thomas

2014-06-01

19

Concentration distribution of the marijuana metabolite Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid and the cocaine metabolite benzoylecgonine in the department of defense urine drug-testing program.  

PubMed

Urine drug testing has been employed for punitive purposes by the Department of Defense since December 1981 (Memorandum 62884, Deputy Secretary of Defense Frank C. Carlucci). Federal Workplace Drug Testing Programs were initiated in response to Executive Order 12564 issued on September 15, 1986, that required Drug-Free Federal Workplaces be established. In their respective programs, a positive urine drug test may be referred to a military court martial or to an administrative board. To address safety and insurance requirements, the testing of civilians has expanded beyond Federal Programs to include pre-employment and post-accident urine drug testing. During adjudication, an Expert Toxicologist may be asked to opine what can be discerned from the concentration of drug or drug metabolite found in the urine. Little can be opined with certainty from a positive urine drug test as to the amount of drug ingested, when the drug was ingested, and in most instances, whether the individual felt the effects of the drug, or was under the influence of the drug found in the urine. What may be useful to both the Expert and to the Trier-of-Facts is the frequency that a particular urine drug concentration is encountered in positive drug tests. The finding that 50% of all positive marijuana and cocaine urine metabolite concentrations in the military testing program over the three-year period of October 1, 2004 through September 30, 2007, are below a median value of 65 and 968 ng/mL, respectively, provide reference points. A median drug concentration combined with the percentile or frequency that a particular urine drug concentration occurs may provide evaluative information for a determination of the facts and the outcome of judicial or administrative proceedings. This may be especially useful to jurors when the concentration of marijuana or cocaine metabolite is perceptibly low. The information would also be applicable to medical review officers, medical examiners, drug treatment professionals, probation officers, and program analysts coordinating drug policy decisions. PMID:18652746

Jemionek, John F; Copley, Curtis L; Smith, Michael L; Past, Marilyn R

2008-01-01

20

HPLC–MS\\/MS determination of a hardly soluble drug in human urine through drug–albumin binding assisted dissolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABT-263 is under development for treatment of cancer. In order to support clinical trials, an analytical method for ABT-263 quantification in human urine became necessary. Due to the extremely poor solubility of ABT-263 in aqueous and most common organic solvents, a critical step was to dissolve the drug into urine matrix. Although other potential approaches could be used, addition of

Ramona Rodila; Grace E. Kim; Leimin Fan; Min S. Chang; Jun Zhang; Huaiqin Wu; Tawakol A. El-Shourbagy

2008-01-01

21

Windows of detection of zolpidem in urine and hair: application to two drug facilitated sexual assaults  

Microsoft Academic Search

A LC–MS\\/MS method for the detection of zolpidem in hair was developed to detect this drug after a single dose in possible drug facilitated sexual assaults. To determine the window of detection of zolpidem in both urine and hair, three volunteers received a 10mg dose. Urine specimens were collected each 12h for 144h. Hair was sampled 3–5 weeks after exposure.

M Villain; M Chèze; A Tracqui; B Ludes; P Kintz

2004-01-01

22

A validated SPME-GC–MS method for simultaneous quantification of club drugs in human urine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatographic–mass spectrometric (SPME-GC–MS) method has been developed and validated for measuring four club drugs in human urine. These drugs include gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), ketamine (KET), methamphetamine (MAMP), and methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). These drugs are referred to as ‘club drugs’ because of their prevalence at parties and raves. Deuterium labeled internal standards for each of the four drugs was included

Stacy D. Brown; Daniel J. Rhodes; Boyd J. Pritchard

2007-01-01

23

Routine analysis of amphetamine class drugs as their naphthaquinone derivatives in human urine by high-performance liquid chromatography.  

PubMed

We describe a simple HPLC method which is suitable for the routine confirmation of immunoassay positive amphetamine urine samples. The precolumn derivisation method employing sodium naphthaquinone-4-sulphonate was found to have adequate sensitivity, selectivity and precision for the measurement of amphetamine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), and 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDEA) at 500 microg/l cutoff level for confirmatory analysis of amphetamines in urine. The specificity of the method is enhanced by detecting the peaks at two different wavelengths. The ratios of the peak heights measured at the two wavelengths were different for each of the 5 amphetamines analysed. There was no interference from other phenylethylamine analogues that are commonly found in "over the counter" preparations. The HPLC method is compared to a commercial TLC system for detecting amphetamines in urine of drug abusers attending drug rehabilitation programmes. The HPLC confirmatory method described is a viable alternative to GC or to the more complex and costly GC-MS techniques for confirming amphetamine, methamphetamine, MDMA, MDA and MDEA in urine of drug abusers especially when used in a clinical care setting. PMID:10670737

Talwar, D; Watson, I D; Stewart, M J

1999-12-10

24

A Case for Mandatory Urine Testing for Drugs in Public Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In response to an earlier article by Eugene Lincoln, presents two hypothetical cases that respectively deal with the possible effects of drug use on school premises and with a policy governing mandatory urine testing for student athletes. Cites factors that should be incorporated in any mandatory drug testing policy. (MLF)

Sultanik, Jeffrey T.

1990-01-01

25

Mutagenicity of urine from mice exposed orally to nitrite and various aminated antiparasitic drugs  

SciTech Connect

Mutagenic N-nitroso compound formation from the in vitro reaction of amebicides and anthelmintic drugs, which are pyrimidine derivatives or contain secondary aliphatic amines or heterocyclic nitrogens, has been previously described. Under similar conditions, antiparasitic drugs containing halogenated derivatives of tertiary amines or quaternary ammonium salts do not form mutagenic nitrosated compounds. In the present study the mutagenic activity of mouse urine was determined after oral administration of sodium nitrite and the two above-mentioned groups of drugs. Results show that the simultaneous administration of piperazine or chloroquine with sodium nitrite produced urinary mutagens that appeared conjugated as glucuronides, whereas pyrantel pamoate and dehydroemetine in the presence of nitrite caused only slightly mutagenic urine. No mutagenic activity was detected in the urine of mice to which halogenated derivatives of tertiary amines (iodochlorhydroxyquin) or quaternary ammonium salts (bephenium hydroxynaphthoate) were administered together with nitrite.

Alba, M.A.; Aguirre, J.E.; Ramirez, J.; de Nava, C.C. (U.N.A.M. (Mexico))

1989-01-01

26

Dystrophin-deficient cardiomyocytes derived from human urine: new biologic reagents for drug discovery.  

PubMed

The ability to extract somatic cells from a patient and reprogram them to pluripotency opens up new possibilities for personalized medicine. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have been employed to generate beating cardiomyocytes from a patient's skin or blood cells. Here, iPSC methods were used to generate cardiomyocytes starting from the urine of a patient with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Urine was chosen as a starting material because it contains adult stem cells called urine-derived stem cells (USCs). USCs express the canonical reprogramming factors c-myc and klf4, and possess high telomerase activity. Pluripotency of urine-derived iPSC clones was confirmed by immunocytochemistry, RT-PCR and teratoma formation. Urine-derived iPSC clones generated from healthy volunteers and a DMD patient were differentiated into beating cardiomyocytes using a series of small molecules in monolayer culture. Results indicate that cardiomyocytes retain the DMD patient's dystrophin mutation. Physiological assays suggest that dystrophin-deficient cardiomyocytes possess phenotypic differences from normal cardiomyocytes. These results demonstrate the feasibility of generating cardiomyocytes from a urine sample and that urine-derived cardiomyocytes retain characteristic features that might be further exploited for mechanistic studies and drug discovery. PMID:24434629

Guan, Xuan; Mack, David L; Moreno, Claudia M; Strande, Jennifer L; Mathieu, Julie; Shi, Yingai; Markert, Chad D; Wang, Zejing; Liu, Guihua; Lawlor, Michael W; Moorefield, Emily C; Jones, Tara N; Fugate, James A; Furth, Mark E; Murry, Charles E; Ruohola-Baker, Hannele; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Santana, Luis F; Childers, Martin K

2014-03-01

27

[Incretin mimetic drugs: therapeutic positioning].  

PubMed

Type 2 diabetes is a chronic and complex disease, due to the differences among affected individuals, which affect choice of treatment. The number of drug families has increased in the last few years, and these families have widely differing mechanisms of action, which contributes greatly to the individualization of treatment according to the patient's characteristics and comorbidities. The present article discusses incretin mimetic drugs. Their development has been based on knowledge of the effects of natural incretin hormones: GLP-1 (glucagon-like peptide 1), GIP (glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide) and dipeptidyl peptidase enzyme 4 (DPP4), which rapidly degrade them in the systemic circulation. This group is composed of 2 different types of molecules: GLP-1 analogs and DPP4 enzyme inhibitors. The benefits of these molecules include a reduction in plasma glucose without the risk of hypoglycemias or weight gain. There are a series of questions that require new studies to establish a possible association between the use of these drugs and notification of cases of pancreatitis, as well as their relationship with pancreatic and thyroid cancer. Also awaited is the publication of several studies that will provide information on the relationship between these drugs and cardiovascular risk in people with diabetes. All these questions will probably be progressively elucidated with greater experience in the use of these drugs. PMID:25311717

López Simarro, F

2014-07-01

28

Analysis on the Go: Quantitation of Drugs of Abuse in Dried Urine with Digital Microfluidics and Miniature Mass Spectrometry  

E-print Network

Analysis on the Go: Quantitation of Drugs of Abuse in Dried Urine with Digital Microfluidics the development of a method coupling microfluidics and a miniature mass spectrometer, applied to quantitation of drugs of abuse in urine. A custom digital microfluidic system was designed to deliver droplets

Zandstra, Peter W.

29

Papain adulteration in 11-nor-Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol- 9-carboxylic acid-positive urine samples.  

PubMed

The adulteration of urine samples is an ongoing problem in forensic drug-testing laboratories, even in the military where the practice of observed collections is performed. These adulterants are used to produce a false-negative result when samples are analyzed for drugs of abuse. It has been reported that papain, a cysteine protease, could be successfully used as a urine adulterant, altering the concentration of 11-nor-Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9- carboxylic acid (THCCOOH) in urine samples. The current study analyzes the effects of latex papain (Sigma, 10 mg/mL) and Lawry's Adolph's Meat Tenderizer (papain is an active ingredient, 10 mg/mL) on immunoassays (FPIA, EMIT, KIMS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis for biological samples. The samples were analyzed initially between 2 and 4 h and then at 1-, 3-, 7-, and 10-day time intervals after the addition of papain. A decrease in response averaged over the course of the study was observed with FPIA (Abbott, 22%) and EMIT (Syva) Dade Behring, 26%, Microgenics, 10%) screening assays by the addition of latex papain to the samples. An increase in response was found using the KIMS (Roche) assay (156% increase). In addition, the GC-MS results (27% decrease) demonstrate that papain affects both the screening and confirmation assays. The addition of meat tenderizer caused decrease in the FPIA (Abbott, 11%) screening assay and GC-MS results (22%) similar to the latex papain while having varied results on the other screening assays. This study confirms papain could be a potential problem for urine drug-testing programs. PMID:18652751

Larson, Scott J; Holler, Justin M; Magluilo, Joseph; Dunkley, Christopher S; Jacobs, Aaron

2008-01-01

30

Family Checkup: Positive Parenting Prevents Drug Abuse  

MedlinePLUS

... Home » Family Checkup Family Checkup: Positive Parenting Prevents Drug Abuse Email Facebook Twitter Revised October 2012 Could your kids be at risk for substance abuse? Families strive to find the best ways to ...

31

Methotrimeprazine-induced Corneal Deposits and Cataract Revealed by Urine Drug Profiling Test  

PubMed Central

Two schizophrenic patients who had been taking medication for a long period presented with visual disturbance of 6-month duration. Slit-lamp examination revealed fine, discrete, and brownish deposits on the posterior cornea. In addition, bilateral star-shaped anterior subcapsular lens opacities, which were dense, dust-like granular deposits, were noted. Although we strongly suspected that the patient might have taken one of the drugs of the phenothiazine family, we were unable to obtain a history of medications other than haloperidol and risperidone, which were taken for 3 yr. We performed a drug profiling test using urine samples and detected methotrimeprazine. The patient underwent surgery for anterior subcapsular lens opacities. Visual acuity improved in both eyes, but the corneal deposits remained. We report an unusual case of methotrimeprazine-induced corneal deposits and cataract in a patient with psychosis, identified by using the urine drug profiling test. PMID:21060765

Kim, Seong Taeck; Kim, Joon Mo; Kim, Won Young; Choi, Gwang Ju

2010-01-01

32

Urine specimen detection of concurrent nonprescribed medicinal and illicit drug use in patients prescribed buprenorphine.  

PubMed

Patients being treated with buprenorphine usually have a history of opioid dependence and may be predisposed to misuse of drugs. Concurrent drug misuse increases the risk of life-threatening drug interactions. This retrospective data analysis observed which nonprescribed and illicit drugs were most commonly detected in the urine of patients from pain management clinics taking buprenorphine with or without a prescription. GC, LC/MS and LC-MS-MS were used to quantify 20,929 urine specimens. The most prevalent illicit drug used in both the groups (prescribed and nonprescribed buprenorphine) was marijuana, followed by cocaine. The most prevalent nonprescribed medications abused by both the groups were benzodiazepines, followed by oxycodone and hydrocodone. The overall prevalence of illicit and nonprescribed drug use was significantly higher in subjects who used buprenorphine without a prescription versus prescribed use. Of the concurrent use of marijuana and cocaine with buprenorphine, cocaine is most concerning since it decreases exposure to buprenorphine (lower area under the concentration-time curve and maximum concentration). The concurrent use of nonprescribed benzodiazepines with buprenorphine can cause excess sedation leading to respiratory depression and even death. These findings highlight the importance of educating patients about these potential toxicities. Furthermore, pain providers should consider expanding the spectrum of drugs that they monitor in patients under treatment. PMID:24080973

Guo, Alexander Y; Ma, Joseph D; Best, Brookie M; Atayee, Rabia S

2013-01-01

33

Analysis of new designer drugs and common drugs of abuse in urine by a combined targeted and untargeted LC-HR-QTOFMS approach.  

PubMed

The development of a liquid chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry quadrupole-time-of-flight (LC-HRMS-QTOF) method for the analysis of new stimulant designer drugs (e.g. phenethylamine, amphetamine, cathinone and piperazine derivatives) and common drugs of abuse (e.g. ketamine and ritalinic acid) in urine is reported. Sample preparation was carried out by a fast and convenient salting-out liquid-liquid extraction (SALLE) procedure. The data was generated by a preferred target list combined with untargeted data-dependent acquisition recording additional sample information (i.e. not listed metabolites of target compounds or not database-stored drugs). The identification is realised by a fully automated data extraction algorithm, taking into account accurate mass spectra, fragment masses and retention times. Method validation comprised selectivity, linearity, accuracy, stability, determination of the limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) and evaluation of matrix effects and recoveries for a total set of 39 compounds. Acceptable quantitative results were obtained for 35 of the 39 analytes. Exemplarily, application of the additional untargeted data-dependent acquisition mode enabled the identification of metabolites of the preferred target list compounds ketamine and methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) without use of reference standards. Therefore, improvement of the database is feasible with every positive library hit. The approach presented here provides a very useful tool for the combined targeted and untargeted analysis of drugs of abuse in biological matrices such as urine. PMID:24828977

Paul, Michael; Ippisch, Josef; Herrmann, Christian; Guber, Susanne; Schultis, Wolfgang

2014-07-01

34

Detection of singly- and doubly-charged quaternary ammonium drugs in equine urine by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Quaternary ammonium drugs (QADs) are anticholinergic agents some of which are known to have been abused or misused in equine sports. A recent review of literature shows that the screening methods reported thus far for QADs mainly cover singly-charged QADs. Doubly-charged QADs are extremely polar substances which are difficult to be extracted and poorly retained on reversed-phase columns. It would be ideal if a comprehensive method can be developed which can detect both singly- and doubly-charged QADs. This paper describes an efficient liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) method for the simultaneous detection and confirmation of 38 singly- and doubly-charged QADs at sub-parts-per-billion (ppb) to low-ppb levels in equine urine after solid-phase extraction. Quaternary ammonium drugs were extracted from equine urine by solid-phase extraction (SPE) using an ISOLUTE(®) CBA SPE column and analysed by LC/MS/MS in the positive electrospray ionisation mode. Separation of the 38 QADs was achieved on a polar group embedded C18 LC column with a mixture of aqueous ammonium formate (pH 3.0, 10 mM) and acetonitrile as the mobile phase. Detection and confirmation of the 38 QADs at sub-ppb to low-ppb levels in equine urine could be achieved within 16 min using selected reaction monitoring (SRM). Matrix interference of the target transitions at the expected retention times was not observed. Other method validation data, including precision and recovery, were acceptable. The method was successfully applied to the analyses of drug-administration samples. PMID:22123117

Ho, Emmie N M; Kwok, W H; Wong, April S Y; Wan, Terence S M

2012-01-13

35

Positive predictive values of abused drug immunoassays on the Beckman Synchron in a veteran population.  

PubMed

The pressure to reduce the cost of analytic testing makes it tempting to discontinue routine confirmation of urine specimens positive for drugs of abuse by immunoassay. Beyond the economic motivation, the requirement for confirmation should be driven by the positive predictive value of the screening tests. We have quantitated positive predictive values of our screening immunoassays in a large metropolitan Veterans Affairs Medical Center. We reviewed the confirmatory rate of urine specimens positive for drugs of abuse with Beckman Synchron reagents from June 1998 to June 1999 and tabulated the false-positive screening rate. There were 175 instances of false-positive screens during the 13 months we analyzed. Positive predictive values ranged from 0% (amphetamine) to 100% (THC). We determined that the low positive predictive value of the amphetamine assay in our laboratory was primarily due to the use of ranitidine (Zantac). Urine specimens containing greater than 43 microg/mL ranitidine were positive in our amphetamine assay. This concentration is routinely exceeded in our patients taking ranitidine. In our clinical and analytic setting, the Beckman THC assay did not require confirmation. The positive predictive values of the Beckman opiate, cocaine, barbiturate, propoxyphene, and methadone immunoassays dictate routine confirmatory testing in specimens that screen positive for these substances. Finally, because of its extreme sensitivity to ranitidine, the Beckman amphetamine assay has little utility in our laboratory setting. PMID:11327349

Dietzen, D J; Ecos, K; Friedman, D; Beason, S

2001-04-01

36

Sports drug testing: Analytical aspects of selected cases of suspected, purported, and proven urine manipulation.  

PubMed

Manipulation of urine specimens provided by elite athletes for doping control purposes has been reported several times in the past, and in most of these cases urine substitution was eventually proven. Recent findings of suspected and substantiated manipulation have outlined the complexity and diversity of tampering options, sample appearance alterations resulting from non-manipulative influence, and the analytical challenges arising from these scenarios. Using state-of-the-art mass spectrometric and immunological doping control and forensic chemistry methodologies, four unusual findings were observed. One sports drug testing specimen was found to contain an unusually high content of saccharides accompanied by hordenine and Serpine-Z4, while no endogenous steroid (e.g. testosterone, epitestosterone, androsterone and etiocholanolone) was detected. This specimen was identified as non-alcoholic beer filled into the doping control sample container, constituting an undisputed doping offense. A doping control sample of bright green color was received and found to contain residues of methylene blue, which is not considered relevant for doping controls as no masking or manipulative effect is known. In addition, the number of urine samples of raspberry to crimson red coloration received at doping control laboratories has constantly increased during the last years, attributed to the presence of hemoglobin or betanin/isobetanin. Also here, no doping rule violation was given and an impact on routine analytical results was not observed. Finally, a total of 8 sports drug testing samples collected at different competition sites was shown to contain identical urine specimens as indicated by steroid profile analysis and conclusively proven by DNA-STR (short tandem repeat) analysis. Here, the athletes in question were not involved in the urine substitution act but the doping control officer was convicted of sample manipulation. PMID:21955645

Thevis, Mario; Geyer, Hans; Sigmund, Gerd; Schänzer, Wilhelm

2012-01-01

37

Validation of the only commercially available immunoassay for synthetic cathinones in urine: Randox Drugs of Abuse V Biochip Array Technology.  

PubMed

Deterrence of synthetic cathinone abuse is hampered by the lack of a high-throughput immunoassay screen. The Randox Drugs of Abuse V (DOA-V) Biochip Array Technology contains two synthetic cathinone antibodies: Bath Salt I (BSI) targets mephedrone/methcathinone and Bath Salt II (BSII) targets 3',4'-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV)/3',4'-methylenedioxy-?-pyrrolidinobutiophenone (MDPBP). We evaluated DOA-V synthetic cathinones performance and conducted a full validation on the original assay with calibrators reconstituted in water, and the new assay with calibrators prepared in lyophilized urine; both utilized the same antibodies and were run on the fully automated Evidence® Analyzer. We screened 20 017 authentic military urine specimens and confirmed positives by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for 28 synthetic cathinones. Limits of detection (LOD) for the original and new assays were 0.35 and 0.18 (BSI), and 8.5 and 9.2 µg/L (BSII), respectively. Linearity was acceptable (R(2) ?>0.98); however, a large negative bias was observed with in-house prepared calibrators. Intra-assay imprecision was <20% BSI-II, while inter-assay imprecision was 18-42% BSI and <22% BSII. Precision was acceptable for Randox controls. Cross-reactivities of many additional synthetic cathinones were determined. Authentic drug-free negative urine pH <4 produced false positive results for BSI (6.3 µg/L) and BSII (473 µg/L). Oxidizing agents reduced BSI and increased BSII results. Sensitivity, specificity, and efficiency of 100%, 52.1%, and 53.0% were obtained at manufacturer's proposed cut-offs (BSI 5 µg/L, BSII 30 µg/L). Performance improved if cut-off concentrations increased (BSI 7.5 µg/L, BSII 40 µg/L); however, there were limited confirmed positive specimens. Currently, this is the first and only fully validated immunoassay for preliminary detection of synthetic cathinones in urine. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. PMID:24659527

Ellefsen, Kayla N; Anizan, Sébastien; Castaneto, Marisol S; Desrosiers, Nathalie A; Martin, Thomas M; Klette, Kevin L; Huestis, Marilyn A

2014-01-01

38

A validated SPME-GC-MS method for simultaneous quantification of club drugs in human urine.  

PubMed

A solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric (SPME-GC-MS) method has been developed and validated for measuring four club drugs in human urine. These drugs include gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), ketamine (KET), methamphetamine (MAMP), and methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). These drugs are referred to as 'club drugs' because of their prevalence at parties and raves. Deuterium labeled internal standards for each of the four drugs was included in the assay to aid in quantitation. The drugs were spiked into human urine and derivatized using pyridine and hexylchloroformate to make them suitable for GC-MS analysis. The SPME conditions of extraction time/temperature and desorption time/temperature were optimized to yield the highest peak area for each of the four drugs. The final SPME parameters included a 90 degrees C extraction for 20min with a 1min desorption in the GC injector at 225 degrees C using a splitless injection. All SPME work was done using a 100microm PDMS fiber by Supelco. The ratio of pyridine to hexylchloroformate for derivatization was also optimized. The GC separation was carried out on a VF-5ht column by Varian (30m, 0.25mm i.d., 0.10microm film thickness) using a temperature program of 150-270 degrees C at 10 degrees C/min. The instrument used was a ThermoFinnigan Trace GC-Polaris Q interfaced with a LEAP CombiPal autosampler. The data was collected by using extracted ion chromatograms of marker m/z values for each drug from the total ion chromatograms (TIC) (full scan mode). Calibration curves with R(2)>0.99 were generated each day using the peak area ratios (peak area drug/peak area internal standard) versus concentration. The validated method resulted in intra-day and inter-day precision (% R.S.D.) of less than 15% and a % error of less than 15% for four concentrations in the range of 0.05-20microg/mL (MAMP) and 0.10-20microg/mL (GHB, KET, and MDMA). This method has the advantage of an easy sample preparation with acceptable accuracy and precision for the simultaneous quantification of these four drugs of abuse and shows no interference from the urine matrix. PMID:17158009

Brown, Stacy D; Rhodes, Daniel J; Pritchard, Boyd J

2007-09-13

39

Rate of positive urine culture and double-J catheters colonization on the basis of microorganism DNA analysis  

PubMed Central

Introduction The aim of the trial was to estimate the relationship between colonization of the Double–J catheter, and the microorganisms cultured from urine. Material and methods 60 patients, who had Double–J catheters inserted, participated in the study. All the subjects had their midstream urine samples taken prior to the stent insertion and removal. A negative urine culture before catheterization was mandatory to participate in the study. The patients were assigned into three subgroups, according to stenting duration: 1) 20 to 30 days (18 cases); 2) 30 to 90 days (30 cases); 3) longer than 90 days (12 cases). Bacterial and fungal DNA was identified using electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gel with a denaturing gradient (PCR–DGGE). The relationship between the genetic analysis of the catheter and the urine culture was estimated. Results Urine cultures were positive in only 8 patients, while Double–J catheter analyses were positive in all cases. In 2 cases one type of microorganism was isolated from the stent surface while the remaining 58 catheters were colonized by more than one pathogen. In three cases fungi were isolated. There were only three types of pathogens cultured from urine specimens. Urine and stent cultures were consistent in 5 cases. In 3 cases urine culture and stent analysis were not consistent. Conclusions Double–J catheter retention in the urinary tract is associated with an extremely high risk of bacterial colonization, while the risk of urine infection is about 8–fold lower. There is a great inconsistency between urine infection and catheter colonization, indicating a low predictive value of urine culture for estimating stent colonization. PMID:24982789

Szymkowiak, Sylwia; Madej, Adam; Blewniewski, Mariusz; Krzeslak, Anna; Forma, Ewa; Brys, Magdalena; Lipinski, Marek; Rozanski, Waldemar

2014-01-01

40

28 CFR 550.42 - Procedures for urine surveillance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT DRUG PROGRAMS Drug Services (Urine Surveillance and Counseling...a positive result for the presence of drugs which the inmate cannot...

2010-07-01

41

A qualitative/quantitative approach for the detection of 37 tryptamine-derived designer drugs, 5 ?-carbolines, ibogaine, and yohimbine in human urine and plasma using standard urine screening and multi-analyte approaches.  

PubMed

The first synthetic tryptamines have entered the designer drug market in the late 1990s and were distributed as psychedelic recreational drugs. In the meantime, several analogs have been brought onto the market indicating a growing interest in this drug class. So far, only scarce analytical data were available on the detectability of tryptamines in human biosamples. Therefore, the aim of the presented study was the development and full validation of a method for their detection in human urine and plasma and their quantification in human plasma. The liquid chromatography-linear ion trap mass spectrometry method presented covered 37 tryptamines as well as five ?-carbolines, ibogaine, and yohimbine. Compounds were analyzed after protein precipitation of urine or fast liquid-liquid extraction of plasma using an LXQ linear ion trap coupled to an Accela ultra ultra high-performance liquid chromatography system. Data mining was performed via information-dependent acquisition or targeted product ion scan mode with positive electrospray ionization. The assay was selective for all tested substances with limits of detection in urine between 10 and 100 ng/mL and in plasma between 1 and 100 ng/mL. A validated quantification in plasma according to international recommendation could be demonstrated for 33 out of 44 analytes. PMID:24173660

Meyer, Markus R; Caspar, Achim; Brandt, Simon D; Maurer, Hans H

2014-01-01

42

Application of urine proteomics for biomarker discovery in drug-induced liver injury.  

PubMed

Abstract The leading cause of hepatic damage is drug-induced liver injury (DILI), for which currently no adequate predictive biomarkers are available. Moreover, for most drugs related to DILI, the mechanisms underlying the adverse reaction have not yet been elucidated. Urinary protein biomarker candidates for DILI have emerged in the past few years and correlate well with clinical studies for serum DILI biomarkers. The goal of this review was to investigate the use of urine as a source of protein biomarkers for drug-induced liver injury. Finally, we discuss some of the current strategies required to advance the field of biomarker discovery for DILI with respect to appropriate clinical biobanking and adequate translational research. PMID:25264586

van Swelm, Rachel P L; Kramers, Cornelis; Masereeuw, Rosalinde; Russel, Frans G M

2014-11-01

43

Subcutaneous trastuzumab: drug development and current position.  

PubMed

HER2-positive breast cancer, accounting for 15 % of the total breast cancer patient population, carries in itself a bad prognosis, which has now become much better after the advent of anti-HER2 drugs. HER2-targeted therapy has significantly improved disease free- and overall survival in HER2-positive breast cancer, and has rendered better disease control both in the early and advanced disease setting. Trastuzumab treatment duration is often prolonged and poses significant time and resource challenges both on the treatment institutions and on the patient. The recent development of a subcutaneous formulation has meant a significant advance in this respect. We review the drug development of the compound and the current evidence on its use. PMID:24777594

Martín Martorell, P; Bermejo de Las Heras, B; Pérez-Fidalgo, J A; Huerta Alvaro, M; Martín, M; Albanell, J; Lluch Hernández, A

2014-10-01

44

Catecholamines - urine  

MedlinePLUS

Dopamine-urine test; Epinephrine-urine test; Adrenalin-urine test; Urine metanephrine; Normetanephrine; Norepinephrine-urine test; Urine catecholamines; VMA; HVA; Metanephrine; Homovanillic acid (HVA)

45

Determination of platinum originated from antitumoral drugs in human urine by atomic absorption spectrometric methods.  

PubMed

Cisplatin and carboplatin are the most common platinum-based drugs used in cancer treatment. Pharmacokinetic investigations, the evaluation of the body burden during the treatment, as well as baseline levels of platinum in humans have attracted great interest. Thus, accurate analytical methods for fast and easy Pt monitoring in clinical samples become necessary. In the present study atomic absorption spectrometric methods for the determination of platinum in the forms of cisplatin and carboplatin in human urine were investigated. Platinum, in these different forms, could be determined in urine, after simple sample dilution. Regarding electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry, the optimum parameters were defined by a central composite design optimization. Multiplicative matrix effects were overcome by using a mixture of HCl and NaCl as modifier. The limit of detection (LOD) was 0.004 mgL(-1) of platinum in the original sample. For the analysis of more concentrated samples, high resolution continuous source flame atomic absorption spectrometry was also investigated. Flame conditions were optimized by a multivariate D-optimal design, using as response the sum of the analyte addition calibration slopes and their standard deviations. Matrix matched external calibration with PtCl(2) calibration solutions, was possible, and the LOD was 0.06 mgL(-1) in the original sample. The results obtained by the proposed procedures were also in good agreement with those obtained by an independent comparative procedure. PMID:20875558

da Costa, Anilton Coelho; Vieira, Mariana Antunes; Luna, Aderval Severino; de Campos, Reinaldo Calixto

2010-10-15

46

A broad-spectrum equine urine screening method for free and enzyme-hydrolysed conjugated drugs with ultra performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

The authors' laboratory at one time employed four liquid chromatography/mass spectrometric (LC/MS) methods for the detection of a large variety of drugs in equine urine. Drug classes covered by these methods included anti-diabetics, anti-ulcers, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors, sedatives, corticosteroids, anabolic steroids, sulfur diuretics, xanthines, etc. With the objective to reduce labour and instrumental workload, a new ultra performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometric (UPLC/MS/MS) method has been developed, which encompasses all target analytes detected by the original four LC/MS methods. The new method has better detection limits than the superseded methods. In addition, it covers new target analytes that could not be adequately detected by the four LC/MS methods. The new method involves solid-phase extraction (SPE) of two aliquots of equine urine using two Abs Elut Nexus cartridges. One aliquot of the urine sample is treated with ?-glucuronidase before subjecting to SPE. A second aliquot of the same urine sample is processed directly using another SPE cartridge, so that drugs that are prone to decomposition during enzyme hydrolysis can be preserved. The combined eluate is analysed by UPLC/MS/MS using alternating positive and negative electrospray ionisation in the selected-reaction-monitoring mode. Exceptional chromatographic separation is achieved using an UPLC system equipped with a UPLC(®) BEH C18 column (10 cm L×2.1 mm ID with 1.7 ?m particles). With this newly developed UPLC/MS/MS method, the simultaneous detection of 140 drugs at ppb to sub-ppb levels in equine urine can be achieved in less than 13 min inclusive of post-run equilibration. Matrix interference for the selected transitions at the expected retention times is minimised by the excellent UPLC chromatographic separation. The method has been validated for recovery and precision, and is being used regularly in the authors' laboratory as an important component of the array of screening methods for doping control analyses of equine urine samples. PMID:21641418

Wong, Colton H F; Tang, Francis P W; Wan, Terence S M

2011-07-01

47

75 FR 22150 - Current List of Laboratories Which Meet Minimum Standards To Engage in Urine Drug Testing for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Laboratories Which Meet Minimum Standards To Engage in Urine Drug Testing for Federal Agencies Correction In notice document 2010-7170...make the following correction: On page 16814, in the first column, in the list following the second full paragraph, the...

2010-04-27

48

Screening of multiple drugs of abuse and metabolites in urine using LC/MS/MS with polarity switching electrospray ionization.  

PubMed

A recent trend in urine drug testing in forensic and clinical toxicology has been the simultaneous determination of different chemical groups of target drugs, which are selected based on their local popularity. Rapid multiple drug analysis, made possible by the use of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS), has become more widely used, especially in workplace drug testing. Therefore, in the present study, a method for simultaneously analyzing 35 drugs of abuse and relevant metabolites that are most prevalent in Korea, using LC/MS/MS with polarity switching electrospray ionization, was developed and validated. The drugs and metabolites in urine were extracted by using mixed mode strong cation exchange polymeric solid phase extraction cartridges after enzymatic hydrolysis and were then injected into the LC/MS/MS system. The validation results for selectivity, linearity, intra- and inter-assay precision and accuracy for this method were satisfactory, while the results for matrix effects and recovery showed significant variance among the urine samples from different sources. The limits of detection ranged from 0.1 to 10 ng/ml and the limits of quantification were from 1 to 10 ng/ml. To reduce the matrix effects in authentic samples, two different quantitative approaches were compared: quantification using calibration standards prepared by the drug-free pooled urine matrix and quantification using the standard addition. Of these, the latter method was found to be the most suitable. The method developed in this study will be very useful for forensic and clinical toxicology laboratories to adopt for monitoring the inappropriate use of controlled drugs. PMID:23918650

Shin, Miok; Ji, Dajeong; Kang, Soyoung; Yang, Wonkyung; Choi, Hwakyung; Lee, Sooyeun

2014-06-01

49

Mycoplasma penetrans and Other Mycoplasmas in Urine of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Positive Children  

PubMed Central

Urine samples from children with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and healthy controls were examined for mycoplasmas by culture. Standard biochemical assays, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and PCR (16S and 16S-23S spacer rRNA region) were used for identification of isolates. Mycoplasmas were identified from 13 (87%) of 15 HIV-positive patients and 3 (20%) of 15 HIV-negative control patients. The frequency and type of mycoplasma varied with the severity of HIV infection. Mycoplasma penetrans, Mycoplasma pirum, Mycoplasma fermentans, and Mycoplasma genitalium were isolated from patients with severe immunodeficiency. Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum were isolated more frequently from children in the early stages of HIV infection and from HIV-negative patients. Mycoplasma penetrans was isolated from one (50%) of two patients in Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) group B and from five (55.5%) of nine pediatric patients with AIDS (CDC group C). This is the first report that indicates that “AIDS-associated” mycoplasmas are more common in HIV-infected children than in HIV-negative controls. PMID:10203515

Hussain, Althaf I.; Robson, William Lane M.; Kelley, Robin; Reid, Tanya; Gangemi, J. David

1999-01-01

50

Rethinking drug policy: an integrity preserving compromise position  

E-print Network

The "War on Drugs" has been raging for twenty years without resolution. This work attempts to provide a compromise position between the prohibitionists and the legalizers that preserves the integrity of both positions. This compromise position...

Crispino, Azzurra

2006-10-30

51

Carrier-mediated liquid phase microextraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatography for determination of illicit drugs in human urine.  

PubMed

A new method was developed for the analysis of illicit drugs in human urine by coupling carrier-mediated liquid phase microextraction (LPME) to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). By adding an appropriate carrier in organic phase, simultaneous extraction and enrichment of hydrophilic (morphine and ephedrine) and hydrophobic (pethidine) drugs were achieved. Effects of the types of organic solvents and carriers, the carrier concentration in the organic phase, the HCl concentration in the acceptor solution, the stirring rate, and the extraction time on the enrichment factor of analytes were investigated. Under the optimal experimental conditions, high enrichment factors (202-515) were obtained. The linear detection ranges were 0.1-10mgL(-1) for the studied drugs. The limits of detection (LOD) at signal-to-noise ratio of 3 were 0.05mgL(-1) for both morphine and ephedrine, and 0.02mgL(-1) for pethidine. This method was successfully applied to analysis of ephedrine in real urine specimens, revealing that the determination of illicit drugs in urine was feasible. PMID:18573383

Zhang, Zhaohui; Zhang, Chenggong; Su, Xiaoli; Ma, Ming; Chen, Bo; Yao, Shouzhuo

2008-07-28

52

Analysis on the go: quantitation of drugs of abuse in dried urine with digital microfluidics and miniature mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

We report the development of a method coupling microfluidics and a miniature mass spectrometer, applied to quantitation of drugs of abuse in urine. A custom digital microfluidic system was designed to deliver droplets of solvent to dried urine samples and then transport extracted analytes to an array of nanoelectrospray emitters for analysis. Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) detection was performed using a fully autonomous 25 kg instrument. Using the new method, cocaine, benzoylecgonine, and codeine can be quantified from four samples in less than 15 min from (dried) sample to analysis. The figures of merit for the new method suggest that it is suitable for on-site screening; for example, the limit of quantitation (LOQ) for cocaine is 40 ng/mL, which is compatible with the performance criteria for laboratory analyses established by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. More importantly, the LOQ of the new method is superior to the 300 ng/mL cutoff values used by the only other portable analysis systems we are aware of (relying on immunoassays). This work serves as a proof-of-concept for integration of microfluidics with miniature mass spectrometry. The system is attractive for the quantitation of drugs of abuse from urine and, more generally, may be useful for a wide range of applications that would benefit from portable, quantitative, on-site analysis. PMID:24906177

Kirby, Andrea E; Lafrenière, Nelson M; Seale, Brendon; Hendricks, Paul I; Cooks, R Graham; Wheeler, Aaron R

2014-06-17

53

Analytical sample preparation strategies for the determination of antimalarial drugs in human whole blood, plasma and urine.  

PubMed

Antimalarial drugs commonly referred to as antimalarials, include a variety of compounds with different physicochemical properties. There is a lack of information on antimalarial distribution in the body over time after administration, e.g. the drug concentrations in whole blood, plasma, and urine, which must be improved in order to advance curing the parasitic disease malaria. A key problem also lies in that pharmacokinetic studies not always are performed in patient groups that may benefit most of the treatment such as children, pregnancy and lower-weight ethnic populations. Here we review the available sample preparation strategies combined with liquid chromatographic (LC) analysis to determine antimalarials in whole blood, plasma and urine published over the last decade. Sample preparation can be done by protein precipitation, solid-phase extraction, liquid-liquid extraction or dilution. After LC separation, the preferred detection tool is tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) but other detection methods have been used e.g. UV, fluorescence and electrochemical detection. Major trends for sample preparation of the different groups of antimalarials for each matrix and its detection have been summarized. Finally, the main problems that the researchers have dealt with are highlighted. This information will aid analytical chemists in the development of novel methods for determining existing antimalarials and upcoming new drugs. PMID:24911547

Casas, Monica Escolà; Hansen, Martin; Krogh, Kristine A; Styrishave, Bjarne; Björklund, Erland

2014-07-01

54

Simultaneous determination of 12 illicit drugs in whole blood and urine by solid phase extraction and UPLC-MS/MS.  

PubMed

A rapid and sensitive method based on solid phase extraction and ultra performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-MS/MS) for the simultaneous determination of amphetamine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine, 3,4-methylene-dioxymethamphetamine, N-methyl-1-(3,4-methyl-enedioxyphenyl)-2-butanamine, 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine, p-methoxymethamphetamine, ephedrine, N-methylephedrine, cathinone, methcathinone, and ketamine in whole blood and urine was developed and validated. Following solid phase extraction, the analytes were separated on ACQUITY UPLC BEH Phenyl column (100mm×2.1mm, 1.7?m) under gradient elution using a mobile phase containing of acetonitrile and 0.3% formic acid in water at a flow rate of 0.4mLmin(-1) and analyzed by a triplequadrupole mass spectrometer in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The proposed method was linear for each analyte with correlation coefficients over 0.99. Recovery validation studies showed accuracy bias below 4.4%. Acceptable precision was also obtained with a relative standard deviation below 8.9%. The sensitivity of the assay was found to be adequate for the quantitation of the illicit drugs in whole blood and urine sample and was higher than reported methods. The present method was proved to be reliable and robust for drug screening in forensic toxicological analysis. PMID:24631805

Zhang, Lin; Wang, Zhao-Hong; Li, Hong; Liu, Yong; Zhao, Meng; Jiang, Ye; Zhao, Wen-Song

2014-04-01

55

Profiling of 19-norandrosterone sulfate and glucuronide in human urine: Implications in athlete's drug testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

19-Norandrosterone (19-NA) as its glucuronide derivative is the target metabolite in anti-doping testing to reveal an abuse of nandrolone or nandrolone prohormone. To provide further evidence of a doping with these steroids, the sulfoconjugate form of 19-norandrosterone in human urine might be monitored as well. In the present study, the profiling of sulfate and glucuronide derivatives of 19-norandrosterone together with

Emmanuel Strahm; Norbert Baume; Patrice Mangin; Martial Saugy; Christiane Ayotte; Christophe Saudan

2009-01-01

56

Severity of hearing impairment is positively associated with urine albumin excretion rate in patients with type 2 diabetes  

PubMed Central

Aims/Introduction To identify risk factors for hearing impairment among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods and Materials A total of 68 patients with type 2 diabetes were enrolled between March and September of 2011. Pure-tone auditory tests were carried out for each patient at the following speech frequencies: 250; 500; 1,000; 2,000; 4,000 and 8,000 Hz. Participants were classified as having hearing impairment if the average of the pure-tone thresholds measured at 500, 1000 and 2000 Hz in either ear exceeded 25 dBHL. Demographic, anthropometric, clinical, and laboratory parameters and diabetes-associated complications were analyzed. Results Patients were divided into those with (n = 32) and without (n = 36) hearing impairment. Hearing impaired participants had a higher urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio than those without (223.1 vs 56.5 mg/g, respectively). After adjustment for age, sex and other risk factors, the urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio remained significantly associated with hearing impairment (odds ratio 9.07, 95% confidence interval 1.73–47.43, P = 0.009). There were no significant differences in oxidative stress between the two groups. Conclusions The present study showed increased albuminuria was positively associated with the severity of hearing impairment among patients with type 2 diabetes. Screening for hearing impairment in diabetic patients who develop albuminuria might provide early detection of hearing impairment.

Shen, Feng-Chih; Hsieh, Ching-Jung

2014-01-01

57

Urine Testing for Drugs of Abuse. NIDA Research Monograph Series 73.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the past 5 years, a growing concern over the use of illicit drugs in the workplace has led to an interest in urinalysis as a way to detect and deter drug use. This monograph provides information that will assist those involved in the planning or implementation of drug testing programs in making informed choices. Articles include: (1)…

Hawks, Richard L., Ed.; Chiang, C. Nora, Ed.

58

A study of blood and urine alcohol concentrations in cases of alleged drug-facilitated sexual assault in the United Kingdom over a 3-year period  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper details the alcohol concentrations found in a selection of 1014 cases of claimed drug-facilitated sexual assault analysed at The Forensic Science Service, London Laboratory between January 2000 and December 2002. Where appropriate, either a whole blood sample and\\/or a urine sample was analysed for alcohol, common drugs of abuse and potentially stupefying drugs.The samples were collected from a

Michael Scott-Ham; Fiona C. Burton

2006-01-01

59

Bilirubin - urine  

MedlinePLUS

Conjugated bilirubin - urine; Direct bilirubin - urine ... Bilirubin is not normally found in the urine. ... Increased levels of bilirubin in the urine may be due to: Biliary tract disease Cirrhosis Gallstones in the biliary tract Hepatitis Liver disease ...

60

Krukenberg tumor presenting as back pain and a positive urine pregnancy test: a case report and literature review  

PubMed Central

A Krukenberg tumor is a rare and potentially deadly cause of elevated serum ?-hCG as part of a paraneoplastic syndrome. This study aims to describe the unusual case of a 36-year-old woman that presented to the Emergency Department (ED) with back pain and a positive urine pregnancy test. Assessment revealed no intrauterine pregnancy and a small left ovarian cyst. Further investigation showed moderately differentiated gastric adenocarcinoma with distant metastases to the spine. The patient died less than 3 months after her first presentation to the ED. Paraneoplastic syndrome, albeit rare, should be considered in the differential diagnosis of elevated ?-hCG due to the high mortality associated with Krukenberg tumors. PMID:24708577

2014-01-01

61

28 CFR 550.41 - Urine surveillance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT DRUG PROGRAMS Drug Services (Urine Surveillance and Counseling...surveillance. A program of urine testing for drug use shall be established in...

2010-07-01

62

Positive Urgency Predicts Illegal Drug Use and Risky Sexual Behavior  

PubMed Central

There are several different personality traits that dispose individuals to engage in rash action. One such trait is positive urgency: the tendency to act rashly when experiencing extremely positive affect. This trait may be relevant for college student risky behavior, because it appears that a great deal of college student risky behavior is undertaken during periods of intensely positive mood states. To test this possibility, the authors conducted a longitudinal study designed to predict increases in risky sexual behavior and illegal drug use over the course of the first year of college (n = 407). In a well-fitting structural model, positive urgency predicted increases in illegal drug use and risky sexual behavior, even after controlling for time 1 (T1) involvement in both risky behaviors, biological sex, and T1 scores on four other personality dispositions to rash action. The authors discuss the theoretical and practical implications of this finding. PMID:19586152

Zapolski, Tamika C. B.; Cyders, Melissa A.; Smith, Gregory T.

2009-01-01

63

Solid-phase dispersive extraction method for analysis of benzodiazepine drugs in serum and urine samples.  

PubMed

A simple yet highly efficient pretreatment method called solid-phase dispersive extraction (SPDE) was developed and used in combination with liquid chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC/TOF-MS) for the analysis of benzodiazepines (BZPs) in serum and urine samples. By using a custom-made centrifugal filter, SPDE could be performed in a closed system, thereby minimizing exposure to infectious microbes or hazardous chemicals. The limit of detection and the limit of quantification of nine BZPs were 1-10 and 5-50ng/mL, respectively. The average recoveries of BZPs from pooled serum samples spiked at 50 and 500ng/mL were 89.6-105.0% (RSD: 2.1-6.8%) and 93.6-110.4% (RSD: 2.1-4.2%), respectively, and those from urine samples were 88.7-105.5% (RSD: 2.9-6.4%) and 91.5-101.1% (RSD: 3.6-5.5%), respectively. SPDE-LC/TOF-MS has potential application in forensic science and emergency medicine. PMID:25126966

Saito, Koichi; Kikuchi, Yuu; Saito, Rieko

2014-11-01

64

A convenient derivatization method for the determination of amphetamine and related drugs in urine.  

PubMed

The most commonly abused CNS stimulant in Sweden is amphetamine followed by phenmetrazine. Methamphetamine and phentermine are rarely seen but still of interest. This paper describes a rapid and sensitive method for the analysis of amphetamine, methamphetamine, phentermine, and phenmetrazine in urine using gas chromatography with nitrogen sensitive detection (GC-NPD). The method also qualitatively determines ephedrine and norephedrine. The derivatization was carried out at room temperature with methyl chloroformate to form the corresponding carbamates. Other chloroformate analogues were also tested. Because methyl chloroformate is relatively stable in the presence of water the extraction and derivatization were combined in one step. A concentration step was not necessary to achieve sufficient sensitivity. The recovery was more than 83% for all analytes. The LOQ was 0.05, 0.03, 0.07 and 0.01 (microgram/mL urine) for amphetamine, methamphetamine, phentermine and phenmetrazine respectively. The cut-off was set at 0.2 microgram/mL. The within-day and between-day relative standard deviation (RSD) for amphetamine were 2.2% (n = 9) and 4.7% (n = 5) respectively. There was a good quantitative correlation (r2 = 0.995) between GC-NPD using chloroformate derivatives and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) using trifluoroacetic anhydride (TFA) as derivatizing agent for the determination of amphetamine in authentic samples. PMID:8934716

Jonsson, J; Kronstrand, R; Hatanpää, M

1996-01-01

65

Efficacy and safety of anti-tuberculosis drugs in HIV-positive patients: A prospective study  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To assess the efficacy and safety of anti-tuberculosis drugs in HIV-positive patients at a tertiary care teaching hospital. Materials and Methods: As a part of an ongoing study of opportunistic infections (OIs) in HIV-positive patients, drug treatment in patients suffering from tuberculosis was assessed to determine its efficacy and safety. Based on prevalence data for last three years, a purposive sampling of study population was carried out in this observational, prospective, single centre study. Tuberculosis (TB) was the most common OI observed. The selected patients were followed up for a period of one year to evaluate the clinical course and outcome of OIs, and the efficacy and safety of drugs used was checked. Results: Tuberculosis was observed in 89 out of 134 enrolled patients. These included 79 adults and 10 children. Males (66.2%) were commonly affected. Extra pulmonary TB (73%) was the most common manifestation with abdominal TB observed in 55 (61.7%) patients. All patients were treated in accordance with the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP) guidelines as recommended by National AIDS Control Organization (NACO), India. Outcome of TB was assessable in 70 patients. Majority (82.8%) of the patients were cured, while 12 patients (17.1%) died during the course of treatment. A total of 149 ADRs were observed in 67 (75.2%) patients. Majority of ADRs (n = 147) were non-serious and did not warrant a change in therapy. Discoloration of urine was the most common ADR observed. Conclusion: TB is the most common opportunistic infection in HIV-positive patients with abdominal TB being the most common manifestation. RNTCP and NACO guidelines are adhered to in these patients. Anti-tuberculosis drugs are well tolerated and effective in majority of the patients. PMID:24130377

Kapadia, Jigar D.; Desai, Chetna K.; Solanki, Manish N.; Shah, Asha N.; Dikshit, R. K.

2013-01-01

66

Large volume sample stacking for rapid and sensitive determination of antidiabetic drug metformin in human urine and serum by capillary electrophoresis with contactless conductivity detection.  

PubMed

Two CE methods with contactless conductivity detection have been developed for determining the oral antidiabetic drug metformin in human urine and blood. The determination of metformin is performed on a separation capillary with an effective length of 14 cm, using a maximum voltage of 30 kV and with a small injection of 50-fold diluted urine into the capillary. Under these conditions, the migration time of metformin is 35s and the LOD is 0.3 ?M. Large-volume sample stacking was used to determine low metformin levels in serum. The injection of a sample of serum deproteinized with acetonitrile was 10 times greater compared to the injected amount of urine. This enabled reduction of the LOD to 0.03 ?M and the metformin migration time equalled 86 s. The undesirable solvent from sample zone was forced out of the capillary to ensure rapidity and good repeatability of the determination. The RSD values for the migration time are 0.1% for urine and 0.7% for serum; RSD for the peak areas equalled 1.4% for urine and 2.6% for serum. The developed CE technique was tested on performance of routine analyses of metformin in the urine and serum of patients suffering from type II diabetes mellitus. PMID:24792694

T?ma, Petr

2014-06-01

67

Metabolic profiling of urine and blood plasma in rat models of drug addiction on the basis of morphine, methamphetamine, and cocaine-induced conditioned place preference.  

PubMed

The metabolic profiles of urine and blood plasma in drug-addicted rat models based on morphine (MOR), methamphetamine (MA), and cocaine (COC)-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) were investigated. Rewarding effects induced by each drug were assessed by use of the CPP model. A mass spectrometry (MS)-based metabolomics approach was applied to urine and plasma of MOR, MA, and COC-addicted rats. In total, 57 metabolites in plasma and 70 metabolites in urine were identified by gas chromatography-MS. The metabolomics approach revealed that amounts of some metabolites, including tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates, significantly changed in the urine of MOR-addicted rats. This result indicated that disruption of energy metabolism is deeply relevant to MOR addiction. In addition, 3-hydroxybutyric acid, L-tryptophan, cystine, and n-propylamine levels were significantly changed in the plasma of MOR-addicted rats. Lactose, spermidine, and stearic acid levels were significantly changed in the urine of MA-addicted rats. Threonine, cystine, and spermidine levels were significantly increased in the plasma of COC-addicted rats. In conclusion, differences in the metabolic profiles were suggestive of different biological states of MOR, MA, and COC addiction; these may be attributed to the different actions of the drugs on the brain reward circuitry and the resulting adaptation. In addition, the results showed possibility of predict the extent of MOR addiction by metabolic profiling. This is the first study to apply metabolomics to CPP models of drug addiction, and we demonstrated that metabolomics can be a multilateral approach to investigating the mechanism of drug addiction. PMID:23912828

Zaitsu, Kei; Miyawaki, Izuru; Bando, Kiyoko; Horie, Hiroshi; Shima, Noriaki; Katagi, Munehiro; Tatsuno, Michiaki; Bamba, Takeshi; Sato, Takako; Ishii, Akira; Tsuchihashi, Hitoshi; Suzuki, Koichi; Fukusaki, Eiichiro

2014-02-01

68

Development of a LC-MS/MS methodology for the monitoring of the antichagasic drug benznidazole in human urine.  

PubMed

Monitoring the drug benznidazole in biological fluids is a powerful tool for clinical diagnostic and pharmacological studies in chagasic patients. However, research in this concern needs to be done. The accurate quantitation of this drug in complex matrices represents a highly challenging task complicated by the absence of sensitive analytical methods. It follows that sample processing strategies, preparation/cleanup procedures, and chromatographic/ionization/detection parameters, were evaluated for method optimization. The summation of this work generated a rapid, selective, sensitive methodology based on reversed-phase chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the analysis of benznidazole in urine samples. To the best of our knowledge, this is a first report of a LC-MS/MS platform employed for this application. Matrix effect was determined; a 90% of signal suppression was observed. The limits of detection and quantification were 0.75 and 4.85 ?g L(-1); respectively. The latter allowed the method's application to the detection of benznidazole in clinical studies and pharmacological monitoring analysis. PMID:25281155

Martínez, Noelia; Marson, María Elena; Mastrantonio, Guido Enrique; Raba, Julio; Cerutti, Soledad

2015-01-01

69

Urine Trouble: Drug Testing of Students and Teachers in Public Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Non-individualized (so-called "random") drug testing in public schools presents issues of Constitutional law on both the federal and state levels, particularly with regard to citizens' freedom from "unreasonable searches and seizures." The trend toward increasing acceptance of such testing by the courts (and particularly the U.S. Supreme Court)…

Butler, Frank

2012-01-01

70

Retention and selectivity of basic drugs on solid-phase extraction sorbents: application to direct determination of ?-blockers in urine.  

PubMed

Seven solid phase sorbent materials with reversed-phase, mixed-mode interactions (ion-exchange and reversed-phase), and molecularly imprinted polymers (MIP), namely Oasis HLB, Oasis MAX, Oasis MCX, Bond Elute Plexa, Bond Elute Plexa PAX, Bond Elute Plexa PCX, and SupelMIP sorbents, were investigated. The present study was focused on the retention and elution of pharmaceutically active substances based on several analyte-sorbent interaction properties. Basic drugs, such as ?-blockers (i.e., atenolol, pindolol, acebutolol, metoprolol, labetalol, and propranolol) were selected as the model compounds for this study. These compounds are frequently encountered in anti-doping tests. The extraction efficiencies of the individual sorbents were compared based on the recovery of known amounts of the targeted analytes in a metered elution volume (500 ?L) in three separate elution fractions. The elution efficiency of the total amount of the target analytes on various sorbents was not appreciably influenced by the volume of eluent required for complete elution. Based on the small matrix effects and clear baseline, SupelMIP was the most suitable sorbent for urine analysis. The relative analyte recoveries of the SPE-HPLC procedure proved satisfactory for the range from 94% to 105%, with an RSD ranging from 2% to 4%. The regression equations for all of the targeted compounds exhibited excellent linearity (r(2) > 0.9991) over the range of 10 to 1000 ng mL(-1). The limits of detection and quantification for the selected ?-blocker compounds in urine were in the ranges of 0.6 to 2.0 ng mL(-1) and 2.0 to 6.7 ng mL(-1), respectively. PMID:24788887

Boonjob, Warunya; Sklená?ová, Hana; Lara, Francisco J; García-Campaña, Ana M; Solich, Petr

2014-07-01

71

Urination - difficulty with flow  

MedlinePLUS

... also be caused by: Some medicines (such as remedies for colds and allergies, tricyclic antidepressants, some drugs ... the bladder sits. The heat relaxes muscles and aids urination. Massage or place light pressure over your ...

72

Rapid screening of drugs of abuse in human urine by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with high resolution and high mass accuracy hybrid linear ion trap-Orbitrap mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A novel analytical toxicology method has been developed for the analysis of drugs of abuse in human urine by using a high resolution and high mass accuracy hybrid linear ion trap-Orbitrap mass spectrometer (LTQ-Orbitrap-MS). This method allows for the detection of different drugs of abuse, including amphetamines, cocaine, opiate alkaloids, cannabinoids, hallucinogens and their metabolites. After solid-phase extraction with Oasis HLB cartridges, spiked urine samples were analysed by HPLC/LTQ-Orbitrap-MS using an electrospray interface in positive ionisation mode, with resolving power of 30,000 full width at half maximum (FWHM). Gradient elution off of a Hypersil Gold PFP column (50mm×2.1mm) allowed to resolve 65 target compounds and 3 internal standards in a total chromatographic run time of 20min. Validation of this method consisted of confirmation of identity, selectivity, linearity, limit of detection (LOD), lowest limits of quantification (LLOQ), accuracy, precision, extraction recovery and matrix effect. The regression coefficients (r(2)) for the calibration curves (LLOQ - 100ng/mL) in the study were ?0.99. The LODs for 65 validated compounds were better than 5ng/ml except for 4 compounds. The relative standard deviation (RSD), which was used to estimate repeatability at three concentrations, was always less than 15%. The recovery of extraction and matrix effects were above 50 and 70%, respectively. Mass accuracy was always better than 2ppm, corresponding to a maximum mass error of 0.8 millimass units (mmu). The accurate masses of characteristic fragments were obtained by collisional experiments for a more reliable identification of the analytes. Automated data analysis and reporting were performed using ToxID software with an exact mass database. This procedure was then successfully applied to analyse drugs of abuse in a real urine sample from subject who was assumed to be drug addict. PMID:23838299

Li, Xiaowen; Shen, Baohua; Jiang, Zheng; Huang, Yi; Zhuo, Xianyi

2013-08-01

73

[Cross-reactivity of Instant-View M-1 for detection of benzodiazepine-related drugs and their metabolites in urine].  

PubMed

Immunoassays are useful methods for the determination of regulated drugs in clinical and forensic laboratories. Although the Instant-View M-1 (IV M-1) immunoassay kit is frequently used to screen drugs in laboratories in Japan, basic information about the IV M-1 such as its specificity and reactivity is not available. In this study, we determined the specificity and cross-reactivity of IV M-1 for the detection of benzodiazepine-related drugs and their metabolites in urine. The IV M-1 could detect triazolobenzodiazepines such as triazolam in urine at concentrations > or = 300 ng/mL. However, thienodiazepines such as etizolam could not be detected because of lack of cross reactivity. A correlation was observed between the structure of the metabolites and the reactivity of the kit; 4-hydroxy metabolites of alprazolam and triazolam were detectable, whereas a-hydroxy metabolites were not. Furthermore, 7-amino metabolites such as nitrazepam could not be detected at any concentration, including high concentrations. The specificity and reactivity of various kits used for detection of drugs in urine are different. Therefore, it is necessary to consider the basic features of the kit used while assessing the results obtained. PMID:24724359

Torikoshi, Aiko; Namera, Akira; Arima, Yousuke; Toubou, Hirokazu; Tajima, Takashi; Shiraishi, Hiroaki; Nagao, Masataka

2014-03-01

74

A Case of Psychosis After Use of a Detoxification Kit and a Review of Techniques, Risks, and Regulations Associated With the Subversion of Urine Drug Tests  

PubMed Central

Context: The practice of drug testing in the workplace has been adopted for US federal government employees, and many state and local governments as well as private businesses have followed suit. However, a parallel industry dedicated to subverting the results of urine drug testing has emerged with little or no regulation. Evidence Acquisition: First, the case of a 19-year-old man who developed psychosis after the use of a detoxification kit is presented. Second, a review of the existing literature on the techniques, risks, and regulations associated with the use of drug tampering kits is provided. PubMed, Cochrane Database, and Google Scholar were searched using the keywords UDS, urine toxicology, pass the drug test, and clean UA, with no restrictions on publication date. Case reports, letters to the editor, and original research and review articles in multiple languages were reviewed, as were federal regulations and acts on the topic. The search yielded 4,082 results, of which 49 articles were selected for relevance. Some articles were later omitted as they had cited the original article and had nothing new to offer. Results: Three commonly used tampering techniques are in vivo adulteration, urine substitution, and in vitro adulteration. Review of the literature regarding the risks involved with use of tampering kits yielded no results. In 1986, an executive order was issued requiring all federal employees to refrain from illicit drug use, and the 1988 Drug-Free Workplace Act precipitated the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration guidelines and their subsequent revisions. Recently, many states have made regulatory efforts to bring drug test defrauding under the ambit of law. Conclusions: Clinicians need to be aware of the tampering techniques and the possibility of false-negative urine drug tests. Cognizance of inherent risks involved with using these techniques including psychiatric and/or medical complications is also warranted. The manufacture, sale, and use of these products have little or no regulation by state or federal authorities, making them potentially dangerous and imposing new challenges in testing for abused drugs. The extent of use of these products and techniques is not known at this time and is an area that warrants further research. PMID:22295274

Mittal, Moneeshindra Singh; Kalia, Rachna

2011-01-01

75

Elevated urine zinc concentration reduces the detection of methamphetamine, cocaine, THC and opiates in urine by EMIT.  

PubMed

Methods for circumventing positive drug tests continue to evolve and are often spread through internet websites reporting on the proposed effectiveness of various adulteration methods. Recent claims of the use of zinc added directly to urine or ingested prior to urine collection have prompted investigation into the vulnerability of ELISA-based testing, providing interesting but inconclusive results. We investigated the potential interference of zinc used as a direct adulterant and after zinc self-administration for enzyme multiplied immunoassay technique (EMIT)-based drug abuse testing in urine. Negative urine samples and samples collected before and after zinc self-administration were fortified with d-methamphetamine, benzoylecgonine, morphine and 11-nor-9-carboxy-tetrahydrocannabinol prior to analysis by the EMIT. Our data indicate that zinc added directly to urine in concentrations 5,000 times higher than a typical random urine total zinc concentration is capable of producing false-negative results; however, self-administration of oral zinc was unable to generate random urine total zinc concentrations in the required range. Further, no evidence of a secondary interfering substance was observed as a result of oral zinc self-administration. Our results indicate that the total zinc concentrations required to directly interfere with EMIT-based testing are easily distinguishable from routine random urine total zinc concentrations, and that alleged oral ingestion of zinc does not produce total zinc concentrations capable of direct interference. PMID:23843421

Lin, Chia-Ni; Strathmann, Frederick G

2013-01-01

76

Quantitative LC-MS/MS method in urine for the detection of drugs used to reverse the effects of chemical castration.  

PubMed

The chemical castration law, which targets child molesters with recidivism, was introduced in Korea in 2011. For this, leuprolide, a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist, is used to decrease testosterone production and suppress libido. In order to achieve efficient law enforcement, it is necessary to monitor intentional ingestion of drugs that antagonize the effect of leuprolide. Therefore, an analytical method for the simultaneous detection of mirodenafil, sildenafil, tadalafil, udenafil, vardenafil, icariin, alprostadil, and yohimbine, which are the major impotence treatment drugs, legitimately or otherwise, in Korea, as well as their selected metabolites, in human urine was established and validated using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). First, different sample preparation methods, two solid-phase extractions with different cartridges and protein precipitation, were compared and protein precipitation was chosen for the entire study because it showed better matrix effects and recoveries. Thus, the drugs and metabolites in urine were extracted by protein precipitation and then filtered and analyzed by LC-MS/MS with polarity switching electrospray ionization. The validation results of selectivity, matrix effect, recovery, linearity, intra- and inter-assay precision and accuracy were satisfactory. The limits of detection ranged from 0.25 to 10 ng/mL, and the limits of quantification were 2.5 to 50 ng/mL. The drugs and metabolites in urine did not show any degradation under storage for 7 and 15 days at 4 and -20 °C as well as after three freeze-thaw cycles. The developed method will be very useful for monitoring the illegal use of impotence treatment drugs. PMID:23371534

Lee, Sooyeun; Kang, So-young; Ji, Dajeong; Baeck, Seungkyung; Lee, Sangki; Oh, Seung Min; Chung, Kyu Hyuck

2013-04-01

77

49 CFR 40.41 - Where does a urine collection for a DOT drug test take place?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...room during the collection, except for the...directly observed collection. (2) You must have a source of water for washing hands...substitution (e.g., water faucets, soap dispensers...urination that a collection site may...

2010-10-01

78

49 CFR 40.41 - Where does a urine collection for a DOT drug test take place?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...room during the collection, except for the...directly observed collection. (2) You must have a source of water for washing hands...substitution (e.g., water faucets, soap dispensers...urination that a collection site may...

2011-10-01

79

49 CFR 40.41 - Where does a urine collection for a DOT drug test take place?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...room during the collection, except for the...directly observed collection. (2) You must have a source of water for washing hands...substitution (e.g., water faucets, soap dispensers...urination that a collection site may...

2012-10-01

80

49 CFR 40.41 - Where does a urine collection for a DOT drug test take place?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...room during the collection, except for the...directly observed collection. (2) You must have a source of water for washing hands...substitution (e.g., water faucets, soap dispensers...urination that a collection site may...

2013-10-01

81

Monolithic spin column: a new extraction device for analysis of drugs in urine and serum by GC/MS and HPLC/MS.  

PubMed

A monolithic spin column was developed for the extraction of analytes from biological materials. This column was constructed by packing a monolithic silica disk into a spin column. Sample loading, washing, and elution of the target drugs were accomplished simply by centrifugation of the column. Opiates and benzodiazepines are abused throughout the world. Identification and quantification of these drugs is very important to solve crimes or the cause of death. Three opiates (morphine, codeine, and dihydrocodeine) were extracted from urine and serum by using the column. After conversion to trimethylsilyl derivatives of the opiates by vigorous mixing with the derivatizing reagent, the solution was subjected to GC/MS. A linear curve was observed for opiates from 10 to 2500 ng/mL in urine and 5 to 1200 ng/mL in serum, respectively (correlation coefficient > 0.996). For benzodiazepines, the hydroxyl metabolites of triazolam and etizolam were extracted from urine using the column, and the eluate was directly analyzed by HPLC/MS without evaporation. The LOD values were at the ppb level, with RSD values lower than 15%. The proposed methods were successfully applied to clinical and forensic cases, and good agreement of results was obtained compared to conventional methods. PMID:21797004

Namera, Akira; Nagao, Masakata; Nakamoto, Akihiro; Miyazaki, Shota; Saito, Takeshi

2011-01-01

82

Pregnancy outcome among HIV positive and negative intravenous drug users  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To analyze determinants of pregnancy outcome, among HIV infected and uninfected intravenous drug users. Study design: A total of 315 pregnant current intravenous drug users, IVDU (151 HIV infected and 164 HIV uninfected subjects) were referred to the Center for Pregnant Drug Addicts of the Mangiagalli Clinic, Milan, Italy, for internatal care and delivery between 1985 and 1993. Results:

Anna Bucceri; Laura Luchini; Laura Rancilio; Emilio Grossi; Gabriele Ferraris; Gabriele Rossi; Mario Vignali; Fabio Parazzini

1997-01-01

83

A comparative study of the excretion of Fujiwara reaction-positive substances in urine of humans and rodents given trichloro- or tetrachloro-derivatives of ethane and ethylene  

PubMed Central

Ikeda, M., and Ohtsuji, H. (1972).Brit. J. industr. Med.,29, 99-104. A comparative study or the excretion of Fujiwara reaction-positive substances in urine of humans and rodents given trichloro- or tetrachloro-derivatives of ethane and ethylene. 1,1,1-Trichloroethane, 1,1,2- trichloroethane, 1,1,1,2-tetrachloroethane, 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane, trichloroethylene, and tetrachloroethylene were administered to rats and mice as vapours at 200 p.p.m. for 8 hours and urine was collected for 48 hours. The urine was analysed by the Fujiwara reaction for total trichlorocompounds (TTC), trichloroacetic acid (TCA), and trichloroethanol (TCE). All compounds except 1,1,2-trichloroethane yielded substantial TCA and TCE but 1,1,1,2-tetrachloroethane and trichloroethylene much more than the rest. The results obtained during two periods of 48 hours after intraperitoneal injection were similar. The variations in the amounts of metabolites are shown to be consistent with the vapour pressures of the solvents (compounds with high vapour pressures are lost from the lungs before being metabolized) and with their known chemical properties, according to which 1,1,1-trichlorocompounds should yield TCE and TCA readily, whereas 1,1,2-chlorocompounds should not. Excretion of metabolites from men exposed intermittently to vapours of tetrachloroethylene and trichloroethylene were also studied. Both gave enough TCE and TCA, but trichloroethylene gave considerably more, in accordance with its relative instability to oxidation. PMID:5060252

Ikeda, Masayuki; Ohtsuji, Hatsue

1972-01-01

84

Sensitive monitoring of monoterpene metabolites in human urine using two-step derivatisation and positive chemical ionisation-tandem mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A gas chromatographic-positive chemical ionisation-tandem mass spectrometric (GC-PCI-MS/MS) method for the simultaneous determination of 10 oxidative metabolites of the monoterpenoid hydrocarbons ?-pinene, (R)-limonene, and ?(3)-carene ((+)-3-carene) in human urine was developed and tested for the monoterpene biomonitoring of the general population (n=36). The method involves enzymatic cleavage of the glucuronides followed by solid-supported liquid-liquid extraction and derivatisation using a two-step reaction with N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)-trifluoroacetamide and N-(trimethylsilyl)imidazole. The method proved to be both sensitive and reliable with detection limits ranging from 0.1 to 0.3 ?g L(-1). In contrast to the frequent and distinct quantities of (1S,2S,4R)-limonene-1,2-diol, the (1R,2R,4R)-stereoisomer could not be detected. The expected metabolite of (+)-3-carene, 3-caren-10-ol was not detected in any of the samples. All other metabolites were detected in almost all urine samples. The procedure enables for the first time the analysis of trace levels of a broad spectrum of mono- and bicyclic monoterpenoid metabolites (alcohols, diols, and carboxylic acids) in human urine. This analytical procedure is a powerful tool for population studies as well as for the discovery of human metabolism and toxicokinetics of monoterpenes. PMID:23953203

Schmidt, Lukas; Belov, Vladimir N; Göen, Thomas

2013-09-01

85

Positive and negative aspects of participation in illicit drug research: Implications for recruitment and ethical conduct  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improved understanding of incentives and barriers to drug user research participation may improve study recruitment, retention and outcomes and enhance the ethical acceptability of illicit drug research. In Melbourne, Australia during 2001–2004, 507 injecting drug users were recruited from Needle and Syringe Programs and asked to nominate the ‘best’ and ‘worst’ things about research. Commonly reported positive aspects of drug

Monica J. Barratt; Josephine S. Norman; Craig L. Fry

2007-01-01

86

Evaluation of a direct high-capacity target screening approach for urine drug testing using liquid chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

In this study a rapid liquid chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry method was developed, validated and applied in order to evaluate the potential of this technique for routine urine drug testing. Approximately 800 authentic patient samples were analyzed for amphetamines (amphetamine and methamphetamine), opiates (morphine, morphine-3-glucuronide, morphine-6-glucuronide, codeine and codeine-6-glucuronide) and buprenorphines (buprenorphine and buprenorphine-glucuronide) using immunochemical screening assays and mass spectrometry confirmation methods for comparison. The chromatographic application utilized a rapid gradient with high flow and a reversed phase column with 1.8 ?m particles. Total analysis time was 4 min. The mass spectrometer operated with an electrospray interface in positive mode with a resolution power of >10,000 at m/z 956. The applied reporting limits were 100 ng/mL for amphetamines and opiates, and 5 ng/mL for buprenorphines, with lower limits of quantification were 2.8-41 ng/mL. Calibration curves showed a linear response with coefficients of correlation of 0.97-0.99. The intra- and interday imprecision in quantification at the reporting limits were <10% for all analytes but for buprenorphines <20%. Method validation data met performance criteria for a qualitative and quantitative method. The liquid chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry method was found to be more selective than the immunochemical method by producing lower rates of false positives (0% for amphetamines and opiates; 3.2% for buprenorphines) and negatives (1.8% for amphetamines; 0.6% for opiates; 0% for buprenorphines). The overall agreement between the two screening methods was between 94.2 and 97.4%. Comparison of data with the confirmation (LC-MS) results for all individual 9 analytes showed that most deviating results were produced in samples with low levels of analytes. False negatives were mainly related to failure of detected peak to meet mass accuracy criteria (±20 mDa). False positives was related to presence of interfering peaks meeting mass accuracy and retention time criteria and occurred mainly at low levels. It is concluded that liquid chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry has potential both as a complement and as replacement of immunochemical screening assays. PMID:23153637

Saleh, Aljona; Stephanson, Niclas Nikolai; Granelli, Ingrid; Villén, Tomas; Beck, Olof

2012-11-15

87

High-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry for the determination of nine hallucinogenic 25-NBOMe designer drugs in urine specimens.  

PubMed

We present a high-performance liquid chromatography triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS-MS) method for the identification and quantification of nine serotonin 5-HT2A receptor agonist hallucinogenic substances from a new class of N-methoxybenzyl derivatives of methoxyphenylethylamine (NBOMe) designer drugs in human urine: 25H-NBOMe, 2CC-NBOMe, 25I-NBF, 25D-NBOMe, 25B-NBOMe, 2CT-NBOMe, 25I-NBMD, 25G-NBOMe and 25I-NBOMe. This assay was developed for the Virginia Commonwealth University Clinical and Forensic Toxicology laboratory to screen emergency department specimens in response to an outbreak of N-benzyl-phenethylamine derivative abuse and overdose cases in Virginia. The NBOMe derivatives were rapidly extracted from the urine specimens by use of FASt™ solid-phase extraction columns. Assay performance was determined as recommended for validation by the Scientific Working Group for Forensic Toxicology (SWGTOX) for linearity, lower limit of quantification, lower limit of detection, accuracy/bias, precision, dilution integrity, carryover, selectivity, absolute recovery, ion suppression and stability. Linearity was verified to be from 1 to 100 ng/mL for each of the nine analytes. The bias determined for the NBOMe derivatives was 86-116% with a <14% coefficient of variation over the linear range of the assay. Four different NBOMe derivatives were detected using the presented method in patient urine specimens. PMID:24535338

Poklis, Justin L; Clay, Deborah J; Poklis, Alphonse

2014-04-01

88

Mandatory Urine Testing for Drugs in Public Schools and the Fourth Amendment: Some Thoughts for School Officials.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1985 the United States Supreme Court concluded that the Fourth Amendment's prohibition against unreasonable searches and seizures does apply to public school officials. Offers some hypothetical examples for public school officials to consider regarding mandatory urine testing and the reasonable suspicion standard. (MLF)

Lincoln, Eugene A.

1989-01-01

89

Comparison of the predictive ability of several second-order multivariate methods in the simultaneous determination of two therapeutic drugs in human urine.  

PubMed

The aim of this paper is to study the applicability of second-order multivariate methods in the simultaneous determination of two therapeutic drugs in human urine samples. The studied drugs, irinotecan and thalidomide, are used in the treatment of malignant tumours. Irinotecan (CPT-11) is used to treat colon cancer; recent studies have shown the benefits of using thalidomide in combination with CPT-11 in the treatment of this disease. CPT-11 is highly fluorescent, but the native fluorescence of thalidomide is very weak. The second-order methods assayed were parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC), unfolded partial least-squares (U-PLS) and multidimensional partial least-squares (N-PLS), both combined with the residual bilinearization procedure (RBL). The excitation-emission matrices (EEMs) of the samples were recorded as analytical signal. The accuracy and precision of the algorithms were evaluated through the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) and the elliptical joint confidence region test (EJCR), obtaining better results with PARAFAC, which was successfully applied to the determination of thalidomide and CPT-11 in human urine samples, after a previous liquid-liquid extraction with chloroform. PMID:22265548

Hurtado-Sánchez, M C; Durán-Merás, I; Rodríguez-Cáceres, M I; Jiménez-Girón, A; Olivieri, A C

2012-01-15

90

Qualitative metabolism assessment and toxicological detection of xylazine, a veterinary tranquilizer and drug of abuse, in rat and human urine using GC-MS, LC-MSn, and LC-HR-MSn.  

PubMed

Xylazine is used in veterinary medicine for sedation, anesthesia, and analgesia. It has also been reported to be misused as a horse doping agent, a drug of abuse, a drug for attempted sexual assault, and as source of accidental or intended poisonings. So far, no data concerning human metabolism have been described. Such data are necessary for the development of toxicological detection methods for monitoring drug abuse, as in most cases the metabolites are the analytical targets. Therefore, the metabolism of xylazine was investigated in rat and human urine after several sample workup procedures. The metabolites were identified using gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry (MS) and liquid chromatography (LC) coupled with linear ion trap high-resolution multistage MS (MS(n)). Xylazine was N-dealkylated and S-dealkylated, oxidized, and/or hydroxylated to 12 phase I metabolites. The phenolic metabolites were partly excreted as glucuronides or sulfates. All phase I and phase II metabolites identified in rat urine were also detected in human urine. In rat urine after a low dose as well as in human urine after an overdose, mainly the hydroxy metabolites were detected using the authors' standard urine screening approaches by GC-MS and LC-MS(n). Thus, it should be possible to monitor application of xylazine assuming similar toxicokinetics in humans. PMID:24141317

Meyer, Golo M J; Maurer, Hans H

2013-12-01

91

Urine Eggs  

E-print Network

Broadcast Transcript: In spring, a young man's fancy turns to thoughts of urine-soaked eggs. You heard that right. Here in Dongyang, China, eggs boiled in the urine of 10-year-old boys are a considered a delicacy of spring. ...

Hacker, Randi

2012-07-25

92

False-positive outcome and drug residue in milk samples over withdrawal times.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to identify false-positive outcomes and drug residues in milk samples over withdrawal times and to determine whether the positive results were caused by drug residues or natural inhibitors. A total of 73 milk samples over withdrawal times after the last intramammary infusion were collected from each treated quarter of cows and tested using the Delvotest SP assay. Reading time was 150, 165, and 180 min, and results of samples were recorded according to the color of the well containing the control milk sample. There were 24, 20, and 12 positive samples at the reading times of 150, 165, and 180 min, respectively. All 24 positive milk samples were heated at 82 degrees C for 5 min and retested to verify that the positive results were caused by drug residues or natural inhibitors. Twenty-one samples that exhibited positive results were negative after heat treatment, and drug residues were not identified by LacTek and Charm tests. However, 3 samples that exhibited positive results from heat treatment of 82 degrees C were positive for drugs. In our study, most positive results (89%) in the milk samples over withdrawal times were false-positive results by natural inhibitors. Moreover, the heat treatment is a fast, simple, and inexpensive method to remove false-positive results and has no effect on positive samples containing drugs. We suggest that heat treatment before screening tests is an effective way to reduce false-positive results in the milk samples. PMID:15738224

Kang, J H; Jin, J H; Kondo, F

2005-03-01

93

Quantitative analysis of a quaternary ammonium drug: ipratropium bromide by LC/ESI-MS(n) in horse plasma and urine.  

PubMed

A quantitative method, using LC/ESI-MS(n) with a quadrupole linear ion trap mass analyzer, has been developed for the analysis of ipratropium cation in horse plasma and urine. The method applies solid-phase extraction with WCX cartridges for plasma and MM2 cartridges for urine, prior to analysis by LC/ESI-MS(n). The efficiency of extraction combined with the sensitivity and the selectivity of MS(n) allows for the quantification of ipratropium cation at picogram per milliliter levels. The analytical capabilities of the method have been successfully checked by the quantitative analysis of ipratropium cation in post-administration samples collected from horses treated by nebulization. PMID:21989922

Garcia, P; Paris, A-C; Leufroy, A; Popot, M-A; Bonnaire, Y

2012-04-01

94

Research & market strategy: how choice of drug discovery approach can affect market position.  

PubMed

In principal, drug discovery approaches can be grouped into target- and function-based, with the respective aims of developing either a target-selective drug or a drug that produces a specific biological effect irrespective of its mode of action. Most analyses of drug discovery approaches focus on productivity, whereas the strategic implications of the choice of drug discovery approach on market position and ability to maintain market exclusivity are rarely considered. However, a comparison of approaches from the perspective of market position indicates that the functional approach is superior for the development of novel, innovative treatments. PMID:17395091

Sams-Dodd, Frank

2007-04-01

95

Sexual Risk Taking among HIV-Positive Injection Drug Users: Contexts, Characteristics, and Implications for Prevention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

HIV-positive injection drug users (IDUs) (N = 161) were recruited to complete a qualitative interview and a quantitative survey about sexual behavior and transmission risk. We identified two contexts in which exposure encounters occurred most commonly for HIV-positive IDUs: in intimate serodiscordant relationships and in the drug/sex economy.…

Knight, Kelly R.; Purcell, David; Dawson-Rose, Carol; Halkitis, Perry N.; Gomez, Cynthia A.

2005-01-01

96

In silico and in vitro metabolism studies support identification of designer drugs in human urine by liquid chromatography/quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Human phase I metabolism of four designer drugs, 2-desoxypipradrol (2-DPMP), 3,4-dimethylmethcathinone (3,4-DMMC), ?-pyrrolidinovalerophenone (?-PVP), and methiopropamine (MPA), was studied using in silico and in vitro metabolite prediction. The metabolites were identified in drug abusers’ urine samples using liquid chromatography/quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC/Q-TOF/MS). The aim of the study was to evaluate the ability of the in silico and in vitro methods to generate the main urinary metabolites found in vivo. Meteor 14.0.0 software (Lhasa Limited) was used for in silico metabolite prediction, and in vitro metabolites were produced in human liver microsomes (HLMs). 2-DPMP was metabolized by hydroxylation, dehydrogenation, and oxidation, resulting in six phase I metabolites. Six metabolites were identified for 3,4-DMMC formed via N-demethylation, reduction, hydroxylation, and oxidation reactions. ?-PVP was found to undergo reduction, hydroxylation, dehydrogenation, and oxidation reactions, as well as degradation of the pyrrolidine ring, and seven phase I metabolites were identified. For MPA, the nor-MPA metabolite was detected. Meteor software predicted the main human urinary phase I metabolites of 3,4-DMMC, ?-PVP, and MPA and two of the four main metabolites of 2-DPMP. It assisted in the identification of the previously unreported metabolic reactions for ?-PVP. Eight of the 12 most abundant in vivo phase I metabolites were detected in the in vitro HLM experiments. In vitro tests serve as material for exploitation of in silico data when an authentic urine sample is not available. In silico and in vitro designer drug metabolism studies with LC/Q-TOF/MS produced sufficient metabolic information to support identification of the parent compound in vivo. PMID:23797910

Tyrkkö, Elli; Pelander, Anna; Ketola, Raimo A; Ojanperä, Ilkka

2013-08-01

97

A study of blood and urine alcohol concentrations in cases of alleged drug-facilitated sexual assault in the United Kingdom over a 3-year period.  

PubMed

This paper details the alcohol concentrations found in a selection of 1,014 cases of claimed drug-facilitated sexual assault analysed at The Forensic Science Service, London Laboratory between January 2000 and December 2002. Where appropriate, either a whole blood sample and/or a urine sample was analysed for alcohol, common drugs of abuse and potentially stupefying drugs. The samples were collected from a complainant within 12 h of an alleged incident in 391 of the 1014 cases analysed. Of these, the majority (81%) contained alcohol. The presence of alcohol itself was not surprising as most of the alleged incidents were associated with social situations such as at a public house, bar, night-club or party, where it is expected that alcohol would have been consumed. However, 233 (60%) of the 391 cases had a high back-calculated figure, where high is defined as greater than 150 milligrams per 100 millilitres (150 mg%). Some of these samples were also found to contain illicit drugs. This is the first paper to our knowledge which discusses in detail the significance of the alcohol concentrations found in cases of this type. PMID:16356751

Scott-Ham, Michael; Burton, Fiona C

2006-04-01

98

Urination Pain  

MedlinePLUS

... Trouble "Down There" Getting a Urine Test (Video) Movie: Urinary System Quiz: Urinary System Your Kidneys Your ... site. Note: All information on KidsHealth® is for educational purposes only. For specific medical advice, diagnoses, and ...

99

Urine Preservative  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Disclosed is CPG, a combination of a chlorhexidine salt (such as chlorhexidine digluconate, chlorhexidine diacetate, or chlorhexidine dichloride) and n-propyl gallate that can be used at ambient temperatures as a urine preservative.

Smith, Scott M. (Inventor); Nillen, Jeannie (Inventor)

2001-01-01

100

Urination - painful  

MedlinePLUS

... atrophic vaginitis ) Herpes infection in the genital area Irritation of the vaginal tissue caused by bubble bath, perfumes, or lotions Vulvovaginitis , such as yeast or other infections of the vulva and vagina Other causes of painful urination include: ...

101

Amylase - urine  

MedlinePLUS

... is a test that measures the amount of amylase in urine. Amylase is an enzyme that helps digest carbohydrates. It ... the pancreas and the glands that make saliva. Amylase may also be measured with a blood test .

102

Comparison of LUCIO®-direct ELISA with CEDIA immunoassay for 'zero tolerance' drug screening in urine as required by the German re-licensing guidelines.  

PubMed

The performance of the previously validated LUCIO(®)-Direct-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (direct ELISA) screening tests according to forensic guidelines is compared to that of cloned enzyme donor immunoassays (CEDIA) test for drugs of abuse in urine as defined in the new re-licensing German medical and psychological assessment (MPA) guidelines. The MPA screening cut-offs correspond to 10?ng/ml 11-nor-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (THC-COOH), 50?ng/ml amphetamine and designer amphetamines, 25?ng/ml morphine, codeine and dihydrocodeine, 30?ng/ml benzoylecgonine, 50?ng/ml methadone metabolite, 2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine (EDDP) and metabolites of diazepam, oxazepam, bromazepam, alprazolam, flunitrazepam and lorazepam at 50?ng/ml. Average relative sensitivities and relative specificities were 99.7 % and 98.4 % for direct ELISA and 66 % and 91.4 % for CEDIA, respectively. PMID:23349145

Agius, Ronald; Nadulski, Thomas; Kahl, Hans-Gerhard; Dufaux, Bertin

2013-06-01

103

False-positive results for ketone with the drug mesna and other free-sulfhydryl compounds.  

PubMed

All free-sulfhydryl compounds tested produced false-positive reactions in the Legal test for ketones. The color developed in the ketone pad of urine dipsticks [N-Multistix SG, Multistix 10 SG (Ames), and Chemstrip 9 (Boehringer-Mannheim)] was misinterpreted for ketone bodies, both by visual and automated reading. In contrast to the reaction with true ketones, a drop of glacial acetic acid added onto the ketone pad of dipsticks discharged the false-positive red color. A red-violet also developed instantly with free -SH compounds in the Acetest tablet assay (Ames), but quickly faded. In general, the presence of acidic groups such as -COOH and -SO3H in the structure appeared to increase the nitroprusside reactivity of free -SH compounds, whereas the presence of a -NH2 group appeared to decrease it. Currently, false-positive ketone reactions ascribable to a free -SH group are most likely to be seen for urine containing mesna. The false-positive test for ketones caused by free -SH compounds can be recognized and ruled out by proper procedures. On the other hand, this chromogenic reaction with free thiols might be used for monitoring urinary excretion of mesna. PMID:3100102

Csako, G

1987-02-01

104

75 FR 5088 - Current List of Laboratories Which Meet Minimum Standards To Engage in Urine Drug Testing for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...501-202-2783, (Formerly: Forensic Toxicology Laboratory Baptist...Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Forensic Toxicology Laboratory, 1...Medical Branch, Clinical Chemistry Division; UTMB Pathology-Toxicology...305-593-2260. U.S. Army Forensic Toxicology Drug Testing...

2010-02-01

105

75 FR 27348 - Current List of Laboratories Which Meet Minimum Standards To Engage in Urine Drug Testing for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...501-202-2783. (Formerly: Forensic Toxicology Laboratory Baptist...Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Forensic Toxicology Laboratory, 1...Medical Branch, Clinical Chemistry Division; UTMB Pathology-Toxicology...305-593-2260. U.S. Army Forensic Toxicology Drug Testing...

2010-05-14

106

75 FR 32950 - Current List of Laboratories Which Meet Minimum Standards To Engage in Urine Drug Testing for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...501-202-2783. (Formerly: Forensic Toxicology Laboratory Baptist...Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Forensic Toxicology Laboratory, 1...Medical Branch, Clinical Chemistry Division; UTMB Pathology-Toxicology...305-593-2260. U.S. Army Forensic Toxicology Drug Testing...

2010-06-10

107

75 FR 9229 - Current List of Laboratories Which Meet Minimum Standards To Engage in Urine Drug Testing for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...501-202-2783. (Formerly: Forensic Toxicology Laboratory Baptist...Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Forensic Toxicology Laboratory, 1...Medical Branch, Clinical Chemistry Division; UTMB Pathology-Toxicology...305-593-2260. U.S. Army Forensic Toxicology Drug Testing...

2010-03-01

108

75 FR 62842 - Current List of Laboratories Which Meet Minimum Standards To Engage in Urine Drug Testing for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...501-202-2783, (Formerly: Forensic Toxicology Laboratory Baptist...Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Forensic Toxicology Laboratory, 1...Medical Branch, Clinical Chemistry Division; UTMB Pathology-Toxicology...305-593-2260. U.S. Army Forensic Toxicology Drug Testing...

2010-10-13

109

75 FR 39023 - Current List of Laboratories Which Meet Minimum Standards To Engage in Urine Drug Testing for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...501-202-2783. (Formerly: Forensic Toxicology Laboratory Baptist...Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Forensic Toxicology Laboratory, 1...Medical Branch, Clinical Chemistry Division; UTMB Pathology-Toxicology...305-593-2260. US Army Forensic Toxicology Drug Testing...

2010-07-07

110

75 FR 16813 - Current List of Laboratories Which Meet Minimum Standards To Engage in Urine Drug Testing for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...501-202-2783, (Formerly: Forensic Toxicology Laboratory Baptist...Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Forensic Toxicology Laboratory, 1...Medical Branch, Clinical Chemistry Division; UTMB Pathology-Toxicology...305-593-2260; U.S. Army Forensic Toxicology Drug Testing...

2010-04-02

111

75 FR 154 - Current List of Laboratories Which Meet Minimum Standards To Engage in Urine Drug Testing for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...501-202-2783 (Formerly: Forensic Toxicology Laboratory Baptist...Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Forensic Toxicology Laboratory, 1...Medical Branch, Clinical Chemistry Division; UTMB Pathology-Toxicology...305-593-2260. U.S. Army Forensic Toxicology Drug Testing...

2010-01-04

112

75 FR 45128 - Current List of Laboratories Which Meet Minimum Standards To Engage in Urine Drug Testing for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...501-202-2783, (Formerly: Forensic Toxicology Laboratory Baptist...Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Forensic Toxicology Laboratory, 1...Medical Branch, Clinical Chemistry Division; UTMB Pathology-Toxicology...305-593-2260 US Army Forensic Toxicology Drug Testing...

2010-08-02

113

Pink urine.  

PubMed

Abstract A 55-year-old man was admitted after a suspected hypnotic overdose of valerian extracts. In addition to altered consciousness, the first clinical symptoms included not only diffuse rash on the face, trunk, and limbs, but also an inspiratory dyspnea with a marked hypoxemia. A major laryngeal edema was noted during orotracheal intubation. After correction of hypoxemia, the patient became agitated and propofol was administered by continuous infusion. In addition, the patient passed pink urine staining the urine collection bag. The presence of an unidentified toxic substance was suspected. PMID:25233954

Verhoeven, E; Capron, A; Hantson, P

2014-11-01

114

Use of REMEDi HS in emergency toxicology for a rapid estimate of drug concentrations in urine, serum, and gastric samples.  

PubMed

The REMEDi HS is a broad spectrum drug identification system, designed for emergency toxicology screening and forensic applications. The total analysis time is about 20 min. The current library has 555 drugs and metabolites. The system has a software routine that uses an internal standard (IS) to perform quantitative analysis for target compounds when calibrators are available; further, response factors (RF) are supplied for a rapid estimate of drug concentrations when calibrators are unavailable. In the present study, The concentrations of six drugs (bromisovalum, ephedrine, hydroxyzine, diphenhydramine, ranitidine, and lidocaine) and a metabolite of lidocaine (glycinexylidide) were determined using both methods. The slopes of the regression lines between the rapid estimate method and the IS method were generally within 20% of unity, in agreement with the manufacturer's claim. Semiquantitative estimates based on RF also showed good agreement with results obtained using multipoint calibration. These estimates were sufficient for clinical differentiation of routine and toxic levels. Our study demonstrated that the REMEDi HS is particularly useful for a rapid estimate of drug concentrations in the samples from emergency cases when calibrators are not readily available. Our study also showed that this system can be used for the therapeutic monitoring of ranitidine, bromisovalum, lidocaine, and diphenhydrmine. PMID:8789851

Ohtsuji, M; Lai, J S; Binder, S R; Kondo, T; Takayasu, T; Ohshima, T

1996-09-01

115

Urine culture - catheterized specimen  

MedlinePLUS

Culture - urine - catheterized specimen; Urine culture - catheterization; Catheterized urine specimen culture ... urinary tract infections may be found in the culture. This is called a contaminant. You may not ...

116

Trends in occurrence of drugs of abuse in blood and urine of arrested drivers and drug traffickers in the border region of Aachen  

Microsoft Academic Search

The region of Aachen is located in a triangle on the German, Dutch and Belgian borders and is heavily exposed to drug traffic, due to the differences in national drug policies. The analysis of toxicological casework in the Institute of Forensic Medicine in Aachen was undertaken for the period 1987–1993, i.e. 6 years before and 1 year after the partial

Karl-Heinz Schiwy-Bochat; Maciej Bogusz; Josefina Alvarez Vega; Helmut Althoff

1995-01-01

117

Performance characteristics of selected immunoassays for preliminary test of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, methamphetamine, and related drugs in urine specimens.  

PubMed

Eight commercially available immunoassays for amphetamines (DRI Amphetamines, CEDIA DAU Amphetamines-Semiquantitative, EMIT d.a.u. Monoclonal Amphetamine/Methamphetamine, Synchron CX Systems AMPH, TDx/TDxFLx Amphetamine/Methamphetamine II, CEDIA Amphetamines/Ecstasy, COBAS INTEGRA Amphetamines, and Abuscreen((R)) OnLine HS Amphetamine/MDMA) are evaluated for their effectiveness in serving as the preliminary test methodology for the analysis of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine/3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDMA/MDA) and methamphetamine/amphetamine (MA/AM). Standard solutions (in urine matrix) of MDMA, MDA, MA, and AM are used to determine these immunoassays' reactivities (or cross-reactivities) toward these compounds of interest. Case specimens containing MDMA/MDA and MA/AM are also used to study the correlations of the apparent immunoassay MDMA (or MA) concentrations and the gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric concentrations of these compounds. Data resulting from this study suggest that CEDIA Amphetamines/Ecstasy can best predict the concentrations of MDMA and MA in case specimens and can also detect the presence of MDMA at low levels, whereas Abuscreen OnLine HS Amphetamine/MDMA can detect both MDMA and MA at low concentrations. PMID:14607002

Hsu, Jui; Liu, Chiareiy; Liu, C P; Tsay, Wen-Ing; Li, Jih-Heng; Lin, Dong-Liang; Liu, Ray H

2003-10-01

118

Comparison of hydrodynamically closed isotachophoresis-capillary zone electrophoresis with hydrodynamically open capillary zone electrophoresis hyphenated with tandem mass spectrometry in drug analysis: pheniramine, its metabolite and phenylephrine in human urine.  

PubMed

The advanced two dimensional isotachophoresis (ITP)-capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) hyphenated with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS, here triple quadrupole, QqQ) was developed in this work to demonstrate analytical potentialities of this approach in the analysis of drugs in multicomponent ionic matrices. Pheniramine (PHM), phenylephrine (PHE), paracetamol (PCM) and their potential metabolic products were taken for the analysis by the ITP-CZE-ESI-QqQ technique working in hydrodynamically closed CE separation system and then a comparison with the conventional (hydrodynamically open) CZE-ESI-QqQ technique was made. The ITP-CZE-ESI-QqQ method was favorable in terms of obtainable selectivity (due to highly effective heart-cut analysis), concentration limits of detection (LOD at pgmL(-1) levels due to enhanced sample load capacity and ITP preconcentration), sample handling (on-line sample pretreatment, i.e. clean-up, preconcentration, preseparation), and, by that, possibilities for future automation and miniaturization. On the other hand, this experimental arrangement, in contrast to the CZE-ESI-QqQ arrangement supported by an electroosmotic flow, is principally limited to the analysis of uniformly (i.e. positively or negatively) charged analytes in one run without any possibilities to analyze neutral compounds (here, PCM and neutral or acidic metabolites of the drugs had to be excluded from the analysis). Hence, these general characteristics should be considered when choosing a proper analytical CE-MS approach for a given biomedical application. Here, the analytical potential of the ITP-CZE-ESI-QqQ method was demonstrated showing the real time profiles of excreted targeted drugs and metabolite (PHM, PHE, M-PHM) in human urine after the administration of one dose of Theraflu(®) to the volunteers. PMID:25035234

Pieš?anský, Juraj; Maráková, Katarína; Kova?, Marián; Mikuš, Peter

2014-09-01

119

Risk behaviours among HIV positive injecting drug users in Myanmar: a case control study  

PubMed Central

Background The severity of HIV/AIDS pandemic linked to injecting drug use is one of the most worrying medical and social problems throughout the world in recent years. Myanmar has one of the highest prevalence rates of HIV among the IDUs in the region. Aim The objective of the study was to determine the risk behaviours among HIV positive injecting drug users in Myanmar. Methods A non matched case control study was conducted among 217 respondents registered with a non governmental organization's harm reduction center. 78 HIV positive IDUs were used as cases and 139 non HIV positive IDUs as controls. The study was conducted between April-May 2009. Data was analysed using SPSS version 15 and the study was ethically conducted. Results Factors like age, marital status, age first used drugs, drug use expenditure, reason for drug use, age first used injection were found to be significant. Other risk factors found significantly associated with HIV among IDU were education (OR 2.3), location of respondent (OR 2.4) type of syringe first used (OR 5.1), sharing syringe at the first injection (OR 4.5) and failure of drug detoxification programme (OR 4.9). More HIV positive IDUs were returning used syringes in the centre (OR 3.3). Conclusions Prudent measures such as access to sterile syringes and continuous health education programmes among IDUs and their sexual partners are required to reduce high risk behaviours of IDUs in Myanmar. PMID:20515507

2010-01-01

120

High performance liquid chromatographic determination of ultra traces of two tricyclic antidepressant drugs imipramine and trimipramine in urine samples after their dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction coupled with response surface optimization.  

PubMed

Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) coupled with high performance liquid chromatography by ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV) as a fast and inexpensive technique was applied to the determination of imipramine and trimipramine in urine samples. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used for multivariate optimization of the effects of seven different parameters influencing the extraction efficiency of the proposed method. Under optimized experimental conditions, the enrichment factors and extraction recoveries were between 161.7-186.7 and 97-112%, respectively. The linear range and limit of detection for both analytes found to be 5-100ng mL(-1) and 0.6ng mL(-1), respectively. The relative standard deviations for 5ng mL(-1) of the drugs in urine samples were in the range of 5.1-6.1 (n=5). The developed method was successfully applied to real urine sample analyses. PMID:25178259

Shamsipur, Mojtaba; Mirmohammadi, Mehrosadat

2014-11-01

121

The effect of methadone maintenance on positive outcomes for opiate injection drug users.  

PubMed

This study examined outcome variables for 160 opiate injection drug users (IDUs) who entered methadone maintenance between baseline and 6-month follow-up. Outcome variables of interest included drug use, productivity, and HIV risk behaviors. Participants were recruited through street outreach in Denver, CO, from 2000 through 2004 using targeted sampling. The sample was primarily men, White (48%), averaged 39 years of age, and had been injecting drugs for an average of nearly 20 years. Significant improvements were found in univariate tests. Logistic regression revealed that spending more time in treatment was a significant predictor of positive outcomes on drug use and HIV risk behaviors. The results underscore the importance of retaining IDUs in methadone maintenance to maximize their treatment success. Results from this study show that time in treatment can affect many aspects of the participant's life in a positive way, including reduction of HIV risk. PMID:19150202

Corsi, Karen F; Lehman, Wayne K; Booth, Robert E

2009-09-01

122

Gender, Drug Use, and Perceived Social Support Among HIV Positive Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the relationships among gender, drug use, and perceived social support in 176 HIV positive patients recruited\\u000a with their informal caregivers in HIV clinics. Perceived caregiver support, emotional support, tangible support, and conflict\\u000a were assessed. Current drug use was defined as heroin and\\/or cocaine use within 6 months prior to baseline. Gender was not\\u000a significantly associated with any of the

Gabriella Rothman; Bradley J. Anderson; Michael D. Stein

2008-01-01

123

MCM-41 solid phase membrane tip extraction combined with liquid chromatography for the determination of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in human urine.  

PubMed

Mesoporous silica material, MCM-41, was utilized for the first time as an adsorbent in solid phase membrane tip extraction (SPMTE) of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in urine prior to high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet (HPLC-UV) analysis. The prepared MCM-41 material was enclosed in a polypropylene membrane tip and used as an adsorbent in SPMTE. Four NSAIDs namely ketoprofen, diclofenac, mefenamic acid and naproxen were selected as model analytes. Several important parameters, such as conditioning solvent, sample pH, salting-out effect, sample volume, extraction time, desorption solvent and desorption time were optimized. Under the optimum extraction conditions, the MCM-41-SPMTE method showed good linearity in the range of 0.01-10?g/mL with excellent correlation coefficients (r=0.9977-0.9995), acceptable RSDs (0.4-9.4%, n=3), good limits of detection (5.7-10.6?g/L) and relative recoveries (81.4-108.1%). The developed method showed a good tolerance to biological sample matrices. PMID:24140656

Kamaruzaman, Sazlinda; Sanagi, Mohd Marsin; Endud, Salasiah; Wan Ibrahim, Wan Aini; Yahaya, Noorfatimah

2013-12-01

124

Development of simultaneous gas chromatography–mass spectrometric and liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization mass spectrometric determination method for the new designer drugs, N-benzylpiperazine (BZP), 1-(3-trifluoromethylphenyl)piperazine (TFMPP) and their main metabolites in urine  

Microsoft Academic Search

To prove the intake of recently controlled designer drugs, N-benzylpiperazine (BZP) and 1-(3-trifluoromethylphenyl)piperazine (TFMPP), a simple, sensitive and reliable method which allows us to simultaneously detect BZP, TFMPP and their major metabolite in human urine has been established by coupling gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) and high-performance liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC–ESI-MS). GC–MS accompanied by trifluoroacetyl (TFA) derivatization and LC–MS

Hiroe Tsutsumi; Munehiro Katagi; Akihiro Miki; Noriaki Shima; Tooru Kamata; Mayumi Nishikawa; Kunio Nakajima; Hitoshi Tsuchihashi

2005-01-01

125

Neurocognitive Aspects of Medication Adherence in HIV-Positive Injecting Drug Users  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive deficits are associated with nonadherence to HIV medications. HIV-positive injecting drug users (IDUs) are at particular risk for nonadherence and cognitive barriers to adherence specific to this population should therefore be identified. The present study assessed the relation of three domains of cognitive functioning, executive functions, memory, and psychomotor speed, to self-reported antiretroviral adherence in a sample of HIV-positive

Drenna Waldrop-Valverde; Raymond L. Ownby; Frances L. Wilkie; Alison Mack; Mahendra Kumar; Lisa Metsch

2006-01-01

126

Stress processes in HIV-positive African American mothers: Moderating effects of drug abuse history  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the mechanism by which stressors, dissatisfaction with family, perceived control, social support, and coping were related to psychological distress in a sample of HIV-positive African American mothers. Additional analyses explored whether women who had a history of a drug abuse or dependence diagnosis differed either on levels of the study variables or the model pathways. The results

Myron J. Burns; Daniel J. Feaster; Victoria B. Mitrani; Christina Ow; José Szapocznik

2008-01-01

127

Outcome Trajectories in Drug Court: Do All Participants Have Drug Problems?  

PubMed Central

Graduation rates in drug courts average 50% to 70%, but it is unclear what proportion of graduates responded to the drug court services and what proportion might not have had serious drug problems upon entry. This study cluster-analyzed urine drug screen results during the first 14 weeks of treatment on 284 participants from three misdemeanor drug courts. A four-cluster solution (R2 > .75) produced distinct subgroups characterized by (1) consistently drug-negative urine specimens (34% of the sample), (2) consistently drug-positive specimens (21%), (3) consistently missed urine specimens (26%), and (4) urine specimens that began as drug-positive but became progressively drug-negative over time (19%). These data suggest that approximately one-third of the participants might not have had serious drug problems upon entry. Approximately one-fifth appeared to respond to drug court services, and nearly one-half continued to exhibit problems after 14 weeks. Implications for adaptive programming in drug courts are discussed. PMID:22081732

DeMatteo, David; Marlowe, Douglas B.; Festinger, David S.; Arabia, Patricia L.

2011-01-01

128

Developing and Implementing a Positive Behavioral Reinforcement Intervention in Prison-Based Drug Treatment: Project BRITE  

PubMed Central

Within prison settings, the reliance on punishment for controlling inappropriate or non-compliant behavior is self-evident. What is not so evident is the similarity between this reliance on punishment and the use of positive reinforcements to increase desired behaviors. However, seldom do inmates receive positive reinforcement for engaging in prosocial behaviors or, for inmates receiving drug treatment, behaviors that are consistent with or support their recovery. This study provides an overview of the development and implementation of a positive behavioral reinforcement intervention in male and female prison-based drug treatment programs. The active involvement of institutional staff, treatment staff, and inmates enrolled in the treatment programs in the development of the intervention along with the successful branding of the intervention were effective at promoting support and participation. However, these factors may also have ultimately impacted the ability of the randomized design to reliably demonstrate the effectiveness of the intervention. PMID:22185038

Burdon, William M.; De Lore, Jef St.; Prendergast, Michael L.

2012-01-01

129

Molecular characterization and drug resistance of Escherichia coli strains isolated from urine from long-term care facility residents in Cracow, Poland  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli and extended-spectrum ?-lactamases (ESBL) pathogens isolated from asymptomatic bacteriuria and urinary tract infections (UTIs), and the relationship between the phylogeny, antimicrobial resistance, and virulence among isolates in residents of 3 long-term care facilities (LTCF) in Krakow, Poland. Material/Methods This was point prevalence study and prospective infection control in a group of 217 people. Urine samples were examined with standard microbiological methods and screened for the presence of blaCTX-M, blaSHV, and blaTEM. E. coli isolates were screened for 6 common virulence factors (VFs) and classified according to the rapid phylogenetic grouping technique. Results Among all the strains tested, 14 isolates (13.9%) expressed ESBL activity. A significant proportion of isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin (32.7%, n=33). Resistance to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole was identified among 45 isolates (44.5%). Independent risk factors for the presence of an ESBL-producing strain were: UTI, urinary and/or fecal incontinence, bedridden, and low values of the Barthel and Katz Indexes. Gene sequencing identified 8 blaCTX-M-15, 1 blaCTX-M-3, 9 blaTEM-1, and 1 blaSHV-12. Among E. coli, no relationship between number of VF genes and phylogeny was found. The most prevalent virulence factor was fimH (82.1%). Conclusions The findings of this study emphasize the need for further research on the epidemiology of multi-drug resistant organisms (MDRO) and ESBL in LTCF, including transmission patterns, rates of infection, and factors associated with infections. It may be necessary to extend the requirements and precautions to MDRO and ESBL-producers. PMID:23632427

Pobiega, Monika; Wojkowska-Mach, Jadwiga; Chmielarczyk, Agnieszka; Romaniszyn, Dorota; Adamski, Pawel; Heczko, Piort B.; Gryglewska, Barbara; Grodzicki, Tomasz

2013-01-01

130

[SICI-GISE position paper on drug-coated balloon use in the coronary district].  

PubMed

Drug-coated balloons are a new tool for the treatment of patients with coronary artery disease. The main feature of this technology is a rapid and homogeneous transfer of an antiproliferative drug (paclitaxel) to the vessel wall just at the time of balloon inflation, when neointimal proliferation, in response to angioplasty, is the highest. Moreover, drug-coated balloons share adjunctive advantages over stents: the absence of permanent scaffold and polymer, the respect of the original coronary anatomy, and limited inflammatory stimuli, thereby allowing for short-term dual antiplatelet therapy. At present, a variety of devices are available in the market, with limited scientific data for the vast majority of them. Thus, the Italian Society of Interventional Cardiology (SICI-GISE) decided to coordinate the efforts of a group of renowned experts in this field, in order to produce a position paper on the correct use of drug-coated balloons in all settings of coronary artery disease, giving a class of indication to each one, based on clinical evidence. This position paper represents a quick reference for operators, investigators and manufacturers to promote the understanding and the correct use of the drug-coated balloon technology in everyday clinical practice. PMID:24121894

Cortese, Bernardo; Sgueglia, Gregory A; Berti, Sergio; Biondi-Zoccai, Giuseppe; Colombo, Antonio; Limbruno, Ugo; Bedogni, Francesco; Cremonesi, Alberto

2013-10-01

131

Urine drainage bags  

MedlinePLUS

Urine drainage bags collect urine. Your bag will attach to a catheter (tube) that is inside your bladder. You may have a catheter and urine drainage bag because you have urinary incontinence (leakage), urinary ...

132

Clinical Validation of a Highly Sensitive GC-MS Platform for Routine Urine Drug Screening and Real-Time Reporting of up to 212 Drugs.  

PubMed

An important role of the clinical toxicology laboratory is to provide continuous diagnostic testing for patients with altered mental status and for other medical indications. To meet these needs, we have developed a new Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) platform that facilitates routine screening and automated reporting of 212 drugs by laboratory technologists around the clock without the need to sign out by an on-site mass spectrometry-trained toxicologist. The platform uses a programmable temperature vaporizer (PTV) injector for large sample volume injection and the free software Automated Mass Spectral Deconvolution and Identification System (AMDIS) for data reduction and spectral matching that facilitates rapid library searching and analyte identification. Method comparison with 118 patient samples demonstrated that this platform and data searching algorithm independently provided improvements in sensitivity compared to an established GC-MS platform. Further examination of the role of the data processing software and the in-house databases used in the established versus the new platform demonstrated that the improved analytical sensitivity of the new platform was attributed to both the technical superiority of the new GC-MS instrumentation and the use of AMDIS in conjunction with the newly generated in-house library for data processing. PMID:23935615

Nair, Hari; Woo, Fred; Hoofnagle, Andrew N; Baird, Geoffrey S

2013-01-01

133

Clinical Validation of a Highly Sensitive GC-MS Platform for Routine Urine Drug Screening and Real-Time Reporting of up to 212 Drugs  

PubMed Central

An important role of the clinical toxicology laboratory is to provide continuous diagnostic testing for patients with altered mental status and for other medical indications. To meet these needs, we have developed a new Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) platform that facilitates routine screening and automated reporting of 212 drugs by laboratory technologists around the clock without the need to sign out by an on-site mass spectrometry-trained toxicologist. The platform uses a programmable temperature vaporizer (PTV) injector for large sample volume injection and the free software Automated Mass Spectral Deconvolution and Identification System (AMDIS) for data reduction and spectral matching that facilitates rapid library searching and analyte identification. Method comparison with 118 patient samples demonstrated that this platform and data searching algorithm independently provided improvements in sensitivity compared to an established GC-MS platform. Further examination of the role of the data processing software and the in-house databases used in the established versus the new platform demonstrated that the improved analytical sensitivity of the new platform was attributed to both the technical superiority of the new GC-MS instrumentation and the use of AMDIS in conjunction with the newly generated in-house library for data processing. PMID:23935615

Hoofnagle, Andrew N.; Baird, Geoffrey S.

2013-01-01

134

Environment-mediated drug resistance in Bcr/Abl-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia.  

PubMed

Although cure rates for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) have increased, development of resistance to drugs and patient relapse are common. The environment in which the leukemia cells are present during the drug treatment is known to provide significant survival benefit. Here, we have modeled this process by culturing murine Bcr/Abl-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells in the presence of stroma while treating them with a moderate dose of two unrelated drugs, the farnesyltransferase inhibitor lonafarnib and the tyrosine kinase inhibitor nilotinib. This results in an initial large reduction in cell viability of the culture and inhibition of cell proliferation. However, after a number of days, cell death ceases and the culture becomes drug-tolerant, enabling cell division to resume. Using gene expression profiling, we found that the development of drug resistance was accompanied by massive transcriptional upregulation of genes that are associated with general inflammatory responses such as the metalloproteinase MMP9. MMP9 protein levels and enzymatic activity were also increased in ALL cells that had become nilotinib-tolerant. Activation of p38, Akt and Erk correlated with the development of environment-mediated drug resistance (EMDR), and inhibitors of Akt and Erk in combination with nilotinib reduced the ability of the cells to develop resistance. However, inhibition of p38 promoted increased resistance to nilotinib. We conclude that development of EMDR by ALL cells involves changes in numerous intracellular pathways. Development of tolerance to drugs such as nilotinib may therefore be circumvented by simultaneous treatment with other drugs having divergent targets. PMID:22934254

Feldhahn, Niklas; Arutyunyan, Anna; Stoddart, Sonia; Zhang, Bin; Schmidhuber, Sabine; Yi, Sun-Ju; Kim, Yong-Mi; Groffen, John; Heisterkamp, Nora

2012-08-01

135

Environment-mediated drug resistance in Bcr/Abl-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia  

PubMed Central

Although cure rates for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) have increased, development of resistance to drugs and patient relapse are common. The environment in which the leukemia cells are present during the drug treatment is known to provide significant survival benefit. Here, we have modeled this process by culturing murine Bcr/Abl-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells in the presence of stroma while treating them with a moderate dose of two unrelated drugs, the farnesyltransferase inhibitor lonafarnib and the tyrosine kinase inhibitor nilotinib. This results in an initial large reduction in cell viability of the culture and inhibition of cell proliferation. However, after a number of days, cell death ceases and the culture becomes drug-tolerant, enabling cell division to resume. Using gene expression profiling, we found that the development of drug resistance was accompanied by massive transcriptional upregulation of genes that are associated with general inflammatory responses such as the metalloproteinase MMP9. MMP9 protein levels and enzymatic activity were also increased in ALL cells that had become nilotinib-tolerant. Activation of p38, Akt and Erk correlated with the development of environment-mediated drug resistance (EMDR), and inhibitors of Akt and Erk in combination with nilotinib reduced the ability of the cells to develop resistance. However, inhibition of p38 promoted increased resistance to nilotinib. We conclude that development of EMDR by ALL cells involves changes in numerous intracellular pathways. Development of tolerance to drugs such as nilotinib may therefore be circumvented by simultaneous treatment with other drugs having divergent targets. PMID:22934254

Feldhahn, Niklas; Arutyunyan, Anna; Stoddart, Sonia; Zhang, Bin; Schmidhuber, Sabine; Yi, Sun-Ju; Kim, Yong-mi; Groffen, John; Heisterkamp, Nora

2012-01-01

136

Promotion as Prevention: Positive Youth Development as Protective against Tobacco, Alcohol, Illicit Drug, and Sex Initiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was designed to examine the association of positive youth development with the likelihood of tobacco, alcohol, marijuana, hard drug, and sex initiation between 5th and 10th grades. A national, largely middle-class sample of 5,305 adolescents, participating in a longitudinal study funded by the National 4-H Council (although not all participants were enrolled in 4-H or other after-school

Seth J. Schwartz; Erin Phelps; Jacqueline V. Lerner; Shi Huang; C. Hendricks Brown; Selva Lewin-Bizan; Yibing Li; Richard M. Lerner

2010-01-01

137

Combination of high-performance liquid chromatography and SERS detection applied to the analysis of drugs in human blood and urine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy was employed to characterise different drugs and some of their degradation products contained in bio-matrices after separation by HPLC. Since acetonitrile, which is contained in the widely used Daldrup type eluents, adsorbs readily to the silver surface and disturbs SERS measurements at low analyte concentration, a gradient technique relying on a methanol/buffer mixture was developed. Application of this eluent helps to lower the detection limit of most of the drugs investigated (e.g. Dihydrocodeine, Doxepine, Citalopram, Trimipramine, Carbamazepine, Methadone) into the 1 ?g/sample domain. The examples presented also demonstrate that the retention times determined by independent runs of reference solutions alone are not always sufficient for a unique identification of all fractions appearing in the chromatogram of a mixture that may contain degradation products. The Raman band patterns of many derivatives are, however, so distinct that in these cases an assignment to certain families of drugs is possible even without a detailed analysis of the spectrum (correlation of band positions with calculated normal mode frequencies). If SERS spectra of reference solutions recorded under similar experimental conditions are available, the described technique can provide a second, independent means of identification next to HPLC/MS for example if necessary during a law suit.

Trachta, Gerd; Schwarze, Bernd; Sägmüller, Bernd; Brehm, Georg; Schneider, Siegfried

2004-05-01

138

Studies on the metabolism and the toxicological analysis of the nootropic drug fipexide in rat urine using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Qualitative studies are described on the metabolism and the toxicological analysis of the nootropic fipexide (FIP) in rat urine using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). FIP was extensively metabolized to 1-(3,4-methylenedioxybenzyl)piperazine (MDBP), 4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid, 1-[2-(4-chlorophenoxy)acetyl]piperazine, N-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-benzyl)piperazine, piperazine, N-(3,4-methylenedioxybenzyl)ethylenediamine, and N-[2-(4-chlorophenoxy)acetyl]ethylenediamine. The authors’ systematic toxicological analysis (STA) procedure using full-scan GC–MS after acid hydrolysis of one urine aliquot, liquid-liquid extraction and acetylation

Roland F. Staack; Hans H. Maurer

2004-01-01

139

Coping among HIV negative and HIV positive female injection drug users.  

PubMed

The study examined the psychosocial determinants of coping ability in a cohort of 249 HIV positive and HIV negative female injection drug users (IDUs), using a cross-sectional retrospective design. Information collected using a structured questionnaire included data on psychosocial risk and protective factors in the personality, family, and peer domains, HIV status, and coping ability. Coping ability was associated with conventionality, greater control of emotions, less psychopathology, and family cohesion in both HIV positive and HIV negative subjects. The psychosocial factors affected coping in HIV positive and HIV negative IDUs via two different mediational models. The interactional findings supported the influence of risk/protective interactions in both groups. The findings demonstrate the impact of the interplay between personality factors and external support on coping ability in female IDUs. PMID:10407459

Brook, D W; Brook, J S; Whiteman, M; Roberto, J; Masci, J R; Amundsen, F; de Catalogne, J

1999-06-01

140

Social networks and HCV viremia among anti-HCV positive rural drug users  

PubMed Central

Summary Though social networks are known to play an important role in drug-using behaviors associated with HCV infection, literature on social networks and HCV is inconsistent. This exploratory study examined HCV RNA distribution within a social network of anti-HCV positive rural Appalachia nonmedical prescription opioid users (NMPOUs). Participants were tested serologically for HCV RNA, and behavioral, demographic, and network data were collecting using interview-administered questionnaires. Multivariate analyses were performed using logistic regression. Behavioral and demographic characteristics did not differ by RNA status. In the multivariate model, recent injection drug users were more likely to be RNA-positive (OR: 4.06, 95% CI: 1.04 – 15.83), and turnover into one’s drug network was significantly protective (OR: 0.15, 95% CI: 0.03-0.75). This is the first study to date to examine HCV distribution among rural NMPOUs from a network perspective and demonstrates that network characteristics significantly contribute to the epidemiology of HCV in this understudied, high-risk population. PMID:22717190

YOUNG, A. M.; JONAS, A. B.; HAVENS, J. R.

2012-01-01

141

Loss and regeneration: influences on the reproductive decisions of HIV positive, drug-using women.  

PubMed

Current approaches to the reduction of perinatal transmission of HIV infection among drug-using women focus on the content of counseling sessions which may include suggestions to abstain from sexual intercourse, to use barrier contraceptives, or to terminate pregnancy. The broader social and cultural issues which may influence some HIV positive women's decisions to have children (such as prolonged, unwanted separation from existing children; the need for appropriate drug treatment; empowerment through educational and vocational opportunities; and the meanings associated with motherhood, children, and HIV/AIDS) are not addressed in these efforts. This study of the reproductive decisions and meanings associated with children and motherhood among drug-using, female methadone patients describes some of the social and cultural influences on reproductive decisions. The findings suggest that discontinuous mother-child coresidence; locally produced theories of perinatal transmission; and the culturally constructed meanings associated with motherhood and children influence decisions to bear children among HIV infected, drug-using women. Relevant policy issues are discussed. PMID:7877463

Pivnick, A

1994-11-01

142

Predictors of hospitalization for HIV-positive women and men drug users, 1996-2000.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: This study sought to determine whether health outcomes differed by gender in a cohort of African American, Hispanic American, and white drug users. METHODS: The authors studied hospitalization rates and discharge diagnoses in the HERO Study, an ongoing prospective study of drug users that included HIV-positive and HIV-negative opiate users. The data are from 1996-2000, when highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) was available. RESULTS: Women had higher rates of hospitalization than men independent of HIV status, and there was no association between ethnicity and hospitalization. Being a woman was an independent risk factor for HIV and non-HIV-related hospitalization. CONCLUSION: Health disparities between men and women extend to HIV. PMID:12435828

Schoenbaum, Ellie E.; Lo, Yungtai; Floris-Moore, Michelle

2002-01-01

143

Use of glomerular filtration rate estimating equations for drug dosing in HIV-positive patients  

PubMed Central

Background Current HIV treatment guidelines recommend using the Cockcroft-Gault equation for drug dosing adjustments. The use of newer glomerular filtration rate (GFR) estimating equations for drug dosing and the appropriateness of physician antiretroviral dosing based on estimated kidney function have not been studied in an HIV-positive population. Methods We evaluated concordance between measured and estimated GFR for the assignment of kidney function categories designated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Guidance for Industry for pharmacokinetic studies, and appropriateness of physician antiretroviral drug dosing for level of kidney function in 200 HIV-positive patients on stable antiretroviral therapy. Estimated kidney function was determined using the Chronic Kidney Disease-Epidemiology collaboration (CKD-EPI), Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) Study and Cockcroft-Gault equations. Results For assignment of FDA-designated kidney function categories, concordance rates between measured and estimated GFR using the CKD-EPI, MDRD Study and Cockcroft-Gault equations were 79%, 71% and 77%, respectively. This pattern was consistent across most subgroups. When actual prescribed dosages were compared to recommended dosages based on the level of estimated kidney function, 3% to 19% of study participants were prescribed higher than recommended dosages. The largest discordance between prescribed and recommended dosages was observed for the Cockcroft-Gault equation. Conclusions The CKD-EPI equation has the highest concordance with measured GFR for the assignment of FDA-designated kidney function categories. Its use may lead to lower dosing related errors in HIV-infected US adults on stable antiretroviral therapy. More education is required with respect to dose adjustment for level of kidney function. PMID:23963249

Okparavero, Aghogho A; Tighiouart, Hocine; Krishnasami, Zipporah; Wyatt, Christina M; Graham, Hiba; Hellinger, James; Inker, Lesley A

2014-01-01

144

CYP3A-mediated drug-drug interaction potential and excretion of brentuximab vedotin, an antibody-drug conjugate, in patients with CD30-positive hematologic malignancies  

PubMed Central

Brentuximab vedotin is an antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) that selectively delivers monomethyl auristatin E (MMAE) into CD30-expressing cells. This study evaluated the CYP3A-mediated drug-drug interaction potential of brentuximab vedotin and the excretion of MMAE. Two 21-day cycles of brentuximab vedotin (1.2 or 1.8 mg/kg intravenously) were administered to 56 patients with CD30-positive hematologic malignancies. Each patient also received either a sensitive CYP3A substrate (midazolam), an effective inducer (rifampin), or a strong inhibitor (ketoconazole). Brentuximab vedotin did not affect midazolam exposures. ADC exposures were unaffected by concomitant rifampin or ketoconazole; however, MMAE exposures were lower with rifampin and higher with ketoconazole. The short-term safety profile of brentuximab vedotin in this study was generally consistent with historic clinical observations. The most common adverse events were nausea, fatigue, diarrhea, headache, pyrexia, and neutropenia. Over a 1-week period, ~23.5% of intact MMAE was recovered after administration of brentuximab vedotin; all other species were below the limit of quantitation. The primary excretion route is via feces (median 72% of the recovered MMAE). These results suggest that brentuximab vedotin (1.8 mg/kg) and MMAE are neither inhibitors nor inducers of CYP3A; however, MMAE is a substrate of CYP3A. PMID:23754575

Han, Tae H.; Gopal, Ajay K.; Ramchandren, Radhakrishnan; Goy, Andre; Chen, Robert; Matous, Jeffrey V.; Cooper, Maureen; Grove, Laurie E.; Alley, Stephen C.; Lynch, Carmel M.; O'Connor, Owen A.

2013-01-01

145

Skin test concentrations for systemically administered drugs -- an ENDA/EAACI Drug Allergy Interest Group position paper.  

PubMed

Skin tests are of paramount importance for the evaluation of drug hypersensitivity reactions. Drug skin tests are often not carried out because of lack of concise information on specific test concentrations. The diagnosis of drug allergy is often based on history alone, which is an unreliable indicator of true hypersensitivity.To promote and standardize reproducible skin testing with safe and nonirritant drug concentrations in the clinical practice, the European Network and European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) Interest Group on Drug Allergy has performed a literature search on skin test drug concentration in MEDLINE and EMBASE, reviewed and evaluated the literature in five languages using the GRADE system for quality of evidence and strength of recommendation. Where the literature is poor, we have taken into consideration the collective experience of the group.We recommend drug concentration for skin testing aiming to achieve a specificity of at least 95%. It has been possible to recommend specific drug concentration for betalactam antibiotics, perioperative drugs, heparins, platinum salts and radiocontrast media. For many other drugs, there is insufficient evidence to recommend appropriate drug concentration. There is urgent need for multicentre studies designed to establish and validate drug skin test concentration using standard protocols. For most drugs, sensitivity of skin testing is higher in immediate hypersensitivity compared to nonimmediate hypersensitivity. PMID:23617635

Brockow, K; Garvey, L H; Aberer, W; Atanaskovic-Markovic, M; Barbaud, A; Bilo, M B; Bircher, A; Blanca, M; Bonadonna, B; Campi, P; Castro, E; Cernadas, J R; Chiriac, A M; Demoly, P; Grosber, M; Gooi, J; Lombardo, C; Mertes, P M; Mosbech, H; Nasser, S; Pagani, M; Ring, J; Romano, A; Scherer, K; Schnyder, B; Testi, S; Torres, M; Trautmann, A; Terreehorst, I

2013-06-01

146

Juvenile Crime and Drug Abuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results from an ongoing, longitudinal study of juvenile detainees focusing on the relationship between their drug use and delinquency\\/crime, are summarized. Three hundred and ninety-nine youths were first interviewed in 1986\\/87, and 41 percent were found to be urine positive for recent drug use at the time of detention. We reinterviewed 305 of the youths approximately one year later, and

Richard Dembo; Linda Williams; James Schmeidler; Eric D. Wish; Alan Getreu; Estrellita Berry

1992-01-01

147

Media's Positive and Negative Frames in Reporting Celebrity Deaths From Illegal Drug Overdoses Versus Prescription Drug Overdoses  

E-print Network

This study compared the celebrity illegal drug overdose deaths of River Phoenix, Chris Farley, and Brad Renfro to the prescription drug overdose deaths of Anna Nicole Smith, Heath Ledger, and Brittany Murphy. This research used quantitative...

Wood, Michelle

2011-12-31

148

Student Drug Testing in the Context of Positive and Negative School Climates: Results from a National Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Positive school climates and student drug testing have been separately proposed as strategies to reduce student substance\\u000a use in high schools. However, the effects of drug testing programs may depend on the favorability of school climates. This\\u000a study examined the association between school drug testing programs and student substance use in schools with different climates.\\u000a The analysis was based on

Sharon R. SznitmanSally; Sally M. Dunlop; Priya Nalkur; Atika Khurana; Daniel Romer

149

The Drug User's Identity and How It Relates to Being Hepatitis C Antibody Positive: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The increasing health problem of hepatitis C virus infection has only recently attracted the attention of psychosocial research, especially among subjects at higher risk (e.g. injecting drug users). There is a lack of information about the knowledge, perceptions and feelings that injecting drug users hold about their hepatitis C antibody positive

Copeland, Lorraine

2004-01-01

150

pH-resistant titania hybrid organic-inorganic coating for stir bar sorptive extraction of drugs of abuse in urine samples followed by high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet visible detection.  

PubMed

An organic-inorganic hybrid titania-hydroxy-terminated silicone oil (titania-OH-TSO) stir bar coating was prepared by sol-gel method. The extraction performance of titania-OH-TSO coated stir bar was evaluated and compared with poly(dimethysiloxane) (PDMS), poly(dimethysiloxane)-divinylbenzene (PDMS-DVB), poly(dimethysiloxane)-?-cyclodextrin (PDMS-?-CD) and C(18) coated stir bar with five polar drugs of abuse including amphetamine (PA), methamphetamine (MA), 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and ketamine (Ke) as the model analytes. The experimental results revealed that the titania-OH-TSO coated stir bar exhibited highly pH-resistant ability, good preparation reproducibility, superior selectivity and high extraction efficiency for the target compounds. Based on this fact, a new method of titania-OH-TSO coated stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) combined with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-ultraviolet visible (UV) detection was developed for the analysis of five drugs of abuse in urine samples. The factors affecting the extraction efficiency of SBSE such as sample pH, desorption solvent, sample volume, extraction time, desorption time, stirring rate and ionic strength were investigated and the optimal extraction conditions were established. Under the optimized conditions, the limits of detection (LODs) for titania-OH-TSO coated SBSE-HPLC-UV determination of five polar drugs of abuse were in the range of 2.3-9.1 ?g/L with relative standard deviations (RSDs) ranging from 7.3 to 8.9% (c=300 ?g/L, n=6), and all of the target compounds exhibited good linearity over a concentration range of 30-3000 ?g/L. The developed method was applied to the determination of amphetamines and Ke in urine samples of drug abusers with satisfactory results. PMID:20880534

Lan, Lidan; Hu, Bin; Yu, Chunhe

2010-11-01

151

Drug Testing in a University Athletic Program: Protocol and Implementation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An athletic drug education, counseling, and screening program at Wake Forest University is described. Decisions regarding which athletes to test, which drugs to test for and how to test for them, how to collect urine samples, and measures taken for a positive result are discussed. (MT)

Rovere, George D.; And Others

1986-01-01

152

Getting a Urine Test  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... Page The Pink Locker Society Getting a Urine Test (Video) KidsHealth > Kids > Movies & More > Movies > Getting a Urine Test (Video) Print A A A Text Size It ... cup, but docs learn a lot from urine tests. Obviously, this test doesn't hurt. And if ...

153

Spatial Analysis of HIV Positive Injection Drug Users in San Francisco, 1987 to 2005  

PubMed Central

Spatial analyses of HIV/AIDS related outcomes are growing in popularity as a tool to understand geographic changes in the epidemic and inform the effectiveness of community-based prevention and treatment programs. The Urban Health Study was a serial, cross-sectional epidemiological study of injection drug users (IDUs) in San Francisco between 1987 and 2005 (N = 29,914). HIV testing was conducted for every participant. Participant residence was geocoded to the level of the United States Census tract for every observation in dataset. Local indicator of spatial autocorrelation (LISA) tests were used to identify univariate and bivariate Census tract clusters of HIV positive IDUs in two time periods. We further compared three tract level characteristics (% poverty, % African Americans, and % unemployment) across areas of clustered and non-clustered tracts. We identified significant spatial clustering of high numbers of HIV positive IDUs in the early period (1987–1995) and late period (1996–2005). We found significant bivariate clusters of Census tracts where HIV positive IDUs and tract level poverty were above average compared to the surrounding areas. Our data suggest that poverty, rather than race, was an important neighborhood characteristic associated with the spatial distribution of HIV in SF and its spatial diffusion over time. PMID:24722543

Martinez, Alexis N.; Mobley, Lee R.; Lorvick, Jennifer; Novak, Scott P.; Lopez, Andrea M.; Kral, Alex H.

2014-01-01

154

Role of Catheter's Position for Final Results in Intrathecal Drug Delivery. Analysis Based on CSF Dynamics and Specific Drugs Profiles.  

PubMed

Intrathecal drug delivery is an effective and safe option for the treatment of chronic pathology refractory to conventional pain therapies. Typical intrathecal administered drugs are opioids, baclofen, local anesthetics and adjuvant medications. Although knowledge about mechanisms of action of intrathecal drugs are every day more clear many doubt remain respect the correct location of intrathecal catheter in order to achieve the best therapeutic result. We analyze the factors that can affect drug distribution within the cerebrospinal fluid. Three categories of variables were identified: drug features, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics and patients features. First category includes physicochemical properties and pharmacological features of intrathecal administered drugs with special attention to drug lipophilicity. In the second category, the variables in CSF flow, are considered that can modify the drug distribution within the CSF with special attention to the new theories of liquoral circulation. Last category try to explain inter-individual difference in baclofen response with difference that are specific for each patients such as the anatomical area to treat, patient posture or reaction to inflammatory stimulus. We conclude that a comprehensive evaluation of the patients, including imaging techniques to study the anatomy and physiology of intrathecal environment and CSF dynamics, could become essential in the future to the purpose of optimize the clinical outcome of intrathecal therapy. PMID:24155999

Jose, De Andres; Luciano, Perotti; Vicente, Villanueva; Juan Marcos, Asensio Samper; Gustavo, Fabregat-Cid

2013-10-01

155

Application of non-linear angle synchronous spectrofluorimetry to the determination of complex mixtures of drugs in urine: a comparative study.  

PubMed

Synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy (SFS) is a rapid, sensitive and non-destructive method suitable for the analysis of multifluorophoric mixtures. In this study non linear variable angle synchronous spectrofluorimetry was applied to the determination of three fluoroquinololes in urine. Although this technique provides very good results, total resolution of multicomponent mixtures is not always achieved when the spectral profiles strongly overlap. Partial least-squares regression (PLS-1) was utilized to a develop calibration model that related synchronous fluorescence spectra to the analytical concentration of fluoroquinolones in the presence of urine. The same multicomponent mixture was determined using excitation emission matrix fluorescence (EEMF) along with N-way partial least squares regression (N-PLS and U-PLS). The determination was carried out in micellar medium 0.01 M with a pH of 4.8 provided by 0.2 M sodium acetate/acetic acid buffer. A central composite design was selected to obtain a calibration matrix of 25 standards plus a blank sample. The proposed methods were validated by application to a test set of synthetic samples. The results show that SFS with PLS-1 is a better method compared to EEMF with N-PLS or U-PLS because of the low RMSEP values of the former. PMID:23021891

Murillo Pulgarín, J A; Alañón Molina, A; Boras, N

2012-12-01

156

On-Demand Urine Analyzer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A lab-on-a-chip was developed that is capable of extracting biochemical indicators from urine samples and generating their surface-enhanced Raman spectra (SERS) so that the indicators can be quantified and identified. The development was motivated by the need to monitor and assess the effects of extended weightlessness, which include space motion sickness and loss of bone and muscle mass. The results may lead to developments of effective exercise programs and drug regimes that would maintain astronaut health. The analyzer containing the lab-on-a- chip includes materials to extract 3- methylhistidine (a muscle-loss indicator) and Risedronate (a bone-loss indicator) from the urine sample and detect them at the required concentrations using a Raman analyzer. The lab-on- a-chip has both an extractive material and a SERS-active material. The analyzer could be used to monitor the onset of diseases, such as osteoporosis.

Farquharson, Stuart; Inscore, Frank; Shende, Chetan

2010-01-01

157

Differences in treatment outcome between male alcohol dependent offenders of domestic violence with and without positive drug screens.  

PubMed

Men who are violent toward their partners tend to have a dual problem with alcohol and drug use, yet little is known about differences between men with single rather than dual problems. This study was one of the first to evaluate differences between alcohol dependent men who were arrested for Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) with and without concurrent illicit drug use. Seventy-eight participants were randomly assigned to manual-guided group behavioral therapies (Cognitive Behavioral Therapy or Twelve Step Facilitation) and assessed across 12 weeks of treatment. Despite denying drug use at baseline, thirty-two clients (43%) tested positive for illicit drug use (cocaine and marijuana) during the 12 weeks of treatment. The study specifically addressed whether there were differences between clients using alcohol only versus individuals using both alcohol + drugs in terms of 1) baseline characteristics; 2) treatment compliance (e.g., attendance and substance use during treatment; and 3) treatment outcomes (alcohol, drug use, anger management, and aggression at the completion of treatment). The results showed that there were comparatively few differences between the alcohol versus the alcohol + drug using groups at baseline. Regarding treatment compliance and retention, alcohol + drug using participants attended significantly fewer sessions, had significantly fewer percent days abstinence from alcohol use, significantly more total days of positive breathalyzer results. Regarding treatment outcomes across anger management and aggression scores, the alcohol + drug using participants had significantly more impairments in anger management styles from pre- to post-treatment. However, there were no differences between the groups across verbal or physical aggression. Both groups improved in their verbal aggression from pre- to post-treatment. The findings suggest that alcohol dependent men who continue to use illicit drugs may require additional interventions to effectively control their drug use and, their anger management styles. PMID:17367953

Easton, Caroline J; Mandel, Dolores; Babuscio, Theresa; Rounsaville, Bruce J; Carroll, Kathleen M

2007-10-01

158

Effects of pH and solvent on the fluorescence properties of biomedically important benzamides. Application to determination in drugs and in human urine.  

PubMed

The fluorescence properties of five substituted benzamides, including alizapride, metoclopramide, sulpiride, sultopride and tiapride, were investigated at several pH values and in various solvents (dimethyl sulfoxide, ethanol, ethylene glycol, methanol, propan-2-ol, tetrahydrofuran and water). Except for alizapride, the fluorescence intensities were found to be higher at acidic (1-6) than at alkaline (8-12) pH values. Using the optimum solvent (aqueous solutions) and appropriate pH conditions, linear spectrofluorimetric calibration curves were established over a concentration range of about two orders of magnitude, with correlation coefficients larger than 0.996. Limits of detection were between 1 and 13 ng ml-1, depending on the compound. The method was applied to the determination of benzamides in pharmaceutical preparations and in human urine, with recoveries ranging from 94 to 108% and from 93 to 104%, respectively. PMID:8952447

Buna, M; Aaron, J J; Prognon, P; Mahuzier, G

1996-11-01

159

Urine the Know  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity on page 5 of the PDF, learners compare water with artificial urine to see how urinalysis works. Learners use urinalysis test strips to test for glucose and protein in the fake urine. Use this activity to demonstrate why doctors examine urine samples to determine a person's health. Safety notes: Follow the safety notes described in the activity as well as Milli's safety tips on page 2.

Society, American C.

2004-01-01

160

Bioanalysis of antibody-drug conjugates: American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists Antibody-Drug Conjugate Working Group position paper.  

PubMed

Antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) typically consist of a cytotoxic drug covalently bound to an antibody by a linker. These conjugates have the potential to substantially improve efficacy and reduce toxicity compared with cytotoxic small-molecule drugs. Since ADCs are generally complex heterogeneous mixtures of multiple species, these novel therapeutic products present unique bioanalytical challenges. The growing number of ADCs being developed across the industry suggests the need for alignment of the bioanalytical methods or approaches used to assess the multiple species and facilitate consistent interpretation of the bioanalytical data. With limited clinical data, the current strategies that can be used to provide insight into the relationship between the multiple species and the observed clinical safety and efficacy are still evolving. Considerations of the bioanalytical strategies for ADCs based on the current industry practices that take into account the complexity and heterogeneity of ADCs are discussed. PMID:23641692

Gorovits, Boris; Alley, Stephen C; Bilic, Sanela; Booth, Brian; Kaur, Surinder; Oldfield, Phillip; Purushothama, Shobha; Rao, Chetana; Shord, Stacy; Siguenza, Patricia

2013-05-01

161

49 CFR 655.61 - Action when an employee has a verified positive drug test result or has a confirmed alcohol test...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...positive drug test result or has a confirmed alcohol test result of 0.04 or greater, or...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PREVENTION OF ALCOHOL MISUSE AND PROHIBITED DRUG USE IN TRANSIT...positive drug test result or has a confirmed alcohol test result of 0.04 or greater,...

2011-10-01

162

49 CFR 655.61 - Action when an employee has a verified positive drug test result or has a confirmed alcohol test...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...positive drug test result or has a confirmed alcohol test result of 0.04 or greater, or...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PREVENTION OF ALCOHOL MISUSE AND PROHIBITED DRUG USE IN TRANSIT...positive drug test result or has a confirmed alcohol test result of 0.04 or greater,...

2013-10-01

163

49 CFR 655.61 - Action when an employee has a verified positive drug test result or has a confirmed alcohol test...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...positive drug test result or has a confirmed alcohol test result of 0.04 or greater, or...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PREVENTION OF ALCOHOL MISUSE AND PROHIBITED DRUG USE IN TRANSIT...positive drug test result or has a confirmed alcohol test result of 0.04 or greater,...

2012-10-01

164

49 CFR 655.61 - Action when an employee has a verified positive drug test result or has a confirmed alcohol test...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...positive drug test result or has a confirmed alcohol test result of 0.04 or greater, or...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PREVENTION OF ALCOHOL MISUSE AND PROHIBITED DRUG USE IN TRANSIT...positive drug test result or has a confirmed alcohol test result of 0.04 or greater,...

2010-10-01

165

Derivatization of carboxylic acids with 4-APEBA for detection by positive-ion LC-ESI–MS(\\/MS) applied for the analysis of prostanoids and NSAID in urine  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to develop a generic positive ionization ESI LC–MS method for a variety of interesting substance classes, a new derivatization strategy for carboxylic acids was developed. The carboxylic acid group is labeled with the bromine containing 4-APEBA reagent based on carbodiimide chemistry. The derivatization reaction can be carried out under aqueous conditions, thereby greatly simplifying sample preparation. In this

A. Kretschmer; M. Giera; M. Wijtmans; L. de Vries; H. Lingeman; H. Irth; W. M. A. Niessen

2011-01-01

166

Detection of manipulation in doping control urine sample collection: a multidisciplinary approach to determine identical urine samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Manipulation of urine sampling in sports drug testing is considered a violation of anti-doping rules and is consequently sanctioned\\u000a by regulatory authorities. In 2003, three identical urine specimens were provided by three different athletes, and the identity\\u000a of all urine samples was detected and substantiated using numerous analytical strategies including gas chromatography–mass\\u000a spectrometry with steroid and metabolite profiling, gas chromatography–nitrogen\\/phosphorus

Mario Thevis; Hans Geyer; Ute Mareck; Gerd Sigmund; Jürgen Henke; Lotte Henke; Wilhelm Schänzer

2007-01-01

167

Analysis of cocaethylene, benzoylecgonine and cocaine in human urine by high-performance thin-layer chromatography with ultraviolet detection: a comparison with high-performance liquid chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cocaine and ethanol are frequently used at the same time, resulting in the formation of cocaethylene by transesterification. We studied the capability of high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) to simultaneously detect cocaethylene, cocaine and benzoylecgonine in 16 urine specimens of drug addicts, previously tested as positive for benzoylecgonine at immunoenzymatic screening. Accuracy and precision, as well as detection and quantitation limits

Letizia Antonilli; Carmen Suriano; Maria Caterina Grassi; Paolo Nencini

2001-01-01

168

Urine pH test  

MedlinePLUS

A urine pH test measures the level of acid in urine. ... pH - urine ... meat products or cranberries can decrease your urine pH. ... to check for changes in your body's acid levels.It may be done to ... more effective when urine is acidic or non-acidic (alkaline).

169

Impaired Urine Dilution Capability in HIV Stable Patients  

PubMed Central

Renal disease is a well-recognized complication among patients with HIV infection. Viral infection itself and the use of some antiretroviral drugs contribute to this condition. The thick ascending limb of Henle's loop (TALH) is the tubule segment where free water clearance is generated, determining along with glomerular filtration rate the kidney's ability to dilute urine. Objective. We analyzed the function of the proximal tubule and TALH in patients with HIV infection receiving or not tenofovir-containing antiretroviral treatment in comparison with healthy seronegative controls, by applying a tubular physiological test, hyposaline infusion test (Chaimowitz' test). Material & Methods. Chaimowitz' test was performed on 20 HIV positive volunteers who had normal renal functional parameters. The control group included 10 healthy volunteers. Results. After the test, both HIV groups had a significant reduction of serum sodium and osmolarity compared with the control group. Free water clearance was lower and urine osmolarity was higher in both HIV+ groups. Proximal tubular function was normal in both studied groups. Conclusion. The present study documented that proximal tubule sodium reabsorption was preserved while free water clearance and maximal urine dilution capability were reduced in stable HIV patients treated or not with tenofovir. PMID:24800076

Belloso, Waldo H.; de Paz Sierra, Mariana; Navarro, Matilde; Sanchez, Marisa L.; Perelsztein, Ariel G.; Musso, Carlos G.

2014-01-01

170

Impaired Urine Dilution Capability in HIV Stable Patients.  

PubMed

Renal disease is a well-recognized complication among patients with HIV infection. Viral infection itself and the use of some antiretroviral drugs contribute to this condition. The thick ascending limb of Henle's loop (TALH) is the tubule segment where free water clearance is generated, determining along with glomerular filtration rate the kidney's ability to dilute urine. Objective. We analyzed the function of the proximal tubule and TALH in patients with HIV infection receiving or not tenofovir-containing antiretroviral treatment in comparison with healthy seronegative controls, by applying a tubular physiological test, hyposaline infusion test (Chaimowitz' test). Material & Methods. Chaimowitz' test was performed on 20 HIV positive volunteers who had normal renal functional parameters. The control group included 10 healthy volunteers. Results. After the test, both HIV groups had a significant reduction of serum sodium and osmolarity compared with the control group. Free water clearance was lower and urine osmolarity was higher in both HIV+ groups. Proximal tubular function was normal in both studied groups. Conclusion. The present study documented that proximal tubule sodium reabsorption was preserved while free water clearance and maximal urine dilution capability were reduced in stable HIV patients treated or not with tenofovir. PMID:24800076

Belloso, Waldo H; de Paz Sierra, Mariana; Navarro, Matilde; Sanchez, Marisa L; Perelsztein, Ariel G; Musso, Carlos G

2014-01-01

171

The impact of incarceration upon adherence to HIV treatment among HIV-positive injection drug users: a qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction. HIV-positive injection drug users (IDU) often do not derive the full benefits of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Among IDU, recent incarceration has been associated with discontinuation of HAART for non-clinical reasons. We sought to qualitatively evaluate experiences with HAART among HIV-positive IDU who had been recently incarcerated within provincial prisons in British Columbia in order to identify factors

Will Small; Evan Wood; Glenn Betteridge; Julio Montaner; Thomas Kerr

2009-01-01

172

The effects of low literacy and cognitive impairment on medication adherence in HIV-positive injecting drug users  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low literacy and cognitive impairment have each been separately identified as risks for non-adherence in HIV infection. However, no studies to date have evaluated these skill deficits in combination. We therefore characterized the nature of literacy and cognitive skills in a sample of HIV-positive injecting drug users and assessed their combined effects on adherence. A community-recruited sample of 57 HIV-positive

Drenna Waldrop-Valverde; Deborah L. Jones; Stephen Weiss; Mahendra Kumar; Lisa Metsch

2008-01-01

173

Positive and negative ion mode ESI-MS and MS/MS for studying drug-DNA complexes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report systematic investigation of duplex DNA complexes with minor groove binders (Hoechsts 33258 and 33342, netropsin and DAPI) and intercalators (daunomycin, doxorubicin, actinomycin D, ethidium, cryptolepine, neocryptolepine, m-Amsacrine, proflavine, ellipticine and mitoxantrone) by ESI-MS and ESI-MS/MS in the negative ion mode and in the positive ion mode. The apparent solution phase equilibrium binding constants can be determined by measuring relative intensities in the ESI-MS spectrum. While negative ion mode gives reliable results, positive ion mode gives a systematic underestimation of the binding constants and even a complete suppression of the complexes for intercalators lacking functional groups capable of interacting in the grooves. In the second part of the paper we systematically compare MS/MS fragmentation channels and breakdown curves in the positive and the negative modes, and discuss the possible uses and caveats of MS/MS in drug-DNA complexes. In the negative mode, the drugs can be separated in three groups: (1) those that leave the complex with no net charge; (2) those that leave the complex with a negative charge; and (3) those that remain attached on the strands upon dissociation of the duplex due to their positive charge. In the positive ion mode, all complexes fragment via the loss of protonated drug. Information on the stabilization of the complex by drug-DNA noncovalent interactions can be obtained straightforwardly only in the case of neutral drug loss. In all other cases, proton affinity (in the positive ion mode), gas-phase basicity (in the negative ion mode) and coulombic repulsion are the major factors influencing the fragmentation channel and the dissociation kinetics.

Rosu, Frédéric; Pirotte, Sophie; Pauw, Edwin De; Gabelica, Valérie

2006-07-01

174

Urine collection device  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A urine collection device for females is described. It is comprised of a collection element defining a urine collection chamber and an inlet opening into the chamber and is adapted to be disposed in surrounding relation to the urethral opening of the user. A drainage conduit is connected to the collection element in communication with the chamber whereby the chamber and conduit together comprise a urine flow pathway for carrying urine generally away from the inlet. A first body of wicking material is mounted adjacent the collection element and extends at least partially into the flow pathway. The device preferably also comprise a vaginal insert element including a seal portion for preventing the entry of urine into the vagina.

Michaud, R. B. (inventor)

1981-01-01

175

On-line column coupled isotachophoresis-capillary zone electrophoresis hyphenated with tandem mass spectrometry in drug analysis: varenicline and its metabolite in human urine.  

PubMed

A new highly advanced analytical approach, based on two-dimensional column coupled CE (ITP-CZE) hyphenated with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS, here triple quadrupole, QqQ) was developed, evaluated and applied in biomedical field in the present work. Capillary isotachophoresis (ITP) coupled on-line with capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) used in hydrodynamically closed separation system was favorable for increasing the sample load capacity, increasing the analyte concentration, and removing the deteriorative highly conductive major matrix constituents. These factors considerably reduced the concentration limits of detection (cLOD) and external sample preparation (comparing to single column CZE), and, by that, provided favorable conditions for the mass spectrometry (enhanced signal to noise ratio, reproducibility of measurements, working life of MS). Here, the CZE-ESI combination provided more effective interfacing than ITP-ESI resulting in both a higher obtainable intensity of MS detection signal of the analyte as well as reproducibility of measurements of the analyte's peak area. The optimized ITP-CZE-ESI-QqQ method was successfully evaluated as for its performance parameters (LOD, LOQ, linearity, precision, recovery/accuracy) and applied for the direct identification and ultratrace (pgmL(-1)) determination of varenicline and, in addition, identification of its targeted metabolite, 2-hydroxy-varenicline, in unpretreated/diluted human urine. This application example demonstrated the real analytical potential of this new analytical approach and, at the same time, served as currently the most effective routine clinical method for varenicline. PMID:24793857

Pieš?anský, Juraj; Maráková, Katarína; Veizerová, Lucia; Galba, Jaroslav; Mikuš, Peter

2014-05-15

176

College on Problems of Drug Dependence taskforce on prescription opioid non-medical use and abuse: position statement  

Microsoft Academic Search

This position paper from the College on Problems of Drug Dependence addresses the issues related to non-medical use and abuse of prescription opioids. A central theme throughout is the need to strike a balance between risk management strategies to prevent and deter prescription opioid abuse and the need for physicians and patients to have appropriate access to opioid pharmaceuticals for

James Zacny; George Bigelow; Peggy Compton; Kathleen Foley; Martin Iguchi; Christine Sannerud

2003-01-01

177

Direct Detection of Drugs of Abuse in Whole Hemolysed Postmortem Blood and Qualitative Measurement in EDTA - Plasma using the CEDIA DAU Urine Assays  

Microsoft Academic Search

The direct and simple detection of a broad spectrum of drugs in whole hemolysed postmortem blood (Part A) and the possibility of qualitative measurement in serum and whole blood using the cloned enzyme donor immu- noassay technique (CEDIA) (Part B) is described. We measured the samples for the presence of amphetamines (AMP), barbiturates (BARB), benzodiazepines (BENZ), cannabinoids, cocaine, LSD, methadone

B. Kottenhahn; G. Drasch; G. Roider; B. Hofbauer

178

Preemployment drug screening in a large metropolitan medical center  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess the prevalence of illicit drug use among job applicants, a large metropolitan medical center conducted preemployment\\u000a drug screening of all applicants during January 1988. Urine samples from 172 preinformed applicants were screened using Enzyme\\u000a Multiplied Immunoassay Technique (Emit d.a.u.™) followed by confirmatory gas chromatography\\/mass spectrophotometry. 4.1%\\u000a of tests were positive for marijuana and\\/or cocaine and none was positive

Donald Angehr Smith; Raymond Hanbury

1991-01-01

179

21 CFR 876.5250 - Urine collector and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5250 Urine collector and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

2013-04-01

180

21 CFR 876.5250 - Urine collector and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5250 Urine collector and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

2011-04-01

181

21 CFR 876.5250 - Urine collector and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5250 Urine collector and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

2010-04-01

182

21 CFR 876.5250 - Urine collector and accessories.  

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5250 Urine collector and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

2014-04-01

183

21 CFR 876.5250 - Urine collector and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5250 Urine collector and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

2012-04-01

184

Impact of urine concentration adjustment method on associations between urine metals and estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) in adolescents.  

PubMed

Positive associations between urine toxicant levels and measures of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) have been reported recently in a range of populations. The explanation for these associations, in a direction opposite that of traditional nephrotoxicity, is uncertain. Variation in associations by urine concentration adjustment approach has also been observed. Associations of urine cadmium, thallium and uranium in models of serum creatinine- and cystatin-C-based estimated GFR (eGFR) were examined using multiple linear regression in a cross-sectional study of adolescents residing near a lead smelter complex. Urine concentration adjustment approaches compared included urine creatinine, urine osmolality and no adjustment. Median age, blood lead and urine cadmium, thallium and uranium were 13.9 years, 4.0 ?g/dL, 0.22, 0.27 and 0.04 g/g creatinine, respectively, in 512 adolescents. Urine cadmium and thallium were positively associated with serum creatinine-based eGFR only when urine creatinine was used to adjust for urine concentration (? coefficient=3.1 mL/min/1.73 m(2); 95% confidence interval=1.4, 4.8 per each doubling of urine cadmium). Weaker positive associations, also only with urine creatinine adjustment, were observed between these metals and serum cystatin-C-based eGFR and between urine uranium and serum creatinine-based eGFR. Additional research using non-creatinine-based methods of adjustment for urine concentration is necessary. PMID:24815335

Weaver, Virginia M; Vargas, Gonzalo García; Silbergeld, Ellen K; Rothenberg, Stephen J; Fadrowski, Jeffrey J; Rubio-Andrade, Marisela; Parsons, Patrick J; Steuerwald, Amy J; Navas-Acien, Ana; Guallar, Eliseo

2014-07-01

185

Relationship Between Antimicrobial Drug Usage and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Gram-Positive Mastitis Pathogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to analyze relation- ships between usage of antimicrobial drugs on dairy farmsandresults ofantimicrobialsusceptibilitytesting of mastitis pathogens. Exposure to selected antimicro- bial drugs (n = 10) was standardized by calculation of the number of defined daily doses used per cow. Farms (n = 40) were categorizedbased on amount of antimicro- bial exposure: organic (no usage);

M. Pol; P. L. Ruegg

2007-01-01

186

Are You Positive? The Relationship of Minority Composition to Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although testing for alcohol and drug use is common in the U.S. workplace, relatively little is known about the characteristics of workplaces that test and about the consequences to persons tested. This paper describes the link between drug and alcohol testing and the minority composition of worksites. The data come from a 1999 survey of 264 union officials in the

Gilbert C. Gee; Barbara Curbow; Margaret E. Ensminger; Joan Griffin; David J. Laflamme; Karen McDonnell; David LeGrande; Jacqueline Agnew

2005-01-01

187

Positive Youth Development: Helping Postsecondary Students Deal with Pressures To Use Alcohol and Other Drugs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Current research shows alcohol and other drugs to be a major problem on postsecondary campuses despite the fact that the purchase and use of alcohol is illegal for many college students and on most campuses. Little is known about drug and alcohol use levels among deaf students, many of whom come to college ill prepared to handle the pressures of…

Guthmann, Debra S.; Sandberg, Katherine A.

188

Pressure-assisted electrokinetic injection stacking for verteporfin drug to achieve highly sensitive enantioseparation and detection in artificial urine by capillary electrophoresis.  

PubMed

Pressure-assisted electrokinetic injection (PAEKI) was applied for negatively charged verteporfin (VER) overloading and inline stacking, which targeted highly sensitive enantioseparation by CE. The essential step of PAEKI is a constant pressure used to counterbalance the electroosmotic flow (EOF), consequently, the large amount of analyte could be permitted into capillary and concentrated at the motionless boundary of the sample zone and background electrolyte (BGE). Aiming to know the balance, the velocity of the whole BGE in capillary by the impetus of pressure (0.2-2.0psi), and the velocity of EOF depending on the length of sample plug and voltage (5.0-20kV) was investigated, respectively. The velocity of bulk flow in capillary has good linearity with the pressure or applied voltage. Through the pattern of EOF marked peak and analyte peaks (dissolved in pure water), the constant pressure (0.8psi) vs. the added voltage (-10.3kV) during PAEKI was confirmed to immobilize the bulk flow of BGE, thus the sample injection time could sustain 2.0min without compromising separation efficiency. The obtained LOD (S/N=3) of each isomer at UV detection (428nm) was around 10.3?g/L, which was improved to 116 and 39-fold in comparison with normal hydrodynamic injection (HDI) and electrokinetic injection (EKI). The LOD is far below the reported value with LIF detection of VER. The RSD (n=5) of migration time and peak area was, respectively, around 3.5% and 5.7% for the proposed PAEKI method. Finally, PAEKI was used for the detection of VER in artificial urine to investigate the matrix interference. PMID:24951290

Xu, Zhongqi; Li, Aimei; Wang, Yongle; Chen, Zhilong; Hirokawa, Takeshi

2014-08-15

189

Semiquantitative measurement of drugs in urine samples and measurement of pharmaceutical active substances in serum samples using the Beckman Coulter Synchron LX20 PRO clinical system.  

PubMed

Our manuscript describes the investigation of options for the detection and semiquantitative assay of drug (metabolites) and the assay of relevant pharmaceutical active substances using the LX20 PRO (Beckman Coulter) in comparison with the Dimension RxL (Dade Behring) and the TDx or AxSYM (Abbott) system. Drug tests carried out with the LX system satisfy sensitivity and selectivity requirements. The assay of the pharmaceutical active substances revealed a few noticeable clusters of values with valproate and, in particular, digitoxin, that can be attributable to the reagents used rather than to the system itself, which is highly stable and reproducible in terms of operation. These values are thus devoid of any considerable clinical significance. PMID:17323820

König, Harald; Lestin, Heiko-Gundmar; Brinkmann, Thomas; Augsten, Manfred; Kotira, Bernhard

2007-01-01

190

Comprehensive screening of anabolic steroids, corticosteroids, and acidic drugs in horse urine by solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports two highly efficient liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC–MS) methods for the screening of anabolic steroids, corticosteroids, and acidic drugs for the purpose of doping control in equine sports. Sample extraction was performed using a mixed-mode C8-SCX solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridge. The first eluted fraction (acidic\\/neutral fraction) was base-washed and the resulting organic extract was used for the screening

Emmie N. M. Ho; David K. K. Leung; Terence S. M. Wan; Nola H. Yu

2006-01-01

191

Lefetamine-derived designer drugs N-ethyl-1,2-diphenylethylamine (NEDPA) and N-iso-propyl-1,2-diphenylethylamine (NPDPA): metabolism and detectability in rat urine using GC-MS, LC-MSn and LC-HR-MS/MS.  

PubMed

N-Ethyl-1,2-diphenylethylamine (NEDPA) and N-iso-propyl-1,2-diphenylethylamine (NPDPA) are two designer drugs, which were confiscated in Germany in 2008. Lefetamine (N,N-dimethyl-1,2-diphenylethylamine, also named L-SPA), the pharmaceutical lead of these designer drugs, is a controlled substance in many countries. The aim of the present work was to study the phase I and phase II metabolism of these drugs in rats and to check for their detectability in urine using the authors' standard urine screening approaches (SUSA). For the elucidation of the metabolism, rat urine samples were worked up with and without enzymatic cleavage, separated and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-high resolution-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-HR-MS/MS). According to the identified metabolites, the following metabolic pathways for NEDPA and NPDPA could be proposed: N-dealkylation, mono- and bis-hydroxylation of the benzyl ring followed by methylation of one of the two hydroxy groups, combinations of these steps, hydroxylation of the phenyl ring after N-dealkylation, glucuronidation and sulfation of all hydroxylated metabolites. Application of a 0.3 mg/kg BW dose of NEDPA or NPDPA, corresponding to a common lefetamine single dose, could be monitored in rat urine using the authors' GC-MS and LC-MS(n) SUSA. However, only the metabolites could be detected, namely N-deethyl-NEDPA, N-deethyl-hydroxy-NEDPA, hydroxy-NEDPA, and hydroxy-methoxy-NEDPA or N-de-iso-propyl-NPDPA, N-de-iso-propyl-hydroxy-NPDPA, and hydroxy-NPDPA. Assuming similar kinetics, an intake of these drugs should also be detectable in human urine. PMID:24591097

Wink, Carina S D; Meyer, Golo M J; Wissenbach, Dirk K; Jacobsen-Bauer, Andrea; Meyer, Markus R; Maurer, Hans H

2014-10-01

192

[Two news drugs (ivacaftor & bedaquiline), one biomarker (florbetapir) and a re-positioned drug (propranolol) on the market].  

PubMed

Among the new molecular entities approved by the EMEA and the FDA in 2012, four have caught our attention for their significant contribution to the health of patient. First of all, among the notable 2012 approvals, is ivacaftor or Kalydeco®. This is the first treatment that targets one of the gene defects that is underlying cause of cystic fibrosis. This is also an example of the promise of personalized medicine. The benefits with bedaquiline or Sirturo® are its ability to likely provide clinically relevant activity as part of multi-drug regimens against tuberculosis (TB) based on clinical data in multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) patients, who were defined as being at least resistant against the two major tuberculostatic medicines (isaoniazide and rifampicine). On December 2012 and then, on December 2013, the FDA and European Medicines Agency's Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) has recommended granting a conditional marketing authorization for Sirturo® (bedaquiline), respectively, for use as part of a combination therapy for pulmonary multidrug resistant tuberculosis in adult patients when an effective treatment regimen cannot otherwise be composed for reasons of resistance or tolerability. Amyvid®, which is a solution for injection that contains the active substance florbetapir (18F), is a radiopharmaceutical that emits low amounts of radiation and works by targeting and attaching to ?-amyloid plaques in the brain. This enables doctors to know whether or not significant amount of plaques are present in order to know if the patient is unlikely or not, to have Alzheimer's disease. Finally, the last topics addresses the propranolol, which is a beta-blocker, used alone or together with other medicines to treat high blood pressure. Propranolol is gaining a new lease of life for treating infantile hemangioma. PMID:24997884

Monneret, C

2014-07-01

193

Frequent or urgent urination  

MedlinePLUS

... use Anxiety Bladder cancer (not a common cause) Caffeine Enlarged prostate or infection of the prostate Interstitial ... pelvis Vaginitis Drinking too much before bedtime, especially caffeine or alcohol, can cause frequent urination at nighttime. ...

194

Urinating more at night  

MedlinePLUS

... you to urinate more often during the night. Caffeine and alcohol after dinner can also lead to ... or urinary tract Drinking a lot of alcohol, caffeine, or other fluids before bedtime Enlarged prostate gland ( ...

195

Abnormalities of urine urobilinogen and urine bilirubin assays and their relation to abnormal results of serum liver function tests.  

PubMed

A prospective observational study of 324 cases was conducted in a busy ambulatory care setting to evaluate the sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, and accuracy of spot urine urobilinogen and urine bilirubin assays as screening tests for serum liver function test (LFT) abnormalities. High positive predictive values (88% for at least one abnormal LFT) make the evaluation of positive urine screens detected during routine health care maintenance examinations imperative. Because extraneous factors may influence both urine and serum test results, however, urine assays obtained as a screening parameter in clinical presentations (abdominal pain, jaundice, constitutional symptoms, etc) have only limited clinical utility. The high proportion of false-negative results for both urine assays renders their statistical properties unacceptable as screens in these clinical situations. PMID:3175729

Binder, L; Smith, D; Kupka, T; Nelson, B; Glass, B; Wainscott, M; Haynes, J

1988-10-01

196

A cost-utility analysis of drug treatments in patients with HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B in Thailand  

PubMed Central

Background Only lamivudine has been included for patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) in the National List of Essential Drugs (NLED), a pharmaceutical reimbursement list in Thailand. There have also been no economic evaluation studies of CHB drug treatments conducted in Thailand yet. In order to fill this gap in policy research, the objective of this study was to compare the cost-utility of each drug therapy (Figure 1) with palliative care in patients with HBeAg-positive CHB. Methods A cost-utility analysis using an economic evaluation model was performed to compare each drug treatment for HBeAg-positive CHB patients. A Markov model was used to estimate the relevant costs and health outcomes during a lifetime horizon based on a societal perspective. Direct medical costs, direct non-medical costs, and indirect costs were included, and health outcomes were denoted in life years (LYs) and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). The results were presented as an incremental cost effectiveness ratio (ICER) in Thai baht (THB) per LY or QALY gained. One-way sensitivity and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were applied to investigate the effects of model parameter uncertainties. Results The ICER values of providing generic lamivudine with the addition of tenofovir when drug resistance occurred, generic lamivudine with the addition of tenofovir based on the road map guideline, and tenofovir monotherapy were -14,000 (USD -467), -8,000 (USD -267) , and -5,000 (USD -167) THB per QALY gained, respectively. However, when taking into account all parameter uncertainties in the model, providing generic lamivudine with the addition of tenofovir when drug resistance occurred (78% and 75%) and tenofovir monotherapy (18% and 24%) would yield higher probabilities of being cost-effective at the societal willingness to pay thresholds of 100,000 (USD 3,333) and 300,000 (USD 10,000) THB per QALY gained in Thailand, respectively. Conclusions Based on the policy recommendations from this study, the Thai government decided to include tenofovir into the NLED in addition to generic lamivudine which is already on the list. Moreover, the results have shown that the preferred treatment regimen involves using generic lamivudine as the first-line drug with tenofovir added if drug resistance occurs in HBeAg-positive CHB patients. PMID:24731689

2014-01-01

197

A preliminary study of spiritual self-schema (3-S(+)) therapy for reducing impulsivity in HIV-positive drug users  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was twofold. First, pretreatment correlations are presented among impulsivity, intoxicant use, HIV risk behavior, spirituality, and motivation in a sample of 38 HIV-positive drug users. Second, treatment outcomes are presented from a preliminary study of spiritual self-schema (3-S(+)) therapy - a manual-guided psychotherapy integrating cognitive and Buddhist psychologies - for increasing motivation for abstinence, HIV

Arthur Margolin; Zev Schuman-Olivier; Mark Beitel; Ruth M. Arnold; Carl E. Fulwiler; S. Kelly Avants

2007-01-01

198

[Cardiovascular safety of non-insulin anti-diabetic drugs. Scientific position statement of SEMERGEN].  

PubMed

Diabetes increases the risk of both microvascular and macrovascular complications. Although reducing plasma glucose levels to recommended targets decreases the risk of microvascular outcomes, the effects of anti-diabetic drugs on macrovascular complications and cardiovascular death are of concern. In fact, it has been suggested that some anti-diabetic agents could even be harmful for cardiovascular outcomes. In this context, several health care regulatory agencies have established the need for performing clinical trials specifically designed to assess the cardiovascular safety of anti-diabetic drugs. The results of 2 clinical trials have recently been published that provide important information on the cardiovascular safety of dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors. The aim of this document was to review the available evidence on the cardiovascular safety of non-insulin anti-diabetic drugs and provide practical recommendations on their use in this context. PMID:24882393

Prieto, M Á; Comas Samper, J M; Escobar Cervantes, C; Gasull Molinera, V

2014-01-01

199

49 CFR 655.46 - Return to duty following refusal to submit to a test, verified positive drug test result and/or...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...submit to a test, verified positive drug test result and/or breath alcohol test result of 0.04 or greater. 655.46 Section 655...submit to a test, verified positive drug test result and/or breath alcohol test result of...

2010-10-01

200

Unprotected Sexual Behavior Among Heterosexual HIV-Positive Injection Drug Using Men: Associations by Partner Type and Partner Serostatus  

PubMed Central

Few studies have examined sexual risk behaviors of HIV-positive, heterosexual, injection drug using (IDU) men. We investigated such behaviors and associations with risk among sexually active, HIV-positive IDU men who reported only female sex partners in the 3 months prior to baseline interview. We examined associations separately for four non-exclusive groups of men by crossing partner type (main or casual) and partner serostatus (HIV-positive or HIV-negative/unknown). Of 732 male participants, 469 (64%) were sexually active with only female partners. Of these 469 men, 155 (33%) reported sex with HIV-positive main partners, 127 (27%) with HIV-negative or unknown serostatus main partners, 145 (31%) with HIV-positive casual partners, and 192 (41%) with HIV-negative/unknown serostatus casual partners. Significant multivariate associations for unprotected sex with HIV-negative or unknown serostatus main partners were less self-efficacy to use condoms, weaker partner norms supporting condoms, and more negative condom beliefs. Similar correlates were found for unprotected sex with HIV-positive main and casual partners. In addition, alcohol or drug use during sex was a significant correlate of unprotected sex with HIV-positive main partners, while depression was significant for HIV-positive casual partners. For unprotected sex with HIV-negative/unknown status casual partners, self-efficacy for condom use, sex trade, and education were significant multivariate correlates. A combination of broad and tailored intervention strategies based on the relationship pattern of men's lives may provide the most benefit for reducing unprotected sex with female partners. PMID:16736116

Mizuno, Yuko; Metsch, Lisa R.; Garfein, Richard; Tobin, Karin; Knight, Kelly; Latka, Mary H.

2006-01-01

201

Diagnostic Performance of Triagetrade mark for Benzodiazepines: Urine Analysis of the Dose of Therapeutic Cases.  

PubMed

We evaluated the diagnostic performance of Triage for benzodiazepines in 74 urine specimens from outpatients given therapeutic doses of benzodiazepines and compared the results of EMIT assays. Results obtained in all urine samples were confirmed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Overall agreement between results of Triage and EMIT assays was 73%. All of the Triage-positive samples were also positive by EMIT assays. Results of Triage and EMIT assays were different for 20 samples obtained from patients given thienodiazepines (etizolam, brotizolam, and clotiazepam) and nitrobenzodiazepines (nitrazepam, flunitrazepam, and clonazepam). LC-MS confirmed parent drugs in urine specimens, consistent with the prescriptions of drugs. The low agreement between Triage and EMIT results in this study might be due to low sensitivity of Triage for thienodiazepines. Thienodiazines are frequently prescribed benzodiazepines, and Triage panel is the most frequently used screening kit in Japan. It should be noted that negative results obtained by a Triage test might not mean the absence of thienodiazepines. PMID:16297284

Kurisaki, Emiko; Hayashida, Makiko; Nihira, Makoto; Ohno, Youkichi; Mashiko, Hirobumi; Okano, Takaaki; Niwa, Shin-Ichi; Hiraiwa, Kouichi

2005-01-01

202

Diagnostic performance of Triage for benzodiazepines: urine analysis of the dose of therapeutic cases.  

PubMed

We evaluated the diagnostic performance of Triage for benzodiazepines in 74 urine specimens from outpatients given therapeutic doses of benzodiazepines and compared the results of EMIT assays. Results obtained in all urine samples were confirmed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Overall agreement between results of Triage and EMIT assays was 73%. All of the Triage-positive samples were also positive by EMIT assays. Results of Triage and EMIT assays were different for 20 samples obtained from patients given thienodiazepines (etizolam, brotizolam, and clotiazepam) and nitrobenzodiazepines (nitrazepam, flunitrazepam, and clonazepam). LC-MS confirmed parent drugs in urine specimens, consistent with the prescriptions of drugs. The low agreement between Triage and EMIT results in this study might be due to low sensitivity of Triage for thienodiazepines. Thienodiazines are frequently prescribed benzodiazepines, and Triage panel is the most frequently used screening kit in Japan. It should be noted that negative results obtained by a Triage test might not mean the absence of thienodiazepines. PMID:16168176

Kurisaki, Emiko; Hayashida, Makiko; Nihira, Makoto; Ohno, Youkichi; Mashiko, Hirobumi; Okano, Takaaki; Niwa, Shin-ichi; Hiraiwa, Kouichi

2005-09-01

203

Computational modeling of drug distribution in the posterior segment of the eye: effects of device variables and positions.  

PubMed

A computational model was developed to simulate drug distribution in the posterior segment of the eye after intravitreal injection and ocular implantation. The effects of important factors in intravitreal injection such as injection time, needle gauge and needle angle on the ocular drug distribution were studied. Also, the influences of the position and the type of implant on the concentration profile in the posterior segment were investigated. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) calculations were conducted to describe the 3D convective-diffusive transport. The geometrical model was constructed based on the human eye dimensions. To simulate intravitreal injection, unlike previous studies which considered the initial shape of the injected drug solution as a sphere or cylinder, the more accurate shape was obtained by level-set method in COMSOL. The results showed that in intravitreal injection the drug concentration profile and its maximum value depended on the injection time, needle gauge and penetration angle of the needle. Considering the actual shape of the injected solution was found necessary to obtain the real concentration profile. In implant insertion, the vitreous cavity received more drugs after intraocular implantation, but this method was more invasive compared to the periocular delivery. Locating the implant in posterior or anterior regions had a significant effect on local drug concentrations. Also, the shape of implant influenced on concentration profile inside the eye. The presented model is useful for optimizing the administration variables to ensure optimum therapeutic benefits. Predicting and quantifying different factors help to reduce the possibility of tissue toxicity and to improve the treatment efficiency. PMID:24946303

Jooybar, Elaheh; Abdekhodaie, Mohammad J; Farhadi, Fatolla; Cheng, Yu-Ling

2014-09-01

204

HER2-positive advanced breast cancer: optimizing patient outcomes and opportunities for drug development.  

PubMed

Effective targeting of the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) has changed the natural history of HER2 overexpressing (HER2+) metastatic breast cancer. The initial success of trastuzumab improving time to progression and survival rates led to the clinical development of pertuzumab, ado-trastuzumab emtansine and lapatinib. These biologic therapies represent significant additions to the breast medical oncology armamentarium. However, drug resistance ultimately develops and most tumours progress within 1 year. Ongoing studies are evaluating novel therapeutic approaches to overcome primary and secondary drug resistance in tumours, including inhibition of PI3K/TOR, HSP90, IGF-IR and angiogenesis. Mounting experimental data support the clinical testing of immune checkpoint modulators and vaccines. The central nervous system remains a sanctuary site for HER2+ breast cancer and further studies are needed for the prevention and treatment of brain metastases in this population. Despite efforts to identify predictors of preferential benefit from HER2-targeted therapies (e.g., truncated HER2, PTEN loss and SRC activation), HER2 protein overexpression and/or gene amplification remains the most important predictive factor of response to HER2-targeted therapies. In this article, we review the optimal sequence of HER2-targeted therapies and describe ongoing efforts to improve the outcome of HER2+ advanced breast cancer through rational drug development. PMID:25025958

Singh, J C; Jhaveri, K; Esteva, F J

2014-11-11

205

Are phylogenetic position, virulence, drug susceptibility and in vivo response to treatment in mycobacteria interrelated?  

PubMed

Phylogenetic analyses on the basis of multiple house-keeping genes and whole genome sequences have offered new insights in the phylogeny of the genus Mycobacterium. This genus yields obligate pathogens, the M. tuberculosis complex and M. leprae, as well as opportunistic pathogens (e.g. M. avium, M. intracellulare, M. kansasii, M. marinum, M. malmoense) and saprophytes (e.g. M. phlei, M. sphagni, M. gordonae). The most virulent mycobacteria, the M. tuberculosis complex, M. leprae and the M. kansasii-M. szulgai-M. marinum-M. ulcerans group are phylogenetically related and infections by these organisms are better treatable than those caused by less virulent and phylogenetically more distantly related Mycobacterium species. The most virulent Mycobacterium species are also characterized by high levels of natural drug susceptibility. In this paper, we review studies of phylogeny, drug susceptibility, and clinical significance to support our hypothesis that drug susceptibility in mycobacteria is acquired and reflects the low level of competition in -and adaptation to- a closer-to-human (environmental) niche. In turn, mycobacteria that inhabit the most competitive environmental niches are the least adapted to humans, thus of low clinical significance, but most tolerant to antibiotics derived from microbes with which they share their habitat, lowering the chances of cure in case of infection. PMID:22036704

van Ingen, Jakko; Boeree, Martin J; van Soolingen, Dick; Iseman, Michael D; Heifets, Leonid B; Daley, Charles L

2012-06-01

206

Urine polymerase chain reaction is not as sensitive as urine antigen for the diagnosis of disseminated histoplasmosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed a colorimetric microtiter plate polymerase chain reaction enzyme immunoassay (PCR-EIA) for the detection of Histoplasma capsulatum in urine. The specificity of the PCR assay was confirmed using H. capsulatum (positive control) and Blastomyces dermatitidis (negative control) isolates. The analytical sensitivity of the PCR assay was determined by testing urine samples spiked with freshly grown H. capsulatum organisms and

Yi-Wei Tang; Haijing Li; Michelle M. Durkin; Sefers E. Sefers; Sufang Meng; Patricia A. Connolly; Charles W. Stratton; L. Joseph Wheat

2006-01-01

207

Heritability of urine and plasma amylase activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Urine amylase activity was measured in 142 boys and girls including unrelated twin individuals, aged 12–16 years. Statistical analysis revealed different distribution in the group with positive protein or blood reaction. Log distribution in a homogeneous sample population was unimodal with a skewness (\\u000a

K. S. Park

1977-01-01

208

Disaccharides in urine samples as markers of intravenous abuse of methadone and buprenorphine.  

PubMed

Methadone and buprenorphine are commonly used as oral substitutes in opiate maintenance programs to treat persons who are dependent on heroin. During these programs, patients are not allowed to continue using illicit drugs. Abstinence can easily be monitored by urine tests with immunochemical methods. It is well known that the intravenous abuse of heroin substitutes like methadone or buprenorphine has become common as well. The methadone-prescribing physician has no opportunity to check whether the opiate maintenance treatment patient takes his substitution medicines orally as intended or continues with his intravenous misuse now substituting the methadone instead of injecting heroin. In Germany, substitutes are available as liquids and tablets that contain carbohydrates as adjuvants. Sucrose is used to increase viscosity in liquids, while lactose is needed for pressing tablets (e.g., Methaddict® and Subutex®). In case of oral ingestion, disaccharides are broken down into monosaccharides by disaccharidases in the small intestine. These monosaccharides are absorbed into the blood stream by special monosaccharide transporters. Disaccharidases do not exist in blood, thus sucrose and lactose are not split if substitute medicines are injected intravenously. Our assumption, therefore, was that they are excreted unchanged in urine. We investigated a method for the detection of disaccharides in urine as markers of intravenous abuse of substitutes. Urine samples of 26 intravenous substitute abusers showed all positive results for lactose (76.9%) and/or sucrose (73.1%). The method is assumed to be useful to detect intravenous abuse of substitutes. PMID:24099717

Jungen, Hilke; Andresen-Streichert, Hilke; Müller, Alexander; Iwersen-Bergmann, Stefanie

2013-01-01

209

10 CFR 707.7 - Random drug testing requirements and identification of testing designated positions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...707.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKPLACE SUBSTANCE ABUSE PROGRAMS AT DOE SITES Procedures § 707.7...designated positions. (a)(1) Each workplace substance abuse program will provide for random testing for...

2010-01-01

210

10 CFR 707.7 - Random drug testing requirements and identification of testing designated positions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...707.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKPLACE SUBSTANCE ABUSE PROGRAMS AT DOE SITES Procedures § 707.7...designated positions. (a)(1) Each workplace substance abuse program will provide for random testing for...

2013-01-01

211

10 CFR 707.7 - Random drug testing requirements and identification of testing designated positions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...707.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKPLACE SUBSTANCE ABUSE PROGRAMS AT DOE SITES Procedures § 707.7...designated positions. (a)(1) Each workplace substance abuse program will provide for random testing for...

2011-01-01

212

10 CFR 707.7 - Random drug testing requirements and identification of testing designated positions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...707.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKPLACE SUBSTANCE ABUSE PROGRAMS AT DOE SITES Procedures § 707.7...designated positions. (a)(1) Each workplace substance abuse program will provide for random testing for...

2012-01-01

213

10 CFR 707.7 - Random drug testing requirements and identification of testing designated positions.  

...707.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKPLACE SUBSTANCE ABUSE PROGRAMS AT DOE SITES Procedures § 707.7...designated positions. (a)(1) Each workplace substance abuse program will provide for random testing for...

2014-01-01

214

Morphine and codeine concentrations in human urine following controlled poppy seeds administration of known opiate content.  

PubMed

Opiates are an important component for drug testing due to their high abuse potential. Proper urine opiate interpretation includes ruling out poppy seed ingestion; however, detailed elimination studies after controlled poppy seed administration with known morphine and codeine doses are not available. Therefore, we investigated urine opiate pharmacokinetics after controlled oral administration of uncooked poppy seeds with known morphine and codeine content. Participants were administered two 45 g oral poppy seed doses 8 h apart, each containing 15.7 mg morphine and 3mg codeine. Urine was collected ad libitum up to 32 h after the first dose. Specimens were analyzed with the Roche Opiates II immunoassay at 2000 and 300 ?g/L cutoffs, and the ThermoFisher CEDIA(®) heroin metabolite (6-acetylmorphine, 6-AM) and Lin-Zhi 6-AM immunoassays with 10 ?g/L cutoffs to determine if poppy seed ingestion could produce positive results in these heroin marker assays. In addition, all specimens were quantified for morphine and codeine by GC/MS. Participants (N=22) provided 391 urine specimens over 32 h following dosing; 26.6% and 83.4% were positive for morphine at 2000 and 300 ?g/L GC/MS cutoffs, respectively. For the 19 subjects who completed the study, morphine concentrations ranged from <300 to 7522 ?g/L with a median peak concentration of 5239 ?g/L. The median first morphine-positive urine sample at 2000 ?g/L cutoff concentration occurred at 6.6 h (1.2-12.1), with the last positive from 2.6 to 18 h after the second dose. No specimens were positive for codeine at a cutoff concentration of 2000 ?g/L, but 20.2% exceeded 300 ?g/L, with peak concentrations of 658 ?g/L (284-1540). The Roche Opiates II immunoassay had efficiencies greater than 96% for the 2000 and 300 ?g/L cutoffs. The CEDIA 6-AM immunoassay had a specificity of 91%, while the Lin-Zhi assay had no false positive results. These data provide valuable information for interpreting urine opiate results. PMID:24887324

Smith, Michael L; Nichols, Daniel C; Underwood, Paula; Fuller, Zachary; Moser, Matthew A; LoDico, Charles; Gorelick, David A; Newmeyer, Matthew N; Concheiro, Marta; Huestis, Marilyn A

2014-08-01

215

[HIV prevention in HIV-positive drug addicts. A methadone-supported model].  

PubMed

In Switzerland, an estimated 15-25% of intravenous drug users (IVDUs) are infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). It has been suggested that reduction of HIV-transmission-prone behavior could be achieved in so-called "early intervention programs". Few public prevention programs have so far been targeted to HIV-infected IVDUs. Socially marginalized, jobless, street-based, HIV-infected IVDUs are those hardest to reach for education programs: it was the hypothesis that they can be motivated for HIV-prevention efforts by methadone-based comprehensive social and medical care. The program was established by integrating one additional social worker in an outpatient clinic for infectious diseases in St. Gallen, a city with a population of 70,000 inhabitants in eastern Switzerland. Access to the 29 clients of this study (10 women, 19 men) was facilitated by offering methadone treatment (follow-up 5 to 29 months). Abstinence from additional illegal drugs was not required. Methadone, plus social care and medical treatment was provided by a small team consisting of a social worker, a physician and a nurse. A gradual approach was chosen to establish a working relationship with clients. The first attempt was to satisfy basic medical needs, housing, and financial support as well as to strengthen relevant personal relationships. Once trusting cooperation was established, reduction of transmission-prone behavior was targeted. The results show that social performance can be greatly improved by integrated social, psychological and medical assistance: for the 16 initially homeless housing was found, 14 found a job and for all but 2 basic financial support was eventually guaranteed. Self-reported drug abuse was markedly reduced, as was transmission-prone behavior by prostitution, unsafe sex practices, needle sharing and improper disposal of used syringes. Breaking the isolation of socially marginalized IVDUs seems to be the important move to enhance their social responsibility as carriers of HIV. PMID:8272803

Oertle, D; Edelmann, R; Ostewalder, J; Vernazza, P L; Galeazzi, R L

1993-12-01

216

Positive Selection Detection in 40,000 Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Type 1 Sequences Automatically Identifies Drug Resistance and Positive Fitness Mutations in HIV Protease and Reverse Transcriptase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drug resistance is a major problem in the treatment of AIDS, due to the very high mutation rate of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and subsequent rapid development of resistance to new drugs. Identification of mutations associated with drug resistance is critical for both individualized treatment selection and new drug design. We have performed an automated mutation analysis of HIV Type

Lamei Chen; Alla Perlina; Christopher J. Lee

2004-01-01

217

The Automicrobic System for urines.  

PubMed Central

An evaluation of the Automicrobic System (AMS) for Urines (Vitek Systems, Inc.) was carried out under the auspices of the Product Evaluation Committee of the College of American Pathologists from the period June 1977 through October 1978. Data generated during this evaluation indicated that, when comparing the AMS methodology to our clinical microbiology laboratory methodology, a 37% time saving could be realized by utilizing the AMS. Quantitation with the AMS showed a 99% correlation with the clinical microbiology laboratory method except for yeast which correlated only 50% of the time. The average overall identification accuracy was 95%. Negative response accuracy was 99%. Other members of the Enterobacteriaceae which the instrument is not designed to identify may produce erroneous results if they occur in urine specimens. Specimens containing two organisms were identified with a 94% correlation when compared to our conventional methodology. The time when a well becomes positive may be used as a fairly reliable indicator of significance (count greater than 70,000 colony-forming units per ml) for Escherichia coli, Klebsiella-Enterobacter group, and group D Enterococcus, but not for Proteus sp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and yeast. Specimen collection must be performed properly since specimens considered as contaminated by conventional plating-out techniques may be reported out by the AMS as only one or two organisms and thus lead to an erroneous assumption as to significance. Cost per specimen was $1.83 more by utilizing the AMS method as compared to our conventional method. This is offset by a saving of 1.74 h daily of personnel time and a final report in 13 h. At least 30 urine specimens would be needed daily to pay for the instrument and specimen costs in 1 year. The AMS can provide significant aid to a clinical microbiology laboratory when all factors are considered. PMID:118176

Nicholson, D P; Koepke, J A

1979-01-01

218

Possible role of more positive social behaviour in the clinical effect of antidepressant drugs  

PubMed Central

Increasing serotonin decreases quarrelsome behaviours and enhances agreeable behaviours in humans. Antidepressants, even those whose primary action is not on serotonin, seem to increase serotonin function. We suggest that antidepressants act in part by effects on social behaviour, which leads to a gradual improvement in mood. We review the evidence supporting the idea that anti-depressants may be moving behaviour from quarrelsome to agreeable. The more positive social responses of interaction partners would initiate a cycle of more positive social behaviour, and this iterative process would result in a clinically significant improvement in mood. PMID:24280182

Young, Simon N.; Moskowitz, Debbie S.; Rot, Marije aan het

2014-01-01

219

Development of simultaneous gas chromatography-mass spectrometric and liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometric determination method for the new designer drugs, N-benzylpiperazine (BZP), 1-(3-trifluoromethylphenyl)piperazine (TFMPP) and their main metabolites in urine.  

PubMed

To prove the intake of recently controlled designer drugs, N-benzylpiperazine (BZP) and 1-(3-trifluoromethylphenyl)piperazine (TFMPP), a simple, sensitive and reliable method which allows us to simultaneously detect BZP, TFMPP and their major metabolite in human urine has been established by coupling gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS). GC-MS accompanied by trifluoroacetyl (TFA) derivatization and LC-MS analyses were performed after the enzymatic hydrolysis and the solid phase extraction with OASIS HLB, and BZP, TFMPP and their major metabolites, 4'-hydroxy-BZP (p-OH-BZP), 3'-hydroxy-BZP (m-OH-BZP) and 4'-hydroxy-TFMPP (p-OH-TFMPP), have found to be satisfactorily separated on a semi-micro SCX column with acetonitrile-40 mM ammonium acetate buffer (pH 4) (75:25, v/v) as the eluent. The detection limits produced by GC-MS were estimated to be from 50 ng/ml to 1 microg/ml in the scan mode, and from 200 to 500 ng/ml in the selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode. Upon applying the LC-ESI-MS technique, the linear calibration curves were obtained by using the SIM mode for all analytes in the concentration range from 10 ng/ml to 10 microg/ml. The detection limits ranged from 5 to 40 ng/ml in the scan mode, and from 0.2 to 1 ng/ml in the SIM mode. These results indicate the high reliability and sensitivity of the present procedure, and this procedure will be applicable for proof of intake of BZP and TFMPP in forensic toxicology. PMID:15833296

Tsutsumi, Hiroe; Katagi, Munehiro; Miki, Akihiro; Shima, Noriaki; Kamata, Tooru; Nishikawa, Mayumi; Nakajima, Kunio; Tsuchihashi, Hitoshi

2005-05-25

220

Pyrrolidine bis-cyclic guanidines with antimicrobial activity against drug-resistant Gram-positive pathogens  

E-print Network

and bactericidal activities against the important human pathogen methicillin-resis- tant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis (VRE), and two Gram-negative bacterial species. At least 20 in the preeminent Gram-positive bacterial pathogen Staphylococcus aureus, which is increasingly unresponsive

Nizet, Victor

221

Drugs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains the third volume of "Today's Delinquent," an annual publication of the National Center for Juvenile Justice. This volume deals with the issue of drugs and includes articles by leading authorities in delinquency and substance abuse who share their views on causes and cures for the drug problem among youth in this country.…

Hurst, Hunter, Ed.; And Others

1984-01-01

222

FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS OF A NOVEL POSITIVE ALLOSTERIC MODULATOR OF AMPA RECEPTORS DERIVED FROM A STRUCTURE-BASED DRUG DESIGN STRATEGY  

PubMed Central

Positive allosteric modulators of ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazole-propionic acid (AMPA) receptors facilitate synaptic plasticity and can improve various forms of learning and memory. These modulators show promise as therapeutic agents for the treatment of neurological disorders such as schizophrenia, ADHD, and mental depression. Three classes of positive modulator, the benzamides, the thiadiazides, and the biarylsulfonamides differentially occupy a solvent accessible binding pocket at the interface between the two subunits that form the AMPA receptor ligand-binding pocket. Here, we describe the electrophysiological properties of a new chemotype derived from a structure-based drug design strategy (SBDD), which makes similar receptor interactions compared to previously reported classes of modulator. This pyrazole amide derivative, JAMI1001A, with a promising developability profile, efficaciously modulates AMPA receptor deactivation and desensitization of both flip and flop receptor isoforms. PMID:22735771

Harms, Jonathan E.; Benveniste, Morris; Maclean, John K. F.; Partin, Kathryn M.; Jamieson, Craig

2012-01-01

223

Magnesium, calcium, and trace elements excretion in 24-h urine.  

PubMed

Urine is a clinical specimen often used in medical diagnostics for monitoring of elements concentrations and kidneys function. We determined the contents of magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd) in 74 samples of 24-h urine (from 46 women and 28 men). The measurements were realized by the atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) with atomization in the flame (FAAS) and in the graphite furnace (GFAAS). The received results were the subject of statistical analysis including the sex and age of volunteers. Moreover, correlations between the elements and the relationships between age and amounts of excreted elements with urine were tested. We found the statistically significant higher content of Zn in men's urine than in women(')s one. Moreover, both adult women and men (>18 years) excreted much more Ca in urine in comparison to young subjects. Only in case of Pb the significant positive correlation between its amount in 24-h urine of all donors and age was stated. The correlation analysis has shown the significant positive relationships between Ca-Mg, Ca-Fe, Mg-Fe, Cu-Fe, Cu-Cd, Fe-Cd, and Pb-Cd in total samples of urine. Basing on our results, we concluded that the gender and age of donors may impact on the elemental status of 24-h urine. PMID:20549400

D?ugaszek, Maria; Kaszczuk, Miros?awa; Mularczyk-Oliwa, Monika

2011-07-01

224

Please see the job posting listed below. Postdoctoral Position in the Neuroscience of Drug and Alcohol Addiction at the University of Pittsburgh.  

E-print Network

and Alcohol Addiction at the University of Pittsburgh. Up to two postdoctoral positions are currently (particularly in the PFC) and increases susceptibility to alcoholism and drug addiction. Studies include both

Pillow, Jonathan

225

The context of HIV risk behaviours among HIV-positive injection drug users in Viet Nam: Moving toward effective harm reduction  

PubMed Central

Background Injection drug users represent the largest proportion of all HIV reported cases in Viet Nam. This study aimed to explore the perceptions of risk and risk behaviours among HIV-positive injection drug users, and their experiences related to safe injection and safe sex practices. Methods This study used multiple qualitative methods in data collection including in-depth interviews, focus group discussions and participant observation with HIV-positive injection drug users. Results The informants described a change in the sharing practices among injection drug users towards more precautions and what was considered 'low risk sharing', like sharing among seroconcordant partners and borrowing rather than lending. However risky practices like re-use of injection equipment and 'syringe pulling' i.e. the use of left-over drugs in particular, were frequently described and observed. Needle and syringe distribution programmes were in place but carrying needles and syringes and particularly drugs could result in being arrested and fined. Fear of rejection and of loss of intimacy made disclosure difficult and was perceived as a major obstacle for condom use among recently diagnosed HIV infected individuals. Conclusion HIV-positive injection drug users continue to practice HIV risk behaviours. The anti-drug law and the police crack-down policy appeared as critical factors hampering ongoing prevention efforts with needle and syringe distribution programmes in Viet Nam. Drastic policy measures are needed to reduce the very high HIV prevalence among injection drug users. PMID:19348681

Thanh, Duong Cong; Moland, Karen Marie; Fylkesnes, Knut

2009-01-01

226

Sensitive semi-microcolumn high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the determination of DU-6681, the active parent drug of a new oral carbapenem antibiotic, DZ-2640, in human plasma and urine using a column-switching system as sample clean-up procedure.  

PubMed

DZ-2640 is a new oral carbapenem antibiotic having a dihydro-pyrroloimidazole ring as a side chain and a pivaloyloxymethyl (POM) ester prodrug of DU-6681, the active parent compound. A simple and sensitive column-switching semi-microcolumn high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the determination of DU-6681 in human plasma and urine has been developed. Human plasma was diluted with an equal volume of 1 M MOPS buffer (pH 7.0) and the mixture was filtered through an Ultrafree C3GV. The resulting filtrate was injected without further cleanup onto the HPLC system. Human urine was diluted with an equal volume of 1 M MOPS buffer (pH 7.0) and the mixture was directly injected onto the HPLC system. The analyte was detected by monitoring the column effluent with UV light at a wavelength of 300 nm, which resulted in the limit of quantitation of 0.008 microg/ml of plasma and 0.32 microg/ml of urine. Calibration curves were linear in the range of 0.008 to 5.85 microg/ml in plasma and 0.32 to 104.4 microg/ml in urine. The present methods showed greatly increased sensitivity for DU-6681 compared to conventional HPLC methods and also showed satisfactory recovery, selectivity, precision, and accuracy. Stability studies showed that 1 M MOPS buffer (pH 7.0) acted as a stabilizer. In plasma and urine diluted with equal volume of the buffer, DU-6681 showed good stability at -80 degrees C for up to 4 weeks with no significant loss of the drug. PMID:10202959

Tanaka, M; Kato, K

1999-03-01

227

Interaction Between Drugs and Biomedical Materials i: Binding Position of Bezafibrate to Human Serum Alubmin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interaction between bezafibrate (BZF) and human serum albumin (HSA) was investigated by equilibrium dialysis. Since the binding constant of BZF to HSA was independent of ionic strength and decreased with the addition of fatty acid, the interaction between BZF and HSA was considered to be due to hydrophobic mechanism. Chemical shifts in 1H-NMR spectra of BZF were independent of the concentration of BZF and addition of HSA. Spin-lattice relaxation time (T1) and spin-spin relaxation time (T2) of respective protons of BZF were independent of the concentration, but depended on the concentration of HSA added. The binding position of BZF to HSA was considered to involve the hydrophobic aromatic moiety of BZF from the ratio of spin-spin relaxation rates (1/T2) of BZF bound to HSA and free BZF.

Tanaka, Masami; Minagawa, Keiji; Berber, Mohamed R.; Hafez, Inas H.; Mori, Takeshi

228

Hyaluronic acid-based nanogel-drug conjugates with enhanced anticancer activity designed for targeting of CD44-positive and drug-resistant tumors  

PubMed Central

Many drug-resistant tumors and cancer stem cells (CSC) express elevated levels of CD44 receptor, a cellular glycoprotein binding hyaluronic acid (HA). Here, we report the synthesis of nanogel-drug conjugates based on membranotropic cholesteryl-HA (CHA) for efficient targeting and suppression of drug-resistant tumors. These conjugates significantly increased the bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs with previously reported activity against CSC, such as etoposide, salinomycin, and curcumin. The small nanogel particles (diam. 20–40 nm) with a hydrophobic core and high drug loads (up to 20%) formed after ultrasonication and demonstrated a sustained drug release following the hydrolysis of biodegradable ester linkage. Importantly, CHA-drug nanogels demonstrated 2–7 times higher cytotoxicity in CD44-expressing drug-resistant human breast and pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells compared to free drugs and non-modified HA-drug conjugates. These nanogels were efficiently internalized via CD44 receptor-mediated endocytosis and simultaneous interaction with the cancer cell membrane. Anchoring by cholesterol moieties in the cellular membrane after nanogel unfolding evidently caused more efficient drug accumulation in cancer cells compared to non-modified HA-drug conjugates. CHA-drug nanogels were able to penetrate multicellular cancer spheroids and displayed higher cytotoxic effect in the system modeling tumor environment than both free drugs and HA-drug conjugates. In conclusion, the proposed design of nanogel-drug conjugates allowed us to significantly enhance drug bioavailability, cancer cell targeting, and the treatment efficacy against drug-resistant cancer cells and multicellular spheroids. PMID:23547842

Wei, Xin; Senanayake, Thulani H.; Warren, Galya; Vinogradov, Serguei V.

2013-01-01

229

Methamphetamine and amphetamine isomer concentrations in human urine following controlled vicks vapoinhaler administration.  

PubMed

Legitimate use of legal intranasal decongestants containing l-methamphetamine may complicate interpretation of urine drug tests positive for amphetamines. Our study hypotheses were that commonly used immunoassays would produce no false-positive results and a recently developed enantiomer-specific gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) procedure would find no d-amphetamine or d-methamphetamine in urine following controlled Vicks VapoInhaler administration at manufacturer's recommended doses. To evaluate these hypotheses, 22 healthy adults were each administered one dose (two inhalations in each nostril) of a Vicks VapoInhaler every 2 h for 10 h on Day 1 (six doses), followed by a single dose on Day 2. Every urine specimen was collected as an individual void for 32 h after the first dose and assayed for d- and l-amphetamines specific isomers with a GC-MS method with >99% purity of R-(-)-?-methoxy-?-(trifluoromethyl)phenylacetyl derivatives and 10 µg/L lower limits of quantification. No d-methamphetamine or d-amphetamine was detected in any urine specimen by GC-MS. The median l-methamphetamine maximum concentration was 62.8 µg/L (range: 11.0-1,440). Only two subjects had detectable l-amphetamine, with maximum concentrations coinciding with l-methamphetamine peak levels, and always ? 4% of the parent's maximum. Three commercial immunoassays for amphetamines EMIT(®) II Plus, KIMS(®) II and DRI(®) had sensitivities, specificities and efficiencies of 100, 97.8, 97.8; 100, 99.6, 99.6 and 100, 100, 100%, respectively. The immunoassays had high efficiencies, but our first hypothesis was not affirmed. The EMIT(®) II Plus assay produced 2.2% false-positive results, requiring an enantiomer-specific confirmation. PMID:25217541

Smith, Michael L; Nichols, Daniel C; Underwood, Paula; Fuller, Zachary; Moser, Matthew A; Flegel, Ron; Gorelick, David A; Newmeyer, Matthew N; Concheiro, Marta; Huestis, Marilyn A

2014-10-01

230

EMERGENCY DEPARTMENT UTILIZATION AMONG A COHORT OF HIV-POSITIVE INJECTING DRUG USERS IN A CANADIAN SETTING  

PubMed Central

Background HIV-positive injection drug users (IDU) are known to be at risk for multiple medical problems that may necessitate emergency department (ED) use, however, the relative contribution of HIV disease versus injection-related complications have not been well described. Objectives We examined factors associated with ED use among a prospective cohort of HIV-positive IDU in a Canadian setting. Methods We enrolled HIV-positive IDU into a community-recruited prospective cohort study. We modeled factors associated with the time to first ED visit using Cox regression to determine factors independently associated with ED use. In sub-analyses, we examined ED diagnoses and subsequent hospital admission rates. Results Between December 5, 2005, and April 30, 2008, 428 HIV-positive IDU were enrolled, among whom the cumulative incidence of ED use was 63.7% (95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 59.1% – 68.3%) at 12 months after enrollment. Factors independently associated with time to first ED visit included: unstable housing (Hazard Ratio [HR] = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.1–2.0) and reporting being unable to obtain needed health care services (HR = 2.2, 95% CI: 1.2–4.1), whereas CD4 count and viral load were non-significant. Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) accounted for the greatest proportion of ED visits (17%). Of the 2461 visits to the ED, 419 (17%) were admitted to hospital. Conclusions High rates of ED use were observed among HIV-positive IDU, a behavior that was predicted by unstable housing and limited access to primary care. Factors other than HIV infection appear to be driving ED use among this population in the post-HAART era. PMID:21719229

Fairbairn, Nadia; Milloy, M-J; Zhang, Ruth; Lai, Calvin; Grafstein, Eric; Kerr, Thomas; Wood, Evan

2011-01-01

231

[Comparison of four immunoassay screening devices for detection of benzodiazepine and its metabolites in urine: mainly detection of etizolam, thienodiazepine and its metabolites].  

PubMed

The immunoassay screening of benzodiazepines in urine is one of the most important methods of drug analysis in clinical and forensic laboratories. We experienced an unusual case of poisoning wherein the result of Triage DOA immunoassay screening was negative, although Depas (etizolam) was detected in the blood of the victim who had been suspected to prescribe Depas by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Depas has been widely used for the treatment of anxiety in Japan. Three immunoassay screening devices (AccuSign BZO, Monitect-3, and Fastect II) were evaluated for their specificity for etizolam, its 2 major metabolites M-III and M-VI, and other metabolites of benzodiazepines in urine. With AccuSign BZO, etizolam, M-III, and M-VI could be detected at concentrations of 1,000 ng/mL in urine; however, they could not be detected even at concentrations of 25,000 ng/mL with the other kits. In the case of etizolam poisoning, the result of AccuSign BZO was positive; however, Triage DOA, which is mainly used for the detection of drugs in urine at intensive care units (ICUs) or forensic laboratories, showed negative result for benzodiazepines. The concentrations of etizolam and its metabolites in urine were measured by the established high-performance liquid chromatographic method. The concentrations of M-III and M-V were 700 and 1,600 ng/mL, respectively. AccuSign BZO demonstrated higher specificity-than the other screening kits for the detection of etizolam and its metabolites in urine. Therefore, the types of drugs detected would be increased by combining Triage DOA with AccuSign BZO in ICUs or forensic laboratories. PMID:21485120

Namera, Akira; Makita, Ryosuke; Nagao, Masataka

2011-03-01

232

Role of 5HT 2A and 5HT 2C receptors in the stimulus effects of hallucinogenic drugs II: reassessment of LSD false positives  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the context of animal studies of hallucinogens, an LSD-false positive is defined as a drug known to be devoid of hallucinogenic activity in humans but which nonetheless fully mimics LSD in animals. Quipazine, MK-212, lisuride, and yohimbine have all been reported to be LSD false positives. The present study was designed to determine whether these compounds also substitute for

David Fiorella; R. A. Rabin; J. C. Winter

1995-01-01

233

Budget impact analysis of antiretroviral less drug regimen simplification in HIV-positive patients on the Italian National Health Service  

PubMed Central

Background Deintensification and less drug regimen (LDR) antiretroviral therapy (ART) strategies have proved to be effective in terms of maintaining viral suppression in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients, increasing tolerability, and reducing toxicity of antiretroviral drugs administered to patients. However, the economic impact of these strategies have not been widely investigated. The aim of the study is to evaluate the economic impact that ART LDR could have on the Italian National Health Service (INHS) budget. Methods A budget impact model was structured to assess the potential savings for the INHS by the use of ART LDR for HIV-positive patients with a 3 year perspective. Data concerning ART cost, patient distribution within different ARTs, and probabilities for patients to change ART on a yearly basis were collected within four Italian infectious diseases departments, providing ART to 13.7% of the total number of patients receiving ART in Italy. Results The LDR investigated (protease inhibitor-based dual and monotherapies) led to savings for the hospitals involved when compared to the “do nothing” scenario on a 3 year basis, between 6.7% (23.11 million €) and 12.8% (44.32 million €) of the total ART expenditures. The mean yearly cost per patient is reduced from 9,875 € in the do nothing scenario to a range between 9,218 € and 8,615 €. The use of these strategies within the four departments involved would have led to a reduction of ART expenditures for the INHS of between 1.1% and 2.1% in 3 years. Conclusion ART LDR simplification would have a significant impact in the reduction of ART-related costs within the hospitals involved in the study. These strategies could therefore be addressed as a sustainable answer to the public financing reduction observed within the INHS in the last year, allowing therapies to be dispensed without affecting the quality of the services provided. PMID:25285019

Restelli, Umberto; Andreoni, Massimo; Antinori, Andrea; Bonfanti, Marzia; Di Perri, Giovanni; Galli, Massimo; Lazzarin, Adriano; Rizzardini, Giuliano; Croce, Davide

2014-01-01

234

28 CFR 550.43 - Drug counseling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drug counseling. 550.43 Section 550.43 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT DRUG PROGRAMS Drug Services (Urine Surveillance and...

2010-07-01

235

Drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reviews 11 studies, published from the year 1917 to 1910, by Miles, Fiske, Graham, Rowe, Anderson, Marks, Stanley, Johnson, Macht, Isaacs, Greenberg and Lashley on the effects of alcohol, tobacco smoking, drug addiction, addiction to medicines like aspirin, and strychnine and caffeine.

A. T. Poffenberger

1919-01-01

236

Pre-employment Drug Testing of Housestaff Physicians at a Large Urban Hospital.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center (New York City) program of preemployment urine toxicology examinations for beginning housestaff physicians has resulted in treatment for two physicians testing positive for illegal drugs. The program's primary purpose is to focus on substance abuse issues in graduate medical education. (Author/MSE)

Lewy, Robert M.

1991-01-01

237

Development of a two-dimensional liquid chromatography system for isolation of drug metabolites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The separation, isolation and identification of drug metabolites from complex endogenous matrices like urine, plasma and tissue extracts are challenging tasks. Metabolites are usually first identified by mass spectrometry and tentative structures proposed from product ion spectra. In many cases mass spectrometry cannot be used to determine positional isomers and metabolites have to be fractionated in microgram amounts for analysis

Mala Jayamanne; Ingrid Granelli; Agneta Tjernberg; Per-Olof Edlund

2010-01-01

238

Detectability of new psychoactive substances, 'legal highs', in CEDIA, EMIT, and KIMS immunochemical screening assays for drugs of abuse.  

PubMed

The increasing number of new psychoactive substances made available for recreational drug use has created a challenge for clinical toxicology and drug testing laboratories. As a consequence, the routine immunoassay drug testing may become less effective due to an increased occurrence of false negative and false positive screening results. This work aimed to extend the knowledge about analytical cross-reactivity of new substances in selected CEDIA, EMIT, and KIMS immunoassays for drugs-of-abuse screening. Urine standards were prepared by spiking blank urine with 45 new substances. Authentic urine samples from intoxication cases identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) were also studied. Several new psychoactive substances were demonstrated to display cross-reactivity in the immunoassays. CEDIA Amphetamine/Ecstasy and EMIT d.a.u. Amphetamine Class tests showed the highest reactivity towards the new drugs, which was expected since many have amphetamine-like structure and activity. In the samples from authentic cases, five new substances displayed 100% detection rate in the CEDIA Amphetamine/Ecstasy test. In conclusion, cross-reactivity data in routine urine drug screening immunoassays for a number of new psychoactive substances not studied before were reported. In both spiked and authentic urine samples, some new substances showed significant cross-reactivity and are thus detectable in the routine screening methods. PMID:24665024

Beck, Olof; Rausberg, Linnea; Al-Saffar, Yasir; Villen, Tomas; Karlsson, Lennart; Hansson, Therese; Helander, Anders

2014-05-01

239

A simplified procedure for the analysis of formoterol in human urine by liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry: application to the characterization of the metabolic profile and stability of formoterol in urine.  

PubMed

Since 1992, formoterol is included in the prohibited list of doping substances and methods, presently reviewed and updated by the World Anti-Doping Agency. Recently a threshold value of 40ng/mL has been established to differentiate between the prohibited (oral) and the permitted (inhalatory) administration of formoterol to athletes. This paper considers the urinary excretion profile of formoterol and its main metabolites after inhalation of different doses of two of the most used medicaments, available in Italy, containing formoterol fumarate bihydrate (12 and 36?g twice a day of Foradil(®) or 9 and 27?g twice a day of Symbicort(®)), focusing also on the effects, on the measured levels of formoterol, of potential alteration processes (thermal and/or microbiological) that may take place after the collection of the urine samples. Urine sample preparation included an enzymatic hydrolysis and a dilution step. Detection of analytes was performed by a newly developed and validated direct LC-ESI-MS/MS procedure, using a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer under positive ion electro-spray ionization conditions and selected reaction monitoring acquisition mode. The results showed the capability and suitability of the direct LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis for the quantitative confirmation analysis of formoterol in urine samples. The data from the analysis of the urine samples obtained in the excretion studies showed that formoterol is excreted mainly as unmodified drug and to a lesser degree as O-demethylated metabolite. The urinary levels of formoterol (40-60%) and its metabolites (O-demethylated metabolite 5-25%; glucuronide metabolites 25-40%) vary significantly depending both on the administered drug formulation and the subject tested. The maximum urinary concentration reached in this study was 15ng/mL (free+glucuronide), that is significantly lower than the threshold value fixed to report an adverse analytical finding. Finally, our results also showed that formoterol is stable for at least 4 weeks in urine samples correctly collected and stored. PMID:23777613

Mazzarino, Monica; de la Torre, Xavier; Fiacco, Ilaria; Pompei, Chiara; Calabrese, Fabiana; Botrè, Francesco

2013-07-15

240

Elimination profiles of flurbiprofen and its metabolites in equine urine for doping analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flurbiprofen and its main acidic metabolites were detected in equine urine after a single-dose administration of 500 mg flurbiprofen to two 2.5–3.5-years-old mares, in order to be used in equine doping control routine analysis. The urine levels of the parent drug were determined using GC\\/MS. Five acidic metabolites were found in the urine. The structure of the proposed metabolites was

C Tsitsimpikou; M. H. E Spyridaki; I Georgoulakis; D Kouretas; M Konstantinidou; C. G Georgakopoulos

2001-01-01

241

[Determination of zimarin in urine].  

PubMed

Private technique of extraction isolation and purification, chromatographic detection and photometric determination of zimarin in urine is suggested. Detection limit is 0.01 mg, determination limit is 0.1 mg of glycoside in 100 ml of urine. Method makes it possible to detect 66-80% of zimarin added to 100 ml of urine in quantities 0.5-0.1 mg. PMID:2528227

Skorzova, Z B; Shniakina, G P

1989-01-01

242

Relationship between Food Insecurity and Mortality among HIV-Positive Injection Drug Users Receiving Antiretroviral Therapy in British Columbia, Canada  

PubMed Central

Objectives Little is known about the potential impact of food insecurity on mortality among people living with HIV/AIDS. We examined the potential relationship between food insecurity and all-cause mortality among HIV-positive injection drug users (IDU) initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) across British Columbia (BC). Methods Cross-sectional measurement of food security status was taken at participant ART initiation. Participants were prospectively followed from June 1998 to September 2011 within the fully subsidized ART program. Cox proportional hazard models were used to ascertain the association between food insecurity and mortality, controlling for potential confounders. Results Among 254 IDU, 181 (71.3%) were food insecure and 108 (42.5%) were hungry. After 13.3 years of median follow-up, 105 (41.3%) participants died. In multivariate analyses, food insecurity remained significantly associated with mortality (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR]?=?1.95, 95% CI: 1.07–3.53), after adjusting for potential confounders. Conclusions HIV-positive IDU reporting food insecurity were almost twice as likely to die, compared to food secure IDU. Further research is required to understand how and why food insecurity is associated with excess mortality in this population. Public health organizations should evaluate the possible role of food supplementation and socio-structural supports for IDU within harm reduction and HIV treatment programs. PMID:23723968

Anema, Aranka; Chan, Keith; Chen, Yalin; Weiser, Sheri; Montaner, Julio S. G.; Hogg, Robert S.

2013-01-01

243

Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) Risk Factors and Metabolic Syndrome in HIV-Positive Drug Users in Miami.  

PubMed

The frequency of coronary heart disease (CHD) is increasing among HIV seropositive persons. This phenomenon may be related to HIV disease itself, the use of antiretroviral medications and increased length of survival, or the synergism of these factors. In this study we have calculated the 10-year CHD risk estimate and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in a cohort of 118 HIV seropositive chronic drug users, including those who are on HAART with or without protease inhibitors (PI). The results showed that the 10-year coronary heart disease risk among the HIV seropositive drug users was 4.8 ± 5.7, which is within the range of results published for other HIV infected cohorts. The 10-year CHD risk was significantly higher in men (5.9±6.1, p<0.001) than in women (1.7±2.4), due to their gender and the pre-menopausal mean age of the women (39.4±7.3 years of age), despite a significantly higher rate of abdominal obesity (54.8% in women vs. 8.1% in men, p<0.001) and lower HDL (61.3% in women vs. 40% in men, p=0.042). The rate of metabolic syndrome among our female HIV seropositive drug users was significantly higher (29% vs 10.3%, p=0.013) compared to men (10.3%). Participants with metabolic syndrome had a significantly higher 10-year CHD risk (27.8% vs. 10.2%, p=0.041) and higher mean BMI (28.6 ± 4.1 vs. 24.2±4, p<0.001) than those without the syndrome. The predominant proportion of the cohort had a high viral load, suggesting that their use of illicit drugs has an influence on either adherence or effectiveness of antiretroviral medication. Increased viral load was significantly associated with metabolic syndrome (OR=2.23, 95% CI:1.12, 4.47; p=0.023), high fasting glucose (OR=1.61, 95% CI: 1.02, 2.55; p=0.042) and low HDL levels (OR=1.41, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.98; p=0.046), after controlling for age gender, smoking, PI exposure, BMI and CD4. HAART with or without PI did not significantly impact the 10-year CHD risk estimate or metabolic syndrome in this cohort. The estimated effect of PI, however, was positively and significantly related to triglyceride levels (effect estimate=95.81; 95% CI:39.40, 152.21; p<0.01) after controlling for age, gender, smoking, viral load, CD4 cell count and BMI. Heavy use of cigarettes and crack/cocaine was inversely associated with obesity (OR=0.84, 95% CI:0.67, 0.99; p=0.049; OR=0.43, 95% CI:0.19, 0.98; p=0.044, respectively), while use of marijuana tended to be associated with increased central obesity (p=0.08). Heavy cigarette smoking was significantly associated with low HDL (OR=3.06, 95% CI:1.18; 7.95, p=0.02). The significant association of higher viral load with CHD risk indicates that controlling viral load may be important in reducing CHD risk in HIV infected drug users. PMID:18568100

Baum, Marianna K; Rafie, Carlin; Lai, Shenghan; Xue, Lihua; Sales, Sabrina; Page, J Bryan; Berkman, Ronald; Karas, Linden; Campa, Adriana

2006-01-01

244

Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) Risk Factors and Metabolic Syndrome in HIV-Positive Drug Users in Miami  

PubMed Central

The frequency of coronary heart disease (CHD) is increasing among HIV seropositive persons. This phenomenon may be related to HIV disease itself, the use of antiretroviral medications and increased length of survival, or the synergism of these factors. In this study we have calculated the 10-year CHD risk estimate and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in a cohort of 118 HIV seropositive chronic drug users, including those who are on HAART with or without protease inhibitors (PI). The results showed that the 10-year coronary heart disease risk among the HIV seropositive drug users was 4.8 ± 5.7, which is within the range of results published for other HIV infected cohorts. The 10-year CHD risk was significantly higher in men (5.9±6.1, p<0.001) than in women (1.7±2.4), due to their gender and the pre-menopausal mean age of the women (39.4±7.3 years of age), despite a significantly higher rate of abdominal obesity (54.8% in women vs. 8.1% in men, p<0.001) and lower HDL (61.3% in women vs. 40% in men, p=0.042). The rate of metabolic syndrome among our female HIV seropositive drug users was significantly higher (29% vs 10.3%, p=0.013) compared to men (10.3%). Participants with metabolic syndrome had a significantly higher 10-year CHD risk (27.8% vs. 10.2%, p=0.041) and higher mean BMI (28.6 ± 4.1 vs. 24.2±4, p<0.001) than those without the syndrome. The predominant proportion of the cohort had a high viral load, suggesting that their use of illicit drugs has an influence on either adherence or effectiveness of antiretroviral medication. Increased viral load was significantly associated with metabolic syndrome (OR=2.23, 95% CI:1.12, 4.47; p=0.023), high fasting glucose (OR=1.61, 95% CI: 1.02, 2.55; p=0.042) and low HDL levels (OR=1.41, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.98; p=0.046), after controlling for age gender, smoking, PI exposure, BMI and CD4. HAART with or without PI did not significantly impact the 10-year CHD risk estimate or metabolic syndrome in this cohort. The estimated effect of PI, however, was positively and significantly related to triglyceride levels (effect estimate=95.81; 95% CI:39.40, 152.21; p<0.01) after controlling for age, gender, smoking, viral load, CD4 cell count and BMI. Heavy use of cigarettes and crack/cocaine was inversely associated with obesity (OR=0.84, 95% CI:0.67, 0.99; p=0.049; OR=0.43, 95% CI:0.19, 0.98; p=0.044, respectively), while use of marijuana tended to be associated with increased central obesity (p=0.08). Heavy cigarette smoking was significantly associated with low HDL (OR=3.06, 95% CI:1.18; 7.95, p=0.02). The significant association of higher viral load with CHD risk indicates that controlling viral load may be important in reducing CHD risk in HIV infected drug users. PMID:18568100

Baum, Marianna K; Rafie, Carlin; Lai, Shenghan; Xue, Lihua; Sales, Sabrina; Page, J. Bryan; Berkman, Ronald; Karas, Linden; Campa, Adriana

2008-01-01

245

Anti-Tuberculosis Drug Resistance among New and Previously Treated Sputum Smear-Positive Tuberculosis Patients in Uganda: Results of the First National Survey  

PubMed Central

Background Multidrug resistant and extensively drug resistant tuberculosis (TB) have become major threats to control of tuberculosis globally. The rates of anti-TB drug resistance in Uganda are not known. We conducted a national drug resistance survey to investigate the levels and patterns of resistance to first and second line anti-TB drugs among new and previously treated sputum smear-positive TB cases. Methods Sputum samples were collected from a nationally representative sample of new and previously treated sputum smear-positive TB patients registered at TB diagnostic centers during December 2009 to February 2011 using a weighted cluster sampling method. Culture and drug susceptibility testing was performed at the national TB reference laboratory. Results A total of 1537 patients (1397 new and 140 previously treated) were enrolled in the survey from 44 health facilities. HIV test result and complete drug susceptibility testing (DST) results were available for 1524 (96.8%) and 1325 (85.9%) patients, respectively. Of the 1209 isolates from new cases, resistance to any anti-TB drug was 10.3%, 5% were resistant to isoniazid, 1.9% to rifampicin, and 1.4% were multi drug resistant. Among the 116 isolates from previously treated cases, the prevalence of resistance was 25.9%, 23.3%, 12.1% and 12.1% respectively. Of the 1524 patients who had HIV testing 469 (30.7%) tested positive. There was no association between anti-TB drug resistance (including MDR) and HIV infection. Conclusion The prevalence of anti-TB drug resistance among new patients in Uganda is low relative to WHO estimates. The higher levels of MDR-TB (12.1%) and resistance to any drug (25.3%) among previously treated patients raises concerns about the quality of directly observed therapy (DOT) and adherence to treatment. This calls for strengthening existing TB control measures, especially DOT, routine DST among the previously treated TB patients or periodic drug resistance surveys, to prevent and monitor development and transmission of drug resistant TB. PMID:23936467

Lukoye, Deus; Adatu, Francis; Musisi, Kenneth; Kasule, George William; Were, Willy; Odeke, Rosemary; Kalamya, Julius Namonyo; Awor, Ann; Date, Anand; Joloba, Moses L.

2013-01-01

246

Urine Pretreatment Configuration and Test Results for Space Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pretreatment of urine using Oxone and sulfuric acid is baselined in the International Space Station (ISS) waste water reclamation system to control odors, fix urea and control microbial growth. In addition, pretreatment is recommended for long term flight use of urine collection and two phase separation to reduce or eliminate fouling of the associated hardware and plumbing with urine precipitates. This is important for ISS application because the amount of maintenance time for cleaning and repairing hardware must be minimized. This paper describes the development of a chemical pretreatment system based on solid tablet shapes which are positioned in the urine collection hose and are dissolved by the intrained urine at the proper ratio of pretreatment to urine. Building upon the prior success of the developed and tested solid Oxone tablet a trade study was completed to confirm if a similar approach, or alternative, would be appropriate for the sulfuric acid injection method. In addition, a recommended handling and packaging approach of the solid tablets for long term, safe and convenient use on ISS was addressed. Consequently, the solid tablet concept with suitable packaging was identified as the Urine Pretreat / Prefilter Assembly (UPPA). Testing of the UPPA configuration confirmed the disolution rates and ratios required by ISS were achieved. This testing included laboratory controlled methods as well as a 'real world' test evaluation that occurred during the 150 day Stage 10 Water Recovery Test (WRT) conducted at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).

Howard, Stanley G.; Hutchens, Cindy F.; Rethke, Donald W.; Swartley, Vernon L.; Marsh, Robert W.

1998-01-01

247

Position of chromatographic techniques in screening for detection of drugs or poisons in clinical and forensic toxicology and/or doping control.  

PubMed

This paper reviews chromatographic screening procedures for simultaneous detection of several drug classes relevant to clinical and forensic toxicology or doping control in urine or blood using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), liquid chromatography coupled with a diode-array detector (LC-DAD) or a mass spectrometer (LC-MS). The pros and cons of the different techniques and procedures are discussed leading to the following conclusions and perspectives. GC-MS, especially in the electron ionization full-scan mode, is still the method of choice for comprehensive screening providing best separation power, specificity and universality, although requiring derivatization. LC-DAD is also often used for screening, but its separation power and its specificity are still inferior to those of GC-MS. Finally, LC-MS has shown to be an ideal supplement, especially for the detection of more polar, thermolabile and/or low-dose drugs, especially in blood plasma. It may become the gold standard in clinical and forensic toxicology and doping control if, at a later date, the costs of the apparatus will be markedly reduced, the current disadvantages like irreproducibility of fragmentation, reduction of ionization by matrix, etc. will be overcome, and finally if one of the increasing number of quite different techniques will become the apparatus standard. PMID:15576292

Maurer, Hans H

2004-01-01

248

Hair: A Diagnostic Tool to Complement Blood Serum and Urine.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Trace elements and some drugs can be identified in hair and it seems likely that other organic chemicals will be identifiable in the future. Since hair is so easily collected, stored, and analyzed it promises to be an ideal complement to serum and urine analysis as a diagnostic tool. (BB)

Maugh, Thomas H., II

1978-01-01

249

The isomeric metabolites of doxepin in equine serum and urine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to its tranquilizing properties, the tricyclic antidepressant doxepin may be misused as a doping agent in competition horses. Therefore, efficient analytical procedures are required to detect this drug in samples submitted for doping control. To screen for parent doxepin in equine blood and urine, a less specific method has been accepted employing gas chromatography (GC) combined with electron impact

Heinz-Werner Hagedorn; Heribert Meiser; Heidrun Zankl; Rüdiger Schulz

2002-01-01

250

Urine - abnormal color  

MedlinePLUS

... can be caused by: Beets, blackberries, or certain food colorings Hemolytic anemia Injury to the kidneys or urinary tract Medication Porphyria Urinary tract disorders that cause ... or drugs Bilirubin Medications, including methylene blue Urinary ...

251

21 CFR 876.1800 - Urine flow or volume measuring system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 876.1800 Urine flow or volume measuring system. (a) Identification....

2010-04-01

252

21 CFR 876.1800 - Urine flow or volume measuring system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 876.1800 Urine flow or volume measuring system. (a) Identification....

2013-04-01

253

21 CFR 876.1800 - Urine flow or volume measuring system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 876.1800 Urine flow or volume measuring system. (a) Identification....

2011-04-01

254

21 CFR 876.1800 - Urine flow or volume measuring system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 876.1800 Urine flow or volume measuring system. (a) Identification....

2012-04-01

255

21 CFR 876.1800 - Urine flow or volume measuring system.  

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 876.1800 Urine flow or volume measuring system. (a) Identification....

2014-04-01

256

College on Problems of Drug Dependence taskforce on prescription opioid non-medical use and abuse: position statement.  

PubMed

This position paper from the College on Problems of Drug Dependence addresses the issues related to non-medical use and abuse of prescription opioids. A central theme throughout is the need to strike a balance between risk management strategies to prevent and deter prescription opioid abuse and the need for physicians and patients to have appropriate access to opioid pharmaceuticals for the treatment of pain. The epidemiology of prescription opioid use and abuse is reviewed. Non-medical use and abuse of prescription opioids are on the rise in the United States, illicit use of several widely prescribed opioids has increased disproportionately more than illicit use, and the prevalence of prescription opioid abuse appears to be similar to that of heroin and cocaine abuse. There is a paucity of abuse liability testing of prescription opioids, and methods should be developed to fill critical gaps in our knowledge in this area. The role of regulatory agencies in preventing diversion of prescription opioids and identifying potential sources of diversion are discussed. More research is needed to identify those populations most at risk for abusing prescription opioids, and then to develop appropriately targeted prevention programs. Treatment options are discussed; these depend on whether or not an abuser is in pain. Prescription opioid abuse has harmful ramifications for the legitimate and appropriate use of opioids, including stigmatization, opiophobia, and undertreatment of pain. Recommended steps to take include further epidemiological research, laboratory testing of prescription opioids to determine abuse liability, and clinical trials to determine the efficacy of different approaches to the prevention and treatment of prescription opioid abuse. PMID:12633908

Zacny, James; Bigelow, George; Compton, Peggy; Foley, Kathleen; Iguchi, Martin; Sannerud, Christine

2003-04-01

257

Differences in treatment outcome between male alcohol dependent offenders of domestic violence with and without positive drug screens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Men who are violent toward their partners tend to have a dual problem with alcohol and drug use, yet little is known about differences between men with single rather than dual problems. This study was one of the first to evaluate differences between alcohol dependent men who were arrested for Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) with and without concurrent illicit drug

Caroline J. Easton; Dolores Mandel; Theresa Babuscio; Bruce J. Rounsaville; Kathleen M. Carroll

2007-01-01

258

Catecholamines, Plasma and Urine Test  

MedlinePLUS

... page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Dopamine; Epinephrine; Norepinephrine; Free Urine Catecholamines; Fractionated Catecholamines Formal ... top of each kidney. The primary catecholamines are dopamine, epinephrine (adrenaline), and norepinephrine. Catecholamine testing measures the ...

259

Treating urine by Spirulina platensis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper Spirulina platensis with relatively high nutrition was cultivated to treat human urine. Batch culture showed that the consumption of N in human urine could reach to 99%, and the consumption of P was more than 99.9%, and 1.05 g biomass was obtained by treating 12.5 ml synthetic human urine; continuous culture showed that S. platensis could consume N, Cl, K and S in human urine effectively, and the consumption could reach to 99.9%, 75.0%, 83.7% and 96.0%, respectively, and the consumption of P was over 99.9%, which is very important to increase the closure and safety of the bioregenerative life support system (BLSS).

Yang, Chenliang; Liu, Hong; Li, Ming; Yu, Chengying; Yu, Gurevich

260

A urine volume measurement system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An improved urine volume measurement system for use in the unusual environment of manned space flight is reported. The system utilizes a low time-constant thermal flowmeter. The time integral of the transient response of the flowmeter gives the urine volume during a void as it occurs. In addition, the two phase flows through the flowmeter present no problem. Developments of the thermal flowmeter and a verification of the predicted performance characteristics are summarized.

Poppendiek, H. F.; Mouritzen, G.; Sabin, C. M.

1972-01-01

261

A prototype urine collection device for female aircrew  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Women are gaining increased access to small military cockpits. This shift has stimulated the search for practical urine containment and disposal methods for female aircrew. There are no external urine collection devices (UCD) for women that are comfortable, convenient, and leak free. We describe a prototype UCD that begins to meet this need. Materials used to make custom aviator masks were adapted to mold a perineal mask. First, a perineal cast (negative) was used to make a mold (positive). Next, a perineal mask made of wax was formed to fit the positive mold. Finally, a soft, pliable perineal mask was fabricated using the wax model as a guide. The prototype was tested for comfort, fit, and leakage. In the sitting position, less than 5 cc of urine leakage occurred with each 600 cc of urine collected. Comfort was mostly satisfactory, but ambulation was limited and the outlet design could lead to kinking and obstruction. We concluded that a perineal mask may serve as a comfortable and functional external UCD acceptable for use by females in confined environments. Changes are needed to improve comfort, fit, and urine drainage. Integration into cockpits, pressure suits, chemical defense gear, and environments where access to relief facilities is restricted is planned.

Bisson, Roger U.; Delger, Karlyna L.

1993-01-01

262

Illicit drug use, depression and their association with highly active antiretroviral therapy in HIV-positive women  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundWe examined the interaction of illicit drug use and depressive symptoms, and how they affect the subsequent likelihood of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) use among women with HIV\\/AIDS.

Judith A. Cook; Dennis D. Grey; Jane K. Burke-Miller; Mardge H. Cohen; David Vlahov; Farzana Kapadia; Tracey E. Wilson; Robert Cook; Rebecca M. Schwartz; Elizabeth T. Golub; Kathryn Anastos; Claudia Ponath; Lakshmi Goparaju; Alexandra M. Levine

2007-01-01

263

Changes in drug use are associated with health-related quality of life improvements among methadone maintenance patients with HIV\\/AIDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  This longitudinal study assessed the changes in drug use patterns and health-related quality of life (HRQL) among HIV-positive\\u000a drug users in the first methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) cohort in Vietnam.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A secondary analysis was conducted on 370 HIV-positive drug users (age: mean ± SD: 29.5 ± 5.9 years; 95.7% men). Modified\\u000a WHOQOL-BREF, self-report, and opioid confirmatory urine tests were used to assess HRQL and drug

Bach Xuan Tran; Arto Ohinmaa; Anh Thuy Duong; Nhan Thi Do; Long Thanh Nguyen; Quoc Cuong Nguyen; Steve Mills; Philip Jacobs; Stan Houston

264

Automated drug identification system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

System speeds up analysis of blood and urine and is capable of identifying 100 commonly abused drugs. System includes computer that controls entire analytical process by ordering various steps in specific sequences. Computer processes data output and has readout of identified drugs.

Campen, C. F., Jr.

1974-01-01

265

28 CFR 550.44 - Procedures for arranging drug counseling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Procedures for arranging drug counseling. 550.44 Section 550.44 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT DRUG PROGRAMS Drug Services (Urine Surveillance and...

2010-07-01

266

Interactive ``Video Doctor'' Counseling Reduces Drug and Sexual Risk Behaviors among HIV-Positive Patients in Diverse Outpatient Settings  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundReducing substance use and unprotected sex by HIV-positive persons improves individual health status while decreasing the risk of HIV transmission. Despite recommendations that health care providers screen and counsel their HIV-positive patients for ongoing behavioral risks, it is unknown how to best provide “prevention with positives” in clinical settings. Positive Choice, an interactive, patient-tailored computer program, was developed in the

Paul Gilbert; Daniel Ciccarone; Stuart A. Gansky; David R. Bangsberg; Kathleen Clanon; Stephen J. McPhee; Sophia H. Calderón; Alyssa Bogetz; Barbara Gerbert; Landon Myer

2008-01-01

267

The influence of social and endocrine factors on urine-marking by captive wolves (Canis lupus)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Although serum hormones varied seasonally in all adult animals, only dominant male and female wolves urine-marked. Serum testosterone and urine-marking rates, which increased during the fall/winter breeding season, were positively correlated in both male and female dominant wolves. Estradiol, which increased in conjunction with proestrus and estrus, was not correlated with female urine-marking. These findings suggest that hormonal influence on urine-marking in the wolf is modulated by social factors and contrast with those for both domestic dogs and coyotes, two other members of the genus Canis.

Asa, C.S.; Mech, L.D.; Seal, U.S.; Plotka, E.D.

1990-01-01

268

Confirmation of LSD intoxication by analysis of serum and urine.  

PubMed

Serum and urine specimens of 31 patients with suspected lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) intoxication were analyzed for LSD by both radioimmunoassay (RIA) and high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). The RIA assay, using 0.1 ng/mL as the limit of detection instead of the manufacturer's recommendation of 0.5 ng/mL, was positive for LSD in 13 blood and urine specimens from 14 patients. Results were compared to HPLC analysis using methysergide instead of lysergol as the internal standard and a limit of detection of 0.5 ng/mL. HPLC detected LSD in 9 of 13 serum specimens and 11 of 13 urine specimens that had tested positive by RIA. Of 18 patients with a final clinical diagnosis of LSD intoxication, LSD was detected by RIA in 14 patients and by HPLC in 11 patients. For 13 other cases in which the final diagnosis was a condition other than LSD intoxication, serum and urine assays for LSD were negative in all cases by both techniques. LSD assays have not been generally available in clinical laboratories. We conclude that the qualitative determination of LSD in either serum or urine by a commercially available radioimmunoassay has made it possible to provide reliable laboratory confirmation of LSD intoxication. PMID:2374406

McCarron, M M; Walberg, C B; Baselt, R C

1990-01-01

269

Urine therapy through the centuries.  

PubMed

Urine has always interested and attracted the attention of people. It was in fact never considered a waste product of the body but rather as a distilled product selected from the blood and containing useful substances for the care of the body. It was referred to as the "gold of the blood" and "elixir of long life," indicating its therapeutic potential. This paper reports on the practice of urine therapy since its origin attributed to the Indian culture, and briefly reviews its use through the centuries and different cultures and traditions. Records from the Egyptians to Jews, Greeks, Romans and from the Middle Ages and the Renaissance testify to the practice of urine therapy--a practice that continues to be found in more recent times, from the 18th century to the present. Experiences with the practice of urine therapy have even been discussed and shared recently in 2 different conferences: in 1996 in India and in 1999 in Germany, where people from different countries shared and presented their own research on urine therapy. PMID:21614793

Savica, Vincenzo; Calò, Lorenzo A; Santoro, Domenico; Monardo, Paolo; Mallamace, Agostino; Bellinghieri, Guido

2011-01-01

270

PCR detection of Plasmodium falciparum in human urine and saliva samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Current detection or screening for malaria infection necessitates drawing blood by fingerprick or venipuncture, which poses risks and limitations for repeated measurement. This study presents PCR detection of Plasmodium falciparum in human urine and saliva samples, and illustrates this potential application in genotyping malaria infections. METHODS: Urine and saliva were obtained from 47 thick film positive and 4 negative

Sungano Mharakurwa; Christopher Simoloka; Philip E Thuma; Clive J Shiff; David J Sullivan

2006-01-01

271

[Detection of cannabinoids in urine].  

PubMed

Described in the paper are results of comparative examination of urine by the methods of immunochromatographic express analysis (ICA), fluorescence-polarization immune analysis (FIA) and of thin-layer chromatography (TLC) made for the purpose of detecting consumers of hemp products. A high specificity and a good sensitivity of the methods were demonstrated, which is a basis for using them as preliminary tests in detecting cannaboids and their metabolites in urine. The methods were evaluated quantitively and qualitatively versus the etalon method of chromato-mass-spectrometry. A possibility was pointed out to apply the methods of ICA and TLC as system analysis in the determination of 11-nordelta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carbonic acid in urine of marijuana users. PMID:15881141

Kataev, S S; Zelenina, N B; Melent'ev, A B; Zalesova, V A; Kurdina, L N

2005-01-01

272

Two rapid urine screens for detection of bacteriuria: An evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five hundred twenty-five random clean catch urine specimens, collected from 339 adult females, 137 adult males, and 49 pediatric patients, were screened for the presence of bacteriuria with the Uriscreen catalase test and with the Chemstrip 2 LN dipstick. Quantitative cultures were performed on all specimens. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value for the catalase test,

William F. Nauschuetz; Linda S. Harrison; Sylvia B. Trevino; Geri R. Becker; John Benton

1993-01-01

273

Relative Determination Approach to the Metabolites of Protoberberine Alkaloids in Rat Urine by Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry for the Comparative Studies on Rhizome coptidis and Zuojinwan Preparation.  

PubMed

The lack of authentic standards has limited the quantitative analysis of herbal drugs in biological samples. The present work demonstrated a practicable strategy for the assay of herbs and their metabolites independent of authentic standards. A liquid chromatography- electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) method for the qualitative and quantitative determination of the metabolites after oral administration of Rhizome coptidis and Zuojinwan preparation in rat urine has been developed. Urine samples, extracted with a protein precipitation procedure were separated on a C18 column using a mixture of water (containing 0.1% formic acid) and acetonitrile (30:70, v/v) as mobile phase. The detection was performed via MS with electrospray ionization interface in positive selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode. One urine sample after administration was selected as ‹standard›. The method validation was carried out according to a conventional method which was calibrated by authentic standards. The fully validated method was applied to the pharmacokinetic study of 2,9-demethyljateorhizine-3-sulfate, 13-methoxyjateorhizine-3- glucoronide and 6-methyljateorhizine-5-glucoronide in rat urine. The results could provide evidence to explain the combination of Rhizome coptidis and Evodiae fructus in terms of elimination. PMID:24250561

Yan, Rui; Mu, Qier; Wang, Yin; Liu, Youping; Di, Xin

2012-01-01

274

Simultaneous Quantification of Free and Glucuronidated Cannabinoids in Human Urine by Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry  

PubMed Central

Background Cannabis is the most commonly abused drug of abuse and is commonly quantified during urine drug testing. We conducted a controlled drug administration studies investigating efficacy of urinary cannabinoid glucuronide metabolites for documenting recency of cannabis intake and for determining stability of urinary cannabinoids. Methods A liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated quantifying ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), 11-hydroxy-THC (11-OH-THC), 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH), cannabidiol, cannabinol, THC-glucuronide and THCCOOH-glucuronide in 0.5 ml human urine via supported-liquid extraction. Chromatography was performed on an Ultra Biphenyl column with a gradient of 10 mmol/l ammonium acetate, pH 6.15 and 15% methanol in acetonitrile at 0. 4ml/min. Analytes were monitored by positive and negative mode electrospray ionization and multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry. Results Linear ranges were 0.5–50 ng/ml for THC-glucuronide, 1–100 ng/ml for THCCOOH, 11-OH-THC and cannabidiol, 2–100 ng/ml for THC and cannabinol, and 5–500 ng/ml for THCCOOH-glucuronide (R2>0.99). Mean extraction efficiencies were 34–73% with analytical recovery (bias) 80.5–118.0% and total imprecision 3.0–10.2% coefficient of variation. Conclusion This method simultaneously quantifies urinary cannabinoids and phase II glucuronide metabolites, and enables evaluation of urinary cannabinoid glucuronides for documenting recency of cannabis intake and cannabinoid stability. The assay is applicable for routine urine cannabinoid testing. PMID:22771478

Scheidweiler, Karl B.; Desrosiers, Nathalie A.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

2012-01-01

275

Gefitinib loaded folate decorated bovine serum albumin conjugated carboxymethyl-beta-cyclodextrin nanoparticles enhance drug delivery and attenuate autophagy in folate receptor-positive cancer cells  

PubMed Central

Background Active targeting endocytosis mediated by the specific interaction between folic acid and its receptor has been a hotspot in biological therapy of many human cancers. Various studies have demonstrated that folate and its conjugates could facilitate the chemotherapeutic drug delivery into folate receptor (FR)-positive tumor cells in vitro and in vivo. In order to utilize FA-FR binding specificity to achieve targeted delivery of drugs into tumor cells, we prepared Gefitinib loaded folate decorated bovine serum albumin conjugated carboxymethyl-?-cyclodextrin nanoparticles for enhancing drug delivery in cancer cells. On this context, the aim of our study was to develop a novel nano-delivery system for promoting tumor-targeting drug delivery in folate receptor-positive Hela cells. Results We prepared folic acid (FA)-decorated bovine serum albumin (BSA) conjugated carboxymethyl-?-cyclodextrin (CM-?-CD) nanoparticles (FA-BSA-CM-?-CD NPs) capable of entrapping a hydrophobic Gefitinib. It was observed that nanoparticles are monodisperse and spherical nanospheres with an average diameter of 90.2 nm and negative surface charge of ?18.6 mV. FA-BSA-CM-?-CD NPs could greatly facilitate Gefitinib uptake and enhance the toxicity to folate receptor-positive Hela cells. Under the reaction between FA and FR, Gefitinib loaded FA-BSA-CM-?-CD NPs induced apoptosis of Hela cells through elevating the expression of caspase-3 and inhibited autophagy through decreasing the expressing of LC3. It also confirmed that clathrin-mediated endocytosis and macropinocytosis exerted great influence on the internalization of both NPs. Conclusions These results demonstrated that FA may be an effective targeting molecule and FA-BSA-CM-?-CD NPs provided a new strategy for the treatment of human cancer cells which over-expressed folate receptors. PMID:25358257

2014-01-01

276

Hero or Hypocrite?United States and International Media Portrayals of Carl Lewis Amid Revelations of a Positive Drug Test  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines press coverage of track and field athlete Carl Lewis amid reports in April 2003 that he tested positive for three banned stimulants prior to United States Olympic Trials in 1988. Lewis, of course, won the 1988 100-meter gold medal after Canadian Ben Johnson tested positive for anabolic steroids, a development that brought disgrace to Johnson and adulation

Bryan E. Denham

2004-01-01

277

Psychosocial and demographic correlates of drug use in a sample of HIV-positive adults ages 50 and older.  

PubMed

The prevalence of HIV among adults 50 and older in the USA is increasing as a result of improvements in treatment and detection of HIV infection. Substance use by this population has implications for physical and mental health outcomes. We examined patterns of demographics, mental health, and recent substance use in a diverse sample of heterosexual, bisexual, and gay adults 50 and older living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in New York City. The most commonly used substances were cigarettes or alcohol; however, the majority of the sample did not report recent use of marijuana, poppers, or hard drugs (crystal methamphetamine, cocaine, crack, heroin, ecstasy, GHB, ketamine, and LSD or PCP). Statistically significant associations between substance use and psychological states (well-being and loneliness) were generally weak, and depression scores were not significantly related to use; instead, drug use was associated with gender/sexual orientation. The study observations support addressing substance use specific to subpopulations within PLWHA. PMID:23408281

Siconolfi, Daniel E; Halkitis, Perry N; Barton, Staci C; Kingdon, Molly J; Perez-Figueroa, Rafael E; Arias-Martinez, Vanessa; Karpiak, Stephen; Brennan-Ing, Mark

2013-12-01

278

Perceptions of community- and family-level injection drug user (IDU)- and HIV-related stigma, disclosure decisions and experiences with layered stigma among HIV-positive IDUs in Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores how perceived stigma and layered stigma related to injection drug use and being HIV-positive influence the decision to disclose one's HIV status to family and community and experiences with stigma following disclosure among a population of HIV-positive male injection drug users (IDUs) in Thai Nguyen, Vietnam. In qualitative interviews conducted between 2007 and 2008, 25 HIV-positive male

A. E. Rudolph; W. W. Davis; V. M. Quan; T. V. Ha; N. L. Minh; A. Gregowski; M. Salter; D. D. Celentano; V. Go

2011-01-01

279

Perceptions of community- and family-level injection drug user (IDU)- and HIV-related stigma, disclosure decisions and experiences with layered stigma among HIV-positive IDUs in Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores how perceived stigma and layered stigma related to injection drug use and being HIV-positive influence the decision to disclose one's HIV status to family and community and experiences with stigma following disclosure among a population of HIV-positive male injection drug users (IDUs) in Thai Nguyen, Vietnam. In qualitative interviews conducted between 2007 and 2008, 25 HIV-positive male

A. E. Rudolph; W. W. Davis; V. M. Quan; T. V. Ha; N. L. Minh; A. Gregowski; M. Salter; D. D. Celentano; V. Go

2012-01-01

280

Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Urination Changes  

MedlinePLUS

... services national institutes of health Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Urination Changes Call your doctor or nurse if ... as a fever or pain.” Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Urination Changes Learn about liquids. Drink more liquids. ...

281

First experience with the REMEDi HS urine benzodiazepine assay.  

PubMed

Ninety eight urine samples were analysed with an immunoassay benzodiazepine kit. A total of 68 urine specimens that were presumptively positive for benzodiazepines were evaluated by the REMEDi HS urine benzodiazepine assay (BIO-RAD, Munich, Germany). Of this number, 53 (78%) specimens were found by REMEDi to contain one or more benzodiazepines or their metabolites, and 15 (22%) were found to be negative. From the discordant group of 15 samples, eight were found to be negative using conventional chromatographic procedures (HPLC or GC/MS), while seven contained one or more benzodiazepines or metabolites, each of which were below the individual cut-off level specified by the manufacturer. Additionally 30 urine specimens that were negative for benzodiazepines using immunoassay were also tested by REMEDi. Two samples were found to be positive. These results could not be confirmed by other chromatographic techniques. The REMEDi HS benzodiazepine assay can be a very useful complementary technique in the clinical/forensic toxicology laboratory, especially for the identification of the parent benzodiazepines administered. The assay provides a rapid result in emergency situations and is useful in confirmation of preliminary positive immunoassay results. PMID:9853809

Musshoff, F; Madea, B

1998-10-01

282

[Urinary specific gravity--comparative measurements using reagent strips and refractometer in 340 morning urine samples].  

PubMed

The specific gravity of urine (SG) indicates the number and weight of solute particles in urine; its measurement is helpful in interpreting proteinuria detected by dipstick tests and in monitoring adequate hydration in patients with nephrolithiasis. Four methods for measuring SG or osmolality of urine are currently available (depression of the freezing-point, urometry, refractometry, cation exchange on a reagent strip). Using a recently developed reagent strip, we have measured SG in morning urines of 340 non-selected outpatients and compared the results with SG measurements by refractometry of the same urines. In 86.2% of all urines, a good positive correlation between SG measured by reagent strip and refractometry was noted (r = 0.913, p = 0.0001). In 13.8% of the urines, however, the SG measured by reagent strip deviated by more than +/- 5 from the value obtained by refractometry; in 90% of these urines, glucosuria (reagent strip values too low or too high), proteinuria (values too high), or bacteriuria/leukocyturia (values too low or too high) could be found. In alkaline urine (pH > 7.0), SG values obtained by reagent strip have to be corrected by +5. PMID:8434200

Siegrist, D; Hess, B; Montandon, M; Takkinen, R; Lippuner, K; Jaeger, P

1993-01-26

283

A new method to make 24-hour urine collection more convenient: a validity study.  

PubMed

Background and Objectives. This study proposes a novel urine collection device that can divide each urine collection into 20 parts and store and cool just one part. The aim of the current study is to compare measured biomarkers from the proposed urine collection device to those of conventional 24-hour sampling method. We also hypothesized that the new method would significantly increase patients' adherence to the timed urine collection. Methods. Two 24-hour urine samples with the conventional method and with the new automated urine collection device that uses just one-twentieth of each void were obtained from 40 healthy volunteers. Urine parameters including volume, creatinine, and protein levels were compared between the two methods and the agreement of two measurements for each subject was reported through Bland-Altman plots. Results. Our results confirmed that for all three variables, there is a positive correlation (P < 0.001) between the two measurements and high degree of agreement could be seen in Bland-Altman plots. Moreover, more subjects reported the new method as "more convenient" for 24-hour urine collection. Conclusions. Our results clearly indicate that a fixed proportion of each void may significantly reduce the urine volume in timed collections and this, in turn, may increase subjects' adherence to this difficult sampling. PMID:24963405

Nabavizadeh, Pooneh; Ghadermarzi, Shadi; Fakhri, Mohammad

2014-01-01

284

Optimization of HPV DNA detection in urine by improving collection, storage, and extraction.  

PubMed

The benefits of using urine for the detection of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA have been evaluated in disease surveillance, epidemiological studies, and screening for cervical cancers in specific subgroups. HPV DNA testing in urine is being considered for important purposes, notably the monitoring of HPV vaccination in adolescent girls and young women who do not wish to have a vaginal examination. The need to optimize and standardize sampling, storage, and processing has been reported.In this paper, we examined the impact of a DNA-conservation buffer, the extraction method, and urine sampling on the detection of HPV DNA and human DNA in urine provided by 44 women with a cytologically normal but HPV DNA-positive cervical sample. Ten women provided first-void and midstream urine samples. DNA analysis was performed using real-time PCR to allow quantification of HPV and human DNA.The results showed that an optimized method for HPV DNA detection in urine should (a) prevent DNA degradation during extraction and storage, (b) recover cell-free HPV DNA in addition to cell-associated DNA, (c) process a sufficient volume of urine, and (d) use a first-void sample.In addition, we found that detectable human DNA in urine may not be a good internal control for sample validity. HPV prevalence data that are based on urine samples collected, stored, and/or processed under suboptimal conditions may underestimate infection rates. PMID:24916950

Vorsters, A; Van den Bergh, J; Micalessi, I; Biesmans, S; Bogers, J; Hens, A; De Coster, I; Ieven, M; Van Damme, P

2014-11-01

285

Determination of xylazine and its metabolites by GC–MS in equine urine for doping analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Xylazine and its main metabolites were detected in equine urine after a single-dose intravenous administration of 0.98 and 1.01mg\\/kg body weight xylazine, respectively, in two horses, in order to be used for equine doping control routine analysis. The urine levels of the parent drug and its metabolites were determined using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). Xylazine is metabolised rapidly, down to

M.-H. Spyridaki; E. Lyris; I. Georgoulakis; D. Kouretas; M. Konstantinidou; C. G. Georgakopoulos

2004-01-01

286

A simple colorimetric method for the determination of primaquine metabolites in urine  

PubMed Central

A simple method of screening large numbers of urine samples for the presence of primaquine metabolites has been developed using a commercially available diazonium salt reagent and an extraction cartridge. The extraction requires only 1.0 ml of urine and is selective for acidic or neutral primaquine metabolites. With primaquine-dosed rats, primaquine metabolites could be detected 36 hours after administration of the drug. The sensitivity of the method was found to be approximately 400 ?g/l. PMID:3879199

Baker, John K.; McChesney, James D.; Jorge, Lucia

1985-01-01

287

Adsorptive Stripping Voltammetric Determination of Venlafaxine in Urine with a Mercury Film Microelectrode  

Microsoft Academic Search

An adsorptive stripping voltammetric procedure for the determination of the antidepressant venlafaxine in urine using a mercury film microelectrode was developed. The method is based on controlled adsorptive accumulation of the drug at the potential of ?1.00 V (vs. Ag\\/AgCl) in the presence of 1.25 × 10 mol L borate buffer (pH 8.7). Urine samples were analyzed directly after performing a ten-fold dilution with the supporting

Simone Morais; Christine P. M. C. A. Ryckaert; Cristina Delerue-Matos

2003-01-01

288

Determination of cyclamate in urine by derivatized gas chromatography-mass spectrometry  

PubMed Central

Aim: It is important in toxicological/drug screening work to rule out the possible interfering analytes, to eliminate the false positive or negative results. In this paper, we describe a simple, selective, and sensitive derivatized GC-MS method for the determination of cyclohexylsulfamic acid (cyclamate) in urine. Materials and Methods: Elite- 5MS capillary column was used for the separation of analytes and detection using GC-MS. The analysis was carried out in selected ion monitoring mode (SIM) in the range of 26 to 200 using m/z values of 57, 30, 55, 41, 44, 67, 82, 98, and 39. Results and Discussion: The method is based on the conversion of cyclamate into nitroso derivative of cyclamate followed by its gas chromatography-mass spectrometry determination. The limit of detection, limit of quantitation, and linearity range of the proposed method were found to be 0.2 ?g/ ml, 0.7 ?g/ml, and 1-15 ?g/ml, respectively. The recovery of the present method is in the range of 88-94%. Conclusion: The proposed method can be applied for detection and quantification of cyclamate in urine. PMID:23559823

Idris, Mohd; Middha, Deepak; Rasool, Shaik N.; Shukla, Sudhir K.; Baggi, Tulsidas R.

2013-01-01

289

Isolation of Encephalitozoon cuniculi from urine samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Encephalitozoon cuniculi was isolated from the urine of infected rabbits using human and canine tissue cultures. The organism was isolated from 7 of 11 contaminated urines from seropositive animals. The advantages of urine over tissue as a source of E. cuniculi are that it is obtainable from living animals, can be examined for the presence of organisms, and is

D. Pye; J. C. Cox

1977-01-01

290

Could urine be useful for the diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis pneumonia in infancy?  

PubMed

A 9-week-old infant presented with respiratory distress. The presumptive diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis pneumonia was ultimately made in a novel manner by a positive nucleic acid amplification test on a urine sample. PMID:24768625

Robinson, Joan L; Meier, Kay; Lee, Bonita E; Larke, Bryce

2014-07-01

291

Detection of antigens and antibodies in the urine of humans with Plasmodium falciparum malaria.  

PubMed Central

Humans infected with Plasmodium falciparum frequently have elevated levels of proteins in their urine, but it is unclear if any of these proteins are parasite antigens or antimalarial antibodies. To resolve this question, urine samples from malaria patients and controls living in Thailand and Ghana were evaluated. Urine samples from 85% of the patients had elevated protein levels and contained proteins with Mrs ranging from less than 29,000 to greater than 224,000 as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Antisera were produced against urine from infected and control subjects. Antisera raised against infected, but not control, urine were positive by indirect immunofluorescence on P. falciparum parasites and immunoprecipitated approximately 12 unique bands from extracts of parasites metabolically labeled with 35S-methionine. These data suggest that a variety of P. falciparum antigens are released into urine during acute infection. It is also likely that anti-P. falciparum antibodies are present in the urine of malaria patients because samples from these patients, but not controls, were positive in indirect immunofluorescence assays and immunoprecipitated at least 19 P. falciparum antigens from extracts of metabolically labeled parasites. The detection of malarial antigens and antibodies in urine may lead to a new approach for the diagnosis of malaria. Images PMID:1864942

Rodriguez-del Valle, M; Quakyi, I A; Amuesi, J; Quaye, J T; Nkrumah, F K; Taylor, D W

1991-01-01

292

Chemiluminescence of the reaction system Ce(IV)-non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs containing europium(III) ions and its application to the determination of naproxen in pharmaceutical preparations and urine.  

PubMed

The chemiluminescence (CL) of oxidation of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) by Ce(IV) ions, was recorded in the presence and absence europium(III) ions, in solution of pH ~ 4 of solution. Kinetic curves and CL emission spectra of the all studied systems were discussed. CL of measurable intensity was observed in the Ce(IV)-NP-Eu(III) reaction system only in acidic solutions. The CL spectrum rcegistered for this system shows emission bands, typical of Eu(III) ions, with maximum at ? ~ 600 nm. The chemiluminescent method, based on Eu(III) emission in reaction system of NP-Ce(IV)-Eu(III) in acid solution was therefore used for the determination of naproxen in mixture of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. PMID:21750890

Kaczmarek, Ma?gorzata

2011-11-01

293

A combination of single-drop microextraction and open tubular capillary electrochromatography with carbon nanotubes as stationary phase for the determination of low concentration of illicit drugs in horse urine.  

PubMed

In this study we developed an interesting alternative to HPLC-mass spectrometry for the quantification of seven important drugs of abuse in racehorses. The procedure proposed in this work is a combination of single-drop microextraction (SDME) and an open tubular capillary electrochromatography (OT-CEC) using multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCTs) immobilized into a fused-silica capillary as a stationary phase. The SDME showed to be a powerful tool for extraction/preconcentration of the seven drugs analyzed in the study, showing an enrichment factor between 38- and 102-fold depending on the drug. We have investigated the electrophoretic features of MWCTs immobilized fused-silica capillary by covalent modification of the inner surface of the capillary. The results show a good run-to-run, day-to-day and capillary-to-capillary reproducibility of the method. Compared with the capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE), the coating of the capillary allowed the separation of the analytes with high resolution, with less band-broadening and without distortion of the baseline. The interactions between the analytes and the MWCTs resulted in an increased migration time and probably this was the reason of the front tailing effect. The results showed a good capillary efficiencies and an improved of the electrophoretic separation. PMID:22063542

Stege, Patricia W; Lapierre, Alicia V; Martinez, Luis D; Messina, Germán A; Sombra, Lorena L

2011-10-30

294

Can clinical pharmacy services have a positive impact on drug-related problems and health outcomes in community-based older adults?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Although pharmacotherapy can be beneficial in the elderly, it can also lead to drug-related problems (DRPs), including untreated indications, drug use without an indication, improper drug selection, subtherapeutic dosage, overdosage, medication error, medication nonadherence, drug interactions, adverse drug reactions, adverse drug withdrawal events, and therapeutic failure.Objective: The goal of this article was to review evidence from randomized controlled studies

Joseph T Hanlon; Catherine I Lindblad; Shelly L Gray

2004-01-01

295

Protopine alkaloids in horse urine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protopine was extracted from Fumaria officinalis and purified by column chromatography. Urine samples were collected from horses and a human volunteer that had been administered either F. officinalis or protopine free base. Plant and urine samples were acetylated and analysed by GCMS after solid-phase extraction (SPE). The urinary metabolites of protopine were identified as 4,6,7,13-tetrahydro-9,10-dihydroxy-5-methyl-benzo[e]-l,3-benzodioxolo [4,5-1][2] benzazecin-12(5H)-one, 4,6,7,13-tetrahydro-10-hydroxy-9-methoxy-5-methyl-benzo[e]-1,3-benzodioxolo[4,5-1][2] benzazecin-12(5H)-one and

Paul M Wynne; John H Vine; R Gary Amiet

2004-01-01

296

Comparison of urine dipsticks with quantitative methods for microalbuminuria.  

PubMed

We describe a new dip- and read dipstick that detects urine albumin at concentrations of 10 mg/l and above and urine creatinine at concentrations of 300 mg/l and above. The albumin assay is based on a high-affinity, dye-binding technique while the creatinine assay is based on the peroxidase-like activity of copper creatinine complexes. With these two-test dipsticks, urines from normal adults supplemented with albumin and creatinine were correctly identified to within +/- 15% of the expected value for both analytes; the between-day coefficients of variation ranged from 7.1% to 16.1%. We tested 275 patients' unmodified urines by the Bayer and Boehringer Mannheim Micral-Test albumin dipsticks and for albumin with the Beckman Array on the same specimens. We also analyzed 42 selected urines from the group of 275 for albumin by another quantitative immunochemical method and by electrophoresis plus a total protein method to estimate the albumin concentration. The quantitative immunochemical methods appear to underestimate the urine albumin concentrations; in these 42 urines measured as negative, i.e., < ca. 16-20 mg/l, by one of the quantitative method but positive by the Bayer dipstick, 33 of these were positive by the electrophoresis/total protein assay combination. The Bayer albumin dipstick correctly identified urines as having < 16 mg/l or > or = 16 mg/l at an 80% rate. At a cutoff of 20 mg/l, the rate increased to 87%. We also determined the urinary albumin/creatinine ratios on the 275 patients using the Bayer two-pad dipstick and found agreement 84% of the time with the same ratio obtained from a quantitative immunochemical method for albumin and a rate-Jaffe method for creatinine; an albumin/creatinine ratio (mg/g) of 30 was used as the discrimination point. Albumin stability studies performed on the Beckman Array patients with six fresh urines showed small but consistent decreases at -20 degrees C but not at 4 degrees C after one month of storage. The albumin in contrived urines, as estimated by electrophoreses/total protein and by the dipsticks did not change at these storage conditions. Boric acid at 1 g/l as a urine preservative had no effect on the measurement of albumin by any of the methods described here nor of the assay of creatinine. Other urinary proteins present at abnormal excretion rates did not interfere with the Bayer albumin dipstick. Abnormal concentrations of bilirubin, citrate, creatine, ascorbic acid, albumin, hemoglobin and myoglobin in urine did not interfere with the creatinine dipstick measurements. The first four of the above did not affect the Bayer dipstick results for albumin. PMID:9352232

Pugia, M J; Lott, J A; Clark, L W; Parker, D R; Wallace, J F; Willis, T W

1997-09-01

297

Urine Bag as a Modern Day Matula  

PubMed Central

Since time immemorial uroscopic analysis has been a staple of diagnostic medicine. It received prominence during the middle ages with the introduction of the matula. Urinary discoloration is generally due to changes in urochrome concentration associated with the presence of other endogenous or exogenous pigments. Observation of urine colors has received less attention due to the advances made in urinalysis. A gamut of urine colors can be seen in urine bags of hospitalized patients that may give clue to presence of infections, medications, poisons, and hemolysis. Although worrisome to the patient, urine discoloration is mostly benign and resolves with removal of the offending agent. Twelve urine bags with discolored urine (and their predisposing causes) have been shown as examples. Urine colors (blue-green, yellow, orange, pink, red, brown, black, white, and purple) and their etiologies have been reviewed following a literature search in these databases: Pubmed, EBSCO, Science Direct, Proquest, Google Scholar, Springer, and Ovid. PMID:24959539

Viswanathan, Stalin

2013-01-01

298

Differential Predictors of Medication Adherence in HIV: Findings from a Sample of African American and Caucasian HIV-Positive Drug-Using Adults  

PubMed Central

Abstract Modest or even occasional nonadherence to combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) can result in adverse clinical outcomes. African Americans demonstrate lower rates of adherence than Caucasians or Latinos. Identifying factors that influence medication adherence among African Americans is a critical step toward reducing HIV/AIDS disease progression and mortality. In a sample of 181 African American (n=144) and Caucasian (n=37) HIV-positive drug-using individuals [age (M=42.31; SD=6.6) education (M=13.41; SD=2.1)], we examined the influence of baseline drug use, literacy, neurocognition, depression, treatment-specific social support, and patient satisfaction with health care provider on medication adherence averaged over the course of 6 months (study dates 2002–2006). Our findings suggest differential baseline predictors of medication adherence for African Americans and Caucasians, such that patient satisfaction with provider was the strongest predictor of follow-up medication adherence for African Americans whereas for Caucasians depressive symptoms and treatment-specific social support were predictive of medication adherence (after controlling for duration of drug use). PMID:22889235

Moizel, Jennifer; Panos, Stella E.; Patel, Sapna M.; Byrd, Desiree A.; Myers, Hector F.; Wyatt, Gail E.; Hinkin, Charles H.

2012-01-01

299

Metabolites of ephedrines in human urine after administration of a single therapeutic dose  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ephedrine (EPH), pseudoephedrine (PEPH), phenylpropanolamine (PPA), methylephedrine (MEPH) and cathine are sympathomimetic amines. These drugs are commonly found in over-the-counter (OTC) cold medicines and some dietary supplements. In Taiwan, the misuse of these drugs has resulted in an increase in athletic violations.Excretion studies of the ephedrine-related drugs have been performed to better understand the metabolic yields of ephedrines in urine.

Ying Lung Tseng; Min-Hua Shieh; Fan-Hsin Kuo

2006-01-01

300

pH-resistant titania hybrid organic–inorganic coating for stir bar sorptive extraction of drugs of abuse in urine samples followed by high performance liquid chromatography–ultraviolet visible detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

An organic–inorganic hybrid titania-hydroxy-terminated silicone oil (titania-OH-TSO) stir bar coating was prepared by sol–gel method. The extraction performance of titania-OH-TSO coated stir bar was evaluated and compared with poly(dimethysiloxane) (PDMS), poly(dimethysiloxane)–divinylbenzene (PDMS–DVB), poly(dimethysiloxane)–?-cyclodextrin (PDMS–?-CD) and C18 coated stir bar with five polar drugs of abuse including amphetamine (PA), methamphetamine (MA), 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and ketamine (Ke) as the model

Lidan Lan; Bin Hu; Chunhe Yu

2010-01-01

301

Capillary ion electrophoresis of endogenous anions and anionic adulterants in human urine.  

PubMed

Normal human urine contains many anions and cations. Ionic concentrations in urine have classically been determined by spectrophotometry of color reactions, flame emission spectrophotometry, atomic absorption spectrophotometry, high performance liquid chromatography, or potentiometry with ion-specific electrodes. Capillary ion electrophoresis (CIE) is a form of capillary electrophoresis which uses the differential electrophoretic mobility of ions to perform a separation of an ionic mixture. Various salts can be added to urine specimens to abnormally elevate ionic concentrations and interfere with either immunoassay urine drug screening procedures or gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric confirmation techniques. Application of CIE for the direct detection of endogenous anions and anionic adulterants in human urine specimens was the purpose of this investigation. CIE was performed using a Waters Quanta 4000 Capillary Electrophoresis System with either direct or indirect ultraviolet absorption detection at 254 nm. CIE of 30 random normal urine specimens and 21 urine specimens suspected of adulteration was performed. Duplicate aliquots were assayed by CIE and by colorimetric technique for nitrite. Sixteen specimens had elevated concentrations of nitrite and/or nitrate. The correlation coefficient between nitrite CIE and colorimetric results was 0.9895. Three specimens had detectable concentrations of chromate and were suspected of being adulterated with "Urine Luck," an adulterant found to contain chromate. Two specimens suspected of being adulterated with bleach were found to only contain chloride, sulfate, and phosphate. CIE is applicable to forensic analysis of urine anion concentrations. CIE can easily quantitate numerous endogenous anions and offers a method to detect and/or confirm anion adulteration of urine specimens. PMID:11372999

Ferslew, K E; Hagardorn, A N; Robert, T A

2001-05-01

302

Adherence to antiretroviral drug therapy in adult patients who are HIV-positive in Northwest Ethiopia: a study protocol  

PubMed Central

Introduction Achievement of optimal medication adherence and management of antiretroviral toxicity pose great challenges among Ethiopian patients with HIV/AIDS. There is currently a lack of long-term follow-up studies that identify the barriers to, and facilitators of, adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) in the Ethiopian setting. Therefore, we aim to investigate the level of adherence to ART and a wide range of potential influencing factors, including adverse drug reactions occurring with ART. Methods and analysis We are conducting a 1-year prospective cohort study involving adult patients with HIV/AIDS starting on ART between December 2012 and March 2013. Data are being collected on patients’ appointment dates in the ART clinics. Adherence to ART is being measured using pill count, medication possession ratio and patient's self-report. The primary outcome of the study will be the proportion of patients who are adherent to their ART regimen at 3, 6 and 12?months using pill count. Taking 95% or more of the dispensed ART regimen using pill count at given points of time will be considered the optimal level of adherence in this study. Data will be analysed using descriptive and inferential statistical procedures. Ethics and dissemination Ethics approval was obtained from the Tasmania Health and Medical Human Research Ethics Committee and Bahir-Dar University's Ethics Committee. The results of the study will be reported in peer-reviewed scientific journals, conferences and seminar presentations. PMID:24176794

Bezabhe, Woldesellassie M; Peterson, Gregory M; Bereznicki, Luke; Chalmers, Leanne; Gee, Peter

2013-01-01

303

Accuracy of urine urobilinogen and bilirubin assays in predicting liver function test abnormalities.  

PubMed

Components of the dipstick urinalysis (urine urobilinogen and urine bilirubin) are often used by emergency physicians to screen for the need to obtain liver function tests in many clinical situations. A prospective observational study was conducted to evaluate the sensitivity, specificity, and predictive properties of spot urine bilirubin and urobilinogen assays in the emergency department as screening test for serum liver function test (LFT) abnormalities. Of 122 patients, abdominal pain was the indication for laboratory evaluation in 54%; jaundice and constitutional symptoms were the indication in 29%. Overall sensitivities for both urine assays were 70% to 74% for serum bilirubin, but 43% to 53% for other LFTs; specificities were 77% to 87% for both urine screens. Positive predictive values show that the urine assays were 83% to 86% reliable for detecting at least one LFT abnormality. Negative predictive values were 85% for both urine assays for serum bilirubin elevations, but lower for other LFTs. Urine urobilinogen has its greatest clinical utility as a screen when a normal/abnormal threshold of 2.0/4.0 mg/dL is used. PMID:3662182

Kupka, T; Binder, L S; Smith, D A; Nelson, B K; Wainscott, M P; Glass, B A

1987-11-01

304

Prevalence of prescription and illicit drugs in pregnancy-associated non-natural deaths of Florida mothers, 1999-2005.  

PubMed

Abuse of prescription and illicit drugs has been rapidly increasing. This study examines the prevalence of drug use in the non-natural deaths of pregnant or recently pregnant women. Records from Florida's Pregnancy Associated Mortality Review conducted between 1999 and 2005 (n = 415) were linked to 385 toxicology reports obtained from Florida medical examiners' offices. The final study sample consisted of 169 drug-positive, pregnancy-associated non-natural deaths. Of these, 86 were positive for both blood and urine, 64 were positive for blood only and five for urine only, and the remainder were positive for some other specimen. Among these deaths, 91 cases (54%) involved prescription drugs, 78 cases (46%) involved illicit drugs, and 69 cases (41%) involved alcohol. Opioids constituted the majority of deaths associated with prescription drugs. Substantial co-use of opioids and benzodiazepines was seen. Pregnant or recently pregnant women may have more interactions with healthcare providers, which may present more opportunities for intervention and prevention. PMID:23879385

Hardt, Nancy; Wong, Tit D; Burt, Martha J; Harrison, Ross; Winter, Will; Roth, Jeffrey

2013-11-01

305

Low concentrations of methamphetamine detectable in urine in the presence of high concentrations of amphetamine.  

PubMed

Twenty-two urine specimens reported by military drug-testing laboratories for the presence of high concentrations of amphetamine only were subject to further analysis for the presence of methamphetamine. The 22 urine specimens had concentrations of amphetamine in the range of 28,028 to 241,142 ng/mL. The specimens were also assayed for the respective isomeric ratio of d (S) and l (R) amphetamine and methamphetamine. The results suggest that urine specimens containing high concentrations of amphetamine in which the urine concentration ratio of methamphetamine to amphetamine is less than 0.5% with similar isomeric distribution of d-(S) and l-(R) amphetamine and methamphetamine, respectively, may not necessarily indicate polydrug use. PMID:19371467

Jemionek, John F; Addison, Joseph; Past, Marilyn R

2009-04-01

306

Neuroradiological findings in maple syrup urine disease.  

PubMed

Maple syrup urine disease is a rare inborn error of amino acid metabolism involving catabolic pathway of the branched-chain amino acids. This disease, if left untreated, may cause damage to the brain and may even cause death. These patients typically present with distinctive maple syrup odour of sweat and urine. Patients typically present with skin and urine smelling like maple syrup. Here we describe a case with relevant magnetic resonance imaging findings and confirmatory biochemical findings. PMID:23772241

Indiran, Venkatraman; Gunaseelan, R Emmanuel

2013-01-01

307

Prevalence of heroin markers in urine for pain management patients.  

PubMed

Surveys of current trends indicate heroin abuse is associated with nonmedical use of pain relievers. Consequently, there is an interest in evaluating the presence of heroin-specific markers in chronic pain patients who are prescribed controlled substances. A total of 926,084 urine specimens from chronic pain patients were tested for heroin/diacetylmorphine (DAM), 6-acetylmorphine (6AM), 6-acetylcodeine (6AC), codeine (COD), and morphine (MOR). Heroin and markers were analyzed using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS). Opiates were analyzed following hydrolysis using LC-MS-MS. The prevalence of heroin use was 0.31%, as 2871 were positive for one or more heroin-specific markers including DAM, 6AM, or 6AC (a known contaminant of illicit heroin). Of these, 1884 were additionally tested for the following markers of illicit drug use: 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), methamphetamine (MAMP), 11-nor-9-carboxy-?(9)-tetracannabinol (THCCOOH), and benzoylecgonine (BZE); 654 (34.7%) had positive findings for one or more of these analytes. The overall prevalence of heroin markers were as follows: DAM 1203 (41.9%), 6AM 2570 (89.5%), 6AC 1082 (37.7%). MOR was present in 2194 (76.4%) and absent (positive specimens. COD was present in 1218 (42.4%) specimens. Prevalence of combinations for specimens containing MOR were as follows: DAM only 13 (0.59%), 6AM only 1140 (52.0%), 6AC only 24 (1.1%), DAM/6AM/6AC 710 (32.4%), 6AM/6AC 188 (8.6%), DAM/6AM 113 (5.2%), DAM/6AC 6 (0.27%). Importantly, the prevalence of combinations for specimens without MOR were as follows: DAM only 161 (23.8%), 6AM only 217 (32.1%), 6AC only 92 (13.6%), DAM/6AM/6AC 50 (7.4%), 6AM/6AC 7 (1.0%), DAM/6AM 145 (21.4%), DAM/6AC 5 (0.74%). Unexpected patterns of excretion were observed, such as the presence of DAM and 6AC in the absence of 6AM and MOR; therefore, multiple heroin markers may be useful to assess for heroin use. PMID:24858136

Knight, Julie; Puet, Brandi L; DePriest, Anne; Heltsley, Rebecca; Hild, Cheryl; Black, David L; Robert, Timothy; Caplan, Yale H; Cone, Edward J

2014-10-01

308

Protopine alkaloids in horse urine.  

PubMed

Protopine was extracted from Fumaria officinalis and purified by column chromatography. Urine samples were collected from horses and a human volunteer that had been administered either F. officinalis or protopine free base. Plant and urine samples were acetylated and analysed by GCMS after solid-phase extraction (SPE). The urinary metabolites of protopine were identified as 4,6,7,13-tetrahydro-9,10-dihydroxy-5-methyl-benzo[e]-l,3-benzodioxolo [4,5-1][2] benzazecin-12(5H)-one, 4,6,7,13-tetrahydro-10-hydroxy-9-methoxy-5-methyl-benzo[e]-1,3-benzodioxolo[4,5-1][2] benzazecin-12(5H)-one and 4,6,7,13-tetrahydro-9-hydroxy-10-methoxy-5-methyl-benzo[e]-1,3-benzodioxolo[4,5-l][2] benzazecin-12(5H)-one, chelianthifoline, isochelianthifoline and 2-O-desmethylchelianthifoline. The metabolic formation of the tetrahydroprotoberberines by closure of the bridge across N5 and C13 is rate limited and protopine-like metabolites accumulate only when the route is overloaded. Metabolism was qualitatively similar in the horse and human. PMID:15458726

Wynne, Paul M; Vine, John H; Amiet, R Gary

2004-11-01

309

Rilpivirine resistance and the dangerous liaisons with substitutions at position 184 among patients infected with HIV-1: analysis from a national drug-resistance database (ARCA).  

PubMed

Rilpivirine (RPV) is a novel NNRTI with a mutational pattern different from first-generation drugs of the same class: 16 resistance-associated mutations (RAM) are listed, but the combination E138K?+?M184I seems to be the most important. Aims of the present study were to evaluate the prevalence of these RAMs in Italian HIV-1 infected patients and to assess if previous drug history could represent a risk to develop RPV-related RAMs. The analysis was performed using the ARCA database, which contains data on resistance and therapy from subjects throughout Italy. Prevalence of RPV-associated and first-generation NNRTI-associated RAMs was evaluated. Linear regression model, odds ratio and 95% Confidence Interval were used to assess factors associated with the development of RPV RAMs, substitutions at position 184 and their combinations. A total of 8,067 tests were selected within the database. In Italian HIV-positive HAART-naïve patients, prevalence of the main RAMs for RPV is low except for E138A (present in 5.1% of subjects). The combination E138K?+?M184I is absent in both naïve and experienced subjects. A previous exposure to NVP might increase the risk to develop RPV-associated RAMs. TDF, EFV, and possibly FTC may predispose to the selection for M184I. Among Italian patients the susceptibility to RPV is widespread since some severe substitutions (e.g., E138K are rare), whereas issues exist for others (i.e., E138A, Y181C) which are more frequent. Appropriate use of RPV within a therapeutic sequencing might be controversial. PMID:24838991

Rossotti, Roberto; Fonte, Luigi; Meini, Genny; Maggiolo, Franco; Zazzi, Maurizio; Rusconi, Stefano

2014-09-01

310

Antiretroviral Drug-Related Liver Mortality Among HIV-Positive Persons in the Absence of Hepatitis B or C Virus Coinfection: The Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs Study  

PubMed Central

Background.?Liver diseases are the leading causes of death in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–positive persons since the widespread use of combination antiretroviral treatment (cART). Most of these deaths are due to hepatitis C (HCV) or B (HBV) virus coinfections. Little is known about other causes. Prolonged exposure to some antiretroviral drugs might increase hepatic mortality. Methods.?All patients in the Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs study without HCV or HBV coinfection were prospectively followed from date of entry until death or last follow-up. In patients with liver-related death, clinical charts were reviewed using a structured questionnaire. Results.?We followed 22 910 participants without hepatitis virus coinfection for 114 478 person-years. There were 12 liver-related deaths (incidence, 0.10/1000 person-years); 7 due to severe alcohol use and 5 due to established ART-related toxicity. The rate of ART-related deaths in treatment-experienced persons was 0.04/1000 person-years (95% confidence interval, .01, .10). Conclusions.?We found a low incidence of liver-related deaths in HIV-infected persons without HCV or HBV coinfection. Liver-related mortality because of ART-related toxicity was rare. PMID:23090925

Kovari, Helen; Sabin, Caroline A.; Ledergerber, Bruno; Ryom, Lene; Worm, Signe W.; Smith, Colette; Phillips, Andrew; Reiss, Peter; Fontas, Eric; Petoumenos, Kathy; De Wit, Stephane; Morlat, Philippe; Lundgren, Jens D.; Weber, Rainer

2013-01-01

311

Weakening of negative relative to positive associations with cocaine-paired cues contributes to cue-induced responding after drug removal.  

PubMed

Cocaine has been shown to have initial positive (euphoric) and delayed negative (anxiogenic) effects in both humans and animals. Cocaine-paired cues are consequently imbued with mixed positive and negative associations. The current study examines the relative roles of these dual associations in the enhanced drug-seeking observed upon presentation of cocaine-paired cues. Rats ran a straight alley once/day for a single i.v. injection of cocaine (1.0 mg/kg/inj) in the presence of a distinctive olfactory cue (scented cotton swabs placed under the apparatus). An alternate scent was presented in a separate cage 2-h prior to runway testing. After 15 trials/days, the scents and cocaine reinforcer were removed and a series of extinction trials (lasting for 1 or 3 weeks) was initiated. Immediately following extinction, runway responding was tested during a single trial in the presence of the cocaine-paired or non-paired cue. As previously reported, while subjects initiated responding faster over trials (reduced latencies to leave the start box), they exhibited a progressive increase in approach-avoidance conflict behavior ("retreats") regarding goal-box entry, reflecting cocaine's dual positive+negative effects. Once established, retreat behaviors persisted over the course of 1 or 3 weeks days of extinction. However, both run times and retreats decreased in response to presentation of the cocaine-paired but not the non-paired scent. These data suggest that, after reinforcer removal, cue-induced cocaine-seeking stems in part from a reduction in approach-avoidance conflict; i.e., a greater weakening of the negative relative to the positive associations that animals form with cocaine-paired stimuli. PMID:22005601

Su, Zu-In; Kichaev, Gleb; Wenzel, Jennifer; Ben-Shahar, Osnat; Ettenberg, Aaron

2012-01-01

312

Weakening of negative relative to positive associations with cocaine-paired cues contributes to cue-induced responding after drug removal  

PubMed Central

Cocaine has been shown to have initial positive (euphoric) and delayed negative (anxiogenic) effects in both humans and animals. Cocaine-paired cues are consequently imbued with mixed positive and negative associations. The current study examines the relative roles of these dual associations in the enhanced drug-seeking observed upon presentation of cocaine-paired cues. Rats ran a straight alley once/day for a single i.v. injection of cocaine (1.0 mg/kg/inj) in the presence of a distinctive olfactory cue (scented cotton swabs placed under the apparatus). An alternate scent was presented in a separate cage 2-hr prior to runway testing. After 15 trials/days, the scents and cocaine reinforcer were removed and a series of extinction trials (lasting for one or three weeks) was initiated. Immediately following extinction, runway responding was tested during a single trial in the presence of the cocaine-paired or non-paired cue. As previously reported, while subjects initiated responding faster over trials (reduced latencies to leave the start box), they exhibited a progressive increase in approach-avoidance conflict behavior (“retreats”) regarding goal-box entry, reflecting cocaine’s dual positive + negative effects. Once established, retreat behaviors persisted over the course of 6 and 20 days of extinction. However, both run times and retreats decreased in response to presentation of the cocaine-paired but not the non-paired scent. These data suggest that, after reinforcer removal, cue-induced cocaine-seeking stems in part from a reduction in approach-avoidance conflict; i.e., a greater weakening of the negative relative to the positive associations that animals form with cocaine-paired stimuli. PMID:22005601

Su, Zu-In; Kichaev, Gleb; Wenzel, Jennifer; Ben-Shahar, Osnat; Ettenberg, Aaron

2011-01-01

313

Selecting the Best Drug-Test Procedures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report discusses the advantages and limitations of the matrices of urine, saliva, hair, sweat, and skin swabs for monitoring of illicit drug use in a criminal justice environment. A three phase testing scheme is proposed employing all these matrices....

D. A. Kidwell

2003-01-01

314

Bioavailability study of paracetamol tablets in saliva and urine.  

PubMed

A bioavailability study of two lots of paracetamol tablets was carried out in 5 healthy volunteers, using a crossover aleatory design, and drug monitoring in urine and saliva by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Results were correlated with those obtained in an in vitro dissolution study. Statistical evaluation of bioavailability parameters indicates that the two formulations may be considered bioequivalent, in spite of differences found during early stages of the absorption process, which were preventable according to an in vitro dissolution study. PMID:9074893

Retaco, P; González, M; Pizzorno, M T; Volonté, M G

1996-01-01

315

The Influence of Psychological Variables on Health Related Quality of Life among HIV Positive Individuals with a History of Intravenous Drug Use  

PubMed Central

Objective Intravenous drug use (IDU) remains a prominent pathway of HIV transmission in the United States, though little is know about modifiable factors influencing quality of life among IDUs. The goal of this study was to evaluate the influence of psychological variables (e.g., depression and anxiety) on health related quality of life among HIV-positive individuals with a history of IDU who were enrolled in outpatient treatment for opioid dependence. Method 108 HIV-positive individuals with a history of IDU and participating in current outpatient treatment for opiate dependence who were screened for participation in a depression and adherence study reported sociodemographic data, depressive and anxiety symptoms and health-related quality of life (HRQoL; Multidimensional Health Assessment using the ACTG-SF 21). Results Multiple regression models controlling for disease stage and background characteristics identified significant negative relationships between General Health Perception and Functioning without Pain for anxiety and depression, and between Role Functioning and Physical Functioning for anxiety. CD4 cell count was significantly related to Physical Functioning only. Conclusions Results indicate that distress (both depression and anxiety) contribute significantly to variation in HRQoL over and above the effects of disease variables. Effective depression and anxiety treatment may result in improved overall functioning. PMID:24377169

Psaros, Christina; O'Cleirigh, Conall; Bullis, Jacqueline R.; Markowitz, Sarah M.; Safren, Steven A.

2013-01-01

316

Chemical dependency and drug testing in the workplace.  

PubMed Central

Urine testing for drug use in the workplace is now widespread, with the prevalence of positive drug tests in the work force being 0% to 15%. The prevalence of marijuana use is highest, and this can be reliably tested. Though it is prudent to rid the workplace of drug use, there is little scientific study on the relationship of drug use and workplace outcomes, such as productivity and safety. Probable-cause testing and preemployment testing are the most common applications. Random testing has been less accepted owing to its higher costs, unresolved legal issues, and predictably poor test reliability. Legal issues have focused on the right to policy, discrimination, and the lack of due process. The legal cornerstone of a good program is a policy that is planned and agreed on by both labor and management, which serves both as a contract and as a procedure in which expectations and consequences are known. The National Institute on Drug Abuse is certifying laboratories doing employee drug testing. Testing methods when done correctly are less prone to error than in the past, but screening tests can be defeated by adulterants. Although the incidence of false-positive results is low, such tests are less reliable when the prevalence of drug abuse is also low. PMID:2190418

Osterloh, J D; Becker, C E

1990-01-01

317

Cranial Ultrasonography in Maple Syrup Urine Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: We performed serial cranial ultrasonography in four newborns affected by maple syrup urine disease. Symmetric increase of echogenicity of periventricular white matter, basal ganglia (mainly pallidi), and thalami was detected in the acute stage. The degree of ultrasonography abnormalities paralleled the clinical course of the disease. Maple syrup urine disease is a rare inborn error of branched-chain amino acid

Giuseppe Fariello; Carlo Dionisi-Vici; Cinzia Orazi; Saverio Malena; Andrea Bartuli; Paolo Schingo; Enza Carnevale; Isora Saponara; Gaetano Sabetta

318

The Determination of Thallium in Urine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A variation of the triphenylmethane dye method for the determination of thallium has been modified to be suitable for analysis of urine samples in a small laboratory. Thallium is oxidized to the thallic state by bromine water, and is reacted with methyl violet for the colorimetric measurement. A maximum of 200 ?g thallium per liter was found in the urine

Morris B. Jacobs

1962-01-01

319

Boric Acid Preservation of Urine Samples  

PubMed Central

Comparison of the results of bacteriological culture and microscopic examination of urine samples transported over a distance by the dip-inoculum transport medium, ice-box, and boric acid preservation with “natural” urine specimens showed that the last, in a final concentration of 1·8%, gives satisfactory preservation. PMID:5768462

Porter, I. A.; Brodie, J.

1969-01-01

320

Boric Acid Preservation of Urine Samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparison of the results of bacteriological culture and microscopic examination of urine samples transported over a distance by the dip-inoculum transport medium, ice-box, and boric acid preservation with “natural” urine specimens showed that the last, in a final concentration of 1·8%, gives satisfactory preservation.

I. A. Porter; J. Brodie

1969-01-01

321

Radioscintigraphic demonstration of unsuspected urine extravasation  

SciTech Connect

Three cases of unsuspected urine extravasation first detected by radionuclide scintigraphy are presented with subsequent confirmation by CT and, retrograde pyelograms. A renal study done to rule out acute transplant rejection demonstrates gallbladder uptake which was initially thought to be consistent with urine extravasation.

Bocchini, T.; Williams, W.; Patton, D.

1989-06-01

322

Immunodiagnosis of alveolar echinococcosis using urine samples.  

PubMed

Alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is one of the most lethal zoonotic parasitic infections. The diagnosis is based on the combination of the abdominal imaging including CT, MRI and PET, and serology. To develop a new diagnostic tool for AE with urine as samples, mouse-Echinococcus multilocularis (Em) model and then human cases were studied. The antibody levels of urine and serum samples from the infected mice and AE cases were well correlated with each other. The sensitivity and specificity of the method with urine were 91% and 98%, respectively, when IgG4 to crude Em was examined. Comparing with serum samples, the collection of urine is easier and safer and the urine diagnostic tool makes surveys of this silent disease easier. PMID:23872436

Itoh, Makoto; Sako, Yasuhito; Itoh, Sonoyo; Ishikawa, Yuji; Akabane, Hiromitsu; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Nagaoka, Fumiaki; Ito, Akira

2013-12-01

323

Injecting drug use is associated with a more rapid CD4 cell decline among treatment na?ve HIV-positive patients in Indonesia  

PubMed Central

Background It remains unclear whether the natural course of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) differs in subjects infected through injecting drug use (IDU) and no data have been published from low- or middle-income countries. We addressed this question in an urban cohort in Indonesia, which is experiencing a rapidly growing HIV epidemic strongly driven by IDU. Methods All antiretroviral treatment (ART) naïve HIV-positive patients who had at least two subsequent CD4 cell counts available before starting ART were included in this study. We examined the association between IDU and CD4 cell decline using a linear mixed model, with adjustment for possible confounders such as HIV viral load and hepatitis C antibodies. Results Among 284 HIV-positive ART naïve patients, the majority were male (56%) with a history of IDU (79% among men). People with a history of IDU had a statistically significant faster decline in CD4 cells (p<0.001). Based on our data, patients with a history of IDU would have an average 33% decline in CD4 cells after one year without ART, compared with a 22% decline among non-users. At two years, the decline would average 66 and 40%, respectively. No other factor was significantly associated with CD4 cell decline. Conclusions We show that a history of IDU is associated with a more rapid CD4 cell natural decline among HIV-positive individuals in Indonesia. These findings have implications for monitoring ART naïve patients with a history of IDU and for starting ART in this group. PMID:24388495

Meijerink, Hinta; Wisaksana, Rudi; Iskandar, Shelly; den Heijer, Martin; van der Ven, Andre J A M; Alisjahbana, Bachti; van Crevel, Reinout

2014-01-01

324

Nachweis und Bestimmung von bromhaltigen Medikamenten in Blut, Urin und Gewebe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypnotics obtainable without prescription, especially the bromoureide derivatives, are gaining in importance in conjunction with suicides, attempted suicides and drug poisonings. The hitherto unexplained metabolism of the bromureides is discussed. By means of X-ray fluorescence analysis, it is possible to easily and quickly determine bromine in blood, urine, tissue and other biological material. Through the use of simpler methods of

G. Hauck

1968-01-01

325

Euphorbia hirta leaf extracts increase urine output and electrolytes in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Euphorbia hirta is locally used in Africa and Australia to treat numerous diseases, including hypertension and edema. The diuretic effect of the E. hirta leaf extracts were assessed in rats using acetazolamide and furosemide as standard diuretic drugs. The water and ethanol extracts (50 and 100 mg\\/kg) of the plant produced time-dependent increase in urine output. Electrolyte excretion was also

Patricia B Johnson; Ezzeldin M Abdurahman; Emmanuel A Tiam; Ibrahim Abdu-Aguye; Isa M Hussaini

1999-01-01

326

A multi-component LC-MS/MS method for detection of ten plant-derived psychoactive substances in urine.  

PubMed

A sensitive and specific LC-MS/MS method for simultaneous detection of 10 plant-derived psychoactive substances (atropine, N,N-dimethyltryptamine, ephedrine, harmaline, harmine, ibogaine, lysergic acid amide, psilocin, scopolamine and yohimbine) in urine was developed. Direct injection of urine diluted with 3 deuterated internal standards allowed for a readily accessible method suitable for application in clinical intoxication cases. Separation was achieved using reversed phase chromatography and gradient elution with a total analysis time of 14 min. Electrospray ionization was used and ions were monitored in the positive selected reaction monitoring mode. The calibration curves were linear (r(2)>0.999) and the total imprecision at high (1000 microg/L) and low (50 microg/L) substance concentrations were 4.9-13.8% and 8.3-26%, respectively. Infusing the analytes post column and injecting matrix samples showed limited influence by ion suppression. The multi-component method proved to be useful for investigation of authentic cases of intoxication with plant-derived psychoactive drugs and was indicated to cover the clinically relevant concentration ranges. PMID:19332394

Björnstad, Kristian; Beck, Olof; Helander, Anders

2009-04-15

327

Diagnostic value of cytology of voided urine.  

PubMed

There are 961 new cases and approximately 366 deaths from urothelial carcinoma registered annually in Croatia. Exfoliative urinary cytology has important role in detection of high grade urinary tumors, invasive and in situ lesions respectively. In contrast to cystoscopy and biopsy, cytology is a noninvasive method which is easily repeated. The aim of this retrospective study was to assess value of urinary cytology in our institution. For this purpose only patients with histological diagnosis and clinical follow up were considered. There were 138 urine specimens with cytological diagnosis of dyskaryosis, suspicious for malignancy or malignant and histology and follow up data examined at our Department of Clinical Cytology between 2004 and 2011. Cytological diagnosis suspicious for malignancy and malignant were considered positive and the results were correlated with histological diagnosis according to the WHO histological classification of tumors of the urinary tract. Patients with negative histological findings were followed for the next two years. The positive predictive value of cytological detection of malignant urothelial lesions was 91.8%. In 10 cases cytological diagnosis of malignancy was not confirmed histologically or clinically which makes the total of 8.2% of false positive reports. Of the total of detected malignant urothelial lesions 90.9% are high grade lesions and only 9.1% low-grade lesions; 67.3% are invasive lesions and 32.7% non-invasive lesions. Cytological findings of dyskariotyc cells requires further urological investigation because such findings in further processing prove the presence of tumor in 93.8% of cases. In conclusion: cytology is very good diagnostic tool for detection of high grade invasive and noninvasive carcinomas of the urinary tract. In order to make it more efficient we need to study its limits carefully, define diagnostic criteria and reach consensus in nomenclature. PMID:25144998

Milici?, Valerija; Prvulovi?, Ivana; Panda, Natalija; Bili?-Kirin, Vesna; Kraljik, Nikola; Seri?, Vatroslav

2014-06-01

328

Urine Metabolites Reflect Time-Dependent Effects of Cyclosporine and Sirolimus on Rat Kidney Function?  

PubMed Central

Background The clinical use of the immunosuppressant calcineurin inhibitor cyclosporine is limited by its nephrotoxicity. This is enhanced when combined with the immunosuppressive mTOR inhibitor sirolimus. Nephrotoxicity of both drugs is not yet fully understood. Methods The goal was to gain more detailed mechanistic insights into the time-dependent effects of cyclosporine and sirolimus on the rat kidney by using a comprehensive approach including metabolic profiling in urine (1H-NMR spectroscopy), kidney histology, kidney function parameters in plasma, measurement of glomerular filtration rates, the oxidative stress marker 15-F2t-isoprostane in urine and immunosuppressant concentrations in blood and kidney. Male Wistar rats were treated with vehicle (controls), cyclosporine (10/25mg/kg/d) and/or sirolimus (1mg/kg/d) by oral gavage once daily for 6 and 28 days. Results Twenty-eight day treatment led to a decrease of glomerular filtration rates (cyclosporine -59%, sirolimus -25%). These were further decreased when both drugs were combined (-86%). Histology revealed tubular damage after treatment with cyclosporine, which was enhanced when sirolimus was added. No other part of the kidney was affected. 1H-NMR spectroscopy analysis of urine (day 6) revealed time-dependent changes of 2-oxoglutarate, citrate and succinate concentrations. In combination with increased urine isoprostane concentrations these changes indicated oxidative stress. After 28 days of cyclosporine treatment, urine metabonomics shifted to patterns typical for proximal tubular damage with reduction of Krebs cycle intermediates and trimethylamine-N-oxide concentrations whereas acetate, lactate, trimethylamine and glucose concentrations increased. Again, sirolimus enhanced these negative effects. Conclusions Our results indicate that cyclosporine and/or sirolimus induce damage of the renal tubular system. This is reflected by urine metabolite patterns, which seem to be more sensitive than currently used clinical kidney function markers such as creatinine concentrations in serum. Metabolic profiling in urine may provide the basis for the development of toxicodynamic monitoring strategies for immunosuppressant nephrotoxicity. PMID:19099400

Klawitter, Jost; Bendrick-Peart, Jamie; Rudolph, Birgit; Beckey, Virginia; Klawitter, Jelena; Haschke, Manuel; Rivard, Christopher; Chan, Laurence; Leibfritz, Dieter; Christians, Uwe; Schmitz, Volker

2009-01-01

329

Detection of significant bacteriuria by use of the iQ200 automated urine microscope.  

PubMed

In the microbiology laboratory, there is an augmented need for rapid screening methods for the detection of bacteria in urine samples, since about two-thirds of these samples will not yield any bacteria or will yield insignificant growth when cultured. Thus, a reliable screening method can free up laboratory resources and can speed up the reporting of a negative urine result. In this study, we have evaluated the detection of leukocytes, bacteria, and a new sediment indicator, the "all small particles" (ASP), by an automated instrument, the iQ200 urine analyzer, to detect negative urine samples that can be excluded from culture. A coupled automated strip reader (iChem Velocity), enabling the detection of nitrite and leukocyte esterase, was tested in parallel. In total, 963 urine samples were processed through both conventional urine culture and the iQ200/iChem Velocity workstation. Using the data, a multivariate regression model was established, and the predicted specificity and the possible reduction in urine cultures were calculated for the indicators and their respective combinations (leukocytes plus bacteria plus ASP and leukocyte esterase plus nitrite). Among all options, diagnostic performance was best using the whole microscopic content of the sample (leukocytes plus bacteria plus ASP). By using a cutoff value of ? 10(4) CFU/ml for defining a positive culture, a given sensitivity of 95% resulted in a specificity of 61% and a reduction in urine cultures of 35%. By considering the indicators alone, specificity and the culture savings were both much less satisfactory. The regression model was also used to determine possible cutoff values for running the instrument as part of daily routine. By using a graphical representation of all combinations possible, we derived cutoff values for leukocyte, bacterial, and ASP count, which should enable the iQ200 microscope to screen out approximately one-third of the urine samples, significantly reducing the workload in the microbiology laboratory. PMID:24871218

Stürenburg, Enno; Kramer, Jan; Schön, Gerhard; Cachovan, Georg; Sobottka, Ingo

2014-08-01

330

Quantification and profiling of 19-norandrosterone and 19-noretiocholanolone in human urine after consumption of a nutritional supplement and norsteroids.  

PubMed

Nandrolone is one of the synthetic anabolic steroids banned in sports and has been a popular substance abused by athletes in recent years. One of its major metabolites, 19-norandrosterone (19-NA), has been used as a determinant for drug violations in sports. Current reports regarding nandrolone-positive cases have been related to intake of some nandrolone-free nutritional supplements. The aim of this study was to learn whether if a nutritional supplement sold by over-the-counter (OTC) nutritional stores could yield the same metabolic products as that of nandrolone. If so, what is (are) the substance(s) that contributed to the nandrolone metabolites? To determine the content of an OTC nutritional supplement, a tablet was dissolved in methanol, followed by N-methyl-N-trimethylsilyltrifluoroacetamide (MSTFA)-trimethyliodosilane (TMIS) derivatization prior to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. The collected urine samples underwent extraction, enzymatic hydrolysis, and derivatization before the analyses of GC-MS. The results showed that seven anabolic steroids were found as contaminants in the nutritional supplement, in addition to six that were listed in the ingredients by the manufacturer. We confirmed previous reports that administration of the OTC supplement could produce a positive urine test for nandrolone metabolites. Furthermore, the results from excretion studies showed that 19-NA and 19-noretiocholanolone (19-NE) were present in urine after consuming the nutritional supplement, nandrolone, 19-nor-4-androsten-3,17-dione, 19-nor-4-androsten-3beta,17beta-diol, and 19-nor-5-androsten-3beta,17beta-diol. The 19-NA concentrations in urine were generally higher than that of 19-NE (19-NA/19-NE ratio > 1.0) especially during the early stage of excretion, that is, before 6 h post-administration. After this period of time, the concentrations of 19-NA and 19-NE fluctuated and might even have reversed (19-NA/19-NE ratio < 1.0) in their ratio, that is, higher yield in 19-NE than that in 19-NA. On the basis of this study, we postulate that some doping violations of nandrolone could be attributed by indiscriminate administration of the OTC nutritional supplements that contained 19-norsteroids. PMID:15902981

Tseng, Ying Lung; Kuo, Fan-Hsin; Sun, Kuo-Hu

2005-03-01

331

Urine sodium, potassium and osmolality in two rat strains selected for their different ethanol preferences.  

PubMed

Urine sodium, potassium and osmolality were investigated during water and ethanol diuresis in two rat strains, AA and ANA, which drink voluntarily different amounts of ethanol. At the start of each experiment the rats were in a positive water balance. During ethanol intoxication the AA strain excreted more urine than the ANA strain. In ethanol experiments the osmolality of the urine was higher in the AA strain than in the ANA strain. With ethanol amounts of 2.4 g/kg body weight and 4.8 g/kg of body weight, urinary sodium and potassium output was greater in AA rats than ANA rats. When only water was introduced urine volumes and the excretion of sodium and potassium during 180 min were greater in ANA males than in AA males. PMID:957811

Linkola, J

1976-08-01

332

Routine Urine Culture at the Time of Percutaneous Urinary Drainage: Does Every Patient Need One?  

SciTech Connect

Purpose. To determine the clinical variables associated with bacteriuria in patients undergoing primary percutaneous antegrade urinary drainage procedures in order to predict the utility of routinely obtaining urine cultures at the time of the procedure. Methods. Between October 1995 and March 1998 urine cultures were prospectively obtained in all patients undergoing a primary percutaneous antegrade urinary drainage procedure. One hundred and eighty-seven patients underwent 264 procedures. Results were available in 252 cases. Culture results were correlated with clinical, laboratory, and demographic variables. Anaerobic cultures were not uniformly performed. Results. Urine cultures were positive in 24 of 252 (9.5%) cases. An indwelling or recently removed ipsilateral device (catheter or stent) and a history of previous cystectomy with urinary diversion were significant predictors of a positive culture. Patients without either of these predictors, and without clinical or laboratory evidence of infection, were rarely found to have positive cultures. Conclusion. The likelihood of a positive urine culture can be predicted on the basis of the aforementioned clinical variables. In the absence of these clinical indicators routine urine cultures are neither useful nor cost-effective.

Brody, L.A., E-mail: brodyl@mskcc.org; Brown, K.T.; Covey, A.M. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, Section of Interventional Radiology and Image Guided Therapy (United States); Brown, A.E. [Service of Infectious Disease, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Medicine (United States); Getrajdman, G.I. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, Section of Interventional Radiology and Image Guided Therapy (United States)

2006-08-15

333

[Development of automatic urine monitoring system].  

PubMed

An automatic urine monitoring system is presented to replace manual operation. The system is composed of the flow sensor, MSP430f149 single chip microcomputer, human-computer interaction module, LCD module, clock module and memory module. The signal of urine volume is captured when the urine flows through the flow sensor and then displayed on the LCD after data processing. The experiment results suggest that the design of the monitor provides a high stability, accurate measurement and good real-time, and meets the demand of the clinical application. PMID:24941774

Wei, Liang; Li, Yongqin; Chen, Bihua

2014-03-01

334

drug discovery drug discovery  

E-print Network

drug discovery at Purdue #12;drug discovery 2 #12;drug discovery 3 Introduction The drug discovery and innovative drug candidates to treat chronic and acute illnesses. Our researchers also continue to be invested in various approaches to drug discovery, which include understanding of drug targets for future drug

335

Direct determination of methamphetamine enantiomers in urine by liquid chromatography with a strong cation-exchange precolumn and phenyl-beta-cyclodextrin-bonded semi-microcolumn.  

PubMed

Methamphetamine enantiomers in drug abusers' urine were clearly separated by semi-microcolumn liquid chromatography using a column-switching system. The system consists of two separation processes: firstly, a strong cation-exchange precolumn removes neutral and anionic substances in urine, and then methamphetamine enantiomers trapped in the column are transferred to and separated in a phenyl-beta-cyclodextrin-bonded semi-microcolumn (Chiral Drug, 150 mm x 1.5 mm I.D.). (S)-(+)-Methamphetamine was baseline separated from (R)-(-)-methamphetamine within 25 min, directly from urine samples. The detection limit for both enantiomers was 0.1 microg/ml. PMID:10410931

Makino, Y; Suzuki, A; Ogawa, T; Shirota, O

1999-06-11

336

Waterless Urinals: Features, Benefits and Applications  

E-print Network

. Waterless, or no-flush urinals, may help mitigate these effects and offer other advantages, including lower utility charges, improved restroom hygiene, and decreased fixture maintenance. Some notable caveats include possible lack of acceptance by users, odor...

Bristow, G.; McClure, J. D.; Fisher, D.

2004-01-01

337

Monitoring of kratom or Krypton intake in urine using GC-MS in clinical and forensic toxicology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Thai medicinal plant Mitragyna speciosa (kratom) is misused as a herbal drug. Besides this, a new herbal blend has appeared on the drugs of abuse market, named Krypton,\\u000a a mixture of O-demethyltramadol (ODT) and kratom. Therefore, urine drug screenings should include ODT and focus on the metabolites of the kratom alkaloids mitragynine (MG), paynantheine (PAY), speciogynine (SG), and speciociliatine

Anika A. Philipp; Markus R. Meyer; Dirk K. Wissenbach; Armin A. Weber; Siegfried W. Zoerntlein; Peter G. M. Zweipfenning; Hans H. Maurer

2011-01-01

338

Effects of cannabinoid and vanilloid drugs on positive and negative-like symptoms on an animal model of schizophrenia: the SHR strain.  

PubMed

Studies have suggested that the endocannabinoid system is implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. We have recently reported that Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHRs) present a deficit in social interaction that is ameliorated by atypical antipsychotics. In addition, SHRs display hyperlocomotion - reverted by atypical and typical antipsychotics. These results suggest that this strain could be useful to study negative symptoms (modeled by a decrease in social interaction) and positive symptoms (modeled by hyperlocomotion) of schizophrenia and the effects of potential drugs with an antipsychotic profile. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of WIN55-212,2 (CB1/CB2 agonist), ACEA (CB1 agonist), rimonabant (CB1 inverse agonist), AM404 (anandamide uptake/metabolism inhibitor), capsaicin (agonist TRPV1) and capsazepine (antagonist TRPV1) on the social interaction and locomotion of control animals (Wistar rats) and SHRs. The treatment with rimonabant was not able to alter either the social interaction or the locomotion presented by Wistar rats (WR) and SHR at any dose tested. The treatment with WIN55-212,2 decreased locomotion (1mg/kg) and social interaction (0.1 and 0.3mg/kg) of WR, while the dose of 1mg/kg increased social interaction of SHR. The treatment with ACEA increased (0.3mg/kg) and decreased (1mg/kg) locomotion of both strain. The administration of AM404 increased social interaction and decreased locomotion of SHR (5mg/kg), and decreased social interaction and increased locomotion in WR (1mg/kg). The treatment with capsaicin (2.5mg/kg) increased social interaction of both strain and decreased locomotion of SHR (2.5mg/kg) and WR (0.5mg/kg and 2.5mg/kg). In addition, capsazepine (5mg/kg) decreased locomotion of both strains and increased (5mg/kg) and decreased (10mg/kg) social interaction of WR. Our results indicate that the schizophrenia-like behaviors displayed by SHR are differently altered by cannabinoid and vanilloid drugs when compared to control animals and suggest the endocannabinoid and the vanilloid systems as a potential target for the treatment of schizophrenia. PMID:24556469

Almeida, Valéria; Peres, Fernanda F; Levin, Raquel; Suiama, Mayra A; Calzavara, Mariana B; Zuardi, Antônio W; Hallak, Jaime E; Crippa, José A; Abílio, Vanessa C

2014-03-01

339

Back to the basics: identifying positive youth development as the theoretical framework for a youth drug prevention program in rural Saskatchewan, Canada amidst a program evaluation  

PubMed Central

Background Despite endorsement by the Saskatchewan government to apply empirically-based approaches to youth drug prevention services in the province, programs are sometimes delivered prior to the establishment of evidence-informed goals and objectives. This paper shares the 'preptory’ outcomes of our team’s program evaluation of the Prince Albert Parkland Health Region Mental Health and Addiction Services’ Outreach Worker Service (OWS) in eight rural, community schools three years following its implementation. Before our independent evaluation team could assess whether expectations of the OWS were being met, we had to assist with establishing its overarching program goals and objectives and 'at-risk’ student population, alongside its alliance with an empirically-informed theoretical framework. Methods A mixed-methods approach was applied, beginning with in-depth focus groups with the OWS staff to identify the program’s goals and objectives and targeted student population. These were supplemented with OWS and school administrator interviews and focus groups with school staff. Alignment with a theoretical focus was determined though a review of the OWS’s work to date and explored in focus groups between our evaluation team and the OWS staff and validated with the school staff and OWS and school administration. Results With improved understanding of the OWS’s goals and objectives, our evaluation team and the OWS staff aligned the program with the Positive Youth Development theoretical evidence-base, emphasizing the program’s universality, systems focus, strength base, and promotion of assets. Together we also gained clarity about the OWS’s definition of and engagement with its 'at-risk’ student population. Conclusions It is important to draw on expert knowledge to develop youth drug prevention programming, but attention must also be paid to aligning professional health care services with a theoretically informed evidence-base for evaluation purposes. If time does not permit for the establishment of evidence-informed goals and objectives at the start-up of a program, obtaining insight and expertise from program personnel and school staff and administrators can bring the program to a point where this can still be achieved and theoretical linkages made after a program has been implemented. This is a necessary foundation for measuring an intervention’s success. PMID:24148918

2013-01-01

340

Urine processing for potable water recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resource recovery, including that of urine water extraction, is one of the most crucial aspects of long-term life support in interplanetary space travel. This effort consequently examined an approach to processing raw, undiluted urine based on low-temperature freezing. A strategy uniquely different from NASA's current emphasis on distillation processing strategies, whereby this liquid freeze-thaw (LiFT) procedure avoids both chemical and

Jeffrey MacLeod Schmidt

2007-01-01

341

The role of cow urine in the oviposition site preference of culicine and Anopheles mosquitoes  

PubMed Central

Background Chemical and behavioural ecology of mosquitoes plays an important role in the development of chemical cue based vector control. To date, studies available have focused on evaluating mosquito attractants and repellents of synthetic and human origins. This study, however, was aimed at seasonal evaluation of the efficiency of cow urine in producing oviposition cues to Anopheles gambiae s.l. and Culex quinquefasciatus in both laboratory and field conditions. Methods Oviposition response evaluation in laboratory conditions was carried out in mosquito rearing cages. The oviposition substrates were located in parallel or in diagonal positions inside the cage. Urine evaluation against gravid females of An. arabiensis and Cx. quinquefasciatus was carried out at Day 1, Day 3 and Day 7. Five millilitres (mls) of cow urine was added to oviposition substrate while de-chlorinated water was used as a control. In field experiments, 500 mls of cow urine was added in artificial habitats with 2500 mls of de-chlorinated water and 2 kgs of soil. The experiment was monitored for thirty consecutive days, eggs were collected daily from the habitats at 7.00 hrs. Data analysis was performed using parametric and non-parametric tests for treatments and controls while attraction of the oviposition substrate in each species was presented using Oviposition Activity Index (OAI). Results The OAI was positive with ageing of cattle urine in culicine species in both laboratory and field experiments. The OAI for anopheline species was positive with fresh urine. The OAI during the rainy season was positive for all species tested while in the dry season the OAI for culicine spp and Anopheles gambiae s.l., changed with time from positive to negative values. Based on linear model analysis, seasons and treatments had a significant effect on the number of eggs laid in habitats, even though the number of days had no effect. Conclusion Oviposition substrates treated with cow urine in both laboratory and field conditions have shown that cow urine left to age from 1-7 days has an influence on oviposition behavioural response in mosquitoes. The analysis of microbial colonies for decaying urine should be investigated along with its associated by-products. PMID:21943071

2011-01-01

342

Menatetrenone versus alfacalcidol in the treatment of Chinese postmenopausal women with osteoporosis: a multicenter, randomized, double-blinded, double-dummy, positive drug-controlled clinical trial  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate whether the efficacy and safety of menatetrenone for the treatment of osteoporosis is noninferior to alfacalcidol in Chinese postmenopausal women. Method This multicenter, randomized, double-blinded, double-dummy, noninferiority, positive drug-controlled clinical trial was conducted in five Chinese sites. Eligible Chinese women with postmenopausal osteoporosis (N=236) were randomized to Group M or Group A and received menatetrenone 45 mg/day or alfacalcidol 0.5 ?g/day, respectively, for 1 year. Additionally, all patients received calcium 500 mg/day. Posttreatment bone mineral density (BMD), new fracture onsets, and serum osteocalcin (OC) and undercarboxylated OC (ucOC) levels were compared with the baseline value in patients of both groups. Results A total of 213 patients (90.3%) completed the study. After 1 year of treatment, BMD among patients in Group M significantly increased from baseline by 1.2% and 2.7% at the lumbar spine and trochanter, respectively (P<0.001); and the percentage increase of BMD in Group A was 2.2% and 1.8%, respectively (P<0.001). No difference was observed between groups. There were no changes in femoral neck BMD in both groups. Two patients (1.9%, 2/108) in Group M and four patients (3.8%, 4/105) in Group A had new fracture onsets (P>0.05). In Group M, OC and ucOC decreased from baseline by 38.7% and 82.3%, respectively (P<0.001). In Group A, OC and ucOC decreased by 25.8% and 34.8%, respectively (P<0.001). Decreases in serum OC and ucOC were more obvious in Group M than in Group A (P<0.001). The safety profile of menatetrenone was similar to alfacalcidol. Conclusion Menatetrenone is an effective and safe choice in the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis in Chinese women. PMID:24426779

Jiang, Yan; Zhang, Zhen-Lin; Zhang, Zhong-Lan; Zhu, Han-Min; Wu, Yi-Yong; Cheng, Qun; Wu, Feng-Li; Xing, Xiao-Ping; Liu, Jian-Li; Yu, Wei; Meng, Xun-Wu

2014-01-01

343

A hybrid liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry strategy in a forensic laboratory for opioid, cocaine and amphetamine classes in human urine using a hybrid linear ion trap-triple quadrupole mass spectrometer.  

PubMed

A rapid method has been developed to analyse morphine, codeine, morphine-3-glucuronide, 6-monoacetylmorphine, cocaine, benzoylegonine, buprenorphine, dihydrocodeine, cocaethylene, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine, ketamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, pseudoephedrine, lignocaine, benzylpiperazine, methamphetamine, amphetamine, 2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine and methadone in human urine. Urine samples were diluted with methanol:water (1:1, v/v) and sample aliquots were analysed by hybrid linear ion trap-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry with a runtime of 12.5 min. Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) as survey scan and an enhanced product ion (EPI) scan as dependent scan were performed in an information-dependent acquisition (IDA) experiment. Finally, drug identification and confirmation was carried out by library search with a developed in-house MS/MS library based on EPI spectra at a collision energy spread of 35±15 in positive mode and MRM ratios. The method was validated in urine, according to the criteria defined in Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. At least two MRM transitions for each substance were monitored in addition to EPI spectra and deuterated analytes were used as internal standards for quantitation. The reporting level was 0.05 ?g mL(-1) for the range of analytes tested. The regression coefficients (r(2)) for the calibration curves (0-4 ?g mL(-1)) in the study were ?0.98. The method proved to be simple and time efficient and was implemented as an analytical strategy for the illicit drug monitoring of opioids, cocaines and amphetamines in criminal samples from crime offenders, abusers or victims in the Republic of Ireland. To the best of our knowledge there are no hybrid LC-MS applications using MRM mode and product ion spectra in the linear ion trap mode for opioids, cocaines or amphetamines with validation data in urine. PMID:20855077

Dowling, Geraldine; Regan, Liam; Tierney, Julie; Nangle, Michael

2010-10-29

344

Attitudes of Matriculating First-Year Pharmacy Students Toward a Mandatory, Random Drug-Screening Program  

PubMed Central

Objective. To determine the attitudes of incoming pharmacy students toward a mandatory, random urine drug-screening program. Methods. This was an anonymous, voluntary survey of students at the McWhorter School of Pharmacy (MSOP) using an instrument composed of 40 items. The instrument was administered during orientation week prior to the session during which the policies and procedures of MSOP's drug-screening program were to be discussed. Results. The survey instrument was completed by all 129 (100%) students in the class. Two-thirds of the students were aware of MSOP's drug-screening program prior to applying, but only a few felt uneasy about applying to the school because of the program. The greatest concerns expressed by the students included what would happen if a student unintentionally missed a drug screen or was busy with other matters when called for screening, how much time a drug-screening would take, and the possibility of false-positive drug screen results. The vast majority of students agreed with statements regarding the potential benefits of drug testing. Students who consumed alcohol in a typical week and those with current or past use of an illegal substance held less favorable attitudes toward MSOP’s mandatory drug-screening program compared with students who did not share those characteristics. Conclusion. Although there were definite concerns expressed regarding pragmatic issues surrounding drug screening, the first-year pharmacy students held generally favorable opinions about the school's mandatory drug-screening program. PMID:23193335

Oliver, Maggee; Hogue, Michael D.; Alverson, Susan P.; Woolley, Thomas W.

2012-01-01

345

Forensic identification of urine using the DMAC test: a method validation study.  

PubMed

Forensic scientists may sometimes be asked to identify the presence of urine in cases such as harassment, rape or murder. One popular presumptive test method uses para-dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde (DMAC), favoured because it is simple, rapid and safe. This paper confirms that DMAC reacts with urea rather than creatinine, ammonia or uric acid. Sensitivity studies found that the 0.1% w/v DMAC solution currently used for urine identification detects levels of urea found in other body fluids, potentially resulting in false positives. A 0.05% w/v solution was found to be more appropriate in terms of sensitivity to urea however the test is still not specific for urine, giving positive reactions with a number of body fluids (saliva, semen, sweat and vaginal material) and other substances (foot lotion, hair removal cream and broccoli). PMID:22583500

Ong, Sandy Y; Wain, Adrian; Groombridge, Linda; Grimes, Eileen

2012-06-01

346

Clinical trial of a new technique for drugs of abuse testing: A new possible sampling technique.  

PubMed

Exhaled breath has recently been proposed as a matrix for drug testing. This study aims to further explore, develop and validate exhaled breath as a safe and effective non-invasive method for drug testing in a clinical setting. Self-reported drug use was recorded and drug testing was performed by mass spectrometry and immunochemical methods using breath, plasma and urine samples from 45 individuals voluntarily seeking treatment for recreational drug use. Cannabis was the most prevalent drug detected by any method. Urine sampling detected most cases. The exhaled breath technique was less sensitive (73%) than plasma analysis for detection of cannabis uses but captures a more recent drug intake than both plasma and urine. Exhaled breath was the preferred specimen to donate according to interview data of the participants. Testing illicit drugs with the exhaled breath sampling technique is a sufficient, non-invasive and safe alternative and complement to plasma and/or urine sampling. PMID:25312474

Skoglund, Charlotte; Hermansson, Ulric; Beck, Olof

2015-01-01

347

Prevalence of nicotine consumption in drug deaths  

Microsoft Academic Search

One hundred consecutive drug death victims autopsied at the Institute of Forensic Medicine, University of Freiburg, between 1995 and 1997 were studied retrospectively as to whether the drug users had also consumed nicotine. The study included histological examination of the lung tissue for smoker cells and radioimmunological as well as GC–MS assays of the urine for cotinine, the primary metabolite

Minou Hafezi; Michael Bohnert; Wolfgang Weinmann; Stefan Pollak

2001-01-01

348

Development and evaluation of immunochromatographic rapid tests for screening of cannabinoids, cocaine, and opiates in urine.  

PubMed

The test principle and the optimization of the reactive ingredients are described for the one-step dip and-read immunochromatographic FRONTLINE rapid tests for drugs-of-abuse testing in urine samples. In a multicenter evaluation the rapid tests were compared with FPIA and EMIT immunoassays. Discrepant results were further analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry methods. In the comparison of the cannabinoids rapid tests versus both immunoassays using clinical and forensic urine samples (399 versus FPIA and 755 versus EMIT), sensitivities and specificities were 97% or better for both comparisons. For cocaine, a sensitivity of 100% versus both routine technologies was obtained, whereas the specificity was reduced somewhat to 91% because of some cross-reactivity with metabolites of methadone and of clozapine. Specificity was very high for the cocaine rapid tests (98-100%) when applied to urine samples of persons not in a methadone maintenance program. Sensitivities and specificities for the opiates rapid tests were 99% or better at all sites when compared with the routine methods. In the screening of about 1200 clinical urine samples for cannabinoids, cocaine or opiates misuse only six samples would have stayed undetected by rapid test analyzes. These results show the FRONTLINE assays allow a reliable and immediate screening for drugs of abuse. PMID:9547412

Wennig, R; Moeller, M R; Haguenoer, J M; Marocchi, A; Zoppi, F; Smith, B L; de la Torre, R; Carstensen, C A; Goerlach-Graw, A; Schaeffler, J; Leinberger, R

1998-01-01

349

Sexual risk taking and club drug use across three age cohorts of HIV-positive gay and bisexual men in New York City  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined club drug use (i.e., cocaine, ecstasy, ketamine, gamma-hydroxybutyrate [GHB], and methamphetamine) and unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) in an ethnically and racially diverse sample of 166 New York City-based seropositive, club drug-using, gay and bisexual men, ages 19–61, and considered these behaviors in relation to age category (20s, 30s, and 40 +) and number of years living with

Molly K. Pappas; Perry N. Halkitis

2011-01-01

350

Multilevel Predictors of Concurrent Opioid Use during Methadone Maintenance Treatment among Drug Users with HIV/AIDS  

PubMed Central

Background Ongoing drug use during methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) negatively affects outcomes of HIV/AIDS care and treatment for drug users. This study assessed changes in opioid use, and longitudinal predictors of continued opioid use during MMT among HIV-positive drug users in Vietnam, with the aim of identifying changes that might enhance program efficacy. Methods We analyze data of 370 HIV-positive drug users (mean age 29.5; 95.7% male) taking MMT at multi-sites. Opioid use was assessed at baseline, 3, 6, and 9 months using interviews and heroin confirmatory urine tests. A social ecological model was applied to explore multilevel predictors of continued opioid use, including individual, interpersonal, community and service influences. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) statistical models were constructed to adjust for intra-individual correlations. Results Over 9 month follow-up, self-reported opioid use and positive heroin urine test substantially decreased to 14.6% and 14.4%. MMT helped improve referrals and access to health care and social services. However, utilization of social integration services was small. GEE models determined that participants who were older (Adjusted Odd Ratio - AOR?=?0.97 for 1 year increase), had economic dependents (AOR?=?0.33), or were referred to TB treatment (AOR?=?0.53) were less likely to continue opioid use. Significant positive predictors of ongoing opioid use included frequency of opioid use prior to MMT, peer pressure, living with sexual partners, taking antiretroviral treatment, other health concerns and TB treatment. Conclusion These findings show that MMT in the Vietnamese context can dramatically reduce opioid use, which is known to be associated with reduced antiretroviral (ART) adherence. Disease stage and drug interactions between antiretrovirals or TB drugs and MMT could explain some of the observed predictors of ongoing drug use; these findings could inform changes in MMT program design and implementation. PMID:23251580

Tran, Bach Xuan; Ohinmaa, Arto; Mills, Steve; Duong, Anh Thuy; Nguyen, Long Thanh; Jacobs, Philip; Houston, Stan

2012-01-01

351

Concentration of urine by the hibernating marmot.  

PubMed

Studies wer performed with marmots (Marmota flaviventris) of both sexes that had chronic arterial, venous, and bladder catheters. Urine collection was performed during hibernation and urine osmolalities (611.6 not equal to 166.1 SD) were found to be lower than those of aroused animals (1264 not equal to 472.9 SD), but hypertonic to plasma. Peak osmolality of meduallary slices was found to be in the range of osmotic pressures of urine obtained from hibernating or aroused animals. After single injections of a mixture of rho-aminohippurate and inulin, or during constant infusion of inulin, steady-state excretion by hibernators was not achieved for several days. Indirect evidence indicateds that the hibernating marmot is capable of PAH secretion. PMID:1130537

Zatzman, M L; South, F E

1975-05-01

352

Urinary Adulterants and Drugs of Abuse Testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Persons abusing drugs attempt to adulterate urine specimens in order to escape detection. Household chemicals such as bleach,\\u000a table salt, laundry detergent, toilet bowl cleaner, vinegar, lemon juice and Visine eye drops are used for adulterating urine\\u000a specimens. Most of these adulterants except Visine eye drops can be detected by routine specimen integrity tests (creatinine,\\u000a pH, temperature and specific gravity).

Amitava Dasgupta

353

[Identification of narcotics in urine by capillary gas chromatography].  

PubMed

It is demonstrated that gas chromatography with quartz capillary columns (QCC) and with cross-sewn SE-52 by polysiloxane provides for the possibility to divide and identify, in human urine, 16 narcotic substances of the amphetamine, 1.4-benzodiazepine, morphine and other groups. The suggested extraction method makes it possible to isolate the above compounds from urine simultaneously and, after derivatization, to determine them by gas chromatography (GC) with programmed temperature within one stage analysis session. GC tests were performed on 2 both foreign and Russian QCC with SE-52. There is a description of 2 methods of how to obtain the trifluor-acetyl derivatives (TFA-derivatives) by using trifluor-acetate anhydride and N-methyl-bis-trifluor-acetamide. The limit of detecting the TFA-derivatives was 1-2 ng for the plasma-ionizing detector. The extraction method as well as the positive and negative aspects of using the TFA-derivatives are under discussion. The method of gas-chromatography/mass-spectrometry confirms that the positive results of radioreceptor assay are verified by GC in 92% of cases. PMID:15230191

Akalaev, A N; Shpagin, M G; Shabolenko, V P; Kovalenko, A E

2004-01-01

354

Dietary polyamine intake and polyamines measured in urine.  

PubMed

Dietary polyamines have recently been associated with increased risk of pre-malignant colorectal lesions. Because polyamines are synthesized in cells and taken up from dietary sources, development of a biomarker of exposure is challenging. Excess polyamines are primarily excreted in the urine. This pilot study seeks to identify dietary correlates of excreted urinary polyamines as putative biomarkers of exposure. Dietary polyamines/other nutrients were estimated from a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and correlated with urinary levels of acetylated polyamines in 36 men using 24-h urine samples. Polyamines, abundant in cheese and citrus, were highly positively correlated with urinary N(8)-acetylspermidine (correlation coefficient; r = 0.37, P = 0.03), but this correlation was attenuated after adjustment for total energy intake (r = 0.07, P = 0.68). Dietary energy intake itself was positively correlated with urinary total acetylated polyamine output (r = .40, P = 0.02). In energy-adjusted analyses, folic acid and folate from food were associated with urinary N(1),N(12)-diacetylspermine (r = 0.34, P = 0.05 and r = -0.39, P = 0.02, respectively). Red meat negatively correlated with total urinary acetylated polyamines (r = -0.42, P = 0.01). Our findings suggest that energy, folate, folic acid, saturated fat, and red meat intake, as opposed to FFQ-estimated dietary polyamines, are correlated with urinary polyamines. PMID:25204413

Vargas, Ashley J; Ashbeck, Erin L; Thomson, Cynthia A; Gerner, Eugene W; Thompson, Patricia A

2014-10-01

355

Urine alkalization facilitates uric acid excretion  

PubMed Central

Background Increase in the incidence of hyperuricemia associated with gout as well as hypertension, renal diseases and cardiovascular diseases has been a public health concern. We examined the possibility of facilitated excretion of uric acid by change in urine pH by managing food materials. Methods Within the framework of the Japanese government's health promotion program, we made recipes which consist of protein-rich and less vegetable-fruit food materials for H+-load (acid diet) and others composed of less protein but vegetable-fruit rich food materials (alkali diet). Healthy female students were enrolled in this consecutive 5-day study for each test. From whole-day collected urine, total volume, pH, organic acid, creatinine, uric acid and all cations (Na+,K+,Ca2+,Mg2+,NH4+) and anions (Cl-,SO42-,PO4-) necessary for the estimation of acid-base balance were measured. Results Urine pH reached a steady state 3 days after switching from ordinary daily diets to specified regimens. The amount of acid generated ([SO42-] +organic acid-gut alkai) were linearly related with those of the excretion of acid (titratable acidity+ [NH4+] - [HCO3-]), indicating that H+ in urine is generated by the metabolic degradation of food materials. Uric acid and excreted urine pH retained a linear relationship, where uric acid excretion increased from 302 mg/day at pH 5.9 to 413 mg/day at pH 6.5, despite the fact that the alkali diet contained a smaller purine load than the acid diet. Conclusion We conclude that alkalization of urine by eating nutritionally well-designed food is effective for removing uric acid from the body. PMID:20955624

2010-01-01

356

The ?-Lacta Test for Direct Detection of Extended-Spectrum-?-Lactamase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae in Urine.  

PubMed

With the ?-Lacta test, production of extended-spectrum ?-lactamases (ESBLs) was assayed in 200 urine samples showing Gram-negative bacilli during direct microscopic examination. While 168 samples tested negative, all samples yielding ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae after culture gave positive (n = 30) or uninterpretable (n = 2) results. The sensitivity and specificity of ESBL detection were 94% and 100%, respectively. PMID:25078913

Gallah, Salah; Decré, Dominique; Genel, Nathalie; Arlet, Guillaume

2014-10-01

357

Urine as a CO2 absorbent.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of urine on the absorption of greenhouse gases such as CO(2). Human urine diluted with olive-oil-mill wastewaters (OMW) could be used to capture CO(2) from flue gas of coal-fired power plant and convert CO(2) emissions into valuable fertilizers (mainly, NH(4)HCO(3)) that can enhance CO(2) sequestration into soil and subsoil layers. Thus, the CO(2) emissions could be reduced between 0.1 and 1%. The proposed strategy requires further research to increase CO(2) absorption and assess the risks associated with wastewater reuse and xenobiotics in the agroecological environment. PMID:22366316

Aguilar, Manuel Jiménez

2012-04-30

358

Noninvasive quantification of drug delivery from an implantable MEMS device  

E-print Network

(cont.) sensors in vivo in real time and corroborated by scintillation of urine samples. The goal of monitoring drug delivery from an implant in vivo, in real time and without disturbing the tissue environment, was ...

Johnson, Audrey M., 1976-

2005-01-01

359

Direct assay of nonopioid analgesics and their metabolites in human urine by capillary electrophoresis and capillary electrophoresis–mass spectrometry 1 1 Dedicated to Professor B. Unterhalt on the occasionof his 65th birthday  

Microsoft Academic Search

Capillary electrophoresis (CE) was used for the analysis of nonopioid analgesics and their metabolites directly in urine samples. A simple, reliable screening method was developed that allows identification of the drug and\\/or its metabolites in urine after oral application of paracetamol, acetylsalicylic acid, antipyrine, ibuprofen, naproxen, ketoprofen and propyphenazone by their migration in CE and by their UV spectra recorded

Stefan Heitmeier; Gottfried Blaschke

1999-01-01

360

Predicting the Onset of Sexual and Drug Risk Behaviors in HIV-Negative Youths with HIV-Positive Mothers: The Role of Contextual, Self-Regulation, and Social-Interaction Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

HIV-negative, inner-city adolescents with HIV-infected parents are considered to be at high risk for acquiring HIV themselves.\\u000a Using a modified theory of health behavior, this study examined the effects of maternal HIV infection and psychosocial variables\\u000a on the onset of sexual and drug risk behavior in 144 HIV-negative adolescents with and without HIV-positive mothers. Adolescents\\u000a and their mothers were interviewed

Claude A. Mellins; Curtis Dolezal; Elizabeth Brackis-Cott; Ouzama Nicholson; Patricia Warne; Heino F. L. Meyer-Bahlburg

2007-01-01

361

Simultaneous analysis of sarin, pyridostigmine bromide and their metabolites in rat plasma and urine using HPLC  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  A method was developed for the separation and quantification of the warfare nerve agent sarin (O-isopropylmethylphosphonoflouridate), its metabolite methylphosphonic acid, the anti nerve agent drug pyridostigmine bromide\\u000a (PB;3-dimethylaminocarbonyloxy-N-methyl pyridinium bromide) and its metaboliteN-methyl-3-hydroxypyridinium bromide in rat plasma and urine. The method involved using solid phase extraction and high performance\\u000a liquid chromatography (HPLC) with reversed phase C18 column, and UV detection

W. Abu-Qare; B. Abou-Donia

2001-01-01

362

Gas chromatographic and mass spectrometric analysis of conjugated steroids in urine  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was carried out qualitatively and quantitatively to investigate the presence and the concentrations of anabolic\\u000a steroids in urine collected from orally administered humans. Microanalysis of conjugated steroids by gas chromatography and\\u000a mass spectrometry (GC\\/MS) has been carried out. Following oral administration three major metabolites of anabolic steroid\\u000a drugs have been detected and partially characterized. The six steroids can

Jong Man Yoon; Kyung Ho Lee

2001-01-01

363

Clinically relevant characteristics associated with early treatment drug use versus abstinence  

PubMed Central

Background This study describes early treatment drug use status and associated clinical characteristics in a diverse sample of patients entering outpatient substance abuse psychosocial counseling treatment. The goal is to more fully characterize those entering treatment with and without active use of their primary drug in order to better understand associated treatment needs and resilience factors. Methods We examined baseline data from a NIDA Clinical Trials Network (CTN) study (Web-delivery of Treatment for Substance Use) with an all-comers sample of patients (N?=?494) entering 10 outpatient treatment centers. Patients were categorized according to self-identified primary drug of abuse (alcohol, cocaine/stimulants, opioids, marijuana) and by baseline drug use status (positive/negative) based on urine testing or self-reports of recent use (alcohol). Characteristics were examined by primary drug and early use status. Results Classified as drug-negative were 84%, 76%, 62%, and 33% of primary opioid, stimulant, alcohol, and marijuana users; respectively. Drug-positive versus -negative patients did not differ on demographics or rates of substance abuse/dependence diagnoses. However, those negative for active use had better physical and mental health profiles, were less likely to be using a secondary drug, and were more likely to be attending 12-step self-help meetings. Conclusions Early treatment drug abstinence is common among substance users entering outpatient psychosocial counseling programs, regardless of primary abused drug. Abstinence (by negative UA) is associated with better health and mental health profiles, less secondary drug use, and more days of 12-step attendance. These data highlight differential treatment needs and resiliencies associated with early treatment drug use status. Trial registration NCT01104805. PMID:24708748

2014-01-01

364

Sexual Risk Taking and Club Drug Use Across Three Age Cohorts of HIV-positive Gay and Bisexual Men in New York City  

PubMed Central

This study examined club drug use, (i.e., cocaine, ecstasy, ketamine, GHB, and methamphetamine) and unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) in an ethnically and racially diverse sample of 166 New York City-based seropositive, club drug-using, gay and bisexual men, ages 19 to 61, and considered these behaviors in relation to age category (20s, 30s, 40+) and number of years living with HIV. Club drug use was common across all age categories, with differences arising only in the type of club drug used. Multivariate logistic regression modeling indicated older participants (30s, 40+) were more likely to use cocaine and methamphetamine and less likely to use GHB and ketamine than those in their 20s. We examined unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) with casual partners in relation to age category, the number of years living with HIV, and club drug use. The likelihood of engaging in UAI with seronegative casual partners was greater among those in their 20s than those in their 30's or 40+. Further, participants were equally likely to engage in unprotected receptive anal intercourse and unprotected insertive anal intercourse with each casual partner serostatus type. With regard to number of years living with HIV, those living longer with the disease were more likely to report UAI with casual partners with a seropositive status than with a negative or unknown serostatus. Our findings suggest that UAI and club drug use is common among seropositive gay and bisexual men regardless of age category, but that differential patterns of risk emerge in relation to the number of years one has been living with HIV and age. These findings are of significance as both the aging population of seropositive gay and bisexual men and HIV infection rates continue to grow, and demonstrate a need for differentiated and tailored prevention strategies across the age continuum. PMID:22022849

Pappas, Molly K.; Halkitis, Perry N.

2011-01-01

365

Elimination kinetics of dexamethasone in bovine urine, hair and feces following single administration of dexamethasone acetate and phosphate esters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corticosteroids are hormonal substances widely used in human and veterinary medicine for their anti-inflammatory properties. Among the numerous existing artificial corticosteroids, dexamethasone remains the most commonly used, mainly throughout esterified forms such as acetate or phosphate. An experimental study was designed to assess its drug residue levels in urine and feces, as well as its fixation in bovine hair following

Lynn Vanhaecke; Jean-Philippe Antignac; Dirk Courtheyn; Bruno Le Bizec; Hubert De Brabander

2011-01-01

366

Family with intermittent maple syrup urine disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

A family is described in which the 3 children presented with episodes of severe metabolic acidosis secondary to minor infections. 2 of them died, and 1 of these was severely retarded. The sole surviving child is 6 years old and is normal with respect to physical and mental development.Gas chromatography of the urine obtained during episodes of ketoacidosis showed the

H. B. Valman; A. D. Patrick; J. W. T. Seakins; J. W. Platt; D. Gompertz

1973-01-01

367

Ophthalmoplegia in Maple Syrup Urine Disease  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reported is the case of a female infant whose early symptom of ophthalmoplegia (paralysis of one or more motor nerves in the eye) led to eventual diagnosis and treatment for maple syrup urine disease, a condition in which early dietary restrictions can prevent severe mental retardation and neurologic disability. (DB)

Zee, David S.; And Others

1974-01-01

368

Outcome of maple syrup urine disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The outcome of 12 children with classical maple syrup urine disease is reviewed. All patients presented in the neonatal period at ages varying from 5 to 21 (median 8) days. The time taken to make the diagnosis ranged from 1 day to longer than 9 months (median 7 days). Each survived his initial illness but 3 died later after apparently

E R Naughten; J Jenkins; D E Francis; J V Leonard

1982-01-01

369

Cytologic evaluation of urine after kidney transplantation.  

PubMed

Over a ten-month period, 54 kidney transplant patients returning for routine clinic visits were prospectively evaluated utilizing urinary cytology; 101 urine specimens were examined. The incidence of undetected infection was low. Two patients were noted to have polyomavirus infections, and two had candiduria. No patient had urinary tract malignancy. PMID:2823518

Stilmant, M M; Freedlund, M C; Schmitt, G W

1987-01-01

370

Methodfor Determining Thiocyanatein SerumandUrine  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a method for rapid and specific measurement ofthiocyanate inserumorurine. We separate thiocyanate frominterfering compoundsby adsorbingitonananion- exchange resin that has special affinity for thiocyanate, then eluting with sodium perchlorate. The eluted thiocy- anate is quantified by a modified KOnigreaction, sodium hypochlorite being used as the chlorinating reagent. An- alytical recovery of thiocyanateaddedto serum and urine was quantitative;the coefficient of

Bo SOrbo

371

Ultraviolet properties of Australian mammal urine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The exploitation of predator signals by potential prey is well researched, but relatively little is known about how predators exploit chemical cues (either deliberate signals or waste by-products) produced by their prey. In Finland, the urine of some small rodents ( Microtus spp. and Clethrionomys spp.) is reflective in the ultraviolet range of wavelengths, and diurnal raptors with ultraviolet vision

A. Kellie; S. J. Dain; P. B. Banks

2004-01-01

372

Presence of endogenous prednisolone in human urine.  

PubMed

The possibility of an endogenous presence of the glucocorticoid prednisolone has already been demonstrated in bovine and horse urine, with the aim of clarifying its origin in this matrix, which is used by official agencies for the control of illicit treatments. From this point of view, the endogenous nature of prednisolone could be a major topic in doping control of both amateur and professional human athletes. A study was therefore made on 34 human volunteers (13 males and 21 females; aged 22-62) to detect the presence of prednisolone in their urine by HPLC-MS(3). One of the volunteers underwent vernal allergy treatment with betamethasone for two subsequent years. An investigation was carried out with the aim of verifying if the suppression, and the circadian rhythm, of cortisol urinary levels could also apply to prednisolone. The results of the study show that prednisolone was present in the urine of all 34 volunteers, with a concentration very close to 100-times lower that of cortisol, with no dependence on gender. The same ratio (1/100) was observed in the prednisolone and cortisol levels detected during the 24h together with the suppression of prednisolone by betamethasone treatment. These data demonstrate the endogenous nature of low concentrations of prednisolone in human urine, and motivate further studies about the biosynthetic pathways of this corticosteroid and its relationship with stress in humans, as already described in cows. PMID:23182764

Fidani, Marco; Gamberini, Maria C; Pompa, Giuseppe; Mungiguerra, Francesca; Casati, Alessio; Arioli, Francesco

2013-02-01

373

Preliminary screening method for the determination of inorganic arsenic in urine.  

PubMed

A simple and rapid method was developed for the routine determination and classification of inorganic arsenic based on its clinical and forensic properties. Inorganic arsenic was isolated from urine by using copper granules, which was then made to react with ammonium molybdate in order to detect its presence with the naked eye. Based on studies of extraction and reaction conditions, e.g., reaction temperature and time, a colorimetric screening method was established. The reaction mixture was measured by a spectrophotometer, and there was linearity from 0.05 to 2.0microg/ml and the correlation coefficients of the calibration curves were greater than 0.99. The coefficients of intra-day variation at 0.2 and 2.0microg/ml of inorganic arsenic in urine were 9.6 and 4.2%, respectively (n=5). The minimum detectable level in urine is 0.03microg/ml, and it is possible to detect the lowest level of poisoning according to the published reports. The proposed method was applied to a poisoning case wherein the patient ingested NEOARSEN BLACK with alcohol, which contained 45% of arsenic trioxide. This method produced positive results in all the urine samples tested, and this method is useful for the screening of inorganic arsenic based on its clinical properties because it enables the detection of inorganic arsenic in urine without expensive equipment. PMID:19041271

Hua, Li; Nishida, Manami; Fujiwara, Akira; Yashiki, Mikio; Nagao, Masataka; Namera, Akira

2009-03-01

374

Renal calcium and magnesium excretion during vasopressin administration into sheep with acid or alkaline urine.  

PubMed Central

1. The proposition that changes in renal calcium excretion during vasopressin administration are positively correlated with concurrent changes in urine hydrogen ion concentration was tested by administration of vasopressin into twelve conscious diuresing sheep receiving either alkalinizing or acidifying infusions. 2. Vasopressin-induced antidiuresis in sheep with alkaline urine was associated with significant increases in urinary pH and decreases in the rate of calcium excretion whereas antidiuresis in sheep with acid urine was associated with significant decreases in urinary pH and no consistent effect on calcium excretion. 3. Magnesium excretion increased during vasopressin administration in most experiments regardless of urinary pH changes. 4. Vasopressin administration did not significantly alter the rate of excretion of sodium, potassium, chloride and phosphate or the rates of sodium, potassium, chloride, inulin, para-aminohippurate and osmolal clearance in sheep with either acid or alkaline urine. Potassium excretion and clearance in sheep with alkaline ruine was higher than that of sheep with acid urine during vasopressin infusion. 5. The results support the hypothesis that changes in renal tubular hydrogen ion concentration or bicarbonate concentration caused by water reabsorption from the collecting duct and possibly the late distal tubule could be part of the explanation for changes in renal calcium excretion which occur during vasopressin-induced antidiuresis. PMID:41939

Beal, A M

1979-01-01

375

COLLECTING URINE SAMPLES FROM YOUNG CHILDREN FOR PESTICIDE STUDIES  

EPA Science Inventory

To estimate pesticide exposure for young children wearing diapers, a method for collecting urine samples for analysis of pesticide metabolites is needed. To find a practical method, two possibilities were investigated: (1) analysis of expressed urine from cotton diaper inserts ...

376

Trialling urine diversion in Australia: technical and social learnings.  

PubMed

This paper discusses a urine diversion (UD) trial implemented within the institutional setting of the University of Technology Sydney that sought to identify key issues for public UD and reuse systems at scale in the Australian urban context. The trial was novel in its transdisciplinary action research approach, that included consideration of urine diverting toilets (UDTs) as socio-technical systems where interactions between users' practices and perceptions and the performance of the technology were explored. While the study explored a broad range of issues that included urine transport, reuse, and regulations, amongst others, the boundary of the work presented in this paper is the practicalities of UD practice within public urban buildings. Urine volume per urinal use, an important metric for sizing tanks for collecting urine from waterless urinal systems in commercial buildings, was also estimated. The project concluded that current UDTs are unsuitable to public/commercial spaces, but waterless urinals have a key role. PMID:24292466

Abeysuriya, Kumi; Fam, Dena; Mitchell, Cynthia

2013-01-01

377

Urine Test for HPV Works Well, Analysis Finds  

MedlinePLUS

... News) -- A simple urine test can routinely spot human papillomavirus (HPV), which is linked to the risk of cervical ... found. "Our study shows that testing urine for HPV has good accuracy when compared to testing samples ...

378

The determination of fenspiride in human plasma and urine by liquid chromatography with electrochemical or ultraviolet detection.  

PubMed

A selective and sensitive method for the determination of fenspiride in biological fluids is described. The method involves liquid-liquid extraction followed by separation on a reversed-phase column with electrochemical detection for low levels of the drug in plasma (less than or equal to 100 ng ml-1) or UV absorption for higher concentrations in plasma or urine. The method is suitable for pharmacokinetic analyses and drug monitoring studies. PMID:2577448

Sauveur, C; Baune, A; Vergnes, N; Jeanniot, J P

1989-01-01

379

Detection of anti-diabetics in equine plasma and urine by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim:Anti-diabetics such as sulfonylurea and thiazolidinedione derivatives are hypoglycemic drugs used for the treatment of diabetes. However, they can also be used as a stopper in horseracing. This paper describes a convenient method for the separation and simultaneous detection of 10 anti-diabetic drugs (namely glipizide, glibenclamide, glimepiride, gliclazide, tolazamide, tolbutamide, nateglinide, repaglinide, rosiglitazone and pioglitazone) in equine plasma and urine

Emmie N. M. Ho; Kenneth C. H. Yiu; Terence S. M. Wan; Brian D. Stewart; Keith L. Watkins

2004-01-01

380

Is Sexual Serosorting Occurring Among HIV-Positive Injection Drug Users? Comparison Between Those with HIV-Positive Partners Only, HIV-Negative Partners Only, and Those with any Partners of Unknown Status  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using baseline data from a multi-site, randomized controlled study (INSPIRE), we categorized 999 HIV-positive IDUs into three\\u000a groups based on serostatus of their sex partners. Our data provide some evidence for serosorting occurring in our sample;\\u000a about 40% of the sample had sex exclusively with HIV-positive partners, and about half of them reported having unprotected\\u000a sex with these partners. Twenty

Yuko Mizuno; David W. Purcell; Mary H. Latka; Lisa R. Metsch; Helen Ding; Cynthia A. Gomez; Amy R. Knowlton

2010-01-01

381

A systematic review of acute pancreatitis as an adverse event of type 2 diabetes drugs: from hard facts to a balanced position.  

PubMed

The question whether antidiabetes drugs can cause acute pancreatitis dates back to the 1970s. Recently, old concerns have re-emerged following claims that use of incretins, a new class of drugs for type 2 diabetes, might increase the relative risk of acute pancreatitis up to 30-fold. Given that diabetes is per se a potent risk factor for acute pancreatitis and that drug-related acute pancreatitis is rare and difficult to diagnose, we searched the medical databases for information linking acute pancreatitis and type 2 diabetes drugs. Among the biguanides, both phenformin and metformin (the latter in patients with renal insufficiency) have been cited in case reports as a potential cause of acute pancreatitis. Sulphonylureas, as both entire class and single compound (glibenclamide), have also been found in cohort studies to increase its risk. No direct link was found between pancreatic damage and therapy with metaglinide, acarbose, pramlintide or SGLT-2 inhibitors. In animal models, thiazolinediones have demonstrated proprieties to attenuate pancreatic damage, opening perspectives for their use in treating acute pancreatitis in humans. Several case reports and the US Food and Drug Administration pharmacovigilance database indicate an association between acute pancreatitis and incretins, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors, and GLP-1 receptor agonists. To date, however, a clear-cut odds ratio for this association has been reported in only one of eight pharmacoepidemiological studies. Finally, none of the intervention trials investigating these compounds, including two large randomized controlled trials with cardiovascular endpoints, confirmed the purportedly increased risk of acute pancreatitis with incretin use. PMID:24702687

Giorda, C B; Nada, E; Tartaglino, B; Marafetti, L; Gnavi, R

2014-11-01

382

Determination of the anti-platelet-activating factor BN50727 and metabolites in human urine by high-performance liquid chromatography using solid-phase extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sensitive and selective HPLC solid-phase extraction procedure was developed for the determination of platelet-activating factor antagonist BN-50727 and its metabolites in human urine. The procedure consisted in a double solid-phase extraction of the urine samples on cyanopropyl and silica cartridges, followed by an automated solid-phase extraction of the drug and metabolites on CBA cartridges and posterior elution on-line to

J. Pruñonosa; J. Solà; C. Peraire; F. Pla; O. Lavergne; R. Obach

1996-01-01

383

Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of use of the synthetic cannabinoid agonists UR-144 and XLR-11 in human urine.  

PubMed

Ongoing changes in the synthetic cannabinoid drug market create the need for relevant targeted immunoassays for rapid screening of biological samples. We describe the validation and performance characteristics of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay designed to detect use of one of the most prevalent synthetic cannabinoids in urine, UR-144, by targeting its pentanoic acid metabolite. Fluorinated UR-144 (XLR-11) has been demonstrated to metabolize to this common product. The assay has significant cross-reactivity with UR-144-5-OH, UR-144-4-OH and XLR-11-4-OH metabolites, but <10% cross-reactivity with the parent compounds, and no measurable cross-reactivity with other synthetic cannabinoids and their metabolites at concentrations of <1,000 ng/mL. The assay's cutoff is 5 ng/mL relative to the pentanoic acid metabolite of UR-144, which is used as the calibrator. The method was validated with 90 positive and negative control urine samples for UR-144, XLR-11 and its metabolites tested versus liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The accuracy, sensitivity and specificity were determined to be 100% for the assay at the specified cutoff. PMID:24908262

Mohr, Amanda L A; Ofsa, Bill; Keil, Alyssa Marie; Simon, John R; McMullin, Matthew; Logan, Barry K

2014-09-01

384

Failure of prediction of liver function test abnormalities with the urine urobilinogen and urine bilirubin assays.  

PubMed

A prospective observational study of 229 cases was conducted in a busy ambulatory care setting to evaluate the sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, and accuracy of spot urine urobilinogen and urine bilirubin assays as screening tests for serum liver function test (LFT) abnormalities. Both urine tests exhibited remarkably similar characteristics overall once they were adjusted to maximize accuracy and predictive values (occurring at a normal or abnormal "threshold," respectively, of 3.4 or 5.07 mumol/d for urobilinogen and 0 or 1+ for urine bilirubin). The percentage of cases correctly identified were 81% to 83% for serum bilirubin assays, 68% to 72% for other LFTs, but only 62% to 63% for screens for cases with at least one abnormal LFT finding. Poor sensitivities (47% to 49%) limited the detection of abnormal findings by the screen; both screens were reasonably specific (79% to 89%), but negative predictive values were suitable (89%) for serum bilirubin results only and were prohibitively lower (49% to 50%) in predicting all patients without LFT abnormalities. We conclude that spot urine urobilinogen and urine bilirubin determinations, although good screens for isolated serum bilirubin elevations, have unacceptable statistical properties as predictors of other LFT results due to a high proportion of false-negative results. PMID:2642693

Binder, L; Smith, D; Kupka, T; Nelson, B; Glass, B; Wainscott, M; Haynes, J

1989-01-01

385

Predicting success and failure in juvenile drug treatment court: a meta-analytic review.  

PubMed

This meta-analysis summarizes 41 studies that examined associations between characteristics of adolescent participants in juvenile drug treatment court and outcomes (i.e., premature termination, recidivism). A summary of within- and post-program recidivism rates was calculated, as was a global estimate of the premature drop-out rate. One clear trend in the available studies was the dramatic difference in recidivism rates for adolescents who succeed in graduating from drug court, relative to those who do not. In addition, the review revealed that behavior patterns evidenced during drug court participation were most strongly associated with both the probability of graduating successfully from drug court and recidivism (e.g., few in-program arrests, citations, detentions, and referrals; greater length of time in program or amount of treatment; lower use of drug and alcohol use, few positive urine screens, greater school attendance). Unfortunately, non-white participants tend to have a lower probability of graduation from drug court and experience higher recidivism during and following the program. Available juvenile drug treatment court studies confirm a number of reputed adolescent risk factors associated with substance abuse, criminality, treatment failure, and recidivism among adolescents (e.g., higher levels of emotional and behavioral problems, higher levels and severity of pre-program substance abuse, male gender). Suggestions for improving the effects of juvenile drug treatment court based on key results of the meta-analysis are offered. PMID:22980448

Stein, David M; Deberard, Scott; Homan, Kendra

2013-02-01

386

A method for studying inhibitory activity in whole urine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method has been developed for inducing and quantifying calcium oxalate crystallisation in whole human urine. The propensity of a given urine to induce crystal formation was described in two ways: 1) its ability to resist spontaneous nucleation of calcium oxalate crystals was assessed by titrating 20 mls of the urine with increasing quantities of sodium oxalate (0–150 µmol) to

R. L. Ryall; C. M. Hibberd; V. R. Marshall

1985-01-01

387

Original article Partition of nitrogenous substances in the urine  

E-print Network

Original article Partition of nitrogenous substances in the urine of sheep on different dietary ― The distribution of nitrogenous substances in urine was studied in sheep fed high (28.71 g N measured in urine. The nitrogen content of these measured substances was calculated. The results showed

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

388

Sensitive semi-microcolumn high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the determination of DU6681, the active parent drug of a new oral carbapenem antibiotic, DZ2640, in human plasma and urine using a column-switching system as sample clean-up procedure  

Microsoft Academic Search

DZ-2640 is a new oral carbapenem antibiotic having a dihydro-pyrroloimidazole ring as a side chain and a pivaloyloxymethyl (POM) ester prodrug of DU-6681, the active parent compound. A simple and sensitive column-switching semi-microcolumn high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the determination of DU-6681 in human plasma and urine has been developed. Human plasma was diluted with an equal volume of 1

Makoto Tanaka; Kinuyo Kato

1999-01-01

389

Investigation of the impact of urine handling procedures on interpretation of urinalysis findings and product safety in subjects treated with ezogabine  

PubMed Central

Background Ezogabine (also known by the international nonproprietary name of retigabine) is an antiepileptic drug codeveloped and comarketed by Valeant Pharmaceuticals North America and GlaxoSmithKline, which reduces neuronal excitability by enhancing the activity of potassium channels and has the potential to have effects on the urinary system through a pharmacologic action on bladder smooth muscle. In a single post-herpetic neuralgia trial, but not in an extensive epilepsy development program, proteinuria was unexpectedly reported in patients receiving ezogabine. Consequently, investigations were conducted to determine whether the reported proteinuria represented a true or false-positive finding. Methods Patients receiving ezogabine 900–1200 mg/day in an open-label extension (Study 303) of a Phase III epilepsy trial voluntarily provided urine samples. Fresh samples were analyzed immediately at the study site, and stabilized aliquots were analyzed 1–3 days after collection at two central laboratories. In an open-label study in healthy volunteers receiving ezogabine 600–900 mg/day (Study RTG114137), urine samples were analyzed fresh (<2 hours after collection) and, using two different stabilizers and storage at room temperature, after 24 and 72 hours. Fluid intake was restricted prior to one sample point. Albumin:creatinine ratios were assessed in both studies. Results In Study 303, there was notable variation in clarity, color, and proteinuria between fresh and stored urine samples, and between samples analyzed at different laboratories. In RTG114137, reporting rates of proteinuria were elevated following storage using one stabilizer, and the frequency of color change from fresh to stored samples differed between the stabilizers and between 24 and 72 hours with one stabilizer. Following fluid restriction, proteinuria rates were elevated with both stabilizers. Poor tolerability of ezogabine 750–900 mg/day resulted in limited titration beyond 750 mg/day and early termination of RTG114137. Conclusion Hydration status, interval between urine collection and analysis, and the type of stabilizer used are all factors that may lead to false-positive proteinuria findings in patients receiving ezogabine and should be borne in mind if abnormalities are reported. PMID:23671389

Brickel, Neil; DeRossett, Sarah; Buraglio, Mauro; Evans, Christopher; Jones, Sion

2013-01-01

390

A simple pharmacokinetic model of alendronate developed using plasma concentration and urine excretion data from healthy men.  

PubMed

The study of pharmacokinetics of alendronate has been hampered by difficulties in accurately and reproducibly determining their concentrations in serum and urine. Thus, pharmacokinetic characteristics of alendronate have been described in many reports based on urinary excretion data; and plasma pharmacokinetics and the simultaneous pharmacokinetic models of alendronate in plasma and urine are not available. The aims of this study were to measure alendronate concentration in plasma and excretion in urine concurrently and to develop compartmental pharmacokinetic model using urine data. In open-label, single-dose pharmacokinetic study, 10 healthy male volunteers received oral dose of alendronate (70?mg tablet). Blood and urine alendronate concentrations were determined using validated high-performance liquid chromatography method. Non-compartmental analysis was performed using WinNonlin program (Pharsight Inc., Apex, NC). A one-compartment pharmacokinetic model was applied to describe pharmacokinetics of alendronate. A peak plasma alendronate concentration of 33.10?±?14.32?ng/mL was attained after 1.00?±?0.16?h. The cumulative amount of alendronate excreted in urine and peak excretion rate were 731.28?±?654.57??g and 314.68?±?395.43??g/h, respectively. The model, which included first-order absorption rate for oral dosing, showed good fit to alendronate data obtained from plasma and urine. The absorption rate constant was 2.68?±?0.95?h(-1). The elimination rate constants Kurine and Knon-ur were 0.005?±?0.004?h(-1) and 0.42?±?0.08?h(-1), respectively. The pharmacokinetics of alendronate in plasma and urine of healthy men can be predicted using one-compartment model, and thus the behavior of drug in plasma can be estimated from urinary excretion data. PMID:23886303

Chae, Jung-Woo; Seo, Jeong-Won; Mahat, Bimit; Yun, Hwi-Yeol; Baek, In-Hwan; Lee, Byung-Yo; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Kwon, Kwang-Il

2014-10-01

391

Association of Alcohol Abuse and Injection Drug Use with Immunologic and Virologic Responses to HAART in HIV-positive Patients from Urban Community Health Clinics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to examine the association of alcohol abuse and injection drug use (IDU) with the immunologic\\u000a and virologic responses to highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) in urban community health clinics. The medical records\\u000a of 293 HIV-infected adult patients who visited either of two urban health clinics in New Haven, Connecticut, from June 2003\\u000a to December

Timothy J. Henrich; Naudia Lauder; Mayur M. Desai; Andre N. Sofair

2008-01-01

392

Chromatographic tandam mass spectrometric detection of papaverine and its major metabolites in rat urine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A rapid, sensitive and specific liquid chromatographic-electrospray ionization (ESI) tandem ion trap mass spectrometric method has been developed for identification of papaverine and its metabolites in rat urine. Six healthy rats were administrated a single dose (100 mg/kg) of papaverine by oral gavage. The urine were sampled for 0-24 h and purified by using a C18 solid-phase extraction cartridge, then the purified urine samples were separated on a reversed-phase C18 column using methanol/2 mmol/L ammonium acetate (70:30, v/v, adjusted to pH 3.5 with formic acid) as mobile phase and detected by an on-line MS detector. Identification and structural elucidation of the metabolites were performed by comparing their changes in molecular mass ([Delta]m) and full scan MSn spectra with those of the parent drug. The results indicated that there were 14 metabolites in rat urine, such as de-methoxyl, hydroxyl, glucuronide and sulfate conjugated metabolites and so on. All these metabolites were reported for the first time.

Peng, Zhihong; Song, Wei; Han, Fengmei; Chen, Huaixia; Zhu, Mingming; Chen, Yong

2007-10-01

393

Identification of metabolites of lobeline in the rat urine by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is a report about the analysis of lobeline and its metabolites in rat urine by using high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization ion trap tandem mass spectrometric method (LC/MSn). The urine of healthy rat were sampled from 0 to 24 h after administered a single dose of lobeline (3 mg/kg) by oral gavage, then centrifuged at 10,000 rpm for 10 min to get the supernatants. The supernatants were purified by solid-phase extraction (SPE) with a C18 cartridge. After the above purified process, the purified urine were injected into a reversed-phase C18 column with mobile phase of methanol/water (70:30, v/v, adjusted to pH 3.5 with formic acid) and detected by an on-line MSn system. The identification and structural elucidation of the metabolites were performed by comparing their changes in molecular mass ([Delta]M), full-scan MSn spectra with those of the parent drug. Ten metabolites of lobeline were found in rat urine. All the metabolites were reported for the first time.

Song, Wei; Peng, Zhihong; Ge, Baoying; Han, Fengmei; Chen, Yong

2008-01-01

394

Effects of oxidizing adulterants on detection of 11-nor-delta9-THC-9-carboxylic acid in urine.  

PubMed

Bleach, nitrite, chromate, and hydrogen peroxide-peroxidase are effective urine adulterants used by the illicit drug users to conceal marijuana-positive results. Methods for detecting nitrite and chromate are available. Effects of other oxidizing agents that could possibly be used as adulterants and are difficult to detect or measure are presented in this report. Urine samples containing 40 ng/mL of 11-nor-delta9-THC-9-carboxylic acid (THC-acid) were treated with 10 mmol/L of commonly available oxidizing agents. Effects of horseradish peroxidase of activity 10 unit/mL and extracts from 2.5 g of red radish (Raphanus sativus, Radicula group), horseradish (Armoracia rusticana), Japanese radish (Raphanus sativus, Daikon group), and black mustard seeds (Brassica nigra), all with 10 mmol/L of hydrogen peroxide, were also examined. After 5 min, 16 h and 48 h of exposure at room temperature (23 degrees C) the specimens were tested by a gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric method for THC-acid. A control group treated with sodium hydrosulfite to reduce the oxidants, was also tested to investigate the effect of oxidizing agents on THC-acid in the extraction method. THC-acid was lost completely in the extraction method when treated with chromate, nitrite, oxone, and hydrogen peroxide/ferrous ammonium sulfate (Fenton's reagent). Some losses were also observed with persulfate and periodate (up to 25%). These oxidants, and other oxidizing agents like permanganate, periodate, peroxidase, and extracts from red radish, horseradish, Japanese radish and black mustard seeds destroyed most of the THC-acid (> 94%) within 48 h of exposure. Chlorate, perchlorate, iodate, and oxychloride under these conditions showed little or no effect. Complete loss was observed when THC-acid was exposed to 50 mmol/L of oxychloride for 48 h. Several oxidizing adulterants that are difficult to test by the present urine adulterant testing methods showed considerable effects on the destruction of THC-acid. The time and temperature for these effects were similar to those used by most laboratories to collect and test specimens. In several cases, the loss of THC-acid was > 94%. PMID:12423000

Paul, Buddha D; Jacobs, Aaron

2002-10-01

395

Detection of cocaine and its metabolites in urine using solid phase extraction-ion mobility spectrometry with alternating least squares.  

PubMed

A reliable, alternative screening method for detection of cocaine and its metabolites, benzoylecgonine and cocaethylene in urine is demonstrated using solid phase extraction (SPE) coupled with ion mobility spectrometry (IMS). Data analysis with alternating least squares (ALS) is used to model IMS spectral datasets and separate the reactant ion peak from the product ion peaks. IMS has been used as a screening device for drug and explosive detection for many years. It has the advantages of atmospheric pressure operation, simple sample preparation, portability, fast analysis, and high sensitivity when compared to similar methods. Coupling SPE with IMS decreases the detection limits of drug metabolites in urine while removing salts and other polar compounds that suppress ionization during the measurement. The IMS analysis time in this experiment is 20s, much shorter than traditional chromatographic analysis. The application of ALS further increases the sensitivity and selectivity of this method. The detection limits of benzoylecgonine and cocaethylene are 10 ng/mL and 4 ng/mL, respectively. Commercial adulteration of urine specimens does not influence the ability to detect cocaine metabolites after sampling the urine with SPE. This method provides forensic chemists a viable approach for fast and simple drug screening. PMID:19457629

Lu, Yao; O'Donnell, Ryan M; Harrington, Peter B

2009-08-10

396

Liver transplantation in maple syrup urine disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an autosomal recessive disorder. Impaired activity of the branched-chain 2-oxoacid dehydrogenase complex (BCOA-DH) causes accumulation of branched-chain L-amino (BCAA) and 2-oxoacids (BCOA) which may exert neurotoxic effects. Treatment comprises dietary management with strictly reduced quantities of protein and BCAA as well as aggressive intervention during acute neonatal and subsequent metabolic complications. MSUD is regarded

U. Wendel; J. M. Saudubray; A. Bodner; P. Schadewaldt

1999-01-01

397

Urine concentration and avian aquaporin water channels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although birds and mammals have evolved from primitive tetrapods and advanced divergently, both can conserve water by producing\\u000a hyperosmotic urine. Unique aspects in the avian system include the presence of loopless and looped nephrons, lack of the thin\\u000a ascending limb of Henle’s loop, a corticomedullary osmotic gradient primarily consisting of NaCl without contribution of urea,\\u000a and significant postrenal modification of

Hiroko Nishimura

2008-01-01

398

Fractionation of urine to allow desmosine analysis by radioimmunoassay.  

PubMed

The present study was designed to re-evaluate the radioimmunoassay for desmosine in urine, which is currently used as a measure of elastin metabolism. Using ion exchange chromatography, gel filtration and affinity chromatography it was shown that at least five other compounds in hydrolysates of human urine competed for desmosine in the RIA. Fractionating the urine prior to hydrolysis with acetone removed one of the major contaminants. The other contaminants could subsequently be removed by extracting the urine hydrolysate with a mixture of chloroform/ethanol (60:40). Samples from nine normal adult urines showed that an average of 45% of the RIA competing material in unfractionated urine was not desmosine. The final extracted residue retained all of the desmosine and only 16% of the original solids. The average adult urine contains approximately 50 pmol desmosine/mg creatinine, reflecting a daily turnover of between 3 and 4 mg of elastin per day. PMID:1536530

Starcher, B; Scott, M

1992-01-01

399

Urine sample preparation for proteomic analysis.  

PubMed

Sample preparation for both environmental and more importantly biological matrices is a bottleneck of all kinds of analytical processes. In the case of proteomic analysis this element is even more important due to the amount of cross-reactions that should be taken into consideration. The incorporation of new post-translational modifications, protein hydrolysis, or even its degradation is possible as side effects of proteins sample processing. If protocols are evaluated appropriately, then identification of such proteins does not bring difficulties. However, if structural changes are provided without sufficient attention then protein sequence coverage will be reduced or even identification of such proteins could be impossible. This review summarizes obstacles and achievements in protein sample preparation of urine for proteome analysis using different tools for mass spectrometry analysis. The main aim is to present comprehensively the idea of urine application as a valuable matrix. This article is dedicated to sample preparation and application of urine mainly in novel cancer biomarkers discovery. PMID:25132110

Olszowy, Pawel; Buszewski, Boguslaw

2014-10-01

400

Multimodal signaling in wild Lemur catta: economic design and territorial function of urine marking.  

PubMed

Urine marking has been neglected in prosimian primates. Captive studies showed that the Malagasy prosimian Lemur catta scent marks with urine, as well as via specialized depositions. L. catta urine mark, a multimodal signal, differs from simple urination in terms of different design features, including tail configuration: the tail is held up during marking (UT-up) and down during urination (UT-down). We explore economy and function of UT-up in the female dominant L. catta. We collected 240 h of observations on one group at Berenty (south Madagascar) during the nonmating period via all occurrences sampling. We gathered behavioral bouts/contexts (marking, traveling, feeding, resting, and fights) and recorded 191 UT-ups and 79 UT-downs. Via Global Positioning System we established the location of the places frequented i) by extragroup individuals and ii) by group members, in this case recording also behavioral context and time spent in each place. We found that L. catta UT-up is not an artifact of captivity. Moreover, UT-up in the nonmating period plays a role in territorial defense, which is mostly performed by females in L. catta society. Female UT-ups were the most investigated and UT-ups were performed/investigated more by females. Finally, signal use is parsimonious, in that urine is economically placed where and when detection probability by competitors is higher. UT-ups were performed in places most frequented by extragroup individuals and in presence of extragroup competitors (nonrandom topography and timing). In conclusion, we suggest that UT-up is an economical signal with a primarily territorial function. PMID:19051254

Palagi, Elisabetta; Norscia, Ivan

2009-06-01

401

Antibiotic resistance of E. coli isolates from urine samples of Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) patients in Pakistan.  

PubMed

Drug resistance is becoming alarming with the passage of time worldwide in general and in third world countries in particular. Human urine specimens of patients of urinary tract infection at Sheikh Zayed hospital, Lahore, Pakistan were analyzed for drug resistance in Escherichia coli. A total of 69 Escherichia coli isolates from human urine specimens were obtained and screened for their antibiograms. A total of seven antibiotic resistance profiles were obtained with over 65% of the isolates showing multi-drug resistance. Very high resistance levels were detected against augmentin and gentamicin (87.5 &77.5 % respectively) while imipenem and tazocin recorded the least resistance levels (32.5% and 12.5% respectively) among the isolates. PMID:25187681

Jafri, Saghir Ahmad; Qasim, Muhammad; Masoud, Muhammad S; Rahman, Mahmood-Ur-; Izhar, Mateen; Kazmi, Saqib

2014-01-01

402

Lorry drivers' work stress evaluated by catecholamines excreted in urine.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES--To evaluate lorry drivers' work stress by measurement of adrenaline and noradrenaline excreted in the urine, and to find out which factors in their working situation are related to the excretion rates of these catecholamines. METHODS--The urinary excretion of adrenaline and noradrenaline of 32 lorry drivers, who also had loading and unloading activities to perform, was studied for one working day and one rest day. Each driver was asked to provide six urine samples on both days. RESULTS--For all samples, except the first (overnight) sample, the excretion rates of both catecholamines on the working day were higher than those on the rest day. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were carried out to find out which factors in the drivers' working situation were related to the excretion rate of the working day. The excretion rate of adrenaline on the rest day, age, and psychosomatic complaints were positively related to the excretion rate on the working day (all P < 0.05). Body mass index and physical workload during loading and unloading were positively related to noradrenaline excretion rate (both P < 0.01). Psychosocial job strain did not significantly contribute to the proportion of variance explained in the excretion rates of both catecholamines. CONCLUSIONS--The excretion rates of adrenaline and, especially, noradrenaline on the working day were higher than those found in earlier studies among professional drivers and insufficient recovery took place after the work was ended. The only association between excretion rate on the working day and work stressors was found for noradrenaline and physical workload. The drivers' sympathoadrenal medullary reactivity to everyday work demands shows the characteristics of sustained activation. PMID:7670621

van der Beek, A J; Meijman, T F; Frings-Dresen, M H; Kuiper, J I; Kuiper, S

1995-01-01

403

Assemblage of drug release modules: effect of module shape and position in the assembled systems on floating behavior and release rate.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to study the clindamycin release kinetics from floating delivery systems consisting of two modules assembled in void configuration, according to the modified release technology platform known as Dome Matrix®. Two modules differently shaped, i.e., female and male, formulated as swellable matrices and containing clindamycin, were assembled by friction interlocking. Then, by stacking additional female modules without drug on the assembled two-module floating system, modulation of clindamycin release rate and kinetics was attained. The additional modules stacked on the assembled system acted as a transient barrier to clindamycin release from the void configuration. Inertness, dissolution/erosion or swelling behavior characterized their performance as matrices in simulated gastric fluid. In particular, we found that stacking additional barrier modules on the bases of void configuration, the drug release rate and kinetics of the assembled system were modified in dependence on the composition of module added. In particular, the quickly soluble module exerted an influence on the release rate in the late time of delivery. The swellable module produced a significant reduction in release rate of void assembly, but the release mechanism remained the same. Finally, the inert module led to a substantial linearization of the release profile with a minimal reduction in release rate. PMID:21087663

Hascicek, C; Rossi, A; Colombo, P; Massimo, G; Strusi, O L; Colombo, G

2011-01-01

404

Interleukin-6 concentrations in the urine and dipstick analyses were related to bacteriuria but not symptoms in the elderly: a cross sectional study of 421 nursing home residents  

PubMed Central

Background Up to half the residents of nursing homes for the elderly have asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU), which should not be treated with antibiotics. A complementary test to discriminate between symptomatic urinary tract infections (UTI) and ABU is needed, as diagnostic uncertainty is likely to generate significant antibiotic overtreatment. Previous studies indicate that Interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the urine might be suitable as such a test. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between laboratory findings of bacteriuria, IL-6 in the urine, dipstick urinalysis and newly onset symptoms among residents of nursing homes. Methods In this cross sectional study, voided urine specimens for culture, urine dipstick and IL-6 analyses were collected from all residents capable of providing a voided urine sample, regardless of the presence of symptoms. Urine specimens and symptom forms were provided from 421 residents of 22 nursing homes. The following new or increased nonspecific symptoms occurring during the previous month were registered; fatigue, restlessness, confusion, aggressiveness, loss of appetite, frequent falls and not being herself/himself, as well as symptoms from the urinary tract; dysuria, urinary urgency and frequency. Results Recent onset of nonspecific symptoms was common among elderly residents of nursing homes (85/421). Urine cultures were positive in 32% (135/421), Escherichia coli was by far the most common bacterial finding. Residents without nonspecific symptoms had positive urine cultures as often as those with nonspecific symptoms with a duration of up to one month. Residents with positive urine cultures had higher concentrations of IL-6 in the urine (p?positive urine cultures there were no differences in IL-6 concentrations or dipstick findings between those with or without nonspecific symptoms. Conclusions Nonspecific symptoms among elderly residents of nursing homes are unlikely to be caused by bacteria in the urine. This study could not establish any clinical value of using dipstick urinalysis or IL-6 in the urine to verify if bacteriuria was linked to nonspecific symptoms. PMID:25117748

2014-01-01

405

Acute changes in arginine vasopressin, sweat, urine and serum sodium concentrations in exercising humans: does a coordinated homeostatic relationship exist?  

PubMed Central

The parallel response of sweat rate and urine production to changes in plasma osmolality and volume support a role for arginine vasopressin (AVP) as the main endocrine regulator of both excretions. A maximal test to exhaustion and a steady-state run on a motorised treadmill were both completed by 10 moderately trained runners, 1 week apart. Sweat, urine and serum sodium concentrations ([Na+]) were evaluated in association with the plasma concentrations of cytokines, neurohypophyseal and natriuretic peptides, and adrenal steroid hormones. When data from both the high-intensity and steady-state runs were combined, significant linear correlations were noted between: sweat [Na+] versus postexercise urine [Na+] (r = 0.80; p<0.001), postexercise serum [Na+] versus both postexercise urine [Na+] (r = 0.56; p<0.05) and sweat [Na+] (r = 0.64; p<0.01) and postexercise urine [Na+] versus postexercise plasma arginine vasopressin concentration ([AVP]P) (r = 0.48; p<0.05). A significant positive correlation was noted between postexercise [AVP]P and sweat [Na+] during the steady-state condition only (r = 0.66; p<0.05). These correlations suggest that changes in serum [Na+] during exercise may evoke corresponding changes in sweat and urine [Na+], which are likely regulated coordinately by changes in [AVP]P to preserve body fluid homeostasis. PMID:18801773

Hew-Butler, T; Noakes, T D; Soldin, S J; Verbalis, J G

2013-01-01

406

Quantitative liquid chromatographic determination of cefatrizine in serum and urine by fluorescence detection after post-column derivatization.  

PubMed

A fast, specific and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatographic procedure for the determination of cefatrizine, an orally active cephalosporin, in serum and urine is proposed. The drug is determined by the internal standard method, using cephradine as the internal standard. The separation is carried out on a reversed-phase column, filled with octadecylsilane chemically bonded microparticles. The eluent is a mixture of acetonitrile with 0.025 M sodium phosphate buffer (pH 7). Quantitation is effected by fluorescence detection of the fluorophores formed after post-column derivatization with fluorescamine in a packed-bed reactor. The chromatographic conditions and the conditions for the post-column derivatization are discussed. The method has been applied to serum and urine samples, which were analysed after deproteinization with trichloroacetic acid and injection of the clear supernatant. The accuracy and reproducibility of the procedure were investigated by the determination of the cefatrizine content in spiked serum and urine samples. PMID:528641

Crombez, E; Van der Weken, G; Van den Bossche, W; De Moerloose, P

1979-09-21

407

Positive Lives  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Positive Lives project is "a unique international project that photographs and documents the social and emotional impact of the global HIV/AIDS epidemic, illuminating positive human responses to this world crisis." Sponsored by the Levi Strauss Foundation and the Terrence Higgins Trust, the project has sponsored photographers from across the world to photograph various persons living with HIV/AIDS in a host of very different settings. While the project has sponsored a number of various photographic exhibits, this online collection represents a small portion of the work thus far. Using an interactive map of the world, users can click on different geographic areas to view photographic exhibits documenting the lived experience of this condition. In South Africa, visitors can learn about the work and the residents of Nazareth House, which is a children's home in Cape Town taking care of abandoned children with HIV or AIDS. In Edinburgh, visitors are taken through the lives of young drug abusers at the Muirhouse Estate who are also living with either HIV or AIDS. In the words of photographer John Sturrock, "In Muirhouse I witnessed the emotional struggle of people enduring a tragedy..." However, hope is present in these photographic essays as well, as they represent a broad range of emotions.

408

Evaluation of an Automated Rapid Diagnostic Assay for Detection of Gram-Negative Bacteria and Their Drug-Resistance Genes in Positive Blood Cultures  

PubMed Central

We evaluated the performance of the Verigene Gram-Negative Blood Culture Nucleic Acid Test (BC-GN; Nanosphere, Northbrook, IL, USA), an automated multiplex assay for rapid identification of positive blood cultures caused by 9 Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) and for detection of 9 genes associated with ?-lactam resistance. The BC-GN assay can be performed directly from positive blood cultures with 5 minutes of hands-on and 2 hours of run time per sample. A total of 397 GNB positive blood cultures were analyzed using the BC-GN assay. Of the 397 samples, 295 were simulated samples prepared by inoculating GNB into blood culture bottles, and the remaining were clinical samples from 102 patients with positive blood cultures. Aliquots of the positive blood cultures were tested by the BC-GN assay. The results of bacterial identification between the BC-GN assay and standard laboratory methods were as follows: Acinetobacter spp. (39 isolates for the BC-GN assay/39 for the standard methods), Citrobacter spp. (7/7), Escherichia coli (87/87), Klebsiella oxytoca (13/13), and Proteus spp. (11/11); Enterobacter spp. (29/30); Klebsiella pneumoniae (62/72); Pseudomonas aeruginosa (124/125); and Serratia marcescens (18/21); respectively. From the 102 clinical samples, 104 bacterial species were identified with the BC-GN assay, whereas 110 were identified with the standard methods. The BC-GN assay also detected all ?-lactam resistance genes tested (233 genes), including 54 blaCTX-M, 119 blaIMP, 8 blaKPC, 16 blaNDM, 24 blaOXA-23, 1 blaOXA-24/40, 1 blaOXA-48, 4 blaOXA-58, and 6 blaVIM. The data shows that the BC-GN assay provides rapid detection of GNB and ?-lactam resistance genes in positive blood cultures and has the potential to contributing to optimal patient management by earlier detection of major antimicrobial resistance genes. PMID:24705449

Tojo, Masayoshi; Fujita, Takahiro; Ainoda, Yusuke; Nagamatsu, Maki; Hayakawa, Kayoko; Mezaki, Kazuhisa; Sakurai, Aki; Masui, Yoshinori; Yazaki, Hirohisa; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Miyoshi-Akiyama, Tohru; Totsuka, Kyoichi; Kirikae, Teruo; Ohmagari, Norio

2014-01-01

409

Phthalate metabolites in urine and asthma, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and atopic dermatitis in preschool children.  

PubMed

Phthalate esters are among the most ubiquitous of indoor pollutants and have been associated with various adverse health effects. In the present study we assessed the cross-sectional association between eight different phthalate metabolites in urine and allergic disease in young children. As part of the Danish Indoor Environment and Children's Health study, urine samples were collected from 440 children aged 3-5 years, of whom 222 were healthy controls, 68 were clinically diagnosed with asthma, 76 with rhinoconjunctivitis and 81 with atopic dermatitis (disease subgroups are not mutually exclusive; some children had more than one disease). There were no statistically significant differences in the urine concentrations of phthalate metabolites between cases and healthy controls with the exception of MnBP and MECPP, which were higher in healthy controls compared with the asthma case group. In the crude analysis MnBP and MiBP were negatively associated with asthma. In the analysis adjusted for multiple factors, only a weak positive association between MEP in urine and atopic dermatitis was found; there were no positive associations between any phthalate metabolites in urine and either asthma or rhinoconjunctivitis. These findings appear to contradict earlier studies. Differences may be due to higher exposures to certain phthalates (e.g., BBzP) via non-dietary pathways in earlier studies, phthalates serving as surrogates for an agent associated with asthma (e.g., PVC flooring) in previous studies but not the present study or altered cleaning habits and the use of "allergy friendly" products by parents of children with allergic disease in the current study in contrast to studies conducted earlier. PMID:24388279

Callesen, Michael; Bekö, Gabriel; Weschler, Charles J; Langer, Sarka; Brive, Lena; Clausen, Geo; Toftum, Jørn; Sigsgaard, Torben; Høst, Arne; Jensen, Tina Kold

2014-07-01

410

Position Information Position Details  

E-print Network

policies, admission policies, scholarship and loan programs, athletics, and other school_10398 Department College of Education - Masters in Teaching Program Pay Band Faculty FLSA Status Exempt The College of Education invites applications for a 1-year, full time non-tenure track Instructor position w

Carter, John

411

Comparison of human papillomavirus detections in urine, vulvar, and cervical samples from women attending a colposcopy clinic.  

PubMed

While urine-based sampling for human papillomavirus (HPV) is being explored as a simple and noninvasive approach for cervical cancer screening, data comparing HPV genotyping in urine and those in cellular sampling of the cervix and vulva, and their correlation with rigorously confirmed cervical disease status, are sparse. We performed HPV genotyping on voided-urine and clinician-collected vulvar and cervical samples from 72 women undergoing colposcopy. Although urine-based HPV carcinogenic HPV detection was lower (58.3%) than cervical (73.6%) and vulvar (72.1%) detection (P = 0.05 and 0.07, respectively), the agreement of urine HPV with cervical and vulvar HPV was moderate (kappa = 0.55) and substantial (kappa = 0.62), respectively. Urine-based carcinogenic HPV detection had a clinical sensitivity of 80.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 60.7 to 93.5) and a specificity of 53.3% (95% CI = 37.9 to 68.3) for diagnosing cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grades 2/3 (CIN2/3) on histology; 90.0% of CIN3 was positive for urine HPV. The corresponding sensitivity and specificity values for vulvar sampling were 92% (95% CI = 74 to 99) and 40.5% (95% CI = 25.6 to 56.7), and those for cervical sampling were 96.2% (95% CI = 80.4 to 99.9) and 40% (95% CI = 25.7 to 55.7), respectively. HPV16 was the most common carcinogenic genotype detectable in 25% of urine, 33.8% of vulvar, and 31.9% of cervical samples overall, with prevalence increasing with cervical disease grade, regardless of the sampling method. Stronger cervical HPV PCR signal strengths were associated with increased frequency of urine HPV detection. In summary, the relatively lower detection rates but comparable clinical performance of urine-based HPV sampling underscore the need for larger studies to evaluate urine-based sampling for cervical cancer screening, epidemiologic studies, and postvaccination HPV disease surveillance. PMID:24197879

Sahasrabuddhe, Vikrant V; Gravitt, Patti E; Dunn, S Terence; Brown, David; Allen, Richard A; Eby, Yolanda J; Smith, Katie; Zuna, Rosemary E; Zhang, Roy R; Gold, Michael A; Schiffman, Mark; Walker, Joan L; Castle, Philip E; Wentzensen, Nicolas

2014-01-01

412

Isoniazid/acetylisoniazid urine concentrations: markers of adherence to isoniazid preventive therapy in children  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY The Arkansas colorimetric method monitors adherence to isoniazid (INH) by the detection of INH metabolites in urine. Urine samples 4 h after INH administration in 31 human immunodeficiency virus infected children receiving daily or thrice weekly INH preventive therapy were Arkansas test-positive for 29/31 (94%), while acetylisoniazid (AcINH) was detected in 30/31 (97%) using mass spectrometry. At 24, 48 and 72 h, only 78%, 23% and 0 samples, respectively, were Arkansas-positive, while INH or AcINH was detected in respectively 94%, 69% and 33%. The Arkansas test reliably predicted INH ingestion at a clinic visit 4 h after morning doses, but did not perform well at 24 h. PMID:24903787

Amlabu, V.; Mulligan, C.; Jele, N.; Evans, A.; Gray, D.; Zar, H. J.; McIlleron, H.; Smith, P.

2014-01-01

413

Analysis of 11-nor-?9 -tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid and its glucuronide in urine by capillary electrophoresis/mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

?(9) -Tetrahydrocannabinol is the primary psychoactive component in cannabis, one of the most commonly used illicit drugs in the world. This paper describes a simple and rapid method for direct analysis of major metabolites of ?(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol; 11-nor-?(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid and its glucuronide in urine by capillary electrophoresis/mass spectrometry. The only pretreatment needed for a urine sample was dilution with methanol containing an internal standard and centrifugation. Electrophoresis was carried out in an untreated fused-silica capillary (50 µm i.d. × 85 cm) filled with 40 m m ammonium formate (pH 6.4). An analysis could be completed within 10 min. For both compounds, the assay was linear over the range 0.1-10 µg/mL in urine with correlation coefficients (r(2) )?>0.99 and the limit of detection was 0.5 pg (10 nL injection). The detection yields and reproducibilities were determined at three different concentrations (0.1, 0.5 and 2 µg/mL in urine). The mean detection yields were 60-99%. The intra- and inter-day relative standard deviations of migration times were 0.063-0.19 and 0.18-0.36%, and those of peak areas were 4.2-18 and 5.9-25%, respectively. The proposed method successfully analyzed the urine samples of cannabis users. PMID:22419476

Iwamuro, Yoshiaki; Iio-Ishimaru, Reiko; Chinaka, Satoshi; Takayama, Nariaki; Hayakawa, Kazuichi

2012-11-01

414

Urine Is Not Sterile: Use of Enhanced Urine Culture Techniques To Detect Resident Bacterial Flora in the Adult Female Bladder  

PubMed Central

Our previous study showed that bacterial genomes can be identified using 16S rRNA sequencing in urine specimens of both symptomatic and asymptomatic patients who are culture negative according to standard urine culture protocols. In the present study, we used a modified culture protocol that included plating larger volumes of urine, incubation under varied atmospheric conditions, and prolonged incubation times to demonstrate that many of the organisms identified in urine by 16S rRNA gene sequencing are, in fact, cultivable using an expanded quantitative urine culture (EQUC) protocol. Sixty-five urine specimens (from 41 patients with overactive bladder and 24 controls) were examined using both the standard and EQUC culture techniques. Fifty-two of the 65 urine samples (80%) grew bacterial species using EQUC, while the majority of these (48/52 [92%]) were reported as no growth at 103 CFU/ml by the clinical microbiology laboratory using the standard urine culture protocol. Thirty-five different genera and 85 different species were identified by EQUC. The most prevalent genera isolated were Lactobacillus (15%), followed by Corynebacterium (14.2%), Streptococcus (11.9%), Actinomyces (6.9%), and Staphylococcus (6.9%). Other genera commonly isolated include Aerococcus, Gardnerella, Bifidobacterium, and Actinobaculum. Our current study demonstrates that urine contains communities of living bacteria that comprise a resident female urine microbiota. PMID:24371246

Hilt, Evann E.; McKinley, Kathleen; Pearce, Meghan M.; Rosenfeld, Amy B.; Zilliox, Michael J.; Mueller, Elizabeth R.; Brubaker, Linda; Gai, Xiaowu; Wolfe, Alan J.

2014-01-01

415

The urine proteome as a radiation biodosimeter.  

PubMed

The global rise in terrorism has increased the risk of radiological events aimed at creating chaos and destabilization, although they may cause relatively limited number of immediate casualties. We have proposed that a self-administered test would be valuable for initial triage following terrorist use of nuclear/radiological devices. The urine proteome may be a useful source of the biomarkers required for developing such a test. We have developed and extensively used a rat model to study the acute and late effect of total body (TBI) and partial body irradiation on critical organ systems. This model has proven valuable for correlating the structural and functional effects of radiation with molecular changes. Results show that nephron segments differ with regard to their sensitivity and response to ionizing radiation. The urine proteome was analyzed using LC-MS/MS at 24 h after TBI or local kidney irradiation using a 10 Gy single dose of X rays. LC-MS/MS data were analyzed and grouped under Gene Ontology categories Cellular Localization, Molecular Function and Biological Process. We observed a decrease in urine protein/creatinine ratio that corroborated with decreased spectral counts for urinary albumin and other major serum proteins. Interestingly, TBI caused greater decline in urinary albumin than local kidney irradiation. Analysis of acute-phase response proteins and markers of acute kidney injury showed increased urinary levels of cystatin superfamily proteins and alpha-1-acid glycoprotein. Among proteases and protease inhibitors, levels of Kallikrein 1-related peptidase b24, precursor and products of chymotrypsin-like activity, were noticeably increased. Among the amino acids that are susceptible to oxidation by free radicals, oxidized histidine levels were increased following irradiation. Our results suggest that proteomic analysis of early changes in urinary proteins will identify biomarkers for developing a self-administered test for radiation biodosimetry. PMID:23378004

Sharma, Mukut; Moulder, John E

2013-01-01

416

Metals in Urine and Peripheral Arterial Disease  

PubMed Central

Exposure to metals may promote atherosclerosis. Blood cadmium and lead were associated with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in the 1999–2000 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). In the present study we evaluated the association between urinary levels of cadmium, lead, barium, cobalt, cesium, molybdenum, antimony, thallium, and tungsten with PAD in a cross-sectional analysis of 790 participants ?40 years of age in NHANES 1999–2000. PAD was defined as a blood pressure ankle brachial index < 0.9 in at least one leg. Metals were measured in casual (spot) urine specimens by inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry. After multivariable adjustment, subjects with PAD had 36% higher levels of cadmium in urine and 49% higher levels of tungsten compared with noncases. The adjusted odds ratio for PAD comparing the 75th to the 25th percentile of the cadmium distribution was 3.05 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.97 to 9.58]; that for tungsten was 2.25 (95% CI, 0.97 to 5.24). PAD risk increased sharply at low levels of antimony and remained elevated beyond 0.1 ?g/L. PAD was not associated with other metals. In conclusion, urinary cadmium, tungsten, and possibly antimony were associated with PAD in a representative sample of the U.S. population. For cadmium, these results strengthen previous findings using blood cadmium as a biomarker, and they support its role in atherosclerosis. For tungsten and antimony, these results need to be interpreted cautiously in the context of an exploratory analysis but deserve further study. Other metals in urine were not associated with PAD at the levels found in the general population. PMID:15687053

Navas-Acien, Ana; Silbergeld, Ellen K.; Sharrett, A. Richey; Calderon-Aranda, Emma; Selvin, Elizabeth; Guallar, Eliseo

2005-01-01

417

Plasma and urine renalase levels and activity during the recovery of renal function in kidney transplant recipients.  

PubMed

Renalase is a recently described enzyme secreted by the kidney into both plasma and urine, where it was suggested to degrade catecholamines contributing to blood pressure control. While there is a controversy regarding the relationship between renal function and plasma renalase levels, there is virtually no data in humans on plasma renalase activity as well as on both urine renalase levels and activity. We prospectively examined the time course of plasma and urine renalase levels and activity in 26 end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients receiving a cadaver kidney transplant (cadaver kidney recipients [CKR]) before surgery and during the recovery of renal function up to day 90 post transplant. The relationship with sympathetic and renal dopaminergic activities was also evaluated. The recovery of renal function in CKR closely predicted decreases in plasma renalase levels (r = 0.88; P < 0.0001), urine renalase levels (r = 0.75; P < 0.0001) and urine renalase activity (r = 0.56; P < 0.03), but did not predict changes in plasma renalase activity (r = -0.02; NS). Plasma norepinephrine levels positively correlated with plasma renalase levels (r = 0.64, P < 0.002) as well as with urine renalase levels and activity (r = 0.47 P < 0.02; r = 0.71, P < 0.0005, respectively) and negatively correlated with plasma renalase activity (r = -0.57, P < 0.002). By contrast, plasma epinephrine levels positively correlated with plasma renalase activity (r = 0.67, P < 0.0001) and negatively correlated with plasma renalase levels (r = -0.62, P < 0.003). A significant negative relationship was observed between urine dopamine output and urine renalase levels (r = -0.48; P < 0.03) but not with urine renalase activity (r = -0.33, NS). We conclude that plasma and urine renalase levels closely depend on renal function and sympathetic nervous system activity. It is suggested that epinephrine-mediated activation of circulating renalase may occur in renal transplant recipients with good recovery of renal function. The increase in plasma renalase activity observed in ESRD patients and renal transplant recipients can be explained on the basis of reduced inhibition of the circulating enzyme. PMID:24599883

Quelhas-Santos, Janete; Soares-Silva, Isabel; Fernandes-Cerqueira, Cátia; Simões-Silva, Liliana; Ferreira, Inês; Carvalho, Catarina; Coentrão, Luís; Vaz, Raquel; Sampaio-Maia, Benedita; Pestana, Manuel

2014-04-01

418

LC-MS/MS analysis of 13 benzodiazepines and metabolites in urine, serum, plasma, and meconium.  

PubMed

We describe a single method for the detection and quantitation of 13 commonly prescribed benzodiazepines and metabolites: alpha-hydroxyalprazolam, alpha-hydroxyethylflurazepam, alpha-hydroxytriazolam, alprazolam, desalkylflurazepam, diazepam, lorazepam, midazolam, nordiazepam, oxazepam, temazepam, clonazepam and 7-aminoclonazepam in urine, serum, plasma, and meconium. The urine and meconium specimens undergo enzyme hydrolysis to convert the compounds of interest to their free form. All specimens are prepared for analysis using solid-phase extraction (SPE), analyzed using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), and quantified using a three-point calibration curve. Deuterated analogs of all 13 analytes are included as internal standards. The instrument is operated in multiple reaction-monitoring (MRM) mode with an electrospray ionization (ESI) source in positive ionization mode. Urine and meconium specimens have matrix-matched calibrators and controls. The serum and plasma specimens are quantified using the urine calibrators but employing plasma-based controls. Oxazepam glucuronide is used as a hydrolysis control. PMID:20077062

Marin, Stephanie J; McMillin, Gwendolyn A

2010-01-01