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1

False-positive interferences of common urine drug screen immunoassays: a review.  

PubMed

Urine drug screen (UDS) immunoassays are a quick and inexpensive method for determining the presence of drugs of abuse. Many cross-reactivities exist with other analytes, potentially causing a false-positive result in an initial drug screen. Knowledge of these potential interferents is important in determining a course of action for patient care. We present an inclusive review of analytes causing false-positive interferences with drugs-of-abuse UDS immunoassays, which covers the literature from the year 2000 to present. English language articles were searched via the SciFinder platform with the strings 'false positive [drug] urine' yielding 173 articles. These articles were then carefully analyzed and condensed to 62 that included data on causes of false-positive results. The discussion is separated into six sections by drug class with a corresponding table of cross-reacting compounds for quick reference. False-positive results were described for amphetamines, opiates, benzodiazepines, cannabinoids, tricyclic antidepressants, phencyclidine, lysergic acid diethylamide and barbiturates. These false-positive results support the generally accepted practice that immunoassay positive results are considered presumptive until confirmed by a second independent chemical technique. PMID:24986836

Saitman, Alec; Park, Hyung-Doo; Fitzgerald, Robert L

2014-09-01

2

Hospital length of stay in individuals with schizophrenia with and without cocaine-positive urine drug screens at hospital admission.  

PubMed

Despite the high prevalence of cocaine use disorder (CUD) in individuals with schizophrenia, current understanding of the effect of cocaine on psychiatric hospital length of stay (LOS) in individuals with schizophrenia is limited. We therefore retrospectively examined the medical records of 5106 hospital admissions due to exacerbation of schizophrenia. Linear regression and t-test were used to compare LOS between individuals with schizophrenia with cocaine-positive urine drug test results and those with negative test results. Individuals with schizophrenia who were also positive for cocaine had shorter LOS from both unadjusted (geometric mean LOS, 8.07 ± 1.92 vs. 11.83 ± 1.83 days; p < 0.001) and adjusted (? = 0.69; confidence interval, 0.63-0.76; p < 0.001) analyses. Our results suggest that individuals with schizophrenia who also have comorbid CUD may require shorter inpatient treatment during periods of exacerbation of symptoms. Replication of this finding has relevance in treatment planning and resource allocation for the subpopulation of individuals with schizophrenia who also have stimulant use disorders. PMID:25489749

Wu, Hanjing Emily; Mohite, Satyajit; Ngana, Ikenna; Burns, Wilma; Shah, Nurun; Schneider, Laurie; Schmitz, Joy M; Lane, Scott D; Okusaga, Olaoluwa O

2015-01-01

3

Adolescents and Drug Abuse: Clinical Use of Urine Drug Screening.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Study examines the use of urine screening as a clinical diagnostic procedure to assess and monitor adolescents in a school-based outpatient program (N=296). Random screening provides little information regarding diagnostic level and pattern of drug use; however it may be helpful in bringing about positive behavior change. (EMK)

James, William H.; Moore, David D.

1997-01-01

4

Urine Drug Screening of Adolescents on Request of Parents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Of 100 adolescents screened for drug use, 43% tested positive for drugs of abuse. Twenty-five percent of these adolescents entered treatment, with 8% requiring medical detoxification or inpatient treatment. Urine screening, when done for clinical rather than punitive purposes, appeared to facilitate entry into treatment. (RJM)

Tennant, Forest

1994-01-01

5

Urine drug testing in pain medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of urine drug testing (UDT) has increased over recent years. UDT results have traditionally been used in legal proceedings under supervision of a medical review officer (MRO). In this context, testing has been required by statute or regulation and so is typically not in the “donor's” interest. Physicians, however, can use UDT to assist in monitoring their patient's

Howard A Heit; Douglas L Gourlay

2004-01-01

6

49 CFR 40.31 - Who may collect urine specimens for DOT drug testing?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Who may collect urine specimens for DOT drug testing? 40.31 Section...31 Who may collect urine specimens for DOT drug testing? (a) Collectors...the employee with a urine specimen, drug testing result, or...

2010-10-01

7

The antispasmodic drug mebeverine leads to positive amphetamine results by fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA)--studies on the toxicological analysis of urine by FPIA and GC-MS.  

PubMed

Mebeverine (Duspatal, MB), an antispasmodic drug, is the veratric acid ester of 4-[ethyl-[2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-1-methylethyl]amino]butan-1-ol (MB-OH), which is a N-substituted ethylamphetamine derivative. MB is metabolized via ester hydrolysis to MB alcohol (MB-OH) and veratric acid. N-Dehydroxybutylation leads to methoxyethylamphetamine (MO-EA) and, after O-demethylation, to hydroxy EA (HO-EA). N-Bisdealkylation leads to p-methoxyamphetamine (PMA). MO-EA and PMA are also known as designer drugs. Fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA) and gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric studies on the toxicological analysis of MB after ingestion of a single 405-mg oral dose of MB were performed. We could show that intake of MB leads to positive FPIA results for amphetamine. The N-dehydroxybutyl metabolites of MB, MO-EA, HO-EA, and the bis-dealkyl metabolite PMA should be responsible for the positive immunoassay results. Using our systematic toxicological analysis procedure, every positive amphetamine immunoassay could be explained by detection of MO-EA, HO-EA, and/or PMA. Misinterpretation of the origin of MO-EA, HO-EA, or PMA can be avoided by detecting the specific (non-dehydroxybutylated) metabolites of MB, which are excreted for a much longer time after ingestion. PMID:11499887

Kraemer, T; Wennig, R; Maurer, H H

2001-01-01

8

Passive exposure to cocaine in medical personnel and its effect on urine drug screening tests.  

PubMed

This report studies the importance of passive exposure of medical personnel to cocaine hydrochloride and its impact on urine screening testing. Eleven medical staff members were exposed to cocaine hydrochloride by means of aerosol and cutaneous application, similar to that which may occur in medical practice. Urine drug screening tests were negative for everyone tested. This finding is supported by known drug kinetics. It is unlikely that a single passive exposure of medical staff to cocaine hydrochloride will produce a positive urine screening test. In all cases of positive urine tests, contaminants should be tested for which may indicate a source of the drug. The routine use of gloves and masks--which is recommended to prevent HIV infection--should further decrease medical personnel's passive exposure to cocaine hydrochloride. PMID:1408218

Kavanagh, K T; Maijub, A G; Brown, J R

1992-09-01

9

Phencyclidine false positive induced by lamotrigine (Lamictal®) on a rapid urine toxicology screen  

PubMed Central

Background This report describes two cases with unexplained positive results for phencyclidine (PCP). Aims This case will correlate lamotrigine (Lamictal®) use with false-positive results for PCP on a rapid urine toxicology screen. Methods Case 1: A 62-year-old male arrived to the emergency department in extreme psychosis. All positive results on the urine drug screen could be accounted for except PCP. A comprehensive drug screen was performed to confirm PCP use, but returned negative. PCP was ruled out as the causative agent. The reason for the PCP false positive remained unknown. Case 2: A 49-year-old female presented to the ED with a history of seizures and depression. Despite positive PCP results on a rapid urine drug screen, PCP use was ruled out due to patient presentation and comprehensive history. Results The differential diagnosis in case 1 included PCP abuse until PCP was ruled out by a comprehensive drug screen. A literature search failed to explain a reason for false-positive results. The patient in case 2 was not psychotic, but returned a positive urinalysis result for PCP. Case 2’s presentation combined with a comprehensive history at the facility ruled out PCP use. Both patients were taking the anti-seizure medication lamotrigine with nothing else in common. Conclusion Lamotrigine has the potential to cause false-positive results for PCP on the Bio-Rad TOX/See urine toxicology screen. PMID:21373301

Peele, James; McCoy, Stacey L.; Elias, Brad

2010-01-01

10

Urine nandrolone metabolites: false positive doping test?  

PubMed

The aim of this review is to analyse the studies on nandrolone metabolism to determine if it is possible for an athlete to test positive for nandrolone without having ingested or injected nandrolone. PMID:12351328

Kohler, R M N; Lambert, M I

2002-10-01

11

28 CFR 550.42 - Procedures for urine surveillance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...shall have each positive urine test validated to substantiate...report if the inmate's urine test shows a positive result for the presence of drugs which the inmate cannot...and a copy of positive urine testing results which the...

2010-07-01

12

False positivity of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase measurement in urine.  

PubMed

Although enzymuria tends to be associated to renal injury, there are no studies that have evaluated the presence of the enzyme gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) spectrophotometry in the urine using a non-nephrotoxic agent (Nerium oleander) in order to evaluate the possibility of false positive results. The urinary GGT/urinary creatinine concentration ratio (uGGT/uCr) of 10 healthy dogs was calculated and posteriorly confronted with data from clinical evaluation, hematological and serum biochemical profiles, creatinine clearance (CrC), urinalysis, urine protein/creatinine ratio (UPC), electrocardiogram, systemic blood pressure (SBP) and light and electron microscopy. The results for kidney histology, SBP, UPC and CrC were not significantly different in any of the time-points analyzed. However, uGGT/uCr was significantly higher when measured 4 hours and 24 hours after administration of N. oleander. The measurement of the urinary GGT enzyme, as performed in many studies, yielded false positive results in dogs poisoned by a non-nephrotoxic agent. PMID:24456228

Crivellenti, Leandro Zuccolotto; Mesa, Javier Sousa; Meirelles, Adriana Érica Wilkes Burton; Borin Crivellenti, Sofia; Mireya, Edna Gomes; Canola, Julio Carlos; Hatayde, Mário Roberto; Santana, Aureo Evangelista; Dantas, Márcio; Silva, Gyl Eanes Barros

2014-05-01

13

Status of drugs-of-abuse testing in urine: An AACC study.  

PubMed

The study demonstrates that, in May 1987, testing urine for drugs of abuse can be accurate. All laboratories challenged in this study currently perform such testing under contract and are involved in monthly proficiency testing and in-service training (AACC's Surveys Plus and In-Service Training Program in Toxicology). The laboratories were challenged to detect drugs at the concentrations at which they accept business. We suspect that when results of studies of this kind have been reported previously, the laboratories may have been scored inaccurately because they used technology designed to detect higher concentrations of the drugs than were weighed into the study specimens. This points up the need for laboratories and clients to be specific about the threshold concentrations used to report positives and policies for reporting positives detected below those concentrations. PMID:3621586

Frings, C S; White, R M; Battaglia, D J

1987-09-01

14

A Method to Quantify Illicit Intake of Drugs from Urine: Methamphetamine  

PubMed Central

Qualitative urinalysis can verify abstinence of drug misuse but cannot detect changes in drug intake. For drugs with slow elimination, such as methamphetamine (MA), a single episode of abuse can result in up to 5 days of positive urine drug screens. Thus, interventions that produce substantial decreases in drug use but do not achieve almost complete abstinence are classified as ineffective. Using nonpharmacologic doses of deuterium-labeled l-methamphetamine (l-MA-d3) we have developed a simple, robust method that reliably estimates changes in MA intake. Twelve subjects were dosed with 5 mg of l-MA-d3 daily and challenged with 15, 30, and 45 mg of nonlabeled d-MA (d-MA-d0) after reaching plasma steady status of l-MA-d3. Urinary concentration ratios of d-MA-d0 to l-MA-d3 provided clear separation of the administered doses with as little as 15-mg dose increments. Administered doses could not be resolved using d-MA-d0 concentrations alone. In conclusion, the urinary [d-MA-d0]:[l-MA-d3] provides a quantitative, continuous measure of illicit MA exposure. The method reliably detects small, clinically relevant changes in illicit MA intake from random urine specimens, is amenable to deployment in clinical trials, and can be used to quantify patterns of MA abuse. PMID:21450932

Li, Linghui; Galloway, Gantt P.; Verotta, Davide; Everhart, E. Thomas; Baggott, Matthew J.; Coyle, Jeremy R.; Lopez, Juan C.

2011-01-01

15

A method to quantify illicit intake of drugs from urine: methamphetamine.  

PubMed

Qualitative urinalysis can verify abstinence of drug misuse but cannot detect changes in drug intake. For drugs with slow elimination, such as methamphetamine (MA), a single episode of abuse can result in up to 5 days of positive urine drug screens. Thus, interventions that produce substantial decreases in drug use but do not achieve almost complete abstinence are classified as ineffective. Using nonpharmacologic doses of deuterium-labeled l-methamphetamine (l-MA-d(3)) we have developed a simple, robust method that reliably estimates changes in MA intake. Twelve subjects were dosed with 5 mg of l-MA-d(3) daily and challenged with 15, 30, and 45 mg of nonlabeled d-MA (d-MA-d(0)) after reaching plasma steady status of l-MA-d(3). Urinary concentration ratios of d-MA-d(0) to l-MA-d(3) provided clear separation of the administered doses with as little as 15-mg dose increments. Administered doses could not be resolved using d-MA-d(0) concentrations alone. In conclusion, the urinary [d-MA-d(0)]:[l-MA-d(3)] provides a quantitative, continuous measure of illicit MA exposure. The method reliably detects small, clinically relevant changes in illicit MA intake from random urine specimens, is amenable to deployment in clinical trials, and can be used to quantify patterns of MA abuse. PMID:21450932

Li, Linghui; Galloway, Gantt P; Verotta, Davide; Everhart, E Thomas; Baggott, Matthew J; Coyle, Jeremy R; Lopez, Juan C; Mendelson, John

2011-07-01

16

Trends in occurrence of drugs of abuse in blood and urine of arrested drivers and drug traffickers in the border region of Aachen.  

PubMed

The region of Aachen is located in a triangle on the German, Dutch and Belgian borders and is heavily exposed to drug traffic, due to the differences in national drug policies. The analysis of toxicological casework in the Institute of Forensic Medicine in Aachen was undertaken for the period 1987-1993, i.e. 6 years before and 1 year after the partial suspension of the border control due to the Maastricht Treaty; 2653 cases were registered, among them 988 automobile drivers. The profile of the casework has changed after the opening of the border: up to 1992 most cases were obtained from the customs. In 1993 the prevalence of police samples was noticed. In the population of drivers, blood samples were only taken in 30% of all the cases. In other cases, concerning mainly motorized drug smugglers, only urine samples or seized drugs have been sent for examination. The urine samples in this group were mostly drug-positive. Drug-smuggling drivers appeared to be a risk-generating group for road traffic safety. The analyses of blood and urine samples revealed multiple drug use in most of the cases. Since 1992, a steep increase in the frequency of cocaine-positive blood samples among drivers was noticed. The results of the study indicate that the abolition of the border control affected the road traffic safety in the region of Aachen. PMID:7875616

Schiwy-Bochat, K H; Bogusz, M; Vega, J A; Althoff, H

1995-01-21

17

LC-MS-(TOF) analysis method for benzodiazepines in urine samples from alleged drug-facilitated sexual assault victims.  

PubMed

In recent years there has been an increase in the number of reports in the U.S. of the use of drugs to commit sexual assault. In 1994, a nationwide urine testing program was developed to assess the incidence of the use of drugs to facilitate sexual assault and provide information for use in the investigation of these crimes. Urine samples were collected from victims of suspected drug-induced sexual assault by law enforcement agencies, emergency rooms, and rape crisis centers. The most implicated drug class was benzodiazepines, either alone or in combination with alcohol. In this report, a procedure was developed for the screening of 22 benzodiazepines in human urine by liquid chromatography-time of flight-mass spectrometry [LC-MS-(TOF)]. The limit of quantitation for all benzodiazepines ranged from 2 to 10 ng/mL, and the limit of detection was 0.5 to 3.0 ng/mL. These results suggest that the method sensitivity is suitable to screen for all 22 benzodiazepines in human urine at low levels. The method was used to analyze samples previously reported to have screened positive for benzodiazepines by immunoassay at 50 ng/mL cut off but failed to confirm by a gas chromatography-MS method. The results of reanalysis of these samples using this LC-MS method are reported. PMID:17132247

ElSohly, Mahmoud A; Gul, Waseem; ElSohly, Kareem M; Avula, Bharathi; Khan, Ikhlas A

2006-10-01

18

Simultaneous Screening of 177 Drugs of Abuse in Urine Using Ultra-performance Liquid Chromatography with Tandem Mass Spectrometry in Drug-intoxicated Patients  

PubMed Central

Objective The demand for rapid and broad clinical toxicology screening methods to identify drugs of abuse and medicinal drugs is increasing steadily. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-TMS) is increasingly used to screen for drugs of abuse and to identify a wide range of drugs and metabolites in clinical samples. We revised a high-throughput and rapid ultra-performance (UP) LC-TMS method for simultaneous screening of 177 of the most prevalent medicinal drugs and drugs of abuse in urine and validated the quality of performance using system suitability mixture (SSM) and quality control (QC) materials. Methods We assessed the limits of detection (LOD) using high concentrations of the test substances. The method was applied to 473 urine samples obtained from patients intoxicated with drugs who visited the emergency center. Results The retention time, peak area, and total ion chromatogram of the SSM and QC materials were within the acceptance criteria of the pre-defined acceptance interval. The LODs were <62 ng/ml for 12 commonly encountered drugs. In total, 418 patients (88.4%) tested positive for one or more medicinal drugs or drugs of abuse. Twenty-eight drugs were detected over ten times; the most commonly detected were zolpidem, ephedrine, paracetamol, and chlorpheniramine. Conclusion The UPLC-TMS method provided excellent performance for simultaneous screening of a large number of the drugs of abuse in urine samples. We conclude that this robust technique is useful for screening for a large number of drugs and for rapid screening of the most commonly encountered substances in emergency cases. PMID:24465253

2013-01-01

19

Family Checkup: Positive Parenting Prevents Drug Abuse  

MedlinePLUS

... Home » Family Checkup Family Checkup: Positive Parenting Prevents Drug Abuse Email Facebook Twitter Revised October 2012 Could your ... drugs. Research supported by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) has shown the important role that parents ...

20

High-throughput screening of corticosteroids and basic drugs in horse urine by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

This paper describes two high-throughput liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) methods for the screening of two important classes of drugs in equine sports, namely corticosteroids and basic drugs, at low ppb levels in horse urine. The method utilized a high efficiency reversed-phase LC column (3.3 cm L x 2.1 mm i.d. with 3 microm particles) to provide fast turnaround times. The overall turnaround time for the corticosteroid screen was 5 min and that for the basic drug screen was 8 min, inclusive of post-run and equilibration times. Method specificity was assessed by analysing a total of 35 negative post-race horse urine samples. No interference from the matrices at the expected retention times of the targeted masses was observed. Inter-day precision for the screening of 19 corticosteroids and 48 basic drugs were evaluated by replicate analyses (n = 10) of a spiked sample on 4 consecutive days. The results demonstrated that both methods have acceptable precision to be used on a routine basis. The performance of these two methods on real samples was demonstrated by their applications to drug administration and positive post-race urine samples. PMID:16154522

Leung, Gary N W; Chung, Evonne W; Ho, Emmie N M; Kwok, W H; Leung, David K K; Tang, Francis P W; Wan, Terence S M; Yu, Nola H

2005-10-15

21

Biological monitoring of cyclophosphamide and ifosfamide in urine of hospital personnel occupationally exposed to cytostatic drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The occupational exposure of 21 nurses and pharmacy personnel from eight hospitals to cyclophosphamide and ifosfamide was determined by quantifying the amount of the drugs handled and by measuring the urinary excretion of the unmetabolised substances. Preparing antineoplastic drugs for intravenous treatment was the major task of all study participants. Twenty four hour urine was collected on days when cyclophosphamide

A S Ensslin; Y Stoll; A Pethran; A Pfaller; H Römmelt; G Fruhmann

1994-01-01

22

A Case for Mandatory Urine Testing for Drugs in Public Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In response to an earlier article by Eugene Lincoln, presents two hypothetical cases that respectively deal with the possible effects of drug use on school premises and with a policy governing mandatory urine testing for student athletes. Cites factors that should be incorporated in any mandatory drug testing policy. (MLF)

Sultanik, Jeffrey T.

1990-01-01

23

Urine drug testing of chronic pain patients. V. Prevalence of propoxyphene following its withdrawal from the United States market.  

PubMed

Propoxyphene is an opioid analgesic that was surrounded by controversy concerning its safety and efficacy during its lifespan in the US market. Propoxyphene was withdrawn in November of 2010 from the US market and is still being detected one year post-withdrawal in urine specimens from the pain management population. In this study, the prevalence of propoxyphene was determined in a total of 417,914 urine specimens collected from 630 clinics involved in pain management located in 24 states during the period of January 1, 2010, through December 31, 2011. Propoxyphene and norpropoxyphene were measured in urine by a validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry procedure with a lower limit of quantitation of 50 ng/mL. The positivity rate for propoxyphene prevalence declined sharply between November and December of 2010 and further declined at a gradual rate, ending in a prevalence of 0.27% (one out of every 370 specimens, n = 25,658) for the month of December 2011. The presented data provide evidence of the dramatic decline in the use of propoxyphene products since their removal from the medical market, and may be beneficial to US urine drug testing programs determining the need for continual monitoring of propoxyphene levels. PMID:23129731

Puet, Brandi; DePriest, Anne; Knight, Julie; Heltsley, Rebecca; Black, David L; Caplan, Yale H; Cone, Edward J

2013-01-01

24

Urine drug testing in long-term opioid therapy: ethical considerations.  

PubMed

As long-term opioid analgesic therapy has gained increasing clinical and societal acceptance over the past 2 decades, morbidity and mortality related to the misuse of these drugs have increased in lockstep. Hence, monitoring for opioid-related problems, largely through urine drug testing, has become a central component of risk mitigation in long-term opioid therapy. Despite the increasing use of urine drug testing, little has been written about the ethical aspects of its application. In this paper, we analyze multiple aspects of drug testing-rationale for testing, specimen collection, ordering and interpretation, and response to inappropriate test results-through the principlist lens, using the ethical principles of beneficence, nonmaleficence, justice, and autonomy. PMID:24281293

Reisfield, Gary M; Maschke, Karen J

2014-08-01

25

Biological monitoring of cyclophosphamide and ifosfamide in urine of hospital personnel occupationally exposed to cytostatic drugs.  

PubMed

The occupational exposure of 21 nurses and pharmacy personnel from eight hospitals to cyclophosphamide and ifosfamide was determined by quantifying the amount of the drugs handled and by measuring the urinary excretion of the unmetabolised substances. Preparing antineoplastic drugs for intravenous treatment was the major task of all study participants. Twenty four hour urine was collected on days when cyclophosphamide and/or ifosfamide were mixed, on average 3900 mg cyclophosphamide and/or 5900 mg ifosfamide. The analyses were performed by gas chromatography with electron capture, detection limit 2.5 micrograms/24 hour urine. Despite standard safety precautions, including a vertical laminar air flow safety cabinet and gloves, cyclophosphamide was detected in 12 of 31 and ifosfamide in four of 21 urine samples on days when the drugs were handled. Excretion of cyclophosphamide ranged from 3.5 to 38 micrograms/24 h (mean 11.4 micrograms/24 h) urine, ifosfamide from 5 to 12.7 micrograms/24 h (mean 9 micrograms/24 h) urine. Based on an excretion rate of 11.3% unmetabolised cyclophosphamide, the average amount excreted corresponded to an uptake of 101 micrograms cyclophosphamide. For ifosfamide the mean quantity incorporated was 20 micrograms assuming that 45% of the drug was excreted. Pertaining to the doses handled, the uptake of cyclophosphamide and ifosfamide was estimated to be approximately 0.0025% and 0.0004% respectively. Despite time-consuming purification procedures, gas chromatographic analysis is a suitable method for monitoring personnel occupationally exposed to cyclophosphamide and ifosfamide and is a major contribution to the evaluation of potential health risks of exposed personnel. PMID:8199663

Ensslin, A S; Stoll, Y; Pethran, A; Pfaller, A; Römmelt, H; Fruhmann, G

1994-04-01

26

Highly sensitive capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry for rapid screening and accurate quantitation of drugs of abuse in urine.  

PubMed

The combination of capillary electrophoresis (CE) and mass spectrometry (MS) is particularly well adapted to bioanalysis due to its high separation efficiency, selectivity, and sensitivity; its short analytical time; and its low solvent and sample consumption. For clinical and forensic toxicology, a two-step analysis is usually performed: first, a screening step for compound identification, and second, confirmation and/or accurate quantitation in cases of presumed positive results. In this study, a fast and sensitive CE-MS workflow was developed for the screening and quantitation of drugs of abuse in urine samples. A CE with a time-of-flight MS (CE-TOF/MS) screening method was developed using a simple urine dilution and on-line sample preconcentration with pH-mediated stacking. The sample stacking allowed for a high loading capacity (20.5% of the capillary length), leading to limits of detection as low as 2 ng mL(-1) for drugs of abuse. Compound quantitation of positive samples was performed by CE-MS/MS with a triple quadrupole MS equipped with an adapted triple-tube sprayer and an electrospray ionization (ESI) source. The CE-ESI-MS/MS method was validated for two model compounds, cocaine (COC) and methadone (MTD), according to the Guidance of the Food and Drug Administration. The quantitative performance was evaluated for selectivity, response function, the lower limit of quantitation, trueness, precision, and accuracy. COC and MTD detection in urine samples was determined to be accurate over the range of 10-1000 ng mL(-1) and 21-1000 ng mL(-1), respectively. PMID:23680557

Kohler, Isabelle; Schappler, Julie; Rudaz, Serge

2013-05-30

27

Sports drug testing: Analytical aspects of selected cases of suspected, purported, and proven urine manipulation.  

PubMed

Manipulation of urine specimens provided by elite athletes for doping control purposes has been reported several times in the past, and in most of these cases urine substitution was eventually proven. Recent findings of suspected and substantiated manipulation have outlined the complexity and diversity of tampering options, sample appearance alterations resulting from non-manipulative influence, and the analytical challenges arising from these scenarios. Using state-of-the-art mass spectrometric and immunological doping control and forensic chemistry methodologies, four unusual findings were observed. One sports drug testing specimen was found to contain an unusually high content of saccharides accompanied by hordenine and Serpine-Z4, while no endogenous steroid (e.g. testosterone, epitestosterone, androsterone and etiocholanolone) was detected. This specimen was identified as non-alcoholic beer filled into the doping control sample container, constituting an undisputed doping offense. A doping control sample of bright green color was received and found to contain residues of methylene blue, which is not considered relevant for doping controls as no masking or manipulative effect is known. In addition, the number of urine samples of raspberry to crimson red coloration received at doping control laboratories has constantly increased during the last years, attributed to the presence of hemoglobin or betanin/isobetanin. Also here, no doping rule violation was given and an impact on routine analytical results was not observed. Finally, a total of 8 sports drug testing samples collected at different competition sites was shown to contain identical urine specimens as indicated by steroid profile analysis and conclusively proven by DNA-STR (short tandem repeat) analysis. Here, the athletes in question were not involved in the urine substitution act but the doping control officer was convicted of sample manipulation. PMID:21955645

Thevis, Mario; Geyer, Hans; Sigmund, Gerd; Schänzer, Wilhelm

2012-01-01

28

75 FR 22150 - Current List of Laboratories Which Meet Minimum Standards To Engage in Urine Drug Testing for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...and Mental Health Services Administration Current List of Laboratories Which Meet Minimum Standards To Engage in Urine Drug Testing for Federal Agencies Correction In notice document 2010-7170 beginning on page 16813 in the issue of Friday,...

2010-04-27

29

Validation of the only commercially available immunoassay for synthetic cathinones in urine: Randox Drugs of Abuse V Biochip Array Technology.  

PubMed

Deterrence of synthetic cathinone abuse is hampered by the lack of a high-throughput immunoassay screen. The Randox Drugs of Abuse V (DOA-V) Biochip Array Technology contains two synthetic cathinone antibodies: Bath Salt I (BSI) targets mephedrone/methcathinone and Bath Salt II (BSII) targets 3',4'-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV)/3',4'-methylenedioxy-?-pyrrolidinobutiophenone (MDPBP). We evaluated DOA-V synthetic cathinones performance and conducted a full validation on the original assay with calibrators reconstituted in water, and the new assay with calibrators prepared in lyophilized urine; both utilized the same antibodies and were run on the fully automated Evidence® Analyzer. We screened 20 017 authentic military urine specimens and confirmed positives by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for 28 synthetic cathinones. Limits of detection (LOD) for the original and new assays were 0.35 and 0.18 (BSI), and 8.5 and 9.2 µg/L (BSII), respectively. Linearity was acceptable (R(2) ?>0.98); however, a large negative bias was observed with in-house prepared calibrators. Intra-assay imprecision was <20% BSI-II, while inter-assay imprecision was 18-42% BSI and <22% BSII. Precision was acceptable for Randox controls. Cross-reactivities of many additional synthetic cathinones were determined. Authentic drug-free negative urine pH <4 produced false positive results for BSI (6.3 µg/L) and BSII (473 µg/L). Oxidizing agents reduced BSI and increased BSII results. Sensitivity, specificity, and efficiency of 100%, 52.1%, and 53.0% were obtained at manufacturer's proposed cut-offs (BSI 5 µg/L, BSII 30 µg/L). Performance improved if cut-off concentrations increased (BSI 7.5 µg/L, BSII 40 µg/L); however, there were limited confirmed positive specimens. Currently, this is the first and only fully validated immunoassay for preliminary detection of synthetic cathinones in urine. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. PMID:24659527

Ellefsen, Kayla N; Anizan, Sébastien; Castaneto, Marisol S; Desrosiers, Nathalie A; Martin, Thomas M; Klette, Kevin L; Huestis, Marilyn A

2014-01-01

30

Determination of selected drugs in human urine by differential pulse voltammetry technique.  

PubMed

A new, simple and selective differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) method for the simultaneous determination of selected drugs in model solutions and spiked human urine samples with prior extraction was developed and validated. The objects of analysis were paracetamol, furosemide, dipyrone, cefazolin and dexamethasone belonging to four different therapeutic groups (antibiotics, analgesic, demulcent and diuretic). Analytical methods for the preparation of urine samples for voltammetric analysis (liquid-liquid extraction--LLE and solid-phase extraction--SPE) were worked out and optimized. Hanging mercury drop electrode (HMDE) and graphite electrode were used as working electrodes. Reference electrode was Ag|AgCl|KCl((sat.)), whereas auxiliary electrode--platinum electrode. The optimal conditions for quantitative determination were obtained in a Britton-Robinson (BR) buffer at pH 2.4. Quantification was performed by means of calibration curve and standard addition methods. The calibration curves of analysed drugs are linear within the range of concentration: 6.61-66.10, 6.05-54.42, 6.00-65.00, 4.20-33.58 and 0.51-3.06 microM for paracetamol, furosemide, dipyrone, cefazolin and dexamethasone, respectively. The levels of analysed compounds in human urine can be successfully determined using this developed method with no matrix effect. PMID:18515190

Baranowska, Irena; Markowski, Piotr; Gerle, Anna; Baranowski, Jacek

2008-06-01

31

Ruling out false-positive urinary Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 and Streptococcus pneumoniae antigen test results by heating urine.  

PubMed

We report here false-positive urinary Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 and Streptococcus pneumoniae antigen test results due to rabbit antilymphocyte serum treatment and provide a simple and fast solution to rule them out by heating urine. PMID:25253788

Pontoizeau, C; Dangers, L; Jarlier, V; Luyt, C E; Guiller, E; Fievet, M H; Lecsö-Bornet, M; Aubry, A; Brossier, F

2014-12-01

32

Application of urine proteomics for biomarker discovery in drug-induced liver injury.  

PubMed

Abstract The leading cause of hepatic damage is drug-induced liver injury (DILI), for which currently no adequate predictive biomarkers are available. Moreover, for most drugs related to DILI, the mechanisms underlying the adverse reaction have not yet been elucidated. Urinary protein biomarker candidates for DILI have emerged in the past few years and correlate well with clinical studies for serum DILI biomarkers. The goal of this review was to investigate the use of urine as a source of protein biomarkers for drug-induced liver injury. Finally, we discuss some of the current strategies required to advance the field of biomarker discovery for DILI with respect to appropriate clinical biobanking and adequate translational research. PMID:25264586

van Swelm, Rachel P L; Kramers, Cornelis; Masereeuw, Rosalinde; Russel, Frans G M

2014-11-01

33

Screening and quantitative determination of drugs of abuse in diluted urine by UPLC-MS/MS.  

PubMed

The purpose of this work was to develop and evaluate a fast, robust and specific UPLC-MS/MS screening platform for the determination and quantification of a variety of commonly used drugs of abuse in urine, i.e. a high-throughput quantitative analysis. Substances in the drug classes opioids, central nervous system stimulants and benzodiazepines and related agents were included in addition to cannabis and pregabalin, a total of 35 different analytes. Based on the concentrations and the physico-chemical properties of the substances, three UPLC-MS/MS methods were developed in parallel. Prior to analysis, sample preparation consisted of two different simple dilutions with 60 and 100 ?L urine, respectively, using a Tecan Freedom Evo pipetting robot platform. A Waters Xevo TQ-S tandem quadrupole mass spectrometer coupled to a Waters I-class UPLC was used for quantitative analysis of one quantitative and one qualifying MRM transition for each analyte, except for tramadol for which the metabolite O-desmethyl-tramadol was included in the MRM method to confirm tramadol identity. Deuterated analogs were included as internal standards. The between-assay relative standard deviations varied from 2% to 11% and the limits of quantification were in the range 1-200 ng/mL for the various analytes. After development and initial testing, the method has been successfully implemented and routinely used at our hospital for quantitative screening of drugs of abuse in more than 35,000 urinary samples. PMID:24413020

Hegstad, Solfrid; Hermansson, Sigurd; Betnér, Ingvar; Spigset, Olav; Falch, Berit Margrethe Hasle

2014-02-01

34

Detection of drugs of abuse in exhaled breath using a device for rapid collection: comparison with plasma, urine and self-reporting in 47 drug users.  

PubMed

Exhaled breath has recently been identified as a matrix for the detection of drugs of abuse. This work aims to further document this application using a new and simple collection device in patients following recovery from acute intoxication. Breath, plasma and urine samples were collected from 47 patients (38 males, age range 25-74) together with interview data. Analysis of breath and plasma samples was done by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry methods. Urine was screened using immunochemical reagents and positive findings confirmed with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry methods. The 12 analytes investigated were: methadone, amphetamine, methamphetamine, 6-acetylmorphine, morphine, benzoylecgonine, cocaine, diazepam, oxazepam, alprazolam, buprenorphine and tetrahydrocannabinol. In all 47 cases, recent intake of an abused substance prior to admission was reported, but in one case the substance (ketobemidone) was not investigated. In 40 of the remaining cases (87%) breath analysis gave a positive finding of any of the substances that were part of the analytical investigation. Identifications were based on correct chromatographic retention time and product ion ratios obtained in selected reaction monitoring mode. In general, data from breath, plasma, urine and self-reporting were in good agreement, but in 23% of the cases substances were detected that had not been self-reported. All substances covered were detected in a number of breath samples. Considering that breath sampling was often done about 24 h after intake, the detection rate was considered to be high for most substances. Analytes with low detection rates were benzodiazepines, and a further increase in analytical sensitivity is needed to overcome this. This study further supports use of exhaled breath as a new matrix in clinical toxicology. PMID:23619392

Beck, Olof; Stephanson, Niclas; Sandqvist, Sören; Franck, Johan

2013-06-01

35

Simultaneous detection of 93 conventional and emerging drugs of abuse and their metabolites in urine by UHPLC-MS/MS.  

PubMed

Novel psychoactive substances (NPS) are becoming increasingly popular worldwide in recent years, some of which have been reported to cause considerable harm and even fatalities. Currently, simultaneous screening for a comprehensive panel of conventional and novel drugs of abuse is not widely available in most clinical laboratories. The aim of this study was to establish a chromatography/mass spectrometry-based analytical system for the simultaneous detection of conventional drugs of abuse and NPS in urine. Sample preparation entails enzyme digestion and solid phase extraction; analytes were then detected by liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) with multiple reaction monitoring. Forty-seven conventional drugs (28 parent drugs, 19 metabolites) and 46 NPS analytes (44 parent drugs, two metabolites) are covered by the established method, which has been validated according to international guidelines. The method was then applied to 964 urine samples collected from drug abusers and the results revealed the presence of two NPS - TFMPP and methcathinone - as well as conventional drugs of abuse. To conclude, an LC-MS/MS method has been established that allows the simultaneous detection of over 90 conventional as well as novel psychoactive substances and metabolites in urine samples. The method was successfully applied to authentic specimens revealing the presence of conventional as well as novel drugs of abuse in the local population. PMID:25203724

Tang, Magdalene H Y; Ching, C K; Lee, Caroline Y W; Lam, Ying-Hoo; Mak, Tony W L

2014-10-15

36

A broad-spectrum equine urine screening method for free and enzyme-hydrolysed conjugated drugs with ultra performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

The authors' laboratory at one time employed four liquid chromatography/mass spectrometric (LC/MS) methods for the detection of a large variety of drugs in equine urine. Drug classes covered by these methods included anti-diabetics, anti-ulcers, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors, sedatives, corticosteroids, anabolic steroids, sulfur diuretics, xanthines, etc. With the objective to reduce labour and instrumental workload, a new ultra performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometric (UPLC/MS/MS) method has been developed, which encompasses all target analytes detected by the original four LC/MS methods. The new method has better detection limits than the superseded methods. In addition, it covers new target analytes that could not be adequately detected by the four LC/MS methods. The new method involves solid-phase extraction (SPE) of two aliquots of equine urine using two Abs Elut Nexus cartridges. One aliquot of the urine sample is treated with ?-glucuronidase before subjecting to SPE. A second aliquot of the same urine sample is processed directly using another SPE cartridge, so that drugs that are prone to decomposition during enzyme hydrolysis can be preserved. The combined eluate is analysed by UPLC/MS/MS using alternating positive and negative electrospray ionisation in the selected-reaction-monitoring mode. Exceptional chromatographic separation is achieved using an UPLC system equipped with a UPLC(®) BEH C18 column (10 cm L×2.1 mm ID with 1.7 ?m particles). With this newly developed UPLC/MS/MS method, the simultaneous detection of 140 drugs at ppb to sub-ppb levels in equine urine can be achieved in less than 13 min inclusive of post-run equilibration. Matrix interference for the selected transitions at the expected retention times is minimised by the excellent UPLC chromatographic separation. The method has been validated for recovery and precision, and is being used regularly in the authors' laboratory as an important component of the array of screening methods for doping control analyses of equine urine samples. PMID:21641418

Wong, Colton H F; Tang, Francis P W; Wan, Terence S M

2011-07-01

37

A Laboratory Experiment in Pharmaceutical Analysis: Determination of Drugs of Abuse in Human Urine by Thin-Layer Chromatography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An experiment is described that was developed for a course in Inorganic and Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry at Rutgers University to provide pharmacy students with practical experience in the thin-layer chromatography used for the analysis of urine to monitor patient compliance with drug abuse treatment programs. (JMD)

Bailey, Leonard C.

1979-01-01

38

Analysis on the Go: Quantitation of Drugs of Abuse in Dried Urine with Digital Microfluidics and Miniature Mass Spectrometry  

E-print Network

Analysis on the Go: Quantitation of Drugs of Abuse in Dried Urine with Digital Microfluidics emitters for analysis. Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) detection was per- formed using a fully autonomous four samples in less than 15 min from (dried) sample to analysis. The figures of merit for the new

Zandstra, Peter W.

39

Describing Prescription Opioid Adherence among Individuals with Chronic Pain using Urine Drug Testing.  

PubMed

Adherence monitoring for prescription opioid use is a clinical imperative for individuals prescribed opioids for chronic pain. Urine drug testing (UDT) provides objective evidence for prescription opioid adherence, as recommended by national guidelines to be part of adherence monitoring. The aim of this study was to describe prescription opioid adherence using UDT results in chronic pain patients and to examine the association between demographic characteristics and adherence to their prescribed opiate regimens. We used a retrospective chart review of 120 consecutive patients at an urban pain management clinic. Data collected included UDT results, pain level, and demographic characteristics. Descriptive and correlational statistics were used for data analysis. About 54% of the individuals appeared nonadherent to their prescribed opiate regimen as defined by absence or inappropriate level of prescribed controlled medication, presence of additional nonprescribed controlled substance(s), presence of illicit substance(s), or presence of adulterant in the urine sample. Of the participants, 23% had absence of one or more of their prescribed controlled medications and 12.5% had presence of one or more other opioids. Marijuana was the main illicit substance used (24.2%), followed by cocaine (11.7%). Patients' age, pain level, sex, ethnicity, and injury compensation were not associated with UDT results. UDT results could be useful to educate and guide patients on the proper use of controlled medications. Results from UDT are highly contextual and easily misinterpreted, requiring comparison with a variety of clinical indicators over time before deciding if there is adherence to a prescribed opiate regimen for individuals with chronic pain. PMID:24939349

Matteliano, Deborah; Chang, Yu-Ping

2015-02-01

40

Development and validation of a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) procedure for screening of urine specimens for 100 analytes relevant in drug-facilitated crime (DFC).  

PubMed

In recent years, drug-facilitated crime (DFC) has become an increasing problem. A minimum list of 80 analytes to be monitored in such cases has been proposed by the Society of Forensic Toxicologists (SOFT) including the recommended minimum performance limits (RMPL). In the present study, two liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry-based screening procedures, one in positive (method I) and one in negative (method II) electrospray ionization mode were developed and validated. Gradient elution was performed on a ZORBAX Eclipse XDB-C18 column after protein precipitation of the urine samples. Detection was carried out in the scheduled multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode monitoring two transitions per compound. A total of 100 analytes (91 basic in method I and nine acidic in method II) could be identified using the described procedure. No interferences were observed in 30 tested blank urine samples. The RMPLs were achieved for all analytes and ranged from 1 ng/mL for fentanyl to 10 ?g/mL for ?-hydroxybutyrate (GHB). Matrix effects (ME) were evaluated using the same 30 urine samples and ranged from -90 % for tetrazepam to >6,000 % for the 11-nor-9-carboxy-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH). The relative standard deviations of ME were below 25 % for the vast majority of analytes. Results for urine specimens from nine authentic DFC cases were always negative with exception of drugs prescribed to the victims. Reanalysis with the developed procedure of 24 urine samples, with a positive screening result during routine clinical toxicology analysis, confirmed the routine findings. In an excretion study after a single oral doxylamine dose (30 mg), the parent drug and its nor metabolite could be detected in urine specimens from a young female volunteer for 10 days. The developed procedure allows a selective and sensitive screening of urine samples for almost all recommended analytes relevant in DFC cases. PMID:24817357

Remane, Daniela; Wetzel, Diana; Peters, Frank T

2014-07-01

41

Evaluation of a rapid method for the therapeutic drug monitoring of aliskiren, enalapril and its active metabolite in plasma and urine by UHPLC-MS/MS.  

PubMed

Given the increasing popularity of aliskiren, particularly in combination with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (e.g. enalapril), it is important to determine whether its use in combination with these agents is associated with potentially life threatening safety events. Analytical methods for the simultaneous determination of both drugs in plasma and urine utilized in clinical studies on efficacy and safety have not been fully described in the literature. In this work, a new, fast and reliable method using a digitally controlled microextraction by packed sorbent (eVol(®)-MEPS) followed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) was developed and validated to quantify an aliskiren, enalapril and its active metabolite in both human plasma and urine. Chromatographic separation was accomplished on a Poroshell 120 EC-C18 column with a gradient elution system consisting of 0.1% formic acid in water and acetonitrile (1.5min of total analysis). Detection was performed by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode using electrospray ionization in the positive ion mode. This assay method has been fully validated in terms of selectivity, linearity, accuracy, precision, stability, recovery and matrix effect. The developed method can be applied to the routine determination of selected compounds in human plasma and urine and can be useful to elucidate the mechanisms of the potential risks triggered by the combination of aliskiren and enalapril as well as its active metabolite enalaprilat. PMID:25589258

Magiera, Sylwia; Kusa, Jacek

2015-02-01

42

Estimated amount of 24-hour urine sodium excretion is positively correlated with stomach and breast cancer prevalence in Korea.  

PubMed

Stomach cancer is one of the most common cancers in Korea. The aim of this study was to identify the association between the prevalence of cancer, particularly stomach cancer, and the amount of 24-hr urine sodium excretion estimated from spot urine specimens. The study included 19,083 subjects who took part in the Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey between 2009 and 2011. The total amount of urine sodium excreted in a 24-hr period was estimated by using two equations based on the values for spot urine sodium and creatinine. In subjects who had an estimated 24-hr urine sodium excretion of more than two standard deviations above the mean (group 2), the prevalence of stomach cancer was higher than in subjects with lower 24-hr sodium excretion (group 1). By using the Tanaka equation to estimate it, the prevalence of stomach cancer was 0.6% (114/18,331) in group 1, whereas it was 1.6% (9/568) in group 2 (P=0.006). By using the Korean equation, the prevalence was 0.6% (115/18,392) in group 1, and 1.6% in group 2 (8/507) (P=0.010). By using the Tanaka equation, breast cancer in women is more prevalent in group 2 (1.9%, 6/324) than group 1 (0.8%, 78/9,985, P=0.039). Higher salt intake, as defined by the estimated amount of 24-hr urine sodium excretion, is positively correlated with a higher prevalence of stomach or breast cancer in the Korean population. PMID:25317017

Park, Jung Hwan; Kim, Yong Chul; Koo, Ho Seok; Oh, Se Won; Kim, Suhnggwon; Chin, Ho Jun

2014-09-01

43

Analysis on the go: quantitation of drugs of abuse in dried urine with digital microfluidics and miniature mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

We report the development of a method coupling microfluidics and a miniature mass spectrometer, applied to quantitation of drugs of abuse in urine. A custom digital microfluidic system was designed to deliver droplets of solvent to dried urine samples and then transport extracted analytes to an array of nanoelectrospray emitters for analysis. Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) detection was performed using a fully autonomous 25 kg instrument. Using the new method, cocaine, benzoylecgonine, and codeine can be quantified from four samples in less than 15 min from (dried) sample to analysis. The figures of merit for the new method suggest that it is suitable for on-site screening; for example, the limit of quantitation (LOQ) for cocaine is 40 ng/mL, which is compatible with the performance criteria for laboratory analyses established by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. More importantly, the LOQ of the new method is superior to the 300 ng/mL cutoff values used by the only other portable analysis systems we are aware of (relying on immunoassays). This work serves as a proof-of-concept for integration of microfluidics with miniature mass spectrometry. The system is attractive for the quantitation of drugs of abuse from urine and, more generally, may be useful for a wide range of applications that would benefit from portable, quantitative, on-site analysis. PMID:24906177

Kirby, Andrea E; Lafrenière, Nelson M; Seale, Brendon; Hendricks, Paul I; Cooks, R Graham; Wheeler, Aaron R

2014-06-17

44

Chromosomal and plasmid encoded drug resistances of a Klebsiella pneumoniae UTI 2 strain isolated from urine of a post-operative patient  

Microsoft Academic Search

The multi drug resistance Klebsiella pneumoniae in urinary tract infection is a common clinical problem in developing country like India. Use of random antibiotics, resulting\\u000a multi drug resistance development, creates difficulties for treatment. In our present study, we investigated a strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae UTI 2 with multiple drug resistance, which was isolated from urine of a post operative woman

Soumik Barman; Dipak Kumar Hens; Hemanta Koley; Swapan Kumar Niyogi; Ranajit Kumar

2008-01-01

45

Pseudo-Outbreak of Extremely Drug-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa Urinary Tract Infections Due to Contamination of an Automated Urine Analyzer  

PubMed Central

By the end of May 2010, an increase in the number of urine specimens that were culture positive for extremely drug-resistant (XDR) Pseudomonas aeruginosa was observed in our 800-bed university hospital. This led to an infection control alert. No epidemiological link between the patients and no increase in the frequency of XDR P. aeruginosa in non-urine samples were observed. Therefore, a pseudo-outbreak due to analytical contamination in the laboratory was rapidly suspected. A prospective and retrospective search of cases was initiated, and the sampling of the automated urine analyzers used in the laboratory was performed. Antibiotypes were determined by disc diffusion, and genotypes were determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). From February to July 2010, 17 patients admitted to 12 different departments and 6 outpatients were included. The mixing device of the cytometric analyzer used for the numeration of urinary particles (Sysmex UF1000i) proved to be heavily contaminated. Isolates recovered from 12 patients belonged to the same antibiotype and PFGE type as the isolate recovered from the analyzer. Extensive disinfection with a broad-spectrum disinfectant and the replacement of the entire tubing was necessary to achieve the complete negativity of culture samples taken from the analyzer. A pseudo-outbreak caused by an XDR P. aeruginosa clone was proven to be due to the contamination of the cytometric analyzer for urinary sediment. Users of such analyzers should be aware that contamination can occur and should always perform culture either before the processing of the urine sample on the analyzer or on a distinct sample tube. PMID:22219304

Deplano, A.; Roisin, S.; Boyart, V.; De Ryck, R.; Nonhoff, C.; Byl, B.; Glupczynski, Y.; Denis, O.

2012-01-01

46

Analysis of therapeutic and commonly abused drugs in serum and urine by gas-liquid chromatography using a photoionization detector.  

PubMed

A simple, rapid and sensitive gas chromatographic procedure using the photoionization detector (PID) was developed for the detection and quantitation of several drugs in serum and urine. In order to evaluate the performance of the PID, the results were compared with those of the flame-ionization detector (FID). The data indicate that the PID is 8-16 times more sensitive than the FID for the drugs studied in the barbiturate group. Excellent reproducibility was found for samples quantitated with the PID on a routine basis. The PID and FID produced statistically similar results on extracted serum samples. The correlation coefficient was 0.99. The PID also produced chromatograms with less background than those obtained with the FID for many extracted serum samples. The advantages of the PID for drug analysis in biological fluids include simplicity of operation, lack of solvent response, universal drug response, non-destructive character and stability. PMID:44717

Jaramillo, L F; Driscoll, J N

1979-12-30

47

On the metabolism of the amphetamine-derived antispasmodic drug mebeverine: gas chromatography-mass spectrometry studies on rat liver microsomes and on human urine.  

PubMed

We describe gas chromatography-mass spectrometry studies of the metabolism of the antispasmodic drug mebeverine [Duspatal, (MB)]. MB is the veratric acid (VA) ester of 4-¿ethyl-[2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-1-methylethyl]amino¿butan-1-ol (MB-OH), which is an N-substituted ethylamphetamine derivative. The metabolites were first identified in rat liver microsome incubates and then detected in urine samples of volunteers through the use of electron impact and positive chemical ionization gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Urinary conjugates were enzymatically cleaved before analysis. The following phase I metabolites of MB could be identified: VA, O-demethyl VA (vanillic and/or isovanillic acid), O-bisdemethyl VA (protocatechuic acid), MB-OH, hydroxy MB-OH, O-demethyl MB-OH, O-demethyl-hydroxy MB-OH, N-desethyl MB-OH, N-desethyl-O-demethyl MB-OH, N-de(hydroxybutyl) MB-OH (methoxy-ethylamphetamine), N-de(hydroxybutyl)-O-demethyl MB-OH (hydroxy-ethylamphetamine), and N-bisdealkyl MB-OH (p-methoxy-amphetamine, known as the designer drug PMA). The following, partly overlapping metabolic pathways of MB could be postulated: ester hydrolysis, O-demethylation, ring hydroxylation, N-deethylation, and N-de(hydroxybutylation). The latter pathway led to ethylamphetamine derivatives and bisdealkylation led to PMA, which are substances of forensic interest. The metabolites containing alcoholic or phenolic hydroxy groups were partly excreted into urine as conjugates. PMID:10681380

Kraemer, T; Bickeboeller-Friedrich, J; Maurer, H H

2000-03-01

48

Laboratory Evaluation of Urine Culture and Drug Resistance in Childern Clinically Suspected of Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urine specimens from 6656 children clinically suspected of urinary tract infection were evaluated bacteriologically. Bacterial colony count of over (103) colony forning units CFU\\/ ml were found in 480 (7.2%) of total cases, with 342 (71.25%) girls and 138 (28.75%) boys. Bacterial etiology of positive culture were determind. Escherichia coli was the most frequent etiologic agent (75.62%) followed by klebsiella

F Vaezzadeh; MK Sharifi-Yazdi

2001-01-01

49

The Sociological and Mathematical Implications of Mandatory Urine Tests for Drug Use in the Work Force.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mandatory drug testing of workers will create problems due to the low predictive ability of urinalysis. The predictive value of drug testing in populations of low drug incidence is illustrated using Bayes' Theorem. (MT)

Campbell, Janell; Campbell, Richard

1987-01-01

50

Immunoassay detection of drugs in racing horses. IX. Detection of detomidine in equine blood and urine by radioimmunoassay  

SciTech Connect

Detomidine is a potent non-narcotic sedative agent which is currently in the process of being approved for veterinary clinical use in the United States. Since no effective screening method in horses is available for detomidine, we have developed an /sup 125/I radioimmunoassay for detomidine in equine blood and urine as part of a panel of tests for illegal drugs in performance horses. Our /sup 125/I radioimmunoassay has an I-50 for detomidine of approximately 2 ng/ml. Our assay shows limited cross-reactivity with the pharmacodynamically similar xylazine, but does not cross-react with acepromazine, epinephrine, haloperidol or promazine. The plasma kinetic data from clinical (greater than or equal to 5 mg/horse) as well as sub-clinical doses indicate first-order elimination in a dose-dependent manner. Within the first 30 minutes after intravenous (IV) administration of 30 mg/horse, plasma levels peak at approximately 20 ng/ml and then decline with an apparent plasma half-life of 25 minutes. Diuresis can occur with administration of clinical doses of detomidine and this effect was accounted for in the analysis of urine samples. Using this method, administration of 30 mg/horse can be readily detected in equine urine for up to 8 hours after IV injection. Additionally, doses as low as 0.5 mg/horse can be detected for short periods of time in blood and urine with use of this assay. Utilization of this assay by research scientists and forensic analysts will allow for the establishment of proper guidelines and controls regarding detomidine administration to performance horses and assurance of compliance with these guidelines.

Wood, T.; Tai, C.L.; Taylor, D.G.; Woods, W.E.; Wang, C.J.; Houtz, P.K.; Tai, H.H.; Weckman, T.J.; Yang, J.M.; Sturma, L.

1989-02-01

51

Interpreting tricyclic antidepressant measurements in urine in an emergency department setting: comparison of two qualitative point-of-care urine tricyclic antidepressant drug immunoassays with quantitative serum chromatographic analysis.  

PubMed

Patients taking tricyclic antidepressants (TCA) can experience toxicity or severe side effects. As a rapid and less technically demanding alternative to quantitative serum analysis, most laboratories offer qualitative immunoassays to assist in the evaluation of a suspected TCA overdose. However, the relationship between quantitative serum and qualitative urine levels of TCA-related compounds and their metabolites has not been comprehensively studied. Serum high-performance liquid chromatography results were compared to the qualitative urine results using the Syva Rapid Test and the Biosite Triage. Serum concentrations of amitriptyline, desipramine, doxepin, imipramine, and nortriptyline ranging from subtherapeutic to toxic triggered a positive response on both urine immunoassay devices. On the other hand, neither immunoassay uniformly detected clomipramine, even at serum levels greater than the therapeutic range. False positives due to cyclobenzaprine were more common with the Biosite assay. For virtually all positive urine TCA findings, it was not possible to determine whether the positive results corresponded to subtherapeutic, therapeutic, supratherapeutic, or toxic serum concentrations. Because urine immunoassays are the only option for many laboratories analyzing specimens for TCAs (especially in an emergency setting), clinicians must understand the limitations and interpret results in conjunction with clinical findings and/or quantitation of serum levels. PMID:17579971

Melanson, Stacy E F; Lewandrowski, Elizabeth Lee; Griggs, David A; Flood, James G

2007-06-01

52

Simultaneous determination of 12 illicit drugs in whole blood and urine by solid phase extraction and UPLC-MS/MS.  

PubMed

A rapid and sensitive method based on solid phase extraction and ultra performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-MS/MS) for the simultaneous determination of amphetamine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine, 3,4-methylene-dioxymethamphetamine, N-methyl-1-(3,4-methyl-enedioxyphenyl)-2-butanamine, 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine, p-methoxymethamphetamine, ephedrine, N-methylephedrine, cathinone, methcathinone, and ketamine in whole blood and urine was developed and validated. Following solid phase extraction, the analytes were separated on ACQUITY UPLC BEH Phenyl column (100mm×2.1mm, 1.7?m) under gradient elution using a mobile phase containing of acetonitrile and 0.3% formic acid in water at a flow rate of 0.4mLmin(-1) and analyzed by a triplequadrupole mass spectrometer in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The proposed method was linear for each analyte with correlation coefficients over 0.99. Recovery validation studies showed accuracy bias below 4.4%. Acceptable precision was also obtained with a relative standard deviation below 8.9%. The sensitivity of the assay was found to be adequate for the quantitation of the illicit drugs in whole blood and urine sample and was higher than reported methods. The present method was proved to be reliable and robust for drug screening in forensic toxicological analysis. PMID:24631805

Zhang, Lin; Wang, Zhao-Hong; Li, Hong; Liu, Yong; Zhao, Meng; Jiang, Ye; Zhao, Wen-Song

2014-04-01

53

Urine Testing for Drugs of Abuse. NIDA Research Monograph Series 73.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the past 5 years, a growing concern over the use of illicit drugs in the workplace has led to an interest in urinalysis as a way to detect and deter drug use. This monograph provides information that will assist those involved in the planning or implementation of drug testing programs in making informed choices. Articles include: (1)…

Hawks, Richard L., Ed.; Chiang, C. Nora, Ed.

54

Development and validation of an HPLC method for the simultaneous analysis of 23 selected drugs belonging to different therapeutic groups in human urine samples.  

PubMed

We have developed and validated a new and reliable gradient reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method with a diode array detector (DAD) for the simultaneous separation and determination of 23 frequently prescribed selected drugs belonging to different therapeutic groups in human urine samples. For the drugs listed below, this method of analysis for human urine was also successfully applied to determine urine concentrations of these drugs in samples from treated patients: enalapril (ENA), paracetamol (PAR), sotalol (SOT), dipyrone (DIP), vancomycin (VAN), captopril (CAP), fluconazole (FLU), cefazolin (CEF), metoprolol (MET), aspirin (ASP), ticlopidine (TIC), prednisolone (PRE), propranolol (PRO), digoxin (DIG), sildenafil (SIL), furosemide (FUR), dexamethasone (DEX), carvedilol (CAR), ketoprofen (KET), nifedipine (NIF), terbinafine (TER), acenocoumarol (ACE) and spironolactone (SPI). Separation of the analytes was achieved by RP-HPLC-DAD with a mobile phase composed of acetonitrile, methanol and 0.05% trifluoroacetic acid in water using a gradient elution program. Good linear relationships over the investigated concentration ranges were observed with values of r2 higher than 0.998 for all of the drugs. The intra-day and inter-day precisions of this method were evaluated with RSD values less than 4.26 and 5.42%, respectively. The relative recoveries of the 23 investigated compounds ranged from 93.60 to 106.00% with RSD values less than 4.46%. An expanded uncertainty budget was constructed for all investigated drugs in human urine samples. PMID:19907087

Baranowska, Irena; Markowski, Piotr; Baranowski, Jacek

2009-11-01

55

On beyond urine: clinically useful assesment instruments in the treatment of drug dependence  

PubMed Central

Although there are a wealth of clinically useful, brief, and low-cost assessment instruments available for use with drug-dependent populations, relatively few are broadly used in clinical practice. With an emphasis on: (1) the multidimensional nature of drug users’ problems; and (2) assessments that can be integrated into empirically validated treatments, clinically useful assessments in four general categories (evaluation and diagnosis of drug dependence, identifying concurrent disorders and problems, treatment planning, and evaluation of treatment outcome) are briefly summarized. Progress in the field of drug abuse treatment has been significantly hampered by the failure to adopt, across research and clinical settings, a common set of assessments. PMID:12384328

Carroll, K.M.; Rounsaville, B.J.

2013-01-01

56

LC-(TOF) MS analysis of benzodiazepines in urine from alleged victims of drug-facilitated sexual assault.  

PubMed

The present study employs a recently reported liquid chromatography-(time of flight) mass spectrometry procedure for the simultaneous analysis of 22 benzodiazepines in human urine specimens. The analysis focused on the most commonly prescribed benzodiazepines and/or their metabolites. Using this method, the limit of quantitation for the benzodiazepines tested ranged from 2 to 10 ng/mL, while the limit of detection range was 0.5 to 3.0 ng/mL. Urine specimens collected from alleged victims of drug-facilitated sexual assault (156 specimens) were tested. Only 19 out of the 22 benzodiazepines analyzed were detected in these specimens. These same specimens were previously screened for benzodiazepines by various immunoassay techniques using a 50 ng/mL cut-off level and confirmed by a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method after acid hydrolysis to their benzophenone skeletons, thus making the identification of the specific benzodiazepine(s) involved impossible for most specimens. This study aims to offer an alternative methodology that would allow such identification for similar specimens. Additionally, the distribution of the individual benzodiazepines of interest among the 156 specimens as well as their prevalence in specimens originating in different U.S. states is presented. PMID:17988465

ElSohly, Mahmoud A; Gul, Waseem; Murphy, Timothy P; Avula, Bharathi; Khan, Ikhlas A

2007-10-01

57

Solid-phase dispersive extraction method for analysis of benzodiazepine drugs in serum and urine samples.  

PubMed

A simple yet highly efficient pretreatment method called solid-phase dispersive extraction (SPDE) was developed and used in combination with liquid chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC/TOF-MS) for the analysis of benzodiazepines (BZPs) in serum and urine samples. By using a custom-made centrifugal filter, SPDE could be performed in a closed system, thereby minimizing exposure to infectious microbes or hazardous chemicals. The limit of detection and the limit of quantification of nine BZPs were 1-10 and 5-50ng/mL, respectively. The average recoveries of BZPs from pooled serum samples spiked at 50 and 500ng/mL were 89.6-105.0% (RSD: 2.1-6.8%) and 93.6-110.4% (RSD: 2.1-4.2%), respectively, and those from urine samples were 88.7-105.5% (RSD: 2.9-6.4%) and 91.5-101.1% (RSD: 3.6-5.5%), respectively. SPDE-LC/TOF-MS has potential application in forensic science and emergency medicine. PMID:25126966

Saito, Koichi; Kikuchi, Yuu; Saito, Rieko

2014-11-01

58

Methods for urine drug testing using one-step dilution and direct injection in combination with LC-MS/MS and LC-HRMS.  

PubMed

The advent of LC combined with MS made it possible to design analytical methods for urine drug testing based on the very simple concept of diluting urine with an internal standard as the sole preparation procedure prior to instrumental analysis. The number of publications using this method design increased after the development of high-efficiency LC based on sub-2 ?m particles. The success of this method design for drug testing, doping control and toxicological investigations of urine is now well documented and comprise both screening and confirmation methods. The nondiscriminating nature of this method design makes it even more attractive in combination with high-resolution MS for multicomponent target and general unknown analysis applications. PMID:25383734

Beck, Olof; Ericsson, Magnus

2014-08-01

59

Quantitative urine confirmatory testing for synthetic cannabinoids in randomly collected urine specimens.  

PubMed

Synthetic cannabinoid intake is an ongoing health issue worldwide, with new compounds continually emerging, making drug testing complex. Parent synthetic cannabinoids are rarely detected in urine, the most common matrix employed in workplace drug testing. Optimal identification of synthetic cannabinoid markers in authentic urine specimens and correlation of metabolite concentrations and toxicities would improve synthetic cannabinoid result interpretation. We screened 20?017 randomly collected US military urine specimens between July 2011 and June 2012 with a synthetic cannabinoid immunoassay yielding 1432 presumptive positive specimens. We analyzed all presumptive positive and 1069 negative specimens with our qualitative synthetic cannabinoid liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method, which confirmed 290 positive specimens. All 290 positive and 487 randomly selected negative specimens were quantified with the most comprehensive urine quantitative LC-MS/MS method published to date; 290 specimens confirmed positive for 22 metabolites from 11 parent synthetic cannabinoids. The five most predominant metabolites were JWH-018 pentanoic acid (93%), JWH-N-hydroxypentyl (84%), AM2201 N-hydroxypentyl (69%), JWH-073 butanoic acid (69%), and JWH-122?N-hydroxypentyl (45%) with 11.1 (0.1-2,434), 5.1 (0.1-1,239), 2.0 (0.1-321), 1.1 (0.1-48.6), and 1.1 (0.1-250) µg/L median (range) concentrations, respectively. Alkyl hydroxy and carboxy metabolites provided suitable biomarkers for 11 parent synthetic cannabinoids; although hydroxyindoles were also observed. This is by far the largest data set of synthetic cannabinoid metabolites urine concentrations from randomly collected workplace drug testing specimens rather than acute intoxications or driving under the influence of drugs. These data improve the interpretation of synthetic cannabinoid urine test results and suggest suitable urine markers of synthetic cannabinoid intake. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. PMID:25231213

Castaneto, Marisol S; Scheidweiler, Karl B; Gandhi, Adarsh; Wohlfarth, Ariane; Klette, Kevin L; Martin, Thomas M; Huestis, Marilyn A

2014-09-17

60

Examining the Relationship between Gender and Drug-Using Behaviors in Adolescents: The Use of Diagnostic Assessments and Biochemical Analyses of Urine Samples.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the relationship between gender and drug use among adolescents using diagnostic assessments and biochemical analyses of urine samples. Statistical significance was found in the relationship between gender and marijuana use. The study confirms that more research is needed in this area. (Author/MKA)

James, William H.; Moore, David D.

1999-01-01

61

Urinating Standing versus Sitting: Position Is of Influence in Men with Prostate Enlargement. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background It is suggested that the body posture during urination can influence urodynamic parameters in patients with Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms (LUTS) to an extent approaching pharmacological interventions. In this article, the influence of body position during micturition on maximum urinary flow rate (Qmax), voiding time (TQ) and post-void residual volume (PVR) in healthy males and patients with LUTS is analyzed by means of a systematic review and meta-analysis. Evidence Acquisition A systematic search was conducted in 14 medical databases. Studies comparing urodynamic parameters in standing versus sitting position were eligible for inclusion. Studies were stratified according to health status of included male participants: healthy individuals and patients with LUTS. Standardized mean differences for Qmax, TQ and PVR were pooled in a random effects model. Results Eleven articles were included. In men with LUTS, a significantly lower PVR (?24.96 ml; 95%CI ?48.70 to ?1.23) was shown in sitting position compared to standing. In accordance, Qmax was increased (1.23 ml/s; 95%CI ?1.02 to 3.48), and TQ was decreased (?0.62 s; 95%CI ?1.66 to 0.42) in sitting position, although these differences did not reach statistical significance. In healthy men, Qmax (0.18 ml/s; 95% CI ?1.67 to 2.02), TQ (0.49 s; 95%CI ?3.30 to 4.27) and PVR (0.43 ml; 95%CI ?0.79 to 1,65) were similar in sitting and standing position. Conclusion For healthy men, no difference is found in any of the urodynamic parameters. In patients with LUTS, the sitting position is linked with an improved urodynamic profile. PMID:25051345

Lycklama à Nijeholt, Augustinus Aizo Beent; Dekkers, Olaf Matthijs

2014-01-01

62

Large volume sample stacking for rapid and sensitive determination of antidiabetic drug metformin in human urine and serum by capillary electrophoresis with contactless conductivity detection.  

PubMed

Two CE methods with contactless conductivity detection have been developed for determining the oral antidiabetic drug metformin in human urine and blood. The determination of metformin is performed on a separation capillary with an effective length of 14 cm, using a maximum voltage of 30 kV and with a small injection of 50-fold diluted urine into the capillary. Under these conditions, the migration time of metformin is 35s and the LOD is 0.3 ?M. Large-volume sample stacking was used to determine low metformin levels in serum. The injection of a sample of serum deproteinized with acetonitrile was 10 times greater compared to the injected amount of urine. This enabled reduction of the LOD to 0.03 ?M and the metformin migration time equalled 86 s. The undesirable solvent from sample zone was forced out of the capillary to ensure rapidity and good repeatability of the determination. The RSD values for the migration time are 0.1% for urine and 0.7% for serum; RSD for the peak areas equalled 1.4% for urine and 2.6% for serum. The developed CE technique was tested on performance of routine analyses of metformin in the urine and serum of patients suffering from type II diabetes mellitus. PMID:24792694

T?ma, Petr

2014-06-01

63

Automated headspace solid-phase microextraction and in-matrix derivatization for the determination of amphetamine-related drugs in human urine by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

An automated extraction and determination method for the gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry (MS) analysis of amphetamine-related drugs in human urine is developed using headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and in-matrix derivatization. A urine sample (0.5 mL, potassium carbonate (5 M, 1.0 mL), sodium chloride (0.5 g), and ethylchloroformate (20 microL) are put in a sample vial. Amphetamine-related drugs are converted to ethylformate derivatives (carbamates) in the vial because amphetamine-related drugs in urine are quickly reacted with ethylchloroformate. An SPME fiber is then exposed at 80 degrees C for 15 min in the headspace of the vial. The extracted derivatives to the fiber are desorbed by exposing the fiber in the injection port of a GC-MS. The calibration curves show linearity in the range of 1.0 to 1000 ng/mL for methamphetamine, fenfluramine, and methylenedioxymethamphetamine; 2.0 to 1000 ng/mL for amphetamine and phentermine; 5.0 to 1000 ng/mL for methylenedioxyamphetamine; 10 to 1000 ng/mL for phenethylamine; and 50 to 1000 ng/mL for 4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenethylamine in urine. No interferences are found, and the time for analysis is 30 min for one sample. Furthermore, this proposed method is applied to some clinical and medico-legal cases by taking methamphetamine. Methamphetamine and its metabolite amphetamine are detected in the urine samples collected from the patients involved in the clinical cases. Methamphetamine, amphetamine, and phenethylamine are detected in the urine sample collected from the victim of a medico-legal case. PMID:11866382

Namera, Akira; Yashiki, Mikio; Kojima, Tohru; Ueki, Makoto

2002-01-01

64

A capillary zone electrophoretic method for simultaneous determination of seven drugs in pharmaceuticals and in human urine.  

PubMed

A simple, sensitive, and novel method has been developed and validated for the separation and simultaneous quantitation of seven structurally different drugs-pipemidic acid and ofloxacin quinolone antibiotics, pseudoephedrine decongestant, piroxicam anti-inflammatory, thiamin, pyridoxine, and cobalamin-in a mixture by capillary zone electrophoresis. Factors affecting the separation were pH, concentration of buffer, and applied voltage. Separation was carried out in < 9 min with a 50 mM sodium tetraborate buffer, pH 10, and an applied voltage of 30 kV in an uncoated silica capillary tube. The carrier electrolyte gave baseline separation with good resolution, reproducibility, and accuracy. Calibration plots were linear over at least three orders of magnitude of analyte concentrations, and the lower LODs were within the range of 1-5 microg/mL. Detection was performed by UV absorbance at 230 nm. The method was validated for the analysis of drugs in pharmaceutical preparations and in urine samples with RSD of 0.5-2.4% and recovery of > 99%. PMID:19916376

Solangi, Amber R; Bhanger, Muhammad I; Memon, Saima Q; Khuhawar, Muhammad Y; Mallah, Arfana

2009-01-01

65

Urine odor  

MedlinePLUS

Urine odor refers to the smell from your urine. Urine odor varies. Most of the time, urine does not ... Most changes in urine odor are not a sign of disease and go away in time. Some foods and medicines, including vitamins, may affect your ...

66

10 CFR 26.113 - Splitting the urine specimen.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...the remaining urine into Bottle...laboratory for drug and validity testing; and (3...splitting of the urine specimen and...for additional drugs, as permitted...if sufficient urine is available for this testing after the...

2010-01-01

67

Rapid screening of drugs of abuse in human urine by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with high resolution and high mass accuracy hybrid linear ion trap-Orbitrap mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A novel analytical toxicology method has been developed for the analysis of drugs of abuse in human urine by using a high resolution and high mass accuracy hybrid linear ion trap-Orbitrap mass spectrometer (LTQ-Orbitrap-MS). This method allows for the detection of different drugs of abuse, including amphetamines, cocaine, opiate alkaloids, cannabinoids, hallucinogens and their metabolites. After solid-phase extraction with Oasis HLB cartridges, spiked urine samples were analysed by HPLC/LTQ-Orbitrap-MS using an electrospray interface in positive ionisation mode, with resolving power of 30,000 full width at half maximum (FWHM). Gradient elution off of a Hypersil Gold PFP column (50mm×2.1mm) allowed to resolve 65 target compounds and 3 internal standards in a total chromatographic run time of 20min. Validation of this method consisted of confirmation of identity, selectivity, linearity, limit of detection (LOD), lowest limits of quantification (LLOQ), accuracy, precision, extraction recovery and matrix effect. The regression coefficients (r(2)) for the calibration curves (LLOQ - 100ng/mL) in the study were ?0.99. The LODs for 65 validated compounds were better than 5ng/ml except for 4 compounds. The relative standard deviation (RSD), which was used to estimate repeatability at three concentrations, was always less than 15%. The recovery of extraction and matrix effects were above 50 and 70%, respectively. Mass accuracy was always better than 2ppm, corresponding to a maximum mass error of 0.8 millimass units (mmu). The accurate masses of characteristic fragments were obtained by collisional experiments for a more reliable identification of the analytes. Automated data analysis and reporting were performed using ToxID software with an exact mass database. This procedure was then successfully applied to analyse drugs of abuse in a real urine sample from subject who was assumed to be drug addict. PMID:23838299

Li, Xiaowen; Shen, Baohua; Jiang, Zheng; Huang, Yi; Zhuo, Xianyi

2013-08-01

68

Pholcodine interference in the immunoassay for opiates in urine.  

PubMed

The excretion in urine after single oral therapeutic doses of morphine derivatives was analysed with radioimmunoassay (RIA) and homogeneous enzyme immunoassay (EMIT) for opiates. In contrast to the rapid excretion of ethylmorphine and codeine, pholcodine showed positive results for opiates 2-6 weeks after intake when the urines were analysed with the RIA-method. When analysed with the EMIT-method, positive results were obtained for pholcodine for approximately 10 days. As pholcodine is a common component in cough mixtures, its prolonged excretion could represent a hazard in interpreting the results from drug analyses of urines. PMID:6347841

Svenneby, G; Wedege, E; Karlsen, R L

1983-01-01

69

Determination of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid in serum and urine by headspace solid-phase dynamic extraction combined with gas chromatography-positive chemical ionization mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid is an emerging drug of abuse. Beside relaxation and euphoria it causes hypnosis and unconsciousness. Therefore the substance is misused as recreational drug and at drug-facilitated sexual assaults. An automated and effortless method for quantitation of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid in serum and urine was optimized and validated. Five hundred microliters sample volume are used for both matrices. The acid catalyzed conversion of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid to the corresponding gamma-butyrolactone is applied. Furthermore the method is based on headspace solid-phase dynamic extraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The extraction process is performed by repeated aspiration and ejection of the headspace through a steel cannula which is coated on the inside with a polydimethylsiloxane sorbent. Thus absorption of analyte molecules by the sorbent is achieved. The influence of parameters as sorbent type, incubation temperature, number of extraction strokes, injection port temperature and injection flow speed on extraction recovery was investigated. The validation revealed good accuracy with a bias less than +/-5%. Intra- and interday precision determined at 10, 50 and 150 microg/ml for each matrix were in following ranges: 1.96-3.49% (intraday, serum), 2.38-4.31% (intraday, urine), 2.33-5.13% (interday, serum) and 2.53-5.64% (interday, urine). The method provided good linearity between 2 and 200 microg/ml yielding coefficients of determination R(2) > or = 0.9985. Limit of detection were determined at 0.16 microg/ml for serum and 0.17 microg/ml for urine, respectively. This method exhibits a fast, solvent-free and widely automated extraction process. It has been applied to toxicological routine analysis and therapeutic drug monitoring successfully. PMID:19327780

Lenz, Daniel; Kröner, Lars; Rothschild, Markus A

2009-05-01

70

Studies on the metabolism of mitragynine, the main alkaloid of the herbal drug Kratom, in rat and human urine using liquid chromatography-linear ion trap mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Mitragynine (MG) is an indole alkaloid of the Thai medicinal plant Mitragyna speciosa (Kratom in Thai) and reported to have opioid agonistic properties. Because of its stimulant and euphoric effects, Kratom is used as a herbal drug of abuse. The aim of the presented study is to identify the phase I and II metabolites of MG in rat and human urine after solid-phase extraction (SPE) using liquid chromatography-linear ion trap mass spectrometry providing detailed structure information in the MSn mode particularly with high resolution. The seven identified phase I metabolites indicated that MG was metabolized by hydrolysis of the methylester in position 16, O-demethylation of the 9-methoxy group and of the 17-methoxy group, followed, via the intermediate aldehydes, by oxidation to carboxylic acids or reduction to alcohols and combinations of some steps. In rats, four metabolites were additionally conjugated to glucuronides and one to sulfate, but in humans, three metabolites to glucuronides and three to sulfates. PMID:19536806

Philipp, Anika A; Wissenbach, Dirk K; Zoerntlein, Siegfried W; Klein, Oliver N; Kanogsunthornrat, Jidapha; Maurer, Hans H

2009-08-01

71

Use of liquid chromatography coupled to low- and high-resolution linear ion trap mass spectrometry for studying the metabolism of paynantheine, an alkaloid of the herbal drug Kratom in rat and human urine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Thai medicinal plant Mitragyna speciosa (Kratom in Thai) is misused as a herbal drug of abuse. During studies on the main Kratom alkaloid mitragynine (MG) in rats and humans, several dehydro analogs could be detected in urine of Kratom users, which were not found in rat urine after administration of pure MG. Questions arose as to whether these compounds

Anika A. Philipp; Dirk K. Wissenbach; Armin. A. Weber; Josef Zapp; Siegfried W. Zoerntlein; Jidapha Kanogsunthornrat; Hans H. Maurer

2010-01-01

72

A Case of Psychosis After Use of a Detoxification Kit and a Review of Techniques, Risks, and Regulations Associated With the Subversion of Urine Drug Tests  

PubMed Central

Context: The practice of drug testing in the workplace has been adopted for US federal government employees, and many state and local governments as well as private businesses have followed suit. However, a parallel industry dedicated to subverting the results of urine drug testing has emerged with little or no regulation. Evidence Acquisition: First, the case of a 19-year-old man who developed psychosis after the use of a detoxification kit is presented. Second, a review of the existing literature on the techniques, risks, and regulations associated with the use of drug tampering kits is provided. PubMed, Cochrane Database, and Google Scholar were searched using the keywords UDS, urine toxicology, pass the drug test, and clean UA, with no restrictions on publication date. Case reports, letters to the editor, and original research and review articles in multiple languages were reviewed, as were federal regulations and acts on the topic. The search yielded 4,082 results, of which 49 articles were selected for relevance. Some articles were later omitted as they had cited the original article and had nothing new to offer. Results: Three commonly used tampering techniques are in vivo adulteration, urine substitution, and in vitro adulteration. Review of the literature regarding the risks involved with use of tampering kits yielded no results. In 1986, an executive order was issued requiring all federal employees to refrain from illicit drug use, and the 1988 Drug-Free Workplace Act precipitated the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration guidelines and their subsequent revisions. Recently, many states have made regulatory efforts to bring drug test defrauding under the ambit of law. Conclusions: Clinicians need to be aware of the tampering techniques and the possibility of false-negative urine drug tests. Cognizance of inherent risks involved with using these techniques including psychiatric and/or medical complications is also warranted. The manufacture, sale, and use of these products have little or no regulation by state or federal authorities, making them potentially dangerous and imposing new challenges in testing for abused drugs. The extent of use of these products and techniques is not known at this time and is an area that warrants further research. PMID:22295274

Mittal, Moneeshindra Singh; Kalia, Rachna

2011-01-01

73

Utility of urine and serum lateral flow assays to determine the prevalence and predictors of cryptococcal antigenemia in HIV-positive outpatients beginning antiretroviral therapy in Mwanza, Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background Detection of subclinical cryptococcal disease using cryptococcal antigen screening among HIV-positive individuals presents a potential opportunity for prevention of both clinical disease and death if patients with detectable cryptococcal antigen are identified and treated pre-emptively. Recently developed point-of-care cryptococcal antigen tests may be useful for screening, particularly in resource-limiting settings, but few studies have assessed their utility. Methodology The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence and factors associated with cryptococcal antigenemia in HIV-positive patients with CD4+ T-cell counts ?200 cells/µL who were initiating ART, and also to evaluate the utility of the point-of-care urine lateral flow assay (LFA) cryptococcal antigen test using two different diluents, compared to gold standard serum antigen testing, as a screening tool. Urine and serum of outpatients initiating antiretroviral therapy at two hospitals in Mwanza were tested for cryptococcal antigen, and demographic and clinical characteristics were obtained using structured questionnaires and patients’ files. Patients with asymptomatic cryptococcal antigenemia received oral fluconazole in accordance with World Health Organization recommendations. Results Among 140 patients screened, 10 (7.1%) had asymptomatic cryptococcal antigenemia with a positive serum cryptococcal antigen. Four of these ten patients had CD4 counts between 100 and 200 cells/µL. The prevalence of cryptococcal antigen detected in urine using a standard (older) and a test (newer) diluent were 44 (31.4%) and 19 (13.6%), with Kappa coefficients compared to serum of 0.28 and 0.51 (p<0.001 for both). Compared to the new LFA diluent for urine cryptococcal antigen, the standard diluent had higher sensitivity (100% versus 80%) but lower specificity (74% versus 92%) using serum cryptococcal antigen as a gold standard. Conclusions Our findings suggest that HIV-positive outpatients with CD4 counts <200 cells/µL, rather than 100, should be screened for asymptomatic cryptococcal antigenemia given its association with mortality if untreated. Agreement of the urine LFA with the serum LFA was not sufficient to recommend routine screening with urine LFA. PMID:25109284

Magambo, Kinanga A; Kalluvya, Samuel E; Kapoor, Shikha W; Seni, Jeremiah; Chofle, Awilly A; Fitzgerald, Daniel W; Downs, Jennifer A

2014-01-01

74

Legal Position of School Personnel -- Drugs and Narcotics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

California educators have been given broad discretionary powers to control students who misuse drugs or narcotics, and to develop drug education programs. This paper outlines and discusses legislation dealing with disciplinary actions against drug offenders, and delineates school responsibilities for developing and implementing effective drug

Shannon, Thomas A.

75

Myoglobin - urine  

MedlinePLUS

... urine exits the body. Open a urine collection bag (a plastic bag with an adhesive paper on one end), and ... For boys, place the entire penis in the bag and attach the adhesive to the skin. For ...

76

Urine - bloody  

MedlinePLUS

... if you have a bleeding disorder. Causes from blood disorders include: Bleeding disorders (such as hemophilia ) Blood clot ... Tests for sickle cell, bleeding problems, and other blood disorders Urinalysis Urinary cytology Urine culture 24-hour urine ...

77

Determination of higenamine in human plasma and urine using liquid chromatography coupled to positive electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Higenamine is an active ingredient of Aconite root in Chinese herbal medicine and might be used as a new agent for a pharmaceutical stress test and was approved to undergo clinical pharmacokinetic study. Therefore, there exists a need to establish a sensitive and rapid method for the determination of higenamine in human plasma and urine. This paper described a sensitive

Sheng Feng; Pei Hu; Ji Jiang

2011-01-01

78

Is a positive history of non-anaesthetic drug allergy a predictive factor for positive allergy tests to anaesthetics?  

PubMed Central

AIMS International recommendations stipulate not performing screening skin tests to a drug in the absence of a clinical history consistent with that specific drug allergy. Nevertheless, two publications showed that a positive history of non-anaesthetic drug allergy was the only predictive factor for a positive skin test when screening for allergy to anaesthetic drugs was done. We selected from a surgical population 40 volunteers with a prior history of allergy to non-anaesthetic drugs in order to analyse the prevalence of positive allergy tests to anaesthetics. METHODS The selected adult patients were tested for 11 anaesthetic drugs using in vivo tests: skin prick (SPT) and intradermal (IDT) tests and in vitro tests: the basophil activation test (BAT) and detection of drug-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE). RESULTS The prevalence for the positive SPT and IDT was 1.6% and 5.8% respectively. The result of flow cytometry agreed with the SPT in five out of seven positive SPT (71%). IgEs confirmed two positive SPT with corresponding positive BAT. Ten per cent of the patients had a positive prick test to neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBA). For midazolam none of the SPT was positive, but 11 patients had positive IDT nonconfirmed by BAT. CONCLUSION The prevalence of positive in vivo and in vitro allergy tests to NMBAs is higher in our study population. This could be an argument for pre-operative SPT to NMBAs for the surgical population with reported non-anaesthetic drug allergies. A larger prospective study is needed to validate changes in clinical practice. PMID:21988224

Hagau, Natalia; Gherman-Ionica, Nadia; Hagau, Denisa; Tranca, Sebastian; Sfichi, Manuela; Longrois, Dan

2012-01-01

79

Analysis of ten abused drugs in urine by large volume sample stacking-sweeping capillary electrophoresis with an experimental design strategy.  

PubMed

A statistical tool equipped with Plackett-Burman design (PBD) and central composite design (CCD) was used for fast stacking analysis of ten frequently consumed drugs, namely codeine, morphine, methamphetamine, ketamine, alprazolam, clonazepam, diazepam, flunitrazepam, nitrazepam and oxazepam, by capillary electrophoresis (CE). This statistical design is expected to help quick analysis with few procedures, avoiding tedious work required because of the large number of variables or parameters. A large volume sample stacking (LVSS)-sweeping CE is developed for concentrating and analyzing the 10 abused drugs. First, phosphate buffer (50 mM, pH 2.3) containing methanol was filled into a capillary and then the extracted urine sample was loaded (1 psi, 200 s) to enhance sensitivity. The sweeping and separating steps were completed simultaneously by phosphate buffer (50 mM, pH 2.3) containing methanol and sodium dodecyl sulfate, within 15 min. Better resolution was obtained by the experimental design than the "one factor at a time" (OFAT) approach. During method validation, calibration plots were linear (r>0.998), over a range of 25-1500 ng/mL for the six benzodiazepines, methamphetamine and ketamine, and 50-3000 ng/mL for codeine and morphine. The RSD of precision and absolute RE of accuracy in intra-day and inter-day assays were below 14.54% and 16.61%, respectively. The minimum limits for detection (S/N=3) of analytes were in the range of 7.5-30 ng/mL. This stacking method increased sensitivity more than 200-fold and can be applied for detection of the presence of methamphetamine in an abuser's urine (3600 ng/mL), which was confirmed by GC-MS. The method is considered feasible for fast screening of abused drugs in urine. PMID:23683398

Ho, Yu-Hsiang; Wang, Chun-Chi; Hsiao, Yu-Tzu; Ko, Wei-Kung; Wu, Shou-Mei

2013-06-21

80

Sensitive monitoring of monoterpene metabolites in human urine using two-step derivatisation and positive chemical ionisation-tandem mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A gas chromatographic-positive chemical ionisation-tandem mass spectrometric (GC-PCI-MS/MS) method for the simultaneous determination of 10 oxidative metabolites of the monoterpenoid hydrocarbons ?-pinene, (R)-limonene, and ?(3)-carene ((+)-3-carene) in human urine was developed and tested for the monoterpene biomonitoring of the general population (n=36). The method involves enzymatic cleavage of the glucuronides followed by solid-supported liquid-liquid extraction and derivatisation using a two-step reaction with N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)-trifluoroacetamide and N-(trimethylsilyl)imidazole. The method proved to be both sensitive and reliable with detection limits ranging from 0.1 to 0.3 ?g L(-1). In contrast to the frequent and distinct quantities of (1S,2S,4R)-limonene-1,2-diol, the (1R,2R,4R)-stereoisomer could not be detected. The expected metabolite of (+)-3-carene, 3-caren-10-ol was not detected in any of the samples. All other metabolites were detected in almost all urine samples. The procedure enables for the first time the analysis of trace levels of a broad spectrum of mono- and bicyclic monoterpenoid metabolites (alcohols, diols, and carboxylic acids) in human urine. This analytical procedure is a powerful tool for population studies as well as for the discovery of human metabolism and toxicokinetics of monoterpenes. PMID:23953203

Schmidt, Lukas; Belov, Vladimir N; Göen, Thomas

2013-09-01

81

High-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry for the determination of nine hallucinogenic 25-NBOMe designer drugs in urine specimens.  

PubMed

We present a high-performance liquid chromatography triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS-MS) method for the identification and quantification of nine serotonin 5-HT2A receptor agonist hallucinogenic substances from a new class of N-methoxybenzyl derivatives of methoxyphenylethylamine (NBOMe) designer drugs in human urine: 25H-NBOMe, 2CC-NBOMe, 25I-NBF, 25D-NBOMe, 25B-NBOMe, 2CT-NBOMe, 25I-NBMD, 25G-NBOMe and 25I-NBOMe. This assay was developed for the Virginia Commonwealth University Clinical and Forensic Toxicology laboratory to screen emergency department specimens in response to an outbreak of N-benzyl-phenethylamine derivative abuse and overdose cases in Virginia. The NBOMe derivatives were rapidly extracted from the urine specimens by use of FASt™ solid-phase extraction columns. Assay performance was determined as recommended for validation by the Scientific Working Group for Forensic Toxicology (SWGTOX) for linearity, lower limit of quantification, lower limit of detection, accuracy/bias, precision, dilution integrity, carryover, selectivity, absolute recovery, ion suppression and stability. Linearity was verified to be from 1 to 100 ng/mL for each of the nine analytes. The bias determined for the NBOMe derivatives was 86-116% with a <14% coefficient of variation over the linear range of the assay. Four different NBOMe derivatives were detected using the presented method in patient urine specimens. PMID:24535338

Poklis, Justin L; Clay, Deborah J; Poklis, Alphonse

2014-04-01

82

Comparative Metabolite Profiling of Carboxylic Acids in Rat Urine by CE-ESI MS/MS through Positively Pre-charged and 2H-coded Derivatization  

PubMed Central

A new approach for the selective comparative metabolite profiling of carboxylic acids in rat urine was established using capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry (CE-MS) and a method for positively pre-charged and 2H-coded derivatization. Novel derivatizing reagents, N-alkyl-4-aminomethylpyridinum iodide (alkyl=butyl, butyl-d9 or hexyl), containing quaternary amine and stable isotope atoms (deuterium), were introduced for the derivatization of carboxylic acids. CE separation in positive polarity showed high reproducibility (0.99 –1.32% RSD of migration time) and eliminated problems with capillary coating known in CE-MS anion analyses. Essentially complete ionization and increased hydrophobicity after the derivatization also enhanced MS detection sensitivity (e.g. formic acid was detected at 0.5 pg). Simultaneous derivatization of one sample using two structurally similar reagents, N-butyl-4-aminomethylpyridinum iodide (BAMP) and N-hexyl-4-aminomethylpyridinum iodide (HAMP), provided additional information for recognizing a carboxylic acid in an unknown sample. Moreover, characteristic fragmentation acquired by online CE-MS/MS allowed for identification and categorization of carboxylic acids. Applying this method on rat urine, we found 59 ions matching the characteristic patterns of carboxylic acids. From these 59, 32 ions were positively identified and confirmed with standards. For comparative analysis, 24 standard carboxylic acids were derivatized by chemically identical but isotopically distinct BAMP and BAMP-d9, and their derivatization limits and linearity ranges were determined. Comparative analysis was also performed on two individual urine samples derivatized with BAMP and BAMP-d9. The metabolite profiling variation between these two samples was clearly visualized. PMID:19035407

Yang, Wen-Chu; Regnier, Fred E.; Adamec, Jiri

2012-01-01

83

Media's Positive and Negative Frames in Reporting Celebrity Deaths From Illegal Drug Overdoses Versus Prescription Drug Overdoses  

E-print Network

to the field of mass media through his study of advertisements. He posited that women in advertisements reinforced how women are framed in daily life (Goffman, 1979). As the theory was adapted to journalism (Tuchman, 1978; Gitlin, 1980), such research revealed...” because it focuses on illicit drugs, such as cocaine, heroin, and ecstasy, as the drugs contributing the most to the “drug problem,” while rarely mentioning alcohol and tobacco as part of the problem (Murji, 1998). Therefore, the media conditions “public...

Wood, Michelle

2011-12-31

84

Comparative evaluation of seven different sample treatment approaches for large-scale multiclass sport drug testing in urine by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Sample preparation is a critical step in large-scale multiclass analysis such as sport drug testing. Due to the wide heterogeneity of the analytes and the complexity of the matrix, the selection of a correct sample preparation method is essential, looking for a compromise between good recoveries for most of the analytes and cleanliness of the extract. In the present work, seven sample preparation procedures based on solid-phase extraction (SPE) (with 5 different cartridges), liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and sorbent-supported liquid extraction (SLE) were evaluated for multiclass sport drug testing in urine. The selected SPE sorbents were polymeric cartridges Agilent PLEXA™ and Oasis HLB™, mixed mode cation and anion exchange cartridges Oasis MAX™ and MCX™, and C18 cartridges. LLE was performed using tert-butyl methyl ether and SLE was carried out using Agilent Chem Elut™ cartridges. To evaluate the proposed extraction procedures, a list of 189 compounds were selected as representative from different groups of doping agents, including 34 steroids, 14 glucocorticosteroids, 24 diuretics and masking agents, 11 stimulants, 9 beta-agonist, 16 beta-blockers, 6 Selective Estrogen Receptors Modulators (SERMs), 24 narcotics and 22 other drugs of abuse/sport drugs. Blank urine samples were spiked at two levels of concentration, 2.5 and 25?gL(-1) and extracted with the different extraction protocols (n=6). The analysis of the extracts was carried out by liquid chromatography electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The use of solid-phase extraction with polymer cartridges provided high recoveries for most of the analytes tested and was found the more suitable method for this type of application given the additional advantages such as low sample and solvent consumption along with increased automation and throughput. PMID:25138706

Domínguez-Romero, Juan C; García-Reyes, Juan F; Molina-Díaz, Antonio

2014-09-26

85

Power of Automated Algorithms for Combining Time Line Follow Back and Urine Drug Screening Test Results in Stimulant-Abuse Clinical Trials  

PubMed Central

Background In clinical trials of treatment for stimulant abuse, researchers commonly record both Time-Line Follow-Back (TLFB) self reports and urine drug screen (UDS) results. Objectives Compare the power of self report, qualitative (use vs. no-use) UDS assessment, and various algorithms to generate self-report-UDS composite measures to detect treatment differences via t-test in simulated clinical trial data. Methods We performed Monte Carlo simulations patterned in part on real data to model self-report reliability, UDS errors, dropout, informatively missing UDS reports, incomplete adherence to a urine donation schedule, temporal correlation of drug use, number of days in the study period, number of patients per arm, and distribution of drug-use probabilities. Investigated algorithms include Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian estimates, self-report alone, UDS alone, and several simple modifications of self-report (referred to here as ELCON algorithms) which eliminate perceived contradictions between it and UDS. Results Among algorithms investigated, simple ELCON algorithms gave rise to the most powerful t-tests to detect mean group differences in stimulant drug use. Conclusions Further investigation is needed to determine if simple, naïve procedures such as the ELCON algorithms are optimal for comparing clinical study treatment arms. But researchers who currently require an automated algorithm in scenarios similar to those simulated for combining TLFB and UDS to test group differences in stimulant use should consider one of the ELCON algorithms. Scientific Significance This analysis continues a line of inquiry which could determine how best to measure outpatient stimulant use in clinical trials 1,2,3. PMID:21854277

Oden, Neal L.; VanVeldhuisen, Paul C.; Wakim, Paul; Trivedi, Madhukar; Somoza, Eugene; Lewis, Daniel

2012-01-01

86

Predicting toxicities of reactive metabolite-positive drug candidates.  

PubMed

Because of the inability to predict and quantify the risk of idiosyncratic adverse drug reactions (IADRs) and because reactive metabolites (RMs) are thought to be responsible for the pathogenesis of some IADRs, the potential for RM formation within new chemical entities is routinely examined with the ultimate goal of eliminating or reducing the liability through iterative design. Likewise, avoidance of structural alerts is almost a standard practice in drug design. However, the perceived safety concerns associated with the use of structural alerts and/or RM screening tools as standalone predictors of toxicity risks may be overexaggerated. Numerous marketed drugs form RMs but do not cause idiosyncratic toxicity. In this review article, we present a critique of the structural alert/RM concept as applied in drug discovery and evaluate the evidence linking structural alerts and RMs to observed toxic effects. Pragmatic risk mitigation strategies to aid the advancement of drug candidates that carry a RM liability are also discussed. PMID:25292426

Kalgutkar, Amit S; Dalvie, Deepak

2015-01-01

87

False-positive outcome and drug residue in milk samples over withdrawal times.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to identify false-positive outcomes and drug residues in milk samples over withdrawal times and to determine whether the positive results were caused by drug residues or natural inhibitors. A total of 73 milk samples over withdrawal times after the last intramammary infusion were collected from each treated quarter of cows and tested using the Delvotest SP assay. Reading time was 150, 165, and 180 min, and results of samples were recorded according to the color of the well containing the control milk sample. There were 24, 20, and 12 positive samples at the reading times of 150, 165, and 180 min, respectively. All 24 positive milk samples were heated at 82 degrees C for 5 min and retested to verify that the positive results were caused by drug residues or natural inhibitors. Twenty-one samples that exhibited positive results were negative after heat treatment, and drug residues were not identified by LacTek and Charm tests. However, 3 samples that exhibited positive results from heat treatment of 82 degrees C were positive for drugs. In our study, most positive results (89%) in the milk samples over withdrawal times were false-positive results by natural inhibitors. Moreover, the heat treatment is a fast, simple, and inexpensive method to remove false-positive results and has no effect on positive samples containing drugs. We suggest that heat treatment before screening tests is an effective way to reduce false-positive results in the milk samples. PMID:15738224

Kang, J H; Jin, J H; Kondo, F

2005-03-01

88

Urine Eggs  

E-print Network

Broadcast Transcript: In spring, a young man's fancy turns to thoughts of urine-soaked eggs. You heard that right. Here in Dongyang, China, eggs boiled in the urine of 10-year-old boys are a considered a delicacy of spring. ...

Hacker, Randi

2012-07-25

89

False-Positive Outcome and Drug Residue in Milk Samples Over Withdrawal Times  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to identify false-positive outcomes and drug residues in milk samples over with- drawal times and to determine whether the positive results were caused by drug residues or natural inhibi- tors. A total of 73 milk samples over withdrawal times after the last intramammary infusion were collected from each treated quarter of cows and tested using the

J. H. Kang; J. H. Jin; F. Kondo

2005-01-01

90

In silico and in vitro metabolism studies support identification of designer drugs in human urine by liquid chromatography/quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Human phase I metabolism of four designer drugs, 2-desoxypipradrol (2-DPMP), 3,4-dimethylmethcathinone (3,4-DMMC), ?-pyrrolidinovalerophenone (?-PVP), and methiopropamine (MPA), was studied using in silico and in vitro metabolite prediction. The metabolites were identified in drug abusers’ urine samples using liquid chromatography/quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC/Q-TOF/MS). The aim of the study was to evaluate the ability of the in silico and in vitro methods to generate the main urinary metabolites found in vivo. Meteor 14.0.0 software (Lhasa Limited) was used for in silico metabolite prediction, and in vitro metabolites were produced in human liver microsomes (HLMs). 2-DPMP was metabolized by hydroxylation, dehydrogenation, and oxidation, resulting in six phase I metabolites. Six metabolites were identified for 3,4-DMMC formed via N-demethylation, reduction, hydroxylation, and oxidation reactions. ?-PVP was found to undergo reduction, hydroxylation, dehydrogenation, and oxidation reactions, as well as degradation of the pyrrolidine ring, and seven phase I metabolites were identified. For MPA, the nor-MPA metabolite was detected. Meteor software predicted the main human urinary phase I metabolites of 3,4-DMMC, ?-PVP, and MPA and two of the four main metabolites of 2-DPMP. It assisted in the identification of the previously unreported metabolic reactions for ?-PVP. Eight of the 12 most abundant in vivo phase I metabolites were detected in the in vitro HLM experiments. In vitro tests serve as material for exploitation of in silico data when an authentic urine sample is not available. In silico and in vitro designer drug metabolism studies with LC/Q-TOF/MS produced sufficient metabolic information to support identification of the parent compound in vivo. PMID:23797910

Tyrkkö, Elli; Pelander, Anna; Ketola, Raimo A; Ojanperä, Ilkka

2013-08-01

91

Catecholamines - urine  

MedlinePLUS

... test results. Some foods can increase catacholamines in your urine. You may need to avoid the follow foods for several days before the test: Coffee Tea Bananas Chocolate Cocoa Citrus fruits Vanilla Many ...

92

Porphyrins - urine  

MedlinePLUS

Anderson K. The porphyrias. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap 217. McPherson R, Threatte GA, Pincus MR. Basic examination of urine. ...

93

Amylase - urine  

MedlinePLUS

... is a test that measures the amount of amylase in urine. Amylase is an enzyme that helps digest carbohydrates. It ... the pancreas and the glands that make saliva. Amylase may also be measured with a blood test .

94

Urine Preservative  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Disclosed is CPG, a combination of a chlorhexidine salt (such as chlorhexidine digluconate, chlorhexidine diacetate, or chlorhexidine dichloride) and n-propyl gallate that can be used at ambient temperatures as a urine preservative.

Smith, Scott M. (Inventor); Nillen, Jeannie (Inventor)

2001-01-01

95

Comparison of LUCIO®-direct ELISA with CEDIA immunoassay for 'zero tolerance' drug screening in urine as required by the German re-licensing guidelines.  

PubMed

The performance of the previously validated LUCIO(®)-Direct-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (direct ELISA) screening tests according to forensic guidelines is compared to that of cloned enzyme donor immunoassays (CEDIA) test for drugs of abuse in urine as defined in the new re-licensing German medical and psychological assessment (MPA) guidelines. The MPA screening cut-offs correspond to 10?ng/ml 11-nor-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (THC-COOH), 50?ng/ml amphetamine and designer amphetamines, 25?ng/ml morphine, codeine and dihydrocodeine, 30?ng/ml benzoylecgonine, 50?ng/ml methadone metabolite, 2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine (EDDP) and metabolites of diazepam, oxazepam, bromazepam, alprazolam, flunitrazepam and lorazepam at 50?ng/ml. Average relative sensitivities and relative specificities were 99.7 % and 98.4 % for direct ELISA and 66 % and 91.4 % for CEDIA, respectively. PMID:23349145

Agius, Ronald; Nadulski, Thomas; Kahl, Hans-Gerhard; Dufaux, Bertin

2013-06-01

96

Sensitive determination of positional isomers of benzenediols in human urine by boronate affinity capillary electrophoresis with chemiluminescence detection.  

PubMed

A boronate ACE coupled with chemiluminescence (CL) detection was developed for sensitive determination of three isomeric benzenediols, which was based on the principle of an inhibited effect of borate complexation on the CL reaction between luminol and potassium hexacyanoferrate (K3 Fe(CN)6 ) in alkaline solution. The effects of some important factors on CE separation and CL intensity were systemically investigated. Baseline separation of isomeric benzenediols including o-benzenediol, m-benzenediol, and p-benzenediol was achieved by using a mobile phase of 40 mmol/L glycine-NaOH buffer at pH 9.4 containing 0.8 mmol/L luminol and 0.4 mol/L 4-iodophenylboronic acid. The calibration curves of the analytes by plotting the peak height against corresponding concentration were linear over the range of 4.5 × 10(-8) ? 4.5 × 10(-5) mol/L for p-benzenediol, 6.8 × 10(-8) ? 2.7 × 10(-5) mol/L for m-benzenediol, and 9.0 × 10(-8) ? 4.5 × 10(-5) mol/L for o-benzenediol. The corresponding detection limits for p-, m-, and o-benzenediols were 2.8 × 10(-8) mol/L (68 amol), 3.2 × 10(-8) mol/L (108.4 amol), and 3.7 × 10(-8) mol/L (125.8 amol; S/N = 3), respectively. The proposed method has been successfully applied to the analysis of trace benzenediols in spiked human urine sample and the recoveries were >97.2%. Our primary result demonstrated the proposed CE-CL method has great potential for biomarker determination in clinical diagnosis. PMID:24115126

Lin, Zian; Sun, Xiaobo; Hu, Wenli; Yin, Yuqing; Chen, Guonan

2014-04-01

97

Trends in occurrence of drugs of abuse in blood and urine of arrested drivers and drug traffickers in the border region of Aachen  

Microsoft Academic Search

The region of Aachen is located in a triangle on the German, Dutch and Belgian borders and is heavily exposed to drug traffic, due to the differences in national drug policies. The analysis of toxicological casework in the Institute of Forensic Medicine in Aachen was undertaken for the period 1987–1993, i.e. 6 years before and 1 year after the partial

Karl-Heinz Schiwy-Bochat; Maciej Bogusz; Josefina Alvarez Vega; Helmut Althoff

1995-01-01

98

Extraction-Free Ion-Pair Methods for the Assay of Trifluoperazine Dihydrochloride in Bulk Drug, Tablets, and Spiked Human Urine Using Three Sulfonphthalein Dyes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three simple and sensitive extraction-free spectrophotometric methods are described for the determination of trifluoperazine dihydrochloride (TFH). The methods are based on ion pair complex formation between the nitrogenous compound trifluoperazine (TFP) converted from trifluoperazine dihydrochloride and sulfonphthalein dyes, namely, bromocresol green (BCG), bromothymol blue (BTB), and bromophenol blue (BPB) in dichloromethane medium in which all the above experimental variables were circumvented. The colored products are measured at 425 nm in the BCG method, 415 nm in the BTB method, and 420 nm in the BPB method. The stoichiometry of the ion-pair complexes formed between the drug and dye (1:1) was determined by Job's continuous variations method, and the stability constants of the complexes were also calculated. These methods quantify TFP over the concentration ranges of 1.25-20.0 ?g/ml in the BCG method, 1.5-21.0 ?g/ml in the BTB method, and 1.5-18.0 ?g/ml in the BPB method. The molar absorptivity (l·mol-1·cm-1) and Sandell sensitivity (ng/cm2) were calculated to be 2.06·104 and 0.0197; 1.82·104 and 0.0224; and 2.22·104 and 0.0183 for the BCG, BTB, and BPB methods, respectively. The methods were successfully applied to the determination of TFP in pure drug, pharmaceuticals, and in spiked human urine with good accuracy and precision.

Prashanth, K. N.; Swamy, N.; Basavaiah, K.

2014-11-01

99

Urine culture - catheterized specimen  

MedlinePLUS

Culture - urine - catheterized specimen; Urine culture - catheterization; Catheterized urine specimen culture ... urinary tract infections may be found in the culture. This is called a contaminant. You may not ...

100

Comparison of hydrodynamically closed isotachophoresis-capillary zone electrophoresis with hydrodynamically open capillary zone electrophoresis hyphenated with tandem mass spectrometry in drug analysis: pheniramine, its metabolite and phenylephrine in human urine.  

PubMed

The advanced two dimensional isotachophoresis (ITP)-capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) hyphenated with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS, here triple quadrupole, QqQ) was developed in this work to demonstrate analytical potentialities of this approach in the analysis of drugs in multicomponent ionic matrices. Pheniramine (PHM), phenylephrine (PHE), paracetamol (PCM) and their potential metabolic products were taken for the analysis by the ITP-CZE-ESI-QqQ technique working in hydrodynamically closed CE separation system and then a comparison with the conventional (hydrodynamically open) CZE-ESI-QqQ technique was made. The ITP-CZE-ESI-QqQ method was favorable in terms of obtainable selectivity (due to highly effective heart-cut analysis), concentration limits of detection (LOD at pgmL(-1) levels due to enhanced sample load capacity and ITP preconcentration), sample handling (on-line sample pretreatment, i.e. clean-up, preconcentration, preseparation), and, by that, possibilities for future automation and miniaturization. On the other hand, this experimental arrangement, in contrast to the CZE-ESI-QqQ arrangement supported by an electroosmotic flow, is principally limited to the analysis of uniformly (i.e. positively or negatively) charged analytes in one run without any possibilities to analyze neutral compounds (here, PCM and neutral or acidic metabolites of the drugs had to be excluded from the analysis). Hence, these general characteristics should be considered when choosing a proper analytical CE-MS approach for a given biomedical application. Here, the analytical potential of the ITP-CZE-ESI-QqQ method was demonstrated showing the real time profiles of excreted targeted drugs and metabolite (PHM, PHE, M-PHM) in human urine after the administration of one dose of Theraflu(®) to the volunteers. PMID:25035234

Pieš?anský, Juraj; Maráková, Katarína; Kova?, Marián; Mikuš, Peter

2014-09-01

101

Detection of Zika Virus in Urine  

PubMed Central

We describe the kinetics of Zika virus (ZIKV) detection in serum and urine samples of 6 patients. Urine samples were positive for ZIKV >10 days after onset of disease, which was a notably longer period than for serum samples. This finding supports the conclusion that urine samples are useful for diagnosis of ZIKV infections. PMID:25530324

Gourinat, Ann-Claire; O’Connor, Olivia; Calvez, Elodie; Goarant, Cyrille

2015-01-01

102

Developing and Implementing a Positive Behavioral Reinforcement Intervention in Prison-Based Drug Treatment: Project BRITE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within prison settings, the reliance on punishment for controlling inappropriate or noncompliant behavior is self-evident. What is not so evident is the similarity between this reliance on punishment and the use of positive reinforcements to increase desired behaviors. However, seldom do inmates receive positive reinforcement for engaging in prosocial behaviors or, for inmates receiving drug treatment, behaviors that are consistent

William M. Burdon; Jef St. De Lore; Michael L. Prendergast

2011-01-01

103

Ketones urine test  

MedlinePLUS

Ketone bodies - urine; Urine ketones ... Urine ketones are usually measured as a "spot test." This is available in a test kit that ... ketone bodies. A dipstick is dipped in the urine sample. A color change indicates the presence of ...

104

The Human Urine Metabolome  

PubMed Central

Urine has long been a “favored” biofluid among metabolomics researchers. It is sterile, easy-to-obtain in large volumes, largely free from interfering proteins or lipids and chemically complex. However, this chemical complexity has also made urine a particularly difficult substrate to fully understand. As a biological waste material, urine typically contains metabolic breakdown products from a wide range of foods, drinks, drugs, environmental contaminants, endogenous waste metabolites and bacterial by-products. Many of these compounds are poorly characterized and poorly understood. In an effort to improve our understanding of this biofluid we have undertaken a comprehensive, quantitative, metabolome-wide characterization of human urine. This involved both computer-aided literature mining and comprehensive, quantitative experimental assessment/validation. The experimental portion employed NMR spectroscopy, gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS), direct flow injection mass spectrometry (DFI/LC-MS/MS), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) experiments performed on multiple human urine samples. This multi-platform metabolomic analysis allowed us to identify 445 and quantify 378 unique urine metabolites or metabolite species. The different analytical platforms were able to identify (quantify) a total of: 209 (209) by NMR, 179 (85) by GC-MS, 127 (127) by DFI/LC-MS/MS, 40 (40) by ICP-MS and 10 (10) by HPLC. Our use of multiple metabolomics platforms and technologies allowed us to identify several previously unknown urine metabolites and to substantially enhance the level of metabolome coverage. It also allowed us to critically assess the relative strengths and weaknesses of different platforms or technologies. The literature review led to the identification and annotation of another 2206 urinary compounds and was used to help guide the subsequent experimental studies. An online database containing the complete set of 2651 confirmed human urine metabolite species, their structures (3079 in total), concentrations, related literature references and links to their known disease associations are freely available at http://www.urinemetabolome.ca. PMID:24023812

Bouatra, Souhaila; Aziat, Farid; Mandal, Rupasri; Guo, An Chi; Wilson, Michael R.; Knox, Craig; Bjorndahl, Trent C.; Krishnamurthy, Ramanarayan; Saleem, Fozia; Liu, Philip; Dame, Zerihun T.; Poelzer, Jenna; Huynh, Jessica; Yallou, Faizath S.; Psychogios, Nick; Dong, Edison; Bogumil, Ralf; Roehring, Cornelia; Wishart, David S.

2013-01-01

105

The human urine metabolome.  

PubMed

Urine has long been a "favored" biofluid among metabolomics researchers. It is sterile, easy-to-obtain in large volumes, largely free from interfering proteins or lipids and chemically complex. However, this chemical complexity has also made urine a particularly difficult substrate to fully understand. As a biological waste material, urine typically contains metabolic breakdown products from a wide range of foods, drinks, drugs, environmental contaminants, endogenous waste metabolites and bacterial by-products. Many of these compounds are poorly characterized and poorly understood. In an effort to improve our understanding of this biofluid we have undertaken a comprehensive, quantitative, metabolome-wide characterization of human urine. This involved both computer-aided literature mining and comprehensive, quantitative experimental assessment/validation. The experimental portion employed NMR spectroscopy, gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS), direct flow injection mass spectrometry (DFI/LC-MS/MS), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) experiments performed on multiple human urine samples. This multi-platform metabolomic analysis allowed us to identify 445 and quantify 378 unique urine metabolites or metabolite species. The different analytical platforms were able to identify (quantify) a total of: 209 (209) by NMR, 179 (85) by GC-MS, 127 (127) by DFI/LC-MS/MS, 40 (40) by ICP-MS and 10 (10) by HPLC. Our use of multiple metabolomics platforms and technologies allowed us to identify several previously unknown urine metabolites and to substantially enhance the level of metabolome coverage. It also allowed us to critically assess the relative strengths and weaknesses of different platforms or technologies. The literature review led to the identification and annotation of another 2206 urinary compounds and was used to help guide the subsequent experimental studies. An online database containing the complete set of 2651 confirmed human urine metabolite species, their structures (3079 in total), concentrations, related literature references and links to their known disease associations are freely available at http://www.urinemetabolome.ca. PMID:24023812

Bouatra, Souhaila; Aziat, Farid; Mandal, Rupasri; Guo, An Chi; Wilson, Michael R; Knox, Craig; Bjorndahl, Trent C; Krishnamurthy, Ramanarayan; Saleem, Fozia; Liu, Philip; Dame, Zerihun T; Poelzer, Jenna; Huynh, Jessica; Yallou, Faizath S; Psychogios, Nick; Dong, Edison; Bogumil, Ralf; Roehring, Cornelia; Wishart, David S

2013-01-01

106

49 CFR 40.51 - What materials are used to send urine specimens to the laboratory?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...materials are used to send urine specimens to the laboratory...TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Collection...and Supplies Used in DOT Urine Collections § 40.51...materials are used to send urine specimens to the...

2010-10-01

107

Upper airway collapse during drug induced sleep endoscopy: head rotation in supine position compared with lateral head and trunk position.  

PubMed

Drug induced sedated sleep endoscopy (DISE) is often employed to determine the site, severity and pattern of obstruction in patients with sleep apnea. DISE is usually performed in supine position. We recently showed that the obstruction pattern is different when DISE is performed in lateral position. In this study, we compared the outcomes of DISE performed in supine position with head rotated, with the outcomes of DISE performed with head and trunk in lateral position. The Prospective study design was used in the present study. Sixty patients with OSA (44 male; mean apnea hypopnea index (AHI) 20.8 ± 17.5 events/h) underwent DISE under propofol sedation. Patients were placed in lateral position, and the upper airway collapse was evaluated. The patients were then placed in supine position with the head rotated to the right side. DISE outcomes were scored using the VOTE classification system. In lateral position, nine patients (15.0 %) had a complete antero-posterior (A-P) collapse at the level of the velum, nine had a partial A-P collapse. During head rotation and trunk in supine position, at the level of the velum, four patients (6.7 %) had a complete A-P collapse, while two patients (3.3 %) had a partial A-P collapse. For all other sites, the patterns of collapse were not significantly different between head rotation and lateral position. During DISE, rotation of the head in supine position, and lateral head and trunk position present similar sites, severity and patterns of upper airway collapse, with the exception of collapse at the level of the velum. Here the severity of A-P collapse is less severe during head rotation than in lateral head and trunk position. PMID:25142078

Safiruddin, Faiza; Koutsourelakis, Ioannis; de Vries, Nico

2014-08-21

108

The effect of methadone maintenance on positive outcomes for opiate injection drug users  

PubMed Central

This study examined outcome variables for 160 opiate injection drug users (IDUs) who entered methadone maintenance between baseline and 6 month follow-up. Outcome variables of interest included drug use, productivity and HIV risk behaviors. Participants were recruited through street outreach in Denver, Colorado from 2000 through 2004 using targeted sampling. The sample was primarily male, 48% White, averaged 39 years of age and had been injecting drugs for an average of nearly 20 years. Significant improvements were found in univariate tests. Logistic regression revealed that spending more time in treatment was a significant predictor of positive outcomes on drug use and HIV risk behaviors. The results underscore the importance of retaining IDUs in methadone maintenance in order to maximize their treatment success. Results from this study show that time in treatment can affect many aspects of the participant’s life in a positive way, including reduction of HIV risk. PMID:19150202

Corsi, Karen F; Lehman, Wayne K; Booth, Robert E

2009-01-01

109

Screening and confirmation capabilities of liquid chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry for the determination of 200 multiclass sport drugs in urine.  

PubMed

In this article, a screening method for the determination of 200 sport drugs in human urine has been developed using liquid-chromatography electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-TOFMS). The chromatographic separation of the targeted doping agents was carried out by fast liquid chromatography using a C18 column (4.6×50mm) with 1.8?m particle size. Accurate mass measurements of the selected ion (typically [M+H](+) and [M-H](-)) along with retention time matching was used for the screening and detection of the targeted species. The proposed methodology comprised also a simple sample treatment stage based on solid-phase extraction (SPE) with polymeric cartridges. The SPE method displayed satisfactory recoveries rates (between 70 and 120%) for the majority of the compounds at both concentration levels tested (2.5 and 25?gL(-1)). The overall performance of the method was satisfactory with all 200 compounds fulfilling WADA minimum required performance levels (MRPLs), with limits of quantitation lower than 1?gL(-1) for 80% of the compounds, and showing an appropriate linearity (r(2)>0.99) in most cases. Additionally, the ability of "in-source" collision induced dissociation (CID) for confirmatory purposes was examined using as criterion the presence of two high-resolution ions with relevant abundances for unambiguous confirmation. This stringent criterion was fulfilled for 75% of the species using in-source CID fragmentation. The use of an improved approach based on CID performed on a dedicated collision cell without precursor ion selection (using a Q-TOF) provided at least two ions in all cases with the exception of 2-aminoheptane. Finally, based on the use of diagnostic fragment ions, a workflow for the comprehensive screening and identification of non-targeted compounds (viz. compounds with no primary standards or retention time information available, such as metabolites) has been also examined using rat urine samples. The proposed screening method has proved to be effective for the analysis of targeted compounds, and also for the identification of metabolites, expanding easily the search for doping agents not only limited to specific banned parent compounds but also to derivate compounds with similar structure as well as metabolites. PMID:25618643

Domínguez-Romero, Juan C; García-Reyes, Juan F; Lara-Ortega, Felipe J; Molina-Díaz, Antonio

2015-03-01

110

Eczematous-type multiple drug allergy from isoniazid and ethambutol with positive patch test results.  

PubMed

Multiple drug allergy (MDA) is characterized by hypersensitivity to 2 or more chemically unrelated drugs. Multiple drug allergy from simultaneous use of antituberculosis drugs is a rare phenomenon that mainly presents as an urticarial or maculopapular eruption. This case report describes a 58-year-old man who developed a generalized eczematous eruption during the sixth week of oral therapy with 4 antituberculosis drugs-isoniazid, ethambutol, rifampicin, and morphazinamide-for treatment of suspected pleural tuberculosis. The eruption resolved after treatment with systemic corticosteroids and cessation of isoniazid and ethambutol. During a lesion-free period 6 months after cessation of the corticosteroids, patch testing with serial dilutions of isoniazid and ethambutol revealed positive reactions; irritant patch test reactions were excluded by testing with graded concentrations of each drug. The patient avoided the causative drugs and reported no new eruptions at 1-year follow-up. It is important for dermatologists to consider the value of patch testing in determining the causative drugs in suspected cases of eczematous-type MDA. PMID:24153138

Özkaya, Esen

2013-09-01

111

Mirtazapine as positive control drug in studies examining the effects of antidepressants on driving ability.  

PubMed

The development of effective and safe antidepressant medications is ongoing, and driving studies are critical to assess a drug's safety. The current review summarizes the effects of a sedating effective antidepressant,mirtazapine, on driving ability, and its potential to serve as positive control drug in future driving studies. Three on-road driving studies and four driving simulator studies of mirtazapine were identified. The studies,conducted in healthy volunteers,showed a significant dose-dependent driving impairment, the first day following bedtime administration of mirtazapine. The magnitude of impairment after a single dose of 15mg or 30mg mirtazapine was comparable to that observed with a blood alcohol concentration of 0.05%, the legal limit for driving in many countries. After one or two weeks of daily treatment with mirtazapine, partial tolerance developed to mirtazapine's effects on driving. Driving studies conducted in patients were less informative, as the effect on driving caused by mirtazapine was obscured by a drug-disease interaction and increased variability in patient groups. In conclusion, mirtazapine is useful as positive control drug to assess the potential effects of new antidepressant drugs on driving. Studies in normal healthy volunteers are more sensitive to drug effects than studies in patient populations. PMID:25446559

Verster, Joris C; van de Loo, Aurora J A E; Roth, Thomas

2014-11-13

112

Virginia Tech Department of Chemistry Faculty Position in Organic Chemistry (Drug Discovery)  

E-print Network

Virginia Tech Department of Chemistry Faculty Position in Organic Chemistry (Drug Discovery) The Department of Chemistry announces a tenure-track opening in the area of Organic Chemistry at the Assistant, or the discovery of biologically active naturally-occurring compounds. Applicants must have a Ph.D. in chemistry

Virginia Tech

113

Molecular characterization and drug resistance of Escherichia coli strains isolated from urine from long-term care facility residents in Cracow, Poland  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli and extended-spectrum ?-lactamases (ESBL) pathogens isolated from asymptomatic bacteriuria and urinary tract infections (UTIs), and the relationship between the phylogeny, antimicrobial resistance, and virulence among isolates in residents of 3 long-term care facilities (LTCF) in Krakow, Poland. Material/Methods This was point prevalence study and prospective infection control in a group of 217 people. Urine samples were examined with standard microbiological methods and screened for the presence of blaCTX-M, blaSHV, and blaTEM. E. coli isolates were screened for 6 common virulence factors (VFs) and classified according to the rapid phylogenetic grouping technique. Results Among all the strains tested, 14 isolates (13.9%) expressed ESBL activity. A significant proportion of isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin (32.7%, n=33). Resistance to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole was identified among 45 isolates (44.5%). Independent risk factors for the presence of an ESBL-producing strain were: UTI, urinary and/or fecal incontinence, bedridden, and low values of the Barthel and Katz Indexes. Gene sequencing identified 8 blaCTX-M-15, 1 blaCTX-M-3, 9 blaTEM-1, and 1 blaSHV-12. Among E. coli, no relationship between number of VF genes and phylogeny was found. The most prevalent virulence factor was fimH (82.1%). Conclusions The findings of this study emphasize the need for further research on the epidemiology of multi-drug resistant organisms (MDRO) and ESBL in LTCF, including transmission patterns, rates of infection, and factors associated with infections. It may be necessary to extend the requirements and precautions to MDRO and ESBL-producers. PMID:23632427

Pobiega, Monika; Wojkowska-Mach, Jadwiga; Chmielarczyk, Agnieszka; Romaniszyn, Dorota; Adamski, Pawe?; Heczko, Piort B.; Gryglewska, Barbara; Grodzicki, Tomasz

2013-01-01

114

49 CFR 40.49 - What materials are used to collect urine specimens?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...materials are used to collect urine specimens? 40.49...TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Collection...and Supplies Used in DOT Urine Collections § 40.49...specimens? For each DOT drug test, you must use...

2010-10-01

115

HIV-1 drug resistance mutations among infants born to HIV-positive mothers in Busia, Kenya.  

PubMed

To determine HIV-1 subtypes and transmitted HIV-1 drug-resistant mutations among HIV-1-positive children born to HIV-positive mothers in Busia County, blood samples were collected from 53 children aged between 6 weeks and 5 years in 2011. Their mothers were HIV-1 positive and on antiretroviral therapy at the time the children were born. The samples were analyzed for HIV-1 drug resistance and subtypes through sequencing of portions of the HIV-1 pol gene. The generated sequences were analyzed for subtype diversity using the REGA and BLAST subtyping tools. HIV-1 drug resistance was determined using the Stanford University HIV database. Of the 53 samples that were successfully amplified and sequenced, 69.8% (37/53) were determined to be HIV-1 subtype A, 22.6% (12/53) were subtype D, 5.6% (3/53) were subtype C, and 1.8% (1/53) were subtype A1C. The prevalence of HIV-1 drug resistance mutations of any kind was 22.6% (12/53). PMID:25171915

Lel, Rency; Ngaira, Jane; Lihana, Raphael; Khamadi, Samoel

2014-12-01

116

Position paper of Italian rheumatologists on the use of biosimilar drugs.  

PubMed

The recent availability of biosimilars as a result of the expiry of the patents of first-generation biotechnological drugs may theoretically reduce the direct costs of such treatments, making their use accessible to a larger number of patients. However, the currently available clinical data refer to a relatively small number of patients, and do not provide sufficient information concerning long-term efficacy and safety or the frequency of rare adverse events. Given the importance of the introduction of biosimilar drugs and the limitations of our current knowledge of their efficacy and safety profiles, we believe it is mandatory to draw up a position paper for Italian Rheumatologists. Moreover, in order to guarantee their safety, it is mandatory to indicate behavioural rules for the involved specialists and competent authorities, and perform ad hoc clinical trials and appropriate drug surveillance. PMID:25436597

Atzeni, Fabiola; Sebastiani, Marco; Ricci, Cristian; Celano, Antonella; Gremese, Elisa; Iannone, Florenzo; Meroni, Pier Luigi; Minghetti, Paola; Sarzi-Puttini, Piercarlo; Ferraccioli, Gianfranco; Lapadula, Giovanni

2014-11-01

117

Combination of high-performance liquid chromatography and SERS detection applied to the analysis of drugs in human blood and urine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy was employed to characterise different drugs and some of their degradation products contained in bio-matrices after separation by HPLC. Since acetonitrile, which is contained in the widely used Daldrup type eluents, adsorbs readily to the silver surface and disturbs SERS measurements at low analyte concentration, a gradient technique relying on a methanol/buffer mixture was developed. Application of this eluent helps to lower the detection limit of most of the drugs investigated (e.g. Dihydrocodeine, Doxepine, Citalopram, Trimipramine, Carbamazepine, Methadone) into the 1 ?g/sample domain. The examples presented also demonstrate that the retention times determined by independent runs of reference solutions alone are not always sufficient for a unique identification of all fractions appearing in the chromatogram of a mixture that may contain degradation products. The Raman band patterns of many derivatives are, however, so distinct that in these cases an assignment to certain families of drugs is possible even without a detailed analysis of the spectrum (correlation of band positions with calculated normal mode frequencies). If SERS spectra of reference solutions recorded under similar experimental conditions are available, the described technique can provide a second, independent means of identification next to HPLC/MS for example if necessary during a law suit.

Trachta, Gerd; Schwarze, Bernd; Sägmüller, Bernd; Brehm, Georg; Schneider, Siegfried

2004-05-01

118

Comprehensive screening of anabolic steroids, corticosteroids, and acidic drugs in horse urine by solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

This paper reports two highly efficient liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) methods for the screening of anabolic steroids, corticosteroids, and acidic drugs for the purpose of doping control in equine sports. Sample extraction was performed using a mixed-mode C8-SCX solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridge. The first eluted fraction (acidic/neutral fraction) was base-washed and the resulting organic extract was used for the screening of anabolic steroids and corticosteroids by LC-MS using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) in the positive electrospray ionisation (ESI) mode. The remaining aqueous extract was re-adjusted to pH 6 and acidic drugs were recovered by liquid/liquid extraction. Detection was again achieved using LC-MRM but in the negative ESI mode. A total of 40 anabolic steroids and corticosteroids, and over 50 acidic drugs, including some cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors, oxicams, anti-diabetics, sedatives, diuretics and Delta(9)-tetrahydro-11-norcannabinol-9-carboxylic acid, could be covered by the two LC-MS methods. Both methods utilized a high efficiency reversed-phase column (3.3 cm L x 2.1 mm I.D. with 3 microm particles) coupled with a fast-scanning triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer to achieve fast turnaround times. The overall turnaround times for both methods were 10 min, inclusive of post-run and equilibration times. PMID:16631183

Ho, Emmie N M; Leung, David K K; Wan, Terence S M; Yu, Nola H

2006-07-01

119

Challenges facing HIV-positive persons who use drugs and their families in Vietnam.  

PubMed

It is hypothesized that persons who use drugs (PWUD) in Vietnam who are also HIV-positive may face additional challenges in psychosocial outcomes, and these challenges may extend to their family members. In this study, we examined depressive symptoms, stigma, social support, and caregiver burden of HIV-positive PWUD and their family members, compared to the outcomes of HIV-negative PWUD and their family members. Baseline, 3-month, and 6-month assessment data were gathered from 83 PWUD and 83 family members recruited from four communes in Phú Th? Province, Vietnam. For PWUD, although we observed a general decline in overall stigma over time for both groups, HIV-positive PWUD consistently reported significantly higher overall stigma for all three periods. Depressive symptoms among family members in both groups declined over time; however, family members of HIV-positive PWUD reported higher depressive symptoms across all three periods. In addition, family members of HIV-positive PWUD reported lower levels of tangible support across all three periods. Caregiver burden among family members of HIV-positive PWUD increased significantly over time, whereas the reported burden among family members of HIV-negative PWUD remained relatively unchanged. The findings highlight the need for future interventions for PWUD and family members, with targeted and culturally specific strategies to focus on the importance of addressing additional stigma experienced by PWUD who are HIV-positive. Such challenges may have direct negative impact on their family members' depressive symptoms, tangible support, and caregiver burden. PMID:25285396

Lee, Sung-Jae; Li, Li; Lin, Chunqing; Tuan, Le Anh

2014-10-01

120

Drug Testing in a University Athletic Program: Protocol and Implementation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An athletic drug education, counseling, and screening program at Wake Forest University is described. Decisions regarding which athletes to test, which drugs to test for and how to test for them, how to collect urine samples, and measures taken for a positive result are discussed. (MT)

Rovere, George D.; And Others

1986-01-01

121

Positively Charged Polyethylenimines Enhance Nasal Absorption of the Negatively Charged Drug, Low Molecular Weight Heparin  

PubMed Central

This study tests the hypothesis that positively charged polyethylenimines (PEIs) enhance nasal absorption of low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) by reducing the negative surface charge of the drug molecule. Physical interactions between PEIs and LMWH were studied by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, particle size analysis, conductivity measurements, zeta potential analysis, and azure A assay. The efficacy of PEIs in enhancing nasal absorption of LMWH was studied by administering LMWH formulated with PEI into the nose of anesthetized rats and monitoring drug absorption by measuring plasma anti-factor Xa activity. The metabolic stability of LMWH was evaluated by incubating the drug in rat nasal mucosal homogenates. FTIR spectra of the LMWH-PEI formulation showed a shift in peak position compared to LMWH or PEI alone. Decreases in conductivity, zeta potential and the amount of free LMWH in the PEI-LMWH formulation, as revealed by azure A assay, suggest that PEIs possibly neutralize the negative surface charge of LMWH. The efficacy of PEI in enhancing the bioavailability of nasally administered LMWH can be ranked as PEI-1000 KDa ? PEI-750 KDa > PEI-25 KDa. When PEI-1000 KDa was used at a concentration of 0.25%, there was a 4-fold increase in both the absolute and relative bioavailabilities of LMWH compared to the control formulation. Overall, these results indicate that polyethylenimines can be used as potential carriers for nasally administered LMWHs. PMID:17023085

Yang, Tianzhi; Hussain, Alamdar; Bai, Shuhua; Khalil, Ikramy A.; Harashima, Hideyoshi; Ahsan, Fakhrul

2007-01-01

122

Screening pharmaceuticals for possible carcinogenic effects: initial positive results for drugs not previously screened  

PubMed Central

Objective We screened commonly used prescription drugs for possible carcinogenic effects. Methods In a large health care program we identified 105 commonly used drugs, not previously screened. Recipients were followed for up to 12½ years for incident cancer. Nested case-control analyses of 55 cancer sites and all combined included up to ten matched controls per case, with lag of at least two years between drug dispensing and cancer. Positive associations entailed a relative risk (RR) of 1.50, with p? 0.01 and higher risk for three or more, than for one prescription. Evaluation included further analyses, searches of the literature, and clinical judgment. Results There were 101 associations of interest for 61 drugs. Sixty-six associations were judged to have involved substantial confounding. We found evidence that of the remaining 35, the following associations may not be due to chance: sulindac with gallbladder cancer and leukemia, hyoscyamine with non-Hodgkin lymphoma, nortriptyline with esophageal and hepatic cancer, oxazepam with lung cancer, both fluoxetine and paroxetine with testicular cancer, hydrochlorothiazide with renal and lip cancer, and nifedipine with lip cancer. Conclusions These preliminary findings suggest that further studies are indicated regarding sulindac, hyoscyamine, nortriptyline, oxazepam, fluoxetine, paroxetine, hydrochlorothiazide and nifedipine. PMID:19582585

Friedman, Gary D.; Udaltsova, Natalia; Chan, James; Quesenberry, Charles P; Habel, Laurel A.

2010-01-01

123

Use of liquid chromatography coupled to low- and high-resolution linear ion trap mass spectrometry for studying the metabolism of paynantheine, an alkaloid of the herbal drug Kratom in rat and human urine.  

PubMed

The Thai medicinal plant Mitragyna speciosa (Kratom in Thai) is misused as a herbal drug of abuse. During studies on the main Kratom alkaloid mitragynine (MG) in rats and humans, several dehydro analogs could be detected in urine of Kratom users, which were not found in rat urine after administration of pure MG. Questions arose as to whether these compounds are formed from MG only by humans or whether they are metabolites formed from the second abundant Kratom alkaloid paynantheine (PAY), the dehydro analog of MG. Therefore, the aim of the presented study was to identify the phase I and II metabolites of PAY in rat urine after administration of the pure alkaloid. This was first isolated from Kratom leaves. Liquid chromatography-linear ion trap mass spectrometry provided detailed structure information of the metabolites in the MS(n) mode particularly with high resolution. Besides PAY, the following phase I metabolites could be identified: 9-O-demethyl PAY, 16-carboxy PAY, 9-O-demethyl-16-carboxy PAY, 17-O-demethyl PAY, 17-O-demethyl-16,17-dihydro PAY, 9,17-O-bisdemethyl PAY, 9,17-O-bisdemethyl-16,17-dihydro PAY, 17-carboxy-16,17-dihydro PAY, and 9-O-demethyl-17-carboxy-16,17-dihydro PAY. These metabolites indicated that PAY was metabolized via the same pathways as MG. Several metabolites were excreted as glucuronides or sulfates. The metabolism studies in rats showed that PAY and its metabolites corresponded to the MG-related dehydro compounds detected in urine of the Kratom users. In conclusion, PAY and its metabolites may be further markers for a Kratom abuse in addition of MG and its metabolites. PMID:19902190

Philipp, Anika A; Wissenbach, Dirk K; Weber, Armin A; Zapp, Josef; Zoerntlein, Siegfried W; Kanogsunthornrat, Jidapha; Maurer, Hans H

2010-04-01

124

CYP3A-mediated drug-drug interaction potential and excretion of brentuximab vedotin, an antibody-drug conjugate, in patients with CD30-positive hematologic malignancies.  

PubMed

Brentuximab vedotin is an antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) that selectively delivers monomethyl auristatin E (MMAE) into CD30-expressing cells. This study evaluated the CYP3A-mediated drug-drug interaction potential of brentuximab vedotin and the excretion of MMAE. Two 21-day cycles of brentuximab vedotin (1.2 or 1.8?mg/kg intravenously) were administered to 56 patients with CD30-positive hematologic malignancies. Each patient also received either a sensitive CYP3A substrate (midazolam), an effective inducer (rifampin), or a strong inhibitor (ketoconazole). Brentuximab vedotin did not affect midazolam exposures. ADC exposures were unaffected by concomitant rifampin or ketoconazole; however, MMAE exposures were lower with rifampin and higher with ketoconazole. The short-term safety profile of brentuximab vedotin in this study was generally consistent with historic clinical observations. The most common adverse events were nausea, fatigue, diarrhea, headache, pyrexia, and neutropenia. Over a 1-week period, ?23.5% of intact MMAE was recovered after administration of brentuximab vedotin; all other species were below the limit of quantitation. The primary excretion route is via feces (median 72% of the recovered MMAE). These results suggest that brentuximab vedotin (1.8 mg/kg) and MMAE are neither inhibitors nor inducers of CYP3A; however, MMAE is a substrate of CYP3A. PMID:23754575

Han, Tae H; Gopal, Ajay K; Ramchandren, Radhakrishnan; Goy, Andre; Chen, Robert; Matous, Jeffrey V; Cooper, Maureen; Grove, Laurie E; Alley, Stephen C; Lynch, Carmel M; O'Connor, Owen A

2013-08-01

125

CYP3A-mediated drug-drug interaction potential and excretion of brentuximab vedotin, an antibody-drug conjugate, in patients with CD30-positive hematologic malignancies  

PubMed Central

Brentuximab vedotin is an antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) that selectively delivers monomethyl auristatin E (MMAE) into CD30-expressing cells. This study evaluated the CYP3A-mediated drug-drug interaction potential of brentuximab vedotin and the excretion of MMAE. Two 21-day cycles of brentuximab vedotin (1.2 or 1.8 mg/kg intravenously) were administered to 56 patients with CD30-positive hematologic malignancies. Each patient also received either a sensitive CYP3A substrate (midazolam), an effective inducer (rifampin), or a strong inhibitor (ketoconazole). Brentuximab vedotin did not affect midazolam exposures. ADC exposures were unaffected by concomitant rifampin or ketoconazole; however, MMAE exposures were lower with rifampin and higher with ketoconazole. The short-term safety profile of brentuximab vedotin in this study was generally consistent with historic clinical observations. The most common adverse events were nausea, fatigue, diarrhea, headache, pyrexia, and neutropenia. Over a 1-week period, ~23.5% of intact MMAE was recovered after administration of brentuximab vedotin; all other species were below the limit of quantitation. The primary excretion route is via feces (median 72% of the recovered MMAE). These results suggest that brentuximab vedotin (1.8 mg/kg) and MMAE are neither inhibitors nor inducers of CYP3A; however, MMAE is a substrate of CYP3A. PMID:23754575

Han, Tae H.; Gopal, Ajay K.; Ramchandren, Radhakrishnan; Goy, Andre; Chen, Robert; Matous, Jeffrey V.; Cooper, Maureen; Grove, Laurie E.; Alley, Stephen C.; Lynch, Carmel M.; O’Connor, Owen A.

2013-01-01

126

Development of a high-performance liquid chromatographic–mass spectrometric assay for the specific and sensitive quantification of Ro 64-0802, an anti-influenza drug, and its pro-drug, oseltamivir, in human and animal plasma and urine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oseltamivir phosphate (Ro 64-0796\\/002) is a pro-drug of the anti-influenza neuraminidase inhibitor, Ro 64-0802, and as Tamiflu™, has been developed for the treatment of both A and B strains of the disease. This paper describes an HPLC–MS–MS assay for both compounds in plasma and urine which fulfils all of the criteria for a good analytical method. It is sensitive with

Hugh Wiltshire; Barbara Wiltshire; Andrea Citron; Tony Clarke; Carolyn Serpe; Donald Gray; William Herron

2000-01-01

127

Genomic Analysis Identifies Targets of Convergent Positive Selection in Drug Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Mycobacterium tuberculosis is successfully evolving antibiotic resistance, threatening attempts at tuberculosis epidemic control. Mechanisms of resistance, including the genetic changes favored by selection in resistant isolates, are incompletely understood. Using 116 newly and 7 previously sequenced M. tuberculosis genomes, we identified genomewide signatures of positive selection specific to the 47 resistant genomes. By searching for convergent evolution, the independent fixation of mutations at the same nucleotide site or gene, we recovered 100% of a set of known resistance markers. We also found evidence of positive selection in an additional 39 genomic regions in resistant isolates. These regions encode pathways of cell wall biosynthesis, transcriptional regulation and DNA repair. Mutations in these regions could directly confer resistance or compensate for fitness costs associated with resistance. Functional genetic analysis of mutations in one gene, ponA1, demonstrated an in vitro growth advantage in the presence of the drug rifampicin. PMID:23995135

Farhat, Maha R; Shapiro, B Jesse; Kieser, Karen J; Sultana, Razvan; Jacobson, Karen R; Victor, Thomas C; Warren, Robin M; Streicher, Elizabeth M; Calver, Alistair; Sloutsky, Alex; Kaur, Devinder; Posey, Jamie E; Plikaytis, Bonnie; Oggioni, Marco R; Gardy, Jennifer L; Johnston, James C; Rodrigues, Mabel; Tang, Patrick K C; Kato-Maeda, Midori; Borowsky, Mark L; Muddukrishna, Bhavana; Kreiswirth, Barry N; Kurepina, Natalia; Galagan, James; Gagneux, Sebastien; Birren, Bruce; Rubin, Eric J; Lander, Eric S; Sabeti, Pardis C; Murray, Megan

2013-01-01

128

The Drug User's Identity and How It Relates to Being Hepatitis C Antibody Positive: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The increasing health problem of hepatitis C virus infection has only recently attracted the attention of psychosocial research, especially among subjects at higher risk (e.g. injecting drug users). There is a lack of information about the knowledge, perceptions and feelings that injecting drug users hold about their hepatitis C antibody positive

Copeland, Lorraine

2004-01-01

129

Detection and prevalence of drug use in arrested drivers using the Dräger Drug Test 5000 and Affiniton DrugWipe oral fluid drug screening devices.  

PubMed

The use of oral fluid (OF) drug testing devices offers the ability to rapidly obtain a drug screening result at the time of a traffic stop. We describe an evaluation of two such devices, the Dräger Drug Test 5000 and the Affiniton DrugWipe, to detect drug use in a cohort of drivers arrested from an investigation of drug impaired driving (n = 92). Overall, 41% of these drivers were ultimately confirmed positive by mass spectrometry for the presence of one or more drugs. The most frequently detected drugs were cannabinoids (30%), benzodiazepines (11%) and cocaine (10%). Thirty-nine percent of drivers with blood alcohol concentrations >0.08 g/100 mL were found to be drug positive. Field test results obtained from OF samples were compared with collected OF and urine samples subsequently analyzed in the laboratory by gas or liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The Dräger Drug Test 5000 (DDT5000) and DrugWipe returned overall sensitivities of 51 and 53%, and positive predictive values of 93 and 63%, respectively. The most notable difference in performance was the DDT5000's better sensitivity in detecting marijuana use. Both devices failed to detect benzodiazepine use. Oral fluid proved to be a more effective confirmatory specimen, with more drugs being confirmed in OF than urine. PMID:24894458

Logan, Barry K; Mohr, Amanda L A; Talpins, Stephen K

2014-09-01

130

A gas chromatographic-positive ion chemical ionization-mass spectrometric method for the determination of I-alpha-acetylmethadol (LAAM), norLAAM, and dinorLAAM in plasma, urine, and tissue.  

PubMed

l-alpha-Acetylmethadol (LAAM) is approved as a substitute for methadone for the treatment of opiate addiction. Analytical methods are needed to quantitate LAAM and its two psychoactive metabolites, norLAAM and dinorLAAM, to support pharmacokinetic and other studies. We developed a gas chromatographic-positive ion chemical ionization-mass spectrometric method for these analyses. The method uses 0.5 mL urine or 1.0 mL plasma or tissue homogenate, deuterated (d3) isotopomers as internal standards, methanolic denaturation of protein (for plasma and tissue), and extraction of the buffered sample with n-butyl chloride. For tissue homogenates, an acidic back extraction is included. norLAAM and dinorLAAM were derivatized with trifluoroacetic anhydride. Chromatographic separation of LAAM and derivatized norLAAM and dinorLAAM is achieved with a 5% phenyl methylsilicone capillary column. Positive ion chemical ionization detection using methane-ammonia as the reagent gas produces abundant protonated ions (MH+) for LAAM (m/z 354) and LAAM-d3 (m/z 357) and ammonia adduct ions (MNH4+) for the derivatized norLAAM (m/z 453), norLAAM-d3 (m/z 45 6), dinorLAAM (m/z 439), and dinorLAAM-d3 (m/z 442). The linear range of the calibration curves were matrix dependent: 5-300 ng/mL for plasma, 10-1000 ng/mL for urine, and 10-600 ng/g for tissue homogenates. The low calibrator was the validated limit of quantitation for that matrix. The method is precise and accurate with percent coefficients of variation and percent of targets within 13%. The method was applied to the analysis of human urine and plasma samples; rat plasma, liver, and brain samples; and human liver microsomes following incubation with LAAM. PMID:8926727

Moody, D E; Crouch, D J; Sakashita, C O; Alburges, M E; Minear, K; Schulthies, J E; Foltz, R L

1995-10-01

131

Positive allosteric modulators to peptide GPCRs: a promising class of drugs  

PubMed Central

The task of finding selective and stable peptide receptor agonists with low molecular weight, desirable pharmacokinetic properties and penetrable to the blood-brain barrier has proven too difficult for many highly coveted drug targets, including receptors for endothelin, vasoactive intestinal peptide and galanin. These receptors and ligand-gated ion channels activated by structurally simple agonists such as glutamate, glycine and GABA present such a narrow chemical space that the design of subtype-selective molecules capable of distinguishing a dozen of glutamate and GABA receptor subtypes and possessing desirable pharmacokinetic properties has also been problematic. In contrast, the pharmaceutical industry demonstrates a remarkable success in developing 1,4-benzodiazepines, positive allosteric modulators (PMAs) of the GABAA receptor. They were synthesized over 50 years ago and discovered to have anxiolytic potential through an in vivo assay. As exemplified by Librium, Valium and Dormicum, these allosteric ligands of the receptor became the world's first blockbuster drugs. Through molecular manipulation over the past 2 decades, including mutations and knockouts of the endogenous ligands or their receptors, and by in-depth physiological and pharmacological studies, more peptide and glutamate receptors have become well-validated drug targets for which an agonist is sought. In such cases, the pursuit for PAMs has also intensified, and a working paradigm to identify drug candidates that are designed as PAMs has emerged. This review, which focuses on the general principles of finding PAMs of peptide receptors in the 21st century, describes the workflow and some of its resulting compounds such as PAMs of galanin receptor 2 that act as potent anticonvulsant agents. PMID:23624758

Bartfai, Tamas; Wang, Ming-wei

2013-01-01

132

Uric acid - urine  

MedlinePLUS

The urine uric acid test measures the level of uric acid in urine. Uric acid level can also be checked using a blood ... to choose the best medicine to lower uric acid level in the blood. Uric acid is a ...

133

Urine specific gravity test  

MedlinePLUS

This test helps evaluate your body's water balance and urine concentration. ... This test helps check your body's water balance and urine ... and is usually part of a routine urinalysis . As such, the ...

134

Scientific issues in drug testing: council on scientific affairs  

SciTech Connect

Testing for drugs in biologic fluids, especially urine, is a practice that has become widespread. The technology of testing for drugs in urine has greatly improved in recent years. Inexpensive screening techniques are not sufficiently accurate for forensic testing standards, which must be met wihen a person's employment or reputation may be affected by results. This is particularly a concern during screening of a population in which the prevalence of drug use is very low, in which the predictive value of a positive result would be quite low. Physicians should be aware that results from drug testing can yield accurate evidence of prior exposure to drugs, but they do not provide information about patterns of drug use, about abuse of or dependence on drugs, or about mental or physical impairments that may result from drug use.

Not Available

1987-06-12

135

Spatial Analysis of HIV Positive Injection Drug Users in San Francisco, 1987 to 2005  

PubMed Central

Spatial analyses of HIV/AIDS related outcomes are growing in popularity as a tool to understand geographic changes in the epidemic and inform the effectiveness of community-based prevention and treatment programs. The Urban Health Study was a serial, cross-sectional epidemiological study of injection drug users (IDUs) in San Francisco between 1987 and 2005 (N = 29,914). HIV testing was conducted for every participant. Participant residence was geocoded to the level of the United States Census tract for every observation in dataset. Local indicator of spatial autocorrelation (LISA) tests were used to identify univariate and bivariate Census tract clusters of HIV positive IDUs in two time periods. We further compared three tract level characteristics (% poverty, % African Americans, and % unemployment) across areas of clustered and non-clustered tracts. We identified significant spatial clustering of high numbers of HIV positive IDUs in the early period (1987–1995) and late period (1996–2005). We found significant bivariate clusters of Census tracts where HIV positive IDUs and tract level poverty were above average compared to the surrounding areas. Our data suggest that poverty, rather than race, was an important neighborhood characteristic associated with the spatial distribution of HIV in SF and its spatial diffusion over time. PMID:24722543

Martinez, Alexis N.; Mobley, Lee R.; Lorvick, Jennifer; Novak, Scott P.; Lopez, Andrea M.; Kral, Alex H.

2014-01-01

136

Spatial analysis of HIV positive injection drug users in San Francisco, 1987 to 2005.  

PubMed

Spatial analyses of HIV/AIDS related outcomes are growing in popularity as a tool to understand geographic changes in the epidemic and inform the effectiveness of community-based prevention and treatment programs. The Urban Health Study was a serial, cross-sectional epidemiological study of injection drug users (IDUs) in San Francisco between 1987 and 2005 (N = 29,914). HIV testing was conducted for every participant. Participant residence was geocoded to the level of the United States Census tract for every observation in dataset. Local indicator of spatial autocorrelation (LISA) tests were used to identify univariate and bivariate Census tract clusters of HIV positive IDUs in two time periods. We further compared three tract level characteristics (% poverty, % African Americans, and % unemployment) across areas of clustered and non-clustered tracts. We identified significant spatial clustering of high numbers of HIV positive IDUs in the early period (1987-1995) and late period (1996-2005). We found significant bivariate clusters of Census tracts where HIV positive IDUs and tract level poverty were above average compared to the surrounding areas. Our data suggest that poverty, rather than race, was an important neighborhood characteristic associated with the spatial distribution of HIV in SF and its spatial diffusion over time. PMID:24722543

Martinez, Alexis N; Mobley, Lee R; Lorvick, Jennifer; Novak, Scott P; Lopez, Andrea; Kral, Alex H

2014-04-01

137

Weighing the Consequences: Self-Disclosure of HIV-Positive Status among African American Injection Drug Users  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Theorists posit that personal decisions to disclose being HIV positive are made based on the perceived consequences of that disclosure. This study examines the perceived costs and benefits of self-disclosure among African American injection drug users (IDUs). A total of 80 African American IDUs were interviewed in-depth subsequent to testing HIV…

Valle, Maribel; Levy, Judith

2009-01-01

138

10 CFR 26.153 - Using certified laboratories for testing urine specimens.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...certified laboratories for testing urine specimens. 26.153 Section...Using certified laboratories for testing urine specimens. (a) Licensees...Guidelines for Federal Workplace Drug Testing Programs [published in the...

2010-01-01

139

Evaluation of adverse drug reactions in HIV positive patients in a tertiary care hospital  

PubMed Central

Context: The advancement and development of new drugs and treatment strategies increase the risk of unusual Adverse Events (AEs) in HIV patients. Aims: The objective of our study was to assess the incidence, types and nature of AEs in HIV positive subjects. Settings and Design: Patients with WHO stage IV disease irrespective of the CD4 cell count, or WHO stage III disease with a CD4 cell count <350 cell/cu. Mm, or, WHO stage I or II disease with a CD4 cell count of <200 cells/cu. mm, and on prior anti-retroviral therapy for not more than six months preceding the observation date, were included in the study. After initiation of therapy, the patients were examined for the occurrence any adverse events including the type and severity, or any other abnormal laboratory findings. Causality assessment of the adverse events was done using the Naranjo's scale. Results: Out of 327 patients studied prospectively, 43 patients developed AEs. Out of these, 23 (53.5%) were males and 20 (46.5%) were females. A total of 53 (16.21%) AEs were reported. Antitubercular drugs caused the maximum AEs (28.3%) followed by zidovudine (20.7%), nevirapine (15.0%) and efavirenz (5.6%). Stavudine, ethambutol, sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim, and atazanavir were also responsible for 3.7% of AEs individually. Causality assessment done according to the Naranjo's scale revealed that 66.04% AEs were ‘probable’ and 33.96% were ‘possible’. Conclusions: Anemia, hepatitis and dermatological adverse effects are the most common AEs. Antitubercular drugs contributed significantly for the incidence of AEs in these patients. Frequency of AEs was slightly more in males compared to females. PMID:25657900

Jha, Anshu Kumar; Gadgade, Akash; Shenoy, Ashok K.; Chowta, Mukta N.; Ramapuram, John T.

2015-01-01

140

Positive family relationships and religious affiliation as mediators between negative environment and illicit drug symptoms in American Indian adolescents.  

PubMed

The present study tests how positive family relationships and religious affiliation mediate between negative familial and social environments, and adolescent illicit drug abuse/dependence symptoms. The theoretical framework is based on an integration of two theories: the ecological model of human development (Bronfenbrenner, 1979) and the social development model (Hawkins & Weis, 1985). We used a stratified random sample of 401 American Indian adolescents. A path analysis tested the integrative theoretical model. Findings showed that positive family relationships mediated the negative impact of addicted family members, violence victimization, and negative school environment on illicit drug abuse/dependence symptoms. Religious affiliation mediated the negative effect of deviant peers on positive family relationships. Intervention and prevention efforts may benefit from promoting positive family relationships and religious affiliation to reduce the impact of complex familial and social problems on illicit drug symptoms. PMID:20359830

Yu, Mansoo; Stiffman, Arlene R

2010-07-01

141

Personalized drug combinations to overcome trastuzumab resistance in HER2-positive breast cancer.  

PubMed

HER2-positive (HER2+) breast cancer accounts for 18%-20% of all breast cancer cases and has the second poorest prognosis among breast cancer subtypes. Trastuzumab, the first Food and Drug Administration-approved targeted therapy for breast cancer, established the era of personalized treatment for HER2+ metastatic disease. It is well tolerated and improves overall survival and time-to-disease progression; with chemotherapy, it is part of the standard of care for patients with HER2+ metastatic disease. However, many patients do not benefit from it because of resistance. Substantial research has been performed to understand the mechanism of trastuzumab resistance and develop combination strategies to overcome the resistance. In this review, we provide insight into the current pipeline of drugs used in combination with trastuzumab and the degree to which these combinations have been evaluated, especially in patients who have experienced disease progression on trastuzumab. We conclude with a discussion of the current challenges and future therapeutic approaches to trastuzumab-based combination therapy. PMID:25065528

Vu, Thuy; Sliwkowski, Mark X; Claret, Francois X

2014-12-01

142

Application of non-linear angle synchronous spectrofluorimetry to the determination of complex mixtures of drugs in urine: A comparative study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy (SFS) is a rapid, sensitive and non-destructive method suitable for the analysis of multifluorophoric mixtures. In this study non linear variable angle synchronous spectrofluorimetry was applied to the determination of three fluoroquinololes in urine. Although this technique provides very good results, total resolution of multicomponent mixtures is not always achieved when the spectral profiles strongly overlap. Partial least-squares regression (PLS-1) was utilized to a develop calibration model that related synchronous fluorescence spectra to the analytical concentration of fluoroquinolones in the presence of urine. The same multicomponent mixture was determined using excitation emission matrix fluorescence (EEMF) along with N-way partial least squares regression (N-PLS and U-PLS). The determination was carried out in micellar medium 0.01 M with a pH of 4.8 provided by 0.2 M sodium acetate/acetic acid buffer. A central composite design was selected to obtain a calibration matrix of 25 standards plus a blank sample. The proposed methods were validated by application to a test set of synthetic samples. The results show that SFS with PLS-1 is a better method compared to EEMF with N-PLS or U-PLS because of the low RMSEP values of the former.

Murillo Pulgarín, J. A.; Alañón Molina, A.; Boras, N.

2012-12-01

143

On-Demand Urine Analyzer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A lab-on-a-chip was developed that is capable of extracting biochemical indicators from urine samples and generating their surface-enhanced Raman spectra (SERS) so that the indicators can be quantified and identified. The development was motivated by the need to monitor and assess the effects of extended weightlessness, which include space motion sickness and loss of bone and muscle mass. The results may lead to developments of effective exercise programs and drug regimes that would maintain astronaut health. The analyzer containing the lab-on-a- chip includes materials to extract 3- methylhistidine (a muscle-loss indicator) and Risedronate (a bone-loss indicator) from the urine sample and detect them at the required concentrations using a Raman analyzer. The lab-on- a-chip has both an extractive material and a SERS-active material. The analyzer could be used to monitor the onset of diseases, such as osteoporosis.

Farquharson, Stuart; Inscore, Frank; Shende, Chetan

2010-01-01

144

Active and latent tuberculosis among HIV-positive injecting drug users in Indonesia  

PubMed Central

Introduction Injecting drug use (IDU) is associated with tuberculosis but few data are available from low-income settings. We examined IDU in relation to active and latent tuberculosis (LTBI) among HIV-positive individuals in Indonesia, which has a high burden of tuberculosis and a rapidly growing HIV epidemic strongly driven by IDU. Methods Active tuberculosis was measured prospectively among 1900 consecutive antiretroviral treatment (ART)-naïve adult patients entering care in a clinic in West Java. Prevalence of LTBI was determined cross-sectionally in a subset of 518 ART-experienced patients using an interferon-gamma release assay. Results Patients with a history of IDU (53.1%) more often reported a history of tuberculosis treatment (34.8% vs. 21.9%, p<0.001), more often received tuberculosis treatment during follow-up (adjusted HR=1.71; 95% CI: 1.25–2.35) and more often had bacteriologically confirmed tuberculosis (OR=1.67; 95% CI: 0.94–2.96). LTBI was equally prevalent among people with and without a history of IDU (29.1 vs. 30.4%, NS). The risk estimates did not change after adjustment for CD4 cell count or ART. Conclusions HIV-positive individuals with a history of IDU in Indonesia have more active tuberculosis, with similar rates of LTBI. Within the HIV clinic, LTBI screening and isoniazid preventive therapy may be prioritized to patients with a history of IDU. PMID:25690530

Meijerink, Hinta; Wisaksana, Rudi; Lestari, Mery; Meilana, Intan; Chaidir, Lydia; van der Ven, Andre JAM; Alisjahbana, Bachti; van Crevel, Reinout

2015-01-01

145

49 CFR 655.61 - Action when an employee has a verified positive drug test result or has a confirmed alcohol test...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...positive drug test result or has a confirmed alcohol test result of 0.04 or greater, or...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PREVENTION OF ALCOHOL MISUSE AND PROHIBITED DRUG USE IN TRANSIT...positive drug test result or has a confirmed alcohol test result of 0.04 or greater,...

2010-10-01

146

Usability application of multiplex polymerase chain reaction in the diagnosis of microorganisms isolated from urine of patients treated in cancer hospital  

PubMed Central

Background The objective of this study was: i) to compare the results of urine culture with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) -based detection of microorganisms using two commercially available kits, ii) to assess antimicrobial susceptibility of urine isolates from cancer patients to chosen antimicrobial drugs and, if necessary, to update the recommendation of empirical therapy. Materials and methods. A one-year hospital-based prospective study has been conducted in Greater Poland Cancer Centre and Genetic Medicine Laboratory CBDNA Research Centre in 2011. Urine cultures and urine PCR assay from 72 patients were examined Results Urine cultures and urine PCR assay from 72 patients were examined. Urine samples were positive for 128 strains from which 95 (74%) were identical in both tests. The most frequently isolated bacteria in both culture and PCR assay were coliform organisms and Enterococcus spp. The Gram negative bacilli were most resistant to cotrimoxazol. 77.2% of these bacilli and 100% of E. faecalis and S. agalactiae were sensitive to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid. 4.7% of Gram positive cocci were resistant to nitrofurantoin. Conclusions The PCR method quickly finds the causative agent of urinary tract infection (UTI) and, therefore, it can help with making the choice of the proper antimicrobial therapy at an early stage. It appears to be a viable alternative to the recommendations made in general treatment guidelines, in cases where diversified sensitivity patterns of microorganisms have been found. PMID:24133395

Cybulski, Zefiryn; Schmidt, Katarzyna; Grabiec, Alicja; Talaga, Zofia; Boci?g, Piotr; Wojciechowicz, Jacek; Roszak, Andrzej; Kycler, Witold

2013-01-01

147

Construction of an Integrated Positive Youth Development Conceptual Framework for the Prevention of the Use of Psychotropic Drugs among Adolescents  

PubMed Central

This is a theoretical paper with an aim to construct an integrated conceptual framework for the prevention of adolescents' use and abuse of psychotropic drugs. This paper first reports the subjective reasons for adolescents' drug use and abuse in Hong Kong and reviews the theoretical underpinnings. Theories of drug use and abuse, including neurological, pharmacological, genetic predisposition, psychological, and sociological theories, were reviewed. It provides a critical re-examination of crucial factors that support the construction of a conceptual framework for primary prevention of adolescents' drug use and abuse building on, with minor revision, the model of victimization and substance abuse among women presented by Logan et al. This revised model provides a comprehensive and coherent framework synthesized from theories of drug abuse. This paper then provides empirical support for integrating a positive youth development perspective in the revised model. It further explains how the 15 empirically sound constructs identified by Catalano et al. and used in a positive youth development program, the Project P.A.T.H.S., relate generally to the components of the revised model to formulate an integrated positive youth development conceptual framework for primary prevention of adolescent drug use. Theoretical and practical implications as well as limitations and recommendations are discussed. PMID:22194671

Lee, Tak Yan

2011-01-01

148

Multi-drug resistant oral Candida species isolated from HIV-positive patients in South Africa and Cameroon.  

PubMed

Candida species are a common cause of infection in immune-compromised HIV-positive individuals, who are usually treated with the antifungal drug, fluconazole, in public hospitals in Africa. However, information about the prevalence of drug resistance to fluconazole and other antifungal agents on Candida species is very limited. This study examined 128 Candida isolates from South Africa and 126 Cameroonian Candida isolates for determination of species prevalence and antifungal drug susceptibility. The isolates were characterized by growth on chromogenic and selective media and by their susceptibility to 9 antifungal drugs tested using the TREK™ YeastOne9 drug panel (Thermo Scientific, USA). Eighty-three percent (82.8%) of South African isolates were Candida albicans (106 isolates), 9.4% were Candida glabrata (12 isolates), and 7.8% were Candida dubliniensis (10 isolates). Of the Cameroonian isolates, 73.02% were C. albicans (92 isolates); 19.05% C. glabrata (24 isolates); 3.2% Candida tropicalis (4 isolates); 2.4% Candida krusei (3 isolates); 1.59% either Candida kefyr, Candida parapsilopsis, or Candida lusitaneae (2 isolates); and 0.79% C. dubliniensis (1 isolate). Widespread C. albicans resistance to azoles was detected phenotypically in both populations. Differences in drug resistance were seen within C. glabrata found in both populations. Echinocandin drugs were more effective on isolates obtained from the Cameroon than in South Africa. A multiple-drug resistant C. dubliniensis strain isolated from the South African samples was inhibited only by 5-flucytosine in vitro on the YO9 panel. Drug resistance among oral Candida species is common among African HIV patients in these 2 countries. Regional surveillance of Candida species drug susceptibility should be undertaken to ensure effective treatment for HIV-positive patients. PMID:24726686

Dos Santos Abrantes, Pedro Miguel; McArthur, Carole P; Africa, Charlene Wilma Joyce

2014-06-01

149

Urine the Know  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity on page 5 of the PDF, learners compare water with artificial urine to see how urinalysis works. Learners use urinalysis test strips to test for glucose and protein in the fake urine. Use this activity to demonstrate why doctors examine urine samples to determine a person's health. Safety notes: Follow the safety notes described in the activity as well as Milli's safety tips on page 2.

Society, American C.

2004-01-01

150

Urine PCR Evaluation to Diagnose Pulmonary Tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Background: Culture and specific staining (including Zeil-Nelson and fluorescent methods) are standard measures for the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB). These methods are time-consuming and sometimes have a low level of accuracy. In addition, in some cases obtaining samples for smear and culture involves invasive procedures; while in other cases there is no suitable sample for evaluation. Therefore, there is a need for faster and more accurate diagnostic methods. Objectives: The current study investigated the diagnostic value of tuberculosis-polymerase chain reaction (TB-PCR) of urine in the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). Patients and Methods: This case-control study included; 77 proven pulmonary tuberculosis cases (according to the national TB protocol), and 30 subjects who were completely healthy. The urine samples (50 mL) were mixed with 0.5 mL Ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid. DNA extraction and PCR testing were performed on all blood samples using SI 6110 primers. Mycobacterium tuberculosis was also cultivated in the sputum and urine samples of the patients. Results: Results of the current study indicated that 48 (62.3%) patients out of 77 had a positive sputum culture. Urine cultures and acid-fast smears were negative. Urine PCR-TB was positive in 48.0% (37/77) of the patients. The speci?c TBPCR complex was positive in 56.2% (27/48) of the positive cultures and 34.4% (10/29) of the negative culture PTB patients. The control group had negative urine PCR (sensitivity 56.2% and specificity 100%). Conclusions: With regard to the ease of urine sample preparation and the 100% specificity the PCR method, performing urine PCR could be used as a diagnostic aid in PTB cases obtaining sputum samples is problematic. PMID:25147688

Heydari, Ali Akbar; Movahhede Danesh, Masood Reza; Ghazvini, Kiarash

2014-01-01

151

Urine Pretreat Injection System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new method of introducing the OXONE (Registered Trademark) Monopersulfate Compound for urine pretreat into a two-phase urine/air flow stream has been successfully tested and evaluated. The feasibility of this innovative method has been established for purposes of providing a simple, convenient, and safe method of handling a chemical pretreat required for urine processing in a microgravity space environment. Also, the Oxone portion of the urine pretreat has demonstrated the following advantages during real time collection of 750 pounds of urine in a Space Station design two-phase urine Fan/Separator: Eliminated urine precipitate buildup on internal hardware and plumbing; Minimized odor from collected urine; and Virtually eliminated airborne bacteria. The urine pretreat, as presently defined for the Space Station program for proper downstream processing of urine, is a two-part chemical treatment of 5.0 grams of Oxone and 2.3 ml of H2SO4 per liter of urine. This study program and test demonstrated only the addition of the proper ratio of Oxone into the urine collection system upstream of the Fan/Separator. This program was divided into the following three major tasks: (1) A trade study, to define and recommend the type of Oxone injection method to pursue further; (2) The design and fabrication of the selected method; and (3) A test program using high fidelity hardware and fresh urine to demonstrate the method feasibility. The trade study was conducted which included defining several methods for injecting Oxone in different forms into a urine system. Oxone was considered in a liquid, solid, paste and powered form. The trade study and the resulting recommendation were presented at a trade study review held at Hamilton Standard on 24-25 October 94. An agreement was reached at the meeting to continue the solid tablet in a bag concept which included a series of tablets suspended in the urine/air flow stream. These Oxone tablets would slowly dissolve at a controlled rate providing the proper concentration in the collected urine. To implement the solid tablet in a bag approach, a design concept was completed with prototype drawings of the complete urine pretreat prefilter assembly. A successful fabrication technique was developed for retaining the Oxone tablets in a fabric casing attached to the end of the existing Space Station Waste Collection System urine prefilter assembly. The final pretreat prefilter configuration held sufficient Oxone in a tablet form to allow normal scheduled daily (or twice daily) change out of the urine filter depending on the use rate of the Space Station urine collection system. The actual tests to prove the concept were conducted using the Urine Fan/Separator assembly that was originally used in the STS-52 Design Test Objective (DTO) urinal assembly. Other related tests were conducted to demonstrate the actual minimum ratio of Oxone to urine that will control microbial growth.

1995-01-01

152

Witnessed versus Unwitnessed Random Urine Tests in the Treatment of Opioid Dependence  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives Clinics licensed to provide pharmacotherapy for opiate dependence disorder are required to perform random urine drug screen (RUDS) tests. The results provide the empirical basis of individual treatment and programmatic effectiveness, and public health policy. Patients consent to witnessed testing but most tests are unwitnessed. The purpose of the present study was to compare treatment effectiveness estimates derived from witnessed versus unwitnessed urine samples. Methods We adopted a policy requiring visually witnessed urine drug screens (WUDS) and studied its impact (a single group, pretest–posttest design) on the RUDS test results in 115 male veterans enrolled in the St. Louis VA Opioid Treatment Program. Results The percentage of opioid-positive urine samples increased significantly following implementation of WUDS (25% vs. 41%, ?2 = 66.5, p < .001). Conclusions and Scientific Significance Results of this preliminary study suggest that random testing alone does not ensure the integrity of UDS testing. Outcome calculations based on random unwitnessed tests may overestimate the effectiveness of opioid dependence disorder treatment. PMID:23414505

Mallya, Ashok; Purnell, Amanda L.; Svrakic, Dragan M.; Lovell, Ann M.; Freedland, Kenneth E.; Gott, Britt M.; Sayuk, Gregory S.; Cicero, Theodore J.; Brawer, Peter A.; Trafton, Jodie A.; Scherrer, Jeffrey F.; Lustman, Patrick J.

2013-01-01

153

Impact of urine concentration adjustment method on associations between urine metals and estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) in adolescents.  

PubMed

Positive associations between urine toxicant levels and measures of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) have been reported recently in a range of populations. The explanation for these associations, in a direction opposite that of traditional nephrotoxicity, is uncertain. Variation in associations by urine concentration adjustment approach has also been observed. Associations of urine cadmium, thallium and uranium in models of serum creatinine- and cystatin-C-based estimated GFR (eGFR) were examined using multiple linear regression in a cross-sectional study of adolescents residing near a lead smelter complex. Urine concentration adjustment approaches compared included urine creatinine, urine osmolality and no adjustment. Median age, blood lead and urine cadmium, thallium and uranium were 13.9 years, 4.0 ?g/dL, 0.22, 0.27 and 0.04 g/g creatinine, respectively, in 512 adolescents. Urine cadmium and thallium were positively associated with serum creatinine-based eGFR only when urine creatinine was used to adjust for urine concentration (? coefficient=3.1 mL/min/1.73 m(2); 95% confidence interval=1.4, 4.8 per each doubling of urine cadmium). Weaker positive associations, also only with urine creatinine adjustment, were observed between these metals and serum cystatin-C-based eGFR and between urine uranium and serum creatinine-based eGFR. Additional research using non-creatinine-based methods of adjustment for urine concentration is necessary. PMID:24815335

Weaver, Virginia M; Vargas, Gonzalo García; Silbergeld, Ellen K; Rothenberg, Stephen J; Fadrowski, Jeffrey J; Rubio-Andrade, Marisela; Parsons, Patrick J; Steuerwald, Amy J; Navas-Acien, Ana; Guallar, Eliseo

2014-07-01

154

RBC urine test  

MedlinePLUS

Red blood cells in urine; Hematuria test; Urine - red blood cells ... A normal result is 4 RBC/HPF (red blood cells per high power field) or less when the sample is examined under a microscope. The example above is a common measurement ...

155

College on Problems of Drug Dependence taskforce on prescription opioid non-medical use and abuse: position statement  

Microsoft Academic Search

This position paper from the College on Problems of Drug Dependence addresses the issues related to non-medical use and abuse of prescription opioids. A central theme throughout is the need to strike a balance between risk management strategies to prevent and deter prescription opioid abuse and the need for physicians and patients to have appropriate access to opioid pharmaceuticals for

James Zacny; George Bigelow; Peggy Compton; Kathleen Foley; Martin Iguchi; Christine Sannerud

2003-01-01

156

Illicit drug use, alcohol use and nicotine dependence as predictors of antiretroviral adherence in a sample of HIV positive smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. Predictors of non-adherence to antiretroviral medications in a population of low-income, multiethnic, HIV-positive smokers were investigated. ^ Methods. A secondary analysis was conducted using baseline data collected from 326 patients currently prescribed antiretrovirals enrolled in a randomized clinical trial assessing smoking outcomes. Variables evaluated included demographics, stress, depression, nicotine dependence, illicit drug use and alcohol use. ^ Results. The

Rachel M Marks

2010-01-01

157

Urine collection device  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A urine collection device for females is described. It is comprised of a collection element defining a urine collection chamber and an inlet opening into the chamber and is adapted to be disposed in surrounding relation to the urethral opening of the user. A drainage conduit is connected to the collection element in communication with the chamber whereby the chamber and conduit together comprise a urine flow pathway for carrying urine generally away from the inlet. A first body of wicking material is mounted adjacent the collection element and extends at least partially into the flow pathway. The device preferably also comprise a vaginal insert element including a seal portion for preventing the entry of urine into the vagina.

Michaud, R. B. (inventor)

1981-01-01

158

Dalbavancin: Quantification in human plasma and urine by a new improved high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method.  

PubMed

Dalbavancin is a novel second-generation lipoglycopeptide antibiotic with activity against broad range of Gram-positive pathogens. In order to determine the pharmacokinetics (PK) of dalbavancin in pediatric patients, a new High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) bioanalytical method has been developed for quantification of dalbavancin in plasma and in urine. The plasma method was validated for dalbavancin in the linear range from 0.5 ?g/mL to 500 ?g/mL using 50 ?L of K(2) EDTA plasma. For dalbavancin spiked in urine, non-specific binding (NSB) of the drug to polypropylene (PP) urine collection containers was observed. The loss amounted to about 10% per transfer. After successfully establishing the collection/sampling procedure for urine by addition of Triton X-100 to the collection vessels (with a purpose of preventing NSB), the method was validated for dalbavancin in the range from 0.05 ?g/mL to 50 ?g/mL, using 100 ?L of urine. These methods were used to quantify dalbavancin in plasma and urine of hospitalized children in a pediatric dalbavancin PK study. Eighteen percent of the total number of plasma study samples was reassayed for incurred samples reproducibility (ISR) and all the reassayed dalbavancin concentrations were within the ± 20% limits. For urine, all the collected samples were reassayed for ISR and the original dalbavancin concentration was confirmed within the ± 20% limits for 17 (94%) samples; the one remaining urine sample had its reassayed concentration confirmed within ± 25% of the original result. PMID:21831727

Alebic-Kolbah, Tanja; Demers, Roger; Cojocaru, Laura

2011-09-01

159

Characterization of antibody drug conjugate positional isomers at cysteine residues by peptide mapping LC-MS analysis.  

PubMed

Antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) are becoming a major class of oncology therapeutics. Because ADCs combine the monoclonal antibody specificity with the high toxicity of a drug, they can selectively kill tumor cells while minimizing toxicity to normal cells. Most of the current ADCs in clinical trials are controlled, but heterogeneous mixtures of isomers and isoforms. Very few protocols on ADC characterization at the peptide level have been published to date. Here, we report on the improvement of an ADC peptide mapping protocol to characterize the drug-loaded peptides by LC-MS analysis. These methods were developed on brentuximab vedotin (Adcetris(®)), a commercial ADC with an average of four drugs linked to interchain cysteine residues of its antibody component. Because of the drug hydrophobicity, all the steps of this protocol including enzymatic digestion were improved to maintain the hydrophobic drug-loaded peptides in solution, allowing their unambiguous identification by LC-MS. For the first time, the payloads positional isomers observed by RP-HPLC after IdeS-digestion and reduction of the ADC were also characterized. PMID:25596378

Janin-Bussat, Marie-Claire; Dillenbourg, Marina; Corvaia, Nathalie; Beck, Alain; Klinguer-Hamour, Christine

2015-02-15

160

Tunable detection sensitivity of opiates in urine via a label-free porous silicon competitive inhibition immunosensor.  

PubMed

Currently, there is need for laboratory-based high-throughput and reliable point-of-care drug screening methodologies. We demonstrate here a chip-based label-free porous silicon (PSi) photonic sensor for detecting opiates in urine. This technique provides a cost-effective alternative to conventional labeled drug screening immunoassays with potential for translation to multiplexed analysis. Important effects of surface chemistry and competitive binding assay protocol on the sensitivity of opiate detection are revealed. Capability to tune sensitivity and detection range over approximately 3 orders of magnitude (18.0 nM to 10.8 muM) was achieved by varying the applied urine specimen volume (100-5 muL), which results in systematic shifts in the competitive binding response curve. A detection range (0.36-4.02 muM) of morphine in urine (15 muL) was designed to span the current positive cutoff value (1.05 muM morphine) in medical opiate urine screening. Desirable high cross-reactivity to oxycodone, in addition to other common opiates, morphine, morphine-3-glucuronide, 6-acetyl morphine, demonstrates an advantage over current commercial screening assays, while low interference with cocaine metabolite was maintained. This study uniquely displays PSi sensor technology as an inexpensive, rapid, and reliable drug screening technology. Furthermore, the versatile surface chemistry developed can be implemented on a range of solid-supported sensors to conduct competitive inhibition assays. PMID:20028021

Bonanno, Lisa M; Delouise, Lisa A

2010-01-15

161

[Two news drugs (ivacaftor & bedaquiline), one biomarker (florbetapir) and a re-positioned drug (propranolol) on the market].  

PubMed

Among the new molecular entities approved by the EMEA and the FDA in 2012, four have caught our attention for their significant contribution to the health of patient. First of all, among the notable 2012 approvals, is ivacaftor or Kalydeco®. This is the first treatment that targets one of the gene defects that is underlying cause of cystic fibrosis. This is also an example of the promise of personalized medicine. The benefits with bedaquiline or Sirturo® are its ability to likely provide clinically relevant activity as part of multi-drug regimens against tuberculosis (TB) based on clinical data in multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) patients, who were defined as being at least resistant against the two major tuberculostatic medicines (isaoniazide and rifampicine). On December 2012 and then, on December 2013, the FDA and European Medicines Agency's Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) has recommended granting a conditional marketing authorization for Sirturo® (bedaquiline), respectively, for use as part of a combination therapy for pulmonary multidrug resistant tuberculosis in adult patients when an effective treatment regimen cannot otherwise be composed for reasons of resistance or tolerability. Amyvid®, which is a solution for injection that contains the active substance florbetapir (18F), is a radiopharmaceutical that emits low amounts of radiation and works by targeting and attaching to ?-amyloid plaques in the brain. This enables doctors to know whether or not significant amount of plaques are present in order to know if the patient is unlikely or not, to have Alzheimer's disease. Finally, the last topics addresses the propranolol, which is a beta-blocker, used alone or together with other medicines to treat high blood pressure. Propranolol is gaining a new lease of life for treating infantile hemangioma. PMID:24997884

Monneret, C

2014-07-01

162

28 CFR 550.43 - Drug counseling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drug counseling. 550.43 Section 550.43 ...Drug Services (Urine Surveillance and Counseling for Sentenced Inmates in Contract CTCs) § 550.43 Drug counseling. (a) Drug counseling...

2012-07-01

163

28 CFR 550.43 - Drug counseling.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drug counseling. 550.43 Section 550.43 ...Drug Services (Urine Surveillance and Counseling for Sentenced Inmates in Contract CTCs) § 550.43 Drug counseling. (a) Drug counseling...

2014-07-01

164

28 CFR 550.43 - Drug counseling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drug counseling. 550.43 Section 550.43 ...Drug Services (Urine Surveillance and Counseling for Sentenced Inmates in Contract CTCs) § 550.43 Drug counseling. (a) Drug counseling...

2011-07-01

165

28 CFR 550.43 - Drug counseling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drug counseling. 550.43 Section 550.43 ...Drug Services (Urine Surveillance and Counseling for Sentenced Inmates in Contract CTCs) § 550.43 Drug counseling. (a) Drug counseling...

2010-07-01

166

28 CFR 550.43 - Drug counseling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drug counseling. 550.43 Section 550.43 ...Drug Services (Urine Surveillance and Counseling for Sentenced Inmates in Contract CTCs) § 550.43 Drug counseling. (a) Drug counseling...

2013-07-01

167

Potassium urine test  

MedlinePLUS

... levels (hypomagnesemia) Use of non-potassium-sparing diuretics Low urine potassium levels may be due to: Certain medicines, including beta blockers, lithium, trimethoprim, potassium-sparing diuretics, or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory ...

168

Maple syrup urine disease  

MedlinePLUS

... Persons with this condition cannot break down the amino acids leucine, isoleucine, and valine. This leads to a ... Plasma amino acid test Urine amino acid test There will be signs of ketosis and excess acid in blood (acidosis).

169

24-hour urine protein  

MedlinePLUS

... area around the urethra. Open a urine collection bag (a plastic bag with an adhesive paper on one end), and ... For males, place the entire penis in the bag and attach the adhesive to the skin. For ...

170

Osmolality urine - series (image)  

MedlinePLUS

... area around the urethra. Open a urine-collection bag (a plastic bag with adhesive paper on one end), and place ... the entire penis can be placed in the bag with the adhesive attached to the skin. For ...

171

Urine - abnormal color  

MedlinePLUS

... anemia Injury to the kidneys or urinary tract Medication Porphyria Urinary tract disorders that cause bleeding Dark yellow or orange urine can be caused by: B complex vitamins or carotene Medications such as phenazopyridine (used to treat urinary tract ...

172

Diagnostic Performance of Triagetrade mark for Benzodiazepines: Urine Analysis of the Dose of Therapeutic Cases.  

PubMed

We evaluated the diagnostic performance of Triage for benzodiazepines in 74 urine specimens from outpatients given therapeutic doses of benzodiazepines and compared the results of EMIT assays. Results obtained in all urine samples were confirmed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Overall agreement between results of Triage and EMIT assays was 73%. All of the Triage-positive samples were also positive by EMIT assays. Results of Triage and EMIT assays were different for 20 samples obtained from patients given thienodiazepines (etizolam, brotizolam, and clotiazepam) and nitrobenzodiazepines (nitrazepam, flunitrazepam, and clonazepam). LC-MS confirmed parent drugs in urine specimens, consistent with the prescriptions of drugs. The low agreement between Triage and EMIT results in this study might be due to low sensitivity of Triage for thienodiazepines. Thienodiazines are frequently prescribed benzodiazepines, and Triage panel is the most frequently used screening kit in Japan. It should be noted that negative results obtained by a Triage test might not mean the absence of thienodiazepines. PMID:16297284

Kurisaki, Emiko; Hayashida, Makiko; Nihira, Makoto; Ohno, Youkichi; Mashiko, Hirobumi; Okano, Takaaki; Niwa, Shin-Ichi; Hiraiwa, Kouichi

2005-01-01

173

Diagnostic performance of Triage for benzodiazepines: urine analysis of the dose of therapeutic cases.  

PubMed

We evaluated the diagnostic performance of Triage for benzodiazepines in 74 urine specimens from outpatients given therapeutic doses of benzodiazepines and compared the results of EMIT assays. Results obtained in all urine samples were confirmed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Overall agreement between results of Triage and EMIT assays was 73%. All of the Triage-positive samples were also positive by EMIT assays. Results of Triage and EMIT assays were different for 20 samples obtained from patients given thienodiazepines (etizolam, brotizolam, and clotiazepam) and nitrobenzodiazepines (nitrazepam, flunitrazepam, and clonazepam). LC-MS confirmed parent drugs in urine specimens, consistent with the prescriptions of drugs. The low agreement between Triage and EMIT results in this study might be due to low sensitivity of Triage for thienodiazepines. Thienodiazines are frequently prescribed benzodiazepines, and Triage panel is the most frequently used screening kit in Japan. It should be noted that negative results obtained by a Triage test might not mean the absence of thienodiazepines. PMID:16168176

Kurisaki, Emiko; Hayashida, Makiko; Nihira, Makoto; Ohno, Youkichi; Mashiko, Hirobumi; Okano, Takaaki; Niwa, Shin-ichi; Hiraiwa, Kouichi

2005-09-01

174

49 CFR 655.46 - Return to duty following refusal to submit to a test, verified positive drug test result and/or...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...submit to a test, verified positive drug test result and/or breath alcohol test result of 0.04 or greater. 655.46 Section 655...submit to a test, verified positive drug test result and/or breath alcohol test result of...

2011-10-01

175

49 CFR 655.46 - Return to duty following refusal to submit to a test, verified positive drug test result and/or...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...submit to a test, verified positive drug test result and/or breath alcohol test result of 0.04 or greater. 655.46 Section 655...submit to a test, verified positive drug test result and/or breath alcohol test result of...

2010-10-01

176

Improved cost effective thin-layer detection techniques for routine surveillance of commonly abused drugs in drug abuse urine screening and proficiency testing programs with built-in quality assurance.  

PubMed

Improved, sensitive, reliable and cost effective thin-layer detection procedures for poly-drug usage (12-15 drug evaluations per specimen) are presented. Extraction procedures using ion-exchange resin loaded paper and liquid-liquid extraction with the built-in quality assurance program are reported. The combined use of ninhydrin-fluorescamine detection reagent for the identification of various central nervous system stimulants is only one of the several modifications and improvements made during the past 14 years. Laboratories, participating in proficiency testing programs in drug abuse toxicology monitoring are encourage the use of proposed extraction and identification techniques. PMID:6630364

Kaistha, K K; Tadrus, R

1983-09-01

177

Unprotected Sexual Behavior Among Heterosexual HIV-Positive Injection Drug Using Men: Associations by Partner Type and Partner Serostatus  

PubMed Central

Few studies have examined sexual risk behaviors of HIV-positive, heterosexual, injection drug using (IDU) men. We investigated such behaviors and associations with risk among sexually active, HIV-positive IDU men who reported only female sex partners in the 3 months prior to baseline interview. We examined associations separately for four non-exclusive groups of men by crossing partner type (main or casual) and partner serostatus (HIV-positive or HIV-negative/unknown). Of 732 male participants, 469 (64%) were sexually active with only female partners. Of these 469 men, 155 (33%) reported sex with HIV-positive main partners, 127 (27%) with HIV-negative or unknown serostatus main partners, 145 (31%) with HIV-positive casual partners, and 192 (41%) with HIV-negative/unknown serostatus casual partners. Significant multivariate associations for unprotected sex with HIV-negative or unknown serostatus main partners were less self-efficacy to use condoms, weaker partner norms supporting condoms, and more negative condom beliefs. Similar correlates were found for unprotected sex with HIV-positive main and casual partners. In addition, alcohol or drug use during sex was a significant correlate of unprotected sex with HIV-positive main partners, while depression was significant for HIV-positive casual partners. For unprotected sex with HIV-negative/unknown status casual partners, self-efficacy for condom use, sex trade, and education were significant multivariate correlates. A combination of broad and tailored intervention strategies based on the relationship pattern of men's lives may provide the most benefit for reducing unprotected sex with female partners. PMID:16736116

Mizuno, Yuko; Metsch, Lisa R.; Garfein, Richard; Tobin, Karin; Knight, Kelly; Latka, Mary H.

2006-01-01

178

Traditional Chinese medicine and sports drug testing: identification of natural steroid administration in doping control urine samples resulting from musk (pod) extracts.  

PubMed

The administration of musk extract, that is, ingredients obtained by extraction of the liquid secreted from the preputial gland or resulting grains of the male musk deer (eg, Moschus moschiferus), has been recommended in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) applications and was listed in the Japanese pharmacopoeia for various indications requiring cardiovascular stimulation, anti-inflammatory medication or androgenic hormone therapy. Numerous steroidal components including cholesterol, 5?-androstane-3,17-dione, 5?-androstane-3,17-dione, androsterone, etiocholanolone, epiandrosterone, 3?-hydroxy-androst-5-en-17-one, androst-4-ene-3,17-dione and the corresponding urea adduct 3?-ureido-androst-4-en-17-one were characterised as natural ingredients of musk over several decades, implicating an issue concerning doping controls if used for the treatment of elite athletes. In the present study, the impact of musk extract administration on sports drug testing results of five females competing in an international sporting event is reported. In the course of routine doping controls, adverse analytical findings concerning the athletes' steroid profile, corroborated by isotope-ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) data, were obtained. The athletes' medical advisors admitted the prescription of TCM-based musk pod preparations and provided musk pod samples for comparison purposes to clarify the antidoping rule violation. Steroid profiles, IRMS results, literature data and a musk sample obtained from a living musk deer of a local zoo conclusively demonstrated the use of musk pod extracts in all cases which, however, represented a doping offence as prohibited anabolic-androgenic steroids were administered. PMID:22554845

Thevis, Mario; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Geyer, Hans; Thieme, Detlef; Grosse, Joachim; Rautenberg, Claudia; Flenker, Ulrich; Beuck, Simon; Thomas, Andreas; Holland, Ruben; Dvorak, Jiri

2013-01-01

179

Morphine and codeine concentrations in human urine following controlled poppy seeds administration of known opiate content.  

PubMed

Opiates are an important component for drug testing due to their high abuse potential. Proper urine opiate interpretation includes ruling out poppy seed ingestion; however, detailed elimination studies after controlled poppy seed administration with known morphine and codeine doses are not available. Therefore, we investigated urine opiate pharmacokinetics after controlled oral administration of uncooked poppy seeds with known morphine and codeine content. Participants were administered two 45 g oral poppy seed doses 8 h apart, each containing 15.7 mg morphine and 3mg codeine. Urine was collected ad libitum up to 32 h after the first dose. Specimens were analyzed with the Roche Opiates II immunoassay at 2000 and 300 ?g/L cutoffs, and the ThermoFisher CEDIA(®) heroin metabolite (6-acetylmorphine, 6-AM) and Lin-Zhi 6-AM immunoassays with 10 ?g/L cutoffs to determine if poppy seed ingestion could produce positive results in these heroin marker assays. In addition, all specimens were quantified for morphine and codeine by GC/MS. Participants (N=22) provided 391 urine specimens over 32 h following dosing; 26.6% and 83.4% were positive for morphine at 2000 and 300 ?g/L GC/MS cutoffs, respectively. For the 19 subjects who completed the study, morphine concentrations ranged from <300 to 7522 ?g/L with a median peak concentration of 5239 ?g/L. The median first morphine-positive urine sample at 2000 ?g/L cutoff concentration occurred at 6.6 h (1.2-12.1), with the last positive from 2.6 to 18 h after the second dose. No specimens were positive for codeine at a cutoff concentration of 2000 ?g/L, but 20.2% exceeded 300 ?g/L, with peak concentrations of 658 ?g/L (284-1540). The Roche Opiates II immunoassay had efficiencies greater than 96% for the 2000 and 300 ?g/L cutoffs. The CEDIA 6-AM immunoassay had a specificity of 91%, while the Lin-Zhi assay had no false positive results. These data provide valuable information for interpreting urine opiate results. PMID:24887324

Smith, Michael L; Nichols, Daniel C; Underwood, Paula; Fuller, Zachary; Moser, Matthew A; LoDico, Charles; Gorelick, David A; Newmeyer, Matthew N; Concheiro, Marta; Huestis, Marilyn A

2014-08-01

180

Computational modeling of drug distribution in the posterior segment of the eye: effects of device variables and positions.  

PubMed

A computational model was developed to simulate drug distribution in the posterior segment of the eye after intravitreal injection and ocular implantation. The effects of important factors in intravitreal injection such as injection time, needle gauge and needle angle on the ocular drug distribution were studied. Also, the influences of the position and the type of implant on the concentration profile in the posterior segment were investigated. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) calculations were conducted to describe the 3D convective-diffusive transport. The geometrical model was constructed based on the human eye dimensions. To simulate intravitreal injection, unlike previous studies which considered the initial shape of the injected drug solution as a sphere or cylinder, the more accurate shape was obtained by level-set method in COMSOL. The results showed that in intravitreal injection the drug concentration profile and its maximum value depended on the injection time, needle gauge and penetration angle of the needle. Considering the actual shape of the injected solution was found necessary to obtain the real concentration profile. In implant insertion, the vitreous cavity received more drugs after intraocular implantation, but this method was more invasive compared to the periocular delivery. Locating the implant in posterior or anterior regions had a significant effect on local drug concentrations. Also, the shape of implant influenced on concentration profile inside the eye. The presented model is useful for optimizing the administration variables to ensure optimum therapeutic benefits. Predicting and quantifying different factors help to reduce the possibility of tissue toxicity and to improve the treatment efficiency. PMID:24946303

Jooybar, Elaheh; Abdekhodaie, Mohammad J; Farhadi, Fatolla; Cheng, Yu-Ling

2014-09-01

181

Drugs that have been shown to cause drug-induced immune hemolytic anemia or positive direct antiglobulin tests: some interesting findings since 2007.  

PubMed

This review updates new findings in drug-induced immune- hemolytic anemia (DIIHA) since the 2007 review in Immunohematology by these authors. Twelve additional drugs have been added to the three tables listing drugs associated with drug-dependent antibodies, drugs associated with drug-independent antibodies, and drugs associated with nonimmunologic protein adsorption. Other updated findings include (1) piperacillin is currently the most commonly encountered cause of DIIHA, (2) new data on blood group specificity of drug-dependent antibodies, (3) drug-dependent antibodies detected in healthy donors, (4) DIIHA associated with transplantation, and(5) DIIHA associated with chemotherapeutic drugs. PMID:25247621

Garratty, George; Arndt, Patricia A

2014-01-01

182

Rapid processing of urine specimens by urine screening and the AutoMicrobic system.  

PubMed Central

A total of 1,500 clean-voided urine specimens were analyzed for the presence of bacteria by urine screening with the Autobac 1 system. The specimens found positive by this method were further processed on the same day for identification and for antimicrobial susceptibility testing on the AutoMicrobic system with the Enterobacteriaceae-plus Card and the General Susceptibility Card, respectively. The inocula for these tests were prepared from the centrifuged and washed growth in the eugonic broth aspirated from the Autobac cuvette chambers. Of 1,500 specimens that were analyzed, 183 contained single isolates of gram-negative bacilli. The results of these rapid procedures were compared with results for the same organisms isolated from urine specimens cultured by the conventional method. The data showed 92.3% agreement for identification and a correlation of 93.6% for antibiotic susceptibility between the two procedures. It is concluded that gram-negative bacilli can be rapidly identified and tested for antimicrobial susceptibility with a high degree of accuracy from the centrifuged eugonic broth after urine screening. These findings also suggest that the AutoMicrobic system provides a rapid and convenient method for same-day processing of positive urine cultures when combined with the urine screening procedure. PMID:6759524

Wadke, M; McDonnell, C; Ashton, J K

1982-01-01

183

Drugs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains the third volume of "Today's Delinquent," an annual publication of the National Center for Juvenile Justice. This volume deals with the issue of drugs and includes articles by leading authorities in delinquency and substance abuse who share their views on causes and cures for the drug problem among youth in this country.…

Hurst, Hunter, Ed.; And Others

1984-01-01

184

Are phylogenetic position, virulence, drug susceptibility and in vivo response to treatment in mycobacteria interrelated?  

PubMed

Phylogenetic analyses on the basis of multiple house-keeping genes and whole genome sequences have offered new insights in the phylogeny of the genus Mycobacterium. This genus yields obligate pathogens, the M. tuberculosis complex and M. leprae, as well as opportunistic pathogens (e.g. M. avium, M. intracellulare, M. kansasii, M. marinum, M. malmoense) and saprophytes (e.g. M. phlei, M. sphagni, M. gordonae). The most virulent mycobacteria, the M. tuberculosis complex, M. leprae and the M. kansasii-M. szulgai-M. marinum-M. ulcerans group are phylogenetically related and infections by these organisms are better treatable than those caused by less virulent and phylogenetically more distantly related Mycobacterium species. The most virulent Mycobacterium species are also characterized by high levels of natural drug susceptibility. In this paper, we review studies of phylogeny, drug susceptibility, and clinical significance to support our hypothesis that drug susceptibility in mycobacteria is acquired and reflects the low level of competition in -and adaptation to- a closer-to-human (environmental) niche. In turn, mycobacteria that inhabit the most competitive environmental niches are the least adapted to humans, thus of low clinical significance, but most tolerant to antibiotics derived from microbes with which they share their habitat, lowering the chances of cure in case of infection. PMID:22036704

van Ingen, Jakko; Boeree, Martin J; van Soolingen, Dick; Iseman, Michael D; Heifets, Leonid B; Daley, Charles L

2012-06-01

185

HER2-positive advanced breast cancer: optimizing patient outcomes and opportunities for drug development  

PubMed Central

Effective targeting of the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) has changed the natural history of HER2 overexpressing (HER2+) metastatic breast cancer. The initial success of trastuzumab improving time to progression and survival rates led to the clinical development of pertuzumab, ado-trastuzumab emtansine and lapatinib. These biologic therapies represent significant additions to the breast medical oncology armamentarium. However, drug resistance ultimately develops and most tumours progress within 1 year. Ongoing studies are evaluating novel therapeutic approaches to overcome primary and secondary drug resistance in tumours, including inhibition of PI3K/TOR, HSP90, IGF-IR and angiogenesis. Mounting experimental data support the clinical testing of immune checkpoint modulators and vaccines. The central nervous system remains a sanctuary site for HER2+ breast cancer and further studies are needed for the prevention and treatment of brain metastases in this population. Despite efforts to identify predictors of preferential benefit from HER2-targeted therapies (e.g., truncated HER2, PTEN loss and SRC activation), HER2 protein overexpression and/or gene amplification remains the most important predictive factor of response to HER2-targeted therapies. In this article, we review the optimal sequence of HER2-targeted therapies and describe ongoing efforts to improve the outcome of HER2+ advanced breast cancer through rational drug development. PMID:25025958

Singh, J C; Jhaveri, K; Esteva, F J

2014-01-01

186

HER2-positive advanced breast cancer: optimizing patient outcomes and opportunities for drug development.  

PubMed

Effective targeting of the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) has changed the natural history of HER2 overexpressing (HER2+) metastatic breast cancer. The initial success of trastuzumab improving time to progression and survival rates led to the clinical development of pertuzumab, ado-trastuzumab emtansine and lapatinib. These biologic therapies represent significant additions to the breast medical oncology armamentarium. However, drug resistance ultimately develops and most tumours progress within 1 year. Ongoing studies are evaluating novel therapeutic approaches to overcome primary and secondary drug resistance in tumours, including inhibition of PI3K/TOR, HSP90, IGF-IR and angiogenesis. Mounting experimental data support the clinical testing of immune checkpoint modulators and vaccines. The central nervous system remains a sanctuary site for HER2+ breast cancer and further studies are needed for the prevention and treatment of brain metastases in this population. Despite efforts to identify predictors of preferential benefit from HER2-targeted therapies (e.g., truncated HER2, PTEN loss and SRC activation), HER2 protein overexpression and/or gene amplification remains the most important predictive factor of response to HER2-targeted therapies. In this article, we review the optimal sequence of HER2-targeted therapies and describe ongoing efforts to improve the outcome of HER2+ advanced breast cancer through rational drug development. PMID:25025958

Singh, J C; Jhaveri, K; Esteva, F J

2014-11-11

187

False positive in the intravenous drug self-administration test in C57BL/6J mice.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to examine C57BL/6J (B6) mice during extinction conditions, after food training, and for rates and patterns of operant behavior that seems similar to behavior maintained by intravenous cocaine injections. The rationale was to evaluate the potential for false positives in the intravenous self-administration test using protocols common in studies of knockout mice backcrossed to B6. An additional aim was to assess the influence of food-associated and drug-associated cues and mouse strain. Mice were allowed to acquire lever pressing reinforced by sweetened condensed milk under a fixed ratio 1 then fixed ratio 2 schedule of reinforcement accompanied by a flashing light. A catheter base was then implanted for simulation of intravenous self-administration conditions. Mice were allowed to lever press with cues remaining the same as during food training but without further scheduled consequences (i.e. no drug or food reinforcers delivered). All mice sustained lever pressing for several weeks, and over half met commonly used criteria for 'self-administration behavior.' Thus, B6 mice showed perseveration of a previously reinforced behavior that closely resembled rates and patterns of drug self-administration. This effect in B6 mice was greater than with A/J mice, and the lack of extinction was even more robust in the presence of cocaine-associated cues than with food-associated cues. We suggest that a necessary criterion for positive results in the intravenous drug self-administration test include an increase in responding when cocaine is made available after extinction with saline self-administration. PMID:21522054

Thomsen, Morgane; Caine, S Barak

2011-06-01

188

High Rate of Non-detectable HIV-1 RNA Among Antiretroviral Drug Naive HIV Positive Individuals in Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Plasma HIV-1 RNA concentration, or viral load, is an indication of the magnitude of virus replication and largely correlates with disease progression in an infected person. It is a very useful guide for initiation of therapy and monitoring of response to antiretroviral drugs. Although the majority of patients who are not on antiretroviral therapy (ART) have a high viral load, a small proportion of ART naive patients are known to maintain low levels or even undetectable viral load levels. In this study, we determined the rate of undetectable HIV-1 RNA among ART naive HIV positive patients who presented for treatment at the University College Hospital (UCH), Ibadan, Nigeria from 2005 to 2011. Baseline viral load and CD4 lymphocyte cell counts of 14,662 HIV positive drug naive individuals were determined using the Roche Amplicor version 1.5 and Partec easy count kit, respectively. The detection limits of the viral load assay are 400 copies/mL and 750,000 copies/mL for lower and upper levels, respectively. A total of 1,399 of the 14,662 (9.5%) HIV-1 positive drug naive individuals had undetectable viral load during the study period. In addition, the rate of non-detectable viral load increased over the years. The mean CD4 counts among HIV-1 infected individuals with detectable viral load (266 cells/?L; range = 1 to 2,699 cells/?L) was lower than in patients with undetectable viral load (557 cells/?L; range = 1 to 3,102 cells/?L). About 10% of HIV-1 infected persons in our study population had undetectable viral load using the Roche Amplicor version 1.5. PMID:25512693

Odaibo, Georgina N; Adewole, Isaac F; Olaleye, David O

2013-01-01

189

Urine collection - infants  

MedlinePLUS

... gave you. You will be given a special bag to collect the urine. It will be a plastic bag with a sticky strip on one end, made ... fit over your baby's genital area. Open this bag and place it on the infant. For males, ...

190

Please see the job posting listed below. Postdoctoral Position in the Neuroscience of Drug and Alcohol Addiction at the University of Pittsburgh.  

E-print Network

and Alcohol Addiction at the University of Pittsburgh. Up to two postdoctoral positions are currently (particularly in the PFC) and increases susceptibility to alcoholism and drug addiction. Studies include both

Pillow, Jonathan

191

FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS OF A NOVEL POSITIVE ALLOSTERIC MODULATOR OF AMPA RECEPTORS DERIVED FROM A STRUCTURE-BASED DRUG DESIGN STRATEGY  

PubMed Central

Positive allosteric modulators of ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazole-propionic acid (AMPA) receptors facilitate synaptic plasticity and can improve various forms of learning and memory. These modulators show promise as therapeutic agents for the treatment of neurological disorders such as schizophrenia, ADHD, and mental depression. Three classes of positive modulator, the benzamides, the thiadiazides, and the biarylsulfonamides differentially occupy a solvent accessible binding pocket at the interface between the two subunits that form the AMPA receptor ligand-binding pocket. Here, we describe the electrophysiological properties of a new chemotype derived from a structure-based drug design strategy (SBDD), which makes similar receptor interactions compared to previously reported classes of modulator. This pyrazole amide derivative, JAMI1001A, with a promising developability profile, efficaciously modulates AMPA receptor deactivation and desensitization of both flip and flop receptor isoforms. PMID:22735771

Harms, Jonathan E.; Benveniste, Morris; Maclean, John K. F.; Partin, Kathryn M.; Jamieson, Craig

2012-01-01

192

The context of HIV risk behaviours among HIV-positive injection drug users in Viet Nam: Moving toward effective harm reduction  

PubMed Central

Background Injection drug users represent the largest proportion of all HIV reported cases in Viet Nam. This study aimed to explore the perceptions of risk and risk behaviours among HIV-positive injection drug users, and their experiences related to safe injection and safe sex practices. Methods This study used multiple qualitative methods in data collection including in-depth interviews, focus group discussions and participant observation with HIV-positive injection drug users. Results The informants described a change in the sharing practices among injection drug users towards more precautions and what was considered 'low risk sharing', like sharing among seroconcordant partners and borrowing rather than lending. However risky practices like re-use of injection equipment and 'syringe pulling' i.e. the use of left-over drugs in particular, were frequently described and observed. Needle and syringe distribution programmes were in place but carrying needles and syringes and particularly drugs could result in being arrested and fined. Fear of rejection and of loss of intimacy made disclosure difficult and was perceived as a major obstacle for condom use among recently diagnosed HIV infected individuals. Conclusion HIV-positive injection drug users continue to practice HIV risk behaviours. The anti-drug law and the police crack-down policy appeared as critical factors hampering ongoing prevention efforts with needle and syringe distribution programmes in Viet Nam. Drastic policy measures are needed to reduce the very high HIV prevalence among injection drug users. PMID:19348681

Thanh, Duong Cong; Moland, Karen Marie; Fylkesnes, Knut

2009-01-01

193

Urine Test: Dipstick (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... urinate into a cup, a catheter (a narrow, soft tube) may need to be inserted into the bladder to obtain the urine specimen. The skin surrounding the urinary opening has to be cleaned and rinsed just before the urine is collected. In this "clean-catch" method, you or your child cleans the skin around ...

194

Prevalence and Drug Resistance Patterns of Mycobacterium tuberculosis among New Smear Positive Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients in Eastern Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

The study aimed at determining the prevalence and drug resistance patterns of Mycobacterium tuberculosis among new smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients visiting TB diagnosis and treatment facilities at selected health facilities in eastern Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted between October 2011 and May 2013. A total of 408 new adult pulmonary TB patients (? 18 years) were enrolled in this study. Three consecutive sputum samples (spot, morning, and spot) were collected from each patient and transported to the Armauer Hansen Research Institute TB laboratory located in Addis Ababa for culture on Lowenstein Jensen slant media. DST was performed on 357 (87.5%) of the patient samples for isoniazid (H), rifampicin (R), ethambutol (E), and streptomycin (S) using the standard proportion method. The rate of resistance to any one drug was 23%. Any resistance to H, S, R, and E was 14%, 11.5%, 2.8%, and 0.3%, respectively. The highest proportion of monoresistance was observed against H (9.5%). MDRTB was detected in 1.1% of the patients. Any drug resistance was associated with HIV infection (COR = 3.7, 95% CI 1.905–7.222) (P = 0.000). Although the prevalence of MDRTB is relatively low in the study area, high prevalence of H resistance is a serious concern demanding close monitoring. Expanding diagnostic capacity for mycobacterial culture and DST is a vital step in this regard. PMID:24834351

Seyoum, Berhanu; Demissie, Meaza; Worku, Alemayehu; Bekele, Shiferaw; Aseffa, Abraham

2014-01-01

195

Pre-employment Drug Testing of Housestaff Physicians at a Large Urban Hospital.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center (New York City) program of preemployment urine toxicology examinations for beginning housestaff physicians has resulted in treatment for two physicians testing positive for illegal drugs. The program's primary purpose is to focus on substance abuse issues in graduate medical education. (Author/MSE)

Lewy, Robert M.

1991-01-01

196

Methamphetamine and amphetamine isomer concentrations in human urine following controlled vicks vapoinhaler administration.  

PubMed

Legitimate use of legal intranasal decongestants containing l-methamphetamine may complicate interpretation of urine drug tests positive for amphetamines. Our study hypotheses were that commonly used immunoassays would produce no false-positive results and a recently developed enantiomer-specific gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) procedure would find no d-amphetamine or d-methamphetamine in urine following controlled Vicks VapoInhaler administration at manufacturer's recommended doses. To evaluate these hypotheses, 22 healthy adults were each administered one dose (two inhalations in each nostril) of a Vicks VapoInhaler every 2 h for 10 h on Day 1 (six doses), followed by a single dose on Day 2. Every urine specimen was collected as an individual void for 32 h after the first dose and assayed for d- and l-amphetamines specific isomers with a GC-MS method with >99% purity of R-(-)-?-methoxy-?-(trifluoromethyl)phenylacetyl derivatives and 10 µg/L lower limits of quantification. No d-methamphetamine or d-amphetamine was detected in any urine specimen by GC-MS. The median l-methamphetamine maximum concentration was 62.8 µg/L (range: 11.0-1,440). Only two subjects had detectable l-amphetamine, with maximum concentrations coinciding with l-methamphetamine peak levels, and always ? 4% of the parent's maximum. Three commercial immunoassays for amphetamines EMIT(®) II Plus, KIMS(®) II and DRI(®) had sensitivities, specificities and efficiencies of 100, 97.8, 97.8; 100, 99.6, 99.6 and 100, 100, 100%, respectively. The immunoassays had high efficiencies, but our first hypothesis was not affirmed. The EMIT(®) II Plus assay produced 2.2% false-positive results, requiring an enantiomer-specific confirmation. PMID:25217541

Smith, Michael L; Nichols, Daniel C; Underwood, Paula; Fuller, Zachary; Moser, Matthew A; Flegel, Ron; Gorelick, David A; Newmeyer, Matthew N; Concheiro, Marta; Huestis, Marilyn A

2014-10-01

197

Electrolytic pretreatment of urine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electrolysis has been under evaluation for several years as a process to pretreat urine for ultimate recovery of potable water in manned spacecraft applications. The conclusions that were drawn from this investigation are the following: (1) A platinum alloy containing 10 percent rhodium has been shown to be an effective, corrosion-resistant anode material for the electrolytic pretreatment of urine. Black platinum has been found to be suitable as a cathode material. (2) The mechanism of the reactions occurring during the electrolysis of urine is two-stage: (a) a total Kjeldahl nitrogen and total organic carbon (TOC) removal in the first stage is the result of electrochemical oxidation of urea to CO2, H2O, and ammonia followed by chloride interaction to produce N2 from ammonia, (b) after the urea has been essentially removed and the chloride ions have no more ammonia to interact with, the chloride ions start to oxidize to higher valence states, thus producing perchlorates. (3) Formation of perchlorates can be suppressed by high/low current operation, elevated temperature, and pH adjustment. (4) UV-radiation showed promise in assisting electrolytic TOC removal in beaker tests, but was not substantiated in limited single cell testing. This may have been due to non-optimum configurations of the single cell test rig and the light source.

1977-01-01

198

Hyaluronic acid-based nanogel-drug conjugates with enhanced anticancer activity designed for the targeting of CD44-positive and drug-resistant tumors.  

PubMed

Many drug-resistant tumors and cancer stem cells (CSC) express elevated levels of CD44 receptor, a cellular glycoprotein binding hyaluronic acid (HA). Here, we report the synthesis of nanogel-drug conjugates based on membranotropic cholesteryl-HA (CHA) for efficient targeting and suppression of drug-resistant tumors. These conjugates significantly increased the bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs with previously reported activity against CSC, such as etoposide, salinomycin, and curcumin. The small nanogel particles (diameter 20-40 nm) with a hydrophobic core and high drug loads (up to 20%) formed after ultrasonication and demonstrated a sustained drug release following the hydrolysis of biodegradable ester linkage. Importantly, CHA-drug nanogels demonstrated 2-7 times higher cytotoxicity in CD44-expressing drug-resistant human breast and pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells compared to that of free drugs and nonmodified HA-drug conjugates. These nanogels were efficiently internalized via CD44 receptor-mediated endocytosis and simultaneous interaction with the cancer cell membrane. Anchoring by cholesterol moieties in the cellular membrane after nanogel unfolding evidently caused more efficient drug accumulation in cancer cells compared to that in nonmodified HA-drug conjugates. CHA-drug nanogels were able to penetrate multicellular cancer spheroids and displayed a higher cytotoxic effect in the system modeling tumor environment than both free drugs and HA-drug conjugates. In conclusion, the proposed design of nanogel-drug conjugates allowed us to significantly enhance drug bioavailability, cancer cell targeting, and the treatment efficacy against drug-resistant cancer cells and multicellular spheroids. PMID:23547842

Wei, Xin; Senanayake, Thulani H; Warren, Galya; Vinogradov, Serguei V

2013-04-17

199

Role of 5HT 2A and 5HT 2C receptors in the stimulus effects of hallucinogenic drugs II: reassessment of LSD false positives  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the context of animal studies of hallucinogens, an LSD-false positive is defined as a drug known to be devoid of hallucinogenic activity in humans but which nonetheless fully mimics LSD in animals. Quipazine, MK-212, lisuride, and yohimbine have all been reported to be LSD false positives. The present study was designed to determine whether these compounds also substitute for

David Fiorella; R. A. Rabin; J. C. Winter

1995-01-01

200

Antibacterial activity of human urine  

PubMed Central

The fate of bacteria in human urine was studied after inoculation of small numbers of Escherichia coli and other bacterial strains commonly implicated in urinary tract infection. Urine from normal individuals was often inhibitory and sometimes bactericidal for growth of these organisms. Antibacterial activity of urine was not related to lack of nutrient material as addition of broth did not decrease inhibitory activity. Antibacterial activity was correlated with osmolality, urea concentration and ammonium concentration, but not with organic acid, sodium, or potassium concentration. Between a pH range of 5.0-6.5 antibacterial activity of urine was greater at lower pH. Ultrafiltration and column chromatography to remove protein did not decrease antibacterial activity. Urea concentration was a more important determinant of antibacterial activity than osmolality or ammonium concentration. Increasing the urea of a noninhibitory urine to equal that of an inhibitory urine made the urine inhibitory. However, increasing osmolality (with sodium chloride) or increasing ammonium to equal the osmolality or ammonium of an inhibitory urine did not increase antibacterial activity. Similarly, dialysis to decrease osmolality or ammonium but preserve urea did not decrease inhibitory activity. Decreasing urea with preservation of ammonium and osmolality decreased antibacterial activity. Removal of ammonium with an ion exchanger did not decrease antibacterial activity, whereas conversion of urea to ammonium with urease and subsequent removal of the ammonium decreased antibacterial activity. Urine collected from volunteers after ingestion of urea demonstrated a marked increase in antibacterial activity, as compared with urine collected before ingestion of urea. PMID:4877682

Kaye, Donald

1968-01-01

201

Surface Proteins of Gram-Positive Pathogens: Using Crystallography to Uncover Novel Features in Drug and Vaccine Candidates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Proteins displayed on the cell surfaces of pathogenic organisms are the front-line troops of bacterial attack, playing critical roles in colonization, infection and virulence. Although such proteins can often be recognized from genome sequence data, through characteristic sequence motifs, their functions are often unknown. One such group of surface proteins is attached to the cell surface of Gram-positive pathogens through the action of sortase enzymes. Some of these proteins are now known to form pili: long filamentous structures that mediate attachment to human cells. Crystallographic analyses of these and other cell surface proteins have uncovered novel features in their structure, assembly and stability, including the presence of inter- and intramolecular isopeptide crosslinks. This improved understanding of structures on the bacterial cell surface offers opportunities for the development of some new drug targets and for novel approaches to vaccine design.

Baker, Edward N.; Proft, Thomas; Kang, Haejoo

202

Budget impact analysis of antiretroviral less drug regimen simplification in HIV-positive patients on the Italian National Health Service  

PubMed Central

Background Deintensification and less drug regimen (LDR) antiretroviral therapy (ART) strategies have proved to be effective in terms of maintaining viral suppression in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients, increasing tolerability, and reducing toxicity of antiretroviral drugs administered to patients. However, the economic impact of these strategies have not been widely investigated. The aim of the study is to evaluate the economic impact that ART LDR could have on the Italian National Health Service (INHS) budget. Methods A budget impact model was structured to assess the potential savings for the INHS by the use of ART LDR for HIV-positive patients with a 3 year perspective. Data concerning ART cost, patient distribution within different ARTs, and probabilities for patients to change ART on a yearly basis were collected within four Italian infectious diseases departments, providing ART to 13.7% of the total number of patients receiving ART in Italy. Results The LDR investigated (protease inhibitor-based dual and monotherapies) led to savings for the hospitals involved when compared to the “do nothing” scenario on a 3 year basis, between 6.7% (23.11 million €) and 12.8% (44.32 million €) of the total ART expenditures. The mean yearly cost per patient is reduced from 9,875 € in the do nothing scenario to a range between 9,218 € and 8,615 €. The use of these strategies within the four departments involved would have led to a reduction of ART expenditures for the INHS of between 1.1% and 2.1% in 3 years. Conclusion ART LDR simplification would have a significant impact in the reduction of ART-related costs within the hospitals involved in the study. These strategies could therefore be addressed as a sustainable answer to the public financing reduction observed within the INHS in the last year, allowing therapies to be dispensed without affecting the quality of the services provided. PMID:25285019

Restelli, Umberto; Andreoni, Massimo; Antinori, Andrea; Bonfanti, Marzia; Di Perri, Giovanni; Galli, Massimo; Lazzarin, Adriano; Rizzardini, Giuliano; Croce, Davide

2014-01-01

203

Interventions for Seropositive Injectors???Research and Evaluation: An Integrated Behavioral Intervention With HIV-Positive Injection Drug Users to Address Medical Care, Adherence, and Risk Reduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Behavioral interventions to address the complex medical and HIV risk reduction needs of HIV-seropositive (HIV- positive) injection drug users (IDUs) are urgently needed. We de- scribe the development of Interventions for Seropositive Injectors— Research and Evaluation (INSPIRE), a randomized controlled trial of an integrated intervention for HIV-positive IDUs, and the character- istics of the baseline sample. Methods: HIV-positive IDUs

David W. Purcell; Lisa R. Metsch; Mary Latka; Scott Santibanez; Lois Eldred; Carl A. Latkin

2004-01-01

204

[Component analysis of a new anabolic androgenic steroid and its monitoring research in human urine].  

PubMed

A new oral drug containing an unknown anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS) was studied. The principal constituent of the unknown anabolic hormone was studied by infrared spectrum (IR), nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H NMR), ultraviolet spectroscopy (UV), and mass spectroscopy (MS). It was inferred to be methyl-1-testosterone (M1T, 17beta-hydroxy-17alpha-methyl-5alpha-androst-1-en-3-one) which was just added to the prohibited list in 2006. In addition, a monitoring, screening and confirmation of methyl-1-testosterone was established. The detection limit (S/N = 3) was 2 ng/mL, and the limit of quantification (S/N = 10) was 10 ng/mL. The relative standard deviation was 9.8% (n = 7) for the determination of pretreated urine sample with internal standard. This method was successfully applied in the identification of M1T positive urine. The excretion curve of M1T in human urine is described. It is a significant work for the discovery, determination and monitoring of the new AAS. PMID:20458920

Qiu, Lijun; Shangguan, Liangmin; Liu, Wei; Chen, Guonan; Zhang, Lan

2010-01-01

205

Confirmation and quantification of clenbuterol in horse urine using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry triple quadrupole.  

PubMed

Clenbuterol (CLE) is used in horses as a bronchodilator and for its anabolic steroid-like effects. CLE is a Class 3 drug according to current Association of Racing Commissioners International (ARCI) Uniform Classification Guidelines. The Racing Medication and Testing Consortium recommended a urine CLE threshold of 140 pg/mL after careful scientific review of the results of studies describing the disposition of CLE in the horse and this threshold was adopted by the ARCI. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was previously used to screen samples for CLE in Illinois, but could not detect such low concentrations in urine. Thus, a liquid-liquid extraction of CLE from urine followed by quantification by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was developed and validated. Method validation included testing stability, ion suppression and enhancement, precision, accuracy and uncertainty. Intra-, interday and total precision and accuracy were calculated for each control and found to be within the ±15% acceptance range. The Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement approach was used to calculate uncertainty, which was 11% at the 95% confidence level. In the past 5 years, only 15 samples were reported as positive for CLE in Illinois. This new method was used in a pilot program to screen and confirm samples received from thoroughbred and harness horses. PMID:25505053

Bishop, Jennifer; Heffron, Brendan; Taddei, Lisa; Benoit, Marc; Hurt, Laura; Costello, Sara; Gross, Melissa; Negrusz, Adam

2015-03-01

206

Quantitative analysis of mitragynine in human urine by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Mitragynine is the primary active alkaloid extracted from the leaves of Mitragyna speciosa Korth, a plant that originates in South-East Asia and is commonly known as kratom in Thailand. Kratom has been used for many centuries for their medicinal and psychoactive qualities, which are comparable to that of opiate-based drugs. Kratom abuse can lead to a detectable content of mitragynine residue in urine. Ultra trace amount of mitragynine in human urine was determined by a high performance liquid chromatography coupled to an electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI/MS/MS). Mitragynine was extracted by methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE) and separated on a HILIC column. The ESI/MS/MS was accomplished using a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer in positive ion detection and multiple reactions monitoring (MRM) mode. Ajmalicine, a mitragynine's structure analog was selected as internal standard (IS) for method development. Quality control (QC) performed at three levels 0.1, 1 and 5 ng/ml of mitragynine in urine gave mean recoveries of 90, 109, and 98% with average relative standard deviation of 22, 12 and 16%, respectively. The regression linearity of mitragynine calibration ranged from 0.01 to 5.0 ng/ml was achieved with correlation coefficient greater than 0.995. A detection limit of 0.02 ng/ml and high precision data within-day and between days analysis were obtained. PMID:19577523

Lu, Shijun; Tran, Buu N; Nelsen, Jamie L; Aldous, Kenneth M

2009-08-15

207

Ado-trastuzumab Emtansine (T-DM1): an antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) for HER2-positive breast cancer.  

PubMed

Ado-trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1) is an antibody-drug conjugate that combines the antitumor properties of the humanized anti-human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) antibody, trastuzumab, with the maytansinoid, DM1, a potent microtubule-disrupting agent, joined by a stable linker. Upon binding to HER2, the conjugate is internalized via receptor-mediated endocytosis, and an active derivative of DM1 is subsequently released by proteolytic degradation of the antibody moiety within the lysosome. Initial clinical evaluation led to a phase III trial in advanced HER2-positive breast cancer patients who had relapsed after prior treatment with trastuzumab and a taxane, which showed that T-DM1 significantly prolonged progression-free and overall survival with less toxicity than lapatinib plus capecitabine. In 2013, T-DM1 received FDA approval for the treatment of patients with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer who had previously received trastuzumab and a taxane, separately or in combination, the first ADC to receive full approval based on a randomized study. PMID:24967516

Lambert, John M; Chari, Ravi V J

2014-08-28

208

Anti-Tuberculosis Drug Resistance among New and Previously Treated Sputum Smear-Positive Tuberculosis Patients in Uganda: Results of the First National Survey  

PubMed Central

Background Multidrug resistant and extensively drug resistant tuberculosis (TB) have become major threats to control of tuberculosis globally. The rates of anti-TB drug resistance in Uganda are not known. We conducted a national drug resistance survey to investigate the levels and patterns of resistance to first and second line anti-TB drugs among new and previously treated sputum smear-positive TB cases. Methods Sputum samples were collected from a nationally representative sample of new and previously treated sputum smear-positive TB patients registered at TB diagnostic centers during December 2009 to February 2011 using a weighted cluster sampling method. Culture and drug susceptibility testing was performed at the national TB reference laboratory. Results A total of 1537 patients (1397 new and 140 previously treated) were enrolled in the survey from 44 health facilities. HIV test result and complete drug susceptibility testing (DST) results were available for 1524 (96.8%) and 1325 (85.9%) patients, respectively. Of the 1209 isolates from new cases, resistance to any anti-TB drug was 10.3%, 5% were resistant to isoniazid, 1.9% to rifampicin, and 1.4% were multi drug resistant. Among the 116 isolates from previously treated cases, the prevalence of resistance was 25.9%, 23.3%, 12.1% and 12.1% respectively. Of the 1524 patients who had HIV testing 469 (30.7%) tested positive. There was no association between anti-TB drug resistance (including MDR) and HIV infection. Conclusion The prevalence of anti-TB drug resistance among new patients in Uganda is low relative to WHO estimates. The higher levels of MDR-TB (12.1%) and resistance to any drug (25.3%) among previously treated patients raises concerns about the quality of directly observed therapy (DOT) and adherence to treatment. This calls for strengthening existing TB control measures, especially DOT, routine DST among the previously treated TB patients or periodic drug resistance surveys, to prevent and monitor development and transmission of drug resistant TB. PMID:23936467

Lukoye, Deus; Adatu, Francis; Musisi, Kenneth; Kasule, George William; Were, Willy; Odeke, Rosemary; Kalamya, Julius Namonyo; Awor, Ann; Date, Anand; Joloba, Moses L.

2013-01-01

209

Non-smoker exposure to secondhand cannabis smoke. I. Urine screening and confirmation results.  

PubMed

Increased cannabis potency has renewed concerns that secondhand exposure to cannabis smoke can produce positive drug tests. A systematic study was conducted of smoke exposure on drug-free participants. Six experienced cannabis users smoked cannabis cigarettes (5.3% THC in Session 1 and 11.3% THC in Sessions 2 and 3) in a sealed chamber. Six non-smokers were seated with smokers in an alternating manner. Sessions 1 and 2 were conducted with no ventilation and ventilation was employed in Session 3. Non-smoking participant specimens (collected 0-34 h) were analyzed with four immunoassays at different cutoff concentrations (20, 50, 75 and 100 ng/mL) and by GC-MS (LOQ = 0.75 ng/mL). No presumptive positives occurred for non-smokers at 100 and 75 ng/mL; a single positive occurred at 50 ng/mL; and multiple positives occurred at 20 ng/mL. Maximum THCCOOH concentrations by GC-MS for non-smokers ranged from 1.3 to 57.5 ng/mL. THCCOOH concentrations generally increased with THC potency, but room ventilation substantially reduced exposure levels. These results demonstrate that extreme cannabis smoke exposure can produce positive urine tests at commonly utilized cutoff concentrations. However, positive tests are likely to be rare, limited to the hours immediately post-exposure, and occur only under environmental circumstances where exposure is obvious. PMID:25326203

Cone, Edward J; Bigelow, George E; Herrmann, Evan S; Mitchell, John M; LoDico, Charles; Flegel, Ronald; Vandrey, Ryan

2015-01-01

210

Other Causes of Painful Urination  

MedlinePLUS

... douches, vaginal lubricants, soaps, scented toilet paper or contraceptive foams or sponges. If it hurts to urinate after you've used these products, you're probably sensitive to them. Do I need to see a doctor? Yes. Painful urination can ...

211

Accurate identification and quantification of 11-nor-delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid in urine drug testing: evaluation of a direct high efficiency liquid chromatographic-mass spectrometric method.  

PubMed

A direct liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) method for measurement of urinary Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol carboxylic acid (THCA) was developed. The method involved dilution of the urine sample with water containing (2)H(9)-deuterated analogue as internal standard, hydrolysis with ammonia, reversed phase chromatography using a Waters ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) equipment with gradient elution, negative electrospray ionization, and monitoring of two product ions in selected reaction monitoring mode. The measuring range was 2-1000 ng/mL for THCA, and the intra- and inter-assay imprecision, expressed as the coefficient of variation, was below 5%. Influence from urine matrix on ionization efficiency was noted in infusion experiments, but was compensated for by the internal standard. Comparison with established gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry methods in authentic patient samples demonstrated accuracy in both qualitative and quantitative results. A small difference in mean ratios (~15%) may be explained by the use of different hydrolysis procedures between methods. In conclusion, the high efficiency LC-MS/MS method was capable of accurately identify and quantify THCA in urine with a capacity of 14 samples per hour. PMID:18620911

Stephanson, Nikolai; Josefsson, Martin; Kronstrand, Robert; Beck, Olof

2008-08-01

212

Pregnancy diagnosis in urine of Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus).  

PubMed

Diagnosis of pregnancies is an important management tool for the Iberian lynx Conservation Breeding Program, a program geared to recover the world's most endangered felid. Non-invasive methods such as fecal hormone analyses are not applicable to the lynx, since fecal progestin does not follow the typical pregnancy pattern of felids. Therefore, we aimed to test whether urine can be used as an alternative substance for pregnancy diagnosis in the Iberian lynx. Progesterone immunoreactive metabolites were determined in urine samples of pregnant and non-pregnant females before and during breeding season. Additionally, we used the Witness Relaxin test to determine relaxin in blood and urine. No differences were found in progestin concentrations determined in urine samples collected from pregnant and non-pregnant animals between day 1 and 65 following mating. Although the Witness Relaxin test was positive in serum samples collected from animals between day 32 and 56 of pregnancy, it failed in both fresh and frozen urine samples collected from the same stage of pregnancy. A weak relaxin reaction in urine samples collected from animals between day 29 and 46 of pregnancy was detectable after urines were concentrated by ultrafiltration (>50x). Concentrated samples obtained from non-pregnant and early pregnant animals yielded negative test results. In conclusion, the Witness Relaxin test can be applied for pregnancy diagnosis in Iberian lynx in both serum and concentrated urine samples obtained during the second half of pregnancy. A positive relaxin test indicates an ongoing pregnancy, whereas negative tests must be judged carefully as hormone concentrations might be below detection thresholds. PMID:19013637

Braun, B C; Frank, A; Dehnhard, M; Voigt, C C; Vargas, A; Göritz, F; Jewgenow, K

2009-03-15

213

Urine Protein and Urine Protein to Creatinine Ratio  

MedlinePLUS

... test. Children, and sometimes adults, occasionally have some degree of transient proteinuria without apparent kidney dysfunction and may have a higher excretion of protein into their urine during the day than at night. The doctor may monitor their ...

214

Forensic urinalysis of drug use in cases of alleged sexual assault.  

PubMed

The results of 3303 analyses of urine samples, collected in an independent testing programme from individuals who claimed to have been sexually assaulted and believed that drugs were involved, were examined in detail. Of the samples provided, 2026 (61.3%) proved positive for one or more substances. Alcohol, either alone or in combination with other drugs, was by far the commonest substance found, being present in 1358 samples (67.0% of positives). Cannabis was the second most prevalent drug, present in 613 samples, (30.3% of positives). Detailed examination of the testing results does not support the contention that any single drug, apart from alcohol, can be particularly identified as a 'date rape' drug. Rather, the alleged sexual assaults may often take place against a background of licit or recreational alcohol or drug use, where alcohol and other drugs are frequently taken together. The extensive forensic database examined here does not support the concept of a commonly occurring 'date rape' scenario, in which the victim's drink is covertly 'spiked' with a tablet, capsule or powder containing a sedative-hypnotic. This research highlights the need for the early collection of forensic samples in cases of alleged sexual assault. Law enforcement agencies and health professionals should establish guidelines and procedures to ensure that appropriate forensic samples (blood and urine) are collected in a timely manner following allegations of possible drug mediated sexual assault. PMID:16083685

Hindmarch, I; ElSohly, M; Gambles, J; Salamone, S

2001-12-01

215

49 CFR 219.603 - Participation in drug testing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Random Alcohol and Drug Testing Programs § 219.603 Participation in drug testing. A railroad shall, under the conditions...random testing program to cooperate in urine testing to determine compliance...

2010-10-01

216

28 CFR 550.44 - Procedures for arranging drug counseling.  

...false Procedures for arranging drug counseling. 550.44 Section 550.44 Judicial...Drug Services (Urine Surveillance and Counseling for Sentenced Inmates in Contract CTCs...44 Procedures for arranging drug counseling. The contract center staff...

2014-07-01

217

28 CFR 550.44 - Procedures for arranging drug counseling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Procedures for arranging drug counseling. 550.44 Section 550.44 Judicial...Drug Services (Urine Surveillance and Counseling for Sentenced Inmates in Contract CTCs...44 Procedures for arranging drug counseling. The contract center staff...

2010-07-01

218

28 CFR 550.44 - Procedures for arranging drug counseling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Procedures for arranging drug counseling. 550.44 Section 550.44 Judicial...Drug Services (Urine Surveillance and Counseling for Sentenced Inmates in Contract CTCs...44 Procedures for arranging drug counseling. The contract center staff...

2013-07-01

219

28 CFR 550.44 - Procedures for arranging drug counseling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Procedures for arranging drug counseling. 550.44 Section 550.44 Judicial...Drug Services (Urine Surveillance and Counseling for Sentenced Inmates in Contract CTCs...44 Procedures for arranging drug counseling. The contract center staff...

2012-07-01

220

28 CFR 550.44 - Procedures for arranging drug counseling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Procedures for arranging drug counseling. 550.44 Section 550.44 Judicial...Drug Services (Urine Surveillance and Counseling for Sentenced Inmates in Contract CTCs...44 Procedures for arranging drug counseling. The contract center staff...

2011-07-01

221

Automated drug identification system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

System speeds up analysis of blood and urine and is capable of identifying 100 commonly abused drugs. System includes computer that controls entire analytical process by ordering various steps in specific sequences. Computer processes data output and has readout of identified drugs.

Campen, C. F., Jr.

1974-01-01

222

Identification of some new clemastine metabolites in dog, horse, and human urine with liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

The metabolism of clemastine was studied in dogs, horses, and humans after a single dose of Tavegyl. The urine collected was extracted by solid-phase extraction or hydrolyzed with beta-glucuronidase and then extracted by liquid-liquid extraction, prior to analysis for unchanged drug and phase I and II metabolites by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. The metabolites were identified by their molecular mass and interpretation of the product ion spectra, since no standard substances were available. Unchanged drug was recovered in urine samples from dogs and humans, but not from horses. In dogs and humans, the phase I metabolite, norclemastine, was identified, and clemastine metabolites with one and two additional oxygens were found in all three species. In horses and dogs monohydroxylation on one of the aromatic rings or the adjacent methyl group was favored while, in humans, the additional oxygen was positioned on either the aromatic or the aliphatic part of the structure, and the aliphatic reaction seemed to result in at least three isomers. In the metabolites with two additional oxygens, both the oxygens were found on the aliphatic fragment in humans and dogs, whereas they were situated on the aromatic part of the structure in horses. In human patients, glucuronidated monohydroxyclemastine was recovered, and in urine from horses both mono- and dihydroxyclemastine glucuronides were identified, while phase II metabolites could not be recovered from the dog urine. Clemastine metabolism in dogs and horses has, to our knowledge, not been studied before, and new metabolites from humans are presented in this article. Thus, the metabolites described in the present work have not been previously reported in the literature. PMID:15384147

Tevell, Annica; Bondesson, Ulf; Törneke, Karolina; Hedeland, Mikael

2004-01-01

223

A prototype urine collection device for female aircrew  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Women are gaining increased access to small military cockpits. This shift has stimulated the search for practical urine containment and disposal methods for female aircrew. There are no external urine collection devices (UCD) for women that are comfortable, convenient, and leak free. We describe a prototype UCD that begins to meet this need. Materials used to make custom aviator masks were adapted to mold a perineal mask. First, a perineal cast (negative) was used to make a mold (positive). Next, a perineal mask made of wax was formed to fit the positive mold. Finally, a soft, pliable perineal mask was fabricated using the wax model as a guide. The prototype was tested for comfort, fit, and leakage. In the sitting position, less than 5 cc of urine leakage occurred with each 600 cc of urine collected. Comfort was mostly satisfactory, but ambulation was limited and the outlet design could lead to kinking and obstruction. We concluded that a perineal mask may serve as a comfortable and functional external UCD acceptable for use by females in confined environments. Changes are needed to improve comfort, fit, and urine drainage. Integration into cockpits, pressure suits, chemical defense gear, and environments where access to relief facilities is restricted is planned.

Bisson, Roger U.; Delger, Karlyna L.

1993-01-01

224

Urine collection apparatus. [feminine hygiene  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A urine collection device for females comprises an interface body with an interface surface for engagement with the user's body. The interface body comprises a forward portion defining a urine-receiving bore which has an inlet in the interface surface adapted to be disposed in surrounding relation to the urethral opening of the user. The interface body also has a rear portion integrally adjoining the forward portion and a non-invasive vaginal seal on the interface surface for sealing the vagina of the user from communication with the urine-receiving bore. An absorbent pad is removably supported on the interface body and extends laterally therefrom. A garment for supporting the urine collection is also disclosed.

Michaud, R. B. (inventor)

1981-01-01

225

Problems Urinating in Public (Paruresis)  

MedlinePLUS

... may provide you with some insight into this social anxiety disorder. What is paruresis? Paruresis, often referred to as ... attempts to control the process fail, and associated anxiety with performance ... social invitations to avoid urinating away from home. Paruretics ...

226

Treating urine by Spirulina platensis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper Spirulina platensis with relatively high nutrition was cultivated to treat human urine. Batch culture showed that the consumption of N in human urine could reach to 99%, and the consumption of P was more than 99.9%, and 1.05 g biomass was obtained by treating 12.5 ml synthetic human urine; continuous culture showed that S. platensis could consume N, Cl, K and S in human urine effectively, and the consumption could reach to 99.9%, 75.0%, 83.7% and 96.0%, respectively, and the consumption of P was over 99.9%, which is very important to increase the closure and safety of the bioregenerative life support system (BLSS).

Yang, Chenliang; Liu, Hong; Li, Ming; Yu, Chengying; Yu, Gurevich

227

Bio-Rad Laboratories u r I n e t O x I c O l O g y c O n t r O l s Urine Toxicology Controls  

E-print Network

Bio-Rad Laboratories u r I n e t O x I c O l O g y c O n t r O l s Urine Toxicology Controls Multi drugs-of-abuse test procedures #12;liquichekTM urine toxicology confirmatory controls LiquichekTM Urine Toxicology Control, Level C1 A human urine based control containing drugs of abuse at very low levels

Rodriguez, Carlos

228

DIETARY INTAKE AND BODY MASS INDEX IN HIV-POSITIVE AND HIV-NEGATIVE DRUG ABUSERS OF HISPANIC ETHNICITY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Malnutrition in drug abusers has been attributed to poor diet. However, previous studies are conflicting. Many studies have not considered possible concurrent HIV disease. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between drug abuse and dietary intake in Hispanic Americans with and...

229

A urine volume measurement system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An improved urine volume measurement system for use in the unusual environment of manned space flight is reported. The system utilizes a low time-constant thermal flowmeter. The time integral of the transient response of the flowmeter gives the urine volume during a void as it occurs. In addition, the two phase flows through the flowmeter present no problem. Developments of the thermal flowmeter and a verification of the predicted performance characteristics are summarized.

Poppendiek, H. F.; Mouritzen, G.; Sabin, C. M.

1972-01-01

230

Social-structural contexts of needle and syringe sharing behaviours of HIV-positive injecting drug users in Manipur, India: a mixed methods investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Few investigations have assessed risk behaviours and social-structural contexts of risk among injecting drug users (IDUs)\\u000a in Northeast India, where injecting drug use is the major route of HIV transmission. Investigations of risk environments are\\u000a needed to inform development of effective risk reduction interventions.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  This mixed methods study of HIV-positive IDUs in Manipur included a structured survey (n = 75),

Venkatesan Chakrapani; Peter A Newman; Murali Shunmugam; Robert Dubrow

2011-01-01

231

Reduced gravity fecal collector seat and urinal  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A waste collection system for use in a reduced gravity including a seat having an opening centrally located with a pair of opposed depressed valleys on opposite sides of said opening for accommodating the ischial tuberosities of a user. The seat has contoured surfaces for providing support of the user's body and includes a prominent ridge towards the rear, which provides forward-aft positioning cue to the user. A curved recess is provided adjacent the forward portion of the seat for accommodating a tubular urinal having an enlarged open mouth.

Brown, J. W. (inventor)

1974-01-01

232

Chiral separation and determination of R/S-methamphetamine and its metabolite R/S-amphetamine in urine using LC-MS/MS.  

PubMed

Methamphetamine (MA) and amphetamine (AM) are widely abused drugs. Differentiation of MA and/or AM abuse from therapeutic ingestion of MA and/or AM or one of their precursor drugs is therefore of relevance in clinical and forensic toxicology. The aim of the study was to develop a simple, rapid, and accurate method for the chiral separation and determination of R/S-MA and R/S-AM in urine using liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry operating in the positive ion multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. 20?L of urine was diluted 500 times and 20?L was injected. The chromatographic system consisted of a Chirobiotic™ V2 column (2.1mm×250mm, 5?m), and the mobile phase was methanol containing 0.1% (v/v) glacial acetic acid and 0.02% (v/v) ammonium hydroxide. The method was fully validated through assessments of its linearity (0.05-50.00mg/L, r(2)>0.994 for all analytes), and LOQ (0.05mg/L for all analytes). No matrix effect was observed. The method was successfully applied to 86 urine samples from suspected MA abusers. Only the S-isomers of MA and AM were detected in 72 samples. The concentrations of R-MA ranged from below the LOQ to 13.76mg/L in 14 urine samples with both enantiomers of MA and/or AM. Pure S-MA is the most common found analyte in urine and principally used by abusers. PMID:25460108

Wang, Ting; Shen, Baohua; Shi, Yan; Xiang, Ping; Yu, Zhiguo

2015-01-01

233

Prevalence of psychoactive drug use among drivers in Thailand: a roadside survey.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of psychoactive drug and alcohol use among general drivers and predictors of the drug use in Thailand. One thousand six hundred and thirty-five motor vehicle drivers were randomly selected from five geographical regions of Thailand between December 2005 and May 2006. The prevalence of psychoactive drugs was determined using urine tests by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Among 1635 drivers, 5.5% were tested positive for breath alcohol with 2% having a level exceeding the legal limit (> or =50mg%). Psychoactive drug was presented in 158 (9.7%) urine samples for drug analysis. The top 3 most frequently detected licit drugs were antihistamines (2.0%), sedative cough suppressant (0.7%) and benzodiazepines (0.2%). Illicit drugs detected included amphetamine (1.8%), cannabis (1.1%), mitragynine (Kratom) (0.9%) and morphine (0.1%). Only type of driver (commercial/non-commercial) was a significant predictor with psychoactive drug use. The prevalence of psychoactive drug use among drivers not involved in road crashes in Thailand was not as low as an earlier study in Europe using objective measurements, particularly among commercial drivers. However, for illicit drugs, the prevalence detected in this study was lower than those of earlier studies from high-income countries. PMID:19393795

Ingsathit, Atiporn; Woratanarat, Patarawan; Anukarahanonta, Tongtavuch; Rattanasiri, Sasivimol; Chatchaipun, Porntip; Wattayakorn, Kanokporn; Lim, Stephen; Suriyawongpaisal, Paibul

2009-05-01

234

Ethanol and drug findings in women consulting a Sexual Assault Center--associations with clinical characteristics and suspicions of drug-facilitated sexual assault.  

PubMed

The purpose of the study was to describe toxicological findings among women seeking health care after sexual assault, and to assess the relationship with so-called proactive DFSA (drug facilitated sexual assault). We also explored associations between ethanol in blood/urine and background data, assault characteristics, and clinical findings. We conducted a retrospective, descriptive study of female patients ? 12 years of age consulting the Sexual Assault Center at St. Olavs University Hospital, Trondheim, Norway. They were examined between July 1, 2003 and December 31, 2010, and urine and/or blood were analyzed for ethanol and selected medicinal/recreational drugs. Among the 264 patients included, ethanol and/or drugs were detected in 155 (59%). Of the 50 patients (19%) testing positive for drugs other than ethanol, benzodiazepines/benzodiazepine-like drugs were found in 31, central stimulants in 14, cannabinoids in 13 and opioids in nine. None tested positive for gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB). In total, 57 patients (22%) suspected proactive DFSA, but only five had findings of sedative drugs that were not accounted for by self-reported voluntary intake. No cases could unequivocally be attributed to proactive DFSA. Among the 120 patients tested for ethanol within 12 h after the assault, 102 were positive. The median estimated blood alcohol concentration (BAC) at the time of assault was 1.87 g/L. Patients testing positive for ethanol more often reported a public place of assault and a stranger assailant. Higher estimated BAC at the time of assault was associated with higher frequency of suspecting proactive DFSA. Ethanol was the most prevalent toxicological finding in urine/blood from victims of sexual assault, and high ethanol concentrations were often detected. Among the patients suspecting proactive DFSA, very few had sedative drug findings not explained by voluntary intake. It seems like opportunistic DFSA, rather than proactive DFSA dominate among the sexually assaulted attending our SAC. PMID:23910880

Hagemann, Cecilie T; Helland, Arne; Spigset, Olav; Espnes, Ketil A; Ormstad, Kari; Schei, Berit

2013-08-01

235

The influence of social and endocrine factors on urine-marking by captive wolves (Canis lupus)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Although serum hormones varied seasonally in all adult animals, only dominant male and female wolves urine-marked. Serum testosterone and urine-marking rates, which increased during the fall/winter breeding season, were positively correlated in both male and female dominant wolves. Estradiol, which increased in conjunction with proestrus and estrus, was not correlated with female urine-marking. These findings suggest that hormonal influence on urine-marking in the wolf is modulated by social factors and contrast with those for both domestic dogs and coyotes, two other members of the genus Canis.

Asa, C.S.; Mech, L.D.; Seal, U.S.; Plotka, E.D.

1990-01-01

236

Repeat Urine Cultures in Children Who Are Admitted With Urinary Tract Infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE. Urinary tract infections are a common cause of hospitalization in the pediatric population. Hospitalization for urinary tract infections in children usually involves intravenous antibiotics, invasive methods of obtaining sterile urine spec- imens, and imaging studies to assess the anatomy of the urinary system. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of positive repeat urine cultures that

Nicolas M. Oreskovic; Eduardo U. Sembrano

2010-01-01

237

SELENIUM LEVELS IN HUMAN BLOOD, URINE, AND HAIR IN RESPONSE TO EXPOSURE VIA DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Blood, hair, urine and tap water samples were obtained from participants in a population exposed to varying amounts of selenium via water from home wells. Concentrations of selenium in urine and hair produced significant positive correlations with well-water selenium levels. Bloo...

238

Inhibition of anion and glucose permeabilities by anesthetics in erythrocytes. The mechanisms of action of positively and negatively charged drugs.  

PubMed

(1) The mode of action of anesthetics as inhibitors of Cl- and glucose transports in human red cells was studied. The term anesthetic is taken in its broad meaning as defined by Seeman (Seeman, P. (1972) Pharmacol. Rev. 24, 583-655) and covers anionic and cationic liposoluble compounds which reversibly block the rising phase of the action potential, without effect on the resting membrane potential. (2) Phenothiazine derivatives were chosen as prototypes of anesthetics because they represent a set of compounds having the same basic chemical structure, the phenothiazine ring, but with either a positive or a negative charge. (3) The Cl- self-exchange is inhibited by both cationic and anionic derivatives. However, to obtain the same level of inhibition, it is necessary to use a concentration 10-100 times higher with cationic than with anionic drugs. (4) At a concentration which inhibits Cl- permeability, cationic derivatives induce a very strong morphological change (cup-shaped cells: stomatocytes or spherostomatocytes) and protect erythrocytes against osmotic hemolysis, signifying that the membrane is fully expanded. Conversely, with anionic derivatives, inhibition occurs at a concentration which does not induce any apparent shape change or protect against osmotic hemolysis: there is no significant membrane expansion. (5) Glucose permeability, measured by glucose exit, is inhibited by cationic and anionic phenothiazine, but always at a concentration which fully expands the membrane as indicated by morphological changes and anti-hemolytic effects. It is interesting to point out that whilst glucose exit shows inhibition by cationic derivatives, glucose exchange flux is scarcely altered. (6) It is concluded that cationic and anionic anesthetics are general inhibitors of transmembrane solute movements involving a facilitated-diffusion process. However, the mechanism of inhibition is not identical for all: inhibition of glucose permeability by anionic and cationic anesthetics, as well as inhibition of Cl- permeability by cationic anesthetics may be of a non-specific nature and result from their interaction with the bilayer (this indirect effect is discussed); on the other hand, inhibition of Cl- permeability by anionic anesthetics may result from a specific perturbation of the transport mechanism according to recent evidence in some cases (Cousin, J.L. and Motais, R. (1979) J. Membrane Biol. 46, 125-153; Zaki, L., Ruffing, W. Gärtner, E.M., Fasold, H., Motais, R. and Passow, H. (1977) 11th FEBS Meeting, Copenhagen, A4 17-671. PMID:6105880

Motais, R; Baroin, A; Motais, A; Baldy, S

1980-07-01

239

Carbon-monoxide poisoning in young drug addicts due to indoor use of a gasoline-powered generator.  

PubMed

We report six fatal cases of unintentional carbon-monoxide poisoning which occurred in a house occupied by young people. The source of carbon monoxide was a gasoline-powered generator. For all victims, an external body examination was carried out and blood and urine samples collected. Blood carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb) was performed using an automated visible spectrophotometric analysis. Blood-alcohol level quantification was performed using gas chromatography and drug screening in urine was performed by a one-step manual qualitative immunochromatography (Syva Rapid test, Behring Diagnostics Inc.) for benzoylecgonine (the main metabolite of cocaine in urine), morphine, 11-nor-Delta(9)-THC-9-COOH (cannabinoids) and d-methamphetamine. In all victims the COHb value was as high or higher than 65%. No alcohol was found in blood samples, but urine samples were positive for methamphetamine, cocaine and cannabis in five cases and for opiates in one case. In four victims, the urine sample was positive for at least three drugs. The availability and accuracy of rapid toxicological screening is an important tool for the medical examiner at the immediate scene of a clinical forensic examination. PMID:16083675

Marc, B; Bouchez-Buvry, A; Wepierre, J L; Boniol, L; Vaquero, P; Garnier, M

2001-06-01

240

Analysis of mitragynine and metabolites in human urine for detecting the use of the psychoactive plant kratom.  

PubMed

The leaves of the South Asian plant kratom are described as having stimulating effects at low doses, and opiate-like analgesic and euphoric effects at high doses. A long history of use and abuse has led to the classification of kratom as a controlled substance in its native Thailand and other South Asian countries. However, kratom is not controlled in the United States, and the ready availability of kratom has led to its emergence as an herbal drug of abuse. With the growing popularity of kratom, efficient procedures are needed to detect kratom use. In the current study, both ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry methods have been developed and validated for monitoring the major alkaloids and metabolites found in urine following kratom use. The primary unique alkaloid mitragynine is quantified in human urine from 1.00-500.00 ng/mL using mitraphylline as an internal standard. In addition, two metabolites (5-desmethylmitragynine and 17-desmethyldihydromitragynine) and the related active, alkaloid 7-hydroxy-mitragynine, are simultaneously qualitatively monitored. The presence of analytes are confirmed by an information-dependent acquisition-enhanced product ion procedure generating full fragmentation data used to positively identify detected analytes. The validated method has been utilized for clinical and forensic analyses of urine for the detection of kratom use. PMID:23024321

Le, David; Goggin, Melissa M; Janis, Gregory C

2012-01-01

241

Simultaneous Quantification of Free and Glucuronidated Cannabinoids in Human Urine by Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry  

PubMed Central

Background Cannabis is the most commonly abused drug of abuse and is commonly quantified during urine drug testing. We conducted a controlled drug administration studies investigating efficacy of urinary cannabinoid glucuronide metabolites for documenting recency of cannabis intake and for determining stability of urinary cannabinoids. Methods A liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated quantifying ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), 11-hydroxy-THC (11-OH-THC), 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH), cannabidiol, cannabinol, THC-glucuronide and THCCOOH-glucuronide in 0.5 ml human urine via supported-liquid extraction. Chromatography was performed on an Ultra Biphenyl column with a gradient of 10 mmol/l ammonium acetate, pH 6.15 and 15% methanol in acetonitrile at 0. 4ml/min. Analytes were monitored by positive and negative mode electrospray ionization and multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry. Results Linear ranges were 0.5–50 ng/ml for THC-glucuronide, 1–100 ng/ml for THCCOOH, 11-OH-THC and cannabidiol, 2–100 ng/ml for THC and cannabinol, and 5–500 ng/ml for THCCOOH-glucuronide (R2>0.99). Mean extraction efficiencies were 34–73% with analytical recovery (bias) 80.5–118.0% and total imprecision 3.0–10.2% coefficient of variation. Conclusion This method simultaneously quantifies urinary cannabinoids and phase II glucuronide metabolites, and enables evaluation of urinary cannabinoid glucuronides for documenting recency of cannabis intake and cannabinoid stability. The assay is applicable for routine urine cannabinoid testing. PMID:22771478

Scheidweiler, Karl B.; Desrosiers, Nathalie A.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

2012-01-01

242

Rapid Semiautomated Screening and Processing of Urine Specimens  

PubMed Central

A rapid urine culture procedure was evaluated in which positive urines were detected by using light-scatter photometry (Autobac). Specimens were analyzed at 3, 5, and 6 h. Specimens detected as positive at 3 h were then further evaluated by a direct 3-h susceptibility procedure (Autobac) and by a 4-h identification procedure (Micro-ID). Of 949 specimens, 175 had >105 colony-forming units per ml by colony count. Of these latter specimens, 75.4% had been detected by 3 h, and 95.4% were detected by 6 h. Of specimens positive by Autobac at 3 h, 96% (95.7%) had >105 colony-forming units per ml. If pure by Gram stain, those positive specimens were inoculated to direct susceptibility and identification systems. When direct Autobac susceptibilities were compared with the standard Autobac method done from the plate the following day, discrepancy rates were 1.3% very major, 2.1% major, and 7.4% total. The direct identifications were 94% (94.2%) correct when using the Micro-ID manual and a collection of octal patterns unique to this system, in which urine/broth culture inoculum was employed instead of the usual organism colony suspension. Those urine specimens negative after screening at 3 h were evaluated at 5 and 6 h, and an additional 126 specimens were detected as positive. These were then processed by routine plate inoculation, due to the limitations of the work day. By 6 h, 95.4% of specimens with >105 colony-forming units per ml were detected. The 4.6% false-negative results consisted of patients on antibiotics, or slowly growing bacteria suspected of being distal urethral contaminants. Thus, 83.5% of the urine cultures received by 9:00 a.m. (10.6% 3-h positives and 72.9% negative at 6 h) could be evaluated and reported within one 8-h work day. PMID:6991523

Jenkins, Ronald D.; Hale, DeVon C.; Matsen, John M.

1980-01-01

243

Urinary prevalence, metabolite detection rates, temporal patterns and evaluation of suitable LC-MS/MS targets to document synthetic cannabinoid intake in US military urine specimens.  

PubMed

Abstract Background: Identifying synthetic cannabinoid designer drug abuse challenges toxicologists and drug testing programs. The best analytical approach for reliably documenting intake of emerging synthetic cannabinoids is unknown. Primarily metabolites are found in urine, but optimal metabolite targets remain unknown, and definitive identification is complicated by converging metabolic pathways. Methods: We screened 20,017 US military urine specimens collected from service members worldwide for synthetic cannabinoids between July 2011 and June 2012. We confirmed 1432 presumptive positive and 1069 presumptive negative specimens by qualitative liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis including 29 biomarkers for JWH-018, JWH-073, JWH-081, JWH-122, JWH-200, JWH-210, JWH-250, RCS-4, AM2201 and MAM2201. Specimen preparation included enzyme hydrolysis and acetonitrile precipitation prior to LC-MS/MS analysis. We evaluated individual synthetic cannabinoid metabolite detection rates, prevalence, temporal patterns and suitable targets for analytical procedures. Results: Prevalence was 1.4% with 290 confirmed positive specimens, 92% JWH-018, 54% AM2201 and 39% JWH-122 metabolites. JWH-073, JWH-210 and JWH-250 also were identified in 37%, 4% and 8% of specimens, respectively. The United States Army Criminal Investigation Command seizure pattern for synthetic cannabinoid compounds matched our urine specimen results over the time frame of the study. Apart from one exception (AM2201), no parent compounds were observed. Conclusions: Hydroxyalkyl metabolites accounted for most confirmed positive tests, and in many cases, two metabolites were identified, increasing confidence in the results, and improving detection rates. These data also emphasize the need for new designer drug metabolism studies to provide relevant targets for synthetic cannabinoid identification. PMID:25263309

Wohlfarth, Ariane; Scheidweiler, Karl B; Castaneto, Marisol; Gandhi, Adarsh S; Desrosiers, Nathalie A; Klette, Kevin L; Martin, Thomas M; Huestis, Marilyn A

2014-09-27

244

A sensitive assay method of furosemide in plasma and urine by high-performance liquid chromotography.  

PubMed

A sensitive assay method of furosemide in plasma and urine by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is described. The minimum measurable concentrations of furosemide in plasma and urine were 0.2 and 5.0 microgram/ml, respectively; whereas the coefficients of variation of furosemide levels were found to be 7.8% for plasma and 2.0% for urine. These are within the acceptably low limits. Hence, the present method of furosemide is sensitive, reproducible, and accurate for therapeutic drug monitoring. The significance of this HPLC assay method is discussed. PMID:7157461

Snedden, W; Sharma, J N; Fernandez, P G

1982-01-01

245

What constitutes a normal ante-mortem urine GHB concentration?  

PubMed

Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is endogenously produced within the central nervous system, however it is also used as a medication for the treatment of a variety of clinical conditions, sold under the name Zyrem in the United States and Alcover in Europe. It is a very dangerous drug with a very limited safety margin, and is classified as a controlled substance in many countries. The interpretation of post-mortem studies of GHB concentrations is problematic; GHB can be detected in urine and blood from non-GHB users, both before and after death, and concentrations in both matrices may rise with prolonged storage. Because it is produced as a post-mortem artifact, forensically defensible cut-offs for post-mortem blood concentrations have yet to be established. Given the enormous degree of inter and intra-individual variation in GHB production that has been documented, it is unlikely they ever will. The important issue for forensic scientists is whether the detection of GHB in urine, in concentrations above some yet to be determined value, can be used as evidence for drug facilitated assault. In an attempt to see if a cut-off level could be determined we analyzed urine from 39 alcoholics who were being treated with known oral doses of Alcover (group 1), and compared the results with concentrations found in the urine of 30 volunteers who had no exogenous GHB intake (group 2), and 30 urine specimens taken from the alcoholics before they initiated GHB therapy (Alcover treatment group 3). More than one third (36.6%) of subjects being treated with GHB were found to have urinary GHB concentration that fell between 2.75 and 10 microg/mL. The data suggests that caution must be used when applying the currently used cut-off of 10 microg/mL. PMID:19239966

Mari, Francesco; Politi, Lucia; Trignano, Claudia; Di Milia, Maria Grazia; Di Padua, Marianna; Bertol, Elisabetta

2009-04-01

246

A New Method to Make 24-Hour Urine Collection More Convenient: A Validity Study  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives. This study proposes a novel urine collection device that can divide each urine collection into 20 parts and store and cool just one part. The aim of the current study is to compare measured biomarkers from the proposed urine collection device to those of conventional 24-hour sampling method. We also hypothesized that the new method would significantly increase patients' adherence to the timed urine collection. Methods. Two 24-hour urine samples with the conventional method and with the new automated urine collection device that uses just one-twentieth of each void were obtained from 40 healthy volunteers. Urine parameters including volume, creatinine, and protein levels were compared between the two methods and the agreement of two measurements for each subject was reported through Bland-Altman plots. Results. Our results confirmed that for all three variables, there is a positive correlation (P < 0.001) between the two measurements and high degree of agreement could be seen in Bland-Altman plots. Moreover, more subjects reported the new method as “more convenient” for 24-hour urine collection. Conclusions. Our results clearly indicate that a fixed proportion of each void may significantly reduce the urine volume in timed collections and this, in turn, may increase subjects' adherence to this difficult sampling. PMID:24963405

2014-01-01

247

Diagnostic accuracy of UriSed automated urine microscopic sediment analyzer and dipstick parameters in predicting urine culture test results  

PubMed Central

Introduction Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common types of infection. Currently, diagnosis is primarily based on microbiologic culture, which is time- and labor-consuming. The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of urinalysis results from UriSed (77 Electronica, Budapest, Hungary), an automated microscopic image-based sediment analyzer, in predicting positive urine cultures. Materials and methods: We examined a total of 384 urine specimens from hospitalized patients and outpatients attending our hospital on the same day for urinalysis, dipstick tests and semi-quantitative urine culture. The urinalysis results were compared with those of conventional semi-quantitative urine culture. Results: Of 384 urinary specimens, 68 were positive for bacteriuria by culture, and were thus considered true positives. Comparison of these results with those obtained from the UriSed analyzer indicated that the analyzer had a specificity of 91.1%, a sensitivity of 47.0%, a positive predictive value (PPV) of 53.3% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 40.8–65.3), and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 88.8% (95% Cl = 85.0–91.8%). The accuracy was 83.3% when the urine leukocyte parameter was used, 76.8% when bacteriuria analysis of urinary sediment was used, and 85.1% when the bacteriuria and leukocyturia parameters were combined. The presence of nitrite was the best indicator of culture positivity (99.3% specificity) but had a negative likelihood ratio of 0.7, indicating that it was not a reliable clinical test. Conclusions: Although the specificity of the UriSed analyzer was within acceptable limits, the sensitivity value was low. Thus, UriSed urinalysis results do not accurately predict the outcome of culture. PMID:23894867

Huysal, Ka?an; Budak, Yasemin U.; Karaca, Ayse Ulusoy; Aydos, Murat; Kahvecio?lu, Serdar; Bulut, Mehtap; Polat, Murat

2013-01-01

248

Psychosocial and demographic correlates of drug use in a sample of HIV-positive adults ages 50 and older.  

PubMed

The prevalence of HIV among adults 50 and older in the USA is increasing as a result of improvements in treatment and detection of HIV infection. Substance use by this population has implications for physical and mental health outcomes. We examined patterns of demographics, mental health, and recent substance use in a diverse sample of heterosexual, bisexual, and gay adults 50 and older living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in New York City. The most commonly used substances were cigarettes or alcohol; however, the majority of the sample did not report recent use of marijuana, poppers, or hard drugs (crystal methamphetamine, cocaine, crack, heroin, ecstasy, GHB, ketamine, and LSD or PCP). Statistically significant associations between substance use and psychological states (well-being and loneliness) were generally weak, and depression scores were not significantly related to use; instead, drug use was associated with gender/sexual orientation. The study observations support addressing substance use specific to subpopulations within PLWHA. PMID:23408281

Siconolfi, Daniel E; Halkitis, Perry N; Barton, Staci C; Kingdon, Molly J; Perez-Figueroa, Rafael E; Arias-Martinez, Vanessa; Karpiak, Stephen; Brennan-Ing, Mark

2013-12-01

249

Acupuncture and Spirituality-Focused Group Therapy for the Treatment of HIV-Positive Drug Users: A Preliminary Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, 40 HIV-seropositive, cocaine abusing, methadone maintained drug users were randomized to either the standard five-needle National Acupuncture Detoxification Association (NADA) protocol or to a reduced, escalating dose (one to three needle) protocol. In addition to receiving their assigned acupuncture treatments, the last 15 patients also received a spirituality-focused group therapy intervention. Acupuncture treatments were offered five days

Arthur Margolin; S. Kelly Avants; Ruth Arnold

2005-01-01

250

Detection of antigens and antibodies in the urine of humans with Plasmodium falciparum malaria.  

PubMed Central

Humans infected with Plasmodium falciparum frequently have elevated levels of proteins in their urine, but it is unclear if any of these proteins are parasite antigens or antimalarial antibodies. To resolve this question, urine samples from malaria patients and controls living in Thailand and Ghana were evaluated. Urine samples from 85% of the patients had elevated protein levels and contained proteins with Mrs ranging from less than 29,000 to greater than 224,000 as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Antisera were produced against urine from infected and control subjects. Antisera raised against infected, but not control, urine were positive by indirect immunofluorescence on P. falciparum parasites and immunoprecipitated approximately 12 unique bands from extracts of parasites metabolically labeled with 35S-methionine. These data suggest that a variety of P. falciparum antigens are released into urine during acute infection. It is also likely that anti-P. falciparum antibodies are present in the urine of malaria patients because samples from these patients, but not controls, were positive in indirect immunofluorescence assays and immunoprecipitated at least 19 P. falciparum antigens from extracts of metabolically labeled parasites. The detection of malarial antigens and antibodies in urine may lead to a new approach for the diagnosis of malaria. Images PMID:1864942

Rodriguez-del Valle, M; Quakyi, I A; Amuesi, J; Quaye, J T; Nkrumah, F K; Taylor, D W

1991-01-01

251

A simple, inexpensive urine test of smoking.  

PubMed

Three novel colorimetric methods of detecting urinary nicotine metabolites called the barbituric acid, diethylthiobarbituric acid (DETB) and DETB-extraction methods were evaluated for use as a simple cheap objective test of smoking. Urine samples were collected from 103 male smokers and 78 male nonsmokers working at two London factories. The smokers recorded the number of cigarettes smoked over the previous 36 hours. All three methods correctly classified the smokers. The DETB-extraction method had a lower false-positive rate (averaging 3% on morning and afternoon urine samples) than either the DETB or barbituric acid methods (12% and 6% respectively) and was the best procedure for classifying subjects as 'smokers' or 'non-smokers'. Using a quantitative variant of the barbituric acid method, there was a significant correlation (r = 0.85, p less than 0.001) between the urinary nicotine metabolites/creatinine ratios and number of cigarettes smoked. However, the ratios for smokers of 6-15, 16-25, and 26 or more cigarettes overlapped considerably. The methods can be performed very rapidly and reagent costs are equivalent to less than one penny per test. PMID:3623668

Peach, H; Morris, R W; Ellard, G A; Jenner, P J

1986-01-01

252

Antibiotic Prescribing Practices for Catheter Urine Culture Results  

PubMed Central

Background: The literature suggests that positive results of catheter urine cultures frequently lead to unnecessary antimicrobial prescribing, which therefore represents an important target for stewardship. Objective: To assess the appropriateness of antibiotic prescribing in response to the results of urine cultures from patients with indwelling urinary catheters. Methods: This retrospective study was conducted at a tertiary care centre and involved adults with indwelling urinary catheters from whom urine specimens were obtained for culture. Patients with positive or negative culture results were identified from microbiology laboratory reports. The medical records of consecutive patients were screened to select a sample of 80 inpatients (40 per group). Abstracted patient histories were independently evaluated by an expert panel of 3 infectious diseases consultants blinded to the decisions of prescribers and of fellow panelists. The primary end point was concordance of each patient’s treatment decision (with respect to the indication) between the expert panel (based on majority agreement, i.e., at least 2 of the 3 expert panelists) and the prescriber. The secondary end points were unnecessary days of therapy and selected outcomes over a predefined period after urine was obtained for culture. Results: A total of 591 charts were screened to generate the targeted number of patients. Baseline demographic characteristics were comparable for the 2 groups, except antibiotic exposure before urine collection was significantly more frequent for the group with negative culture results. The treatment decision was concordant in 40% (16/40) of the patients with a positive culture result and 85% (34/40) of those with a negative culture result (p < 0.001). The most common reason for discordance was administration of antibiotics when not indicated (23 of 24 patients with a positive result and 5 of 6 patients with a negative result), which accounted for 165 and 32 unnecessary days of therapy per 1000 inpatient-days, respectively (p < 0.001). Adverse effects occurred in 2 of the 23 patients with a positive result who received antibiotics that were not indicated. Conclusions: Appropriateness of antibiotic prescribing, as measured by concordance of decisions between the expert panel and prescribers, was more common among patients with negative urine culture results than among those with positive results. However, there is an opportunity to improve prescribing for both groups through antimicrobial stewardship initiatives. Unnecessary days of therapy and adverse effects were more common in patients with a positive culture result. PMID:23467594

Chiu, Jonathan; Thompson, G William; Austin, Thomas W; Hussain, Zafar; John, Michael; Bombassaro, Anne Marie; Connelly, Sarah E; Elsayed, Sameer

2013-01-01

253

Antibiotic Exposure in a Low-Income Country: Screening Urine Samples for Presence of Antibiotics and Antibiotic Resistance in Coagulase Negative Staphylococcal Contaminants  

PubMed Central

Development of antimicrobial resistance has been assigned to excess and misuse of antimicrobial agents. Staphylococci are part of the normal flora but are also potential pathogens that have become essentially resistant to many known antibiotics. Resistances in coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS) are suggested to evolve due to positive selective pressure following antibiotic treatment. This study investigated the presence of the nine most commonly used antimicrobial agents in human urine from outpatients in two hospitals in Ghana in relation to CoNS resistance. Urine and CoNS were sampled (n?=?246 and n?=?96 respectively) from patients in two hospitals in Ghana. CoNS were identified using Gram staining, coagulase test, and MALDI-TOF/MS, and the antimicrobial susceptibility to 12 commonly used antimicrobials was determined by disk diffusion. Moreover an analytical method was developed for the determination of the nine most commonly used antimicrobial agents in Ghana by using solid-phase extraction in combination with HPLC-MS/MS using electron spray ionization. The highest frequency of resistance to CoNS was observed for penicillin V (98%), trimethoprim (67%), and tetracycline (63%). S. haemolyticus was the most common isolate (75%), followed by S. epidermidis (13%) and S. hominis (6%). S. haemolyticus was also the species displaying the highest resistance prevalence (82%). 69% of the isolated CoNS were multiple drug resistant (?4 antibiotics) and 45% of the CoNS were methicillin resistant. Antimicrobial agents were detected in 64% of the analysed urine samples (n?=?121) where the most frequently detected antimicrobials were ciprofloxacin (30%), trimethoprim (27%), and metronidazole (17%). The major findings of this study was that the prevalence of detected antimicrobials in urine was more frequent than the use reported by the patients and the prevalence of resistant S. haemolyticus was more frequent than other resistant CoNS species when antimicrobial agents were detected in the urine. PMID:25462162

Lerbech, Anne Mette; Opintan, Japheth A.; Bekoe, Samuel Oppong; Ahiabu, Mary-Anne; Tersbøl, Britt Pinkowski; Hansen, Martin; Brightson, Kennedy T. C.; Ametepeh, Samuel; Frimodt-Møller, Niels; Styrishave, Bjarne

2014-01-01

254

Detection of p-chloroamphetamine in urine samples with mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Designer drugs are introduced periodically to avoid detection and to provide new drugs with different pharmacological activities. During our routine analysis of amphetamine in urine samples, we observed one sample that reacted with immunoassay with high activity. There is one prominent peak in the gas chromatography- mass spectrometry (GC-MS) chromatogram. However, no amphetamine, methamphetamine, MDA, MDMA, MDEA, or ephedrine was detected with GC-MS. Careful examination of the mass spectrum indicated the presence of one fragment ion (m/z 140), which is similar to the base peak of trifluoroacetic anhydride derivative of amphetamine. The characteristic ion cluster representing the presence of one chlorine atom was observed. Investigation with liquid chromatography (LC)-MS detected an unknown compound with molecular ion of m/z 170. This compound was tentatively identified as chloroamphetamine. Pure standard material of p-chloroamphetamine (PCA) was purchased and analyzed with both GC-MS and LC-MS. Identical GC-MS spectra and LC-MS-MS fragmentation patterns were obtained. A GC-MS procedure was developed for the quantitation of PCA. The limits of detection and quantification were 10 ?g/L. Precision was between 1.26% and 4.26%, and bias was between -0.91% and 4.27%. The prevalence PCA positive rate is 0.35% of the samples screened positive for amphetamine. PMID:21513613

Lin, Tsz C; Lin, Dong-Liang; Lua, Ahai C

2011-05-01

255

Can clinical pharmacy services have a positive impact on drug-related problems and health outcomes in community-based older adults?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Although pharmacotherapy can be beneficial in the elderly, it can also lead to drug-related problems (DRPs), including untreated indications, drug use without an indication, improper drug selection, subtherapeutic dosage, overdosage, medication error, medication nonadherence, drug interactions, adverse drug reactions, adverse drug withdrawal events, and therapeutic failure.Objective: The goal of this article was to review evidence from randomized controlled studies

Joseph T Hanlon; Catherine I Lindblad; Shelly L Gray

2004-01-01

256

On the Stability of Pt(IV) Pro-Drugs with Haloacetato Ligands in the Axial Positions.  

PubMed

The design of Pt(IV) pro-drugs as anticancer agents is predicated on the assumption that they will not undergo substitution reactions before entering the cancer cell. Attempts to improve the cytotoxic properties of Pt(IV) pro-drugs included the use of haloacetato axial ligands. Herein, we demonstrate that Pt(IV) complexes with trifluoroacetato (TFA) or dichloroacetato (DCA) ligands can be unstable under biologically relevant conditions and readily undergo hydrolysis, which results in the loss of the axial TFA or DCA ligands. The half-lives for Pt(IV) complexes with two TFA or DCA ligands at pH?7 and 37?°C range from 6 to 800?min, which is short relative to the duration of cytotoxicity experiments that last 24-96?h. However, complexes with two monochloroacetato (MCA) or acetato axial ligands are stable under biologically relevant conditions. The loss of the axial ligands depends primarily on the electron-withdrawing strength of the axial ligands, but also upon the nature of the equatorial ligands. We were unable to find obvious correlations between the structures of the Pt(IV) complexes and the rates of decay of the parent compounds. The X-ray crystal structures of the bis-DCA and bis-MCA Pt(IV) derivatives of oxaliplatin did not reveal any significant structural differences that could explain the observed differences in stability. PMID:25529335

Wexselblatt, Ezequiel; Raveendran, Raji; Salameh, Sawsan; Friedman-Ezra, Aviva; Yavin, Eylon; Gibson, Dan

2015-02-01

257

Bio-Rad Laboratories u R I n e t O x I C O l O g Y C O n t R O l s Urine Toxicology Controls  

E-print Network

Bio-Rad Laboratories u R I n e t O x I C O l O g Y C O n t R O l s Urine Toxicology Controls MultiTM urine toxicology screen Controls LiquichekTM Urine Toxicology Control, Levels S1E Low Opiate & S2E Low Toxicology Control, Levels S1O Low Opiate & S2O Low Opiate A human urine control containing drugs of abuse

Rodriguez, Carlos

258

Identification of a new kinin in human urine.  

PubMed

The types of kinins excreted in fresh urine of dogs, rats, and humans were compared. Urinary kinins were separated by reverse-phase (C18) high performance liquid chromatography and quantitated by radioimmunoassay using an antibody directed against the COOH-terminal region of the peptide. Kinins were found in the following proportions: 53 +/- 3% bradykinin, 23 +/- 4% Lys-bradykinin, and 13 +/- 7% des-Arg1-bradykinin in dog urine; 67 +/- 6% bradykinin, 6 +/- 3% Lys-bradykinin, and 10 +/- 3% des-Arg1-bradykinin in rat urine; and 12 +/- 4% bradykinin, 30 +/- 3% Lys-bradykinin, 2 +/- 1% des-Arg1-bradykinin, and 41 +/- 3% unknown kinin in human urine. The unknown kinin was purified from a pool of human urine. Amino acid sequencing revealed a structure similar to Lys-bradykinin except that proline in position 4 was replaced by alanine ([Ala3]Lys-bradykinin). Synthetic and endogenous [Ala3]Lys-bradykinins had similar high performance liquid chromotography elution volumes and both had vasodilator activity and contracted the rat uterus. Human urinary kallikrein incubated with semipurified human low molecular weight kininogen released 76% of the total kinins as Lys-bradykinin, 7% as bradykinin, and 17% as [Ala3]Lys-bradykinin. In contrast, rat urinary kallikrein released 86% bradykinin, 18% Lys-bradykinin, and negligible amounts of [Ala3]Lys-bradykinin. The study revealed the presence of a new kinin, [Ala3]Lys-bradykinin, in human urine and it also proves that the types of kinins generated intrarenally are species-dependent. PMID:3635531

Mindroiu, T; Scicli, G; Perini, F; Carretero, O A; Scicli, A G

1986-06-01

259

Evaluation of abalone ?-glucuronidase substitution in current urine hydrolysis procedures.  

PubMed

This study examined the potential of abalone ?-glucuronidase as a viable and cost effective alternative to current hydrolysis procedures using acid, Helix pomatia ?-glucuronidase and Escherichia coli ?-glucuronidase. Abalone ?-glucuronidase successfully hydrolyzed oxazepam-glucuronide and lorazepam-glucuronide within 5% of the spiked control concentration. Benzodiazepines present in authentic urine specimens were within 20% of the concentrations obtained with the current hydrolysis procedure using H. pomatia ?-glucuronidase. JWH 018 N-(5-hydroxypentyl) ?-d-glucuronide was hydrolyzed within 10% of the control concentration. Authentic urine specimens showed improved glucuronide cleavage using abalone ?-glucuronidase with up to an 85% increase of drug concentration, compared with the results obtained using E. coli ?-glucuronidase. The JWH 018 and JWH 073 carboxylic acid metabolites also showed increased drug concentrations of up to 24%. Abalone ?-glucuronidase was able to completely hydrolyze a morphine-3-glucuronide control, but only 82% of total morphine was hydrolyzed in authentic urine specimens compared with acid hydrolysis results. Hydrolysis of codeine and hydromorphone varied between specimens, suggesting that abalone ?-glucuronidase may not be as efficient in hydrolyzing the glucuronide linkages in opioid compounds compared with acid hydrolysis. Abalone ?-glucuronidase demonstrates effectiveness as a low cost option for enzyme hydrolysis of benzodiazepines and synthetic cannabinoids. PMID:24488113

Malik-Wolf, Brittany; Vorce, Shawn; Holler, Justin; Bosy, Thomas

2014-04-01

260

Urine bag as a modern day matula.  

PubMed

Since time immemorial uroscopic analysis has been a staple of diagnostic medicine. It received prominence during the middle ages with the introduction of the matula. Urinary discoloration is generally due to changes in urochrome concentration associated with the presence of other endogenous or exogenous pigments. Observation of urine colors has received less attention due to the advances made in urinalysis. A gamut of urine colors can be seen in urine bags of hospitalized patients that may give clue to presence of infections, medications, poisons, and hemolysis. Although worrisome to the patient, urine discoloration is mostly benign and resolves with removal of the offending agent. Twelve urine bags with discolored urine (and their predisposing causes) have been shown as examples. Urine colors (blue-green, yellow, orange, pink, red, brown, black, white, and purple) and their etiologies have been reviewed following a literature search in these databases: Pubmed, EBSCO, Science Direct, Proquest, Google Scholar, Springer, and Ovid. PMID:24959539

Viswanathan, Stalin

2013-01-01

261

Urine Bag as a Modern Day Matula  

PubMed Central

Since time immemorial uroscopic analysis has been a staple of diagnostic medicine. It received prominence during the middle ages with the introduction of the matula. Urinary discoloration is generally due to changes in urochrome concentration associated with the presence of other endogenous or exogenous pigments. Observation of urine colors has received less attention due to the advances made in urinalysis. A gamut of urine colors can be seen in urine bags of hospitalized patients that may give clue to presence of infections, medications, poisons, and hemolysis. Although worrisome to the patient, urine discoloration is mostly benign and resolves with removal of the offending agent. Twelve urine bags with discolored urine (and their predisposing causes) have been shown as examples. Urine colors (blue-green, yellow, orange, pink, red, brown, black, white, and purple) and their etiologies have been reviewed following a literature search in these databases: Pubmed, EBSCO, Science Direct, Proquest, Google Scholar, Springer, and Ovid. PMID:24959539

Viswanathan, Stalin

2013-01-01

262

Differential Predictors of Medication Adherence in HIV: Findings from a Sample of African American and Caucasian HIV-Positive Drug-Using Adults  

PubMed Central

Abstract Modest or even occasional nonadherence to combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) can result in adverse clinical outcomes. African Americans demonstrate lower rates of adherence than Caucasians or Latinos. Identifying factors that influence medication adherence among African Americans is a critical step toward reducing HIV/AIDS disease progression and mortality. In a sample of 181 African American (n=144) and Caucasian (n=37) HIV-positive drug-using individuals [age (M=42.31; SD=6.6) education (M=13.41; SD=2.1)], we examined the influence of baseline drug use, literacy, neurocognition, depression, treatment-specific social support, and patient satisfaction with health care provider on medication adherence averaged over the course of 6 months (study dates 2002–2006). Our findings suggest differential baseline predictors of medication adherence for African Americans and Caucasians, such that patient satisfaction with provider was the strongest predictor of follow-up medication adherence for African Americans whereas for Caucasians depressive symptoms and treatment-specific social support were predictive of medication adherence (after controlling for duration of drug use). PMID:22889235

Moizel, Jennifer; Panos, Stella E.; Patel, Sapna M.; Byrd, Desiree A.; Myers, Hector F.; Wyatt, Gail E.; Hinkin, Charles H.

2012-01-01

263

A randomized clinical trial of a manual-guided risk reduction intervention for HIV-positive injection drug users.  

PubMed

This study randomized 90 HIV-seropositive, methadone-maintained injection drug users (IDUs) to an HIV Harm Reduction Program (HHRP+) or to an active control that included harm reduction components recommended by the National AIDS Demonstration Research Project. The treatment phase lasted 6 months, with follow-ups at 6 and 9 months after treatment entry. Patients in both treatments showed reductions in risk behaviors. However, patients assigned to HHRP+ were less likely to use illicit opiates and were more likely to adhere to antiretroviral medications during treatment; at follow-up, they had lower addiction severity scores and were less likely to have engaged in high risk behavior. Findings suggest that enhancing methadone maintenance with an intervention targeting HIV-seropositive IDUs increases both harm reduction and health promotion behaviors. PMID:12683743

Margolin, Arthur; Avants, S Kelly; Warburton, Lara A; Hawkins, Keith A; Shi, Julia

2003-03-01

264

Discriminative Stimulus Effects of the GABAB Receptor-Positive Modulator rac-BHFF: Comparison with GABAB Receptor Agonists and Drugs of Abuse  

PubMed Central

GABAB receptor-positive modulators are thought to have advantages as potential medications for anxiety, depression, and drug addiction. They may have fewer side effects than GABAB receptor agonists, because selective enhancement of activated receptors could have effects different from nonselective activation of all receptors. To examine this, pigeons were trained to discriminate the GABAB receptor-positive modulator (R,S)-5,7-di-tert-butyl-3-hydroxy-3-trifluoromethyl-3H-benzofuran-2-one (rac-BHFF) from its vehicle. The discriminative stimulus effects of rac-BHFF were not mimicked by the GABAB receptor agonists baclofen and ?-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), not by diazepam, and not by alcohol, cocaine, and nicotine, whose self-administration has been reported to be attenuated by GABAB receptor-positive modulators. The discriminative stimulus effects of rac-BHFF were not antagonized by the GABAB receptor antagonist 3-aminopropyl (diethoxymethyl)phosphinic acid (CGP35348) but were attenuated by the less efficacious GABAB receptor-positive modulator 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-(3-hydroxy-2,2-dimethylpropyl)phenol (CGP7930), suggesting the possibility that rac-BHFF produces its discriminative stimulus effects by directly activating GABAB2 subunits of GABAB receptors. At a dose 10-fold lower than the training dose, rac-BHFF enhanced the discriminative stimulus effects of baclofen, but not of GHB. This study provides evidence that the effects of GABAB receptor-positive modulators are not identical to those of GABAB receptor agonists. In addition, the results suggest that positive modulation of GABAB receptors does not produce discriminative stimulus effects similar to those of benzodiazepines, alcohol, cocaine, and nicotine. Finally, the finding that rac-BHFF enhanced effects of baclofen but not of GHB is consistent with converging evidence that the populations of GABAB receptors mediating the effects of baclofen and GHB are not identical. PMID:23275067

Cheng, Kejun; Rice, Kenner C.

2013-01-01

265

Beating the system: a study of a creatinine assay and its efficacy in authenticating human urine specimens.  

PubMed

Creatinine concentration is commonly used to verify the authenticity of urine specimens submitted for illicit drug screening. This study evaluated creatinine screening of donor urine specimens as a tool for detecting substituted and/or tampered specimens. The study carried out creatinine assay of animal urine, fruit juices, and urine from creatine-supplemented subjects by a modified version of the Jaffe reaction. All specimens were analyzed for creatinine concentration in a chemistry-immuno analyzer. Results showed that urine specimens from common domestic pets, including cats, dogs, and horses, have creatinine values similar to normal human values. Most fruit juices tested contained no detectable creatinine, and the few that did showed poor "urine" chemical integrity. Creatine supplementation by donors was found not to provide an effective means of elevating creatinine concentration in urine when attempting to flush out water-soluble drugs in the body. Thus, the assay for creatinine proved useful for the detection of some but not all adulterated urine specimens. PMID:20109301

Villena, Vincent P

2010-01-01

266

Metabolism studies of the Kratom alkaloid speciociliatine, a diastereomer of the main alkaloid mitragynine, in rat and human urine using liquid chromatography-linear ion trap mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mitragyna speciosa (Kratom) is currently used as a drug of abuse. When monitoring its abuse in urine, several alkaloids and their metabolites must be\\u000a considered. In former studies, mitragynine (MG), its diastereomer speciogynine (SG), and paynantheine and their metabolites\\u000a could be identified in rat and human urine using LC-MSn. In Kratom users' urines, besides MG and SG, further isomeric compounds

Anika A. Philipp; Dirk K. Wissenbach; Armin A. Weber; Josef Zapp; Hans H. Maurer

2011-01-01

267

Detection and typing of human papillomavirus DNA in paired urine and cervical scrapes.  

PubMed

The prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) in paired cervical scrape and urine specimens from 144 women attending a clinic for genitourinary medicine was determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and nested PCR, using degenerate and general primer pairs localized within the L1 region. HPV typing was by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), type-specific PCR (HPV 6, 11, 16, 18, 33), and partial DNA sequencing of PCR products. HPV DNA was detected in 114 (84%) women. HPV DNA was detected in the specimens of 58 patients after amplification with MY09/MY11 primers and in a further 54 patients after nested PCR with the GP5+/GP6+ primers. A total of 106/136 (78%) of women had HPV DNA positive cervical scrapes and 89 (65%) had HPV DNA positive urine specimens. Both the urine and cervical specimens of 81 women were positive. In 25 women HPV DNA was detected in the cervical specimen only, and in 8 women HPV DNA was detected in the urine specimens only. A total of 108 specimens from 75 patients were typed. For 33 patients HPV typing was achieved in both the cervical and the urine specimens and 19 women had identical types in paired specimens. Multiple HPV infections could be detected in 15 (20%) of 75 women where either the cervical and urine specimen or both of the specimens could be typed. More then one HPV type was found in 8 specimens and from multiple sites (cervix and urinary tract) in the same patients on 7 occasions. The results of this study indicate that the detection of HPVs in the urogenital tract can be maximised through the testing of both cervical scrapes and urine specimens in conjunction with the use of a nested PCR to increase the sensitivity of HPV DNA detection. Also, urine cannot be a direct substitute for a cervical scrape as different HPV types are often detected in the urine compared with those detected in the cervix. PMID:10485346

Strauss, S; Jordens, J Z; McBride, D; Sonnex, C; Edwards, S; Desselberger, U; Watt, P; Gray, J J

1999-07-01

268

Spectrofluorimetric determination of nomifensine in human plasma and urine by derivatization with fluorescamine.  

PubMed

A sensitive, simple and rapid spectrofluorimetric method was developed for the determination of nomifensine in human plasma and urine. The present method was based on the derivatization by fluorescamine in phosphate buffer at pH 4.0 to produce a highly fluorescent product which was measured at 488?nm (excitation at 339?nm). The method was validated according to the ICH guidelines with respect to linearity, limit of detection, limit of quantification, accuracy, precision, recovery and robustness. The assay was linear over the concentration ranges 100-2,000 and 50-2,000?ng/mL for plasma and urine, respectively. The limits of detection were calculated to be 13.9 and 7.5?ng/mL for plasma and urine, respectively. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of the drug in human plasma and urine. PMID:21681914

Ulu, Sevgi Tatar

2012-01-01

269

Chemical dependency and drug testing in the workplace.  

PubMed Central

Urine testing for drug use in the workplace is now widespread, with the prevalence of positive drug tests in the work force being 0% to 15%. The prevalence of marijuana use is highest, and this can be reliably tested. Though it is prudent to rid the workplace of drug use, there is little scientific study on the relationship of drug use and workplace outcomes, such as productivity and safety. Probable-cause testing and preemployment testing are the most common applications. Random testing has been less accepted owing to its higher costs, unresolved legal issues, and predictably poor test reliability. Legal issues have focused on the right to policy, discrimination, and the lack of due process. The legal cornerstone of a good program is a policy that is planned and agreed on by both labor and management, which serves both as a contract and as a procedure in which expectations and consequences are known. The National Institute on Drug Abuse is certifying laboratories doing employee drug testing. Testing methods when done correctly are less prone to error than in the past, but screening tests can be defeated by adulterants. Although the incidence of false-positive results is low, such tests are less reliable when the prevalence of drug abuse is also low. PMID:2190418

Osterloh, J D; Becker, C E

1990-01-01

270

A Randomized Trial of Employment-Based Reinforcement of Cocaine Abstinence in Injection Drug Users  

PubMed Central

High-magnitude and long-duration abstinence reinforcement can promote drug abstinence but can be difficult to finance. Employment may be a vehicle for arranging high-magnitude and long-duration abstinence reinforcement. This study determined if employment-based abstinence reinforcement could increase cocaine abstinence in adults who inject drugs and use cocaine during methadone treatment. Participants could work 4?hr every weekday in a workplace where they could earn about $10.00 per hour in vouchers; they were required to provide routine urine samples. Participants who attended the workplace and provided cocaine-positive urine samples during the initial 4?weeks were invited to work 26?weeks and were randomly assigned to an abstinence-and-work (n ?=? 28) or work-only (n ?=? 28) group. Abstinence-and-work participants had to provide urine samples showing cocaine abstinence to work and maintain maximum pay. Work-only participants could work independent of their urinalysis results. Abstinence-and-work participants provided more (p ?=? .004; OR ?=? 5.80, 95% CI ?=? 2.03–16.56) cocaine-negative urine samples (29%) than did work-only participants (10%). Employment-based abstinence reinforcement can increase cocaine abstinence. PMID:17970256

Silverman, Kenneth; Wong, Conrad J; Needham, Mick; Diemer, Karly N; Knealing, Todd; Crone-Todd, Darlene; Fingerhood, Michael; Nuzzo, Paul; Kolodner, Kenneth

2007-01-01

271

Speeding up the screening of steroids in urine: development of a user-friendly library.  

PubMed

This work presents a novel database search engine - MLibrary - designed to assist the user in the detection and identification of androgenic anabolic steroids (AAS) and its metabolites by matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) and mass spectrometry-based strategies. The detection of the AAS in the samples was accomplished by searching (i) the mass spectrometric (MS) spectra against the library developed to identify possible positives and (ii) by comparison of the tandem mass spectrometric (MS/MS) spectra produced after fragmentation of the possible positives with a complete set of spectra that have previously been assigned to the software. The urinary screening for anabolic agents plays a major role in anti-doping laboratories as they represent the most abused drug class in sports. With the help of the MLibrary software application, the use of MALDI techniques for doping control is simplified and the time for evaluation and interpretation of the results is reduced. To do so, the search engine takes as input several MALDI-TOF-MS and MALDI-TOF-MS/MS spectra. It aids the researcher in an automatic mode by identifying possible positives in a single MS analysis and then confirming their presence in tandem MS analysis by comparing the experimental tandem mass spectrometric data with the database. Furthermore, the search engine can, potentially, be further expanded to other compounds in addition to AASs. The applicability of the MLibrary tool is shown through the analysis of spiked urine samples. PMID:24036418

Galesio, M; López-Fdez, H; Reboiro-Jato, M; Gómez-Meire, Silvana; Glez-Peña, D; Fdez-Riverola, F; Lodeiro, Carlos; Diniz, M E; Capelo, J L

2013-12-11

272

Prevalence of heroin markers in urine for pain management patients.  

PubMed

Surveys of current trends indicate heroin abuse is associated with nonmedical use of pain relievers. Consequently, there is an interest in evaluating the presence of heroin-specific markers in chronic pain patients who are prescribed controlled substances. A total of 926,084 urine specimens from chronic pain patients were tested for heroin/diacetylmorphine (DAM), 6-acetylmorphine (6AM), 6-acetylcodeine (6AC), codeine (COD), and morphine (MOR). Heroin and markers were analyzed using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS). Opiates were analyzed following hydrolysis using LC-MS-MS. The prevalence of heroin use was 0.31%, as 2871 were positive for one or more heroin-specific markers including DAM, 6AM, or 6AC (a known contaminant of illicit heroin). Of these, 1884 were additionally tested for the following markers of illicit drug use: 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), methamphetamine (MAMP), 11-nor-9-carboxy-?(9)-tetracannabinol (THCCOOH), and benzoylecgonine (BZE); 654 (34.7%) had positive findings for one or more of these analytes. The overall prevalence of heroin markers were as follows: DAM 1203 (41.9%), 6AM 2570 (89.5%), 6AC 1082 (37.7%). MOR was present in 2194 (76.4%) and absent (positive specimens. COD was present in 1218 (42.4%) specimens. Prevalence of combinations for specimens containing MOR were as follows: DAM only 13 (0.59%), 6AM only 1140 (52.0%), 6AC only 24 (1.1%), DAM/6AM/6AC 710 (32.4%), 6AM/6AC 188 (8.6%), DAM/6AM 113 (5.2%), DAM/6AC 6 (0.27%). Importantly, the prevalence of combinations for specimens without MOR were as follows: DAM only 161 (23.8%), 6AM only 217 (32.1%), 6AC only 92 (13.6%), DAM/6AM/6AC 50 (7.4%), 6AM/6AC 7 (1.0%), DAM/6AM 145 (21.4%), DAM/6AC 5 (0.74%). Unexpected patterns of excretion were observed, such as the presence of DAM and 6AC in the absence of 6AM and MOR; therefore, multiple heroin markers may be useful to assess for heroin use. PMID:24858136

Knight, Julie; Puet, Brandi L; DePriest, Anne; Heltsley, Rebecca; Hild, Cheryl; Black, David L; Robert, Timothy; Caplan, Yale H; Cone, Edward J

2014-10-01

273

Determination of Designer Drug Cross-Reactivity on Five Commercial Immunoassay Screening Kits.  

PubMed

The detection of new designer drugs is often a difficult issue in forensic urine drug testing as immunoassays are the primary screening methodology for drugs of abuse in many of these laboratories. Cross-reactivity of compounds with immunoassay kits can either aid or complicate the detection of a variety of drug and drug metabolites. For instance, emerging designer drugs that share structural similarities to amphetamines and phencyclidine (PCP) have the potential to cross-react with assays designed to detect these compounds. This study evaluates the cross-reactivity of five commercially available immunoassay reagent kits for 94 designer drugs on a Roche/Hitachi Modular P automated screening instrument. The compounds used in this study are grouped by structural class as follows: 2,5-dimethoxyamphetamines, 2C (2,5-dimethoxyphenethylamines), ?-keto amphetamines, substituted amphetamines, piperazines, ?-pyrrolidinopropiophenones, tryptamines and PCP analogs. A drug concentration of 100 µg/mL was used to determine cross-reactivity for each assay and resulted in the following positive rates: Microgenics DRI(®) Ecstasy enzyme assay (19%), Microgenics DRI(®) Phencyclidine enzyme assay (20%), Lin-Zhi Methamphetamine enzyme immunoassay (39%), Siemens/Syva(®) EMIT(®)II Plus Amphetamines assay (43%) and CEDIA(®) DAU Amphetamine/Ecstasy assay (57%). Of the 94 designer drugs tested, 14% produced a negative response for all five kits. No designer drug used in this study generated a positive result for all five immunoassay kits. PMID:25492523

Regester, Laura E; Chmiel, Jeffrey D; Holler, Justin M; Vorce, Shawn P; Levine, Barry; Bosy, Thomas Z

2014-12-01

274

Determination of cefadroxil in rat plasma and urine using LC-MS/MS and its application to pharmacokinetic and urinary excretion studies.  

PubMed

A simple, rapid, and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was developed and validated for the determination of cefadroxil, a first-generation cephalosporin, in rat plasma and urine. Rat samples were deproteinized with methanol, and then injected into the LC-MS/MS system (electro-spray ionization, positive mode) for quantification. Drugs were separated on a Synergi™ 4 ?m Polar-RP 80A column (150 mm × 2.0 mm, 4 ?m) with a mixture of 0.1% formic acid and methanol (62:38, v/v) as the mobile phase at 0.2 mL/min. Detection was performed using multiple reaction-monitoring modes at m/z 364.1?208.1 (for cefadroxil) and m/z 368.1?174.2 (for cefaclor, the internal standard). Method was specific and linear over the concentration range of 10-10,000 ng/mL. Validation parameters for cefadroxil, including accuracy, precision, absolute matrix effect, and stability in rat plasma and urine, were acceptable according to the biological method validation guidelines of the FDA (2001) [16]. Cefadroxil levels in plasma up to 1440 min or 480 min and urine up to 96 h were quantifiable following oral and intravenous cefadroxil administrations to rats at a dose of 2mg/kg, each, suggesting that the method is appropriate for routine pharmacokinetic studies including urinary recovery in rats. PMID:24412692

Jin, Hyo-Eon; Kim, In-Bong; Kim, Yu Chul; Cho, Kwan Hyung; Maeng, Han-Joo

2014-02-01

275

The interval between initiation of anti-tuberculosis treatment in patients with culture-positive pulmonary tuberculosis and receipt of drug-susceptibility test results.  

PubMed

Although mycobacterial culture and the subsequent drug-susceptibility test (DST) for anti-tuberculosis (TB) drugs take several months to complete using solid media, there are no reports on the turnaround times of these tests under clinical conditions. The aim of this study was to determine the interval between initiation of anti-TB treatment and receipt of DST requested at an outpatient clinic. We prospectively enrolled patients with culture-positive pulmonary TB at Seoul National University Hospital from September 2002 to December 2004. Patients were followed up monthly. Mycobacterial cultures were done using Ogawa media at Seoul National University Hospital. DST were performed at the Korean Institute of Tuberculosis. Of the 104 patients enrolled, 54 were male. The median age was 41 yr. The median interval from initiation of anti-TB treatment to receipt of mycobacterial culture results by clinicians was 37 days (range, 0-89 days). The median interval from initiation of treatment to confirmation of DST by requesting clinicians was 80.5 days (range, 28-145 days). Clinicians only received the results of DST more than two months after initiation of treatment when they followed up patients monthly and mycobacterial culture was performed using solid media. PMID:17297247

Joh, Joon-Sung; Lee, Chang Hoon; Lee, Ji Eun; Park, Young-Kil; Bai, Gill-Han; Kim, Eui-Chong; Han, Sung Koo; Shim, Young-Soo; Yim, Jae-Joon

2007-02-01

276

Uptake of gamma-valerolactone--detection of gamma-hydroxyvaleric acid in human urine samples.  

PubMed

Gamma-valerolactone (GVL) is reported to be a substance that can be used as a legal substitute for gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), which is currently a controlled substance in several countries. Unlike gamma-butyrolactone and 1,4-butanediol, GVL is not metabolized to GHB, which causes the effects after uptake of these two chemicals. In the case of GVL, the lactone ring is split to gamma-hydroxyvaleric acid (GHV or 4-methyl-GHB) by a lactonase. Because of its affinity for the GHB receptor, GHV reveals similar effects to GHB, although it is less potent. Intoxications with GVL, or its use as a date rape drug, are conceivable. Despite these facts, there are no publications in the literature regarding detections of GHV in human samples. This study reports three cases, including five urine samples, in which GHV could be detected in concentrations between 3 and 5.8 mg/L. In one of these cases, a drug-facilitated sexual assault (DFSA) was assumed; four of these samples were from two people suspected of abusing GHB. The results indicate that GVL is used as an alternative to GHB and its precursors and should be taken seriously. GVL or GHV should be included in toxicological analysis, particularly in DFSA cases. More information is needed regarding the pharmacokinetics of GVL/GHV for the meaningful interpretation of positive or negative results. PMID:23486087

Andresen-Streichert, H; Jungen, H; Gehl, A; Müller, A; Iwersen-Bergmann, S

2013-05-01

277

Pentachlorophenol levels in human urine  

SciTech Connect

Pentachlorophenol is perhaps one of the most persistent and widespread pollutants in existence today. The ubiquitous nature of this molecule and its toxicological properties have aroused the interest of numerous researchers in diverse areas of environmental chemistry, occupational health and safety, and environmental and occupational medicine. Unfortunately, due to the unavailability of data indicative of {open_quotes}normal{close_quotes} or background levels of PCP exposure in the general population, researchers have encountered difficulty assessing long-term toxicological effects. It is desirable to be able to determine the minimum level of long-term exposure which will result in an adverse effect to human health. There have been a limited number of studies examining PCP levels in the urine of non-occupationally exposed individuals. In continuation of previous work carried out at our laboratory, we have analyzed a series of urine samples which were collected in the middle of winter as opposed to early in the fall. This work will provide further information regarding background levels of PCP and also determine whether or not there is potentially seasonal variation. 6 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Thompson, T.S.; Treble, R.G. [Saskatchewan Health, Regina (Canada)] [Saskatchewan Health, Regina (Canada)

1996-04-01

278

Diagnosis of Schistosoma haematobium by Detection of Specific DNA Fragments from Filtered Urine Samples  

PubMed Central

Definitive diagnosis of Schistosoma haematobium infection in adult patients is a clinically important challenge. Chronically infected adults pass few eggs in the urine, which are often missed when current diagnostic methods are used. In the work presented here, we report on an alternative diagnostic method based on presence of the S. haematobium-specific Dra 1, 121 bp repeat fragment in human urine. A novel method of collecting the urine specimens in the field and filtering them through heavy Whatman No. 3 paper was introduced. After drying, the samples remained viable for several months at room temperature. To test the potential use of this method, 89 urine specimens from school children in Kollo District, Niger, were examined. In all, 52 of 89 (58.4%) were positive for hematuria, 4 of 89 (49.4%) were positive for eggs, and 51 of 89 (57.3%) showed parasite-specific DNA. These were compared with 60 filtered urine specimens obtained from random samples of adults from two study sites in Nigeria, one endemic and one non-endemic for S. haematobium. In the 30 patients from the endemic site, all 10 samples with detectable eggs and 7 of the 20 egg-negative samples were DNA positive. It was concluded that the urine filter paper method was sufficiently sensitive to detect low and cryptic infections, that DNA detection was more sensitive than egg detection, and that the filtration method facilitated specimen collection and transport from the field. PMID:21633040

Ibironke, Olufunmilola A.; Phillips, Anna E.; Garba, Amadou; Lamine, Sani M.; Shiff, Clive

2011-01-01

279

Diagnosis of Schistosoma haematobium by detection of specific DNA fragments from filtered urine samples.  

PubMed

Definitive diagnosis of Schistosoma haematobium infection in adult patients is a clinically important challenge. Chronically infected adults pass few eggs in the urine, which are often missed when current diagnostic methods are used. In the work presented here, we report on an alternative diagnostic method based on presence of the S. haematobium-specific Dra 1, 121 bp repeat fragment in human urine. A novel method of collecting the urine specimens in the field and filtering them through heavy Whatman No. 3 paper was introduced. After drying, the samples remained viable for several months at room temperature. To test the potential use of this method, 89 urine specimens from school children in Kollo District, Niger, were examined. In all, 52 of 89 (58.4%) were positive for hematuria, 4 of 89 (49.4%) were positive for eggs, and 51 of 89 (57.3%) showed parasite-specific DNA. These were compared with 60 filtered urine specimens obtained from random samples of adults from two study sites in Nigeria, one endemic and one non-endemic for S. haematobium. In the 30 patients from the endemic site, all 10 samples with detectable eggs and 7 of the 20 egg-negative samples were DNA positive. It was concluded that the urine filter paper method was sufficiently sensitive to detect low and cryptic infections, that DNA detection was more sensitive than egg detection, and that the filtration method facilitated specimen collection and transport from the field. PMID:21633040

Ibironke, Olufunmilola A; Phillips, Anna E; Garba, Amadou; Lamine, Sani M; Shiff, Clive

2011-06-01

280

Bladder Cancer Biomarker Discovery Using Global Metabolomic Profiling of Urine  

PubMed Central

Bladder cancer (BCa) is a common malignancy worldwide and has a high probability of recurrence after initial diagnosis and treatment. As a result, recurrent surveillance, primarily involving repeated cystoscopies, is a critical component of post diagnosis patient management. Since cystoscopy is invasive, expensive and a possible deterrent to patient compliance with regular follow-up screening, new non-invasive technologies to aid in the detection of recurrent and/or primary bladder cancer are strongly needed. In this study, mass spectrometry based metabolomics was employed to identify biochemical signatures in human urine that differentiate bladder cancer from non-cancer controls. Over 1000 distinct compounds were measured including 587 named compounds of known chemical identity. Initial biomarker identification was conducted using a 332 subject sample set of retrospective urine samples (cohort 1), which included 66 BCa positive samples. A set of 25 candidate biomarkers was selected based on statistical significance, fold difference and metabolic pathway coverage. The 25 candidate biomarkers were tested against an independent urine sample set (cohort 2) using random forest analysis, with palmitoyl sphingomyelin, lactate, adenosine and succinate providing the strongest predictive power for differentiating cohort 2 cancer from non-cancer urines. Cohort 2 metabolite profiling revealed additional metabolites, including arachidonate, that were higher in cohort 2 cancer vs. non-cancer controls, but were below quantitation limits in the cohort 1 profiling. Metabolites related to lipid metabolism may be especially interesting biomarkers. The results suggest that urine metabolites may provide a much needed non-invasive adjunct diagnostic to cystoscopy for detection of bladder cancer and recurrent disease management. PMID:25541698

Wittmann, Bryan M.; Stirdivant, Steven M.; Mitchell, Matthew W.; Wulff, Jacob E.; McDunn, Jonathan E.; Li, Zhen; Dennis-Barrie, Aphrihl; Neri, Bruce P.; Milburn, Michael V.; Lotan, Yair; Wolfert, Robert L.

2014-01-01

281

Pelvic urine composition as a determinant of inner medullary solute concentration and urine osmolarity  

Microsoft Academic Search

To clarify the question whether solute and water fluxes between pelvic urine and the renal papilla contribute to the medullary accumulation of osmotically active substances and thus to final urine concentration, we measured the osmolarity of urine samples from the papillary tip of rat kidneys during superfusion of the exposed papillae with solutions of widely varying osmotic concentrations. When the

W. Schütz; J. Schnermann

1972-01-01

282

Spot Urine Estimations Are Equivalent to 24-Hour Urine Assessments of Urine Protein Excretion for Predicting Clinical Outcomes  

PubMed Central

Background. The use of spot urine protein to creatinine ratios in estimating 24?hr urine protein excretion rates for diagnosing and managing chronic kidney disease (CKD) predated the standardization of creatinine assays. The comparative predictive performance of spot urine ratios and 24?hr urine collections (of albumin or protein) for the clinical outcomes of CKD progression, end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and mortality in Asians is unclear. We compared 4 methods of assessing urine protein excretion in a multiethnic population of CKD patients. Methods. Patients with CKD (n = 232) provided 24?hr urine collections followed by spot urine samples the next morning. We created multiple linear regression models to assess the factors associated with GFR decline (median follow-up: 37 months, IQR 26–41) and constructed Cox proportional-hazards models for predicting the combined outcome of ESRD and death. Results. The linear regression models showed that 24?hr urine protein excretion was most predictive of GFR decline but all other methods were similar. For the combined outcomes of ESRD and death, the proportional hazards models had similar predictive performance. Conclusions. We showed that all methods of assessments were comparable for clinical end-points, and any method can be used in clinical practice or research. PMID:25649135

Teo, Boon Wee; Loh, Ping Tyug; Wong, Weng Kin; Ho, Peh Joo; Choi, Kwok Pui; Toh, Qi Chun; Xu, Hui; Saw, Sharon; Lau, Titus; Sethi, Sunil; Lee, Evan J. C.

2015-01-01

283

Kratom alkaloids and O-desmethyltramadol in urine of a “Krypton” herbal mixture consumer  

Microsoft Academic Search

AimA drug and alcohol withdrawal rehabilitation centre requested an analysis for “Krypton” in urine of a former opiate-addictive woman. She showed an altered clinical picture and behaviour with miosis, itchiness, agitation, and moderate euphoria after 3 months of until than successful treatment. Literature search revealed that “Krypton” is said to contain “Kratom” (leaves of Mitragyna speciosa), but could also contain

Torsten Arndt; Ulrich Claussen; Brunhilde Güssregen; Stefanie Schröfel; Birgit Stürzer; Annika Werle; Gerald Wolf

2011-01-01

284

Detection of Legionella DNA in human and guinea pig urine samples by the polymerase chain reaction.  

PubMed

A detection system for Legionella DNA in urine samples based on the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was developed and tested on infected guinea pigs and patients suffering from pneumonia. Results were compared with standard methods for diagnosis of Legionnaires' disease. A primer system was selected which amplifies a 108 bp DNA fragment of the 5S rRNA gene. The sensitivity of the PCR system was one femtogram of extracted Legionella DNA. Three methods were tested for pretreatment of urine samples. Of these, the Geneclean II kit (Bio 101, USA) gave the best results for artificially contaminated urine samples as well as those from infected guinea pigs or patients. Thirty-seven urine samples from 15 guinea pigs intraperitoneally infected with either Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1, 3 and 6 or Legionella micdadei, 26 urine samples of 21 patients suffering from pneumonia, and 30 control samples of patients with urinary tract infection (UTI) were tested. Legionella DNA was detected in 29 of the guinea pig urine samples; whereas, urinary antigen detection using EIA was positive in only 20 of the samples. PCR was also positive in the samples of 11 patients with pneumonia, 9 of which were confirmed by other microbiological methods, such as culture, direct fluorescent antibody test, urinary antigen detection and antibody testing. However, of the 30 control samples from patients with UTI, three samples yielded positive results. The results demonstrate that Legionella DNA is excreted in the urine of infected individuals and that the PCR shows a higher degree of sensitivity than EIA to the detection of soluble Legionella antigen in urine.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7729449

Maiwald, M; Schill, M; Stockinger, C; Helbig, J H; Lück, P C; Witzleb, W; Sonntag, H G

1995-01-01

285

Evaluation of the L-CLONE Legionella pneumophila Serogroup 1 Urine Antigen Latex Test.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the L-CLONE Legionella pneumophila Serogroup 1 Urine Antigen Latex Test (Access Medical Systems, Inc., Branford, Conn.) for detection of Legionella antigen in urine. A total of 481 frozen urine samples previously tested by an in-house solid-phase radioimmunoassay (RIA) was thawed and retested by using L-CLONE. Included in this sample were 140 RIA-positive samples from culture-positive or serologically confirmed cases of legionellosis and 341 RIA-negative samples from patients with non-Legionella respiratory disease or bacteriuria. The original RIA test result was accepted as the true value. L-CLONE correctly identified 76 of 140 (54%) known positive samples. False-negative results could not be attributed to a low Legionella antigen concentration or to a Legionella antigen subgroup. L-CLONE correctly identified 252 of 341 (74%) known negative samples. False-positive results were experienced in all groups of negative samples, regardless of the patients' underlying diseases. A total of 141 fresh urine samples was tested; all were Legionella antigen negative by RIA. L-CLONE provided 86% specificity. The sensitivity of the L-CLONE in testing fresh urine samples could not be evaluated because of the lack of Legionella antigen RIA-positive samples. PMID:1939574

Leland, D S; Kohler, R B

1991-10-01

286

Review of Biologic Matrices (Urine, Blood, Hair) as Indicators of Recent or Ongoing Cannabis Use  

Microsoft Academic Search

Especially for cannabinoids, analytical procedures for the verification of recent use and generally for the assessment of the extent of drug abuse are of interest in clinical and forensic toxicology. For confirmation of abstinence, urine analysis seems to be a useful tool. Serial monitoring of THC-COOH to creatinine ratios can differentiate between recent drug use and residual THC-COOH excretion (THC-COOH\\/creatinine

Frank Musshoff; Burkhard Madea

2006-01-01

287

Investigation of the origin of prednisolone in cow urine.  

PubMed

After a two-year period of the frequent detection of prednisolone-positive bovine urine samples in the Italian region of Lombardy, studies were initiated to investigate the source. Because the majority of positive samples were detected at the slaughterhouse, researchers hypothesised that, together with increased cortisol and cortisone, a small quantity of prednisolone could be produced by the cows in stressful situations. In the present study, three dairy cows underwent intramuscular treatments with tetracosactide hexaacetate, a synthetic analogue of adrenocorticotropic hormone, to simulate stress. The animals were slaughtered at the end of the study. The results indicated that prednisolone could be detected occasionally in the non-stressful state, but was consistently found in the urine of stressed cows (concentrations ranged from 1.01 to 4.08 ng/mL). To confirm the stress condition, urinary cortisol and cortisone were also detected at high concentrations in the urine, typically at concentrations of hundreds of nanograms per millilitre. The results of this preliminary study did not reveal the metabolic pathway responsible for prednisolone but suggested that this corticosteroid could be produced endogenously. PMID:20869978

Pompa, G; Arioli, F; Casati, A; Fidani, M; Bertocchi, L; Dusi, G

2011-01-01

288

Screening for anabolic steroids in urine of forensic cases using fully automated solid phase extraction and LC-MS-MS.  

PubMed

A screening method for 18 frequently measured exogenous anabolic steroids and the testosterone/epitestosterone (T/E) ratio in forensic cases has been developed and validated. The method involves a fully automated sample preparation including enzyme treatment, addition of internal standards and solid phase extraction followed by analysis by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) using electrospray ionization with adduct formation for two compounds. Urine samples from 580 forensic cases were analyzed to determine the T/E ratio and occurrence of exogenous anabolic steroids. Extraction recoveries ranged from 77 to 95%, matrix effects from 48 to 78%, overall process efficiencies from 40 to 54% and the lower limit of identification ranged from 2 to 40 ng/mL. In the 580 urine samples analyzed from routine forensic cases, 17 (2.9%) were found positive for one or more anabolic steroids. Only seven different steroids including testosterone were found in the material, suggesting that only a small number of common steroids are likely to occur in a forensic context. The steroids were often in high concentrations (>100 ng/mL), and a combination of steroids and/or other drugs of abuse were seen in the majority of cases. The method presented serves as a fast and automated screening procedure, proving the suitability of LC-MS-MS for analyzing anabolic steroids. PMID:25104076

Andersen, David W; Linnet, Kristian

2014-01-01

289

Grass-green urine from propofol infusion.  

PubMed

Green urine from propofol infusion is a benign and rare side effect. The discolouration appears when clearance of propofol exceeds hepatic elimination, and extrahepatic elimination of propofol occurs. This case report presents a 24-year-old male with grass green discolouration of urine based on propofol infusion. PMID:25394533

Pedersen, A B; Kobborg, T K; Larsen, J R

2014-11-14

290

Clinical Significance of Mites in Urine  

PubMed Central

We report a case where a mite egg found in urine caused diagnostic confusion. The possibility of gut or bladder mite infection should be entertained only after repeated identification of mites in urine or stool samples from a symptomatic patient with no other cause for the symptoms and where the possibilities of contamination and spurious infection have been excluded. PMID:16333130

Dini, Leigh A.; Frean, John A.

2005-01-01

291

Genetics Home Reference: Maple syrup urine disease  

MedlinePLUS

... but they still involve developmental delay and other health problems if not treated. How common is maple syrup urine disease? Maple syrup urine disease affects an estimated 1 in 185,000 infants worldwide. The disorder occurs much more frequently in ...

292

Measurement of Menadione in urine by HPLC  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Menadione may be an important metabolite of vitamin K that is excreted in urine. A high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method with a C30 column, fluorescence detection and post-column zinc reduction was developed to measure menadione in urine. The mobile phase was composed of 95% methanol...

293

Source Separation and Treament of Anthropogenic Urine  

EPA Science Inventory

Abstract: Anthropogenic urine, although only 1% of domestic wastewater flow, is responsible for 50-80% of the nutrients and a substantial portion of the pharmaceuticals and hormones present in the influent to wastewater treatment plants. Source separation and treatment of urine...

294

Radioscintigraphic demonstration of unsuspected urine extravasation  

SciTech Connect

Three cases of unsuspected urine extravasation first detected by radionuclide scintigraphy are presented with subsequent confirmation by CT and, retrograde pyelograms. A renal study done to rule out acute transplant rejection demonstrates gallbladder uptake which was initially thought to be consistent with urine extravasation.

Bocchini, T.; Williams, W.; Patton, D.

1989-06-01

295

Immunodiagnosis of alveolar echinococcosis using urine samples.  

PubMed

Alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is one of the most lethal zoonotic parasitic infections. The diagnosis is based on the combination of the abdominal imaging including CT, MRI and PET, and serology. To develop a new diagnostic tool for AE with urine as samples, mouse-Echinococcus multilocularis (Em) model and then human cases were studied. The antibody levels of urine and serum samples from the infected mice and AE cases were well correlated with each other. The sensitivity and specificity of the method with urine were 91% and 98%, respectively, when IgG4 to crude Em was examined. Comparing with serum samples, the collection of urine is easier and safer and the urine diagnostic tool makes surveys of this silent disease easier. PMID:23872436

Itoh, Makoto; Sako, Yasuhito; Itoh, Sonoyo; Ishikawa, Yuji; Akabane, Hiromitsu; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Nagaoka, Fumiaki; Ito, Akira

2013-12-01

296

Injecting drug use is associated with a more rapid CD4 cell decline among treatment naïve HIV-positive patients in Indonesia  

PubMed Central

Background It remains unclear whether the natural course of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) differs in subjects infected through injecting drug use (IDU) and no data have been published from low- or middle-income countries. We addressed this question in an urban cohort in Indonesia, which is experiencing a rapidly growing HIV epidemic strongly driven by IDU. Methods All antiretroviral treatment (ART) naïve HIV-positive patients who had at least two subsequent CD4 cell counts available before starting ART were included in this study. We examined the association between IDU and CD4 cell decline using a linear mixed model, with adjustment for possible confounders such as HIV viral load and hepatitis C antibodies. Results Among 284 HIV-positive ART naïve patients, the majority were male (56%) with a history of IDU (79% among men). People with a history of IDU had a statistically significant faster decline in CD4 cells (p<0.001). Based on our data, patients with a history of IDU would have an average 33% decline in CD4 cells after one year without ART, compared with a 22% decline among non-users. At two years, the decline would average 66 and 40%, respectively. No other factor was significantly associated with CD4 cell decline. Conclusions We show that a history of IDU is associated with a more rapid CD4 cell natural decline among HIV-positive individuals in Indonesia. These findings have implications for monitoring ART naïve patients with a history of IDU and for starting ART in this group. PMID:24388495

Meijerink, Hinta; Wisaksana, Rudi; Iskandar, Shelly; den Heijer, Martin; van der Ven, Andre J A M; Alisjahbana, Bachti; van Crevel, Reinout

2014-01-01

297

[Electrophoretic and immunochemical research of rat urine proteins in dynamics after intravenous injection of thorium dioxide (thorotrast)].  

PubMed

Rats were treated with a single intravenous injection of thorotrast (thorium dioxide)--the source of alpha-rays. Dynamic investigation of urine protens of rats by methods of electrophoresis and immunoelectrophoresis was carried out during 22 months after thorotrast injection. Already the month after drug injection the selectivity of tubular reabsorbtion was disturbed. Three months after thorotrast injection the content of urinal proteins of tissue (in particular renal) origin was decreased. Finally the selectivity of renal filtration of proteins was damaged 4-6 months after thorotrast introduction. Serum proteins which were absent in normal urine (for example transferrin and lipoproteins) appeared in urine of affected rats. The urine proteins of serum origin were less degraded than those in normal urine. The alterations of glomerular filtration was increased up to 20-22 months when the spectrum of urine proteins became similar to the spectrum of serum proteins. The death of treated rats was occurred in this period. Thus the monitoring of urine proteins of rats treated with alpha-ray producing preparation throtrast allows to register the successive alterations of reabsorbtion, excretion and filtration functions of kidney. PMID:18380331

Kulish, Iu S; Kashkin, K P

2007-01-01

298

Exosomes in urine biomarker discovery.  

PubMed

Nanovesicles present in urine the so-called urinary exosomes have been found to be secreted by every epithelial cell type lining the urinary tract system in human. Urinary exosomes are an appealing source for biomarker discovery as they contain molecular constituents of their cell of origin, including proteins and genetic materials, and they can be isolated in a non-invasive manner. Following the discovery of urinary exosomes in 2004, many studies have been performed using urinary exosomes as a starting material to identify biomarkers in various renal, urogenital, and systemic diseases. Here, we describe the discovery of urinary exosomes and address the issues on the collection, isolation, and normalization of urinary exosomes as well as delineate the systems biology approach to biomarker discovery using urinary exosomes. PMID:25355568

Huebner, Alyssa R; Somparn, Poorichaya; Benjachat, Thitima; Leelahavanichkul, Asada; Avihingsanon, Yingyos; Fenton, Robert A; Pisitkun, Trairak

2015-01-01

299

Emergency department evaluation of a rapid assay for detection of cocaine metabolites in urine specimens.  

PubMed

We evaluated the Abuscreen ONTRAK assay for cocaine metabolites, a rapid immunoassay for the detection of cocaine metabolites in a pediatric emergency department (ED) setting. The ONTRAK uses a cutoff point of 300 micrograms/L for benzoylecgonine (BEC), cocaine's major urinary metabolite. One hundred and thirty-two urine specimens obtained from infants, children, and adolescents whose clinical findings warranted toxicology screening were evaluated. The ONTRAK identified all 15 specimens with BEC values of 300 micrograms/L, but did not detect seven additional specimens positive for cocaine metabolites at concentrations less than 300 micrograms/L. One third of the positive specimens for cocaine metabolite identified by fluorescent polarization immunoassay (FPIA), cutoff point set at 80 micrograms/L, and confirmed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GUMS), cutoff point 50 micrograms/L, were not detected by the ONTRAK. These false negative specimens were seen exclusively in young children, whose concentration of cocaine metabolite was less than the ONTRAK's cutoff value. The test was sensitive to drug concentration at or around the stated cutoff values. The ONTRAK test for cocaine metabolites, although both a sensitive and specific screening test for adolescents who smoke or snort cocaine, lacks the sensitivity to be a useful screening too[ for detecting cocaine metabolites in young children. Limitations of currently performed toxicology screening tests (ie, stated cutoff levels) may cause emergency physicians to miss most young children whose symptoms may he related to cocaine exposure. PMID:8859922

Belfer, R A; Klein, B L; Boenning, D A; Soldin, S J

1996-04-01

300

Detection of significant bacteriuria by use of the iQ200 automated urine microscope.  

PubMed

In the microbiology laboratory, there is an augmented need for rapid screening methods for the detection of bacteria in urine samples, since about two-thirds of these samples will not yield any bacteria or will yield insignificant growth when cultured. Thus, a reliable screening method can free up laboratory resources and can speed up the reporting of a negative urine result. In this study, we have evaluated the detection of leukocytes, bacteria, and a new sediment indicator, the "all small particles" (ASP), by an automated instrument, the iQ200 urine analyzer, to detect negative urine samples that can be excluded from culture. A coupled automated strip reader (iChem Velocity), enabling the detection of nitrite and leukocyte esterase, was tested in parallel. In total, 963 urine samples were processed through both conventional urine culture and the iQ200/iChem Velocity workstation. Using the data, a multivariate regression model was established, and the predicted specificity and the possible reduction in urine cultures were calculated for the indicators and their respective combinations (leukocytes plus bacteria plus ASP and leukocyte esterase plus nitrite). Among all options, diagnostic performance was best using the whole microscopic content of the sample (leukocytes plus bacteria plus ASP). By using a cutoff value of ? 10(4) CFU/ml for defining a positive culture, a given sensitivity of 95% resulted in a specificity of 61% and a reduction in urine cultures of 35%. By considering the indicators alone, specificity and the culture savings were both much less satisfactory. The regression model was also used to determine possible cutoff values for running the instrument as part of daily routine. By using a graphical representation of all combinations possible, we derived cutoff values for leukocyte, bacterial, and ASP count, which should enable the iQ200 microscope to screen out approximately one-third of the urine samples, significantly reducing the workload in the microbiology laboratory. PMID:24871218

Stürenburg, Enno; Kramer, Jan; Schön, Gerhard; Cachovan, Georg; Sobottka, Ingo

2014-08-01

301

Prevalence of sexually acquired antiretroviral drug resistance in a community sample of HIV-positive men who have sex with men in New York City.  

PubMed

To examine antiretroviral (ARV) drug resistance, we recruited a community sample (n=347) of sexually active HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) in New York City, each of whom completed a structured interview and donated a blood sample for HIV genotyping. Participants reported high levels of sexual activity, with 94.6% reporting at least one sexual contact in the past month, and an average of 3.13 partners during this time. Anal intercourse was common, with 70.7% reporting at least one act of insertive anal intercourse (21% of whom reported ejaculating inside their partner without a condom) and 62.1% reporting at least one act of receptive anal intercourse during this time (22.6% of whom received ejaculate without a condom). Seventeen percent reported having sex with a woman in the past year. Although 17.4% of participants reported having ever injected drugs, no association was found between injection and antiretroviral resistance. Average HIV diagnosis was 12.1 years prior to the interview, and 92.1% had taken ARV medication. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) were widely reported, with 78% having been diagnosed with an STI since being diagnosed with HIV. A genotype was obtained for 188 (54.7%) of the samples and 44.7% revealed mutations conferring resistance to at least one ARV. Resistance to at least one ARV within a given class of medication was most common for nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (30.3%) and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (27.7%) and least common for protease inhibitors (18.1%). The combination of high prevalence of antiretroviral resistance and risky sexual practices makes transmission between sex partners a likely mode of acquisition. PMID:21457055

Goldsamt, Lloyd A; Clatts, Michael C; Parker, Monica M; Colon, Vivian; Hallack, Renee; Messina, Maria G

2011-05-01

302

Differential Modulation of Thresholds for Intracranial Self-Stimulation by mGlu5 Positive and Negative Allosteric Modulators: Implications for Effects on Drug Self-Administration  

PubMed Central

Pharmacological manipulation of the type 5 metabotropic glutamate (mGlu5) receptor alters various addiction related behaviors such as drug self-administration and the extinction and reinstatement of drug-seeking behavior. However, the effects of pharmacological modulation of mGlu5 receptors on brain reward function have not been widely investigated. We examined the effects of acute administration of positive and negative allosteric modulators (PAMs and NAMs, respectively) on brain reward function by assessing thresholds for intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS). In addition, when acute effects were observed, we examined changes in ICSS thresholds following repeated administration. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were implanted with bipolar electrodes into the medial forebrain bundle and trained to respond for ICSS, followed by assessment of effects of mGlu5 ligands on ICSS thresholds using a discrete trials current–intensity threshold determination procedure. Acute administration of the selective mGlu5 NAMs MTEP (0, 0.3, 1, or 3?mg/kg) and fenobam (0, 3, 10, or 30?mg/kg) dose-dependently increased ICSS thresholds (?70% at the highest dose tested), suggesting a deficit in brain reward function. Acute administration of the mGlu5 PAMs CDPPB (0, 10, 30, and 60?mg/kg) or ADX47273 (0, 10, 30, and 60?mg/kg) was without effect at any dose tested. When administered once daily for five consecutive days, the development of tolerance to the ability of threshold-elevating doses of MTEP and fenobam to increase ICSS thresholds was observed. We conclude that mGlu5 PAMs and NAMs differentially affect brain reward function, and that tolerance to the ability of mGlu5 NAMs to reduce brain reward function develops with repeated administration. These brain reward deficits should be taken into consideration when interpreting acute effects of mGlu5 NAMs on drug self-administration, and repeated administration of these ligands may be an effective method to reduce these deficits. PMID:22232603

Cleva, Richard M.; Watterson, Lucas R.; Johnson, Meagan A.; Olive, M. Foster

2011-01-01

303

Risk Factors of Hepatitis C Virus Infection in Drug Users From Eleven Methadone Maintenance Treatment Clinics in Xi’an, China  

PubMed Central

Background: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection rates in drug users vary among different regions of China. Drug users who are unaware of their HCV serostatus tend to engage in more risky behaviors. Objectives: This prospective study aimed to assess risk factors of HCV infection in drug users among 11 methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) clinics in Xi’an, China. Patients and Methods: Baseline characteristics and drug use information of patients were collected upon enrollment in the study and anti-HCV tests were performed within one month after the enrollment. Data on daily medication, monthly random urine morphine test results, illicit drug use and MMT retention time were recorded during a 5-year follow-up. Results: Of 10243 patients, 58.0% had positive results for anti-HCV. Injection drug use, longer duration of drug abuse, older age, female gender, unmarried status and unemployment were independent risk factors of HCV infection. Urine test positivity rate was lower (14.8% vs. 16.7%, ?2 = 100.235, P < 0.05), but MMT retention rate was higher (log-rank ?2 = 4.397, P < 0.05) in the anti-HCV positive group than anti-HCV negative one. However, multivariate regression revealed no significant association between anti-HCV serostatus and either MMT retention time or illicit drug use. Conclusions: The major risk factor of HCV infection was injection drug use. The patient’s awareness of his or her HCV status had a minor effect in reduction of illicit drug use and improvement in MMT retention. Therefore, adequate counseling is necessary for drug users in MMT clinics in Xi’an.

Xiaoli, Wei; Lirong, Wang; Xueliang, Wang; Jinsong, Li; Hengxin, Li; Wei, Jia

2014-01-01

304

Spectrofluorimetric determination of aliskiren in dosage forms and urine.  

PubMed

A new, simple and sensitive spectrofluorimetric method has been developed for the determination of aliskiren (ALS) in dosage forms and human urine. The method is based on the reaction between ALS and fluorescamine in borate buffer solution, pH 9, to give a highly fluorescent derivative which is measured at 482?nm after excitation at 382?nm. The factors affecting the reaction were carefully studied. The fluorescence intensity concentration plots were rectilinear over the range 140-1400?ng/mL with a limit of detection 13.47?ng/mL and limit of quantitation 40.81?ng/mL. The developed method was successfully applied to the analysis of the drug in tablets and human urine; the average recoveries (n?=?6) were 99.88?±?0.38% and 99.57?±?0.44%, respectively. The analytical performance of the method was fully validated and the results were satisfactory. The stability of the drug was studied by subjecting it to acidic, basic, oxidative and thermal degradation. PMID:22290775

Aydo?mu?, Zeynep

2012-01-01

305

Monitoring of kratom or Krypton intake in urine using GC-MS in clinical and forensic toxicology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Thai medicinal plant Mitragyna speciosa (kratom) is misused as a herbal drug. Besides this, a new herbal blend has appeared on the drugs of abuse market, named Krypton,\\u000a a mixture of O-demethyltramadol (ODT) and kratom. Therefore, urine drug screenings should include ODT and focus on the metabolites of the kratom alkaloids mitragynine (MG), paynantheine (PAY), speciogynine (SG), and speciociliatine

Anika A. Philipp; Markus R. Meyer; Dirk K. Wissenbach; Armin A. Weber; Siegfried W. Zoerntlein; Peter G. M. Zweipfenning; Hans H. Maurer

2011-01-01

306

Development of a sensitive radioreceptor assay for oxyphenonium in plasma and urine.  

PubMed

A radioreceptor assay (RRA) for oxyphenonium has been developed. It is based on competition between [3H]dexetimide and oxyphenonium for binding to muscarinic receptors from calf striata. The RRA is optimized towards incubation medium and to extraction by ion pair formation with sodium picrate. At least 4 X 10(-10) M of oxyphenonium is necessary to permit a reliable assay. This corresponds to a detection limit of drug of 2 ng ml-1 urine. After extraction, drug at 100 pg ml-1 of plasma can be estimated using 4 ml samples. The method is applicable to monitoring the drug and to the determination of its pharmacokinetics after therapeutic dosing. Urine levels can also be monitored. PMID:6144769

Ensing, K; Kluivingh, F; Gerding, T K; De Zeeuw, R A

1984-04-01

307

A hybrid liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry strategy in a forensic laboratory for opioid, cocaine and amphetamine classes in human urine using a hybrid linear ion trap-triple quadrupole mass spectrometer.  

PubMed

A rapid method has been developed to analyse morphine, codeine, morphine-3-glucuronide, 6-monoacetylmorphine, cocaine, benzoylegonine, buprenorphine, dihydrocodeine, cocaethylene, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine, ketamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, pseudoephedrine, lignocaine, benzylpiperazine, methamphetamine, amphetamine, 2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine and methadone in human urine. Urine samples were diluted with methanol:water (1:1, v/v) and sample aliquots were analysed by hybrid linear ion trap-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry with a runtime of 12.5 min. Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) as survey scan and an enhanced product ion (EPI) scan as dependent scan were performed in an information-dependent acquisition (IDA) experiment. Finally, drug identification and confirmation was carried out by library search with a developed in-house MS/MS library based on EPI spectra at a collision energy spread of 35±15 in positive mode and MRM ratios. The method was validated in urine, according to the criteria defined in Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. At least two MRM transitions for each substance were monitored in addition to EPI spectra and deuterated analytes were used as internal standards for quantitation. The reporting level was 0.05 ?g mL(-1) for the range of analytes tested. The regression coefficients (r(2)) for the calibration curves (0-4 ?g mL(-1)) in the study were ?0.98. The method proved to be simple and time efficient and was implemented as an analytical strategy for the illicit drug monitoring of opioids, cocaines and amphetamines in criminal samples from crime offenders, abusers or victims in the Republic of Ireland. To the best of our knowledge there are no hybrid LC-MS applications using MRM mode and product ion spectra in the linear ion trap mode for opioids, cocaines or amphetamines with validation data in urine. PMID:20855077

Dowling, Geraldine; Regan, Liam; Tierney, Julie; Nangle, Michael

2010-10-29

308

Urine Specimens: Tips to Help Children  

MedlinePLUS

... website will be limited. Search Help? Tips to Help Children through Their Medical Tests Share this page: ... child to drink before the office visit can help the child need to urinate when it is ...

309

Waterless Urinals: Features, Benefits and Applications  

E-print Network

. Waterless, or no-flush urinals, may help mitigate these effects and offer other advantages, including lower utility charges, improved restroom hygiene, and decreased fixture maintenance. Some notable caveats include possible lack of acceptance by users, odor...

Bristow, G.; McClure, J. D.; Fisher, D.

2004-01-01

310

Contingent Take-Home Incentive: Effects on Drug Use of Methadone Maintenance Patients.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined contingent methadone take-home privileges for effectiveness in reducing supplemental drug use of methadone maintenance patients. Assigned 53 new intakes to begin receiving take-home privileges after 2 consecutive weeks of drug-free urines or to noncontingent procedure in which take-homes were delivered independently of urine results.…

Stitzer, Maxine L.; And Others

1992-01-01

311

A Very Low Geno2pheno False Positive Rate Is Associated with Poor Viro-Immunological Response in Drug-Naïve Patients Starting a First-Line HAART  

PubMed Central

Background We previously found that a very low geno2pheno false positive rate (FPR ?2%) defines a viral population associated with low CD4 cell count and the highest amount of X4-quasispecies. In this study, we aimed at evaluating whether FPR ?2% might impact on the viro-immunological response in HIV-1 infected patients starting a first-line HAART. Methods The analysis was performed on 305 HIV-1 B subtype infected drug-naïve patients who started their first-line HAART. Baseline FPR (%) values were stratified according to the following ranges: ?2; 2–5; 5–10; 10–20; 20–60; >60. The impact of genotypically-inferred tropism on the time to achieve immunological reconstitution (a CD4 cell count gain from HAART initiation ?150 cells/mm3) and on the time to achieve virological success (the first HIV-RNA measurement <50 copies/mL from HAART initiation) was evaluated by survival analyses. Results Overall, at therapy start, 27% of patients had FPR ?10 (6%, FPR ?2; 7%, FPR 2–5; 14%, FPR 5–10). By 12 months of therapy the rate of immunological reconstitution was overall 75.5%, and it was significantly lower for FPR ?2 (54.1%) in comparison to other FPR ranks (78.8%, FPR 2–5; 77.5%, FPR 5–10; 71.7%, FPR 10–20; 81.8%, FPR 20–60; 75.1%, FPR >60; p?=?0.008). The overall proportion of patients achieving virological success was 95.5% by 12 months of therapy. Multivariable Cox analyses showed that patients having pre-HAART FPR ?2% had a significant lower relative adjusted hazard [95% C.I.] both to achieve immunological reconstitution (0.37 [0.20–0.71], p?=?0.003) and to achieve virological success (0.50 [0.26–0.94], p?=?0.031) than those with pre-HAART FPR >60%. Conclusions Beyond the genotypically-inferred tropism determination, FPR ?2% predicts both a poor immunological reconstitution and a lower virological response in drug-naïve patients who started their first-line therapy. This parameter could be useful to identify patients potentially with less chance of achieving adequate immunological reconstitution and virological undetectability. PMID:25153969

Armenia, Daniele; Soulie, Cathia; Di Carlo, Domenico; Fabeni, Lavinia; Gori, Caterina; Forbici, Federica; Svicher, Valentina; Bertoli, Ada; Sarmati, Loredana; Giuliani, Massimo; Latini, Alessandra; Boumis, Evangelo; Zaccarelli, Mauro; Bellagamba, Rita; Andreoni, Massimo; Marcelin, Anne-Geneviève; Calvez, Vincent; Antinori, Andrea; Ceccherini-Silberstein, Francesca; Perno, Carlo-Federico; Santoro, Maria Mercedes

2014-01-01

312

Back to the basics: identifying positive youth development as the theoretical framework for a youth drug prevention program in rural Saskatchewan, Canada amidst a program evaluation  

PubMed Central

Background Despite endorsement by the Saskatchewan government to apply empirically-based approaches to youth drug prevention services in the province, programs are sometimes delivered prior to the establishment of evidence-informed goals and objectives. This paper shares the 'preptory’ outcomes of our team’s program evaluation of the Prince Albert Parkland Health Region Mental Health and Addiction Services’ Outreach Worker Service (OWS) in eight rural, community schools three years following its implementation. Before our independent evaluation team could assess whether expectations of the OWS were being met, we had to assist with establishing its overarching program goals and objectives and 'at-risk’ student population, alongside its alliance with an empirically-informed theoretical framework. Methods A mixed-methods approach was applied, beginning with in-depth focus groups with the OWS staff to identify the program’s goals and objectives and targeted student population. These were supplemented with OWS and school administrator interviews and focus groups with school staff. Alignment with a theoretical focus was determined though a review of the OWS’s work to date and explored in focus groups between our evaluation team and the OWS staff and validated with the school staff and OWS and school administration. Results With improved understanding of the OWS’s goals and objectives, our evaluation team and the OWS staff aligned the program with the Positive Youth Development theoretical evidence-base, emphasizing the program’s universality, systems focus, strength base, and promotion of assets. Together we also gained clarity about the OWS’s definition of and engagement with its 'at-risk’ student population. Conclusions It is important to draw on expert knowledge to develop youth drug prevention programming, but attention must also be paid to aligning professional health care services with a theoretically informed evidence-base for evaluation purposes. If time does not permit for the establishment of evidence-informed goals and objectives at the start-up of a program, obtaining insight and expertise from program personnel and school staff and administrators can bring the program to a point where this can still be achieved and theoretical linkages made after a program has been implemented. This is a necessary foundation for measuring an intervention’s success. PMID:24148918

2013-01-01

313

Field evaluation of urine antigen detection for diagnosis of Taenia solium cysticercosis.  

PubMed

(Neuro)cysticercosis is an important zoonotic disease caused by infection with Taenia solium metacestode larvae. Existing immunodiagnostic techniques detect antibodies and circulating antigens (Ag) in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Blood/CSF collection is an invasive procedure associated with blood-borne infections and is often not well accepted by communities. Detection of circulating Ag in urine has been suggested as an alternative, however this has been evaluated in clinical settings only. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the performance of a urine Ag-ELISA under field conditions. Paired serum and urine samples were obtained from participants in endemic areas of Ecuador (n=748) and Zambia (n=690) and were subjected to a monoclonal antibody-based Ag-ELISA. Calculation of positive and negative agreement indices (AI) showed better agreement in the negative direction both for Ecuadorian and Zambian samples (AI of 93.1 and 86.8, respectively). Using a Bayesian approach to determine the test characteristics, similar sensitivities were obtained for serum and urine Ag detection, whereas a decreased specificity was determined for the urine Ag-ELISA with a lower specificity (78.6%) for Zambian samples than for Ecuadorian samples (88.4%). This study indicates a higher specificity for the serum test under field conditions and promotes further research to improve the urine test. PMID:21862093

Mwape, K E; Praet, N; Benitez-Ortiz, W; Muma, J B; Zulu, G; Celi-Erazo, M; Phiri, I K; Rodriguez-Hidalgo, R; Dorny, P; Gabriël, S

2011-10-01

314

Heterotropic Activation of the Midazolam Hydroxylase Activity of CYP3A by a Positive Allosteric Modulator of mGlu5: In Vitro to In Vivo Translation and Potential Impact on Clinically Relevant Drug-Drug Interactions  

PubMed Central

Allosteric modulation of G protein-coupled receptors has gained considerable attention in the drug discovery arena because it opens avenues to achieve greater selectivity over orthosteric ligands. We recently identified a series of positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGlu5) for the treatment of schizophrenia that exhibited robust heterotropic activation of CYP3A4 enzymatic activity. The prototypical compound from this series, 5-(4-fluorobenzyl)-2-((3-fluorophenoxy)methyl)-4,5,6,7-tetrahydropyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrazine (VU0448187), was found to activate CYP3A4 to >100% of its baseline intrinsic midazolam (MDZ) hydroxylase activity in vitro; activation was CYP3A substrate specific and mGlu5 PAM dependent. Additional studies revealed the concentration-dependence of CYP3A activation by VU0448187 in multispecies hepatic and intestinal microsomes and hepatocytes, as well as a diminished effect observed in the presence of ketoconazole. Kinetic analyses of the effect of VU0448187 on MDZ metabolism in recombinant P450 or human liver microsomes resulted in a significant increase in Vmax (minimal change in Km) and required the presence of cytochrome b5. The atypical kinetics translated in vivo, as rats receiving an intraperitoneal administration of VU0448187 prior to MDZ treatment demonstrated a significant increase in circulating 1- and 4-hydroxy- midazolam (1-OH-MDZ, 4-OH-MDZ) levels compared with rats administered MDZ alone. The discovery of a potent substrate-selective activator of rodent CYP3A with an in vitro to in vivo translation serves to illuminate the impact of increasing intrinsic enzymatic activity of hepatic and extrahepatic CYP3A in rodents, and presents the basis to build models capable of framing the clinical relevance of substrate-dependent heterotropic activation. PMID:24003250

Blobaum, Anna L.; Bridges, Thomas M.; Byers, Frank W.; Turlington, Mark L.; Mattmann, Margrith E.; Morrison, Ryan D.; Mackie, Claire; Lavreysen, Hilde; Bartolomé, José M.; MacDonald, Gregor J.; Steckler, Thomas; Jones, Carrie K.; Niswender, Colleen M.; Conn, P. Jeffrey; Lindsley, Craig W.; Stauffer, Shaun R.

2013-01-01

315

Frequently Asked Questions about Drug Testing in Schools  

MedlinePLUS

... urine samples to test for drugs such as marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines, PCP, and opioids (both heroin and ... the last several years largely due to increased marijuana use. About 50 percent of 12th graders say ...

316

Noninvasive quantification of drug delivery from an implantable MEMS device  

E-print Network

(cont.) sensors in vivo in real time and corroborated by scintillation of urine samples. The goal of monitoring drug delivery from an implant in vivo, in real time and without disturbing the tissue environment, was ...

Johnson, Audrey M., 1976-

2005-01-01

317

Comparison of 3 Methods to Assess Urine Specific Gravity in Collegiate Wrestlers.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the reliability and validity of refractometry, hydrometry, and reagent strips in assessing urine specific gravity in collegiate wrestlers. DESIGN AND SETTING: We assessed the reliability of refractometry, hydrometry, and reagent strips between 2 trials and among 4 testers. The validity of hydrometry and reagent strips was assessed by comparison with refractometry, the criterion measure for urine specific gravity. SUBJECTS: Twenty-one National Collegiate Athletic Association Division III collegiate wrestlers provided fresh urine samples. MEASUREMENTS: Four testers measured the specific gravity of each urine sample 6 times: twice by refractometry, twice by hydrometry, and twice by reagent strips. RESULTS: Refractometer measurements were consistent between trials (R =.998) and among testers; hydrometer measurements were consistent between trials (R =.987) but not among testers; and reagent-strip measurements were not consistent between trials or among testers. Hydrometer (1.018 +/- 0.006) and reagent-strip (1.017 +/- 0.007) measurements were significantly higher than refractometer (1.015 +/- 0.006) measurements. Intraclass correlation coefficients were moderate between refractometry and hydrometry (R =.869) and low between refractometry and reagent strips (R =.573). The hydrometer produced 28% false positives and 2% false negatives, and reagent strips produced 15% false positives and 9% false negatives. CONCLUSIONS: Only the refractometer should be used to determine urine specific gravity in collegiate wrestlers during the weight-certification process. PMID:14737213

Stuempfle, Kristin J.; Drury, Daniel G.

2003-12-01

318

Hair analysis in order to evaluate drug abuse in driver's license regranting procedures.  

PubMed

In Italy, driving under the influence of drugs determines the suspension of the offender's driver's license. To regain the license the person must be drug free during an observation period. People whose license has been revoked or suspended can obtain, or re-obtain their driver's license subject to the judgment of a medical commission. The exclusion of illicit drug use is determined by means of toxicological analysis, mainly on urine or hair matrices. We reported the results of several years of experience of the forensic toxicology laboratory of the University of Macerata in the use of hair analysis for the assessment of past exposure to drugs in people suspected of driving under the influence of drugs. From 2004 to 2013, 8612 hair samples, were analyzed for opiates, cocaine and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (?(9)-THC) using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) method. We used a cutoff (SoHT or national guidelines) to determine the positive data, regardless of the hair sample concentrations. 1213 samples resulted positive, 71.7% were positive for cocaine and metabolites, 19.8% for morphine and metabolites, 8.5% for ?(9)-THC. We also studied the timeframe of the abuse, as well as gender and age distribution of positive subjects. Moreover, we analyzed the possible deterrent effect of the hair analysis on driving under the influence of psychoactive substances. PMID:25151106

Tassoni, G; Mirtella, D; Zampi, M; Ferrante, L; Cippitelli, M; Cognigni, E; Froldi, R; Cingolani, M

2014-11-01

319

Correlates of non-adherence to antiretroviral therapy in a cohort of HIV-positive drug users receiving antiretroviral therapy in Hanoi, Vietnam.  

PubMed

The HIV epidemic in Vietnam is concentrated, with high prevalence estimates among injection drug users and commercial sex workers. Socio-demographics, substance use and clinical correlates of antiretroviral therapy non-adherence were studied in 100 HIV-1 infected drug users receiving antiretroviral therapy for at least 6 months in Hanoi, Vietnam. All study participants were men with a mean age of 29.9?±?4.9 years. The median duration on antiretroviral therapy was 16.2?±?12.7 months; 83% reported 'very good' or 'perfect' adherence in the past 30 days on a subjective one-item Likert scale at time of study enrollment; 48% of participants reported drug use within the previous 6 months, with 22% reporting current drug use. Injection drug use with or without non-injection drug use in the past 6 months (95% C.I. 2.19, 1.30-3.69) and years on antiretroviral therapy (95% C.I. 1.43, 1.14-1.78) were correlated with suboptimal adherence. These findings support Vietnam's ongoing scale-up of harm reduction programmes for injection drug users and their integration with antiretroviral therapy delivery. Moreover, results highlight the need to identify and implement new ways to support high levels of antiretroviral therapy adherence as duration on antiretroviral therapy increases. PMID:24352130

Jordan, Mr; Obeng-Aduasare, Y; Sheehan, H; Hong, Sy; Terrin, N; Duong, Dv; Trung, Nv; Wanke, C; Kinh, Nv; Tang, Am

2013-12-18

320

Cancer detection by native fluorescence of urine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Because cancer is a dreaded disease, a number of techniques such as biomarker evaluation, mammograms, colposcopy, and computed tomography scan are currently employed for early diagnosis. Many of these are specific to a particular site, invasive, and often expensive. Hence, there is a definite need for a simple, generic, noninvasive protocol for cancer detection, comparable to blood and urine tests for diabetes. Our objective is to show the results of a novel study in the diagnosis of several cancer types from the native or intrinsic fluorescence of urine. We use fluorescence emission spectra (FES) and stokes shift spectra (SSS) to analyze the native fluorescence of the first voided urine samples of healthy controls (N=100) and those of cancer patients (N=50) of different etiology. We show that flavoproteins and porphyrins released into urine can act as generic biomarkers of cancer with a specificity of 92%, a sensitivity of 76%, and an overall accuracy of 86.7%. We employ FES and SSS for rapid and cost-effective quantification of certain intrinsic biomarkers in urine for screening and diagnosis of most common cancer types with an overall accuracy of 86.7%.

Masilamani, Vadivel; Vijmasi, Trinka; Al Salhi, Mohammad; Govindaraj, Kanagaraj; Vijaya-Raghavan, Ayanam Parthasarathy; Antonisamy, Belavendra

2010-09-01

321

Determination of catecholamines in plasma and urine.  

PubMed

For more than 20 years, measurement of catecholamines in plasma and urine in clinical chemistry laboratories has been the cornerstone of the diagnosis of neuroendocrine tumors deriving from the neural crest such as pheochromocytoma (PHEO) and neuroblastoma (NB), and is still used to assess sympathetic stress function in man and animals. Although assay of catecholamines in urine are still considered the biochemical standard for the diagnosis of NB, they have been progressively abandoned for excluding/confirming PHEOs to the advantage of metanephrines (MNs). Nevertheless, catecholamine determinations are still of interest to improve the biochemical diagnosis of PHEO in difficult cases that usually require a clonidine-suppression test, or to establish whether a patient with PHEO secretes high concentrations of catecholamines in addition to metanephrines. The aim of this chapter is to provide an update about the catecholamine assays in plasma and urine and to show the most common pre-analytical and analytical pitfalls associated with their determination. PMID:24094641

Grouzmann, Eric; Lamine, Faiza

2013-10-01

322

Concentration of urine by the hibernating marmot.  

PubMed

Studies wer performed with marmots (Marmota flaviventris) of both sexes that had chronic arterial, venous, and bladder catheters. Urine collection was performed during hibernation and urine osmolalities (611.6 not equal to 166.1 SD) were found to be lower than those of aroused animals (1264 not equal to 472.9 SD), but hypertonic to plasma. Peak osmolality of meduallary slices was found to be in the range of osmotic pressures of urine obtained from hibernating or aroused animals. After single injections of a mixture of rho-aminohippurate and inulin, or during constant infusion of inulin, steady-state excretion by hibernators was not achieved for several days. Indirect evidence indicateds that the hibernating marmot is capable of PAH secretion. PMID:1130537

Zatzman, M L; South, F E

1975-05-01

323

Sexual risk taking and club drug use across three age cohorts of HIV-positive gay and bisexual men in New York City  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined club drug use (i.e., cocaine, ecstasy, ketamine, gamma-hydroxybutyrate [GHB], and methamphetamine) and unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) in an ethnically and racially diverse sample of 166 New York City-based seropositive, club drug-using, gay and bisexual men, ages 19–61, and considered these behaviors in relation to age category (20s, 30s, and 40 +) and number of years living with

Molly K. Pappas; Perry N. Halkitis

2011-01-01

324

Predicting the Onset of Sexual and Drug Risk Behaviors in HIV-Negative Youths with HIV-Positive Mothers: The Role of Contextual, Self-Regulation, and Social-Interaction Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

HIV-negative, inner-city adolescents with HIV-infected parents are considered to be at high risk for acquiring HIV themselves.\\u000a Using a modified theory of health behavior, this study examined the effects of maternal HIV infection and psychosocial variables\\u000a on the onset of sexual and drug risk behavior in 144 HIV-negative adolescents with and without HIV-positive mothers. Adolescents\\u000a and their mothers were interviewed

Claude A. Mellins; Curtis Dolezal; Elizabeth Brackis-Cott; Ouzama Nicholson; Patricia Warne; Heino F. L. Meyer-Bahlburg

2007-01-01

325

Detection and effects on serum and urine steroid and LH of repeated GnRH analog (leuprolide) stimulation.  

PubMed

Non-steroidal drugs that increase endogenous testosterone (T) may be used to exploit ergogenic effects of androgens in power sports. While superactive GnRH analog use is suspected, neither screening nor detection tests are developed. This study aimed to determine if (a) stimulation for 5 days by leuprolide (a superactive GnRH analog) of serum and urine steroids and urine LH is reproducible at a 2 week interval, (b) nandrolone decanoate (ND) co-administration masks responses to leuprolide administration, (c) performance of urine measurement of leuprolide and M1, its major metabolite, as a detection test. Healthy men were randomized into a 4 week parallel group, open label clinical study in which all men had daily sc injections of leuprolide (1mg) for 4 days in the 1st and 3rd weeks with hormone-free 2nd and 4th weeks. In the 3rd week, men were randomized to either ND injections or no extra treatment. Serum steroids were determined by liquid chromatography, tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS), urine steroids by gas chromatography, mass spectrometry (GC-MS), urine leuprolide and M1 by high resolution LC-MS and urine LH by immunoassay. Leuprolide stimulated striking, reproducible increases in serum and urine LH and steroids (serum T, dihydroT (DHT), 3? diol; urine T, epitestosterone (E) and androsterone (A). ND suppressed basal serum T, E2, 3? diol, and urinary E but did not mask or change the magnitude of responses to leuprolide. Urine leuprolide and M1 measurement had 100% sensitivity and specificity in detecting leuprolide administration up to one day after cessation of injections with the detection window between 1 and 3 days after last dose. Screening using urine steroid and LH measurements, optimally by urinary log10(LHxT), correctly classified 82% of urine samples. It is concluded that leuprolide stimulation of endogenous testosterone is reproducible after a 10-day interval, is not masked by ND and is reliably detected by urine leuprolide or M1 measurement for at least 1 day after administration. PMID:24495617

Handelsman, David J; Idan, Amanda; Grainger, Janelle; Goebel, Catrin; Turner, Leo; Conway, Ann J

2014-05-01

326

Quantitative determinations of levofloxacin and rifampicin in pharmaceutical and urine samples using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rapid, specific and simple methods for determining levofloxacin and rifampicin antibiotic drugs in pharmaceutical and human urine samples were developed. The methods are based on 1H NMR spectroscopy using maleic acid as an internal standard and DMSO-d6 as NMR solvent. Integration of NMR signals at 8.9 and 8.2 ppm were, respectively, used for calculating the concentration of levofloxacin and rifampicin drugs per unit dose. Maleic acid signal at 6.2 ppm was used as the reference signal. Recoveries of (97.0-99.4) ± 0.5 and (98.3-99.7) ± 1.08% were obtained for pure levofloxacin and rifampicin, respectively. Corresponding recoveries of 98.5-100.3 and 96.8-100.0 were, respectively, obtained in pharmaceutical capsules and urine samples. Relative standard deviations (R.S.D.) values ?2.7 were obtained for analyzed drugs in pure, pharmaceutical and urine samples. Statistical Student's t-test gave t-values ?2.87 indicating insignificant difference between the real and the experimental values at the 95% confidence level. F-test revealed insignificant difference in precisions between the developed NMR methods and each of fluorimetric and HPLC methods for analyzing levofloxacin and rifampicin.

Salem, A. A.; Mossa, H. A.; Barsoum, B. N.

2005-11-01

327

The determination of fenspiride in human plasma and urine by liquid chromatography with electrochemical or ultraviolet detection.  

PubMed

A selective and sensitive method for the determination of fenspiride in biological fluids is described. The method involves liquid-liquid extraction followed by separation on a reversed-phase column with electrochemical detection for low levels of the drug in plasma (less than or equal to 100 ng ml-1) or UV absorption for higher concentrations in plasma or urine. The method is suitable for pharmacokinetic analyses and drug monitoring studies. PMID:2577448

Sauveur, C; Baune, A; Vergnes, N; Jeanniot, J P

1989-01-01

328

Coupling of solid phase microextraction with electrospray ionization ion mobility spectrometry and direct analysis of venlafaxine in human urine and plasma.  

PubMed

The capability of electrospray ionization-conventional ion mobility spectrometry (ESI-IMS) for direct analysis of the samples extracted by solid phase microextraction (SPME) was investigated and evaluated for the first time. To that end, an appropriate new desorption chamber was designed and constructed, resulting in the possibility of direct exposure of the SPME fiber to the electrospray solvent flow. Two different elution methods in dynamic and static modes were exhaustively investigated. The results indicated that the interface could help us to have an accurate and sensitive analysis without disturbing the electrospray process, in static elution method. Venlafaxine as a test compound was extracted from human urine and plasma by a convenient headspace SPME method. The positive ion mobility spectrum of the extracted drug was obtained and the analyte responses were calculated. The coupled method of SPME-ESI-IMS was comprehensively validated in terms of sensitivity, dynamic range, and recovery percentage. Finally, various real samples of human urine and plasma were analyzed, all verifying the feasibility and success of the proposed method for the easy routine analysis. PMID:25467491

Jafari, Mohammad T; Saraji, Mohammad; Ameri, Amir H

2015-01-01

329

Preputial urinary diversion to treat urine soaking during urination in a dog.  

PubMed

A young dog was presented with a history of adopting an unusual posture to urinate, resulting in urine soaking of the ventral abdomen and caudal forelimbs. The dog was initially treated surgically with cranial advancement of the prepuce, which did not resolve the problem. Further surgery was then successfully carried out to create a more caudal preputial orifice, which angled the penis ventrally when extruded, directing urine away from the body. At follow-up clinical examination, the dog was clinically normal. PMID:19490377

Thomas, E K; Friend, E J; Taylor, A S; Hamilton, M H

2009-06-01

330

An Examination of Current and Proposed Drug-Testing Policies at U.S. Colleges and Universities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Administrators at 332 colleges and universities completed surveys about their schools' current or proposed policies for urine drug testing of employees, applicants, and students. Fewer than 7% of schools reported urine drug testing of employees and applicants, and only 2% tested students. Few additional institutions were planning to adopt testing…

Fudala, Paul J.; And Others

1994-01-01

331

Ultraviolet properties of Australian mammal urine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The exploitation of predator signals by potential prey is well researched, but relatively little is known about how predators exploit chemical cues (either deliberate signals or waste by-products) produced by their prey. In Finland, the urine of some small rodents ( Microtus spp. and Clethrionomys spp.) is reflective in the ultraviolet range of wavelengths, and diurnal raptors with ultraviolet vision

A. Kellie; S. J. Dain; P. B. Banks

2004-01-01

332

Automated detection of bacteria in urine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method for detecting the presence of bacteria in urine was developed which utilizes the bioluminescent reaction of adenosine triphosphate with luciferin and luciferase derived from the tails of fireflies. The method was derived from work on extraterrestrial life detection. A device was developed which completely automates the assay process.

Fleig, A. J.; Picciolo, G. L.; Chappelle, E. W.; Kelbaugh, B. N.

1972-01-01

333

Urine Proteomics and Biomarkers in Renal Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of urine proteomics is a useful approach to the study of the proteins involved in healthy and diseased kidneys and may provide a noninvasive approach to assess disease activity and to monitor clinical response in patients with renal diseases. This technique may provide an additional tool in clinical trials and for the assessment of prognosis for patients. Both

Min Jeong Kim; Andrew H. Frankel; Frederick W. K. Tam

2011-01-01

334

Proteomics for breast cancer urine biomarkers.  

PubMed

Although the survival of breast cancer (BC) patients has increased over the last two decades due to improved screening programs and postoperative adjuvant systemic therapies, many patients die from metastatic relapse. Current biomarkers used in the clinic are not useful for the early detection of BC, or monitoring its progression, and have limited value in predicting response to treatment. The development of proteomic techniques has sparked new searches for novel protein markers for many diseases including BC. Proteomic techniques allow for a high-throughput analysis of samples with the visualization and quantification of thousands of potential protein and peptide markers. Human urine is one of the most interesting and useful biofluids for routine testing and provides an excellent resource for the discovery of novel biomarkers, with the advantage over tissue biopsy samples due to the ease and less invasive nature of collection. In this review, we summarize the results from studies where urine was used as a source for BC biomarker research and discuss urine sample preparation, its advantage, challenges, and limitation. We focus on the gel-based proteomic approaches as well as the recent development of quantitative techniques in BC urine biomarker detection. Finally, the future use of modern proteomic techniques in BC biomarker identification will be discussed. PMID:24783353

Beretov, Julia; Wasinger, Valerie C; Graham, Peter H; Millar, Ewan K; Kearsley, John H; Li, Yong

2014-01-01

335

Urine sample collection protocols for bioassay samples  

SciTech Connect

In vitro radiobioassay analyses are used to measure the amount of radioactive material excreted by personnel exposed to the potential intake of radioactive material. The analytical results are then used with various metabolic models to estimate the amount of radioactive material in the subject's body and the original intake of radioactive material. Proper application of these metabolic models requires knowledge of the excretion period. It is normal practice to design the bioassay program based on a 24-hour excretion sample. The Hanford bioassay program simulates a total 24-hour urine excretion sample with urine collection periods lasting from one-half hour before retiring to one-half hour after rising on two consecutive days. Urine passed during the specified periods is collected in three 1-L bottles. Because the daily excretion volume given in Publication 23 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP 1975, p. 354) for Reference Man is 1.4 L, it was proposed to use only two 1-L bottles as a cost-saving measure. This raised the broader question of what should be the design capacity of a 24-hour urine sample kit.

MacLellan, J.A.; McFadden, K.M.

1992-11-01

336

Urine sample collection protocols for bioassay samples  

SciTech Connect

In vitro radiobioassay analyses are used to measure the amount of radioactive material excreted by personnel exposed to the potential intake of radioactive material. The analytical results are then used with various metabolic models to estimate the amount of radioactive material in the subject`s body and the original intake of radioactive material. Proper application of these metabolic models requires knowledge of the excretion period. It is normal practice to design the bioassay program based on a 24-hour excretion sample. The Hanford bioassay program simulates a total 24-hour urine excretion sample with urine collection periods lasting from one-half hour before retiring to one-half hour after rising on two consecutive days. Urine passed during the specified periods is collected in three 1-L bottles. Because the daily excretion volume given in Publication 23 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP 1975, p. 354) for Reference Man is 1.4 L, it was proposed to use only two 1-L bottles as a cost-saving measure. This raised the broader question of what should be the design capacity of a 24-hour urine sample kit.

MacLellan, J.A.; McFadden, K.M.

1992-11-01

337

Protein-Based Urine Test Predicts Kidney Transplant Outcomes  

MedlinePLUS

... m. EDT Protein-based urine test predicts kidney transplant outcomes NIH-funded study provides more evidence supporting ... of a protein in the urine of kidney transplant recipients can distinguish those at low risk of ...

338

Urine Test: Microalbumin-to-Creatinine Ratio (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... to obtain the urine specimen. A urine collection bag with adhesive tape on one end might instead ... your baby's genital area and then attach the bag around the urinary opening. Once the bag is ...

339

Refinement of a commercial bench-top relaxin assay for pregnancy diagnosis using urine from domestic and nondomestic felids.  

PubMed

Relaxin, a 6-kDa polypeptide hormone, is excreted in the urine during pregnancy in several mammalian species. A recent study showed that detection of urinary relaxin using a bench-top serum assay (Witness relaxin kit, Synbiotics Corp., San Diego, California 92127, USA) can be diagnostic for pregnancy in domestic cats (Felis silvestris catus), but it is unknown whether the bench-top kit is applicable with urine across felid species. Our objectives were to 1) examine modifications in urine processing to improve kit reliability in pregnant cats, 2) evaluate the impact of concentrating urine via filtration on relaxin detection, 3) assess the effect of sample freezing on relaxin concentrations, and 4) begin quantifying urinary relaxin levels in nondomestic felids. Urine and serum were collected from domestic cats and nondomestic cat species (Pallas' cat, Otocolobus manul; sand cat, Felis margarita; cheetah, Acinonyx jubatus; and lion, Panthera leo) at several times after breeding. Urine samples, subjected to various processing methods, were tested using the bench-top kit, and relaxin levels were later quantified via radioimmunoassay. For domestic cat urine samples, filtration and addition of protein/phosphate buffer improved the consistency of the relaxin kit for early pregnancy diagnosis. Urine freezing caused a slight (approximately 13%) but significant decrease in relaxin concentrations, but frozen-thawed samples still tested positive with the bench-top kit. In nondomestic felids, urinary relaxin immunoreactivity during pregnancy was similar to or higher than that of pregnant domestic cats, suggesting that relaxin is a reliable cross-species marker of pregnancy. Urinary relaxin was detectable using the bench-top kit in pregnant Pallas' cats, but urine samples from other species tested negative, regardless of processing methods. Findings suggest that measurement of urinary relaxin is a promising approach for noninvasive pregnancy diagnosis in exotic felids, but further assessment of urinary relaxin profiles among cat species and modification of the bench-top relaxin kit are warranted to improve cross-species utility. PMID:18634207

Harris, Laurie A; Steinetz, Bernard G; Bond, Jennifer B; Lasano, Sally; Swanson, William F

2008-06-01

340

Nitrification of human urine for its stabilization and nutrient recycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrification of human urine performed for its stabilization, and culture of Spirulina platensis in the nitrified human urine were investigated for nutrient recovery. With daily adjusting to pH 8 and keeping high dissolved oxygen concentration, mean 95.0% of NH4-N in human urine can be finally stabilized and oxidized to NO3-N. Furthermore, this nitrified human urine seems to be an ideal

Daolun Feng; Zucheng Wu; Shihong Xu

2008-01-01

341

Identification and proteomic profiling of exosomes in human urine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urine provides an alternative to blood plasma as a potential source of disease biomarkers. One urinary biomarker already exploited in clinical studies is aquaporin-2. However, it remains a mystery how aquaporin-2 (an integral membrane protein) and other apical transporters are delivered to the urine. Here we address the hypothesis that these proteins reach the urine through the secretion of exosomes

Trairak Pisitkun; Rong-Fong Shen; Mark A. Knepper

2004-01-01

342

Urine in clinical proteomics Stphane Decramer1, 2, 3  

E-print Network

proteomics 3.1. Urogenital disease: Non cancer. 3.1.1. Kidney Transplantation 3.1.2. Chronic kidney disease 3 of urine as indicators of certain diseases (1). Urine is produced by the kidney and allows the human body of production of urine, the majority of these studies apply to the kidney and the urinary tract, recent data

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

343

Sensitivity of an opiate immunoassay for detecting hydrocodone and hydromorphone in urine from a clinical population: analysis of subthreshold results.  

PubMed

Urine drug testing (UDT) is an emerging standard of care in the evaluation and treatment of chronic non-cancer pain patients with opioid analgesics. UDT may be used both to verify adherence with the opioid analgesic regimen and to monitor abstinence from non-prescribed or illicit controlled substances. In the former scenario, it is vital to determine whether the drug is present in the urine, even at low concentrations, because failure to detect the drug may lead to accusations of opioid abuse or diversion. Opiate immunoassays typically are developed to detect morphine and are most sensitive to morphine and codeine. Although many opiate immunoassays also detect hydrocodone (HC) and/or hydromorphone (HM), sensitivities for these analytes are often much lower, increasing the possibility of negative screening results when the drug is present in the urine. We selected 112 urine specimens from patients who had been prescribed HC or hydromorphone but were presumptive negative by the Roche Online DAT Opiate II™ urine drug screening assay, which is calibrated to 300 ng/mL morphine. Using a GC/MS confirmatory method with a detection limit of 50 ng/mL both for HC and for HM, one or both of these opiates were detected in 81 (72.3%) of the urine specimens. Examination of the raw data from these presumptive negative opiate screens revealed that, in many cases, the turbidity signal was greater than the signal obtained for the negative control, but less than the signal for the 300 ng/mL (morphine) threshold calibrator. A receiver operating characteristic curve generated for the reciprocal of the ratio of turbidity measurements in the patient specimens and negative (drug-free) controls, against the presence or absence of HC and/or HM by confirmatory analyses, produced an area under the curve of 0.910. We conclude that this opiate immunoassay has sufficient sensitivity to detect HC and/or HM in some urine specimens that screen presumptive negative for these commonly prescribed opiates at the established threshold. PMID:25288720

Bertholf, Roger L; Johannsen, Laura M; Reisfield, Gary M

2015-01-01

344

Specific radioimmunoassays for the measurement of stavudine in human plasma and urine.  

PubMed

Sensitive and specific radioimmunoassays (RIAs) have been developed and validated for the determination of stavudine, a nucleoside analog possessing anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) activity, in human plasma and urine. The hemisuccinate of stavudine was conjugated with histamine and radioiodinated to yield the radiotracer. Antisera were produced by injecting the immunogen, stavudine-hemisuccinate-bovine thyroglobulin, into rabbits. The antisera exhibited high specificity for stavudine as the structurally related analogs and other anti-HIV agents did not interfere in the assays. The methods could reliably quantitate stavudine in plasma from 2.5-100 ng ml-1 and in urine from 5.0-1000 ng ml-1 (after 2.5-fold dilution) with good accuracy and precision. The lower limits of quantitation were 2.5 ng ml-1 in human plasma and 5.0 ng ml-1 in urine (after 2.5-fold dilution). The RIA methods were applied to the analysis of stavudine in plasma and urine obtained from HIV-infected patients receiving the drug in clinical trials. PMID:8933418

Kaul, S; Stouffer, B; Mummaneni, V; Turabi, N; Mantha, S; Jayatilak, P; Barbhaiya, R

1996-11-01

345

Elimination of ephedrines in urine following multiple dosing: the consequences for athletes, in relation to doping control  

PubMed Central

Aims To study the elimination of ephedrines with reference to the International Olympic Committee (IOC) doping control cut-off levels, following multiple dosing of over-the-counter decongestant preparations. Methods A double-blind study was performed in which 16 healthy male volunteers were administered either pseudoephedrine or phenylpropanolamine in maximal recommended therapeutic doses over a 36-h period. Urine was collected every two hours between 08:00 and 24:00 h and at 04:00 h throughout the testing period of three days. Urine drug levels were quantified using high performance liquid chromatography. Side-effects were assessed, including heart rate and blood pressure, every four hours between 08:00 and 20:00 h. Results Mean (95% CI) total phenylpropanolamine and pseudoephedrine eliminated unchanged was 75 (88, 61) and 81 (92, 71)%, respectively. Maximum urine concentrations of phenylpropanolamine and pseudoephedrine were 112.1 (164.2, 59.9) and 148.5 (215.0, 82.1) mg.l?1, respectively. A peak in drug urine concentration occurred four hours following the final dose. There were no adverse cardiovascular effects and only mild CNS stimulation was evident. Conclusions Following therapeutic, multiple dosing, drug levels remain above the IOC cut-off levels for a minimum of 6 h and 16 h following final doses of phenylpropanolamine and pseudoephedrine, respectively. Athletes require informed advice on this from their healthcare professionals. PMID:14678341

Chester, Neil; Mottram, David R; Reilly, Thomas; Powell, Mark

2004-01-01

346

Antibiotic resistance of E. coli isolates from urine samples of Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) patients in Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Drug resistance is becoming alarming with the passage of time worldwide in general and in third world countries in particular. Human urine specimens of patients of urinary tract infection at Sheikh Zayed hospital, Lahore, Pakistan were analyzed for drug resistance in Escherichia coli. A total of 69 Escherichia coli isolates from human urine specimens were obtained and screened for their antibiograms. A total of seven antibiotic resistance profiles were obtained with over 65% of the isolates showing multi-drug resistance. Very high resistance levels were detected against augmentin and gentamicin (87.5 &77.5 % respectively) while imipenem and tazocin recorded the least resistance levels (32.5% and 12.5% respectively) among the isolates. PMID:25187681

Jafri, Saghir Ahmad; Qasim, Muhammad; Masoud, Muhammad S; Rahman, Mahmood-ur-; Izhar, Mateen; Kazmi, Saqib

2014-01-01

347

Antibiotic resistance of E. coli isolates from urine samples of Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) patients in Pakistan.  

PubMed

Drug resistance is becoming alarming with the passage of time worldwide in general and in third world countries in particular. Human urine specimens of patients of urinary tract infection at Sheikh Zayed hospital, Lahore, Pakistan were analyzed for drug resistance in Escherichia coli. A total of 69 Escherichia coli isolates from human urine specimens were obtained and screened for their antibiograms. A total of seven antibiotic resistance profiles were obtained with over 65% of the isolates showing multi-drug resistance. Very high resistance levels were detected against augmentin and gentamicin (87.5 &77.5 % respectively) while imipenem and tazocin recorded the least resistance levels (32.5% and 12.5% respectively) among the isolates. PMID:25187681

Jafri, Saghir Ahmad; Qasim, Muhammad; Masoud, Muhammad S; Rahman, Mahmood-Ur-; Izhar, Mateen; Kazmi, Saqib

2014-01-01

348

Association of Alcohol Abuse and Injection Drug Use with Immunologic and Virologic Responses to HAART in HIV-positive Patients from Urban Community Health Clinics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to examine the association of alcohol abuse and injection drug use (IDU) with the immunologic\\u000a and virologic responses to highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) in urban community health clinics. The medical records\\u000a of 293 HIV-infected adult patients who visited either of two urban health clinics in New Haven, Connecticut, from June 2003\\u000a to December

Timothy J. Henrich; Naudia Lauder; Mayur M. Desai; Andre N. Sofair

2008-01-01

349

Impact of closed-system drug transfer device on exposure of environment and healthcare provider to cyclophosphamide in Japanese hospital.  

PubMed

In spite of current recommended safe handling procedures, the potential for the exposure of healthcare providers to hazardous drugs exists in the workplace. A reliance on biological safety cabinets to provide total protection against the exposure to hazardous drugs is insufficient. Preventing workplace contamination is the best strategy to minimize cytotoxic drug exposure in healthcare providers. This study was conducted to compare surface contamination and personnel exposure to cyclophosphamide before and after the implementation of a closed-system drug transfer device, PhaSeal, under the influence of cleaning according to the Japanese guidelines. Personnel exposure was evaluated by collecting 24 h urine samples from 4 pharmacists. Surface contamination was assessed by the wiping test. Four of 6 wipe samples collected before PhaSeal indicated a detectable level of cyclophosphamide. About 7 months after the initiation of PhaSeal, only one of 6 wipe samples indicated a detectable level of cyclophosphamide. Although all 4 employees who provided urine samples had positive results for the urinary excretion of cyclophosphamide before PhaSeal, these levels returned to minimal levels in 2 pharmacists after PhaSeal. In combination with the biological safety cabinet and cleaning according to the Japanese guidelines, PhaSeal further reduces surface contamination and healthcare providers exposure to cyclophosphamide to almost undetectable levels. PMID:23853750

Miyake, Tomohiro; Iwamoto, Takuya; Tanimura, Manabu; Okuda, Masahiro

2013-12-01

350

Theories and controversies on urine formation.  

PubMed

The theories of urine formation developed in the wake of progressing scientific knowledge in renal anatomy and physiology. From the philosophical theories which for a long time swung between vitalism and mechanism, the "scientific revolution" gave a great impulse to morpho/functional unit of kidney. Bowman's secretory hypothesis, as an expression of the vitalistic based theory, describes for the first time many features of the nephron and its blood supply. New insight into the inevitable errors of Bowman led Ludwig to develop the filtration-reabsorption theory, which based its scientific approach on the emerging physics and chemistry theories. The Heidenhain's secretory hypothesis which does not admit the physical filtration in Ludwig's sense, nor the hydrostatic pressure of the blood, even though incomplete and in some part without unequivocal experimental evidence, adds a fragment to the right theory of the urine formation and heralds the modern approach to the renal function of the 20th century. PMID:14736027

Timio, Mario; Saronio, Paolo; Capodicasa, Enrico; Timio, Francesca

2003-01-01

351

Diagnosis of fusariosis in urine cytology  

PubMed Central

Fusarium is a filamentous fungus widely distributed in plants and in the soil. Most species are more common at tropical and subtropical areas. Besides being a common contaminant and a well?known plant pathogen, Fusarium sp may cause various infections in humans. However, it has not yet been reported as being the pathogen of urinary tract infection. A 67?year?old woman had extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy and percutaneous nephrolithotomy for renal stones 7 and 6?years ago, respectively. She had had fever, chillness, urinary urgency and frequency for 6?days. Routine testing of urine showed numerous leucocytes. She was admitted under the impression of urinary tract infection. On admission, many spindle?shaped structures were found in the urine smears. This shows that Fusarium was identified. Fusarium may be the pathogen of the urinary tract infection, particularly when urolithiasis is present. PMID:16816172

Su, Cheng?Chuan; Hsu, Hui?Jine; Wu, Jiunn?Jong; Chou, Chien?Wen

2007-01-01

352

Enantiomeric separation and quantitation of (+/-)-amphetamine, (+/-)-methamphetamine, (+/-)-MDA, (+/-)-MDMA, and (+/-)-MDEA in urine specimens by GC-EI-MS after derivatization with (R)-(-)- or (S)-(+)-alpha-methoxy-alpha-(trifluoromethy)phenylacetyl chloride (MTPA).  

PubMed

In drug testing, the presence of methamphetamine in urine is generally confirmed by a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method. Derivatization of the compound to a perfluoroalkylamide, prior to confirmation, typically yields better chromatographic separation. Once methamphetamine is detected, a second GC-MS test is necessary to distinguish positive results from the use of over-the-counter medication, Vicks inhaler, or from use of a prescription drug, selegiline (Deprenyl). R-(-)-Methamphetamine is the urinary product from legitimate use of these medications. The second GC-MS test is to confirm illicit use of (S)-(+)-methamphetamine. In the procedure, the two methamphetamine isomers are changed to the chromatographically separable diastereomers by a chiral derivatizing agent, (S)-(-)-trifluoroacetylprolyl chloride (TPC). But the method has inherent limitations. Racemization of the reagent produces mixed diastereomers even from pure (S)-(+)-methamphetamine. Instead of using TPC, we utilized (R)-(-)-alpha-methoxy-alpha-(trifluoromethyl)phenylacetyl chloride (MTPA) to prepare the amides of diastereomers of methamphetamine. No racemization was observed with this reagent. The method was extended to resolve GC peaks of (R)-(-)- and (S)-(+)-isomers of amphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), N-methyl-MDA (MDMA), and N-ethyl-MDA (MDEA). Three ions from the drug and two ions from the deuterated internal standard were monitored to characterize and quantitate the drugs. For MDEA, only one ion was used. The quantitation was linear over 25 to 5000 ng/mL for MDEA and 25 to 10,000 ng/mL for all other drugs. Correlation coefficients were > 0.996. Precision calculated as the coefficient of variation at the calibrator concentration of 500 ng/mL was within +/- 11% for all drugs. The method was applied to test 43 urine specimens. In 91% of the methamphetamine-positive specimens, only the (S)-(+)-isomer was detected. In all MDMA-positive specimens, the concentrations of (R)-(-)-isomer were greater than the (S)-(+)-isomer indicating longer retention of (R)-(-)-isomer in the human body. The specimen concentrations (R + S) compared well with that of a non-chiral method that used 4-carboethoxyhexafluorobutyryl chloride as derivatizing agent. But the MTPA method has some advantage. It alone can replace the two GC-MS methods needed to confirm the presence of (S)-(+)-isomers of amphetamine and methamphetamine. PMID:15516295

Paul, Buddha D; Jemionek, John; Lesser, David; Jacobs, Aaron; Searles, Douglas A

2004-09-01

353

Detection of congenital cytomegalovirus infection by real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis of saliva or urine specimens.  

PubMed

Viral culture of urine or saliva has been the gold standard technique for the diagnosis of congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. Results of rapid culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of urine and saliva specimens from 80 children were compared to determine the clinical utility of a real-time PCR assay for diagnosis of congenital CMV infection. Results of urine PCR were positive in 98.8% of specimens. Three PCR-positive urine samples were culture negative. Results of saliva PCR and culture were concordant in 78 specimens (97.5%). Two PCR-positive saliva samples were culture negative. These findings demonstrate that PCR performs as well as rapid culture of urine or saliva specimens for diagnosing congenital CMV infection and saliva specimens are easier to collect. Because PCR also offers more rapid turnaround, is unlikely to be affected by storage and transport conditions, has lower cost, and may be adapted to high-throughput situations, it is well suited for targeted testing and large-scale screening for CMV. PMID:24799600

Ross, Shannon A; Ahmed, Amina; Palmer, April L; Michaels, Marian G; Sánchez, Pablo J; Bernstein, David I; Tolan, Robert W; Novak, Zdenek; Chowdhury, Nazma; Fowler, Karen B; Boppana, Suresh B

2014-11-01

354

Analytical investigations about the presence of prednisolone in cow urine.  

PubMed

Since 2008, the analyses carried out in the Lombardia region as part of National Residue Control Plans have evidenced unexpected frequent detection of the corticosteroid prednisolone (PRED) in cow urine samples taken to the slaughterhouse. Considering the scarce plausibility of these high frequent findings, analytical investigations were started to ascertain the real presence of this corticosteroid. The applied confirmatory method involved liquid-chromatography low-resolution tandem mass spectrometry (triple quadrupole) as instrumental technique, and it was validated in compliance with the requirements of the Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. However, recently some criticism regarding Commission Decision 2002/657/EC identification criteria has been pointed out, experimentally demonstrating false positive results (wrong identification) although these criteria have been strictly observed. Therefore, considering the serious implications (i.e. the possibility that PRED could be considered endogenous in particular animal conditions), studies were carried out to investigate the reliability of PRED identification through the change of the chromatographic conditions (mobile phases, gradient and analytical column) of the confirmatory procedure routinely applied. Further confirmation came from the application of high-resolution mass spectrometry technique (MS(2) and MS(3) experiments) to analyze incurred cow urines samples. All the obtained results confirmed definitively the real presence of this corticosteroid excluding false-positive findings in routine analysis. In addition, other experiments demonstrated that high-resolution mass spectrometers (Time of Flight and Orbitrap technologies) could be successfully applied to routine determination of steroid residues in biological fluids at very low concentrations (< 1?µg?L(-1)). PMID:22972790

Dusi, Guglielmo; Vago, Giorgio; Ghidelli, Valentina; Pellegrino, Roberto M; Galarini, Roberta

2012-09-01

355

Spectrophotometric determination of leukocytes in urine.  

PubMed

A spectrophotometric method based on myeloperoxidase activity for the determination of leukocytes in urine is described. Red cells that may be found in urine samples were lysed by an ammonium chloride method. Leukocytes were then sedimented by centrifugation and lysed using Triton X-100 (Sigma Chemicals Co., St. Louis, MO). Myeloperoxidase-catalyzed oxidation of o-dianisidine was carried out at 37 degrees C, pH 7. The reaction was stopped with the addition of 2 M H2SO4, and a stable form of oxidized o-dianisidine in acidic solution was obtained. Solid particles that may be found in urine samples were removed by centrifugation to avoid turbidity, and absorbance values of the supernatants were recorded at 400 nm. An Average number of leukocytes were noted per number of fields by microscopic examination and were related with the absorbance values of the supernatants at 400 nm. Pearson correlation (r) between our presented spectrophotometric analysis results and visual microscopic analysis was 0.877. Roche Combur 10-test M strips (Roche, Mannheim, Germany) and Multistix 10 SG Bayer test strips (Bayer Diagnostics, UK) were 0.645 and 0.648, respectively (P < 0.0001). PMID:15202119

Imren-Eryilmaz, Eda; Kuzu-Karsilayan, Huriye; Ogan, Ayse

2004-01-01

356

Urine sample preparation for proteomic analysis.  

PubMed

Sample preparation for both environmental and more importantly biological matrices is a bottleneck of all kinds of analytical processes. In the case of proteomic analysis this element is even more important due to the amount of cross-reactions that should be taken into consideration. The incorporation of new post-translational modifications, protein hydrolysis, or even its degradation is possible as side effects of proteins sample processing. If protocols are evaluated appropriately, then identification of such proteins does not bring difficulties. However, if structural changes are provided without sufficient attention then protein sequence coverage will be reduced or even identification of such proteins could be impossible. This review summarizes obstacles and achievements in protein sample preparation of urine for proteome analysis using different tools for mass spectrometry analysis. The main aim is to present comprehensively the idea of urine application as a valuable matrix. This article is dedicated to sample preparation and application of urine mainly in novel cancer biomarkers discovery. PMID:25132110

Olszowy, Pawel; Buszewski, Boguslaw

2014-10-01

357

Urine proteomic profiling of uranium nephrotoxicity.  

PubMed

Uranium is used in many chemical forms in civilian and military industries and is a known nephrotoxicant. A key issue in monitoring occupational exposure is to be able to evaluate the potential damage to the body, particularly the kidney. In this study we used innovative proteomic techniques to analyse urinary protein modulation associated with acute uranium exposure in rats. Given that the rat urinary proteome has rarely been studied, we first identified 102 different proteins in normal urine, expanding the current proteome data set for this central animal in toxicology. Rats were exposed intravenously to uranyl nitrate at 2.5 and 5 mg/kg and samples were collected 24 h later. Using two complementary proteomic methods, a classic 2-DE approach and semi-quantitative SDS-PAGE-LC-MS/MS, 14 modulated proteins (7 with increased levels and 7 with decreased levels) were identified in urine after uranium exposure. Modulation of three of them was confirmed by western blot. Some of the modulated proteins corresponded to proteins already described in case of nephrotoxicity, and indicated a loss of glomerular permeability (albumin, alpha-1-antiproteinase, serotransferrin). Others revealed tubular damage, such as EGF and vitamin D-binding protein. A third category included proteins never described in urine as being associated with metal stress, such as ceruloplasmin. Urinary proteomics is thus a valuable tool to profile uranium toxicity non-invasively and could be very useful in follow-up in case of accidental exposure to uranium. PMID:19336034

Malard, Véronique; Gaillard, Jean-Charles; Bérenguer, Frédéric; Sage, Nicole; Quéméneur, Eric

2009-06-01

358

New Drugs of Abuse.  

PubMed

Drug abuse is a common problem and growing concern in the United States, and over the past decade, novel or atypical drugs have emerged and have become increasingly popular. Recognition and treatment of new drugs of abuse pose many challenges for health care providers due to lack of quantitative reporting and routine surveillance, and the difficulty of detection in routine blood and urine analyses. Furthermore, street manufacturers are able to rapidly adapt and develop new synthetic isolates of older drugs as soon as law enforcement agencies render them illegal. In this article, we describe the clinical and adverse effects and purported pharmacology of several new classes of drugs of abuse including synthetic cannabinoids, synthetic cathinones, salvia, desomorphine, and kratom. Because many of these substances can have severe or life-threatening adverse effects, knowledge of general toxicology is key in recognizing acute intoxication and overdose; however, typical toxidromes (e.g., cholinergic, sympathomimetic, opioid, etc.) are not precipitated by many of these agents. Medical management of patients who abuse or overdose on these drugs largely consists of supportive care, although naloxone may be used as an antidote for desomorphine overdose. Symptoms of aggression and psychosis may be treated with sedation (benzodiazepines, propofol) and antipsychotics (haloperidol or atypical agents such as quetiapine or ziprasidone). Other facets of management to consider include treatment for withdrawal or addiction, nutrition support, and potential for transmission of infectious diseases. PMID:25471045

Rech, Megan A; Donahey, Elisabeth; Cappiello Dziedzic, Jacqueline M; Oh, Laura; Greenhalgh, Elizabeth

2014-12-01

359

Club Drugs  

MedlinePLUS

... Rohypnol, ketamine, as well as MDMA (ecstasy) and methamphetamine ( Drug Facts: Club Drugs , National Institute on Drug ... Club Drugs , National Institute on Drug Abuse, 2010). Methamphetamine is a powerfully addictive stimulant associated with serious ...

360

Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis of urine specimens for K2 (JWH-018) metabolites.  

PubMed

Marijuana is the most widely used drug of abuse all over the world. The major active constituent of the drug is ??- tetrahydrocannabinol (??-THC). ??-THC exerts its psychological activities by interacting with the cannabinoid receptors (CB? and CB?) in the brain. JWH-018, HU-210, and CP-47497, with CB? agonist activity (similar to ??-THC), have been used by the drug culture to spike smokable herbal products to attain psychological effects similar to those obtained by smoking marijuana. The products spiked with these CB? agonists are commonly referred to as "Spice" or "K2". The most common compound used in these products is JWH-018 and related compounds (JWH-073 and JWH-250). Little work has been done on the detection of these synthetic cannabimimetic compounds in biological specimens. This report investigated the metabolism of JWH-018 by human liver microsomes, identification of the metabolites of JWH-018 in urine specimen of an individual who admitted use of the drug, and reports on the quantitation of three of its urinary metabolites, namely the 6-OH-, the N-alkyl OH (terminal hydroxyl)-, and the N-alkyl terminal carboxy metabolites using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The concentrations of these metabolites are determined in several forensic urine specimens. PMID:21871158

ElSohly, Mahmoud A; Gul, Waseem; Elsohly, Kareem M; Murphy, Timothy P; Madgula, Vamsi L M; Khan, Shabana I

2011-09-01

361

Laboratory Measurement of Urine Albumin and Urine Total Protein in Screening for Proteinuria in Chronic Kidney Disease  

PubMed Central

Laboratory measurement of urine total protein has been important for the diagnosis and monitoring of renal disease for decades, and since the late 1990s, urine albumin has been measured to determine whether a diabetic patient has incipient nephropathy. Evolving understanding of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and, in particular, the cardiovascular risks that CKD confers, demands more sensitive detection of protein in urine. As well, evidence is now emerging that cardiovascular and all-cause mortality risks are increased at levels within the current ‘normal’ range for urine albumin. Standardisation is essential to permit valid application of universal decision points, and a National Kidney Disease Education Program/International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (NKDEP/IFCC) Working Party is making progress towards a reference system for urine albumin. In the meantime, available data suggest that Australasian laboratory performance is adequate in terms of precision and accuracy above current decision limits for urine albumin. In contrast, the complexity of proteins in urine makes standardisation of urine total protein measurement impossible. As well, urine total protein measurement is insufficiently sensitive to detect clinically important concentrations of urine albumin. An Australasian Expert Group, the Proteinuria Albuminuria Working Group (PAWG) has proposed that urine albumin/creatinine ratio is measured in a fresh, first morning, spot sample to screen for proteinuria in CKD. Both NKDEP/IFCC and PAWG emphasise the need for standardisation of sample collection and handling. PMID:21611083

Martin, Helen

2011-01-01

362

Laboratory measurement of urine albumin and urine total protein in screening for proteinuria in chronic kidney disease.  

PubMed

Laboratory measurement of urine total protein has been important for the diagnosis and monitoring of renal disease for decades, and since the late 1990s, urine albumin has been measured to determine whether a diabetic patient has incipient nephropathy. Evolving understanding of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and, in particular, the cardiovascular risks that CKD confers, demands more sensitive detection of protein in urine. As well, evidence is now emerging that cardiovascular and all-cause mortality risks are increased at levels within the current 'normal' range for urine albumin. Standardisation is essential to permit valid application of universal decision points, and a National Kidney Disease Education Program/International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (NKDEP/IFCC) Working Party is making progress towards a reference system for urine albumin. In the meantime, available data suggest that Australasian laboratory performance is adequate in terms of precision and accuracy above current decision limits for urine albumin. In contrast, the complexity of proteins in urine makes standardisation of urine total protein measurement impossible. As well, urine total protein measurement is insufficiently sensitive to detect clinically important concentrations of urine albumin. An Australasian Expert Group, the Proteinuria Albuminuria Working Group (PAWG) has proposed that urine albumin/creatinine ratio is measured in a fresh, first morning, spot sample to screen for proteinuria in CKD. Both NKDEP/IFCC and PAWG emphasise the need for standardisation of sample collection and handling. PMID:21611083

Martin, Helen

2011-05-01

363

Prevalence of drugs used in cases of alleged sexual assault.  

PubMed

In recent years, there has been an increase in the number of reports in the U.S. of the use of drugs, often in conjunction with alcohol, to commit sexual assault. A study was undertaken to assess the prevalence of drug use in sexual assault cases in which substances are suspected of being involved. Law enforcement agencies, emergency rooms, and rape crisis centers across the U.S. were offered the opportunity to submit urine samples collected from victims of alleged sexual assault, where drug use was suspected, for analysis of alcohol and drugs which may be associated with sexual assault. Each sample was tested by immunoassay for amphetamines, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, cocaine metabolite (benzoylecgonine), cannabinoids, methaqualone, opiates, phencyclidine and propoxyphene. The positive screen results were confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). In addition, each sample was tested for flunitrazepam metabolites and gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) by GC-MS and for ethanol by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID). Over a 26-month period, 1179 samples were collected and analyzed from 49 states, Puerto Rico, and the District of Columbia. The states sending the most samples were California (183), Texas (119), Florida (61), Pennsylvania (61), New York (61), Minnesota (50), Illinois (47), Indiana (44), Michigan (40), Maryland (37), Virginia (32), and Massachusetts (31). Four-hundred sixty eight of the samples were found negative for all the substances tested; 451 were positive for ethanol, 218 for cannabinoids, 97 for benzoylecgonine, 97 for benzodiazepines, 51 for amphetamines, 48 for GHB, 25 for opiates, 17 for propoxyphene, and 12 for barbiturates. There were no samples identified as positive for phencyclidine or methaqualone. In addition, 35% of the drug-positive samples contained multiple drugs. This study indicates that, with respect to alleged sexual assault cases, the prevalence of ethanol is very high, followed by cannabinoids, cocaine, benzodiazepines, amphetamines, and GHB. Although only a couple of substances have been implicated with sexual assault, this study has shown that almost 20 different substances have been associated with this crime. This study also raises the concern of illicit and licit drug use in sexual assault cases and suggests the need to test for a range of drugs in these cases. It also highlights the need to test for GHB, which is not generally tested for in a normal toxicology screen. PMID:10369321

ElSohly, M A; Salamone, S J

1999-01-01

364

Drug Tolerance, Drug Addiction, and Drug Anticipation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental cues associated with drugs often elicit withdrawal symptoms and relapse to drug use. Such cues also modulate drug tolerance. The contribution of drug-associated stimuli to withdrawal and tolerance is emphasized in a Pavlovian-conditioning analysis of drug administration. Conditional responses occur in the presence of cues that have been associated with the drug in the past, such as the setting

Shepard Siegel

2005-01-01

365

The Value of Combined Use of Survivin mRNA and Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 and 9 for Bladder Cancer Detection in Voided Urine  

PubMed Central

Objective: In a trial to improve the diagnostic efficacy of conventional urine cytology we determine survivin RNA and matrix metalloproteinase 2 and 9 in urine of bladder cancer cases. Method: Voided urine specimens were collected from patients with histologically confirmed bladder urothelial carcinoma (Group 1; n = 46), urological patients without urothelial carcinoma (Group 2; n = 20), and healthy volunteers (Group 3; n = 20). Urine cytology, survivin RNA was estimated by qualitative nested RT-PCR and MMP-2, MMP-9 activity were detected by gelatin zymography. The expression of survivin RNA and matrix metalloproteinase 2 and 9 in bladder cancer was compared with benign and normal cases. Results: Positivity rates of survivin RNA and MMPs zymography were significantly different among the 3 groups. Urine survivin detection by qualitative nested RT-PCR showed 76.1% sensitivity and 95% specificity. The overall sensitivity, specificity of urinary MMP zymography was 67.3%, 90% respectively. The combined use of urine cytology with urine survivin or MMPs zymography increased sensitivity of urine cytology from 50% to 84.7%. The highest sensitivity (95.6%) was obtained on combining the three markers. Conclusion: Survivin RNA and MMPS zymography can be considered as promising noninvasive markers for bladder cancer early detection. Combined use of the three markers improved the sensitivity for detecting bladder cancer. PMID:22960341

Eissa, Sanaa; Badr, Soheir; Abd Elhamid, Shadia; Helmy, Azza Salah; Nour, Mohamed; Esmat, Mohamed

2013-01-01

366

Drivers under the influence of drugs of abuse: quantification of cocaine and impaired driving.  

PubMed

In recent years, the interest in oral fluid as a biological matrix has significantly increased, particularly for detecting driving under the influence of drugs. In this study, the concentration of cocaine and its relationship with clinical symptoms in drivers suspected of driving under the influence of drugs was evaluated. A total of 154 samples of oral fluid, which tested positive for cocaine in previous immunoassay screening, Cozart Drug Detector System, were confirmed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry method. In Catalonia, during 2007-2010, there were 1791 samples positive for cocaine among a total of 3468 samples taken from drivers who tested positive for any drug of abuse. The evaluation of clinical symptoms was through a questionnaire that was filled in by the police officers who collected the samples. The mean concentration of cocaine was 4.11?mg/l and median concentration was 0.38?mg/l (range 0.01-345.64?mg/l). Clinical impairment symptoms such as motor coordination, walking, speech, mood and state of pupils were not significant. The testing of oral fluids presents fewer ethical problems than blood or urine. PMID:24057314

Arroyo, Amparo; Sánchez, Marta; Barberia, Eneko; Barbal, Maria; Marrón, M Teresa; Mora, Agustí

2013-01-01

367

Comprehensive drug screening by integrated use of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and Remedi HS.  

PubMed

The authors evaluated an integrated approach for the screening of drugs in biosamples consisting of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis of serum or whole blood (SB/GC-MS) and of high-performance liquid chromatographic and ultraviolet (HPLC-UV) analysis of urine with the REMEDi HS Biorad system (U/REM) (Bio-rad; Segrate, MI, Italy). Urine and blood samples from 26 suspected intoxicated patients and from 22 suspected lethal poisoning cases were examined. Eighty-one of the 99 parent drugs/main metabolites detected were identified by SB/GC-MS and 54 with U/REM. Thirty-six drugs/metabolites were identified with both methods, 45 by SB/GC-MS alone, and 18 by U/REM alone. Absence of the mass spectrometry (MS) spectra in the reference library and high polarity of the analytes were the main reasons for failed identification by SB/GC-MS. Unsuccessful identifications with U/REM were basically caused by the absence of the UV spectra in the reference library or by low chromatographic and spectroscopic selectivity as in the case of barbiturates and benzodiazepines (BZD), which represented 11% and 51%, respectively, of the 45 SB/GC-MS unique identifications. Urine samples of 14 BZD-positive cases were also submitted to enzymatic hydrolysis and analyzed with the REMEDi UBz assay, and results were compared with those obtained by SB/GC-MS: 14 of the 22 identified BZD were detected with both methods, three by U/REM only, and five by SB/GC-MS only. In conclusion, the integrated use of SB/GC-MS and U/REM approaches greatly enhances the amount and quality of analytical information obtainable by applying either method alone. PMID:11360040

Valli, A; Polettini, A; Papa, P; Montagna, M

2001-06-01

368

Biological Exposure Indices of Pyrrole Adducts in Serum and Urine for Hazard Assessment of n-Hexane Exposure  

PubMed Central

Background Pyrrole adducts might be used as a biomarker for monitoring occupational exposure to n-hexane, but the Biological Exposure Indices of pyrrole adducts in serum and urine are still unknown. The current study was designed to investigate the biological exposure limit of pyrrole adducts for hazard assessment of n-hexane. Methods Male Wistar rats were given daily dose of 500, 1000, 1500, 2000, 4000 mg/kg bw n-hexane by gavage for 24 weeks. The levels of pyrrole adducts in serum and urine were determined at 8, 24 hours postdose once a week. The Biological Exposure Indices was evaluated by neurological evaluation and the levels of pyrrole adducts. The difference in pyrrole adducts formation between humans and rats were estimated by using in vitro test. Results Dose-dependent effects were observed between the doses of n-hexane and pyrrole adducts in serum and urine, and the levels of pyrrole adduct in serum and urine approached a plateau at week 4. There was a significantly negative correlation between the time to paralysis and the level of pyrrole adducts in serum and urine, while a positive correlation between gait score and levels of pyrrole adducts in serum and urine was observed. In vitro, pyrrole adducts formed in human serum was about two times more than those in rat serum at the same level of 2,5-HD. Conclusion It was concluded that the BEIs of pyrrole adducts in humans were 23.1±5.91 nmol/ml in serum 8 h postdose, 11.7±2.64 nmol/ml in serum 24 h postdose, 253.8±36.3 nmol/ml in urine 8 h postdose and 54.6±15.42 nmol/ml in urine 24 h postdose. PMID:24465904

Yin, Hongyin; Zhang, Chunling; Guo, Ying; Shao, Xiaoying; Zeng, Tao; Zhao, Xiulan; Xie, Keqin

2014-01-01

369

Is It Useful and Safe to Maintain the Sitting Position During Only One Minute before Position Change to the Jack-knife Position?  

PubMed Central

Background Conventional spinal saddle block is performed with the patient in a sitting position, keeping the patient sitting for between 3 to 10 min after injection of a drug. This amount of time, however, is long enough to cause prolonged postoperative urinary retention. The trend in this block is to lower the dose of local anesthetics, providing a selective segmental block; however, an optimal dose and method are needed for adequate anesthesia in variable situations. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the question of whether only 1 min of sitting after drug injection would be sufficient and safe for minor anorectal surgery. Methods Two hundred and sixteen patients undergoing minor anorectal surgery under spinal anesthesia remained sitting for 1 min after completion of subarachnoid administration of 1 ml of a 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine solution (5 mg). They were then placed in the jack-knife position. After surgery, analgesia levels were assessed using loss of cold sensation in the supine position. The next day, urination and 11-point numeric rating scale (NRS) for postoperative pain were assessed. Results None of the patients required additional analgesics during surgical manipulation. Postoperative sensory levels were T10 [T8-T12] in patients, and no significant differences were observed between sex (P = 0.857), height (P = 0.065), obesity (P = 0.873), or age (P = 0.138). Urinary retention developed in only 7 patients (3.2%). In this group, NRS was 5.0 ± 2.4 (P = 0.014). Conclusions The one-minute sitting position for spinal saddle block before the jack-knife position is a safe method for use with minor anorectal surgery and can reduce development of postoperative urinary retention. PMID:20830265

Park, Soo Young; Park, Jong Cook

2010-01-01

370

Drug Usage and Attitude Toward Drugs Among College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Results of the data presented suggest that there is considerable experimentation among college students with illegal drugs, especially marijuana. Their attitudes toward other drugs still seems cautious. Marijuana, however, seems-to be accepted and generally positively evaluated. (Author)

Cross, Herbert J.; Keir, Richard G.

1971-01-01

371

Assemblage of drug release modules: effect of module shape and position in the assembled systems on floating behavior and release rate.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to study the clindamycin release kinetics from floating delivery systems consisting of two modules assembled in void configuration, according to the modified release technology platform known as Dome Matrix®. Two modules differently shaped, i.e., female and male, formulated as swellable matrices and containing clindamycin, were assembled by friction interlocking. Then, by stacking additional female modules without drug on the assembled two-module floating system, modulation of clindamycin release rate and kinetics was attained. The additional modules stacked on the assembled system acted as a transient barrier to clindamycin release from the void configuration. Inertness, dissolution/erosion or swelling behavior characterized their performance as matrices in simulated gastric fluid. In particular, we found that stacking additional barrier modules on the bases of void configuration, the drug release rate and kinetics of the assembled system were modified in dependence on the composition of module added. In particular, the quickly soluble module exerted an influence on the release rate in the late time of delivery. The swellable module produced a significant reduction in release rate of void assembly, but the release mechanism remained the same. Finally, the inert module led to a substantial linearization of the release profile with a minimal reduction in release rate. PMID:21087663

Hascicek, C; Rossi, A; Colombo, P; Massimo, G; Strusi, O L; Colombo, G

2011-01-01

372

Surveillance of transmitted HIV type 1 drug resistance among HIV type 1-positive women attending an antenatal clinic in Kakinada, India.  

PubMed

The World Health Organizations HIV Drug Resistance (WHO HIVDR) Threshold survey method was used to assess transmitted HIVDR in newly diagnosed HIV-1-infected primigravida women attending the Prevention of Parent to Child Transmission (PPTCT) centers in Kakinada, in whom it is likely that the infection had recently occurred. Out of the 56 consecutively collected eligible specimens, 51 were tested using the ViroSeq RT-PCR method (Abbott Germany) to obtain 47 consecutive sequences for the HIV-1 protease (PR) and reverse transcriptase (RT) region. As per the 2009 WHO list of mutations for surveillance of transmitted HIVDR, only one nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) mutation was detected at K101E from all specimens tested, suggesting a low prevalence (<5%) of resistance to NNRTIs and no mutations were detected at other sites, suggesting a low prevalence (<5%) of resistance to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI) and protease inhibitors (PI) drug classes as well. Phylogenetic analysis showed all sequences belonged to HIV-1 subtype C. In the wake of antiretroviral treatment (ART) scale-up, future evaluation of transmitted HIVDR is essential in Kakinada as well as in other regions of India. PMID:21568760

Thorat, Smita R; Chaturbhuj, Devidas N; Hingankar, Nitin K; Chandrasekhar, Velura; Koppada, Rajasekhar; Datkar, Sharda R; Srikantiah, Padmini; Garg, Renu; Kabra, Sandhya; Haldar, Partha; Reddy, Dandu C S; Bachani, Damodar; Tripathy, Srikanth P; Paranjape, Ramesh S

2011-12-01

373

Phthalate metabolites in urine and asthma, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and atopic dermatitis in preschool children.  

PubMed

Phthalate esters are among the most ubiquitous of indoor pollutants and have been associated with various adverse health effects. In the present study we assessed the cross-sectional association between eight different phthalate metabolites in urine and allergic disease in young children. As part of the Danish Indoor Environment and Children's Health study, urine samples were collected from 440 children aged 3-5 years, of whom 222 were healthy controls, 68 were clinically diagnosed with asthma, 76 with rhinoconjunctivitis and 81 with atopic dermatitis (disease subgroups are not mutually exclusive; some children had more than one disease). There were no statistically significant differences in the urine concentrations of phthalate metabolites between cases and healthy controls with the exception of MnBP and MECPP, which were higher in healthy controls compared with the asthma case group. In the crude analysis MnBP and MiBP were negatively associated with asthma. In the analysis adjusted for multiple factors, only a weak positive association between MEP in urine and atopic dermatitis was found; there were no positive associations between any phthalate metabolites in urine and either asthma or rhinoconjunctivitis. These findings appear to contradict earlier studies. Differences may be due to higher exposures to certain phthalates (e.g., BBzP) via non-dietary pathways in earlier studies, phthalates serving as surrogates for an agent associated with asthma (e.g., PVC flooring) in previous studies but not the present study or altered cleaning habits and the use of "allergy friendly" products by parents of children with allergic disease in the current study in contrast to studies conducted earlier. PMID:24388279

Callesen, Michael; Bekö, Gabriel; Weschler, Charles J; Langer, Sarka; Brive, Lena; Clausen, Geo; Toftum, Jørn; Sigsgaard, Torben; Høst, Arne; Jensen, Tina Kold

2014-07-01

374

Evaluation of the Drug Free Youth in Town Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluates a program that rewards Miami-area youths for adhering to a drug-free lifestyle. Students may belong to the Drug Free Youth in Town Club by presenting clear urine samples and agreeing to random testing. Principals and students like the program, which includes a community-service component. (MLH)

Strusinski, Marianne; Collins, Robert A.

1999-01-01

375

Production of slow-released nitrogen fertilizer from urine.  

PubMed

Human excreta, especially urine is rich in nitrogen that can be utilized for agricultural purposes, while the slow-release fertilizer allows effective utilization of nutrients in agricultural production. The direct formation of slow-release fertilizer--methylene urea--from urine was being proposed in this study. The experiments were tried to prove formation of methylene urea from human urine, and to investigate the effect of pH and salt concentration on the reaction rate. The synthetic urine and real urine were used for the urea source of the reaction. As a result, the precipitates were prepared from synthetic urine, while the small molecule fractions generated then they grew into precipitate. The nuclear magnetic resonance, infrared spectroscopy, element analyses showed the precipitates in synthetic urine were the same compound found in the urea solution, which was methylene urea. The reaction rate was high at low pH value. The reaction rate in the buffer solution was lower than the synthetic urine at the same pH, because some salts may work as a catalyst. The urea concentration reduction rate in real urine showed the same trend with synthetic urine at the same pH, while the precipitation was quite similar to methylene urea. PMID:24527645

Ito, Ryusei; Takahashi, Eri; Funamizu, Naoyuki

2013-01-01

376

Plasma and urine renalase levels and activity during the recovery of renal function in kidney transplant recipients.  

PubMed

Renalase is a recently described enzyme secreted by the kidney into both plasma and urine, where it was suggested to degrade catecholamines contributing to blood pressure control. While there is a controversy regarding the relationship between renal function and plasma renalase levels, there is virtually no data in humans on plasma renalase activity as well as on both urine renalase levels and activity. We prospectively examined the time course of plasma and urine renalase levels and activity in 26 end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients receiving a cadaver kidney transplant (cadaver kidney recipients [CKR]) before surgery and during the recovery of renal function up to day 90 post transplant. The relationship with sympathetic and renal dopaminergic activities was also evaluated. The recovery of renal function in CKR closely predicted decreases in plasma renalase levels (r = 0.88; P < 0.0001), urine renalase levels (r = 0.75; P < 0.0001) and urine renalase activity (r = 0.56; P < 0.03), but did not predict changes in plasma renalase activity (r = -0.02; NS). Plasma norepinephrine levels positively correlated with plasma renalase levels (r = 0.64, P < 0.002) as well as with urine renalase levels and activity (r = 0.47 P < 0.02; r = 0.71, P < 0.0005, respectively) and negatively correlated with plasma renalase activity (r = -0.57, P < 0.002). By contrast, plasma epinephrine levels positively correlated with plasma renalase activity (r = 0.67, P < 0.0001) and negatively correlated with plasma renalase levels (r = -0.62, P < 0.003). A significant negative relationship was observed between urine dopamine output and urine renalase levels (r = -0.48; P < 0.03) but not with urine renalase activity (r = -0.33, NS). We conclude that plasma and urine renalase levels closely depend on renal function and sympathetic nervous system activity. It is suggested that epinephrine-mediated activation of circulating renalase may occur in renal transplant recipients with good recovery of renal function. The increase in plasma renalase activity observed in ESRD patients and renal transplant recipients can be explained on the basis of reduced inhibition of the circulating enzyme. PMID:24599883

Quelhas-Santos, Janete; Soares-Silva, Isabel; Fernandes-Cerqueira, Cátia; Simões-Silva, Liliana; Ferreira, Inês; Carvalho, Catarina; Coentrão, Luís; Vaz, Raquel; Sampaio-Maia, Benedita; Pestana, Manuel

2014-04-01

377

RAPID DIAGNOSIS OF PNEUMOCOCCAL PNEUMONIA AMONG HIV-INFECTED ADULTS WITH URINE ANTIGEN DETECTION  

PubMed Central

Objectives Streptococcus pneumoniae is the leading cause of bacterial pneumonia and associated bacteremia during HIV infection. Rapid diagnostic assays may limit inappropriate therapy. Methods Clinical signs and symptoms and sera and urine were collected prospectively from 70 adults with pneumococcal pneumonia, including 47 with HIV co-infection. Pneumococcal C-polysaccharide antigen was detected in urine using the Binax® immunochromatographic test (ICT). A systematic review of 24 published studies was conducted. Results Clinical symptoms, signs, and laboratory parameters except leukocytosis, were similar in HIV-infected and HIV-seronegative pneumonia. The performance of the urine antigen ICT was independent of HIV-status (sensitivity 81%, specificity 98%, positive (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV) 98%, and 82%, respectively). The sensitivity of sputum Gram’s stain was 58% [34/59] with sputum unable to be provided by 16%. The CRP response was identical in HIV-infected (mean ± SD) 133 ± 88 vs. seronegative 135 ± 104 mg/L (p=0.9). In the systematic review, the ICT performance revealed 74% sensitivity (95% CI: 72% to 77%) and 94% specificity (95% CI: 93% to 95%). Urine antigen testing increases etiologic diagnosis by 23% (Range: 10% –59%) when testing adults with community acquired pneumonia of unknown etiology. Conclusions Urinary antigen detection provides a credible rapid diagnostic test for pneumococcal pneumonia regardless of HIV-status. CRP response to acute infection is similar in HIV co-infection and increases diagnostic certainty. PMID:17692384

Boulware, David R; Daley, Charles L.; Merrifield, Cynthia; Hopewell, Philip C.; Janoff, Edward N.

2007-01-01

378

Prevalence of extended-spectrum ?-lactamase positive bacteria in radiologically positive urinary tract infection.  

PubMed

The increase in antibiotic resistance among uropathogens is a global problem. The present study was an effort to assess the current antibiotic resistance pattern and plasmid profiles of some multi drug resistant bacteria isolated from urinary tract infection (UTI). Among 44 clinical samples of radiologically positive UTI, 44 microorganisms belonging to 9 genus were isolated. Of the patients, 24 were female and 20 were male. Highest incidence was found in age group of 30-45 years. Total bacterial count of the urine samples were high in most the patients. E. coli and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp. were most prevalent. Most of the isolates showed higher antibiotic resistance against the antibiotics used. 6 of the 44 isolate was resistant to 10 different types of antibiotics. Of the isolated uropathogens, 40.9% were ESBL positive. 7 of the isolates had no plasmid and 9 isolate had 140 MDa plasmid whereas other isolates pose smaller plasmids of different sizes. Assessment of transfer of antibiotic resistance between different genuses revealed transfer of resistance within genus. Radiological imaging showed strong correlation with microbiological findings of the patients. PMID:24839589

Masud, Md Rana; Afroz, Hafsa; Fakruddin, Md

2014-01-01

379

A new method for simultaneous determination of cyclic antidepressants and their metabolites in urine using enzymatic hydrolysis and fast GC-MS.  

PubMed

A method for the simultaneous determination of six commonly prescribed cyclic antidepressants and their major metabolites in urine is presented. This method can be used for quantitation of amitriptyline, nortriptyline, imipramine, desipramine, doxepin, desmethyldoxepin, and maprotiline in human urine, in addition to the qualitative determination of their hydroxylated metabolites. This method is suitable for confirmation of drug abuse in health care professionals and overdose cases where the identity of the abused cyclic antidepressant may not be known. Samples are spiked with internal standard and hydrolyzed with beta-glucuronidase from Escherichia coli. Hydrolysis is found to be essential to the extraction procedure as the tertiary cyclic antidepressants are found to be extensively conjugated in urine. The secondary cyclic antidepressants, on the contrary, are found to be minimally conjugated. Drugs are extracted from alkalinized urine into solvent and derivatized with MSTFA/ammonium iodide/ethanethiol reagent. This reagent produces more stable derivatives compared to reagents previously employed. Gas chromatographic (GC)-mass spectrometric analysis is performed in electron ionization mode by selective ion monitoring, using hydrogen as a carrier gas, a short narrow bore GC capillary column, and fast temperature program, allowing for a rapid analytical cycle. While maintaining specificity for these drugs, concentrations in human urine ranging from 50 to 20,000 ng/mL can be measured with intraday and interday precisions, expressed as variation coefficient, of less than 2.8% for all analytes. PMID:18544221

Rana, Sumandeep; Uralets, Victor P; Ross, Wayne

2008-06-01

380

Drug allergies  

MedlinePLUS

Allergic reaction - drug (medication); Drug hypersensitivity; Medication hypersensitivity ... vomiting to life-threatening anaphylaxis . A true drug allergy is caused by a series of chemical steps ...

381

The urine proteome as a radiation biodosimeter.  

PubMed

The global rise in terrorism has increased the risk of radiological events aimed at creating chaos and destabilization, although they may cause relatively limited number of immediate casualties. We have proposed that a self-administered test would be valuable for initial triage following terrorist use of nuclear/radiological devices. The urine proteome may be a useful source of the biomarkers required for developing such a test. We have developed and extensively used a rat model to study the acute and late effect of total body (TBI) and partial body irradiation on critical organ systems. This model has proven valuable for correlating the structural and functional effects of radiation with molecular changes. Results show that nephron segments differ with regard to their sensitivity and response to ionizing radiation. The urine proteome was analyzed using LC-MS/MS at 24 h after TBI or local kidney irradiation using a 10 Gy single dose of X rays. LC-MS/MS data were analyzed and grouped under Gene Ontology categories Cellular Localization, Molecular Function and Biological Process. We observed a decrease in urine protein/creatinine ratio that corroborated with decreased spectral counts for urinary albumin and other major serum proteins. Interestingly, TBI caused greater decline in urinary albumin than local kidney irradiation. Analysis of acute-phase response proteins and markers of acute kidney injury showed increased urinary levels of cystatin superfamily proteins and alpha-1-acid glycoprotein. Among proteases and protease inhibitors, levels of Kallikrein 1-related peptidase b24, precursor and products of chymotrypsin-like activity, were noticeably increased. Among the amino acids that are susceptible to oxidation by free radicals, oxidized histidine levels were increased following irradiation. Our results suggest that proteomic analysis of early changes in urinary proteins will identify biomarkers for developing a self-administered test for radiation biodosimetry. PMID:23378004

Sharma, Mukut; Moulder, John E

2013-01-01

382

Metals in Urine and Peripheral Arterial Disease  

PubMed Central

Exposure to metals may promote atherosclerosis. Blood cadmium and lead were associated with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in the 1999–2000 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). In the present study we evaluated the association between urinary levels of cadmium, lead, barium, cobalt, cesium, molybdenum, antimony, thallium, and tungsten with PAD in a cross-sectional analysis of 790 participants ?40 years of age in NHANES 1999–2000. PAD was defined as a blood pressure ankle brachial index < 0.9 in at least one leg. Metals were measured in casual (spot) urine specimens by inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry. After multivariable adjustment, subjects with PAD had 36% higher levels of cadmium in urine and 49% higher levels of tungsten compared with noncases. The adjusted odds ratio for PAD comparing the 75th to the 25th percentile of the cadmium distribution was 3.05 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.97 to 9.58]; that for tungsten was 2.25 (95% CI, 0.97 to 5.24). PAD risk increased sharply at low levels of antimony and remained elevated beyond 0.1 ?g/L. PAD was not associated with other metals. In conclusion, urinary cadmium, tungsten, and possibly antimony were associated with PAD in a representative sample of the U.S. population. For cadmium, these results strengthen previous findings using blood cadmium as a biomarker, and they support its role in atherosclerosis. For tungsten and antimony, these results need to be interpreted cautiously in the context of an exploratory analysis but deserve further study. Other metals in urine were not associated with PAD at the levels found in the general population. PMID:15687053

Navas-Acien, Ana; Silbergeld, Ellen K.; Sharrett, A. Richey; Calderon-Aranda, Emma; Selvin, Elizabeth; Guallar, Eliseo

2005-01-01

383

Direct urine analysis for the identification and quantification of selected benzodiazepines for toxicology screening.  

PubMed

A simple and rapid LC/MS method with direct injection analysis was developed and validated for the identification and quantification of ten benzodiazepines (flunitrazepam, nordiazepam, diazepam, 7-aminoflunitrazepam, flurazepam, bromazepam, midazolam, alprazolam, temazepam and oxazepam) in human urine using diazepam-d5 as internal standard (IS). The main advantage of the proposed methodology is the minimal sample preparation procedure, as diluted urine samples were directly injected into LC/MS system. Electrospray ionization in positive mode using selected ion monitoring was chosen for the identification and quantification of the analytes. The linear range was 50-1000 ng/mL for each analyte, with square correlation coefficient (r(2))?0.981. Interday and intraday errors were found to be ?5.72%. The LC/MS method was applied at ten real samples found initially to be positive and negative, using immunoassay technique. Finally the results were confirmed with GC/MS. The method demonstrates simplicity and fast sample preparation, accuracy and specificity of the analytes which make it suitable for replacement of immunoassay screening in urine avoiding thus false negative/false positive results. Using this method, laboratories may overcome the problem of high cost instrumentation such as LC-MS/MS by providing similar sensitivity and specificity with other methods. PMID:22790390

Karampela, Sevasti; Vardakou, Ioanna; Papoutsis, Ioannis; Dona, Artemis; Spiliopoulou, Chara; Athanaselis, Sotirios; Pistos, Constantinos

2012-08-01

384

Zero-gravity open-type urine receptacle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of the zero-gravity open-type urine receptacle used in the Apollo command module is described. This type receptacle eliminates the need for a cuff-type urine collector or for the penis to circumferentially contact the receptacle in order to urinate. This device may be used in a gravity environment, varying from zero gravity to earth gravity, such as may be experienced in a space station or space base.

Girala, A. S.

1972-01-01

385

Monitoring human papillomavirus prevalence in urine samples: a review  

PubMed Central

Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the main cause of cervical cancer, and many countries now offer vaccination against HPV to girls by way of government-funded national immunization programs. Monitoring HPV prevalence in adolescents could offer a near-term biological measure of vaccine impact, and urine sampling may be an attractive large-scale method that could be used for this purpose. Our objective was to provide an overview of the literature on HPV DNA detection in urine samples, with an emphasis on adolescents. We searched the PubMed database using the terms “HPV” and “urine” and identified 21 female and 14 male study populations in which HPV prevalence in urine samples was reported, four of which included only asymptomatic female adolescents. We provide herein an overview of the recruitment setting, age, urine sampling procedure, lesion type, HPV assay, and HPV prevalence in urine samples and other urogenital samples for the studies included in this review. In female study populations, concordance for any HPV type and type-specific concordance in paired urine and cervical samples are provided in addition to sensitivity and specificity. We concluded that few studies on HPV prevalence in urine samples have been performed in asymptomatic female adolescent populations but that urine samples may be a useful alternative to cervical samples to monitor changes in HPV prevalence in females in the post-HPV vaccination era. However, care should be taken when extrapolating HPV findings from urine samples to the cervix. In males, urine samples do not seem to be optimal for monitoring HPV prevalence due to a low human genomic DNA content and HPV DNA detection rate compared to other urogenital sites. In each situation the costs and benefits of HPV DNA detection in urine compared to alternative monitoring options should be carefully considered. PMID:23516174

Enerly, Espen; Olofsson, Cecilia; Nygård, Mari

2013-01-01

386

Water recovery by catalytic treatment of urine vapor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this investigation was to demonstrate the feasibility of water recovery on a man-rated scale by the catalytic processing of untreated urine vapor. For this purpose, two catalytic systems, one capable of processing an air stream containing low urine vapor concentrations and another to process streams with high urine vapor concentrations, were designed, constructed, and tested to establish the quality of the recovered water.

Budininkas, P.; Quattrone, P. D.; Leban, M. I.

1980-01-01

387

Determination of AM-2201 metabolites in urine and comparison with JWH-018 abuse.  

PubMed

With respect to the continuous emergence of new synthetic cannabinoids on the market since 2008, evaluation of the metabolism of these compounds and the development of analytical methods for the detection of these drugs including their respective metabolites in biological fluids have become essential. Other than JWH-018 or JWH-073, AM-2201 is one of the frequently identified synthetic cannabinoids in Korea. Recently, in our laboratory, several JWH-018 metabolites have been detected in some urine samples obtained from subjects who were arrested for the possession of herbal mixtures containing only AM-2201 or from those who confessed AM-2201 abuse. In the present study, we identified major urinary metabolites of AM-2201 and several metabolites of JWH-018, i.e., N-5-hydroxylated and carboxylated metabolites from rats administered AM-2201 and found that the metabolic profile in rats was similar to those in human subjects in this study. Analytical results of the urine samples from suspects who had a considerable possibility of AM-2201 or JWH-018 intake were also compared to distinguish between AM-2201 and JWH-018 abuse. The presence of 6-indole hydroxylated metabolites of each drug and N-4-hydroxy metabolite of AM-2201 was found to contribute to the decisive differences in the metabolic patterns of the two drugs. In addition, the concentration ratio of the N-(5-hydroxypentyl) metabolite to the N-(4-hydroxypentyl) metabolite of JWH-018 may be used as a criterion to differentiate between AM-2201 and JWH-018 abuse. PMID:23884698

Jang, Moonhee; Yang, Wonkyung; Shin, Ilchung; Choi, Hyeyoung; Chang, Hyejin; Kim, Eunmi

2014-03-01

388

49 CFR 40.199 - What problems always cause a drug test to be cancelled?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...40.199 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Problems in Drug Tests § 40.199 What problems always cause a drug test to be cancelled? ...(4) Because of leakage or other causes, there is an insufficient amount of urine in the primary specimen bottle for analysis and the specimens cannot be......

2010-10-01

389

49 CFR 40.199 - What problems always cause a drug test to be cancelled?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...40.199 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Problems in Drug Tests § 40.199 What problems always cause a drug test to be cancelled? ...(4) Because of leakage or other causes, there is an insufficient amount of urine in the primary specimen bottle for analysis and the specimens cannot be......

2013-10-01

390

49 CFR 40.199 - What problems always cause a drug test to be cancelled?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...40.199 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Problems in Drug Tests § 40.199 What problems always cause a drug test to be cancelled? ...(4) Because of leakage or other causes, there is an insufficient amount of urine in the primary specimen bottle for analysis and the specimens cannot be......

2011-10-01

391

49 CFR 40.199 - What problems always cause a drug test to be cancelled?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...40.199 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Problems in Drug Tests § 40.199 What problems always cause a drug test to be cancelled? ...(4) Because of leakage or other causes, there is an insufficient amount of urine in the primary specimen bottle for analysis and the specimens cannot be......

2012-10-01

392

Prevalence of psychoactive drug use among drivers in Thailand: A roadside survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of psychoactive drug and alcohol use among general drivers and predictors of the drug use in Thailand. One thousand six hundred and thirty-five motor vehicle drivers were randomly selected from five geographical regions of Thailand between December 2005 and May 2006.The prevalence of psychoactive drugs was determined using urine tests

Atiporn Ingsathit; Patarawan Woratanarat; Tongtavuch Anukarahanonta; Sasivimol Rattanasiri; Porntip Chatchaipun; Kanokporn Wattayakorn; Stephen Lim; Paibul Suriyawongpaisal

2009-01-01

393

Simpler spectrophotometric assay of paracetamol in tablets and urine samples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A very fast, economical and simpler direct spectrophotometric method was investigated for paracetamol (PC) determination in aqueous medium without using any chemical reagents. The method is based on the photo-absorption of the analyte at 243 nm after dissolution in water. The change in structure of PC after addition of water was studied by comparing the corresponding FTIR spectra. Optimization studies were conducted by using a 5 ?g ml -1 standard solution of the analyte. Various parameters studied include, time for stability and measurement of spectra, effect of HCl, NaOH, CH 3COOH and NH 3 for change in absorbance and shift in spectra, interference by some analgesic drugs and some polar solvents and temperature effect. After optimization, Beer's law was obeyed in the range of 0.3-20 ?g ml -1 PC solution with a correlation coefficient of 0.9999 and detection limit of 0.1 ?g ml -1. The newly developed method was successfully applied for PC determination in some locally available tablets and urine samples. The proposed method is very useful for quick analysis of various types of solid and liquid samples containing PC.

Sirajuddin; Khaskheli, Abdul Rauf; Shah, Afzal; Bhanger, Muhammad Iqbal; Niaz, Abdul; Mahesar, Sarfaraz

2007-11-01

394

Synthesis and characterization of positively charged tPA as a prodrug using a heparin\\/protamine-based drug-delivery system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Positively charged peptides [(Arg)-Cys] were sucessfully linked to tissue-specific plasminogen activator (tPA) using cross-linking\\u000a agent N-succinimidyl 3-(2-pyridyldithio) propionate. Specific amidolytic activity of this tPA\\/(Arg)-Cys (termed modified tPA,\\u000a mtPA) was 3900 IU\\/?g as compared to 5800 IU\\/?g of the parent tPA. Both activation of plasminogen with mtPA (Km=2.7 mM?1) and tPA (Km=1.1 mM?1) in a purified system followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics. In

Jun F. Liang; Yong T. Li; Maureen E. Connell; Victor C. Yang

2000-01-01

395

Drug Reactions  

MedlinePLUS

... version Drug Reactions Drug Reactions What is an adverse drug reaction? Medicines can treat or prevent illness and ... medicines can cause problems. These problems are called adverse drug reactions. You should know what to do if ...

396

Drug Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... over-the-counter drug. The FDA evaluates the safety of a drug by looking at Side effects ... clinical trials The FDA also monitors a drug's safety after approval. For you, drug safety means buying ...

397

An Automatic Critical Care Urine Meter  

PubMed Central

Nowadays patients admitted to critical care units have most of their physiological parameters measured automatically by sophisticated commercial monitoring devices. More often than not, these devices supervise whether the values of the parameters they measure lie within a pre-established range, and issue warning of deviations from this range by triggering alarms. The automation of measuring and supervising tasks not only discharges the healthcare staff of a considerable workload but also avoids human errors in these repetitive and monotonous tasks. Arguably, the most relevant physiological parameter that is still measured and supervised manually by critical care unit staff is urine output (UO). In this paper we present a patent-pending device that provides continuous and accurate measurements of patient's UO. The device uses capacitive sensors to take continuous measurements of the height of the column of liquid accumulated in two chambers that make up a plastic container. The first chamber, where the urine inputs, has a small volume. Once it has been filled it overflows into a second bigger chamber. The first chamber provides accurate UO measures of patients whose UO has to be closely supervised, while the second one avoids the need for frequent interventions by the nursing staff to empty the container. PMID:23201988

Otero, Abraham; Fernández, Roemi; Apalkov, Andrey; Armada, Manuel

2012-01-01

398

THE ABSENCE FROM THE URINE OF PERNICIOUS ANEMIA PATIENTS OF A MOSQUITO GROWTH FACTOR PRESENT IN NORMAL URINE  

PubMed Central

Extracts prepared from the urine of normal persons or patients with aplastic anemia or leukemia contain a substance, possibly flavine or a flavine compound, which under suitable conditions of test enhances the growth of larvae of the mosquito, Aëdes aegypti. This substance is lacking, or is present in much smaller amount, in extracts from the urine of pernicious anemia patients showing symptoms of the disease. Extracts from the urine of the same patients after adequate treatment contain as much of the substance as normal urine extracts. PMID:19870733

Trager, W.; Miller, D. K.; Rhoads, C. P.

1938-01-01

399

Urine specimen detection of zolpidem use in patients with pain.  

PubMed

This study examined zolpidem and concurrent opioid, benzodiazepine, other central nervous system (CNS) depressants, and alcohol use. Urine specimens were analyzed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Specimens were tested for zolpidem (n = 71,919) and separated into a provider-reported medication list documenting (n = 5,257) or not documenting zolpidem use (n = 66,662). Zolpidem-positive specimens were further separated into reported and unreported use cohorts. The total number of zolpidem-positive specimens in the reported and unreported use cohorts was 3,391 and 3,190, respectively. Non-informed prescribers were 4.4% (3,190/71,919) among the general population and 48.5% (3,190/6,581) when only zolpidem users were considered. In the zolpidem user population, the most common concurrent opioids in both cohorts were hydrocodone and oxycodone. Alprazolam and clonazepam were higher in the unreported use cohort (P ? 0.05). The unreported use cohort also had a higher detection of zolpidem plus a benzodiazepine (49.7 vs. 46%; P ? 0.05), zolpidem plus an opioid and a benzodiazepine (40.8% vs. 37.4%; P ? 0.05) and zolpidem plus an opioid, a benzodiazepine, and an other CNS depressant (12.9 vs. 10.9%; P ? 0.05). Concurrent use of zolpidem, an opioid, a benzodiazepine and an other CNS depressant is prevalent in a pain patient population. PMID:24802157

Mann, Lindsey M; Atayee, Rabia S; Best, Brookie M; Morello, Candis M; Ma, Joseph D

2014-01-01

400

Mycoplasmas in the urine of HIV-1 infected men.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was determine the prevalence of Mycoplasma hominis, M. genitalium, M. fermentans, M. pirum, M. penetrans and Ureaplasma urealyticum in HIV-infected patients. Culture and PCR were used to detect six species of Mycoplasma in first-void urine of HIV-1 infected men. A total of 497 HIV/AIDS patients (age range 5-75 years, mean 37 years) were screened in the study. All presented positive for at least one kind of mycoplasma, especially U. urealyticum and M. hominis. Six mycoplasmas were significant in the homosexual contact and heterosexual contact groups. The distribution of M. hominis, M. penetrans, and M. pirum were significantly different in this four-transmission category. CD4+ cell count levels were lower in the AIDS-associated Mycoplasma-positive group than in the Mycoplasma-negative group (P<0.01). This study indicates that U. urealyticum, M. hominis and M. fermentans are prevalent in HIV-1-infected male patients. This may be an indication of whether mycoplasmas are co-factors in the progression of HIV disease. PMID:21791147

Jian-Ru, W; Bei, W; Hao, C; Jin-Shui, X; Xi-Ping, H

2012-06-01

401

Lateral-flow assay for rapid quantitative detection of clorprenaline residue in swine urine.  

PubMed

Clorprenaline (CLP), a ?2-adrenergic agonist, was first found in veterinary drugs for cold treatment in China in 2013. It is a potential new lean meat-boosting feed additive because it can promote animal muscular mass growth and decrease fat accumulation. A competitive colloidal gold-based lateral flow immunoassay system with a portable strip reader was successfully developed for rapid quantitative detection of CLP residue in swine urine. The detection system was optimized so that the detection can be completed within 9 min with a limit of detection of 0.15 ?g · liter(-1). The assay exhibited good linear range from 3.0 to 20.0 ?g · liter(-1), with reliable correlation of 0.9970 and with no obvious cross-reaction with five other ?2-agonist compounds. Twenty spiked swine urine samples were tested by lateral flow immunoassay and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to confirm the accuracy of the system. Results show good correlation between the two methods. This method is rapid, sensitive, specific, and convenient. It can be applied in the field for on-site detection of CLP in urine samples. PMID:25285506

Peng, Tao; Zhang, Fu S; Yang, Wan C; Li, Dong X; Chen, Yuan; Xiong, Yong H; Wei, Hua; Lai, Wei H

2014-10-01

402

[The detection of amphetamines in urine samples using immunochromatographic test strips].  

PubMed

This study has demonstrated the possibility of using immunochromatographic test strips for the reliable qualitative detection of amphetamine and methamphetamine in the urine samples at a cut-off level of 300 ng/ml. The test strips obtained from different manufactures are shown to be slightly different in terms of specificity as appears from the frequency of cross-reactions with various pharmaceutical products and narcotic drugs. Also, the use of the immunochromatographic strips makes it possible to determine amphetamine in a range of concentrations from 100 to 1000 ng/ml by measuring the intensity of test-line colour with the help of a TotalLab TL120 programmer and special scanning programs. The analysis for amphetamine using the NrcoStop (Osiris S) immunochromatographic strips failed to confirm the presence of this substance in the urine samples from the subjects who had drunk 0.5 l of energy drinks, such as Adrenaline RUSH, Red Bull, and Burn. It means that the presence of amphetamine in the urine should not be attributed to the consumption of such drinks. PMID:23008958

Shanin, I A; Khan, O Iu; Petukhov, A E; Smirnov, A V; Eremin, S A

2012-01-01

403

Metabolic alkalosis from unsuspected ingestion: use of urine pH and anion gap.  

PubMed

Underlying causes of metabolic alkalosis may be evident from history, evaluation of effective circulatory volume, and measurement of urine chloride concentration. However, identification of causes may be difficult for certain conditions associated with clandestine behaviors, such as surreptitious vomiting, use of drugs or herbal supplements with mineralocorticoid activity, abuse of laxatives or diuretics, and long-term use of alkalis. In these circumstances, clinicians often are bewildered by unexplained metabolic alkalosis from an incomplete history or persistent deception by the patient, leading to misdiagnosis and poor outcome. We present a case of severe metabolic alkalosis and hypokalemia with a borderline urine chloride concentration in an alcoholic patient treated with a thiazide. The cause of the patient's metabolic alkalosis eventually was linked to surreptitious ingestion of baking soda. This case highlights the necessity of a high index of suspicion for the diverse clandestine behaviors that can cause metabolic alkalosis and the usefulness of urine pH and anion gap in its differential diagnosis. PMID:22265393

Yi, Joo-Hark; Han, Sang-Woong; Song, June-Seok; Kim, Ho-Jung

2012-04-01

404

Detection of PPAR? agonists GW1516 and GW0742 and their metabolites in human urine.  

PubMed

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR?) agonists are the drug candidates with potential performance-enhancing properties, and therefore their illegitimate use in sports should be controlled. To simulate the metabolism of PPAR? agonist GW0742, in vitro reactions were performed which demonstrated that the main metabolic pathway is oxidation of the acyclic divalent sulfur to give the respective sulfoxide and sulfone. After being characterized by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), these metabolites were evaluated in urine samples collected after a controlled excretion study. For comparative purposes, GW1516 excretion study was also performed. It has been shown that GW1516 and GW0742 are best monitored as the sulfone metabolites which are detectable in urine using LC-MS/MS based procedure up to 40 and 20?days after a single oral dose of 15?mg each, respectively. The unmetabolized compounds are measurable only for a short period of time and at low ng/ml level. The sulfoxide-to-sulfone ratio for both GW1516 and GW0742 changed irregularly in the range of 1:3 to 1:15 depending on time elapsed after administration with a tendency of increasing the ratio with time. The other important finding was that the abundance of GW0742 and its metabolites in urine is about ten times lower than in case of GW1516. PMID:22977012

Sobolevsky, Tim; Dikunets, Marina; Sukhanova, Irina; Virus, Edward; Rodchenkov, Grigory

2012-10-01

405

Solid-phase extraction and nanoflow liquid chromatography-nanoelectrospray ionization mass spectrometry for improved global urine metabolomics.  

PubMed

Global urine metabolomics is a rapidly expanding field with the potential to discover biomarkers of disease and exposure. To date, most methods focus on rapid sample preparation, using neat or diluted urine, together with high-throughput analyses, and are poorly suited for detection of low abundance metabolites present in urine samples. In this study, novel methods have been developed to analyze urine by splitless nanoflowUHPLC-nanoESI-TOFMS (nUHPLC-nESI-TOFMS) after preconcentration by solid-phase extraction (SPE), thus enabling significant improvements in analytical sensitivity and coverage of the urinary metabolome. In initial work, urine samples were extracted by both anion and cation exchange mixed-mode polymeric SPE cartridges and qualitatively compared with those using conventional sample preparations using UHPLC-ESI-TOFMS analyses. Compared with neat or diluted urine samples, SPE concentration of urine resulted in detection of additional metabolites including bile acids, lipids, pharmaceuticals, and markers of lifestyle, with little loss of other components of the metabolome. Analyses of SPE preparations by nUHPLC-nESI-TOFMS revealed excellent retention time repeatability with <1% coefficient of variation (CV) for 96% of analyzed peaks. The repeatability of the MS response was <30% CV for >79% of MS features in both negative and positive nESI modes. Compared with UHPLC-ESI-TOFMS, analysis by the nanoplatform enabled detection of signaling molecules important in disease processes including sex steroids, glucocorticoids, eicosanoids, and neurotransmitter metabolites. The significant improvement in sensitivity arising from use of splitless nUHPLC-nESI-TOFMS analyses of SPE-concentrated samples represents a step change in coverage of the urinary metabolome, thereby increasing the potential for biomarker discovery. PMID:25521704

Chetwynd, Andrew J; Abdul-Sada, Alaa; Hill, Elizabeth M

2015-01-20

406

Aquaporin-1 Protein Levels Elevated in Fresh Urine of Renal Cell Carcinoma Patients: Potential Use for Screening and Classification of Incidental Renal Lesions  

PubMed Central

Introduction and Objectives. There are over 65,000 new cases of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) each year, yet there is no effective clinical screening test for RCC. A single report claimed no overlap between urine levels of aquaporin-1 (AQP1) in patients with and without RCC (Mayo Clin Proc. 85:413, 2010). Here, we used archived and fresh RCC patient urine to validate this report. Methods. Archived RCC, fresh prenephrectomy RCC, and non-RCC negative control urines were processed for Western blot analysis. Urinary creatinine concentrations were quantified by the Jaffe reaction (Nephron 16:31, 1976). Precipitated protein was dissolved in 1x SDS for a final concentration of 2??g/µL creatinine. Results. Negative control and archived RCC patient urine failed to show any AQP1 protein by Western blot analysis. Fresh RCC patient urine is robustly positive for AQP1. There was no signal overlap between fresh RCC and negative control, making differentiation straightforward. Conclusions. Our data confirms that fresh urine of patients with RCC contains easily detectable AQP1 protein. However, archival specimens showed an absence of detectable AQP1 indistinguishable from negative control. These findings suggest that a clinically applicable diagnostic test for AQP1 in fresh urine may be useful for detecting RCC. PMID:24803718

Sreedharan, Shilpa; Petros, John A.; Master, Viraj A.; Ogan, Kenneth; Pattaras, John G.; Roberts, David L.; Lian, Fei; Arnold, Rebecca S.

2014-01-01

407

Determination of 5-hydroxy-N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone and 2-hydroxy-N-methylsuccinimide in human plasma and urine using liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A method for simultaneous determination of 5-hydroxy-N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (5-HNMP) and 2-hydroxy-N-methylsuccinimide (2-HMSI) was developed. These compounds are metabolites from N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP), a powerful and widely used organic solvent. 5-HNMP and 2-HMSI were purified from plasma and urine by solid-phase extraction using Isolute ENV+ columns, and analysed by liquid chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer fitted with an atmospheric pressure turbo ion spray ionisation interface in the positive ion mode. The method was validated for plasma and urine concentrations from 0.12 to 25 microg/ml. The recoveries for 5-HNMP and 2-HMSI in plasma were 99 and 98%, respectively, and in urine 111 and 106%, respectively. For 5-HNMP and 2-HMSI, the within-day precision in plasma was 1-4 and 3-6%, respectively, and in urine 2-12 and 3-10%, respectively. The corresponding data for the between-day precision was 5 and 3-6%, respectively, and 4-6 and 7-8%, respectively. The detection limit for 5-HNMP was 4 ng/ml in plasma and 120 ng/ml in urine. For 2-HMSI, it was 5 ng/ml in plasma and 85 ng/ml in urine. The method is applicable for analysis of plasma and urine samples from workers exposed to NMP. PMID:11585124

Carnerup, M A; Akesson, B; Jönsson, B A

2001-09-15

408

Anti-JCV antibodies detection and JCV DNA levels in PBMC, serum and urine in a cohort of Spanish Multiple Sclerosis patients treated with natalizumab.  

PubMed

One of the most effective multiple sclerosis (MS) treatment is natalizumab. Nevertheless, it has been associated with an increased risk of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) caused by the JC virus (JCV). Our main objective was to assess the utility of testing JCV-DNA, apart from anti-JCV antibodies, to determine which natalizumab-treated MS patients has been previously in contact with the virus. For this purpose, 138 MS natalizumab/non-natalizumab treated patients participated in several studies. Cross-sectional study (CS): association of several epidemiological variables with anti-JCV antibodies and JCV-DNA levels in PBMC/serum/urine. First longitudinal study (A): evaluation of JCV-DNA prevalence in urine throughout the treatment. Second longitudinal study (B): simultaneous assessment of antibodies and viral DNA levels in PBMC/serum/urine at two time points. CS: The seropositivity rate for anti-JCV antibodies (62.3 %) and JCV prevalence in urine (59.4 %) were similar; although 26 % of our population was positive only using one of the two techniques. A: The viral prevalence in urine seemed to increase between the baseline visit and the others (Baseline-Visit/V18months, p?=?0.006). B: Our rate of positive antibody seroconversion was 36 %. Nearly all patients with detectable JCV-DNA levels in PBMC excreted the virus intermittently in urine; while our PML case, positive in PBMC and serum samples 2 month before the PML, excreted JCV permanently. In conclusion, the determination of JCV DNA levels in urine could be complementary to anti-JCV antibodies for identifying MS patients who has been infected by the JCV. Further research would be necessary to understand the different JCV excretion profiles in urine. PMID:23979860

Dominguez-Mozo, Maria Inmaculada; Garcia-Montojo, Marta; De Las Heras, Virginia; Garcia-Martinez, Angel; Arias-Leal, Ana María; Casanova, Ignacio; Arroyo, Rafael; Alvarez-Lafuente, Roberto

2013-12-01

409

Identification of volatile components of bobcat ( Lynx rufus ) urine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bobcat (Lynx rufus) urine reduces scent-marking activity of woodchucks (Marmota monax) and feeding activity of snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus) and deer (Odocoileus virginianus, O. hemionus). In order to identify the semiochemicals responsible for these behavior modifications, a dichloromethane extract of the bobcat urine was analyzed by GC-MS. Among the known compounds identified in the extract are phenol, indole, dimethyl sulfone,

M. J. I. Mattina; J. J. Pignatello; R. K. Swihart

1991-01-01

410

Clinical Significance of Urine Heparanase in Bladder Cancer Progression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heparanase is an endo-?-glucuronidase capable of cleaving heparan sulfate (HS), an activity implicated in tumor metastasis. Heparanase expression is upregulated in primary human tumors, correlating with reduced post oper- ative survival and elevated microvessel density. An ELISA method was used to quantify heparanase in urine from 282 individuals. Urine was collected from healthy volunteers (n = 41), patients diagnosed with

Itay Shafat; Dov Pode; Tamar Peretz; Neta Ilan; Israel Vlodavsky; Benjamin Nisman

2008-01-01

411

NEW COLUMN SEPARATION METHOD FOR EMERGENCY URINE SAMPLES  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Site Environmental Bioassay Lab participated in the 2007 NRIP Emergency Response program administered by the National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) in May, 2007. A new rapid column separation method was applied directly to the NRIP 2007 emergency urine samples, with only minimal sample preparation to reduce preparation time. Calcium phosphate precipitation, previously used to pre-concentrate actinides and Sr-90 in NRIP 2006 urine and water samples, was not used for the NRIP 2007 urine samples. Instead, the raw urine was acidified and passed directly through the stacked resin columns (TEVA+TRU+SR Resins) to separate the actinides and strontium from the NRIP urine samples more quickly. This improvement reduced sample preparation time for the NRIP 2007 emergency urine analyses significantly. This approach works well for small volume urine samples expected during an emergency response event. Based on initial feedback from NIST, the SRS Environmental Bioassay Lab had the most rapid analysis times for actinides and strontium-90 analyses for NRIP 2007 urine samples.

Maxwell, S; Brian Culligan, B

2007-08-28

412

9 CFR 311.37 - Odors, foreign and urine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Odors, foreign and urine. 311.37 Section...ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.37 Odors, foreign and urine. (a) Carcasses which give off a pronounced odor of medicinal, chemical, or other...

2010-01-01