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1

Urine drug screen  

MedlinePLUS

... the container from the urine stream. Give the container to the health care provider or assistant. Wash your hands again with soap and water. The sample is then taken to the laboratory for evaluation.

2

Urine Adulteration in Drug Testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drug abusers may attempt to conceal their drug intake by interfering with the clinical specimens sent to the laboratory for toxicology screening. This report describes a 27-year-old drug abuser who repeatedly submitted urine samples with abnormally low creatinine concentrations in order to invalidate drug screening. Adulteration by addition of ammonia-containing cleanser was sus- pected and eventually admitted by the patient.

CWK Lam

2005-01-01

3

Urine Testing for Drugs of Abuse,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The monograph provides information that will assist those involved in the planning or implementation of drug testing programs in making informed choices: information such as what urine screening can and cannot do, how it fits into an overall drug program,...

R. L. Hawks C. N. Chiang

1986-01-01

4

Amphetamine Positive Urine Toxicology Screen Secondary to Atomoxetine  

PubMed Central

The aim of this paper is to report the first case of atomoxetine leading to false-positive urine drug screen. An otherwise healthy 27-year-old female with a history of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) treated with atomoxetine had an acute onset tonic-clonic seizure. On arrival to the hospital, a urine toxicological drug screen with immunochemical cloned enzyme donor immunoassay (CEDIA) was performed. Results were positive for amphetamines; however, the presence of these substances could not be confirmed with urine gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). She denied any illicit drug use, herbal medications, or supplements, and her other prescription medications have not been previously known to cause a false-positive result for amphetamines. While stimulant treatments for ADHD could certainly result in a positive result on urine screen for amphetamines, there have been no reports of false-positive results for amphetamines secondary to patients using atomoxetine. We implicate atomoxetine, and/or its metabolites, as a compound or compounds which may interfere with urine drug immunoassays leading to false-positive results for amphetamines CEDIA assays.

Fenderson, Joshua L.; Stratton, Amy N.; Domingo, Jennifer S.; Matthews, Gerald O.; Tan, Christopher D.

2013-01-01

5

Urine drug screening in the medical setting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The term drug screen is a misnomer since it implies screening for all drugs, which is not possible. Current practice is to limit the testing to the examination of serum for several drugs such as ethanol, acetaminophen, salicylate, and of urine for several specific drugs or classes of drugs. In the emergency setting the screen should be performed in

Catherine A Hammett-Stabler; Amadeo J Pesce; Donald J Cannon

2002-01-01

6

Urine Drug Screening of Adolescents on Request of Parents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The availability of urine screening has resulted in parents seeking this procedure when they suspect their adolescent abuses drugs. To systematically evaluate this practice, 100 consecutive adolescents were screened by use of a sensitive quantiative method which can detect low levels of drug use. A total of 43% of the adolescents tested positive for one or more drugs of abuse,

FOREST TENNANT

1994-01-01

7

Adolescents and Drug Abuse: Clinical Use of Urine Drug Screening  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urine screening for clinical diagnostic purposes is used to answer the question of whether adolescents are continuing drug abuse. The purpose of this study is to examine the use of urine screening as a procedure to assess and monitor adolescents in an outpatient program who are suspected of continued drag abuse. To systematically evaluate the procedure, 296 adolescent urine screens

William H. James; David D. Moore

1998-01-01

8

Shortcomings of Urine-Preferred Drug Screening on Post-Mortem Specimens  

Microsoft Academic Search

In counties with limited budgets, in order to save money on toxicology work, the request often comes from local medical examiners that screening for drugs on decedents be performed initially on urine and, if positive, to send blood for confirmation; negative urine results are not further evaluated. A study of known urine and blood drug screens was performed to evaluate

Henry J. Carson; Mary H. Dudley; Steven W. Fleming; Donald J. Linder

2011-01-01

9

A comparison of meconium, maternal urine and neonatal urine for detection of maternal drug use during pregnancy.  

PubMed

A large scale drug screening study was done to determine the prevalence of drug use in a large metropolitan, obstetric population. Meconium and first voided urine, as well as maternal urine were collected from 423 consecutive deliveries. Urine samples and methanolic extracts of meconium were initially screened by Enzyme Multiplied Immunoassay Technique (EMIT) and then confirmed by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS). Analysis of cocaine metabolite as benzoylecogonine, cannabinoid as carboxy-THC, codeine, morphine and methadone were included in the study. The positive rate for benzoylecgonine was virtually identical for meconium, maternal urine and neonatal urine (12%). Analysis of meconium was found to be more reliable than analysis of maternal or neonatal urine for the detection of benzoylecgonine. Meconium did not appear to offer an advantage over maternal or neonatal urine for detection of cannabinoid, codeine, morphine, or methadone. PMID:8113697

Wingert, W E; Feldman, M S; Kim, M H; Noble, L; Hand, I; Yoon, J J

1994-01-01

10

Urine drug testing in pain medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of urine drug testing (UDT) has increased over recent years. UDT results have traditionally been used in legal proceedings under supervision of a medical review officer (MRO). In this context, testing has been required by statute or regulation and so is typically not in the “donor's” interest. Physicians, however, can use UDT to assist in monitoring their patient's

Howard A Heit; Douglas L Gourlay

2004-01-01

11

Research Note: The Security of Urine Drug Testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied 23 different commercial products for collecting, storing, securing, and mailing urine samples analyzed for illicit drug use. Despite their tamper-indicating features, all of these products can be quickly and easily tampered with, either before or after sample collection, while leaving little or (usually) no evidence to be detected. Either false-positive or false-negative drug test results could then occur.

Roger G. Johnston; Eric C. Michaud; Jon S. Warner

2009-01-01

12

False-positive urine phencyclidine immunoassay screen result caused by interference by tramadol and its metabolites.  

PubMed

Phencyclidine is one of the drugs of abuse included in qualitative urine drug screens that are frequently ordered in the emergency department despite concerns about specificity and clinical utility. Many drugs have been described to cause false-positive results for phencyclidine. We present 2 cases of false-positive phencyclidine qualitative urine drug screen results in patients with seizures from tramadol misuse or abuse. The involvement of tramadol and its active metabolite, N-desmethyltramadol, was confirmed by in vitro testing. These cases illustrate that tramadol and its metabolites can trigger a false-positive phencyclidine urine drug screen result in nonfatal cases and highlight the lack of specificity of the phencyclidine qualitative urine drug screen. PMID:21924518

Ly, Binh T; Thornton, Stephen L; Buono, Colleen; Stone, Judith A; Wu, Alan H B

2011-09-15

13

Urine Labelling Marker System for Drug Testing Improves Patient Compliance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Urine drug testing plays an important role in substance abuse treatments. When strictly controlled, as it often is, urine sampling creates a humiliating situation and ties up resources. A new sample labelling method has been developed to make supervision unnecessary. This innovation is achieved by labelling the urine with polyethylene glycols. In this study, 57 patients who required urine

Kaarlo Simojoki; Hannu Alho

14

Quantitative Urine Drug Monitoring in Methadone Programs: Potential Clinical Uses  

Microsoft Academic Search

An on-site clinical laboratory in a methadone program can provide semiquantitative urine drug monitoring by using fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA) technology. This report documents a wide range of urine drug levels from threshold to near 2,000,000 ng\\/ml in this patient population, suggesting how laboratory measures can assist in assessing the severity of addiction. Urine drug-level data are reported for drugs

John McCarthy

1994-01-01

15

Ethical considerations in urine drug testing.  

PubMed

Recent passage of a House Bill in the state of Washington led to a commentary on whether mandates for urine drug testing of pain patients represented a breach of the Fourth and Fourteenth Amendment rights of patients. Issues over true consent to such tests and potential view of warrantless searches were discussed. The authors address these concerns in a broader context of risk management and stratification efforts, along with discussion about the need for a tailored approach in this arena and consideration of cost burden for such tests. Finally, the argument is made that social justice issues need to be considered (along with issues of autonomy, beneficence, and nonmaleficence). PMID:21810007

Passik, Steven D; Kirsh, Kenneth L

2011-08-02

16

Urine drug testing of chronic pain patients: licit and illicit drug patterns.  

PubMed

Chronic pain patients are frequently maintained on one or more powerful opioid medications in combination with other psychoactive medications. Urine tests provide objective information regarding patient compliance status. Little information is available on testing this unique population. The goal of this study was to characterize drug disposition patterns in urine specimens collected from a large population of pain patients. Confirmation data for 10,922 positive specimens were collated into 11 drug Classes. The number of drug/metabolites tested (#) and number of confirmed positive specimens were as follows: amphetamines (7), 160; barbiturates (5), 308; benzodiazepines (6), 2397; cannabinoids (1), 967; carisoprodol (2), 611; cocaine (1), 310; fentanyl (1), 458; meperidine (2), 58; methadone (2), 1209; opiates (7), 8996; and propoxyphene (2), 385. Subdivision into 19 distinct drug Groups allowed characterization of drug use patterns. Of the 10,922 positive specimens, 15,859 results were reported as positive in various drug Classes, and 27,197 drug/metabolites were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The frequency of illicit drug use (cannabis, cocaine, ecstasy) was 10.8%. Being the first study of this type, these data present a large array of information on licit and illicit drug use, drug detection frequencies, drug/metabolite patterns, and multi-drug use combinations in pain patients. PMID:19007501

Cone, Edward J; Caplan, Yale H; Black, David L; Robert, Timothy; Moser, Frank

2008-10-01

17

Cocaine metabolite (benzoylecgonine) in hair and urine of drug users.  

PubMed

Two methods of drug detection, urinalysis and hair analysis, were compared with respect to the efficiency of identification of drug use in a population of men living on the Arizona-Mexico border. The standard curve of cannabinoids in urine was linear to 20 ng/mL. The GC/MS levels for all cannabinoids combined in urine were very similar to that obtained by radioimmunoassay (RIA), 91% concordance. Similar results were obtained from samples analyzed dually for the cocaine metabolite benzoylecgonine (BE) after spiking. As determined by RIA of urine, 74% of the subjects were positive for cannabinoids. The majority were in the range of 100-1000 ng/mg creatinine. The pattern of excretion of THC metabolites with respect to the verbally reported time of first use was fairly normal, with the peak rate of elimination 13-24 hours following the last reported use. Washed hair samples were extracted by overnight acid hydrolysis. Urine samples and neutralized hair extracts were analyzed for cocaine and BE by RIA. Of the hair samples, 55% contained cocaine/BE, as compared with only 4.3% of the urine samples. Most hair samples contained cocaine/BE in the range of 25-100 ng/sample (100 mg hair). All hair samples testing negative for cocaine/BE by RIA also tested negative by GC/MS, and four samples containing the highest amounts of cocaine and BE by RIA were similarly found to contain the highest amounts by GC/MS. Hair analysis, therefore, gives a wider window of detection of drug use than does urinalysis and shows merit in the confirmation of cocaine use in small clinical research studies. PMID:8336486

Martinez, F; Poet, T S; Pillai, R; Erickson, J; Estrada, A L; Watson, R R

18

Clinical evaluation and use of urine screening for drug abuse.  

PubMed Central

Urine drug screening is indicated to evaluate patients who show mental status or behavioral changes and to monitor the abstinence of drug abusers. The appropriate timing for collecting urine specimens may vary depending on the suspected drug of abuse and on laboratory factors. Laboratories use a variety of techniques to do urine screens, and these must be understood by clinicians ordering the screens to interpret results correctly. In treating drug-abusing patients, clinicians must apply structured reinforcement in conjunction with urine screen results to aid patients in achieving abstinence.

Saxon, A J; Calsyn, D A; Haver, V M; Delaney, C J

1988-01-01

19

Immunoassays for drug screening in urine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Immunoassays are presently used worldwide for the rapid screening of drugs. Despite the fact that they are a highly valuable\\u000a tool for the testing of legal and illicit drugs, there is a real risk of false-positive and false-negative findings and many\\u000a pitfalls must be taken into account when these tests are used in an uncritical manner and without valid confirmation

Harald Schütz; Alexandre Paine; Freidoon Erdmann; Günter Weiler; Marcel A. Verhoff

2006-01-01

20

49 CFR 40.31 - Who may collect urine specimens for DOT drug testing?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Who may collect urine specimens for DOT drug testing? 40.31 Section...31 Who may collect urine specimens for DOT drug testing? (a) Collectors...the employee with a urine specimen, drug testing result, or...

2009-10-01

21

49 CFR 40.31 - Who may collect urine specimens for DOT drug testing?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Who may collect urine specimens for DOT drug testing? 40.31 Section...31 Who may collect urine specimens for DOT drug testing? (a) Collectors...the employee with a urine specimen, drug testing result, or...

2010-10-01

22

49 CFR 40.31 - Who may collect urine specimens for DOT drug testing?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Who may collect urine specimens for DOT drug testing? 40.31 Section 40.31...PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Urine Collection...Who may collect urine specimens for DOT drug testing? (a) Collectors...

2011-10-01

23

49 CFR 40.31 - Who may collect urine specimens for DOT drug testing?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Who may collect urine specimens for DOT drug testing? 40.31 Section 40.31...PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Urine Collection...Who may collect urine specimens for DOT drug testing? (a) Collectors...

2012-10-01

24

Driving under the influence of drugs — evaluation of analytical data of drugs in oral fluid, serum and urine, and correlation with impairment symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was performed to acquire urine, serum and oral fluid samples in cases of suspected driving under the influence of drugs of abuse. Oral fluid was collected using a novel sampling\\/testing device (Dräger DrugTest® System). The aim of the study was to evaluate oral fluid and urine as a predictor of blood samples positive for drugs and impairment symptoms.

Stefan W. Toennes; Gerold F. Kauert; Stefan Steinmeyer; Manfred R. Moeller

2005-01-01

25

Phencyclidine false positive induced by lamotrigine (Lamictal(R)) on a rapid urine toxicology screen  

PubMed Central

Background This report describes two cases with unexplained positive results for phencyclidine (PCP). Aims This case will correlate lamotrigine (Lamictal®) use with false-positive results for PCP on a rapid urine toxicology screen. Methods Case 1: A 62-year-old male arrived to the emergency department in extreme psychosis. All positive results on the urine drug screen could be accounted for except PCP. A comprehensive drug screen was performed to confirm PCP use, but returned negative. PCP was ruled out as the causative agent. The reason for the PCP false positive remained unknown. Case 2: A 49-year-old female presented to the ED with a history of seizures and depression. Despite positive PCP results on a rapid urine drug screen, PCP use was ruled out due to patient presentation and comprehensive history. Results The differential diagnosis in case 1 included PCP abuse until PCP was ruled out by a comprehensive drug screen. A literature search failed to explain a reason for false-positive results. The patient in case 2 was not psychotic, but returned a positive urinalysis result for PCP. Case 2’s presentation combined with a comprehensive history at the facility ruled out PCP use. Both patients were taking the anti-seizure medication lamotrigine with nothing else in common. Conclusion Lamotrigine has the potential to cause false-positive results for PCP on the Bio-Rad TOX/See urine toxicology screen.

Peele, James; McCoy, Stacey L.; Elias, Brad

2010-01-01

26

Phencyclidine false positive induced by lamotrigine (Lamictal®) on a rapid urine toxicology screen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  This report describes two cases with unexplained positive results for phencyclidine (PCP).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Aims  This case will correlate lamotrigine (Lamictal®) use with false-positive results for PCP on a rapid urine toxicology screen.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  \\u000a Case 1: A 62-year-old male arrived to the emergency department in extreme psychosis. All positive results on the urine drug screen\\u000a could be accounted for except PCP. A comprehensive

Matthew J. Geraci; James Peele; Stacey L. McCoy; Brad Elias

2010-01-01

27

Urine nandrolone metabolites: false positive doping test?  

PubMed

The aim of this review is to analyse the studies on nandrolone metabolism to determine if it is possible for an athlete to test positive for nandrolone without having ingested or injected nandrolone. PMID:12351328

Kohler, R M N; Lambert, M I

2002-10-01

28

The trazodone metabolite meta-chlorophenylpiperazine can cause false-positive urine amphetamine immunoassay results.  

PubMed

Amphetamines and methamphetamines are part of an important class of drugs included in most urine drugs of abuse screening panels, and a common assay to detect these drugs is the Amphetamines II immunoassay (Roche Diagnostics). To demonstrate that meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (m-CPP), a trazodone metabolite, cross-reacts in the Amphetamines II assay, we tested reference standards of m-CPP at various concentrations (200 to 20,000 g/L). We also tested real patient urine samples containing m-CPP (detected and quantified by HPLC) with no detectable amphetamine, methamphetamine, or MDMA (demonstrated by GC MS). In both the m-CPP standards and the patient urine samples, we found a strong association between m-CPP concentration and Amphetamines II immunoreactivity (r = 0.990 for the urine samples). Further, we found that patients taking trazodone can produce urine with sufficient m-CPP to result in false-positive Amphetamines II results. At our institution, false-positive amphetamine results occur not infrequently in patients taking trazodone with at least 8 trazodone-associated false-positive results during a single 26-day period. Laboratories should remain cognizant of this interference when interpreting results of this assay. PMID:21740694

Baron, Jason M; Griggs, David A; Nixon, Andrea L; Long, William H; Flood, James G

2011-07-01

29

An overview of the use of urine, hair, sweat and saliva to detect drug use.  

PubMed

This paper provides a brief overview of qualitative drug testing procedures using urine, hair, saliva and sweat specimens. Issues related to collection, analysis and interpretation of each specimen as well as their advantages and disadvantages are discussed. The biological detection of drug use involves a screening test which, if positive, is followed by a confirmatory test. Urine is the most widely used specimen in the detection of drugs. Urinalysis offers an intermediate window of detection (1-3 days). Hair analysis offers the largest window of detection (7-100+ days). Saliva analysis may be useful in determining very recent drug use (1-36 hours). The analysis of sweat may be useful for continuous monitoring of drug use (1-14 days). Drug testing has become a fast, convenient process with the development of point-of-collection drug testing devices. PMID:15370028

Dolan, Kate; Rouen, David; Kimber, Jo

2004-06-01

30

Niacin Toxicity Resulting from Urine Drug Test Evasion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Niacin, a well-established agent for treating dyslipidemia, has been promoted on the Internet as a method for passing urine drug screening, although there are no data to support its use for this purpose. In a handful of cases, this practice has resulted in serious niacin toxicity. Objectives: The aim of this article is to describe a unique clinical presentation

Anne M. Daul; Michael C. Beuhler

2011-01-01

31

Procedure for the Rapid Analysis of Large Numers of Urine Samples for Drugs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The reported widespread use of narcotics and dangerous drugs has resulted in a demand for urine testing. The following procedure was developed for the rapid analysis of large numbers of urine samples for low concentrations of narcotics and dangerous drugs...

A. M. Dominguez L. R. Goldbaum P. Santinga

1972-01-01

32

Experience with urine drug testing by the Correctional Service of Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Correctional Service of Canada implemented a urine drug-screening program over 10 years ago. The objective of this report is to describe the program and drug test results in this program for 1999. Offenders in Canadian federal correctional institutions and those living in the community on conditional release were subject to urine drug testing. Urine specimens were collected at correctional

A. D. Fraser; J. Zamecnik; J. Keravel; L. McGrath; J. Wells

2001-01-01

33

Novel spot tests for detecting the presence of zinc sulfate in urine, a newly introduced urinary adulterant to invalidate drugs of abuse testing.  

PubMed

Objectives: To find a suitable method for detecting zinc sulfate in adulterated urine. Methods: Two rapid spot tests to detect the presence of zinc sulfate in urine were developed. Results: Addition of 3 to 4 drops of 1N sodium hydroxide solution to approximately 1 mL of urine containing zinc sulfate led to the formation of a white precipitate, which was soluble in excess sodium hydroxide. In the second spot test, addition of 3 to 4 drops of 1% sodium chromate solution to 1 mL of urine containing zinc sulfate followed by the addition of 4 to 5 drops of 1N sodium hydroxide led to formation of a yellow precipitate (zinc chromate). Detection limit of these visual spot tests was 10 mg/mL of zinc sulfate in urine. Twenty drug-free urine specimens and urine containing high amounts of sugar or reducing substances were tested with no false-positive spot test results observed. However, if lead is present in high amounts in urine, it may cause false-positive spot test results. When aliquots of urine controls for drugs of abuse testing were supplemented with different amounts of zinc sulfate, false-negative drug test results were observed except for amphetamine. Zinc sulfate also falsely reduced measured urine alcohol level in urine. Conclusions: Zinc sulfate can invalidate urine drug and alcohol testing but can be detected using the novel spot tests developed. PMID:24045556

Welsh, Kerry J; Dierksen, Jennifer E; Actor, Jeffrey K; Dasgupta, Amitava

2013-10-01

34

Is this urine really negative? A systematic review of tampering methods in urine drug screening and testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adulterants and urine substitutes that are designed to defeat drug tests are readily available and can be easily researched or purchased over the Internet. Utilizing Google, PsychInfo, and Medline, we searched the Internet and psychiatric and medical literature to identify a comprehensive list of products, compounds, and methods of urine tampering, as well as data on their efficacy. These products,

William B. Jaffee; Elisa Trucco; Sharon Levy; Roger D. Weiss

2007-01-01

35

Clinical Characteristics of Under-Reporters on Urine Drug Screens in a Cocaine Treatment Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

To explore the concordance between urine drug screen (UDS) results and self-report of cocaine use, results in a pharmacologic treatment trial for cocaine dependence were evaluated. Subjects with at least two occurrences ofa positive UDS for cocaine were characterized as either an under-reporter (UR, nˆ43) or a truthful reporter (TR, nˆ32). Interestingly, URsattended morestudysessionsand weremorelikelyto completethestudy. Significant differences were found

Hugh Myrick; Scott Henderson; Bonnie Dansky; Christine Pelic; Kathleen T. Brady

36

Efavirenz does not cause false-positive urine cannabis test in HIV-infected patients on Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Therapy.  

PubMed

Efavirenz is a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor used in combination with other drugs for the treatment of patients with HIV infection. Efavirenz has been reported to cause a positive urine cannabis test reaction which may create problems between HIV-infected patients on Efavirenz and law enforcement agencies. Doctors are at loss whether to issue documents certifying the potential false positive urine cannabis test with Efavirenz to patients. We investigated if the urine of HIV-infected patients on Efavirenz caused a positive urine cannabis test using the AxSYM Cannabinoids Assay®. Urine samples from 51 eligible patients on Efavirenz were tested for cannabis. All tested negative except for one who had used cannabis the day before. Efavirenz does not cause false positive urine cannabis test with the AxSYM Cannabinoids Assay®. Certification documents from doctors are therefore unnecessary. PMID:23749016

Koh, K C; Lee, W Y; Eh, Z W; Nor Julaika, I; Tee, P S; Azizon, O; Thilageswary, M

2013-06-01

37

Trace Contamination of Over-the-Counter Androstenedione and Positive Urine Test Results for a Nandrolone Metabolite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Context Several anabolic steroids are sold over-the-counter (OTC) in the United States, and their production is not regulated by the US Food and Drug Administration. Re- ports have suggested that use of these supplements can cause positive urine test re- sults for metabolites of the prohibited steroid nandrolone.

Don H. Catlin; Benjamin Z. Leder; Brian Ahrens; Borislav Starcevic; Caroline K. Hatton; Gary A. Green; Joel S. Finkelstein

2000-01-01

38

Drug Education: A Position Paper  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|New York State's drug education Position Paper clearly demonstrates a commitment to the youth of the State and certainly one that other states might consider for its youth. Many aspects of the program are presented in this paper which have implications for teachers, school administrators, and community leaders. (Author)|

Journal of Drug Education, 1971

1971-01-01

39

A Comparison of Self-Reported Drug Use With a Urine Drug Screen in a Working Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study summarizes information on 162 workers who completed a urine screen and self-report concerning drug use. It is the first to compare self-report of drug use in the workplace with a urine screen in which individual participant (nonaggregate) data were used. The findings indicate that agreement between the 2 methods of drug detection, although statistically significant, is at best

Rodabe Bharucha-Reid; Daisy McCann; M. Anthony Schork; Betsy Foxman; Alan Bass; Winifred Fraser; Sandra Cook; Rachel Kaufman

1995-01-01

40

Review: Rational Use and Interpretation of Urine Drug Testing in Chronic Opioid Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urine drug testing (UDT) has become an essential feature of pain management, as physicians seek to verify adherence to prescribed opioid regimens and to detect the use of illicit or unauthorized licit drugs. Results of urine drug tests have important consequences in regard to therapeutic decisions and the trust between physician and patient. However, reliance on UDT to confirm adherence

Gary M. Reisfield; Elaine Salazar; Roger L. Bertholf

2007-01-01

41

The Role of Urine Drug Testing for Patients on Opioid Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opioid analgesics must be prescribed with discernment and their appropriate use should be periodically assessed. Urine drug testing, although not designed specifically for this role, is a widely available and familiar method for monitoring opioid use in chronic pain patients. Urine drug testing can help track patient compliance and expose possible drug misuse and abuse. We sought to evaluate current

Joseph Pergolizzi; Macro Pappagallo; Joseph Stauffer; Christopher Gharibo; Neil Fortner; Mathew N. de Jesus; Michael J. Brennan; Charlotte Richmond; Desmond Hussey

2010-01-01

42

Urine Phenobarbital Drug Screening: Potential Use for Compliance Assessment in Neonates  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was done to determine if urine phenobarbital measurements provide a reliable indicator of presence of the drug in neonates. Urine was collected from neonates treated with phenobarbital for clinical indications within 4 to 6 hours of clinically indicated collection of serum phenobarbital levels. Urine samples were also collected from control neonates not treated with phenobarbital. One aliquot was

Ronnie Guillet; Jennifer M. Kwon; SiXaio Chen; Michael P. McDermott

2012-01-01

43

49 CFR 40.41 - Where does a urine collection for a DOT drug test take place?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Where does a urine collection for a DOT drug test take place...TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Collection...Supplies Used in DOT Urine Collections § 40...collection for a DOT drug test take...

2010-10-01

44

49 CFR 40.41 - Where does a urine collection for a DOT drug test take place?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Where does a urine collection for a DOT drug test take place...TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Collection...Supplies Used in DOT Urine Collections § 40...collection for a DOT drug test take...

2009-10-01

45

The association of pseudoephedrine sales restrictions on emergency department urine drug screen results in Oklahoma.  

PubMed

On June 15, 2004, Oklahoma became the first state to reclassify pseudoephedrine as a Schedule V drug. Arrests in Oklahoma for the manufacture of methamphetamines in clandestine laboratories precipitously declined. It was hypothesized that a decrease in methamphetamine use could be shown in the patient population in Oklahoma's largest emergency department. To test this hypothesis, all urine drug screen results in the Saint Francis Hospital Trauma Emergency Center from January 2003 through May 2005 were reviewed. There was a significant increase in the total tests performed and the percentage of positive test results for the amphetamine drug class (p = 0.0004, R2 = 0.3785) over time. These results suggest that methamphetamine usage has not decreased in the emergency department patient population. Possibly, methamphetamine usage in Oklahoma has not been impacted by the passage of HB 2176 due to an increase in drug trafficking of methamphetamine into the state. PMID:18183861

Brandenburg, M A; Brown, S J; Arneson, W L; Arneson, D L

2007-11-01

46

A Method to Quantify Illicit Intake of Drugs from Urine: Methamphetamine  

PubMed Central

Qualitative urinalysis can verify abstinence of drug misuse but cannot detect changes in drug intake. For drugs with slow elimination, such as methamphetamine (MA), a single episode of abuse can result in up to 5 days of positive urine drug screens. Thus, interventions that produce substantial decreases in drug use but do not achieve almost complete abstinence are classified as ineffective. Using nonpharmacologic doses of deuterium-labeled l-methamphetamine (l-MA-d3) we have developed a simple, robust method that reliably estimates changes in MA intake. Twelve subjects were dosed with 5 mg of l-MA-d3 daily and challenged with 15, 30, and 45 mg of nonlabeled d-MA (d-MA-d0) after reaching plasma steady status of l-MA-d3. Urinary concentration ratios of d-MA-d0 to l-MA-d3 provided clear separation of the administered doses with as little as 15-mg dose increments. Administered doses could not be resolved using d-MA-d0 concentrations alone. In conclusion, the urinary [d-MA-d0]:[l-MA-d3] provides a quantitative, continuous measure of illicit MA exposure. The method reliably detects small, clinically relevant changes in illicit MA intake from random urine specimens, is amenable to deployment in clinical trials, and can be used to quantify patterns of MA abuse.

Li, Linghui; Galloway, Gantt P.; Verotta, Davide; Everhart, E. Thomas; Baggott, Matthew J.; Coyle, Jeremy R.; Lopez, Juan C.

2011-01-01

47

Utilization and Cost Effectiveness of Standardized Testing for Screening and Confirmation of Drugs of Abuse in Urine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Screening and confirmation testing for drugs of abuse in urine (DAU) represent areas for potential reduction of laboratory workload and attendant cost savings. Following a careful review of the clinical needs of the underlying veteran patient population served by 7 medical facilities in the Boston area, DAU test ordering frequencies, positive rates for several screening panels and the associated confirmation

Gifford Lum

48

Efficacy of a Polyethylene Glycol Marker System in Urine Drug Screening in an Opiate Substitution Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: Screening for concomitant drug consumption is necessary in opiate substitution therapy of opiate-dependent patients. Adulteration of samples is a common problem in this setting. A recently developed polyethylene glycol marker system allows reliable identification of urine samples. In this study, we aimed to compare the rates of drug detection in conventional and marker urine samples. Design: This cross-sectional evaluation

Harald Jörn Schneider; Birgit Rühl; Kirsten Meyer; Ruprecht Keller; Markus Backmund

2008-01-01

49

Hair and urine testing to assess drugs of abuse consumption in couples undergoing assisted reproductive technology (ART).  

PubMed

For the first time in Europe hair and urine testing have been applied to assess drugs of abuse consumption in couples undergoing assisted reproductive technology and the eventual association of toxic habits with other lifestyle, health status and sociodemographic factors was also investigated. Couples attending five assisted reproduction centers in Rome were invited to join the study. When they presented at the Centre for the visit, they were asked to answer a structured questionnaire concerning sociodemographic characteristics and lifestyle habits, and at the same time to provide hair and urine samples. Hair and urine testing for drugs of abuse, urinary profile of principal endogenous steroids involved in fertility process (testosterone, epitestosterone, androsterone, etiocholanolone and dehydroepiandrosterone) and of alcohol and tobacco smoke biomarkers were performed with validated methodologies. Of the 594 enrolled individuals (297 couples), 352 (164 couples and 24 single individuals from the couple) completed the questionnaire and gave both hair and urine samples, apart from 3 bald men, who only gave urine samples. Urine testing showed an overall 4.8% (17 individuals) positivity to drugs of abuse: 4.2% to cannabinoids, 1.4% to cocaine and 0.85% to both drugs. Results of 4cm segment hair samples testing matched those from urine samples. Thus, taking together, results of urine and hair testing confirmed repeated use of cannabis, cocaine and both drugs in 3.7, 0.85 and 0.57% examined individuals, respectively. Drug consumers were in a statistically higher percentage active smokers and alcohol drinkers, less prone to physical activity and with a trend towards higher weight than non consumers. Finally, repeated drug consumption was associated with significant lower concentration of urinary testosterone in males and of urinary dehydroepiandrosterone in females. The findings of the present study confirm the suitability of urine testing to disclose recent drugs of abuse consumption and of hair analysis to verify repeated consumption. Association between different toxic habits and sedentary lifestyle is also substantiated by the obtained results in our cohort of couples attending assisted reproduction centers. PMID:22018744

Pichini, Simona; De Luca, Roberto; Pellegrini, Manuela; Marchei, Emilia; Rotolo, Maria Concetta; Spoletini, Roberta; D'Aloja, Paola; Pacifici, Roberta; Mortali, Claudia; Scaravelli, Giulia

2011-10-20

50

Clinical False-Positive Drug Test Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

A confirmed positive drug test reassures all the parties involved in the drug testing process that the reported positive result\\u000a is an analytical true positive and as such is evidence that the individual has been exposed to the drug. That individual may\\u000a not be a drug abuser and may have a valid alternative explanation for the positive result. In this

Tai C. Kwong

51

Concentration distribution of the marijuana metabolite Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid and the cocaine metabolite benzoylecgonine in the department of defense urine drug-testing program.  

PubMed

Urine drug testing has been employed for punitive purposes by the Department of Defense since December 1981 (Memorandum 62884, Deputy Secretary of Defense Frank C. Carlucci). Federal Workplace Drug Testing Programs were initiated in response to Executive Order 12564 issued on September 15, 1986, that required Drug-Free Federal Workplaces be established. In their respective programs, a positive urine drug test may be referred to a military court martial or to an administrative board. To address safety and insurance requirements, the testing of civilians has expanded beyond Federal Programs to include pre-employment and post-accident urine drug testing. During adjudication, an Expert Toxicologist may be asked to opine what can be discerned from the concentration of drug or drug metabolite found in the urine. Little can be opined with certainty from a positive urine drug test as to the amount of drug ingested, when the drug was ingested, and in most instances, whether the individual felt the effects of the drug, or was under the influence of the drug found in the urine. What may be useful to both the Expert and to the Trier-of-Facts is the frequency that a particular urine drug concentration is encountered in positive drug tests. The finding that 50% of all positive marijuana and cocaine urine metabolite concentrations in the military testing program over the three-year period of October 1, 2004 through September 30, 2007, are below a median value of 65 and 968 ng/mL, respectively, provide reference points. A median drug concentration combined with the percentile or frequency that a particular urine drug concentration occurs may provide evaluative information for a determination of the facts and the outcome of judicial or administrative proceedings. This may be especially useful to jurors when the concentration of marijuana or cocaine metabolite is perceptibly low. The information would also be applicable to medical review officers, medical examiners, drug treatment professionals, probation officers, and program analysts coordinating drug policy decisions. PMID:18652746

Jemionek, John F; Copley, Curtis L; Smith, Michael L; Past, Marilyn R

52

A method for the confirmation and identification of drugs of misuse in urine using solid phase extraction and gas-liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry.  

PubMed Central

A method is described for the confirmation/identification of a range of commonly misused drugs in urine samples. The method has been used for two years without problems for a range of purposes including hospital/clinic drugs of misuse screening and for toxicology in coroner's cases. Urine samples which have given a positive result on immunochemical screening for a particular drug group or groups (for example, opiates) can be processed with identification of the drugs present using a single procedure. Bond ElutCertify columns are used for the extraction of drugs from the samples followed by propionylation and gas chromatography with mass selective detection.

Galloway, J H; Ashford, M; Marsh, I D; Holden, M; Forrest, A R

1998-01-01

53

Pre-employment urine drug testing of hospital employees: future questions and review of current literature  

PubMed Central

Background: Patient safety and optimisation of worker performance are high current priorities. Arguments over employee drug testing have been debated over the past two decades. Aims: To review prior information to reveal how current principles and practices regarding pre-employment drug testing of health care workers evolved, and to explore pressing current and future issues. Methods: A literature search of Medline from 1980 to 1999 was performed. This yielded seven citations that reported results of pre-employment drug testing of health care workers, which we critically reviewed. Results: The process by which a rational testing process was developed for pre-employment urine drug screening in the health care field is illustrated. Also depicted are some important principles, inequities, and shortcomings of the system. The range of positive tests was wide, from 0.25% to 12%. Testing was not always applied uniformly to all health care workers. It became apparent that positive tests also require medical review to determine if they were truly due to illicit substance use. Conclusions: Although pre-employment drug testing programmes in the health care industry have been firmly in place for many years, it is unclear whether such strategies have achieved their stated purposes. The next step is to study whether such programmes are effective at accomplishing specific goals, such as decreasing absenteeism, turnover, accidents, and medical errors, in order to justify continuing pre-employment testing versus changing to an alternative testing strategy.

Levine, M; Rennie, W

2004-01-01

54

A 6-year experience with urine drug testing by family service agencies in Nova Scotia, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study is to describe a urine drug-testing program implemented for parents with a history of substance abuse by family service agencies in the province of Nova Scotia, Canada. Nurse collectors went to the parents’ home to obtain urine specimens under direct observation and then delivered the specimens to the toxicology laboratory or arranged shipment by courier

Albert D Fraser

2001-01-01

55

Predicting treatment-outcome in cocaine dependence from admission urine drug screen and peripheral serotonergic measures  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated whether urine drug screens (UDS) at admission and platelet paroxetine binding, a measure of serotonin transporter sites, were related to outcome measures for cocaine patients in treatment. Tritiated paroxetine binding sites on platelets were assayed and UDS were obtained for 105 African American cocaine-dependent outpatients. Outcome measures included number of negative urines, days in treatment, dropouts, and number

Ashwin A Patkar; Charles C Thornton; Wade H Berrettini; Edward Gottheil; Stephen P Weinstein; Kevin P Hill

2002-01-01

56

Drugs of abuse screening in urine as part of a metabolite-based LC-MSn screening concept.  

PubMed

Today, immunoassays and several chromatographic methods are in use for drug screening in clinical and forensic toxicology and in doping control. For further proof of the authors' new metabolite-based liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS(n)) screening concept, the detectability of drugs of abuse and their metabolites using this screening approach was studied. As previously reported, the corresponding reference library was built up with MS(2) and MS(3) wideband spectra using a LXQ linear ion trap with electrospray ionization in the positive mode and full scan information-dependent acquisition. In addition to the parent drug spectra recorded in methanolic solution, metabolite spectra were identified after protein precipitation of urine from rats after administration of the corresponding drugs and added to the library. This consists now of data of over 900 parent compounds, including 87 drugs of abuse, and of over 2,300 metabolites and artifacts, among them 436 of drugs of abuse. Recovery, process efficiency, matrix effects, and limits of detection for selected drugs of abuse were determined using spiked human urine, and the resulting data have been acceptable. Using two automatic data evaluation tools (ToxID and SmileMS), the intake of 54 of the studied drugs of abuse could be confirmed in urine samples of drug users after protein precipitation and LC separation. The following drugs classes were covered: stimulants, designer drugs, hallucinogens, (synthetic) cannabinoids, opioids, and selected benzodiazepines. The presented LC-MS(n) method complements the well-established gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy procedure in the authors' laboratory. PMID:21533799

Wissenbach, Dirk K; Meyer, Markus R; Remane, Daniela; Philipp, Anika A; Weber, Armin A; Maurer, Hans H

2011-05-01

57

Concordance between self-report and urine drug screen data in adolescent opioid dependent clinical trial participants.  

PubMed

Objective measures of drug use are very important in treatment outcome studies of persons with substance use disorders, but obtaining and interpreting them can be challenging and not always practical. Thus, it is important to determine if, and when, drug-use self-reports are valid. To this end we explored the relationships between urine drug screen results and self-reported substance use among adolescents and young adults with opioid dependence participating in a clinical trial of buprenorphine-naloxone. In this study, 152 individuals seeking treatment for opioid dependence were randomized to a 2-week detoxification with buprenorphine-naloxone (DETOX) or 12weeks of buprenorphine-naloxone (BUP), each with weekly individual and group drug counseling. Urine drug screens and self-reported frequency of drug use were obtained weekly, and patients were paid $5 for completing weekly assessments. At weeks 4, 8, and 12, more extensive assessments were done, and participants were reimbursed $75. Self-report data were dichotomized (positive vs. negative), and for each major drug class we computed the kappa statistic and the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of self-report using urine drug screens as the "gold standard". Generalized linear mixed models were used to explore the effect of treatment group assignment, compensation amounts, and participant characteristics on self-report. In general, findings supported the validity of self-reported drug use. However, those in the BUP group were more likely to under-report cocaine and opioid use. Therefore, if used alone, self-report would have magnified the treatment effect of the BUP condition. PMID:23811060

Wilcox, Claire E; Bogenschutz, Michael P; Nakazawa, Masato; Woody, George

2013-06-13

58

False-positive buprenorphine EIA urine toxicology results due to high dose morphine: a case report.  

PubMed

In monitoring a patient with chronic pain who was taking high-dose morphine and oxycodone with weekly urine enzymatic immunoassay (EIA) toxicology testing, the authors noted consistent positives for buprenorphine. The patient was not taking buprenorphine, and gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GCMS) testing on multiple samples revealed no buprenorphine, indicating a case of false-positive buprenorphine EIAs in a high-dose opiate case. The authors discontinued oxycodone for a period of time and then discontinued morphine. Urine monitoring with EIAs and GCMS revealed false-positive buprenorphine EIAs, which remained only when the patient was taking morphine. When taking only oxycodone and no morphine, urine samples became buprenorphine negative. When morphine was reintroduced, false-positive buprenorphine results resumed. Medical practitioners should be aware that high-dose morphine (with morphine urine levels turning positive within the 15,000 to 28,000 mg/mL range) may produce false-positive buprenorphine EIAs with standard urine EIA toxicology testing. PMID:23244551

Tenore, Peter L

2012-01-01

59

Optimization and validation of CEDIA drugs of abuse immunoassay tests in serum and urine on an Olympus AU 400.  

PubMed

A preliminary initial cloned enzyme donor immunoassay (CEDIA) was optimized for serum and urine drug testing with respect to the German per se limits for driving under the influence of drugs (serum) and lowered cut-offs in cases of driving licence re-granting (urine). The tests were performed on an Olympus AU 400 auto analyzer. Validation revealed sensitivities between 93% and 100% based on comparison with data from gas or liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Even if specificity ranged between 83% and 98 %, the tests can be considered useful for forensic purposes. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, Youden indices, as well as positive and negative predictive values are presented. PMID:23386567

Musshoff, F; Wolters, T; Lott, S; Ippisch, J; Gradl, S; Madea, B

2013-02-06

60

Water intoxication presenting as a suspected contaminated urine sample for drug testing.  

PubMed

A patient was evaluated medically after submitting a urine sample for drug screening that was considered inappropriately dilute. Although it was thought that the dilute urine was the result of purposely adding water, the medical evaluation revealed that the patient had chronic water intoxication from a very strict weight loss regimen. The effect of dietary solute intake on water metabolism by the kidneys and the development of hyponatremia are discussed. PMID:15255434

Finkel, Kevin W

2004-06-01

61

Liquid-phase microextraction and desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry for identification and quantification of basic drugs in human urine.  

PubMed

Hollow fibre liquid-phase microextraction (LPME) and desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) were evaluated for the identification and quantification of basic drugs in human urine samples. The selective extraction capabilities of three-phase LPME provided a significant reduction in the matrix effects otherwise observed in direct DESI-MS analysis of urine samples. Aqueous LPME extracts (in 10 mM HCl) were deposited on porous Teflon, dried at room temperature, and the dried spots were then analyzed directly with DESI-MS in full scan mode. Pethidine, diphenhydramine, nortriptyline, and methadone were used as model compounds for identification, and their limits of identification were determined to be 100, 25, 100, and 30 ng/mL, respectively. In a reliability test with 19 spiked urine samples, 100% of the positive samples containing the model drugs in concentrations at or above the limit of identification were identified. Diphenhydramine was used as a model compound for quantitative analysis with diphenhydramine-d(5) as an internal standard. The calibration curve was linear in the range 50-2000 ng/mL (R(2) = 0.992) with a limit of quantification at approximately 140 ng/mL. The intra- and inter-day relative standard deviations were <9.5%. In a reliability test with six spiked urine samples, deviations between the measured and the true values for diphenhydramine were in the range 0.2-22.9%. PMID:22173801

Thunig, Janina; Flø, Linda; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig; Hansen, Steen Honoré; Janfelt, Christian

2012-01-30

62

Evaluation of Abnormal Urine Drug Screens Among Patients with Chronic NonMalignant Pain Treated with Opioids  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, failed urine drug screens of 89 patients in an interventional pain man- agement practice were analyzed. The results showed that 55% were not taking the pre- scribed opioid, whereas 39% were taking opi- oids which were not prescribed. In addition, 46% of the patients were using illicit drugs. Urine drug screens can be very useful in preventing

Sairam Atluri; Gururau Sudarshan

2003-01-01

63

Mutagenicity of urine from mice exposed orally to nitrite and various aminated antiparasitic drugs  

SciTech Connect

Mutagenic N-nitroso compound formation from the in vitro reaction of amebicides and anthelmintic drugs, which are pyrimidine derivatives or contain secondary aliphatic amines or heterocyclic nitrogens, has been previously described. Under similar conditions, antiparasitic drugs containing halogenated derivatives of tertiary amines or quaternary ammonium salts do not form mutagenic nitrosated compounds. In the present study the mutagenic activity of mouse urine was determined after oral administration of sodium nitrite and the two above-mentioned groups of drugs. Results show that the simultaneous administration of piperazine or chloroquine with sodium nitrite produced urinary mutagens that appeared conjugated as glucuronides, whereas pyrantel pamoate and dehydroemetine in the presence of nitrite caused only slightly mutagenic urine. No mutagenic activity was detected in the urine of mice to which halogenated derivatives of tertiary amines (iodochlorhydroxyquin) or quaternary ammonium salts (bephenium hydroxynaphthoate) were administered together with nitrite.

Alba, M.A.; Aguirre, J.E.; Ramirez, J.; de Nava, C.C. (U.N.A.M. (Mexico))

1989-01-01

64

Trazodone, meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (an hallucinogenic drug and trazodone metabolite), and the hallucinogen trifluoromethylphenylpiperazine cross-react with the EMIT®II ecstasy immunoassay in urine.  

PubMed

A series of patients whose urine screened positive for 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) using a commercial enzyme immunoassay test (Ecstasy EMIT II assay), failed to confirm by substance-specific liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry tests for MDMA. Further evaluation of these urine specimens indicates that they were positive for trazodone and its metabolite meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (m-CPP). Independent tests of standards showed significant crossreactivity on the Ecstasy EMIT II assay with trazodone, m-CPP, and the related recreational drug trifluoromethylphenylpiperazine (TFMPP). This is of further forensic significance because m-CPP is emerging as an illicit recreational drug in its own right or as an adulterant in illicit cocaine and MDMA. The hallucinogen benzylpiperazine was also assessed but found not to cross-react significantly with this assay. Patients taking trazodone may get false-positive results on the urine EMIT test for MDMA. PMID:21073812

Logan, Barry K; Costantino, Anthony G; Rieders, Eric F; Sanders, David

2010-11-01

65

Modification of screening immunoassays to detect sub-threshold concentrations of cocaine, cannabinoids, and opiates in urine: use for detecting maternal and neonatal drug exposures.  

PubMed

Testing for drugs of abuse in urine is commonplace in emergency departments and neonatal units. However, the clinical sensitivity of immunochemical screening methods is limited by the threshold concentrations used to distinguish between positive and negative specimens. Immunochemical screening methods for cocaine metabolite (benzoylecgonine), cannabinoids, and opiates in urine were recalibrated to detect drugs at lower threshold concentrations. The precision and linearity of the signals at the modified thresholds were verified by diluting drug-positive urine specimens to concentrations below the conventional cutoff concentration and measuring the rate signals in triplicate. To assess the clinical performance of the modified methods, specimens that tested negative using the unmodified assays were re-screened at the lower threshold, and specimens that re-screened positive were submitted for gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric (GC/MS) confirmation. Reproducibility of sub-threshold measurements was comparable to the unmodified assays, and rate separations between successive dilutions were sufficient to give semi-quantitative results. Using the lower thresholds, drugs were detected in 4-5% of the subjects that had screened negative at the conventional threshold concentration. GC/MS analysis confirmed the presence of cannabinoids and cocaine metabolite in 74% and 84%, respectively, of urine specimens that re-screened positive. Morphine, codeine, hydromorphone, or hydrocodone was detected by GC/MS analysis in 31% of opiate-positive re-screens. PMID:10678589

Hattab, E M; Goldberger, B A; Johannsen, L M; Kindland, P W; Ticino, F; Chronister, C W; Bertholf, R L

2000-01-01

66

Urine drug testing of chronic pain patients. V. Prevalence of propoxyphene following its withdrawal from the United States market.  

PubMed

Propoxyphene is an opioid analgesic that was surrounded by controversy concerning its safety and efficacy during its lifespan in the US market. Propoxyphene was withdrawn in November of 2010 from the US market and is still being detected one year post-withdrawal in urine specimens from the pain management population. In this study, the prevalence of propoxyphene was determined in a total of 417,914 urine specimens collected from 630 clinics involved in pain management located in 24 states during the period of January 1, 2010, through December 31, 2011. Propoxyphene and norpropoxyphene were measured in urine by a validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry procedure with a lower limit of quantitation of 50 ng/mL. The positivity rate for propoxyphene prevalence declined sharply between November and December of 2010 and further declined at a gradual rate, ending in a prevalence of 0.27% (one out of every 370 specimens, n = 25,658) for the month of December 2011. The presented data provide evidence of the dramatic decline in the use of propoxyphene products since their removal from the medical market, and may be beneficial to US urine drug testing programs determining the need for continual monitoring of propoxyphene levels. PMID:23129731

Puet, Brandi; DePriest, Anne; Knight, Julie; Heltsley, Rebecca; Black, David L; Caplan, Yale H; Cone, Edward J

2012-11-05

67

Urine drug testing of chronic pain patients. III. Normetabolites as biomarkers of synthetic opioid use.  

PubMed

Opioids are important therapeutic agents available to patients with moderate to severe pain. The synthetic opioids, buprenorphine, fentanyl, meperidine, methadone, and propoxyphene have been utilized for decades as analgesics. One of the major biotransformation pathways of these drugs occurs through N-demethylation leading to the formation and excretion of normetabolites. Normetabolites generally exhibit longer half-lives than the parent drug leading to accumulation with prolonged use. As part of continuing research efforts to improve monitoring programs of chronic pain patients undergoing opioid treatment, we evaluated the prevalence and relative abundance of normetabolites of buprenorphine, fentanyl, meperidine, methadone, and propoxyphene in patients? urine specimens. Selected sets of specimens were analyzed without prior immunoassay screening by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for buprenorphine, fentanyl, meperidine, methadone, propoxyphene, and their respective normetabolites. Limits of quantitation (LOQ) were as follows: buprenorphine, 1 ng/mL; fentanyl, 0.5 ng/mL; meperidine, 50 ng/mL; methadone, 50 ng/mL; and propoxyphene, 50 ng/mL. LOQs for normetabolites were equal to the parent drug with the exception of norbuprenorphine (2.5 ng/mL). The percentage of positive specimens that contained normetabolite (only) ranged from 8.0% for EDDP (2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine) to 53.1% for norpropoxyphene. Inclusion of the five normetabolites in the test panel produced an increase in detection rates for parent drug use as follows: buprenorphine, 10.0%; fentanyl, 42.1%; meperidine, 98.7%; methadone, 8.7%; and propoxyphene, 113.2%. The authors conclude that testing for synthetic opioid normetabolites enhances the effectiveness of monitoring programs for pain patients. PMID:21819788

Depriest, Anne; Heltsley, Rebecca; Black, David L; Cawthon, Beverly; Robert, Tim; Moser, Frank; Caplan, Yale H; Cone, Edward J

2010-10-01

68

Excretion profile of opiates in dependent patients in relation to route of administration and type of drug measured in urine with immunoassay.  

PubMed

It is accepted that opiates are detectable in urine within three days from the last dose at a cut-off value of 300 ng/mL. In our clinical practice, some patients tested positive for morphine even after a week of detoxification. The present study evaluates the time course of opiate excretion in urine of dependent subjects (F11.25 according to ICD-10) in relation to route of administration and a kind of street heroin. The group comprised 71 men treated for opiate dependency: 33 of them used heroin exclusively by inhalation; 26 i.v.; 12 used i.v. homemade poppy straw decoctions. Opiate levels were measured once a day by fluorescence polarization immunoassay (TDx Abbott). Detection time ranged from 3 to 10 days for cut-off value 300 ng/mL and from less than one up to seven days for cut-off value 2000 ng/mL. The increases in urine drug concentration that result from changes in urinary output may be mistakenly interpreted as a new drug use. Normalization of drug excretion to urine creatinine concentration reduces the variability of drug measurement attributable to urine dilution. The time function of creatinine normalized opiate concentration has a log-linear character, and decreases at a rate of 2.5 per day on average. New "normalized" cut-off values were proposed: 225 ng/mg creatinine, 1500 ng/mg creatinine, and 3750 ng/mg creatinine that corresponds to 300 ng/mL urine, 2000 ng/mL urine, and 5000 ng/mL urine. PMID:15808008

Taracha, Ewa; Habrat, Boguslaw; Chmielewska, Karina; Baran-Furga, Helena

69

Comparison of point-of-collection screening of drugs of abuse in oral fluid with a laboratory-based urine screen.  

PubMed

Oral fluid is becoming increasingly useful for the detection of drugs, since it is a non-invasive specimen to collect and, because collection is directly observed, it is difficult to adulterate. A point-of-collection (POCT) oral fluid drug analysis kit has been developed for use in many drug testing situations. This paper summarizes the results of field evaluations of the ORALscreen System for screening of drugs in oral fluid. The ORALscreen System consists of an oral fluid collection device and a test device containing a lateral flow membrane immunoassay system. Paired samples (oral fluid and urine) were collected from drug users and the results from the ORALscreen POCT system were compared to urine screening results conducted in a licensed laboratory. The results demonstrate that the ORALscreen System has excellent percent agreement with the laboratory-based urine screening test results for the detection of cocaine and opiates through 2.5-3 days following drug use, respectively. Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) was detected by ORALscreen on the day of use and 1 day after use. Good correlation between urine and oral fluid screening results was observed for the methamphetamine positive samples; however, the number of days following drug use was not determined. PMID:11672972

Barrett, C; Good, C; Moore, C

2001-11-01

70

Simultaneous Determination of Clobutinol Together with Some Anti?inflammatory Drugs in Urine by HPLC  

Microsoft Academic Search

An isocratic high performance liquid chromatography method is described for simultaneous determination of clobutinol hydrochloride together with some anti?inflammatory drugs, such as diclofenac, meloxicam, and nimesulide in urine. For the development and optimization of the system, three different buffers containing ammonium acetate, tetraethylammonium hydrogen sulfate (THAS), and tetrabutylammonium hydrogen sulfate (THBS) were investigated, because it has been proven that different

Eleftheria T. Malliou; Catherine K. Markopoulou; John E. Koundourellis

2005-01-01

71

49 CFR 219.605 - Positive drug test results; procedures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Positive drug test results; procedures. 219.605 Section...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Random Alcohol and Drug Testing Programs § 219.605 Positive drug...

2012-10-01

72

49 CFR 219.605 - Positive drug test results; procedures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Positive drug test results; procedures. 219.605 Section...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Random Alcohol and Drug Testing Programs § 219.605 Positive drug...

2011-10-01

73

Comparison of urine and hair testing for drugs of abuse in the control of abstinence in driver's license re-granting.  

PubMed

The purpose of the study was to compare the detection rate of illicit drugs in urine and hair specimens. The samples were taken from subjects trying to regain their revoked driver's license after a drug- or alcohol-related traffic offence. In 2010, we screened 14 000 urine and 3900 hair samples for amphetamines, methamphetamines, cannabinoids, cocaine, opiates, methadone, and benzodiazepines as well as for ethylglucuronide. We used the low threshold values of the new German guidelines for Medical Psychological Assessment (MPA). Positive screening tests were confirmed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) or liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The results show that positivity rates for methamphetamines, MDMA, cocaine, and monoacetylmorphine were 1.7-, 5.7-, 3.8- and 9.3-fold higher in hair than in urine. In contrast, the detection rate for benzodiazepines was higher in urine than in hair (oxazepam, 0.21% versus 0%, nordiazepam 0.10% versus 0.03%). The positivity rate in hair for ethylglucuronide was 6-fold (12.7%) that for urine testing (2.1%). The study reveals that in the control of abstinence in the context of driving license re-granting there are in part large differences of positivity rates for some drugs or metabolites between hair and urine samples. These differences should be kept in mind by physicians and psychologists in traffic medicine who are ordering the drug testing. PMID:22447399

Dufaux, Bertin; Agius, Ronald; Nadulski, Thomas; Kahl, Hans-Gerhard

2012-03-22

74

Determination of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) in plasma and urine by headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography/positive ion chemical ionization mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A new method for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) in plasma and urine samples is described. It involves the conversion of GHB to gamma-butyrolactone (GBL), its subsequent headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME), and detection by gas chromatography/positive ion chemical ionization mass spectrometry (GC/PICI-MS), using D(6)-GBL as internal standard. The assay is linear over a plasma GHB range of 1-100 microg/mL (n = 5, r = 0.999) and a urine GHB range of 5-150 microg/mL (n = 5, r = 0. 998). Relative intra- and inter-assay standard deviations, determined for plasma and urine samples at 5 and 50 microg/mL, are all below 5%. The method is simple, specific and reasonably fast. It may be applied for clinical and forensic toxicology as well as for purposes of therapeutic drug monitoring. PMID:11114057

Frison, G; Tedeschi, L; Maietti, S; Ferrara, S D

2000-01-01

75

SCREENING AND CONFIRMATION OF REAL-LIFE URINE SAMPLES FOR TRENBOLONE FALSE POSITIVE OR FALSE NEGATIVE? THAT'S THE QUESTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Danish National Reference Laboratory found five bovine urine samples positive for 17? - Trenbolone during screening. The samples subsequently were analysed using GC-MSn as confirmatory method. The chromatograms of suspect samples and a spiked control sample of urine showed similar results. However, full confirmation was not possible. To confirm these results the samples were sent to the European Union

S. S. Sterk; D. Ohlrich; F. Christensen; N. B. Le; M. H. Blokland; P. L. W. J. Schwillens; L. A. van Ginkel; R. W. Stephany

76

Urine specimen detection of concurrent nonprescribed medicinal and illicit drug use in patients prescribed buprenorphine.  

PubMed

Patients being treated with buprenorphine usually have a history of opioid dependence and may be predisposed to misuse of drugs. Concurrent drug misuse increases the risk of life-threatening drug interactions. This retrospective data analysis observed which nonprescribed and illicit drugs were most commonly detected in the urine of patients from pain management clinics taking buprenorphine with or without a prescription. GC, LC/MS and LC-MS-MS were used to quantify 20,929 urine specimens. The most prevalent illicit drug used in both the groups (prescribed and nonprescribed buprenorphine) was marijuana, followed by cocaine. The most prevalent nonprescribed medications abused by both the groups were benzodiazepines, followed by oxycodone and hydrocodone. The overall prevalence of illicit and nonprescribed drug use was significantly higher in subjects who used buprenorphine without a prescription versus prescribed use. Of the concurrent use of marijuana and cocaine with buprenorphine, cocaine is most concerning since it decreases exposure to buprenorphine (lower area under the concentration-time curve and maximum concentration). The concurrent use of nonprescribed benzodiazepines with buprenorphine can cause excess sedation leading to respiratory depression and even death. These findings highlight the importance of educating patients about these potential toxicities. Furthermore, pain providers should consider expanding the spectrum of drugs that they monitor in patients under treatment. PMID:24080973

Guo, Alexander Y; Ma, Joseph D; Best, Brookie M; Atayee, Rabia S

2013-09-29

77

Hallucinations in a child: A case demonstrating the pitfalls of urine dipstick drug testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a child who presented with hallucinations in whom urine dipstick testing was positive for amphetamines. As a result the child protection team were involved. Subsequently, the urinalysis done by gas chromatography showed no amphetamines but a large quantity of ephedrine. The child had been given cough mixture which contains ephedrine. A cross-reaction had occurred between ephedrine and amphetamine

Arlene Boroda; Ribena Akhter

2008-01-01

78

A survey of extraction techniques for drugs of abuse in urine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sixty nine participants in the United Kingdom national external quality assessment scheme for drugs of abuse in urine reported details of their sample extraction technique by questionnaire. Laboratories were categorised by differences in technique and their analytical test results compared for samples containing d-amfetamine 0.4 (4) and 0.8 (3)mg\\/l, morphine 0.4 (4) and 0.8 (4)mg\\/l, and benzoylecgonine 0.15\\/0.2 (2) and

J. F Wilson; B. L Smith; P. A Toseland; I. D Watson; J Williams; A. H Thomson; N. E Capps; G Sweeney; L. N Sandle

2001-01-01

79

A drug rape case involving triazolam detected in hair and urine.  

PubMed

In recent years, there has been heightened awareness regarding the use of drugs to modify a person's behavior to facilitate crime. A drug rape case involving the potent, short-acting sedative triazolam will be presented. On three occasions, the victim consumed green tea and chocolate before being massaged and ultimately sexually abused. Screening for alcohol, commonly used drugs and illicit substances in blood and urine sampled during the forensic examination 20 h after the last incident, was negative. Consequently, hair samples for chemical analysis were taken from the assaulted individual 34 days after the last incidents. The hair was cut into three 2-cm segments (0-6 cm) that were washed, dissolved in extraction solvent and screened and verified by ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with time of flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-TOF-MS) and with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS), respectively. In the 2-cm hair segment corresponding to the period of the alleged assaults, the presence of the sedative triazolam was revealed at a concentration of 1.0 pg/mg hair. The preserved urine sample, taken 20 h after the last incident, was reanalyzed by UPLC-MS/MS for metabolites of triazolam, and 39 ?g/l ?-hydroxytriazolam was detected in the hydrolyzed urine. This case illustrates that hair is a valuable forensic specimen in situations where natural processes have eliminated the drug from typical biological specimens due to delays in the crime being reported. Furthermore, it was possible to verify the hair finding with a urine sample by detection of a metabolite of triazolam. PMID:22160334

Johansen, S Stybe; Dahl-Sørensen, R

2011-12-09

80

Sports drug testing: Analytical aspects of selected cases of suspected, purported, and proven urine manipulation.  

PubMed

Manipulation of urine specimens provided by elite athletes for doping control purposes has been reported several times in the past, and in most of these cases urine substitution was eventually proven. Recent findings of suspected and substantiated manipulation have outlined the complexity and diversity of tampering options, sample appearance alterations resulting from non-manipulative influence, and the analytical challenges arising from these scenarios. Using state-of-the-art mass spectrometric and immunological doping control and forensic chemistry methodologies, four unusual findings were observed. One sports drug testing specimen was found to contain an unusually high content of saccharides accompanied by hordenine and Serpine-Z4, while no endogenous steroid (e.g. testosterone, epitestosterone, androsterone and etiocholanolone) was detected. This specimen was identified as non-alcoholic beer filled into the doping control sample container, constituting an undisputed doping offense. A doping control sample of bright green color was received and found to contain residues of methylene blue, which is not considered relevant for doping controls as no masking or manipulative effect is known. In addition, the number of urine samples of raspberry to crimson red coloration received at doping control laboratories has constantly increased during the last years, attributed to the presence of hemoglobin or betanin/isobetanin. Also here, no doping rule violation was given and an impact on routine analytical results was not observed. Finally, a total of 8 sports drug testing samples collected at different competition sites was shown to contain identical urine specimens as indicated by steroid profile analysis and conclusively proven by DNA-STR (short tandem repeat) analysis. Here, the athletes in question were not involved in the urine substitution act but the doping control officer was convicted of sample manipulation. PMID:21955645

Thevis, Mario; Geyer, Hans; Sigmund, Gerd; Schänzer, Wilhelm

2011-09-10

81

75 FR 22150 - Current List of Laboratories Which Meet Minimum Standards To Engage in Urine Drug Testing for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...and Mental Health Services Administration Current List of Laboratories Which Meet Minimum Standards To Engage in Urine Drug Testing for Federal Agencies Correction In notice document 2010-7170 beginning on page 16813 in the issue of Friday,...

2010-04-27

82

Screening of stimulants including designer drugs in urine using a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry system.  

PubMed

A rapid, reproducible and sensitive reversed phase liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the identification and semi-quantitative confirmation of stimulants in urine. The method is capable of separating compounds such as cocaine and metabolites, amphetamines, substituted cathinones and other designer drugs, with a total run time of 11 min. The method was subsequently used to confirm the presence of these stimulants in the urine of patients attending the Drug Treatment Centre Board Ireland over the period in which legislation banning some named cathinones was introduced in Ireland. Substituted cathinones were the predominant drug of choice, outside of cocaine use. Mephedrone was the most widely detected cathinone in 2010, whereas 3,4-methylenedioxypyrrolidinobutyrophenone featured more prevalently in screenings in 2011. The appearance of adverse effects increases during multi-stimulant use related to synergistic pharmacological combinations, and this method has benefits in identifying multi-drug use between next generation designer drugs and commonly used stimulants. PMID:23316030

O'Byrne, Paul M; Kavanagh, Pierce V; McNamara, Sinead M; Stokes, Siobhan M

2013-01-11

83

Automated liquid chromatographic/tandem mass spectrometric method for screening beta-blocking drugs in urine.  

PubMed

An automated liquid chromatographic/tandem mass spectrometric (LC/MS/MS) method is presented for the screening and confirmation of 16 beta-blocking drugs in clinical and autopsy urine samples. The described method involved C(18) solid phase extraction, LC separation and MS analysis on a triple-stage quadrupole mass analyser. Samples were initially pre-screened for the presence of any beta-blocking drugs using LC/MS with selected ion monitoring. Any compounds tentatively identified as beta-blocking drugs on the basis of their LC retention time and protonated molecular ion were then automatedly subjected to a second analysis in which the relevant MS/MS product ion mass spectra were acquired. These product ion mass spectra were then automatically searched against a 400-substance mass spectral library containing previously acquired beta-blocking drugs. The results demonstrated that library search of beta-blocking drugs in urine with MS/MS product ion mass spectra was more reliable and produced fewer false negatives than library searching with mass spectra derived from single-stage quadrupole MS. The limits of identification in the MS/MS product ion scan ranged from 0.02 mg l(-1) for carvedilol to 1.2 mg l(-1) for pindolol, the majority of the values being below 0.2 mg l(-1). PMID:10934446

Gergov, M; Robson, J N; Duchoslav, E; Ojanperä, I

2000-07-01

84

Sensing of carboxylate drugs in urine by a supramolecular sensor array.  

PubMed

A supramolecular sensor array consisting of eight chemosensors embedded in a hydrogel matrix was used to sense carboxylate drugs. The discriminatory power of the array has been evaluated using principal component analysis and linear discriminant analysis. The eight-member sensor array has been shown to accurately identify 14 carboxylates in water with 100% classification accuracy. To demonstrate the potential for practical utility in the physiological environment, analysis of carboxylate drugs in human urine was also performed achieving 100% correct classification. In addition, the array performance in semiquantitative identification of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs has been investigated, and the results show that the sensor array is able to differentiate six typical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs at concentrations of 0.5-100 ppm. This illustrates the potential utility of the designed sensor array for diagnostic and environmental monitoring applications. PMID:23656505

Liu, Yuanli; Minami, Tsuyoshi; Nishiyabu, Ryuhei; Wang, Zhuo; Anzenbacher, Pavel

2013-05-08

85

Urine drug testing of chronic pain patients. IV. prevalence of gabapentin and pregabalin.  

PubMed

Gabapentin and pregabalin are well established for the treatment of seizures and neuropathic pain. Both drugs are eliminated primarily unchanged by renal excretion. As part of an ongoing research program to improve and expand drug testing methods for compliance monitoring of pain patients, the prevalence and concentrations of gabapentin and pregabalin in urine specimens from chronic pain patients were determined by a validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay. The study was approved by an Institutional Review Board. A total of 57,542 urine specimens from 231 pain clinics located in 19 states were analyzed over the period of November 24, 2009, through May 2010. The limit of quantitation (LOQ) and upper LOQ of the assays for both drugs were 2.5 and 1000 ?g/mL, respectively. Gabapentin was identified in 7013 specimens (12.2% prevalence), and pregabalin was identified in 4799 patients (8.3% prevalence). Generally, gabapentin concentrations were more than twofold higher than pregabalin, consistent with their relative potencies. Interestingly, both drugs were found in specimens from 249 patients, likely representing switching of prescriptions by the prescriber. PMID:21740692

Heltsley, Rebecca; Depriest, Anne; Black, David L; Robert, Tim; Caplan, Yale H; Cone, Edward J

2011-07-01

86

In vitro micronucleus bioassay of human peripheral lymphocytes for adriamycin in the presence of cyclophosphamide and urines of patients administered anticancer drugs.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to develop an in vitro human peripheral lymphocyte micronucleus bioassay involving phytohemagglutinin stimulant for urines containing adriamycin (ADR) and cyclophosphamide (CP). In vitro studies with defined concentrations of ADR, CP, and fresh urine showed that mitotic indices and micronuclei counts/1,000 cells had to be log (X + 1) transformed to be able to use parametric statistics and that a specific micronucleus assay for ADR in the presence of CP and urine for 5-15 ng ADR/mL had been developed. Whereas CP alone could be detected between 196-522 micrograms/mL, this effect was abolished in the presence of 15 ng ADR/mL. Interdonor variabilities relative to ADR sensitivity and CP linear dynamic range were marked, but intradonor variability was small. The MN bioassay tolerated < 10% urine. Results for urines from nine patients receiving antineoplastic drugs (CP, all; ADR, 3; 5-fluorouracil, 3; methotrexate, 3; vincristine, 4; procarbazine, 1; and megestrol acetate, 1) showed that only 1/3 patients given ADR were detected, and two others not given ADR were positive. All frozen urines from the 12 control subjects and the nine patients exhibited depressed mitotic index, with, however, no control patient urines inducing increased micronuclei. Two patients had urines of undefined genotoxic potential since undepressed mitotic indices were not attainable by dilution. The effects of combination chemotherapy in addition to freezing and storage influences were complex. More research is required to be able to interpret the results. PMID:8491217

Boucher, R; Livingston, G K; Que Hee, S S

1993-01-01

87

The construct and predictive validity of different approaches to combining urine and self-reported drug use measures among older adolescents after substance abuse treatment.  

PubMed

Reconciling urine results and self-reports is a classic challenge in substance abuse treatment research in general. For adolescents, the problems are compounded by the facts that they are more likely to use marijuana (which takes longer to metabolize) and to be coerced into treatment (which may increase lying). This article examines the construct and predictive validity of several different approaches for combining urine and self reported drug use including using common individual measures (urine tests and self-reported recency, frequency, and peak use), taking either as positive, using a summary scale, and using a latent model. Data are from 819 older adolescents 24 to 42 months after intake in seven sites. Days of use, the GAIN's substance frequency scale, and a latent model were the three best methods in terms of construct and predictive validity. Implications for treatment and longitudinal evaluation will be discussed. PMID:17182424

Lennox, Richard; Dennis, Michael L; Ives, Melissa; White, Michelle K

2006-01-01

88

On-site testing of saliva and sweat with Drugwipe and determination of concentrations of drugs of abuse in saliva, plasma and urine of suspected users  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potential drug users participated voluntarily in a Belgian study on the usefulness of the non-instrumental immunoassay Drugwipe\\u000a (Securetec, Germany) for the screening of cocaine, opiates, amphetamine and cannabinoids in saliva and sweat. If one of the\\u000a screening assays (urine, oral fluid, sweat) showed a positive result, blood and saliva were collected. The on-site Drugwipe\\u000a results were correlated with the Drugwipe

N. Samyn; C. van Haeren

2000-01-01

89

Oral fluid drug testing of chronic pain patients. I. Positive prevalence rates of licit and illicit drugs.  

PubMed

Oral fluid compliance monitoring of chronic pain patients is an analytical challenge because of the limited specimen volume and the number of drugs that require detection. This study evaluated oral fluid for monitoring pain patients and compared results to urine studies of similar populations. Oral fluid specimens were analyzed from 6441 pain patients from 231 pain clinics in 20 states. Specimens were screened with 14 ELISA assays and non-negative specimens were confirmed by LC-MS-MS for 40 licit and illicit drugs and metabolites. There was an 83.9% positive screening rate (n=5401) of which 98.7% (n=5329) were confirmed at ? LOQ concentrations for at least one analyte. The prevalence of confirmed positive drug groups was as follows: opiates > oxycodone > benzodiazepines > methadone ? carisoprodol > fentanyl > cannabinoids ? tramadol > cocaine > amphetamines ? propoxyphene ? buprenorphine > barbiturates > methamphetamine. Approximately 11.5% of the study population of pain patients apparently used one or more illicit drugs (cannabis, cocaine, methamphetamine and/or MDMA). Overall, the pattern of licit and illicit drugs and metabolites observed in oral fluid paralleled results reported earlier for urine, indicating that oral fluid is a viable option for use in compliance monitoring programs of chronic pain patients. PMID:22004671

Heltsley, Rebecca; DePriest, Anne; Black, David L; Robert, Tim; Marshall, Lucas; Meadors, Viola M; Caplan, Yale H; Cone, Edward J

2011-10-01

90

A Strategy for Drug Analysis in Serum and Urine. an Application to Drug Screening of Samples from Drivers Involved in Traffic Accidents  

Microsoft Academic Search

New methods of analysis were developed for the determination of volatile compounds (alcohols, ketones, aldehydes etc.), barbiturates, neutral drugs, anticonvulsant drugs, cardiac glycosides, benzodiazepines, CNS-stimulants, theophylline and quinidine.A screening program has been developed for the determination of ca. 50 commonly used drugs. All analyses were performed using 3–4 ml of serum and 5 ml of urine.

Bengt Kinberger; Anders Holmén; Peter Wahrgren

1982-01-01

91

Effects of fluid load on human urine characteristics related to workplace drug testing.  

PubMed

During workplace drug testing, urine is tested for dilution, substitution and adulteration. Donors argue that these findings are due to medical, health or working conditions or diet and genetic differences. There is a paucity of data correlating changes in urine characteristics after a fluid load to various body parameters. Therefore, five urine specimens (one in the morning, one prior to drinking 800 mL of a beverage, and three time intervals thereafter) from 12 males and 12 females were tested for four different beverages on separate occasions. Of the 480 samples, 376 were in sufficient amounts. Of these 376, 36 (10%) had creatinine <20 mg/dL but ?2 mg/dL; 27 (75%) of 36 had specific gravity <1.0030 but >1.0010. Thus, these 27 samples can be considered to be dilute; 20 (74%) of 27 were from females. For males with at least one dilute sample, body fat was 11% less and resting metabolic rate (RMR) was 29% more than males with no dilute samples (p > 0.05); for females with at least one dilute sample, height was 8% less and weight 20% less than females with no dilute samples (p > 0.05). Individuals with a higher RMR appear to have a greater potential for producing dilute urine specimens than those with a lower RMR. Thus, a dilute sample does not necessarily indicate that it was intentionally diluted. Such samples must be carefully evaluated in consideration with recent consumption of liquid by donors to avoid false accusations. PMID:23104711

Chaturvedi, Arvind K; Sershon, Jim L; Craft, Kristi J; Cardona, Patrick S; Soper, John W; Canfield, Dennis V; Dubowski, Kurt M; Whinnery, James E; Leyva, Misti J; Aston, Christopher E; Blevins, Steve M; Wright, Jonelle E; Fraser, Albert D; Kuntz, David J

2012-10-26

92

Detection of 1-benzylpiperazine, 1-(3-trifluoromethylphenyl)-piperazine, and 1-(3-chlorophenyl)-piperazine in 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine-positive urine samples.  

PubMed

Historically, ecstasy tablets contained 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) as the psychoactive component. In recent years, the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) and other law enforcement agencies have seized ecstasy tablets that are comprised of psychoactive drugs or drug mixtures other than MDMA. Many jurisdictions have reported the presence of piperazine derivatives including 1-benzylpiperazine (BZP), 1-(3-trifluoromethylphenyl)-piperazine (TFMPP), and 1-(3-chlorophenyl)-piperazine (mCPP) in ecstasy tablets. These piperazine derivatives produce stimulant and psychoactive effects similar to those produced by MDMA, amphetamine, and methamphetamine. In many countries, their use is not controlled, and therefore they have become a legal alternative to MDMA. For this study, a targeted population of 251 MDMA-positive urine samples were analyzed for designer drugs, including the piperazine derivatives. A basic liquid-liquid extraction followed by pentafluoropropionic anhydride (PFPA) derivatization and a full scan (m/z 42-550) gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis was used to screen the urine samples for 33 designer drugs. Overall, in 36% of the specimens analyzed, a stimulant or psychoactive compound other than MDMA and 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA) was detected. BZP, TFMPP, and mCPP were detected in 15%, 7%, and 1% of the samples, respectively. PMID:21819791

Dickson, Amber J; Vorce, Shawn P; Holler, Justin M; Lyons, Timothy P

2010-10-01

93

Substance misuse in a high security hospital: Three years of urine drug testing at the State Hospital, Carstairs  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the increasing evidence for the significant contribution to violence made by alcohol and drug misuse in people with mental disorder, there is emerging evidence of the importance and increasing prevalence of substance misuse problems in patients admitted to high security hospitals in the UK. Recorded routine voluntary urine drug screening of patients at the State Hospital, the high security

Donald MacIntyre; Neil McNamara; Doug Irwin; Colin Gray; Rajan Darjee

2004-01-01

94

[Studies on analytical method for 10 drugs of abuse in urine using HPLC].  

PubMed

A systematic determination method for 10 drugs of abuse, morphine, codeine, 6-monoacetylmorphine, heroin, levorphanol, pethidine, ethylmorphine, anadol, pentazocine and ethamivan, using high performance liquid chromatography is described. Separation of the 10 drugs was achieved on a 25 cm x 4.6 mm ID, 10 microns Zorbax C8 column, using methanol--0.05 mol.L-1 KH2PO4--diethyl amine (27:73:0.5, pH 4) as mobile phase. Codeine was used as the interal standard. Calibration graphs were linear over the concentration range of 10-200 micrograms.ml-1 and regression equations showed correlation coefficients of greater than 0.999. Precision (RSD) were found to be better than 3% for each compound. Precision and linearity of the method are satisfactory for clinical toxicological applications. The extraction procedure yielded cleaner extracts. The recovery rates from urine were all above 87% without interference. This method is rapid, sensitive and specific. PMID:12016930

Ma, C; Duan, H; Zhang, H; Xu, Y; Zhou, T

1998-10-01

95

Duration of positive urine for cocaine metabolite after ophthalmic administration: implications for testing patients with suspected Horner syndrome using ophthalmic cocaine  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: To determine the duration of positive urine for benzoylecgonine, the major metabolite excreted in the urine, after topical ophthalmic administration of cocaine as one would perform for testing the presence of Horner syndrome.METHODS: Two drops of cocaine 10% were applied to each eye of 50 normal subjects. Urine samples were collected 4 to 6, 24, 48, 72, and 96

Daniel M Jacobson; Richard Berg; Gregory F Grinstead; Jodene R Kruse

2001-01-01

96

Fast, simultaneous quantification of three novel cardiac drugs in human urine by MEPS-UHPLC-MS/MS for therapeutic drug monitoring.  

PubMed

A sensitive and selective ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method was developed for the fast, simultaneous quantification of three novel cardiac drugs (aliskiren, prasugrel and rivaroxaban) in human urine. Sample preparation was performed with microextraction with packed sorbent (MEPS), which is a miniaturization of solid phase extraction. The optimal conditions for MEPS extraction were obtained using C8 sorbent, small sample volumes and a short time period (about 3min for the entire sample preparation step). Chromatographic separation of the selected compounds was achieved in less than 1.5min on a Zorbax Rapid Resolution High Definition SB-C18 column using isocratic elution with 0.1% formic acid and acetonitrile (70:30, v/v) at a flow rate of 0.8mLmin(-1). The detection was performed on a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer by multiple reaction monitoring via an electrospray ionization source with positive ionization mode. The method was fully validated according to the latest recommendations of international guidelines. The lower limit of quantification was 5.0pgmL(-1) for aliskiren and rivaroxaban and 0.5pgmL(-1) for prasugrel. The intra- and inter-day precision was within 7.12% and the accuracy ranged from -7.54% to 4.17%. The mean extraction recoveries of the MEPSC8 methodology were found to be 98.3% for aliskiren, 100.3% for rivaroxaban and 99.9% for prasugrel. This MEPSC8-UHPLC-MS/MS method offers a fast, simple and precise way to determine selected novel cardiac drugs in human urine that could be applied to therapeutic drug monitoring and pharmacokinetic studies. PMID:24076522

Magiera, Sylwia

2013-09-08

97

Long-term stability of various drugs and metabolites in urine, and preventive measures against their decomposition with special attention to filtration sterilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The long-term stability of drugs and metabolites of forensic interest in urine, and preventive measures against their decomposition have been investigated, with special attention to filtration sterilization. An aseptic urine collection kit, which was recently developed based on filtration sterilization, was utilized for the aseptic collection and storage of urine samples. For evaluating preservation measures, methamphetamine (MA), amphetamine (AP), nitrazepam

Kei Zaitsu; Akihiro Miki; Munehiro Katagi; Hitoshi Tsuchihashi

2008-01-01

98

PERCEPTION OF DRUG ADDICTS-HIV POSITIVE TOWARDS DENTAL SERVICES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many study worldwide showed that the HIV -positive individuals were discriminated on receiving dental care or treatment. A descriptive study to assess the perception of a group of Malaysian drug addicts who are HIV-positive toward dental care or treatment was conducted among drug addicts living in rehabilitation centres. The sampling frame of the study comprises drug addicts who are inmates

Sharol Lail Sujak; Rahimah Abdul Kadir; Roziah Omar

99

Are False-Positive Urine Markers for the Detection of Bladder Carcinoma Really Wrong or Do They Predict Tumor Recurrence?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction and Objectives: A problem in the interpretation of noninvasive urine tests for detection of bladder carcinoma is the finding of false-positive results. Several authors have described that patients with false-positive results are at high risk for tumor recurrence or progression. Only few data are available for comparing the clinical course of patients with false-positive test results and patients with

Martin G Friedrich; Angelika Hellstern; Marieta I Toma; Peter Hammerer; Hartwig Huland

2003-01-01

100

Direct injection LC–MS\\/MS method for identification and quantification of amphetamine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine in urine drug testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method based on direct injection of diluted urine for the identification and quantification of amphetamine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymetamphetamine and 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine in human urine by electrospray ionisation liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was validated for use as a confirmation procedure in urine drug testing. Two deuterium labelled analogues, amphetamine-D5 and 3,4-methylenedioxymetamphetamine-D5, were used as internal standards. Twenty microliter aliquots of urine were

M. Andersson; E. Gustavsson; N. Stephanson; O. Beck

2008-01-01

101

Screening and Confirmation of 62 Drugs of Abuse and Metabolites in Urine by Ultra-High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Quadrupole Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry.  

PubMed

An ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF-MS) method for the screening and confirmation of 62 drugs of abuse and their metabolites in urine was developed in this study. The most commonly abused drugs, including amphetamines, opioids, cocaine, benzodiazepines (BZDs) and barbiturates, and many other new and emerging abused drugs, were selected as the analytes for this study. Urine samples were diluted 5-fold with deionized water before analysis. Using a superficially porous micro-particulate column and an acetic acid-based mobile phase, 54 basic and 8 acidic analytes could be detected within 15 and 12 min in positive and negative ionization modes, respectively. The MS collision energies for the 62 analytes were optimized, and their respective fragmentation patterns were constructed in the in-house library for confirmatory analysis. The coefficients of variation of the intra- and inter-day precision of the analyte responses all were <17.39%. All analytes, except barbital, showed matrix effects of 77-121%. The limits of detection of the 62 analytes were between 2.8 and 187.5 ng/mL, which were lower than their respective cut-off concentrations (20-500 ng/mL). Ten urine samples from patients undergoing methadone treatment were analyzed by the developed UHPLC-QTOF-MS method, and the results were compared with the immunoassay method. PMID:24084874

Tsai, I-Lin; Weng, Te-I; Tseng, Yufeng J; Tan, Happy Kuy-Lok; Sun, Hsiao-Ju; Kuo, Ching-Hua

2013-09-30

102

Direct and efficient liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric method for opiates in urine drug testing - importance of 6-acetylmorphine and reduction of analytes.  

PubMed

Opiates comprise a class of abused drugs that is of primary interest in clinical and forensic urine drug testing. Determination of heroin, codeine, or a multi-drug ingestion is complicated since both heroin and codeine can lead to urinary excretion of free and conjugated morphine. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) offers advantage over gas chromatography-mass spectrometry by simplifying sample preparation but increases the number of analytes. A method based on direct injection of five-fold diluted urine for confirmation of morphine, morphine-3-glucuronide, morphine-6-glucuronide, codeine, codeine-6-glucuronide and 6-acetylmorphine was validated using LC-MS/MS in positive electrospray mode monitoring two transitions using selected reaction monitoring. The method was applied for the analysis of 3155 unknown urine samples which were positive for opiates in immunochemical screening. A linear response was observed for all compounds in the calibration curves covering more than three orders of magnitude. Cut off was set to 2?ng/ml for 6-acetylmorphine and 150?ng/ml for the other analytes. 6-Acetylmorphine was found to be effective (sensitivity 82%) in detecting samples as heroin intake. Morphine-3-glucuronide and codeine-6-glucuronide was the predominant components of total morphine and codeine, 84% and 93%, respectively. The authors have validated a robust LC-MS/MS method for rapid qualitative and quantitative analysis of opiates in urine. 6-Acetylmorphine has been demonstrated as a sensitive and important parameter for a heroin intake. A possible interpretation strategy to conclude the source of detected analytes was proposed. The method might be further developed by reducing the number of analytes to morphine-3-glucuronide, codeine-6-glucuronide and 6-acetylmorphine without compromising test performance. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:23720205

Andersson, Maria; Stephanson, Nikolai; Ohman, Inger; Terzuoli, Tommy; Lindh, Jonatan D; Beck, Olof

2013-05-29

103

A cocaine-positive baseline urine predicts outpatient treatment attrition and failure to attain initial abstinence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary study objective was to ascertain whether a prior finding that the baseline cocaine urine toxicology predicted treatment dropout for cocaine dependent outpatients could be extended to three additional cocaine dependent outpatient treatment samples and whether the urine toxicology also predicted attainment of initial abstinence for the four samples. A secondary objective was to ascertain the extent to which

Arthur I Alterman; Kyle Kampman; Chris R Boardman; John S Cacciola; Megan J Rutherford; James R. McKay; Iradj Maany

1997-01-01

104

Urine drugs of abuse testing at the point-of-care: clinical interpretation and programmatic considerations with specific reference to the Syva Rapid Test (SRT)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated a new point-of-care (POC) device for urine drugs of abuse (DOA) screening including appropriate clinical interpretation and potential benefits in a large academic medical center. Two hundred consecutive urine samples were tested using Syva Rapid Test (SRT) and existing laboratory methods (Syva EMIT II). Agreement between methods was acceptable with some considerations. Threshold concentration differences, drug interferences, and

Jane M. Yang; Kent B. Lewandrowski

2001-01-01

105

Hair and urine testing to assess drugs of abuse consumption in couples undergoing assisted reproductive technology (ART)  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the first time in Europe hair and urine testing have been applied to assess drugs of abuse consumption in couples undergoing assisted reproductive technology and the eventual association of toxic habits with other lifestyle, health status and sociodemographic factors was also investigated.Couples attending five assisted reproduction centers in Rome were invited to join the study. When they presented at

Simona Pichini; Roberto De Luca; Manuela Pellegrini; Emilia Marchei; Maria Concetta Rotolo; Roberta Spoletini; Paola D’Aloja; Roberta Pacifici; Claudia Mortali; Giulia Scaravelli

106

Origin of a false positive urine pregnancy test in a patient with membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis type I  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundDiscrepant qualitative urine and quantitative serum hCG results were observed in a patient with a history of membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis. Further studies were performed to investigate this discrepancy.

Mark A. Marzinke; Pamela Jarrar; Meredith Atkinson; Richard L. Humphrey; Barbara Detrick; Lori J. Sokoll

107

Toxicological screening of urine for drugs by liquid chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry with automated target library search based on elemental formulas.  

PubMed

The present study describes a novel approach for utilizing liquid chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC/TOFMS) in qualitative screening analysis. An LC/TOFMS method was developed for screening toxicologically relevant substances in urine samples. After solid phase extraction and LC separation, the method included full spectrum acquisition followed by automatic internal calibration, searching against a target library, and reporting positive identifications. The target library, containing 433 toxicologically relevant substances in the mass range of 105-734 Da, was created simply by entering the elemental formulas of substances into the instrument software for the calculation of their respective monoisotopic masses. In addition to parent drugs, the library contained selected urinary drug metabolites, based on their structures available in the literature. Identification was based on the exact masses of the compounds. The LC/TOFMS method provided 5-10 ppm mass accuracy for a majority of identified compounds in authentic urine samples. Compared with established thin-layer and gas chromatographic methods, the LC/TOFMS method produced similar findings in urine with the additional advantage of metabolite identification without actual reference substances. PMID:11312500

Gergov, M; Boucher, B; Ojanperä, I; Vuori, E

2001-01-01

108

Cross-reactivities of various phenethylamine-type designer drugs to immunoassays for amphetamines, with special attention to the evaluation of the one-step urine drug test Instant-View ™, and the Emit ® assays for use in drug enforcement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cross-reactivities of 76 kinds of phenethylamine-type designer drugs and related compounds to the urine drug tests Instant-View ™(IV) (the Methamphetamine (MA) test, the Amphetamine 300 test, and the MDMA test) have been investigated. An on-site urine test kit consisting of these three IV tests has been evaluated for the on-site screening of MA users, and the kit has been found

Keiko Nakanishi; Akihiro Miki; Kei Zaitsu; Hiroe Kamata; Noriaki Shima; Thooru Kamata; Munehiro Katagi; Michiaki Tatsuno; Hitoshi Tsuchihashi; Koichi Suzuki

109

High throughput analysis of drugs of abuse in hair by combining purposely designed sample extraction compatible with immunometric methods used for drug testing in urine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drug testing in hair usually requires a rather complex sample treatment before drugs are amenable to analysis by either immunological and\\/or chromatographic coupled to mass spectrometry methods. Immunological methods applied are usually dedicated to hair analysis as analytes present in this matrix are not always the same present in urine. Comedical s.a.s. laboratories recently commercialized reagents (VMA-T) purposely designed for

R. de la Torre; E. Civit; F. Svaizer; A. Lotti; M. Gottardi; M. Miozzo

2010-01-01

110

A capillary column gas-chromatographic method for the identification of drugs of abuse in urine samples.  

PubMed

This paper describes the application of capillary column gas liquid chromatography (GLC) to the analysis of urine samples for drugs of abuse. A simple basic extraction into butylacetate is followed by temperature programmed analysis from 90 degrees C to 310 degrees C to provide a comprehensive screen for basic drugs. Retention data are presented for approximately 300 compounds. The use of capillary column GLC is compared with packed column methods used previously in this laboratory. The reproducibility of retention data and sensitivity of this analysis for several commonly encountered drugs are presented. PMID:2817754

Caldwell, R; Challenger, H

1989-09-01

111

Urine culture  

MedlinePLUS

... lab to determine which, if any, bacteria or yeast are present in the urine. This takes 24 - ... positive" or abnormal test is when bacteria or yeast are found in the culture. This likely means ...

112

Post-run target screening strategy for ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled to Orbitrap based veterinary drug residue analysis in animal urine.  

PubMed

The performance of liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) post-run target screening for veterinary drug residue analysis (sulfonamides, tetracyclines and quinolones) in animal urine has been critically evaluated. It was found that retention time information still remains an essential information and that accurate masses together with relative isotopic abundance data alone are not sufficient for many residue applications. Post-run target screening requires the careful setting of parameters to achieve near zero false negative (above a defined threshold level) and a manageable numbers of false positive findings. HRMS offers many possibilities for the reduction of false positives (e.g. isotopic ratio, isotopic fine structure, exact mass of fragment ions). However, the successful use of such tools requires a sufficient ion intensity. This is often not available when trace level compounds are to be detected. Nevertheless, the proposed method is sufficiently sensitive to detect the veterinary drugs at the relevant concentration levels in urine. This means that the approach is well suited to significantly reduce the number of corresponding meat samples which have to be analyzed in a final step for the regulatory relevant quantification of residue levels in meat. The semi-quantitative screening of many samples for a large number of analytes within a short period of time requires the availability of software tools which provide fast and reliable answers. PMID:23026259

Kaufmann, A; Walker, S

2012-09-11

113

Clinical predictors of positive urine cultures in young children at risk for urinary tract infection  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are a common source of bacterial infection among young febrile children. The diagnosis of UTI is challenging because the clinical presentation is not specific. OBJECTIVE: To describe clinical predictors to identify young children needing urine culture for evaluation of UTI. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of all children younger than two years of age (719 hospital visits for 545 patients) suspected of having a UTI during a 12-month period. The outcome was UTI, defined as a catheterized urine culture with pure growth of 104 colonies/mL or greater, or suprapubic aspiration culture with 103 colonies/mL or greater. Candidate predictors included demographic, historical and physical examination variables. RESULTS: The medical records of 545 children younger than two years of age were reviewed. Forty-six per cent were girls. Mean age was 9.1 months (SD 7 months). Four variables were found to predict UTI: absence of another source of fever on examination (odds ratio [OR]=41.6 [95% CI, 8.8 to 197.4]), foul smelling urine (OR=19.7 [95% CI, 5.7 to 68.2]), white blood cell count greater than 15,000/mm3 (OR=4.3 [95% CI, 2.0 to 9.3]), younger than six months old (OR=3.1 [95% CI, 1.3 to 7.1]). The sensitivity of an abnormal urine analysis was 0.77 (95% CI, 0.66 to 0.88) and the specificity was 0.31 (95% CI, 0.2 to 0.42). CONCLUSION: An incremental increase in risk for UTI is associated with younger age (younger than six months), having a white blood cell count higher than 15,000/mm3, parental report of malodorous or foul smelling urine and the absence of an alternative source of fever. In the present patient population, obtaining a urine culture from children with at least one of these clinical predictors would have resulted in missing one UTI (2%), and 111 negative cultures (20%) would have been avoided.

Couture, Elise; Labbe, Valerie; Cyr, Claude

2003-01-01

114

Immunoassay detection of drugs in racing horses. IX. Detection of detomidine in equine blood and urine by radioimmunoassay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detomidine is a potent non-narcotic sedative agent which is currently in the process of being approved for veterinary clinical use in the United States. Since no effective screening method in horses is available for detomidine, we have developed an ¹²⁵I radioimmunoassay for detomidine in equine blood and urine as part of a panel of tests for illegal drugs in performance

T. Wood; C. L. Tai; D. G. Taylor; W. E. Woods; C. J. Wang; P. K. Houtz; H. H. Tai; T. J. Weckman; J. M. Yang; L. Sturma

1989-01-01

115

Development of the first metabolite-based LCMS n urine drug screening procedure-exemplified for antidepressants  

Microsoft Academic Search

In contrast to GC-MS libraries, currently available LC-MS libraries for toxicological detection contain besides parent drugs\\u000a only some main metabolites limiting their applicability for urine screening. Therefore, a metabolite-based LC-MS\\u000a n\\u000a screening procedure was developed and exemplified for antidepressants. The library was built up with MS2 and MS3 wideband spectra using an LXQ linear ion trap with electrospray ionization in

Dirk K. Wissenbach; Markus R. Meyer; Daniela Remane; Armin A. Weber; Hans H. Maurer

2011-01-01

116

Rapid drug-screening and quantitation of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine in urine by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for the rapid screening of the drugs, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), in urine by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOFMS) is described. In this method, ?-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (CHCA) is used as the matrix for the MALDI samples. The identity of MDMA was confirmed by flight time of the fragmentation ([M+H]+ ion) using a mass calculation curve, the quantification

An-Kai Su; Ju-Tsung Liu; Cheng-Huang Lin

2005-01-01

117

Multicomponent LC-MS/MS screening method for detection of new psychoactive drugs, legal highs, in urine-experience from the Swedish population.  

PubMed

The advent of new not yet legally regulated psychoactive substances sold over the Internet has created a challenge for clinical toxicology and drug testing laboratories. The routine use of immunoassay screening may no longer be the optimal solution in many instances since the number of analytes covered is becoming insufficient. The aim of this work was to design, validate and apply a multi-component LC-MS/MS method suitable for screening of a large number of target analytes belonging to the class of new psychoactive substances - legal highs. The analytical method was using a five-fold dilution of urine with internal standard (pethidine-d5) and injection of 2?L. The chromatographic system was using a 1.7-?m 100mm×2.1mm Ethylene Bridged Hybrid (BEH) C18 column and gradient elution with a flow rate of 600?L/min. Solvent A consisted of 0.1% formic acid and Solvent B was 100% acetonitrile. The gradient elution application was designed to have a wide polarity coverage with total run time of 4.0min. The tandem mass spectrometer was using an electrospray interface and operated in positive mode. Selected reaction monitoring of two ion transitions was used for each of 26 analytes. Method validation demonstrated limited influence from urine matrix, linear response within the measuring range (0.1-10?g/mL), acceptable imprecision in quantification (CV<15%). Some analytes were found not to be stable in urine upon storage. The method was successfully applied in routine drug testing. A total of 87 positive samples with 100 analytical findings were found to contain O-desmethyl-cis-tramadol (mostly without mitragynine), methylenedioxypyrovalerone, 4-fluoroamphetamine, methoxetamine, desoxypipradol, 4-fluoromethcathinone, 5,6-methylenedioxy-2-aminoindane, 4-methylmethcathinone, 3-fluoromethcathinone, 4-hydroxy-N-methyl-N-ethyltryptamine, ?-methylamino-butyrophenone and 4-methoxymethcathinone. PMID:23727875

Al-Saffar, Yasir; Stephanson, Niclas Nikolai; Beck, Olof

2013-05-07

118

Urine pH  

MedlinePLUS

... Drugs that can decrease urine pH include ammonium chloride, thiazide diuretics, and methenamine mandelate. Eat a normal, ... is associated with xanthine, cystine, uric acid , and calcium oxalate stones. Alkaline urine is associated with calcium ...

119

Drinking and smoking as concurrent predictors of illicit drug use and positive drug attitudes in adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study investigates the relationship between smoking and drinking, and the use of illicit drugs in a cohort of London adolescents. A high prevalence of drug experimentation and positive attitudes to illicit drug use were characteristic of those who both drank alcohol and smoked cigarettes on a regular basis. There was then a clear hierarchy in which lower prevalence of

David Best; Salman Rawaf; Jenny Rowley; Karen Floyd; Victoria Manning; John Strang

2000-01-01

120

High-Throughput Screening of Drugs of Abuse in Urine by Supported Liquid–Liquid Extraction and UHPLC Coupled to Tandem MS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A qualitative method, involving supported liquid–liquid extraction (SLE) and ultra high pressure liquid chromatography coupled\\u000a to tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS–MS), was developed for the rapid tentative identification of various drugs of abuse\\u000a in urine. In this study, 28 drugs and metabolites were covered by the screening procedure. Before analysis, urine samples\\u000a were extracted by SLE and good extraction recoveries were

Aubert Maquille; Davy Guillarme; Serge Rudaz; Jean-Luc Veuthey

2009-01-01

121

[Antimicrobial susceptibility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from urine at one hospital to mainly carbapenem and fluoroquinolone drugs].  

PubMed

We tested the drug susceptibility to 8 anti-pseudomonal agents of 97 strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from urine between January 1998 and May 2004. The results were as follows. 1. Antimicrobial activity was, in order of superiority to biapenem (BIPM), meropenem (MEPM), ciprofloxacin (CPFX), imipenem (IPM), pazufloxacin (PZFX), amikacin (AMK), ceftazidime (CAZ), piperacillin (PIPC). 2. The resistance rate (intermediate+resistance) to carbapenem drugs was 10.3% for BIPM and MEPM, and 13.4% for IPM. Many of the IPM-resistant strains showed crossover resistance with BIPM and MEPM. 3. The resistance rate (intermediate+resistance) to fluoroquinolone drugs was 23.7% for CPFX and 20.6% for PZFX. 4. One strain showed simultaneous resistance to IPM = 16 microg/mL, CPFX = 4 microg/mL, and AMK = 32 microg/mL, and produced IMP-1 metallo-beta-lactamase. Susceptibility of P. aeruginosa isolated from urine developed resistance to fluoroquinolone drugs. It is important to promote appropriate use of antimicrobial agents and continue to survey emerging resistance in the clinical isolates. PMID:16805317

Watanabe, Yaeko; Fujiue, Yoshihiro; Yano, Sintarou; Shimizu, Satomi; Muroki, Kunio; Doi, Masao; Kuwabara, Masao

2006-04-01

122

Rapid and simultaneous determination of multiple classes of abused drugs and metabolites in human urine by a robust LC-MS/MS method - application to urine drug testing in pain clinics.  

PubMed

A simple LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for quantitatively analyzing six classes of 26 abused drugs and metabolites in human urine: (1) illicit drugs; (2) opiates; (3) synthetic opioids; (4) sedative; (5) stimulants; and (6) ?-aminobutyric acid analogs. All urine samples were diluted with a mixture of isotope-labeled internal standards, hydrolyzed with ?-glucuronidase and directly injected in a gradient chromatographic run. The mobile phase was composed of 0.1% formic acid in water and 0.1% of formic acid in methanol. A 4.9 min run time using the multiplexing driver and ultra-biphenyl column (50 × 2.1 mm, 5 µm, RESTEK) allowed all drugs to have sufficient resolution in a short elute time. The overlapping liquid chromatography runs and scheduled multiple reaction monitoring acquisition method resulted in a higher overall throughput for the system. The result was linear over the studied range (2-16,000 ng/mL) for all compounds with correlation coefficients r(2) ? 0.995. The intra-day and inter-day precisions and accuracies were within 15% and recovery was between 83 and 115% for all analytes. Freeze-thaw stability for three cycles and long-term stability (57 days, -20°C) were established for all analytes. The cross-validation between College of American Pathologists and in-house was validated (0.06% ? bias ? 12.3%). The applicability of the method was examined by analyzing urine samples from chronic pain patients (n = 610). Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:23780634

Wang, Jianmei; Yang, Zhen; Lechago, James

2013-06-18

123

Windows of detection of tetrazepam in urine, oral fluid, beard, and hair, with a special focus on drug-facilitated crimes.  

PubMed

Reducing the capacity of a victim to react against sexual assault, coupled with a possible abrupt unconsciousness-inducing effect and ease of administration in spiked drinks, have resulted in the use of sedative agents in cases of drug-facilitated offence. Among these compounds, tetrazepam may impair an individual rapidly. The chances of detecting this substance increase if the most sensitive methods are used and if the biologic matrix that allows the longest possible detection time is available. To document the window of detection of tetrazepam, 50 mg of the drug was administered orally to 2 volunteers, and the following samples were collected: oral fluid (n = 1) over 515 minutes, urine (n = 2) over 236-240 hours, hair (n = 2) 4 weeks after exposure, and beard (n = 1) over 34 days. Tetrazepam was analyzed by LC-MS/MS (Micromass Quattro Micro) after alkalinization and extraction by dichloromethane/diethyl ether in the presence of diazepam-d5, used as internal standard. Reversed-phase separation on an XTerra MS C18 column was achieved in 12 minutes, under gradient conditions. Pseudo-molecular ions selected were m/z 289.2 and 290.2 for tetrazepam and the internal standard (IS), respectively, and the corresponding daughter ions selected were m/z 225.2 and 253.2 for tetrazepam and m/z 154.1 and 198.3 for the IS. Urine tested positive for tetrazepam over 236-240 hours (14-13 ng/mL). Oral fluid tested positive for tetrazepam over 515 minutes (2.5 ng/mL). Tetrazepam was detected in beard over 27 days (6.5 pg/mg). A single tetrazepam dose was detected in hair 4 weeks after intake (123-175 pg/mg). Tetrazepam tested positive over the studied time intervals but would be expected to be detectable for a considerably longer time. Therefore, in cases of drug-facilitated crimes in which tetrazepam is involved, hair and beard analyses can be an important complement to urine analyses to document exposure, particularly if LC-MS/MS is used. PMID:16175127

Concheiro, Marta; Villain, Marion; Bouchet, Stéphane; Ludes, Bertrand; López-Rivadulla, Manuel; Kintz, Pascal

2005-10-01

124

Positive Urgency Predicts Illegal Drug Use and Risky Sexual Behavior  

PubMed Central

There are several different personality traits that dispose individuals to engage in rash action. One such trait is positive urgency: the tendency to act rashly when experiencing extremely positive affect. This trait may be relevant for college student risky behavior, because it appears that a great deal of college student risky behavior is undertaken during periods of intensely positive mood states. To test this possibility, the authors conducted a longitudinal study designed to predict increases in risky sexual behavior and illegal drug use over the course of the first year of college (n = 407). In a well-fitting structural model, positive urgency predicted increases in illegal drug use and risky sexual behavior, even after controlling for time 1 (T1) involvement in both risky behaviors, biological sex, and T1 scores on four other personality dispositions to rash action. The authors discuss the theoretical and practical implications of this finding.

Zapolski, Tamika C. B.; Cyders, Melissa A.; Smith, Gregory T.

2009-01-01

125

Palmtop-assisted self-interviewing for the collection of sensitive behavioral data: randomized trial with drug use urine testing.  

PubMed

Palmtop-assisted self-interviewing (PASI) may provide a cheaper and more mobile alternative to audio-computer-assisted self-interviewing (ACASI) for collecting sensitive behavioral data. To evaluate PASI, in late 2002 the authors enrolled 1,283 Thai students aged 15-21 years in a randomized trial. Data collection used PASI, ACASI, self-administered questionnaire, and face-to-face interview in combination with drug-use urine testing. By use of reported levels of behaviors and agreement between self-reports of smoking and urine test results, PASI and ACASI (alpha = 0.05) were compared for noninferiority, and PASI and interview were compared for superiority (alpha = 0.05). Noninferiority of PASI was demonstrated by use of self-reports of the most sensitive areas of sexual behavior (e.g., oral sex, sexual intercourse, commercial sex, history of genital ulcers, pregnancy), as well as self-reports of less sensitive behaviors (e.g., alcohol use, dietary behaviors, symptoms of depression). Data generally showed noninferiority of PASI, ACASI, and self-administered questionnaires when compared with each other and superiority of PASI, ACASI, and self-administered questionnaires when compared with interviews. PASI agreements between self-reports of tobacco smoking and presence of nicotine metabolites in urine were noninferior to ACASI and superior to interviews. The establishment of PASI noninferiority and superiority using behavioral and biologic measures suggests that PASI is a scientifically acceptable alternative for collecting sensitive behavioral data. PMID:16357109

van Griensven, Frits; Naorat, Sataphana; Kilmarx, Peter H; Jeeyapant, Supaporn; Manopaiboon, Chomnad; Chaikummao, Supaporn; Jenkins, Richard A; Uthaivoravit, Wat; Wasinrapee, Punneporn; Mock, Philip A; Tappero, Jordan W

2005-12-15

126

Immunoassay detection of drugs in racing horses. IX. Detection of detomidine in equine blood and urine by radioimmunoassay  

SciTech Connect

Detomidine is a potent non-narcotic sedative agent which is currently in the process of being approved for veterinary clinical use in the United States. Since no effective screening method in horses is available for detomidine, we have developed an /sup 125/I radioimmunoassay for detomidine in equine blood and urine as part of a panel of tests for illegal drugs in performance horses. Our /sup 125/I radioimmunoassay has an I-50 for detomidine of approximately 2 ng/ml. Our assay shows limited cross-reactivity with the pharmacodynamically similar xylazine, but does not cross-react with acepromazine, epinephrine, haloperidol or promazine. The plasma kinetic data from clinical (greater than or equal to 5 mg/horse) as well as sub-clinical doses indicate first-order elimination in a dose-dependent manner. Within the first 30 minutes after intravenous (IV) administration of 30 mg/horse, plasma levels peak at approximately 20 ng/ml and then decline with an apparent plasma half-life of 25 minutes. Diuresis can occur with administration of clinical doses of detomidine and this effect was accounted for in the analysis of urine samples. Using this method, administration of 30 mg/horse can be readily detected in equine urine for up to 8 hours after IV injection. Additionally, doses as low as 0.5 mg/horse can be detected for short periods of time in blood and urine with use of this assay. Utilization of this assay by research scientists and forensic analysts will allow for the establishment of proper guidelines and controls regarding detomidine administration to performance horses and assurance of compliance with these guidelines.

Wood, T.; Tai, C.L.; Taylor, D.G.; Woods, W.E.; Wang, C.J.; Houtz, P.K.; Tai, H.H.; Weckman, T.J.; Yang, J.M.; Sturma, L.

1989-02-01

127

Simultaneous analysis of several non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in human urine by high-performance liquid chromatography with normal solid-phase extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

A practical and reproducible high-performance liquid chromatographic method using normal solid-phase extraction has been developed for the simultaneous analysis of twelve non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in human urine. A urine specimen mixed with acetate buffer pH 5.0 was purified by solid-phase extraction on a Sep-Pak Silica cartridge. The analyte was chromatographed by a reversed-phase Inertsil ODS-2 column using a phosphate

Toshio Hirai; Shozo Matsumoto; Ikuo Kishi

1997-01-01

128

Efficacy and safety of anti-tuberculosis drugs in HIV-positive patients: A prospective study  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To assess the efficacy and safety of anti-tuberculosis drugs in HIV-positive patients at a tertiary care teaching hospital. Materials and Methods: As a part of an ongoing study of opportunistic infections (OIs) in HIV-positive patients, drug treatment in patients suffering from tuberculosis was assessed to determine its efficacy and safety. Based on prevalence data for last three years, a purposive sampling of study population was carried out in this observational, prospective, single centre study. Tuberculosis (TB) was the most common OI observed. The selected patients were followed up for a period of one year to evaluate the clinical course and outcome of OIs, and the efficacy and safety of drugs used was checked. Results: Tuberculosis was observed in 89 out of 134 enrolled patients. These included 79 adults and 10 children. Males (66.2%) were commonly affected. Extra pulmonary TB (73%) was the most common manifestation with abdominal TB observed in 55 (61.7%) patients. All patients were treated in accordance with the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP) guidelines as recommended by National AIDS Control Organization (NACO), India. Outcome of TB was assessable in 70 patients. Majority (82.8%) of the patients were cured, while 12 patients (17.1%) died during the course of treatment. A total of 149 ADRs were observed in 67 (75.2%) patients. Majority of ADRs (n = 147) were non-serious and did not warrant a change in therapy. Discoloration of urine was the most common ADR observed. Conclusion: TB is the most common opportunistic infection in HIV-positive patients with abdominal TB being the most common manifestation. RNTCP and NACO guidelines are adhered to in these patients. Anti-tuberculosis drugs are well tolerated and effective in majority of the patients.

Kapadia, Jigar D.; Desai, Chetna K.; Solanki, Manish N.; Shah, Asha N.; Dikshit, R. K.

2013-01-01

129

A Competitive Enzyme Immunoassay for Albuterol: Its Application for the Drug Screening in Urine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A competitive enzyme immunoassay using purified monoclonal IgGl and an alkaline phosphatase-albuterol derivative has been developed for the quantification of albuterol in urine. The calibration curve obtained in optimal incubation, conditions is characterized by a minimum detectable level of 26 fmol\\/well and a working range from 52 fmol to 4,2 pmol\\/well. This method allows the precise and accurate quantification of

Albert Adam; Huy Ong; Andre Gravel; Jacques Messier; Monique Bellemare; Francine Lantin; Gilles Sauvé; Peeter Tyssen

1991-01-01

130

Profiling of 19-norandrosterone sulfate and glucuronide in human urine: Implications in athlete's drug testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

19-Norandrosterone (19-NA) as its glucuronide derivative is the target metabolite in anti-doping testing to reveal an abuse of nandrolone or nandrolone prohormone. To provide further evidence of a doping with these steroids, the sulfoconjugate form of 19-norandrosterone in human urine might be monitored as well. In the present study, the profiling of sulfate and glucuronide derivatives of 19-norandrosterone together with

Emmanuel Strahm; Norbert Baume; Patrice Mangin; Martial Saugy; Christiane Ayotte; Christophe Saudan

2009-01-01

131

Urine Testing for Drugs of Abuse. NIDA Research Monograph Series 73.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In the past 5 years, a growing concern over the use of illicit drugs in the workplace has led to an interest in urinalysis as a way to detect and deter drug use. This monograph provides information that will assist those involved in the planning or implementation of drug testing programs in making informed choices. Articles include: (1)…

Hawks, Richard L., Ed.; Chiang, C. Nora, Ed.

132

Urine Testing for Drugs of Abuse. NIDA Research Monograph Series 73.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the past 5 years, a growing concern over the use of illicit drugs in the workplace has led to an interest in urinalysis as a way to detect and deter drug use. This monograph provides information that will assist those involved in the planning or implementation of drug testing programs in making informed choices. Articles include: (1)…

Hawks, Richard L., Ed.; Chiang, C. Nora, Ed.

133

Drug testing by urine and hair analysis: complementary features and scientific issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hair analysis and urinalysis are complementary tests for establishing drug use. Hair analysis provides long-term information, from months to years, concerning both the severity and pattern of drug use. In contrast to this, urinalysis can indicate only drug use, and then generally only that which has occurred within the last 2–3 days. Field studies have demonstrated that hair analysis is

Robert L. DuPont; Werner A. Baumgartner

1995-01-01

134

Urine tested positive for ethyl glucuronide and ethyl sulfate after the consumption of yeast and sugar  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundTo an increasing degree, EtG and EtS are routinely used for the proof of abstinence for purposes of traffic, occupational, addiction and social medicine. This routine use demands further investigations on the sensitivity and specificity of these analytes and the examination of possible genesis of positive EtG and EtS concentrations even without the consumption of ethanol. In vivo fermentation with

Annette Thierauf; Ariane Wohlfarth; Volker Auwärter; Markus Große Perdekamp; Friedrich Martin Wurst; Wolfgang Weinmann

2010-01-01

135

Rapid confirmation of enzyme multiplied immunoassay technique (EMIT) cocaine positive urine samples by capillary gas-liquid chromatography/nitrogen phosphorus detection (GLC/NPD).  

PubMed

A rapid gas-liquid chromatographic (GLC) method was developed for the confirmation of benzoylecgonine (BE) positive urine samples screened by the enzyme multiplied immunoassay technique (EMIT) assay. The procedure is performed by solvent extraction of BE from 0.1 or 0.2 mL of urine, followed by an aqueous wash of the solvent and evaporation. The dried residue was derivatized with 50 microL of pentafluoropropionic anhydride and 25 microL of pentafluoropropropanol at 90 degrees C for 15 min. The derivatizing reagents were evaporated to dryness, and the derivatized BE, and cocaine if present, were reconstituted and injected into the gas chromatograph. The column was a 15-m by 0.2-mm fused silica capillary column, coated with 0.25 micron of DB-1, terminating in a nitrogen phosphorus detector (NPD). Cocaine and the pentafluoro BE derivatives retention times were 3.2 and 2.6 min, respectively. Nalorphine was used as reference or internal standard with a retention time of 4.78 min. The complete procedure can be performed in approximately 1.5 h. The EMIT cutoff between positive and negative urine samples is 300 ng/mL of BE. The lower limit of sensitivity of this method is 25 ng of BE extracted from urine. Validation studies resulted in confirmation of 101 out of 121 EMIT cocaine positive urine samples that could not be confirmed by thin-layer chromatography (TLC). This represents 84% confirmation efficiency. PMID:2645381

Verebey, K; DePace, A

1989-01-01

136

On beyond urine: clinically useful assesment instruments in the treatment of drug dependence  

PubMed Central

Although there are a wealth of clinically useful, brief, and low-cost assessment instruments available for use with drug-dependent populations, relatively few are broadly used in clinical practice. With an emphasis on: (1) the multidimensional nature of drug users’ problems; and (2) assessments that can be integrated into empirically validated treatments, clinically useful assessments in four general categories (evaluation and diagnosis of drug dependence, identifying concurrent disorders and problems, treatment planning, and evaluation of treatment outcome) are briefly summarized. Progress in the field of drug abuse treatment has been significantly hampered by the failure to adopt, across research and clinical settings, a common set of assessments.

Carroll, K.M.; Rounsaville, B.J.

2013-01-01

137

Application of metabonomics in a compound ranking study in early drug development revealing drug-induced excretion of choline into urine.  

PubMed

Selecting drug candidates based on toxicity is an important step in early drug development. In this case study, it is shown how metabonomics is applied to a ranking study, in which drug candidates with equal pharmacological activities are selected based on least toxic side effects. The metabonomic analyses were carried out on an animal study that followed an established protocol for pilot toxicology/ranking studies in rats, however, not specifically modified for a metabonomic assessment. It is shown how conditions not specificially adopted for metabonomics investigations can significantly influence the metabolic profiles recorded by NMR. Furthermore, it is shown how the multivariate analysis of the NMR spectra identified an extreme excretion of an endogenous metabolite into urine induced by two out of the five drug candidates. The subsequent structure elucidation by two-dimensional NMR experiments and a subsequent validation by spiking experiments identified the metabolite as choline. The discussion of the mechanistic background for the excretion of choline, which is usually well-conserved in the body, results in two hypotheses of either a massive degradation of cell membranes or an inhibition of the choline oxidation. Although the validation of these hypotheses needs a follow-up study, the finding of a increased excretion of the important metabolite choline warrants exclusion of these two compounds as viable drug candidates from a metabonomics point of view. PMID:16978021

Dieterle, Frank; Schlotterbeck, Götz; Ross, Alfred; Niederhauser, Urs; Senn, Hans

2006-09-01

138

Post-mortem toxicological urine screening in cause of death determination  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated standard toxicology screening by forensic physicians during external post-mortem examination. Collected urine samples of decedents were screened on-site for the presence of 10 commonly used drugs by means of a rapid multidrug test. Urine samples of 53% of the cases appeared to be positive for one or more compounds. Importantly, several cases were revealed which were positive

Manon Ceelen; Tina Dorn; Marcel Buster; Joris Stomp; Peter Zweipfenning; Kees Das

2011-01-01

139

Examining the Relationship between Gender and Drug-Using Behaviors in Adolescents: The Use of Diagnostic Assessments and Biochemical Analyses of Urine Samples.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the relationship between gender and drug use among adolescents using diagnostic assessments and biochemical analyses of urine samples. Statistical significance was found in the relationship between gender and marijuana use. The study confirms that more research is needed in this area. (Author/MKA)

James, William H.; Moore, David D.

1999-01-01

140

The GC\\/MS analysis of some commonly used non-steriodal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in pharmaceutical dosage forms and in urine  

Microsoft Academic Search

All the commonly used non-steriodal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), except mefenamic acid, when extracted from the pharmaceutical dosage forms or the urines of users, and derivatized by silylation and then analysed by GC\\/MS, gave the mono- or the di-trimethylsilyl derivatives (depending on the number of derivatized groups in the drug) as the sole products. Mefenamic acid gave a mixture of products.

B. M El Haj; A. M Al Ainri; M. H Hassan; R. K Bin Khadem; M. S Marzouq

1999-01-01

141

Urine Trouble: Drug Testing of Students and Teachers in Public Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Non-individualized (so-called "random") drug testing in public schools presents issues of Constitutional law on both the federal and state levels, particularly with regard to citizens' freedom from "unreasonable searches and seizures." The trend toward increasing acceptance of such testing by the courts (and particularly the U.S. Supreme Court)…

Butler, Frank

2012-01-01

142

Urine Trouble: Drug Testing of Students and Teachers in Public Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Non-individualized (so-called "random") drug testing in public schools presents issues of Constitutional law on both the federal and state levels, particularly with regard to citizens' freedom from "unreasonable searches and seizures." The trend toward increasing acceptance of such testing by the courts (and particularly the U.S. Supreme Court)…

Butler, Frank

2012-01-01

143

Broad Spectrum Drug Identification Directly from Urine, Using Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Currently the rate-limiting step for mass spectrometric analysis of drugs in biological samples is sample preparation. Many gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry (GC\\/MS) methods are specific for a certain class of compounds, requiring extraction and\\/or deriva- tization before analysis. The purpose of this study was to develop a broad spectrum liquid chromatography\\/ mass spectrometry (LC\\/MS) procedure that allowed for direct analysis

Robert L. Fitzgerald; Jeffrey D. Rivera; David A. Herold

144

Urine drugs of abuse testing at the point-of-care: clinical interpretation and programmatic considerations with specific reference to the Syva Rapid Test (SRT).  

PubMed

We evaluated a new point-of-care (POC) device for urine drugs of abuse (DOA) screening including appropriate clinical interpretation and potential benefits in a large academic medical center. Two hundred consecutive urine samples were tested using Syva Rapid Test (SRT) and existing laboratory methods (Syva EMIT II). Agreement between methods was acceptable with some considerations. Threshold concentration differences, drug interferences, and cross-reactivity profiles of the class-specific assays resulted in performance differences between the POC and central laboratory methods. Clinical interpretation of POC results requires an understanding of these issues as well as the limitations of urine testing. While urine-based screening is used in workplace testing and in a variety of clinical applications, quantitative blood measurements of some drugs (e.g. ethanol, acetaminophen, salicylate, +/-tricyclic antidepressants) will remain important in the emergent setting. Performance of the SRT method takes approximately 10 min. Consequently, the major advantage over laboratory methods is rapid turnaround time. At the Massachusetts General Hospital, the most important application is for samples from the emergency department (about 1700/year). Each institution should assess its own needs and capabilities with regard to POC versus laboratory-based testing for DOA. PMID:11369333

Yang, J M; Lewandrowski, K B

2001-05-01

145

Legal Position of School Personnel -- Drugs and Narcotics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|California educators have been given broad discretionary powers to control students who misuse drugs or narcotics, and to develop drug education programs. This paper outlines and discusses legislation dealing with disciplinary actions against drug offenders, and delineates school responsibilities for developing and implementing effective drug…

Shannon, Thomas A.

146

28 CFR 550.42 - Procedures for urine surveillance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Procedures for urine surveillance. 550.42 Section 550.42 ...DRUG PROGRAMS Drug Services (Urine Surveillance and Counseling for Sentenced Inmates... § 550.42 Procedures for urine surveillance. (a) Contractor...

2013-07-01

147

Factors affecting crystal precipitation from urine in individuals with long-term urinary catheters colonized with urease-positive bacterial species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Weekly urinalysis was conducted for 12 weeks on a group of 21 long-term catheter users with confirmed catheter encrustation and urinary tract colonization with urease-positive bacteria, in order to explore the cause of considerable variation in the severity of encrustation between sufferers. The rapidity of catheter blockage correlated significantly with the pH above which crystals precipitated from urine (the nucleation pH)

Sunil Mathur; Marc T. E. Suller; David J. Stickler; Roger C. L. Feneley

2006-01-01

148

Occurrence of ethanol and other drugs in blood and urine specimens from female victims of alleged sexual assault  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of toxicological analysis of blood and urine specimens from 1806 female victims of alleged non-consensual sexual activity are reported. After making contact with the police authorities, the victims were examined by a physician for injuries and biological specimens were taken for forensic toxicology and other purposes (e.g. DNA). Urine if available or otherwise on an aliquot of blood after

Alan Wayne Jones; Fredrik C. Kugelberg; Anita Holmgren; Johan Ahlner

2008-01-01

149

New designer drug p-methoxymethamphetamine: studies on its metabolism and toxicological detection in urine using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies are described on the metabolism and the toxicological analysis of the new designer drug rac-p-methoxymethamphetamine (PMMA) in rat urine using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). The identified metabolites indicated that PMMA was extensively metabolized mainly by O-demethylation to pholedrine and to a minor extent to p-methoxyamphetamine (PMA), 1-hydroxypholedrine diastereomers (one being oxilofrine), 4?-hydroxy-3?-methoxymethamphetamine and 4?-hydroxy-3?-methoxyamphetamine. The authors’ systematic toxicological analysis

Roland F. Staack; Josef Fehn; Hans H. Maurer

2003-01-01

150

Validation of urine drug-of-abuse testing methods for ketobemidone using thin-layer chromatography and liquid chromatography–electrospray mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-performance thin-layer chromatography (TLC) with visual detection (post-chromatographic derivatization) was used in screening for the drug ketobemidone in human urine samples. High-performance liquid chromatography with electrospray mass spectrometry (LC–ESI–MS) was used for final confirmation of the result. The clean-up was performed by mixed-mode solid-phase extraction, and nalorphine was used as internal standard. A screening cut-off for TLC was established at

Torben Breindahl; Kirsten Andreasen

1999-01-01

151

Solid-phase extraction of 11-nor-delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid from urine drug-testing specimens with the cerex polycrom-THC column.  

PubMed

Confirmation of drugs of abuse by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is the most time-consuming process used by drug-testing laboratories. Cost effectiveness and competitive turnaround times for testing results demand fast, efficient, and reliable extraction methods. We applied the Cerex Polycrom-THC solid-phase extraction (SPE) column to the extraction of 11-nor-delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol carboxylic acid (9-THCA) from urine. This column uses an anion exchange divinyl-benzene copolymer, which requires no pH adjustment after hydrolysis of the THC-glucuronide with base, as is necessary with many other SPE columns. With urine, no preconditioning of the SPE column was necessary. After extraction, trimethylsilation derivatization was performed with N-methyl-N-(trimethylsilyl) trifluoroacetamide. This further improved efficiency because no heated incubation was required. A method correlation to an existing liquid-liquid extraction was performed. Analysis was on a Finnigan Voyager GC-MS with a 2.5-min run time per injection. Using 9-THCA-d9 deuterated internal standard, the assay was linear from 2 to 2000 ng/mL. Total precision at the 15-ng/mL cutoff concentration was 4.4%. The Cerex column was also evaluated for interference using two common drug-test adulterants, Klear and Urine Luck. Considerably less interference was observed when compared to an existing liquid-liquid method. PMID:10872570

Crockett, D K; Nelson, G; Dimson, P; Urry, F M

152

Isolation of an X-factor-dependent but porphyrin-positive Escherichia coli from urine of a patient with hemorrhagic cystitis.  

PubMed

An Escherichia coli isolate was recovered from a 92-year-old female patient with urinary tract infection. Gram-stained preparation of the urine sediment manifested some gram-negative rod-shaped cells, and the urine specimen culture yielded nonhemolytic colonies on sheep blood agar plate. However, no visible colonies appeared on modified Drigalski agar plate. The isolate was finally identified as an X-factor-dependent E. coli. The interesting finding was that the isolate revealed a positive reaction for porphyrin test despite the requirement of hemin. This finding suggested that some pyrrol-ring-containing porphyrin compounds or fluorescent porphyrins had been produced as chemical intermediates in the synthetic pathway from ?-amino-levulinic acid (ALA), although the isolate should be devoid of synthesizing hems from ALA. This was the first clinical isolation of such a strain, indicating that the E. coli isolate should possess incomplete synthetic pathways of hems from ALA. PMID:23108428

Matsumoto, Takehisa; Kawakami, Yoshiyuki; Sueki, Akane; Kasuga, Eriko; Oana, Kozue; Horiuchi, Kazuki; Kato, Miyuki; Honda, Takayuki

2012-10-30

153

Analysis of nine drugs and their cytochrome P450-specific probe metabolites from urine by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry utilizing sub 2 microm particle size column.  

PubMed

An LC/MS/MS method was developed for the analysis of twelve cytochrome P450 (CYP)-specific probe metabolites and their nine parent drugs from human urine. CYP-specific metabolites of melatonin (CYP1A2), nicotine (CYP2A6), bupropion (CYP2B6), repaglinide (CYP2C8), losartan (CYP2C9), omeprazole (CYP2C19 and CYP3A4), dextromethorphan (CYP2D6), chlorzoxazone (CYP2E1) and midazolam (CYP3A4) were all analyzed using the same LC/MS/MS method with a single analytical run, either after a one-at-a-time dose or cocktail-type dosing of the parent drugs. Ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) with a 1.7 microm particle size column was utilized, providing 1.5-3-fold increase in sensitivity, decrease of analysis time to one third and clearly better chromatographic peak shapes when comparing it with the method using traditional high performance liquid chromatography for the same metabolites. In addition, the method was applied for the analysis of the metabolites from human urine samples collected at multiple time points after single and N-in-one dosing of each of the drugs, showing that the use of both the analytical method and these probe metabolites as CYP-specific markers is feasible in in vivo drug-drug interaction or phenotyping studies. PMID:19019380

Petsalo, Aleksanteri; Turpeinen, Miia; Pelkonen, Olavi; Tolonen, Ari

2008-11-07

154

Quantitative LC-MS/MS method in urine for the detection of drugs used to reverse the effects of chemical castration.  

PubMed

The chemical castration law, which targets child molesters with recidivism, was introduced in Korea in 2011. For this, leuprolide, a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist, is used to decrease testosterone production and suppress libido. In order to achieve efficient law enforcement, it is necessary to monitor intentional ingestion of drugs that antagonize the effect of leuprolide. Therefore, an analytical method for the simultaneous detection of mirodenafil, sildenafil, tadalafil, udenafil, vardenafil, icariin, alprostadil, and yohimbine, which are the major impotence treatment drugs, legitimately or otherwise, in Korea, as well as their selected metabolites, in human urine was established and validated using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). First, different sample preparation methods, two solid-phase extractions with different cartridges and protein precipitation, were compared and protein precipitation was chosen for the entire study because it showed better matrix effects and recoveries. Thus, the drugs and metabolites in urine were extracted by protein precipitation and then filtered and analyzed by LC-MS/MS with polarity switching electrospray ionization. The validation results of selectivity, matrix effect, recovery, linearity, intra- and inter-assay precision and accuracy were satisfactory. The limits of detection ranged from 0.25 to 10 ng/mL, and the limits of quantification were 2.5 to 50 ng/mL. The drugs and metabolites in urine did not show any degradation under storage for 7 and 15 days at 4 and -20 °C as well as after three freeze-thaw cycles. The developed method will be very useful for monitoring the illegal use of impotence treatment drugs. PMID:23371534

Lee, Sooyeun; Kang, So-young; Ji, Dajeong; Baeck, Seungkyung; Lee, Sangki; Oh, Seung Min; Chung, Kyu Hyuck

2013-02-01

155

Studies on the metabolism and toxicological detection of the designer drug 4-methylthioamphetamine (4-MTA) in human urine using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

4-Methylthioamphetamine (4-MTA) is a scheduled designer drug that has appeared on the illicit drug market and led to several non-fatal or even fatal poisonings. Only few data are available on its metabolism. The first aim of this study was to identify the 4-MTA metabolites in human urine and then to study whether the authors' STA procedure is suitable for screening for and identification of 4-MTA and/or its metabolites in urine. After enzymatic cleavage of conjugates, solid-phase extraction (SPE) and acetylation the following metabolites could be identified by full-scan gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS): deamino-oxo 4-MTA, deamino-hydroxy 4-MTA, ring hydroxy and beta-hydroxy 4-MTA. 4-MTA sulfoxide could be identified as possible artifact. In urine samples after enzymatic hydrolysis, acidic extraction, and methylation, 4-methylthiobenzoic acid could be identified. The authors' systematical toxicological analysis (STA) procedure using full-scan GC-MS after acid hydrolysis, liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and acetylation allowed detection of 4-MTA as target analyte plus all the above-mentioned metabolites with the exception of 4-methylthiobenzoic acid. The extraction efficiency of 4-MTA was approximately 70% and the limit of detection (LOD) was 30 ng/ml (S/N 3). PMID:16027051

Ewald, Andreas H; Peters, Frank T; Weise, Magdalene; Maurer, Hans H

2005-09-25

156

Elevated Urine Zinc Concentration Reduces the Detection of Methamphetamine, Cocaine, THC and Opiates in Urine by EMIT.  

PubMed

Methods for circumventing positive drug tests continue to evolve and are often spread through internet websites reporting on the proposed effectiveness of various adulteration methods. Recent claims of the use of zinc added directly to urine or ingested prior to urine collection have prompted investigation into the vulnerability of ELISA-based testing, providing interesting but inconclusive results. We investigated the potential interference of zinc used as a direct adulterant and after zinc self-administration for enzyme multiplied immunoassay technique (EMIT)-based drug abuse testing in urine. Negative urine samples and samples collected before and after zinc self-administration were fortified with d-methamphetamine, benzoylecgonine, morphine and 11-nor-9-carboxy-tetrahydrocannabinol prior to analysis by the EMIT. Our data indicate that zinc added directly to urine in concentrations 5,000 times higher than a typical random urine total zinc concentration is capable of producing false-negative results; however, self-administration of oral zinc was unable to generate random urine total zinc concentrations in the required range. Further, no evidence of a secondary interfering substance was observed as a result of oral zinc self-administration. Our results indicate that the total zinc concentrations required to directly interfere with EMIT-based testing are easily distinguishable from routine random urine total zinc concentrations, and that alleged oral ingestion of zinc does not produce total zinc concentrations capable of direct interference. PMID:23843421

Lin, Chia-Ni; Strathmann, Frederick G

2013-07-10

157

Urination - painful  

MedlinePLUS

... such as yeast or other infections of the vulva and vagina Other causes of painful urination include: ... in the urine ? Are there any rashes or itching in the genital area? What medications are you ...

158

Sodium - urine  

MedlinePLUS

The sodium urine test measures the amount of salt (sodium) in a urine sample. Sodium can also ... L/day), depending on how much fluid and salt you consume. The examples above are common measurements ...

159

Determination of antitubercular drugs in urine and pharmaceuticals by LC using a gradient flow combined with programmed diode array photometric detection.  

PubMed

The simultaneous determination of the antitubercular drugs rifampicin, pyrazinamide, isoniazid and the acetylisoniazid metabolite has been accomplished by LC, using a C-18 analytical column. The assayed drugs are usually administered together in the treatment of tuberculosis. Creatinine was also included in the chromatographic determination, in order to establish the curve of excretion of the drugs in urine. The chromatographic method uses a gradient flow in three steps, in conjunction with a programmed diode array photometric detection. In a 0.02 M potassium dihydrogen phosphate pH 7.0 buffer, a 5% (v/v) content of methanol for 1 min, a 8% (v/v) content of methanol for 3.4 min, and a 75% (v/v) content of methanol for 4 min were used. At 4.5 min, the wavelength value of detection was changed from 254 to 475 nm. Creatinine, acetylisoniazid, isoniazid and pyrazinamide were eluted in the first 4.5 min and rifampicin before 8 min. The method has been satisfactorily applied to the determination of the drugs in urine samples and in pharmaceuticals. The proposed LC method is simple, and a short time, less than 8 min is necessary for compounds elution. PMID:18968751

Espinosa-Mansilla, A; Acedo-Valenzuela, M I; Muñoz de la Peña, A; Cañada Cañada, F; Salinas López, F

2002-08-23

160

Environmental and biological monitoring of platinum-containing drugs in two hospital pharmacies using positive air pressure isolators.  

PubMed

Environmental and biological monitoring of platinum containing drugs was implemented in two French hospital pharmacies using positive air pressure isolators and having similar working procedures when preparing antineoplastic drugs. Wipe sampling of surfaces, gloves, and vials was performed in the preparation room and in storage areas. All employees involved in the preparation of antineoplastic drugs were tested for urinary platinum on Monday before work and Friday after shift. Only traces of platinum were detected on surfaces in the preparation room outside the isolators (less than 1.61 pg cm(-2)). However, in one center, significant contamination was found in the storage area of the drug vials, which can most likely be linked to the rupture of a platinum vial and due to inefficient cleaning procedures. Surfaces inside the isolators were found to be contaminated (maximum: 198.4 pg cm(-2)). A higher level of contamination was detected in one pharmacy and could be explained by the lack of overgloving with regular changes during the preparation process. Nitrile gloves used during drug handling outside the isolator showed the highest platinum concentration (maximum: 5.86 ng per pair). With regards to platinum urine concentration, no significant difference was found between exposed and unexposed pharmacy personnel. Isolator technology combined with individual protective measures seems to be efficient to protect workers from occupational exposure to antineoplastic drugs, whereas specific individual protective procedures implemented were focussing on the risk of handling vials outside the isolator (e.g. high frequency of glove changing). Moreover, overgloving inside the isolator would contribute to substantially decrease inner surface contamination and should be recommended in order to limit the transfer of chemical contamination to the end products. PMID:23091112

Kopp, Bettina; Crauste-Manciet, Sylvie; Guibert, Agnès; Mourier, Wilhelmine; Guerrault-Moro, Marie-Noelle; Ferrari, Sylvie; Jomier, Jean-Yves; Brossard, Denis; Schierl, Rudolf

2012-10-22

161

Evaluation of a direct high-capacity target screening approach for urine drug testing using liquid chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

In this study a rapid liquid chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry method was developed, validated and applied in order to evaluate the potential of this technique for routine urine drug testing. Approximately 800 authentic patient samples were analyzed for amphetamines (amphetamine and methamphetamine), opiates (morphine, morphine-3-glucuronide, morphine-6-glucuronide, codeine and codeine-6-glucuronide) and buprenorphines (buprenorphine and buprenorphine-glucuronide) using immunochemical screening assays and mass spectrometry confirmation methods for comparison. The chromatographic application utilized a rapid gradient with high flow and a reversed phase column with 1.8 ?m particles. Total analysis time was 4 min. The mass spectrometer operated with an electrospray interface in positive mode with a resolution power of >10,000 at m/z 956. The applied reporting limits were 100 ng/mL for amphetamines and opiates, and 5 ng/mL for buprenorphines, with lower limits of quantification were 2.8-41 ng/mL. Calibration curves showed a linear response with coefficients of correlation of 0.97-0.99. The intra- and interday imprecision in quantification at the reporting limits were <10% for all analytes but for buprenorphines <20%. Method validation data met performance criteria for a qualitative and quantitative method. The liquid chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry method was found to be more selective than the immunochemical method by producing lower rates of false positives (0% for amphetamines and opiates; 3.2% for buprenorphines) and negatives (1.8% for amphetamines; 0.6% for opiates; 0% for buprenorphines). The overall agreement between the two screening methods was between 94.2 and 97.4%. Comparison of data with the confirmation (LC-MS) results for all individual 9 analytes showed that most deviating results were produced in samples with low levels of analytes. False negatives were mainly related to failure of detected peak to meet mass accuracy criteria (±20 mDa). False positives was related to presence of interfering peaks meeting mass accuracy and retention time criteria and occurred mainly at low levels. It is concluded that liquid chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry has potential both as a complement and as replacement of immunochemical screening assays. PMID:23153637

Saleh, Aljona; Stephanson, Niclas Nikolai; Granelli, Ingrid; Villén, Tomas; Beck, Olof

2012-10-09

162

49 CFR 40.45 - What form is used to document a DOT urine collection?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...document a DOT urine collection...The Federal Drug Testing Custody and...document every urine collection required by the DOT drug testing program...CCF for DOT urine collections...in the DOT drug testing...

2010-10-01

163

49 CFR 40.45 - What form is used to document a DOT urine collection?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...document a DOT urine collection...The Federal Drug Testing Custody and...document every urine collection required by the DOT drug testing program...CCF for DOT urine collections...in the DOT drug testing program,...

2009-10-01

164

Sexual Risk Taking among HIV-Positive Injection Drug Users: Contexts, Characteristics, and Implications for Prevention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|HIV-positive injection drug users (IDUs) (N = 161) were recruited to complete a qualitative interview and a quantitative survey about sexual behavior and transmission risk. We identified two contexts in which exposure encounters occurred most commonly for HIV-positive IDUs: in intimate serodiscordant relationships and in the drug/sex economy.…

Knight, Kelly R.; Purcell, David; Dawson-Rose, Carol; Halkitis, Perry N.; Gomez, Cynthia A.

2005-01-01

165

Predicting Positive Attitudes About Quitting Drug and Alcohol Use Among Homeless Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two separate path models for alcohol and drugs were tested in which psychosocial, environmental, and sociodemographic variables predicted behavioral and substance abuse related factors as well as the key outcome of positive attitudes about quitting drugs (N = 620) or alcohol (N = 526) in a sample of 709 homeless women. A positive attitude about quitting alcohol was predicted by

Adeline M. Nyamathi; Judith A. Stein; Elizabeth Dixon; Douglas Longshore; Elisha Galaif

2003-01-01

166

Cost-effectiveness of methadone maintenance treatment for HIV-positive drug users in Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) is efficacious in reducing drug use that may improve HIV\\/AIDS care and treatment outcomes. This study evaluated the incremental cost-effectiveness of MMT for HIV-positive drug users from the perspective of health service providers. A sample of 370 HIV-positive drug users (age: mean±SD: 29.5±5.9 years; 95.7% male) taking MMT in multi-sites was assessed at baseline, three, six

Bach Xuan Tran; Arto Ohinmaa; Anh Thuy Duong; Nhan Thi Do; Long Thanh Nguyen; Steve Mills; Stan Houston; Philip Jacobs

2012-01-01

167

Cost-effectiveness of methadone maintenance treatment for HIV-positive drug users in Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) is efficacious in reducing drug use that may improve HIV\\/AIDS care and treatment outcomes. This study evaluated the incremental cost-effectiveness of MMT for HIV-positive drug users from the perspective of health service providers. A sample of 370 HIV-positive drug users (age: mean±SD: 29.5±5.9 years; 95.7% male) taking MMT in multi-sites was assessed at baseline, three, six

Bach Xuan Tran; Arto Ohinmaa; Anh Thuy Duong; Nhan Thi Do; Long Thanh Nguyen; Steve Mills; Stan Houston; Philip Jacobs

2011-01-01

168

Analysis of ten abused drugs in urine by large volume sample stacking-sweeping capillary electrophoresis with an experimental design strategy.  

PubMed

A statistical tool equipped with Plackett-Burman design (PBD) and central composite design (CCD) was used for fast stacking analysis of ten frequently consumed drugs, namely codeine, morphine, methamphetamine, ketamine, alprazolam, clonazepam, diazepam, flunitrazepam, nitrazepam and oxazepam, by capillary electrophoresis (CE). This statistical design is expected to help quick analysis with few procedures, avoiding tedious work required because of the large number of variables or parameters. A large volume sample stacking (LVSS)-sweeping CE is developed for concentrating and analyzing the 10 abused drugs. First, phosphate buffer (50 mM, pH 2.3) containing methanol was filled into a capillary and then the extracted urine sample was loaded (1 psi, 200 s) to enhance sensitivity. The sweeping and separating steps were completed simultaneously by phosphate buffer (50 mM, pH 2.3) containing methanol and sodium dodecyl sulfate, within 15 min. Better resolution was obtained by the experimental design than the "one factor at a time" (OFAT) approach. During method validation, calibration plots were linear (r>0.998), over a range of 25-1500 ng/mL for the six benzodiazepines, methamphetamine and ketamine, and 50-3000 ng/mL for codeine and morphine. The RSD of precision and absolute RE of accuracy in intra-day and inter-day assays were below 14.54% and 16.61%, respectively. The minimum limits for detection (S/N=3) of analytes were in the range of 7.5-30 ng/mL. This stacking method increased sensitivity more than 200-fold and can be applied for detection of the presence of methamphetamine in an abuser's urine (3600 ng/mL), which was confirmed by GC-MS. The method is considered feasible for fast screening of abused drugs in urine. PMID:23683398

Ho, Yu-Hsiang; Wang, Chun-Chi; Hsiao, Yu-Tzu; Ko, Wei-Kung; Wu, Shou-Mei

2013-04-24

169

Proteins of human urine. III. Identification and two-dimensional electrophoretic map positions of some major urinary proteins  

SciTech Connect

The proteins of human urine have been mapped by high-resolution two-dimensional electrophoresis, utilizing the ISO-DALT system. Wide-range pH gradients and narrow-range acid gradients were both used in the first-dimension separations. The patterns revealed proteins ranging in relative molecular mass from 10 000 to 90 000. Proteins identified in the map included transferrin, albumin, hemopexin, ..cap alpha../sub 2/-HS glycoprotein, ..cap alpha../sub 1/-antitrypsin, Gc globulin, ..cap alpha../sub 1/-acid glycoprotein, Zn ..cap alpha../sub 2/-glycoprotein, retinol binding protein, ..beta../sub 2/-microglobulin, the immunoglobulin light chains, and MAUP (most acid urinary protein). The use and utility of internal-charge and molecular-mass standards are described. We used electrophoretic transfer of proteins to nitrocellulose sheets and subsequent detection by immunological methods to identify some proteins.

Edwards, J.J.; Tollaksen, S.L.; Anderson, N.G.

1982-04-01

170

Analysis of nine drugs and their cytochrome P450-specific probe metabolites from urine by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry utilizing sub 2 ?m particle size column  

Microsoft Academic Search

An LC\\/MS\\/MS method was developed for the analysis of twelve cytochrome P450 (CYP)-specific probe metabolites and their nine parent drugs from human urine. CYP-specific metabolites of melatonin (CYP1A2), nicotine (CYP2A6), bupropion (CYP2B6), repaglinide (CYP2C8), losartan (CYP2C9), omeprazole (CYP2C19 and CYP3A4), dextromethorphan (CYP2D6), chlorzoxazone (CYP2E1) and midazolam (CYP3A4) were all analyzed using the same LC\\/MS\\/MS method with a single analytical run,

Aleksanteri Petsalo; Miia Turpeinen; Olavi Pelkonen; Ari Tolonen

2008-01-01

171

Validation of LUCIO ®-Direct-ELISA kits for the detection of drugs of abuse in urine: Application to the new German driving licence re-granting guidelines  

Microsoft Academic Search

LUCIO®-Direct-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) tests were validated for the screening of drugs of abuse cannabis, opiates, amphetamines and cocaine in urine for the new German medical and psychological assessment (MPA) guidelines with subsequent gas chromatographic–mass spectrometric (GC–MS) confirmation. The screening cut-offs corresponding to 10ng\\/mL 11-nor-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (THC-COOH), 50ng\\/mL amphetamine, 25ng\\/mL morphine and codeine and 30ng\\/mL benzoylecgonine were chosen at

Ronald Agius; Thomas Nadulski; Christine Moore

172

Strut Position, Blood Flow, and Drug Deposition Implications for Single and Overlapping Drug-Eluting Stents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—The intricacies of stent design, local pharmacology, tissue biology, and rheology preclude an intuitive understanding of drug distribution and deposition from drug-eluting stents (DES). Methods and Results—A coupled computational fluid dynamics and mass transfer model was applied to predict drug deposition for single and overlapping DES. Drug deposition appeared not only beneath regions of arterial contact with the strut but

Brinda Balakrishnan; Abraham R. Tzafriri; Philip Seifert; Adam Groothuis; Campbell Rogers; Elazer R. Edelman

2010-01-01

173

Mandatory Urine Testing for Drugs in Public Schools and the Fourth Amendment: Some Thoughts for School Officials.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In 1985 the United States Supreme Court concluded that the Fourth Amendment's prohibition against unreasonable searches and seizures does apply to public school officials. Offers some hypothetical examples for public school officials to consider regarding mandatory urine testing and the reasonable suspicion standard. (MLF)|

Lincoln, Eugene A.

1989-01-01

174

Mandatory Urine Testing for Drugs in Public Schools and the Fourth Amendment: Some Thoughts for School Officials.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1985 the United States Supreme Court concluded that the Fourth Amendment's prohibition against unreasonable searches and seizures does apply to public school officials. Offers some hypothetical examples for public school officials to consider regarding mandatory urine testing and the reasonable suspicion standard. (MLF)

Lincoln, Eugene A.

1989-01-01

175

Urination - difficulty with flow  

MedlinePLUS

... urination, cloudy urine, and a sense of urgency (strong, sudden urge to urinate). Pay close attention to ... residual urine volume and to get urine for culture (a catheterized urine specimen ) Cystometrography Transrectal ultrasound of ...

176

Improved detection of drugs of abuse using high-performance ion mobility spectrometry with electrospray ionization (ESI-HPIMS) for urine matrices.  

PubMed

High-performance ion mobility spectrometry (HPIMS) with electrospray ionization (ESI) has been used to separate drugs of abuse compounds as a function of drift time (ion mobility), which is based on their size, structural shape, and mass-to-charge. HPIMS has also been used to directly detect and identify a variety of the most commonly encountered illegal drugs, as well as a mixture of opiates in a urine matrix without extra sample pretreatment. HPIMS has shown resolving power greater than 65 comparable to that of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with only 1mL of solvent and sample required using air as the IMS separation medium. The HPIMS method can achieve two-order of magnitude linear response, precise drift times, and high peak area precision with percent relative standard deviations (%RSD) less than 3% for sample quantitation. The reduced mobilities measured agree very well with other IMS measurements, allowing a simple "dilute-and-shoot" method to be used to detect a mixture of codeine and morphine in urine matrix. PMID:24148376

Midey, Anthony J; Patel, Aesha; Moraff, Carol; Krueger, Clinton A; Wu, Ching

2013-05-07

177

Comparison of urine results concerning co-consumption of illicit heroin and other drugs in heroin and methadone maintenance programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urine samples of patients from a heroin maintenance program (HMP) and a methadone maintenance program (MMP) were chromatographically\\u000a analyzed 1 month before and 6 and 12 months into treatment for the presence of classical markers of heroin use as well as\\u000a for the presence of markers for illicit heroin abuse. Furthermore, the samples were immunochemically tested for cannabinoids,\\u000a cocaine metabolites, amphetamine, methylendioxyamphetamines

Frank Musshoff; Jens Trafkowski; Dirk Lichtermann; Burkhard Madea

2010-01-01

178

Rapid Determination of Methadone in Plasma, Cerebrospinal Fluid, and Urine by Gas Chromatography and Its Application to Routine Drug Monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Determination of methadone (MET) in biological fluids can serve to adjust dosages in patients suffering from cancer pain or participating in methadone maintenance programs. We developed a gas chromatographic assay using nitrogen-phosphorus detection. The method involves a single-step extraction from alkalized plasma, cerebrospinal fluid, or urine into n-hexane\\/isoamylalcohol (99\\/1, v\\/v). Dextropropoxyphene was used as internal standard. Separation was achieved with

Norbert Schmidt; Reinhard Sittl; Kay Brune; Gerd Geisslinger

1993-01-01

179

Contamination of dietary supplements and positive drug tests in sport.  

PubMed

The use of dietary supplements is widespread in sport and most athletes competing at the highest level of competition use some form of dietary supplementation. Many of these supplements confer no performance or health benefit, and some may actually be detrimental to both performance and health when taken in high doses for prolonged periods. Some supplements contain excessive doses of potentially toxic ingredients, while others do not contain significant amounts of the ingredients listed on the label. There is also now evidence that some of the apparently legitimate dietary supplements on sale contain ingredients that are not declared on the label but that are prohibited by the doping regulations of the International Olympic Committee and of the World Anti-Doping Agency. Contaminants that have been identified include a variety of anabolic androgenic steroids (including testosterone and nandrolone as well as the pro-hormones of these compounds), ephedrine and caffeine. This contamination may in most cases be the result of poor manufacturing practice, but there is some evidence of deliberate adulteration of products. The principle of strict liability that applies in sport means that innocent ingestion of prohibited substances is not an acceptable excuse, and athletes testing positive are liable to penalties. Although it is undoubtedly the case that some athletes are guilty of deliberate cheating, some positive tests are likely to be the result of inadvertent ingestion of prohibited substances present in otherwise innocuous dietary supplements. PMID:16195040

Maughan, R J

2005-09-01

180

Responses to Positive Results from Suspicionless Random Drug Tests in US Public School Districts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: Little is known about the context in which school-based suspicionless random drug testing (SRDT) occurs. The primary purpose of the current study was to describe school districts' responses to students' first positive result in districts with SRDT programs. Methods: Data were collected in spring 2005 from 1612 drug prevention…

Ringwalt, Chris; Vincus, Amy A.; Ennett, Susan T.; Hanley, Sean; Bowling, J. Michael; Yacoubian, George S., Jr.; Rohrbach, Louise A.

2009-01-01

181

Physical activity in a cohort of HIV-positive and HIV-negative injection drug users  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physical activity is beneficial for persons with HIV infection but little is known about the relationships between physical activity, HIV treatment and injection drug use (IDU). This study compared physical activity levels between HIV-negative and HIV-positive injection drug users (IDUs) and between HIV-positive participants not on any treatment and participants on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Anthropometric measurements were obtained

E. Smit; C. J. Crespo; R. D. Semba; D. Jaworowicz; D. Vlahov; E. P. Ricketts; F. A. Ramirez-Marrero; A. M. Tang

2006-01-01

182

In silico and in vitro metabolism studies support identification of designer drugs in human urine by liquid chromatography/quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Human phase I metabolism of four designer drugs, 2-desoxypipradrol (2-DPMP), 3,4-dimethylmethcathinone (3,4-DMMC), ?-pyrrolidinovalerophenone (?-PVP), and methiopropamine (MPA), was studied using in silico and in vitro metabolite prediction. The metabolites were identified in drug abusers’ urine samples using liquid chromatography/quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC/Q-TOF/MS). The aim of the study was to evaluate the ability of the in silico and in vitro methods to generate the main urinary metabolites found in vivo. Meteor 14.0.0 software (Lhasa Limited) was used for in silico metabolite prediction, and in vitro metabolites were produced in human liver microsomes (HLMs). 2-DPMP was metabolized by hydroxylation, dehydrogenation, and oxidation, resulting in six phase I metabolites. Six metabolites were identified for 3,4-DMMC formed via N-demethylation, reduction, hydroxylation, and oxidation reactions. ?-PVP was found to undergo reduction, hydroxylation, dehydrogenation, and oxidation reactions, as well as degradation of the pyrrolidine ring, and seven phase I metabolites were identified. For MPA, the nor-MPA metabolite was detected. Meteor software predicted the main human urinary phase I metabolites of 3,4-DMMC, ?-PVP, and MPA and two of the four main metabolites of 2-DPMP. It assisted in the identification of the previously unreported metabolic reactions for ?-PVP. Eight of the 12 most abundant in vivo phase I metabolites were detected in the in vitro HLM experiments. In vitro tests serve as material for exploitation of in silico data when an authentic urine sample is not available. In silico and in vitro designer drug metabolism studies with LC/Q-TOF/MS produced sufficient metabolic information to support identification of the parent compound in vivo. PMID:23797910

Tyrkkö, Elli; Pelander, Anna; Ketola, Raimo A; Ojanperä, Ilkka

2013-08-01

183

Drug testing of adolescents in general medical clinics, in school and at home: physician attitudes and practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeTo determine (1) whether physicians agree with recommendations for home and school drug screening, (2) under what circumstances physicians recommend urine drug tests for adolescents, and (3) how physicians manage adolescent patients with positive results. Few clinical practice guidelines have been published on urine drug testing of adolescents, and it is not known when physicians recommend this procedure or how

Sharon Levy; Sion K. Harris; Lon Sherritt; Michelle Angulo; John R. Knight

2006-01-01

184

Liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure ionization electrospray mass spectrometry determination of "hallucinogenic designer drugs" in urine of consumers.  

PubMed

A procedure based on liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) is described for determination of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), 2,5-dimethoxy-4-methyl-phenethylamine (2C-D), 4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxy-beta-phenethylamine (2C-B), 1-(8-bromo-2,3,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[1,2-b:4,5-b'] difuran-4-yl)-2-aminoethane (2C-B-Fly), 4-ethylthio-2,5-dimethoxy-beta-phenethylamine (2C-T-2), 4-iodo-2,5-dimethoxy-beta-phenethylamine (2C-I), and 4-ethyl-2,5-dimethoxy-beta-phenethylamine (2C-E), 1-(m-chlorophenyl)piperazine (m-CPP), 4-hydroxy-N,N-diisopropyltryptamine (4-OH-DIPT) and 4-acetoxy-N,N-diisopropyltryptamine (4-acetoxy-DIPT) in urine of consumers using 3,4 methylendioxypropylamphetamine (MDPA) as internal standard. Sample preparation involved a solid-phase extraction procedure at pH 6 of both non-hydrolyzed and enzymatically hydrolyzed urine samples. Chromatography was performed on a C(18) reversed-phase column using a linear gradient of 10mM ammonium bicarbonate, pH 7.3 and acetonitrile as a mobile phase. Separated analytes were determined in LC-MS single ion monitoring mode using an atmospheric pressure ionization-electrospray ionization (ESI) interface. The assay was tested on urine samples from consumers of compounds under investigation (n=32). Limits of quantification varied between 20 and 60 ng/mL for the different analytes under investigation. Calibration curves were linear to 2000 ng/mL for all the substances under investigation, with a minimum r(2)>0.99. At three concentrations spanning the linear dynamic range of the assay, mean recoveries ranged between 55.4 and 95.6% for the different analytes. Higher analytes concentrations in hydrolyzed samples showed the presence of conjugated compounds in urine. PMID:18262381

Pichini, Simona; Pujadas, Mitona; Marchei, Emilia; Pellegrini, Manuela; Fiz, Jimena; Pacifici, Roberta; Zuccaro, Piergiorgio; Farré, Magi; de la Torre, Rafael

2008-01-04

185

The Human Urine Metabolome  

PubMed Central

Urine has long been a “favored” biofluid among metabolomics researchers. It is sterile, easy-to-obtain in large volumes, largely free from interfering proteins or lipids and chemically complex. However, this chemical complexity has also made urine a particularly difficult substrate to fully understand. As a biological waste material, urine typically contains metabolic breakdown products from a wide range of foods, drinks, drugs, environmental contaminants, endogenous waste metabolites and bacterial by-products. Many of these compounds are poorly characterized and poorly understood. In an effort to improve our understanding of this biofluid we have undertaken a comprehensive, quantitative, metabolome-wide characterization of human urine. This involved both computer-aided literature mining and comprehensive, quantitative experimental assessment/validation. The experimental portion employed NMR spectroscopy, gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS), direct flow injection mass spectrometry (DFI/LC-MS/MS), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) experiments performed on multiple human urine samples. This multi-platform metabolomic analysis allowed us to identify 445 and quantify 378 unique urine metabolites or metabolite species. The different analytical platforms were able to identify (quantify) a total of: 209 (209) by NMR, 179 (85) by GC-MS, 127 (127) by DFI/LC-MS/MS, 40 (40) by ICP-MS and 10 (10) by HPLC. Our use of multiple metabolomics platforms and technologies allowed us to identify several previously unknown urine metabolites and to substantially enhance the level of metabolome coverage. It also allowed us to critically assess the relative strengths and weaknesses of different platforms or technologies. The literature review led to the identification and annotation of another 2206 urinary compounds and was used to help guide the subsequent experimental studies. An online database containing the complete set of 2651 confirmed human urine metabolite species, their structures (3079 in total), concentrations, related literature references and links to their known disease associations are freely available at http://www.urinemetabolome.ca.

Bouatra, Souhaila; Aziat, Farid; Mandal, Rupasri; Guo, An Chi; Wilson, Michael R.; Knox, Craig; Bjorndahl, Trent C.; Krishnamurthy, Ramanarayan; Saleem, Fozia; Liu, Philip; Dame, Zerihun T.; Poelzer, Jenna; Huynh, Jessica; Yallou, Faizath S.; Psychogios, Nick; Dong, Edison; Bogumil, Ralf; Roehring, Cornelia; Wishart, David S.

2013-01-01

186

Identification and quantification of the osmodiuretic mannitol in urine for sports drug testing using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

The osmodiuretic mannitol can be potentially misused in sports, owing to its urine diluting effect and the possibility to decrease bodyweight. To reveal a doping offence, resulting urinary mannitol concentrations after a prohibited intravenous application and a permitted oral intake have to be differentiated. Therefore, a reliable gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method was established based on peracetyl derivatives of the analytes. All possible hexitols (allitol, galactitol, iditol, altritols, sorbitol and mannitol) that can occur in human urine were separated and identified on a phenyl-methylpolysiloxane column (HP-5MS) within 10.75 min, and the method demonstrated its capability for quantification purposes. The lower limit of detection and lower limit of quantification were estimated at 0.9 microg mL(-1) and 2.4 microg mL(-1), respectively, and the assay was validated for mannitol and sorbitol regarding the parameters specificity, linearity, intra- (<10%) and inter-day precision (<15%) and accuracy (92-102%). To investigate urinary mannitol concentrations after oral intake the method was applied to an excretion study, providing a mean urinary excretion of mannitol of 19.5%. Comparison of theoretically expected urinary levels after a common therapeutic dose of mannitol and preliminary results on physiological urinary mannitol levels were promising, regarding a threshold level for mannitol that can be utilised for doping control purposes. PMID:18708692

Guddat, Sven; Thevis, Mario; Schänzer, Wilhelm

2008-01-01

187

Urine Collection Jars versus Video Games: Perceptions of Three Stakeholder Groups toward Drug and Impairment Testing Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of drug testing in the workplace is a controversial practice. Scholars, practitioners, unions, and organizations have therefore begun to explore whether there are alternative approaches to reduce counterproductive behaviors at work. We investigated the perceptions of labor relations experts, drivers of transportation vehicles, and users of public transportation services toward drug and impairment testing programs in the workplace.

Gerard H. Seijts; Grace OFarrell

2005-01-01

188

Zur präanalytischen Phase chemisch-toxikologischer UntersuchungenI. Immunochemisches Drogenscreening im Urin – Erkennbarkeit von Manipulationen und Strategien bei rechtsmedizinischer Fragestellung  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Abstract   The significant legal and ecomonic ramifications of a positive drug test produce an incentive among users of illicit drugs\\u000a to escape detection. Therefore, being the easiest body fluid to handle for drug screening urine is very often manipulated\\u000a to test clean. Methods available to cause a negative result range from substitution of urine, adulteration of the collected\\u000a specimen by

G. Skopp; L. Pötsch; J. Becker; J. Röhrich; R. Mattern

1998-01-01

189

Validation of LUCIO-Direct-ELISA kits for the detection of drugs of abuse in urine: application to the new German driving licence re-granting guidelines.  

PubMed

LUCIO-Direct-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) tests were validated for the screening of drugs of abuse cannabis, opiates, amphetamines and cocaine in urine for the new German medical and psychological assessment (MPA) guidelines with subsequent gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) confirmation. The screening cut-offs corresponding to 10 ng/mL 11-nor-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (THC-COOH), 50 ng/mL amphetamine, 25 ng/mL morphine and codeine and 30 ng/mL benzoylecgonine were chosen at the point where the number of false negatives was lower than 1%. Due to their accuracy, ease of use and rapid analysis, these ELISA tests are very promising for cases where a large proportion of the tests are expected to be negative such as for abstinence monitoring as part of the driving licence re-granting process. PMID:22075096

Agius, Ronald; Nadulski, Thomas; Moore, Christine

2011-11-08

190

Impact of a positive hepatitis C diagnosis on homeless injecting drug users: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Increasing numbers of injecting drug users are presenting to primary care and a growing number of general practices are specifically providing care for homeless people. Injecting drug users are at the greatest risk of hepatitis C infection and homeless drug misusers, because of their drug-taking behaviour and patterns, have been identified as being at greater risk of harm of blood-borne diseases than the general population. However, little work has been conducted with injecting drug users or homeless people who have hepatitis C and little is known about how the virus may affect them. Aim To explore the impact of a positive hepatitis C diagnosis on homeless injecting drug users. Design of study This study employed qualitative research. In-depth interviews allowed the exploration of the impact of a potentially life-threatening diagnosis within the context of a person's expressed hierarchy of needs. Setting A primary care centre for homeless people in the north of England. Method In-depth interviews about the impact of a positive hepatitis C diagnosis on their lives were conducted with 17 homeless injecting drug users who had received a positive hepatitis C diagnosis. The interviews were audiotaped, transcribed, and analysed using the framework approach. Results Receiving a positive diagnosis for hepatitis C resulted in feelings of shock, devastation, disbelief, anger, and questioning. A positive diagnosis had lasting social, emotional, psychological, behavioural, and physical effects on homeless injecting drug users, even years after the initial diagnosis. Most responders were diagnosed by a doctor in primary care or by hospital staff; however, not all had sought testing and a number were tested while inpatients and were unaware that blood had been taken for hepatitis C virus serology. Conclusions The implications for clinical policy and primary care practice are discussed, including the issues of patient choice, confidentiality, and pre- and post-test discussions. Post-test discussions should be followed up with additional social, psychological, and medical support and counselling.

Tompkins, Charlotte NE; Wright, Nat MJ; Jones, Lesley

2005-01-01

191

Fit-for-purpose in veterinary drug residue analysis: development and validation of an LC-MS/MS method for the screening of thirty illicit drugs in bovine urine.  

PubMed

A selective and sensitive method for screening 31 analytes (nine corticosteroids, eight ?-agonists, seven anabolic steroids, six promazines and zeranol) in bovine urine was validated according to 2002/657/EC guidelines. Upon optimization of sample treatment conditions, the extraction was performed by diethylether at pH 9, after deconjugation. Extraction yields (R%) proved higher than 70% for 19 analytes, 50drugs for which the European legislation prescribes official controls. Its practical applicability was verified on 494 real samples as an alternative to the traditional screening protocols based on multiple immunometric analysis, demonstrating high efficiency and comprehensive investigation capacity, allowing epidemiological assessment of the current trends in cattle breeding drug abuse. Among non-compliant results, nine borderline cases of growth-promoters illegal treatments, making use of long-term low-dosage administrations and typically yielding urine residues below the cut-off value for immunochemical methods, were detected by using the present LC-MS/MS method. PMID:22228613

Leporati, Marta; Capra, Pierluigi; Brizio, Paola; Ciccotelli, Valentina; Abete, Maria Cesarina; Vincenti, Marco

2012-01-09

192

Gender, Drug Use, and Perceived Social Support Among HIV Positive Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the relationships among gender, drug use, and perceived social support in 176 HIV positive patients recruited\\u000a with their informal caregivers in HIV clinics. Perceived caregiver support, emotional support, tangible support, and conflict\\u000a were assessed. Current drug use was defined as heroin and\\/or cocaine use within 6 months prior to baseline. Gender was not\\u000a significantly associated with any of the

Gabriella Rothman; Bradley J. Anderson; Michael D. Stein

2008-01-01

193

Trends in occurrence of drugs of abuse in blood and urine of arrested drivers and drug traffickers in the border region of Aachen  

Microsoft Academic Search

The region of Aachen is located in a triangle on the German, Dutch and Belgian borders and is heavily exposed to drug traffic, due to the differences in national drug policies. The analysis of toxicological casework in the Institute of Forensic Medicine in Aachen was undertaken for the period 1987–1993, i.e. 6 years before and 1 year after the partial

Karl-Heinz Schiwy-Bochat; Maciej Bogusz; Josefina Alvarez Vega; Helmut Althoff

1995-01-01

194

Identification of designer drug 2C-E (4-ethyl-2, 5-dimethoxy-phenethylamine) in urine following a drug overdose  

PubMed Central

In recent years, access to information regarding acquisition and synthesis of newer designer drugs has been at an all-time high due largely to the Internet. As these drugs have become more prevalent, laboratory techniques have been developed and refined to identify and screen for this burgeoning population of drugs. This provides a unique opportunity for learning about many of these methods. Laboratory testing techniques and instrumentation are obscure to many health care professionals, yet their results are crucial. Here, we present a case of an overdose of an uncommon designer drug (2C-E) and discuss the basics of liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry, two important techniques used in isolating and identifying the drug. Although often overlooked and taken for granted, these techniques can play a pivotal role in the diagnosis and subsequent management of select patients.

Van Vrancken, Michael J.; Benavides, Raul; Wians, Frank H.

2013-01-01

195

Liquid chromatography–atmospheric pressure ionization electrospray mass spectrometry determination of “hallucinogenic designer drugs” in urine of consumers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A procedure based on liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC–MS) is described for determination of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), 2,5-dimethoxy-4-methyl-phenethylamine (2C-D), 4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxy-?-phenethylamine (2C-B), 1-(8-bromo-2,3,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[1,2-b:4,5-b’] difuran-4-yl)-2-aminoethane (2C-B-Fly), 4-ethylthio-2,5-dimethoxy-?-phenethylamine (2C-T-2), 4-iodo-2,5-dimethoxy-?-phenethylamine (2C-I), and 4-ethyl-2,5-dimethoxy-?-phenethylamine (2C-E), 1-(m-chlorophenyl)piperazine (m-CPP), 4-hydroxy-N,N-diisopropyltryptamine (4-OH-DIPT) and 4-acetoxy-N,N-diisopropyltryptamine (4-acetoxy-DIPT) in urine of consumers using 3,4 methylendioxypropylamphetamine (MDPA) as internal standard.Sample preparation involved a solid-phase extraction procedure at pH 6 of both non-hydrolyzed and

Simona Pichini; Mitona Pujadas; Emilia Marchei; Manuela Pellegrini; Jimena Fiz; Roberta Pacifici; Piergiorgio Zuccaro; Magi Farré; Rafael de la Torre

2008-01-01

196

Eczematous-type multiple drug allergy from isoniazid and ethambutol with positive patch test results.  

PubMed

Multiple drug allergy (MDA) is characterized by hypersensitivity to 2 or more chemically unrelated drugs. Multiple drug allergy from simultaneous use of antituberculosis drugs is a rare phenomenon that mainly presents as an urticarial or maculopapular eruption. This case report describes a 58-year-old man who developed a generalized eczematous eruption during the sixth week of oral therapy with 4 antituberculosis drugs-isoniazid, ethambutol, rifampicin, and morphazinamide-for treatment of suspected pleural tuberculosis. The eruption resolved after treatment with systemic corticosteroids and cessation of isoniazid and ethambutol. During a lesion-free period 6 months after cessation of the corticosteroids, patch testing with serial dilutions of isoniazid and ethambutol revealed positive reactions; irritant patch test reactions were excluded by testing with graded concentrations of each drug. The patient avoided the causative drugs and reported no new eruptions at 1-year follow-up. It is important for dermatologists to consider the value of patch testing in determining the causative drugs in suspected cases of eczematous-type MDA. PMID:24153138

Ozkaya, Esen

2013-09-01

197

Development and application of carbon nanotubes assisted electromembrane extraction (CNTs/EME) for the determination of buprenorphine as a model of basic drugs from urine samples.  

PubMed

In this work carbon nanotubes assisted electromembrane extraction (CNTs/EME) coupled with capillary electrophoresis (CE) and ultraviolet (UV) detection was developed for the determination of buprenorphine as a model of basic drugs from urine samples. Carbon nanotubes reinforced hollow fiber was used in this research. Here the CNTs serve as a sorbent and provide an additional pathway for solute transport. The presence of CNTs in the hollow fiber wall increased the effective surface area and the overall partition coefficient on the membrane; and lead to an enhancement in the analyte transport. For investigating the influence of the presence of CNTs in the SLM on the extraction efficiency, a comparative study was carried out between EME and CNTs/EME methods. Optimization of the variables affecting these methods was carried out in order to achieve the best extraction efficiency. Optimal extractions were accomplished with NPOE as the SLM, with 200V as the driving force, and with pH 2.0 in the donor and pH 1.0 in the acceptor solutions with the whole assembly agitated at 750rpm after 25min and 15min for EME and CNTs/EME, respectively. Under the optimized conditions, in comparison with the conventional EME method, CNTs/EME provided higher extraction efficiencies in shorter time. This method provided lower limit of detection (1ngmL(-1)), higher preconcentration factor (185) and higher recovery (92). Finally, the applicability of this method was evaluated by the extraction and determination of buprenorphine in patients' urine samples. PMID:23452789

Hasheminasab, Kobra Sadat; Fakhari, Ali Reza

2013-01-05

198

28 CFR 550.42 - Procedures for urine surveillance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Center staff shall have each positive urine test validated to substantiate the positive result. Center staff shall...disciplinary report if the inmate's urine test shows a positive result for the presence...

2010-07-01

199

28 CFR 550.42 - Procedures for urine surveillance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Center staff shall have each positive urine test validated to substantiate the positive result. Center staff shall...disciplinary report if the inmate's urine test shows a positive result for the presence...

2009-07-01

200

Comparative In Vitro Activities of the Novel Antibacterial Finafloxacin against Selected Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Bacteria Tested in Mueller-Hinton Broth and Synthetic Urine?  

PubMed Central

Kill kinetics and MICs of finafloxacin and ciprofloxacin against 34 strains with defined resistance mechanisms grown in cation-adjusted Mueller-Hinton broth (CAMHB) at pH values of 7.2 and 5.8 and in synthetic urine at pH 5.8 were determined. In general, finafloxacin gained activity at low pH values in CAMHB and remained almost unchanged in artificial urine. Ciprofloxacin MICs increased and bactericidal activity decreased strain dependently in acidic CAMHB and particularly in artificial urine.

Dalhoff, Axel; Stubbings, Will; Schubert, Sabine

2011-01-01

201

Comparative in vitro activities of the novel antibacterial finafloxacin against selected Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria tested in Mueller-Hinton broth and synthetic urine.  

PubMed

Kill kinetics and MICs of finafloxacin and ciprofloxacin against 34 strains with defined resistance mechanisms grown in cation-adjusted Mueller-Hinton broth (CAMHB) at pH values of 7.2 and 5.8 and in synthetic urine at pH 5.8 were determined. In general, finafloxacin gained activity at low pH values in CAMHB and remained almost unchanged in artificial urine. Ciprofloxacin MICs increased and bactericidal activity decreased strain dependently in acidic CAMHB and particularly in artificial urine. PMID:21245444

Dalhoff, Axel; Stubbings, Will; Schubert, Sabine

2011-01-18

202

Windows of detection of lorazepam in urine, oral fluid and hair, with a special focus on drug-facilitated crimes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purported lowering of sex opposition, coupled with a possible abrupt unconsciousness-inducing effect and ease of administration in spiked drinks have resulted in the use of hypnotics in cases of drug-facilitated offense. Among these compounds, lorazepam possesses amnesic properties and can impair an individual rapidly.The chances to detect this substance increase if the most sensitive methods are used and if

Pascal Kintz; Marion Villain; Vincent Cirimele; Gilbert Pépin; Bertrand Ludes

2004-01-01

203

Contingency Management for Accurate Predictions of Urinalysis Test Results and Lack of Correspondence With Self-Reported Drug Use Among Polydrug Abusers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contingency management procedures have proven effective in the treatment of drug-dependent patients. These procedures, however, often require frequent urine testing, which is too costly for community treatment programs. To make urine-testing procedures more cost effective, the feasibility of reinforcing accurate predictions of urine drug screen (UDS) results was evaluated. Participants made extremely accurate UDS predictions, particularly when they made drug-positive

Karen K. Downey; Todd C. Helmus; Charles R. Schuster

2000-01-01

204

Sexual Transmission Risk Behavior Reported Among Behaviorally Bisexual HIV-Positive Injection Drug-Using Men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Few research studies have examined the HIV trans- mission risk behaviors of HIV-positive injection drug users (IDUs) who are men who have sex with men and women (MSMW). Methods: We compared unprotected vaginal or anal sex with an HIV-negative or unknown (UNK) status sexual partner of MSMW (n = 118) with men who have sex exclusively with women (MSW;

Kelly R. Knight; Starley B. Shade; David W. Purcell; Carol Dawson Rose; Lisa R. Metsch; Mary H. Latka; Carl A. Latkin; Cynthia A. Gomez

2007-01-01

205

Genomic analysis identifies targets of convergent positive selection in drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis.  

PubMed

M. tuberculosis is evolving antibiotic resistance, threatening attempts at tuberculosis epidemic control. Mechanisms of resistance, including genetic changes favored by selection in resistant isolates, are incompletely understood. Using 116 newly sequenced and 7 previously sequenced M. tuberculosis whole genomes, we identified genome-wide signatures of positive selection specific to the 47 drug-resistant strains. By searching for convergent evolution-the independent fixation of mutations in the same nucleotide position or gene-we recovered 100% of a set of known resistance markers. We also found evidence of positive selection in an additional 39 genomic regions in resistant isolates. These regions encode components in cell wall biosynthesis, transcriptional regulation and DNA repair pathways. Mutations in these regions could directly confer resistance or compensate for fitness costs associated with resistance. Functional genetic analysis of mutations in one gene, ponA1, demonstrated an in vitro growth advantage in the presence of the drug rifampicin. PMID:23995135

Farhat, Maha R; Shapiro, B Jesse; Kieser, Karen J; Sultana, Razvan; Jacobson, Karen R; Victor, Thomas C; Warren, Robin M; Streicher, Elizabeth M; Calver, Alistair; Sloutsky, Alex; Kaur, Devinder; Posey, Jamie E; Plikaytis, Bonnie; Oggioni, Marco R; Gardy, Jennifer L; Johnston, James C; Rodrigues, Mabel; Tang, Patrick K C; Kato-Maeda, Midori; Borowsky, Mark L; Muddukrishna, Bhavana; Kreiswirth, Barry N; Kurepina, Natalia; Galagan, James; Gagneux, Sebastien; Birren, Bruce; Rubin, Eric J; Lander, Eric S; Sabeti, Pardis C; Murray, Megan

2013-09-01

206

Developing and implementing a positive behavioral reinforcement intervention in prison-based drug treatment: Project BRITE.  

PubMed

Within prison settings, the reliance on punishment for controlling inappropriate or noncompliant behavior is self-evident. What is not so evident is the similarity between this reliance on punishment and the use of positive reinforcements to increase desired behaviors. However, seldom do inmates receive positive reinforcement for engaging in prosocial behaviors or, for inmates receiving drug treatment, behaviors that are consistent with or support their recovery. This study provides an overview of the development and implementation of a positive behavioral reinforcement intervention in male and female prison-based drug treatment programs. The active involvement of institutional staff, treatment staff, and inmates enrolled in the treatment programs in the development of the intervention along with the successful branding of the intervention were effective at promoting support and participation. However, these factors may also have ultimately impacted the ability of the randomized design to reliably demonstrate the effectiveness of the intervention. PMID:22185038

Burdon, William M; St De Lore, Jef; Prendergast, Michael L

2011-09-01

207

The human urine metabolome.  

PubMed

Urine has long been a "favored" biofluid among metabolomics researchers. It is sterile, easy-to-obtain in large volumes, largely free from interfering proteins or lipids and chemically complex. However, this chemical complexity has also made urine a particularly difficult substrate to fully understand. As a biological waste material, urine typically contains metabolic breakdown products from a wide range of foods, drinks, drugs, environmental contaminants, endogenous waste metabolites and bacterial by-products. Many of these compounds are poorly characterized and poorly understood. In an effort to improve our understanding of this biofluid we have undertaken a comprehensive, quantitative, metabolome-wide characterization of human urine. This involved both computer-aided literature mining and comprehensive, quantitative experimental assessment/validation. The experimental portion employed NMR spectroscopy, gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS), direct flow injection mass spectrometry (DFI/LC-MS/MS), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) experiments performed on multiple human urine samples. This multi-platform metabolomic analysis allowed us to identify 445 and quantify 378 unique urine metabolites or metabolite species. The different analytical platforms were able to identify (quantify) a total of: 209 (209) by NMR, 179 (85) by GC-MS, 127 (127) by DFI/LC-MS/MS, 40 (40) by ICP-MS and 10 (10) by HPLC. Our use of multiple metabolomics platforms and technologies allowed us to identify several previously unknown urine metabolites and to substantially enhance the level of metabolome coverage. It also allowed us to critically assess the relative strengths and weaknesses of different platforms or technologies. The literature review led to the identification and annotation of another 2206 urinary compounds and was used to help guide the subsequent experimental studies. An online database containing the complete set of 2651 confirmed human urine metabolite species, their structures (3079 in total), concentrations, related literature references and links to their known disease associations are freely available at http://www.urinemetabolome.ca. PMID:24023812

Bouatra, Souhaila; Aziat, Farid; Mandal, Rupasri; Guo, An Chi; Wilson, Michael R; Knox, Craig; Bjorndahl, Trent C; Krishnamurthy, Ramanarayan; Saleem, Fozia; Liu, Philip; Dame, Zerihun T; Poelzer, Jenna; Huynh, Jessica; Yallou, Faizath S; Psychogios, Nick; Dong, Edison; Bogumil, Ralf; Roehring, Cornelia; Wishart, David S

2013-09-04

208

[SICI-GISE position paper on drug-coated balloon use in the coronary district].  

PubMed

Drug-coated balloons are a new tool for the treatment of patients with coronary artery disease. The main feature of this technology is a rapid and homogeneous transfer of an antiproliferative drug (paclitaxel) to the vessel wall just at the time of balloon inflation, when neointimal proliferation, in response to angioplasty, is the highest. Moreover, drug-coated balloons share adjunctive advantages over stents: the absence of permanent scaffold and polymer, the respect of the original coronary anatomy, and limited inflammatory stimuli, thereby allowing for short-term dual antiplatelet therapy. At present, a variety of devices are available in the market, with limited scientific data for the vast majority of them. Thus, the Italian Society of Interventional Cardiology (SICI-GISE) decided to coordinate the efforts of a group of renowned experts in this field, in order to produce a position paper on the correct use of drug-coated balloons in all settings of coronary artery disease, giving a class of indication to each one, based on clinical evidence. This position paper represents a quick reference for operators, investigators and manufacturers to promote the understanding and the correct use of the drug-coated balloon technology in everyday clinical practice. PMID:24121894

Cortese, Bernardo; Sgueglia, Gregory A; Berti, Sergio; Biondi-Zoccai, Giuseppe; Colombo, Antonio; Limbruno, Ugo; Bedogni, Francesco; Cremonesi, Alberto

2013-10-01

209

Use of a visual panel detection method for drugs of abuse: Clinical and laboratory experience with children and adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the Triage panel for drugs of abuse, a visual method that simultaneously detects seven distinct drug classes in a single aliquot of urine, by use of 1214 urine specimens obtained from children and adolescent patients whose clinical findings warranted a toxicology evaluation. A total of 295 positive results were confirmed by gas chromatography- mass spectrometry. Additional toxicology investigations

Jimmie L. Valentine; Eva M. Komoroski

1995-01-01

210

Cost-effectiveness of methadone maintenance treatment for HIV-positive drug users in Vietnam.  

PubMed

Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) is efficacious in reducing drug use that may improve HIV/AIDS care and treatment outcomes. This study evaluated the incremental cost-effectiveness of MMT for HIV-positive drug users from the perspective of health service providers. A sample of 370 HIV-positive drug users (age: mean ± SD: 29.5 ± 5.9 years; 95.7% male) taking MMT in multi-sites was assessed at baseline, three, six and nine months. Costs of MMT services were analyzed and converted to the year 2009. Quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) were modeled from changes in health-related quality of life of patients using the modified World Health Organization Quality of Life - Brief Version (WHOQOL-BREF). Inverse probability-of-treatment weights, constructed using propensity score of non-responses, were applied to adjust for potential confounding. Over nine months, MMT substantially improved QALYs of HIV/AIDS patients (0.076 QALY [0.066-0.084]). The increments in QALY were large and stabilized in those patients taking antiretroviral treatment and abstinent to drug use. For one QALY gained, the MMT program would cost US$3745.3, approximately 3.2 times Vietnam GDP per capita in 2009. The cost-effectiveness of MMT intervention was robust against HIV advanced status or co-morbidity, e.g., TB treatment, but it might not be cost-effective for those patients who continued to use drug. Findings of this study indicate that providing MMT for HIV-positive drug users is a cost-effective intervention in Vietnam. Integrating MMT to HIV/AIDS care and treatment services would be beneficial in injection-driven HIV epidemics. PMID:21936718

Tran, Bach Xuan; Ohinmaa, Arto; Duong, Anh Thuy; Do, Nhan Thi; Nguyen, Long Thanh; Mills, Steve; Houston, Stan; Jacobs, Philip

2011-09-22

211

Urine 24-hour volume  

MedlinePLUS

Urine volume; 24-hour urine collection ... A 24-hour urine sample is needed. On day 1, urinate into the toilet when you get up in ... urine in a special container for the next 24 hours. On day 2, urinate into the container ...

212

Etoricoxib-induced fixed drug eruption with positive lesional patch tests.  

PubMed

Fixed drug eruption (FDE) is most commonly associated with antibiotics, anticonvulsants, and nonnarcotic analgens, including nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). However, the newer cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) inhibitors have been rarely reported to cause FDE. We report the case of a 52-year-old Caucasian woman with erythematous pruritic plaques on the neck, left forearm, and second finger of the right hand, healing with hyperpigmentation and recurring in the same locations. The patient was sporadically taking oral etoricoxib 90 mg for her back pain and noticed the relation between administration of the drug and skin lesions, the time interval decreasing progressively from 1 week to 30 minutes. No other signs, symptoms, or drug intake was mentioned. The patch tests with etoricoxib 1% and 5% in petrolatum were positive at the location of the lesions and negative on the back (nonlesional skin). Standard European and NSAID series were negative. Patch tests of 10 healthy controls with etoricoxib 1% and 5% in petrolatum were negative. After the avoidance of the drug, no relapse was mentioned. The patch test was reliable for the diagnosis of FDE, avoiding the need for subsequent oral provocation testing and therefore preventing the possible adverse effects. Despite being regarded as a safe drug, the occurrence of cutaneous adverse reactions to etoricoxib should be considered, especially in the setting of its increasing use in pain control. PMID:21108578

Calistru, Ana Maria; Cunha, Ana Paula; Nogueira, Ana; Azevedo, Filomena

2010-11-26

213

MCM-41 solid phase membrane tip extraction combined with liquid chromatography for the determination of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in human urine.  

PubMed

Mesoporous silica material, MCM-41, was utilized for the first time as an adsorbent in solid phase membrane tip extraction (SPMTE) of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in urine prior to high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet (HPLC-UV) analysis. The prepared MCM-41 material was enclosed in a polypropylene membrane tip and used as an adsorbent in SPMTE. Four NSAIDs namely ketoprofen, diclofenac, mefenamic acid and naproxen were selected as model analytes. Several important parameters, such as conditioning solvent, sample pH, salting-out effect, sample volume, extraction time, desorption solvent and desorption time were optimized. Under the optimum extraction conditions, the MCM-41-SPMTE method showed good linearity in the range of 0.01-10?g/mL with excellent correlation coefficients (r=0.9977-0.9995), acceptable RSDs (0.4-9.4%, n=3), good limits of detection (5.7-10.6?g/L) and relative recoveries (81.4-108.1%). The developed method showed a good tolerance to biological sample matrices. PMID:24140656

Kamaruzaman, Sazlinda; Sanagi, Mohd Marsin; Endud, Salasiah; Wan Ibrahim, Wan Aini; Yahaya, Noorfatimah

2013-09-23

214

Environment-mediated drug resistance in Bcr/Abl-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia.  

PubMed

Although cure rates for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) have increased, development of resistance to drugs and patient relapse are common. The environment in which the leukemia cells are present during the drug treatment is known to provide significant survival benefit. Here, we have modeled this process by culturing murine Bcr/Abl-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells in the presence of stroma while treating them with a moderate dose of two unrelated drugs, the farnesyltransferase inhibitor lonafarnib and the tyrosine kinase inhibitor nilotinib. This results in an initial large reduction in cell viability of the culture and inhibition of cell proliferation. However, after a number of days, cell death ceases and the culture becomes drug-tolerant, enabling cell division to resume. Using gene expression profiling, we found that the development of drug resistance was accompanied by massive transcriptional upregulation of genes that are associated with general inflammatory responses such as the metalloproteinase MMP9. MMP9 protein levels and enzymatic activity were also increased in ALL cells that had become nilotinib-tolerant. Activation of p38, Akt and Erk correlated with the development of environment-mediated drug resistance (EMDR), and inhibitors of Akt and Erk in combination with nilotinib reduced the ability of the cells to develop resistance. However, inhibition of p38 promoted increased resistance to nilotinib. We conclude that development of EMDR by ALL cells involves changes in numerous intracellular pathways. Development of tolerance to drugs such as nilotinib may therefore be circumvented by simultaneous treatment with other drugs having divergent targets. PMID:22934254

Feldhahn, Niklas; Arutyunyan, Anna; Stoddart, Sonia; Zhang, Bin; Schmidhuber, Sabine; Yi, Sun-Ju; Kim, Yong-Mi; Groffen, John; Heisterkamp, Nora

2012-08-01

215

49 CFR 40.51 - What materials are used to send urine specimens to the laboratory?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...materials are used to send urine specimens to the laboratory...TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Collection...and Supplies Used in DOT Urine Collections § 40.51...materials are used to send urine specimens to the...

2011-10-01

216

49 CFR 40.51 - What materials are used to send urine specimens to the laboratory?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...materials are used to send urine specimens to the laboratory...TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Collection...and Supplies Used in DOT Urine Collections § 40.51...materials are used to send urine specimens to the...

2012-10-01

217

Investigation of Immobilized Enzymes for Hydrolysis of Glucuronides in Urine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Metabolism of certain drugs leads to the formation of conjugation products with glucuronic acid prior to excretion in urine. Thus, heroin is converted to morphine, which after conjugation with glucuronic acid, appears in the urine as morphine glucuronide....

D. J. Fink M. K. Bean R. D. Falb

1975-01-01

218

Student Drug Testing in the Context of Positive and Negative School Climates: Results from a National Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Positive school climates and student drug testing have been separately proposed as strategies to reduce student substance use in high schools. However, the effects of drug testing programs may depend on the favorability of school climates. This study examined the association between school drug testing programs and student substance use in schools…

Sznitman, Sharon R.; Dunlop, Sally M.; Nalkur, Priya; Khurana, Atika; Romer, Daniel

2012-01-01

219

Student Drug Testing in the Context of Positive and Negative School Climates: Results from a National Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Positive school climates and student drug testing have been separately proposed as strategies to reduce student substance use in high schools. However, the effects of drug testing programs may depend on the favorability of school climates. This study examined the association between school drug testing programs and student substance use in…

Sznitman, Sharon R.; Dunlop, Sally M.; Nalkur, Priya; Khurana, Atika; Romer, Daniel

2012-01-01

220

Safe Syringe Disposal is Related to Safe Syringe Access among HIV-positive Injection Drug Users  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the effect of syringe acquisition on syringe disposal among HIV-positive injection drug users (IDUs) in Baltimore,\\u000a New York City, and San Francisco (N = 680; mean age 42 years, 62% male, 59% African-American, 21% Hispanic, 12% White). Independent predictors of safe disposal\\u000a were acquiring syringes through a safe source and ever visiting a syringe exchange program. Weaker predictors included living\\u000a in

Phillip O. Coffin; Mary H. Latka; Carl Latkin; Yingfeng Wu; David W. Purcell; Lisa Metsch; Cynthia Gomez; Marc N. Gourevitch

2007-01-01

221

Promotion as Prevention: Positive Youth Development as Protective against Tobacco, Alcohol, Illicit Drug, and Sex Initiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was designed to examine the association of positive youth development with the likelihood of tobacco, alcohol, marijuana, hard drug, and sex initiation between 5th and 10th grades. A national, largely middle-class sample of 5,305 adolescents, participating in a longitudinal study funded by the National 4-H Council (although not all participants were enrolled in 4-H or other after-school

Seth J. Schwartz; Erin Phelps; Jacqueline V. Lerner; Shi Huang; C. Hendricks Brown; Selva Lewin-Bizan; Yibing Li; Richard M. Lerner

2010-01-01

222

Detection of cocaine metabolite in serum and urine: frequency and correlation with medical diagnosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Review of toxicology screening results in our level 1 trauma center revealed that ?15% of urine drug screens were positive for cocaine metabolite. Our objective was to determine the prevalence of true acute cocaine intoxication and if measurement of serum would improve upon the accuracy of toxicology screening for identifying acute cases of cocaine poisoning. Cases were analyzed for cocaine

Mark W Linder; George M Bosse; Mark T Henderson; Gerald Midkiff; Roland Valdes

2000-01-01

223

A high-performance thin-layer chromatographic technique to screen cocaine in urine samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Qualitative identification of cocaine and its metabolites in urine samples is generally carried out by an immunoassay technique followed by a gas chromatographic\\/mass spectrometric confirmation of presumptive positives. Nevertheless, other chromatographic techniques such as thin-layer chromatography or gas chromatography could also be used to screen several types of drugs of abuse especially for forensic and legal purposes. In the present

Mauricio Yonamine; Mônica Cortez Sampaio

2006-01-01

224

Clinical Validation of a Highly Sensitive GC-MS Platform for Routine Urine Drug Screening and Real-Time Reporting of up to 212 Drugs.  

PubMed

An important role of the clinical toxicology laboratory is to provide continuous diagnostic testing for patients with altered mental status and for other medical indications. To meet these needs, we have developed a new Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) platform that facilitates routine screening and automated reporting of 212 drugs by laboratory technologists around the clock without the need to sign out by an on-site mass spectrometry-trained toxicologist. The platform uses a programmable temperature vaporizer (PTV) injector for large sample volume injection and the free software Automated Mass Spectral Deconvolution and Identification System (AMDIS) for data reduction and spectral matching that facilitates rapid library searching and analyte identification. Method comparison with 118 patient samples demonstrated that this platform and data searching algorithm independently provided improvements in sensitivity compared to an established GC-MS platform. Further examination of the role of the data processing software and the in-house databases used in the established versus the new platform demonstrated that the improved analytical sensitivity of the new platform was attributed to both the technical superiority of the new GC-MS instrumentation and the use of AMDIS in conjunction with the newly generated in-house library for data processing. PMID:23935615

Nair, Hari; Woo, Fred; Hoofnagle, Andrew N; Baird, Geoffrey S

2013-07-10

225

Clinical Validation of a Highly Sensitive GC-MS Platform for Routine Urine Drug Screening and Real-Time Reporting of up to 212 Drugs  

PubMed Central

An important role of the clinical toxicology laboratory is to provide continuous diagnostic testing for patients with altered mental status and for other medical indications. To meet these needs, we have developed a new Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) platform that facilitates routine screening and automated reporting of 212 drugs by laboratory technologists around the clock without the need to sign out by an on-site mass spectrometry-trained toxicologist. The platform uses a programmable temperature vaporizer (PTV) injector for large sample volume injection and the free software Automated Mass Spectral Deconvolution and Identification System (AMDIS) for data reduction and spectral matching that facilitates rapid library searching and analyte identification. Method comparison with 118 patient samples demonstrated that this platform and data searching algorithm independently provided improvements in sensitivity compared to an established GC-MS platform. Further examination of the role of the data processing software and the in-house databases used in the established versus the new platform demonstrated that the improved analytical sensitivity of the new platform was attributed to both the technical superiority of the new GC-MS instrumentation and the use of AMDIS in conjunction with the newly generated in-house library for data processing.

Hoofnagle, Andrew N.; Baird, Geoffrey S.

2013-01-01

226

Screening pharmaceuticals for possible carcinogenic effects: initial positive results for drugs not previously screened  

PubMed Central

Objective We screened commonly used prescription drugs for possible carcinogenic effects. Methods In a large health care program we identified 105 commonly used drugs, not previously screened. Recipients were followed for up to 12½ years for incident cancer. Nested case-control analyses of 55 cancer sites and all combined included up to ten matched controls per case, with lag of at least two years between drug dispensing and cancer. Positive associations entailed a relative risk (RR) of 1.50, with p? 0.01 and higher risk for three or more, than for one prescription. Evaluation included further analyses, searches of the literature, and clinical judgment. Results There were 101 associations of interest for 61 drugs. Sixty-six associations were judged to have involved substantial confounding. We found evidence that of the remaining 35, the following associations may not be due to chance: sulindac with gallbladder cancer and leukemia, hyoscyamine with non-Hodgkin lymphoma, nortriptyline with esophageal and hepatic cancer, oxazepam with lung cancer, both fluoxetine and paroxetine with testicular cancer, hydrochlorothiazide with renal and lip cancer, and nifedipine with lip cancer. Conclusions These preliminary findings suggest that further studies are indicated regarding sulindac, hyoscyamine, nortriptyline, oxazepam, fluoxetine, paroxetine, hydrochlorothiazide and nifedipine.

Friedman, Gary D.; Udaltsova, Natalia; Chan, James; Quesenberry, Charles P; Habel, Laurel A.

2010-01-01

227

Handling reactive metabolite positives in drug discovery: What has retrospective structure-toxicity analyses taught us?  

PubMed

Because of the inability to predict and quantify the risk of idiosyncratic adverse drug reactions (IADRs) and because reactive metabolites (RMs) as opposed to the parent molecules from which they are derived are thought to be responsible for the pathogenesis of some IADRs, procedures (RM trapping/covalent binding) are being incorporated into the discovery screening funnel early-on to assess the risk of RM formation. Utility of the methodology in structure-toxicity relationships and scope in abrogating RM formation at the lead optimization stage are discussed in this article. Interpretation of the output from RM assessment assays, however, is confounded by the fact that many successfully marketed drugs are false positives. Therefore, caution must be exercised in deprioritizing a compound based on a positive result, so that the development of a useful and potentially profitable compound won't be unnecessarily halted. Risk mitigation strategies (e.g., competing detoxication pathways, low daily dose, etc.) when selecting RM positives for clinical development are also reviewed. PMID:20833160

Kalgutkar, Amit S

2010-09-15

228

Determination of succinonitrile in horse urine by gas chromatography-nitrogen-phosphorus detector and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A chromatographic method was developed to detect and confirm the presence of succinonitrile (SDN) in horse urine samples, for antidoping control. The urine samples (5 ml) were extracted with diethyl ether and screened by gas chromatography-nitrogen-phosphorus detector and the confirmation of the drug's presence was accomplished by using gas chromatography-mass selective detection. The recovery of extraction was 78 and 81% for 1.0 and 2.0 micrograms ml-1 (relative standard deviation, < 10%), respectively. Urine samples collected after the administration of Energisan were positive for SDN (1-30 h) in all samples analysed. PMID:7879879

Pedroso, R C; Salvadori, M C; Andraus, M H; Lopez, N M

1994-12-01

229

Evaluation of a urine screen for acetaminophen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Acetaminophen (APAP) is a leading cause of fatal overdose. This study examined the performance characteristics of the Biosite\\u000a Triage TOX Drug Screen qualitative APAP urine test (urine screen) in a clinical setting.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Paired urine and serum waste samples (collected within 2 hours of one another) were quantitatively analyzed for APAP concentration\\u000a and compared to the urine screen results.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  A total

Daniel M. Ingram; George M. Bosse; Edward P. Womack; Saeed A. Jortani

2008-01-01

230

Oral Fluid Testing for Drugs of Abuse: Positive Prevalence Rates by Intercept™ Immunoassay Screening and GC-MS-MS Confirmation and Suggested Cutoff Concentrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Draft guidelines for the use of oral fluid for workplace drug testing are under development by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) in cooperation with industry and researchers. Comparison studies of the effectiveness of oral fluid testing versus urine testing are needed to establish scientifically reliable cutoff concentrations for oral fluid testing. We present the results of

Edward J. Cone; Lance Presley; Michael Lehrer; William Seiter; Melissa Smith; Keith W. Kardos; Dean Fritch; Sal Salamone; R. Sam Niedbala

231

49 CFR 40.49 - What materials are used to collect urine specimens?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...materials are used to collect urine specimens? 40.49...TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Collection...and Supplies Used in DOT Urine Collections § 40.49...specimens? For each DOT drug test, you must use...

2012-10-01

232

49 CFR 40.49 - What materials are used to collect urine specimens?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...materials are used to collect urine specimens? 40.49...TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Collection...and Supplies Used in DOT Urine Collections § 40.49...specimens? For each DOT drug test, you must use...

2011-10-01

233

Student Drug Testing in the Context of Positive and Negative School Climates: Results from a National Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Positive school climates and student drug testing have been separately proposed as strategies to reduce student substance\\u000a use in high schools. However, the effects of drug testing programs may depend on the favorability of school climates. This\\u000a study examined the association between school drug testing programs and student substance use in schools with different climates.\\u000a The analysis was based on

Sharon R. SznitmanSally; Sally M. Dunlop; Priya Nalkur; Atika Khurana; Daniel Romer

234

Pupillometry in the detection of concomitant drug use in opioid-maintained patients.  

PubMed

Pupillometry and ocular response measures are sensitive to a variety of acutely administered drugs and as such are useful for drug detection and fitness-for-duty applications. The utility of pupillometry to complement urine testing in methadone clinics, where there is considerable non-therapeutic drug use, has not been tested. A video-based pupillometer (FIT 2000) was evaluated in 37 opioid-maintained patients. Three times a week they provided urine samples and pupillometry measures of: initial diameter (ID) in mm; constriction amplitude (CA) in mm; constriction latency (CL) in msec; and saccadic velocity (SV) in mm/sec. Analysis of the success rates indicated that 92.9% of subjects obtained an acceptable reading, 59% on the first attempt. Low variability in pupillary parameters on drug-free days are necessary for effective identification of concomitant drug use. The variability (standard deviation) of ID (0.51 vs. 0.68), CA (0.12 vs. 0.27) and SV (7.2 vs. 11.1) increased on days when the urine was positive for abused drugs compared with drug-free urine days in subjects (n = 6). Subjects who were always drug-free (n = 4) had lower variability than those who always had urine positive for additional drugs (n = 20). These preliminary results suggest that pupillometry may be useful to verify concomitant drug use in a methadone-maintained population. Successful implementation of the methodology could reduce costly and intrusive urine testing. PMID:15319805

Murillo, R; Crucilla, C; Schmittner, J; Hotchkiss, E; Pickworth, W B

2004-05-01

235

Drug Abuse in North Central New Mexico. Problems and Suggested Responses. A NorCHaP Position Statement.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The drug abuse problem in the seven-county area served by the North Central New Mexico Comprehensive Health Planning Council is examined in a position statement prepared by a task force comprised of persons who regularly deal with the problems of drug abu...

1975-01-01

236

The Drug User's Identity and How It Relates to Being Hepatitis C Antibody Positive: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The increasing health problem of hepatitis C virus infection has only recently attracted the attention of psychosocial research, especially among subjects at higher risk (e.g. injecting drug users). There is a lack of information about the knowledge, perceptions and feelings that injecting drug users hold about their hepatitis C antibody positive…

Copeland, Lorraine

2004-01-01

237

Different Requirements for cAMP Response Element Binding Protein in Positive and Negative Reinforcing Properties of Drugs of Abuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Addiction is a complex process that relies on the ability of an organism to integrate positive and negative properties of drugs of abuse. Therefore, studying the reinforcing as well as aversive components of drugs of abuse in a single model system will enable us to understand the role of final common mediators, such as cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), in

Carrie L. Walters; Julie A. Blendy

2001-01-01

238

Studies on the metabolism and the toxicological analysis of the nootropic drug fipexide in rat urine using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Qualitative studies are described on the metabolism and the toxicological analysis of the nootropic fipexide (FIP) in rat urine using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). FIP was extensively metabolized to 1-(3,4-methylenedioxybenzyl)piperazine (MDBP), 4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid, 1-[2-(4-chlorophenoxy)acetyl]piperazine, N-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-benzyl)piperazine, piperazine, N-(3,4-methylenedioxybenzyl)ethylenediamine, and N-[2-(4-chlorophenoxy)acetyl]ethylenediamine. The authors’ systematic toxicological analysis (STA) procedure using full-scan GC–MS after acid hydrolysis of one urine aliquot, liquid-liquid extraction and acetylation

Roland F. Staack; Hans H. Maurer

2004-01-01

239

Co-occurring psychiatric symptoms and drug dependence or heavy drinking among HIV-positive people.  

PubMed

This study sought to establish population-based estimates of the prevalence of co-occurring psychiatric symptoms and either or both drug dependence symptoms or heavy drinking among individuals who test positive for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and to identify the factors associated with such comorbidity. Data from the HIV Cost and Services Utilization Study (HCSUS), a nationally representative sample of HIV-infected adults receiving medical care in the U.S. in 1996 (N = 2,864), were used to estimate the prevalence of comorbidity. Logistic regression was used to identify the independent influences of sociodemographic and HIV-related variables on comorbidity. The authors estimate that 13% of people with HIV receiving care in the U.S. in 1996 had co-occurring psychiatric symptoms and either or both drug dependence symptoms or heavy drinking. The odds of having a comorbid condition were higher for males, heterosexuals, and people with more HIV-related symptoms. The odds were lower for people living with AIDS, African Americans, people who were gay or sexually abstinent, those living with a spouse, those aged 50 years or older, and those with private insurance. Sixty-nine percent of those with a substance-related condition also had psychiatric symptoms; 27% of those with psychiatric symptoms also had a substance-related condition. PMID:12825758

Galvan, Frank H; Burnam, M Audrey; Bing, Eric G

2003-05-01

240

Role of Catheter's Position for Final Results in Intrathecal Drug Delivery. Analysis Based on CSF Dynamics and Specific Drugs Profiles  

PubMed Central

Intrathecal drug delivery is an effective and safe option for the treatment of chronic pathology refractory to conventional pain therapies. Typical intrathecal administered drugs are opioids, baclofen, local anesthetics and adjuvant medications. Although knowledge about mechanisms of action of intrathecal drugs are every day more clear many doubt remain respect the correct location of intrathecal catheter in order to achieve the best therapeutic result. We analyze the factors that can affect drug distribution within the cerebrospinal fluid. Three categories of variables were identified: drug features, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics and patients features. First category includes physicochemical properties and pharmacological features of intrathecal administered drugs with special attention to drug lipophilicity. In the second category, the variables in CSF flow, are considered that can modify the drug distribution within the CSF with special attention to the new theories of liquoral circulation. Last category try to explain inter-individual difference in baclofen response with difference that are specific for each patients such as the anatomical area to treat, patient posture or reaction to inflammatory stimulus. We conclude that a comprehensive evaluation of the patients, including imaging techniques to study the anatomy and physiology of intrathecal environment and CSF dynamics, could become essential in the future to the purpose of optimize the clinical outcome of intrathecal therapy.

Luciano, Perotti; Vicente, Villanueva; Juan Marcos, Asensio Samper; Gustavo, Fabregat-Cid

2013-01-01

241

Weighing the Consequences: Self-Disclosure of HIV-Positive Status among African American Injection Drug Users  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Theorists posit that personal decisions to disclose being HIV positive are made based on the perceived consequences of that disclosure. This study examines the perceived costs and benefits of self-disclosure among African American injection drug users (IDUs). A total of 80 African American IDUs were interviewed in-depth subsequent to testing HIV…

Valle, Maribel; Levy, Judith

2009-01-01

242

Weighing the Consequences: Self-Disclosure of HIV-Positive Status among African American Injection Drug Users  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Theorists posit that personal decisions to disclose being HIV positive are made based on the perceived consequences of that disclosure. This study examines the perceived costs and benefits of self-disclosure among African American injection drug users (IDUs). A total of 80 African American IDUs were interviewed in-depth subsequent to testing HIV…

Valle, Maribel; Levy, Judith

2009-01-01

243

Accurate identification and quantification of 11-nor-? 9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid in urine drug testing: Evaluation of a direct high efficiency liquid chromatographic–mass spectrometric method  

Microsoft Academic Search

A direct liquid chromatographic–tandem mass spectrometric (LC–MS\\/MS) method for measurement of urinary ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol carboxylic acid (THCA) was developed. The method involved dilution of the urine sample with water containing 2H9-deuterated analogue as internal standard, hydrolysis with ammonia, reversed phase chromatography using a Waters ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC™) equipment with gradient elution, negative electrospray ionization, and monitoring of two product ions

Nikolai Stephanson; Martin Josefsson; Robert Kronstrand; Olof Beck

2008-01-01

244

Significantly increased detection rate of drugs of abuse in urine following the introduction of new German driving license re-granting guidelines  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present the first assessment of the new German driving license re-granting medical and psychological assessment (MPA) guidelines by comparing over 3500 urine samples tested under the old MPA cut-offs to over 5000 samples tested under the new MPA cut-offs. Since the enzyme multiplied immunoassay technique (EMIT) technology used previously was not sensitive enough to screen for

Ronald Agius; Thomas Nadulski; Hans-Gerhard Kahl; Bertin Dufaux

245

Differences in treatment outcome between male alcohol dependent offenders of domestic violence with and without positive drug screens.  

PubMed

Men who are violent toward their partners tend to have a dual problem with alcohol and drug use, yet little is known about differences between men with single rather than dual problems. This study was one of the first to evaluate differences between alcohol dependent men who were arrested for Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) with and without concurrent illicit drug use. Seventy-eight participants were randomly assigned to manual-guided group behavioral therapies (Cognitive Behavioral Therapy or Twelve Step Facilitation) and assessed across 12 weeks of treatment. Despite denying drug use at baseline, thirty-two clients (43%) tested positive for illicit drug use (cocaine and marijuana) during the 12 weeks of treatment. The study specifically addressed whether there were differences between clients using alcohol only versus individuals using both alcohol + drugs in terms of 1) baseline characteristics; 2) treatment compliance (e.g., attendance and substance use during treatment; and 3) treatment outcomes (alcohol, drug use, anger management, and aggression at the completion of treatment). The results showed that there were comparatively few differences between the alcohol versus the alcohol + drug using groups at baseline. Regarding treatment compliance and retention, alcohol + drug using participants attended significantly fewer sessions, had significantly fewer percent days abstinence from alcohol use, significantly more total days of positive breathalyzer results. Regarding treatment outcomes across anger management and aggression scores, the alcohol + drug using participants had significantly more impairments in anger management styles from pre- to post-treatment. However, there were no differences between the groups across verbal or physical aggression. Both groups improved in their verbal aggression from pre- to post-treatment. The findings suggest that alcohol dependent men who continue to use illicit drugs may require additional interventions to effectively control their drug use and, their anger management styles. PMID:17367953

Easton, Caroline J; Mandel, Dolores; Babuscio, Theresa; Rounsaville, Bruce J; Carroll, Kathleen M

2007-02-04

246

Detecting Cocaine and Opiates in Urine: Comparing Three Commercial Assays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urine screening is a potentially useful tool for detecting drugs of abuse in treatment, criminal justice, and other human service settings. This article examines the relative accuracy and other features of three drug screening assays sold by commercial laboratories: (1) Abbott Diagnostics ADx machine and reagents; (2) ONTRAK, manufactured by Roche Diagnostics; and (3) EZ-SCREEN, manufactured by Environmental Diagnostics. Urine

Robert F. Schilling; Balmatee Bidassie; Nabila El-Bassel

1999-01-01

247

Urine concentrations of ecgonine from specimens with low benzoylecgonine levels using a new ecgonine assay.  

PubMed

A new approach to detecting drug positives for cocaine in urine having benzoylecgonine concentrations below the Department of Defense (DoD) cutoffs was examined by measuring the concentrations of the metabolite ecgonine. The DoD cutoff concentrations for determining a positive for cocaine are 150 and 100 ng/mL for radioimmunoassay and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, respectively. To facilitate this approach, a new assay was developed for ecgonine using only 1 mL urine. The urine was passed through an anion-exchange cartridge, and the eluant was evaporated to dryness in a water bath under nitrogen. The residue was subjected to nonylation and a standard back extraction procedure before a second derivatization with propionic anhydride. A total of 139 urine specimens were analyzed in this manner, and 104 yielded ecgonine concentrations greater than 50 ng/mL. The average ecgonine concentration in the latter specimens was approximately 5 times the comparable benzoylecgonine concentration. By monitoring ecgonine alone or in conjunction with benzoylecgonine, the number of cocaine positives detected in urine could be dramatically increased. PMID:7564289

Hornbeck, C L; Barton, K M; Czarny, R J

248

Construction of an Integrated Positive Youth Development Conceptual Framework for the Prevention of the Use of Psychotropic Drugs among Adolescents  

PubMed Central

This is a theoretical paper with an aim to construct an integrated conceptual framework for the prevention of adolescents' use and abuse of psychotropic drugs. This paper first reports the subjective reasons for adolescents' drug use and abuse in Hong Kong and reviews the theoretical underpinnings. Theories of drug use and abuse, including neurological, pharmacological, genetic predisposition, psychological, and sociological theories, were reviewed. It provides a critical re-examination of crucial factors that support the construction of a conceptual framework for primary prevention of adolescents' drug use and abuse building on, with minor revision, the model of victimization and substance abuse among women presented by Logan et al. This revised model provides a comprehensive and coherent framework synthesized from theories of drug abuse. This paper then provides empirical support for integrating a positive youth development perspective in the revised model. It further explains how the 15 empirically sound constructs identified by Catalano et al. and used in a positive youth development program, the Project P.A.T.H.S., relate generally to the components of the revised model to formulate an integrated positive youth development conceptual framework for primary prevention of adolescent drug use. Theoretical and practical implications as well as limitations and recommendations are discussed.

Lee, Tak Yan

2011-01-01

249

49 CFR 655.46 - Return to duty following refusal to submit to a test, verified positive drug test result and/or...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...positive drug test result and/or breath alcohol test result of 0.04 or greater. 655...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PREVENTION OF ALCOHOL MISUSE AND PROHIBITED DRUG USE IN TRANSIT...positive drug test result and/or breath alcohol test result of 0.04 or greater....

2012-10-01

250

49 CFR 655.46 - Return to duty following refusal to submit to a test, verified positive drug test result and/or...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...to submit to a test, verified positive drug test result and/or breath alcohol test...PREVENTION OF ALCOHOL MISUSE AND PROHIBITED DRUG USE IN TRANSIT OPERATIONS Types of Testing...to submit to a test, verified positive drug test result and/or breath alcohol...

2011-10-01

251

49 CFR 655.61 - Action when an employee has a verified positive drug test result or has a confirmed alcohol test...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...when an employee has a verified positive drug test result or has a confirmed alcohol...PREVENTION OF ALCOHOL MISUSE AND PROHIBITED DRUG USE IN TRANSIT OPERATIONS Consequences...when an employee has a verified positive drug test result or has a confirmed...

2012-10-01

252

49 CFR 655.61 - Action when an employee has a verified positive drug test result or has a confirmed alcohol test...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...when an employee has a verified positive drug test result or has a confirmed alcohol...PREVENTION OF ALCOHOL MISUSE AND PROHIBITED DRUG USE IN TRANSIT OPERATIONS Consequences...when an employee has a verified positive drug test result or has a confirmed...

2011-10-01

253

Sweat testing to monitor drug exposure.  

PubMed

It may be advantageous to use sweat, rather than blood or urine, to monitor individuals' drug exposure for the purposes of drug treatment programs, employment initiatives, and forensic investigations. Forty-eight patients receiving methadone at the Public Service for the Treatment of Drug Dependence of Perugia (Italy) were monitored for 14 days by the analysis of methadone and cocaine present in two sweat patches, each worn for 7 days. The results were compared to those from the analysis of urine samples collected at the beginning of the study and after 7 days, as well as those from the analysis of hair collected on the fourteenth day. Sweat patch analysis was positive for methadone and its metabolite EDDP in 100% of patients. Some individuals were positive for cocaine in urine, sweat, and hair while others were positive for cocaine in only one of those samples. Results suggest analysis of a sweat patch indicates an individual's drug use or drug washout for the previous week, and provides an alternative to blood or urine analyses. PMID:23462602

Gambelunghe, Cristiana; Rossi, Riccardo; Aroni, Kyriaki; Bacci, Mauro; Lazzarini, Andrea; De Giovanni, Nadia; Carletti, Paola; Fucci, Nadia

2013-01-01

254

False-Positive Tests for Syphilis Associated with Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Hepatitis B Virus Infection among Intravenous Drug Abusers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of HIV, hepatitis C virus, and hepatitis B virus infections in the production of biological false-positive reactions\\u000a for syphilis was evaluated in two large samples of intravenous drug abusers and homosexual men attending AIDS prevention centers\\u000a in Spain. A significantly increased odds ratio (OR) for false-positive tests for syphilis [OR 2.23, 95% confidence intervals\\u000a (CI) 1.76–2.83] was observed

I. Hernández-Aguado; F. Bolumar; R. Moreno; F. J. Pardo; N. Torres; J. Belda; A. Espacio

1998-01-01

255

Positive and negative ion mode ESI-MS and MS/MS for studying drug-DNA complexes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report systematic investigation of duplex DNA complexes with minor groove binders (Hoechsts 33258 and 33342, netropsin and DAPI) and intercalators (daunomycin, doxorubicin, actinomycin D, ethidium, cryptolepine, neocryptolepine, m-Amsacrine, proflavine, ellipticine and mitoxantrone) by ESI-MS and ESI-MS/MS in the negative ion mode and in the positive ion mode. The apparent solution phase equilibrium binding constants can be determined by measuring relative intensities in the ESI-MS spectrum. While negative ion mode gives reliable results, positive ion mode gives a systematic underestimation of the binding constants and even a complete suppression of the complexes for intercalators lacking functional groups capable of interacting in the grooves. In the second part of the paper we systematically compare MS/MS fragmentation channels and breakdown curves in the positive and the negative modes, and discuss the possible uses and caveats of MS/MS in drug-DNA complexes. In the negative mode, the drugs can be separated in three groups: (1) those that leave the complex with no net charge; (2) those that leave the complex with a negative charge; and (3) those that remain attached on the strands upon dissociation of the duplex due to their positive charge. In the positive ion mode, all complexes fragment via the loss of protonated drug. Information on the stabilization of the complex by drug-DNA noncovalent interactions can be obtained straightforwardly only in the case of neutral drug loss. In all other cases, proton affinity (in the positive ion mode), gas-phase basicity (in the negative ion mode) and coulombic repulsion are the major factors influencing the fragmentation channel and the dissociation kinetics.

Rosu, Frédéric; Pirotte, Sophie; Pauw, Edwin De; Gabelica, Valérie

2006-07-01

256

Application of non-linear angle synchronous spectrofluorimetry to the determination of complex mixtures of drugs in urine: A comparative study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy (SFS) is a rapid, sensitive and non-destructive method suitable for the analysis of multifluorophoric mixtures. In this study non linear variable angle synchronous spectrofluorimetry was applied to the determination of three fluoroquinololes in urine. Although this technique provides very good results, total resolution of multicomponent mixtures is not always achieved when the spectral profiles strongly overlap. Partial least-squares regression (PLS-1) was utilized to a develop calibration model that related synchronous fluorescence spectra to the analytical concentration of fluoroquinolones in the presence of urine. The same multicomponent mixture was determined using excitation emission matrix fluorescence (EEMF) along with N-way partial least squares regression (N-PLS and U-PLS). The determination was carried out in micellar medium 0.01 M with a pH of 4.8 provided by 0.2 M sodium acetate/acetic acid buffer. A central composite design was selected to obtain a calibration matrix of 25 standards plus a blank sample. The proposed methods were validated by application to a test set of synthetic samples. The results show that SFS with PLS-1 is a better method compared to EEMF with N-PLS or U-PLS because of the low RMSEP values of the former.

Murillo Pulgarín, J. A.; Alañón Molina, A.; Boras, N.

2012-12-01

257

Papain: a novel urine adulterant.  

PubMed

The estimated number of employees in the United Stated screened annually for illicit drugs is approximately 20 million, with marijuana being the most frequently abused drug. Urine adulterants provide an opportunity for illicit drug users to obtain a false-negative result on commonly used primary drug screening methods such as the enzyme multiplied immunoassay technique and the fluorescence polarized immunoassay technique (FPIA). Typical chemical adulterants such as nitrites are easily detected or render the urine specimen invalid as defined in the proposed SAMHSA guidelines for specimen validity testing based on creatinine, specific gravity, and pH. Papain is a cysteine protease with intrinsic ester hydrolysis capability. The primary metabolite of the psychoactive chemical in marijuana, 11-norcarboxy-Delta9-tetrahydrocannibinol (THC-COOH), was assayed by FPIA in concentrations ranging from 25 to 500 ng/mL, at pH values ranging from 4.5 to 8, over the course of 3 days with papain concentrations ranging from 0 to 10 mg/mL. FPIA analysis of other frequently abused drugs: amphetamines, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, cocaine, opiates, and phencyclidine, along with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) of THC-COOH and high-pressure liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV) of nordiazepam was performed in order to determine if the mechanism of urine adulteration by papain was analyte specific. Control and adulterated urine specimens (n = 30) were assayed for creatinine, specific gravity, and pH to determine if papain rendered the specimens invalid based on the proposed SAMHSA guidelines. There was a direct pH, temperature, and time-dependent correlate between the increase in papain concentration and the decrease in THC-COOH concentration from the untreated control groups (p < 0.01). The average 72-h THC-COOH concentration decrease at pH 6.2 with a papain concentration of 10 mg/mL was 50%. Papain did not significantly decrease the concentration of the other drugs analyzed with the exception of nordiazepam. GC-MS of THC-COOH and HPLC-UV of nordiazepam revealed a 66% and 24% decrease in concentration of the respective analyte with 10 mg/mL papain after 24 h at room temperature (approximately 23 degrees C). No adulterated specimens were rendered invalid based on the SAMHSA guidelines. Immediate FPIA analysis is suggested to minimize the interfering effects of papain with regards to primary drug screening. PMID:16105251

Burrows, David L; Nicolaides, Andrea; Rice, Peter J; Dufforc, Michelle; Johnson, David A; Ferslew, Kenneth E

258

College on Problems of Drug Dependence taskforce on prescription opioid non-medical use and abuse: position statement  

Microsoft Academic Search

This position paper from the College on Problems of Drug Dependence addresses the issues related to non-medical use and abuse of prescription opioids. A central theme throughout is the need to strike a balance between risk management strategies to prevent and deter prescription opioid abuse and the need for physicians and patients to have appropriate access to opioid pharmaceuticals for

James Zacny; George Bigelow; Peggy Compton; Kathleen Foley; Martin Iguchi; Christine Sannerud

2003-01-01

259

Positive family relationships and religious affiliation as mediators between negative environment and illicit drug symptoms in American Indian adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study tests how positive family relationships and religious affiliation mediate between negative familial and social environments, and adolescent illicit drug abuse\\/dependence symptoms. The theoretical framework is based on an integration of two theories: the ecological model of human development (Bronfenbrenner, 1979) and the social development model (Hawkins & Weis, 1985). We used a stratified random sample of 401

ManSoo Yu; Arlene R. Stiffman

2010-01-01

260

49 CFR 655.61 - Action when an employee has a verified positive drug test result or has a confirmed alcohol test...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PREVENTION OF ALCOHOL MISUSE AND PROHIBITED DRUG USE IN TRANSIT OPERATIONS Consequences § 655.61 Action...a verified positive drug test result or has...alcohol test result of 0.04 or...

2009-10-01

261

49 CFR 655.61 - Action when an employee has a verified positive drug test result or has a confirmed alcohol test...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PREVENTION OF ALCOHOL MISUSE AND PROHIBITED DRUG USE IN TRANSIT OPERATIONS Consequences § 655.61 Action...a verified positive drug test result or has...alcohol test result of 0.04 or...

2010-10-01

262

Scientific issues in drug testing: council on scientific affairs  

SciTech Connect

Testing for drugs in biologic fluids, especially urine, is a practice that has become widespread. The technology of testing for drugs in urine has greatly improved in recent years. Inexpensive screening techniques are not sufficiently accurate for forensic testing standards, which must be met wihen a person's employment or reputation may be affected by results. This is particularly a concern during screening of a population in which the prevalence of drug use is very low, in which the predictive value of a positive result would be quite low. Physicians should be aware that results from drug testing can yield accurate evidence of prior exposure to drugs, but they do not provide information about patterns of drug use, about abuse of or dependence on drugs, or about mental or physical impairments that may result from drug use.

Not Available

1987-06-12

263

Drug testing welfare recipients—false positives, false negatives, unanticipated opportunities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Substance abuse and dependence are among the most common psychiatric disorders among pregnant and parenting women. These disorders among welfare recipients have attracted special concern. Chemical testing has been proposed to identify illicit drug use in this population. This analysis scrutinizes the potential value of drug testing, using recent data from the Women’s Employment Study and the National Household Survey

Harold A Pollack; Sheldon Danziger; Rukmalie Jayakody; Kristin S Seefeldt

2002-01-01

264

Positive Youth Development: Helping Postsecondary Students Deal with Pressures To Use Alcohol and Other Drugs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Current research shows alcohol and other drugs to be a major problem on postsecondary campuses despite the fact that the purchase and use of alcohol is illegal for many college students and on most campuses. Little is known about drug and alcohol use levels among deaf students, many of whom come to college ill prepared to handle the pressures of…

Guthmann, Debra S.; Sandberg, Katherine A.

265

Drug disposition in patients with HB s Ag-positive chronic liver disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) results in a spectrum of hepatic abnormalities ranging from minimal liver dysfunction to severe liver failure. These patients provide an opportunity to examine the relationship between the evolution of the liver disease and the ability to metabolize drugs. We have examined hepatic drug disposition in patients with chronic persistent hepatitis, chronic active hepatitis,

J. P. Villeneuve; M. J. Thibeault; M. Ampelas; H. Fortunet-Fouin; L. LaMarre; J. Côté; G. Pomier-Layrargues; P.-M. Huet

1987-01-01

266

49 CFR 40.63 - What steps does the collector take in the collection process before the employee provides a urine...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...before the employee provides a urine specimen? 40.63 Section...FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Urine Specimen Collections § 40...before the employee provides a urine specimen? As the...

2009-10-01

267

49 CFR 40.63 - What steps does the collector take in the collection process before the employee provides a urine...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...before the employee provides a urine specimen? 40.63 Section...FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Urine Specimen Collections § 40...before the employee provides a urine specimen? As the...

2010-10-01

268

Relation between bloodand urine-amphetamine concentrations in impaired drivers as influenced by urinary pH and creatinine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amphetamine undergoes extensive renal excretion and significant amounts are present in urine as the unchanged parent drug. This prompted us to investigate whether a quantitative relationship existed between blood and urine concentrations of amphetamine in the body fluids of drug-impaired drivers apprehended in Sweden, where this stimulant is the major drug of abuse. The relationship between blood and urine concentrations

A W Jones; L Karlsson

2005-01-01

269

Effects of pH and solvent on the fluorescence properties of biomedically important benzamides. Application to determination in drugs and in human urine.  

PubMed

The fluorescence properties of five substituted benzamides, including alizapride, metoclopramide, sulpiride, sultopride and tiapride, were investigated at several pH values and in various solvents (dimethyl sulfoxide, ethanol, ethylene glycol, methanol, propan-2-ol, tetrahydrofuran and water). Except for alizapride, the fluorescence intensities were found to be higher at acidic (1-6) than at alkaline (8-12) pH values. Using the optimum solvent (aqueous solutions) and appropriate pH conditions, linear spectrofluorimetric calibration curves were established over a concentration range of about two orders of magnitude, with correlation coefficients larger than 0.996. Limits of detection were between 1 and 13 ng ml-1, depending on the compound. The method was applied to the determination of benzamides in pharmaceutical preparations and in human urine, with recoveries ranging from 94 to 108% and from 93 to 104%, respectively. PMID:8952447

Buna, M; Aaron, J J; Prognon, P; Mahuzier, G

1996-11-01

270

[Combined treatment of patients with erectile dysfunction and urination disorders].  

PubMed

The article presents the results of the study aimed to the evaluation the efficacy of combination therapy with alpha1-blocker (tamsulosin) and phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor (sildenafil) in patients with urination disorders and erectile dysfunction (ED). A pilot observational study involving 60 men aged from 50 and 80 years divided into 3 groups of 20 people was performed. Group 1 of patients received sildenafil 25 mg daily (dynamico), Group 2--tamsulosin 0.4 mg daily (Omnic-Ocas), and Group 3--tamsulosin 0.4 mg (Omnic-Ocas) and sildenafil 25 mg (dynamico) daily. The visits were carried out at the stage of screening, further--every 10 days (a total number--4 visits). Combination therapy of urination disorders and ED contributed to the significant improvement in uroflowmetry, the stopping of complaints according to the IPSS and IIEF-15 questionnaires, and improving the quality of life (according to the QoL questionnaire). Combination therapy significantly decreased obstructive and irritative symptoms, increased the maximum urine flow rate within the period of observation, as well as significantly decreased the residual urine volume, more pronounced when compared with monotherapy. Significant positive effect on erectile component and all components of the overall satisfaction in the sexual sphere were registered, that as a consequence led to the positive impact on the quality of life in patients treated with PDE5 inhibitor. Given the high prevalence of urinary disorders and erectile dysfunction, combined therapy with alpha1-blockers and PDE5 inhibitors in this case should be a promising area for drug therapy. PMID:23987045

Kamalov, A A; Osmolovski?, B E; Okhobotov, D A; Khodyreva, L A; Takhiradze, T B; Takhiradze, A M; Gevorkian, A R

271

Analysis of cocaethylene, benzoylecgonine and cocaine in human urine by high-performance thin-layer chromatography with ultraviolet detection: a comparison with high-performance liquid chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cocaine and ethanol are frequently used at the same time, resulting in the formation of cocaethylene by transesterification. We studied the capability of high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) to simultaneously detect cocaethylene, cocaine and benzoylecgonine in 16 urine specimens of drug addicts, previously tested as positive for benzoylecgonine at immunoenzymatic screening. Accuracy and precision, as well as detection and quantitation limits

Letizia Antonilli; Carmen Suriano; Maria Caterina Grassi; Paolo Nencini

2001-01-01

272

Detection of manipulation in doping control urine sample collection: a multidisciplinary approach to determine identical urine samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Manipulation of urine sampling in sports drug testing is considered a violation of anti-doping rules and is consequently sanctioned\\u000a by regulatory authorities. In 2003, three identical urine specimens were provided by three different athletes, and the identity\\u000a of all urine samples was detected and substantiated using numerous analytical strategies including gas chromatography–mass\\u000a spectrometry with steroid and metabolite profiling, gas chromatography–nitrogen\\/phosphorus

Mario Thevis; Hans Geyer; Ute Mareck; Gerd Sigmund; Jürgen Henke; Lotte Henke; Wilhelm Schänzer

2007-01-01

273

Usability application of multiplex polymerase chain reaction in the diagnosis of microorganisms isolated from urine of patients treated in cancer hospital  

PubMed Central

Background The objective of this study was: i) to compare the results of urine culture with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) -based detection of microorganisms using two commercially available kits, ii) to assess antimicrobial susceptibility of urine isolates from cancer patients to chosen antimicrobial drugs and, if necessary, to update the recommendation of empirical therapy. Materials and methods. A one-year hospital-based prospective study has been conducted in Greater Poland Cancer Centre and Genetic Medicine Laboratory CBDNA Research Centre in 2011. Urine cultures and urine PCR assay from 72 patients were examined Results Urine cultures and urine PCR assay from 72 patients were examined. Urine samples were positive for 128 strains from which 95 (74%) were identical in both tests. The most frequently isolated bacteria in both culture and PCR assay were coliform organisms and Enterococcus spp. The Gram negative bacilli were most resistant to cotrimoxazol. 77.2% of these bacilli and 100% of E. faecalis and S. agalactiae were sensitive to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid. 4.7% of Gram positive cocci were resistant to nitrofurantoin. Conclusions The PCR method quickly finds the causative agent of urinary tract infection (UTI) and, therefore, it can help with making the choice of the proper antimicrobial therapy at an early stage. It appears to be a viable alternative to the recommendations made in general treatment guidelines, in cases where diversified sensitivity patterns of microorganisms have been found.

Cybulski, Zefiryn; Schmidt, Katarzyna; Grabiec, Alicja; Talaga, Zofia; Bociag, Piotr; Wojciechowicz, Jacek; Roszak, Andrzej; Kycler, Witold

2013-01-01

274

Preemployment drug screening in a large metropolitan medical center  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess the prevalence of illicit drug use among job applicants, a large metropolitan medical center conducted preemployment\\u000a drug screening of all applicants during January 1988. Urine samples from 172 preinformed applicants were screened using Enzyme\\u000a Multiplied Immunoassay Technique (Emit d.a.u.™) followed by confirmatory gas chromatography\\/mass spectrophotometry. 4.1%\\u000a of tests were positive for marijuana and\\/or cocaine and none was positive

Donald Angehr Smith; Raymond Hanbury

1991-01-01

275

False-positive urine ?-HCG in a woman with a tubo-ovarian abscess 1 1 Clinical Communications: OB\\/GYN is coordinated by Colleen Campbell, MD, of the University of California San Diego Medical Center, San Diego, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern urine ?-human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) assays that use enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technology are sensitive and specific for diagnosing pregnancy, both intrauterine and ectopic, and have become indispensable to the practice of Emergency Medicine. A urine HCG test is often relied on by the Emergency Physician as a critical component in the diagnostic regimen of a patient with a

Marc E Levsky; Jonathan A Handler; Raymond D Suarez; Elyse T Esrig

2001-01-01

276

Using Positive Youth Development Constructs to Design a Drug Education Curriculum for Junior Secondary Students in Hong Kong  

PubMed Central

This paper outlines the design of a new curriculum for positive youth development (P.A.T.H.S. II) in Hong Kong. The paper discusses the conceptual base for designing a drug-education curriculum for junior-secondary students using four positive youth development constructs—cognitive competence, emotional competence, beliefs in the future, and self-efficacy. The program design is premised on the belief that adolescents do have developmental assets; therefore, the curriculum is designed to develop their psychosocial competencies. The goal of the curriculum is to develop the selfhood of these youths and ultimately achieve the goal of successful adolescent development.

Lam, Ching Man; Lau, Patrick S. Y.; Law, Ben M. F.; Poon, Y. H.

2011-01-01

277

Sodium azide is less suitable as a positive control of drug-induced lethality for in vitro clonogenic assays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sodium azide (6 mg\\/ml) was used as a positive control for drug-induced lethality in an in vitro clonogenic assay. Petri dishes containing control and sodium azide treated cultures of WiDr cells were placed together in a large Petri dish and incubated at 37°C in an atmosphere of 10% CO2 in air. No growth was observed. Control cells formed colonies only

Peter Lelieveld; Matti S. Aapro; Rob Lambalgen; Kor J. Berg

1986-01-01

278

Screening pharmaceuticals for possible carcinogenic effects: initial positive results for drugs not previously screened  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To screen commonly used prescription drugs for possible carcinogenic effects.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  In a large health care program we identified 105 commonly used drugs, not previously screened. Recipients were followed for\\u000a up to 12½ years for incident cancer. Nested case–control analyses of 55 cancer sites and all combined included up to ten matched\\u000a controls per case, with lag of at least 2 years between

Gary D. Friedman; Natalia Udaltsova; James Chan; Charles P. Quesenberry Jr; Laurel A. Habel

2009-01-01

279

Unprotected Sexual Behavior Among Heterosexual HIV-Positive Injection Drug Using Men: Associations by Partner Type and Partner Serostatus  

PubMed Central

Few studies have examined sexual risk behaviors of HIV-positive, heterosexual, injection drug using (IDU) men. We investigated such behaviors and associations with risk among sexually active, HIV-positive IDU men who reported only female sex partners in the 3 months prior to baseline interview. We examined associations separately for four non-exclusive groups of men by crossing partner type (main or casual) and partner serostatus (HIV-positive or HIV-negative/unknown). Of 732 male participants, 469 (64%) were sexually active with only female partners. Of these 469 men, 155 (33%) reported sex with HIV-positive main partners, 127 (27%) with HIV-negative or unknown serostatus main partners, 145 (31%) with HIV-positive casual partners, and 192 (41%) with HIV-negative/unknown serostatus casual partners. Significant multivariate associations for unprotected sex with HIV-negative or unknown serostatus main partners were less self-efficacy to use condoms, weaker partner norms supporting condoms, and more negative condom beliefs. Similar correlates were found for unprotected sex with HIV-positive main and casual partners. In addition, alcohol or drug use during sex was a significant correlate of unprotected sex with HIV-positive main partners, while depression was significant for HIV-positive casual partners. For unprotected sex with HIV-negative/unknown status casual partners, self-efficacy for condom use, sex trade, and education were significant multivariate correlates. A combination of broad and tailored intervention strategies based on the relationship pattern of men's lives may provide the most benefit for reducing unprotected sex with female partners.

Mizuno, Yuko; Metsch, Lisa R.; Garfein, Richard; Tobin, Karin; Knight, Kelly; Latka, Mary H.

2006-01-01

280

Direct Detection of Drugs of Abuse in Whole Hemolysed Postmortem Blood and Qualitative Measurement in EDTA - Plasma using the CEDIA DAU Urine Assays  

Microsoft Academic Search

The direct and simple detection of a broad spectrum of drugs in whole hemolysed postmortem blood (Part A) and the possibility of qualitative measurement in serum and whole blood using the cloned enzyme donor immu- noassay technique (CEDIA) (Part B) is described. We measured the samples for the presence of amphetamines (AMP), barbiturates (BARB), benzodiazepines (BENZ), cannabinoids, cocaine, LSD, methadone

B. Kottenhahn; G. Drasch; G. Roider; B. Hofbauer

281

Positive autoregulation of the yeast transcription factor Pdr3p, which is involved in control of drug resistance.  

PubMed Central

Simultaneous resistance to an array of drugs with different cytotoxic activities is a property of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in which the protein Pdr3p has recently been shown to play a role as a transcriptional regulator. We provide evidence that the yeast PDR3 gene, which encodes a zinc finger transcription factor implicated in certain drug resistance phenomena, is under positive autoregulation by Pdr3p. DNase I footprinting analyses using bacterially expressed Pdr3p showed specific recognition by this protein of at least two upstream activating sequences in the PDR3 promoter. The use of lacZ reporter constructs, a mutational analysis of the upstream activating sequences, as well as band shift experiments enabled the identification of two 5'TC CGCGGA3' sequence motifs in the PDR3 gene as consensus elements for the binding of Pdr3p. Several similar sequence motifs can be found in the promoter of PDR5, a gene encoding an ATP-dependent drug pump whose Pdr3p-induced overexpression is responsible for drug resistance phenomena. Recently one of these sequence elements was shown to be the target of Pdr3p to elevate the level of PDR5 transcription. Finally, we provide evidence in the absence of PDR1 for a PDR3-controlled transcriptional induction of the drug pump by cycloheximide and propose a model for the mechanism governing the transcriptional autoregulation of Pdr3p.

Delahodde, A; Delaveau, T; Jacq, C

1995-01-01

282

Positively charged polymeric nanoparticle reservoirs of terbinafine hydrochloride: preclinical implications for controlled drug delivery in the aqueous humor of rabbits.  

PubMed

Frequent instillation of terbinafine hydrochloride (T HCl) eye drops (0.25%, w/v) is necessary to maintain effective aqueous humor concentrations for treatment of fungal keratitis. The current approach aimed at developing potential positively charged controlled-release polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) of T HCl. The estimation of the drug pharmacokinetics in the aqueous humor following ocular instillation of the best-achieved NPs in rabbits was another goal. Eighteen drug-loaded (0.50%, w/v) formulae were fabricated by the nanopreciptation method using Eudragit® RS100 and chitosan (0.25%, 0.5%, and 1%, w/v). Soybean lecithin (1%, w/v) and Pluronic® F68 (0.5%, 1%, and 1.5%, w/v) were incorporated in the alcoholic and aqueous phases, respectively. The NPs were evaluated for particle size, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency percentage (EE%), morphological examination, drug release in simulated tear fluid (pH 7.4), Fourier-transform IR (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), physical stability (2 months, 4°C and 25°C), and drug pharmacokinetics in the rabbit aqueous humor relative to an oily drug solution. Spherical, discrete NPs were successfully developed with mean particle size and zeta potential ranging from 73.29 to 320.15 nm and +20.51 to +40.32 mV, respectively. Higher EE% were achieved with Eudragit® RS100-based NPs. The duration of drug release was extended to more than 8 h. FT-IR and XRD revealed compatibility between inactive formulation ingredients and T HCl and permanence of the latter's crystallinity, respectively. The NPs were physically stable, for at least 2 months, when refrigerated. F5-NP suspension significantly (P<0.05) increased drug mean residence time and improved its ocular bioavailability; 1.657-fold. PMID:23615773

Tayel, Saadia Ahmed; El-Nabarawi, Mohamed Ahmed; Tadros, Mina Ibrahim; Abd-Elsalam, Wessam Hamdy

2013-04-25

283

Uranium in Urine  

Microsoft Academic Search

DURING some work in this Research Department on compounds of uranium, as a safety precaution, we commenced to analyse the urine of personnel concerned, using a fluorimetric method. In the preparation of fluorimetric standards, known amounts of uranyl nitrate were added to samples of urine from persons not engaged on the work with uranium. To our surprise we found uranium

H. M. Wilson; A. A. Smales

1946-01-01

284

Urine Tests (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... number and variety of red and white blood cells the presence of bacteria or other organisms the presence of substances, such as glucose, that usually shouldn't be found in the urine the pH, which shows how acidic or basic the urine ...

285

Rapid enzymatic urine screening test to detect bacteriuria in pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of an enzymatic urine screening test for diagnosing bacteriuria in pregnancy.Methods: Clean-catch midstream urine samples were collected from 383 women who had routine prenatal screening for bacteriuria. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for each screening test (enzyme activity, nitrites or leukocytes on dipstick, and bacteria

Lynnae Millar; Laurie DeBuque; Cheryl Leialoha; Andrew Grandinetti; Jeffrey Killeen

2000-01-01

286

Influence of lower body positive pressure on upper airway cross-sectional area in drug-resistant hypertension.  

PubMed

We previously showed that in hypertensive patients the amount of fluid displaced from the legs overnight is directly related to the severity of obstructive sleep apnea and that the rostral fluid shift was greater in drug-resistant hypertensive patients. The findings suggested that this fluid redistribution increases upper airway collapsibility, yet more direct evidence is lacking. The present study examines the effects of graded lower body positive pressure on leg fluid volume, upper airway cross-sectional area, and neck circumference in patients with drug-resistant hypertension (n=25) and controlled hypertension (n=15). In both groups, the reduction in mean upper airway cross-sectional area and oropharyngeal junction area, assessed by acoustic pharyngometry, and the increase in neck circumference, determined by mercury strain gauge plethysmography, were related to the amount of fluid displaced from the legs (R(2)=0.41, P<0.0001; R(2)=0.42, P<0.0001; and R(2)=0.47, P<0.0001, respectively). Displacement of leg fluid volume was significantly greater in patients with drug-resistant hypertension than in controlled hypertension (P<0.0001), and as a consequence, the former experienced greater reductions in mean upper airway cross-sectional area and oropharyngeal junction area (P=0.001 and P<0.0001, respectively). The findings support the concept that in hypertensive subjects, rostral fluid displacement may participate in the pathogenesis of obstructive sleep apnea by narrowing the upper airway and making it more susceptible to collapse during sleep. The exaggerated fluid volume displacement from the legs and upper airway response to lower body positive pressure in patients with drug-resistant hypertension provide additional evidence of an important link between drug-resistant hypertension and obstructive sleep apnea. PMID:23150515

Friedman, Oded; Bradley, T Douglas; Logan, Alexander G

2012-11-12

287

Confirmatory analysis for drugs of abuse in plasma and urine by high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry with respect to criteria for compound identification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC\\/MS\\/MS) has become a powerful tool for quantitative confirmatory analysis of drugs of abuse and has begun to spread in the field of forensic toxicology. Guidelines for confirmatory analysis by GC\\/MS and LC\\/MS\\/MS have been published recently by several organizations (WADA, IOC, SOFT, GTFCh, EU). However, these guidelines have not yet been included in

Barbora Maralikova; Wolfgang Weinmann

2004-01-01

288

Comprehensive screening of anabolic steroids, corticosteroids, and acidic drugs in horse urine by solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports two highly efficient liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC–MS) methods for the screening of anabolic steroids, corticosteroids, and acidic drugs for the purpose of doping control in equine sports. Sample extraction was performed using a mixed-mode C8-SCX solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridge. The first eluted fraction (acidic\\/neutral fraction) was base-washed and the resulting organic extract was used for the screening

Emmie N. M. Ho; David K. K. Leung; Terence S. M. Wan; Nola H. Yu

2006-01-01

289

Increasing ciprofloxacin resistance of isolates from infected urines of a cross-section of patients in Karachi  

PubMed Central

Background The objective of the research was to evaluate the current effectiveness of Ciprofloxacin on the uropathogens prevalent in infected urines of a cross-section of patients in Karachi, Pakistan. Findings An observational study conducted in a private diagnostic laboratory and its branches in key areas of Karachi City from February 2010 to July 2011. A total of 2963 consecutive urine samples were cultured on chocolate agar, CLED medium and selective EMB agar. Growth of possible uropathogens was noted, and compared retrospectively with earlier lab data of suggestive urine cultures (n?=?1997) recorded during January 2009 and December 2009. The isolates were identified using routine procedures and the API 20 system and evaluated for their sensitivity to ciprofloxacin by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. Data was subjected to statistical analysis on SPSS version 16. Out of the present-day culture-positive urines, 2409 (80.4%) yielded gram-negative rods, and 554 (18.5%) gram-positive cocci. E.coli (43.1%) was most frequent, followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (22.4%) and Staphylococcus aureus (15.5%). 57.2% of the Gram-negative bacteria and 48.7% of the Gram-positive isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin. In the earlier (2009) screening, 39% of Gram-negative rods and 48% of Gram-positive cocci were indifferent to the drug. Conclusions A decrease in bacterial susceptibility of uropathogens to ciprofloxacin, a commonly prescribed drug in our population, is underlined, occurring possibly due to overuse pressure. Empirical initial treatment with ciprofloxacin would be inadequate in more than half of UTI cases, thereby counseling increased C/S testing of urines to provide existing sensitivity data for apt drug prescription.

2012-01-01

290

German national drug information service: user satisfaction and potential positive patient outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  The pharmacist-run national German drug information service (DIS) has operated since 1988. Answering a steadily increasing\\u000a demand over the past decade, our centre has, in total, provided information in more than 14,000 cases, mainly for community\\u000a pharmacists. Information on user’s satisfaction and on possible direct or indirect benefits for patients is as yet scarce.\\u000a Our objectives were to assess user’s

Thilo Bertsche; Andrea Hämmerlein; Martin Schulz

2007-01-01

291

A new method for the enhancement of electromembrane extraction efficiency using carbon nanotube reinforced hollow fiber for the determination of acidic drugs in spiked plasma, urine, breast milk and wastewater samples.  

PubMed

A new design of low voltage electromembrane extraction (EME) using carbon nanotube reinforced hollow fiber was developed for the determination of acidic drugs in biological and wastewater samples. The supported liquid membrane (SLM) with carbon nanotubes as the sorbent interface was used in this research. CNTs have large surface area and high adsorption capacity for a wide range of organic and inorganic species. Therefore, the presence of CNTs in SLM increased the overall analyte partition coefficient in the membrane and lead to enhancement in analyte transport. Optimization of the variables affecting this method was carried out in order to achieve the best extraction efficiency. Ibuprofen and naproxen, nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), were selected as model acidic drugs. Optimal extractions were accomplished with 1-octanol with 3.0 mg mL(-1) CNTs as the SLM, with 5V as the driving force, and with pH 7.4 in donor and pH 12 in acceptor solutions. Equilibrium extraction conditions were obtained after 10 min of operation with the whole assembly agitated at 500 rpm. Under the optimized extraction conditions, the proposed EME technique provided good linearity (>0.998), repeatability (RSD=2.7-3.2), low limits of detection (1-3 ng mL(-1)), excellent preconcentration (PF=180-188) and high recoveries (90-94%). In comparison with the conventional EME method, this method showed better results (lower voltage, higher preconcentration factors and higher recoveries). Finally, the developed method was successfully used for the determination of ibuprofen and naproxen in different spiked matrices including plasma, urine, breast milk and wastewater samples. PMID:23473518

Hasheminasab, Kobra Sadat; Fakhari, Ali Reza; Shahsavani, Abolfath; Ahmar, Hamid

2013-02-08

292

Are phylogenetic position, virulence, drug susceptibility and in vivo response to treatment in mycobacteria interrelated?  

PubMed

Phylogenetic analyses on the basis of multiple house-keeping genes and whole genome sequences have offered new insights in the phylogeny of the genus Mycobacterium. This genus yields obligate pathogens, the M. tuberculosis complex and M. leprae, as well as opportunistic pathogens (e.g. M. avium, M. intracellulare, M. kansasii, M. marinum, M. malmoense) and saprophytes (e.g. M. phlei, M. sphagni, M. gordonae). The most virulent mycobacteria, the M. tuberculosis complex, M. leprae and the M. kansasii-M. szulgai-M. marinum-M. ulcerans group are phylogenetically related and infections by these organisms are better treatable than those caused by less virulent and phylogenetically more distantly related Mycobacterium species. The most virulent Mycobacterium species are also characterized by high levels of natural drug susceptibility. In this paper, we review studies of phylogeny, drug susceptibility, and clinical significance to support our hypothesis that drug susceptibility in mycobacteria is acquired and reflects the low level of competition in -and adaptation to- a closer-to-human (environmental) niche. In turn, mycobacteria that inhabit the most competitive environmental niches are the least adapted to humans, thus of low clinical significance, but most tolerant to antibiotics derived from microbes with which they share their habitat, lowering the chances of cure in case of infection. PMID:22036704

van Ingen, Jakko; Boeree, Martin J; van Soolingen, Dick; Iseman, Michael D; Heifets, Leonid B; Daley, Charles L

2011-10-20

293

10 CFR 707.7 - Random drug testing requirements and identification of testing designated positions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...707.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKPLACE SUBSTANCE ABUSE PROGRAMS AT DOE SITES Procedures § 707.7...designated positions. (a)(1) Each workplace substance abuse program will provide for random testing for...

2013-01-01

294

Urine testing for norcodeine, norhydrocodone, and noroxycodone facilitates interpretation and reduces false negatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urine drug testing of pain patients provides objective information to health specialists regarding patient compliance, diversion, and concurrent illicit drug use. Interpretation of urine test results for semi-synthetic opiates can be difficult because of complex biotransformations of parent drug to metabolites that are also available commercially and may be abused. Normetabolites such as norcodeine, norhydrocodone and noroxycodone are unique metabolites

Edward J. Cone; Anne Zichterman; Rebecca Heltsley; David L. Black; Beverly Cawthon; Tim Robert; Frank Moser; Yale H. Caplan

2010-01-01

295

Canada refuses to issue a visa to an HIV-positive worker on antiretroviral drugs.  

PubMed

Citizenship and Immigration Canada has denied an application for a visa from an HIV-positive man even though he is in good health. The man was seeking to fill a two-year work term in Canada. The case raises concerns about Canada's immigration policies for people with HIV and about the ability of organizations working in AIDS to hire HIV-positive foreign workers. PMID:14719488

Garmaise, David

2002-12-01

296

Urine Testing Among Three States Among Three Groups of Offenders.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study examines the effect of urine testing on performance during community supervision of offenders who have completed a shock incarceration program and two comparison groups. The two separate models examined the effect of drug testing on performance...

J. G. Worley

1994-01-01

297

Drug susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by a nitrate reductase assay applied directly on microscopy-positive sputum samples.  

PubMed

Current methods for drug susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis are either costly or slow. As the prevalence of multidrug-resistant strains increases, the need for fast, reliable, and inexpensive methods that can also be applied in settings with scarce resources is obvious. We evaluated a rapid colorimetric nitrate reductase assay (NRA) for direct drug susceptibility testing of M. tuberculosis directly from clinical sputum samples with positive microscopy results for acid-fast bacilli with more than 10 acid-fast bacilli per high-power field. We have saved valuable time by omitting the preisolation step. The sensitivity (ability to detect true drug resistance) and specificity (ability to detect true drug susceptibility) of the direct NRA, using the direct proportion method as the reference, were 100 and 100%, 93 and 100%, 76 and 100%, and 55 and 99% for rifampin, isoniazid, streptomycin, and ethambutol, respectively, when tested on M. tuberculosis strains present in 121 samples. The results were in most cases available in 14 days. The direct NRA could be used as a rapid, inexpensive, and accurate method to determine rifampin and isoniazid susceptibility directly from sputum. The technique might become a valid alternative to traditional methods, especially in low-income countries. PMID:16000429

Musa, Humberto R; Ambroggi, Marta; Souto, Alejandro; Angeby, K A Kristian

2005-07-01

298

Beliefs that Condoms Reduce Sexual Pleasure--Gender Differences in Correlates Among Heterosexual HIV-Positive Injection Drug Users (IDUs)  

PubMed Central

Studies consistently find that negative condom beliefs or attitudes are significantly associated with less condom use in various populations, including HIV-positive injection drug users (IDUs). As part of efforts to reduce sexual risk among HIV-positive IDUs, one of the goals of HIV interventions should be the promotion of positive condom beliefs. In this paper we sought to identify the correlates of negative condom beliefs and examined whether such correlates varied by gender, using a subsample (those with an opposite-sex main partner; n?=?348) of baseline data collected as part of a randomized controlled study of HIV-positive IDUs. In multivariate analyses, we found more significant correlates for women than for men. With men, perception that their sex partner is not supportive of condom use (negative partner norm) was the only significant correlate (Beta?=??0.30; p?positive condom beliefs among HIV-positive IDUs.

Purcell, David W.; Latka, Mary H.; Metsch, Lisa R.; Gomez, Cynthia A.; Latkin, Carl A.

2007-01-01

299

Drugs  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... Print; Share; E-mail. Home; Drugs. -. Increased risk of death from IV Tygacil. ... Information highlights risk of hepatitis B reactivation; hepatitis B reactivation ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs

300

Agents of change: peer mentorship as HIV prevention among HIV-positive injection drug users.  

PubMed

This paper presents a qualitative investigation of peer mentoring among HIV seropositive injection drug users in a randomized controlled trial, the INSPIRE study. Qualitative analyses of 68 in-depth open-ended interviews conducted in 2005 in Baltimore, New York, Miami, and San Francisco revealed that these individuals conceptualized themselves as change agents through the identity of peer mentor at the three related domains of individual, interpersonal, and community-level change. Implications for program development and future research of peer mentoring as a mechanism for HIV prevention are discussed. This study was funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA). PMID:22428820

Mackenzie, Sonja; Pearson, Charles; Frye, Victoria; Gómez, Cynthia A; Latka, Mary H; Purcell, David W; Knowlton, Amy R; Metsch, Lisa R; Tobin, Karin E; Valverde, Eduardo E; Knight, Kelly R

2012-04-01

301

Cutaneous T-cell Lymphoma-like Drug Eruption in an Hiv-positive Patient Taking Vancomycin and Rifampin.  

PubMed

Background:Cutaneous T-cell pseudolymphoma (CTPL) is a benign reactive T-cell lymphoproliferative subtype of pseudolymphoma. Some variants of CTPL can resemble the plaques of mycosis fungoides (MF). The vast majority of drug-induced cases have been associated with anticonvulsants. There is only one report in the literature documenting a case of vancomycin-induced CTPL.Methods:We report a cutaneous T-cell lymphoma-like eruption in a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patient recently started on vancomycin and rifampin.Results:A skin biopsy showed several histologic features of MF with immunohistochemical and T-cell receptor gene rearrangement studies suggestive of CTPL. This atypical T-cell reaction mimicking MF completely resolved on cessation of rifampin followed by vancomycin.Conclusion:Considering drug-induced causes of MF-like histologic changes is crucial to prevent unnecessary treatment for MF. PMID:24138984

Macisaac, Jennifer L; Ward, Chloé E; Pratt, Melanie

302

Urine electrolytes and the urine anion and osmolar gaps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urine ammonia concentration is crucial to understanding and quantifying the kidney's response to metabolic acidosis. This test is generally not performed by clinical laboratories. The urine anion gap and osmolar gaps have been proposed as surrogate measures of urine ammonia in patients with hyperchloremic acidosis. We measured ammonium and other electrolytes in the urine of patients attending our renal disease

Barry Kirschbaum; Domenic Sica; F. Phillip Anderson

1999-01-01

303

Sexual risk behavior among injection drug-using human immunodeficiency virus positive clients.  

PubMed

This study examined sexual risk behavior of 154 seropositive Hispanic injection drug-using clients who were a subsample of a larger study. The results revealed that while nearly 71% followed safe sex practices at a 6-month follow-up, the other 29% were following risky sexual behaviors. Among males who were 25 years of age or younger, slightly over 58% were practicing unsafe sex. Among females, those in the 31-35 age group were all following risky sexual behaviors. Generally, those who lived with their sexual partners, females, and younger clients tended to follow risky sexual behaviors. These findings are very significant in the light of the heterosexual transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). Educational and case management programs are needed to provide such clients with an understanding of the possibility of HIV transmission to their sexual partners and to their children in case of pregnancies. PMID:8349390

Singh, B K; Koman, J J; Catan, V M; Souply, K L; Birkel, R C; Golaszewski, T J

1993-06-01

304

Recurrent deep venous thrombosis in an HIV-positive and injecting drug user woman  

PubMed Central

We report a case of recurrent deep venous thrombosis in a 44-year-old woman, intravenous drug user and HIV-infected, who injected cocaine in the groins and veins of the dorsum of the feet. She suffered several episodes of deep venous thrombosis and soft-tissue infections in the lower limbs. Images of Doppler ultrasound scan revealed thrombosis in the right popliteal vein with partial recanalization and calcified thrombi in the territory of the right femoral vein. After use of heparin and oral anticoagulation, her clinical evolution was uneventful, and she was asymptomatic at the occasion of the hospital discharge. This report calls for better awareness about injections in the groins and superficial femoral veins, which are part of the deep venous system. Thrombosis related to HIV infection is highlighted.

dos Santos, Vitorino Modesto; Teles, Ludmila Thommen; Leao, Carlos Eduardo Silva; Lopes, Janio Wagner Pinheiro; Fastudo, Custodio Abel; Lima, Regina Lucas Machada

2012-01-01

305

Determination of nimetazepam and 7-aminonimetazepam in human urine by using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

We report determination of metabolites of popular drugs of abuse, including nimetazepam and nitrazepam, in urine by using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Nimetazepam and its metabolites, 7-aminonimetazepam and nitrazepam, were extracted by solid-phase extraction using a DAU cartridge. An ammonium acetate buffer solution (pH 4) and a Luna polar-RP column were selected as the mobile and stationary phase, respectively, for liquid chromatography. Mass spectrometry was used for analysis and was optimized for operation in the positive mode for all analytes. The urine specimens were screened for the presence of nimetazepam and its metabolites nitrazepam and 7-aminonimetazepam at a concentration of 0.1ng/mL. Presence of 7-aminonimetazepam in the urine was an indicator of the subject being a probable abuser of nimetazepam. PMID:23245766

Wang, Kuang-Chuan; Cheng, Min-Chi; Hsieh, Chin-Lin; Hsu, Jung-Fa; Wu, Jen-Der; Lee, Ching-Kuo

2012-12-12

306

A LC-MS/MS method to quantify the novel cholesterol lowering drug ezetimibe in human serum, urine and feces in healthy subjects genotyped for SLCO1B1.  

PubMed

Ezetimibe (Ezetrol) is a novel cholesterol lowering drug which disposition is not fully understood in man. We developed a selective and high-sensitive assay to measure serum concentration-time profiles, renal and fecal elimination of ezetimibe in pharmacokinetic studies. Ezetimibe glucuronide, the major metabolite of ezetimibe was determined by enzymatic degradation to the parent compound. Ezetimibe was measured after extraction with methyl tert-butyl ether using 4-hydroxychalcone as internal standard and liquid chromatography coupled via an APCI interface with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for detection. The chromatography (column XTerra) MS, C(18), 2.1 mm x 100 mm, particle size 3.5 microm) was done isocratically with acetonitrile/water (60/40, v/v; flow rate 200 microl/min). The MS/MS analysis was performed in the negative ion mode (m/z transition: ezetimibe 408-271, internal standard 223-117). The validation ranges for ezetimibe and total ezetimibe were as follows: serum 0.0001-0.015 microg/ml and 0.001-0.2 microg/ml; urine and fecal homogenate 0.025-10 microg/ml and 0.1-20 mg/ml, respectively. The assay was successfully applied to measure ezetimibe disposition in two subjects genotyped for the hepatic uptake transporter SLCO1B1. PMID:16280261

Oswald, Stefan; Scheuch, Eberhard; Cascorbi, Ingolf; Siegmund, Werner

2005-11-08

307

Selective solid-phase extraction of naproxen drug from human urine samples using molecularly imprinted polymer-coated magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotubes prior to its spectrofluorometric determination.  

PubMed

A drug imprinted polymer based on suspension polymerization on magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MIPMCNTs) was prepared with a synthesized amidoamine as the functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as the cross-linker, naproxen (NAP) as the template and ammonium persulfate as the initiator. The MIPMCNTs were characterized by TEM, FT-IR and XRD measurements. The prepared magnetic adsorbent can be well dispersed in aqueous media and can be easily separated magnetically from the medium after loading with NAP. All the aspects influencing the adsorption (extraction time, adsorbent dosage and pH) and desorption (desorption time and desorption solvent) of the analyte on the MIPMCNTs have been investigated. The extracted NAP could be easily desorbed with a mixture of methanol/sodium hydroxide aqueous solution and determined spectrofluorometrically at ?em = 353 nm (?ex = 271 nm). A linear dynamic range was established from 4.0 to 40.0 ng mL?¹ of NAP and the limit of detection (LOD) was found to be 2.0 ng mL?¹. In addition, the equilibrium adsorption data of NAP by imprinted polymer were analyzed by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The developed method was utilized for the determination of NAP in human urine samples with satisfactory results. PMID:23739162

Madrakian, Tayyebeh; Ahmadi, Mazaher; Afkhami, Abbas; Soleimani, Mohammad

2013-06-06

308

Selenium Levels in Human Blood, Urine, and Hair in Response to Exposure via Drinking Water.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Blood, hair, urine and tap water samples were obtained from participants in a population exposed to varying amounts of selenium via water from home wells. Concentrations of selenium in urine and hair produced significant positive correlations with well-wa...

J. L. Valentine H. K. Kang G. H. Spivey

1978-01-01

309

Tunable Detection Sensitivity of Opiates in Urine via a Label-Free Porous Silicon Competitive Inhibition Immunosensor  

PubMed Central

Currently, there is need for laboratory based high-throughput and reliable point-of-care drug screening methodologies. We demonstrate here a chip-based label-free porous silicon (PSi) photonic sensor for detecting opiates in urine. This technique provides a cost-effective alternative to conventional labeled drug screening immunoassays with potential for translation to multiplexed analysis. Important effects of surface chemistry and competitive binding assay protocol on the sensitivity of opiate detection are revealed. Capability to tune sensitivity and detection range over ?3 orders of magnitude (18.0 nM – 10.8 ?M) was achieved by varying the applied urine specimen volume (100 – 5 ?l), which results in systematic shifts in the competitive binding response curve. A detection range (0.36 – 4.02 ?M) of morphine in urine (15 ?l) was designed to span the current positive cut-off value (1.05 ?M morphine) in medical opiate urine screening. Desirable high cross-reactivity to oxycodone, in addition to other common opiates: morphine, morphine-3-glucuronide, 6-acetyl morphine demonstrates an advantage over current commercial screening assays, while low interference with cocaine metabolite was maintained. This study uniquely displays PSi sensor technology as an inexpensive, rapid, and reliable drug screening technology. Furthermore, the versatile surface chemistry developed can be implemented on a range of solid-supported sensors to conduct competitive inhibition assays.

Bonanno, Lisa M.; DeLouise, Lisa A.

2010-01-01

310

The efficacy of hair and urine toxicology screening on the detection of child abuse by burning.  

PubMed

Abuse by burning is estimated to occur in 1 to 25% of children admitted with burn injuries annually. Hair and urine toxicology for illicit drug exposure may provide additional confirmatory evidence for abuse. To determine the impact of hair and urine toxicology on the identification of child abuse, we performed a retrospective chart review of all pediatric patients admitted to our burn unit. The medical records of 263 children aged 0 to 16 years of age who were admitted to our burn unit from January 2002 to December 2007 were reviewed. Sixty-five children had suspected abuse. Of those with suspected abuse, 33 were confirmed by the Department of Health and Human Services and comprised the study group. Each of the 33 cases was randomly matched to three pediatric (0-16 years of age) control patients (99). The average annual incidence of abuse in pediatric burn patients was 13.7+/-8.4% of total annual pediatric admissions (range, 0-25.6%). Age younger than 5 years, hot tap water cause, bilateral, and posterior location of injury were significantly associated with nonaccidental burn injury on multivariate analysis. Thirteen (39.4%) abused children had positive ancillary tests. These included four (16%) skeletal surveys positive for fractures and 10 (45%) hair samples positive for drugs of abuse (one patient had a fracture and a positive hair screen). In three (9.1%) patients who were not initially suspected of abuse but later confirmed, positive hair test for illicit drugs was the only indicator of abuse. Nonaccidental injury can be difficult to confirm. Although inconsistent injury history and burn injury pattern remain central to the diagnosis of abuse by burning, hair and urine toxicology offers a further means to facilitate confirmation of abuse. PMID:19506505

Hayek, Shady N; Wibbenmeyer, Lucy A; Kealey, Lyn Dee H; Williams, Ingrid M; Oral, Resmiye; Onwuameze, Obiora; Light, Timothy D; Latenser, Barbara A; Lewis, Robert W; Kealey, Gerald P

311

Sodium azide is less suitable as a positive control of drug-induced lethality for in vitro clonogenic assays.  

PubMed

Sodium azide (6 mg/ml) was used as a positive control for drug-induced lethality in an in vitro clonogenic assay. Petri dishes containing control and sodium azide treated cultures of WiDr cells were placed together in a large Petri dish and incubated at 37 degrees C in an atmosphere of 10% CO2 in air. No growth was observed. Control cells formed colonies only when the dishes were separated from the sodium azide dishes. Using a microtiter plate the toxic effect was inversely related to the distance of the test cultures from the sodium azide treated cultures. These results suggested the formation of a toxic gas or vapour from sodium azide under cell culture conditions, probably an azide. Chemical analysis was based on characteristic reactions, such as the production of a precipitate with silver ions or formation of a red-coloured complex with ferric salts. On a microtiter plate, a gradient of the expected precipitate or red colour was observed, the highest amounts adjacent to the wells containing sodium azide. These results show that sodium azide acts as a positive control of drug-induced lethality for in vitro clonogenic assays. However, the formation of a highly toxic vapour, most likely hydrazaic acid, makes it a less suitable standard. PMID:3583644

Lelieveld, P; Aapro, M S; van Lambalgen, R; van den Berg, K J

1986-01-01

312

Forfeiture of illegally acquired assets of drug traffickers: the position in India.  

PubMed

Trafficking in drugs and other related crimes generates huge illicit funds which are used to support other criminal activity, corruption, illicit arms trading, the smuggling of goods and currency, and other economic offences. The traditional enforcement techniques aimed only at carriers and confiscation of the seized contraband no longer provide a sufficient deterrent. The problem is international in scope and requires close cooperation of all the agencies concerned. In 1976, India enacted specific legislation providing for the forfeiture of the property and assets of smugglers, including traffickers and foreign-exchange manipulators. This legislation, known as the "Smugglers and Foreign-Exchange Manipulators (Forfeiture of Property) Act, 1976", enables the enforcement authorities to confiscate all property, both movable and immovable, illegally acquired or accumulated, or for which investment is made from unlawful earnings resulting from smuggling and foreign exchange racketeering. It covers all such property held, not only in the names of smugglers and traffickers themselves, but their relatives and associates as well. The Act provides for principles of natural justice to be followed for all forfeiture proceedings and for appeals to a high tribunal. The legislation has enabled forfeiture action in 2,297 cases, covering properties valued at $US 40 million, during the last six years. PMID:6556075

Gujral, B B

313

Challenges in urine bioanalytical assays: overcoming nonspecific binding.  

PubMed

Dr Allena Ji is the Director of Bioanalytical Services, XenoBiotic Laboratories, Inc., NJ, USA. She has worked in the bioanalytical field for many years and accumulated rich experience in LC-MS/MS method development, method validation and sample analysis under GLP compliance in large pharmaceutical company and contract laboratory settings. In the past 10 years, Allena worked at Pfizer (Legacy of Wyeth) and investigated many small-molecule drug candidates for their nonspecific binding in urine assays. Nonspecific binding of compounds results in a severe underestimation of the compounds' concentrations and poor precision and accuracy in urine bioanalytical assays. To overcome nonspecific binding in urine assays, Allena and her colleagues developed a series of practical approaches for urine method development. By adding an appropriate anti-adsorptive agent at its optimum concentration to the urine collection containers, the nonspecific binding can be blocked. Urine assays have much higher hurdles than plasma assays due to nonspecific binding and variability of urine pH, salt concentration, volume and solubility of drug(s) in urine. A simple and systematic approach for urine method development is emphasized in this paper. Nonspecific binding is a very serious issue in bioanalytical urine assays where a compound(s) adsorbs to the container wall. The adsorption happens frequently in urine assays because urine lacks proteins and lipids that can bind to the analytes or solubilize lipophilic analytes. Therefore, urine bioanalytical assays tend to suffer from analyte losses more often than plasma assays. In the past decade, there have been many methods described to overcome nonspecific adsorption in urine assays based on individual analyte characteristics. However, a common and simple method development approach for various analytes has not been discussed and summarized. In this article we demonstrate, discuss and summarize a common approach to urine method development with a focus on overcoming adsorption issues. The advantages and limitations of commonly used anti-adsorptive agents, such as bovine serum albumin, zwitterionic detergents such as CHAPS, sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate, ?-cyclodextrin, Tween 80 and Tween 20 are discussed. PMID:21083286

Ji, Allena Ji; Jiang, Zhiping; Livson, Yuliya; Davis, Jennifer Ann; Chu, Jasper Xuegong; Weng, Naidong

2010-09-01

314

Recurrent major depressive disorder among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive and HIV-negative intravenous drug users: Findings of a 3-year longitudinal study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A longitudinal study was conducted to investigate the association between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, history of major depressive disorder (MDD), and persistent or recurrent MDD among intravenous drug users. Psychiatric disorders were assessed in a sample of HIV-positive (HIV+) and HIV-negative (HIV?) intravenous drug users every 6 months for 3 years. Results indicated that HIV status and baseline MDD

Jeffrey G Johnson; Judith G Rabkin; Joshua D Lipsitz; Janet B. W Williams; Robert H Remien

1999-01-01

315

Interaction Between Drugs and Biomedical Materials i: Binding Position of Bezafibrate to Human Serum Alubmin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interaction between bezafibrate (BZF) and human serum albumin (HSA) was investigated by equilibrium dialysis. Since the binding constant of BZF to HSA was independent of ionic strength and decreased with the addition of fatty acid, the interaction between BZF and HSA was considered to be due to hydrophobic mechanism. Chemical shifts in 1H-NMR spectra of BZF were independent of the concentration of BZF and addition of HSA. Spin-lattice relaxation time (T1) and spin-spin relaxation time (T2) of respective protons of BZF were independent of the concentration, but depended on the concentration of HSA added. The binding position of BZF to HSA was considered to involve the hydrophobic aromatic moiety of BZF from the ratio of spin-spin relaxation rates (1/T2) of BZF bound to HSA and free BZF.

Tanaka, Masami; Minagawa, Keiji; Berber, Mohamed R.; Hafez, Inas H.; Mori, Takeshi

316

Chlamydial antigen detection in urine samples by immunofluorescence tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary To investigate the diagnostic value of a direct immunofluorescence test (DIF-test), urethral samples and first catch urine (FCU) from 153 male patients attending an outpatient clinic for sexually transmitted diseases (STD) were studied. Of the male patients, 40 (26.1%) had a positive urethral culture, 39 (25.5%) had a positive urethral DIF-test, and 32 (20.9%) were positive in urine according

Angelika Stary; Claudia Heller-Vitouch; M. Genç; P.-A. Mårdh

1992-01-01

317

Urine fingerprinting: detection of sample tampering in an opiate dependency program.  

PubMed

Methadone treatment programs commonly monitor patient compliance by screening urine samples for drugs of abuse. Our experience suggests that re-submission of urine samples (for example, providing a urine sample that is either not that of the patient or was previously submitted) is often used as a method of sample tampering. We have developed an algorithm that combines urine sodium, chloride, creatinine and pH values with urine drug screening results to effectively detect resubmitted samples. Given the widespread use of urine drug screening in drug and alcohol rehabilitation programs, we believe this technique has significant practical benefits. This technique may also have an application in forensic identification of duplicate samples. PMID:10217347

Kapur, B; Hershkop, S; Koren, G; Gaughan, V

1999-04-01

318

Zinc reduces the detection of cocaine, methamphetamine, and THC by ELISA urine testing.  

PubMed

Federal workplace drug testing was initiated during the late 1980s. Since then, numerous methods have been employed to subvert these drug tests, adulteration of urine samples being the most common. A wide variety of adulterants has been reported to date along with suitable methods of their detection. Recently, websites have claimed that zinc sulfate can be an effective adulterant to bypass drug testing. Herein, these claims are investigated using standard drug detection kits and urine samples adulterated with zinc. Drug-free urine samples were fortified with different amounts methamphetamines and benzoylecgonine, to which zinc sulfate was added to study its effect. Urine samples from acute marijuana smokers were also obtained in order to study the effects of zinc supplements on THC drug testing. All urine drug testing was performed using ELISA detection kits manufactured by Immunalysis. Both zinc sulfate and zinc supplements are effective in interfering with the detection of all three drugs by Immunalysis drug detection kits. Also, no suitable method could be established to detect zinc in urine samples. Zinc can be an effective adulterant in urine for some illicit drugs that are commonly screened under routine drug testing. PMID:21740689

Venkatratnam, Abhishek; Lents, Nathan H

2011-07-01

319

Disaccharides in urine samples as markers of intravenous abuse of methadone and buprenorphine.  

PubMed

Methadone and buprenorphine are commonly used as oral substitutes in opiate maintenance programs to treat persons who are dependent on heroin. During these programs, patients are not allowed to continue using illicit drugs. Abstinence can easily be monitored by urine tests with immunochemical methods. It is well known that the intravenous abuse of heroin substitutes like methadone or buprenorphine has become common as well. The methadone-prescribing physician has no opportunity to check whether the opiate maintenance treatment patient takes his substitution medicines orally as intended or continues with his intravenous misuse now substituting the methadone instead of injecting heroin. In Germany, substitutes are available as liquids and tablets that contain carbohydrates as adjuvants. Sucrose is used to increase viscosity in liquids, while lactose is needed for pressing tablets (e.g., Methaddict(®) and Subutex(®)). In case of oral ingestion, disaccharides are broken down into monosaccharides by disaccharidases in the small intestine. These monosaccharides are absorbed into the blood stream by special monosaccharide transporters. Disaccharidases do not exist in blood, thus sucrose and lactose are not split if substitute medicines are injected intravenously. Our assumption, therefore, was that they are excreted unchanged in urine. We investigated a method for the detection of disaccharides in urine as markers of intravenous abuse of substitutes. Urine samples of 26 intravenous substitute abusers showed all positive results for lactose (76.9%) and/or sucrose (73.1%). The method is assumed to be useful to detect intravenous abuse of substitutes. PMID:24099717

Jungen, Hilke; Andresen-Streichert, Hilke; Müller, Alexander; Iwersen-Bergmann, Stefanie

2013-10-06

320

Drugs  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Quick Links: Skip to main page content Skip to Search Skip to Topics Menu Skip to Section Content Menu Skip to Common Links. ... More results from www.fda.gov/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials/drugs

321

Surface Proteins of Gram-Positive Pathogens: Using Crystallography to Uncover Novel Features in Drug and Vaccine Candidates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Proteins displayed on the cell surfaces of pathogenic organisms are the front-line troops of bacterial attack, playing critical roles in colonization, infection and virulence. Although such proteins can often be recognized from genome sequence data, through characteristic sequence motifs, their functions are often unknown. One such group of surface proteins is attached to the cell surface of Gram-positive pathogens through the action of sortase enzymes. Some of these proteins are now known to form pili: long filamentous structures that mediate attachment to human cells. Crystallographic analyses of these and other cell surface proteins have uncovered novel features in their structure, assembly and stability, including the presence of inter- and intramolecular isopeptide crosslinks. This improved understanding of structures on the bacterial cell surface offers opportunities for the development of some new drug targets and for novel approaches to vaccine design.

Baker, Edward N.; Proft, Thomas; Kang, Haejoo

322

Indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the quantitative estimation of lysergic acid diethylamide in urine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new antibody to lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) was used to develop a novel indirect ELISA for the quanti- fication of drug in urine. Evaluation of the new assay with the commercially available LSD ELISA (STC Di- agnostics) shows improved performance. The test re- quires 50 mL of urine, which is used to measure concen- trations of drug in the

Sarah Kerrigan; E. Brooks

1998-01-01

323

Impact of Drug-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis on Treatment Outcome of Culture-Positive Cases of Tuberculosis in the Archangel Oblast, Russia, in 1999  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to evaluate the outcome of treatment of culture-positive cases of tuberculosis registered in Archangel, Russia, in 1999, and to analyse the influence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis drug resistance on treatment outcome. The outcome of tuberculosis treatment was evaluated for 235 new and 61 previously treated culture-positive cases diagnosed in 1999. Of the 235 new cases,

O. S. Toungoussova; N. I. Nizovtseva; A. O. Mariandyshev; D. A. Caugant; P. Sandven; G. Bjune

2004-01-01

324

Confirmation testing of 11-nor-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid in urine with micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography.  

PubMed

The major urinary metabolite of the most commonly abused psychotropic drug, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, is 11-nor-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (THC-COOH). With basic hydrolysis, extraction and concentration, this compound can easily be determined using micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography with on-column multi-wavelength detection. After solid-phase extraction of 5 ml of urine, drug concentrations down to about 10 ng/ml can be unambiguously monitored. Peak assignment is achieved through comparison of the retention time and absorption spectrum of the eluting THC-COOH peak with those of computer-stored model runs. The effectiveness of the approach is demonstrated with data obtained from urine samples from different patients which tested positively for cannabinoids using a fluorescence polarization immunoassay. PMID:1331141

Wernly, P; Thormann, W

1992-09-11

325

Discovery of 1,4-dihydroxy-2-naphthoate [corrected] prenyltransferase inhibitors: new drug leads for multidrug-resistant gram-positive pathogens.  

PubMed

Since utilization of menaquinone in the electron transport system is a characteristic of Gram-positive organisms, the 1,4-dihydroxy-2-naphthoate prenyltransferase (MenA) inhibitors 1a and 2a act as selective antibacterial agents against organisms such as methicillin-resistant Stapylococcus aureus (MRSA), Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE), and Mycobacterium spp. Growth of drug-resistant Gram-positive organisms was sensitive to the MenA inhibitors, indicating that menaquinone synthesis is a valid new drug target in Gram-positive organisms. PMID:17658779

Kurosu, Michio; Narayanasamy, Prabagaran; Biswas, Kallolmay; Dhiman, Rakesh; Crick, Dean C

2007-07-21

326

Advanced Urine Toxicology Testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urine toxicology screening testing is an important standard of care in the addiction and pain treatment setting, offering a reproducible, unbiased, and accurate laboratory test to monitor patients and provide objective support for clinical observations. It has been shown that physicians do not have proficiency in the ordering or interpretation of these tests. This article is an attempt to respond

Peter L. Tenore

2010-01-01

327

HCG in urine  

MedlinePLUS

... Other HCG tests include: HCG in blood serum - qualitative HCG in blood serum - quantitative Pregnancy test ... Urine HCG tests are a common method of determining if a woman is pregnant. The best time to test for pregnancy at home is after you miss your period.

328

Bacterial Assay of Urine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The dip-slide technique for bacterial assay of urine has been found to be a competent method for isolating the usual organisms responsible for urinary tract infection. Being a simple device, reliable in transport, and commercially available, it would appe...

J. E. Sippel Z. Farid A. S. Diab

1972-01-01

329

Survival of feline mycoplasmas in urine.  

PubMed Central

The effects of length of incubation and urine osmolality on the survival of feline mycoplasmas and ureaplasmas and representative gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria in synthetic urine which approximated the osmolality of normal cat urine were investigated. Both Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus withstood the effects of increasing osmotic pressure. In the most concentrated urine, significant decreases (P less than 0.001) in CFU were observed for E. coli at exposure times of 30 min and longer. S. aureus was not affected by longer exposure or increased osmotic strength. Both Mycoplasma felis and Mycoplasma gateae were affected adversely by longer exposure times and high osmotic strength (P less than 0.001). A Ureaplasma sp. was not adversely affected except at very high (greater than or equal to 2,980 mosM) osmotic strengths or after prolonged incubation (120 min) at relatively high (1,976 mosM) osmotic strengths (P less than 0.001). The failure of both M. felis and M. gateae to survive under osmotic conditions present in normal feline urine suggests that it is unlikely that these mycoplasmas are involved in urinary disorders in cats.

Brown, M B; Stoll, M; Maxwell, J; Senior, D F

1991-01-01

330

Survival of feline mycoplasmas in urine.  

PubMed

The effects of length of incubation and urine osmolality on the survival of feline mycoplasmas and ureaplasmas and representative gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria in synthetic urine which approximated the osmolality of normal cat urine were investigated. Both Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus withstood the effects of increasing osmotic pressure. In the most concentrated urine, significant decreases (P less than 0.001) in CFU were observed for E. coli at exposure times of 30 min and longer. S. aureus was not affected by longer exposure or increased osmotic strength. Both Mycoplasma felis and Mycoplasma gateae were affected adversely by longer exposure times and high osmotic strength (P less than 0.001). A Ureaplasma sp. was not adversely affected except at very high (greater than or equal to 2,980 mosM) osmotic strengths or after prolonged incubation (120 min) at relatively high (1,976 mosM) osmotic strengths (P less than 0.001). The failure of both M. felis and M. gateae to survive under osmotic conditions present in normal feline urine suggests that it is unlikely that these mycoplasmas are involved in urinary disorders in cats. PMID:2056047

Brown, M B; Stoll, M; Maxwell, J; Senior, D F

1991-05-01

331

Detection and identification of 2-nitro-morphine and 2-nitro-morphine-6-glucuronide in nitrite adulterated urine specimens containing morphine and its glucuronides.  

PubMed

In vitro urine adulteration is a well-documented practice adopted by individuals aiming to evade detection of drug use, when required to undergo mandatory sports and workplace drug testing. Potassium nitrite is an effective urine adulterant due to its oxidizing potential, and has been shown to mask the presence of many drugs of abuse. However, limited research has been conducted to understand its mechanism of action, and to explore the possibility of the drugs undergoing direct oxidation to form stable reaction products. In this study, opiates including morphine, codeine, morphine-3-glucuronide and morphine-6-glucuronide were exposed to potassium nitrite in water and urine to mimic the process of nitrite adulteration. It was found that two stable reaction products were detected by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) when morphine and morphine-6-glucuronide were exposed to nitrite. Isolation and elucidation using spectrometric and spectroscopic techniques revealed that they were 2-nitro-morphine and 2-nitro-morphine-6-glucuronide, respectively. These reaction products were also formed when an authentic morphine-positive urine specimen was fortified with nitrite. 2-Nitro-morphine was found to be stable enough to undergo the enzymatic hydrolysis procedure and also detectable by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) after forming a trimethylsilyl derivative. On the contrary, morphine-3-glucuronide did not appear to be chemically manipulated when exposed to potassium nitrite in urine. These reaction products are not endogenously produced, are relatively stable and can be monitored with both LC-MS and GC-MS confirmatory techniques. As a result, these findings have revealed the possibility for the use of 2-nitro-morphine and 2-nitro-morphine-6-glucuronide as markers for the indirect monitoring of morphine and morphine-6-glucuronide in urine specimens adulterated with nitrite. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:23592389

Luong, Susan; Fu, Shanlin

2013-04-17

332

Detection of non-prescription heroin markers in urine with liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

The planned introduction of a prescription heroin program in Germany created a need for differentiation between non-prescription and prescribed diamorphine use. The following substances were chosen as markers of non-prescription heroin: acetylcodeine (AC); its metabolites codeine (C) and codeine 6-glucuronide (C6G); papaverine (P); and noscapine (N). Typical heroin markers diamorphine (DAM) and its metabolites monoacetylmorphine (MAM) and morphine (M) were also determined. The drugs were extracted from urine samples with solid-phase extraction (C18) using standard 200-mg columns and 96-well microplates (100 mg). The extracts were examined with liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry (positive ionization) in two isocratic systems. Selected ion monitoring procedures were applied for protonated molecular masses and characteristic fragments of drugs involved. The limits of detection were in the range of 0.5-1 ng/mL urine. The occurrence of selected heroin markers was investigated in 25 urine samples collected from heroin abusers (road traffic offenders and overdosed patients). C6G was found in all samples, C in 24 samples, N in 22 samples, MAM in 16 samples, P in 14 samples, DAM in 12 samples, and AC in 4 samples. The appearance of these compounds in urine reflects their pharmacokinetic properties and the composition of non-prescription heroin. PMID:11550816

Bogusz, M J; Maier, R D; Erkens, M; Kohls, U

2001-09-01

333

Interventions for Seropositive Injectors???Research and Evaluation: An Integrated Behavioral Intervention With HIV-Positive Injection Drug Users to Address Medical Care, Adherence, and Risk Reduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Behavioral interventions to address the complex medical and HIV risk reduction needs of HIV-seropositive (HIV- positive) injection drug users (IDUs) are urgently needed. We de- scribe the development of Interventions for Seropositive Injectors— Research and Evaluation (INSPIRE), a randomized controlled trial of an integrated intervention for HIV-positive IDUs, and the character- istics of the baseline sample. Methods: HIV-positive IDUs

David W. Purcell; Lisa R. Metsch; Mary Latka; Scott Santibanez; Lois Eldred; Carl A. Latkin

2004-01-01

334

Radioimmunoassay Technology in Mass Drug Screening: An Evaluation of an Absorbent Paper Disk Transport System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper discusses the feasibility of using urine saturated paper disks in place of urine in the radioimmunoassay system for drug abuse detection. Results with the disks are consistent with those using urine. A satisfactory procedure has been devised wh...

E. R. Noe G. D. Lathrop C. A. Ainsworth J. H. Merritt

1975-01-01

335

Sensitive semi-microcolumn high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the determination of DU-6681, the active parent drug of a new oral carbapenem antibiotic, DZ-2640, in human plasma and urine using a column-switching system as sample clean-up procedure.  

PubMed

DZ-2640 is a new oral carbapenem antibiotic having a dihydro-pyrroloimidazole ring as a side chain and a pivaloyloxymethyl (POM) ester prodrug of DU-6681, the active parent compound. A simple and sensitive column-switching semi-microcolumn high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the determination of DU-6681 in human plasma and urine has been developed. Human plasma was diluted with an equal volume of 1 M MOPS buffer (pH 7.0) and the mixture was filtered through an Ultrafree C3GV. The resulting filtrate was injected without further cleanup onto the HPLC system. Human urine was diluted with an equal volume of 1 M MOPS buffer (pH 7.0) and the mixture was directly injected onto the HPLC system. The analyte was detected by monitoring the column effluent with UV light at a wavelength of 300 nm, which resulted in the limit of quantitation of 0.008 microg/ml of plasma and 0.32 microg/ml of urine. Calibration curves were linear in the range of 0.008 to 5.85 microg/ml in plasma and 0.32 to 104.4 microg/ml in urine. The present methods showed greatly increased sensitivity for DU-6681 compared to conventional HPLC methods and also showed satisfactory recovery, selectivity, precision, and accuracy. Stability studies showed that 1 M MOPS buffer (pH 7.0) acted as a stabilizer. In plasma and urine diluted with equal volume of the buffer, DU-6681 showed good stability at -80 degrees C for up to 4 weeks with no significant loss of the drug. PMID:10202959

Tanaka, M; Kato, K

1999-03-01

336

Drug assertiveness and sexual risk-taking behavior in a sample of HIV-positive, methamphetamine-using men who have sex with men.  

PubMed

Drug assertiveness skills have been demonstrated to be effective in reducing substance use behaviors among patients with alcohol or heroin use disorders. This study examined the association between drug assertiveness and methamphetamine use, psychological factors, and sexual risk behaviors in a sample of 250 HIV-positive men who have sex with men enrolled in a safer sex intervention in San Diego, CA. Less assertiveness in turning down drugs was associated with greater frequency and larger amounts of methamphetamine use, lower self-esteem, higher scores on a measure of sexual sensation seeking, and greater attendance at risky sexual venues. These data suggest that drug assertiveness training should be incorporated into drug abuse treatment programs and other risk reduction interventions for methamphetamine users. PMID:21550758

Semple, Shirley J; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Zians, Jim; McQuaid, John R; Patterson, Thomas L

2011-05-08

337

Drug assertiveness and sexual risk-taking behavior in a sample of HIV-positive, methamphetamine-using men who have sex with men  

PubMed Central

Drug assertiveness skills have been demonstrated effective in reducing substance use behaviors among patients with alcohol- or heroin-use disorders. This study examined the association between drug assertiveness and methamphetamine use, psychological factors, and sexual risk behaviors in a sample of 250 HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) enrolled in a safer sex intervention in San Diego, CA. Less assertiveness in turning down drugs was associated with greater frequency and larger amounts of methamphetamine use, lower self-esteem, higher scores on a measure of sexual sensation-seeking, and greater attendance at risky sexual venues. These data suggest that drug assertiveness training should be incorporated into drug abuse treatment programs and other risk reduction interventions for methamphetamine users.

Semple, Shirley J.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Zians, Jim; McQuaid, John R.; Patterson, Thomas L.

2011-01-01

338

Epidemiology of alcohol and other drug use among motor vehicle crash victims admitted to a trauma center.  

PubMed

The objectives of this research were to (1) determine the incidence and prevalence of alcohol and other drug use among motor vehicle crash (MVC) victims admitted to a regional Level-I trauma center, and (2) to examine the utility of using a rapid point-of-collection (POC) drug-testing device to identify MVC patients with drug involvement. Blood and urine specimens were routinely collected per clinical protocol for each MVC victim at the time of admission. Blood alcohol concentration (BAC) levels were determined per standard clinical protocol. Clinical urine specimens were routinely split so that a POC drug-testing device for the detection of commonly abused drugs (Marijuana, Cocaine, Amphetamines, Methamphetamines, and Opiates) could be compared to that of the standard hospital laboratory analysis of each urine specimen (which also included Barbiturates and Benzodiazepines). In the six-month period of this study, nearly two-thirds of trauma center admissions were victims of motor vehicle crashes. During this time, blood and urine was collected from 322 MVC victims. Toxicology results indicated that 59.3% of MVC victims tested positive for either commonly abused drugs or alcohol. More patients tested positive for drug use than tested positive for alcohol, with 33.5% testing positive for drug use only, 15.8% testing positive for alcohol use only, and 9.9% testing positive for both drugs and alcohol. Less than half (45.2%) of the substance-abusing patients in this study would have been identified by an alcohol test alone. After alcohol, marijuana and benzodiazepines were the most frequently detected drugs. Point of collection (POC) test results correlated well with laboratory results and provide important information to initiate rapid intervention/treatment for substance use problems among injured patients. PMID:15276926

Walsh, J Michael; Flegel, Ron; Cangianelli, Leo A; Atkins, Randolph; Soderstrom, Carl A; Kerns, Timothy J

2004-09-01

339

Can you trust patient self-reports of drug use during treatment?  

PubMed

This study compared two frequently used measures of drug use, urine testing and self-report in a sample of subjects currently enrolled in methadone treatment for a minimum of six months. A comparison between the percentage of positive opiate urine screens and subjects' self-reported opiate use indicated that more patients self-reported opiate use (80%) than had been detected by urinalysis (57%). Similar results were found for cocaine use. We present arguments that a more inclusive method of measuring drug use during treatment should include the combination of both urinalysis and self-reports. PMID:8055734

Zanis, D A; McLellan, A T; Randall, M

1994-04-01

340

Association between Rash and a Positive Drug Response Associated with Vinorelbine in a Patient with Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Vinorelbine (Navelbine, VRL) is commonly used for platinum-resistant ovarian cancer and has been shown to be effective in patients with recurrent primary peritoneal carcinoma. Of VRL's major side effects, skin rash is uncommon, and, if it does occur, it is usually localized to site of injection. In this case report, a 71-year-old Hispanic female with primary peritoneal carcinoma received single agent VRL as fourth-line regimen, which she tolerated very well except for a skin rash related to VRL. The rash continued to progress throughout 6 cycles of VRL, and follow-up CT/PET scan demonstrated complete metabolic and radiological responses. We, therefore, believe that this rash was linked to VRL administration and correlated with response to therapy. Rash has been recognized as a useful surrogate marker with targeted agents such as cetuximab and erlotinib; to the best of our knowledge, this case report describes the first patient with a possible drug rash and its association with a positive outcome. This case report incites interest in further investigation of similar cases to support this observation, since there is a lack of reports of skin rash with VRL therapy.

Mohammad, Mustafa M.; Syrigos, Kostas N.; Saif, M. Wasif

2013-01-01

341

Association between Rash and a Positive Drug Response Associated with Vinorelbine in a Patient with Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma.  

PubMed

Vinorelbine (Navelbine, VRL) is commonly used for platinum-resistant ovarian cancer and has been shown to be effective in patients with recurrent primary peritoneal carcinoma. Of VRL's major side effects, skin rash is uncommon, and, if it does occur, it is usually localized to site of injection. In this case report, a 71-year-old Hispanic female with primary peritoneal carcinoma received single agent VRL as fourth-line regimen, which she tolerated very well except for a skin rash related to VRL. The rash continued to progress throughout 6 cycles of VRL, and follow-up CT/PET scan demonstrated complete metabolic and radiological responses. We, therefore, believe that this rash was linked to VRL administration and correlated with response to therapy. Rash has been recognized as a useful surrogate marker with targeted agents such as cetuximab and erlotinib; to the best of our knowledge, this case report describes the first patient with a possible drug rash and its association with a positive outcome. This case report incites interest in further investigation of similar cases to support this observation, since there is a lack of reports of skin rash with VRL therapy. PMID:24073344

Mohammad, Mustafa M; Syrigos, Kostas N; Saif, M Wasif

2013-09-01

342

Pre-employment Drug Testing of Housestaff Physicians at a Large Urban Hospital.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center (New York City) program of preemployment urine toxicology examinations for beginning housestaff physicians has resulted in treatment for two physicians testing positive for illegal drugs. The program's primary purpose is to focus on substance abuse issues in graduate medical education. (Author/MSE)|

Lewy, Robert M.

1991-01-01

343

Comparison of spot tests with AdultaCheck 6 and Intect 7 urine test strips for detecting the presence of adulterants in urine specimens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Several adulterants are used to mask tests for abused drugs in urine. Adulterants such as “Klear” and “Whizzies” contain potassium nitrite while “Urine Luck” contains pyridinium chlorochromate (PCC). The presence of these adulterants cannot be detected by routine specimen integrity check (pH, specific gravity, creatinine and temperature). We previously reported the development of rapid spot tests to detect the

Amitava Dasgupta; Omar Chughtai; Christina Hannah; Bonnette Davis; Alice Wells

2004-01-01

344

A simple and rapid ESI-LC-MS/MS method for simultaneous screening of doping agents in urine samples  

PubMed Central

Objective: The use of performance enhancing substances is banned in sports by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). Though most prohibited substances can be detected by GC/MS, inclusion of corticosteroids and designer drugs has made it essential to detect these critical doping agents on LC/MS/MS due to their better separation and detection. Materials and Methods: A common extraction procedure for the isolation of acidic, basic and neutral drugs from urine samples was developed. A total of 28 doping drugs were analyzed on API 3200 Triple quadrupole mass spectrometer using C18 column in atmospheric pressure electrospray ionization. The mobile phase composition was a mixture of 1% formic acid and acetonitrile with gradient time period. Results: The method developed was very sensitive for detection of 28 doping agents. The linearity was performed for each drug and the total recovery percentage ranged from 57 to 114. Limit of detection is found to be 0.5 ng/ml for carboxy finasteride and 1-5 ng/ml for other drugs. The method was successfully used to detect positive urine samples of 3-OH-stanozolol, methyl phenidate, mesocarb, clomiphene metabolite and carboxy finasteride. Conclusion: The method developed based on controlled pH extraction method and HPLC-mass spectrometry analysis allowed better identification and confirmation of glucocorticosteroids and a few other drugs in different categories. The validated method has been used successfully for testing of 1000 In-competition samples. The method helped in detection of chemically and pharmacologically different banned drugs in urine in a single short run at a minimum required performance limit set by WADA.

Reddy, I. Madhusudhana; Beotra, Alka; Jain, S.; Ahi, S.

2009-01-01

345

Sensitivity of individual items of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and items subgroups to differentiate between placebo and drug treatment in schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Lack of hard clinical endpoints is an essential problem in schizophrenia research. Disease state and treatment outcomes are measured using rating scales, e.g. Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). However, the PANSS score cannot always differentiate between placebo and drug treatment, even for established antipsychotics. The goal of this study was to identify the individual items of PANSS and subscales of selected items which are most sensitive to differentiate between placebo and drug effect. We analysed data from seven clinical trials of different antipsychotics. "Mini-PANSS" scales consisting of the most sensitive items were created and analysed statistically. The power of these scales to show a significant difference between placebo and drug treatment was compared with the power of total PANSS. Furthermore, pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic analysis was performed to determine which of these scales shows the highest drug effect on top of the placebo effect. The results reveal that all 30 items of the PANSS scale show a therapeutic drug effect. The magnitude of placebo effect was not predictive for the power to detect drug effect. Mini-PANSS scales consisting of items with the largest drug treatment response and the scale with the largest mean-to-SD ratio are somewhat better in differentiating between placebo and drug treatment than the total PANSS. However, the difference between these scales and total PANSS is small. Therefore, our analysis does not support replacement of the total PANSS by a reduced scale in the analysis of primary endpoints. PMID:23434198

Kozielska, Magdalena; Pilla Reddy, Venkatesh; Johnson, Martin; de Ridder, Filip; Vermeulen, An; Liu, Jing; Groothuis, Geny M M; Danhof, Meindert; Proost, Johannes H

2013-02-20

346

Drug Correlation Spectroscopy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The parameters pertinent to the development of a compact instrument to detect and reliably identify drugs and related compounds in bulk and in urine were investigated. The program was conducted with emphasis on using correlation interferometry. Studies in...

C. E. Moeller K. C. Brog R. H. Barnes R. J. Jakobsen R. P. Kenan

1973-01-01

347

A simplified procedure for the analysis of formoterol in human urine by liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry: application to the characterization of the metabolic profile and stability of formoterol in urine.  

PubMed

Since 1992, formoterol is included in the prohibited list of doping substances and methods, presently reviewed and updated by the World Anti-Doping Agency. Recently a threshold value of 40ng/mL has been established to differentiate between the prohibited (oral) and the permitted (inhalatory) administration of formoterol to athletes. This paper considers the urinary excretion profile of formoterol and its main metabolites after inhalation of different doses of two of the most used medicaments, available in Italy, containing formoterol fumarate bihydrate (12 and 36?g twice a day of Foradil(®) or 9 and 27?g twice a day of Symbicort(®)), focusing also on the effects, on the measured levels of formoterol, of potential alteration processes (thermal and/or microbiological) that may take place after the collection of the urine samples. Urine sample preparation included an enzymatic hydrolysis and a dilution step. Detection of analytes was performed by a newly developed and validated direct LC-ESI-MS/MS procedure, using a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer under positive ion electro-spray ionization conditions and selected reaction monitoring acquisition mode. The results showed the capability and suitability of the direct LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis for the quantitative confirmation analysis of formoterol in urine samples. The data from the analysis of the urine samples obtained in the excretion studies showed that formoterol is excreted mainly as unmodified drug and to a lesser degree as O-demethylated metabolite. The urinary levels of formoterol (40-60%) and its metabolites (O-demethylated metabolite 5-25%; glucuronide metabolites 25-40%) vary significantly depending both on the administered drug formulation and the subject tested. The maximum urinary concentration reached in this study was 15ng/mL (free+glucuronide), that is significantly lower than the threshold value fixed to report an adverse analytical finding. Finally, our results also showed that formoterol is stable for at least 4 weeks in urine samples correctly collected and stored. PMID:23777613

Mazzarino, Monica; de la Torre, Xavier; Fiacco, Ilaria; Pompei, Chiara; Calabrese, Fabiana; Botrè, Francesco

2013-05-28

348

Frequency of False Positive Amphetamine Screens due to Bupropion Using the Syva Emit II Immunoassay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bupropion is a commonly prescribed, monocyclic antidepressant often used as an aid for smoking cessation. Several case reports\\u000a have described false positive amphetamine urine drug screens (UDS) associated with bupropion. We sought to determine whether\\u000a false positive amphetamine UDS due to the use of bupropion would be a frequent occurrence. We conducted an IRB-approved, retrospective\\u000a chart review of all emergency

Erica R. Casey; Mitchell G. Scott; Schirin Tang; Michael E. Mullins

2011-01-01

349

Clinical implications of urinary drug screens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urine drug screens are routinely used in the substance abuse treatment setting along with other clinical settings when illicit drug use is suspected. With the importance placed on the results of urine drug screens, clinicians should be aware of the strengths and weaknesses of the tests involved when interpreting the results. Such interpretation is quite complicated and depends on a

Michael F. Barber

1997-01-01

350

Enzymatic Oxalate Determination in Urine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A methoddepending uponthe useof oxalicdecarboxylase isdescribed for the deter- minationofoxalic acidin urine. The urinaryoxalateexcretionof 25 healthypersons measured by this procedureis foundto average20.5 mg. (COOH)2\\/24 hr. In 70 patients with calculusdiseasethe oxalate titer of the urine was within the normal range. 1THE ACCURATE MEASUREMENT of oxalate concentration in urine pre- sents considerable difficulties. The methods available in the literature are based

Gerda G. Mayer; Deborah Markow; Frieda Karp

351

Emergency physicians perceptions of drug screens at their own hospitals.  

PubMed

Previous studies evaluated the prudent use and potential over use of drug screens in clinical decision making. However, the percentage of emergency physicians who can correctly identify which drugs are found on their hospital's basic drug screens has not been established. Results of physician closed-ended questionnaires were compared to the results of a telephone survey with each physician's individual hospital laboratory. Eighty-one (35.7%) of 227 emergency physicians responded. Four (4.9%) correctly identified what was on their individual institution's urine drug screens and 17 (21%) correctly identified what was on serum screens. In other results, 74.3% erroneously relayed that all benzodiazepines can be found on urine drug screens and 46.3% incorrectly answered that acetaminophen would be found on basic quantitative serum screens. Drug screen results can be misinterpreted if the drugs the physician expects to be screened for, and what is actually screened for, are not the same. Pharmacy and laboratory personnel have a responsibility to keep the physician informed of drug screen issues. They should be proactive in advising physicians of changes in drug testing and new drug screening methods or by providing reports on the occurrence of false positive results. PMID:9682413

Durback, L F; Scharman, E J; Brown, B S

1998-08-01

352

Hair testing is superior to urine to disclose cocaine consumption in driver's licence regranting.  

PubMed

In driver licence regranting, subjects with a history of cocaine use are requested to undergo laboratory testing to verify both current and past abstinence from the drug. Identification of cocaine use based only on urinalysis may miss some cases because of the short elimination half-life of the drug. Moreover, many abusers know how to time their cocaine consumption in such a way that they can "beat" the urinalysis, having a series of negative urine tests. We report on the use of hair testing to disclose sporadic cocaine consumption in seven subjects attending the Local Medical Commission to reobtain driver licence, with constant negative urinalysis. Even with one or two weekly negative urine screens along several months, all the subjects were positive using hair testing for cocaine and benzoylecgonine, above the internationally recommended limit of quantification: 0.5 ng/mg and 0.05 ng/mg for cocaine and benzoylecgonine, respectively (concentration range for cocaine: 0.51-2.23 ng/mg hair; concentration range for benzoylecgonine: 0.08-1.70 ng/mg hair). The obtained results support strongly the use of hair testing for cocaine in drug addicts and occasional abusers applying for regranting of driver licence in order to minimize social risk behaviours. PMID:19446971

Polla, M; Stramesi, C; Pichini, S; Palmi, I; Vignali, C; Dall'Olio, G

2009-05-15

353

DIETARY INTAKE AND BODY MASS INDEX IN HIV-POSITIVE AND HIV-NEGATIVE DRUG ABUSERS OF HISPANIC ETHNICITY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Malnutrition in drug abusers has been attributed to poor diet. However, previous studies are conflicting. Many studies have not considered possible concurrent HIV disease. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between drug abuse and dietary intake in Hispanic Americans with and...

354

Differences in treatment outcome between male alcohol dependent offenders of domestic violence with and without positive drug screens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Men who are violent toward their partners tend to have a dual problem with alcohol and drug use, yet little is known about differences between men with single rather than dual problems. This study was one of the first to evaluate differences between alcohol dependent men who were arrested for Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) with and without concurrent illicit drug

Caroline J. Easton; Dolores Mandel; Theresa Babuscio; Bruce J. Rounsaville; Kathleen M. Carroll

2007-01-01

355

Spectrophotometric detection of iodide and chromic (III) in urine after oxidation to iodine and chromate (VI).  

PubMed

Tests for oxidizing adulterants in urine are a continuing challenge to the drug-testing program. Iodine was found to destroy morphine and 6-acetylmorphine almost immediately. The effects were less evident on 11 -nor-delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (THC-acid). When the urine solution was tested for iodine by a chromogenic substrate, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), no iodine was detected. Masking drug and adulterant simultaneously made iodine a preferred oxidizing adulterant for drug abusers. In this study, the reduced iodide was oxidized by sodium nitrite to iodine. The excess nitrite was decomposed by sulfamic acid and the iodine was detected by ABTS. Linearity was 12.7 to 635 mg/L (0.1 to 5 mmol/L, y = 0.9966x + 0.0016, R2 = 1.0000). Precisions (coefficient of variation) were within +/- 4.1% and quantitative accuracies were within 97% of expected values (n=5). Chromate, iodate, periodate, and persulfate interfered with the method. To alleviate the problem, the positive specimens were tested again by an iodine-specific method. After oxidation, the samples were treated with sodium azide and ammonium thiocyanate. In presence of thiocyanate, the azide reduced iodine to iodide almost immediately, and the solutions showed negative response to ABTS. The results were compared with that of a control group tested without thiocyanate. When iodine was present, the ratios of thiocyanate to control were less than 6%. Chromate was also found to destroy THC-acid in urine, and during storage most of the chromate changed to chromic (III). In this study, chromic was oxidized to chromate by hydrogen peroxide and sodium hydroxide and detected by 1,5-diphenylcarbazide. Linearity was 5.2 to 156 mg/L (0.1 to 3.0 mmol/L, y = 1.0285x - 0.0034, R2 = 0.9998). Precisions were within +/- 8.5% and quantitative accuracies were within 92% of expected values (n=5). The test was not interfered by other oxidizing agents. Both iodide and chromic oxidation methods showed urine backgrounds less than 1.27 and 0.52 mg/L, respectively (< 0.01 mmol/L). It indicated that a response more than 10 times of the background could be considered as oxidant contamination or adulteration of urine specimens. PMID:16419396

Paul, Buddha D; Jacobs, Aaron

2005-10-01

356

[Component analysis of a new anabolic androgenic steroid and its monitoring research in human urine].  

PubMed

A new oral drug containing an unknown anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS) was studied. The principal constituent of the unknown anabolic hormone was studied by infrared spectrum (IR), nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H NMR), ultraviolet spectroscopy (UV), and mass spectroscopy (MS). It was inferred to be methyl-1-testosterone (M1T, 17beta-hydroxy-17alpha-methyl-5alpha-androst-1-en-3-one) which was just added to the prohibited list in 2006. In addition, a monitoring, screening and confirmation of methyl-1-testosterone was established. The detection limit (S/N = 3) was 2 ng/mL, and the limit of quantification (S/N = 10) was 10 ng/mL. The relative standard deviation was 9.8% (n = 7) for the determination of pretreated urine sample with internal standard. This method was successfully applied in the identification of M1T positive urine. The excretion curve of M1T in human urine is described. It is a significant work for the discovery, determination and monitoring of the new AAS. PMID:20458920

Qiu, Lijun; Shangguan, Liangmin; Liu, Wei; Chen, Guonan; Zhang, Lan

2010-01-01

357

Benzodiazepine whole blood concentrations in cases with positive oral fluid on-site screening test results using the DrugWipe(®) single for benzodiazepines.  

PubMed

Reliable on-site oral fluid screening devices are a useful and convenient means of policing traffic. In Finland, benzodiazepines represent a particular challenge to traffic safety. This study presents a retrospective examination of toxicological analysis results from whole blood in cases which gave a positive screening result for benzodiazepines in oral fluid using the DrugWipe Single device (Securetec). Use of oral fluid on-site screening tests and blood confirmation analyses reflects the real situation in many countries. The data were compiled from the databases of Alcohol and Drug Analytics Unit at the National Institute for Health and Welfare. Confirmation analysis results in whole blood were obtained using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Data were from 224 real cases in which the Finnish police had conducted a DrugWipe Single benzodiazepines test on drivers suspected of driving under the influence of drugs (DUID). The benzodiazepine concentrations encountered in positive oral fluid screening cases in this study indicate that the device is able to detect these substances even at relatively low levels. However, the DrugWipe device does not enable any distinction between therapeutic use and harmful use of benzodiazepines at higher doses. PMID:21740691

Blencowe, Tom; Vimpari, Kari; Lillsunde, Pirjo

2011-07-01

358

Some historical aspects of urinals and urine receptacles.  

PubMed

In the history of mankind the first receptacles for urine were made and employed for diagnostic purposes and developed over centuries to a sophisticated matula. In ancient Greek and Roman history, chamber pots existed and urine was collected to bleach sheets, but it was only in the late medieval and renaissance times that a real urine receptacle or urinal for daily use was developed. We give a short description of the materials used, including clay, pewter, copper, and silver, but more sophisticated receptacles made of china, such as the bourdaloue, and of glass, such as the Kuttrolf, were also developed for use during long church ceremonies. Less known are the wooden "pipes" from Turkestan, used to keep babies dry. In the long history of mankind, urinals sometimes became very original objects. PMID:10418087

Mattelaer, J J

1999-06-01

359

Metabolism of isometheptene in human urine and analysis by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry in doping control  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of the metabolism of isometheptene, an antispasmodic drug, in man and comparison with heptaminol metabolism, is presented in this paper. Isometheptene and two metabolites were detected in human urine after oral administration of a tablet containing isometheptene mucate. The urine level of the parent drug, which is excreted during the first 24h, was determined using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry,

Emmanouil Lyris; George Tsiakatouras; Yiannis Angelis; Michael Koupparis; Maria-Helen Spyridaki; Costas Georgakopoulos

2005-01-01

360

Comparison of daily urine, sweat, and skin swabs among cocaine users  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study (1) compares urine, skin swabs, and PharmChek™ sweat patches for monitoring drug use; (2) measures possible environmental contamination in recent cocaine (COC) users; and (3) evaluates various immunoassays (IA) for screening COC in diverse matrices. Unique aspects include daily urine monitoring of 10 participants for 4 weeks, multiple monitoring methods, analysis for all specimens by IA and gas

D. A. Kidwell; J. D. Kidwell; F. Shinohara; C. Harper; K. Roarty; K. Bernadt; R. A. McCaulley; F. P. Smith

2003-01-01

361

Failure to maintain adherence to haart in a cohort of French HIV-positive injecting drug users  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study, carriedoutintheFrench MANIF2000 cohortofHIVpositive patients contaminated through injecting drug use, assessed\\u000a the impact of patients’ sociodemographic and psychological characteristics, behaviors toward drug abuse, and antiretroviral\\u000a treatment characteristics on the maintenance of adherence to HAART (highly active antiretroviral therapies). A total of 96\\u000a patients (30 men and 66 women), who were initially adherent at their first visit after HAART prescription,

M. P. Carrieri; M. A. Chesney; B. Spire; A. Loundou; A. Sobel; G. Lepeu; J. P. Moatti

2003-01-01

362

Human papillomavirus DNA in urine samples compared with that in simultaneously collected urethra and cervix samples.  

PubMed Central

A polymerase chain reaction was used to evaluate the occurrence of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA in urine samples compared with that in urethra and cervix samples simultaneously collected with brushes. Of 138 presumably healthy military conscripts, 12 (8%) had HPV DNA-positive urethra samples and 8 (5%) had HPV DNA-positive urine samples. Both the urine and urethra cell samples of five men were positive, with identical types found in the paired specimens. Seven had HPV DNA-positive urethra samples only, and three had HPV DNA-positive urine samples only. Five of 7 urethra samples from males and 11 of 12 urethra samples from females, who were among patients consulting a clinic for adolescents, were positive for HPV DNA. Among those patients whose urethras were positive for HPV DNA, the corresponding urine samples of 3 of the 5 men and all the 11 women were also positive, with one or two HPV types being in common within the paired samples. Among female patients referred to a colposcopy clinic, 49% (241 of 489) of the cervical cell samples and 38% (187 of 489) of the urine specimens were found to be HPV DNA positive. Of the patients whose cervixes were positive for HPV DNA, 65% (158 of 241) of the simultaneously collected urine samples were also positive for HPV DNA. On the other hand, 84% (158 of 187) of the patients with HPV DNA in their urine also had HPV DNA in their cervical samples. Although not all individuals with genital HPV infections could be identified as HPV positive by analysis of urine samples, at least in epidemiological surveys in which invasive samples are difficult to obtain, such as from children, analysis of urine could be an alternative means of identifying HPV DNA.

Forslund, O; Hansson, B G; Rymark, P; Bjerre, B

1993-01-01

363

Determination of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in urine by hollow-fiber liquid membrane-protected solid-phase microextraction based on sol-gel fiber coating.  

PubMed

A new rapid, simple and effective cleanup procedure is demonstrated for the determination of ibuprofen, naproxen and diclofenac in urine samples by using hollow-fiber liquid membrane-protected solid-phase microextraction (HFLM-SPME) based on sol-gel technique and gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID). In this technique, a sol-gel coated fiber was protected with a length of porous polypropylene hollow fiber membrane which was filled with water-immiscible organic phase. Subsequently the whole device was immersed into urine sample for extraction. Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) grafted onto multi-walled carbon nanotubes (PEG-g-MWCNTs) was used as extraction phase to prepare the sol-gel SPME fiber. Important parameters influencing the extraction efficiency such as desorption temperature and time, organic solvent, extraction temperature and time, pH, stirring speed and salt effect were investigated and optimized. Under the optimal conditions, the method detection limits (S/N=3) were in the range of 0.03-0.07ngmL(-1) and the limits of quantification (S/N=10) between 0.08 and 0.15ngmL(-1). Relative standard deviations for intra-day and inter-day precisions were 4.8-9.0% and 4.9-8.1%, respectively. Subsequently, the method was successfully applied to human urine fractions after administration of ibuprofen, naproxen and diclofenac. PMID:23122403

Sarafraz-Yazdi, Ali; Amiri, Amirhassan; Rounaghi, Gholamhossein; Eshtiagh-Hosseini, Hossein

2012-10-06

364

Accurate identification and quantification of 11-nor-delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid in urine drug testing: evaluation of a direct high efficiency liquid chromatographic-mass spectrometric method.  

PubMed

A direct liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) method for measurement of urinary Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol carboxylic acid (THCA) was developed. The method involved dilution of the urine sample with water containing (2)H(9)-deuterated analogue as internal standard, hydrolysis with ammonia, reversed phase chromatography using a Waters ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) equipment with gradient elution, negative electrospray ionization, and monitoring of two product ions in selected reaction monitoring mode. The measuring range was 2-1000 ng/mL for THCA, and the intra- and inter-assay imprecision, expressed as the coefficient of variation, was below 5%. Influence from urine matrix on ionization efficiency was noted in infusion experiments, but was compensated for by the internal standard. Comparison with established gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry methods in authentic patient samples demonstrated accuracy in both qualitative and quantitative results. A small difference in mean ratios (~15%) may be explained by the use of different hydrolysis procedures between methods. In conclusion, the high efficiency LC-MS/MS method was capable of accurately identify and quantify THCA in urine with a capacity of 14 samples per hour. PMID:18620911

Stephanson, Nikolai; Josefsson, Martin; Kronstrand, Robert; Beck, Olof

2008-07-03

365

The Constitutionality of Mandatory, Presentence Urine Testing of Convicted Defendants  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Portillo v. United States District Court for the District of Arizona, the Ninth Circuit held that mandatory presentence urine testing of a convicted defendant violates the Fourth Amendment to the United States Constitution. The court concluded that, because the particular facts of the case and the lack of information about the defendant's past drug usage did not support the

Joshua W. Rose

2010-01-01

366

Sexual Risk Behavior Associated with Co-administration of Methamphetamine and Other Drugs in a Sample of HIV-positive Men Who Have Sex with Men  

PubMed Central

This study examined the association between sexual risk behavior and co-administration of methamphetamine with other drugs in a sample of 341 HIV-positive MSM. Those who reported methamphetamine co-administration in the past two months (65%) reported significantly more unprotected anal and oral sex and a greater number of casual, anonymous, and paid sex partners in this timeframe compared to men who used methamphetamine alone. Two primary patterns of co-administration were identified: 1) drug combinations motivated by sexual performance and enhancement (e.g., methamphetamine, poppers, sildenafil) and 2) “party drug” combinations (e.g., methamphetamine, GHB, ketamine). Implications for further research and possible applications to risk-reduction interventions are discussed.

Semple, Shirley J.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Zians, Jim; Patterson, Thomas L.

2011-01-01

367

Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry detection of a norfluoxetine artifact in hydrolyzed urine samples may falsely indicate tranylcypromine ingestion.  

PubMed

In several cases, fluoxetine, its metabolites, its known artifacts, and supposedly tranylcypromine were detected in urine using the authors' systematic toxicological analysis (STA) procedure based on acid hydrolysis, extraction, and acetylation. As fluoxetine and tranylcypromine are absolutely contraindicated drugs and in none of the cases was tranylcypromine prescribed, the question of whether the detected compound might have been formed by fluoxetine and/or its metabolites arose. Therefore, rat urine taken after dosing with fluoxetine was screened in the same way. In addition, aqueous solutions of fluoxetine, norfluoxetine, tranylcypromine, and a mixture of the latter two drugs were worked-up and analyzed according to the STA and without hydrolysis. In urine specimens obtained from rats dosed with fluoxetine, tranylcypromine was detected as well as in the solution of worked-up norfluoxetine including hydrolysis. Its underlying mass spectrum could be identified by detailed interpretation of the fragmentation patterns as acetylated 3-phenyl-propyl-2-ene-amine. This compound could be postulated as hydrolysis product of norfluoxetine formed by ether cleavage and water elimination. Although this spectrum shows nearly the same fragmentation patterns as that of acetylated tranylcypromine, both compounds could finally be differentiated by their retention indices and by using the positive-ion chemical ionization mode. PMID:20109302

Schwaninger, Andrea E; Meyer, Markus R; Maurer, Hans H

368

Exposure of pharmacy personnel to mutagenic antineoplastic drugs  

SciTech Connect

The Salmonella reversion test was used to measure the mutagenic activities of urine concentrates from individuals preparing cancer chemotherapy agents for intravenous administration. Longitudinal studies were performed in which the total urine produced in 24 hour periods was collected, starting on a Sunday at 7:00 p.m. after a duty-free weekend and extending over an eight day period. There was no detectable increase in mutagenic activity in the urine concentrates of three pharmacy administrators who had no contact with these drugs. All six individuals admixing drugs in open-faced, horizontal laminar flow hoods displayed a two-fold increase in mutagenesis by the fourth day with peak values of 2.7 to 24-fold occurring on days five and six, reduced values by day seven with a return to the spontaneous level by day eight. When four of the six positive individuals in the preceding experiment admixed comparable amounts of chemotherapeutic drugs in a closed-faced, vertical laminar flow hood, no increase in mutagenic activity was detected in their urine concentrates over the eight day period.

Nguyen, T.V.; Theiss, J.C.; Matney, T.S.

1981-01-01

369

Quantification of a Methadone Metabolite (EDDP) in Urine: Assessment of Compliance  

PubMed Central

Objective: To investigate the possibility of utilizing the ratio of the methadone metabolite, 2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine (EDDP), to urine creatinine to develop a regression model that would predict drug adherence in patients prescribed methadone for either pain management or drug addiction. Design: Retrospective study. Setting: Marshfield Clinic-Lakeland Center, one of 41 regional centers that make up Marshfield Clinic, a large, private, multi-specialty healthcare institution in central Wisconsin. Participants: Patients receiving methadone treatment for substance abuse or chronic pain. Group 1 was an initial pilot group consisting of 7 patients who were followed for a 4-month period. Group 2 consisted of 33 patients who were followed over a 28-month period. Methods: Age, gender, weight, height, methadone dosage, quantitative urine creatinine and EDDP levels, reported compliance/non-compliance, and relevant clinical cofactors were retrospectively abstracted from the patients’ medical records. Log-log regression analyses were used to model EDDP and the EDDP/creatinine ratio from urine screening results as functions of methadone dose, and in the larger cohort (group 2), body size, gender and age. The coefficient of determination adjusted for the number of predictor terms (Radj2) was reported as a measure of model fit. Results: For group 1 data, there was a significant positive relation (P<0.001) but also substantial variability (Radj2 = 0.49). Adjustment for creatinine through the EDDP/creatinine ratio provided a tighter relation (Radj2 = 0.95). Similarly, for group 2 data, there was a significant positive relation (P=0.001) and substantial variability (Radj2 = 0.53). Adjustment for creatinine through EDDP/creatinine ratios provided a substantially stronger relation (Radj2 = 0.73). Gender and age showed no evidence of association with the EDDP/creatinine ratio (P=0.60 and P=0.51, respectively). Body size was significant in the model, both when measured by body surface area and by lean body weight, and improved the prediction when added to our model (Radj2 = 0.80). Conclusion: For the first time, urine analyses may be used to monitor methadone over- or under-use in a clinical setting, regardless of the state of patient hydration or the manipulation of a sample by addition of another substance, such as bleach, soap, or even methadone, which could render an appropriate sample inappropriate or an inappropriate sample appropriate. A similar approach may prove useful for other drug treatments, allowing for more accurate monitoring of commonly abused prescription medications.

Larson, Michael E.M.; Richards, Thomas M.

2009-01-01

370

Elevated Phenotypic Switching and Drug Resistance of Candida albicans from Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Positive Individuals prior to First Thrush Episode  

PubMed Central

Strains of Candida albicans obtained from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive individuals prior to their first episode of oral thrush were already in a high-frequency mode of switching and were far more resistant to a number of antifungal drugs than commensal isolates from healthy individuals. Switching in these isolates also had profound effects both on susceptibility to antifungal drugs and on the levels of secreted proteinase activity. These results suggest that commensal strains colonizing HIV-positive individuals either undergo phenotypic alterations or are replaced prior to the first episode of oral thrush. They also support the suggestion that high-frequency phenotypic switching functions as a higher-order virulence trait, spontaneously generating in colonizing populations variants with alterations in a variety of specific virulence traits.

Vargas, Kaaren; Messer, Shawn A.; Pfaller, Michael; Lockhart, Shawn R.; Stapleton, Jack T.; Hellstein, John; Soll, David R.

2000-01-01

371

Monitoring drug use among HIV/AIDS patients in Brazil: should we combine self-report and urinalysis?  

PubMed

Illicit drug use in HIV-infected patients can be linked to impairment of physical and mental health, low health related quality of life, and suboptimal adherence to HIV treatment. This study aimed to evaluate the correlation of self report illicit drug use, urinalysis for cocaine and cannabis metabolites, and severity of dependence among HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) in a treatment center in Brazil. Four hundred and thirty-eight outpatients of an HIV referral center were interviewed and assessed for drug use (lifetime, last year and last month). Urinalysis was performed to detect the presence of cocaine and cannabis metabolites in urine samples. Overall agreement between self report and urinalysis was almost 68% for cannabis and higher than 85% for cocaine. Positive urinalysis was significantly associated with more than once a week cannabis (p< .0001) and cocaine (p< .0001) use during the last-month. Severity of Dependence Scale (SDS) properly predicted positive cocaine urinalysis results (area under the curve [AUC] = .81, p = .0001). Frequency of cannabis and cocaine use, SDS score degree and positive urinalysis for both drugs were correlated. Our findings suggest that positive self-report is a reliable predictor of positive urine sample both for cannabis and cocaine, but since the agreement was not perfect, there is a role for urine drug screening in the care of patients with HIV-related conditions. PMID:23092174

Malbergier, Andre; do Amaral, Ricardo A; Cardoso, Luciana R D; Castel, Saulo

2012-12-01

372

Hero or Hypocrite?United States and International Media Portrayals of Carl Lewis Amid Revelations of a Positive Drug Test  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines press coverage of track and field athlete Carl Lewis amid reports in April 2003 that he tested positive for three banned stimulants prior to United States Olympic Trials in 1988. Lewis, of course, won the 1988 100-meter gold medal after Canadian Ben Johnson tested positive for anabolic steroids, a development that brought disgrace to Johnson and adulation

Bryan E. Denham

2004-01-01

373

Systematic comparison of ?13C measurements of testosterone and derivative steroids in a freeze-dried urine candidate reference material for sports drug testing by gas chromatography/combustion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry and uncertainty evaluation using four different metrological approaches.  

PubMed

An alternative calibration procedure for use when performing carbon isotope ratio measurements by gas chromatography/combustion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/C/IRMS) has been developed. This calibration procedure does not rely on the corrections in-built in the instrument software, as the carbon isotope ratios of a sample are calculated from the measured raw peak areas. The method was developed for the certification of a urine reference material for sports drug testing, as the estimation of measurement uncertainty is greatly simplified. To ensure that the method is free from bias arising from the choice of calibration material and instrument, the carbon isotope ratios of steroids in urine extracts were measured using two different instruments in different laboratories, and three different reference materials (CU/USADA steroid standards from Brenna Laboratory, Cornell University; NIST RM8539 mineral oil; methane calibrated against NIST RM8560 natural gas). The measurements were performed at LGC and the Australian National Measurement Institute (NMI). It was found that there was no significant difference in measurement results when different instruments and reference materials were used to measure the carbon isotope ratio of the major testosterone metabolites androsterone and etiocholanolone, or the endogenous reference compounds pregnanediol, 11- ketoetiocholanolone and 11?-hydroxyandrosterone. Expanded measurement uncertainties at the 95% coverage probability ranged from 0.21‰ to 1.4‰, depending on analyte, instrument and reference material. The measurement results of this comparison were used to estimate a measurement uncertainty of ?(13)C for the certification of the urine reference material being performed on a single instrument using a single reference material at NMI. PMID:21594940

Munton, Ellaine; Murby, John; Hibbert, D Brynn; Santamaria-Fernandez, Rebeca

2011-06-15

374

Tenofovir Plasma Concentrations According to Companion Drugs: a Cross-Sectional Study of HIV-Positive Patients with Normal Renal Function  

PubMed Central

As the risk of tenofovir-associated renal toxicity has been found to be proportional to the drug plasma concentration, our aim was to measure the determinants of tenofovir plasma exposure in HIV-positive patients with normal renal function. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted in HIV-positive patients chronically receiving tenofovir-containing highly active antiretroviral therapies (HAARTs). Patients on tenofovir-containing antiretroviral regimens, presenting 22 to 26 h after drug intake, having estimated glomerular filtration rates above 60 ml/min, reporting high adherence to antiretroviral medications (above 95% of the doses), and signing a written informed consent were included. Plasma tenofovir concentrations were measured through a validated high-performance liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (HPLC/LC-MS) method. The tenofovir trough concentrations in 195 patients (median, 50 ng/ml, and interquartile range, 35 to 77 ng/ml) were significantly associated with the estimated glomerular filtration rate, body mass index, and third-drug class (protease-containing versus protease-sparing regimens) (with the highest exposure in unboosted-atazanavir recipients). The results of multivariate analysis showed that the third-drug class and the weight/creatinine ratio were independent predictors of tenofovir trough concentrations. This cross-sectional study shows that tenofovir trough concentrations are predicted by the weight/creatinine ratio and by the coadministered antiretrovirals, with protease inhibitors (whether boosted or unboosted) being associated with the highest plasma exposure. These data, previously available in healthy subjects or for some drugs only, could be useful for designing strategies to manage tenofovir-associated toxicity, since this toxicity has been reported to be dose dependent.

Gonzalez de Requena, D.; Simiele, M.; D'Avolio, A.; Tettoni, M. C.; Salassa, B.; Orofino, G.; Bramato, C.; Libanore, V.; Motta, I.; Bigliano, P.; Orsucci, E.; Di Perri, G.; Bonora, S.

2013-01-01

375

Tenofovir plasma concentrations according to companion drugs: a cross-sectional study of HIV-positive patients with normal renal function.  

PubMed

As the risk of tenofovir-associated renal toxicity has been found to be proportional to the drug plasma concentration, our aim was to measure the determinants of tenofovir plasma exposure in HIV-positive patients with normal renal function. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted in HIV-positive patients chronically receiving tenofovir-containing highly active antiretroviral therapies (HAARTs). Patients on tenofovir-containing antiretroviral regimens, presenting 22 to 26 h after drug intake, having estimated glomerular filtration rates above 60 ml/min, reporting high adherence to antiretroviral medications (above 95% of the doses), and signing a written informed consent were included. Plasma tenofovir concentrations were measured through a validated high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC/LC-MS) method. The tenofovir trough concentrations in 195 patients (median, 50 ng/ml, and interquartile range, 35 to 77 ng/ml) were significantly associated with the estimated glomerular filtration rate, body mass index, and third-drug class (protease-containing versus protease-sparing regimens) (with the highest exposure in unboosted-atazanavir recipients). The results of multivariate analysis showed that the third-drug class and the weight/creatinine ratio were independent predictors of tenofovir trough concentrations. This cross-sectional study shows that tenofovir trough concentrations are predicted by the weight/creatinine ratio and by the coadministered antiretrovirals, with protease inhibitors (whether boosted or unboosted) being associated with the highest plasma exposure. These data, previously available in healthy subjects or for some drugs only, could be useful for designing strategies to manage tenofovir-associated toxicity, since this toxicity has been reported to be dose dependent. PMID:23380733

Calcagno, A; Gonzalez de Requena, D; Simiele, M; D'Avolio, A; Tettoni, M C; Salassa, B; Orofino, G; Bramato, C; Libanore, V; Motta, I; Bigliano, P; Orsucci, E; Di Perri, G; Bonora, S

2013-02-04

376

Effects of urine testing frequency on outcome in a methadone take-home contingency program  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the effects of urine testing frequency on treatment outcome in a contingent methadone take-home program. Study patients who submitted<80% opiate and\\/or cocaine positive urines during a 5-week baseline received 60 mg methadone throughout the study, submitted urine samples on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday, and were randomized into one of three take-home incentive conditions. Study patients could receive three

Mary Ann Chutuape; Kenneth Silverman; Maxine L Stitzer

2001-01-01

377

Urine Cytology in the Evaluation of Urological Malignancy Revisited: Is It Still Necessary?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: We aim to determine if urine cytology was still necessary as a routine part of the evaluation for the presence of urological malignancy and to evaluate its cost effectiveness. Methods: Urine cytology reports over a 6-year period (2000–2005) were retrieved from our institution’s pathology department database. Patients with urine cytology positive for malignant cells were identified. We retrospectively reviewed

Opeyemi Adegboyega Falebita; Garry Lee; Paul Sweeney

2010-01-01

378

Treating urine by Spirulina platensis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper Spirulina platensis with relatively high nutrition was cultivated to treat human urine. Batch culture showed that the consumption of N in human urine could reach to 99%, and the consumption of P was more than 99.9%, and 1.05 g biomass was obtained by treating 12.5 ml synthetic human urine; continuous culture showed that S. platensis could consume N, Cl, K and S in human urine effectively, and the consumption could reach to 99.9%, 75.0%, 83.7% and 96.0%, respectively, and the consumption of P was over 99.9%, which is very important to increase the closure and safety of the bioregenerative life support system (BLSS).

Yang, Chenliang; Liu, Hong; Li, Ming; Yu, Chengying; Yu, Gurevich

379

On-line coupling of automated solid-phase extraction with high-performance liquid chromatography and electrochemical detection. Quantitation of oxidizable drugs of abuse and their metabolites in plasma and urine.  

PubMed

The concentration effect of automated on-line solid-phase extraction (SPE) in combination with HPLC and very sensitive electrochemical detection was employed for the determination of N-ethyl-4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-amphetamine (HMEA, the main metabolite of the ecstasy analogue MDE), delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and 11-nor-delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol-carboxylic acid (THC-COOH) in plasma and urine in comparison to a previously published psilocin assay. For the SPE either CBA (functional group: carboxypropyl)- or CH (functional group: cyclohexyl)-sorbent was used. The following separation was carried out on a reversed-phase column (LiChroCart, Superspher 60 RP select B from Merck). Depending on the hydrodynamic voltammogram of the analyzed substance the oxidation potential varied from 920 mV up to 1.2 V. In spite of using high potentials, precision and accuracy were always within the accepted statistical requirements. The limits of quantitation were between 5 ng/ml (THC, THC-COOH in plasma) and 20 ng/ml (HMEA in plasma). Advantages of on-line SPE in comparison with off-line methods were less manual effort, evidently smaller volumes (< or = 400 microliters) of plasma or urine and almost always higher recovery rates (> 93%). The assays have been successfully proven with real biological samples and found suitable for use in routine analysis. PMID:10510769

Krämer, E; Kovar, K A

1999-08-20

380

Psychosocial and Demographic Correlates of Drug Use in a Sample of HIV-Positive Adults Ages 50 and Older.  

PubMed

The prevalence of HIV among adults 50 and older in the USA is increasing as a result of improvements in treatment and detection of HIV infection. Substance use by this population has implications for physical and mental health outcomes. We examined patterns of demographics, mental health, and recent substance use in a diverse sample of heterosexual, bisexual, and gay adults 50 and older living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in New York City. The most commonly used substances were cigarettes or alcohol; however, the majority of the sample did not report recent use of marijuana, poppers, or hard drugs (crystal methamphetamine, cocaine, crack, heroin, ecstasy, GHB, ketamine, and LSD or PCP). Statistically significant associations between substance use and psychological states (well-being and loneliness) were generally weak, and depression scores were not significantly related to use; instead, drug use was associated with gender/sexual orientation. The study observations support addressing substance use specific to subpopulations within PLWHA. PMID:23408281

Siconolfi, Daniel E; Halkitis, Perry N; Barton, Staci C; Kingdon, Molly J; Perez-Figueroa, Rafael E; Arias-Martinez, Vanessa; Karpiak, Stephen; Brennan-Ing, Mark

2013-12-01

381

Traceability of synthetic drugs by position-specific deuterium isotope ratio analysis: the case of Prozac and the fluoxetine generics.  

PubMed

Samples of fluoxetine of different origin were submitted to natural abundance 2H NMR spectroscopy. The deuterium content at the various sites of the molecule was found to depend on its synthetic history. Hints on the synthetic procedure can be obtained by comparison with standard compounds, whose synthesis is known. These preliminary results give an idea of the potential of site-specific isotope ratio analysis in the fight against patent infringement and drug counterfeiting. PMID:17920397

Brenna, Elisabetta; Fronza, Giovanni; Fuganti, Claudio

2007-09-02

382

Changes in drug use are associated with health-related quality of life improvements among methadone maintenance patients with HIV\\/AIDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  This longitudinal study assessed the changes in drug use patterns and health-related quality of life (HRQL) among HIV-positive\\u000a drug users in the first methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) cohort in Vietnam.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A secondary analysis was conducted on 370 HIV-positive drug users (age: mean ± SD: 29.5 ± 5.9 years; 95.7% men). Modified\\u000a WHOQOL-BREF, self-report, and opioid confirmatory urine tests were used to assess HRQL and drug

Bach Xuan Tran; Arto Ohinmaa; Anh Thuy Duong; Nhan Thi Do; Long Thanh Nguyen; Quoc Cuong Nguyen; Steve Mills; Philip Jacobs; Stan Houston

383

Chlamydia trachomatis antigen can be detected in the urine sample of men with non-gonococcal urethritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tested the first portion of voided urine (FVU) and urethral swab from 80 patients with nongonococcal urethritis (NGU) using a novel enzymeamplified immunoassay (IDEIA) for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis antigen. Urine specimens were positive in all patients with positive urethral swabs (positive coincidence ratio, 100%) and in 6 of 54 patients with negative swabs (negative coincidence ratio, 88.9%).

M. Tanaka; T. Matsumoto; J. Kumazawa; H. Nakayama; Y. Miyazaki

1991-01-01

384

EXPOSURE OF PHARMACY PERSONNEL TO ANTINEOPLASTIC DRUGS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation consists of two parts: (1) Exposure of pharmacy personnel to antineoplastic drugs. The Salmonella reversion test was used to measure the mutagenic activities of urine concentrates from individuals preparing antineoplastic drugs for intravenous administration. Longitudinal studies were performed in which the total urine produced in 24-hour periods was collected, starting on a Sunday at 7 P.M. after a

TOT VAN NGUYEN

1982-01-01

385

Unprotected sex among HIV-positive injection drug-using women and their serodiscordant male partners: role of personal and partnership influences.  

PubMed

We investigated the characteristics of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive injection drug-using women who reported unprotected vaginal and/or anal sex with HIV-negative or unknown serostatus (serodiscordant) male partners. Of 426 female study participants, 370 were sexually active. Of these women, 39% (144/370) and 40% (148/370) reported vaginal and/or anal sex with serodiscordant main and casual partners, respectively. Sixty percent of women inconsistently used condoms with their serodiscordant main partners, whereas 53% did so with casual partners. In multivariate analysis, during sex with main partners, inconsistent condom users were less likely to feel confident about achieving safe sex (self-efficacy), personal responsibility for limiting HIV transmission, and that their partner supported safe sex. Inconsistent condom use was also more likely among women who held negative beliefs about condoms and in couplings without mutual disclosure of HIV status. Regarding sex with casual partners, inconsistent condom users were more likely to experience psychologic distress, engage in sex trading, but they were less likely to feel confident about achieving safe sex. These findings suggest that there are widespread opportunities for the sexual transmission of HIV from drug-using women to HIV-uninfected men, and that reasons vary by type of partnership. Multifaceted interventions that address personal, dyadic, and addiction problems are needed for HIV-positive injection drug-using women. PMID:16760799

Latka, Mary H; Metsch, Lisa R; Mizuno, Yulo; Tobin, Karin; Mackenzie, Sonia; Arnsten, Julia H; Gourevitch, Marc N

2006-06-01

386

Perceptions of community- and family-level injection drug user (IDU)- and HIV-related stigma, disclosure decisions and experiences with layered stigma among HIV-positive IDUs in Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores how perceived stigma and layered stigma related to injection drug use and being HIV-positive influence the decision to disclose one's HIV status to family and community and experiences with stigma following disclosure among a population of HIV-positive male injection drug users (IDUs) in Thai Nguyen, Vietnam. In qualitative interviews conducted between 2007 and 2008, 25 HIV-positive male

A. E. Rudolph; W. W. Davis; V. M. Quan; T. V. Ha; N. L. Minh; A. Gregowski; M. Salter; D. D. Celentano; V. Go

2012-01-01

387

Perceptions of community- and family-level injection drug user (IDU)- and HIV-related stigma, disclosure decisions and experiences with layered stigma among HIV-positive IDUs in Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores how perceived stigma and layered stigma related to injection drug use and being HIV-positive influence the decision to disclose one's HIV status to family and community and experiences with stigma following disclosure among a population of HIV-positive male injection drug users (IDUs) in Thai Nguyen, Vietnam. In qualitative interviews conducted between 2007 and 2008, 25 HIV-positive male

A. E. Rudolph; W. W. Davis; V. M. Quan; T. V. Ha; N. L. Minh; A. Gregowski; M. Salter; D. D. Celentano; V. Go

2011-01-01

388

Identification of Substances Interfering with Illicit Drug Testing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In response to intensified urine testing for illicit drugs, drug users have attempted to falsify results by several schemes including in vitro adulteration of specimens. Additives that were claimed to invalidate enzyme immunoassay (EIA) drug assays were i...

S. L. Mikkelsen

1988-01-01

389

21 CFR 341.76 - Labeling of bronchodilator drug products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...weeks after stopping the MAOI drug. If you do not know if your prescription drug contains an MAOI, ask a doctor...urinating due to an enlarged prostate glandâ. (3) The following...Bullet] taking prescription drugs for asthma, obesity,...

2012-04-01

390

Antiepileptic carbamazepine drug treatment induces alteration of membrane in red blood cells: possible positive effects on metabolism and oxidative stress.  

PubMed

Carbamazepine (CBZ) is an iminostilbene derivative commonly used for treatment of neuralgic pain and bipolar affective disorders. CBZ blood levels of treated patients are within the range of micromolar concentrations and therefore, significant interactions of this drug with erythrocytes are very likely. Moreover, the lipid domains of the cell membrane are believed to be one of the sites where iminostilbene derivatives exert their effects. The present study aimed to deeply characterize CBZ effects on erythrocytes, in order to identify extra and/or cytosolic cell targets. Our results indicate that erythrocyte morphological changes promoted by the drug, may be triggered by an alteration in band 3 functionality i.e. at the level of anionic flux. In addition, from a metabolic point of view this perturbation could be considered, at least in part, as a beneficial event because it could favour the CO2 elimination. Since lipid peroxidation, superoxide and free radical scavenging activities, caspase 3 activity and hemoglobin (Hb) functionality were not modified within the CBZ treated red blood cell (RBC), band 3 protein (B3) may well be a specific membrane target for CBZ and responsible for CBZ-induced toxic effects in erythrocytes. However some beneficial effects of this drug have been evidenced; among them an increased release of ATP and nitric oxide (NO) derived metabolites from erythrocytes to lumen, leading to an increased NO pool in the vasculature. In conclusion, these results indicate that CBZ, though considered responsible for toxic effects on erythrocytes, can also exhibit effects that at least in some conditions may be seen as beneficial. PMID:23246915

Ficarra, Silvana; Misiti, Francesco; Russo, Annamaria; Carelli-Alinovi, Cristiana; Bellocco, Ersilia; Barreca, Davide; Laganà, Giuseppina; Leuzzi, Ugo; Toscano, Giovanni; Giardina, Bruno; Galtieri, Antonio; Tellone, Ester

2012-12-12

391

Correlation between endodontic broken instrument and nickel level in urine.  

PubMed

This study aims to evaluate the correlation between the presences of separated endodontic instrument inside the dental canal and the nickel (Ni) level in the urine samples of subjected patients. Same-gendered and near-aged participants were selected and were instructed to collect their urine in sterile nickel-free plastic containers. The procedures were carried out in the office, and samples were stored in low-temperature cooler for 1 day and then they were transferred to the laboratory for electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. The level of Ni was measured and the correlation coefficient was calculated. Data were analyzed using t tests, Pearson's correlation coefficients, and linear regression analysis, at a level of significance P < 0.05. The statistical analysis has showed significant difference in Ni level between endodontic and control groups (P < 0.05). There was no correlation between Ni level in urine and the age or time period of broken instrument inside the canal; however, Ni level of urine and the age of participants in experimental group has demonstrated a positive correlation. The amount of Ni element can be increased in the urine of patients who have experienced broken endodontic instrument inside the dental canal. However, there is no positive correlation between the remaining pieces of instruments inside the canal and the elevation of nickel amount in urine during the tested time period. This issue suggested that the aging of remaining broken instrument inside the canal does not show any remarkable concern regarding the Ni elevation in the urine excreted by an individual. PMID:23861099

Saghiri, Mohammad Ali; Sheibani, Nader; Garcia-Godoy, Franklin; Asatourian, Armen; Mehriar, Peiman; Scarbecz, Mark

2013-07-17

392

Social-structural contexts of needle and syringe sharing behaviours of HIV-positive injecting drug users in Manipur, India: a mixed methods investigation  

PubMed Central

Background Few investigations have assessed risk behaviours and social-structural contexts of risk among injecting drug users (IDUs) in Northeast India, where injecting drug use is the major route of HIV transmission. Investigations of risk environments are needed to inform development of effective risk reduction interventions. Methods This mixed methods study of HIV-positive IDUs in Manipur included a structured survey (n = 75), two focus groups (n = 17), seven in-depth interviews, and two key informant interviews. Results One-third of survey participants reported having shared a needle/syringe in the past 30 days; among these, all the men and about one-third of the women did so with persons of unknown HIV serostatus. A variety of social-structural contextual factors influenced individual risk behaviours: barriers to carrying sterile needles/syringes due to fear of harassment by police and "anti-drug" organizations; lack of sterile needles/syringes in drug dealers' locales; limited access to pharmacy-sold needles/syringes; inadequate coverage by needle and syringe programmes (NSPs); non-availability of sterile needles/syringes in prisons; and withdrawal symptoms superseding concern for health. Some HIV-positive IDUs who shared needles/syringes reported adopting risk reduction strategies: being the 'last receiver' of needles/syringes and not a 'giver;' sharing only with other IDUs they knew to be HIV-positive; and, when a 'giver,' asking other IDUs to wash used needles/syringes with bleach before using. Conclusions Effective HIV prevention and care programmes for IDUs in Northeast India may hinge on several enabling contexts: supportive government policy on harm reduction programmes, including in prisons; an end to harassment by the police, army, and anti-drug groups, with education of these entities regarding harm reduction, creation of partnerships with the public health sector, and accountability to government policies that protect IDUs' human rights; adequate and sustained funding for NSPs to cover all IDU populations, including prisoners; and non-discriminatory access by IDUs to affordable needles/syringes in pharmacies.

2011-01-01

393

Enzyme immunoassay validation for the detection of buprenorphine in urine.  

PubMed

A solid-phase enzyme immunoassay involving microtiter plates was proposed by Microgenics to screen buprenorphine in urine. The intra-assay precision at 10 ng/mL was 7.7% (coefficient of variation). The immunoassay was determined to have no cross-reactivity with codeine, dihydrocodeine, morphine, ethylmorphine, 6-monoacetylmorphine, methadone, pholcodine, propoxyphene, dextromoramide, and dextromethorphan at 1 and 10 mg/L. A low cross-reactivity (3% at 1 ng/mL) was observed at low concentrations of norbuprenorphine. After comparing this new immunological test (Singlestep ELISA) for 76 urine specimens with our validated high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray mass spectrometry (HPLC-ES-MS) procedure, an optimum cutoff concentration of 2 ng/mL was determined for the kit. At this cutoff, the screening assay was able to determine more than 90% of true results with 43.4% true positives and 48.7% true negatives. Four positive urines (5.3%) were not confirmed by HPLC-ES-MS. In only one case, the negative urine test was confirmed as positive by HPLC-ES-MS (buprenorphine: 62.5 ng/mL). Buprenorphine concentrations determined by HPLC-ES-MS ranged from 1.2 to 1052 ng/mL. Of the four potential adulterants (hypochloride 50 mL/L, sodium nitrite 50 g/L, liquid soap 50 mL/L, and sodium chloride 50 g/L) that might be added to a positive urine specimen, none were able to cause a false-negative response by the immunoassay. The results of this study support the concept that the Singlestep ELISA for buprenorphine determination in urine should be considered as a new, valided screening procedure. PMID:12670004

Cirimele, V; Kintz, P; Lohner, S; Ludes, B

2003-03-01

394

A survey of pre-placement urinalysis drug findings.  

PubMed

In December, 1989, the Department of Transportation (DOT) in conjunction with the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) mandated an extensive urine drug testing program for selected positions within the airline industry. At the end of 1 year we have tested 7,872 applicants under these rules, with a positive finding rate of 0.17%. We have also tested 32,157 applicants, including those applying for DOT-covered positions, with a positive rate of 2.82%. Considering only the two major drugs of abuse--marijuana and cocaine--we found the positive rate to be an order of magnitude greater than the rate discovered under the DOT program. We present these data together with a discussion of some of the possible reasons for this major disparity. We also present findings for barbiturates and benzodiazepines which are not tested under the DOT program, but which have safety implications related to the aviation industry. PMID:1550535

Wick, R L; Brawley, W L; Berger, B T

1992-01-01

395

Fluoride in the urine, hair, and nails of phosphate fertiliser workers.  

PubMed Central

The fluoride content in the urine, hair, and nails of 106 workers employed in a phosphate fertiliser plant was significantly raised above the control level. Positive correlations were found between the group means for concentrations of fluorides in urine and hair (r = 0.77), urine and nails (r = 0.99), and hair and nails (r = 0.70). Individual values in the whole population gave significant correlations between concentrations in urine and nails (r = 0.73). The obtained results indicate that the fluoride content in hair and nails may be used as an indicator of occupational exposure to fluorides.

Czarnowski, W; Krechniak, J

1990-01-01

396

Rapid Diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis in Male Patients by Antigen Detection in Urine Samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the diagnostic value of testing urine samples as a rapid method for the detection of chlamydial antigen in males, first-catch urine (FCU) and urethral swab samples were obtained from 668 male patients and examined by an enzyme immunosorbent assay (ElA). Positive results were further analyzed by direct fluorescence antibody tests of the EIA sediment. Antigen detection was possible

A. Stary; C. Heller-Vitouch; I. Müller

1992-01-01

397

Confirmation of LSD intoxication by analysis of serum and urine.  

PubMed

Serum and urine specimens of 31 patients with suspected lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) intoxication were analyzed for LSD by both radioimmunoassay (RIA) and high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). The RIA assay, using 0.1 ng/mL as the limit of detection instead of the manufacturer's recommendation of 0.5 ng/mL, was positive for LSD in 13 blood and urine specimens from 14 patients. Results were compared to HPLC analysis using methysergide instead of lysergol as the internal standard and a limit of detection of 0.5 ng/mL. HPLC detected LSD in 9 of 13 serum specimens and 11 of 13 urine specimens that had tested positive by RIA. Of 18 patients with a final clinical diagnosis of LSD intoxication, LSD was detected by RIA in 14 patients and by HPLC in 11 patients. For 13 other cases in which the final diagnosis was a condition other than LSD intoxication, serum and urine assays for LSD were negative in all cases by both techniques. LSD assays have not been generally available in clinical laboratories. We conclude that the qualitative determination of LSD in either serum or urine by a commercially available radioimmunoassay has made it possible to provide reliable laboratory confirmation of LSD intoxication. PMID:2374406

McCarron, M M; Walberg, C B; Baselt, R C

398

N-deethylation and N-oxidation of etamiphylline: identification of etamiphylline-N-oxide in greyhound urine by high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Millophyline-V, (etamiphylline camsylate) was administered intramuscularly to two racing greyhounds at a dose of 10 mg kg(-1). Unhydrolysed pre- and post-administration urine samples were extracted using mixed mode solid phase extraction (SPE) cartridges, the basic isolates derivatised as trimethylsilyl ethers and analysed by positive ion electron ionisation gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/EI+/MS). The parent drug and one metabolite, N-desethyletamiphylline, were detected in urine for up to 72 h. For semi-quantification, urine samples were extracted on-line using a Prospekt sample handler. The analytes retained on the C2 SPE cartridge were eluted by the mobile phase directly on to the analytical high performance liquid chromatography column and analysed by positive ion atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation (LC/APCI+) MS in the multiple selective-ion recording mode. A major peak containing both ions (m/z) 280 and (m/z) 252 was observed. Full scan LC/APCI+/MS of the unknown indicated that the ion at (m/z) 280 was formed by the loss of an oxygen atom [MH+ -->(MH+-O)]. Samples were analysed by positive ion electrospray ionisation LC/MS on two different instruments and the unknown compound was identified as an N-oxide of the tert. nitrogen atom of the 2-(diethylamino)ethyl substituent on N7 of the theophylline nucleus. This compound has not been reported previously either as an in vivo or in vitro metabolite of etamiphylline in any species. Thermal decomposition of the N-oxide could lead to an increase the detection period of the parent drug during routine GC/MS screening of post-competition greyhound urine samples. PMID:15620536

Dumasia, M C; Teale, P

2005-01-01

399

Prevalence of drug use in French seamen.  

PubMed

The main objective of the present study is to determine the prevalence of lifetime use and use in the past 30 days of narcotics in French seamen and to assess factors correlated with positive urine test in seamen as a whole. A stratified survey conducted in 19 French ports collected 1,928 self-administered questionnaires on cigarette, alcohol and narcotics consumption. Seafarers were randomly selected and interviewed during their annual seafaring aptitude consultation. Only the 1847 male respondents were included in analysis. Nearly half of the seamen had tried cannabis at some point in their life, and 16% were users in the past 30 days. Lifetime use of certain other illegal drugs (cocaine, heroin, hallucinogenic mushrooms, poppers and ecstasy) was non-negligible, but cocaine and heroin were the only ones showing exceptional prevalence of consumption over the previous 30 days. Lifetime use of drugs was non-negligible among seamen. Prevalence of recent cannabis use was elevated. Recent consumption as indicated by positive urine test correlated with age group, family situation, occupational category, geographical area, young age of first alcohol consumption and experimentation with other drugs. PMID:22130516

Fort, Emmanuel; Massardier-Pilonchéry, Amélie; Facy, Françoise; Bergeret, Alain

2011-11-15

400

Are feelings of responsibility to limit the sexual transmission of HIV associated with safer sex among HIV-positive injection drug users?  

PubMed

We developed a scale among HIV-positive injection drug users (IDUs) to measure self-perceived responsibility to limit HIV transmission during sex. We describe the characteristics of HIV-positive IDUs (n=1114, 62% male, HIV-positive for 9 years on average) who felt responsible for protecting their sexual partners from HIV and evaluated whether such feelings were associated with safer sexual practices. Using this scale (Cronbach alpha=0.83) and audio computer-assisted self-interviewing technology, 75% of this sample felt responsible for protecting their sexual partners from HIV. In cross-sectional multivariate analysis, HIV-positive IDUs who felt responsible were those with greater HIV knowledge (adjusted odds ratio [95% confidence interval]: 1.74 [1.26 to 2.40]), perceived social support (1.77 [1.28 to 2.44]), self-efficacy for safely injecting (1.41 [1.02 to 1.94]), and self-efficacy for using condoms (1.92 [1.38 to 2.68]). Feeling responsible was associated with having relatively fewer sex partners (<10 vs. >or=10, 0.57 [0.34 to 0.96]) and a lower odds of unprotected sex (0.63 [0.45 to 0.89]) but was not associated with safer injection practices. Feelings of responsibility did not vary by demographic characteristics, suggesting that prevention messages that encourage HIV-positive people to play a role in curbing HIV transmission may be acceptable to many HIV-positive IDUs. Working with HIV-positive IDUs to increase or reinforce feelings of responsibility may reduce the sexual transmission of HIV. PMID:18089989

Latka, Mary H; Mizuno, Yuko; Wu, YingFeng; Tobin, Karin E; Metsch, Lisa R; Frye, Victoria; Gómez, Cynthia A; Arnsten, Julia H

2007-11-01

401

10 CFR Appendix A to Part 26 - Guidelines for Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...53 FR 11970). âIllegal drugs.â Those drugs included in Schedules I through...screening test.â An immunoassay screen for drugs or drug metabolites to eliminate ânegativeâ urine specimens from further...

2008-01-01

402

10 CFR Appendix A to Part 26 - Guidelines for Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...53 FR 11970). âIllegal drugs.â Those drugs included in Schedules I through...screening test.â An immunoassay screen for drugs or drug metabolites to eliminate ânegativeâ urine specimens from further...

2005-01-01

403

10 CFR Appendix A to Part 26 - Guidelines for Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...53 FR 11970). âIllegal drugs.â Those drugs included in Schedules I through...screening test.â An immunoassay screen for drugs or drug metabolites to eliminate ânegativeâ urine specimens from further...

2007-01-01

404

10 CFR Appendix A to Part 26 - Guidelines for Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...53 FR 11970). âIllegal drugs.â Those drugs included in Schedules I through...screening test.â An immunoassay screen for drugs or drug metabolites to eliminate ânegativeâ urine specimens from further...

2006-01-01

405

Über Pilzbefunde im Stuhl und Urin unter antibiotischer Therapie  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pilzuntersuchungen im Stuhl, im Analabstrich und im Urin (über 1000 Einzelproben bei 47 Patienten) zeigten bei 85% der Probanden vor antibiotischer Therapie negative Befunde, unter antibiotischer Behandlung dagegen bei mehr als 75% positive Ergebnisse. Dies gilt nicht nur für die orale Therapie mit Breitspektrumantibiotica, sondern auch für Mittelspektrumantibiotica und bei längerer Darreichung möglicherweise auch für oral gegebenes Penicillin. Bei 2

K. Lang; G. Oberhoffer; H. P. R. Seeliger

1960-01-01

406

Two rapid urine screens for detection of bacteriuria: An evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five hundred twenty-five random clean catch urine specimens, collected from 339 adult females, 137 adult males, and 49 pediatric patients, were screened for the presence of bacteriuria with the Uriscreen catalase test and with the Chemstrip 2 LN dipstick. Quantitative cultures were performed on all specimens. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value for the catalase test,

William F. Nauschuetz; Linda S. Harrison; Sylvia B. Trevino; Geri R. Becker; John Benton

1993-01-01

407

Correlation between Amalgam Restorations and Mercury Concentrations in Urine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The creatinine-adjusted urinary concentration of mercury in 73 schoolchildren with a mean age of 12 years was determined. In addition, the number of amalgam restorations and their size, prevalence of allergy, and days absent from school due to illness were recorded for each individual. A significant positive correlation (r = 0.55) was found between urine Hg and extent of amalgam

M. L. Olstad; R. I. Holland; N. Wandel; A. Hensten Pettersen

1987-01-01

408

[Effect of GABA-positive drugs on the background and superior sagittalis sinus-electrostimulated activity of neurons in the nucleus trigeminalis caudalis of rats].  

PubMed

There is extensive clinical evidence for the high efficacy of GABA-ergic drugs in prophylactic and abortive treatment of migraine and cluster headache, while the mechanisms of anticephalgic drugs action are not clear, in particular, because of insufficient number of investigations on experimental headache models. In this study, the influence of baclofen (i.v.) in doses 2.5, 5, 10, and 15 mg/kg and valproate (i.v.) in doses 25, 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg on the background activity of the trigeminal nucleus caudalis neurons and that evoked by electrical stimulation of the superior sagittalis sinus was investigated in series of acute experiments on rats. It is established, that baclofen and valproate reduce both the background and evoked activity of trigeminal complex neurons in dose-dependent manner, thus determining the role of GABA-A and GABA-B receptors in realization of this effect. These results provide experimental basis for explanation of the clinical efficacy of the GABA-positive drugs in vascular headaches. PMID:19093363

Sokolov, A Iu; Amelin, A V; Ignatov, Iu D; Panteleev, S S

409

Differential Predictors of Medication Adherence in HIV: Findings from a Sample of African American and Caucasian HIV-Positive Drug-Using Adults  

PubMed Central

Abstract Modest or even occasional nonadherence to combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) can result in adverse clinical outcomes. African Americans demonstrate lower rates of adherence than Caucasians or Latinos. Identifying factors that influence medication adherence among African Americans is a critical step toward reducing HIV/AIDS disease progression and mortality. In a sample of 181 African American (n=144) and Caucasian (n=37) HIV-positive drug-using individuals [age (M=42.31; SD=6.6) education (M=13.41; SD=2.1)], we examined the influence of baseline drug use, literacy, neurocognition, depression, treatment-specific social support, and patient satisfaction with health care provider on medication adherence averaged over the course of 6 months (study dates 2002–2006). Our findings suggest differential baseline predictors of medication adherence for African Americans and Caucasians, such that patient satisfaction with provider was the strongest predictor of follow-up medication adherence for African Americans whereas for Caucasians depressive symptoms and treatment-specific social support were predictive of medication adherence (after controlling for duration of drug use).

Moizel, Jennifer; Panos, Stella E.; Patel, Sapna M.; Byrd, Desiree A.; Myers, Hector F.; Wyatt, Gail E.; Hinkin, Charles H.

2012-01-01

410

Differential predictors of medication adherence in HIV: findings from a sample of African American and Caucasian HIV-positive drug-using adults.  

PubMed

Modest or even occasional nonadherence to combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) can result in adverse clinical outcomes. African Americans demonstrate lower rates of adherence than Caucasians or Latinos. Identifying factors that influence medication adherence among African Americans is a critical step toward reducing HIV/AIDS disease progression and mortality. In a sample of 181 African American (n=144) and Caucasian (n=37) HIV-positive drug-using individuals [age (M=42.31; SD=6.6) education (M=13.41; SD=2.1)], we examined the influence of baseline drug use, literacy, neurocognition, depression, treatment-specific social support, and patient satisfaction with health care provider on medication adherence averaged over the course of 6 months (study dates 2002-2006). Our findings suggest differential baseline predictors of medication adherence for African Americans and Caucasians, such that patient satisfaction with provider was the strongest predictor of follow-up medication adherence for African Americans whereas for Caucasians depressive symptoms and treatment-specific social support were predictive of medication adherence (after controlling for duration of drug use). PMID:22889235

Thames, April D; Moizel, Jennifer; Panos, Stella E; Patel, Sapna M; Byrd, Desiree A; Myers, Hector F; Wyatt, Gail E; Hinkin, Charles H

2012-08-13

411

Using Electronic Drug Monitor Feedback to Improve Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy Among HIV-Positive Patients in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) requires excellent adherence. Little is known about how to improve ART adherence in\\u000a many HIV\\/AIDS-affected countries, including China. We therefore assessed an adherence intervention among HIV-positive patients\\u000a in southwestern China. Eighty subjects were enrolled and monitored for 6 months. Sixty-eight remaining subjects were randomized\\u000a to intervention\\/control arms. In months 7–12, intervention subjects were counseled using EDM feedback;

Lora L. Sabin; Mary Bachman DeSilva; Davidson H. Hamer; Keyi Xu; Jianbo Zhang; Tao Li; Ira B. Wilson; Christopher J. Gill

2010-01-01

412

Analysis of mitragynine and metabolites in human urine for detecting the use of the psychoactive plant kratom.  

PubMed

The leaves of the South Asian plant kratom are described as having stimulating effects at low doses, and opiate-like analgesic and euphoric effects at high doses. A long history of use and abuse has led to the classification of kratom as a controlled substance in its native Thailand and other South Asian countries. However, kratom is not controlled in the United States, and the ready availability of kratom has led to its emergence as an herbal drug of abuse. With the growing popularity of kratom, efficient procedures are needed to detect kratom use. In the current study, both ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry methods have been developed and validated for monitoring the major alkaloids and metabolites found in urine following kratom use. The primary unique alkaloid mitragynine is quantified in human urine from 1.00-500.00 ng/mL using mitraphylline as an internal standard. In addition, two metabolites (5-desmethylmitragynine and 17-desmethyldihydromitragynine) and the related active, alkaloid 7-hydroxy-mitragynine, are simultaneously qualitatively monitored. The presence of analytes are confirmed by an information-dependent acquisition-enhanced product ion procedure generating full fragmentation data used to positively identify detected analytes. The validated method has been utilized for clinical and forensic analyses of urine for the detection of kratom use. PMID:23024321

Le, David; Goggin, Melissa M; Janis, Gregory C

2012-09-28

413

Association between heroin use, needle sharing and tattoos received in prison with hepatitis B and C positivity among street-recruited injecting drug users in New Mexico, USA.  

PubMed

This study aimed to assess the seroprevalence and risk factors for hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and HIV-1 infections among injecting drug users (IDU) in New Mexico. Serological and behavioural surveys were conducted in conjunction with street-based outreach, education and HIV counselling and testing. High rates of antibody positivity for HCV (82.2%) and HBV (61.1%), and a low rate for HIV (0.5%) were found. In multivariate analyses, both HBV and HCV infection were positively associated with increasing age, increasing years of injection and heroin use. Receipt of a tattoo in prison/jail was associated with HBV (odds ratio = 2.3, 95% confidence interval 1.4, 3.8) and HCV (OR = 3.4, 95% CI = 1.6, 7.5) infections. Prevention of bloodborne pathogens among IDUs should focus on young users, early in their drug use experience. Studies examining the relationship between tattooing and HBV and HCV infection are needed as are efforts to promote sterile tattooing, in prisons and elsewhere. PMID:11811881

Samuel, M C; Doherty, P M; Bulterys, M; Jenison, S A

2001-12-01

414

Drug-seeking behavior and its mediation: effects of aversion therapy with narcotic addicts on methadone.  

PubMed

The effectiveness of aversion therapy was tested in the modification of drug-seeking behavior in addicts maintained on methadone. Covert imagery was paired with electric shock, and treatment sessions were randomized sequences of classical and avoidance learning trials. A significant decrease in positive ratings of drug stimuli was found immediately after treatment. However, there was no significant difference found between mean percent drug urines for experimental and control groups immediately after treatment, and at 3 and 6 months posttreatment for experiment volunteers and for eligible nonvolunteers, suggesting that motivational and expectancy variables may have interacted systematically with treatment. Implications for further research are discussed. PMID:6671847

Houston, C C; Milby, J B

1983-12-01

415

Perceptions of community- and family-level injection drug user (IDU)- and HIV-related stigma, disclosure decisions and experiences with layered stigma among HIV-positive IDUs in Vietnam.  

PubMed

This paper explores how perceived stigma and layered stigma related to injection drug use and being HIV-positive influence the decision to disclose one's HIV status to family and community and experiences with stigma following disclosure among a population of HIV-positive male injection drug users (IDUs) in Thai Nguyen, Vietnam. In qualitative interviews conducted between 2007 and 2008, 25 HIV-positive male IDUs described layered stigma in their community but an absence of layered stigma within their families. These findings suggest the importance of community-level HIV prevention interventions that counter stigma and support families caring for HIV-positive relatives. PMID:21777075

Rudolph, A E; Davis, W W; Quan, V M; Ha, T V; Minh, N L; Gregowski, A; Salter, M; Celentano, D D; Go, V

2011-07-21

416

Pharmacodynamic Modeling of Clarithromycin against Macrolide-Resistant [PCR-Positive mef(A) or erm(B)] Streptococcus pneumoniae Simulating Clinically Achievable Serum and Epithelial Lining Fluid Free-Drug Concentrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The association between macrolide resistance mechanisms and clinical outcomes remains understudied. The present study, using an in vitro pharmacodynamic model, assessed clarithromycin (CLR) activity against mef(A)-positive and erm(B)-negative Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates by simulating free-drug concentrations in serum and both total (protein-bound and free) and free drug in epithelial lining fluid (ELF). Five mef(A)- positive and erm(B)-negative strains, one mef(A)-negative and

Ayman M. Noreddin; Danielle Roberts; Kim Nichol; Aleksandra Wierzbowski; Daryl J. Hoban; George G. Zhanel

2002-01-01

417

Determination of opiates in urine by capillary electrophoresis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for the separation of a mixture of opiates comprising pholcodine, 6-monoacetylmorphine, morphine, heroin, codeine and dihydrocodeine by capillary electrophoresis using a running buffer of 100 mM disodium hydrogenphosphate at pH 6 is described. The characteristics of an analytical method based on this separation for the determination of these drugs following extraction from urine and using levallorphan as internal

R. B. Taylor; A. S. Low; R. G. Reid

1996-01-01

418

Purification of clenbuterol-like ? 2-agonist drugs of new generation from bovine urine and hair by ? 1-acid glycoprotein affinity chromatography and determination by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The control of illegal use of clenbuterol and other ?2-agonist drugs as growth promoters in the European Union countries has led to outlaw practices for synthesizing new concept molecules, showing similar biological activity but not detectable by test methods usually employed to perform the official monitoring programmes. The synthesis schemes of some ?2-agonist compounds, formally derived from clenbuterol, were found

Pasquale Gallo; Gianfranco Brambilla; Bruno Neri; Maurizio Fiori; Cecilia Testa; Luigi Serpe

2007-01-01

419

A comparison of symptoms and drug use between patients with methamphetamine associated psychoses and patients diagnosed with schizophrenia in two acute psychiatric wards.  

PubMed

Psychosis induced by the use of amphetamine or methamphetamine leads to dramatic symptoms and frequent readmissions and poses diagnostic challenges. Earlier studies have often relied on history taking and/or urine samples to reveal drug use. The aim of this study was to compare the psychotic symptoms of two groups: (1) acutely admitted patients who tested positive for methamphetamines and were diagnosed with drug-induced or methamphetamine-induced psychoses and (2) acutely admitted patients who tested negative for methamphetamines and were diagnosed with schizophrenia. Blood and urine samples were used. In addition, we investigated whether the severity of symptoms, in those who tested positive, was related to the blood concentration of methamphetamine. Of 285 patients who volunteered blood and/or urine samples within 48h of admission, 37 (13%) had recently taken methamphetamine. Positive psychotic symptoms between the two groups were compared by PANSS using the positive subscale. The results showed no differences in positive psychotic symptoms between the two groups. The severity of positive psychotic symptoms in patients with three different levels of urine/blood methamphetamine concentrations, were compared. We found no clinically or statistically significant relationship between blood methamphetamine levels and severity of psychotic symptoms. PMID:23036490

Medhus, Sigrid; Mordal, Jon; Holm, Bjørn; Mørland, Jørg; Bramness, Jørgen G

2012-10-02

420

Drinking, drugs and driving in Ireland: more evidence for action  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the prevalence of drug positivity among drivers suspected of driving under the influence of an intoxicant, and consequently apprehended by the police in Ireland. Design 2000 specimens were selected for drug analysis, 1000 with results under the limit for alcohol and 1000 over the limit. The limit for alcohol is 80?mg/100?ml in blood and 107?mg/100?ml in urine. Seven drugs/drug classes were examined; amphetamines, methamphetamines, benzodiazapines, cannabinoids, cocaine, opiates and methadone. Results 331 (33.1%) of the drivers under the legal limit for alcohol tested positive for one or more of the relevant drugs, and the corresponding figures of drivers over the limit was 142 (14.2%; p<0.001). Using weighted analysis, this corresponds to 15.7% (95% confidence interval (CI) 13.5% to 18.1%) of all tested drivers (15.8% in men and 14.5% in women). Among drivers who had minimal blood alcohol levels, 67.9% (95% CI 61.2% to 74.1%) were taking at least one type of drug. The prevalence of taking drugs reduced steadily as alcohol concentrations increased, but still remained as high as 11.1% (95% CI 8.3% to 14.6%) for drivers with blood alcohol concentrations >200?mg/100?ml. Being under the limit for alcohol, stopped in a city area, stopped between 6 am and 4 pm, or 4 pm and 9 pm, and being of a younger age were each independently associated with drug positivity. Conclusions There are immediate implications for the evidential breath alcohol program and for checkpoints; in the event of a nil or low alcohol reading being obtained, a separate blood or urine specimen should be sought for analysis, which is currently non?routine.

Fitzpatrick, P; Daly, L; Leavy, C P; Cusack, D A

2006-01-01

421

Excretion and Detection of Cathinone, Cathine, and Phenylpropanolamine in Urine after Kath Chewing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: The stimulating herbal drug kath is un- common in most countries, and information on its detection and interpretation of analytical results is lim- ited. Therefore, a study with kath was carried out to compare the efficiencies of different analytical tech- niques used to detect drug use. Methods: Four volunteers chewed kath leaves for 1 h; urine samples were collected

Stefan W. Toennes; Gerold F. Kauert

422

Luminol Chemiluminescence in Urine Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present review is to sketch out the scope of luminol chemiluminescence in human urine analysis. Practical considerations and experimental requirements are indicated. The literature revised covers the papers of analytical interest that have appeared in approximately the last six years.

Ana María Jiménez Moreno; María José Navas Sánchez

2006-01-01

423

Mice recognize recent urine scent marks by the molecular composition.  

PubMed

Male mice mark the territory with urine scent marks that are frequently renewed to maintain the territory ownership. We measured the response of male mice to small spots of urine deposed either 0, 5, 11, 22, 45, 90 min, or 24 h before testing and show that mice loose interest in sniffing scent marks as they become older and older. We asked what scent features tell a mouse how recent a scent mark is, and therefore, we studied the molecule-to-behavior relationship by correlating 6 behavioral variables--the number of sniffing acts, the latency to the first sniff, the number of urine marks, the latency to the first mark, the area of the marks, and the number of fecal pellets-to 2,4-dehydro-exo-brevicomin, linalool, 2-sec-butyl-4,5-dihydrothiazole, 2,4-dimethylphenol, 4-ethylphenol, and 6,10-dimethyl-5,9-undecadien-2-one released from urine spots over the time, identified, and quantified by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Canonical correlation between the molecular and the behavioral principal components was strong (R(1) = 0.96, P = 0.026). The principal component based on 2,4-dehydro-exo-brevicomin, linalool, and 2-sec-butyl-4,5-dihydrothiazole correlated negatively with countermarking and positively with the sniffing behavior, suggesting a semantic feature of fresh male mouse urine. PMID:18603651

Cavaggioni, A; Mucignat-Caretta, C; Redaelli, M

2008-07-05

424

Anal human papillomavirus infection in a street-based sample of drug using HIV-positive men.  

PubMed

HIV facilitates an increase in human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated conditions. HIV-positive men living in a substance use context in Los Angeles, USA, were recruited using respondent-driven sampling, completed a questionnaire and had biological samples including an anal HPV swab taken. A total of 316 evaluable men were enrolled in the study. The prevalence of any HPV, high-risk (HR) infection and multiple-type infection was highest for men who have sex with men (MSM) (93.9%, 64.6% and 29.7%, respectively). When any HPV and HR-HPV prevalence in all men was stratified by age, the youngest group had 100% and 68.2% prevalence, respectively, with similarly high rates maintained up to age 49 years. The individual's use of alcohol, marijuana, cocaine, methamphetamine or heroin was not significantly associated with anal HPV detection. In this marginalized population, high prevalence rates of anal HPV and HR-HPV occurring over a wide age range may increase the individual's risk for anal dysplasia and anal cancer. PMID:22581874

Cranston, R D; Murphy, R; Weiss, R E; Da Costa, M; Palefsky, J; Shoptaw, S; Gorbach, P M

2012-03-01

425

Using Electronic Drug Monitor Feedback to Improve Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy Among HIV-Positive Patients in China  

PubMed Central

Effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) requires excellent adherence. Little is known about how to improve ART adherence in many HIV/AIDS-affected countries, including China. We therefore assessed an adherence intervention among HIV-positive patients in southwestern China. Eighty subjects were enrolled and monitored for 6 months. Sixty-eight remaining subjects were randomized to intervention/control arms. In months 7–12, intervention subjects were counseled using EDM feedback; controls continued with standard of care. Among randomized subjects, mean adherence and CD4 count were 86.8 vs. 83.8% and 297 vs. 357 cells/?l in intervention vs. control subjects, respectively. At month 12, among 64 subjects who completed the trial, mean adherence had risen significantly among intervention subjects to 96.5% but remained unchanged in controls. Mean CD4 count rose by 90 cells/?l and declined by 9 cells/?l among intervention and control subjects, respectively. EDM feedback as a counseling tool appears promising for management of HIV and other chronic diseases.

DeSilva, Mary Bachman; Hamer, Davidson H.; Xu, Keyi; Zhang, Jianbo; Li, Tao; Wilson, Ira B.; Gill, Christopher J.

2009-01-01

426

Using DLS for Fast Urine Sample Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A dynamic light scattering experiment was conducted on human urine. The particle size measurements results are discussed in connection with the standard laboratory urine analysis output. A simple but very fast screening procedure is suggested.

Chicea, D.; Chicea, R.; Chicea, L. M.

2010-08-01

427

Determination of Radium-226 in Urine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The method for determining radium-226 in urine that is currently being used by the Bioassay Laboratory has been tested and documented. Radium-226 is coprecipitated from urine by alkaline calcium phosphate. This precipitate is redissolved in hydrochloric a...

G. H. Kramer P. C. Beaulieu

1983-01-01

428

Determination of cyclamate in urine by derivatized gas chromatography-mass spectrometry  

PubMed Central

Aim: It is important in toxicological/drug screening work to rule out the possible interfering analytes, to eliminate the false positive or negative results. In this paper, we describe a simple, selective, and sensitive derivatized GC-MS method for the determination of cyclohexylsulfamic acid (cyclamate) in urine. Materials and Methods: Elite- 5MS capillary column was used for the separation of analytes and detection using GC-MS. The analysis was carried out in selected ion monitoring mode (SIM) in the range of 26 to 200 using m/z values of 57, 30, 55, 41, 44, 67, 82, 98, and 39. Results and Discussion: The method is based on the conversion of cyclamate into nitroso derivative of cyclamate followed by its gas chromatography-mass spectrometry determination. The limit of detection, limit of quantitation, and linearity range of the proposed method were found to be 0.2 ?g/ ml, 0.7 ?g/ml, and 1-15 ?g/ml, respectively. The recovery of the present method is in the range of 88-94%. Conclusion: The proposed method can be applied for detection and quantification of cyclamate in urine.

Idris, Mohd; Middha, Deepak; Rasool, Shaik N.; Shukla, Sudhir K.; Baggi, Tulsidas R.

2013-01-01

429

Diagnosis of congenital cytomegalovirus infection by detection of viral DNA in urine pools.  

PubMed

Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is the most frequent cause of congenital infection. Diagnosis of this infection is important because 5-17% of asymptomatic infected babies will develop late sequelae and should be followed closely. Most of these children will remain undetected, since screening of all newborns by viral culture is too expensive. The aim of this study was to demonstrate that pool testing could be used to detect HCMV congenital infection in newborns. For this purpose, a nested-PCR technique was tested in urine pools. In phase 1, urine specimens were tested alone by nested-PCR and compared with viral culture, followed by cross experiments to test the reliability of detecting one positive specimen in a 20 samples in a urine pool. In phase 2, this pool method was applied to all urine specimens from children received in the virology laboratory of the Centro Hospitalar Cova da Beira for diagnosis of HCMV infection, between January 2002 and March 2003. In phase 1, 74 urine specimens were tested simultaneously by shell-vial culture and nested-PCR; 17 were positive and the remaining 57 negative by both methods. The negative specimens were divided into three pools and each pool was tested alone and crossed with each of the positive specimens by nested-PCR. Although the three pools were negative when tested alone, all 51 crossed results were positive. In phase 2, 15 out of the 180 urine samples tested positive by shell-vial culture and were detected by this pool method. These results suggest that urine pools can be used to detect HCMV positive urines in children, with similar sensitivity and specificity when compared with the standard method, but with a substantial labour reduction. This significant reduction in labour and consequently in cost per test, opens the possibility of applying PCR to urine pools for screening the HCMV congenital infection in newborns. PMID:16023520

Paixão, Paulo; Almeida, Sofia; Gouveia, Paula; Binda, Sandro; Caroppo, Simona; Barbi, Maria

2005-04-25

430

Bisphenol A levels in human urine.  

PubMed Central

The estrogenic effects of bisphenol A (BPA) have been reported in human cells (E-screen assays) and in (italic)in vivo(/italic) studies of rodents, although the latter reports remain controversial, as do the exposure levels and adverse health effects of BPA in humans. In this study we report on an analytical high-performance liquid chromatography/fluorescence method for BPA and its conjugate in human urine and on the application of this method in two student cohorts. Urine, along with information on smoking, alcohol intake, and coffee/tea consumption, was collected in two different years from two different groups of university students, 50 in 1992 and 56 in 1999. Overall, the urinary BPA levels in the students in 1992 were significantly higher than were those in 1999. The BPA levels were also positively correlated with coffee and tea consumption in the 1992 cohort but not in the 1999 cohort. We speculate that recent changes made in Japan regarding the interior coating of cans used to package these beverages may partly explain these findings.

Matsumoto, Akiko; Kunugita, Naoki; Kitagawa, Kyoko; Isse, Toyohi; Oyama, Tsunehiro; Foureman, Gary L; Morita, Masatoshi; Kawamoto, Toshihiro

2003-01-01

431

An unusual urine leak with urolithiasis.  

PubMed

Urine leaks usually result from blunt or penetrating trauma to the kidneys. Occasionally, urine leaks can be caused by back pressure from urinary obstruction caused by large urinary stones or a pelvic mass. We present the case of a 56-year-old man with an unusual urine leak caused by a small 2-mm renal stone. PMID:24089065

Ma, Hong Yun; Blaufox, M Donald

2013-11-01

432

Experimental animal urine collection: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Animal urine collection is a vital part of veterinary practice for ascertaining animal health and in scientific investigations for assessing the results of experimental manipulations. Untainted animal urine collection is very challenging, especially with small rodents, and is an almost impossible task under conditions of microgravity. The fundamental aspects of urine collection are: (1) ease of collection, (2) quality

Biji T. Kurien; Nancy E. Everds; R. Hal Scofield

2004-01-01

433

DNA typeability in liquid urine and urine stains using AmpFlSTR SGM Plus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Urine specimens are usually collected for bio- chemical and toxicological tests and for doping control. In forensic casework urine analyses are performed occasionally, however, the authors emphasize their importance in crime scene reconstruction. The objective of the research was to evalu- ate efficacy of AmpFlSTR SGM Plus typing of urine and urine stains which were subject to different temperature

Dobrzy?ska-Tarasiuk A; Janica J

434

Cost-effectiveness of integrating methadone maintenance and antiretroviral treatment for HIV-positive drug users in Vietnam's injection-driven HIV epidemics.  

PubMed

Drug use negatively affects adherence to and outcomes of antiretroviral treatment (ART). This study evaluated the cost-effectiveness of integrating methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) with ART for HIV-positive drug users (DUs) in Vietnam. A decision analytical model was developed to compare the costs and consequences of 3 HIV/AIDS treatment strategies for DUs: (1) only ART, (2) providing ART and MMT in separated sites (ART-MMT), and (3) integrating ART and MMT with direct administration (DAART-MMT). The model was parameterized using empirical data of costs and outcomes extracted from the MMT and ART cohort studies in Vietnam, and international published sources. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis was conducted to examine the model's robustness. The base-case analysis showed that the cost-effectiveness ratio of ART, DAART-MMT, and ART-MMT strategies was USD 1358.9, 1118.0 and 1327.1 per 1 Quality-Adjusted Life Year (QALY), equivalent to 1.22, 1.00, and 1.19 times Gross Domestic Product per capita (GDPpc). The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for DAART-MMT and ART-MMT versus ART strategy was 569.4 and 1227.8, approximately 0.51 and 1.10 times GDPpc/QALY. At the willingness to pay threshold of 3 times GDPpc, the probability of being cost-effective of DAART-MMT versus ART was 86.1%. These findings indicated that providing MMT along with ART for HIV-positive DUs is a cost-effective intervention in Vietnam. Integrating MMT and ART services could facilitate the use of directly observed therapy that supports treatment adherence and brings about clinically important improvements in health outcomes. This approach is also incrementally cost-effective in this large injection-driven HIV epidemic. PMID:22436971

Tran, Bach Xuan; Ohinmaa, Arto; Duong, Anh Thuy; Nguyen, Long Thanh; Vu, Phu Xuan; Mills, Steve; Houston, Stan; Jacobs, Philip

2012-03-20

435

Weakening of negative relative to positive associations with cocaine-paired cues contributes to cue-induced responding after drug removal  

PubMed Central

Cocaine has been shown to have initial positive (euphoric) and delayed negative (anxiogenic) effects in both humans and animals. Cocaine-paired cues are consequently imbued with mixed positive and negative associations. The current study examines the relative roles of these dual associations in the enhanced drug-seeking observed upon presentation of cocaine-paired cues. Rats ran a straight alley once/day for a single i.v. injection of cocaine (1.0 mg/kg/inj) in the presence of a distinctive olfactory cue (scented cotton swabs placed under the apparatus). An alternate scent was presented in a separate cage 2-hr prior to runway testing. After 15 trials/days, the scents and cocaine reinforcer were removed and a series of extinction trials (lasting for one or three weeks) was initiated. Immediately following extinction, runway responding was tested during a single trial in the presence of the cocaine-paired or non-paired cue. As previously reported, while subjects initiated responding faster over trials (reduced latencies to leave the start box), they exhibited a progressive increase in approach-avoidance conflict behavior (“retreats”) regarding goal-box entry, reflecting cocaine’s dual positive + negative effects. Once established, retreat behaviors persisted over the course of 6 and 20 days of extinction. However, both run times and retreats decreased in response to presentation of the cocaine-paired but not the non-paired scent. These data suggest that, after reinforcer removal, cue-induced cocaine-seeking stems in part from a reduction in approach-avoidance conflict; i.e., a greater weakening of the negative relative to the positive associations that animals form with cocaine-paired stimuli.

Su, Zu-In; Kichaev, Gleb; Wenzel, Jennifer; Ben-Shahar, Osnat; Ettenberg, Aaron

2011-01-01

436

Human Papillomavirus Detection from Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Colombian Women's Paired Urine and Cervical Samples  

PubMed Central

Infection, coinfection and type-specific human papillomavirus (HPV) distribution was evaluated in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive women from paired cervical and urine samples. Paired cervical and urine samples (n?=?204) were taken from HIV-positive women for identifying HPV-DNA presence by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with three generic primer sets (GP5+/6+, MY09/11 and pU1M/2R). HPV-positive samples were typed for six high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) (HPV-16, -18, -31, -33, -45 and -58) and two low-risk (LR-HPV) (HPV-6/11) types. Agreement between paired sample results and diagnostic performance was evaluated. HPV infection prevalence was 70.6% in cervical and 63.2% in urine samples. HPV-16 was the most prevalent HPV type in both types of sample (66.7% in cervical samples and 62.0% in urine) followed by HPV-31(47.2%) in cervical samples and HPV-58 (35.7%) in urine samples. There was 55.4% coinfection (infection by more than one type of HPV) in cervical samples and 40.2% in urine samples. Abnormal Papanicolau smears were observed in 25.3% of the women, presenting significant association with HPV-DNA being identified in urine samples. There was poor agreement of cervical and urine sample results in generic and type-specific detection of HPV. Urine samples provided the best diagnosis when taking cytological findings as reference. In conclusion including urine samples could be a good strategy for ensuring adherence to screening programs aimed at reducing the impact of cervical cancer, since this sample is easy to obtain and showed good diagnostic performance.

Munoz, Marina; Camargo, Milena; Soto-De Leon, Sara C.; Sanchez, Ricardo; Parra, Diana; Pineda, Andrea C.; Sussmann, Otto; Perez-Prados, Antonio; Patarroyo, Manuel E.; Patarroyo, Manuel A.

2013-01-01