Sample records for positive urine drug

  1. False-positive interferences of common urine drug screen immunoassays: a review.

    PubMed

    Saitman, Alec; Park, Hyung-Doo; Fitzgerald, Robert L

    2014-09-01

    Urine drug screen (UDS) immunoassays are a quick and inexpensive method for determining the presence of drugs of abuse. Many cross-reactivities exist with other analytes, potentially causing a false-positive result in an initial drug screen. Knowledge of these potential interferents is important in determining a course of action for patient care. We present an inclusive review of analytes causing false-positive interferences with drugs-of-abuse UDS immunoassays, which covers the literature from the year 2000 to present. English language articles were searched via the SciFinder platform with the strings 'false positive [drug] urine' yielding 173 articles. These articles were then carefully analyzed and condensed to 62 that included data on causes of false-positive results. The discussion is separated into six sections by drug class with a corresponding table of cross-reacting compounds for quick reference. False-positive results were described for amphetamines, opiates, benzodiazepines, cannabinoids, tricyclic antidepressants, phencyclidine, lysergic acid diethylamide and barbiturates. These false-positive results support the generally accepted practice that immunoassay positive results are considered presumptive until confirmed by a second independent chemical technique. PMID:24986836

  2. Complications of open reduction and internal fixation of ankle fractures in patients with positive urine drug screen.

    PubMed

    Saldanha, Vilas; Tiedeken, Nathan; Gaughan, John; Sweitzer, Brett A

    2015-03-01

    We conducted a study to identify complications associated with open treatment of ankle fractures in patients who tested positive for illicit drugs on urine drug screen (UDS). We hypothesized that patients who had a history of positive UDS and underwent open reduction and internal fixation of an ankle fracture would have a higher incidence of major and minor complications. We retrospectively reviewed the cases of 142 patients who had surgical stabilization of an ankle fracture during a 3-year period. Patients with a history of positive UDS were compared with matched controls with negative UDS. Outcomes measures included nonunion, malunion, and superficial or deep infection. Fisher exact test, Wilcoxon rank sum test, and univariate logistic regression were used to determine statistical significance. There were no significant differences in age, sex, fracture type, incidence of diabetes, or incidence of open fracture between the groups. Incidence of nonunion was higher in patients with positive UDS (P = .01), as was incidence of deep infection (P = .05). Incidence of pooled major complications was also higher in positive UDS patients (P = .03). Patients with a history of illicit drug use, as evidenced by positive UDS, are at increased risk for perioperative complications during treatment for ankle fracture. PMID:25750944

  3. Hospital length of stay in individuals with schizophrenia with and without cocaine-positive urine drug screens at hospital admission.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hanjing Emily; Mohite, Satyajit; Ngana, Ikenna; Burns, Wilma; Shah, Nurun; Schneider, Laurie; Schmitz, Joy M; Lane, Scott D; Okusaga, Olaoluwa O

    2015-01-01

    Despite the high prevalence of cocaine use disorder (CUD) in individuals with schizophrenia, current understanding of the effect of cocaine on psychiatric hospital length of stay (LOS) in individuals with schizophrenia is limited. We therefore retrospectively examined the medical records of 5106 hospital admissions due to exacerbation of schizophrenia. Linear regression and t-test were used to compare LOS between individuals with schizophrenia with cocaine-positive urine drug test results and those with negative test results. Individuals with schizophrenia who were also positive for cocaine had shorter LOS from both unadjusted (geometric mean LOS, 8.07 ± 1.92 vs. 11.83 ± 1.83 days; p < 0.001) and adjusted (? = 0.69; confidence interval, 0.63-0.76; p < 0.001) analyses. Our results suggest that individuals with schizophrenia who also have comorbid CUD may require shorter inpatient treatment during periods of exacerbation of symptoms. Replication of this finding has relevance in treatment planning and resource allocation for the subpopulation of individuals with schizophrenia who also have stimulant use disorders. PMID:25489749

  4. Amphetamine Positive Urine Toxicology Screen Secondary to Atomoxetine

    PubMed Central

    Fenderson, Joshua L.; Stratton, Amy N.; Domingo, Jennifer S.; Matthews, Gerald O.; Tan, Christopher D.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to report the first case of atomoxetine leading to false-positive urine drug screen. An otherwise healthy 27-year-old female with a history of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) treated with atomoxetine had an acute onset tonic-clonic seizure. On arrival to the hospital, a urine toxicological drug screen with immunochemical cloned enzyme donor immunoassay (CEDIA) was performed. Results were positive for amphetamines; however, the presence of these substances could not be confirmed with urine gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). She denied any illicit drug use, herbal medications, or supplements, and her other prescription medications have not been previously known to cause a false-positive result for amphetamines. While stimulant treatments for ADHD could certainly result in a positive result on urine screen for amphetamines, there have been no reports of false-positive results for amphetamines secondary to patients using atomoxetine. We implicate atomoxetine, and/or its metabolites, as a compound or compounds which may interfere with urine drug immunoassays leading to false-positive results for amphetamines CEDIA assays. PMID:23424703

  5. Uterine Positions and Schedules of Urination: Correlates

    E-print Network

    Galef Jr., Bennett G.

    Uterine Positions and Schedules of Urination: Correlates of Differential Maternal Anogenital sex. In the present article, we explore the characteristics of same-sex littermates for understanding of how maternal behavior may mediate hormonal effects on the develop- ment of young gerbils

  6. Urine Labelling Marker System for Drug Testing Improves Patient Compliance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kaarlo Simojoki; Hannu Alho

    Summary Urine drug testing plays an important role in substance abuse treatments. When strictly controlled, as it often is, urine sampling creates a humiliating situation and ties up resources. A new sample labelling method has been developed to make supervision unnecessary. This innovation is achieved by labelling the urine with polyethylene glycols. In this study, 57 patients who required urine

  7. Ethical considerations in urine drug testing.

    PubMed

    Passik, Steven D; Kirsh, Kenneth L

    2011-01-01

    Recent passage of a House Bill in the state of Washington led to a commentary on whether mandates for urine drug testing of pain patients represented a breach of the Fourth and Fourteenth Amendment rights of patients. Issues over true consent to such tests and potential view of warrantless searches were discussed. The authors address these concerns in a broader context of risk management and stratification efforts, along with discussion about the need for a tailored approach in this arena and consideration of cost burden for such tests. Finally, the argument is made that social justice issues need to be considered (along with issues of autonomy, beneficence, and nonmaleficence). PMID:21810007

  8. Clinical evaluation and use of urine screening for drug abuse.

    PubMed Central

    Saxon, A J; Calsyn, D A; Haver, V M; Delaney, C J

    1988-01-01

    Urine drug screening is indicated to evaluate patients who show mental status or behavioral changes and to monitor the abstinence of drug abusers. The appropriate timing for collecting urine specimens may vary depending on the suspected drug of abuse and on laboratory factors. Laboratories use a variety of techniques to do urine screens, and these must be understood by clinicians ordering the screens to interpret results correctly. In treating drug-abusing patients, clinicians must apply structured reinforcement in conjunction with urine screen results to aid patients in achieving abstinence. PMID:3176489

  9. Driving under the influence of drugs — evaluation of analytical data of drugs in oral fluid, serum and urine, and correlation with impairment symptoms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefan W. Toennes; Gerold F. Kauert; Stefan Steinmeyer; Manfred R. Moeller

    2005-01-01

    A study was performed to acquire urine, serum and oral fluid samples in cases of suspected driving under the influence of drugs of abuse. Oral fluid was collected using a novel sampling\\/testing device (Dräger DrugTest® System). The aim of the study was to evaluate oral fluid and urine as a predictor of blood samples positive for drugs and impairment symptoms.

  10. Fluorescence And Alternative Methods In Urine Drug Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Naresh C.

    1988-04-01

    Drug abuse has become-one of the most compelling realities _ ot contemporary society. It has penetrated every segment ot our population: trom schools to sports and trom organized crime to board rooms . Drugs in tie w9rkplace allegedly cost government agencies and business millions ot dollars each year in increased absenteeism,. poor work performance, thefts,accidents andwastedtime. The President's Commission on Organized Crime and the federal government are in tavor ot urine drug testing. In fact many employers are now resorting to urine drug testing on current and prospective employees. This presep.tation discusses different laboratory methods used in urine drug.testing, including immunoassays, fluorescence polarization, thin layer chromatography, high pressure liquid chromatography, gas chromatography and gas-chromatography-mass spectrometry.

  11. Clinical Significance of Low-Positive Histoplasma Urine Antigen Results

    PubMed Central

    Ramanan, Poornima

    2014-01-01

    Histoplasma urine antigen (UAg) detection is an important biomarker for histoplasmosis. The clinical significance of low-positive (<0.6 ng/ml) UAg results was evaluated in 25 patients without evidence of prior Histoplasma infection. UAg results from 12/25 (48%) patients were considered falsely positive, suggesting that low-positive UAg values should be interpreted cautiously. PMID:25031433

  12. False-Positive Urine Screening for Benzodiazepines: An Association with Sertraline?

    PubMed Central

    Cowan, George L.; Knittel, Douglas R.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency of false-positive benzodiazepine screens associated with sertraline use at the authors’ institution. Method: Urine drug screen results spanning a two-year period were data mined to identify those positive for benzodiazepines. When confirmatory gas chromatography-mass spectrometry determined false positives, they were subsequently cross-referenced against pharmacy records to identify patients with active prescriptions for sertraline at the time of the initial urinary drug screen. Results: Of the 522 records reviewed, 160 were later determined to be false positives by confirmatory gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Sixty-two of those were associated with a concomitant benzodiazepine prescription. Of the 98 remaining, 26 were associated with a concomitant sertraline prescription. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that sertraline may be an unreported cause of false-positive benzodiazepine results in a widely used screening assay. PMID:19724768

  13. False positivity of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase measurement in urine.

    PubMed

    Crivellenti, Leandro Zuccolotto; Mesa, Javier Sousa; Meirelles, Adriana Érica Wilkes Burton; Borin Crivellenti, Sofia; Mireya, Edna Gomes; Canola, Julio Carlos; Hatayde, Mário Roberto; Santana, Aureo Evangelista; Dantas, Márcio; Silva, Gyl Eanes Barros

    2014-05-01

    Although enzymuria tends to be associated to renal injury, there are no studies that have evaluated the presence of the enzyme gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) spectrophotometry in the urine using a non-nephrotoxic agent (Nerium oleander) in order to evaluate the possibility of false positive results. The urinary GGT/urinary creatinine concentration ratio (uGGT/uCr) of 10 healthy dogs was calculated and posteriorly confronted with data from clinical evaluation, hematological and serum biochemical profiles, creatinine clearance (CrC), urinalysis, urine protein/creatinine ratio (UPC), electrocardiogram, systemic blood pressure (SBP) and light and electron microscopy. The results for kidney histology, SBP, UPC and CrC were not significantly different in any of the time-points analyzed. However, uGGT/uCr was significantly higher when measured 4 hours and 24 hours after administration of N. oleander. The measurement of the urinary GGT enzyme, as performed in many studies, yielded false positive results in dogs poisoned by a non-nephrotoxic agent. PMID:24456228

  14. The association of pseudoephedrine sales restrictions on emergency department urine drug screen results in Oklahoma.

    PubMed

    Brandenburg, M A; Brown, S J; Arneson, W L; Arneson, D L

    2007-11-01

    On June 15, 2004, Oklahoma became the first state to reclassify pseudoephedrine as a Schedule V drug. Arrests in Oklahoma for the manufacture of methamphetamines in clandestine laboratories precipitously declined. It was hypothesized that a decrease in methamphetamine use could be shown in the patient population in Oklahoma's largest emergency department. To test this hypothesis, all urine drug screen results in the Saint Francis Hospital Trauma Emergency Center from January 2003 through May 2005 were reviewed. There was a significant increase in the total tests performed and the percentage of positive test results for the amphetamine drug class (p = 0.0004, R2 = 0.3785) over time. These results suggest that methamphetamine usage has not decreased in the emergency department patient population. Possibly, methamphetamine usage in Oklahoma has not been impacted by the passage of HB 2176 due to an increase in drug trafficking of methamphetamine into the state. PMID:18183861

  15. Utility of ELISA screening for the monitoring of abstinence from illegal and legal drugs in hair and urine.

    PubMed

    Agius, Ronald; Nadulski, Thomas

    2014-06-01

    Amphetamines, cannabinoids, cocaine, opiates, methadone, and benzodiazepines in authentic hair samples with drug concentrations around the medical and psychological assessment (MPA) guidelines cut-offs were screened by LUCIO-direct ELISA kits. Following confirmation of all positive and a significant number of negatively screened samples with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) or liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) methods accredited for forensic purposes. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) were plotted and the area under the curve (AUC) and overall misclassification rate (OMR) were calculated and compared to those obtained for the same drug classes in urine. While fulfilling the validation criteria of the German forensic guidelines, for almost all screening tests in hair and urine the AUC were greater than 0.8, indicating good to excellent performance. Moreover the AUC calculated for the detection of drugs in hair did not differ significantly to the AUC calculated for the detection of the same drug classes in urine, thus showing a comparable screening performance to the well accepted, previously published application of the same ELISAs for the detection of drugs at unconventionally low cut-offs in urine. For the first time, the validation of the immunoassay tests for the complete 6-drug panel MPA profile in hair and urine using a large population of authentic hair and urine samples with drug concentrations around MPA cut-offs, lower than conventional clinical or workplace drug testing guidelines cut-offs as well as those suggested by the Society of hair testing (SoHT) is presented. PMID:24817055

  16. [Methodology and problems in the study of drugs of abuse in urine].

    PubMed

    Sieghart, W

    1986-06-27

    The analysis of drugs of abuse in urine is a valuable tool for the detection of illicit drug use and the treatment and rehabilitation of addicts. In order for the results to be conclusive, however, several precautions have to be taken during the collection, storage, mailing and analysis of the urinary specimen. Since immunological methods for the determination of drugs of abuse are not completely specific, all positive results on immunoassay should be confirmed, at least for forensic purposes, by a chromatographic technique. Although much more complicated and time-consuming, some chromatographic techniques such as gas chromatography-mass spectrometry offer the possibility of unambiguously identifying drugs of abuse. However, in some cases, even with this method it is not possible to decide whether the identified metabolite of a drug of abuse stems from food or illicit or elicit drug use. A single urinary analysis is, therefore, sometimes not sufficient to provide unambiguous proof of the use of illicit drugs. However, definite evidence of repeated drug abuse can be obtained if the person involved is carefully instructed as to which medicines or food must not be taken during the investigation period and yet the analysis of several urinary specimens taken at intervals of one or two days proves positive. PMID:2875564

  17. A Method to Quantify Illicit Intake of Drugs from Urine: Methamphetamine

    PubMed Central

    Li, Linghui; Galloway, Gantt P.; Verotta, Davide; Everhart, E. Thomas; Baggott, Matthew J.; Coyle, Jeremy R.; Lopez, Juan C.

    2011-01-01

    Qualitative urinalysis can verify abstinence of drug misuse but cannot detect changes in drug intake. For drugs with slow elimination, such as methamphetamine (MA), a single episode of abuse can result in up to 5 days of positive urine drug screens. Thus, interventions that produce substantial decreases in drug use but do not achieve almost complete abstinence are classified as ineffective. Using nonpharmacologic doses of deuterium-labeled l-methamphetamine (l-MA-d3) we have developed a simple, robust method that reliably estimates changes in MA intake. Twelve subjects were dosed with 5 mg of l-MA-d3 daily and challenged with 15, 30, and 45 mg of nonlabeled d-MA (d-MA-d0) after reaching plasma steady status of l-MA-d3. Urinary concentration ratios of d-MA-d0 to l-MA-d3 provided clear separation of the administered doses with as little as 15-mg dose increments. Administered doses could not be resolved using d-MA-d0 concentrations alone. In conclusion, the urinary [d-MA-d0]:[l-MA-d3] provides a quantitative, continuous measure of illicit MA exposure. The method reliably detects small, clinically relevant changes in illicit MA intake from random urine specimens, is amenable to deployment in clinical trials, and can be used to quantify patterns of MA abuse. PMID:21450932

  18. Efficacy of a Polyethylene Glycol Marker System in Urine Drug Screening in an Opiate Substitution Program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harald Jörn Schneider; Birgit Rühl; Kirsten Meyer; Ruprecht Keller; Markus Backmund

    2008-01-01

    Aims: Screening for concomitant drug consumption is necessary in opiate substitution therapy of opiate-dependent patients. Adulteration of samples is a common problem in this setting. A recently developed polyethylene glycol marker system allows reliable identification of urine samples. In this study, we aimed to compare the rates of drug detection in conventional and marker urine samples. Design: This cross-sectional evaluation

  19. Confirmation of drugs of abuse in urine drug screens by direct exposure probe mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Papa, V M; Ng, P S; Robbins, E F; Ou, D W

    1988-10-01

    A direct exposure probe (DEP) mass spectrometric method was developed to confirm the presence of cocaine (C), phencyclidine (P), benzoyl ecognine (BE) and 11-norcarboxy tetrahydrocannabinol (11-nor-c-THC) in previously screened urine specimens. Essentially, a urine sample is lyophilized overnight and reconstituted in 30 microliters of a 3:1 mixture of ethyl acetate:methanol. One microliter is placed on a rhenium filament and left to air dry. The specimen was analyzed by negative ion chemical ionization DEP using ammonia as reagent gas at 0.20 Torr with an ion source temperature of 100 degrees C. An electronics setting of 1700 V (EM), 0.30 mA filament current, and 100 eV with scanning at m/z 100-650 (1 sec/SCAN) resulted in simple spectra with easily identifiable molecular ions for C, BE, P and 11-nor-c-THC. The sensitivity of the assay was 1 ng for the drugs of abuse. The method was validated by analyzing 50 urine samples that have been previously screened and confirmed for drugs at the University of Illinois Toxicology Laboratory. The results showed that the DEP method confirmed 87%, 71%, 100%, and 85% of the BE, C, P and 11-nor-c-THC. In summary, a rapid and sensitive DEP method for the confirmation of drugs of abuse in urine has been developed which can serve as a useful adjunct to gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric confirmation. PMID:2853983

  20. A rapid method for determination of 22 selected drugs in human urine by UHPLC/MS/MS for clinical application.

    PubMed

    Magiera, Sylwia; Baranowska, Irena

    2014-01-01

    A rapid and sensitive ultra-HPLC/MSIMS (UHPLC/MSIMS) assay method for the simultaneous determination in human urine of 22 drugs belonging to different pharmaceutical groups was developed. The drugs were extracted from urine samples and then separated on a Zorbax Rapid Resolution High Definition SB-C18 column. The mobile phase consisted of methanol and water containing formic acid with gradient elution. The chromatographic separation time was 7 min. The MSIMS detector, equipped with an electrospray ionization source, was set up in both positive and negative modes. The lower LOQs for the drugs in this method were between 0.05 and 0.60 ng/mL. Calibration curves in human urine were generated in the range of 0.05-600 ng/mL. Method validation parameters such as intraday and interday precision, accuracy, extraction recovery, stability, selectivity, dilution integrity, and carryover effect for all the compounds were within the acceptable ranges. This simple and fast method was applied successfully to study the pharmacokinetics of four selected drugs in human urine collected from patients. This UHPLC/MS/MS method offers an attractive way forward for the development of a routine rapid analysis for selected substances, particularly given the growing amount of new information about drug properties. PMID:25632430

  1. ULTRA HPLC METHOD FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS ANALYSIS OF DRUGS AND FLAVONOIDS IN HUMAN URINE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Irena Baranowska; Sylwia Magiera; Jacek Baranowski

    2011-01-01

    A validated reverse-phase Ultra HPLC method for the simultaneous determination of drugs sotalol, metoprolol, propranolol, carvedilol, salicylic acid, dexamethasone, prednisolone, and ketoprofen and flavonoids: (±)-catechin, (?)-epicatechin, rutin, hesperidin, neohesperidin, quercitrin, (±)-naringenin, hesperetin in human urine has been developed. Urine samples were pretreated by solid-phase extraction using SDB and C18 cartridges. The extraction efficiencies of each analyte from urine ranged from

  2. Pre-employment urine drug testing of hospital employees: future questions and review of current literature

    PubMed Central

    Levine, M; Rennie, W

    2004-01-01

    Background: Patient safety and optimisation of worker performance are high current priorities. Arguments over employee drug testing have been debated over the past two decades. Aims: To review prior information to reveal how current principles and practices regarding pre-employment drug testing of health care workers evolved, and to explore pressing current and future issues. Methods: A literature search of Medline from 1980 to 1999 was performed. This yielded seven citations that reported results of pre-employment drug testing of health care workers, which we critically reviewed. Results: The process by which a rational testing process was developed for pre-employment urine drug screening in the health care field is illustrated. Also depicted are some important principles, inequities, and shortcomings of the system. The range of positive tests was wide, from 0.25% to 12%. Testing was not always applied uniformly to all health care workers. It became apparent that positive tests also require medical review to determine if they were truly due to illicit substance use. Conclusions: Although pre-employment drug testing programmes in the health care industry have been firmly in place for many years, it is unclear whether such strategies have achieved their stated purposes. The next step is to study whether such programmes are effective at accomplishing specific goals, such as decreasing absenteeism, turnover, accidents, and medical errors, in order to justify continuing pre-employment testing versus changing to an alternative testing strategy. PMID:15031389

  3. Methaqualone (Mandrax) abuse, urine testing, and identification: clinical correlation between a new mass urinalysis test and a military drug abuse program.

    PubMed

    Rock, N L; Moore, R J

    1976-01-01

    A urine test presently based on thin-layer chromatography screening and gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) confirmation has been a practical way of detecting methaqualone use in individuals. A more practical test is the radioimmuno assay for screening and GLC for confirmation. It appears that the drug methaqualone can be easily detected in the urine up to 72 hr after the last dosage. Individuals evaluated after being identified through the urine testing procedure readily admit to the use of illegal drugs and are most cooperative in giving drug abuse data, whether it is Mandrax, hashish, herion, or alcohol. The majority evaluated in this study were not in any program for drug abuse although all but one admitted to frequent drug abuse. The finding has been generally true of the other urinalysis test for drugs of abuse as the majority of the soldiers in the rehabilitation program have been identified by urinalysis over the past year. Because of the uncertainty of surveys on how prevalent was Mandrax use (anywhere from 5 to 90%, depending on who was consulted), a random selection of urines was done in September/November 1973. A total of 7,545 urine samples were tested those 2 months and the results were 2.9 and 3.9% positive respectively. Since that time and through June 1974 approximately 250 urine samples a week were tested for Mandrax based on a special request by the commander who suspected an individual of abusing Mandrax, and approximately 20 to 30% of the samples were positive. During June and July all randomly collected urines were tested and the results on a daily basis were from 1.5 to 3.5%. Since July 1974 no urines have been collected or tested. The follow-up indicates that of this number practically all are clinically confirmed as drug abusers and are entered into the Army's Drug Rehabilitation Program. PMID:1262091

  4. Concordance between self-report and urine drug screen data in adolescent opioid dependent clinical trial participants.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Claire E; Bogenschutz, Michael P; Nakazawa, Masato; Woody, George

    2013-10-01

    Objective measures of drug use are very important in treatment outcome studies of persons with substance use disorders, but obtaining and interpreting them can be challenging and not always practical. Thus, it is important to determine if, and when, drug-use self-reports are valid. To this end we explored the relationships between urine drug screen results and self-reported substance use among adolescents and young adults with opioid dependence participating in a clinical trial of buprenorphine-naloxone. In this study, 152 individuals seeking treatment for opioid dependence were randomized to a 2-week detoxification with buprenorphine-naloxone (DETOX) or 12weeks of buprenorphine-naloxone (BUP), each with weekly individual and group drug counseling. Urine drug screens and self-reported frequency of drug use were obtained weekly, and patients were paid $5 for completing weekly assessments. At weeks 4, 8, and 12, more extensive assessments were done, and participants were reimbursed $75. Self-report data were dichotomized (positive vs. negative), and for each major drug class we computed the kappa statistic and the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of self-report using urine drug screens as the "gold standard". Generalized linear mixed models were used to explore the effect of treatment group assignment, compensation amounts, and participant characteristics on self-report. In general, findings supported the validity of self-reported drug use. However, those in the BUP group were more likely to under-report cocaine and opioid use. Therefore, if used alone, self-report would have magnified the treatment effect of the BUP condition. PMID:23811060

  5. Concordance Between Self-Report and Urine Drug Screen Data in Adolescent Opioid Dependent Clinical Trial Participants

    PubMed Central

    Wilcox, Claire E; Bogenschutz, Michael P; Nakazawa, Masato; Woody, George

    2013-01-01

    Objective measures of drug use are very important in treatment outcome studies of persons with substance use disorders, but obtaining and interpreting them can be challenging and not always practical. Thus, it is important to determine if, and when, drug-use self-reports are valid. To this end we explored the relationships between urine drug screen results and self-reported substance use among adolescents and young adults with opioid dependence participating in a clinical trial of buprenorphine-naloxone. In this study, 152 individuals seeking treatment for opioid dependence were randomized to a 2-week detoxification with buprenorphine-naloxone (DETOX) or 12 weeks buprenorphine-naloxone (BUP), each with weekly individual and group drug counseling. Urine drug screens and self-reported frequency of drug use were obtained weekly, and patients were paid $5 for completing weekly assessments. At weeks 4, 8, and 12, more extensive assessments were done, and participants were reimbursed $75. Self-report data were dichotomized (positive vs. negative), and for each major drug class we computed the kappa statistic and the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of self-report using urine drug screens as the “gold standard”. Generalized linear mixed models were used to explore the effect of treatment group assignment, compensation amounts, and participant characteristics on self-report. In general, findings supported the validity of self-reported drug use. However, those in the BUP group were more likely to under-report cocaine and opioid use. Therefore, if used alone, self-report would have magnified the treatment effect of the BUP condition. PMID:23811060

  6. Family Checkup: Positive Parenting Prevents Drug Abuse

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Home » Family Checkup Family Checkup: Positive Parenting Prevents Drug Abuse Email Facebook Twitter Revised October 2012 Could your ... drugs. Research supported by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) has shown the important role that parents ...

  7. [False positive urine cultures in children under two years of age - own research.

    PubMed

    Krzemie?, Gra?yna; Szmigielska, Agnieszka; Artemiuk, Iwona; Roszkowska-Blaim, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The basis of the diagnosis of urinary tract infection in children is positive culture of properly collected urine sample. The reliability of the urine cultures depends on the method how the urine sample was taken and sometimes this may increase the risk of misdiagnosis. Aim of the study:To determine the frequency of false positive urine cultures taken from midstream to a container or to a plastic collection bag in children under 2 years of age. Material and methods:The study included 50 children (25 girls, 25 boys) aged 12 days to 24 months (mean age 7.26±6.51months) referred to the hospital with suspicion of urinary tract infection. The most frequent indications for urine analysis were: history of infection and/or abnormalities of urinary tract in 28 (56%) children, failure to thrive in 8 (16%) and fever in 6 (12%). Urine was taken from midstream to a container in 32 (64%) children and collected to a plastic bag in 18 (36%) children. Results: Hospital verifications of urine cultures were performed by suprapubic puncture culture in 24 (48% children) or by catheterization of the urinary bladder in 26 (52%) children. Urinary tract infection was confirmed in 11 (34%) among 32 children who had positive culture of urine form midstream. None of the children with positive urine culture from a plastic collection bag had urinary tract infection confirmed by suprapubic puncture or catheterization. Conclusions: Correct method of urine collection for bacteriological tests in children under two years of life can avoid the misdiagnosis of urinary tract infection and following unnecessary hospitalization, imaging procedures as well as potentially harmful treatment. PMID:25182259

  8. Detection times of drugs of abuse in blood, urine, and oral fluid.

    PubMed

    Verstraete, Alain G

    2004-04-01

    Data on the detection times of drugs of abuse are based on studies of controlled administration to volunteers or on the analysis of biologic samples of subjects who are forced to stop their (often chronic) use of drugs of abuse, eg, because of imprisonment or detoxification. The detection times depend mainly on the dose and sensitivity of the method used and also on the preparation and route of administration, the duration of use (acute or chronic), the matrix that is analyzed, the molecule or metabolite that is looked for, the pH and concentration of the matrix (urine, oral fluid), and the interindividual variation in metabolic and renal clearance. In general, the detection time is longest in hair, followed by urine, sweat, oral fluid, and blood. In blood or plasma, most drugs of abuse can be detected at the low nanogram per milliliter level for 1 or 2 days. In urine the detection time of a single dose is 1.5 to 4 days. In chronic users, drugs of abuse can be detected in urine for approximately 1 week after last use, and in extreme cases even longer in cocaine and cannabis users. In oral fluid, drugs of abuse can be detected for 5-48 hours at a low nanogram per milliliter level. The duration of detection of GHB is much shorter. After a single dose of 1 or 2 ng of flunitrazepam, the most sensitive methods can detect 7-aminoflunitrazepam for up to 4 weeks in urine. PMID:15228165

  9. Detection of Quaternary Ammonium Drugs in Equine Urine by Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. C. H. Yiu; E. N. M. Ho; T. S. M. Wan

    2004-01-01

    Quaternary ammonium drugs are anticholinergic agents and some of which have been known to be abused in equine sports. A general screening method for this class of drugs in equine urine by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) has not been reported. The paper describes an efficient LC-MS-MS method for the simultaneous detection and confirmation of twenty quaternary ammonium drugs at low

  10. Measurement of multiple drugs in urine, water, and on surfaces using fluorescence covalent microbead immunosorbent assay.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jerome; Sammons, Deborah; Robertson, Shirley; Biagini, Raymond; Snawder, John

    2010-11-01

    There are a range of applications that require the measurement of multiple drugs such as urine analysis, drug determination in water, and screening for drug contamination on surfaces. Some of the procedures used such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) are simple but can only determine one drug at a time, and others such as GC-MS or LC-MS are complex, time-consuming, and expensive. In this study, fluorescence covalent microbead immunosorbent assay (FCMIA) was investigated as a simple method for the measurement of multiple drugs simultaneously in three matrices: diluted urine, water, and on surfaces. Five different drugs of abuse or their metabolites (methamphetamine, caffeine, benzoylecgonine (a metabolite of cocaine), tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the active ingredient in marijuana, and oxycodone) were studied over the range 0-15?ng/ml. There was no measureable cross-reactivity among the drugs at the concentrations studied. Urine dilutions from 1/50 to 1/2.5 were studied and dilutions less than 1/20 had a significant effect on the methamphetamine assay but limited effects on the benzoylecgonine and oxycodone assays and almost no effect on the THC assay. For assays performed in 1/20 urine dilution, water, and diluted surface sampling buffer, least detectable doses (LDD) were 1?ng/ml or less for the drugs. Surfaces spiked with drugs were sampled with swabs wetted with surface sampling buffer and recoveries were linear over the range 0-100?ng/100?cm(2) surface loading for all drugs. FCMIA has potential to be used for the measurement of multiple drugs in the matrices studied. PMID:20942617

  11. The outcome of urine culture positive and culture negative staghorn calculi after minimally invasive percutaneous nephrolithotomy.

    PubMed

    Lei, Ming; Zhu, Wei; Wan, Shaw P; Liu, Yongda; Zeng, Guohua; Yuan, Jian

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the treatment outcomes of staghorn stones using minimally invasive percutaneous nephrolithotomy (MPCNL) in patients who had positive preoperative urine culture to patients with negative urine culture. The records of 284 patients with staghorn calculi, who underwent MPCNL in our center from January 2012 to January 2013, were retrospectively analyzed. Patients were divided into positive and negative group, according to the result of preoperative urine culture. Staghorn stones with negative culture received a single dose of broad spectrum antibiotic prophylaxis, whereas stones with positive culture were treated for at least 72 h according to antibiogram. The perioperative findings and postoperative outcomes were compared between the two groups. There were 70 (24.6%) patients with positive and 214 (75.4%) patients with negative preoperative urine culture who underwent MPCNL. There were no statistical differences in the duration of hospital stay, operative time, estimated blood loss, final stone free rate (SFR) as well as the incidence of the following infectious complications such as fever, systemic inflammatory response syndrome and septic shock, between both groups. Our retrospective study showed that MPCNL was a safe and effective modality in the treatment of staghorn stones. The morbidity, complication, and SFR were similar between patients with positive and negative preoperative urine cultures, once the culture positive infections were adequately controlled. PMID:24531817

  12. Dystrophin-deficient cardiomyocytes derived from human urine: new biologic reagents for drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Guan, Xuan; Mack, David L; Moreno, Claudia M; Strande, Jennifer L; Mathieu, Julie; Shi, Yingai; Markert, Chad D; Wang, Zejing; Liu, Guihua; Lawlor, Michael W; Moorefield, Emily C; Jones, Tara N; Fugate, James A; Furth, Mark E; Murry, Charles E; Ruohola-Baker, Hannele; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Santana, Luis F; Childers, Martin K

    2014-03-01

    The ability to extract somatic cells from a patient and reprogram them to pluripotency opens up new possibilities for personalized medicine. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have been employed to generate beating cardiomyocytes from a patient's skin or blood cells. Here, iPSC methods were used to generate cardiomyocytes starting from the urine of a patient with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Urine was chosen as a starting material because it contains adult stem cells called urine-derived stem cells (USCs). USCs express the canonical reprogramming factors c-myc and klf4, and possess high telomerase activity. Pluripotency of urine-derived iPSC clones was confirmed by immunocytochemistry, RT-PCR and teratoma formation. Urine-derived iPSC clones generated from healthy volunteers and a DMD patient were differentiated into beating cardiomyocytes using a series of small molecules in monolayer culture. Results indicate that cardiomyocytes retain the DMD patient's dystrophin mutation. Physiological assays suggest that dystrophin-deficient cardiomyocytes possess phenotypic differences from normal cardiomyocytes. These results demonstrate the feasibility of generating cardiomyocytes from a urine sample and that urine-derived cardiomyocytes retain characteristic features that might be further exploited for mechanistic studies and drug discovery. PMID:24434629

  13. Dystrophin-deficient cardiomyocytes derived from human urine: new biologic reagents for drug discovery

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Xuan; Mack, David L.; Moreno, Claudia M.; Strande, Jennifer L.; Mathieu, Julie; Shi, Yingai; Markert, Chad D.; Wang, Zejing; Liu, Guihua; Lawlor, Michael W.; Moorefield, Emily C.; Jones, Tara N.; Fugate, James A; Furth, Mark E.; Murry, Charles E.; Ruohola-Baker, Hannele; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Santana, Luis F.; Childers, Martin K.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to extract somatic cells from a patient and reprogram them to pluripotency opens up new possibilities for personalized medicine. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have been employed to generate beating cardiomyocytes from a patient's skin or blood cells. Here, iPSC methods were used to generate cardiomyocytes starting from the urine of a patient with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Urine was chosen as a starting material because it contains adult stem cells called urine-derived stem cells (USCs). USCs express the canonical reprogramming factors c-myc and klf4, and possess high telomerase activity. Pluripotency of urine-derived iPSC clones was confirmed by immunocytochemistry, RT-PCR and teratoma formation. Urine-derived iPSC clones generated from healthy volunteers and a DMD patient were differentiated into beating cardiomyocytes using a series of small molecules in monolayer culture. Results indicate that cardiomyocytes retain the DMD patient's dystrophin mutation. Physiological assays suggest that dystrophin-deficient cardiomyocytes possess phenotypic differences from normal cardiomyocytes. These results demonstrate the feasibility of generating cardiomyocytes from a urine sample and that urine-derived cardiomyocytes retain characteristic features that might be further exploited for mechanistic studies and drug discovery. PMID:24434629

  14. Analysis on the Go: Quantitation of Drugs of Abuse in Dried Urine with Digital Microfluidics and Miniature Mass Spectrometry

    E-print Network

    Zandstra, Peter W.

    Analysis on the Go: Quantitation of Drugs of Abuse in Dried Urine with Digital Microfluidics the development of a method coupling microfluidics and a miniature mass spectrometer, applied to quantitation of drugs of abuse in urine. A custom digital microfluidic system was designed to deliver droplets

  15. Urine drug testing of chronic pain patients. V. Prevalence of propoxyphene following its withdrawal from the United States market.

    PubMed

    Puet, Brandi; DePriest, Anne; Knight, Julie; Heltsley, Rebecca; Black, David L; Caplan, Yale H; Cone, Edward J

    2013-01-01

    Propoxyphene is an opioid analgesic that was surrounded by controversy concerning its safety and efficacy during its lifespan in the US market. Propoxyphene was withdrawn in November of 2010 from the US market and is still being detected one year post-withdrawal in urine specimens from the pain management population. In this study, the prevalence of propoxyphene was determined in a total of 417,914 urine specimens collected from 630 clinics involved in pain management located in 24 states during the period of January 1, 2010, through December 31, 2011. Propoxyphene and norpropoxyphene were measured in urine by a validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry procedure with a lower limit of quantitation of 50 ng/mL. The positivity rate for propoxyphene prevalence declined sharply between November and December of 2010 and further declined at a gradual rate, ending in a prevalence of 0.27% (one out of every 370 specimens, n = 25,658) for the month of December 2011. The presented data provide evidence of the dramatic decline in the use of propoxyphene products since their removal from the medical market, and may be beneficial to US urine drug testing programs determining the need for continual monitoring of propoxyphene levels. PMID:23129731

  16. Urine drug testing of chronic pain patients. III. Normetabolites as biomarkers of synthetic opioid use.

    PubMed

    Depriest, Anne; Heltsley, Rebecca; Black, David L; Cawthon, Beverly; Robert, Tim; Moser, Frank; Caplan, Yale H; Cone, Edward J

    2010-10-01

    Opioids are important therapeutic agents available to patients with moderate to severe pain. The synthetic opioids, buprenorphine, fentanyl, meperidine, methadone, and propoxyphene have been utilized for decades as analgesics. One of the major biotransformation pathways of these drugs occurs through N-demethylation leading to the formation and excretion of normetabolites. Normetabolites generally exhibit longer half-lives than the parent drug leading to accumulation with prolonged use. As part of continuing research efforts to improve monitoring programs of chronic pain patients undergoing opioid treatment, we evaluated the prevalence and relative abundance of normetabolites of buprenorphine, fentanyl, meperidine, methadone, and propoxyphene in patients? urine specimens. Selected sets of specimens were analyzed without prior immunoassay screening by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for buprenorphine, fentanyl, meperidine, methadone, propoxyphene, and their respective normetabolites. Limits of quantitation (LOQ) were as follows: buprenorphine, 1 ng/mL; fentanyl, 0.5 ng/mL; meperidine, 50 ng/mL; methadone, 50 ng/mL; and propoxyphene, 50 ng/mL. LOQs for normetabolites were equal to the parent drug with the exception of norbuprenorphine (2.5 ng/mL). The percentage of positive specimens that contained normetabolite (only) ranged from 8.0% for EDDP (2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine) to 53.1% for norpropoxyphene. Inclusion of the five normetabolites in the test panel produced an increase in detection rates for parent drug use as follows: buprenorphine, 10.0%; fentanyl, 42.1%; meperidine, 98.7%; methadone, 8.7%; and propoxyphene, 113.2%. The authors conclude that testing for synthetic opioid normetabolites enhances the effectiveness of monitoring programs for pain patients. PMID:21819788

  17. Urine drug testing in long-term opioid therapy: ethical considerations.

    PubMed

    Reisfield, Gary M; Maschke, Karen J

    2014-08-01

    As long-term opioid analgesic therapy has gained increasing clinical and societal acceptance over the past 2 decades, morbidity and mortality related to the misuse of these drugs have increased in lockstep. Hence, monitoring for opioid-related problems, largely through urine drug testing, has become a central component of risk mitigation in long-term opioid therapy. Despite the increasing use of urine drug testing, little has been written about the ethical aspects of its application. In this paper, we analyze multiple aspects of drug testing-rationale for testing, specimen collection, ordering and interpretation, and response to inappropriate test results-through the principlist lens, using the ethical principles of beneficence, nonmaleficence, justice, and autonomy. PMID:24281293

  18. Comparison of urine and hair testing for drugs of abuse in the control of abstinence in driver's license re-granting.

    PubMed

    Dufaux, Bertin; Agius, Ronald; Nadulski, Thomas; Kahl, Hans-Gerhard

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the detection rate of illicit drugs in urine and hair specimens. The samples were taken from subjects trying to regain their revoked driver's license after a drug- or alcohol-related traffic offence. In 2010, we screened 14 000 urine and 3900 hair samples for amphetamines, methamphetamines, cannabinoids, cocaine, opiates, methadone, and benzodiazepines as well as for ethylglucuronide. We used the low threshold values of the new German guidelines for Medical Psychological Assessment (MPA). Positive screening tests were confirmed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) or liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The results show that positivity rates for methamphetamines, MDMA, cocaine, and monoacetylmorphine were 1.7-, 5.7-, 3.8- and 9.3-fold higher in hair than in urine. In contrast, the detection rate for benzodiazepines was higher in urine than in hair (oxazepam, 0.21% versus 0%, nordiazepam 0.10% versus 0.03%). The positivity rate in hair for ethylglucuronide was 6-fold (12.7%) that for urine testing (2.1%). The study reveals that in the control of abstinence in the context of driving license re-granting there are in part large differences of positivity rates for some drugs or metabolites between hair and urine samples. These differences should be kept in mind by physicians and psychologists in traffic medicine who are ordering the drug testing. PMID:22447399

  19. Breath Test for Illegal Drugs Instead of Urine Analysis?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... breath using a highly sensitive method called liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The researchers say it detects amphetamines, ... in the March 15 issue of Journal of Chromatography B . The underlying mechanism in exhaled breath drug ...

  20. Derivatization of carboxylic acids with 4-APEBA for detection by positive-ion LC-ESI-MS(/MS) applied for the analysis of prostanoids and NSAID in urine.

    PubMed

    Kretschmer, A; Giera, M; Wijtmans, M; de Vries, L; Lingeman, H; Irth, H; Niessen, W M A

    2011-05-15

    In order to develop a generic positive ionization ESI LC-MS method for a variety of interesting substance classes, a new derivatization strategy for carboxylic acids was developed. The carboxylic acid group is labeled with the bromine containing 4-APEBA reagent based on carbodiimide chemistry. The derivatization reaction can be carried out under aqueous conditions, thereby greatly simplifying sample preparation. In this paper, the derivatization of carboxylic acids is exemplified for the determination of prostanoids and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID). Optimization of the derivatization conditions was studied. In order to prove the applicability of the presented approach, we applied the described protocol to urine samples from complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) patients and were able to detect several prostanoids not visible in the urine of healthy volunteers. Further, the determination of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug ibuprofen in a urine sample was possible. PMID:21176889

  1. Highly sensitive capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry for rapid screening and accurate quantitation of drugs of abuse in urine.

    PubMed

    Kohler, Isabelle; Schappler, Julie; Rudaz, Serge

    2013-05-30

    The combination of capillary electrophoresis (CE) and mass spectrometry (MS) is particularly well adapted to bioanalysis due to its high separation efficiency, selectivity, and sensitivity; its short analytical time; and its low solvent and sample consumption. For clinical and forensic toxicology, a two-step analysis is usually performed: first, a screening step for compound identification, and second, confirmation and/or accurate quantitation in cases of presumed positive results. In this study, a fast and sensitive CE-MS workflow was developed for the screening and quantitation of drugs of abuse in urine samples. A CE with a time-of-flight MS (CE-TOF/MS) screening method was developed using a simple urine dilution and on-line sample preconcentration with pH-mediated stacking. The sample stacking allowed for a high loading capacity (20.5% of the capillary length), leading to limits of detection as low as 2 ng mL(-1) for drugs of abuse. Compound quantitation of positive samples was performed by CE-MS/MS with a triple quadrupole MS equipped with an adapted triple-tube sprayer and an electrospray ionization (ESI) source. The CE-ESI-MS/MS method was validated for two model compounds, cocaine (COC) and methadone (MTD), according to the Guidance of the Food and Drug Administration. The quantitative performance was evaluated for selectivity, response function, the lower limit of quantitation, trueness, precision, and accuracy. COC and MTD detection in urine samples was determined to be accurate over the range of 10-1000 ng mL(-1) and 21-1000 ng mL(-1), respectively. PMID:23680557

  2. [Incretin mimetic drugs: therapeutic positioning].

    PubMed

    López Simarro, F

    2014-07-01

    Type 2 diabetes is a chronic and complex disease, due to the differences among affected individuals, which affect choice of treatment. The number of drug families has increased in the last few years, and these families have widely differing mechanisms of action, which contributes greatly to the individualization of treatment according to the patient's characteristics and comorbidities. The present article discusses incretin mimetic drugs. Their development has been based on knowledge of the effects of natural incretin hormones: GLP-1 (glucagon-like peptide 1), GIP (glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide) and dipeptidyl peptidase enzyme 4 (DPP4), which rapidly degrade them in the systemic circulation. This group is composed of 2 different types of molecules: GLP-1 analogs and DPP4 enzyme inhibitors. The benefits of these molecules include a reduction in plasma glucose without the risk of hypoglycemias or weight gain. There are a series of questions that require new studies to establish a possible association between the use of these drugs and notification of cases of pancreatitis, as well as their relationship with pancreatic and thyroid cancer. Also awaited is the publication of several studies that will provide information on the relationship between these drugs and cardiovascular risk in people with diabetes. All these questions will probably be progressively elucidated with greater experience in the use of these drugs. PMID:25311717

  3. Analysis of new designer drugs and common drugs of abuse in urine by a combined targeted and untargeted LC-HR-QTOFMS approach.

    PubMed

    Paul, Michael; Ippisch, Josef; Herrmann, Christian; Guber, Susanne; Schultis, Wolfgang

    2014-07-01

    The development of a liquid chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry quadrupole-time-of-flight (LC-HRMS-QTOF) method for the analysis of new stimulant designer drugs (e.g. phenethylamine, amphetamine, cathinone and piperazine derivatives) and common drugs of abuse (e.g. ketamine and ritalinic acid) in urine is reported. Sample preparation was carried out by a fast and convenient salting-out liquid-liquid extraction (SALLE) procedure. The data was generated by a preferred target list combined with untargeted data-dependent acquisition recording additional sample information (i.e. not listed metabolites of target compounds or not database-stored drugs). The identification is realised by a fully automated data extraction algorithm, taking into account accurate mass spectra, fragment masses and retention times. Method validation comprised selectivity, linearity, accuracy, stability, determination of the limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) and evaluation of matrix effects and recoveries for a total set of 39 compounds. Acceptable quantitative results were obtained for 35 of the 39 analytes. Exemplarily, application of the additional untargeted data-dependent acquisition mode enabled the identification of metabolites of the preferred target list compounds ketamine and methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) without use of reference standards. Therefore, improvement of the database is feasible with every positive library hit. The approach presented here provides a very useful tool for the combined targeted and untargeted analysis of drugs of abuse in biological matrices such as urine. PMID:24828977

  4. Urine specimen detection of concurrent nonprescribed medicinal and illicit drug use in patients prescribed buprenorphine.

    PubMed

    Guo, Alexander Y; Ma, Joseph D; Best, Brookie M; Atayee, Rabia S

    2013-01-01

    Patients being treated with buprenorphine usually have a history of opioid dependence and may be predisposed to misuse of drugs. Concurrent drug misuse increases the risk of life-threatening drug interactions. This retrospective data analysis observed which nonprescribed and illicit drugs were most commonly detected in the urine of patients from pain management clinics taking buprenorphine with or without a prescription. GC, LC/MS and LC-MS-MS were used to quantify 20,929 urine specimens. The most prevalent illicit drug used in both the groups (prescribed and nonprescribed buprenorphine) was marijuana, followed by cocaine. The most prevalent nonprescribed medications abused by both the groups were benzodiazepines, followed by oxycodone and hydrocodone. The overall prevalence of illicit and nonprescribed drug use was significantly higher in subjects who used buprenorphine without a prescription versus prescribed use. Of the concurrent use of marijuana and cocaine with buprenorphine, cocaine is most concerning since it decreases exposure to buprenorphine (lower area under the concentration-time curve and maximum concentration). The concurrent use of nonprescribed benzodiazepines with buprenorphine can cause excess sedation leading to respiratory depression and even death. These findings highlight the importance of educating patients about these potential toxicities. Furthermore, pain providers should consider expanding the spectrum of drugs that they monitor in patients under treatment. PMID:24080973

  5. Determination of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) in plasma and urine by headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography/positive ion chemical ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Frison, G; Tedeschi, L; Maietti, S; Ferrara, S D

    2000-01-01

    A new method for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) in plasma and urine samples is described. It involves the conversion of GHB to gamma-butyrolactone (GBL), its subsequent headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME), and detection by gas chromatography/positive ion chemical ionization mass spectrometry (GC/PICI-MS), using D(6)-GBL as internal standard. The assay is linear over a plasma GHB range of 1-100 microg/mL (n = 5, r = 0.999) and a urine GHB range of 5-150 microg/mL (n = 5, r = 0. 998). Relative intra- and inter-assay standard deviations, determined for plasma and urine samples at 5 and 50 microg/mL, are all below 5%. The method is simple, specific and reasonably fast. It may be applied for clinical and forensic toxicology as well as for purposes of therapeutic drug monitoring. PMID:11114057

  6. Validation of the only commercially available immunoassay for synthetic cathinones in urine: Randox Drugs of Abuse V Biochip Array Technology.

    PubMed

    Ellefsen, Kayla N; Anizan, Sébastien; Castaneto, Marisol S; Desrosiers, Nathalie A; Martin, Thomas M; Klette, Kevin L; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2014-01-01

    Deterrence of synthetic cathinone abuse is hampered by the lack of a high-throughput immunoassay screen. The Randox Drugs of Abuse V (DOA-V) Biochip Array Technology contains two synthetic cathinone antibodies: Bath Salt I (BSI) targets mephedrone/methcathinone and Bath Salt II (BSII) targets 3',4'-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV)/3',4'-methylenedioxy-?-pyrrolidinobutiophenone (MDPBP). We evaluated DOA-V synthetic cathinones performance and conducted a full validation on the original assay with calibrators reconstituted in water, and the new assay with calibrators prepared in lyophilized urine; both utilized the same antibodies and were run on the fully automated Evidence® Analyzer. We screened 20 017 authentic military urine specimens and confirmed positives by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for 28 synthetic cathinones. Limits of detection (LOD) for the original and new assays were 0.35 and 0.18 (BSI), and 8.5 and 9.2 µg/L (BSII), respectively. Linearity was acceptable (R(2) ?>0.98); however, a large negative bias was observed with in-house prepared calibrators. Intra-assay imprecision was <20% BSI-II, while inter-assay imprecision was 18-42% BSI and <22% BSII. Precision was acceptable for Randox controls. Cross-reactivities of many additional synthetic cathinones were determined. Authentic drug-free negative urine pH <4 produced false positive results for BSI (6.3 µg/L) and BSII (473 µg/L). Oxidizing agents reduced BSI and increased BSII results. Sensitivity, specificity, and efficiency of 100%, 52.1%, and 53.0% were obtained at manufacturer's proposed cut-offs (BSI 5 µg/L, BSII 30 µg/L). Performance improved if cut-off concentrations increased (BSI 7.5 µg/L, BSII 40 µg/L); however, there were limited confirmed positive specimens. Currently, this is the first and only fully validated immunoassay for preliminary detection of synthetic cathinones in urine. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. PMID:24659527

  7. A qualitative/quantitative approach for the detection of 37 tryptamine-derived designer drugs, 5 ?-carbolines, ibogaine, and yohimbine in human urine and plasma using standard urine screening and multi-analyte approaches.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Markus R; Caspar, Achim; Brandt, Simon D; Maurer, Hans H

    2014-01-01

    The first synthetic tryptamines have entered the designer drug market in the late 1990s and were distributed as psychedelic recreational drugs. In the meantime, several analogs have been brought onto the market indicating a growing interest in this drug class. So far, only scarce analytical data were available on the detectability of tryptamines in human biosamples. Therefore, the aim of the presented study was the development and full validation of a method for their detection in human urine and plasma and their quantification in human plasma. The liquid chromatography-linear ion trap mass spectrometry method presented covered 37 tryptamines as well as five ?-carbolines, ibogaine, and yohimbine. Compounds were analyzed after protein precipitation of urine or fast liquid-liquid extraction of plasma using an LXQ linear ion trap coupled to an Accela ultra ultra high-performance liquid chromatography system. Data mining was performed via information-dependent acquisition or targeted product ion scan mode with positive electrospray ionization. The assay was selective for all tested substances with limits of detection in urine between 10 and 100 ng/mL and in plasma between 1 and 100 ng/mL. A validated quantification in plasma according to international recommendation could be demonstrated for 33 out of 44 analytes. PMID:24173660

  8. Urine drug testing of chronic pain patients. IV. prevalence of gabapentin and pregabalin.

    PubMed

    Heltsley, Rebecca; Depriest, Anne; Black, David L; Robert, Tim; Caplan, Yale H; Cone, Edward J

    2011-07-01

    Gabapentin and pregabalin are well established for the treatment of seizures and neuropathic pain. Both drugs are eliminated primarily unchanged by renal excretion. As part of an ongoing research program to improve and expand drug testing methods for compliance monitoring of pain patients, the prevalence and concentrations of gabapentin and pregabalin in urine specimens from chronic pain patients were determined by a validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay. The study was approved by an Institutional Review Board. A total of 57,542 urine specimens from 231 pain clinics located in 19 states were analyzed over the period of November 24, 2009, through May 2010. The limit of quantitation (LOQ) and upper LOQ of the assays for both drugs were 2.5 and 1000 ?g/mL, respectively. Gabapentin was identified in 7013 specimens (12.2% prevalence), and pregabalin was identified in 4799 patients (8.3% prevalence). Generally, gabapentin concentrations were more than twofold higher than pregabalin, consistent with their relative potencies. Interestingly, both drugs were found in specimens from 249 patients, likely representing switching of prescriptions by the prescriber. PMID:21740692

  9. On-site testing of saliva and sweat with Drugwipe and determination of concentrations of drugs of abuse in saliva, plasma and urine of suspected users

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Samyn; C. van Haeren

    2000-01-01

    Potential drug users participated voluntarily in a Belgian study on the usefulness of the non-instrumental immunoassay Drugwipe\\u000a (Securetec, Germany) for the screening of cocaine, opiates, amphetamine and cannabinoids in saliva and sweat. If one of the\\u000a screening assays (urine, oral fluid, sweat) showed a positive result, blood and saliva were collected. The on-site Drugwipe\\u000a results were correlated with the Drugwipe

  10. Analysis of ketamine and norketamine in urine by automatic solid-phase extraction (SPE) and positive ion chemical ionization–gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (PCI–GC–MS)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eun-mi Kim; Ju-seon Lee; Sang-kil Choi; Mi-ae Lim; Hee-sun Chung

    2008-01-01

    Ketamine (KT) is widely abused for hallucination and also misused as a “date-rape” drug in recent years. An analytical method using positive ion chemical ionization–gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (PCI–GC–MS) with an automatic solid-phase extraction (SPE) apparatus was studied for the determination of KT and its major metabolite, norketamine (NK), in urine. Six ketamine suspected urine samples were provided by the police.

  11. Analysis of multiple abused drugs and hypnotics in urine by sweeping CE.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Jui-Feng; Hsiao, Yu-Tzu; Ko, Wei-Kung; Wu, Shou-Mei

    2009-07-01

    Multiple drugs usage is very common in addicts (AD). However, some parent drugs were undetectable in urine, it was necessary to monitor their metabolites simultaneously. A sweeping CE was established for the determination of several kinds of abused drug and their metabolites in AD urine. This method was developed using chemometric experimental design to simplify the CE optimization. The capillary was filled by separation buffer (phosphate buffer (75 mM, pH 2.5) and methanol (70:30 v/v)) and then hydrodynamically injected large volume of samples into capillary (1 psi, 200 s). Following was using sweeping buffer (phosphate buffer (75 mM, pH 2.5) and methanol (90:10 v/v) containing 65 mM SDS) to sweep and stack analytes. The separation voltage was set at -15 kV (anode at detector end). During method validation, calibration plots were linear (r > or = 0.992) over a range of 0.1-3 microg/mL for codeine, ketamine, and methamphetamine, 0.15-3 microg/mL for morphine, 0.1-1 microg/mL for alprazolam and oxazepam, and 0.1-1.2 microg/mL for other other benzodiazepines and its metabolites. During intra- and inter-day analysis, relative standards and relative errors were less than 14%. The analytes could be simultaneously analyzed and have a detection limit down to 20-50 ng/mL (S/N=3). The results showed good coincidence with GC-MS or LC-ESI-MS. This method was feasible for application to detect trace levels of abused drugs in AD' urine. PMID:19639577

  12. [Positive interaction between immunosuppressive and antifungal drugs].

    PubMed

    Rammaert, Blandine; Lortholary, Olivier

    2010-01-01

    Immunosuppressive and antifungal drugs are frequently associated to treat solid organ transplant patients or patients with hematological malignancies. To cure invasive fungal infection (IFI), immunosuppression has to be reduced. However, immunosuppressive drugs such as cyclosporin A, tacrolimus, sirolimus (rapamycin) or mycophenolate mofetil possess antifungal properties. Indeed fungi and humans have in common calcineurin and TOR signalization pathways which are inhibited by these molecules. In vitro experiences suggest a positive interaction between immunosuppressive and antifungal drugs such as amphotericin B, azole and echinocandins. These results are confirmed by clinical findings and thus offer further therapeutic possibilities in the context of solid organ transplantation. double dagger. PMID:20819713

  13. Application of urine proteomics for biomarker discovery in drug-induced liver injury.

    PubMed

    van Swelm, Rachel P L; Kramers, Cornelis; Masereeuw, Rosalinde; Russel, Frans G M

    2014-11-01

    Abstract The leading cause of hepatic damage is drug-induced liver injury (DILI), for which currently no adequate predictive biomarkers are available. Moreover, for most drugs related to DILI, the mechanisms underlying the adverse reaction have not yet been elucidated. Urinary protein biomarker candidates for DILI have emerged in the past few years and correlate well with clinical studies for serum DILI biomarkers. The goal of this review was to investigate the use of urine as a source of protein biomarkers for drug-induced liver injury. Finally, we discuss some of the current strategies required to advance the field of biomarker discovery for DILI with respect to appropriate clinical biobanking and adequate translational research. PMID:25264586

  14. Screening and quantitative determination of drugs of abuse in diluted urine by UPLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Hegstad, Solfrid; Hermansson, Sigurd; Betnér, Ingvar; Spigset, Olav; Falch, Berit Margrethe Hasle

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this work was to develop and evaluate a fast, robust and specific UPLC-MS/MS screening platform for the determination and quantification of a variety of commonly used drugs of abuse in urine, i.e. a high-throughput quantitative analysis. Substances in the drug classes opioids, central nervous system stimulants and benzodiazepines and related agents were included in addition to cannabis and pregabalin, a total of 35 different analytes. Based on the concentrations and the physico-chemical properties of the substances, three UPLC-MS/MS methods were developed in parallel. Prior to analysis, sample preparation consisted of two different simple dilutions with 60 and 100 ?L urine, respectively, using a Tecan Freedom Evo pipetting robot platform. A Waters Xevo TQ-S tandem quadrupole mass spectrometer coupled to a Waters I-class UPLC was used for quantitative analysis of one quantitative and one qualifying MRM transition for each analyte, except for tramadol for which the metabolite O-desmethyl-tramadol was included in the MRM method to confirm tramadol identity. Deuterated analogs were included as internal standards. The between-assay relative standard deviations varied from 2% to 11% and the limits of quantification were in the range 1-200 ng/mL for the various analytes. After development and initial testing, the method has been successfully implemented and routinely used at our hospital for quantitative screening of drugs of abuse in more than 35,000 urinary samples. PMID:24413020

  15. Rate of positive urine culture and double–J catheters colonization on the basis of microorganism DNA analysis

    PubMed Central

    Szymkowiak, Sylwia; Madej, Adam; Blewniewski, Mariusz; Krze?lak, Anna; Forma, Ewa; Bry?, Magdalena; Lipi?ski, Marek; Ró?a?ski, Waldemar

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The aim of the trial was to estimate the relationship between colonization of the Double–J catheter, and the microorganisms cultured from urine. Material and methods 60 patients, who had Double–J catheters inserted, participated in the study. All the subjects had their midstream urine samples taken prior to the stent insertion and removal. A negative urine culture before catheterization was mandatory to participate in the study. The patients were assigned into three subgroups, according to stenting duration: 1) 20 to 30 days (18 cases); 2) 30 to 90 days (30 cases); 3) longer than 90 days (12 cases). Bacterial and fungal DNA was identified using electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gel with a denaturing gradient (PCR–DGGE). The relationship between the genetic analysis of the catheter and the urine culture was estimated. Results Urine cultures were positive in only 8 patients, while Double–J catheter analyses were positive in all cases. In 2 cases one type of microorganism was isolated from the stent surface while the remaining 58 catheters were colonized by more than one pathogen. In three cases fungi were isolated. There were only three types of pathogens cultured from urine specimens. Urine and stent cultures were consistent in 5 cases. In 3 cases urine culture and stent analysis were not consistent. Conclusions Double–J catheter retention in the urinary tract is associated with an extremely high risk of bacterial colonization, while the risk of urine infection is about 8–fold lower. There is a great inconsistency between urine infection and catheter colonization, indicating a low predictive value of urine culture for estimating stent colonization. PMID:24982789

  16. Detection of drugs of abuse in exhaled breath using a device for rapid collection: comparison with plasma, urine and self-reporting in 47 drug users.

    PubMed

    Beck, Olof; Stephanson, Niclas; Sandqvist, Sören; Franck, Johan

    2013-06-01

    Exhaled breath has recently been identified as a matrix for the detection of drugs of abuse. This work aims to further document this application using a new and simple collection device in patients following recovery from acute intoxication. Breath, plasma and urine samples were collected from 47 patients (38 males, age range 25-74) together with interview data. Analysis of breath and plasma samples was done by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry methods. Urine was screened using immunochemical reagents and positive findings confirmed with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry methods. The 12 analytes investigated were: methadone, amphetamine, methamphetamine, 6-acetylmorphine, morphine, benzoylecgonine, cocaine, diazepam, oxazepam, alprazolam, buprenorphine and tetrahydrocannabinol. In all 47 cases, recent intake of an abused substance prior to admission was reported, but in one case the substance (ketobemidone) was not investigated. In 40 of the remaining cases (87%) breath analysis gave a positive finding of any of the substances that were part of the analytical investigation. Identifications were based on correct chromatographic retention time and product ion ratios obtained in selected reaction monitoring mode. In general, data from breath, plasma, urine and self-reporting were in good agreement, but in 23% of the cases substances were detected that had not been self-reported. All substances covered were detected in a number of breath samples. Considering that breath sampling was often done about 24 h after intake, the detection rate was considered to be high for most substances. Analytes with low detection rates were benzodiazepines, and a further increase in analytical sensitivity is needed to overcome this. This study further supports use of exhaled breath as a new matrix in clinical toxicology. PMID:23619392

  17. Metabolism of the designer drug ?-pyrrolidinobutiophenone (?-PBP) in humans: Identification and quantification of the phase I metabolites in urine.

    PubMed

    Matsuta, Shuntaro; Shima, Noriaki; Kamata, Hiroe; Kakehashi, Hidenao; Nakano, Shihoko; Sasaki, Keiko; Kamata, Tooru; Nishioka, Hiroshi; Miki, Akihiro; Katagi, Munehiro; Zaitsu, Kei; Sato, Takako; Tsuchihashi, Hitoshi; Suzuki, Koichi

    2015-04-01

    Urinary phase I metabolites of ?-pyrrolidinobutiophenone (?-PBP) in humans were investigated by analyzing urine specimens obtained from drug abusers. Unequivocal identification and accurate quantification of major metabolites were realized using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with newly synthesized authentic standards. Two major phase I metabolic pathways were revealed: (1) reduction of the ketone group to 1-phenyl-2-(pyrrolidin-1-yl)butan-1-ol (OH-?-PBP, diastereomers) partly followed by conjugation to its glucuronide and (2) oxidation at the 2?-position of the pyrrolidine ring to ?-(2?-oxo-pyrrolidino)butiophenone (2?-oxo-?-PBP) via the putative intermediate ?-(2?-hydroxypyrrolidino)butiophenone (2?-OH-?-PBP). Of the phase I metabolites retaining the structural characteristics of the parent drug, OH-?-PBP was the most abundant in all specimens examined. Comparison of the phase I metabolism of ?-PBP and ?-pyrrolidinovalerophenone (?-PVP) suggested a relationship between the aliphatic side chain length and the metabolic pathways in ?-pyrrolidinophenones: the shorter aliphatic side chain (1) led to more extensive metabolism via reduction of the ketone group than via the oxidation at the 2?-position of the pyrrolidine ring and (2) influenced the isomeric ratio of a pair of diastereomers. PMID:25703013

  18. Identification of two Thormählen-positive compounds from melanotic urine by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Pavel, S; Muskiet, F A; Nagel, G T; Schwippelová, Z; Duchon, J

    1981-03-13

    The isolation of two Thormählen-positive compounds from the urine of a patient with malignant melanoma and the elucidation of their structure by gas chromatography-mass spectometry is described. The compounds were isolated using a poly-N-vinylpyrrolidone column and separated by preparative thin-layer chromatography. After elution they were analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as their trimethylsilyl derivatives and after hydrolysis also as their tert.-butyldimethylsilyl derivatives. The results showed the main Thormählen-positive compound A to be the glucuronide of 5-hydroxy-6-methoxyindole, whereas the minor compound AX appeared to be the glucuronide of its isomer 6-hydroxy-5-methoxyindole. PMID:7228942

  19. Detection and direct readout of drugs in human urine using dynamic surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and support vector machines.

    PubMed

    Dong, Ronglu; Weng, Shizhuang; Yang, Liangbao; Liu, Jinhuai

    2015-03-01

    A new, novel, rapid method to detect and direct readout of drugs in human urine has been developed using dynamic surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (D-SERS) with portable Raman spectrometer on gold nanorods (GNRs) and a classification algorithm called support vector machines (SVM). The high-performance GNRs can generate gigantic enhancement and the SERS signals obtained using D-SERS on it have high reproducibility. On the basis of this feature of D-SERS, we have obtained SERS spectra of urine and urine containing methamphetamine (MAMP). SVM model was built using these data for fast identified and visual results. This general method was successfully applied to the detection of 3, 4-methylenedioxy methamphetamine (MDMA) in human urine. To verify the accuracy of the model, drug addicts' urine containing MAMP were detected and identified correctly and rapidly with accuracy more than 90%. The detection results were displayed directly without analysis of their SERS spectra manually. Compared with the conventional method in lab, the method only needs a 2 ?L sample volume and takes no more than 2 min on the portable Raman spectrometer. It is anticipated that this method will enable rapid, convenient detection of drugs on site for the police. PMID:25634247

  20. A Laboratory Experiment in Pharmaceutical Analysis: Determination of Drugs of Abuse in Human Urine by Thin-Layer Chromatography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Leonard C.

    1979-01-01

    An experiment is described that was developed for a course in Inorganic and Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry at Rutgers University to provide pharmacy students with practical experience in the thin-layer chromatography used for the analysis of urine to monitor patient compliance with drug abuse treatment programs. (JMD)

  1. Development and validation of a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) procedure for screening of urine specimens for 100 analytes relevant in drug-facilitated crime (DFC).

    PubMed

    Remane, Daniela; Wetzel, Diana; Peters, Frank T

    2014-07-01

    In recent years, drug-facilitated crime (DFC) has become an increasing problem. A minimum list of 80 analytes to be monitored in such cases has been proposed by the Society of Forensic Toxicologists (SOFT) including the recommended minimum performance limits (RMPL). In the present study, two liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry-based screening procedures, one in positive (method I) and one in negative (method II) electrospray ionization mode were developed and validated. Gradient elution was performed on a ZORBAX Eclipse XDB-C18 column after protein precipitation of the urine samples. Detection was carried out in the scheduled multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode monitoring two transitions per compound. A total of 100 analytes (91 basic in method I and nine acidic in method II) could be identified using the described procedure. No interferences were observed in 30 tested blank urine samples. The RMPLs were achieved for all analytes and ranged from 1 ng/mL for fentanyl to 10 ?g/mL for ?-hydroxybutyrate (GHB). Matrix effects (ME) were evaluated using the same 30 urine samples and ranged from -90 % for tetrazepam to >6,000 % for the 11-nor-9-carboxy-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH). The relative standard deviations of ME were below 25 % for the vast majority of analytes. Results for urine specimens from nine authentic DFC cases were always negative with exception of drugs prescribed to the victims. Reanalysis with the developed procedure of 24 urine samples, with a positive screening result during routine clinical toxicology analysis, confirmed the routine findings. In an excretion study after a single oral doxylamine dose (30 mg), the parent drug and its nor metabolite could be detected in urine specimens from a young female volunteer for 10 days. The developed procedure allows a selective and sensitive screening of urine samples for almost all recommended analytes relevant in DFC cases. PMID:24817357

  2. Evaluation of a rapid method for the therapeutic drug monitoring of aliskiren, enalapril and its active metabolite in plasma and urine by UHPLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Magiera, Sylwia; Kusa, Jacek

    2015-02-01

    Given the increasing popularity of aliskiren, particularly in combination with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (e.g. enalapril), it is important to determine whether its use in combination with these agents is associated with potentially life threatening safety events. Analytical methods for the simultaneous determination of both drugs in plasma and urine utilized in clinical studies on efficacy and safety have not been fully described in the literature. In this work, a new, fast and reliable method using a digitally controlled microextraction by packed sorbent (eVol(®)-MEPS) followed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) was developed and validated to quantify an aliskiren, enalapril and its active metabolite in both human plasma and urine. Chromatographic separation was accomplished on a Poroshell 120 EC-C18 column with a gradient elution system consisting of 0.1% formic acid in water and acetonitrile (1.5min of total analysis). Detection was performed by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode using electrospray ionization in the positive ion mode. This assay method has been fully validated in terms of selectivity, linearity, accuracy, precision, stability, recovery and matrix effect. The developed method can be applied to the routine determination of selected compounds in human plasma and urine and can be useful to elucidate the mechanisms of the potential risks triggered by the combination of aliskiren and enalapril as well as its active metabolite enalaprilat. PMID:25589258

  3. Rapid and simultaneous determination of multiple classes of abused drugs and metabolites in human urine by a robust LC-MS/MS method - application to urine drug testing in pain clinics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianmei; Yang, Zhen; Lechago, James

    2013-11-01

    A simple LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for quantitatively analyzing six classes of 26 abused drugs and metabolites in human urine: (1) illicit drugs; (2) opiates; (3) synthetic opioids; (4) sedative; (5) stimulants; and (6) ?-aminobutyric acid analogs. All urine samples were diluted with a mixture of isotope-labeled internal standards, hydrolyzed with ?-glucuronidase and directly injected in a gradient chromatographic run. The mobile phase was composed of 0.1% formic acid in water and 0.1% of formic acid in methanol. A 4.9 min run time using the multiplexing driver and ultra-biphenyl column (50 × 2.1 mm, 5 µm, RESTEK) allowed all drugs to have sufficient resolution in a short elute time. The overlapping liquid chromatography runs and scheduled multiple reaction monitoring acquisition method resulted in a higher overall throughput for the system. The result was linear over the studied range (2-16,000 ng/mL) for all compounds with correlation coefficients r(2) ? 0.995. The intra-day and inter-day precisions and accuracies were within 15% and recovery was between 83 and 115% for all analytes. Freeze-thaw stability for three cycles and long-term stability (57 days, -20°C) were established for all analytes. The cross-validation between College of American Pathologists and in-house was validated (0.06% ? bias ? 12.3%). The applicability of the method was examined by analyzing urine samples from chronic pain patients (n = 610). PMID:23780634

  4. Metabolic fate, mass spectral fragmentation, detectability, and differentiation in urine of the benzofuran designer drugs 6-APB and 6-MAPB in comparison to their 5-isomers using GC-MS and LC-(HR)-MS(n) techniques.

    PubMed

    Welter, Jessica; Brandt, Simon D; Kavanagh, Pierce; Meyer, Markus R; Maurer, Hans H

    2015-05-01

    The number of so-called new psychoactive substances (NPS) is still increasing by modification of the chemical structure of known (scheduled) drugs. As analogues of amphetamines, 2-aminopropyl-benzofurans were sold. They were consumed because of their euphoric and empathogenic effects. After the 5-(2-aminopropyl)benzofurans, the 6-(2-aminopropyl)benzofuran isomers appeared. Thus, the question arose whether the metabolic fate, the mass spectral fragmentation, and the detectability in urine are comparable or different and how an intake can be differentiated. In the present study, 6-(2-aminopropyl)benzofuran (6-APB) and its N-methyl derivative 6-MAPB (N-methyl-6-(2-aminopropyl)benzofuran) were investigated to answer these questions. The metabolites of both drugs were identified in rat urine and human liver preparations using GC-MS and/or liquid chromatography-high resolution-mass spectrometry (LC-HR-MS(n)). Besides the parent drug, the main metabolite of 6-APB was 4-carboxymethyl-3-hydroxy amphetamine and the main metabolites of 6-MAPB were 6-APB (N-demethyl metabolite) and 4-carboxymethyl-3-hydroxy methamphetamine. The cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoenzymes involved in the 6-MAPB N-demethylation were CYP1A2, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4. An intake of a common users' dose of 6-APB or 6-MAPB could be confirmed in rat urine using the authors' GC-MS and the LC-MS(n) standard urine screening approaches with the corresponding parent drugs as major target allowing their differentiation. Furthermore, a differentiation of 6-APB and 6-MAPB in urine from their positional isomers 5-APB and 5-MAPB was successfully performed after solid phase extraction and heptafluorobutyrylation by GC-MS via their retention times. PMID:25711990

  5. Temporal and Gender Trends in Concordance of Urine Drug Screens and Self-Reported Use in Cocaine Treatment Studies

    PubMed Central

    Schuler, Megan S.; Lechner, William V.; Carter, Rickey E.; Malcolm, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To describe temporal trends in concordance, sensitivity, and specificity and to explore demographic trends in concordance in two outpatient treatment studies for cocaine dependence. Methods We obtained 2229 urine drug screens from 129 individuals, along with accompanying self-use reports. Paired self-use reports and urine drug screens were considered concordant if the two measures of cocaine use were in agreement. The sensitivity and specificity of the self-use reports in predicting the urine drug screen was also estimated. To model concordance, sensitivity, and specificity as a function of time, generalized estimating equations were used. Demographic effects on concordance among subjects who achieved 100% concordance and subjects who achieved a recently proposed 70% concordance threshold were tested. Results Over the course of our studies, both sensitivity and concordance statistically decreased, yet specificity remained relatively constant. Median concordance for all subjects was 88%. Among all subjects, concordance varied significantly by gender, with females achieving significantly higher concordance than males (96% vs. 86%). Similarly, females were almost twice as likely to achieve 100% concordance as males (42% vs. 22%). Finally, 80% of participants achieved the 70% concordance threshold, and no differences among demographic groups with regards to the 70% concordance threshold were observed. Conclusions Temporal effects of concordance and sensitivity may have profound repercussions when using self-use reports to gauge efficacy of an experimental intervention. Furthermore, gender may differentially affect concordance. Finally, a substance abuse outcome measure that reliably combines objective and self-report data is promising, but further research is needed. PMID:20209029

  6. Immunoelectrophoresis - urine

    MedlinePLUS

    Immunoglobulin electrophoresis - urine; Gamma globulin electrophoresis - urine; Urine immunoglobulin electrophoresis; IEP - urine ... is used to measure the amounts of various immunoglobulins in urine. Most often, it is done after ...

  7. The Sociological and Mathematical Implications of Mandatory Urine Tests for Drug Use in the Work Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Janell; Campbell, Richard

    1987-01-01

    Mandatory drug testing of workers will create problems due to the low predictive ability of urinalysis. The predictive value of drug testing in populations of low drug incidence is illustrated using Bayes' Theorem. (MT)

  8. Drug Failure: The Theoretical Position of the Drop-Out.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vedder, Charles B.

    This paper examines the theoretical position of the person who drops out of illegal drug use. A person was considered a drop-out if he admittedly no longer used any or all the drugs in the following categories: marijuana, hallucinogens, speed, downers, and inhalants. A purposive sample was drawn to capture as many people fitting this criterion as…

  9. Profiling of 19-norandrosterone sulfate and glucuronide in human urine: Implications in athlete's drug testing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emmanuel Strahm; Norbert Baume; Patrice Mangin; Martial Saugy; Christiane Ayotte; Christophe Saudan

    2009-01-01

    19-Norandrosterone (19-NA) as its glucuronide derivative is the target metabolite in anti-doping testing to reveal an abuse of nandrolone or nandrolone prohormone. To provide further evidence of a doping with these steroids, the sulfoconjugate form of 19-norandrosterone in human urine might be monitored as well. In the present study, the profiling of sulfate and glucuronide derivatives of 19-norandrosterone together with

  10. Urine Testing for Drugs of Abuse. NIDA Research Monograph Series 73.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawks, Richard L., Ed.; Chiang, C. Nora, Ed.

    In the past 5 years, a growing concern over the use of illicit drugs in the workplace has led to an interest in urinalysis as a way to detect and deter drug use. This monograph provides information that will assist those involved in the planning or implementation of drug testing programs in making informed choices. Articles include: (1)…

  11. Choosing the right laboratory: A review of clinical and forensic toxicology services for urine drug testing in pain management.

    PubMed

    Reisfield, Gary M; Goldberger, Bruce A; Bertholf, Roger L

    2015-01-01

    Urine drug testing (UDT) services are provided by a variety of clinical, forensic, and reference/specialty laboratories. These UDT services differ based on the principal activity of the laboratory. Clinical laboratories provide testing primarily focused on medical care (eg, emergency care, inpatients, and outpatient clinics), whereas forensic laboratories perform toxicology tests related to postmortem and criminal investigations, and drug-free workplace programs. Some laboratories now provide UDT specifically designed for monitoring patients on chronic opioid therapy. Accreditation programs for clinical laboratories have existed for nearly half a century, and a federal certification program for drug-testing laboratories was established in the 1980s. Standards of practice for forensic toxicology services other than workplace drug testing have been established in recent years. However, no accreditation program currently exists for UDT in pain management, and this review considers several aspects of laboratory accreditation and certification relevant to toxicology services, with the intention to provide guidance to clinicians in their selection of the appropriate laboratory for UDT surveillance of their patients on opioid therapy. PMID:25750163

  12. Bilirubin - urine

    MedlinePLUS

    Conjugated bilirubin - urine; Direct bilirubin - urine ... Bilirubin is not normally found in the urine. ... Increased levels of bilirubin in the urine may be due to: Biliary tract disease Cirrhosis Gallstones in the biliary tract Hepatitis Liver disease ...

  13. Development and validation of an HPLC method for the simultaneous analysis of 23 selected drugs belonging to different therapeutic groups in human urine samples.

    PubMed

    Baranowska, Irena; Markowski, Piotr; Baranowski, Jacek

    2009-11-01

    We have developed and validated a new and reliable gradient reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method with a diode array detector (DAD) for the simultaneous separation and determination of 23 frequently prescribed selected drugs belonging to different therapeutic groups in human urine samples. For the drugs listed below, this method of analysis for human urine was also successfully applied to determine urine concentrations of these drugs in samples from treated patients: enalapril (ENA), paracetamol (PAR), sotalol (SOT), dipyrone (DIP), vancomycin (VAN), captopril (CAP), fluconazole (FLU), cefazolin (CEF), metoprolol (MET), aspirin (ASP), ticlopidine (TIC), prednisolone (PRE), propranolol (PRO), digoxin (DIG), sildenafil (SIL), furosemide (FUR), dexamethasone (DEX), carvedilol (CAR), ketoprofen (KET), nifedipine (NIF), terbinafine (TER), acenocoumarol (ACE) and spironolactone (SPI). Separation of the analytes was achieved by RP-HPLC-DAD with a mobile phase composed of acetonitrile, methanol and 0.05% trifluoroacetic acid in water using a gradient elution program. Good linear relationships over the investigated concentration ranges were observed with values of r2 higher than 0.998 for all of the drugs. The intra-day and inter-day precisions of this method were evaluated with RSD values less than 4.26 and 5.42%, respectively. The relative recoveries of the 23 investigated compounds ranged from 93.60 to 106.00% with RSD values less than 4.46%. An expanded uncertainty budget was constructed for all investigated drugs in human urine samples. PMID:19907087

  14. Wide-range screening of banned veterinary drugs in urine by ultra high liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    León, Nuria; Roca, Marta; Igualada, Carmen; Martins, Claudia P B; Pastor, Agustín; Yusá, Vicent

    2012-10-01

    In this work, an ultra high performance liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS) methodology is proposed for the multi-class multi-residue screening of banned and unauthorized veterinary drugs in bovine urine, using an Orbitrap Exactive™ analyzer working at a resolving power of 50,000 FWHM in full scan, both in positive and negative mode. The method currently covers 87 analytes belonging to different families such as steroid hormones, ?-agonists, resorcylic acid lactones (RAL), stilbens, tranquillizers, nitroimidazoles, corticosteroids, NSAIDs, amphenicoles, thyreostatics and other substances such as dapsone. A database including the elemental composition, the polarity of acquisition, retention time and expected adducts was built for the targeted analysis, and a high mass accuracy (<5 ppm) was set as one of the identification criteria. After comparing different sample preparation procedures, QuEChERS was selected as the most appropriate methodology. An efficient separation of analytes was achieved using ultra high performance liquid chromatography with a column packed with sub-2 ?m particles. The performance of the method has been evaluated in accordance with the EU guidelines for the validation of screening methods for the analysis of veterinary drugs residues. The screening target concentrations were established between 0.2 ?g/l and 20 ?g/l, demonstrating the usefulness of UHPLC-HRMS as an ideal tool for compliance monitoring in regulatory laboratories. PMID:22939377

  15. Approach to a Positive Urine Culture in a Patient Without Urinary Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Trautner, Barbara W.; Grigoryan, Larissa

    2013-01-01

    Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) is a condition in which bacteria are present in a noncontaminated urine sample collected from a patient without signs or symptoms related to the urinary tract. ASB must be distinguished from symptomatic UTI by the absence of signs and symptoms compatible with UTI or by clinical determination that a nonurinary etiology accounts for the patient's symptoms. ABU is a very common condition that is often treated unnecessarily with antibiotics. Pregnant women and persons undergoing urologic procedures expected to cause mucosal bleeding are the only two groups with convincing evidence that screening for and treating ASB is beneficial. Randomized, controlled trials of ASB screening and/or treatment have established the lack of efficacy in premenopausal adult women, diabetic women, patients with spinal cord injury, catheterized patients, older adults living in the community, and elderly institutionalized adults. The overall purpose of this review is to promote an awareness of ASB as a distinct condition from UTI and to empower clinicians to withhold antibiotics in situations in which antimicrobial treatment of bacteriuria is not indicated. PMID:24484572

  16. Stability study of the designer drugs "MDA, MDMA and MDEA" in water, serum, whole blood, and urine under various storage temperatures.

    PubMed

    Clauwaert, K M; Van Bocxlaer, J F; De Leenheer, A P

    2001-12-15

    A controlled study was undertaken to determine the stability of the designer drugs MDA, MDMA and MDEA in pooled serum, whole blood, water and urine samples over a period of 21 weeks. The concentrations of the individual designer drugs in the various matrices were monitored over time, in the dark at various temperatures (-20, 4 or 20 degrees C), for a low (+/- 6 ng/ml for water, serum and whole blood and +/- 150 ng/ml for urine) and a high concentration level (+/- 550 ng/ml for water, serum and whole blood and +/- 2500 ng/ml for urine). Compound concentrations were measured using a validated HPLC assay with fluorescence detection. Our study demonstrated no significant loss of the designer drugs in water and urine at any of the investigated temperatures for 21 weeks. The same results were observed in serum for up to 17 weeks, and up to 5 weeks in whole blood. After that time, the compounds could no longer be analyzed due to matrix degradation, especially in the low concentration samples that were stored at room temperature. This study demonstrates that the designer drugs, MDA, MDMA and MDEA are stable when stored at -20 degrees C for 21 weeks, even in haemolysed whole blood. PMID:11741758

  17. Krukenberg tumor presenting as back pain and a positive urine pregnancy test: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Moghazy, Dalia; Al-Hendy, Omar; Al-Hendy, Ayman

    2014-01-01

    A Krukenberg tumor is a rare and potentially deadly cause of elevated serum ?-hCG as part of a paraneoplastic syndrome. This study aims to describe the unusual case of a 36-year-old woman that presented to the Emergency Department (ED) with back pain and a positive urine pregnancy test. Assessment revealed no intrauterine pregnancy and a small left ovarian cyst. Further investigation showed moderately differentiated gastric adenocarcinoma with distant metastases to the spine. The patient died less than 3 months after her first presentation to the ED. Paraneoplastic syndrome, albeit rare, should be considered in the differential diagnosis of elevated ?-hCG due to the high mortality associated with Krukenberg tumors. PMID:24708577

  18. Metabolic profiling of urine and blood plasma in rat models of drug addiction on the basis of morphine, methamphetamine, and cocaine-induced conditioned place preference.

    PubMed

    Zaitsu, Kei; Miyawaki, Izuru; Bando, Kiyoko; Horie, Hiroshi; Shima, Noriaki; Katagi, Munehiro; Tatsuno, Michiaki; Bamba, Takeshi; Sato, Takako; Ishii, Akira; Tsuchihashi, Hitoshi; Suzuki, Koichi; Fukusaki, Eiichiro

    2014-02-01

    The metabolic profiles of urine and blood plasma in drug-addicted rat models based on morphine (MOR), methamphetamine (MA), and cocaine (COC)-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) were investigated. Rewarding effects induced by each drug were assessed by use of the CPP model. A mass spectrometry (MS)-based metabolomics approach was applied to urine and plasma of MOR, MA, and COC-addicted rats. In total, 57 metabolites in plasma and 70 metabolites in urine were identified by gas chromatography-MS. The metabolomics approach revealed that amounts of some metabolites, including tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates, significantly changed in the urine of MOR-addicted rats. This result indicated that disruption of energy metabolism is deeply relevant to MOR addiction. In addition, 3-hydroxybutyric acid, L-tryptophan, cystine, and n-propylamine levels were significantly changed in the plasma of MOR-addicted rats. Lactose, spermidine, and stearic acid levels were significantly changed in the urine of MA-addicted rats. Threonine, cystine, and spermidine levels were significantly increased in the plasma of COC-addicted rats. In conclusion, differences in the metabolic profiles were suggestive of different biological states of MOR, MA, and COC addiction; these may be attributed to the different actions of the drugs on the brain reward circuitry and the resulting adaptation. In addition, the results showed possibility of predict the extent of MOR addiction by metabolic profiling. This is the first study to apply metabolomics to CPP models of drug addiction, and we demonstrated that metabolomics can be a multilateral approach to investigating the mechanism of drug addiction. PMID:23912828

  19. Urine odor

    MedlinePLUS

    Urine odor refers to the smell from your urine. Urine odor varies. Most of the time, urine does not ... Most changes in urine odor are not a sign of disease and go away in time. Some foods and medicines, including vitamins, may affect your ...

  20. Urine Trouble: Drug Testing of Students and Teachers in Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Non-individualized (so-called "random") drug testing in public schools presents issues of Constitutional law on both the federal and state levels, particularly with regard to citizens' freedom from "unreasonable searches and seizures." The trend toward increasing acceptance of such testing by the courts (and particularly the U.S. Supreme Court)…

  1. Retention and selectivity of basic drugs on solid-phase extraction sorbents: application to direct determination of ?-blockers in urine.

    PubMed

    Boonjob, Warunya; Sklená?ová, Hana; Lara, Francisco J; García-Campaña, Ana M; Solich, Petr

    2014-07-01

    Seven solid phase sorbent materials with reversed-phase, mixed-mode interactions (ion-exchange and reversed-phase), and molecularly imprinted polymers (MIP), namely Oasis HLB, Oasis MAX, Oasis MCX, Bond Elute Plexa, Bond Elute Plexa PAX, Bond Elute Plexa PCX, and SupelMIP sorbents, were investigated. The present study was focused on the retention and elution of pharmaceutically active substances based on several analyte-sorbent interaction properties. Basic drugs, such as ?-blockers (i.e., atenolol, pindolol, acebutolol, metoprolol, labetalol, and propranolol) were selected as the model compounds for this study. These compounds are frequently encountered in anti-doping tests. The extraction efficiencies of the individual sorbents were compared based on the recovery of known amounts of the targeted analytes in a metered elution volume (500 ?L) in three separate elution fractions. The elution efficiency of the total amount of the target analytes on various sorbents was not appreciably influenced by the volume of eluent required for complete elution. Based on the small matrix effects and clear baseline, SupelMIP was the most suitable sorbent for urine analysis. The relative analyte recoveries of the SPE-HPLC procedure proved satisfactory for the range from 94% to 105%, with an RSD ranging from 2% to 4%. The regression equations for all of the targeted compounds exhibited excellent linearity (r(2) > 0.9991) over the range of 10 to 1000 ng mL(-1). The limits of detection and quantification for the selected ?-blocker compounds in urine were in the ranges of 0.6 to 2.0 ng mL(-1) and 2.0 to 6.7 ng mL(-1), respectively. PMID:24788887

  2. Urine culture

    MedlinePLUS

    Culture and sensitivity - urine ... when urinating. You may also have a urine culture after you have been treated for an infection. ... when bacteria or yeast are found in the culture. This most often means that you have a ...

  3. Metabolism of the new designer drug alpha-pyrrolidinopropiophenone (PPP) and the toxicological detection of PPP and 4'-methyl-alpha-pyrrolidinopropiophenone (MPPP) studied in rat urine using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Springer, Dietmar; Fritschi, Giselher; Maurer, Hans H

    2003-11-01

    R,S-alpha-pyrrolidinopropiophenone (PPP) is a new designer drug with assumed amphetamine-like effects which has appeared on the illicit drug market. The aim of this study was to identify the PPP metabolites using solid-phase extraction, ethylation or acetylation as well as to develop a toxicological detection procedure in urine using solid-phase extraction, trimethylsilylation and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Analysis of urine samples of rats treated with PPP revealed that PPP was extensively metabolized by hydroxylation of the pyrrolidine ring with subsequent dehydrogenation to the corresponding lactam, hydroxylation of the aromatic ring in position 4' or double dealkylation of the pyrrolidine ring to the corresponding primary amine (cathinone) partly followed by reduction of the keto group to the corresponding secondary alcohol (norephedrines). As cathinone and the norephedrine diastereomers are also formed after intake of other drugs of abuse or medicaments, special attention must be paid to the detection of the unequivocal metabolite 2"-oxo-PPP as an unambiguous proof for the intake of PPP. The hydroxy groups were found to be partly conjugated. Based on these data, PPP could be detected in urine via its metabolites by full-scan GC-MS using mass chromatography for screening and library search for identification by comparison of the spectra with reference spectra. The same toxicological detection procedure can be applied to other designer drugs of the pyrrolidinophenone type, like MOPPP, MDPPP, MPHP, and MPPP. The detection of the latter will also be presented here. PMID:14581066

  4. Rapid screening of drugs of abuse in human urine by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with high resolution and high mass accuracy hybrid linear ion trap-Orbitrap mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaowen; Shen, Baohua; Jiang, Zheng; Huang, Yi; Zhuo, Xianyi

    2013-08-01

    A novel analytical toxicology method has been developed for the analysis of drugs of abuse in human urine by using a high resolution and high mass accuracy hybrid linear ion trap-Orbitrap mass spectrometer (LTQ-Orbitrap-MS). This method allows for the detection of different drugs of abuse, including amphetamines, cocaine, opiate alkaloids, cannabinoids, hallucinogens and their metabolites. After solid-phase extraction with Oasis HLB cartridges, spiked urine samples were analysed by HPLC/LTQ-Orbitrap-MS using an electrospray interface in positive ionisation mode, with resolving power of 30,000 full width at half maximum (FWHM). Gradient elution off of a Hypersil Gold PFP column (50mm×2.1mm) allowed to resolve 65 target compounds and 3 internal standards in a total chromatographic run time of 20min. Validation of this method consisted of confirmation of identity, selectivity, linearity, limit of detection (LOD), lowest limits of quantification (LLOQ), accuracy, precision, extraction recovery and matrix effect. The regression coefficients (r(2)) for the calibration curves (LLOQ - 100ng/mL) in the study were ?0.99. The LODs for 65 validated compounds were better than 5ng/ml except for 4 compounds. The relative standard deviation (RSD), which was used to estimate repeatability at three concentrations, was always less than 15%. The recovery of extraction and matrix effects were above 50 and 70%, respectively. Mass accuracy was always better than 2ppm, corresponding to a maximum mass error of 0.8 millimass units (mmu). The accurate masses of characteristic fragments were obtained by collisional experiments for a more reliable identification of the analytes. Automated data analysis and reporting were performed using ToxID software with an exact mass database. This procedure was then successfully applied to analyse drugs of abuse in a real urine sample from subject who was assumed to be drug addict. PMID:23838299

  5. Pholcodine interference in the immunoassay for opiates in urine.

    PubMed

    Svenneby, G; Wedege, E; Karlsen, R L

    1983-01-01

    The excretion in urine after single oral therapeutic doses of morphine derivatives was analysed with radioimmunoassay (RIA) and homogeneous enzyme immunoassay (EMIT) for opiates. In contrast to the rapid excretion of ethylmorphine and codeine, pholcodine showed positive results for opiates 2-6 weeks after intake when the urines were analysed with the RIA-method. When analysed with the EMIT-method, positive results were obtained for pholcodine for approximately 10 days. As pholcodine is a common component in cough mixtures, its prolonged excretion could represent a hazard in interpreting the results from drug analyses of urines. PMID:6347841

  6. Broad Spectrum Drug Identification Directly from Urine, Using Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert L. Fitzgerald; Jeffrey D. Rivera; David A. Herold

    Background: Currently the rate-limiting step for mass spectrometric analysis of drugs in biological samples is sample preparation. Many gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry (GC\\/MS) methods are specific for a certain class of compounds, requiring extraction and\\/or deriva- tization before analysis. The purpose of this study was to develop a broad spectrum liquid chromatography\\/ mass spectrometry (LC\\/MS) procedure that allowed for direct analysis

  7. Determination of five abused drugs in nitrite-adulterated urine by immunoassays and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Tsai, S C; ElSohly, M A; Dubrovsky, T; Twarowska, B; Towt, J; Salamone, S J

    1998-10-01

    The adulteration of urine specimens with nitrite ion hasseen shown to mask the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) confirmation testing of marijuana use. This study was designed to further investigate the effect of nitrite adulteration on the detection of five commonly abused drugs by immunoassay screening and GC-MS analysis. The drugs tested are cocaine metabolite (benzoylecgonine), morphine, 11-nor-delta-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (THCCOOH), amphetamine, and phencyclidine. The immunoassays evaluated included the instrument-based Abuscreen ONLINE assays, the on-site Abuscreen ONTRAK assays, and the one-step ONTRAK TESTCUP-5 assay. Multianalyte standards containing various levels of drugs were used to test the influence of both potassium and sodium nitrite. In the ONLINE immunoassays, the presence of up to 1.0M nitrite in the multianalyte standards had no significant effect for benzoylecgonine, morphine, and phencyclidine assays. With a high concentration of nitrite, ONLINE became more sensitive for amphetamine (detected more drug than what was expected) and less sensitive for THCCOOH (detected less drug than what was expected). No effects of nitrite were observed on the results of the Abuscreen ONTRAK assays. Similarly, no effects were observed on the absolute qualitative results of the TESTCUP-5 when testing the nitrite-adulterated standards. However, the produced intensities of the signals that indicate the negative test results were slightly lowered in the THC and phencyclidine assays. The presence of 1.0M of nitrite did not show dramatic interference with the GC-MS analysis of benzoylecgonine, morphine, amphetamine, and phencyclidine. In contrast, nitrite ion significantly interfered with the detection of THCCOOH by GC-MS. The presence of 0.03M of nitrite ion resulted in significant loss in the recovery of THCCOOH and its internal standard by GC-MS. The problem of nitrite adulteration could be alleviated by sodium bisulfite treatment even when the specimens were spiked with 1.0M of nitrite ion. Although bisulfite treatment decomposed all nitrite ions in the sample to recover the remaining THCCOOH by GC-MS, the net recovery of THCCOOH depended on urinary pH and time and conditions of sample storage. The presence of nitrite concentrations that might arise from all possible natural sources, including microorganisms, pathological conditions, and medications, did not interfere with the GC-MS analysis of THCCOOH. PMID:9788522

  8. Studies on the metabolism of mitragynine, the main alkaloid of the herbal drug Kratom, in rat and human urine using liquid chromatography-linear ion trap mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Philipp, Anika A; Wissenbach, Dirk K; Zoerntlein, Siegfried W; Klein, Oliver N; Kanogsunthornrat, Jidapha; Maurer, Hans H

    2009-08-01

    Mitragynine (MG) is an indole alkaloid of the Thai medicinal plant Mitragyna speciosa (Kratom in Thai) and reported to have opioid agonistic properties. Because of its stimulant and euphoric effects, Kratom is used as a herbal drug of abuse. The aim of the presented study is to identify the phase I and II metabolites of MG in rat and human urine after solid-phase extraction (SPE) using liquid chromatography-linear ion trap mass spectrometry providing detailed structure information in the MSn mode particularly with high resolution. The seven identified phase I metabolites indicated that MG was metabolized by hydrolysis of the methylester in position 16, O-demethylation of the 9-methoxy group and of the 17-methoxy group, followed, via the intermediate aldehydes, by oxidation to carboxylic acids or reduction to alcohols and combinations of some steps. In rats, four metabolites were additionally conjugated to glucuronides and one to sulfate, but in humans, three metabolites to glucuronides and three to sulfates. PMID:19536806

  9. Determination of the metabolites of the new designer drugs bk-MBDB and bk-MDEA in human urine.

    PubMed

    Zaitsu, Kei; Katagi, Munehiro; Kamata, Hiroe T; Kamata, Tooru; Shima, Noriaki; Miki, Akihiro; Tsuchihashi, Hitoshi; Mori, Yasushige

    2009-07-01

    This is the first report on identifying the specific metabolites of the new designer drugs 2-methylamino-1-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)butan-1-one (bk-MBDB) and 2-ethylamino-1-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)propan-1-one (bk-MDEA) in human urine using synthesized standards. Based on GC/MS and LC/MS, we identified N-dealkylation, demethylenation followed by O-methylation, and beta-ketone reduction as their major metabolic pathways. The quantitative analyses by LC/MS revealed that both demethylenation followed by O-methylation and beta-ketone reduction were superior to N-dealkylation and that both bk-MBDB and bk-MDEA were mainly metabolized into their corresponding 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy metabolites (4-OH-3MeO metabolites). After hydrolysis, the concentrations of 4-OH-3MeO metabolites and 3-hydroxy-4-methoxy metabolites of both bk-MBDB and bk-MDEA dramatically increased, suggesting that the metabolites mainly exist as their conjugates. PMID:19406592

  10. Toxicological detection of the designer drug 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDE, “Eve”) and its metabolites in urine by gas chromatography — mass spectrometry and fluorescence polarization immunoassay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hartmut K. Ensslin; Karl-Artur Kovar; Hans H. Maurer

    1996-01-01

    Studies are presented on the toxicological detection of the designer drug methylenedioxyethylapphetamine [MDE, rac-N-ethyl-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)-propane-2-amine] in urine after a single oral dose of 140 mg of MDE by GC-MS and fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA). After acid hydrolysis, extraction and acetylation MDE and its metabolites could be detected by mass chromatography with the selected ions m\\/z 72, 86, 114, 150, 162 and

  11. A Case of Psychosis After Use of a Detoxification Kit and a Review of Techniques, Risks, and Regulations Associated With the Subversion of Urine Drug Tests

    PubMed Central

    Mittal, Moneeshindra Singh; Kalia, Rachna

    2011-01-01

    Context: The practice of drug testing in the workplace has been adopted for US federal government employees, and many state and local governments as well as private businesses have followed suit. However, a parallel industry dedicated to subverting the results of urine drug testing has emerged with little or no regulation. Evidence Acquisition: First, the case of a 19-year-old man who developed psychosis after the use of a detoxification kit is presented. Second, a review of the existing literature on the techniques, risks, and regulations associated with the use of drug tampering kits is provided. PubMed, Cochrane Database, and Google Scholar were searched using the keywords UDS, urine toxicology, pass the drug test, and clean UA, with no restrictions on publication date. Case reports, letters to the editor, and original research and review articles in multiple languages were reviewed, as were federal regulations and acts on the topic. The search yielded 4,082 results, of which 49 articles were selected for relevance. Some articles were later omitted as they had cited the original article and had nothing new to offer. Results: Three commonly used tampering techniques are in vivo adulteration, urine substitution, and in vitro adulteration. Review of the literature regarding the risks involved with use of tampering kits yielded no results. In 1986, an executive order was issued requiring all federal employees to refrain from illicit drug use, and the 1988 Drug-Free Workplace Act precipitated the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration guidelines and their subsequent revisions. Recently, many states have made regulatory efforts to bring drug test defrauding under the ambit of law. Conclusions: Clinicians need to be aware of the tampering techniques and the possibility of false-negative urine drug tests. Cognizance of inherent risks involved with using these techniques including psychiatric and/or medical complications is also warranted. The manufacture, sale, and use of these products have little or no regulation by state or federal authorities, making them potentially dangerous and imposing new challenges in testing for abused drugs. The extent of use of these products and techniques is not known at this time and is an area that warrants further research. PMID:22295274

  12. Elevated urine zinc concentration reduces the detection of methamphetamine, cocaine, THC and opiates in urine by EMIT.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chia-Ni; Strathmann, Frederick G

    2013-01-01

    Methods for circumventing positive drug tests continue to evolve and are often spread through internet websites reporting on the proposed effectiveness of various adulteration methods. Recent claims of the use of zinc added directly to urine or ingested prior to urine collection have prompted investigation into the vulnerability of ELISA-based testing, providing interesting but inconclusive results. We investigated the potential interference of zinc used as a direct adulterant and after zinc self-administration for enzyme multiplied immunoassay technique (EMIT)-based drug abuse testing in urine. Negative urine samples and samples collected before and after zinc self-administration were fortified with d-methamphetamine, benzoylecgonine, morphine and 11-nor-9-carboxy-tetrahydrocannabinol prior to analysis by the EMIT. Our data indicate that zinc added directly to urine in concentrations 5,000 times higher than a typical random urine total zinc concentration is capable of producing false-negative results; however, self-administration of oral zinc was unable to generate random urine total zinc concentrations in the required range. Further, no evidence of a secondary interfering substance was observed as a result of oral zinc self-administration. Our results indicate that the total zinc concentrations required to directly interfere with EMIT-based testing are easily distinguishable from routine random urine total zinc concentrations, and that alleged oral ingestion of zinc does not produce total zinc concentrations capable of direct interference. PMID:23843421

  13. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry with ion trap and triple quadrupole analyzers for determination of thyreostatic drugs in urine and muscle tissue.

    PubMed

    Wozniak, Barbara; Zuchowska, Iwona Matraszek; Zmudzki, Jan; Jedziniak, Piotr; Korycinska, Beata; Sielska, Katarzyna; Witek, Sebastian; Klopot, Alicja

    2011-08-26

    Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry methods were developed and validated to screen for and confirm residues of the thyreostatic drugs: tapazole, thiouracil, methylthiouracil, propylthiouracil, and phenylthiouracil in bovine and porcine urine and muscle tissues using dimethylthiouracil as internal standard. Thyreostats were extracted from urine samples with diethyl ether after derivatisation with 3-iodobenzylbromide in basic medium (pH 8.0) and analyzed by gradient elution on a Nucleosil C18 column with ion trap mass spectrometry detection using an electrospray source and triple quadrupole MS detection with turbo spray source. Thyreostats were extracted from muscle tissue with methanol, the denaturation of matrix protein was performed and then the same steps as for the urine samples were carried out. The methods were validated in accordance with the Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. Good thyreostats recoveries were obtained (from 82% to 117%) as well as acceptable within-lab reproducibility. The values of the decision limit CC? and the detection capability CC? of five thyreostatic drugs are found to be below the recommended concentration set at 10 ?g L(-1) (kg(-1)). The results of the validation demonstrate that liquid chromatography mass spectrometry with ion trap detection does not meet the criteria for confirmation for some thyreostats and therefore was applied for screening purpose only. PMID:21742128

  14. Utility of urine and serum lateral flow assays to determine the prevalence and predictors of cryptococcal antigenemia in HIV-positive outpatients beginning antiretroviral therapy in Mwanza, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Magambo, Kinanga A; Kalluvya, Samuel E; Kapoor, Shikha W; Seni, Jeremiah; Chofle, Awilly A; Fitzgerald, Daniel W; Downs, Jennifer A

    2014-01-01

    Background Detection of subclinical cryptococcal disease using cryptococcal antigen screening among HIV-positive individuals presents a potential opportunity for prevention of both clinical disease and death if patients with detectable cryptococcal antigen are identified and treated pre-emptively. Recently developed point-of-care cryptococcal antigen tests may be useful for screening, particularly in resource-limiting settings, but few studies have assessed their utility. Methodology The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence and factors associated with cryptococcal antigenemia in HIV-positive patients with CD4+ T-cell counts ?200 cells/µL who were initiating ART, and also to evaluate the utility of the point-of-care urine lateral flow assay (LFA) cryptococcal antigen test using two different diluents, compared to gold standard serum antigen testing, as a screening tool. Urine and serum of outpatients initiating antiretroviral therapy at two hospitals in Mwanza were tested for cryptococcal antigen, and demographic and clinical characteristics were obtained using structured questionnaires and patients’ files. Patients with asymptomatic cryptococcal antigenemia received oral fluconazole in accordance with World Health Organization recommendations. Results Among 140 patients screened, 10 (7.1%) had asymptomatic cryptococcal antigenemia with a positive serum cryptococcal antigen. Four of these ten patients had CD4 counts between 100 and 200 cells/µL. The prevalence of cryptococcal antigen detected in urine using a standard (older) and a test (newer) diluent were 44 (31.4%) and 19 (13.6%), with Kappa coefficients compared to serum of 0.28 and 0.51 (p<0.001 for both). Compared to the new LFA diluent for urine cryptococcal antigen, the standard diluent had higher sensitivity (100% versus 80%) but lower specificity (74% versus 92%) using serum cryptococcal antigen as a gold standard. Conclusions Our findings suggest that HIV-positive outpatients with CD4 counts <200 cells/µL, rather than 100, should be screened for asymptomatic cryptococcal antigenemia given its association with mortality if untreated. Agreement of the urine LFA with the serum LFA was not sufficient to recommend routine screening with urine LFA. PMID:25109284

  15. A novel method for GHB detection in urine and its application in drug-facilitated sexual assaults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Albert A Elian

    2000-01-01

    A confirmation procedure for the identification and quantification of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) in urine is presented. This method is unique in that it does not involve the conversion of GHB to the gamma-butyrolactone (GBL). The urine samples were extracted using ethyl acetate, evaporated and derivatized with N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA) with 1% trimethylchlorosilane (TMCS), and analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Quantification was

  16. Urine - bloody

    MedlinePLUS

    ... sickle cell, bleeding problems, and other blood disorders Urinalysis Urinary cytology Urine culture 24-hour urine collection ... the urologic patient: History, physical examination, and the urinalysis In: Wein AJ, ed. Campbell-Walsh Urology . 10th ...

  17. Extraction and determination of some psychotropic drugs in urine samples using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction followed by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Chaomei; Ruan, Jinlan; Cai, Yaling; Tang, Ying

    2009-02-20

    A simple, rapid and sensitive method termed as dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) combined with high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detector (HPLC-UV) has been proposed for the determination of three psychotropic drugs (amitryptiline, clomipramine and thioridazine) in urine samples. The determination was performed on a C(8) column under the optimal chromatographic conditions (mobile phase: ammonium acetate (0.03 mol L(-1), pH 5.5)-acetonitrile (60:40, v/v); flow rate: 1.0 mL min(-1); detection wavelength: 238 nm). Several factors influencing the extraction efficiency of the target drugs, such as pH, extraction and disperser solvent type and their volume, extraction time and ion strength were studied and optimized. Under the optimal DLLME conditions, the absolute recoveries of amitryptiline, clomipramine and thioridazine from the urine samples were 96, 97 and 101%, respectively. The detection limits (LODs) and quantification (LOQs) of the proposed approach were 3 and 10 ng mL(-1) for amitryptiline, 7 and 21 ng mL(-1) for clomipramine, and 8 and 25 ng mL(-1) for thioridazine, respectively. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) for nine replicate determinations at 0.100 microg mL(-1) level of target drugs were less than 4.8%. Good linear behaviors over the investigated concentration ranges were obtained with the values of R(2)>0.998 for the target drugs. The proposed method was successfully applied to the real urine samples from two female patients under amitryptiline and clomipramine treatment, respectively. PMID:19135820

  18. Workplace drug testing in Italy - critical considerations.

    PubMed

    Vignali, Claudia; Stramesi, Cristiana; Morini, Luca; Pozzi, Fulvia; Collo, Giancarlo; Groppi, Angelo

    2013-04-01

    Workplace drug testing (WDT) was established in Italy on 30 October 2007. Two tiers of survey are required: the first tier concerns drug testing on urine samples, the second involves both urine and hair analysis. Between July 2008 and December 2011, 10 598 workers' urine samples and 72 hair samples for opiates, cocaine, cannabinoids, amphetamines, methylenedioxyamphetamines, methadone, and buprenorphine were tested in our laboratory. Urine analyses were performed by immunological screening (EMIT); hair analysis and confirmation tests in urine were performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Employees tested positive in urine for drugs of abuse numbered 2.8% in 2008, 2.03% in 2009, 1.62% in 2010, and 1.43% in 2011. As regards the second level of analysis, we observed that only one-third of the workers who had been tested positive for drugs of abuse were referred to an Addiction Treatment Unit in order to verify drug addiction. Our experience shows that, four years after approval of the law on WDT, the percentage of workers positive for drugs of abuse in urine has reduced in comparison to the first year. Moreover, our data show that most of the times employees who tested positive are tardily referred or not referred at all to a Public Addiction Treatment Unit to verify drug addiction. This makes us believe that the legal provisions are widely disregarded not paying the right tribute to the fact that Italy is one of few European countries with legislation on WDT. PMID:23355251

  19. Legal Position of School Personnel -- Drugs and Narcotics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shannon, Thomas A.

    California educators have been given broad discretionary powers to control students who misuse drugs or narcotics, and to develop drug education programs. This paper outlines and discusses legislation dealing with disciplinary actions against drug offenders, and delineates school responsibilities for developing and implementing effective drug

  20. High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with Tandem Mass Spectrometry for the Determination of Nine Hallucinogenic 25-NBOMe Designer Drugs in Urine Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Poklis, Justin L.; Clay, Deborah J.; Poklis, Alphonse

    2014-01-01

    We present a high-performance liquid chromatography triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (HPLC–MS-MS) method for the identification and quantification of nine serotonin 5-HT2A receptor agonist hallucinogenic substances from a new class of N-methoxybenzyl derivatives of methoxyphenylethylamine (NBOMe) designer drugs in human urine: 25H-NBOMe, 2CC-NBOMe, 25I-NBF, 25D-NBOMe, 25B-NBOMe, 2CT-NBOMe, 25I-NBMD, 25G-NBOMe and 25I-NBOMe. This assay was developed for the Virginia Commonwealth University Clinical and Forensic Toxicology laboratory to screen emergency department specimens in response to an outbreak of N-benzyl-phenethylamine derivative abuse and overdose cases in Virginia. The NBOMe derivatives were rapidly extracted from the urine specimens by use of FASt™ solid-phase extraction columns. Assay performance was determined as recommended for validation by the Scientific Working Group for Forensic Toxicology (SWGTOX) for linearity, lower limit of quantification, lower limit of detection, accuracy/bias, precision, dilution integrity, carryover, selectivity, absolute recovery, ion suppression and stability. Linearity was verified to be from 1 to 100 ng/mL for each of the nine analytes. The bias determined for the NBOMe derivatives was 86–116% with a <14% coefficient of variation over the linear range of the assay. Four different NBOMe derivatives were detected using the presented method in patient urine specimens. PMID:24535338

  1. Patient knows best: blinded assessment of nonadherence with antituberculous therapy by physicians, nurses, and patients compared with urine drug levels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. R. MacIntyre; K. Goebel; G. V. Brown

    2005-01-01

    Background. Adherence with therapy is a wide spectrum of behavior rather than a categorical state. While extreme nonadherence is readily apparent, it is rare compared to lesser degrees of nonadherence, which are difficult to predict.Aims. To compare the accuracy of doctor, nurse, and patient prediction of adherence with antituberculous therapy with urine isoniazid levels.Methods. A prospective, blinded clinical study was

  2. Is a positive history of non-anaesthetic drug allergy a predictive factor for positive allergy tests to anaesthetics?

    PubMed Central

    Hagau, Natalia; Gherman-Ionica, Nadia; Hagau, Denisa; Tranca, Sebastian; Sfichi, Manuela; Longrois, Dan

    2012-01-01

    AIMS International recommendations stipulate not performing screening skin tests to a drug in the absence of a clinical history consistent with that specific drug allergy. Nevertheless, two publications showed that a positive history of non-anaesthetic drug allergy was the only predictive factor for a positive skin test when screening for allergy to anaesthetic drugs was done. We selected from a surgical population 40 volunteers with a prior history of allergy to non-anaesthetic drugs in order to analyse the prevalence of positive allergy tests to anaesthetics. METHODS The selected adult patients were tested for 11 anaesthetic drugs using in vivo tests: skin prick (SPT) and intradermal (IDT) tests and in vitro tests: the basophil activation test (BAT) and detection of drug-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE). RESULTS The prevalence for the positive SPT and IDT was 1.6% and 5.8% respectively. The result of flow cytometry agreed with the SPT in five out of seven positive SPT (71%). IgEs confirmed two positive SPT with corresponding positive BAT. Ten per cent of the patients had a positive prick test to neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBA). For midazolam none of the SPT was positive, but 11 patients had positive IDT nonconfirmed by BAT. CONCLUSION The prevalence of positive in vivo and in vitro allergy tests to NMBAs is higher in our study population. This could be an argument for pre-operative SPT to NMBAs for the surgical population with reported non-anaesthetic drug allergies. A larger prospective study is needed to validate changes in clinical practice. PMID:21988224

  3. Comparative evaluation of seven different sample treatment approaches for large-scale multiclass sport drug testing in urine by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Romero, Juan C; García-Reyes, Juan F; Molina-Díaz, Antonio

    2014-09-26

    Sample preparation is a critical step in large-scale multiclass analysis such as sport drug testing. Due to the wide heterogeneity of the analytes and the complexity of the matrix, the selection of a correct sample preparation method is essential, looking for a compromise between good recoveries for most of the analytes and cleanliness of the extract. In the present work, seven sample preparation procedures based on solid-phase extraction (SPE) (with 5 different cartridges), liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and sorbent-supported liquid extraction (SLE) were evaluated for multiclass sport drug testing in urine. The selected SPE sorbents were polymeric cartridges Agilent PLEXA™ and Oasis HLB™, mixed mode cation and anion exchange cartridges Oasis MAX™ and MCX™, and C18 cartridges. LLE was performed using tert-butyl methyl ether and SLE was carried out using Agilent Chem Elut™ cartridges. To evaluate the proposed extraction procedures, a list of 189 compounds were selected as representative from different groups of doping agents, including 34 steroids, 14 glucocorticosteroids, 24 diuretics and masking agents, 11 stimulants, 9 beta-agonist, 16 beta-blockers, 6 Selective Estrogen Receptors Modulators (SERMs), 24 narcotics and 22 other drugs of abuse/sport drugs. Blank urine samples were spiked at two levels of concentration, 2.5 and 25?gL(-1) and extracted with the different extraction protocols (n=6). The analysis of the extracts was carried out by liquid chromatography electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The use of solid-phase extraction with polymer cartridges provided high recoveries for most of the analytes tested and was found the more suitable method for this type of application given the additional advantages such as low sample and solvent consumption along with increased automation and throughput. PMID:25138706

  4. Environmental and biological monitoring of platinum-containing drugs in two hospital pharmacies using positive air pressure isolators.

    PubMed

    Kopp, Bettina; Crauste-Manciet, Sylvie; Guibert, Agnès; Mourier, Wilhelmine; Guerrault-Moro, Marie-Noelle; Ferrari, Sylvie; Jomier, Jean-Yves; Brossard, Denis; Schierl, Rudolf

    2013-04-01

    Environmental and biological monitoring of platinum containing drugs was implemented in two French hospital pharmacies using positive air pressure isolators and having similar working procedures when preparing antineoplastic drugs. Wipe sampling of surfaces, gloves, and vials was performed in the preparation room and in storage areas. All employees involved in the preparation of antineoplastic drugs were tested for urinary platinum on Monday before work and Friday after shift. Only traces of platinum were detected on surfaces in the preparation room outside the isolators (less than 1.61 pg cm(-2)). However, in one center, significant contamination was found in the storage area of the drug vials, which can most likely be linked to the rupture of a platinum vial and due to inefficient cleaning procedures. Surfaces inside the isolators were found to be contaminated (maximum: 198.4 pg cm(-2)). A higher level of contamination was detected in one pharmacy and could be explained by the lack of overgloving with regular changes during the preparation process. Nitrile gloves used during drug handling outside the isolator showed the highest platinum concentration (maximum: 5.86 ng per pair). With regards to platinum urine concentration, no significant difference was found between exposed and unexposed pharmacy personnel. Isolator technology combined with individual protective measures seems to be efficient to protect workers from occupational exposure to antineoplastic drugs, whereas specific individual protective procedures implemented were focussing on the risk of handling vials outside the isolator (e.g. high frequency of glove changing). Moreover, overgloving inside the isolator would contribute to substantially decrease inner surface contamination and should be recommended in order to limit the transfer of chemical contamination to the end products. PMID:23091112

  5. Absorptive constituents and their metabolites in drug-containing urine samples from Wuzhishan miniature pigs orally administered with Buyang Huanwu decoction.

    PubMed

    Yang, Dong-Hui; Ren, Xiang-Liang; Xu, Feng; Ma, Xiao-Qing; Liu, Guang-Xue; Li, Cang-Hai; Li, Chen; Cai, Shao-Qing

    2014-01-01

    Buyang Huanwu decoction (BYHWD), a famous traditional Chinese medicine prescription for the treatment of cerebrovascular diseases, is composed of seven commonly used Chinese herbs--Astragali Radix, Angelicae Sinensis Radix, Paeoniae Radix Rubra, Chuanxiong Rhizoma, Carthami Flos, Persicae Semen and Pheretima. To determine the main absorptive constituents and the metabolites of BYHWD in vivo, urine samples from Wuzhishan (WZS) miniature pigs orally administered with BYHWD (13.6 g crude drugs/kg) were collected to investigate the characteristic compounds. By comparing the high-performance liquid chromatography of a drug-containing urine sample with that of a drug-free sample, 17 characteristic compounds were isolated from the methanol extract of a drug-containing urine sample by column chromatography. Their structures, including 11 isoflavanoids, 2 pterocarpanoids and 4 isoflavonoids, were identified by spectroscopic means. Of the 17 compounds, 8 (1-8) were new compounds with the following structures: 3S-7,3',4'-trihydroxyisoflavan-3'-O-?-D-glucuronide (1), 3S-7,3',4'-trihydroxyisoflavan-4'-O-?-D-glucuronide (2), 3S-7,2',4'-trihydroxyisoflavan-2'-O-?-D-glucuronide (3), 3R-7,2'-dihydroxy-3',4'-dimethoxyisoflavan-2'-O-?-D-glucuronide (4), 3R-7,2'-dihydroxy-3',4'-dimethoxyisoflavan-2'-O-?-D-glucuronide-6"-methyl ester (5), 3R-7,2'-dihydroxy-3',4'-dimethoxyisoflavan-7-O-?-D-glucuronide-6"-methyl ester (6), 3R-7,2',3'-trihydroxy-4'-methoxyisoflavan-3'-O-?-D-glucuronide-6"-methyl ester (7), and 3S-7,4',5'-trihydroxy-2',3'-dimethoxyisoflavan-5'-O-?-D-glucuronide (8). Based on the possible relationship and metabolic pathways of the 17 compounds in vivo, 3R-7,2'-dihydroxy-3',4'-dimethoxyisoflavan (isomucronulatol, 11), 6aR,11aR-3-hydroxy-9,10-dimethoxypterocarpan (methylnissolin, astrapterocarpan, 13), 7,3'-dihydroxy-4'-methoxyisoflavone (calycosin, 16) and 7-hydroxy-4'-methoxyisoflavone (formononetin, 17) were thought to be the most important absorptive original isoflavonoid constituents of BYHWD in vivo, which underwent reactions of glucuronidation, hydroxylation, demethylation and reduction. The other 13 compounds were deduced to be their metabolites. PMID:23516044

  6. In silico and in vitro metabolism studies support identification of designer drugs in human urine by liquid chromatography/quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Tyrkkö, Elli; Pelander, Anna; Ketola, Raimo A; Ojanperä, Ilkka

    2013-08-01

    Human phase I metabolism of four designer drugs, 2-desoxypipradrol (2-DPMP), 3,4-dimethylmethcathinone (3,4-DMMC), ?-pyrrolidinovalerophenone (?-PVP), and methiopropamine (MPA), was studied using in silico and in vitro metabolite prediction. The metabolites were identified in drug abusers’ urine samples using liquid chromatography/quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC/Q-TOF/MS). The aim of the study was to evaluate the ability of the in silico and in vitro methods to generate the main urinary metabolites found in vivo. Meteor 14.0.0 software (Lhasa Limited) was used for in silico metabolite prediction, and in vitro metabolites were produced in human liver microsomes (HLMs). 2-DPMP was metabolized by hydroxylation, dehydrogenation, and oxidation, resulting in six phase I metabolites. Six metabolites were identified for 3,4-DMMC formed via N-demethylation, reduction, hydroxylation, and oxidation reactions. ?-PVP was found to undergo reduction, hydroxylation, dehydrogenation, and oxidation reactions, as well as degradation of the pyrrolidine ring, and seven phase I metabolites were identified. For MPA, the nor-MPA metabolite was detected. Meteor software predicted the main human urinary phase I metabolites of 3,4-DMMC, ?-PVP, and MPA and two of the four main metabolites of 2-DPMP. It assisted in the identification of the previously unreported metabolic reactions for ?-PVP. Eight of the 12 most abundant in vivo phase I metabolites were detected in the in vitro HLM experiments. In vitro tests serve as material for exploitation of in silico data when an authentic urine sample is not available. In silico and in vitro designer drug metabolism studies with LC/Q-TOF/MS produced sufficient metabolic information to support identification of the parent compound in vivo. PMID:23797910

  7. Fabrication of aluminum terephthalate metal-organic framework incorporated polymer monolith for the microextraction of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in water and urine samples.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Dan-Ya; Yang, Cheng-Xiong; Yan, Xiu-Ping

    2015-05-01

    Polymer monolith microextraction (PMME) based on capillary monolithic column is an effective and useful technique to preconcentrate trace analytes from environmental and biological samples. Here, we report the fabrication of a novel aluminum terephthalate metal-organic framework (MIL-53(Al)) incorporated capillary monolithic column via in situ polymerization for the PMME of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (ketoprofen, fenbufen and ibuprofen) in water and urine samples. The fabricated MIL-53(Al) incorporated monolith was characterized by X-ray powder diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, and nitrogen adsorption experiment. The MIL-53(Al) incorporated monolith gave larger surface area than the neat polymer monolith. A 2-cm long MIL-53(Al) incorporated capillary monolith was applied for PMME coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography for the determination of the NSAIDs. Potential factors affecting the PMME were studied in detail. Under the optimized conditions, the developed method gave the enhancement factors of 46-51, the linear range of 0.40-200?gL(-1), the detection limits (S/N=3) of 0.12-0.24?gL(-1), and the quantification limits (S/N=10) of 0.40-0.85?gL(-1). The recoveries for spiked NSAIDs (20?gL(-1)) in water and urine samples were in the range of 77.3-104%. Besides, the MIL-53(Al) incorporated monolith was stable enough for 120 extraction cycles without significant loss of extraction efficiency. The developed method was successfully applied to the determination of NSAIDs in water and urine samples. PMID:25840660

  8. Microextraction by packed sorbent and high performance liquid chromatography determination of seven non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in human plasma and urine.

    PubMed

    Locatelli, Marcello; Ferrone, Vincenzo; Cifelli, Roberta; Barbacane, Renato Carmine; Carlucci, Giuseppe

    2014-11-01

    This paper reports a new MEPS-HPLC-PDA method for the simultaneous analysis of seven non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (Furprofen, Indoprofen, Ketoprofen, Fenbufen, Flurbiprofen, Indomethacin, and Ibuprofen) in human plasma and urine. NSAIDs were resolved on a Gemini C18 column (4.6 mm × 250 mm; 5 ?m particle size) using a gradient elution mode with a run time of 25 min, comprising re-equilibration, without further purification. The method was validated over the concentration range from 0.1 to 10 ?g/mL for all the analytes both in human plasma and urine, using Benzyl 4-hydroxybenzoate as the internal standards. This method was successfully tested to NSAIDs analyses in real matrices, in order to check the method potentiality and the correct response. The results from assay validations show that the method is selective, sensitive and robust. The limit of quantification of the method was 0.1 ?g/mL for all analytes, and weighted-matrix-matched standard curves showed a good linearity up to 10 ?g/mL. In order to check the correct response for over-range samples, parallelism tests were also assessed. In the entire analytical range the intra and inter-day precision (RSD%) values were ? 7.31% and ? 13.5%, respectively. For all the analytes the intra and inter-day trueness (Bias%) values ranged from -11.3% to 10.2%. To our knowledge, this is the first MEPS-HPLC-PDA based method that uses MEPS procedure for simultaneous determination of these seven NSAIDs in plasma and urine samples. PMID:25278162

  9. Nonhazardous Urine Pretreatment Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akse, James R.; Holtsnider, John T.

    2012-01-01

    A method combines solid phase acidification with two non-toxic biocides to prevent ammonia volatilization and microbial proliferation. The safe, non-oxidizing biocide combination consists of a quaternary amine and a food preservative. This combination has exhibited excellent stabilization of both acidified and unacidified urine. During pretreatment tests, composite urine collected from donors was challenged with a microorganism known to proliferate in urine, and then was processed using the nonhazardous urine pre-treatment method. The challenge microorganisms included Escherichia coli, a common gram-negative bacteria; Enterococcus faecalis, a ureolytic gram-positive bacteria; Candida albicans, a yeast commonly found in urine; and Aspergillus niger, a problematic mold that resists urine pre-treatment. Urine processed in this manner remained microbially stable for over 57 days. Such effective urine stabilization was achieved using non-toxic, non-oxidizing biocides at higher pH (3.6 to 5.8) than previous methods in use or projected for use aboard the International Space Station (ISS). ISS urine pretreatment methods employ strong oxidants including ozone and hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)), a carcinogenic material, under very acidic conditions (pH = 1.8 to 2.4). The method described here offers a much more benign chemical environment than previous pretreatment methods, and will lower equivalent system mass (ESM) by reducing containment volume and mass, system complexity, and crew time needed to handle pre-treatment chemicals. The biocides, being non-oxidizing, minimize the potential for chemical reactions with urine constituents to produce volatile, airborne contaminants such as cyanogen chloride. Additionally, the biocides are active under significantly less acidic conditions than those used in the current system, thereby reducing the degree of required acidification. A simple flow-through solid phase acidification (SPA) bed is employed to overcome the natural buffering capacity of urine, and to lower the pH to levels that fix ammoniacal nitrogen in the non-volatile and highly water soluble NH4 + form. Citric acid, a highly soluble, solid tricarboxylic acid essential to cellular metabolism, and typically used as a food preservative, has also been shown to efficiently acidify urine in conjunction with non-oxidizing biocides to provide effective stabilization with respect to both microbial growth and ammonia volatilization.

  10. Proteins of human urine. III. Identification and two-dimensional electrophoretic map positions of some major urinary proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, J.J.; Tollaksen, S.L.; Anderson, N.G.

    1982-04-01

    The proteins of human urine have been mapped by high-resolution two-dimensional electrophoresis, utilizing the ISO-DALT system. Wide-range pH gradients and narrow-range acid gradients were both used in the first-dimension separations. The patterns revealed proteins ranging in relative molecular mass from 10 000 to 90 000. Proteins identified in the map included transferrin, albumin, hemopexin, ..cap alpha../sub 2/-HS glycoprotein, ..cap alpha../sub 1/-antitrypsin, Gc globulin, ..cap alpha../sub 1/-acid glycoprotein, Zn ..cap alpha../sub 2/-glycoprotein, retinol binding protein, ..beta../sub 2/-microglobulin, the immunoglobulin light chains, and MAUP (most acid urinary protein). The use and utility of internal-charge and molecular-mass standards are described. We used electrophoretic transfer of proteins to nitrocellulose sheets and subsequent detection by immunological methods to identify some proteins.

  11. Research & market strategy: how choice of drug discovery approach can affect market position.

    PubMed

    Sams-Dodd, Frank

    2007-04-01

    In principal, drug discovery approaches can be grouped into target- and function-based, with the respective aims of developing either a target-selective drug or a drug that produces a specific biological effect irrespective of its mode of action. Most analyses of drug discovery approaches focus on productivity, whereas the strategic implications of the choice of drug discovery approach on market position and ability to maintain market exclusivity are rarely considered. However, a comparison of approaches from the perspective of market position indicates that the functional approach is superior for the development of novel, innovative treatments. PMID:17395091

  12. HCG in urine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... blood serum - qualitative HCG in blood serum - quantitative Pregnancy test ... To collect a urine sample, you urinate into a special (sterile) ... urine sample or passed through the urine stream while urinating. ...

  13. Calcium - urine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... best treatment for the most common type of kidney stone , which is made of calcium. This type of ... the kidneys into the urine, which causes calcium kidney stones Sarcoidosis Taking too much calcium Too much production ...

  14. Identification and quantification of the osmodiuretic mannitol in urine for sports drug testing using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Guddat, Sven; Thevis, Mario; Schänzer, Wilhelm

    2008-01-01

    The osmodiuretic mannitol can be potentially misused in sports, owing to its urine diluting effect and the possibility to decrease bodyweight. To reveal a doping offence, resulting urinary mannitol concentrations after a prohibited intravenous application and a permitted oral intake have to be differentiated. Therefore, a reliable gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method was established based on peracetyl derivatives of the analytes. All possible hexitols (allitol, galactitol, iditol, altritols, sorbitol and mannitol) that can occur in human urine were separated and identified on a phenyl-methylpolysiloxane column (HP-5MS) within 10.75 min, and the method demonstrated its capability for quantification purposes. The lower limit of detection and lower limit of quantification were estimated at 0.9 microg mL(-1) and 2.4 microg mL(-1), respectively, and the assay was validated for mannitol and sorbitol regarding the parameters specificity, linearity, intra- (<10%) and inter-day precision (<15%) and accuracy (92-102%). To investigate urinary mannitol concentrations after oral intake the method was applied to an excretion study, providing a mean urinary excretion of mannitol of 19.5%. Comparison of theoretically expected urinary levels after a common therapeutic dose of mannitol and preliminary results on physiological urinary mannitol levels were promising, regarding a threshold level for mannitol that can be utilised for doping control purposes. PMID:18708692

  15. Predicting Positive Attitudes About Quitting Drug and Alcohol Use Among Homeless Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adeline M. Nyamathi; Judith A. Stein; Elizabeth Dixon; Douglas Longshore; Elisha Galaif

    2003-01-01

    Two separate path models for alcohol and drugs were tested in which psychosocial, environmental, and sociodemographic variables predicted behavioral and substance abuse related factors as well as the key outcome of positive attitudes about quitting drugs (N = 620) or alcohol (N = 526) in a sample of 709 homeless women. A positive attitude about quitting alcohol was predicted by

  16. Validation of LUCIO-Direct-ELISA kits for the detection of drugs of abuse in urine: application to the new German driving licence re-granting guidelines.

    PubMed

    Agius, Ronald; Nadulski, Thomas; Moore, Christine

    2012-02-10

    LUCIO-Direct-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) tests were validated for the screening of drugs of abuse cannabis, opiates, amphetamines and cocaine in urine for the new German medical and psychological assessment (MPA) guidelines with subsequent gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) confirmation. The screening cut-offs corresponding to 10 ng/mL 11-nor-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (THC-COOH), 50 ng/mL amphetamine, 25 ng/mL morphine and codeine and 30 ng/mL benzoylecgonine were chosen at the point where the number of false negatives was lower than 1%. Due to their accuracy, ease of use and rapid analysis, these ELISA tests are very promising for cases where a large proportion of the tests are expected to be negative such as for abstinence monitoring as part of the driving licence re-granting process. PMID:22075096

  17. Studies on 1-(2-Phenethyl)-4-(N-Propionylanilino)Piperidine (Fentanyl) and Its Related Compounds: Novel Metabolites in Rat Urine Following Injection of ?-Methylfentanyl, One of the Most Abused Typical Designer Drugs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshiyasu Higashikawa; Shinichi Suzuki

    2008-01-01

    Although 1-(2-phenethyl)-4-(N-propionylanilino)piperidine (fentanyl) is controlled by drug control laws, its slightly modified compounds, which show the same analgesic activities, cannot be controlled legally. Among these fentanyl analogues, 1-(2-(2-methylphenethyl))-4-(N-propionylanilino)piperidine (?-methylfentanyl) is the typical and most widely abused drug and its overdose has caused a number of fatalities. Analysis of the urine of addicts has been widely performed to detect its metabolites

  18. Rethinking drug policy: an integrity preserving compromise position

    E-print Network

    Crispino, Azzurra

    2006-10-30

    claim the drug is not deadly or carcinogenic and can be helpful as an analgesic, in treating anxiety, nausea, glaucoma, migraines, anorexia, and a myriad of other conditions.xvii If true, this undermines DEA?s insistence that marijuana is potentially...

  19. Sensitive determination of positional isomers of benzenediols in human urine by boronate affinity capillary electrophoresis with chemiluminescence detection.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zian; Sun, Xiaobo; Hu, Wenli; Yin, Yuqing; Chen, Guonan

    2014-04-01

    A boronate ACE coupled with chemiluminescence (CL) detection was developed for sensitive determination of three isomeric benzenediols, which was based on the principle of an inhibited effect of borate complexation on the CL reaction between luminol and potassium hexacyanoferrate (K3 Fe(CN)6 ) in alkaline solution. The effects of some important factors on CE separation and CL intensity were systemically investigated. Baseline separation of isomeric benzenediols including o-benzenediol, m-benzenediol, and p-benzenediol was achieved by using a mobile phase of 40 mmol/L glycine-NaOH buffer at pH 9.4 containing 0.8 mmol/L luminol and 0.4 mol/L 4-iodophenylboronic acid. The calibration curves of the analytes by plotting the peak height against corresponding concentration were linear over the range of 4.5 × 10(-8) ? 4.5 × 10(-5) mol/L for p-benzenediol, 6.8 × 10(-8) ? 2.7 × 10(-5) mol/L for m-benzenediol, and 9.0 × 10(-8) ? 4.5 × 10(-5) mol/L for o-benzenediol. The corresponding detection limits for p-, m-, and o-benzenediols were 2.8 × 10(-8) mol/L (68 amol), 3.2 × 10(-8) mol/L (108.4 amol), and 3.7 × 10(-8) mol/L (125.8 amol; S/N = 3), respectively. The proposed method has been successfully applied to the analysis of trace benzenediols in spiked human urine sample and the recoveries were >97.2%. Our primary result demonstrated the proposed CE-CL method has great potential for biomarker determination in clinical diagnosis. PMID:24115126

  20. Trends in occurrence of drugs of abuse in blood and urine of arrested drivers and drug traffickers in the border region of Aachen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karl-Heinz Schiwy-Bochat; Maciej Bogusz; Josefina Alvarez Vega; Helmut Althoff

    1995-01-01

    The region of Aachen is located in a triangle on the German, Dutch and Belgian borders and is heavily exposed to drug traffic, due to the differences in national drug policies. The analysis of toxicological casework in the Institute of Forensic Medicine in Aachen was undertaken for the period 1987–1993, i.e. 6 years before and 1 year after the partial

  1. Pink urine.

    PubMed

    Verhoeven, E; Capron, A; Hantson, P

    2014-11-01

    A 55-year-old man was admitted after a suspected hypnotic overdose of valerian extracts. In addition to altered consciousness, the first clinical symptoms included not only diffuse rash on the face, trunk, and limbs, but also an inspiratory dyspnea with a marked hypoxemia. A major laryngeal edema was noted during orotracheal intubation. After correction of hypoxemia, the patient became agitated and propofol was administered by continuous infusion. In addition, the patient passed pink urine staining the urine collection bag. The presence of an unidentified toxic substance was suspected. PMID:25233954

  2. Urine culture - catheterized specimen

    MedlinePLUS

    Culture - urine - catheterized specimen; Urine culture - catheterization; Catheterized urine specimen culture ... urinary tract infections may be found in the culture. This is called a contaminant. You may not ...

  3. Field-amplified sample injection coupled with pseudo-isotachophoresis technique for sensitive determination of selected psychiatric drugs in human urine samples after dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction.

    PubMed

    Dziomba, Szymon; Kowalski, Piotr; S?omi?ska, Agata; B?czek, Tomasz

    2014-02-01

    A field-amplified sample injection (FASI) technique was elaborated for fast and sensitive determination of selected central nervous system drugs in human urine samples. Factors affecting the sensitivity enhancement, such as background electrolyte (BGE) and the analytical matrix composition were optimized and discussed. Pseudo-isotachophoresis (p-ITP) mechanism contribution in preconcentration mechanism was discussed. All separations were performed in uncoated fused silica capillaries 50 ?m × 57 cm at 22 kV. The optimized analytical matrix was composed of 0.25 mM HCOOH in 90% (v/v) methanol, while BGE contained 45 mM TRIS/HCl (pH 2.20). The head-column injection was performed in 0.25 mM HCOOH water solution (3s, 3.45 kPa). Sample was introduced into the capillary by electrokinetic injection (70 s, 5 kV) followed by short BGE plug (3s, 3.45 kPa). Seven psychiatric drugs (olanzapine, prochlorperazine dimaleate, trifluoperazine dihydrochloride, perphenazine, promazine hydrochloride, clomipramine hydrochloride, and chlorprothixene hydrochloride) were separated in about 6 min. The elaborated method was additionally supported with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) technique which in summary with FASI provided about 8000-13,000-fold sensitivity enhancement in comparison to the capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) method with standard hydrodynamic injection (5s, 3.45 kPa). PMID:24456599

  4. Extraction-Free Ion-Pair Methods for the Assay of Trifluoperazine Dihydrochloride in Bulk Drug, Tablets, and Spiked Human Urine Using Three Sulfonphthalein Dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prashanth, K. N.; Swamy, N.; Basavaiah, K.

    2014-11-01

    Three simple and sensitive extraction-free spectrophotometric methods are described for the determination of trifluoperazine dihydrochloride (TFH). The methods are based on ion pair complex formation between the nitrogenous compound trifluoperazine (TFP) converted from trifluoperazine dihydrochloride and sulfonphthalein dyes, namely, bromocresol green (BCG), bromothymol blue (BTB), and bromophenol blue (BPB) in dichloromethane medium in which all the above experimental variables were circumvented. The colored products are measured at 425 nm in the BCG method, 415 nm in the BTB method, and 420 nm in the BPB method. The stoichiometry of the ion-pair complexes formed between the drug and dye (1:1) was determined by Job's continuous variations method, and the stability constants of the complexes were also calculated. These methods quantify TFP over the concentration ranges of 1.25-20.0 ?g/ml in the BCG method, 1.5-21.0 ?g/ml in the BTB method, and 1.5-18.0 ?g/ml in the BPB method. The molar absorptivity (l·mol-1·cm-1) and Sandell sensitivity (ng/cm2) were calculated to be 2.06·104 and 0.0197; 1.82·104 and 0.0224; and 2.22·104 and 0.0183 for the BCG, BTB, and BPB methods, respectively. The methods were successfully applied to the determination of TFP in pure drug, pharmaceuticals, and in spiked human urine with good accuracy and precision.

  5. Comparison of hydrodynamically closed isotachophoresis-capillary zone electrophoresis with hydrodynamically open capillary zone electrophoresis hyphenated with tandem mass spectrometry in drug analysis: pheniramine, its metabolite and phenylephrine in human urine.

    PubMed

    Pieš?anský, Juraj; Maráková, Katarína; Kova?, Marián; Mikuš, Peter

    2014-09-01

    The advanced two dimensional isotachophoresis (ITP)-capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) hyphenated with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS, here triple quadrupole, QqQ) was developed in this work to demonstrate analytical potentialities of this approach in the analysis of drugs in multicomponent ionic matrices. Pheniramine (PHM), phenylephrine (PHE), paracetamol (PCM) and their potential metabolic products were taken for the analysis by the ITP-CZE-ESI-QqQ technique working in hydrodynamically closed CE separation system and then a comparison with the conventional (hydrodynamically open) CZE-ESI-QqQ technique was made. The ITP-CZE-ESI-QqQ method was favorable in terms of obtainable selectivity (due to highly effective heart-cut analysis), concentration limits of detection (LOD at pgmL(-1) levels due to enhanced sample load capacity and ITP preconcentration), sample handling (on-line sample pretreatment, i.e. clean-up, preconcentration, preseparation), and, by that, possibilities for future automation and miniaturization. On the other hand, this experimental arrangement, in contrast to the CZE-ESI-QqQ arrangement supported by an electroosmotic flow, is principally limited to the analysis of uniformly (i.e. positively or negatively) charged analytes in one run without any possibilities to analyze neutral compounds (here, PCM and neutral or acidic metabolites of the drugs had to be excluded from the analysis). Hence, these general characteristics should be considered when choosing a proper analytical CE-MS approach for a given biomedical application. Here, the analytical potential of the ITP-CZE-ESI-QqQ method was demonstrated showing the real time profiles of excreted targeted drugs and metabolite (PHM, PHE, M-PHM) in human urine after the administration of one dose of Theraflu(®) to the volunteers. PMID:25035234

  6. Detection of Zika Virus in Urine

    PubMed Central

    Gourinat, Ann-Claire; O’Connor, Olivia; Calvez, Elodie; Goarant, Cyrille

    2015-01-01

    We describe the kinetics of Zika virus (ZIKV) detection in serum and urine samples of 6 patients. Urine samples were positive for ZIKV >10 days after onset of disease, which was a notably longer period than for serum samples. This finding supports the conclusion that urine samples are useful for diagnosis of ZIKV infections. PMID:25530324

  7. Myoglobin - urine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... clean the head of the penis. Women or girls need to wash the area between the lips of the vagina with soapy water and rinse well. As you start to urinate, allow a small amount to fall into the toilet bowl (this ...

  8. Lefetamine, a controlled drug and pharmaceutical lead of new designer drugs: synthesis, metabolism, and detectability in urine and human liver preparations using GC-MS, LC-MS(n), and LC-high resolution-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Wink, Carina S D; Meyer, Golo M J; Zapp, Josef; Maurer, Hans H

    2015-02-01

    Lefetamine (N,N-dimethyl-1,2-diphenylethylamine, L-SPA) was marketed as an opioid analgesic in Japan and Italy. After being widely abused, it became a controlled substance. It seems to be a pharmaceutical lead for designer drugs because N-ethyl-1,2-diphenylethylamine (NEDPA) and N-iso-propyl-1,2-diphenylethylamine (NPDPA) were confiscated by the German police. In contrast to these derivatives, metabolism and detectability of lefetamine were not studied yet. Therefore, phase I and II metabolism should be elucidated and correlated to the derivatives. Also the detectability using the authors' standard urine screening approaches (SUSA) needed to be checked. As lefetamine was commercially unavailable, it had to be synthesized first. For metabolism studies, a high dose of lefetamine was administered to rats and the urine samples worked up in different ways. Separation and analysis were achieved by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-high resolution-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-HR-MS/MS). In accordance with NEPDA and NPDPA, the following metabolic steps could be proposed: N-oxidation, N-dealkylation, mono- and bis-hydroxylation of the benzene ring, and hydroxylation of the phenyl ring only after N-dealkylation. The di-hydroxy metabolites were conjugated by methylation of one hydroxy group, and hydroxy metabolites by glucuronidation or sulfation. All initial metabolites could also be detected in human liver preparations. After a therapeutic lefetamine dose, the bis-nor, bis-nor-hydroxy, nor-hydroxy, nor-di-hydroxy metabolites could be detected using the authors' GC-MS SUSA and the nor-hydroxy-glucuronide by the LC-MS(n) SUSA. Thus, an intake of lefetamine should be detectable in human urine assuming similar pharmacokinetics. PMID:25577353

  9. The Human Urine Metabolome

    PubMed Central

    Bouatra, Souhaila; Aziat, Farid; Mandal, Rupasri; Guo, An Chi; Wilson, Michael R.; Knox, Craig; Bjorndahl, Trent C.; Krishnamurthy, Ramanarayan; Saleem, Fozia; Liu, Philip; Dame, Zerihun T.; Poelzer, Jenna; Huynh, Jessica; Yallou, Faizath S.; Psychogios, Nick; Dong, Edison; Bogumil, Ralf; Roehring, Cornelia; Wishart, David S.

    2013-01-01

    Urine has long been a “favored” biofluid among metabolomics researchers. It is sterile, easy-to-obtain in large volumes, largely free from interfering proteins or lipids and chemically complex. However, this chemical complexity has also made urine a particularly difficult substrate to fully understand. As a biological waste material, urine typically contains metabolic breakdown products from a wide range of foods, drinks, drugs, environmental contaminants, endogenous waste metabolites and bacterial by-products. Many of these compounds are poorly characterized and poorly understood. In an effort to improve our understanding of this biofluid we have undertaken a comprehensive, quantitative, metabolome-wide characterization of human urine. This involved both computer-aided literature mining and comprehensive, quantitative experimental assessment/validation. The experimental portion employed NMR spectroscopy, gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS), direct flow injection mass spectrometry (DFI/LC-MS/MS), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) experiments performed on multiple human urine samples. This multi-platform metabolomic analysis allowed us to identify 445 and quantify 378 unique urine metabolites or metabolite species. The different analytical platforms were able to identify (quantify) a total of: 209 (209) by NMR, 179 (85) by GC-MS, 127 (127) by DFI/LC-MS/MS, 40 (40) by ICP-MS and 10 (10) by HPLC. Our use of multiple metabolomics platforms and technologies allowed us to identify several previously unknown urine metabolites and to substantially enhance the level of metabolome coverage. It also allowed us to critically assess the relative strengths and weaknesses of different platforms or technologies. The literature review led to the identification and annotation of another 2206 urinary compounds and was used to help guide the subsequent experimental studies. An online database containing the complete set of 2651 confirmed human urine metabolite species, their structures (3079 in total), concentrations, related literature references and links to their known disease associations are freely available at http://www.urinemetabolome.ca. PMID:24023812

  10. Diagnostic Detection of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Antibodies in Urine: a Brazilian Study

    PubMed Central

    Oelemann, Walter M. R.; Lowndes , Catherine M.; Veríssimo da Costa, Giovani C.; Morgado, Mariza G.; Castello-Branco, Luiz Roberto R.; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Alary, Michel; Bastos, Francisco I.

    2002-01-01

    We evaluated, for the first time in Latin America, the performance of a commercial enzyme immunoassay (EIA) (Calypte Biomedical Corporation, Berkeley, Calif.) that detects human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-specific antibodies in urine in comparison to standard serological assays (two commercial EIAs and a commercial Western blot [WB] assay). Paired serum and urine specimens were collected from two different groups of Brazilian patients: 225 drug users with unknown HIV status who attended drug treatment centers in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and 135 subjects with known HIV status. Patients showing positive results in the serum EIAs and/or in the urine EIA were serologically confirmed by WB assay. For 135 individuals with known HIV status, the urine EIA showed 100% sensitivity (74 positive samples) and 95.1% specificity (58 of 61 negative specimens). For 225 drug users, the test showed 100% sensitivity (2 positive samples) and 98.7% specificity (220 of 223 negative samples) compared to WB-confirmed serological EIA results. Thus, in a total of 360 samples, the urine EIA correctly identified all 76 HIV-positive samples and 278 of 284 negative samples (100% sensitivity and 97.9% specificity). Detailed analysis of the urine EIA results indicates that an increase of the recommended cutoff value might raise the specificity of the assay without affecting its sensitivity. Our results suggest that the HIV-1 urine EIA is a good screening test suitable for developing countries like Brazil. However, as for all other HIV screening tests on the market, it is not specific enough to be used as a one-step test and therefore requires confirmation. PMID:11880409

  11. Screening and confirmation capabilities of liquid chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry for the determination of 200 multiclass sport drugs in urine.

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Romero, Juan C; García-Reyes, Juan F; Lara-Ortega, Felipe J; Molina-Díaz, Antonio

    2015-03-01

    In this article, a screening method for the determination of 200 sport drugs in human urine has been developed using liquid-chromatography electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-TOFMS). The chromatographic separation of the targeted doping agents was carried out by fast liquid chromatography using a C18 column (4.6×50mm) with 1.8?m particle size. Accurate mass measurements of the selected ion (typically [M+H](+) and [M-H](-)) along with retention time matching was used for the screening and detection of the targeted species. The proposed methodology comprised also a simple sample treatment stage based on solid-phase extraction (SPE) with polymeric cartridges. The SPE method displayed satisfactory recoveries rates (between 70 and 120%) for the majority of the compounds at both concentration levels tested (2.5 and 25?gL(-1)). The overall performance of the method was satisfactory with all 200 compounds fulfilling WADA minimum required performance levels (MRPLs), with limits of quantitation lower than 1?gL(-1) for 80% of the compounds, and showing an appropriate linearity (r(2)>0.99) in most cases. Additionally, the ability of "in-source" collision induced dissociation (CID) for confirmatory purposes was examined using as criterion the presence of two high-resolution ions with relevant abundances for unambiguous confirmation. This stringent criterion was fulfilled for 75% of the species using in-source CID fragmentation. The use of an improved approach based on CID performed on a dedicated collision cell without precursor ion selection (using a Q-TOF) provided at least two ions in all cases with the exception of 2-aminoheptane. Finally, based on the use of diagnostic fragment ions, a workflow for the comprehensive screening and identification of non-targeted compounds (viz. compounds with no primary standards or retention time information available, such as metabolites) has been also examined using rat urine samples. The proposed screening method has proved to be effective for the analysis of targeted compounds, and also for the identification of metabolites, expanding easily the search for doping agents not only limited to specific banned parent compounds but also to derivate compounds with similar structure as well as metabolites. PMID:25618643

  12. Upper airway collapse during drug induced sleep endoscopy: head rotation in supine position compared with lateral head and trunk position.

    PubMed

    Safiruddin, Faiza; Koutsourelakis, Ioannis; de Vries, Nico

    2015-02-01

    Drug induced sedated sleep endoscopy (DISE) is often employed to determine the site, severity and pattern of obstruction in patients with sleep apnea. DISE is usually performed in supine position. We recently showed that the obstruction pattern is different when DISE is performed in lateral position. In this study, we compared the outcomes of DISE performed in supine position with head rotated, with the outcomes of DISE performed with head and trunk in lateral position. The Prospective study design was used in the present study. Sixty patients with OSA (44 male; mean apnea hypopnea index (AHI) 20.8 ± 17.5 events/h) underwent DISE under propofol sedation. Patients were placed in lateral position, and the upper airway collapse was evaluated. The patients were then placed in supine position with the head rotated to the right side. DISE outcomes were scored using the VOTE classification system. In lateral position, nine patients (15.0%) had a complete antero-posterior (A-P) collapse at the level of the velum, nine had a partial A-P collapse. During head rotation and trunk in supine position, at the level of the velum, four patients (6.7%) had a complete A-P collapse, while two patients (3.3%) had a partial A-P collapse. For all other sites, the patterns of collapse were not significantly different between head rotation and lateral position. During DISE, rotation of the head in supine position, and lateral head and trunk position present similar sites, severity and patterns of upper airway collapse, with the exception of collapse at the level of the velum. Here the severity of A-P collapse is less severe during head rotation than in lateral head and trunk position. PMID:25142078

  13. Dendrimer-functionalized mesoporous silica as a reversed-phase/anion-exchange mixed-mode sorbent for solid phase extraction of acid drugs in human urine.

    PubMed

    Li, Yun; Yang, Jiajia; Huang, Chaonan; Wang, Longxing; Wang, Jincheng; Chen, Jiping

    2015-05-01

    A new dendrimer-functionalized mesoporous silica material based on large-pore 3D cubic Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology-6 (KIT-6) was synthesized by the growing of dendritic branches inside the mesopores of aminopropyl functionalized KIT-6. Detailed physical characterizations using transmission electron microscopy, nitrogen adsorption-desorption measurements, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and elemental analysis reveal that the multifunctional dendrimers have been grown successfully within the confined spaces of mesopores. Although the 3D ordered mesoporous architecture of KIT-6 was well preserved, there was a significant and continuous decrease in pore size, specific surface area (SBET) and pore volume when increasing dendrimer generation up to six. In order to get a compromise between the SBET, pore size and density of functionalities, the dendrimer-functionalized KIT-6 (DF-KIT-6) for generation 2 (SBET, 314.2m(2)g(-1); pore size, 7.9nm; carbon and nitrogen contents, 19.80% and 1.92%) was selected for solid phase extraction (SPE) applications. The DF-KIT-6 was then evaluated as a reversed-phase/anion-exchange mixed-mode sorbent for extraction of the selected acidic drugs (ketoprofen, KEP; naproxen, NAP; and ibuprofen, IBU), since the dendrimers contained both hydrocarbonaceous and amine functionalities. The effective parameters on extraction efficiency such as sample pH and volume, type and volume of eluent and wash solvents were optimized. Under the optimized experimental conditions, the DF-KIT-6 based SPE coupled with HPLC-UV method demonstrated good sensitivity (0.4-4.6ngmL(-1) detection of limits) and linearity (R(2)>0.990 for 10-2000ngmL(-1) of KEP and IBU, and 1-200ngmL(-1) of NAP). The potential use of DF-KIT-6 sorbent for preconcentration and cleanup of acid drugs in human urine samples was also demonstrated. Satisfactory recoveries at two spiking levels (30 and 300ngmL(-1) for KEP and IBU, 3 and 30ngmL(-1) for NAP) were obtained in the range of 85.7-113.9% with RSD values below 9.3% (n=3). PMID:25795396

  14. Urine specific gravity test

    MedlinePLUS

    Urine specific gravity is a laboratory test that measures the concentration of all chemical particles in the urine. ... changes to will tell the provider the specific gravity of your urine. The dipstick test gives only ...

  15. Clinical Validation of a Highly Sensitive GC-MS Platform for Routine Urine Drug Screening and Real-Time Reporting of up to 212 Drugs.

    PubMed

    Nair, Hari; Woo, Fred; Hoofnagle, Andrew N; Baird, Geoffrey S

    2013-01-01

    An important role of the clinical toxicology laboratory is to provide continuous diagnostic testing for patients with altered mental status and for other medical indications. To meet these needs, we have developed a new Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) platform that facilitates routine screening and automated reporting of 212 drugs by laboratory technologists around the clock without the need to sign out by an on-site mass spectrometry-trained toxicologist. The platform uses a programmable temperature vaporizer (PTV) injector for large sample volume injection and the free software Automated Mass Spectral Deconvolution and Identification System (AMDIS) for data reduction and spectral matching that facilitates rapid library searching and analyte identification. Method comparison with 118 patient samples demonstrated that this platform and data searching algorithm independently provided improvements in sensitivity compared to an established GC-MS platform. Further examination of the role of the data processing software and the in-house databases used in the established versus the new platform demonstrated that the improved analytical sensitivity of the new platform was attributed to both the technical superiority of the new GC-MS instrumentation and the use of AMDIS in conjunction with the newly generated in-house library for data processing. PMID:23935615

  16. [The experience of nurses caring for HIV-positive injection drug users].

    PubMed

    Feng, Ming-Chu; Chen, Tun-Chieh; Lin, Chiu-Chu; Shih, Chung-Ching; Ko, Nai-Ying

    2009-08-01

    Taiwan has experienced a clear upswing in HIV infection among injection drug users (IDUs) since 2004. Unsafe drug injection behavior has led to complicated infections including HIV and hepatitis C virus infection among IDUs. Nurses face challenges and threats in caring for this group due to the widespread criminal and behavioral problems related to drug use. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore nurses' experiences in caring for HIV positive IDUs. Purposive sampling was used to recruit 7 nurses with experience working with HIV positive IDUs. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted 1~2 times with each nurse. The length of interviews ranged from 1.5~3 hours. Interviews were tape recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data was analyzed using the Colaizzi method for phenomenology. Nurse experiences reflected low achievement level, difficulty in establishing rapport with IDUs, fear of drug use incidences during hospitalization, insufficiency and complications with family caregivers, fear of being threatened, and lack of support from other medical disciplines. Nurses used strategies that included being supportive of one another, learning appropriate communication skills, positive thinking, and anticipating substantial compensation from administrators. The results of this study provide essential information for in-service education and healthcare policy reform on IDU care. Interventions to ease nurse anxieties and feelings of insecurity in order to increase safe care should be developed and implemented. Positive feedback from IDUs with HIV infection enhances nurses' professional and personal growth. PMID:19634096

  17. A practical strategy for characterization of the metabolic profile of chiral drugs using combinatory liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric techniques: application to tetrahydropalmatine enantiomers and their metabolites in rat urine.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yinying; Dong, Xin; Le, Jian; Wen, Jun; Lin, Zebin; Liu, Yinli; Lou, Ziyang; Chai, Yifeng; Hong, Zhanying

    2014-06-01

    The characterization and quantification of the metabolites of chiral drugs still remain a great challenge due to the complexity of the metabolites and most of them are not commercially available. In this study, a practical approach based on the combinatory liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric techniques has been proposed for the evaluation of metabolism profiles and urinary excretion kinetics of chiral drugs and their metabolites. Racemic tetrahydropalmatine (rac-THP), a biologically active ingredient isolated from a traditional Chinese herb Rhizoma Corydalis, was chosen as the model chiral drug. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF/MS) was applied to characterize the metabolites of THP enantiomers in rat urine after administration of (+)-THP or (-)-THP. Accurate mass measurement was used to determine the elemental composition of metabolites and thus to confirm the proposed structures of these metabolites. More than 30 potential metabolites were found in rat urine, most of which were identified for the first time, and the metabolic pathways in vivo were involved in demethylation, oxidation, glucuronide conjugation and sulfation, etc. And the tridesmethlyzed metabolite and didesmethlyzed coupled with oxidation metabolite were found only in (+)-THP treated rats. Afterwards, a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-QqQ/MS) assay was developed and validated for the determination of the urine level of THP enantiomers and their metabolites. Semi-quantification of three phase I metabolites and two phase II metabolites were performed. Enantiomeric (-/+) cumulative urinary excretion ratios of THP and its five metabolites were obtained, which indicated the stereoselective aspects of metabolites of THP enantiomers in vivo. The study demonstrated the enormous potential of this strategy for the qualitative characterization, quantitative assay and the stereoselectivity of chiral drugs and their metabolites. PMID:24598170

  18. Combination of high-performance liquid chromatography and SERS detection applied to the analysis of drugs in human blood and urine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trachta, Gerd; Schwarze, Bernd; Sägmüller, Bernd; Brehm, Georg; Schneider, Siegfried

    2004-05-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy was employed to characterise different drugs and some of their degradation products contained in bio-matrices after separation by HPLC. Since acetonitrile, which is contained in the widely used Daldrup type eluents, adsorbs readily to the silver surface and disturbs SERS measurements at low analyte concentration, a gradient technique relying on a methanol/buffer mixture was developed. Application of this eluent helps to lower the detection limit of most of the drugs investigated (e.g. Dihydrocodeine, Doxepine, Citalopram, Trimipramine, Carbamazepine, Methadone) into the 1 ?g/sample domain. The examples presented also demonstrate that the retention times determined by independent runs of reference solutions alone are not always sufficient for a unique identification of all fractions appearing in the chromatogram of a mixture that may contain degradation products. The Raman band patterns of many derivatives are, however, so distinct that in these cases an assignment to certain families of drugs is possible even without a detailed analysis of the spectrum (correlation of band positions with calculated normal mode frequencies). If SERS spectra of reference solutions recorded under similar experimental conditions are available, the described technique can provide a second, independent means of identification next to HPLC/MS for example if necessary during a law suit.

  19. Sodium urine test

    MedlinePLUS

    Urinary 24 hours sodium; Urine Na+ ... your kidneys are able to maintain or remove sodium from the urine. It may be used to ... For adults, normal urine sodium values are generally 20 mEq/L in a random urine sample and 40 to 220 mEq/L per day (mEq/ ...

  20. Urine - abnormal color

    MedlinePLUS

    The usual color of urine is straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine may be cloudy, dark, or blood-colored. ... Abnormal urine color may be caused by infection, disease, medicines, or food you eat. Cloudy or milky urine is a sign ...

  1. Trends in positive drug tests, United States Air Force, fiscal years 1997-1999.

    PubMed

    Grayson, J Kevin; Gibson, Roger L; Shanklin, Shari L; Neuhauser, Katerina M; McGhee, Charles

    2004-07-01

    We investigated the relationship between various demographic factors and the risk of testing positive for marijuana or cocaine use in the U.S. Air Force in fiscal years 1997 through 1999. Overall test positive rates for marijuana and cocaine were very low, at 0.24 and 0.07% of all tests, respectively. However, monthly test positive rates increased significantly during the study period while the number of tests conducted decreased by more than 50%. Gender, race/ethnicity, service component, military rank, education level, and assignment location each predicted the likelihood of testing positive for marijuana or cocaine use. These findings were consistent with annual surveys of self-reported drug use conducted in military and civilian populations in the United States. We conclude that overall testing percentages should be re-evaluated in light of these findings, but we do not recommend oversampling from population subgroups that demonstrated a higher likelihood of testing positive. PMID:15291178

  2. Environment-mediated drug resistance in Bcr/Abl-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Feldhahn, Niklas; Arutyunyan, Anna; Stoddart, Sonia; Zhang, Bin; Schmidhuber, Sabine; Yi, Sun-Ju; Kim, Yong-Mi; Groffen, John; Heisterkamp, Nora

    2012-08-01

    Although cure rates for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) have increased, development of resistance to drugs and patient relapse are common. The environment in which the leukemia cells are present during the drug treatment is known to provide significant survival benefit. Here, we have modeled this process by culturing murine Bcr/Abl-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells in the presence of stroma while treating them with a moderate dose of two unrelated drugs, the farnesyltransferase inhibitor lonafarnib and the tyrosine kinase inhibitor nilotinib. This results in an initial large reduction in cell viability of the culture and inhibition of cell proliferation. However, after a number of days, cell death ceases and the culture becomes drug-tolerant, enabling cell division to resume. Using gene expression profiling, we found that the development of drug resistance was accompanied by massive transcriptional upregulation of genes that are associated with general inflammatory responses such as the metalloproteinase MMP9. MMP9 protein levels and enzymatic activity were also increased in ALL cells that had become nilotinib-tolerant. Activation of p38, Akt and Erk correlated with the development of environment-mediated drug resistance (EMDR), and inhibitors of Akt and Erk in combination with nilotinib reduced the ability of the cells to develop resistance. However, inhibition of p38 promoted increased resistance to nilotinib. We conclude that development of EMDR by ALL cells involves changes in numerous intracellular pathways. Development of tolerance to drugs such as nilotinib may therefore be circumvented by simultaneous treatment with other drugs having divergent targets. PMID:22934254

  3. Studies on the metabolism and the toxicological analysis of the nootropic drug fipexide in rat urine using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roland F. Staack; Hans H. Maurer

    2004-01-01

    Qualitative studies are described on the metabolism and the toxicological analysis of the nootropic fipexide (FIP) in rat urine using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). FIP was extensively metabolized to 1-(3,4-methylenedioxybenzyl)piperazine (MDBP), 4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid, 1-[2-(4-chlorophenoxy)acetyl]piperazine, N-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-benzyl)piperazine, piperazine, N-(3,4-methylenedioxybenzyl)ethylenediamine, and N-[2-(4-chlorophenoxy)acetyl]ethylenediamine. The authors’ systematic toxicological analysis (STA) procedure using full-scan GC–MS after acid hydrolysis of one urine aliquot, liquid-liquid extraction and acetylation

  4. Position paper of Italian rheumatologists on the use of biosimilar drugs.

    PubMed

    Atzeni, Fabiola; Sebastiani, Marco; Ricci, Cristian; Celano, Antonella; Gremese, Elisa; Iannone, Florenzo; Meroni, Pier Luigi; Minghetti, Paola; Sarzi-Puttini, Piercarlo; Ferraccioli, Gianfranco; Lapadula, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    The recent availability of biosimilars as a result of the expiry of the patents of first-generation biotechnological drugs may theoretically reduce the direct costs of such treatments, making their use accessible to a larger number of patients. However, the currently available clinical data refer to a relatively small number of patients, and do not provide sufficient information concerning long-term efficacy and safety or the frequency of rare adverse events. Given the importance of the introduction of biosimilar drugs and the limitations of our current knowledge of their efficacy and safety profiles, we believe it is mandatory to draw up a position paper for Italian Rheumatologists. Moreover, in order to guarantee their safety, it is mandatory to indicate behavioural rules for the involved specialists and competent authorities, and perform ad hoc clinical trials and appropriate drug surveillance. PMID:25436597

  5. Use of liquid chromatography coupled to low- and high-resolution linear ion trap mass spectrometry for studying the metabolism of paynantheine, an alkaloid of the herbal drug Kratom in rat and human urine.

    PubMed

    Philipp, Anika A; Wissenbach, Dirk K; Weber, Armin A; Zapp, Josef; Zoerntlein, Siegfried W; Kanogsunthornrat, Jidapha; Maurer, Hans H

    2010-04-01

    The Thai medicinal plant Mitragyna speciosa (Kratom in Thai) is misused as a herbal drug of abuse. During studies on the main Kratom alkaloid mitragynine (MG) in rats and humans, several dehydro analogs could be detected in urine of Kratom users, which were not found in rat urine after administration of pure MG. Questions arose as to whether these compounds are formed from MG only by humans or whether they are metabolites formed from the second abundant Kratom alkaloid paynantheine (PAY), the dehydro analog of MG. Therefore, the aim of the presented study was to identify the phase I and II metabolites of PAY in rat urine after administration of the pure alkaloid. This was first isolated from Kratom leaves. Liquid chromatography-linear ion trap mass spectrometry provided detailed structure information of the metabolites in the MS(n) mode particularly with high resolution. Besides PAY, the following phase I metabolites could be identified: 9-O-demethyl PAY, 16-carboxy PAY, 9-O-demethyl-16-carboxy PAY, 17-O-demethyl PAY, 17-O-demethyl-16,17-dihydro PAY, 9,17-O-bisdemethyl PAY, 9,17-O-bisdemethyl-16,17-dihydro PAY, 17-carboxy-16,17-dihydro PAY, and 9-O-demethyl-17-carboxy-16,17-dihydro PAY. These metabolites indicated that PAY was metabolized via the same pathways as MG. Several metabolites were excreted as glucuronides or sulfates. The metabolism studies in rats showed that PAY and its metabolites corresponded to the MG-related dehydro compounds detected in urine of the Kratom users. In conclusion, PAY and its metabolites may be further markers for a Kratom abuse in addition of MG and its metabolites. PMID:19902190

  6. Use of Vouchers to Reinforce Abstinence and Positive Behaviors among Clients in a Drug Court Treatment Program

    PubMed Central

    Prendergast, Michael L.; Hall, Elizabeth A.; Roll, John; Warda, Umme

    2008-01-01

    In response to growing numbers of drug offenders cycling in and out of the criminal justice system without treatment for underlying drug problems, the judicial system has increasingly adopted drug courts as a strategy to divert these offenders from incarceration to supervised drug treatment. Our aim was to determine if drug court treatment effectiveness could be improved using contingency management, in the form of twice-weekly vouchers, to reinforce abstinence and positive behaviors for 163 clients over 26 weeks. We found no significant differences in outcomes among the study groups, although the Treatment Plan Group that received reinforcement for positive behaviors showed a trend toward poorer performance. We suspect that the influence of the judge within the courtroom had a stronger impact on drug court clients’ attitudes, drug use behaviors and other outcomes than the relatively low-value vouchers awarded as part of the treatment protocol. PMID:17997267

  7. Challenges facing HIV-positive persons who use drugs and their families in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung-Jae; Li, Li; Lin, Chunqing; Tuan, Le Anh

    2015-03-01

    It is hypothesized that persons who use drugs (PWUD) in Vietnam who are also HIV-positive may face additional challenges in psychosocial outcomes, and these challenges may extend to their family members. In this study, we examined depressive symptoms, stigma, social support, and caregiver burden of HIV-positive PWUD and their family members, compared to the outcomes of HIV-negative PWUD and their family members. Baseline, 3-month, and 6-month assessment data were gathered from 83 PWUD and 83 family members recruited from four communes in Phú Th? Province, Vietnam. For PWUD, although we observed a general decline in overall stigma over time for both groups, HIV-positive PWUD consistently reported significantly higher overall stigma for all three periods. Depressive symptoms among family members in both groups declined over time; however, family members of HIV-positive PWUD reported higher depressive symptoms across all three periods. In addition, family members of HIV-positive PWUD reported lower levels of tangible support across all three periods. Caregiver burden among family members of HIV-positive PWUD increased significantly over time, whereas the reported burden among family members of HIV-negative PWUD remained relatively unchanged. The findings highlight the need for future interventions for PWUD and family members, with targeted and culturally specific strategies to focus on the importance of addressing additional stigma experienced by PWUD who are HIV-positive. Such challenges may have direct negative impact on their family members' depressive symptoms, tangible support, and caregiver burden. PMID:25285396

  8. pH-resistant titania hybrid organic-inorganic coating for stir bar sorptive extraction of drugs of abuse in urine samples followed by high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet visible detection.

    PubMed

    Lan, Lidan; Hu, Bin; Yu, Chunhe

    2010-11-01

    An organic-inorganic hybrid titania-hydroxy-terminated silicone oil (titania-OH-TSO) stir bar coating was prepared by sol-gel method. The extraction performance of titania-OH-TSO coated stir bar was evaluated and compared with poly(dimethysiloxane) (PDMS), poly(dimethysiloxane)-divinylbenzene (PDMS-DVB), poly(dimethysiloxane)-?-cyclodextrin (PDMS-?-CD) and C(18) coated stir bar with five polar drugs of abuse including amphetamine (PA), methamphetamine (MA), 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and ketamine (Ke) as the model analytes. The experimental results revealed that the titania-OH-TSO coated stir bar exhibited highly pH-resistant ability, good preparation reproducibility, superior selectivity and high extraction efficiency for the target compounds. Based on this fact, a new method of titania-OH-TSO coated stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) combined with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-ultraviolet visible (UV) detection was developed for the analysis of five drugs of abuse in urine samples. The factors affecting the extraction efficiency of SBSE such as sample pH, desorption solvent, sample volume, extraction time, desorption time, stirring rate and ionic strength were investigated and the optimal extraction conditions were established. Under the optimized conditions, the limits of detection (LODs) for titania-OH-TSO coated SBSE-HPLC-UV determination of five polar drugs of abuse were in the range of 2.3-9.1 ?g/L with relative standard deviations (RSDs) ranging from 7.3 to 8.9% (c=300 ?g/L, n=6), and all of the target compounds exhibited good linearity over a concentration range of 30-3000 ?g/L. The developed method was applied to the determination of amphetamines and Ke in urine samples of drug abusers with satisfactory results. PMID:20880534

  9. Oral Fluid Testing for Drugs of Abuse: Positive Prevalence Rates by Intercept™ Immunoassay Screening and GC-MS-MS Confirmation and Suggested Cutoff Concentrations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward J. Cone; Lance Presley; Michael Lehrer; William Seiter; Melissa Smith; Keith W. Kardos; Dean Fritch; Sal Salamone; R. Sam Niedbala

    Draft guidelines for the use of oral fluid for workplace drug testing are under development by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) in cooperation with industry and researchers. Comparison studies of the effectiveness of oral fluid testing versus urine testing are needed to establish scientifically reliable cutoff concentrations for oral fluid testing. We present the results of

  10. Detection and prevalence of drug use in arrested drivers using the Dräger Drug Test 5000 and Affiniton DrugWipe oral fluid drug screening devices.

    PubMed

    Logan, Barry K; Mohr, Amanda L A; Talpins, Stephen K

    2014-09-01

    The use of oral fluid (OF) drug testing devices offers the ability to rapidly obtain a drug screening result at the time of a traffic stop. We describe an evaluation of two such devices, the Dräger Drug Test 5000 and the Affiniton DrugWipe, to detect drug use in a cohort of drivers arrested from an investigation of drug impaired driving (n = 92). Overall, 41% of these drivers were ultimately confirmed positive by mass spectrometry for the presence of one or more drugs. The most frequently detected drugs were cannabinoids (30%), benzodiazepines (11%) and cocaine (10%). Thirty-nine percent of drivers with blood alcohol concentrations >0.08 g/100 mL were found to be drug positive. Field test results obtained from OF samples were compared with collected OF and urine samples subsequently analyzed in the laboratory by gas or liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The Dräger Drug Test 5000 (DDT5000) and DrugWipe returned overall sensitivities of 51 and 53%, and positive predictive values of 93 and 63%, respectively. The most notable difference in performance was the DDT5000's better sensitivity in detecting marijuana use. Both devices failed to detect benzodiazepine use. Oral fluid proved to be a more effective confirmatory specimen, with more drugs being confirmed in OF than urine. PMID:24894458

  11. Urine Tests (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Measles: What to Know Vaccines: FAQs ... Precautions Checkups: What to Expect Urine Tests KidsHealth > Parents > General Health > Sick Kids > Urine Tests Print A ...

  12. Uric acid - urine

    MedlinePLUS

    The urine uric acid test measures the level of uric acid in urine. Uric acid level can also be checked using a blood ... to choose the best medicine to lower uric acid level in the blood. Uric acid is a ...

  13. A polyphenylene dendrimer drug transporter with precisely positioned amphiphilic surface patches.

    PubMed

    Stangenberg, René; Wu, Yuzhou; Hedrich, Jana; Kurzbach, Dennis; Wehner, Daniel; Weidinger, Gilbert; Kuan, Seah Ling; Jansen, Malin Insa; Jelezko, Fedor; Luhmann, Heiko J; Hinderberger, Dariush; Weil, Tanja; Müllen, Klaus

    2015-02-01

    The design and synthesis of a polyphenylene dendrimer (PPD 3) with discrete binding sites for lipophilic guest molecules and characteristic surface patterns is presented. Its semi-rigidity in combination with a precise positioning of hydrophilic and hydrophobic groups at the periphery yields a refined architecture with lipophilic binding pockets that accommodate defined numbers of biologically relevant guest molecules such as fatty acids or the drug doxorubicin. The size, architecture, and surface textures allow to even penetrate brain endothelial cells that are a major component of the extremely tight blood-brain barrier. In addition, low to no toxicity is observed in in vivo studies using zebrafish embryos. The unique PPD scaffold allows the precise placement of functional groups in a given environment and offers a universal platform for designing drug transporters that closely mimic many features of proteins. PMID:25182694

  14. [Drug abuse among new draftees].

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, H O; Calov, E

    1996-03-18

    The aim of the study was to investigate the pattern of the use of drugs among young conscripts by a test screening of their urine. The participants in the investigation also filled in a questionnaire about use of drugs. The urine samples from 916 young recruits were examined for cannabinoids and 429 were also examined for amphetamines, cocaine, opiates and benzodiazepines. We found 68 (7.8%) positive tests for cannabis and a negligible number of positive tests for other drugs. The questionnaire showed a lower statement of use of drugs though 3.3% stated a daily or weekly use of cannabis. Fifty-eight percent of the soldiers admitted that they had tried cannabis. Six percent had used other drugs. The consumption of alcohol is low during weekdays. We concluded that the conscripts did not constitute a population of drug abusers. We recommend that urine test screening (regular or spot test) should be incorporated in the future medical examination in the Danish Army to pinpoint personnel with a moderate use of cannabis. PMID:8644406

  15. In vitro production of gamma-hydroxybutyrate in antemortem urine samples.

    PubMed

    Kerrigan, Sarah

    2002-01-01

    The in vitro production of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) in antemortem urine samples was demonstrated over an eight-month period. Positive chemical ionization-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (PCI-GC-MS) was used to detect trace amounts of GHB produced in vitro under certain storage conditions. Freshly prepared drug-free human urine was stored at 21, 4, and -20 degrees C in the presence of preservative. Although artifactual production of GHB occurred more rapidly at elevated temperatures, the presence of an antimicrobial agent (sodium azide) in the drug-free urine control did not impede GHB production. The preliminary data suggest that although in vitro production was demonstrated, the elevations in concentration were nominal and less than 5 mg/L for all conditions tested over the 244-day period. These preliminary data suggest that urine samples should be preserved and stored at -20 degrees C to minimize artifactual GHB production. Most importantly, conditions of storage and preservative should also be taken into consideration when interpreting GHB results that are close to the administrative cutoff. In order to establish the distribution of GHB concentrations in routine forensic case samples, a series of 100 antemortem urine samples, in which GHB was not suspected, was analyzed. Samples were preserved with sodium fluoride (1%) and had been stored for up to one year at room temperature. Although concentrations as high as 7 mg/L were measured in some samples, the mean and median concentrations were 1.8 mg/L and 1.6 mg/L, respectively. Even following storage at room temperature for an extended period, more than 95% of the urine samples contained less than 5 mg/L GHB and 100% contained less than 10 mg/L. An administrative cutoff of 10 mg/L in antemortem urine was used for routine antemortem casework. PMID:12501915

  16. Scientific issues in drug testing: council on scientific affairs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-06-12

    Testing for drugs in biologic fluids, especially urine, is a practice that has become widespread. The technology of testing for drugs in urine has greatly improved in recent years. Inexpensive screening techniques are not sufficiently accurate for forensic testing standards, which must be met wihen a person's employment or reputation may be affected by results. This is particularly a concern during screening of a population in which the prevalence of drug use is very low, in which the predictive value of a positive result would be quite low. Physicians should be aware that results from drug testing can yield accurate evidence of prior exposure to drugs, but they do not provide information about patterns of drug use, about abuse of or dependence on drugs, or about mental or physical impairments that may result from drug use.

  17. Papain: a novel urine adulterant.

    PubMed

    Burrows, David L; Nicolaides, Andrea; Rice, Peter J; Dufforc, Michelle; Johnson, David A; Ferslew, Kenneth E

    2005-01-01

    The estimated number of employees in the United Stated screened annually for illicit drugs is approximately 20 million, with marijuana being the most frequently abused drug. Urine adulterants provide an opportunity for illicit drug users to obtain a false-negative result on commonly used primary drug screening methods such as the enzyme multiplied immunoassay technique and the fluorescence polarized immunoassay technique (FPIA). Typical chemical adulterants such as nitrites are easily detected or render the urine specimen invalid as defined in the proposed SAMHSA guidelines for specimen validity testing based on creatinine, specific gravity, and pH. Papain is a cysteine protease with intrinsic ester hydrolysis capability. The primary metabolite of the psychoactive chemical in marijuana, 11-norcarboxy-Delta9-tetrahydrocannibinol (THC-COOH), was assayed by FPIA in concentrations ranging from 25 to 500 ng/mL, at pH values ranging from 4.5 to 8, over the course of 3 days with papain concentrations ranging from 0 to 10 mg/mL. FPIA analysis of other frequently abused drugs: amphetamines, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, cocaine, opiates, and phencyclidine, along with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) of THC-COOH and high-pressure liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV) of nordiazepam was performed in order to determine if the mechanism of urine adulteration by papain was analyte specific. Control and adulterated urine specimens (n = 30) were assayed for creatinine, specific gravity, and pH to determine if papain rendered the specimens invalid based on the proposed SAMHSA guidelines. There was a direct pH, temperature, and time-dependent correlate between the increase in papain concentration and the decrease in THC-COOH concentration from the untreated control groups (p < 0.01). The average 72-h THC-COOH concentration decrease at pH 6.2 with a papain concentration of 10 mg/mL was 50%. Papain did not significantly decrease the concentration of the other drugs analyzed with the exception of nordiazepam. GC-MS of THC-COOH and HPLC-UV of nordiazepam revealed a 66% and 24% decrease in concentration of the respective analyte with 10 mg/mL papain after 24 h at room temperature (approximately 23 degrees C). No adulterated specimens were rendered invalid based on the SAMHSA guidelines. Immediate FPIA analysis is suggested to minimize the interfering effects of papain with regards to primary drug screening. PMID:16105251

  18. The Drug User's Identity and How It Relates to Being Hepatitis C Antibody Positive: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copeland, Lorraine

    2004-01-01

    The increasing health problem of hepatitis C virus infection has only recently attracted the attention of psychosocial research, especially among subjects at higher risk (e.g. injecting drug users). There is a lack of information about the knowledge, perceptions and feelings that injecting drug users hold about their hepatitis C antibody positive

  19. Application of non-linear angle synchronous spectrofluorimetry to the determination of complex mixtures of drugs in urine: A comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murillo Pulgarín, J. A.; Alañón Molina, A.; Boras, N.

    2012-12-01

    Synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy (SFS) is a rapid, sensitive and non-destructive method suitable for the analysis of multifluorophoric mixtures. In this study non linear variable angle synchronous spectrofluorimetry was applied to the determination of three fluoroquinololes in urine. Although this technique provides very good results, total resolution of multicomponent mixtures is not always achieved when the spectral profiles strongly overlap. Partial least-squares regression (PLS-1) was utilized to a develop calibration model that related synchronous fluorescence spectra to the analytical concentration of fluoroquinolones in the presence of urine. The same multicomponent mixture was determined using excitation emission matrix fluorescence (EEMF) along with N-way partial least squares regression (N-PLS and U-PLS). The determination was carried out in micellar medium 0.01 M with a pH of 4.8 provided by 0.2 M sodium acetate/acetic acid buffer. A central composite design was selected to obtain a calibration matrix of 25 standards plus a blank sample. The proposed methods were validated by application to a test set of synthetic samples. The results show that SFS with PLS-1 is a better method compared to EEMF with N-PLS or U-PLS because of the low RMSEP values of the former.

  20. On-Demand Urine Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farquharson, Stuart; Inscore, Frank; Shende, Chetan

    2010-01-01

    A lab-on-a-chip was developed that is capable of extracting biochemical indicators from urine samples and generating their surface-enhanced Raman spectra (SERS) so that the indicators can be quantified and identified. The development was motivated by the need to monitor and assess the effects of extended weightlessness, which include space motion sickness and loss of bone and muscle mass. The results may lead to developments of effective exercise programs and drug regimes that would maintain astronaut health. The analyzer containing the lab-on-a- chip includes materials to extract 3- methylhistidine (a muscle-loss indicator) and Risedronate (a bone-loss indicator) from the urine sample and detect them at the required concentrations using a Raman analyzer. The lab-on- a-chip has both an extractive material and a SERS-active material. The analyzer could be used to monitor the onset of diseases, such as osteoporosis.

  1. Transmitted antiretroviral drug resistance mutations in newly diagnosed HIV-1 positive patients in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Sayan, Murat; Sargýn, Fatma; Inan, Dilara; Yýldýz Sevgi, Dilek; Kocagül Celikbas, Aysel; Yasar, Kadriye; Kaptan, Figen; Sayýn Kutlu, Selda; Tasdelen Fýsgýn, Nuriye; Inci, Ayse; Ceran, Nurgül; Karaoðlan, Ýlkay; Cagatay, Atahan; Kemal Celen, Mustafa; Tekin Koruk, Suda; Ceylan, Bahadýr; Yýldýrmak, Taner; Akalýn, Halis; Korten, Volkan; Willke, Ayse

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The objective of this study was to determine the transmitted drug resistance mutations (TDRMs) in newly diagnosed HIV-1 positive patients in Turkey. Materials and Methods The study was carried out between 2009 and 2014 and antiretroviral naïve 774 HIV-1 infected patients from 19 Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology Departments in Turkey were included; gender: 664 (86%) male, median age: 37 (range; 1–77), median CD4+T-cell: 360 (range; 1–1320) count/mm3, median HIV-RNA load: 2.10+E6 (range; 4.2+E2–7.41+E8) IU/mL. HIV-1 drug resistance mutations were detected by population based sequencing of the reverse transcriptase (codon 41–238) and protease (codon 1–99) domains of pol gene of HIV-1, and analyzed according to the criteria by the World Health Organization 2009 list of surveillance drug resistance mutations [1]. Results The patients had TDRMs to NRTIs (K65R, M184V), NNRTIs (K101E, K103N/S, G190A/E/S, Y181I/C, Y188H/L) and PIs (M46L, I54V, L76V, V82L/T, N83D, I84V, L90M). The prevalence of overall TDRMs was 6.7% (52/774). Resistance mutations were found to be 0.7% (6/774), 4.1% (32/774) and 2.1% (17/774) to NRTIs, NNRTIs and PIs drug groups, respectively. Three patients had NRTIs+NNRTs resistance mutations (M184V+K103N) as multi-class drug resistance. However, thymidine analogue resistance mutations (TAMs) determined two distinct genotypic profiles in the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase: TAM1: M41L, L210W and T215Y, and TAM2: D67N, K70R, K219E/Q, and T215F. The prevalence of TAM1 and TAM2 were 7.7% (60/774) and 4.3% (34/774), respectively. Conclusions The TDRMs prevalence of antiretroviral naïve HIV-1 infected patients may be suggested current situation of Turkey. These long-term and large-scale results show that the resistance testing must be an integral part of the management of HIV infection in Turkey. PMID:25397495

  2. Workplace drug testing in Italy: Findings about second-stage testing.

    PubMed

    Vignali, Claudia; Stramesi, Cristiana; Morini, Luca; San Bartolomeo, Paolo; Groppi, Angelo

    2015-03-01

    Workplace Drug Testing (WDT) in Italy includes two levels of monitoring: a first stage concerning drug testing on urine samples and a second involving both urine and hair analysis. The second stage is performed only on workers who tested positive at the first level. We analyzed urine and hair specimens from 120 workers undergoing second-level testing between 2009 and 2012. Eighty percent of them had tested positive for cannabinoids during the first level analysis, and 15.8% for cocaine. Both urine and hair samples were analyzed in order to find the following drugs of abuse: amphetamines, buprenorphine, cannabinoids, cocaine, ecstasy, methadone, and opiates. Urine analyses were performed by immunological screening (EMIT); urine confirmatory tests and hair analyses were performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). As regards second-stage testing on urine samples, 71.2% of workers were always negative, whereas 23.9% tested positive at least once for cannabinoids and 2.5% for cocaine. Hair analyses produced surprising results: 61.9% of hair samples tested negative, only 6.2% tested positive for cannabinoids, whereas 28.8% tested positive for cocaine. These findings confirm that second-level surveillance of WDT, which includes hair analysis, is very effective because it highlights drug intake - sometimes heavy - that cannot be revealed only through urine analyses. The employees for whom drug addiction is proved can begin rehabilitation, while keeping their job. Eventually, our results confirmed the widespread and undeclared use of cocaine in Italy. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24652693

  3. Role of Catheter's Position for Final Results in Intrathecal Drug Delivery. Analysis Based on CSF Dynamics and Specific Drugs Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Luciano, Perotti; Vicente, Villanueva; Juan Marcos, Asensio Samper; Gustavo, Fabregat-Cid

    2013-01-01

    Intrathecal drug delivery is an effective and safe option for the treatment of chronic pathology refractory to conventional pain therapies. Typical intrathecal administered drugs are opioids, baclofen, local anesthetics and adjuvant medications. Although knowledge about mechanisms of action of intrathecal drugs are every day more clear many doubt remain respect the correct location of intrathecal catheter in order to achieve the best therapeutic result. We analyze the factors that can affect drug distribution within the cerebrospinal fluid. Three categories of variables were identified: drug features, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics and patients features. First category includes physicochemical properties and pharmacological features of intrathecal administered drugs with special attention to drug lipophilicity. In the second category, the variables in CSF flow, are considered that can modify the drug distribution within the CSF with special attention to the new theories of liquoral circulation. Last category try to explain inter-individual difference in baclofen response with difference that are specific for each patients such as the anatomical area to treat, patient posture or reaction to inflammatory stimulus. We conclude that a comprehensive evaluation of the patients, including imaging techniques to study the anatomy and physiology of intrathecal environment and CSF dynamics, could become essential in the future to the purpose of optimize the clinical outcome of intrathecal therapy. PMID:24155999

  4. Spatial Analysis of HIV Positive Injection Drug Users in San Francisco, 1987 to 2005

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Alexis N.; Mobley, Lee R.; Lorvick, Jennifer; Novak, Scott P.; Lopez, Andrea M.; Kral, Alex H.

    2014-01-01

    Spatial analyses of HIV/AIDS related outcomes are growing in popularity as a tool to understand geographic changes in the epidemic and inform the effectiveness of community-based prevention and treatment programs. The Urban Health Study was a serial, cross-sectional epidemiological study of injection drug users (IDUs) in San Francisco between 1987 and 2005 (N = 29,914). HIV testing was conducted for every participant. Participant residence was geocoded to the level of the United States Census tract for every observation in dataset. Local indicator of spatial autocorrelation (LISA) tests were used to identify univariate and bivariate Census tract clusters of HIV positive IDUs in two time periods. We further compared three tract level characteristics (% poverty, % African Americans, and % unemployment) across areas of clustered and non-clustered tracts. We identified significant spatial clustering of high numbers of HIV positive IDUs in the early period (1987–1995) and late period (1996–2005). We found significant bivariate clusters of Census tracts where HIV positive IDUs and tract level poverty were above average compared to the surrounding areas. Our data suggest that poverty, rather than race, was an important neighborhood characteristic associated with the spatial distribution of HIV in SF and its spatial diffusion over time. PMID:24722543

  5. Evaluation of adverse drug reactions in HIV positive patients in a tertiary care hospital

    PubMed Central

    Jha, Anshu Kumar; Gadgade, Akash; Shenoy, Ashok K.; Chowta, Mukta N.; Ramapuram, John T.

    2015-01-01

    Context: The advancement and development of new drugs and treatment strategies increase the risk of unusual Adverse Events (AEs) in HIV patients. Aims: The objective of our study was to assess the incidence, types and nature of AEs in HIV positive subjects. Settings and Design: Patients with WHO stage IV disease irrespective of the CD4 cell count, or WHO stage III disease with a CD4 cell count <350 cell/cu. Mm, or, WHO stage I or II disease with a CD4 cell count of <200 cells/cu. mm, and on prior anti-retroviral therapy for not more than six months preceding the observation date, were included in the study. After initiation of therapy, the patients were examined for the occurrence any adverse events including the type and severity, or any other abnormal laboratory findings. Causality assessment of the adverse events was done using the Naranjo's scale. Results: Out of 327 patients studied prospectively, 43 patients developed AEs. Out of these, 23 (53.5%) were males and 20 (46.5%) were females. A total of 53 (16.21%) AEs were reported. Antitubercular drugs caused the maximum AEs (28.3%) followed by zidovudine (20.7%), nevirapine (15.0%) and efavirenz (5.6%). Stavudine, ethambutol, sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim, and atazanavir were also responsible for 3.7% of AEs individually. Causality assessment done according to the Naranjo's scale revealed that 66.04% AEs were ‘probable’ and 33.96% were ‘possible’. Conclusions: Anemia, hepatitis and dermatological adverse effects are the most common AEs. Antitubercular drugs contributed significantly for the incidence of AEs in these patients. Frequency of AEs was slightly more in males compared to females. PMID:25657900

  6. Urine the Know

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    American Chemical Society

    2004-01-01

    In this activity on page 5 of the PDF, learners compare water with artificial urine to see how urinalysis works. Learners use urinalysis test strips to test for glucose and protein in the fake urine. Use this activity to demonstrate why doctors examine urine samples to determine a person's health. Safety notes: Follow the safety notes described in the activity as well as Milli's safety tips on page 2.

  7. Micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography of benzodiazepines in human urine.

    PubMed

    Schafroth, M; Thormann, W; Allemann, D

    1994-01-01

    The determination of the major urinary compounds of eight common benzodiazepines, flunitrazepam, diazepam, midazolam, clonazepam, bromazepam, temazepam, oxazepam, and lorazepam, by micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MECC) is shown to be a simple and attractive approach for confirmation testing of these drugs in human urine. After enzymatic hydrolysis and extraction using mixed-mode solid-phase cartridges and a two-step elution protocol, fractions were analyzed in a phosphate/borate buffer (pH 9.3) containing 75 mM sodium dodecyl sulfate and small amounts of isopropanol, methanol and/or acetonitrile using an instrument with on- column multi-wavelength detection. The presence of these compounds could unambiguously be confirmed in patient urines which tested positive for benzodiazepines using a commercial enzyme multiplied immunoassay screening technique (EMIT). The sensitivity of the MECC assay is demonstrated to be better than that of EMIT. MECC analysis of one patient urine which tested negatively employing EMIT revealed the presence of lorazepam, this demonstrating that false-negative results from the initial immunological screening process can be recognized using MECC. For one example, 7-aminoflunitrazepam, the MECC data are shown to agree well with those obtained by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. PMID:8143683

  8. Effect of storage temperature on endogenous GHB levels in urine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc A LeBeau; Mark L Miller; Barry Levine

    2001-01-01

    Because ?-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is an endogenous substance present in the body and is rapidly eliminated after ingestion, toxicologists investigating drug-facilitated sexual assault cases are often asked to differentiate between endogenous and exogenous levels of GHB in urine samples.This study was designed to determine the effects of storage temperature on endogenous GHB levels in urine. Specifically, it was designed to ascertain

  9. Urine pH test

    MedlinePLUS

    A urine pH test measures the level of acid in urine. ... pH - urine ... meat products or cranberries can decrease your urine pH. ... to check for changes in your body's acid levels.It may be done to ... more effective when urine is acidic or non-acidic (alkaline).

  10. Micropreparative isolation and NMR structure elucidation of metabolites of the drug candidate 1-isopropyl-4-(4-isopropylphenyl)-6-(prop-2-yn-1-yloxy) quinazolin-2(1H)-one from rat bile and urine.

    PubMed

    Blanz, Joachim; Délémonté, Thierry; Pearson, David; Luneau, Alexandre; Ritzau, Michael; Gertsch, Werner; Ramstein, Philippe; Dayer, Jérôme; Desrayaud, Sandrine; Braun, Elisabeth; Aichholz, Reiner

    2015-05-01

    LC-MS based drug metabolism studies are effective in the optimization stage of drug discovery for rapid partial structure identification of metabolites. However, these studies usually do not provide unambiguous structural characterization of all metabolites, due to the limitations of MS-based structure identification. LC-MS-SPE-NMR is a technique that allows complete structure identification, but is difficult to apply to complex in vivo samples (such as bile collected during in vivo drug metabolism studies) due to the presence, at high concentrations, of interfering endogenous components, and potentially also dosage excipient components (e.g. polyethylene glycols). Here, we describe the isolation and structure characterization of seven metabolites of the drug development candidate 1-isopropyl-4-(4-isopropylphenyl)-6-(prop-2-yn-1-yloxy) quinazolin-2(1H)-one from a routine metabolism study in a bile-duct cannulated rat by LC-MS-SPE. The metabolites were isolated from bile and urine by repeated automatic trapping of the chromatographic peak of each metabolite on separate Oasis HLB SPE columns. The micropreparative HPLC/MS was performed on an XBridge BEH130 C18 HPLC column using aqueous formic acid/acetonitrile/methanol as mobile phase for the gradient elution. Mass spectrometric detection was performed on a LTQ XL linear ion trap mass spectrometer using electrospray ionization. Desorption of each metabolite was performed after the separation sequence. NMR spectra ((1)H, (13)C, 2D ROESY, HSQC and HMBC were measured on a Bruker AVANCE III spectrometer (600MHz proton frequency) equipped with a 1.7mm (1)H{(13)C,(15)N} Bruker Biospin's TCI MicroCryoProbe™. PMID:25797717

  11. Urine testing for norcodeine, norhydrocodone, and noroxycodone facilitates interpretation and reduces false negatives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward J. Cone; Anne Zichterman; Rebecca Heltsley; David L. Black; Beverly Cawthon; Tim Robert; Frank Moser; Yale H. Caplan

    2010-01-01

    Urine drug testing of pain patients provides objective information to health specialists regarding patient compliance, diversion, and concurrent illicit drug use. Interpretation of urine test results for semi-synthetic opiates can be difficult because of complex biotransformations of parent drug to metabolites that are also available commercially and may be abused. Normetabolites such as norcodeine, norhydrocodone and noroxycodone are unique metabolites

  12. Cannabinoid receptor 1 is a potential drug target for treatment of translocation-positive rhabdomyosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Oesch, Susanne; Walter, Dagmar; Wachtel, Marco; Pretre, Kathya; Salazar, Maria; Guzmán, Manuel; Velasco, Guillermo; Schäfer, Beat W

    2009-07-01

    Gene expression profiling has revealed that the gene coding for cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) is highly up-regulated in rhabdomyosarcoma biopsies bearing the typical chromosomal translocations PAX3/FKHR or PAX7/FKHR. Because cannabinoid receptor agonists are capable of reducing proliferation and inducing apoptosis in diverse cancer cells such as glioma, breast cancer, and melanoma, we evaluated whether CB1 is a potential drug target in rhabdomyosarcoma. Our study shows that treatment with the cannabinoid receptor agonists HU210 and Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol lowers the viability of translocation-positive rhabdomyosarcoma cells through the induction of apoptosis. This effect relies on inhibition of AKT signaling and induction of the stress-associated transcription factor p8 because small interfering RNA-mediated down-regulation of p8 rescued cell viability upon cannabinoid treatment. Finally, treatment of xenografts with HU210 led to a significant suppression of tumor growth in vivo. These results support the notion that cannabinoid receptor agonists could represent a novel targeted approach for treatment of translocation-positive rhabdomyosarcoma. PMID:19509271

  13. Active and latent tuberculosis among HIV-positive injecting drug users in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Meijerink, Hinta; Wisaksana, Rudi; Lestari, Mery; Meilana, Intan; Chaidir, Lydia; van der Ven, Andre JAM; Alisjahbana, Bachti; van Crevel, Reinout

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Injecting drug use (IDU) is associated with tuberculosis but few data are available from low-income settings. We examined IDU in relation to active and latent tuberculosis (LTBI) among HIV-positive individuals in Indonesia, which has a high burden of tuberculosis and a rapidly growing HIV epidemic strongly driven by IDU. Methods Active tuberculosis was measured prospectively among 1900 consecutive antiretroviral treatment (ART)-naïve adult patients entering care in a clinic in West Java. Prevalence of LTBI was determined cross-sectionally in a subset of 518 ART-experienced patients using an interferon-gamma release assay. Results Patients with a history of IDU (53.1%) more often reported a history of tuberculosis treatment (34.8% vs. 21.9%, p<0.001), more often received tuberculosis treatment during follow-up (adjusted HR=1.71; 95% CI: 1.25–2.35) and more often had bacteriologically confirmed tuberculosis (OR=1.67; 95% CI: 0.94–2.96). LTBI was equally prevalent among people with and without a history of IDU (29.1 vs. 30.4%, NS). The risk estimates did not change after adjustment for CD4 cell count or ART. Conclusions HIV-positive individuals with a history of IDU in Indonesia have more active tuberculosis, with similar rates of LTBI. Within the HIV clinic, LTBI screening and isoniazid preventive therapy may be prioritized to patients with a history of IDU. PMID:25690530

  14. Witnessed versus Unwitnessed Random Urine Tests in the Treatment of Opioid Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Mallya, Ashok; Purnell, Amanda L.; Svrakic, Dragan M.; Lovell, Ann M.; Freedland, Kenneth E.; Gott, Britt M.; Sayuk, Gregory S.; Cicero, Theodore J.; Brawer, Peter A.; Trafton, Jodie A.; Scherrer, Jeffrey F.; Lustman, Patrick J.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives Clinics licensed to provide pharmacotherapy for opiate dependence disorder are required to perform random urine drug screen (RUDS) tests. The results provide the empirical basis of individual treatment and programmatic effectiveness, and public health policy. Patients consent to witnessed testing but most tests are unwitnessed. The purpose of the present study was to compare treatment effectiveness estimates derived from witnessed versus unwitnessed urine samples. Methods We adopted a policy requiring visually witnessed urine drug screens (WUDS) and studied its impact (a single group, pretest–posttest design) on the RUDS test results in 115 male veterans enrolled in the St. Louis VA Opioid Treatment Program. Results The percentage of opioid-positive urine samples increased significantly following implementation of WUDS (25% vs. 41%, ?2 = 66.5, p < .001). Conclusions and Scientific Significance Results of this preliminary study suggest that random testing alone does not ensure the integrity of UDS testing. Outcome calculations based on random unwitnessed tests may overestimate the effectiveness of opioid dependence disorder treatment. PMID:23414505

  15. 49 CFR 655.61 - Action when an employee has a verified positive drug test result or has a confirmed alcohol test...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...positive drug test result or has a confirmed alcohol test result of 0.04 or greater, or...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PREVENTION OF ALCOHOL MISUSE AND PROHIBITED DRUG USE IN TRANSIT...positive drug test result or has a confirmed alcohol test result of 0.04 or greater,...

  16. 49 CFR 655.61 - Action when an employee has a verified positive drug test result or has a confirmed alcohol test...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...positive drug test result or has a confirmed alcohol test result of 0.04 or greater, or...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PREVENTION OF ALCOHOL MISUSE AND PROHIBITED DRUG USE IN TRANSIT...positive drug test result or has a confirmed alcohol test result of 0.04 or greater,...

  17. 49 CFR 655.61 - Action when an employee has a verified positive drug test result or has a confirmed alcohol test...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...positive drug test result or has a confirmed alcohol test result of 0.04 or greater, or...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PREVENTION OF ALCOHOL MISUSE AND PROHIBITED DRUG USE IN TRANSIT...positive drug test result or has a confirmed alcohol test result of 0.04 or greater,...

  18. 49 CFR 655.61 - Action when an employee has a verified positive drug test result or has a confirmed alcohol test...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...positive drug test result or has a confirmed alcohol test result of 0.04 or greater, or...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PREVENTION OF ALCOHOL MISUSE AND PROHIBITED DRUG USE IN TRANSIT...positive drug test result or has a confirmed alcohol test result of 0.04 or greater,...

  19. 49 CFR 655.61 - Action when an employee has a verified positive drug test result or has a confirmed alcohol test...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...positive drug test result or has a confirmed alcohol test result of 0.04 or greater, or...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PREVENTION OF ALCOHOL MISUSE AND PROHIBITED DRUG USE IN TRANSIT...positive drug test result or has a confirmed alcohol test result of 0.04 or greater,...

  20. 49 CFR 655.46 - Return to duty following refusal to submit to a test, verified positive drug test result and/or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...positive drug test result and/or breath alcohol test result of 0.04 or greater. 655...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PREVENTION OF ALCOHOL MISUSE AND PROHIBITED DRUG USE IN TRANSIT...positive drug test result and/or breath alcohol test result of 0.04 or greater....

  1. 49 CFR 655.46 - Return to duty following refusal to submit to a test, verified positive drug test result and/or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...positive drug test result and/or breath alcohol test result of 0.04 or greater. 655...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PREVENTION OF ALCOHOL MISUSE AND PROHIBITED DRUG USE IN TRANSIT...positive drug test result and/or breath alcohol test result of 0.04 or greater....

  2. 49 CFR 655.46 - Return to duty following refusal to submit to a test, verified positive drug test result and/or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...positive drug test result and/or breath alcohol test result of 0.04 or greater. 655...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PREVENTION OF ALCOHOL MISUSE AND PROHIBITED DRUG USE IN TRANSIT...positive drug test result and/or breath alcohol test result of 0.04 or greater....

  3. RBC urine test

    MedlinePLUS

    Red blood cells in urine; Hematuria test; Urine - red blood cells ... A normal result is 4 RBC/HPF (red blood cells per high power field) or less when the sample is examined under a microscope. The example above is a common measurement ...

  4. Multi-drug resistant oral Candida species isolated from HIV-positive patients in South Africa and Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos Abrantes, Pedro Miguel; McArthur, Carole P; Africa, Charlene Wilma Joyce

    2014-06-01

    Candida species are a common cause of infection in immune-compromised HIV-positive individuals, who are usually treated with the antifungal drug, fluconazole, in public hospitals in Africa. However, information about the prevalence of drug resistance to fluconazole and other antifungal agents on Candida species is very limited. This study examined 128 Candida isolates from South Africa and 126 Cameroonian Candida isolates for determination of species prevalence and antifungal drug susceptibility. The isolates were characterized by growth on chromogenic and selective media and by their susceptibility to 9 antifungal drugs tested using the TREK™ YeastOne9 drug panel (Thermo Scientific, USA). Eighty-three percent (82.8%) of South African isolates were Candida albicans (106 isolates), 9.4% were Candida glabrata (12 isolates), and 7.8% were Candida dubliniensis (10 isolates). Of the Cameroonian isolates, 73.02% were C. albicans (92 isolates); 19.05% C. glabrata (24 isolates); 3.2% Candida tropicalis (4 isolates); 2.4% Candida krusei (3 isolates); 1.59% either Candida kefyr, Candida parapsilopsis, or Candida lusitaneae (2 isolates); and 0.79% C. dubliniensis (1 isolate). Widespread C. albicans resistance to azoles was detected phenotypically in both populations. Differences in drug resistance were seen within C. glabrata found in both populations. Echinocandin drugs were more effective on isolates obtained from the Cameroon than in South Africa. A multiple-drug resistant C. dubliniensis strain isolated from the South African samples was inhibited only by 5-flucytosine in vitro on the YO9 panel. Drug resistance among oral Candida species is common among African HIV patients in these 2 countries. Regional surveillance of Candida species drug susceptibility should be undertaken to ensure effective treatment for HIV-positive patients. PMID:24726686

  5. 21 CFR 876.5250 - Urine collector and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5250 Urine collector and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

  6. 21 CFR 876.5250 - Urine collector and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5250 Urine collector and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

  7. 21 CFR 876.5250 - Urine collector and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5250 Urine collector and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

  8. 21 CFR 876.5250 - Urine collector and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5250 Urine collector and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

  9. 21 CFR 876.5250 - Urine collector and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5250 Urine collector and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

  10. Urinalysis and hair analysis for illicit drugs of driver applicants and drivers in the trucking industry.

    PubMed

    Mieczkowski, Tom

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this article is to compare the differential rate of detection of illicit drugs when using two distinct sample types, hair and urine specimens. The specimens were collected from persons who applied for employment as a truck driver, or were collected from randomly selected currently employed truck drivers. The data is examined for job applicants and employees to determine if any differences in outcomes are associated with employment status or specimen type. The data is also assessed for specific patterns associated with particular drugs and their assay outcomes. Overall, it was determined that drug positive cases are relatively rare. Job applicants are more likely to test positive for an illicit drug than a currently employed driver. Applicants are more frequently positive for a drug by a factor of 3 for both urinalysis and hair analysis when compared to currently employed drivers. Approximately 2% of applicants were urine positive and 9% hair positive for an illegal drug. Considering employed truck drivers 0.6% were drug positive by urinalysis and 3% when using hair analysis. It is concluded that hair assays detect more drug use than urinalysis. It is also concluded that when urine and hair assay outcomes are non-concordant the typical case is a positive hair analysis with a negative urinalysis. PMID:20569951

  11. Impact of urine concentration adjustment method on associations between urine metals and estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Virginia M; Vargas, Gonzalo García; Silbergeld, Ellen K; Rothenberg, Stephen J; Fadrowski, Jeffrey J; Rubio-Andrade, Marisela; Parsons, Patrick J; Steuerwald, Amy J; Navas-Acien, Ana; Guallar, Eliseo

    2014-07-01

    Positive associations between urine toxicant levels and measures of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) have been reported recently in a range of populations. The explanation for these associations, in a direction opposite that of traditional nephrotoxicity, is uncertain. Variation in associations by urine concentration adjustment approach has also been observed. Associations of urine cadmium, thallium and uranium in models of serum creatinine- and cystatin-C-based estimated GFR (eGFR) were examined using multiple linear regression in a cross-sectional study of adolescents residing near a lead smelter complex. Urine concentration adjustment approaches compared included urine creatinine, urine osmolality and no adjustment. Median age, blood lead and urine cadmium, thallium and uranium were 13.9 years, 4.0 ?g/dL, 0.22, 0.27 and 0.04 g/g creatinine, respectively, in 512 adolescents. Urine cadmium and thallium were positively associated with serum creatinine-based eGFR only when urine creatinine was used to adjust for urine concentration (? coefficient=3.1 mL/min/1.73 m(2); 95% confidence interval=1.4, 4.8 per each doubling of urine cadmium). Weaker positive associations, also only with urine creatinine adjustment, were observed between these metals and serum cystatin-C-based eGFR and between urine uranium and serum creatinine-based eGFR. Additional research using non-creatinine-based methods of adjustment for urine concentration is necessary. PMID:24815335

  12. Urine collection device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michaud, R. B. (inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A urine collection device for females is described. It is comprised of a collection element defining a urine collection chamber and an inlet opening into the chamber and is adapted to be disposed in surrounding relation to the urethral opening of the user. A drainage conduit is connected to the collection element in communication with the chamber whereby the chamber and conduit together comprise a urine flow pathway for carrying urine generally away from the inlet. A first body of wicking material is mounted adjacent the collection element and extends at least partially into the flow pathway. The device preferably also comprise a vaginal insert element including a seal portion for preventing the entry of urine into the vagina.

  13. Validity of the self-report on drug use by university students: Correspondence between self-reported use and use detected in urine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Flor Zaldívar Basurto; José Manuel García Montes; Pilar Flores Cubos; Fernando Sánchez Santed; Francisca López Ríos; Antonio Molina Moreno

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to determine the validity of a self-report on recent drug use (cocaine and cannabis) in a sample of university students of both sexes and to explore the role of attitudes toward substance use as related to this report. The subjects (506) were volunteers aged 17-35 years (who received an economic incentive) recruited at the

  14. Punitive policing and associated substance use risks among HIV-positive people in Russia who inject drugs

    PubMed Central

    Lunze, Karsten; Raj, Anita; Cheng, Debbie M.; Quinn, Emily K.; Bridden, Carly; Blokhina, Elena; Walley, Alexander Y.; Krupitsky, Evgeny; Samet, Jeffrey H.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Drug law enforcement is part of the HIV risk environment among people who inject drugs (PWID). Punitive policing practices such as extrajudicial arrests for needle possession and police planting of drugs have been described anecdotally in Russia, but these experiences and their associations with risky drug behaviours have not been quantified. This study aims to quantify the burden of extrajudicial police arrests among a cohort of HIV-positive PWID in Russia and to explore its links to drug-related health outcomes. Methods In a cross-sectional study of 582 HIV-positive people with lifetime injection drug use (IDU) in St. Petersburg, Russia, we estimated the prevalence of self-reported extrajudicial police arrests. We used multiple logistic regression to evaluate associations between arrests and the following outcomes: overdose, recent IDU and receptive needle sharing. Findings This cohort's mean age was 29.8 years, 60.8% were male; 75.3% reported non-fatal drug overdose, 50.3% recent IDU and 47.3% receptive needle sharing. Extrajudicial arrests were reported by more than half (60.5%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 56.5–64.5) and were associated with higher odds of non-fatal drug overdose (AOR 1.52, 95% CI: 1.02–2.25) but not with recent IDU (AOR 1.17, arrests were associated with receptive needle sharing (AOR 1.84, 95% CI: 1.09–3.09). Conclusions Extrajudicial police arrests were common among this cohort of Russian HIV-positive PWID and associated with non-fatal overdose and, among those with recent IDU, receptive needle sharing. As a part of the HIV risk environment of PWIDs, these practices might contribute to HIV transmission and overdose mortality. Further research is needed to relate these findings to the operational environment of law enforcement and to better understand how police interventions among PWIDs can improve the HIV risk environment. PMID:25014321

  15. Tunable Detection Sensitivity of Opiates in Urine via a Label-Free Porous Silicon Competitive Inhibition Immunosensor

    PubMed Central

    Bonanno, Lisa M.; DeLouise, Lisa A.

    2010-01-01

    Currently, there is need for laboratory based high-throughput and reliable point-of-care drug screening methodologies. We demonstrate here a chip-based label-free porous silicon (PSi) photonic sensor for detecting opiates in urine. This technique provides a cost-effective alternative to conventional labeled drug screening immunoassays with potential for translation to multiplexed analysis. Important effects of surface chemistry and competitive binding assay protocol on the sensitivity of opiate detection are revealed. Capability to tune sensitivity and detection range over ?3 orders of magnitude (18.0 nM – 10.8 ?M) was achieved by varying the applied urine specimen volume (100 – 5 ?l), which results in systematic shifts in the competitive binding response curve. A detection range (0.36 – 4.02 ?M) of morphine in urine (15 ?l) was designed to span the current positive cut-off value (1.05 ?M morphine) in medical opiate urine screening. Desirable high cross-reactivity to oxycodone, in addition to other common opiates: morphine, morphine-3-glucuronide, 6-acetyl morphine demonstrates an advantage over current commercial screening assays, while low interference with cocaine metabolite was maintained. This study uniquely displays PSi sensor technology as an inexpensive, rapid, and reliable drug screening technology. Furthermore, the versatile surface chemistry developed can be implemented on a range of solid-supported sensors to conduct competitive inhibition assays. PMID:20028021

  16. College on Problems of Drug Dependence taskforce on prescription opioid non-medical use and abuse: position statement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James Zacny; George Bigelow; Peggy Compton; Kathleen Foley; Martin Iguchi; Christine Sannerud

    2003-01-01

    This position paper from the College on Problems of Drug Dependence addresses the issues related to non-medical use and abuse of prescription opioids. A central theme throughout is the need to strike a balance between risk management strategies to prevent and deter prescription opioid abuse and the need for physicians and patients to have appropriate access to opioid pharmaceuticals for

  17. Self-report of illicit substance use versus urine toxicology results from at-risk pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    YONKERS, KIMBERLY A.; HOWELL, HEATHER B.; GOTMAN, NATHAN; ROUNSAVILLE, BRUCE J.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Many factors comprise a patient's decision to disclose use of drugs. Pregnant women may report drug use because they would like help with their addiction but the stigma associated with drug use may dampen their willingness to disclose. Knowledge about the accuracy of self-reported drug use as compared to urine toxicology screens can assist clinicians in the management of substance use in pregnancy. Method We compared the urine toxicology screens and self-reported use of marijuana or cocaine for 168 women enrolled in an integrated obstetrical/substance abuse treatment program. We stratified by various periods of self-reported use and race and utilized Cohen's kappa to measure overall agreement between self-report and toxicology tests. Results Most women with a positive toxicology screen reported use in the past 28 days (78% for marijuana, 86% for cocaine). However, many women reported their most recent use to be outside of the assays’ detection window (14% for marijuana, 57% for cocaine). We did not find differences in self-report for women with positive urine between Whites and non-Whites (p = 1.00). Agreement over the previous month was good (Kappa = 0.74 and 0.70 for marijuana and cocaine, respectively.) Summary A question about use of marijuana or cocaine during the preceding month rather than the prior few days may be a better indicator of use. PMID:23956685

  18. Maple syrup urine disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Persons with this condition cannot break down the amino acids leucine, isoleucine, and valine. This leads to a ... Plasma amino acid test Urine amino acid test There will be signs of ketosis and excess acid in blood (acidosis).

  19. Drug testing welfare recipients--false positives, false negatives, unanticipated opportunities.

    PubMed

    Pollack, Harold A; Danziger, Sheldon; Jayakody, Rukmalie; Seefeldt, Kristin S

    2002-01-01

    Substance abuse and dependence are among the most common psychiatric disorders among pregnant and parenting women. These disorders among welfare recipients have attracted special concern. Chemical testing has been proposed to identify illicit drug use in this population. This analysis scrutinizes the potential value of drug testing, using recent data from the Women's Employment Study and the National Household Survey of Drug Abuse. One-fifth of recipients reported illicit substance use during the previous year. However, less than 5% satisfied diagnostic screening criteria for illicit drug dependence. Most recipients with psychiatric disorders or alcohol dependence reported no recent illicit drug use, and, thus, would not be detected through chemical tests. Although illicit drug users are rarely dependent, many face barriers to self-sufficiency. Screening and assessment programs should distinguish use from dependence, and should also identify alcohol dependence and psychiatric disorders. States should provide a range of treatment services to address these concerns. PMID:11786289

  20. Multi-residue analysis of drugs of abuse in wastewater and surface water by solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography-positive electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Baker, David R; Kasprzyk-Hordern, Barbara

    2011-03-25

    A new-multi residue method was developed for the environmental monitoring of 65 stimulants, opiod and morphine derivatives, benzodiazepines, antidepressants, dissociative anaesthetics, drug precursors, human urine indicators and their metabolites in wastewater and surface water. The proposed analytical methodology offers rapid analysis for a large number of compounds, with low limits of quantification and utilises only one solid-phase extraction-ultra performance liquid chromatography-positive electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-LC-MS/MS) method, thus overcoming the drawbacks of previously published procedures. The method employed solid phase extraction with the usage of Oasis MCX sorbent and subsequent ultra performance liquid chromatography-positive electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry. The usage of a 1.7 ?m particle size column (1 mm×150 mm) resulted in very low flow rates (0.04 mLmin(-1)), and as a consequence gave good sensitivity, low mobile phase consumption and short retention times for all compounds (from 2.9 to 23.1 min). High SPE recoveries (>60%) were obtained for the majority of compounds. The mean correlation coefficients of the calibration curves were typically higher than 0.997 and showed good linearity in the range 0-1000 ?gL(-1). The method limits of detection ranged from 0.1 ngL(-1) for compounds including cocaine, benzoylecgonine, norbenzoylecgonine and 2-oxo-3-hydroxy-LSD to 100 ngL(-1) for caffeine. Method quantification limits ranged from 0.5 to 154.2 ngL(-1). Intra- and inter-day repeatabilities were on average less than 10%. The method accuracy range was within -33.1 to 30.1%. The new multi-residue method was used to analyse drugs of abuse in wastewater and river water in the UK environment. Of the targeted 65 compounds, 46 analytes were detected at levels above the method quantification limit (MQL) in wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) influent, 43 in WWTP effluent and 36 compounds in river water. PMID:21334631

  1. Blood as the earliest drug, its substitutes, preparations and latest position.

    PubMed

    Mahdihassan, S

    1986-01-01

    Blood was soul and Redness its active principle when red substances were rich in soul-content. But soul was a substance whence blood became a drug which donated soul to treat wounds and incurable diseases. Its redness as life-force, but also as substance, could prolong life. A drug made from human blood could treat serious wounds and as a life saving drug was also a drug of fertility. The latest use of blood appears as syrup haemoglobin while the latest use of human blood would be blood transfusion. PMID:3541572

  2. 24-hour urine copper test

    MedlinePLUS

    A 24-hour urine sample is needed. On day 1, urinate into the toilet when you get up in the morning. Afterwards, collect all urine in a special container for the next 24 hours. On day 2, urinate into the container when you get up in the morning. Cap ...

  3. Prevalence of drug use in commercial tractor-trailer drivers.

    PubMed

    Couper, Fiona J; Pemberton, Melissa; Jarvis, Anjanette; Hughes, Marty; Logan, Barry K

    2002-05-01

    An enforcement emphasis project, "Operation Trucker Check," was established in order to determine the extent to which commercial tractor-trailer drivers were operating their vehicles while impaired by drugs. A total of 1079 drivers and their vehicles were assessed for driver and equipment violations, and drivers additionally underwent preliminary field sobriety tests conducted by drug recognition expert (DRE) officers. Anonymous urine specimens for drug analysis were requested, and 822 urine specimens were obtained in total. Compliance with the drug-testing portion was voluntary, and there was a 19% refusal rate. Overall, 21% of the urine specimens tested positive for either illicit, prescription, and/or over-the-counter drugs, and 7% tested positive for more than one drug. Excluding caffeine and nicotine, the largest number of positive findings (9.5%) were for CNS stimulants, such as methamphetamine, amphetamine, phentermine, ephedrine/pseudoephedrine, and cocaine. The second most frequently encountered drug class were the cannabinoids, with 4.3% of drivers testing positive for marijuana metabolites. Only 11 drivers (1.3%) were positive for alcohol. Sixteen truck drivers (1.6%) were charged with driving under the influence of drugs after a full DRE evaluation was conducted. The results indicate that in spite of comprehensive drug testing in the trucking industry, some tractor-trailer drivers are continuing to take illicit and other drugs with the potential of having a negative effect on their driving ability. On the other hand, only a few drivers were, in fact, deemed to be under the influence of drugs at the time of driving when evaluated by DRE officers. PMID:12051337

  4. Drug testing welfare recipients—false positives, false negatives, unanticipated opportunities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harold A Pollack; Sheldon Danziger; Rukmalie Jayakody; Kristin S Seefeldt

    2002-01-01

    Substance abuse and dependence are among the most common psychiatric disorders among pregnant and parenting women. These disorders among welfare recipients have attracted special concern. Chemical testing has been proposed to identify illicit drug use in this population. This analysis scrutinizes the potential value of drug testing, using recent data from the Women’s Employment Study and the National Household Survey

  5. Risk factors for distress in the adolescent children of HIV-positive and HIV-negative drug-abusing fathers.

    PubMed

    Brook, D W; Brook, J S; Rubenstone, E; Zhang, C; Castro, F G; Tiburcio, N

    2008-01-01

    In contrast to previous research on parental drug abuse, the present study examined comorbid drug addiction and HIV infection in the father as related to his adolescent child's psychological distress. Individual structured interviews were administered to 505 HIV-positive and HIV-negative drug-abusing fathers and one of their children, aged 12-20. Structural equation modelling tested an hypothesized model linking paternal latent variables, ecological factors and adolescent substance use to adolescent distress. Results demonstrated a direct pathway between paternal distress and adolescent distress, as well as an indirect pathway; namely, paternal distress was linked with impaired paternal teaching of coping skills to the child, which in turn was related to adolescent substance use and, ultimately, to the adolescent's distress. There was also an association between paternal drug addiction/HIV and adolescent distress, which was mediated by both ecological factors and adolescent substance use. Findings suggest an increased risk of distress in the adolescent children of fathers with comorbid drug addiction and HIV/AIDS, which may be further complicated by paternal distress. Results suggest several opportunities for prevention and treatment programmes for the children of drug-abusing fathers. PMID:18278619

  6. Development testing of a shuttle urine collection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Flight tests conducted in December 1973 demonstrated the ability of an unisexual urine collection subsystem to function in a zero-g environment. The urinal, which could be adjusted with three degrees of freedom, accommodated 16 female test subjects with a wide range of stature, as well as five male test subjects. The urinal was in intimate contact with the female and was contoured to form an effective air seal at the periphery. When positioned 2-4 inches forward, the urinal could be used for male collection and contact was not required.

  7. False negative result for amphetamines on the Triage® Drug of Abuse panel?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wakako Hikiji; Keiko Kudo; Shinji Sato; Yosuke Usumoto; Akiko Tsuji; Noriaki Ikeda

    2009-01-01

    On-site drug screening devices are widely used today for their simple test procedures and instantaneous results. Among other\\u000a devices, a Triage® Drug of Abuse panel is considered to be highly reliable for its high specificity and sensitivity of abused\\u000a drugs. Although it is known that a false positive amphetamine (AMP) result may be obtained from the urine samples containing\\u000a putrefactive

  8. Indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the quantitative estimation of lysergic acid diethylamide in urine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarah Kerrigan; E. Brooks

    1998-01-01

    A new antibody to lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) was used to develop a novel indirect ELISA for the quanti- fication of drug in urine. Evaluation of the new assay with the commercially available LSD ELISA (STC Di- agnostics) shows improved performance. The test re- quires 50 mL of urine, which is used to measure concen- trations of drug in the

  9. Media's Positive and Negative Frames in Reporting Celebrity Deaths From Illegal Drug Overdoses Versus Prescription Drug Overdoses

    E-print Network

    Wood, Michelle

    2011-12-31

    the majority of participants in that study reported that their idols were a positive influence, an overriding concern in this field is that celebrities can act as advocates for undesirable behaviors (Shaw et al., 2010). Additionally, the International Narcotics... family (Gibson, 2007; Kearl, 2011; Terry, 1999). With increasing media platforms for people to interact with celebrities, fans can now, more than ever before, feel a sense of intimacy with their idols. It is also ironic that, just as audiences come...

  10. Traditional Chinese medicine and sports drug testing: identification of natural steroid administration in doping control urine samples resulting from musk (pod) extracts.

    PubMed

    Thevis, Mario; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Geyer, Hans; Thieme, Detlef; Grosse, Joachim; Rautenberg, Claudia; Flenker, Ulrich; Beuck, Simon; Thomas, Andreas; Holland, Ruben; Dvorak, Jiri

    2013-01-01

    The administration of musk extract, that is, ingredients obtained by extraction of the liquid secreted from the preputial gland or resulting grains of the male musk deer (eg, Moschus moschiferus), has been recommended in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) applications and was listed in the Japanese pharmacopoeia for various indications requiring cardiovascular stimulation, anti-inflammatory medication or androgenic hormone therapy. Numerous steroidal components including cholesterol, 5?-androstane-3,17-dione, 5?-androstane-3,17-dione, androsterone, etiocholanolone, epiandrosterone, 3?-hydroxy-androst-5-en-17-one, androst-4-ene-3,17-dione and the corresponding urea adduct 3?-ureido-androst-4-en-17-one were characterised as natural ingredients of musk over several decades, implicating an issue concerning doping controls if used for the treatment of elite athletes. In the present study, the impact of musk extract administration on sports drug testing results of five females competing in an international sporting event is reported. In the course of routine doping controls, adverse analytical findings concerning the athletes' steroid profile, corroborated by isotope-ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) data, were obtained. The athletes' medical advisors admitted the prescription of TCM-based musk pod preparations and provided musk pod samples for comparison purposes to clarify the antidoping rule violation. Steroid profiles, IRMS results, literature data and a musk sample obtained from a living musk deer of a local zoo conclusively demonstrated the use of musk pod extracts in all cases which, however, represented a doping offence as prohibited anabolic-androgenic steroids were administered. PMID:22554845

  11. A cost-utility analysis of drug treatments in patients with HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Only lamivudine has been included for patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) in the National List of Essential Drugs (NLED), a pharmaceutical reimbursement list in Thailand. There have also been no economic evaluation studies of CHB drug treatments conducted in Thailand yet. In order to fill this gap in policy research, the objective of this study was to compare the cost-utility of each drug therapy (Figure 1) with palliative care in patients with HBeAg-positive CHB. Methods A cost-utility analysis using an economic evaluation model was performed to compare each drug treatment for HBeAg-positive CHB patients. A Markov model was used to estimate the relevant costs and health outcomes during a lifetime horizon based on a societal perspective. Direct medical costs, direct non-medical costs, and indirect costs were included, and health outcomes were denoted in life years (LYs) and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). The results were presented as an incremental cost effectiveness ratio (ICER) in Thai baht (THB) per LY or QALY gained. One-way sensitivity and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were applied to investigate the effects of model parameter uncertainties. Results The ICER values of providing generic lamivudine with the addition of tenofovir when drug resistance occurred, generic lamivudine with the addition of tenofovir based on the road map guideline, and tenofovir monotherapy were -14,000 (USD -467), -8,000 (USD -267) , and -5,000 (USD -167) THB per QALY gained, respectively. However, when taking into account all parameter uncertainties in the model, providing generic lamivudine with the addition of tenofovir when drug resistance occurred (78% and 75%) and tenofovir monotherapy (18% and 24%) would yield higher probabilities of being cost-effective at the societal willingness to pay thresholds of 100,000 (USD 3,333) and 300,000 (USD 10,000) THB per QALY gained in Thailand, respectively. Conclusions Based on the policy recommendations from this study, the Thai government decided to include tenofovir into the NLED in addition to generic lamivudine which is already on the list. Moreover, the results have shown that the preferred treatment regimen involves using generic lamivudine as the first-line drug with tenofovir added if drug resistance occurs in HBeAg-positive CHB patients. PMID:24731689

  12. Morphine and codeine concentrations in human urine following controlled poppy seeds administration of known opiate content.

    PubMed

    Smith, Michael L; Nichols, Daniel C; Underwood, Paula; Fuller, Zachary; Moser, Matthew A; LoDico, Charles; Gorelick, David A; Newmeyer, Matthew N; Concheiro, Marta; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2014-08-01

    Opiates are an important component for drug testing due to their high abuse potential. Proper urine opiate interpretation includes ruling out poppy seed ingestion; however, detailed elimination studies after controlled poppy seed administration with known morphine and codeine doses are not available. Therefore, we investigated urine opiate pharmacokinetics after controlled oral administration of uncooked poppy seeds with known morphine and codeine content. Participants were administered two 45 g oral poppy seed doses 8 h apart, each containing 15.7 mg morphine and 3mg codeine. Urine was collected ad libitum up to 32 h after the first dose. Specimens were analyzed with the Roche Opiates II immunoassay at 2000 and 300 ?g/L cutoffs, and the ThermoFisher CEDIA(®) heroin metabolite (6-acetylmorphine, 6-AM) and Lin-Zhi 6-AM immunoassays with 10 ?g/L cutoffs to determine if poppy seed ingestion could produce positive results in these heroin marker assays. In addition, all specimens were quantified for morphine and codeine by GC/MS. Participants (N=22) provided 391 urine specimens over 32 h following dosing; 26.6% and 83.4% were positive for morphine at 2000 and 300 ?g/L GC/MS cutoffs, respectively. For the 19 subjects who completed the study, morphine concentrations ranged from <300 to 7522 ?g/L with a median peak concentration of 5239 ?g/L. The median first morphine-positive urine sample at 2000 ?g/L cutoff concentration occurred at 6.6 h (1.2-12.1), with the last positive from 2.6 to 18 h after the second dose. No specimens were positive for codeine at a cutoff concentration of 2000 ?g/L, but 20.2% exceeded 300 ?g/L, with peak concentrations of 658 ?g/L (284-1540). The Roche Opiates II immunoassay had efficiencies greater than 96% for the 2000 and 300 ?g/L cutoffs. The CEDIA 6-AM immunoassay had a specificity of 91%, while the Lin-Zhi assay had no false positive results. These data provide valuable information for interpreting urine opiate results. PMID:24887324

  13. Direct tandem mass spectrometry for the simultaneous assay of opioids, cocaine and metabolites in dried urine spots.

    PubMed

    Otero-Fernández, Mara; Cocho, José Ángel; Tabernero, María Jesús; Bermejo, Ana María; Bermejo-Barrera, Pilar; Moreda-Piñeiro, Antonio

    2013-06-19

    A micro-analytical method based on spotting urine samples (20?L) onto blood/urine spot collection cards followed by air-drying and extraction (dried urine spot, DUS) was developed and validated for the screening/confirmation assay of morphine, 6-methylacetylmorphine (6-MAM), codeine, cocaine and benzoylecgonine (BZE). Acetonitrile (3 mL) was found to be a useful solvent for target extraction from DUSs under an orbital-horizontal stirring at 180 rpm for 10 min. Determinations were performed by direct electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) under positive electrospray ionization conditions, and by using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) with one precursor ion/product ion transition for the identification and quantification (deuterated analogs of each target as internal standards) of each analyte. The limits of detection of the method were 0.26, 0.94, 1.5, 1.1, and 2.0 ng mL(-1), for cocaine, BZE, codeine, morphine and 6-MAM, respectively; whereas, relative standard deviations of intra- and inter-day precision were lower than 8 and 11%, respectively, and intra- and inter-day analytical recoveries ranged from 94±4 to 105±3%. The small volume of urine required (20 ?L), combined with the simplicity of the analytical technique makes it a useful procedure for screening/quantifying drugs of abuse. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of urine from polydrug abusers. PMID:23746404

  14. Rapid processing of urine specimens by urine screening and the AutoMicrobic system.

    PubMed Central

    Wadke, M; McDonnell, C; Ashton, J K

    1982-01-01

    A total of 1,500 clean-voided urine specimens were analyzed for the presence of bacteria by urine screening with the Autobac 1 system. The specimens found positive by this method were further processed on the same day for identification and for antimicrobial susceptibility testing on the AutoMicrobic system with the Enterobacteriaceae-plus Card and the General Susceptibility Card, respectively. The inocula for these tests were prepared from the centrifuged and washed growth in the eugonic broth aspirated from the Autobac cuvette chambers. Of 1,500 specimens that were analyzed, 183 contained single isolates of gram-negative bacilli. The results of these rapid procedures were compared with results for the same organisms isolated from urine specimens cultured by the conventional method. The data showed 92.3% agreement for identification and a correlation of 93.6% for antibiotic susceptibility between the two procedures. It is concluded that gram-negative bacilli can be rapidly identified and tested for antimicrobial susceptibility with a high degree of accuracy from the centrifuged eugonic broth after urine screening. These findings also suggest that the AutoMicrobic system provides a rapid and convenient method for same-day processing of positive urine cultures when combined with the urine screening procedure. PMID:6759524

  15. Analysis of urine from pooled urinals - a novel method for the detection of novel psychoactive substances.

    PubMed

    Archer, J R H; Hudson, S; Wood, D M; Dargan, P I

    2013-06-01

    Current data on the epidemiology of recreational drug use is largely based on population and self-population surveys of drug use. In addition, increasingly, particularly for novel psychoactive substances, data collected from web monitoring systems is used to collect information on early trends in the use of NPS and the drugs available to users. All of these indicators rely on users self-report of the drug(s) that they are using, or more accurately the drugs that they perceive they are using. Numerous recent studies have demonstrated significant variation in the content of both classical recreational drugs and novel psychoactive substances. The technique of waste-water analysis has allowed estimation of population level use of a number of established recreational drugs such as cocaine and MDMA. However this technique is limited for novel psychoactive substances because of limitations in the knowledge of the stability and metabolism of these compounds. Our group has developed a technique that involves the collection and analysis of pooled-urine from standalone portable urinals and demonstrated that this technique can be used to detect the use of both classical, established recreational drugs and novel psychoactive substances. We discuss this technique in this paper and the ways in which this can be further developed to allow detection of use of new NPS and trends in use of these substances over time and across geographical regions. PMID:24308525

  16. Comparative study on toxoplasma serology among HIV positive and HIV negative illicit drug users in Ahvaz, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Alavi, Seyed Mohammad; Jamshidian, Ramin; Salmanzadeh, Shokrolah

    2013-01-01

    Background: Toxoplasmosis is a common parasitic infection in human around the world and can cause life-threatening encephalitis in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected host. The aim of this study was to assess the frequency of toxoplasma infection in illicit drug users (IDUs) with and without HIV infection in Iran. Methods: This study was carried out on 84 IDUs (42 HIV positive as case group and 42 HIV negative subjects as control group) from 2008 to 2009. Serum samples were tested for T. gondii IgG antibodies by Enzym linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA). Based on the company brochure kit, the test was defined positive if the antibody titer was 3 IU/ml or more. The data from these two groups were collected and analyzed. Results: The mean age of HIV positive cases was 34.4±8.6 and for HIV negative cases was 35.9±9.3 year. The mean age and distribution of sex in both groups were equal. The frequency of toxoplasma-IgG in HIV positive and HIV negative was 73.8% and 81%, respectively (p=0.19). Conclusion: The results show that prevalence of toxoplasmosis infection in the illicit drug users with HIV positive or negative is equal. PMID:24294474

  17. Some historical aspects of urinals and urine receptacles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Johan J. Mattelaer

    1999-01-01

    In the history of mankind the first receptacles for urine were made and employed for diagnostic purposes and developed over\\u000a centuries to a sophisticated matula. In ancient Greek and Roman history, chamber pots existed and urine was collected to bleach\\u000a sheets, but it was only in the late medieval and renaissance times that a real urine receptacle or urinal for

  18. Urine collection - infants

    MedlinePLUS

    ... gave you. You will be given a special bag to collect the urine. It will be a plastic bag with a sticky strip on one end, made ... fit over your baby's genital area. Open this bag and place it on the infant. For males, ...

  19. Getting a Urine Test

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... learn a lot from urine tests. Obviously, this test doesn't hurt. And if you know what to expect, it doesn't have to be embarrassing ... & Terms of Use Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on KidsHealth® is for ...

  20. Urine Test: Dipstick (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Measles: What to Know Vaccines: FAQs ... Checkups: What to Expect Urine Test: Dipstick KidsHealth > Parents > Doctors & Hospitals > Medical Tests & Exams > Urine Test: Dipstick ...

  1. Computational modeling of drug distribution in the posterior segment of the eye: effects of device variables and positions.

    PubMed

    Jooybar, Elaheh; Abdekhodaie, Mohammad J; Farhadi, Fatolla; Cheng, Yu-Ling

    2014-09-01

    A computational model was developed to simulate drug distribution in the posterior segment of the eye after intravitreal injection and ocular implantation. The effects of important factors in intravitreal injection such as injection time, needle gauge and needle angle on the ocular drug distribution were studied. Also, the influences of the position and the type of implant on the concentration profile in the posterior segment were investigated. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) calculations were conducted to describe the 3D convective-diffusive transport. The geometrical model was constructed based on the human eye dimensions. To simulate intravitreal injection, unlike previous studies which considered the initial shape of the injected drug solution as a sphere or cylinder, the more accurate shape was obtained by level-set method in COMSOL. The results showed that in intravitreal injection the drug concentration profile and its maximum value depended on the injection time, needle gauge and penetration angle of the needle. Considering the actual shape of the injected solution was found necessary to obtain the real concentration profile. In implant insertion, the vitreous cavity received more drugs after intraocular implantation, but this method was more invasive compared to the periocular delivery. Locating the implant in posterior or anterior regions had a significant effect on local drug concentrations. Also, the shape of implant influenced on concentration profile inside the eye. The presented model is useful for optimizing the administration variables to ensure optimum therapeutic benefits. Predicting and quantifying different factors help to reduce the possibility of tissue toxicity and to improve the treatment efficiency. PMID:24946303

  2. Pyrrolidine bis-cyclic guanidines with antimicrobial activity against drug-resistant Gram-positive pathogens

    E-print Network

    Nizet, Victor

    , vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis (VRE), and two Gram-negative bacterial species. At least 20- resistant isolates of Enterococcus species (VRE), nosoco- mial pathogenic species with frequent multi-drug resistance to other agents such as ampicillin and amino- glycosides. Over 28% of Enterococcus spp

  3. Can Supply Restrictions Lower Price? Violence, Drug Dealing and Positional Advantage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan P. Caulkins; Peter Reuter; Lowell J. Taylor

    2006-01-01

    The standard model of markets for illicit drugs predicts that tougher enforcement against sellers will raise prices; yet cocaine and heroin prices have fallen substantially during a period of massive increases in enforcement. We present a model in which the basic mechanisms at work in the textbook model may be substantially altered by an important feature of illegal markets—violence that

  4. Direct ELISA kits as a sensitive and selective screening method for abstinence control in urine.

    PubMed

    Kirschbaum, Katrin M; Musshoff, Frank; Wilbert, Ansgar; Röhrich, Jörg; Madea, Burkhard

    2011-04-15

    In 2009 cutoff values of assessment criteria to testify abstinence control in order to estimate driving ability were standardized in Germany. The cutoff values are lower than required in existing guidelines like SAMHSA and there is critical discussion about detection of low concentrations by using immunoassay, especially concerning amphetamines in urine (50 ng/ml). In this study Direct ELISA kits were tested for their applicability to identify the absence of amphetamines, cannabinoids, opiates, cocaine, methadone and benzodiazepines in urine. Results were confirmed by LC/MS or GC/MS analyses. Sensitivity, specificity, predictive values (positive as well as negative) and overall misclassification rates were evaluated by contingency tables and were compared to ROC-analyses. Sensitivity results as well as specificity results were satisfying showing sensitivity values higher than 96% for each analyte. The amphetamine test we used showed sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 88%, respectively, even if amphetamine tests usually react with high cross-reactivity. Our study results include high discrimination at required cutoff values between positives and negatives for each drug group and demonstrate that immunological tests complying with requirements of current decreased urine cutoff values for assessment of driving ability do exist. PMID:20933345

  5. A simple and rapid ESI-LC-MS/MS method for simultaneous screening of doping agents in urine samples

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, I. Madhusudhana; Beotra, Alka; Jain, S.; Ahi, S.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The use of performance enhancing substances is banned in sports by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). Though most prohibited substances can be detected by GC/MS, inclusion of corticosteroids and designer drugs has made it essential to detect these critical doping agents on LC/MS/MS due to their better separation and detection. Materials and Methods: A common extraction procedure for the isolation of acidic, basic and neutral drugs from urine samples was developed. A total of 28 doping drugs were analyzed on API 3200 Triple quadrupole mass spectrometer using C18 column in atmospheric pressure electrospray ionization. The mobile phase composition was a mixture of 1% formic acid and acetonitrile with gradient time period. Results: The method developed was very sensitive for detection of 28 doping agents. The linearity was performed for each drug and the total recovery percentage ranged from 57 to 114. Limit of detection is found to be 0.5 ng/ml for carboxy finasteride and 1-5 ng/ml for other drugs. The method was successfully used to detect positive urine samples of 3-OH-stanozolol, methyl phenidate, mesocarb, clomiphene metabolite and carboxy finasteride. Conclusion: The method developed based on controlled pH extraction method and HPLC-mass spectrometry analysis allowed better identification and confirmation of glucocorticosteroids and a few other drugs in different categories. The validated method has been used successfully for testing of 1000 In-competition samples. The method helped in detection of chemically and pharmacologically different banned drugs in urine in a single short run at a minimum required performance limit set by WADA. PMID:20336223

  6. 10 CFR 707.7 - Random drug testing requirements and identification of testing designated positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...707.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKPLACE SUBSTANCE ABUSE PROGRAMS AT DOE SITES Procedures § 707.7...designated positions. (a)(1) Each workplace substance abuse program will provide for random testing for...

  7. 10 CFR 707.7 - Random drug testing requirements and identification of testing designated positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...707.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKPLACE SUBSTANCE ABUSE PROGRAMS AT DOE SITES Procedures § 707.7...designated positions. (a)(1) Each workplace substance abuse program will provide for random testing for...

  8. 10 CFR 707.7 - Random drug testing requirements and identification of testing designated positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...707.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKPLACE SUBSTANCE ABUSE PROGRAMS AT DOE SITES Procedures § 707.7...designated positions. (a)(1) Each workplace substance abuse program will provide for random testing for...

  9. 10 CFR 707.7 - Random drug testing requirements and identification of testing designated positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...707.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKPLACE SUBSTANCE ABUSE PROGRAMS AT DOE SITES Procedures § 707.7...designated positions. (a)(1) Each workplace substance abuse program will provide for random testing for...

  10. 10 CFR 707.7 - Random drug testing requirements and identification of testing designated positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...707.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKPLACE SUBSTANCE ABUSE PROGRAMS AT DOE SITES Procedures § 707.7...designated positions. (a)(1) Each workplace substance abuse program will provide for random testing for...

  11. UNC researchers find new approach to treat drug-resistant HER2-positive breast cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Using human cancer cell lines, scientists identified various ways that HER2-positive breast cancer tumors resist therapy, and they discovered a potential combination therapy to overcome multiple mechanisms of resistance and kill cancer cells.

  12. Pre-employment Drug Testing of Housestaff Physicians at a Large Urban Hospital.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewy, Robert M.

    1991-01-01

    The Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center (New York City) program of preemployment urine toxicology examinations for beginning housestaff physicians has resulted in treatment for two physicians testing positive for illegal drugs. The program's primary purpose is to focus on substance abuse issues in graduate medical education. (Author/MSE)

  13. Positive and negative psychiatric effects of antiepileptic drugs in patients with seizure disorders.

    PubMed

    Ketter, T A; Post, R M; Theodore, W H

    1999-01-01

    Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) have various mechanisms of actions and therefore have diverse anticonvulsant, psychiatric, and adverse effect profiles. Two global categories of AEDs are identified on the basis of their predominant psychotropic profiles. One group has "sedating" effects in association with fatigue, cognitive slowing, and weight gain, as well as possible anxiolytic and antimanic effects. These actions may be related to a predominance of potentiation of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) inhibitory neurotransmission induced by drugs such as barbiturates, benzodiazepines, valproate, gabapentin, tiagabine, and vigabatrin. The other group is associated with predominant attenuation of glutamate excitatory neurotransmission and has "activating" effects, with activation, weight loss, and possibly anxiogenic and antidepressant effects. This group includes agents such as felbamate and lamotrigine. Agents such as topiramate, with both GABAergic and antiglutamatergic actions, may have "mixed" profiles. Mechanisms of actions, activity in animal models of anxiety and depression, and clinical psychotropic effects of AEDs in psychiatric and epilepsy patients are reviewed in relationship to this proposed categorization. These considerations suggest the testable hypothesis that better psychiatric outcomes in seizure disorder patients could be achieved by treating patients with baseline "activated" profiles (insomnia, agitation, anxiety, racing thoughts, weight loss) with "sedating" predominantly GABAergic drugs, and conversely those with baseline "sedated" or anergic profiles (hypersomnia, fatigue, apathy, depression, sluggish cognition, weight gain) with "activating" predominantly antiglutamatergic agents. Systematic clinical investigation of more precise relationships of discrete mechanisms of actions to psychotropic profiles of AEDs is needed to assess the utility of this general proposition and define exceptions to this broad principle. PMID:10496235

  14. [Drugs and occupational accident].

    PubMed

    Bratzke, H; Albers, C

    1996-02-01

    In a case of a fatal occupational accident (construction worker, fall from roof, urine test positive for cocaine and THC, e.g. cannabis) the question arised to what extent those drug-related occupational accidents occur. In the literature only few cases, mainly dealing with cannabis influence, have been reported, however, a higher number is suspected. Cocaine and other stimulating drugs (amphetamine) are more often used to increase physical fitness. By direct or indirect interference with vigilance these compounds may provoke accidents. Due to the lack of a legal basis proving of the influence of drugs at the working place is still very limited, although highly sensitive chemical-toxicological assay procedures are available to detect even the chronic abuse (in hair). In the general conditions of accident insurances a compensation is excluded when alcohol is involved, but drugs are not mentioned. It is indeed difficult to establish a concentration limit for drugs like that existing for alcohol (1.1%). In each case the assay of the drug involved and exact knowledge of its specific effects is in an essential prerequisite to prove the causal relationship. PMID:8852068

  15. Positive Selection Detection in 40,000 Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Type 1 Sequences Automatically Identifies Drug Resistance and Positive Fitness Mutations in HIV Protease and Reverse Transcriptase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lamei Chen; Alla Perlina; Christopher J. Lee

    2004-01-01

    Drug resistance is a major problem in the treatment of AIDS, due to the very high mutation rate of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and subsequent rapid development of resistance to new drugs. Identification of mutations associated with drug resistance is critical for both individualized treatment selection and new drug design. We have performed an automated mutation analysis of HIV Type

  16. Electrolytic pretreatment of urine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Electrolysis has been under evaluation for several years as a process to pretreat urine for ultimate recovery of potable water in manned spacecraft applications. The conclusions that were drawn from this investigation are the following: (1) A platinum alloy containing 10 percent rhodium has been shown to be an effective, corrosion-resistant anode material for the electrolytic pretreatment of urine. Black platinum has been found to be suitable as a cathode material. (2) The mechanism of the reactions occurring during the electrolysis of urine is two-stage: (a) a total Kjeldahl nitrogen and total organic carbon (TOC) removal in the first stage is the result of electrochemical oxidation of urea to CO2, H2O, and ammonia followed by chloride interaction to produce N2 from ammonia, (b) after the urea has been essentially removed and the chloride ions have no more ammonia to interact with, the chloride ions start to oxidize to higher valence states, thus producing perchlorates. (3) Formation of perchlorates can be suppressed by high/low current operation, elevated temperature, and pH adjustment. (4) UV-radiation showed promise in assisting electrolytic TOC removal in beaker tests, but was not substantiated in limited single cell testing. This may have been due to non-optimum configurations of the single cell test rig and the light source.

  17. Positive and negative features of a computer assisted drug treatment program delivered by mentors to homeless drug users living in hostels.

    PubMed

    Neale, Joanne; Stevenson, Caral

    2014-10-01

    This paper explores positive and negative features of computer assisted therapy (CAT) delivered by mentors to homeless drug users (HDUs) living in hostels. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 30 HDUs and 15 mentors (all hostel staff) at the beginning and end of a 12-week CAT program. Findings indicate that successful delivery of the CAT relates to: 'program features' (e.g. its accessibility, flexibility, user-friendly interface); 'delivery context' (e.g. privacy, having appropriate computing equipment), 'client characteristics' (HDUs being recovery-focused and committed to using the program), and 'mentor support' (clients having personalized attention from an encouraging and sympathetic other). It is concluded that CATs can be used with HDUs but are unlikely to replace addiction therapists. Rather, they are more likely to be effective when combined with a strong therapeutic relationship. Services using CATs with HDUs need to provide staff training, support, and time to maximize the potential benefits. PMID:25037480

  18. Recurrent major depressive disorder among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive and HIV-negative intravenous drug users: Findings of a 3-year longitudinal study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey G Johnson; Judith G Rabkin; Joshua D Lipsitz; Janet B. W Williams; Robert H Remien

    1999-01-01

    A longitudinal study was conducted to investigate the association between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, history of major depressive disorder (MDD), and persistent or recurrent MDD among intravenous drug users. Psychiatric disorders were assessed in a sample of HIV-positive (HIV+) and HIV-negative (HIV?) intravenous drug users every 6 months for 3 years. Results indicated that HIV status and baseline MDD

  19. The context of HIV risk behaviours among HIV-positive injection drug users in Viet Nam: Moving toward effective harm reduction

    PubMed Central

    Thanh, Duong Cong; Moland, Karen Marie; Fylkesnes, Knut

    2009-01-01

    Background Injection drug users represent the largest proportion of all HIV reported cases in Viet Nam. This study aimed to explore the perceptions of risk and risk behaviours among HIV-positive injection drug users, and their experiences related to safe injection and safe sex practices. Methods This study used multiple qualitative methods in data collection including in-depth interviews, focus group discussions and participant observation with HIV-positive injection drug users. Results The informants described a change in the sharing practices among injection drug users towards more precautions and what was considered 'low risk sharing', like sharing among seroconcordant partners and borrowing rather than lending. However risky practices like re-use of injection equipment and 'syringe pulling' i.e. the use of left-over drugs in particular, were frequently described and observed. Needle and syringe distribution programmes were in place but carrying needles and syringes and particularly drugs could result in being arrested and fined. Fear of rejection and of loss of intimacy made disclosure difficult and was perceived as a major obstacle for condom use among recently diagnosed HIV infected individuals. Conclusion HIV-positive injection drug users continue to practice HIV risk behaviours. The anti-drug law and the police crack-down policy appeared as critical factors hampering ongoing prevention efforts with needle and syringe distribution programmes in Viet Nam. Drastic policy measures are needed to reduce the very high HIV prevalence among injection drug users. PMID:19348681

  20. Please see the job posting listed below. Postdoctoral Position in the Neuroscience of Drug and Alcohol Addiction at the University of Pittsburgh.

    E-print Network

    Pillow, Jonathan

    and Alcohol Addiction at the University of Pittsburgh. Up to two postdoctoral positions are currently (particularly in the PFC) and increases susceptibility to alcoholism and drug addiction. Studies include both

  1. FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS OF A NOVEL POSITIVE ALLOSTERIC MODULATOR OF AMPA RECEPTORS DERIVED FROM A STRUCTURE-BASED DRUG DESIGN STRATEGY

    PubMed Central

    Harms, Jonathan E.; Benveniste, Morris; Maclean, John K. F.; Partin, Kathryn M.; Jamieson, Craig

    2012-01-01

    Positive allosteric modulators of ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazole-propionic acid (AMPA) receptors facilitate synaptic plasticity and can improve various forms of learning and memory. These modulators show promise as therapeutic agents for the treatment of neurological disorders such as schizophrenia, ADHD, and mental depression. Three classes of positive modulator, the benzamides, the thiadiazides, and the biarylsulfonamides differentially occupy a solvent accessible binding pocket at the interface between the two subunits that form the AMPA receptor ligand-binding pocket. Here, we describe the electrophysiological properties of a new chemotype derived from a structure-based drug design strategy (SBDD), which makes similar receptor interactions compared to previously reported classes of modulator. This pyrazole amide derivative, JAMI1001A, with a promising developability profile, efficaciously modulates AMPA receptor deactivation and desensitization of both flip and flop receptor isoforms. PMID:22735771

  2. Estimate of dietary phosphorus intake using 24-h urine collection

    PubMed Central

    Morimoto, Yuuka; Sakuma, Masae; Ohta, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Akitsu; Matsushita, Asami; Umeda, Minako; Ishikawa, Makoto; Taketani, Yutaka; Takeda, Eiji; Arai, Hidekazu

    2014-01-01

    Increases in serum phosphorus levels and dietary phosphorus intake induces vascular calcification, arterial sclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. Limiting phosphorus intake is advisable, however, no assessment methods are capable of estimating dietary phosphorus intake. We hypothesized that urinary phosphorus excretion can be translated into estimation of dietary phosphorus intake, and we evaluated whether a 24-h urine collection method could estimate dietary phosphorus intake. Thirty two healthy subjects were recruited for this study. Subjects collected urine samples over 24 h and weighed dietary records. We calculated dietary protein intake and phosphorus intake from dietary records and urine collection, and investigated associations between the two methods in estimating protein and phosphorus intake. Significant positive correlations were observed between dietary records and UC for protein and phosphorus intake. The average intakes determined from dietary records were significantly higher than from urine collection for both protein and phosphorus. There was a significant positive correlation between both the phosphorus and protein difference in dietary records and urine collection. The phosphorus-protein ratio in urine collection was significantly higher than in dietary records. Our data indicated that the 24-h urine collection method can estimate the amount of dietary phosphorus intake, and the results were superior to estimation by weighed dietary record. PMID:25120281

  3. Hyaluronic acid-based nanogel-drug conjugates with enhanced anticancer activity designed for targeting of CD44-positive and drug-resistant tumors

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xin; Senanayake, Thulani H.; Warren, Galya; Vinogradov, Serguei V.

    2013-01-01

    Many drug-resistant tumors and cancer stem cells (CSC) express elevated levels of CD44 receptor, a cellular glycoprotein binding hyaluronic acid (HA). Here, we report the synthesis of nanogel-drug conjugates based on membranotropic cholesteryl-HA (CHA) for efficient targeting and suppression of drug-resistant tumors. These conjugates significantly increased the bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs with previously reported activity against CSC, such as etoposide, salinomycin, and curcumin. The small nanogel particles (diam. 20–40 nm) with a hydrophobic core and high drug loads (up to 20%) formed after ultrasonication and demonstrated a sustained drug release following the hydrolysis of biodegradable ester linkage. Importantly, CHA-drug nanogels demonstrated 2–7 times higher cytotoxicity in CD44-expressing drug-resistant human breast and pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells compared to free drugs and non-modified HA-drug conjugates. These nanogels were efficiently internalized via CD44 receptor-mediated endocytosis and simultaneous interaction with the cancer cell membrane. Anchoring by cholesterol moieties in the cellular membrane after nanogel unfolding evidently caused more efficient drug accumulation in cancer cells compared to non-modified HA-drug conjugates. CHA-drug nanogels were able to penetrate multicellular cancer spheroids and displayed higher cytotoxic effect in the system modeling tumor environment than both free drugs and HA-drug conjugates. In conclusion, the proposed design of nanogel-drug conjugates allowed us to significantly enhance drug bioavailability, cancer cell targeting, and the treatment efficacy against drug-resistant cancer cells and multicellular spheroids. PMID:23547842

  4. Hyaluronic acid-based nanogel-drug conjugates with enhanced anticancer activity designed for the targeting of CD44-positive and drug-resistant tumors.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xin; Senanayake, Thulani H; Warren, Galya; Vinogradov, Serguei V

    2013-04-17

    Many drug-resistant tumors and cancer stem cells (CSC) express elevated levels of CD44 receptor, a cellular glycoprotein binding hyaluronic acid (HA). Here, we report the synthesis of nanogel-drug conjugates based on membranotropic cholesteryl-HA (CHA) for efficient targeting and suppression of drug-resistant tumors. These conjugates significantly increased the bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs with previously reported activity against CSC, such as etoposide, salinomycin, and curcumin. The small nanogel particles (diameter 20-40 nm) with a hydrophobic core and high drug loads (up to 20%) formed after ultrasonication and demonstrated a sustained drug release following the hydrolysis of biodegradable ester linkage. Importantly, CHA-drug nanogels demonstrated 2-7 times higher cytotoxicity in CD44-expressing drug-resistant human breast and pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells compared to that of free drugs and nonmodified HA-drug conjugates. These nanogels were efficiently internalized via CD44 receptor-mediated endocytosis and simultaneous interaction with the cancer cell membrane. Anchoring by cholesterol moieties in the cellular membrane after nanogel unfolding evidently caused more efficient drug accumulation in cancer cells compared to that in nonmodified HA-drug conjugates. CHA-drug nanogels were able to penetrate multicellular cancer spheroids and displayed a higher cytotoxic effect in the system modeling tumor environment than both free drugs and HA-drug conjugates. In conclusion, the proposed design of nanogel-drug conjugates allowed us to significantly enhance drug bioavailability, cancer cell targeting, and the treatment efficacy against drug-resistant cancer cells and multicellular spheroids. PMID:23547842

  5. Forfeiture of illegally acquired assets of drug traffickers: the position in India.

    PubMed

    Gujral, B B

    1983-01-01

    Trafficking in drugs and other related crimes generates huge illicit funds which are used to support other criminal activity, corruption, illicit arms trading, the smuggling of goods and currency, and other economic offences. The traditional enforcement techniques aimed only at carriers and confiscation of the seized contraband no longer provide a sufficient deterrent. The problem is international in scope and requires close cooperation of all the agencies concerned. In 1976, India enacted specific legislation providing for the forfeiture of the property and assets of smugglers, including traffickers and foreign-exchange manipulators. This legislation, known as the "Smugglers and Foreign-Exchange Manipulators (Forfeiture of Property) Act, 1976", enables the enforcement authorities to confiscate all property, both movable and immovable, illegally acquired or accumulated, or for which investment is made from unlawful earnings resulting from smuggling and foreign exchange racketeering. It covers all such property held, not only in the names of smugglers and traffickers themselves, but their relatives and associates as well. The Act provides for principles of natural justice to be followed for all forfeiture proceedings and for appeals to a high tribunal. The legislation has enabled forfeiture action in 2,297 cases, covering properties valued at $US 40 million, during the last six years. PMID:6556075

  6. Confirmation and quantification of clenbuterol in horse urine using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry triple quadrupole.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Jennifer; Heffron, Brendan; Taddei, Lisa; Benoit, Marc; Hurt, Laura; Costello, Sara; Gross, Melissa; Negrusz, Adam

    2015-03-01

    Clenbuterol (CLE) is used in horses as a bronchodilator and for its anabolic steroid-like effects. CLE is a Class 3 drug according to current Association of Racing Commissioners International (ARCI) Uniform Classification Guidelines. The Racing Medication and Testing Consortium recommended a urine CLE threshold of 140 pg/mL after careful scientific review of the results of studies describing the disposition of CLE in the horse and this threshold was adopted by the ARCI. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was previously used to screen samples for CLE in Illinois, but could not detect such low concentrations in urine. Thus, a liquid-liquid extraction of CLE from urine followed by quantification by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was developed and validated. Method validation included testing stability, ion suppression and enhancement, precision, accuracy and uncertainty. Intra-, interday and total precision and accuracy were calculated for each control and found to be within the ±15% acceptance range. The Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement approach was used to calculate uncertainty, which was 11% at the 95% confidence level. In the past 5 years, only 15 samples were reported as positive for CLE in Illinois. This new method was used in a pilot program to screen and confirm samples received from thoroughbred and harness horses. PMID:25505053

  7. Quantitative analysis of mitragynine in human urine by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shijun; Tran, Buu N; Nelsen, Jamie L; Aldous, Kenneth M

    2009-08-15

    Mitragynine is the primary active alkaloid extracted from the leaves of Mitragyna speciosa Korth, a plant that originates in South-East Asia and is commonly known as kratom in Thailand. Kratom has been used for many centuries for their medicinal and psychoactive qualities, which are comparable to that of opiate-based drugs. Kratom abuse can lead to a detectable content of mitragynine residue in urine. Ultra trace amount of mitragynine in human urine was determined by a high performance liquid chromatography coupled to an electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI/MS/MS). Mitragynine was extracted by methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE) and separated on a HILIC column. The ESI/MS/MS was accomplished using a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer in positive ion detection and multiple reactions monitoring (MRM) mode. Ajmalicine, a mitragynine's structure analog was selected as internal standard (IS) for method development. Quality control (QC) performed at three levels 0.1, 1 and 5 ng/ml of mitragynine in urine gave mean recoveries of 90, 109, and 98% with average relative standard deviation of 22, 12 and 16%, respectively. The regression linearity of mitragynine calibration ranged from 0.01 to 5.0 ng/ml was achieved with correlation coefficient greater than 0.995. A detection limit of 0.02 ng/ml and high precision data within-day and between days analysis were obtained. PMID:19577523

  8. A thin layer chromatographic method for high volume screening of urine for methylphenidate abuse.

    PubMed

    Manno, B R; Manno, J E; Dempsey, C A

    1986-01-01

    A thin layer chromatographic (TLC) method for the high volume screening of urine for methylphenidate (Ritalin) abuse is presented. The method utilizes charcoal extraction of ritalinic acid from urine and a simple test-tube methylation step for the conversion of the ritalinic acid to methylphenidate. The methylphenidate is then subjected to a routine TLC drug procedure for subsequent qualitative identification. PMID:3724070

  9. Excretion of afobazole and its metabolites with urine and feces in rats.

    PubMed

    Viglinskaya, A O; Kolyvanov, G B; Litvin, A A; Zherdev, V P; Seredenin, S B

    2008-04-01

    The amount of afobazole and identified metabolites was measured in the urine and feces of rats after intraperitoneal and peroral administration of the drug in a dose of 25 mg/kg. Over 1 day after intraperitoneal or peroral treatment with afobazole, urine and feces contained 0.1% initial compound (from administered dose) and 42.1% metabolites. PMID:19110588

  10. EMERGENCY DEPARTMENT UTILIZATION AMONG A COHORT OF HIV-POSITIVE INJECTING DRUG USERS IN A CANADIAN SETTING

    PubMed Central

    Fairbairn, Nadia; Milloy, M-J; Zhang, Ruth; Lai, Calvin; Grafstein, Eric; Kerr, Thomas; Wood, Evan

    2011-01-01

    Background HIV-positive injection drug users (IDU) are known to be at risk for multiple medical problems that may necessitate emergency department (ED) use, however, the relative contribution of HIV disease versus injection-related complications have not been well described. Objectives We examined factors associated with ED use among a prospective cohort of HIV-positive IDU in a Canadian setting. Methods We enrolled HIV-positive IDU into a community-recruited prospective cohort study. We modeled factors associated with the time to first ED visit using Cox regression to determine factors independently associated with ED use. In sub-analyses, we examined ED diagnoses and subsequent hospital admission rates. Results Between December 5, 2005, and April 30, 2008, 428 HIV-positive IDU were enrolled, among whom the cumulative incidence of ED use was 63.7% (95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 59.1% – 68.3%) at 12 months after enrollment. Factors independently associated with time to first ED visit included: unstable housing (Hazard Ratio [HR] = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.1–2.0) and reporting being unable to obtain needed health care services (HR = 2.2, 95% CI: 1.2–4.1), whereas CD4 count and viral load were non-significant. Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) accounted for the greatest proportion of ED visits (17%). Of the 2461 visits to the ED, 419 (17%) were admitted to hospital. Conclusions High rates of ED use were observed among HIV-positive IDU, a behavior that was predicted by unstable housing and limited access to primary care. Factors other than HIV infection appear to be driving ED use among this population in the post-HAART era. PMID:21719229

  11. Role of 5HT 2A and 5HT 2C receptors in the stimulus effects of hallucinogenic drugs II: reassessment of LSD false positives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Fiorella; R. A. Rabin; J. C. Winter

    1995-01-01

    In the context of animal studies of hallucinogens, an LSD-false positive is defined as a drug known to be devoid of hallucinogenic activity in humans but which nonetheless fully mimics LSD in animals. Quipazine, MK-212, lisuride, and yohimbine have all been reported to be LSD false positives. The present study was designed to determine whether these compounds also substitute for

  12. Interaction Between Drugs and Biomedical Materials i: Binding Position of Bezafibrate to Human Serum Alubmin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Masami; Minagawa, Keiji; Berber, Mohamed R.; Hafez, Inas H.; Mori, Takeshi

    The interaction between bezafibrate (BZF) and human serum albumin (HSA) was investigated by equilibrium dialysis. Since the binding constant of BZF to HSA was independent of ionic strength and decreased with the addition of fatty acid, the interaction between BZF and HSA was considered to be due to hydrophobic mechanism. Chemical shifts in 1H-NMR spectra of BZF were independent of the concentration of BZF and addition of HSA. Spin-lattice relaxation time (T1) and spin-spin relaxation time (T2) of respective protons of BZF were independent of the concentration, but depended on the concentration of HSA added. The binding position of BZF to HSA was considered to involve the hydrophobic aromatic moiety of BZF from the ratio of spin-spin relaxation rates (1/T2) of BZF bound to HSA and free BZF.

  13. Simultaneous determination of morphine, codeine and 6-acetyl morphine in human urine and blood samples using direct aqueous derivatisation: validation and application to real cases.

    PubMed

    Chericoni, S; Stefanelli, F; Iannella, V; Giusiani, M

    2014-02-15

    Opiates play a relevant role in forensic toxicology and their assay in urine or blood is usually performed for example in workplace drug-testing or toxicological investigation of drug impaired driving. The present work describes two new methods for detecting morphine, codeine and 6-monoacethyl morphine in human urine or blood using a single step derivatisation in aqueous phase. Propyl chloroformate is used as the dramatizing agent followed by liquid-liquid extraction and gas-chromatography-mass spectroscopy to detect the derivatives. The methods have been validated both for hydrolysed and unhydrolysed urine. For hydrolysed urine, the LOD and LOQ were 2.5ng/ml and 8.5ng/ml for codeine, and 5.2ng/ml and 15.1ng/ml for morphine, respectively. For unhydrolysed urine, the LOD and LOQ were 3.0ng/ml and 10.1ng/ml for codeine, 2.7ng/ml and 8.1ng/ml for morphine, 0.8ng/ml and 1.5ng/ml for 6-monoacetyl morphine, respectively. In blood, the LOD and LOQ were 0.44ng/ml and 1.46ng/ml for codeine, 0.29ng/ml and 0.98ng/ml for morphine, 0.15ng/ml and 0.51ng/ml for 6-monoacetyl morphine, respectively. The validated methods have been applied to 50 urine samples and 40 blood samples (both positive and negative) and they can be used in routine analyses. PMID:24491926

  14. Some historical aspects of urinals and urine receptacles.

    PubMed

    Mattelaer, J J

    1999-06-01

    In the history of mankind the first receptacles for urine were made and employed for diagnostic purposes and developed over centuries to a sophisticated matula. In ancient Greek and Roman history, chamber pots existed and urine was collected to bleach sheets, but it was only in the late medieval and renaissance times that a real urine receptacle or urinal for daily use was developed. We give a short description of the materials used, including clay, pewter, copper, and silver, but more sophisticated receptacles made of china, such as the bourdaloue, and of glass, such as the Kuttrolf, were also developed for use during long church ceremonies. Less known are the wooden "pipes" from Turkestan, used to keep babies dry. In the long history of mankind, urinals sometimes became very original objects. PMID:10418087

  15. Aggressive behaviors in the adolescent children of HIV-positive and HIV-negative drug-abusing fathers.

    PubMed

    Brook, David W; Brook, Judith S; Rubenstone, Elizabeth; Zhang, Chenshu

    2006-01-01

    This study examined aggressive behaviors in the adolescent children of HIV-positive and HIV-negative drug-abusing fathers. Data were collected via individual structured interviews of low-income, predominantly African American and Hispanic, father-child dyads (N = 415). Structural Equation Modeling was used to assess the interrelationship of several latent constructs with respect to adolescent aggression. Results showed a mediational model linking paternal attributes (including HIV status) and ecological factors with the father-child relationship, which impacted peer influences and the adolescent's vulnerable personality, which was the most proximal construct to aggressive behaviors. Ecological factors were also mediated by peer influences and directly linked with adolescent aggression. PMID:16864470

  16. Surface Proteins of Gram-Positive Pathogens: Using Crystallography to Uncover Novel Features in Drug and Vaccine Candidates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Edward N.; Proft, Thomas; Kang, Haejoo

    Proteins displayed on the cell surfaces of pathogenic organisms are the front-line troops of bacterial attack, playing critical roles in colonization, infection and virulence. Although such proteins can often be recognized from genome sequence data, through characteristic sequence motifs, their functions are often unknown. One such group of surface proteins is attached to the cell surface of Gram-positive pathogens through the action of sortase enzymes. Some of these proteins are now known to form pili: long filamentous structures that mediate attachment to human cells. Crystallographic analyses of these and other cell surface proteins have uncovered novel features in their structure, assembly and stability, including the presence of inter- and intramolecular isopeptide crosslinks. This improved understanding of structures on the bacterial cell surface offers opportunities for the development of some new drug targets and for novel approaches to vaccine design.

  17. Applications of silver nanoparticles capped with different functional groups as the matrix and affinity probes in surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight and atmospheric pressure matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization ion trap mass spectrometry for rapid analysis of sulfur drugs and biothiols in human urine.

    PubMed

    Shrivas, Kamlesh; Wu, Hui-Fen

    2008-09-01

    A strategy is presented for the analysis of sulfur drugs and biothiols using silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) capped with different functional groups as the matrix and affinity probes in surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SALDI-TOF MS) and atmospheric pressure-matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization ion trap mass spectrometry (AP-MALDI-ITMS). Biothiols adsorbed on the surface of AgNPs through covalent bonding were subjected to ultraviolet (UV) radiation that enabled desorption and ionization due to the excellent photochemical property of NPs. The proposed method has been successfully applied for the determination of cysteine and homocysteine in human urine samples using an internal standard. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) for cysteine and homocysteine in urine sample are 7 and 22 nM, respectively, with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of <10%. The advantages of the present method compared with the methods reported in the literature for biothiol analysis are simplicity, rapidity and sensitivity without the need for time-consuming separation and tedious preconcentration processes. Additionally, we also found that the bare AgNPs can be directly used as the matrix in MALDI-TOF MS for the analysis of sulfur drugs without the addition of an extra proton source. PMID:18720468

  18. Urine Pretreatment Configuration and Test Results for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Stanley G.; Hutchens, Cindy F.; Rethke, Donald W.; Swartley, Vernon L.; Marsh, Robert W.

    1998-01-01

    Pretreatment of urine using Oxone and sulfuric acid is baselined in the International Space Station (ISS) waste water reclamation system to control odors, fix urea and control microbial growth. In addition, pretreatment is recommended for long term flight use of urine collection and two phase separation to reduce or eliminate fouling of the associated hardware and plumbing with urine precipitates. This is important for ISS application because the amount of maintenance time for cleaning and repairing hardware must be minimized. This paper describes the development of a chemical pretreatment system based on solid tablet shapes which are positioned in the urine collection hose and are dissolved by the intrained urine at the proper ratio of pretreatment to urine. Building upon the prior success of the developed and tested solid Oxone tablet a trade study was completed to confirm if a similar approach, or alternative, would be appropriate for the sulfuric acid injection method. In addition, a recommended handling and packaging approach of the solid tablets for long term, safe and convenient use on ISS was addressed. Consequently, the solid tablet concept with suitable packaging was identified as the Urine Pretreat / Prefilter Assembly (UPPA). Testing of the UPPA configuration confirmed the disolution rates and ratios required by ISS were achieved. This testing included laboratory controlled methods as well as a 'real world' test evaluation that occurred during the 150 day Stage 10 Water Recovery Test (WRT) conducted at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).

  19. Determination of methylphenidate and its metabolite ritalinic acid in urine by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Paterson, Sharon M; Moore, Grant A; Florkowski, Chris M; George, Peter M

    2012-01-15

    Methylphenidate (MPH) is a drug that is licensed for treatment of ADHD and also narcolepsy. Monitoring of the parent drug and its major metabolite ritalinic acid (RA) in urine is considered necessary to ensure compliance with treatment programmes. A rapid, simple and sensitive liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) assay was developed for the determination of MPH and its metabolite RA in human urine. After urine was diluted with water, methylphenidate, the major metabolite ritalinic acid, and d?-amphetamine as the internal standard were resolved on a PFP propyl column using gradient elution of 0.02% ammonium formate and acetonitrile. The total analysis time was 13.5 min. The three compounds were detected using electrospray ionisation in the positive mode. Standard curves were linear over the concentration range 5-5000 ?g/L (r>0.997), bias was ? ±20%, intra- and inter-day coefficients of variation (imprecision) were <8% and the limit of detection was 5 ?g/L. The limit of quantitation was set at 100 ?g/L. Matrix effects were up to 140% but these were accounted for by the internal standard. The assay is being used successfully in clinical practice to enhance the safe and effective use of methylphenidate. PMID:22204874

  20. Blood in the Urine (Hematuria)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... change - Use this tool to play your goals. Hot Topics Studying for Tests Dealing With Sports Injuries Measles Healthy Weight: Your Personal Plan Dealing With Anger Blood in the Urine (Hematuria) KidsHealth > Teens > Diseases & Conditions > Kidneys & Urinary System > Blood in the Urine (Hematuria) Print ...

  1. 21 CFR 876.1800 - Urine flow or volume measuring system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 876.1800 Urine flow or volume measuring system. (a) Identification....

  2. 21 CFR 876.1800 - Urine flow or volume measuring system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 876.1800 Urine flow or volume measuring system. (a) Identification....

  3. 21 CFR 876.1800 - Urine flow or volume measuring system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 876.1800 Urine flow or volume measuring system. (a) Identification....

  4. Urine benzodiazepine screening using Roche Online KIMS immunoassay with beta-glucuronidase hydrolysis and confirmation by gas chromatography- mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Klette, Kevin L; Wiegand, Russell F; Horn, Carl K; Stout, Peter R; Magluilo, Joseph

    2005-04-01

    Performance of the Roche Online KIMS (kinetic interaction of microparticles in solution) benzodiazepine (BZD) immunoassay (IA) with and without beta-glucuronidase treatment was evaluated on a Hitachi Modular automated IA analyzer calibrated using nordiazepam at 100 ng/mL. Reproducibility, linearity, accuracy, sensitivity, and interferences were evaluated. Precision of the assay (percent coefficient of variation (%CV)) with and without addition of the enzyme was less than 6% and 9%, respectively, with linearity (r(2) value of 0.9578 and 0.9746), respectively. Between-run precision of a 125 ng/mL nordiazepam control (n = 287) over 67 days, produced a %CV of 13.6% for the hydrolytic assay. Modification of the BZD assay to include automated hydrolysis of urinary BZD glucuronide conjugates was evaluated using three glucuronidated BZD standards prepared at concentrations ranging from 250 to 10,000 ng/mL. With hydrolysis, temazepam, oxazepam, and lorazepam glucuronides, produced cross-reactivities of 25%, 15%, and 20%, respectively. Without hydrolysis, the glucuronidated BZD standards produced less than 1% cross-reactivity in the assay. The ability of the assay to differentiate between positive and negative samples was evaluated by assaying 20 negative urine samples and serial dilutions of certified drug-free urine fortified with 28 different BZDs. All of the negative and positive urine samples produced the appropriate screening result. Cross-reactivities of 27 different BZDs, calculated as the normalized IA response divided by the BZD concentration that produced a response approximately equivalent to the response of a 100 ng/mL nordiazepam standard and multiplied by 100, ranged from 15% to 149%. Human urine samples (n = 28) that were previously found to contain BZDs by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) also produced a positive BZD IA result. The IA was challenged with 78 potentially interfering compounds, and none produced a positive BZD response. As a part of the validation, a large number of human urine samples (29,500) were assayed using the modified Online BZD IA method to evaluate the performance of the method in production. Of the 29,500 samples tested, 80 produced a positive IA result. Analysis by GC-MS confirmed the presence of at least 1 BZD compound in 61 of the samples corresponding to a confirmation rate of 76%. The Online BZD IA modified by the automatic addition of beta-glucuronidase appears well adapted for the rapid detection of BZDs and their metabolites in human urine. PMID:15842763

  5. Quantification of a Methadone Metabolite (EDDP) in Urine: Assessment of Compliance

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Michael E.M.; Richards, Thomas M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the possibility of utilizing the ratio of the methadone metabolite, 2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine (EDDP), to urine creatinine to develop a regression model that would predict drug adherence in patients prescribed methadone for either pain management or drug addiction. Design: Retrospective study. Setting: Marshfield Clinic-Lakeland Center, one of 41 regional centers that make up Marshfield Clinic, a large, private, multi-specialty healthcare institution in central Wisconsin. Participants: Patients receiving methadone treatment for substance abuse or chronic pain. Group 1 was an initial pilot group consisting of 7 patients who were followed for a 4-month period. Group 2 consisted of 33 patients who were followed over a 28-month period. Methods: Age, gender, weight, height, methadone dosage, quantitative urine creatinine and EDDP levels, reported compliance/non-compliance, and relevant clinical cofactors were retrospectively abstracted from the patients’ medical records. Log-log regression analyses were used to model EDDP and the EDDP/creatinine ratio from urine screening results as functions of methadone dose, and in the larger cohort (group 2), body size, gender and age. The coefficient of determination adjusted for the number of predictor terms (Radj2) was reported as a measure of model fit. Results: For group 1 data, there was a significant positive relation (P<0.001) but also substantial variability (Radj2 = 0.49). Adjustment for creatinine through the EDDP/creatinine ratio provided a tighter relation (Radj2 = 0.95). Similarly, for group 2 data, there was a significant positive relation (P=0.001) and substantial variability (Radj2 = 0.53). Adjustment for creatinine through EDDP/creatinine ratios provided a substantially stronger relation (Radj2 = 0.73). Gender and age showed no evidence of association with the EDDP/creatinine ratio (P=0.60 and P=0.51, respectively). Body size was significant in the model, both when measured by body surface area and by lean body weight, and improved the prediction when added to our model (Radj2 = 0.80). Conclusion: For the first time, urine analyses may be used to monitor methadone over- or under-use in a clinical setting, regardless of the state of patient hydration or the manipulation of a sample by addition of another substance, such as bleach, soap, or even methadone, which could render an appropriate sample inappropriate or an inappropriate sample appropriate. A similar approach may prove useful for other drug treatments, allowing for more accurate monitoring of commonly abused prescription medications. PMID:19920164

  6. Non-smoker exposure to secondhand cannabis smoke. I. Urine screening and confirmation results.

    PubMed

    Cone, Edward J; Bigelow, George E; Herrmann, Evan S; Mitchell, John M; LoDico, Charles; Flegel, Ronald; Vandrey, Ryan

    2015-01-01

    Increased cannabis potency has renewed concerns that secondhand exposure to cannabis smoke can produce positive drug tests. A systematic study was conducted of smoke exposure on drug-free participants. Six experienced cannabis users smoked cannabis cigarettes (5.3% THC in Session 1 and 11.3% THC in Sessions 2 and 3) in a sealed chamber. Six non-smokers were seated with smokers in an alternating manner. Sessions 1 and 2 were conducted with no ventilation and ventilation was employed in Session 3. Non-smoking participant specimens (collected 0-34 h) were analyzed with four immunoassays at different cutoff concentrations (20, 50, 75 and 100 ng/mL) and by GC-MS (LOQ = 0.75 ng/mL). No presumptive positives occurred for non-smokers at 100 and 75 ng/mL; a single positive occurred at 50 ng/mL; and multiple positives occurred at 20 ng/mL. Maximum THCCOOH concentrations by GC-MS for non-smokers ranged from 1.3 to 57.5 ng/mL. THCCOOH concentrations generally increased with THC potency, but room ventilation substantially reduced exposure levels. These results demonstrate that extreme cannabis smoke exposure can produce positive urine tests at commonly utilized cutoff concentrations. However, positive tests are likely to be rare, limited to the hours immediately post-exposure, and occur only under environmental circumstances where exposure is obvious. PMID:25326203

  7. Relationship between Food Insecurity and Mortality among HIV-Positive Injection Drug Users Receiving Antiretroviral Therapy in British Columbia, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Anema, Aranka; Chan, Keith; Chen, Yalin; Weiser, Sheri; Montaner, Julio S. G.; Hogg, Robert S.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Little is known about the potential impact of food insecurity on mortality among people living with HIV/AIDS. We examined the potential relationship between food insecurity and all-cause mortality among HIV-positive injection drug users (IDU) initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) across British Columbia (BC). Methods Cross-sectional measurement of food security status was taken at participant ART initiation. Participants were prospectively followed from June 1998 to September 2011 within the fully subsidized ART program. Cox proportional hazard models were used to ascertain the association between food insecurity and mortality, controlling for potential confounders. Results Among 254 IDU, 181 (71.3%) were food insecure and 108 (42.5%) were hungry. After 13.3 years of median follow-up, 105 (41.3%) participants died. In multivariate analyses, food insecurity remained significantly associated with mortality (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR]?=?1.95, 95% CI: 1.07–3.53), after adjusting for potential confounders. Conclusions HIV-positive IDU reporting food insecurity were almost twice as likely to die, compared to food secure IDU. Further research is required to understand how and why food insecurity is associated with excess mortality in this population. Public health organizations should evaluate the possible role of food supplementation and socio-structural supports for IDU within harm reduction and HIV treatment programs. PMID:23723968

  8. Determination of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in urine by hollow-fiber liquid membrane-protected solid-phase microextraction based on sol-gel fiber coating.

    PubMed

    Sarafraz-Yazdi, Ali; Amiri, Amirhassan; Rounaghi, Gholamhossein; Eshtiagh-Hosseini, Hossein

    2012-11-01

    A new rapid, simple and effective cleanup procedure is demonstrated for the determination of ibuprofen, naproxen and diclofenac in urine samples by using hollow-fiber liquid membrane-protected solid-phase microextraction (HFLM-SPME) based on sol-gel technique and gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID). In this technique, a sol-gel coated fiber was protected with a length of porous polypropylene hollow fiber membrane which was filled with water-immiscible organic phase. Subsequently the whole device was immersed into urine sample for extraction. Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) grafted onto multi-walled carbon nanotubes (PEG-g-MWCNTs) was used as extraction phase to prepare the sol-gel SPME fiber. Important parameters influencing the extraction efficiency such as desorption temperature and time, organic solvent, extraction temperature and time, pH, stirring speed and salt effect were investigated and optimized. Under the optimal conditions, the method detection limits (S/N=3) were in the range of 0.03-0.07ngmL(-1) and the limits of quantification (S/N=10) between 0.08 and 0.15ngmL(-1). Relative standard deviations for intra-day and inter-day precisions were 4.8-9.0% and 4.9-8.1%, respectively. Subsequently, the method was successfully applied to human urine fractions after administration of ibuprofen, naproxen and diclofenac. PMID:23122403

  9. Trastuzumab emtansine: a unique antibody-drug conjugate in development for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive cancer.

    PubMed

    LoRusso, Patricia M; Weiss, Denise; Guardino, Ellie; Girish, Sandhya; Sliwkowski, Mark X

    2011-10-15

    Trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1) is a human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER2)-targeted antibody-drug conjugate, composed of trastuzumab, a stable thioether linker, and the potent cytotoxic agent DM1 (derivative of maytansine), in phase III development for HER2-positive cancer. Extensive analysis of T-DM1 in preclinical studies has shown that T-DM1 combines the distinct mechanisms of action of both DM1 and trastuzumab, and has antitumor activity in trastuzumab- and lapatinib-refractory experimental models. Clinically, T-DM1 has a consistent pharmacokinetics profile and minimal systemic exposure to free DM1, with no evidence of DM1 accumulation following repeated T-DM1 doses. Although a few covariates were shown to affect interindividual variability in T-DM1 exposure and clearance in population-pharmacokinetics analyses, the magnitude of their effect on T-DM1 exposure was not clinically relevant. Phase I and phase II clinical trials of T-DM1 as a single agent and in combination with paclitaxel, docetaxel, and pertuzumab have shown clinical activity and a favorable safety profile in patients with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer. Two randomized phase III trials of T-DM1 are recruiting patients: EMILIA (NCT00829166) is evaluating T-DM1 compared with lapatinib plus capecitabine, and MARIANNE (NCT01120184) is evaluating T-DM1 plus placebo versus T-DM1 plus pertuzumab versus trastuzumab plus a taxane. Additional combinations of T-DM1 (for example, with GDC-0941) and additional disease settings (early-stage HER2-positive breast cancer) are also under investigation. Data from the phase III trials and other studies of T-DM1-containing agents are eagerly awaited. PMID:22003071

  10. Lack of clinical utility of urine gram stain for suspected urinary tract infection in pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Cantey, Joseph B; Gaviria-Agudelo, Claudia; McElvania TeKippe, Erin; Doern, Christopher D

    2015-04-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common infections in children. Urine culture remains the gold standard for diagnosis, but the utility of urine Gram stain relative to urinalysis (UA) is unclear. We reviewed 312 pediatric patients with suspected UTI who had urine culture, UA, and urine Gram stain performed from a single urine specimen. UA was considered positive if ?10 leukocytes per oil immersion field were seen or if either nitrates or leukocyte esterase testing was positive. Urine Gram stain was considered positive if any organisms were seen. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were calculated using urine culture as the gold standard. Thirty-seven (12%) patients had a culture-proven UTI. Compared to urine Gram stain, UA had equal sensitivity (97.3% versus 97.5%) and higher specificity (85% versus 74%). Empirical therapy was prescribed before the Gram stain result was known in 40 (49%) patients and after in 42 (51%) patients. The antibiotics chosen did not differ between the two groups (P = 0.81), nor did they differ for patients with Gram-negative rods on urine Gram stain compared to those with Gram-positive cocci (P = 0.67). From these data, we conclude that UA has excellent negative predictive value that is not enhanced by urine Gram stain and that antibiotic selection did not vary based on the urine Gram stain result. In conclusion, the clinical utility of urine Gram stain does not warrant the time or cost it requires. PMID:25653411

  11. Anti-Tuberculosis Drug Resistance among New and Previously Treated Sputum Smear-Positive Tuberculosis Patients in Uganda: Results of the First National Survey

    PubMed Central

    Lukoye, Deus; Adatu, Francis; Musisi, Kenneth; Kasule, George William; Were, Willy; Odeke, Rosemary; Kalamya, Julius Namonyo; Awor, Ann; Date, Anand; Joloba, Moses L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Multidrug resistant and extensively drug resistant tuberculosis (TB) have become major threats to control of tuberculosis globally. The rates of anti-TB drug resistance in Uganda are not known. We conducted a national drug resistance survey to investigate the levels and patterns of resistance to first and second line anti-TB drugs among new and previously treated sputum smear-positive TB cases. Methods Sputum samples were collected from a nationally representative sample of new and previously treated sputum smear-positive TB patients registered at TB diagnostic centers during December 2009 to February 2011 using a weighted cluster sampling method. Culture and drug susceptibility testing was performed at the national TB reference laboratory. Results A total of 1537 patients (1397 new and 140 previously treated) were enrolled in the survey from 44 health facilities. HIV test result and complete drug susceptibility testing (DST) results were available for 1524 (96.8%) and 1325 (85.9%) patients, respectively. Of the 1209 isolates from new cases, resistance to any anti-TB drug was 10.3%, 5% were resistant to isoniazid, 1.9% to rifampicin, and 1.4% were multi drug resistant. Among the 116 isolates from previously treated cases, the prevalence of resistance was 25.9%, 23.3%, 12.1% and 12.1% respectively. Of the 1524 patients who had HIV testing 469 (30.7%) tested positive. There was no association between anti-TB drug resistance (including MDR) and HIV infection. Conclusion The prevalence of anti-TB drug resistance among new patients in Uganda is low relative to WHO estimates. The higher levels of MDR-TB (12.1%) and resistance to any drug (25.3%) among previously treated patients raises concerns about the quality of directly observed therapy (DOT) and adherence to treatment. This calls for strengthening existing TB control measures, especially DOT, routine DST among the previously treated TB patients or periodic drug resistance surveys, to prevent and monitor development and transmission of drug resistant TB. PMID:23936467

  12. Nuclear factor kappa B activation-induced anti-apoptosis renders HER2 positive cells drug resistant and accelerates tumor growth

    PubMed Central

    Kochupurakkal, Bose; Maulik, Gautam; Rodig, Scott. J.; Tian, Ruiyang; Foley, Kathleen M.; Bowman, Teresa; Miron, Alexander; Brown, Myles

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancers with HER2 overexpression are sensitive to drugs targeting the receptor or its kinase activity. HER2-targeting drugs are initially effective against HER2-positive breast cancer, but resistance inevitably occurs. We previously found that nuclear factor kappa B is hyper-activated in a subset of HER-2 positive breast cancer cells and tissue specimens. In this study, we report that constitutively active NF-?B rendered HER2-positive cancer cells resistant to anti-HER2 drugs and cells selected for Lapatinib resistance up-regulated NF-?B. In both circumstances, cells were anti-apoptotic and grew rapidly as xenografts. Lapatinib-resistant cells were refractory to HER2 and NF-?B inhibitors alone but were sensitive to their combination, suggesting a novel therapeutic strategy. A subset of NF-?B-responsive genes was overexpressed in HER2-positive and triple-negative breast cancers, and patients with this NF-?B signature had poor clinical outcome. Anti-HER2 drug resistance may be a consequence of NF-?B activation, and selection for resistance results in NF-?B activation, suggesting this transcription factor is central to oncogenesis and drug resistance. Clinically, the combined targeting of HER2 and NF-?B suggests a potential treatment paradigm for patients who relapse after anti-HER2 therapy. Patients with these cancers may be treated by simultaneously suppressing HER2 signaling and NF-?B activation. PMID:24319068

  13. Drug-positive rates for the Army from fiscal years 1991 to 2000 and for the National Guard from Fiscal years 1997 to 2000.

    PubMed

    Bruins, Mark R; Okano, Catherine K; Lyons, Timothy P; Lukey, Brian J

    2002-05-01

    This article examines the positive rate by drug for all urinalysis specimens tested by the U.S. Army from fiscal year 1991 (FY91) to FY00 and for the Army National Guard (NG) from FY97 to FY00. The average positive rate for the Army from FY91 to FY00 was 0.84%. In FY00, the Army rate reached a 10-year high of 1.04%. From FY97 to FY00, the NG positive rate declined from 3.4% to 2.16% but was significantly (p < 0.05) higher than the Army rate during the same period. Marijuana and cocaine are the most abused drugs for both the Army and NG. The positive rate for marijuana in the Army from FY91 to FY00 was 0.51%, and the cocaine rate was 0.19%. The NG marijuana-positive rate from FY97 to FY00 was 1.70%, and the cocaine rate was 0.51%. The positive rate for all other drugs of abuse tested was less than 0.3% for both the Army and NG during the same periods. The overall positive rate for the Army and NG are below those estimated (6.3%) in the civilian population. PMID:12053845

  14. Articles Bisphenol A Levels in Human Urine

    E-print Network

    Akiko Matsumoto; Naoki Kunugita; Kyoko Kitagawa; Toyohi Isse; Tsunehiro Oyama; Gary L. Foureman; Masatoshi Morita; Toshihiro Kawamoto

    The estrogenic effects of bisphenol A (BPA) have been reported in human cells (E-screen assays) and in in vivo studies of rodents, although the latter reports remain controversial, as do the exposure levels and adverse health effects of BPA in humans. In this study we report on an analytical high-performance liquid chromatography/fluorescence method for BPA and its conjugate in human urine and on the application of this method in two student cohorts. Urine, along with information on smoking, alcohol intake, and coffee/tea consumption, was collected in two different years from two different groups of university students, 50 in 1992 and 56 in 1999. Overall, the urinary BPA levels in the students in 1992 were significantly higher than were those in 1999. The BPA levels were also positively correlated with coffee and tea consumption in the 1992 cohort but not in the 1999 cohort. We speculate that recent changes made in Japan regarding the interior coating of cans used to package these beverages may partly explain these findings. Key words: biologic monitoring, bisphenol A, can coatings, canned food, environmental exposure, glucuronide, HPLC, human, lifestyle, urine. Environ Health Perspect 111:101–104 (2003). [Online 31 October 2002] doi:10.1289/ehp.5512 available via

  15. Identification of some new clemastine metabolites in dog, horse, and human urine with liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Tevell, Annica; Bondesson, Ulf; Törneke, Karolina; Hedeland, Mikael

    2004-01-01

    The metabolism of clemastine was studied in dogs, horses, and humans after a single dose of Tavegyl. The urine collected was extracted by solid-phase extraction or hydrolyzed with beta-glucuronidase and then extracted by liquid-liquid extraction, prior to analysis for unchanged drug and phase I and II metabolites by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. The metabolites were identified by their molecular mass and interpretation of the product ion spectra, since no standard substances were available. Unchanged drug was recovered in urine samples from dogs and humans, but not from horses. In dogs and humans, the phase I metabolite, norclemastine, was identified, and clemastine metabolites with one and two additional oxygens were found in all three species. In horses and dogs monohydroxylation on one of the aromatic rings or the adjacent methyl group was favored while, in humans, the additional oxygen was positioned on either the aromatic or the aliphatic part of the structure, and the aliphatic reaction seemed to result in at least three isomers. In the metabolites with two additional oxygens, both the oxygens were found on the aliphatic fragment in humans and dogs, whereas they were situated on the aromatic part of the structure in horses. In human patients, glucuronidated monohydroxyclemastine was recovered, and in urine from horses both mono- and dihydroxyclemastine glucuronides were identified, while phase II metabolites could not be recovered from the dog urine. Clemastine metabolism in dogs and horses has, to our knowledge, not been studied before, and new metabolites from humans are presented in this article. Thus, the metabolites described in the present work have not been previously reported in the literature. PMID:15384147

  16. Automated drug identification system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campen, C. F., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    System speeds up analysis of blood and urine and is capable of identifying 100 commonly abused drugs. System includes computer that controls entire analytical process by ordering various steps in specific sequences. Computer processes data output and has readout of identified drugs.

  17. Urine collection apparatus. [feminine hygiene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michaud, R. B. (inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A urine collection device for females comprises an interface body with an interface surface for engagement with the user's body. The interface body comprises a forward portion defining a urine-receiving bore which has an inlet in the interface surface adapted to be disposed in surrounding relation to the urethral opening of the user. The interface body also has a rear portion integrally adjoining the forward portion and a non-invasive vaginal seal on the interface surface for sealing the vagina of the user from communication with the urine-receiving bore. An absorbent pad is removably supported on the interface body and extends laterally therefrom. A garment for supporting the urine collection is also disclosed.

  18. Treating urine by Spirulina platensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chenliang; Liu, Hong; Li, Ming; Yu, Chengying; Yu, Gurevich

    In this paper Spirulina platensis with relatively high nutrition was cultivated to treat human urine. Batch culture showed that the consumption of N in human urine could reach to 99%, and the consumption of P was more than 99.9%, and 1.05 g biomass was obtained by treating 12.5 ml synthetic human urine; continuous culture showed that S. platensis could consume N, Cl, K and S in human urine effectively, and the consumption could reach to 99.9%, 75.0%, 83.7% and 96.0%, respectively, and the consumption of P was over 99.9%, which is very important to increase the closure and safety of the bioregenerative life support system (BLSS).

  19. A prototype urine collection device for female aircrew

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bisson, Roger U.; Delger, Karlyna L.

    1993-01-01

    Women are gaining increased access to small military cockpits. This shift has stimulated the search for practical urine containment and disposal methods for female aircrew. There are no external urine collection devices (UCD) for women that are comfortable, convenient, and leak free. We describe a prototype UCD that begins to meet this need. Materials used to make custom aviator masks were adapted to mold a perineal mask. First, a perineal cast (negative) was used to make a mold (positive). Next, a perineal mask made of wax was formed to fit the positive mold. Finally, a soft, pliable perineal mask was fabricated using the wax model as a guide. The prototype was tested for comfort, fit, and leakage. In the sitting position, less than 5 cc of urine leakage occurred with each 600 cc of urine collected. Comfort was mostly satisfactory, but ambulation was limited and the outlet design could lead to kinking and obstruction. We concluded that a perineal mask may serve as a comfortable and functional external UCD acceptable for use by females in confined environments. Changes are needed to improve comfort, fit, and urine drainage. Integration into cockpits, pressure suits, chemical defense gear, and environments where access to relief facilities is restricted is planned.

  20. Urine biomarkers in prostate cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guillaume Ploussard; Alexandre de la Taille

    2010-01-01

    The deficiencies of serum PSA as a prostate-cancer-specific diagnostic test are well recognized. Thus, the development of novel biomarkers for prostate cancer detection remains an important and exciting challenge. Noninvasive urine-based tests are particularly attractive candidates for large-scale screening protocols, and biomarker discovery programs using urine samples have emerged for detecting and predicting aggressiveness of prostate cancer. Some new biomarkers

  1. A urine volume measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poppendiek, H. F.; Mouritzen, G.; Sabin, C. M.

    1972-01-01

    An improved urine volume measurement system for use in the unusual environment of manned space flight is reported. The system utilizes a low time-constant thermal flowmeter. The time integral of the transient response of the flowmeter gives the urine volume during a void as it occurs. In addition, the two phase flows through the flowmeter present no problem. Developments of the thermal flowmeter and a verification of the predicted performance characteristics are summarized.

  2. TLC analysis of urine for benzoylecgonine and norpropoxyphene.

    PubMed

    Budd, R D; Mathis, D F; Yang, F C

    1980-03-01

    A thin-layer chromatography (TLC) procedure has been developed for the analysis of urine samples for benzoylecgonine and norpropoxyphene, the major metabolites of cocaine and propoxyphene, respectively. Urine is made slightly acidic and methylated with dimethyl sulfate to convert the difficult-to-extract benzoylecgonine back into the much more readily extractable cocaine. The urine is then chilled, made basic, and extracted with chloroform/isopropanol. The organic layer containing the cocaine and norpropoxyphene is separated and evaporated to dryness. The residue is reconstituted and spotted on a TLC plate which is developed in hexane:chloroform:diethylamine (80:10:10) which separates the two substances without interference from other drugs, metabolites, and urinary substances. The two substances are visualized with acidified iodoplatinate spray and can be detected down to levels of 2.0 microgram/mL for benzoylecgonine and 1.0 microgram/mL for norpropoxyphene. PMID:7389277

  3. Urine Isn't Free of Bacteria

    MedlinePLUS

    ... please enable JavaScript. Urine Isn't Free of Bacteria New study links bacteria found in urine in bladder to urinary incontinence (* ... News) -- Though it's commonly believed that urine is bacteria-free, normal urine is not sterile, a new ...

  4. Mifepristone (RU486), a pure antiprogesterone drug, in combination with vinblastine for the treatment of progesterone receptor-positive desmoid tumor.

    PubMed

    Halevy, A; Samuk, I; Halpern, Z; Copel, L; Sandbank, J; Ziv, Y

    2010-09-01

    We report the case of a patient who developed a desmoid tumor following total proctocolectomy and J-pouch reconstruction that was unresponsive to any medical treatment. Based on estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) and progesterone receptor (PR) evaluation (ERalpha-negative, but PR-positive), treatment with mifepristone, a pure antiprogesterone drug, was initiated, and partial tumor regression was achieved. PMID:20585823

  5. Reduced gravity fecal collector seat and urinal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, J. W. (inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A waste collection system for use in a reduced gravity including a seat having an opening centrally located with a pair of opposed depressed valleys on opposite sides of said opening for accommodating the ischial tuberosities of a user. The seat has contoured surfaces for providing support of the user's body and includes a prominent ridge towards the rear, which provides forward-aft positioning cue to the user. A curved recess is provided adjacent the forward portion of the seat for accommodating a tubular urinal having an enlarged open mouth.

  6. On-line coupling of automated solid-phase extraction with high-performance liquid chromatography and electrochemical detection. Quantitation of oxidizable drugs of abuse and their metabolites in plasma and urine.

    PubMed

    Krämer, E; Kovar, K A

    1999-08-20

    The concentration effect of automated on-line solid-phase extraction (SPE) in combination with HPLC and very sensitive electrochemical detection was employed for the determination of N-ethyl-4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-amphetamine (HMEA, the main metabolite of the ecstasy analogue MDE), delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and 11-nor-delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol-carboxylic acid (THC-COOH) in plasma and urine in comparison to a previously published psilocin assay. For the SPE either CBA (functional group: carboxypropyl)- or CH (functional group: cyclohexyl)-sorbent was used. The following separation was carried out on a reversed-phase column (LiChroCart, Superspher 60 RP select B from Merck). Depending on the hydrodynamic voltammogram of the analyzed substance the oxidation potential varied from 920 mV up to 1.2 V. In spite of using high potentials, precision and accuracy were always within the accepted statistical requirements. The limits of quantitation were between 5 ng/ml (THC, THC-COOH in plasma) and 20 ng/ml (HMEA in plasma). Advantages of on-line SPE in comparison with off-line methods were less manual effort, evidently smaller volumes (< or = 400 microliters) of plasma or urine and almost always higher recovery rates (> 93%). The assays have been successfully proven with real biological samples and found suitable for use in routine analysis. PMID:10510769

  7. Pharmacokinetic Modeling of Intranasal Scopolamine in Plasma Saliva and Urine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, L.; Tam, V. H.; Chow, D. S. L.; Putcha, L.

    2015-01-01

    An intranasal gel dosage formulation of scopolamine (INSCOP) was developed for the treatment of Space Motion Sickness (SMS). The bioavailability and pharmacokinetics (PK) were evaluated under IND (Investigational New Drug) guidelines. The aim of the project was to develop a PK model that can predict the relationships among plasma, saliva and urinary scopolamine concentrations using data collected from the IND clinical trial protocol with INSCOP. Twelve healthy human subjects were administered at three dose levels (0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 mg) of INSCOP. Serial blood, saliva and urine samples were collected between 5 min to 24 h after dosing and scopolamine concentrations were measured by using a validated LC-MS-MS assay. PK compartmental models, using actual dosing and sampling time, were established using Phoenix (version 1.2). Model selection was based on a likelihood ratio test on the difference of criteria (-2LL (i.e. log-likelihood ratio test)) and comparison of the quality of fit plots. The results: Predictable correlations among scopolamine concentrations in compartments of plasma, saliva and urine were established, and for the first time the model satisfactorily predicted the population and individual PK of INSCOP in plasma, saliva and urine. The model can be utilized to predict the INSCOP plasma concentration by saliva and urine data, and it will be useful for monitoring the PK of scopolamine in space and other remote environments using non-invasive sampling of saliva and/or urine.

  8. Chiral separation and determination of R/S-methamphetamine and its metabolite R/S-amphetamine in urine using LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ting; Shen, Baohua; Shi, Yan; Xiang, Ping; Yu, Zhiguo

    2015-01-01

    Methamphetamine (MA) and amphetamine (AM) are widely abused drugs. Differentiation of MA and/or AM abuse from therapeutic ingestion of MA and/or AM or one of their precursor drugs is therefore of relevance in clinical and forensic toxicology. The aim of the study was to develop a simple, rapid, and accurate method for the chiral separation and determination of R/S-MA and R/S-AM in urine using liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry operating in the positive ion multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. 20 ?L of urine was diluted 500 times and 20 ?L was injected. The chromatographic system consisted of a Chirobiotic™ V2 column (2.1 mm × 250 mm, 5 ?m), and the mobile phase was methanol containing 0.1% (v/v) glacial acetic acid and 0.02% (v/v) ammonium hydroxide. The method was fully validated through assessments of its linearity (0.05-50.00 mg/L, r(2)>0.994 for all analytes), and LOQ (0.05 mg/L for all analytes). No matrix effect was observed. The method was successfully applied to 86 urine samples from suspected MA abusers. Only the S-isomers of MA and AM were detected in 72 samples. The concentrations of R-MA ranged from below the LOQ to 13.76 mg/L in 14 urine samples with both enantiomers of MA and/or AM. Pure S-MA is the most common found analyte in urine and principally used by abusers. PMID:25460108

  9. The influence of social and endocrine factors on urine-marking by captive wolves (Canis lupus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Asa, C.S.; Mech, L.D.; Seal, U.S.; Plotka, E.D.

    1990-01-01

    Although serum hormones varied seasonally in all adult animals, only dominant male and female wolves urine-marked. Serum testosterone and urine-marking rates, which increased during the fall/winter breeding season, were positively correlated in both male and female dominant wolves. Estradiol, which increased in conjunction with proestrus and estrus, was not correlated with female urine-marking. These findings suggest that hormonal influence on urine-marking in the wolf is modulated by social factors and contrast with those for both domestic dogs and coyotes, two other members of the genus Canis.

  10. Prevalence of psychoactive drug use among drivers in Thailand: a roadside survey.

    PubMed

    Ingsathit, Atiporn; Woratanarat, Patarawan; Anukarahanonta, Tongtavuch; Rattanasiri, Sasivimol; Chatchaipun, Porntip; Wattayakorn, Kanokporn; Lim, Stephen; Suriyawongpaisal, Paibul

    2009-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of psychoactive drug and alcohol use among general drivers and predictors of the drug use in Thailand. One thousand six hundred and thirty-five motor vehicle drivers were randomly selected from five geographical regions of Thailand between December 2005 and May 2006. The prevalence of psychoactive drugs was determined using urine tests by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Among 1635 drivers, 5.5% were tested positive for breath alcohol with 2% having a level exceeding the legal limit (> or =50mg%). Psychoactive drug was presented in 158 (9.7%) urine samples for drug analysis. The top 3 most frequently detected licit drugs were antihistamines (2.0%), sedative cough suppressant (0.7%) and benzodiazepines (0.2%). Illicit drugs detected included amphetamine (1.8%), cannabis (1.1%), mitragynine (Kratom) (0.9%) and morphine (0.1%). Only type of driver (commercial/non-commercial) was a significant predictor with psychoactive drug use. The prevalence of psychoactive drug use among drivers not involved in road crashes in Thailand was not as low as an earlier study in Europe using objective measurements, particularly among commercial drivers. However, for illicit drugs, the prevalence detected in this study was lower than those of earlier studies from high-income countries. PMID:19393795

  11. SELENIUM LEVELS IN HUMAN BLOOD, URINE, AND HAIR IN RESPONSE TO EXPOSURE VIA DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Blood, hair, urine and tap water samples were obtained from participants in a population exposed to varying amounts of selenium via water from home wells. Concentrations of selenium in urine and hair produced significant positive correlations with well-water selenium levels. Bloo...

  12. A survey of pre-placement urinalysis drug findings.

    PubMed

    Wick, R L; Brawley, W L; Berger, B T

    1992-01-01

    In December, 1989, the Department of Transportation (DOT) in conjunction with the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) mandated an extensive urine drug testing program for selected positions within the airline industry. At the end of 1 year we have tested 7,872 applicants under these rules, with a positive finding rate of 0.17%. We have also tested 32,157 applicants, including those applying for DOT-covered positions, with a positive rate of 2.82%. Considering only the two major drugs of abuse--marijuana and cocaine--we found the positive rate to be an order of magnitude greater than the rate discovered under the DOT program. We present these data together with a discussion of some of the possible reasons for this major disparity. We also present findings for barbiturates and benzodiazepines which are not tested under the DOT program, but which have safety implications related to the aviation industry. PMID:1550535

  13. Antipsychotic drug-like effects of the selective M4 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor positive allosteric modulator VU0152100.

    PubMed

    Byun, Nellie E; Grannan, Michael; Bubser, Michael; Barry, Robert L; Thompson, Analisa; Rosanelli, John; Gowrishankar, Raajaram; Kelm, Nathaniel D; Damon, Stephen; Bridges, Thomas M; Melancon, Bruce J; Tarr, James C; Brogan, John T; Avison, Malcolm J; Deutch, Ariel Y; Wess, Jürgen; Wood, Michael R; Lindsley, Craig W; Gore, John C; Conn, P Jeffrey; Jones, Carrie K

    2014-06-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that selective M4 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) activators may offer a novel strategy for the treatment of psychosis. However, previous efforts to develop selective M4 activators were unsuccessful because of the lack of M4 mAChR subtype specificity and off-target muscarinic adverse effects. We recently developed VU0152100, a highly selective M4 positive allosteric modulator (PAM) that exerts central effects after systemic administration. We now report that VU0152100 dose-dependently reverses amphetamine-induced hyperlocomotion in rats and wild-type mice, but not in M4 KO mice. VU0152100 also blocks amphetamine-induced disruption of the acquisition of contextual fear conditioning and prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle reflex. These effects were observed at doses that do not produce catalepsy or peripheral adverse effects associated with non-selective mAChR agonists. To further understand the effects of selective potentiation of M4 on region-specific brain activation, VU0152100 alone and in combination with amphetamine were evaluated using pharmacologic magnetic resonance imaging (phMRI). Key neural substrates of M4-mediated modulation of the amphetamine response included the nucleus accumbens (NAS), caudate-putamen (CP), hippocampus, and medial thalamus. Functional connectivity analysis of phMRI data, specifically assessing correlations in activation between regions, revealed several brain networks involved in the M4 modulation of amphetamine-induced brain activation, including the NAS and retrosplenial cortex with motor cortex, hippocampus, and medial thalamus. Using in vivo microdialysis, we found that VU0152100 reversed amphetamine-induced increases in extracellular dopamine levels in NAS and CP. The present data are consistent with an antipsychotic drug-like profile of activity for VU0152100. Taken together, these data support the development of selective M4 PAMs as a new approach to the treatment of psychosis and cognitive impairments associated with psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia. PMID:24442096

  14. Ethanol and drug findings in women consulting a Sexual Assault Center--associations with clinical characteristics and suspicions of drug-facilitated sexual assault.

    PubMed

    Hagemann, Cecilie T; Helland, Arne; Spigset, Olav; Espnes, Ketil A; Ormstad, Kari; Schei, Berit

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to describe toxicological findings among women seeking health care after sexual assault, and to assess the relationship with so-called proactive DFSA (drug facilitated sexual assault). We also explored associations between ethanol in blood/urine and background data, assault characteristics, and clinical findings. We conducted a retrospective, descriptive study of female patients ? 12 years of age consulting the Sexual Assault Center at St. Olavs University Hospital, Trondheim, Norway. They were examined between July 1, 2003 and December 31, 2010, and urine and/or blood were analyzed for ethanol and selected medicinal/recreational drugs. Among the 264 patients included, ethanol and/or drugs were detected in 155 (59%). Of the 50 patients (19%) testing positive for drugs other than ethanol, benzodiazepines/benzodiazepine-like drugs were found in 31, central stimulants in 14, cannabinoids in 13 and opioids in nine. None tested positive for gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB). In total, 57 patients (22%) suspected proactive DFSA, but only five had findings of sedative drugs that were not accounted for by self-reported voluntary intake. No cases could unequivocally be attributed to proactive DFSA. Among the 120 patients tested for ethanol within 12 h after the assault, 102 were positive. The median estimated blood alcohol concentration (BAC) at the time of assault was 1.87 g/L. Patients testing positive for ethanol more often reported a public place of assault and a stranger assailant. Higher estimated BAC at the time of assault was associated with higher frequency of suspecting proactive DFSA. Ethanol was the most prevalent toxicological finding in urine/blood from victims of sexual assault, and high ethanol concentrations were often detected. Among the patients suspecting proactive DFSA, very few had sedative drug findings not explained by voluntary intake. It seems like opportunistic DFSA, rather than proactive DFSA dominate among the sexually assaulted attending our SAC. PMID:23910880

  15. Lichenoid drug reaction following influenza vaccination in an HIV-positive patient: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    de Golian, Emily W; Brennan, Christina B; Davis, Loretta S

    2014-07-01

    Lichenoid drug reactions to vaccinations are rare but well-documented events. The vast majority of these reported reactions have been triggered by Hepatitis B vaccination (HBV). We describe an impressive generalized lichenoid drug reaction following the influenza vaccination. A 46-year-old African-American woman with a history of treated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease developed a diffuse, pruritic rash one day following vaccination against the influenza virus. Physical exam and histopathology were consistent with a lichenoid drug eruption. This is only the fifth reported case of lichenoid drug reaction, and only the second generalized case, following influenza vaccination. The patient's underlying HIV disease, known to be a risk factor for both cutaneous drug reactions and more severe manifestations of lichen planus, likely predisposed her to this generalized hypersensitivity phenomenon. PMID:25007374

  16. Analysis of mitragynine and metabolites in human urine for detecting the use of the psychoactive plant kratom.

    PubMed

    Le, David; Goggin, Melissa M; Janis, Gregory C

    2012-01-01

    The leaves of the South Asian plant kratom are described as having stimulating effects at low doses, and opiate-like analgesic and euphoric effects at high doses. A long history of use and abuse has led to the classification of kratom as a controlled substance in its native Thailand and other South Asian countries. However, kratom is not controlled in the United States, and the ready availability of kratom has led to its emergence as an herbal drug of abuse. With the growing popularity of kratom, efficient procedures are needed to detect kratom use. In the current study, both ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry methods have been developed and validated for monitoring the major alkaloids and metabolites found in urine following kratom use. The primary unique alkaloid mitragynine is quantified in human urine from 1.00-500.00 ng/mL using mitraphylline as an internal standard. In addition, two metabolites (5-desmethylmitragynine and 17-desmethyldihydromitragynine) and the related active, alkaloid 7-hydroxy-mitragynine, are simultaneously qualitatively monitored. The presence of analytes are confirmed by an information-dependent acquisition-enhanced product ion procedure generating full fragmentation data used to positively identify detected analytes. The validated method has been utilized for clinical and forensic analyses of urine for the detection of kratom use. PMID:23024321

  17. Complete republication: National Association of Medical Examiners position paper: Recommendations for the investigation, diagnosis, and certification of deaths related to opioid drugs.

    PubMed

    Davis, Gregory G

    2014-03-01

    The American College of Medical Toxicology and the National Association of Medical Examiners convened an expert panel to generate evidence-based recommendations for the practice of death investigation and autopsy, toxicological analysis, interpretation of toxicology findings, and death certification to improve the precision of death certificate data available for public health surveillance. The panel finds the following: 1. A complete autopsy is necessary for optimal interpretation of toxicology results, which must also be considered in the context of the circumstances surrounding death, medical history, and scene findings. 2. A complete scene investigation extends to reconciliation of prescription information and pill counts. 3. Blood, urine, and vitreous humor, when available, should be retained in all cases. Blood from the femoral vein is preferable to blood from other sites. 4. A toxicological panel should be comprehensive and include opioid and benzodiazepine analytes, as well as other potent depressant, stimulant, and anti-depressant medications. 5. Interpretation of postmortem opioid concentrations requires correlation with medical history, scene investigation, and autopsy findings. 6. If death is attributed to any drug or combination of drugs (whether as cause or contributing factor), the certifier should list all the responsible substances by generic name in the autopsy report and on the death certificate. 7. The best classification for manner of death in deaths due to the misuse or abuse of opioids without any apparent intent of self-harm is "accident." Reserve "undetermined" as the manner for the rare cases in which evidence exists to support more than one possible determination. PMID:24132519

  18. Clinical use of polyethylene glycols as marker substances and determination in urine by liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Gauchel, Gisela; Huppertz, Bernd; Feiertag, Heribert; Keller, Ruprecht

    2003-04-25

    Adulteration of samples is a serious problem in the analysis of drugs of abuse. One of the most frequent methods is substitution of urines by "clean" urines to gain false-negative results in laboratory tests for drugs of abuse. One way to approach this problem may be to label the patient's urine with marker substances which are given orally prior to the delivery of urine. This concept is based on methods for determining malabsorption in pediatric medicine. We report a protocol for evaluating low-molecular-mass polyethylene glycols as enteral labelling marker substances. For monitoring renal excretion of the ingested polyethylene glycols we have developed and optimised an isocratic reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method with automatic sample cleanup by column switching in the back-flush technique and with RI detection. The chromatographic procedure is simple, reliable and rapid, allowing a high sample throughput for routine screening. PMID:12650750

  19. [Positioning of autoPBSCT in the treatment of multiple myeloma in the era of new drugs].

    PubMed

    Matsumura, Itaru

    2015-01-01

    At present, a standard therapy for de novo multiple myeloma (MM) patients under 65 years old without severe comorbidity is an upfront high dose chemotherapy (HDCT) with MEL200 combined with auto peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (autoPBSCT) after the induction therapy. However, three-drug regimens including new drugs such as bortezomib (Bor) and lenalidomide (Len) have been shown to achieve deep molecular responses as an induction therapy for de novo MM patients. Several phase II studies using RVD (Len, Bor, dexamethasone) or CRd (carfilzomib, Len, dexamethasone) showed very promising data, suggesting that the continuance of these regimens might be able to substitute HDCT. In contrast, early HDCT was shown to be better than late HDCT in another trials. So, the upfront autoPBSCT is still needed even in the era of new drugs. However, future prospective phase III randomized trials using new drugs such as carfilzomib and ponalidomide might rewrite the present evidence. PMID:25626309

  20. Drinking, drugs and driving in Ireland: more evidence for action

    PubMed Central

    Fitzpatrick, P; Daly, L; Leavy, C P; Cusack, D A

    2006-01-01

    Objective To examine the prevalence of drug positivity among drivers suspected of driving under the influence of an intoxicant, and consequently apprehended by the police in Ireland. Design 2000 specimens were selected for drug analysis, 1000 with results under the limit for alcohol and 1000 over the limit. The limit for alcohol is 80?mg/100?ml in blood and 107?mg/100?ml in urine. Seven drugs/drug classes were examined; amphetamines, methamphetamines, benzodiazapines, cannabinoids, cocaine, opiates and methadone. Results 331 (33.1%) of the drivers under the legal limit for alcohol tested positive for one or more of the relevant drugs, and the corresponding figures of drivers over the limit was 142 (14.2%; p<0.001). Using weighted analysis, this corresponds to 15.7% (95% confidence interval (CI) 13.5% to 18.1%) of all tested drivers (15.8% in men and 14.5% in women). Among drivers who had minimal blood alcohol levels, 67.9% (95% CI 61.2% to 74.1%) were taking at least one type of drug. The prevalence of taking drugs reduced steadily as alcohol concentrations increased, but still remained as high as 11.1% (95% CI 8.3% to 14.6%) for drivers with blood alcohol concentrations >200?mg/100?ml. Being under the limit for alcohol, stopped in a city area, stopped between 6 am and 4 pm, or 4 pm and 9 pm, and being of a younger age were each independently associated with drug positivity. Conclusions There are immediate implications for the evidential breath alcohol program and for checkpoints; in the event of a nil or low alcohol reading being obtained, a separate blood or urine specimen should be sought for analysis, which is currently non?routine. PMID:17170191

  1. Residual cannabis levels in blood, urine and oral fluid following heavy cannabis use.

    PubMed

    Odell, Morris S; Frei, Matthew Y; Gerostamoulos, Dimitri; Chu, Mark; Lubman, Dan I

    2015-04-01

    An understanding of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) kinetics and residual levels after cannabis use is essential in interpreting toxicology tests in body fluids from live subjects, particularly when used in forensic settings for drug abuse, traffic and interpersonal violence cases. However the current literature is largely based on laboratory studies using controlled cannabis dosages in experienced users, with limited research investigating the kinetics of residual THC concentrations in regular high dose cannabis users. Twenty-one dependent cannabis users were recruited at admission to two residential detoxification units in Melbourne, Australia. After being provided with information about, and consenting to, the study, subjects volunteered to provide once-daily blood, urine and oral fluid (saliva) samples for seven consecutive days following admission, involving cessation and abstinence from all cannabis use. Blood and oral fluid specimens were analysed for THC and urine specimens for the metabolite THC-COOH. In some subjects THC was detectable in blood for at least 7 days and oral fluid specimens were positive for THC up to 78h after admission to the unit. Urinary THC-COOH concentrations exceeded 1000ng/mL for some subjects 129h after last use. The presented blood THC levels are higher and persist longer in some individuals than previously described, our understanding and interpretation of THC levels in long term heavy cannabis users may need to be reconsidered. PMID:25698515

  2. Chemical measurement of urine volume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauer, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    Chemical method of measuring volume of urine samples using lithium chloride dilution technique, does not interfere with analysis, is faster, and more accurate than standard volumetric of specific gravity/weight techniques. Adaptation of procedure to urinalysis could prove generally practical for hospital mineral balance and catechoamine determinations.

  3. Luminol Chemiluminescence in Urine Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ana María Jiménez Moreno; María José Navas Sánchez

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the present review is to sketch out the scope of luminol chemiluminescence in human urine analysis. Practical considerations and experimental requirements are indicated. The literature revised covers the papers of analytical interest that have appeared in approximately the last six years.

  4. Novel Aptamer-Nanoparticle Bioconjugates Enhances Delivery of Anticancer Drug to MUC1-Positive Cancer Cells In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Jinhong; Yuan, Wei; Wang, Chen; Xu, Haiyan; Yang, Xian-Da

    2011-01-01

    MUC1 protein is an attractive target for anticancer drug delivery owing to its overexpression in most adenocarcinomas. In this study, a reported MUC1 protein aptamer is exploited as the targeting agent of a nanoparticle-based drug delivery system. Paclitaxel (PTX) loaded poly (lactic-co-glycolic-acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles were formulated by an emulsion/evaporation method, and MUC1 aptamers (Apt) were conjugated to the particle surface through a DNA spacer. The aptamer conjugated nanoparticles (Apt-NPs) are about 225.3 nm in size with a stable in vitro drug release profile. Using MCF-7 breast cancer cell as a MUC1-overexpressing model, the MUC1 aptamer increased the uptake of nanoparticles into the target cells as measured by flow cytometry. Moreover, the PTX loaded Apt-NPs enhanced in vitro drug delivery and cytotoxicity to MUC1+ cancer cells, as compared with non-targeted nanoparticles that lack the MUC1 aptamer (P<0.01). The behavior of this novel aptamer-nanoparticle bioconjugates suggests that MUC1 aptamers may have application potential in targeted drug delivery towards MUC1-overexpressing tumors. PMID:21912664

  5. The Relationship Between Early-Phase Substance-Use Trajectories and Drug Court Outcomes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Craig G. A. Jones; Richard I. Kemp

    2011-01-01

    This study sought to identify patterns of substance use among 1,019 participants of the New South Wales Drug Court program (Sydney, Australia) between 2003 and 2009. Group-based trajectory modeling identified five groups of participants: compliant participants (24.4%), who had a near-zero probability of returning a positive urine test at each occasion; responding participants (25.3%), for whom the probability of returning

  6. Combining urine separation with waste design: an analysis using a stochastic model for urine production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wolfgang Rauch; Doris Brockmann; Irene Peters; Tove A Larsen; Willi Gujer

    2003-01-01

    This paper explores the stochastic properties of human urine production in order to assess the potential of combining urine separation with waste design. The aim is to provide specific information about the dynamics of urine production at a microscopic level for the design and the control of the urine waste stream. Based on measured data a stochastic model is developed

  7. Comparison of drug abuse in different military populations.

    PubMed

    Needleman, S B; Romberg, R W

    1989-07-01

    Quantitative analytical data, generated at the Navy Drug Screening Laboratory, Great Lakes, Illinois, expressed as percent confirmed positives for four drugs of abuse (marijuana metabolite, cocaine metabolite, amphetamines, and opiates) are summarized and compared according to their population of origin. The four populations of interest included U.S. Navy and Marine Corps recruits and service school members. Conformed positive urines for marijuana showed a small but significant decline (p less than 0.001) from about 1.2% confirmed positive among U.S. Navy recruits entering service school commands in 1984 to 0.9% among Navy service school members in 1988 and from 2.0% among U.S. Marine Corps recruits entering service schools in 1984 to 0.8% among Marine Corps service school members in 1988. Navy and Marine Corps recruits showed a significantly higher (p less than 0.001) confirmed positive use rate (6.1 and 3.3%, respectively) compared to service school members, perhaps reflecting their recent civilian use pattern. The relatively high confirmed positive cocaine rate among all groups may have reflected an increasing trend in all populations, confirming a similar trend in high school and other civilian populations. Generally, the frequency of confirmed positive urines with amphetamines and opiates, based upon the findings at the Navy Drug Screening Laboratory at Great Lakes, has been static except for an apparent recent increase in amphetamine use in 1988. The decline in confirmed positive drug urinalyses among service school members from both the Navy and Marine Corps indicated that perhaps education and maturity had a positive effect upon their behavior. PMID:2760588

  8. Human papillomavirus detection from human immunodeficiency virus-infected Colombian women's paired urine and cervical samples.

    PubMed

    Munoz, Marina; Camargo, Milena; Soto-De Leon, Sara C; Sanchez, Ricardo; Parra, Diana; Pineda, Andrea C; Sussmann, Otto; Perez-Prados, Antonio; Patarroyo, Manuel E; Patarroyo, Manuel A

    2013-01-01

    Infection, coinfection and type-specific human papillomavirus (HPV) distribution was evaluated in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive women from paired cervical and urine samples. Paired cervical and urine samples (n?=?204) were taken from HIV-positive women for identifying HPV-DNA presence by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with three generic primer sets (GP5+/6+, MY09/11 and pU1M/2R). HPV-positive samples were typed for six high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) (HPV-16, -18, -31, -33, -45 and -58) and two low-risk (LR-HPV) (HPV-6/11) types. Agreement between paired sample results and diagnostic performance was evaluated. HPV infection prevalence was 70.6% in cervical and 63.2% in urine samples. HPV-16 was the most prevalent HPV type in both types of sample (66.7% in cervical samples and 62.0% in urine) followed by HPV-31(47.2%) in cervical samples and HPV-58 (35.7%) in urine samples. There was 55.4% coinfection (infection by more than one type of HPV) in cervical samples and 40.2% in urine samples. Abnormal Papanicolau smears were observed in 25.3% of the women, presenting significant association with HPV-DNA being identified in urine samples. There was poor agreement of cervical and urine sample results in generic and type-specific detection of HPV. Urine samples provided the best diagnosis when taking cytological findings as reference. In conclusion including urine samples could be a good strategy for ensuring adherence to screening programs aimed at reducing the impact of cervical cancer, since this sample is easy to obtain and showed good diagnostic performance. PMID:23418581

  9. Human Papillomavirus Detection from Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Colombian Women's Paired Urine and Cervical Samples

    PubMed Central

    Munoz, Marina; Camargo, Milena; Soto-De Leon, Sara C.; Sanchez, Ricardo; Parra, Diana; Pineda, Andrea C.; Sussmann, Otto; Perez-Prados, Antonio; Patarroyo, Manuel E.; Patarroyo, Manuel A.

    2013-01-01

    Infection, coinfection and type-specific human papillomavirus (HPV) distribution was evaluated in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive women from paired cervical and urine samples. Paired cervical and urine samples (n?=?204) were taken from HIV-positive women for identifying HPV-DNA presence by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with three generic primer sets (GP5+/6+, MY09/11 and pU1M/2R). HPV-positive samples were typed for six high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) (HPV-16, -18, -31, -33, -45 and -58) and two low-risk (LR-HPV) (HPV-6/11) types. Agreement between paired sample results and diagnostic performance was evaluated. HPV infection prevalence was 70.6% in cervical and 63.2% in urine samples. HPV-16 was the most prevalent HPV type in both types of sample (66.7% in cervical samples and 62.0% in urine) followed by HPV-31(47.2%) in cervical samples and HPV-58 (35.7%) in urine samples. There was 55.4% coinfection (infection by more than one type of HPV) in cervical samples and 40.2% in urine samples. Abnormal Papanicolau smears were observed in 25.3% of the women, presenting significant association with HPV-DNA being identified in urine samples. There was poor agreement of cervical and urine sample results in generic and type-specific detection of HPV. Urine samples provided the best diagnosis when taking cytological findings as reference. In conclusion including urine samples could be a good strategy for ensuring adherence to screening programs aimed at reducing the impact of cervical cancer, since this sample is easy to obtain and showed good diagnostic performance. PMID:23418581

  10. Antibiotic Exposure in a Low-Income Country: Screening Urine Samples for Presence of Antibiotics and Antibiotic Resistance in Coagulase Negative Staphylococcal Contaminants

    PubMed Central

    Lerbech, Anne Mette; Opintan, Japheth A.; Bekoe, Samuel Oppong; Ahiabu, Mary-Anne; Tersbøl, Britt Pinkowski; Hansen, Martin; Brightson, Kennedy T. C.; Ametepeh, Samuel; Frimodt-Møller, Niels; Styrishave, Bjarne

    2014-01-01

    Development of antimicrobial resistance has been assigned to excess and misuse of antimicrobial agents. Staphylococci are part of the normal flora but are also potential pathogens that have become essentially resistant to many known antibiotics. Resistances in coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS) are suggested to evolve due to positive selective pressure following antibiotic treatment. This study investigated the presence of the nine most commonly used antimicrobial agents in human urine from outpatients in two hospitals in Ghana in relation to CoNS resistance. Urine and CoNS were sampled (n?=?246 and n?=?96 respectively) from patients in two hospitals in Ghana. CoNS were identified using Gram staining, coagulase test, and MALDI-TOF/MS, and the antimicrobial susceptibility to 12 commonly used antimicrobials was determined by disk diffusion. Moreover an analytical method was developed for the determination of the nine most commonly used antimicrobial agents in Ghana by using solid-phase extraction in combination with HPLC-MS/MS using electron spray ionization. The highest frequency of resistance to CoNS was observed for penicillin V (98%), trimethoprim (67%), and tetracycline (63%). S. haemolyticus was the most common isolate (75%), followed by S. epidermidis (13%) and S. hominis (6%). S. haemolyticus was also the species displaying the highest resistance prevalence (82%). 69% of the isolated CoNS were multiple drug resistant (?4 antibiotics) and 45% of the CoNS were methicillin resistant. Antimicrobial agents were detected in 64% of the analysed urine samples (n?=?121) where the most frequently detected antimicrobials were ciprofloxacin (30%), trimethoprim (27%), and metronidazole (17%). The major findings of this study was that the prevalence of detected antimicrobials in urine was more frequent than the use reported by the patients and the prevalence of resistant S. haemolyticus was more frequent than other resistant CoNS species when antimicrobial agents were detected in the urine. PMID:25462162

  11. Investigation of nitrite adulteration on the immunoassay and GC-MS analysis of cannabinoids in urine specimens.

    PubMed

    Tsai, L S; ElSohly, M A; Tsai, S F; Murphy, T P; Twarowska, B; Salamone, S J

    2000-01-01

    Nitrite ion has been identified as the active ingredient of two commercial adulterants that could cause discrepant results between the immunoassay screening and gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) confirmation of 11-nor-delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (THCCOOH) in urine. Procedures to chemically convert the nitrite ion at the beginning of sample preparation for GC-MS analysis may not overcome all nitrite adulteration cases because portions of the THCCOOH might have been lost between the time of sample collection and the time of analysis. This study was conducted to further investigate the influence of both urine sample matrix and the duration of nitrite exposure on nitrite interference of THCCOOH detection. Forty clinical "THC-positive samples" that had been screened and confirmed positive for the presence of THCCOOH were spiked with 0.15M or 0.3M of nitrite. The levels of THCCOOH at various time intervals after nitrite spiking were monitored by instrument-based cannabinoids immunoassays (Syva EMIT d.a.u. and/or Roche Abuscreen ONLINE assays) and by an onsite THC immunoassay (Roche ONTRAK TESTSTIK). Results from this report demonstrate that the two outstanding "urine specimen factors" that dictated the effectiveness of the nitrite adulteration were urinary pH and the original drug concentration before nitrite spiking. Significant decreases in the immunoassay results could be observed within 4 h of nitrite treatment in the majority of samples with acidic urinary pH values. Regardless of their original concentration of THCCOOH (GC-MS ranging from 33 to 488 ng/mL), all of the 20 samples that had acidic pH values gave negative immunoassay results 1 day after nitrite adulteration. In contrast, the immunoassay results of samples with neutral or basic pH values were less affected by nitrite exposure in the same studies. Approximately two-thirds of the samples with pH values greater than 7.0 remained immunoassay-positive 3 days after nitrite spiking. Nevertheless, some of the adulterated urine that showed no change in immunoassay results might exhibit significant decrease in GC-MS recoveries even with bisulfite treatment, collaborating with the observations that a portion of samples screened positive with THC immunoassay in the laboratory could fail to confirm with GC-MS analysis. The decrease or loss of immunoassay detectable cannabinoid cross-reactives in acidic "THC-positive samples" can be attenuated by chemically increasing the pH value of the samples to the basic pH range. PMID:11110026

  12. Unprotected sex among HIV-positive injection drug-using women and their serodiscordant male partners: role of personal and partnership influences.

    PubMed

    Latka, Mary H; Metsch, Lisa R; Mizuno, Yulo; Tobin, Karin; Mackenzie, Sonia; Arnsten, Julia H; Gourevitch, Marc N

    2006-06-01

    We investigated the characteristics of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive injection drug-using women who reported unprotected vaginal and/or anal sex with HIV-negative or unknown serostatus (serodiscordant) male partners. Of 426 female study participants, 370 were sexually active. Of these women, 39% (144/370) and 40% (148/370) reported vaginal and/or anal sex with serodiscordant main and casual partners, respectively. Sixty percent of women inconsistently used condoms with their serodiscordant main partners, whereas 53% did so with casual partners. In multivariate analysis, during sex with main partners, inconsistent condom users were less likely to feel confident about achieving safe sex (self-efficacy), personal responsibility for limiting HIV transmission, and that their partner supported safe sex. Inconsistent condom use was also more likely among women who held negative beliefs about condoms and in couplings without mutual disclosure of HIV status. Regarding sex with casual partners, inconsistent condom users were more likely to experience psychologic distress, engage in sex trading, but they were less likely to feel confident about achieving safe sex. These findings suggest that there are widespread opportunities for the sexual transmission of HIV from drug-using women to HIV-uninfected men, and that reasons vary by type of partnership. Multifaceted interventions that address personal, dyadic, and addiction problems are needed for HIV-positive injection drug-using women. PMID:16760799

  13. Detection of p-chloroamphetamine in urine samples with mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tsz C; Lin, Dong-Liang; Lua, Ahai C

    2011-05-01

    Designer drugs are introduced periodically to avoid detection and to provide new drugs with different pharmacological activities. During our routine analysis of amphetamine in urine samples, we observed one sample that reacted with immunoassay with high activity. There is one prominent peak in the gas chromatography- mass spectrometry (GC-MS) chromatogram. However, no amphetamine, methamphetamine, MDA, MDMA, MDEA, or ephedrine was detected with GC-MS. Careful examination of the mass spectrum indicated the presence of one fragment ion (m/z 140), which is similar to the base peak of trifluoroacetic anhydride derivative of amphetamine. The characteristic ion cluster representing the presence of one chlorine atom was observed. Investigation with liquid chromatography (LC)-MS detected an unknown compound with molecular ion of m/z 170. This compound was tentatively identified as chloroamphetamine. Pure standard material of p-chloroamphetamine (PCA) was purchased and analyzed with both GC-MS and LC-MS. Identical GC-MS spectra and LC-MS-MS fragmentation patterns were obtained. A GC-MS procedure was developed for the quantitation of PCA. The limits of detection and quantification were 10 ?g/L. Precision was between 1.26% and 4.26%, and bias was between -0.91% and 4.27%. The prevalence PCA positive rate is 0.35% of the samples screened positive for amphetamine. PMID:21513613

  14. Prediction of Positions of Active Compounds Makes It Possible To Increase Activity in Fragment-Based Drug Development

    PubMed Central

    Fukunishi, Yoshifumi

    2011-01-01

    We have developed a computational method that predicts the positions of active compounds, making it possible to increase activity as a fragment evolution strategy. We refer to the positions of these compounds as the active position. When an active fragment compound is found, the following lead generation process is performed, primarily to increase activity. In the current method, to predict the location of the active position, hydrogen atoms are replaced by small side chains, generating virtual compounds. These virtual compounds are docked to a target protein, and the docking scores (affinities) are examined. The hydrogen atom that gives the virtual compound with good affinity should correspond to the active position and it should be replaced to generate a lead compound. This method was found to work well, with the prediction of the active position being 2 times more efficient than random synthesis. In the current study, 15 examples of lead generation were examined. The probability of finding active positions among all hydrogen atoms was 26%, and the current method accurately predicted 60% of the active positions.

  15. Capillary ion electrophoresis of endogenous anions and anionic adulterants in human urine.

    PubMed

    Ferslew, K E; Hagardorn, A N; Robert, T A

    2001-05-01

    Normal human urine contains many anions and cations. Ionic concentrations in urine have classically been determined by spectrophotometry of color reactions, flame emission spectrophotometry, atomic absorption spectrophotometry, high performance liquid chromatography, or potentiometry with ion-specific electrodes. Capillary ion electrophoresis (CIE) is a form of capillary electrophoresis which uses the differential electrophoretic mobility of ions to perform a separation of an ionic mixture. Various salts can be added to urine specimens to abnormally elevate ionic concentrations and interfere with either immunoassay urine drug screening procedures or gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric confirmation techniques. Application of CIE for the direct detection of endogenous anions and anionic adulterants in human urine specimens was the purpose of this investigation. CIE was performed using a Waters Quanta 4000 Capillary Electrophoresis System with either direct or indirect ultraviolet absorption detection at 254 nm. CIE of 30 random normal urine specimens and 21 urine specimens suspected of adulteration was performed. Duplicate aliquots were assayed by CIE and by colorimetric technique for nitrite. Sixteen specimens had elevated concentrations of nitrite and/or nitrate. The correlation coefficient between nitrite CIE and colorimetric results was 0.9895. Three specimens had detectable concentrations of chromate and were suspected of being adulterated with "Urine Luck," an adulterant found to contain chromate. Two specimens suspected of being adulterated with bleach were found to only contain chloride, sulfate, and phosphate. CIE is applicable to forensic analysis of urine anion concentrations. CIE can easily quantitate numerous endogenous anions and offers a method to detect and/or confirm anion adulteration of urine specimens. PMID:11372999

  16. Urine Bag as a Modern Day Matula

    PubMed Central

    Viswanathan, Stalin

    2013-01-01

    Since time immemorial uroscopic analysis has been a staple of diagnostic medicine. It received prominence during the middle ages with the introduction of the matula. Urinary discoloration is generally due to changes in urochrome concentration associated with the presence of other endogenous or exogenous pigments. Observation of urine colors has received less attention due to the advances made in urinalysis. A gamut of urine colors can be seen in urine bags of hospitalized patients that may give clue to presence of infections, medications, poisons, and hemolysis. Although worrisome to the patient, urine discoloration is mostly benign and resolves with removal of the offending agent. Twelve urine bags with discolored urine (and their predisposing causes) have been shown as examples. Urine colors (blue-green, yellow, orange, pink, red, brown, black, white, and purple) and their etiologies have been reviewed following a literature search in these databases: Pubmed, EBSCO, Science Direct, Proquest, Google Scholar, Springer, and Ovid. PMID:24959539

  17. Evaluation of abalone ?-glucuronidase substitution in current urine hydrolysis procedures.

    PubMed

    Malik-Wolf, Brittany; Vorce, Shawn; Holler, Justin; Bosy, Thomas

    2014-04-01

    This study examined the potential of abalone ?-glucuronidase as a viable and cost effective alternative to current hydrolysis procedures using acid, Helix pomatia ?-glucuronidase and Escherichia coli ?-glucuronidase. Abalone ?-glucuronidase successfully hydrolyzed oxazepam-glucuronide and lorazepam-glucuronide within 5% of the spiked control concentration. Benzodiazepines present in authentic urine specimens were within 20% of the concentrations obtained with the current hydrolysis procedure using H. pomatia ?-glucuronidase. JWH 018 N-(5-hydroxypentyl) ?-d-glucuronide was hydrolyzed within 10% of the control concentration. Authentic urine specimens showed improved glucuronide cleavage using abalone ?-glucuronidase with up to an 85% increase of drug concentration, compared with the results obtained using E. coli ?-glucuronidase. The JWH 018 and JWH 073 carboxylic acid metabolites also showed increased drug concentrations of up to 24%. Abalone ?-glucuronidase was able to completely hydrolyze a morphine-3-glucuronide control, but only 82% of total morphine was hydrolyzed in authentic urine specimens compared with acid hydrolysis results. Hydrolysis of codeine and hydromorphone varied between specimens, suggesting that abalone ?-glucuronidase may not be as efficient in hydrolyzing the glucuronide linkages in opioid compounds compared with acid hydrolysis. Abalone ?-glucuronidase demonstrates effectiveness as a low cost option for enzyme hydrolysis of benzodiazepines and synthetic cannabinoids. PMID:24488113

  18. Biomarker Discovery for Lupus Nephritis Through Longitudinal Urine Proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaolan; Jin, Ming; Wu, Haifeng; Nadasdy, Tibor; Nadasdy, Gyongyi; Harris, Nathan; Green-Church, Kari; Nagaraja, Haikady; Birmingham, Daniel J.; Yu, Chack-Yung; Hebert, Lee A.; Rovin, Brad H.

    2008-01-01

    Lupus nephritis is a frequent and serious complication of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Treatment often requires the use of immunosuppression, and may be associated with severe side effects. The ability to predict relapse, relapse severity, and recovery could be used to more effectively implement therapy and reduce toxicity. We postulated that a proteomic analysis of the low-molecular weight urine proteome using serial urine samples obtained before, during, and after SLE nephritis flares would demonstrate potential biomarkers of SLE renal flare. This study was undertaken to test our hypothesis. Urine from 25 flare cycles of 19 WHO Class III, IV, and V SLE nephritis patients was used. Urine samples included a baseline, and pre-flare, flare, and post-flare specimens. The urines were fractionated to remove proteins larger than 30 kDa, and spotted onto weak cation exchanger (CM10) protein chips for analysis by surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF MS). SELDI-TOF MS screening showed 176 protein ions between 2-20 kDa of which 27 were found to be differentially-expressed between specific flare intervals. On-chip peptide sequencing by integrated tandem mass spectrometry was used to positively identify selected differentially-expressed protein ions. The identified proteins included the 20 and 25 amino acid isoforms of hepcidin, a fragment of ?1-antitrypsin, and an albumin fragment. Hepcidin 20 increased 4 months pre-flare and returned to baseline at renal flare, whereas hepcidin 25 decreased at renal flare and returned to baseline 4 months post-flare. Using SELDI-TOF urine protein profiling in lupus nephritis, several candidate biomarkers of renal flare were found. To verify these candidates as true biomarkers, further identification and validation are needed in an independent SLE cohort. PMID:18596723

  19. Time of drug elimination in chronic drug abusers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arthur Reiter; Jochen Hake; Christoph Meissner; Jan Rohwer; Hans Jürgen Friedrich; Manfred Oehmichen

    2001-01-01

    The elimination time of illicit drugs and their metabolites is of both clinical and forensic interest. In order to determine the elimination time for various drugs and their metabolites we recruited 52 volunteers in a protected, low-step detoxification program. Blood samples were taken from each volunteer for the first 7 days, daily, urine sample for the first 3 weeks, daily.

  20. Psychosocial and demographic correlates of drug use in a sample of HIV-positive adults ages 50 and older.

    PubMed

    Siconolfi, Daniel E; Halkitis, Perry N; Barton, Staci C; Kingdon, Molly J; Perez-Figueroa, Rafael E; Arias-Martinez, Vanessa; Karpiak, Stephen; Brennan-Ing, Mark

    2013-12-01

    The prevalence of HIV among adults 50 and older in the USA is increasing as a result of improvements in treatment and detection of HIV infection. Substance use by this population has implications for physical and mental health outcomes. We examined patterns of demographics, mental health, and recent substance use in a diverse sample of heterosexual, bisexual, and gay adults 50 and older living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in New York City. The most commonly used substances were cigarettes or alcohol; however, the majority of the sample did not report recent use of marijuana, poppers, or hard drugs (crystal methamphetamine, cocaine, crack, heroin, ecstasy, GHB, ketamine, and LSD or PCP). Statistically significant associations between substance use and psychological states (well-being and loneliness) were generally weak, and depression scores were not significantly related to use; instead, drug use was associated with gender/sexual orientation. The study observations support addressing substance use specific to subpopulations within PLWHA. PMID:23408281

  1. Multiple drug ingestion by ecstasy abusers in the United States.

    PubMed

    Black, David L; Cawthon, Beverly; Robert, Tim; Moser, Frank; Caplan, Yale H; Cone, Edward J

    2009-04-01

    The abuse of ecstasy-type drugs such as 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA) is generally associated with young adults attending "Rave" parties. Little toxicological information has been reported regarding ecstasy usage by individuals undergoing monitoring in other settings in the United States. The goal of this study was to determine the prevalence and patterns of licit and illicit drugs in urine specimens of ecstasy users. A survey of laboratory data over the years 2005-2007 revealed that 198 urine specimens were confirmed positive (cutoff concentration 100 ng/mL) for MDMA and/or MDA from the following types of donors ( positive specimens): Correctional (159); Sports (19); Workplace (9); Pain Patients (8); and Special Test Requests (3). Of these, 122 (61.6%) were positive for MDMA and MDA, 70 (35.4%) were positive for MDMA, and 6 (3.0%) were positive for MDA. A majority (84.3%) of the specimens contained multiple drugs and/or metabolites in addition to MDMA and MDA. The median number of drugs/metabolites reported for these ecstasy users was 5 (range, 1-9). In addition to MDMA/MDA, the most commonly identified drug groups (%) were cannabis (THCCOOH) (61.6%); amphetamine/ methamphetamine (38.4%); benzoylecgonine (30.8%); diazepam-related (9.6%); opiates (7.1%); alprazolam (5.6%); and others (5.6%). Although multidrug ingestion appears to be common amongst ecstasy users, caution is recommended in interpretation. Illicit ecstasy in the United States and Canada frequently contains methamphetamine and other active substances, and multidrug use may not have been intentional. PMID:19371462

  2. Traceability of synthetic drugs by position-specific deuterium isotope ratio analysis: the case of Prozac and the fluoxetine generics.

    PubMed

    Brenna, Elisabetta; Fronza, Giovanni; Fuganti, Claudio

    2007-10-10

    Samples of fluoxetine of different origin were submitted to natural abundance 2H NMR spectroscopy. The deuterium content at the various sites of the molecule was found to depend on its synthetic history. Hints on the synthetic procedure can be obtained by comparison with standard compounds, whose synthesis is known. These preliminary results give an idea of the potential of site-specific isotope ratio analysis in the fight against patent infringement and drug counterfeiting. PMID:17920397

  3. [Studies on mechanism of drug incorporation into hair].

    PubMed

    Kikura, R; Nakahara, Y

    1998-01-01

    Drugs and endogenous compounds circulating in the blood are partially incorporated into the growing hair and are retained there for a long time. Therefore, hair analysis has been used as a useful method for detecting and monitoring drugs from days to years after ingestion. Although numerous drugs and metabolites have been detected in hair, many factors are still not cleared on the mechanisms responsible for the incorporation and retention of drugs in hair. In this study, the incorporation mechanisms of drugs from blood into hair were investigated with respect to the contributions of the physicochemical properties of the drugs. The following conclusions were drawn from the results. 1. Drug concentrations in hair were compared to their pharmacokinetic parameters using an animal model, and it was shown that the incorporation of drugs from plasma into hair distinctly depended upon the physicochemical properties of each drug. 2. As an index of facility of incorporation of a drug into hair, Incorporation Rate (ICR) was defined as the ratio of drug concentration in hair to the area under the concentration versus time curve (AUC) in plasma. The effects of structural factors on ICRs were determined using amphetamine analogs, and it was shown that the basicity and lipophilicity affected the drug incorporation into hair. 3. In in vitro experiments, ICRs positively correlated with melanin affinity and lipophilicity. In particular, melanin affinity principally controls the incorporation of basic drugs into hair. 4. In distinguishing legitimate amphetamine--like OTC drug use from illegal amphetamine/methamphetamine use, hair samples were more useful than urine samples due to the easier long term detection of parent drugs or specific metabolites in hair. PMID:10097511

  4. Social-structural contexts of needle and syringe sharing behaviours of HIV-positive injecting drug users in Manipur, India: a mixed methods investigation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Few investigations have assessed risk behaviours and social-structural contexts of risk among injecting drug users (IDUs) in Northeast India, where injecting drug use is the major route of HIV transmission. Investigations of risk environments are needed to inform development of effective risk reduction interventions. Methods This mixed methods study of HIV-positive IDUs in Manipur included a structured survey (n = 75), two focus groups (n = 17), seven in-depth interviews, and two key informant interviews. Results One-third of survey participants reported having shared a needle/syringe in the past 30 days; among these, all the men and about one-third of the women did so with persons of unknown HIV serostatus. A variety of social-structural contextual factors influenced individual risk behaviours: barriers to carrying sterile needles/syringes due to fear of harassment by police and "anti-drug" organizations; lack of sterile needles/syringes in drug dealers' locales; limited access to pharmacy-sold needles/syringes; inadequate coverage by needle and syringe programmes (NSPs); non-availability of sterile needles/syringes in prisons; and withdrawal symptoms superseding concern for health. Some HIV-positive IDUs who shared needles/syringes reported adopting risk reduction strategies: being the 'last receiver' of needles/syringes and not a 'giver;' sharing only with other IDUs they knew to be HIV-positive; and, when a 'giver,' asking other IDUs to wash used needles/syringes with bleach before using. Conclusions Effective HIV prevention and care programmes for IDUs in Northeast India may hinge on several enabling contexts: supportive government policy on harm reduction programmes, including in prisons; an end to harassment by the police, army, and anti-drug groups, with education of these entities regarding harm reduction, creation of partnerships with the public health sector, and accountability to government policies that protect IDUs' human rights; adequate and sustained funding for NSPs to cover all IDU populations, including prisoners; and non-discriminatory access by IDUs to affordable needles/syringes in pharmacies. PMID:21569478

  5. Pharmacokinetic Modeling of Intranasal Scopolamine in Plasma Saliva and Urine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, L.; Chow, D. S. L.; Tam, V.; Putcha, L.

    2014-01-01

    An intranasal gel formulation of scopolamine (INSCOP) was developed for the treatment of Space Motion Sickness. The bioavailability and pharmacokinetics (PK) were evaluated under the Food and Drug Administration guidelines for clinical trials for an Investigative New Drug (IND). The aim of this project was to develop a PK model that can predict the relationship between plasma, saliva and urinary scopolamine concentrations using data collected from the IND clinical trial with INSCOP. METHODS: Twelve healthy human subjects were administered three dose levels (0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 mg) of INSCOP. Serial blood, saliva and urine samples were collected between 5 min to 24 h after dosing and scopolamine concentrations measured by using a validated LC-MS-MS assay. Pharmacokinetic Compartmental models, using actual dosing and sampling times, were built using Phoenix (version 1.2). Model discrimination was performed, by minimizing the Akaike Information Criteria (AIC), maximizing the coefficient of determination (r²) and by comparison of the quality of fit plots. RESULTS: The best structural model to describe scopolamine disposition after INSCOP administration (minimal AIC =907.2) consisted of one compartment for plasma, saliva and urine respectively that were inter-connected with different rate constants. The estimated values of PK parameters were compiled in Table 1. The model fitting exercises revealed a nonlinear PK for scopolamine between plasma and saliva compartments for K21, Vmax and Km. CONCLUSION: PK model for INSCOP was developed and for the first time it satisfactorily predicted the PK of scopolamine in plasma, saliva and urine after INSCOP administration. Using non-linear PK yielded the best structural model to describe scopolamine disposition between plasma and saliva compartments, and inclusion of non-linear PK resulted in a significant improved model fitting. The model can be utilized to predict scopolamine plasma concentration using saliva and/or urine data that allows non-invasive assessment of pharmacotherapeutics of scopolamine in space and other remote environments without requiring blood sampling.

  6. Can clinical pharmacy services have a positive impact on drug-related problems and health outcomes in community-based older adults?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph T Hanlon; Catherine I Lindblad; Shelly L Gray

    2004-01-01

    Background: Although pharmacotherapy can be beneficial in the elderly, it can also lead to drug-related problems (DRPs), including untreated indications, drug use without an indication, improper drug selection, subtherapeutic dosage, overdosage, medication error, medication nonadherence, drug interactions, adverse drug reactions, adverse drug withdrawal events, and therapeutic failure.Objective: The goal of this article was to review evidence from randomized controlled studies

  7. PPARalpha agonists positively and negatively regulate the expression of several nutrient/drug transporters in mouse small intestine.

    PubMed

    Hirai, Toshitake; Fukui, Yuka; Motojima, Kiyoto

    2007-11-01

    A systematic analysis to examine the effects of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)alpha agonists on the expression levels of all the nutrient/drug plasma-membrane transporters in the mouse small intestine was performed. Transporter mRNAs that were induced or repressed by two independent PPARalpha-specific agonists were identified by a genome-wide microarray method, and the changes were confirmed by real-time PCR using RNA isolated from the intestines and livers of wild-type and PPARalpha-null mice. Expression levels of seven nutrient/drug transporters (Abcd3, Octn2/Slc22a5, FATP2/Slc27a2, Slc22a21, Mct13/Slc16a13, Slc23a1 and Bcrp/Abcg2) in the intestine were up-regulated and the expression level of one (Mrp1/Abcc1) was down-regulated by PPARalpha; although the previously report that the H(+)/peptide co-transporter 1 (Pept1) is up-regulated by PPARalpha was not replicated in our study. We propose that the transport processes can be coordinately regulated with intracellular metabolism by nutrient nuclear receptors. PMID:17978498

  8. Chemical dependency and drug testing in the workplace.

    PubMed Central

    Osterloh, J D; Becker, C E

    1990-01-01

    Urine testing for drug use in the workplace is now widespread, with the prevalence of positive drug tests in the work force being 0% to 15%. The prevalence of marijuana use is highest, and this can be reliably tested. Though it is prudent to rid the workplace of drug use, there is little scientific study on the relationship of drug use and workplace outcomes, such as productivity and safety. Probable-cause testing and preemployment testing are the most common applications. Random testing has been less accepted owing to its higher costs, unresolved legal issues, and predictably poor test reliability. Legal issues have focused on the right to policy, discrimination, and the lack of due process. The legal cornerstone of a good program is a policy that is planned and agreed on by both labor and management, which serves both as a contract and as a procedure in which expectations and consequences are known. The National Institute on Drug Abuse is certifying laboratories doing employee drug testing. Testing methods when done correctly are less prone to error than in the past, but screening tests can be defeated by adulterants. Although the incidence of false-positive results is low, such tests are less reliable when the prevalence of drug abuse is also low. PMID:2190418

  9. The impact of a brief motivational intervention on unprotected sex and sex while high among drug-positive emergency department patients who receive STI/HIV VC/T and drug treatment referral as standard of care.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Edward; Ashong, Desiree; Heeren, Timothy; Winter, Michael; Bliss, Caleb; Madico, Guillermo; Bernstein, Judith

    2012-07-01

    This randomized, controlled trial, conducted among out-of-treatment heroin/cocaine users at an emergency department visit, tests the impact on sexual risk of adding brief motivational intervention (B-MI) to point-of-service testing, counseling and drug treatment referral. 1,030 enrollees aged 18-54 received either voluntary counseling/testing (VC/T) with drug treatment referral, or VC/T, referral, and B-MI, delivered by an outreach worker. We measured number and proportion of non-protected sex acts (last 30 days) at 6 and 12 months (n = 802). At baseline, 70% of past-30-days sex acts were non-protected; 35% of sex acts occurred while high; 64% of sexual acts involved main, 24% casual and 12% transactional sex partners; 1.7% tested positive for an STI, and 8.8% for HIV. At six or 12 month follow-up, 20 enrollees tested positive for Chlamydia and/or Gonorrhea, and 6 enrollees HIV sero-converted. Self-reported high-risk behaviors declined in both groups with no significant between-group differences in behaviors or STI/HIV incidence. PMID:22261830

  10. A Randomized Trial of Employment-Based Reinforcement of Cocaine Abstinence in Injection Drug Users

    PubMed Central

    Silverman, Kenneth; Wong, Conrad J; Needham, Mick; Diemer, Karly N; Knealing, Todd; Crone-Todd, Darlene; Fingerhood, Michael; Nuzzo, Paul; Kolodner, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    High-magnitude and long-duration abstinence reinforcement can promote drug abstinence but can be difficult to finance. Employment may be a vehicle for arranging high-magnitude and long-duration abstinence reinforcement. This study determined if employment-based abstinence reinforcement could increase cocaine abstinence in adults who inject drugs and use cocaine during methadone treatment. Participants could work 4?hr every weekday in a workplace where they could earn about $10.00 per hour in vouchers; they were required to provide routine urine samples. Participants who attended the workplace and provided cocaine-positive urine samples during the initial 4?weeks were invited to work 26?weeks and were randomly assigned to an abstinence-and-work (n ?=? 28) or work-only (n ?=? 28) group. Abstinence-and-work participants had to provide urine samples showing cocaine abstinence to work and maintain maximum pay. Work-only participants could work independent of their urinalysis results. Abstinence-and-work participants provided more (p ?=? .004; OR ?=? 5.80, 95% CI ?=? 2.03–16.56) cocaine-negative urine samples (29%) than did work-only participants (10%). Employment-based abstinence reinforcement can increase cocaine abstinence. PMID:17970256

  11. Association between heroin use, needle sharing and tattoos received in prison with hepatitis B and C positivity among street-recruited injecting drug users in New Mexico, USA.

    PubMed Central

    Samuel, M. C.; Doherty, P. M.; Bulterys, M.; Jenison, S. A.

    2001-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the seroprevalence and risk factors for hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and HIV-1 infections among injecting drug users (IDU) in New Mexico. Serological and behavioural surveys were conducted in conjunction with street-based outreach, education and HIV counselling and testing. High rates of antibody positivity for HCV (82.2%) and HBV (61.1%), and a low rate for HIV (0.5%) were found. In multivariate analyses, both HBV and HCV infection were positively associated with increasing age, increasing years of injection and heroin use. Receipt of a tattoo in prison/jail was associated with HBV (odds ratio = 2.3, 95% confidence interval 1.4, 3.8) and HCV (OR = 3.4, 95% CI = 1.6, 7.5) infections. Prevention of bloodborne pathogens among IDUs should focus on young users, early in their drug use experience. Studies examining the relationship between tattooing and HBV and HCV infection are needed as are efforts to promote sterile tattooing, in prisons and elsewhere. PMID:11811881

  12. Psychosocial predictors of current drug use, drug problems, and physical drug dependence in homeless women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elisha R Galaif; Adeline M Nyamathi; Judith A Stein

    1999-01-01

    We examined risk and protective factors associated with three qualitatively different drug use constructs describing a continuum of drug use among a sample of 1,179 homeless women. Relationships among positive and negative sources of social support, positive and negative coping strategies, depression, and the drug constructs of current drug use, drug problems, and physical drug dependence were assessed using structural

  13. Acylation of SC4 dodecapeptide increases bactericidal potency against Gram-positive bacteria, including drug-resistant strains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2004-01-01

    We have conjugated dodecyl and octadecyl fatty acids to the N-terminus of SC4, a potently bactericidal, helix-forming peptide 12-mer (KLFKRHLKWKII), and examined the bactericidal acti- vities of the resultant SC4 'peptide-amphiphile' molecules. SC4 peptide-amphiphiles showed up to a 30-fold increase in bacter- icidal activity against Gram-positive strains (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes and Bacillus anthracis), inclu- ding S. aureus strains resistant

  14. Discriminative Stimulus Effects of the GABAB Receptor-Positive Modulator rac-BHFF: Comparison with GABAB Receptor Agonists and Drugs of Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Kejun; Rice, Kenner C.

    2013-01-01

    GABAB receptor-positive modulators are thought to have advantages as potential medications for anxiety, depression, and drug addiction. They may have fewer side effects than GABAB receptor agonists, because selective enhancement of activated receptors could have effects different from nonselective activation of all receptors. To examine this, pigeons were trained to discriminate the GABAB receptor-positive modulator (R,S)-5,7-di-tert-butyl-3-hydroxy-3-trifluoromethyl-3H-benzofuran-2-one (rac-BHFF) from its vehicle. The discriminative stimulus effects of rac-BHFF were not mimicked by the GABAB receptor agonists baclofen and ?-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), not by diazepam, and not by alcohol, cocaine, and nicotine, whose self-administration has been reported to be attenuated by GABAB receptor-positive modulators. The discriminative stimulus effects of rac-BHFF were not antagonized by the GABAB receptor antagonist 3-aminopropyl (diethoxymethyl)phosphinic acid (CGP35348) but were attenuated by the less efficacious GABAB receptor-positive modulator 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-(3-hydroxy-2,2-dimethylpropyl)phenol (CGP7930), suggesting the possibility that rac-BHFF produces its discriminative stimulus effects by directly activating GABAB2 subunits of GABAB receptors. At a dose 10-fold lower than the training dose, rac-BHFF enhanced the discriminative stimulus effects of baclofen, but not of GHB. This study provides evidence that the effects of GABAB receptor-positive modulators are not identical to those of GABAB receptor agonists. In addition, the results suggest that positive modulation of GABAB receptors does not produce discriminative stimulus effects similar to those of benzodiazepines, alcohol, cocaine, and nicotine. Finally, the finding that rac-BHFF enhanced effects of baclofen but not of GHB is consistent with converging evidence that the populations of GABAB receptors mediating the effects of baclofen and GHB are not identical. PMID:23275067

  15. Protopine alkaloids in horse urine.

    PubMed

    Wynne, Paul M; Vine, John H; Amiet, R Gary

    2004-11-01

    Protopine was extracted from Fumaria officinalis and purified by column chromatography. Urine samples were collected from horses and a human volunteer that had been administered either F. officinalis or protopine free base. Plant and urine samples were acetylated and analysed by GCMS after solid-phase extraction (SPE). The urinary metabolites of protopine were identified as 4,6,7,13-tetrahydro-9,10-dihydroxy-5-methyl-benzo[e]-l,3-benzodioxolo [4,5-1][2] benzazecin-12(5H)-one, 4,6,7,13-tetrahydro-10-hydroxy-9-methoxy-5-methyl-benzo[e]-1,3-benzodioxolo[4,5-1][2] benzazecin-12(5H)-one and 4,6,7,13-tetrahydro-9-hydroxy-10-methoxy-5-methyl-benzo[e]-1,3-benzodioxolo[4,5-l][2] benzazecin-12(5H)-one, chelianthifoline, isochelianthifoline and 2-O-desmethylchelianthifoline. The metabolic formation of the tetrahydroprotoberberines by closure of the bridge across N5 and C13 is rate limited and protopine-like metabolites accumulate only when the route is overloaded. Metabolism was qualitatively similar in the horse and human. PMID:15458726

  16. Bladder Cancer Biomarker Discovery Using Global Metabolomic Profiling of Urine

    PubMed Central

    Wittmann, Bryan M.; Stirdivant, Steven M.; Mitchell, Matthew W.; Wulff, Jacob E.; McDunn, Jonathan E.; Li, Zhen; Dennis-Barrie, Aphrihl; Neri, Bruce P.; Milburn, Michael V.; Lotan, Yair; Wolfert, Robert L.

    2014-01-01

    Bladder cancer (BCa) is a common malignancy worldwide and has a high probability of recurrence after initial diagnosis and treatment. As a result, recurrent surveillance, primarily involving repeated cystoscopies, is a critical component of post diagnosis patient management. Since cystoscopy is invasive, expensive and a possible deterrent to patient compliance with regular follow-up screening, new non-invasive technologies to aid in the detection of recurrent and/or primary bladder cancer are strongly needed. In this study, mass spectrometry based metabolomics was employed to identify biochemical signatures in human urine that differentiate bladder cancer from non-cancer controls. Over 1000 distinct compounds were measured including 587 named compounds of known chemical identity. Initial biomarker identification was conducted using a 332 subject sample set of retrospective urine samples (cohort 1), which included 66 BCa positive samples. A set of 25 candidate biomarkers was selected based on statistical significance, fold difference and metabolic pathway coverage. The 25 candidate biomarkers were tested against an independent urine sample set (cohort 2) using random forest analysis, with palmitoyl sphingomyelin, lactate, adenosine and succinate providing the strongest predictive power for differentiating cohort 2 cancer from non-cancer urines. Cohort 2 metabolite profiling revealed additional metabolites, including arachidonate, that were higher in cohort 2 cancer vs. non-cancer controls, but were below quantitation limits in the cohort 1 profiling. Metabolites related to lipid metabolism may be especially interesting biomarkers. The results suggest that urine metabolites may provide a much needed non-invasive adjunct diagnostic to cystoscopy for detection of bladder cancer and recurrent disease management. PMID:25541698

  17. Spot Urine Estimations Are Equivalent to 24-Hour Urine Assessments of Urine Protein Excretion for Predicting Clinical Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Teo, Boon Wee; Loh, Ping Tyug; Wong, Weng Kin; Ho, Peh Joo; Choi, Kwok Pui; Toh, Qi Chun; Xu, Hui; Saw, Sharon; Lau, Titus; Sethi, Sunil; Lee, Evan J. C.

    2015-01-01

    Background. The use of spot urine protein to creatinine ratios in estimating 24?hr urine protein excretion rates for diagnosing and managing chronic kidney disease (CKD) predated the standardization of creatinine assays. The comparative predictive performance of spot urine ratios and 24?hr urine collections (of albumin or protein) for the clinical outcomes of CKD progression, end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and mortality in Asians is unclear. We compared 4 methods of assessing urine protein excretion in a multiethnic population of CKD patients. Methods. Patients with CKD (n = 232) provided 24?hr urine collections followed by spot urine samples the next morning. We created multiple linear regression models to assess the factors associated with GFR decline (median follow-up: 37 months, IQR 26–41) and constructed Cox proportional-hazards models for predicting the combined outcome of ESRD and death. Results. The linear regression models showed that 24?hr urine protein excretion was most predictive of GFR decline but all other methods were similar. For the combined outcomes of ESRD and death, the proportional hazards models had similar predictive performance. Conclusions. We showed that all methods of assessments were comparable for clinical end-points, and any method can be used in clinical practice or research. PMID:25649135

  18. Spot urine estimations are equivalent to 24-hour urine assessments of urine protein excretion for predicting clinical outcomes.

    PubMed

    Teo, Boon Wee; Loh, Ping Tyug; Wong, Weng Kin; Ho, Peh Joo; Choi, Kwok Pui; Toh, Qi Chun; Xu, Hui; Saw, Sharon; Lau, Titus; Sethi, Sunil; Lee, Evan J C

    2015-01-01

    Background. The use of spot urine protein to creatinine ratios in estimating 24?hr urine protein excretion rates for diagnosing and managing chronic kidney disease (CKD) predated the standardization of creatinine assays. The comparative predictive performance of spot urine ratios and 24?hr urine collections (of albumin or protein) for the clinical outcomes of CKD progression, end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and mortality in Asians is unclear. We compared 4 methods of assessing urine protein excretion in a multiethnic population of CKD patients. Methods. Patients with CKD (n = 232) provided 24?hr urine collections followed by spot urine samples the next morning. We created multiple linear regression models to assess the factors associated with GFR decline (median follow-up: 37 months, IQR 26-41) and constructed Cox proportional-hazards models for predicting the combined outcome of ESRD and death. Results. The linear regression models showed that 24?hr urine protein excretion was most predictive of GFR decline but all other methods were similar. For the combined outcomes of ESRD and death, the proportional hazards models had similar predictive performance. Conclusions. We showed that all methods of assessments were comparable for clinical end-points, and any method can be used in clinical practice or research. PMID:25649135

  19. Hepatitis C virus seroconversion among HIV-positive men who have sex with men with no history of injection drug use: Results from a clinical HIV cohort

    PubMed Central

    Burchell, Ann N; Gardner, Sandra L; Mazzulli, Tony; Manno, Michael; Raboud, Janet; Allen, Vanessa G; Bayoumi, Ahmed M; Kaul, Rupert; McGee, Frank; Millson, Peggy; Remis, Robert S; Wobeser, Wendy; Cooper, Curtis; Rourke, Sean B

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Internationally, there is a growing recognition that hepatitis C virus (HCV) may be sexually transmitted among HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM). OBJECTIVE: To report the first Canadian estimate of HCV seroincidence in 2000 to 2010 and its risk factors among HIV-positive MSM with no known history of injection drug use. METHODS: Data from the Ontario HIV Treatment Network Cohort Study, an ongoing cohort of individuals in HIV care in Ontario, were analyzed. Data were obtained from medical charts, interviews and record linkage with the provincial public health laboratories. The analysis was restricted to 1534 MSM who did not report injection drug use and had undergone ?2 HCV antibody tests, of which the first was negative (median 6.1 person-years [PY] of follow-up; sum 9987 PY). RESULTS: In 2000 to 2010, 51 HCV seroconversions were observed, an overall incidence of 5.1 per 1000 PY (95% CI 3.9 to 6.7). Annual incidence varied from 1.6 to 8.9 per 1000 PY, with no statistical evidence of a temporal trend. Risk for seroconversion was elevated among men who had ever had syphilis (adjusted HR 2.5 [95% CI 1.1 to 5.5) and men who had acute syphilis infection in the previous 18 months (adjusted HR 2.8 [95% CI 1.0 to 7.9]). Risk was lower for men who had initiated antiretroviral treatment (adjusted HR 0.49 [95% CI 0.25 to 0.95]). There were no statistically significant effects of age, ethnicity, region, CD4 cell count or HIV viral load. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that periodic HCV rescreening may be appropriate in Ontario among HIV-positive MSM. Future research should seek evidence whether syphilis is simply a marker for high-risk sexual behaviour or networks, or whether it potentiates sexual HCV transmission among individuals with HIV. PMID:25798149

  20. Euphorbia hirta leaf extracts increase urine output and electrolytes in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patricia B Johnson; Ezzeldin M Abdurahman; Emmanuel A Tiam; Ibrahim Abdu-Aguye; Isa M Hussaini

    1999-01-01

    Euphorbia hirta is locally used in Africa and Australia to treat numerous diseases, including hypertension and edema. The diuretic effect of the E. hirta leaf extracts were assessed in rats using acetazolamide and furosemide as standard diuretic drugs. The water and ethanol extracts (50 and 100 mg\\/kg) of the plant produced time-dependent increase in urine output. Electrolyte excretion was also

  1. Measurement of Menadione in urine by HPLC

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Menadione may be an important metabolite of vitamin K that is excreted in urine. A high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method with a C30 column, fluorescence detection and post-column zinc reduction was developed to measure menadione in urine. The mobile phase was composed of 95% methanol...

  2. Excretion of Hypertonic Urine by a Teleost

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jon G. Stanley; Warren R. Fleming

    1964-01-01

    During the course of adaptation to sea water, Fundulus kansae excretes urine that is hypertonic to the blood, but hypotonic to sea water. During this period the osmotic pressure of the serum is greater than that found in animals adapted to fresh water or sea water. The urine collected from fish adapted to sea water is usually isotonic to the

  3. Boric Acid Preservation of Urine Samples

    PubMed Central

    Porter, I. A.; Brodie, J.

    1969-01-01

    Comparison of the results of bacteriological culture and microscopic examination of urine samples transported over a distance by the dip-inoculum transport medium, ice-box, and boric acid preservation with “natural” urine specimens showed that the last, in a final concentration of 1·8%, gives satisfactory preservation. PMID:5768462

  4. Screening for anabolic steroids in urine of forensic cases using fully automated solid phase extraction and LC-MS-MS.

    PubMed

    Andersen, David W; Linnet, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    A screening method for 18 frequently measured exogenous anabolic steroids and the testosterone/epitestosterone (T/E) ratio in forensic cases has been developed and validated. The method involves a fully automated sample preparation including enzyme treatment, addition of internal standards and solid phase extraction followed by analysis by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) using electrospray ionization with adduct formation for two compounds. Urine samples from 580 forensic cases were analyzed to determine the T/E ratio and occurrence of exogenous anabolic steroids. Extraction recoveries ranged from 77 to 95%, matrix effects from 48 to 78%, overall process efficiencies from 40 to 54% and the lower limit of identification ranged from 2 to 40 ng/mL. In the 580 urine samples analyzed from routine forensic cases, 17 (2.9%) were found positive for one or more anabolic steroids. Only seven different steroids including testosterone were found in the material, suggesting that only a small number of common steroids are likely to occur in a forensic context. The steroids were often in high concentrations (>100 ng/mL), and a combination of steroids and/or other drugs of abuse were seen in the majority of cases. The method presented serves as a fast and automated screening procedure, proving the suitability of LC-MS-MS for analyzing anabolic steroids. PMID:25104076

  5. Simultaneous determination of HFBA-derivatized amphetamines and ketamines in urine by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hei Hwa; Lee, Jong Feng; Lin, Sin Yu; Chen, Ping Ho; Chen, Bai Hsiun

    2011-04-01

    To facilitate the analysis of targeted drugs under high sample volume testing environment, an extraction, derivatization and gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis method was developed for simultaneously determination of amphetamine (AMP), methamphetamine (MAMP), 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDEA), ketamine, and norketamine in urine. This method utilized solid-phase extraction in conjunction with derivatization using heptafluorobutyric anhydride (HFBA) as the derivatization reagent. Using a 1-mL sample, the limits of quantitation achieved for the analysis of AMP, MAMP, MDA, MDMA, MDEA, ketamine, and norketamine were 25, 15, 60, 60, 70, 25, and 30 ng/mL, respectively. Upper limits of quantitation were 8000 ng/mL for all amphetamines and 6000 ng/mL for ketamine and norketamine. Except for dehydronorketamine (DHNK), within-day and between-day precisions (as expressed in CV%) for quality control samples were ? 3.1% and ? 4.95%, respectively. Except DHNK, the within-day accuracy ranged between 96.0% and 110.7% and the between-day accuracy ranged between 96.9% and 108.7%. A group of 107 urine samples previously determined to contain the target analytes were analyzed by this new approach. Quantitative data produced by both methods agreed well. With this new approach, we were able to use a single analytical protocol to conduct the confirmation test for samples that preliminarily tested positive (by immunoassay) for amphetamines, ketamine, or both. PMID:21439152

  6. A multi-component LC-MS/MS method for detection of ten plant-derived psychoactive substances in urine.

    PubMed

    Björnstad, Kristian; Beck, Olof; Helander, Anders

    2009-04-15

    A sensitive and specific LC-MS/MS method for simultaneous detection of 10 plant-derived psychoactive substances (atropine, N,N-dimethyltryptamine, ephedrine, harmaline, harmine, ibogaine, lysergic acid amide, psilocin, scopolamine and yohimbine) in urine was developed. Direct injection of urine diluted with 3 deuterated internal standards allowed for a readily accessible method suitable for application in clinical intoxication cases. Separation was achieved using reversed phase chromatography and gradient elution with a total analysis time of 14 min. Electrospray ionization was used and ions were monitored in the positive selected reaction monitoring mode. The calibration curves were linear (r(2)>0.999) and the total imprecision at high (1000 microg/L) and low (50 microg/L) substance concentrations were 4.9-13.8% and 8.3-26%, respectively. Infusing the analytes post column and injecting matrix samples showed limited influence by ion suppression. The multi-component method proved to be useful for investigation of authentic cases of intoxication with plant-derived psychoactive drugs and was indicated to cover the clinically relevant concentration ranges. PMID:19332394

  7. Exosomes in urine biomarker discovery.

    PubMed

    Huebner, Alyssa R; Somparn, Poorichaya; Benjachat, Thitima; Leelahavanichkul, Asada; Avihingsanon, Yingyos; Fenton, Robert A; Pisitkun, Trairak

    2015-01-01

    Nanovesicles present in urine the so-called urinary exosomes have been found to be secreted by every epithelial cell type lining the urinary tract system in human. Urinary exosomes are an appealing source for biomarker discovery as they contain molecular constituents of their cell of origin, including proteins and genetic materials, and they can be isolated in a non-invasive manner. Following the discovery of urinary exosomes in 2004, many studies have been performed using urinary exosomes as a starting material to identify biomarkers in various renal, urogenital, and systemic diseases. Here, we describe the discovery of urinary exosomes and address the issues on the collection, isolation, and normalization of urinary exosomes as well as delineate the systems biology approach to biomarker discovery using urinary exosomes. PMID:25355568

  8. drug discovery drug discovery

    E-print Network

    drug discovery at Purdue #12;drug discovery 2 #12;drug discovery 3 Introduction The drug discovery and innovative drug candidates to treat chronic and acute illnesses. Our researchers also continue to be invested in various approaches to drug discovery, which include understanding of drug targets for future drug

  9. Emergency department evaluation of a rapid assay for detection of cocaine metabolites in urine specimens.

    PubMed

    Belfer, R A; Klein, B L; Boenning, D A; Soldin, S J

    1996-04-01

    We evaluated the Abuscreen ONTRAK assay for cocaine metabolites, a rapid immunoassay for the detection of cocaine metabolites in a pediatric emergency department (ED) setting. The ONTRAK uses a cutoff point of 300 micrograms/L for benzoylecgonine (BEC), cocaine's major urinary metabolite. One hundred and thirty-two urine specimens obtained from infants, children, and adolescents whose clinical findings warranted toxicology screening were evaluated. The ONTRAK identified all 15 specimens with BEC values of 300 micrograms/L, but did not detect seven additional specimens positive for cocaine metabolites at concentrations less than 300 micrograms/L. One third of the positive specimens for cocaine metabolite identified by fluorescent polarization immunoassay (FPIA), cutoff point set at 80 micrograms/L, and confirmed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GUMS), cutoff point 50 micrograms/L, were not detected by the ONTRAK. These false negative specimens were seen exclusively in young children, whose concentration of cocaine metabolite was less than the ONTRAK's cutoff value. The test was sensitive to drug concentration at or around the stated cutoff values. The ONTRAK test for cocaine metabolites, although both a sensitive and specific screening test for adolescents who smoke or snort cocaine, lacks the sensitivity to be a useful screening too[ for detecting cocaine metabolites in young children. Limitations of currently performed toxicology screening tests (ie, stated cutoff levels) may cause emergency physicians to miss most young children whose symptoms may he related to cocaine exposure. PMID:8859922

  10. Detection of ritalinic acid in urine by thin-layer chromatography and gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Allen, H W; Sedgwick, B

    1984-01-01

    A new method for the analysis of ritalinic acid, the major metabolite of methylphenidate in urine, is described. The procedure involves solid-phase extraction of ritalinic acid from urine using C-18 reverse phase columns. The ritalinic acid is methylated to form methylphenidate which, together with an internal standard, is then extracted into chloroform and analyzed by gas chromatography using a flame ionization detector. This procedure gives essentially quantitative recovery of ritalinic acid from 10 mL urine and is linear in the range of 0 to 10 micrograms/mL. A positive analysis for ritalinic acid is confirmed by thin-layer chromatography. Detection sensitivities of greater than or equal to 1 micrograms/mL urine were observed for both procedures. PMID:6716975

  11. Association of urine protein excretion and infection with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Bernese Mountain dogs.

    PubMed

    Gerber, Bernhard; Eichenberger, Simone; Haug, Katharinan; Wittenbrink, Max M; Reusch, Claudia E

    2009-12-01

    Bernese Mountain dogs (BMDs) are prone to develop a familial glomerulonephropathy and a pathogenic role of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in this disease has been suspected. Glomerular disease in many affected dogs is clinically inapparent and proteinuria is found incidentally. In this study, urine protein excretion was evaluated in 122 clinically healthy BMDs and 55 controls. The seroprevalence of B. burgdorferi in BMDs was 57%, compared to 16% in controls. There were no significant differences in the occurrence of positive dipstick results, microalbuminuria, urine protein-to-urine creatinine ratio or abnormal urine protein pattern (determined by sodium dodecyl sulphate agarose gel electrophoresis) between BMDs and controls and BMDs with and without antibodies against B. burgdorferi. It was concluded that antibodies against B. burgdorferi are not associated with proteinuria as an early sign of renal disease in BMDs. PMID:18930416

  12. Determination of chromate adulteration of human urine by automated colorimetric and capillary ion electrophoretic analyses.

    PubMed

    Ferslew, Kenneth E; Nicolaides, Andrea N; Robert, Timothy A

    2003-01-01

    Various chemicals can be added to urine specimens collected for drug analysis to abnormally elevate ionic concentrations and/or interfere with either immunoassay urine drug-screening procedures or gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric confirmation techniques. One such adulterant, "Urine Luck" (formula 5.3), has been identified in our previous research to contain potassium dichromate. Screening of suspected adulterated specimens and confirmation of the adulterant are important for forensic drug screening. The application and comparison of automated colorimetric and capillary ion electrophoretic techniques for the detection, confirmation, and quantitation of chromate adulteration of urine specimens were the purpose of this investigation. Thirty-six urine specimens suspected of adulteration were analyzed for chromate by colorimetric analysis with diphenylcarbazide. Duplicate aliquots were analyzed for chromate by capillary ion electrophoresis. Results of the colorimetric chromate analyses revealed a mean chromate concentration of 929 microg/mL with a standard error of 177 microg/mL and a range of 30 to 5634 microg/mL. Results of the capillary ion electrophoresis chromate analyses revealed a mean chromate concentration of 1009 microg/mL with a standard error of 218 microg/mL and a range of 20 to 7501 microg/mL. The correlation coefficient between the capillary ion electrophoretic and colorimetric chromate results was r = 0.9669. Application of the automated diphenylcarbazide colorimetric technique provides rapid determination of chromate adulteration of a urine specimen. Capillary ion electrophoresis offers a separation technique to confirm the presence of chromate in suspected adulterated specimens. The excellent correlation between these methods substantiates their application to forensic testing as screening and/or confirmation techniques. PMID:12587681

  13. Discriminative stimulus effects of the GABAB receptor-positive modulator rac-BHFF: comparison with GABAB receptor agonists and drugs of abuse.

    PubMed

    Koek, Wouter; Cheng, Kejun; Rice, Kenner C

    2013-03-01

    GABA(B) receptor-positive modulators are thought to have advantages as potential medications for anxiety, depression, and drug addiction. They may have fewer side effects than GABA(B) receptor agonists, because selective enhancement of activated receptors could have effects different from nonselective activation of all receptors. To examine this, pigeons were trained to discriminate the GABA(B) receptor-positive modulator (R,S)-5,7-di-tert-butyl-3-hydroxy-3-trifluoromethyl-3H-benzofuran-2-one (rac-BHFF) from its vehicle. The discriminative stimulus effects of rac-BHFF were not mimicked by the GABA(B) receptor agonists baclofen and ?-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), not by diazepam, and not by alcohol, cocaine, and nicotine, whose self-administration has been reported to be attenuated by GABA(B) receptor-positive modulators. The discriminative stimulus effects of rac-BHFF were not antagonized by the GABA(B) receptor antagonist 3-aminopropyl (diethoxymethyl)phosphinic acid (CGP35348) but were attenuated by the less efficacious GABA(B) receptor-positive modulator 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-(3-hydroxy-2,2-dimethylpropyl)phenol (CGP7930), suggesting the possibility that rac-BHFF produces its discriminative stimulus effects by directly activating GABA(B2) subunits of GABA(B) receptors. At a dose 10-fold lower than the training dose, rac-BHFF enhanced the discriminative stimulus effects of baclofen, but not of GHB. This study provides evidence that the effects of GABA(B) receptor-positive modulators are not identical to those of GABA(B) receptor agonists. In addition, the results suggest that positive modulation of GABA(B) receptors does not produce discriminative stimulus effects similar to those of benzodiazepines, alcohol, cocaine, and nicotine. Finally, the finding that rac-BHFF enhanced effects of baclofen but not of GHB is consistent with converging evidence that the populations of GABA(B) receptors mediating the effects of baclofen and GHB are not identical. PMID:23275067

  14. Multisite Direct Determination of the Potential for Environmental Contamination of Urine Samples Used for Diagnosis of Sexually Transmitted Infections

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Patiyan; Tong, Steven Y. C.; Lilliebridge, Rachael A.; Brenner, Nicole C.; Martin, Louise M.; Spencer, Emma; Delima, Jennifer; Singh, Gurmeet; McCann, Frances; Hudson, Carolyn; Johns, Tracy; Giffard, Philip M.

    2014-01-01

    Background The detection of a sexually transmitted infection (STI) agent in a urine specimen from a young child is regarded as an indicator of sexual contact. False positives may conceivably arise from the transfer of environmental contaminants in clinic toilet or bathroom facilities into urine specimens. Methods The potential for contamination of urine specimens with environmental STI nucleic acid was tested empirically in the male and female toilets or bathrooms at 10 Northern Territory (Australia) clinics, on 7 separate occasions at each. At each of the 140 experiments, environmental contamination with Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Trichomonas vaginalis nucleic acid contamination was determined by swabbing 10 locations, and urine collection was simulated 5 times, using a (1) synthetic urine surrogate and (2) a standardized finger contamination procedure. Results The most contaminated toilets and bathrooms were in remote Indigenous communities. No contamination was found in the Northern Territory Government Sexual Assault Referral Centre clinics, and intermediate levels of contamination were found in sexual health clinics and in clinics in regional urban centres. The frequency of surrogate urine sample contamination was low but non-zero. For example, 4 of 558 of the urine surrogate specimens from remote clinics were STI positive. Conclusions This is by far the largest study addressing the potential environmental contamination of urine samples with STI agents. Positive STI tests arising from environmental contamination of urine specimens cannot be ruled out. The results emphasize that urine specimens from young children taken for STI testing should be obtained by trained staff in clean environments, and duplicate specimens should be obtained if possible. PMID:25349693

  15. Determination of sulphonamides in human urine by azo dye precolumn derivatization and micellar liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Simó-Alfonso, E F; Ramis-Ramos, G; García-Alvarez-Coque, M C; Esteve-Romero, J S

    1995-08-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the determination of sulphonamides in urine is reported. The drugs (sulphadiazine, sulphaguanidine, sulphamethizole, sulphamethoxazole, and sulphathiazole) were diazotized with nitrite and coupled with N-(1-naphthyl)ethylenediamine dihydrochloride in a sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) micellar medium. Separation of the sulphonamide azo dyes was performed on a C18 column with a 0.05 M SDS-2.4% pentanol mobile phase, which permitted the direct injection of the urine samples. The limits of detection were in the 0.1-0.3 micrograms/ml range. PMID:7493079

  16. First-line anti-tubercular drug resistance of mycobacterial strains from re-treatment cases that were smear-positive at 4th month onwards under the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Program

    PubMed Central

    Lahiri, Surajit; Mukherjee, Abhijit; Hazra, Supabitra; Jana, Pulak; Roy, Sandip; Saha, Brojo Kishore

    2015-01-01

    Background: Programmatic management of drug-resistant TB (PMDT) under the RNTCP is being implemented in West Bengal in a phased manner since 2011. During the initial years MDR-TB cases were identified based on criteria A. This study examines the first line anti-tubercular drug resistance pattern of mycobacteria cultured from sputum samples of MDR suspects who were retreatment cases smear positive from 4th month onwards. Materials and Methods: In the following retrospective record based study, data on Drug Sensitivity Testing (DST) of sputum samples of MDR suspects between September 2011 and August 2012 were collected from the IRL Kolkata and analysed. Sputum samples, collected in the districts maintaining adequate aseptic containment measures, were decontaminated and centrifuged and the sediment inoculated on LJ medium. Probable M. tuberculosis colonies were identified by typical colony characteristics and Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) staining. Sensitivity of the four 1st line drugs (Streptomycin, Isoniazid, Ethambutol and Rifampicin) was deduced by the economic variant of the proportion method. Results: Of all the 917 MDR suspects whose sputum was examined, 64 mycobacteria culture positive strains (6.98%) were mono-resistant to any of the four first line anti-tubercular drugs. Among the mono-resistant strains 43 (4.69%) were resistant to Rifampicin while 12 (1.31%) were resistant to INH. There were a total 78 (8.51%) poly drug-resistant strains. MDR-TB strains were seen in 741 (80.81%) samples. Conclusion: The magnitude of drug resistance were very high among retreatment patients that were smear positive from 4th months onwards probably because of repeated courses of anti-tubercular drugs prior to drug sensitivity testing (DST). The decision of the PMDT to enlist all retreatment patients as MDR suspects at initiation will result in early identification and treatment of MDR-TB patients.

  17. Determination of tetrahydrozoline in urine and blood using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).

    PubMed

    Peat, Judy; Garg, Uttam

    2010-01-01

    Tetrahydrozoline, a derivative of imidazoline, is widely used for the symptomatic relief of conjunctival and nasal congestion; however, intentional or unintentional high doses can result in toxicity manifested by hypotension, tachycardia, and CNS depression. The detection of the drug in blood and urine is helpful in the diagnosis and management of a toxic patient. For the analysis, plasma, serum, or urine is added to a tube containing alkaline buffer and organic extraction solvents, and tetrahydrozoline from the sample is extracted into the organic phase by gentle mixing. After centrifugation, the upper organic solvent layer containing the drug is removed and dried under stream of nitrogen at 40 degrees C. The residue is reconstituted in a hexane-ethanol mixture and analyzed using gas-chromatography-mass spectrometry. Quantitation of the drug is done by comparing responses of unknown sample to the responses of the calibrators using selected ion monitoring. Naphazoline is used as an internal standard. PMID:20077102

  18. Drug susceptibility pattern of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in adult patients with miliary tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Irfan, Muhammad; Hussain, Syed Fayyaz; Jabeen, Kausar; Islam, Muhammad

    2007-07-01

    Miliary tuberculosis (TB) is a fatal form of TB. Although drug resistance in TB patients has increased worldwide, there is limited information on drug resistance in miliary TB. This study from Pakistan evaluated drug susceptibility pattern among miliary TB patients of a high TB-burden country. All adult patients with miliary TB, admitted between 1994 and 2001, were identified using a computerized database. Culture-positive isolates were evaluated for drug susceptibility using middle brook 7H10 agar according to National Committee for Clinical Laboratories Standard criteria. Of 110 patients diagnosed with miliary TB, 32 (30%) were culture positive (yielding 35 culture isolates). The sources of positive cultures were sputum (37%), cerebrospinal fluid (18%), lymph nodes (12%), bone marrow (9%), bronchial wash (9%), urine (6%), lungs (6%) and liver (3%). Isoniazid resistance was found in three (9%) isolates. All the isolates were sensitive to rifampicin, ethambutol, pyrazinamide and streptomycin. Despite a worldwide increase in TB drug resistance, patients with miliary TB have infection with drug-sensitive mycobacterium. First-line anti-TB drugs should be used as initial therapy in miliary TB patients. PMID:17716515

  19. Prevalence of Sexually Acquired Antiretroviral Drug Resistance in a Community Sample of HIV-Positive Men Who Have Sex with Men in New York City

    PubMed Central

    Clatts, Michael C.; Parker, Monica M.; Colon, Vivian; Hallack, Renee; Messina, Maria G.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract To examine antiretroviral (ARV) drug resistance, we recruited a community sample (n=347) of sexually active HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) in New York City, each of whom completed a structured interview and donated a blood sample for HIV genotyping. Participants reported high levels of sexual activity, with 94.6% reporting at least one sexual contact in the past month, and an average of 3.13 partners during this time. Anal intercourse was common, with 70.7% reporting at least one act of insertive anal intercourse (21% of whom reported ejaculating inside their partner without a condom) and 62.1% reporting at least one act of receptive anal intercourse during this time (22.6% of whom received ejaculate without a condom). Seventeen percent reported having sex with a woman in the past year. Although 17.4% of participants reported having ever injected drugs, no association was found between injection and antiretroviral resistance. Average HIV diagnosis was 12.1 years prior to the interview, and 92.1% had taken ARV medication. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) were widely reported, with 78% having been diagnosed with an STI since being diagnosed with HIV. A genotype was obtained for 188 (54.7%) of the samples and 44.7% revealed mutations conferring resistance to at least one ARV. Resistance to at least one ARV within a given class of medication was most common for nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (30.3%) and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (27.7%) and least common for protease inhibitors (18.1%). The combination of high prevalence of antiretroviral resistance and risky sexual practices makes transmission between sex partners a likely mode of acquisition. PMID:21457055

  20. 'Sweet Dreams', 'Happy Days' and elevated 24-h urine 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid excretion.

    PubMed

    Hallin, Magnus Lars Peter; Mahmoud, Kamala; Viswanath, Ananth; Gama, Rousseau

    2013-01-01

    We report two patients with markedly elevated 24-h urine 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) excretion due to over-the-counter (OTC) self-medication with 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP). It is important to recognize that OTC medication may cause increased 'false-positive' 5-HIAA excretion to prevent undue patient anxiety and unnecessary further investigation for carcinoid disease. Discordance between chromogranin A and 24-h urine 5-HIAA results should alert to the possibility of false-positive or -negative laboratory results. PMID:23086978

  1. Waterless Urinals: Features, Benefits and Applications

    E-print Network

    Bristow, G.; McClure, J. D.; Fisher, D.

    2004-01-01

    to keep unwanted materials such as Figure 2. Typical Insertion Cartridge. chewing gum and cigarette butts out of the drain. Also, it captures sediment from urine that would otherwise go down the drain and potentially create obstructions. Models...

  2. INGESTED MINERAL FIBERS: ELIMINATION IN HUMAN URINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sediment in human urine examined by transmission electron microscopy contains amphibole fibers which originate from the ingestion of drinking water contaminated with these mineral fibers. The ingestion of filtered water results in the eventual disappearance of amphibole fibers fr...

  3. Urine cytology in patients with calculi.

    PubMed Central

    Highman, W; Wilson, E

    1982-01-01

    The cytological changes in voided urines were analysed in 154 patients with calculi. No abnormality was seen in 52.6%; 40.9% contained smooth-bordered clusters of transitional cells with essentially normal, centrally placed nuclei. These, when found in routine urines, were reliable in predicting calculi in 62.5% of cases. Of the calculus urines, 6.5% showed features suspicious of differentiated transitional carcinoma. Although their morphological features overlapped with those observed in urines from 40 cases of proved differentiated transitional carcinoma, they contained significantly fewer single and clusters of transitional cells with abnormal nuclear morphology. Histological examination of urothelium adjacent to calculi in eight patients showed no evidence of malignancy although one case showed hyperplasia and severe epithelial atypia. Images PMID:7068927

  4. Differential Modulation of Thresholds for Intracranial Self-Stimulation by mGlu5 Positive and Negative Allosteric Modulators: Implications for Effects on Drug Self-Administration

    PubMed Central

    Cleva, Richard M.; Watterson, Lucas R.; Johnson, Meagan A.; Olive, M. Foster

    2011-01-01

    Pharmacological manipulation of the type 5 metabotropic glutamate (mGlu5) receptor alters various addiction related behaviors such as drug self-administration and the extinction and reinstatement of drug-seeking behavior. However, the effects of pharmacological modulation of mGlu5 receptors on brain reward function have not been widely investigated. We examined the effects of acute administration of positive and negative allosteric modulators (PAMs and NAMs, respectively) on brain reward function by assessing thresholds for intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS). In addition, when acute effects were observed, we examined changes in ICSS thresholds following repeated administration. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were implanted with bipolar electrodes into the medial forebrain bundle and trained to respond for ICSS, followed by assessment of effects of mGlu5 ligands on ICSS thresholds using a discrete trials current–intensity threshold determination procedure. Acute administration of the selective mGlu5 NAMs MTEP (0, 0.3, 1, or 3?mg/kg) and fenobam (0, 3, 10, or 30?mg/kg) dose-dependently increased ICSS thresholds (?70% at the highest dose tested), suggesting a deficit in brain reward function. Acute administration of the mGlu5 PAMs CDPPB (0, 10, 30, and 60?mg/kg) or ADX47273 (0, 10, 30, and 60?mg/kg) was without effect at any dose tested. When administered once daily for five consecutive days, the development of tolerance to the ability of threshold-elevating doses of MTEP and fenobam to increase ICSS thresholds was observed. We conclude that mGlu5 PAMs and NAMs differentially affect brain reward function, and that tolerance to the ability of mGlu5 NAMs to reduce brain reward function develops with repeated administration. These brain reward deficits should be taken into consideration when interpreting acute effects of mGlu5 NAMs on drug self-administration, and repeated administration of these ligands may be an effective method to reduce these deficits. PMID:22232603

  5. Excretion of Hypertonic Urine by a Teleost.

    PubMed

    Stanley, J G; Fleming, W R

    1964-04-01

    During the course of adaptation to sea water, Fundulus kansae excretes urine that is hypertonic to the blood, but hypotonic to sea water. During this period the osmotic pressure of the serum is greater than that found in animals adapted to fresh water or sea water. The urine collected from fish adapted to sea water is usually isotonkc to the blood. route, presumably the gills. PMID:17729796

  6. Clinical trial of a new technique for drugs of abuse testing: a new possible sampling technique.

    PubMed

    Skoglund, Charlotte; Hermansson, Ulric; Beck, Olof

    2015-01-01

    Exhaled breath has recently been proposed as a matrix for drug testing. This study aims to further explore, develop and validate exhaled breath as a safe and effective non-invasive method for drug testing in a clinical setting. Self-reported drug use was recorded and drug testing was performed by mass spectrometry and immunochemical methods using breath, plasma and urine samples from 45 individuals voluntarily seeking treatment for recreational drug use. Cannabis was the most prevalent drug detected by any method. Urine sampling detected most cases. The exhaled breath technique was less sensitive (73%) than plasma analysis for detection of cannabis uses but captures a more recent drug intake than both plasma and urine. Exhaled breath was the preferred specimen to donate according to interview data of the participants. Testing illicit drugs with the exhaled breath sampling technique is a sufficient, non-invasive and safe alternative and complement to plasma and/or urine sampling. PMID:25312474

  7. A selected ion monitoring assay for primaquine in plasma and urine.

    PubMed

    Greaves, J; Price-Evans, D A; Gilles, H M; Baty, J D

    1979-03-01

    The antimalarial drug primaquine was analysed in plasma and urine by gas chromatography mass spectrometry, using a deuterated internal standard. After freeze-drying and extraction with trichloroethylene the sample plus internal standard was reacted with Tri Sil TBT (a 3:3:2 by volume mixture of trimethylsilylimidazole, N,O,-bis-(trimethylsilylacetamide and trimethylchlorosilane) and an aliquot injected into the gas chromatograph mass spectrometer. The gas chromatographic effluent was monitored at m/z 403 and m/z 406, the molecular ions of the bis-TMS ethers of primaquine and 6-trideuteromethoxy primaquine. Calibration curves were prepared from standards made up in plasma and urine. Data from the analysis of plasma and urine samples from a volunteer who ingested the equivalent of 45 mg primaquine are presented. PMID:420914

  8. A sensitive radioreceptor assay for determining scopolamine concentrations in plasma and urine.

    PubMed

    Cintrón, N M; Chen, Y M

    1987-04-01

    A sensitive and reliable procedure for the quantitation of low picogram levels of scopolamine in plasma and urine is described. The method consists of two steps, a preparative extraction step using C18 columns (Sep-Pak), followed by an analytical quantitation step involving a muscarinic radioreceptor assay. The extraction efficiency of the C18 columns was 85-95% for both plasma and urine over a wide concentration range. When [3H]methyl scopolamine is used as a tracer, the assay can detect picogram concentrations (greater than 25 pg) of scopolamine (base) in plasma and urine. The applicability of the procedure for therapeutic drug monitoring of scopolamine was demonstrated by using the method to determine plasma levels in humans after transdermal administration. PMID:3598893

  9. Use of urine specific gravity to improve screening for albuminuria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard R Moore; Cheryl A Hirata-Dulas; Bertram L Kasiske

    1997-01-01

    Use of urine specific gravity to improve screening for albuminuria. The albumin to creatinine ratio (ACR) can be used to measure urine albumin excretion rates, but is inconvenient and expensive. More rapid and less expensive screening methods estimate only albumin concentration and are subject to errors caused by variation in urine volume. We examined whether urine specific gravity could be

  10. Effect of urine on semen quality in turbot ( Psetta maxima)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Catherine Dreanno; Marc Suquet; Elizabeth Desbruyères; Jacky Cosson; Hervé Le Delliou; Roland Billard

    1998-01-01

    The deleterious effects of urine contamination on the quality of spermatozoa were observed in turbot (Psetta maxima). In order to overcome this problem, two methods of sperm collection were compared to evaluate on urine contamination. When collected by stripping, the mean contamination rate of sperm by urine was 15.3% (urine volume: sperm volume). The catherization of ureter prior to sperm

  11. New Markers: Urine Xanthine Oxidase and Myeloperoxidase in the Early Detection of Urinary Tract Infection

    PubMed Central

    Ciragil, P?nar; Kurutas, Ergul Belge

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of this study was to evaluate if xanthine oxidase and myeloperoxidase levels quantitation method may alternate routine culture method, which takes more time in the diagnosis of urinary tract infections. Material and Methods. Five hundred and forty-nine outpatients who had admitted to Clinic Microbiology Laboratory were included in the study. The microorganisms were identified by using VITEK System. The urine specimens that were negative from the quantitative urine culture were used as controls. The activities of MPO and XO in spot urine were measured by spectrophotometric method. Results. Through the urine cultures, 167 bacteria were isolated from 163 urine specimens; 386 cultures yielded no bacterial growth. E. coli was the most frequent pathogen. In infection with E. coli both XO and MPO levels were increased the most. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value for XO were 100%, 100%, 100%, and 100%, respectively. These values for MPO were 87%, 100%, 100%, and 94%, respectively. Conclusion. These data obtained suggest that urine XO and MPO levels may be new markers in the early detection of UTI. PMID:24591758

  12. Mutagens in urine of carbon electrode workers.

    PubMed

    Pasquini, R; Monarca, S; Sforzolini, G S; Conti, R; Fagioli, F

    1982-01-01

    Following previous work carried out in an Italian factory producing carbon electrodes and evaluating the occupational mutagenic-carcinogenic hazards, the authors studied the presence of mutagen metabolites in the urine of workers in the same factory who were exposed to petroleum coke and pitch and in the urine of a control group of unexposed workers. The urine samples were concentrated by absorption on XAD-2 columns and were tested using the Salmonella/microsome assay (strain TA 98, TA 100, TA 1535, TA 1538) with and without the addition of beta-glucuronidase and metabolizing system. The collection of urine samples was carried out twice, with an interval of 2 months; "before working time", "after working time", and also during Sunday. The results showed that (1) urine samples collected "before" occupational exposure (upon waking) or on Sunday revealed no mutagenic activity in either worker groups and (2) that the urine samples collected after or during occupational exposure revealed high mutagenic activity in the exposed workers, with a statistically significant difference (P less than 0.05) between the mean of the revertants/plate values for exposed and unexposed workers. On the basis of the previous and the present research, the authors suggest that application of the Salmonella/microsome test to work environments could offer useful and suitable tool for evaluating the health hazards due to mutagenic/carcinogenic substances from occupational exposure. PMID:6757140

  13. Treatment processes for source-separated urine.

    PubMed

    Maurer, M; Pronk, W; Larsen, T A

    2006-10-01

    The separate collection and treatment of urine has attracted considerable attention in the engineering community in the last few years and is seen as a viable option for enhancing the flexibility of wastewater treatment systems. This comprehensive review focuses on the status of current urine treatment processes and summarises the properties of collected urine. We distinguish between seven main purposes of urine-treatment processes: hygienisation (storage), volume reduction (evaporation, freeze-thaw, reverse osmosis), stabilisation (acidification, nitrification), P-recovery (struvite formation), N-recovery (ion-exchange, ammonia stripping, isobutylaldehyde-diurea (IBDU) precipitation), nutrient removal (anammox) and handling of micropollutants (electrodialysis, nanofiltration, ozonation). The review shows clearly that a wide range of technical options is available to treat collected urine effectively, but that none of these single options can accomplish all seven purposes. Depending on the overall goal of the treatment process, a specific technical solution or a combination of solutions can be found to meet the requirements. Such combinations are not discussed in this paper unless they are explicitly presented in the literature. Except for 'evaporation' and 'storage', none of the processes described have so far advanced beyond the laboratory stage. Considerable development work remains to be done to optimise urine-processing techniques in order to create marketable products. PMID:16949123

  14. Contingent Take-Home Incentive: Effects on Drug Use of Methadone Maintenance Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stitzer, Maxine L.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examined contingent methadone take-home privileges for effectiveness in reducing supplemental drug use of methadone maintenance patients. Assigned 53 new intakes to begin receiving take-home privileges after 2 consecutive weeks of drug-free urines or to noncontingent procedure in which take-homes were delivered independently of urine results.…

  15. [Evaluation of chromogenic medium Uriselect4 in urine culture].

    PubMed

    Ferjani, Asma; Marzouk, Manel; Idriss, Nadia; Sammoud, Sammoud; Hannachi, Naila; Boukadida, Janel

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated the performance and the cost of chromogenic medium Uriselect4 agar with regard to the standard medium for the detection and identification of urinary tract pathogens. A total of 503 clinical urine specimens containing leucocytes greater or equal to 104/mL were analysed prospectively, in parallel by two different persons on blood agar (GS) and Uriselect4 according to the manufacturers' instructions. Of the 503 urine specimens tested, 210 gave a positive culture on Uriselect4 versus 181 on GS. The majority of bacterial species grew on both media; enterobacteria grew on Uriselect4 better than GS. The identification of Escherichia coli (E. coli), Proteus mirabilis (P. mirabilis), KES group and Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) did not require the use of galleries Api and has a gain of 24? h. Positive pure cultures on Uriselect4 corresponding to negative cultures of GS were noted in 17 ases. Conversely, in seven cases a positive pure culture on GS was noted while the corresponding Uriselect4 cultures were negative. The cost of identification on GS (including the cost of galleries Api), was about two times higher than Uriselect4. Uriselect4 medium isolates the most frequent urinary tract pathogens and identify them so almost immediately, with a lower cost. PMID:22008133

  16. Multilevel Predictors of Concurrent Opioid Use during Methadone Maintenance Treatment among Drug Users with HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Bach Xuan; Ohinmaa, Arto; Mills, Steve; Duong, Anh Thuy; Nguyen, Long Thanh; Jacobs, Philip; Houston, Stan

    2012-01-01

    Background Ongoing drug use during methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) negatively affects outcomes of HIV/AIDS care and treatment for drug users. This study assessed changes in opioid use, and longitudinal predictors of continued opioid use during MMT among HIV-positive drug users in Vietnam, with the aim of identifying changes that might enhance program efficacy. Methods We analyze data of 370 HIV-positive drug users (mean age 29.5; 95.7% male) taking MMT at multi-sites. Opioid use was assessed at baseline, 3, 6, and 9 months using interviews and heroin confirmatory urine tests. A social ecological model was applied to explore multilevel predictors of continued opioid use, including individual, interpersonal, community and service influences. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) statistical models were constructed to adjust for intra-individual correlations. Results Over 9 month follow-up, self-reported opioid use and positive heroin urine test substantially decreased to 14.6% and 14.4%. MMT helped improve referrals and access to health care and social services. However, utilization of social integration services was small. GEE models determined that participants who were older (Adjusted Odd Ratio - AOR?=?0.97 for 1 year increase), had economic dependents (AOR?=?0.33), or were referred to TB treatment (AOR?=?0.53) were less likely to continue opioid use. Significant positive predictors of ongoing opioid use included frequency of opioid use prior to MMT, peer pressure, living with sexual partners, taking antiretroviral treatment, other health concerns and TB treatment. Conclusion These findings show that MMT in the Vietnamese context can dramatically reduce opioid use, which is known to be associated with reduced antiretroviral (ART) adherence. Disease stage and drug interactions between antiretrovirals or TB drugs and MMT could explain some of the observed predictors of ongoing drug use; these findings could inform changes in MMT program design and implementation. PMID:23251580

  17. Evaluation of commercial multi-drug oral fluid devices to identify 39 new amphetamine-designer drugs.

    PubMed

    Nieddu, Maria; Burrai, Lucia; Trignano, Claudia; Boatto, Gianpiero

    2014-03-01

    Recently, the diffusion on the black market of new psychoactive substances not controlled and often sold as 'legal highs', is exponentially increasing in Europe. Generally, the first analysis for these drugs involves an immunoassay screening in urine or plasma. Actually, there is growing interest in the use of oral fluid (OF) as alternative specimen over conventional biological fluids for drug testing, because of the significant advantages, as a non-invasive collection under direct observation without undue embarrassment or invasion of privacy, and a good correlation with plasma analytical data. Few assays have been developed for detection of new psychoactive compounds in biological samples, so it is important to investigate how they may or may not react in pre-existing commercial immunoassays. In this paper, two different multi-drugs oral fluid screen devices (OFDs) (Screen® Multi-Drug OFD and GIMA One Step Multi-Line Screen Test OFD) were evaluated to determine the cross-reactivity of thirty-nine new amphetamine designer drugs, including twelve substances officially recognized as illicit by italian legislation. Cross-reactivity towards most drugs analyzed was <1 in assays targeting amphetamine (AMP) or methamphetamine (MET). Only two (p-methoxyamphetamine and p-methoxymethamphetamine) of all tested amphetamines gave a positive result. PMID:24360925

  18. Identification of several stilbene derivatives in bovine urine by means of high performance liquid chromatographic fractionation and immunochemical detection.

    PubMed

    Jansen, E H; van den Berg, R H; van Blitterswijk, H; Both-Miedema, R; Stephany, R W

    1984-01-01

    Radioimmunochemical detection (RIA) following fractionation of urine extracts via high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) turned out to be a very specific method for the identification of stilbene derivatives in bovine urine. Combination of the high resolution of the HPLC with a specific RIA is a suitable method to discriminate between the presence of different stilbene derivatives like diethylstilboestrol (DES), dienoestrol (DE) and hexoestrol (HEX) or other unknown compounds interfering in the celite-RIA used in the screening. Using this screening method 8200 samples of bovine urine were investigated on the presence of stilbene derivatives of which 133 were classified as 'positive'. In 106 'positive' urines the presence of DES was shown and in 19 'positive' urines the presence of DE or HEX, using the method described in this report whereas in 8 'positive' urines an unknown immunochemical active compound was detected. During 1.5 year of comparative investigation no qualitative discrepancies occurred between the results of the HPLC-immunogram procedure and the final confirmation by high resolution gas chromatography-mass spectometry (GCMS). PMID:6730291

  19. Prevalence of drug resistance and culture-positive rate among microorganisms isolated from patients with ocular infections over a 4-year period

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, Yusuke; Toshida, Hiroshi; Honda, Rio; Matsui, Asaki; Ohta, Toshihiko; Asada, Yousuke; Murakami, Akira

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the microbial isolates from patients with ocular infections and the trend in the emergence of levofloxacin-resistant strains over the past four years from 2006 to 2009 retrospectively. Patients and methods The subjects were 242 patients with ocular infections or traumas treated in our hospital including outpatients, inpatients, and emergency room patients. Most of them needed urgent care presenting with eye complaints, traumas, or decreased vision. Clinical samples were obtained from discharges, corneal, conjunctival tissues or vitreous fluid or aqueous humor, and cultured. Items for assessment included the patient’s age, the diagnosis, the prevalence of isolated bacteria, and the results of susceptibility tests for levofloxacin (LVFX) cefamezin (CEZ), gentamicin (GM) and vancomycin. This information was obtained from the patients’ medical records. Results There were 156 male patients and 86 female patients who were aged from 2 months old to 94 years old and mean age was 56.8 ± 24.2 years. Of the 242 patients, 78 (32.2%) had positive cultures. The culture-positive rate was significantly higher in male patients than female in total (P = 0.002) and in patients with corneal perforation (P = 0.005). Corneal perforation was the highest culture-positive rate (60.0%), followed by orbital cellulitis (56.5%), blepharitis (50.0%), dacryoadenitis (45.5%), conjunctivitis (38.2%), infectious corneal ulcer (28.5%) and endophthalmitis (24.7%). LVFX-resistant strains accounted for 40 out of a total of 122 strains (32.8%), and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was significantly higher in LVFX and GM compared with the other antibiotics. There were no vancomycin-resistant strains. Conclusion Attention should be paid to a possible future increase of strains with resistance to LVFX, as commonly prescribed ocular antibiotics bring emergence of resistant bacteria. Although no vancomycin-resistant strains were isolated this drug should be reserved as the last resort, in order to prevent the emergence of vancomycin resistance. PMID:23589677

  20. Measurement of sodium ion concentration in undiluted urine with cation-selective polymeric membrane electrodes after the removal of interfering compounds.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Feyisayo; Kaczor, Kim; Gandhi, Neel; Pendley, Bradford D; Danish, Robert K; Neuman, Michael R; Tóth, Blanka; Horváth, Viola; Lindner, Ernö

    2007-11-30

    The measurement of sodium ion concentration in urine can provide diagnostic information and guide therapy. Unfortunately, neutral-carrier-based ion-selective electrodes show a large positive drift and loss in selectivity in undiluted urine. The extraction of electrically neutral lipids from the urine into the sensing membrane was suggested as the main source of the drift, loss of selectivity and the consequent incorrect concentration readings. In this work, (i) solvent-solvent extraction, (ii) membrane-immobilized solvent extraction and (iii) solid phase extraction were used to remove interfering compounds from urine samples. The "cleaned" urine samples were subsequently analyzed using a calixarene (sodium ionophore X)-based, solid-contact, sodium-selective electrode in a flow-through manifold. The solid-contact sodium sensors had excellent stability in cleaned urine and an acceptable bias compared to commercial clinical analyzers. PMID:18371638

  1. Noninvasive quantification of drug delivery from an implantable MEMS device

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Audrey M., 1976-

    2005-01-01

    (cont.) sensors in vivo in real time and corroborated by scintillation of urine samples. The goal of monitoring drug delivery from an implant in vivo, in real time and without disturbing the tissue environment, was ...

  2. Clinically relevant characteristics associated with early treatment drug use versus abstinence

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study describes early treatment drug use status and associated clinical characteristics in a diverse sample of patients entering outpatient substance abuse psychosocial counseling treatment. The goal is to more fully characterize those entering treatment with and without active use of their primary drug in order to better understand associated treatment needs and resilience factors. Methods We examined baseline data from a NIDA Clinical Trials Network (CTN) study (Web-delivery of Treatment for Substance Use) with an all-comers sample of patients (N?=?494) entering 10 outpatient treatment centers. Patients were categorized according to self-identified primary drug of abuse (alcohol, cocaine/stimulants, opioids, marijuana) and by baseline drug use status (positive/negative) based on urine testing or self-reports of recent use (alcohol). Characteristics were examined by primary drug and early use status. Results Classified as drug-negative were 84%, 76%, 62%, and 33% of primary opioid, stimulant, alcohol, and marijuana users; respectively. Drug-positive versus -negative patients did not differ on demographics or rates of substance abuse/dependence diagnoses. However, those negative for active use had better physical and mental health profiles, were less likely to be using a secondary drug, and were more likely to be attending 12-step self-help meetings. Conclusions Early treatment drug abstinence is common among substance users entering outpatient psychosocial counseling programs, regardless of primary abused drug. Abstinence (by negative UA) is associated with better health and mental health profiles, less secondary drug use, and more days of 12-step attendance. These data highlight differential treatment needs and resiliencies associated with early treatment drug use status. Trial registration NCT01104805. PMID:24708748

  3. Analysis of fentanyl in urine by DLLME-GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Michael A; Sampsel, Sheena; Jenkins, Werner W; Owens, Janel E

    2015-03-01

    Fentanyl is a synthetic narcotic anesthetic ?80-100 times more potent than morphine. Owing to the potential for its abuse, the drug may be included in a forensic toxicology work-up, which requires fast, precise and accurate measurements. Here, the stability of fentanyl was assessed when stored at three different temperatures (-20, 4 and 25°C) in synthetic urine. Stability at those three temperatures was demonstrated over 12 weeks upon analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with a deuterated internal standard (fentanyl-D5) utilizing three different extraction techniques: liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), solid-phase extraction and dispersed liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME). The DLLME method was then optimized before use in the analysis of fentanyl in urine samples obtained from autopsy cases at the El Paso County Coroner's Office. Accuracy of the DLLME method was assessed by completing spike and recovery studies at three different fortification levels (10, 100 and 250 ng/mL) with excellent recovery (89.9-102.6%). The excellent comparability between DLLME and LLE is demonstrated (Bland-Altman difference plot with a mean difference of 4.9 ng/mL) and the use of this methodology in the analysis of forensically relevant samples is discussed. PMID:25492522

  4. Back to the basics: identifying positive youth development as the theoretical framework for a youth drug prevention program in rural Saskatchewan, Canada amidst a program evaluation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite endorsement by the Saskatchewan government to apply empirically-based approaches to youth drug prevention services in the province, programs are sometimes delivered prior to the establishment of evidence-informed goals and objectives. This paper shares the 'preptory’ outcomes of our team’s program evaluation of the Prince Albert Parkland Health Region Mental Health and Addiction Services’ Outreach Worker Service (OWS) in eight rural, community schools three years following its implementation. Before our independent evaluation team could assess whether expectations of the OWS were being met, we had to assist with establishing its overarching program goals and objectives and 'at-risk’ student population, alongside its alliance with an empirically-informed theoretical framework. Methods A mixed-methods approach was applied, beginning with in-depth focus groups with the OWS staff to identify the program’s goals and objectives and targeted student population. These were supplemented with OWS and school administrator interviews and focus groups with school staff. Alignment with a theoretical focus was determined though a review of the OWS’s work to date and explored in focus groups between our evaluation team and the OWS staff and validated with the school staff and OWS and school administration. Results With improved understanding of the OWS’s goals and objectives, our evaluation team and the OWS staff aligned the program with the Positive Youth Development theoretical evidence-base, emphasizing the program’s universality, systems focus, strength base, and promotion of assets. Together we also gained clarity about the OWS’s definition of and engagement with its 'at-risk’ student population. Conclusions It is important to draw on expert knowledge to develop youth drug prevention programming, but attention must also be paid to aligning professional health care services with a theoretically informed evidence-base for evaluation purposes. If time does not permit for the establishment of evidence-informed goals and objectives at the start-up of a program, obtaining insight and expertise from program personnel and school staff and administrators can bring the program to a point where this can still be achieved and theoretical linkages made after a program has been implemented. This is a necessary foundation for measuring an intervention’s success. PMID:24148918

  5. Title of the original manuscript is: Prevalence and Spot Urine Risk Factors for Renal Stones in Children Taking Topiramate

    PubMed Central

    Bush, Nicol; Twombley, Katherine; Ahn, Justin; Oliveira, Carlos; Arnold, Susan; Maalouf, Naim M.; Sakhaee, Khashayar

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Topiramate (TPM), an anti-epileptic drug with >4 million users, increases renal stones in adults. We screened outpatient TPM-treated children without history of stones to estimate the prevalence of renal stones and to characterize urine stone-risk profiles. Methods Children taking TPM ?1 month underwent an interview, renal ultrasound, and spot urine testing in this prospective study. Normal spot urine values were defined as: calcium/creatinine ratio ?0.20 mg/mg (>12 months) or ?0.60 mg/mg (?12 months), citrate/creatinine ratio >0.50 mg/mg, and pH ?6.7. Results Of 41 patients with average age of 9.2 years (range 0.5–18.7), mean TPM dose of 8.0 mg/kg/day (range 1.4–23.6), and mean treatment duration of 27 months (range 1–112), two (4.9%) had renal stones. The majority of children taking TPM had lithogenic abnormalities on spot urine testing, including 21 (51%) with hypercalciuria, 38 (93%) with hypocitraturia, and 28 (68%) with pH?6.7. Hypercalciuria and hypocitraturia were independent of TPM dose and duration; urine pH increased with dose. 24-hour urine parameters improved in 1 stone-former once TPM was weaned. Conclusions Asymptomatic stones were found in 2/41 (4.8%) children taking TPM. Risk factors for stones were present in the spot urine of most children, including hypocitraturia (93%) and hypercalciuria (51%), independent of TPM dose and duration. High urine pH, found in 68%, correlated with TPM dose. Pediatric specialists should be aware of increased risks for stones, hypercalciuria, hypocitraturia, and alkaline urine in children taking TPM. PMID:23375465

  6. Cancer detection by native fluorescence of urine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masilamani, Vadivel; Vijmasi, Trinka; Al Salhi, Mohammad; Govindaraj, Kanagaraj; Vijaya-Raghavan, Ayanam Parthasarathy; Antonisamy, Belavendra

    2010-09-01

    Because cancer is a dreaded disease, a number of techniques such as biomarker evaluation, mammograms, colposcopy, and computed tomography scan are currently employed for early diagnosis. Many of these are specific to a particular site, invasive, and often expensive. Hence, there is a definite need for a simple, generic, noninvasive protocol for cancer detection, comparable to blood and urine tests for diabetes. Our objective is to show the results of a novel study in the diagnosis of several cancer types from the native or intrinsic fluorescence of urine. We use fluorescence emission spectra (FES) and stokes shift spectra (SSS) to analyze the native fluorescence of the first voided urine samples of healthy controls (N=100) and those of cancer patients (N=50) of different etiology. We show that flavoproteins and porphyrins released into urine can act as generic biomarkers of cancer with a specificity of 92%, a sensitivity of 76%, and an overall accuracy of 86.7%. We employ FES and SSS for rapid and cost-effective quantification of certain intrinsic biomarkers in urine for screening and diagnosis of most common cancer types with an overall accuracy of 86.7%.

  7. Hair analysis in order to evaluate drug abuse in driver's license regranting procedures.

    PubMed

    Tassoni, G; Mirtella, D; Zampi, M; Ferrante, L; Cippitelli, M; Cognigni, E; Froldi, R; Cingolani, M

    2014-11-01

    In Italy, driving under the influence of drugs determines the suspension of the offender's driver's license. To regain the license the person must be drug free during an observation period. People whose license has been revoked or suspended can obtain, or re-obtain their driver's license subject to the judgment of a medical commission. The exclusion of illicit drug use is determined by means of toxicological analysis, mainly on urine or hair matrices. We reported the results of several years of experience of the forensic toxicology laboratory of the University of Macerata in the use of hair analysis for the assessment of past exposure to drugs in people suspected of driving under the influence of drugs. From 2004 to 2013, 8612 hair samples, were analyzed for opiates, cocaine and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (?(9)-THC) using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) method. We used a cutoff (SoHT or national guidelines) to determine the positive data, regardless of the hair sample concentrations. 1213 samples resulted positive, 71.7% were positive for cocaine and metabolites, 19.8% for morphine and metabolites, 8.5% for ?(9)-THC. We also studied the timeframe of the abuse, as well as gender and age distribution of positive subjects. Moreover, we analyzed the possible deterrent effect of the hair analysis on driving under the influence of psychoactive substances. PMID:25151106

  8. Heterotropic Activation of the Midazolam Hydroxylase Activity of CYP3A by a Positive Allosteric Modulator of mGlu5: In Vitro to In Vivo Translation and Potential Impact on Clinically Relevant Drug-Drug Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Blobaum, Anna L.; Bridges, Thomas M.; Byers, Frank W.; Turlington, Mark L.; Mattmann, Margrith E.; Morrison, Ryan D.; Mackie, Claire; Lavreysen, Hilde; Bartolomé, José M.; MacDonald, Gregor J.; Steckler, Thomas; Jones, Carrie K.; Niswender, Colleen M.; Conn, P. Jeffrey; Lindsley, Craig W.; Stauffer, Shaun R.

    2013-01-01

    Allosteric modulation of G protein-coupled receptors has gained considerable attention in the drug discovery arena because it opens avenues to achieve greater selectivity over orthosteric ligands. We recently identified a series of positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGlu5) for the treatment of schizophrenia that exhibited robust heterotropic activation of CYP3A4 enzymatic activity. The prototypical compound from this series, 5-(4-fluorobenzyl)-2-((3-fluorophenoxy)methyl)-4,5,6,7-tetrahydropyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrazine (VU0448187), was found to activate CYP3A4 to >100% of its baseline intrinsic midazolam (MDZ) hydroxylase activity in vitro; activation was CYP3A substrate specific and mGlu5 PAM dependent. Additional studies revealed the concentration-dependence of CYP3A activation by VU0448187 in multispecies hepatic and intestinal microsomes and hepatocytes, as well as a diminished effect observed in the presence of ketoconazole. Kinetic analyses of the effect of VU0448187 on MDZ metabolism in recombinant P450 or human liver microsomes resulted in a significant increase in Vmax (minimal change in Km) and required the presence of cytochrome b5. The atypical kinetics translated in vivo, as rats receiving an intraperitoneal administration of VU0448187 prior to MDZ treatment demonstrated a significant increase in circulating 1- and 4-hydroxy- midazolam (1-OH-MDZ, 4-OH-MDZ) levels compared with rats administered MDZ alone. The discovery of a potent substrate-selective activator of rodent CYP3A with an in vitro to in vivo translation serves to illuminate the impact of increasing intrinsic enzymatic activity of hepatic and extrahepatic CYP3A in rodents, and presents the basis to build models capable of framing the clinical relevance of substrate-dependent heterotropic activation. PMID:24003250

  9. Simultaneous quantification of L-tetrahydropalmatine and its urine metabolites by ultra high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Weibin; Zhuang, Xiaomei; Shen, Guolin; Zhong, Yuhuan; Yuan, Mei; Li, Hua

    2014-03-01

    l-tetrahydropalmatine (l-THP) is a tetrahydroprotoberberine isoquinoline alkaloid that has been used as an analgesic agent in China for more than 40 years. Recent studies indicated its potential application in the treatment of drug addiction. In this study, a sensitive and rapid method using ultra high performance liquid chromatography with MS/MS was developed and validated for simultaneous quantitation of l-THP and its desmethyl metabolites. Enzymatic hydrolysis was integrated into sample preparation to enable the quantitative determination of both free and conjugated metabolites. Chromatographic separation was achieved on an Agilent Poroshell 120 EC-C18 column. Detection was performed by MS in the positive ion ESI mode. The calibration curves of the analytes were linear (r(2) > 0.9936) over the concentration range of 1-1000 ng/mL with the lower limit of quantification at 1 ng/mL. The precision for both intra- and interday determinations was <8.97%, and the accuracy ranged from -8.74 to 8.65%. The recovery for all the analytes was >70% without significant matrix effect. The method has been successfully applied to the urinary excretion study of l-THP in rats. The conjugates were found to be the major urine metabolites of the drug. PMID:24453165

  10. Concentration of urine by the hibernating marmot.

    PubMed

    Zatzman, M L; South, F E

    1975-05-01

    Studies wer performed with marmots (Marmota flaviventris) of both sexes that had chronic arterial, venous, and bladder catheters. Urine collection was performed during hibernation and urine osmolalities (611.6 not equal to 166.1 SD) were found to be lower than those of aroused animals (1264 not equal to 472.9 SD), but hypertonic to plasma. Peak osmolality of meduallary slices was found to be in the range of osmotic pressures of urine obtained from hibernating or aroused animals. After single injections of a mixture of rho-aminohippurate and inulin, or during constant infusion of inulin, steady-state excretion by hibernators was not achieved for several days. Indirect evidence indicateds that the hibernating marmot is capable of PAH secretion. PMID:1130537

  11. Color recognition system for urine analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Lianqing; Wang, Zicai; Lin, Qian; Dong, Mingli

    2010-08-01

    In order to increase the speed of photoelectric conversion, a linear CCD is applied as the photoelectric converter instead of the traditional photodiode. A white LED is used as the light source of the system. The color information of the urine test strip is transferred into the CCD through a reflecting optical system. It is then converted to digital signals by an A/D converter. The test results of urine analysis are obtained by a data processing system. An ARM microprocessor is selected as the CPU of the system and a CPLD is employed to provide a driving timing for the CCD drive and the A/D converter. Active HDL7.2 and Verilog HDL are used to simulate the driving timing of the CPLD. Experimental results show that the correctness rate of the test results is better than 90%. The system satisfies the requirements of the color information collection of urine analyzer.

  12. Cocaine in the hair of mother-infant pairs: quantitative analysis and correlations with urine measures and self-report.

    PubMed

    Marques, P R; Tippetts, A S; Branch, D G

    1993-01-01

    A sample of mothers who had used crack cocaine while pregnant was evaluated during the postpartum period before random assignment to drug treatment. Mean infant age was 74 days. Paired hair samples were acquired from 63 mothers and 63 infants. Maternal urine was screened for cocaine and benzoylecgonine; three different drug use self-report measures were also collected. Normalizing transformations of all hair and urine data preceded analyses. The initial correlation of mother and infant hair (r = .41, N = 62, P = .001) was strengthened (r = .62, N = 30, P < .0005) by removing from the dataset maternal hair independently judged to be damaged. Damage to hair is associated with certain types of "hair care" products. The damaged maternal hair bore no quantitative relationship to infant hair (r = -.04, N = 30, P = .41). Poor quality hair samples could have been partly anticipated because self-reported use of hair products had a significant contingent relationship to laboratory-judged damage to hair (Z kappa = 2.28, P = .01). Maternal urine benzoylecgonine correlated with maternal hair (r = .41, N = 60, P = .001) and, of course, with maternal urine cocaine (r = .63, N = 60, P < .0005). None of the three self-report measures (use in past 30 days, duration since first use, average regular use) significantly correlated with any of the hair or urine measures. Factor analysis of drug use variables identified three factors possibly representing long-term use, recent use, and some artifact of self-report. In summary, hair analysis may provide a quantitative index of exposure when the hair is not damaged. The amount of self-reported drug use could not be corroborated with analytic measures of hair or urine. Studies in which self-reported cocaine use is a scalar variable should be interpreted cautiously. PMID:8484355

  13. Drug Testing in Children with Excessive Daytime Sleepiness During Multiple Sleep Latency Testing

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Eliot S.; Maski, Kiran; Jenkins, Amanda J.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objective: To determine the incidence of positive drug screens in children undergoing a multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) for evaluation of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS). Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed in children evaluated at the Boston Children's Hospital Sleep Center between 1998 and 2013 who underwent MSLT for EDS with a concurrent urine and/or serum drug screen. Results: A total of 210 MSLTs were accompanied by drug testing. Children were 12.7 ± 3.7 years old (mean ± SD), 43% were female, and 24% had narcolepsy. Positive tests were obtained in 32% for caffeine, 5% for prescription medications, and 4% for over-the-counter drugs. No drugs of abuse were identified. Children testing positive for caffeine were older (13.8 ± 3.5 vs. 12.4 ± 3.7) and more likely female (59% vs. 36%), but did not differ in MSLT or overnight polysomnographic parameters compared to children without caffeine detected. Overall, only 14% had specific documentation regarding caffeine intake, though 90% were referred from a sleep clinic. Of the children testing positive for caffeine, 5% acknowledged use, 3% denied use, and 92% did not have a documented caffeine intake history during their sleep clinic visit. Conclusions: Routine drug testing for drugs of abuse during an MSLT for EDS yielded no positive results over a 15-year period, indicating that this routine practice is unnecessary in our pediatric population without specific concerns. However, objective evidence for caffeine exposure was found in 32% of tested children undergoing an MSLT. Sleep physicians rarely documented the caffeine intake history during clinic visits for EDS. Citation: Katz ES, Maski K, Jenkins AJ. Drug testing in children with excessive daytime sleepiness during multiple sleep latency testing. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(8):897-901. PMID:25126037

  14. Concordance between verbal report and urine screen of recent marijuana use in adolescents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ismail H Akinci; Ralph E Tarter; Levent Kirisci

    2001-01-01

    This study compared the concordance of self-report for recent marijuana use with results obtained from urine drug screen. The sample consisted of adolescent sons of fathers with DSM-III-R lifetime substance use disorder (SUD) [high average risk (HAR); N=75] and sons of fathers with no Axis 1 psychiatric or SUD [low average risk (LAR); N=125]. To avoid recall bias, and to

  15. Drug and alcohol testing in the workplace: moral, ethical and legal issues.

    PubMed

    Raskin, C

    1993-01-01

    The proponents of drug and alcohol testing advance several safety and productivity arguments in support of their position. It is asserted that persons who test positively for drug and alcohol at the workplace experience higher levels of absenteeism and use sick leave to a much greater extent than non-users. Moreover, it is claimed that they have levels of productivity from 10 to 60 per cent lower than persons who do not test positively for drugs or alcohol. Perhaps the greatest argument advanced by those in favour of testing, however, is the safety element. Persons who abuse drugs or who consume alcohol to excess are involved in significantly more accidents than those who test negatively. In other words, proponents take the position that persons who test positively for the presence of drugs or alcohol form a category of individuals and that being in this category is grounds for labelling them as problematic employees. Moreover, so the reasoning goes, the only way to find out if an employee is a member of the category of drug or alcohol users is to test. Opponents of alcohol testing feel that the goal of ensuring a drug- and alcohol-free workplace is reached at too high a social cost and that the testing process constitutes an unwarranted invasion of the privacy of the individual. The provision of urine for analysis is a search, which, if conducted without consent or reason, would constitute an assault. Some opponents to testing feel that the real motivation for testing is controlling employee behaviour. Enterprises impose behavioural constraints on employees that may extend to off-duty times. Moreover, it is advanced that the testing process itself is humiliating to many people. In order to obtain a sample for testing, the person being tested must urinate in the presence of an attendant or supervisor. Often, medical standards are not used. Another moral issue is the implication of discrimination as a result of drug or alcohol testing. Perhaps the greatest concern is the systemic discrimination against disabled persons, persons with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), visible minorities and pregnant women that testing may engender. Again, different countries have addressed the discrimination issue in varying ways. Finally, opponents to drug and alcohol testing question the need to test. It is asserted that all testing shows is that, at some point in time, the person being tested ingested the screened substance.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:7920542

  16. Estimating the number of HIV-infected injection drug users in Bangkok: a capture--recapture method.

    PubMed Central

    Mastro, T D; Kitayaporn, D; Weniger, B G; Vanichseni, S; Laosunthorn, V; Uneklabh, T; Uneklabh, C; Choopanya, K; Limpakarnjanarat, K

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. The purpose of the study was to estimate the number of injection drug users infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in Bangkok to allow planning for health services for this population. METHODS. A two-sample capture-recapture method was used. The first capture listed all persons on methadone treatment for opiate addiction from April 17 through May 17, 1991, at 18 facilities in Bangkok. The second capture involved urine testing of persons held at 72 Bangkok police stations from June 3 through September 30, 1991. Persons whose urine tests were positive for opiate metabolites or methadone were included on the second list. RESULTS. The first capture comprised 4064 persons and the recapture 1540 persons. There were 171 persons included on both lists, yielding an estimate of 36,600 opiate users in Bangkok. Existing data indicate that 89% of opiate users in Bangkok inject drugs and that about one third are infected with HIV, yielding an estimate of approximately 12,000 HIV-infected injection drug users in Bangkok in 1991. CONCLUSIONS. During the 1990s the number of cases of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and other HIV-related diseases, including tuberculosis, in the population of HIV-infected injection drug users in Bangkok will increase dramatically, placing new demands on existing health care facilities. The capture-recapture method may be useful in estimating difficult-to-count populations, including injection drug users. PMID:8017531

  17. Quantitative determinations of levofloxacin and rifampicin in pharmaceutical and urine samples using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salem, A. A.; Mossa, H. A.; Barsoum, B. N.

    2005-11-01

    Rapid, specific and simple methods for determining levofloxacin and rifampicin antibiotic drugs in pharmaceutical and human urine samples were developed. The methods are based on 1H NMR spectroscopy using maleic acid as an internal standard and DMSO-d6 as NMR solvent. Integration of NMR signals at 8.9 and 8.2 ppm were, respectively, used for calculating the concentration of levofloxacin and rifampicin drugs per unit dose. Maleic acid signal at 6.2 ppm was used as the reference signal. Recoveries of (97.0-99.4) ± 0.5 and (98.3-99.7) ± 1.08% were obtained for pure levofloxacin and rifampicin, respectively. Corresponding recoveries of 98.5-100.3 and 96.8-100.0 were, respectively, obtained in pharmaceutical capsules and urine samples. Relative standard deviations (R.S.D.) values ?2.7 were obtained for analyzed drugs in pure, pharmaceutical and urine samples. Statistical Student's t-test gave t-values ?2.87 indicating insignificant difference between the real and the experimental values at the 95% confidence level. F-test revealed insignificant difference in precisions between the developed NMR methods and each of fluorimetric and HPLC methods for analyzing levofloxacin and rifampicin.

  18. The determination of fenspiride in human plasma and urine by liquid chromatography with electrochemical or ultraviolet detection.

    PubMed

    Sauveur, C; Baune, A; Vergnes, N; Jeanniot, J P

    1989-01-01

    A selective and sensitive method for the determination of fenspiride in biological fluids is described. The method involves liquid-liquid extraction followed by separation on a reversed-phase column with electrochemical detection for low levels of the drug in plasma (less than or equal to 100 ng ml-1) or UV absorption for higher concentrations in plasma or urine. The method is suitable for pharmacokinetic analyses and drug monitoring studies. PMID:2577448

  19. Cocaine and its major metabolites in plasma and urine samples from patients in an urban emergency medicine setting.

    PubMed

    Williams, R H; Maggiore, J A; Shah, S M; Erickson, T B; Negrusz, A

    2000-10-01

    In this retrospective study, we examined the levels of cocaine and its major metabolites in plasma and urine from 29 randomly selected emergency department patients (19 males and 10 females, aged 19 to 55) whose urine screened positive for benzoylecgonine using fluorescence polarization immunoassay. Levels of cocaine along with benzoylecgonine, ecgonine methyl ester, and norcocaine were quantitated in EDTA plasma and urine from each patient using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with selected ion monitoring. Admission diagnosis and history were also obtained for each patient. In plasma, the levels were 16-130 ng/mL for cocaine (n = 3), 27-96 ng/mL for ecgonine methyl ester (n = 9), and 18-1390 ng/mL for benzoylecgonine (n = 22). Norcocaine was not detected in any of the plasma samples. In urine, the concentration ranges were 4-40,130 ng/mL for cocaine (n = 23), 36-660,500 ng/mL for ecgonine methyl ester (n = 27), and 9-2520 ng/mL for norcocaine (n = 9). All urine samples were positive for benzoylecgonine (106-3,361,000 ng/mL), and benzoylecgonine was the only metabolite present in two urine samples (at concentrations of 407 and 435 ng/mL). Two patients had plasma and urine samples positive for all analytes (except norcocaine in plasma). The patient with the highest urinary concentrations of cocaine (40,130 ng/mL), ecgonine methyl ester (660,500 ng/mL), benzoylecgonine (3,361,000 ng/mL), and norcocaine (2520 ng/mL) had a small quantity of benzoylecgonine (465 ng/mL) in plasma. No correlation was noted with patient history, admitting diagnosis or symptomatology, or plasma/urine levels of cocaine or any of its metabolites. PMID:11043649

  20. Determination of uranium in human urine by total reflection X-ray fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarkadas, Ch; Karydas, A. G.; Paradellis, T.

    2001-12-01

    Uranium has been classified as a toxic chemical. It affects the kidneys, with nephritis being the primarily chemically-induced effect in animals and humans. Intermediate-term studies on animals indicate that increased uranium doses are positively correlated with various biochemical effects and histopathological changes. Since the kidneys efficiently excrete in urine the major portion of solubilized uranium circulating in blood, an increased urinary uranium excretion can provide a sensitive quantitative measure of exposure, especially in the case of acute exposure. In the present work a method was developed for the quantitative determination of uranium in human urine. It combines the chemical treatment of urine, which results in a significant pre-concentration of uranium, with its subsequent detection by means of total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF). The method has been proven to be relatively fast, offering detection limits that allow for monitoring uranium intake above normal levels.

  1. Coupling of solid phase microextraction with electrospray ionization ion mobility spectrometry and direct analysis of venlafaxine in human urine and plasma.

    PubMed

    Jafari, Mohammad T; Saraji, Mohammad; Ameri, Amir H

    2015-01-01

    The capability of electrospray ionization-conventional ion mobility spectrometry (ESI-IMS) for direct analysis of the samples extracted by solid phase microextraction (SPME) was investigated and evaluated for the first time. To that end, an appropriate new desorption chamber was designed and constructed, resulting in the possibility of direct exposure of the SPME fiber to the electrospray solvent flow. Two different elution methods in dynamic and static modes were exhaustively investigated. The results indicated that the interface could help us to have an accurate and sensitive analysis without disturbing the electrospray process, in static elution method. Venlafaxine as a test compound was extracted from human urine and plasma by a convenient headspace SPME method. The positive ion mobility spectrum of the extracted drug was obtained and the analyte responses were calculated. The coupled method of SPME-ESI-IMS was comprehensively validated in terms of sensitivity, dynamic range, and recovery percentage. Finally, various real samples of human urine and plasma were analyzed, all verifying the feasibility and success of the proposed method for the easy routine analysis. PMID:25467491

  2. Development of a sensitive high-performance thin-layer chromatography method for estimation of ranitidine in urine and its application for bioequivalence decision for ranitidine tablet formulations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shailesh A Shah; Ishwarsinh S Rathod; Shrinivas S Savale; Bipin D Patel

    2002-01-01

    A sensitive and simple HPTLC method was developed for estimation of ranitidine in human urine. The drug was extracted from urine after basification using dichloromethane. Dichloromethane extract was spotted on silica gel 60 F254 TLC plate and was developed in a mixture of ethyl acetate–methanol–ammonia (35:10:5 v\\/v) as the mobile phase and scanned at 320 nm. The RF value obtained

  3. Screening for urine abnormalities among preschool children in western Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Alharthi, Abdulla A.; Taha, Azza A.; Edrees, Awatif E.; Elnawawy, Ali N.; Abdelrahman, Azza H.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To estimate the frequency of urinary problems among preschool children. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 1000 preschool asymptomatic children attending the outpatient clinics of the Children’s Hospital, Taif, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between August 2013 and December 2013 were subjected to dipstick urine analysis. Microscopic examination was performed for the abnormal dipstick samples, and children with hematuria were investigated for kidney function. Results: Dipstick urine analysis revealed abnormal findings in 25.1% of the screened children. The most common dipstick abnormalities were positive nitrite test in 18.1%, hematuria in 16.9%, and positive leukocyte esterase test in 14.3% of the cases. The most common abnormality in microscopic urine examination was crystals in 13% of the cases. Pyuria were evident in 5% of cases and hematuria in 2.5%. The most common bacteria in positive urine culture samples was Escherichia coli in 62.6%. Conclusion: In view of these important findings, dipstick screening should be implemented in preschool children. PMID:25491212

  4. CHROMagar Orientation Medium Reduces Urine Culture Workload

    PubMed Central

    Manickam, Kanchana; Karlowsky, James A.; Adam, Heather; Lagacé-Wiens, Philippe R. S.; Rendina, Assunta; Pang, Paulette; Murray, Brenda-Lee

    2013-01-01

    Microbiology laboratories continually strive to streamline and improve their urine culture algorithms because of the high volumes of urine specimens they receive and the modest numbers of those specimens that are ultimately considered clinically significant. In the current study, we quantitatively measured the impact of the introduction of CHROMagar Orientation (CO) medium into routine use in two hospital laboratories and compared it to conventional culture on blood and MacConkey agars. Based on data extracted from our Laboratory Information System from 2006 to 2011, the use of CO medium resulted in a 28% reduction in workload for additional procedures such as Gram stains, subcultures, identification panels, agglutination tests, and biochemical tests. The average number of workload units (one workload unit equals 1 min of hands-on labor) per urine specimen was significantly reduced (P < 0.0001; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.5326 to 1.047) from 2.67 in 2006 (preimplementation of CO medium) to 1.88 in 2011 (postimplementation of CO medium). We conclude that the use of CO medium streamlined the urine culture process and increased bench throughput by reducing both workload and turnaround time in our laboratories. PMID:23363839

  5. Urine sample collection protocols for bioassay samples

    SciTech Connect

    MacLellan, J.A.; McFadden, K.M.

    1992-11-01

    In vitro radiobioassay analyses are used to measure the amount of radioactive material excreted by personnel exposed to the potential intake of radioactive material. The analytical results are then used with various metabolic models to estimate the amount of radioactive material in the subject`s body and the original intake of radioactive material. Proper application of these metabolic models requires knowledge of the excretion period. It is normal practice to design the bioassay program based on a 24-hour excretion sample. The Hanford bioassay program simulates a total 24-hour urine excretion sample with urine collection periods lasting from one-half hour before retiring to one-half hour after rising on two consecutive days. Urine passed during the specified periods is collected in three 1-L bottles. Because the daily excretion volume given in Publication 23 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP 1975, p. 354) for Reference Man is 1.4 L, it was proposed to use only two 1-L bottles as a cost-saving measure. This raised the broader question of what should be the design capacity of a 24-hour urine sample kit.

  6. Urine sample collection protocols for bioassay samples

    SciTech Connect

    MacLellan, J.A.; McFadden, K.M.

    1992-11-01

    In vitro radiobioassay analyses are used to measure the amount of radioactive material excreted by personnel exposed to the potential intake of radioactive material. The analytical results are then used with various metabolic models to estimate the amount of radioactive material in the subject's body and the original intake of radioactive material. Proper application of these metabolic models requires knowledge of the excretion period. It is normal practice to design the bioassay program based on a 24-hour excretion sample. The Hanford bioassay program simulates a total 24-hour urine excretion sample with urine collection periods lasting from one-half hour before retiring to one-half hour after rising on two consecutive days. Urine passed during the specified periods is collected in three 1-L bottles. Because the daily excretion volume given in Publication 23 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP 1975, p. 354) for Reference Man is 1.4 L, it was proposed to use only two 1-L bottles as a cost-saving measure. This raised the broader question of what should be the design capacity of a 24-hour urine sample kit.

  7. Ophthalmoplegia in Maple Syrup Urine Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zee, David S.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Reported is the case of a female infant whose early symptom of ophthalmoplegia (paralysis of one or more motor nerves in the eye) led to eventual diagnosis and treatment for maple syrup urine disease, a condition in which early dietary restrictions can prevent severe mental retardation and neurologic disability. (DB)

  8. Detection of chrysotile asbestos in workers urine

    SciTech Connect

    Finn, M.B.; Hallenbeck, W.H.

    1985-03-01

    Urinary asbestos concentrations were evaluated as an indicator of occupational exposure to chrysotile asbestos via inhalation and ingestion. Detection of asbestos in the urine represents the first step in developing a biological indicator of exposure. Such an indicator could be used to supplement exposure data from workplace air sampling. A biological indicator would be particularly valuable in evaluating workers with intermittent airborne asbestos exposures and in determining if airborne exposure results in penetration of asbestos through the lung or gastro-intestinal tract. Transmission electron microscopy was selected as the most sensitive technique for identification of all sizes of asbestos fibers which might appear in the urine. The levels of chrysotile asbestos detected in the urine of five workers were significantly greater than the asbestos concentrations in matched field blanks. Also, the workers urinary asbestos levels were significantly greater than the concentrations found in the control group. Finally, the levels of chrysotile asbestos detected in the urine of two of six controls were significantly greater than those in matched field blanks. Although the project was not specifically designed to correlate urinary and airborne asbestos concentrations, preliminary data indicated that a correlation did not exist between these factors.

  9. Ultraviolet properties of Australian mammal urine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Kellie; S. J. Dain; P. B. Banks

    2004-01-01

    The exploitation of predator signals by potential prey is well researched, but relatively little is known about how predators exploit chemical cues (either deliberate signals or waste by-products) produced by their prey. In Finland, the urine of some small rodents ( Microtus spp. and Clethrionomys spp.) is reflective in the ultraviolet range of wavelengths, and diurnal raptors with ultraviolet vision

  10. Urine Test: Microalbumin-to-Creatinine Ratio (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the urine specimen. A urine collection bag with adhesive tape on one end might instead be used ... Infants may occasionally experience skin irritation from the adhesive tape on the collection bag. If a catheterized ...

  11. Urine - A waste or the future of regenerative medicine?

    PubMed

    Kloskowski, T; Nowacki, M; Pokrywczy?ska, M; Drewa, T

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, urine has emerged as a source of urine cells. Two different types of cells can be isolated from urine: urine derived stem cells (USCs) and renal tubular cells called urine cells (UCs). USCs have great differentiation properties and can be potentially used in genitourinary tract regeneration. Within this paper, we attempt to demonstrate that such as easily accessible source of cells, collected during completely non-invasive procedures, can be better utilized. Cells derived from urine can be isolated, stored, and used for the creation of urine stem cell banks. In the future, urine holds great potential to become a main source of cells for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. PMID:25649852

  12. 10 CFR 26.105 - Preparing for urine collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Preparing for urine collection. 26.105 Section 26.105 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.105 Preparing for urine collection. (a) The...

  13. 10 CFR 26.109 - Urine specimen quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Urine specimen quantity. 26.109 Section 26.109 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.109 Urine specimen quantity. (a)...

  14. 10 CFR 26.107 - Collecting a urine specimen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Collecting a urine specimen. 26.107 Section 26.107 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.107 Collecting a urine specimen. (a) The...

  15. 28 CFR 550.42 - Procedures for urine surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Inmates in Contract CTCs) § 550.42 Procedures for urine surveillance. (a) Contractor authorized personnel of the same sex as the inmate must witness collection of the inmate's urine sample. Inmates may not be involved in the...

  16. 28 CFR 550.42 - Procedures for urine surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Inmates in Contract CTCs) § 550.42 Procedures for urine surveillance. (a) Contractor authorized personnel of the same sex as the inmate must witness collection of the inmate's urine sample. Inmates may not be involved in the...

  17. 28 CFR 550.42 - Procedures for urine surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Inmates in Contract CTCs) § 550.42 Procedures for urine surveillance. (a) Contractor authorized personnel of the same sex as the inmate must witness collection of the inmate's urine sample. Inmates may not be involved in the...

  18. 28 CFR 550.42 - Procedures for urine surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Inmates in Contract CTCs) § 550.42 Procedures for urine surveillance. (a) Contractor authorized personnel of the same sex as the inmate must witness collection of the inmate's urine sample. Inmates may not be involved in the...

  19. 28 CFR 550.42 - Procedures for urine surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Inmates in Contract CTCs) § 550.42 Procedures for urine surveillance. (a) Contractor authorized personnel of the same sex as the inmate must witness collection of the inmate's urine sample. Inmates may not be involved in the...

  20. COLLECTING URINE SAMPLES FROM YOUNG CHILDREN FOR PESTICIDE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    To estimate pesticide exposure for young children wearing diapers, a method for collecting urine samples for analysis of pesticide metabolites is needed. To find a practical method, two possibilities were investigated: (1) analysis of expressed urine from cotton diaper inserts ...

  1. Collection of a 24-Hour Urine Specimen (Beyond the Basics)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the day and night in an empty collection bottle. Store the bottle at room temperature or in the refrigerator. ? If ... to remove the feces from the urine collection bottle. ? Finish by collecting the first urine passed the ...

  2. A routine screening method for the major metabolite of methyl phenidate in the urine of greyhounds.

    PubMed

    Lewis, J H

    1979-11-01

    A qualitative urine screening procedure for the determination of the major urinary metabolite of methyl phenidate, alpha-phenyl-2-piperidine acetic acid (ritalinic acid), has been devised. The method involves a salting-out extraction, conversion of the metabolite to the parent drug using methanol-hydrogen chloride, and simultaneous two-column gas-chromatographic detection. Final confirmation of the presence of the drug is by two-system thin-layer chromatography. The method is suitable for the detection of illicitly administered methyl phenidate in greyhounds. PMID:511053

  3. Determination of opiates and cocaine in urine by high pH mobile phase reversed phase UPLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Berg, Thomas; Lundanes, Elsa; Christophersen, Asbjørg S; Strand, Dag Helge

    2009-02-01

    A fast and selective ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method for the determination of opiates (morphine, codeine, 6-monoacetylmorphine (6-MAM), pholcodine, oxycodone, ethylmorphine), cocaine and benzoylecgonine in urine has been developed and validated. Sample preparation was performed by solid phase extraction (SPE) on a mixed mode cation exchange (MCX) cartridge. For optimized chromatographic performance with repeatable retention times, narrow and symmetrical peaks, and focusing of all analytes at the column inlet at gradient start, a basic mobile phase consisting of 5mM ammonium bicarbonate, pH 10.2, and methanol (MeOH) was chosen. Positive electrospray ionization (ESI(+)) MS/MS detection was performed with a minimum of two multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) transitions for each analyte. Deuterium labelled-internal standards were used for six of the analytes. Between-assay retention time repeatabilities (n=10 series, 225 injections in total) had relative standard deviation (RSD) values within 0.1-0.6%. Limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) values were in the range 0.003-0.05 microM (0.001-0.02 microg/mL) and 0.01-0.16 microM (0.003-0.06 microg/mL), respectively. The RSD values of the between-assay repeatabilities of concentrations were drugs and internal standards in total. Co-eluting compounds were in all cases separated by the MS/MS detection. No or only minor matrix effects were observed. Total run time, including injection and equilibration time was 5.7 min. The method has been routinely used at the Norwegian Institute of Public Health (NIPH) since August 2007 for qualitative detection of opiates, cocaine and benzoylecgonine in more than 2000 urine samples with two replicates of each sample. PMID:19144579

  4. Detection of drugs of abuse in exhaled breath from users following recovery from intoxication.

    PubMed

    Beck, Olof; Stephanson, Niclas; Sandqvist, Sören; Franck, Johan

    2012-01-01

    It has recently been demonstrated that amphetamine, methadone and tetrahydrocannabinol are detectable in exhaled breath following intake. Exhaled breath, therefore, constitutes a new possible matrix for drugs-of-abuse testing. The present work aims to further explore this possibility by a study on patients treated for acute intoxication with abused drugs. Fifty-nine patients (44 males, age range 24-74) were included in the study, and breath, plasma and urine samples were collected following recovery, together with interview data. Analyses of breath and plasma samples were conducted with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry methods. Urine was screened using immunochemical reagents and positive findings confirmed with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry methods. The following analytes were investigated: methadone, amphetamine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, codeine, 6-acetylmorphine, diazepam, oxazepam, morphine, benzoylecgonine, cocaine, buprenorphine and tetrahydrocannabinol. In 53 of the studied cases, recent intake of an abused substance prior to admission was reported. In 35 of these (66%), the breath analysis gave a positive finding. Identifications were based on correct chromatographic retention time and product ion ratios obtained in selected reaction monitoring mode. Generally, data from breath, plasma, urine and self-report were in agreement. Detected substances in breath included amphetamine, methamphetamine, buprenorphine, 6-acetylmorphine, morphine, codeine, methadone, tetrahydrocannabinol, diazepam, oxazepam and cocaine. Problem analytes with low detection rates were benzodiazepines and tetrahydrocannabinol. This study gives further support to the possibility of developing exhaled breath into a new matrix for drugs-of-abuse testing by extending the number of analytes that are documented to be detectable in breath. PMID:23045289

  5. Workplace drug testing in a military organization: results and experiences from the testing program in the Finnish Defence Forces.

    PubMed

    Meririnne, Esa; Mykkänen, Sirpa; Lillsunde, Pirjo; Kuoppasalmi, Kimmo; Lerssi, Risto; Laaksonen, Ilmo; Lehtomäki, Kyösti; Henriksson, Markus

    2007-08-01

    In the military environment drug abuse is a particular risk for occupational safety. In the Finnish Defence Forces a drug testing program was conducted in 2002-2005; soldiers, professional civilians, and military students were tested when applying for a work or right to study; furthermore, annually 5% of the personnel were subjected to random testing. In total, over 2000 urine samples were analyzed in an accredited laboratory for cannabis, opiates, amphetamines, or cocaine. In this article, the drug testing program as a part of the anti-drug strategy of the Finnish Defence Forces is described, and the findings including practical experiences and financial expenses are reported. Only one person applying for a civilian post tested positive for amphetamine and cannabis. In seven other samples codeine and morphine were detected; these were, however, due to prescribed medication, not drug abuse. In the execution of the program, no particular difficulties were reported. In conclusion, it seems that the use of illicit drugs in the Finnish military is extremely rare, at least partly due to the successful anti-drug strategy. After an elaborate planning, even an extensive drug testing program can be executed without substantial setbacks. In the future, the effectiveness of drug testing programs as a means of improving occupational safety needs to be investigated in controlled studies using comparative design. PMID:17630234

  6. Spot Urine Osmolality\\/Creatinine Ratio in Healthy Humans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Srini Godevithanage; Piyumi P. Kanankearachchi; Mahanama P. Dissanayake; Thilak A. Jayalath; Nimal Chandrasiri; Rangani P. Jinasena; Ranjith P. V. Kumarasiri; Chulananda D. A. Goonasekera

    2010-01-01

    Background: Spot urine albumin\\/creatinine ratio is a reliable estimate of 24-hour urine albumin excretion. In a pilot study, we observed that the spot urine osmolality\\/creatinine ratio (Uosm\\/Ucr) in healthy adults is reproducible. Therefore, we postulated that Uosm\\/Ucr of a spot urine sample may give an overall estimate of urinary excretion of solutes, renal concentrating ability and body hydration status. Method:

  7. Correlates of HIV-1 viral suppression in a cohort of HIV-positive drug users receiving antiretroviral therapy in Hanoi, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Jordan, M R; La, H; Nguyen, H D; Sheehan, H; Lien, T T M; Duong, D V; Hellinger, J; Wanke, C; Tang, A M

    2009-06-01

    Injection drug users bear the burden of HIV in Vietnam and are a focus of national treatment programmes. To date, determinants of successful therapy in this population are unknown. Substance use and clinical correlates of viral suppression were studied in 100 HIV-1-infected drug users receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) for at least six months in Hanoi, Vietnam. The mean age of the cohort was 29.9 + 4.9 years; all were men. A majority of patients (73%) achieved viral suppression (HIV-RNA <1000 copies/mL). Correlates of viral suppression include self-reported > or = 95% adherence (P < 0.01) and current use of trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole (P < 0.01); current or ever diagnosed with tuberculosis was associated with viral non-suppression (P = 0.006). Tobacco use was prevalent (84%), and surprisingly 48% of patients reported active drug use; neither was associated with viral non-suppression. This is the first study to document successful ART treatment in a population of Vietnamese drug users; rates of viral suppression are comparable to other international populations. The 28% of patients without HIV-1 suppression highlight the need for adherence promotion, risk reduction programmes, and population-based surveillance strategies for assessing the emergence of HIV drug resistance in settings where access to viral load and drug resistance testing is limited. PMID:19451329

  8. Urine-based human papillomavirus DNA testing as a screening tool for cervical cancer in high-risk women

    PubMed Central

    Mendez, Keimari; Romaguera, Josefina; Ortiz, Ana P.; López, Mariel; Steinau, Martin; Unger, Elizabeth R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To test the hypothesis that self-collected urine could be used to detect high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA with sensitivity and specificity comparable to those of standard cervical testing. Methods Women attending a gynecology clinic for evaluation of abnormal cytology were recruited. Fifty-two participants (21–60 years of age) collected urine samples, and clinicians collected cervical brush samples. When appropriate, cervical biopsies were obtained during colposcopy. HPV detection and typing were performed on DNA extracts from each sample, using commercial reagents for L1 consensus polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and type-specific hybridization. HPV 16 viral load was determined by quantitative PCR in HPV 16-positive samples. A diagnostic test analysis was conducted for urine samples. Results Fifty paired samples were analyzed, with 76% agreement between samples. The 12 discrepant pairs were all urine negative/cervix positive. The most common HPV types detected were 16, 51, 53, and 62. The urine test correctly identified 100% of the uninfected and 65% of the infected patients. Conclusion The results indicate that HPV DNA detection using urine is less sensitive than cervical sampling in a population with abnormal cytology. Further exploration is warranted to determine clinical utility when other options are unavailable. PMID:24296266

  9. Photodynamic diagnosis of shed prostate cancer cells in voided urine treated with 5-aminolevulinic acid

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Past attempts at detecting prostate cancer (PCa) cells in voided urine by traditional cytology have been impeded by undesirably low sensitivities but high specificities. To improve the sensitivities, we evaluate the feasibility and clinical utility of photodynamic diagnosis (PDD) of prostate cancer by using 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) to examine shed prostate cancer cells in voided urine samples. Methods One hundred thirty-eight patients with an abnormal digital rectal exam (DRE) and/or abnormal prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels were recruited between April 2009 and December 2010. Voided urine specimens were collected before prostate biopsy. Urine specimens were treated with 5-ALA and imaged by fluorescence microscopy and reported as protoporphyrin IX (PPIX) positive (presence of cells demonstrating simultaneous PPIX fluorescence) or PPIX negative (lack of cells demonstrating fluorescence). Results Of the 138 patients, PCa was detected on needle biopsy in 81 patients (58.7%); of these 81 patients with PCa, 60 were PPIX-positive (sensitivity: 74.1%). Although 57 patients did not harbor PCa by conventional diagnostic procedures, 17 of these at-risk patients were found to be PPIX-positive (specificity: 70.2%). PPIX–PDD was more sensitive compared with DRE and transrectal ultrasound and more specific compared with PSA and PSA density. The incidence of PPIX–PDD positivity did not increase with increasing total PSA levels, tumor stage or Gleason score. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first successful demonstration of PPIX in urine sediments treated with 5-ALA used to detect PCa in a noninvasive yet highly sensitive manner. However, further studies are warranted to determine the role of PPIX–PPD for PCa detection. PMID:25086448

  10. Identification and proteomic profiling of exosomes in human urine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Trairak Pisitkun; Rong-Fong Shen; Mark A. Knepper

    2004-01-01

    Urine provides an alternative to blood plasma as a potential source of disease biomarkers. One urinary biomarker already exploited in clinical studies is aquaporin-2. However, it remains a mystery how aquaporin-2 (an integral membrane protein) and other apical transporters are delivered to the urine. Here we address the hypothesis that these proteins reach the urine through the secretion of exosomes

  11. Evaluation of Questor urine screening system for bacteriuria and pyuria.

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, M; Mitchell, C J; Livsey, S A; MacDonald, C A

    1993-01-01

    AIMS--To evaluate the Questor automated bacteriuria and pyuria screening system; to compare its performance with that of a reference method; and to assess its usefulness in a routine clinical laboratory. METHODS--The Questor urine screening system was compared with a comprehensive regimen to detect urinary tract infection, using pour-plate viable counts to determine the numbers of bacteria present in urine samples, a wide range of other cultural methods, microscopic findings and clinical information. RESULTS--The optimal performance in detecting significant growths was a sensitivity of 93%, a specificity of 74%, a positive predictive value of 43% and a negative predictive value of 98%. The list price per test is 0.17 pounds and the capital cost of the system is 39,950 pounds. Questor can test 50 samples an hour and can be operated by one member of the laboratory staff, who is not required to make interpretative judgments--for example, a medical laboratory assistant. CONCLUSIONS--The sensitivity and specificity of the Questor was better than that obtained from other screening systems using the same protocol. The system was easy to use and is a useful addition to the methods available for screening for bacteriuria. Images PMID:8227430

  12. Using the Receptivity model to uncover 'urine blindness': perceptions on the re-use of urine.

    PubMed

    Roma, Elisa; Benoit, Natalie; Buckley, Chris; Bell, Sarah

    2013-06-01

    Population growth, climatic changes and over-exploitation of natural resources are at the basis of the world's food crisis, which counts almost one million people without sufficient food sustenance. These changes require novel environmental practices which are based on nutrient recovery and management in agriculture. This contribution analyses and discusses users' perceptions on re-use of urine as fertilizer through the lenses of the Receptivity model. A search was performed on Scopus (as well as other web search engines) using the keywords: urine, nutrient recovery and sanitation. Results shows how questions related to awareness, association, acquisition and application of the environmental change can represent hurdles to novel models of nutrient recovery and the use of urine in agriculture. Examples of hurdles identified from the literature relate to poor understanding of potential for urine reuse, social stigma attached to using dry sanitation and applying urine in agriculture and poor operational knowledge of application of urine in agriculture. Conclusion relates to the illustration of implications of such challenges on the design of environmental interventions. PMID:23539348

  13. Predicting the Onset of Sexual and Drug Risk Behaviors in HIV-Negative Youths with HIV-Positive Mothers: The Role of Contextual, Self-Regulation, and Social-Interaction Factors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claude A. Mellins; Curtis Dolezal; Elizabeth Brackis-Cott; Ouzama Nicholson; Patricia Warne; Heino F. L. Meyer-Bahlburg

    2007-01-01

    HIV-negative, inner-city adolescents with HIV-infected parents are considered to be at high risk for acquiring HIV themselves.\\u000a Using a modified theory of health behavior, this study examined the effects of maternal HIV infection and psychosocial variables\\u000a on the onset of sexual and drug risk behavior in 144 HIV-negative adolescents with and without HIV-positive mothers. Adolescents\\u000a and their mothers were interviewed

  14. Identification of metabolites of lobeline in the rat urine by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Wei; Peng, Zhihong; Ge, Baoying; Han, Fengmei; Chen, Yong

    2008-01-01

    This is a report about the analysis of lobeline and its metabolites in rat urine by using high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization ion trap tandem mass spectrometric method (LC/MSn). The urine of healthy rat were sampled from 0 to 24 h after administered a single dose of lobeline (3 mg/kg) by oral gavage, then centrifuged at 10,000 rpm for 10 min to get the supernatants. The supernatants were purified by solid-phase extraction (SPE) with a C18 cartridge. After the above purified process, the purified urine were injected into a reversed-phase C18 column with mobile phase of methanol/water (70:30, v/v, adjusted to pH 3.5 with formic acid) and detected by an on-line MSn system. The identification and structural elucidation of the metabolites were performed by comparing their changes in molecular mass ([Delta]M), full-scan MSn spectra with those of the parent drug. Ten metabolites of lobeline were found in rat urine. All the metabolites were reported for the first time.

  15. Chromatographic tandam mass spectrometric detection of papaverine and its major metabolites in rat urine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Zhihong; Song, Wei; Han, Fengmei; Chen, Huaixia; Zhu, Mingming; Chen, Yong

    2007-10-01

    A rapid, sensitive and specific liquid chromatographic-electrospray ionization (ESI) tandem ion trap mass spectrometric method has been developed for identification of papaverine and its metabolites in rat urine. Six healthy rats were administrated a single dose (100 mg/kg) of papaverine by oral gavage. The urine were sampled for 0-24 h and purified by using a C18 solid-phase extraction cartridge, then the purified urine samples were separated on a reversed-phase C18 column using methanol/2 mmol/L ammonium acetate (70:30, v/v, adjusted to pH 3.5 with formic acid) as mobile phase and detected by an on-line MS detector. Identification and structural elucidation of the metabolites were performed by comparing their changes in molecular mass ([Delta]m) and full scan MSn spectra with those of the parent drug. The results indicated that there were 14 metabolites in rat urine, such as de-methoxyl, hydroxyl, glucuronide and sulfate conjugated metabolites and so on. All these metabolites were reported for the first time.

  16. LGR5-positive colon cancer stem cells interconvert with drug-resistant LGR5-negative cells and are capable of tumor reconstitution.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Shinta; Yamada-Okabe, Hisafumi; Suzuki, Masami; Natori, Osamu; Kato, Atsuhiko; Matsubara, Koichi; Jau Chen, Yu; Yamazaki, Masaki; Funahashi, Shinichi; Yoshida, Kenji; Hashimoto, Eri; Watanabe, Yoshinori; Mutoh, Hironori; Ashihara, Motooki; Kato, Chie; Watanabe, Takeshi; Yoshikubo, Takashi; Tamaoki, Norikazu; Ochiya, Takahiro; Kuroda, Masahiko; Levine, Arnold J; Yamazaki, Tatsumi

    2012-12-01

    The cancer stem cell (CSC) concept has been proposed as an attractive theory to explain cancer development, and CSCs themselves have been considered as targets for the development of diagnostics and therapeutics. However, many unanswered questions concerning the existence of slow cycling/quiescent, drug-resistant CSCs remain. Here we report the establishment of colon cancer CSC lines, interconversion of the CSCs between a proliferating and a drug-resistant state, and reconstitution of tumor hierarchy from the CSCs. Stable cell lines having CSC properties were established from human colon cancer after serial passages in NOD/Shi-scid, IL-2R?(null) (NOG) mice and subsequent adherent cell culture of these tumors. By generating specific antibodies against LGR5, we demonstrated that these cells expressed LGR5 and underwent self-renewal using symmetrical divisions. Upon exposure to irinotecan, the LGR5(+) cells transitioned into an LGR5(-) drug-resistant state. The LGR5(-) cells converted to an LGR5(+) state in the absence of the drug. DNA microarray analysis and immunohistochemistry demonstrated that HLA-DMA was specifically expressed in drug-resistant LGR5(-) cells, and epiregulin was expressed in both LGR5(+) and drug-resistant LGR5(-) cells. Both cells sustained tumor initiating activity in NOG mice, giving rise to a tumor tissue hierarchy. In addition, anti-epiregulin antibody was found to be efficacious in a metastatic model. Both LGR5(+) and LGR5(-) cells were detected in the tumor tissues of colon cancer patients. The results provide new biological insights into drug resistance of CSCs and new therapeutic options for cancer treatment. PMID:23081779

  17. Feasibility of chemical screening of urine for neuroblastoma case finding in infancy in Quebec.

    PubMed Central

    Scriver, C R; Gregory, D; Bernstein, M; Clow, C L; Weisdorf, T; Dougherty, G E; Auray-Blais, C; Giguère, R; Lemieux, B; Laberge, C

    1987-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is the most common fatal solid tumour of childhood. Studies in Japan suggest that screening urine at 6 months for tumour-derived metabolites greatly improves early case finding and prognosis. The incidence rate of neuroblastoma in Quebec is at least 1 per 10,330 live births, higher than that of all other diseases responding to early treatment except congenital hypothyroidism screened for in the Quebec Network of Genetic Medicine. The feasibility of chemical screening of urine for elevated levels of homovanillic acid and vanillylmandelic acid in Quebec was assessed. The cost-effectiveness of screening 100,000 infants per year would be high (cost-benefit ratio 2.4), with a net saving of about $280,000 and eight lives per year. The estimated cost of adding neuroblastoma screening to the existing urine metabolite screening program is $70,700. The apparent sensitivity of the proposed test is 0.859 and the rate of false-positive results about 0.1%, both acceptable values. The attitude of potential participants toward the present urine screening program and the addition of a "tumour test" was positive. The results indicate that a pilot study of neuroblastoma screening in Quebec could be undertaken. PMID:3105859

  18. Development and validation of two LC-MS/MS methods for the detection and quantification of amphetamines, designer amphetamines, benzoylecgonine, benzodiazepines, opiates, and opioids in urine using turbulent flow chromatography.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Nadine; Peters, Benjamin; Schmidt, Peter; Ewald, Andreas H

    2013-01-01

    In the context of driving ability diagnostics in Germany, administrative cutoffs for various drugs and pharmaceuticals in urine have been established. Two liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry methods for simultaneous detection and quantification of amphetamines, designer amphetamines, benzoylecgonine, benzodiazepines, opiates, and opioids in urine were developed and validated. A 500-?L aliquot of urine was diluted and fortified with an internal standard solution. After enzymatic cleavage, online extraction was performed by an ion-exchange/reversed-phase turbulent flow column. Separation was achieved by using a reversed-phase column and gradient elution. For detection, a Thermo Fisher TSQ Quantum Ultra Accurate Mass tandem mass spectrometer with positive electrospray ionization was used, and the analytes were measured in multiple-reaction monitoring mode detecting two transitions per precursor ion. The total run time for both methods was about 15 min. Validation was performed according to the guidelines of the Society of Toxicological and Forensic Chemistry. The results of matrix effect determination were between 78% and 116%. The limits of detection and quantification for all drugs, except zopiclone, were less than 10 ng/mL and less than 25 ng/mL, respectively. Calibration curves ranged from 25 to 200 ng/mL for amphetamines, designer amphetamines, and benzoylecgonine, from 25 to 250 ng/mL for benzodiazepines, from 12.5 to 100 ng/mL for morphine, codeine, and dihydrocodeine, and from 5 to 50 ng/mL for buprenorphine and norbuprenorphine. Intraday and interday precision values were lower than 15%, and bias values within ± 15% were achieved. Turbulent flow chromatography needs no laborious sample preparation, so the workup is less time-consuming compared with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry methods. The methods are suitable for quantification of multiple analytes at the cutoff concentrations required for driving ability diagnostics in Germany. PMID:23076398

  19. Ubiquitous presence of paracetamol in human urine: sources and implications.

    PubMed

    Modick, Hendrik; Weiss, Tobias; Dierkes, Georg; Brüning, Thomas; Koch, Holger M

    2014-01-01

    N-acetyl-4-aminophenol (acetaminophen/paracetamol, NA4AP) is one of the most commonly used over-the-counter analgesic and antipyretic drugs. Recent studies have reported anti-androgenic effects of NA4AP in vitro and possible associations between intrauterine exposure to NA4AP and the development of male reproductive disorders in humans. NA4AP is also a major metabolite of aniline (phenylamine), representing 75-86% of the aniline dose excreted in urine. Aniline is an important large-volume intermediate in several industrial processes. Besides individuals in various occupational settings with aniline exposure, the general population is also known to be ubiquitously exposed to aniline. In this article, we provide an overview of the recent literature concerning the intake of NA4AP during pregnancy and the possible anti-androgenic effects of NA4AP as well as literature concerning its known metabolic precursor aniline. We also present new research data, including the first human biomonitoring data on NA4AP excretion in urine, showing ubiquitous NA4AP body burdens in the general population at a wide range of concentrations. We found a small but significant impact of smoking on urinary NA4AP concentrations. We further present preliminary data on NA4AP excretion after therapeutic acetaminophen use, after aniline exposure in an occupational setting, and during a controlled fasting study (excluding oral exposure to both aniline and acetaminophen). Our findings indicate exposure to aniline (or aniline-releasing substances) as well as nutrition (next to the direct use of acetaminophen as medication) as possible sources of internal body burdens of NA4AP. PMID:24451225

  20. Diagnosis of fusariosis in urine cytology

    PubMed Central

    Su, Cheng?Chuan; Hsu, Hui?Jine; Wu, Jiunn?Jong; Chou, Chien?Wen

    2007-01-01

    Fusarium is a filamentous fungus widely distributed in plants and in the soil. Most species are more common at tropical and subtropical areas. Besides being a common contaminant and a well?known plant pathogen, Fusarium sp may cause various infections in humans. However, it has not yet been reported as being the pathogen of urinary tract infection. A 67?year?old woman had extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy and percutaneous nephrolithotomy for renal stones 7 and 6?years ago, respectively. She had had fever, chillness, urinary urgency and frequency for 6?days. Routine testing of urine showed numerous leucocytes. She was admitted under the impression of urinary tract infection. On admission, many spindle?shaped structures were found in the urine smears. This shows that Fusarium was identified. Fusarium may be the pathogen of the urinary tract infection, particularly when urolithiasis is present. PMID:16816172

  1. Salsolinol and norsalsolinol in human urine samples.

    PubMed

    Musshoff, F; Daldrup, T; Bonte, W; Leitner, A; Lesch, O M

    1997-10-01

    The tetrahydroisoquinoline alkaloids salsolinol and norsalsolinol were found in human urine samples in concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 29.5 ng/ml. Great interindividual variation was found in urine levels of these alkaloids in a collection of chronic alcoholics and in a group of nonalcoholics. Thus, levels of the individual alkaloids are insufficient markers for distinguishing between alcoholics and nonalcoholics. However, by using the concentration ratio of norsalsolinol and salsolinol, the so-called dopamine-aldehyde adduct ratio (DAAR), significant differences between alcoholics (median 1.3) and nonalcoholics (median 0.6) were detected. This concentration ratio could serve as a marker for the processor state of the dopaminergic system. PMID:9300617

  2. Spectrophotometric determination of lamotrigine in pharmaceutical preparations and urine by charge-transfer complexation.

    PubMed

    Alizadeh, N; Khakinahad, R; Jabbari, A

    2008-11-01

    Rapid and sensitive spectrophotometric methods are developed for the determination of lamotrigine (LTG) in pharmaceutical dosage forms and urine samples, based on the formation of the charge-transfer (CT) complexes between LTG as an n-donor and the acceptors: bromocresol green (BCG), bromocresol purple (BCP), and chlorophenol red (CPR). These complexes are studied spectrophotometrically in chloroform solution in order to obtain some information about their stoichiometry and stability of complexation. The analytical parameters and their effects on the extraction of drug from urine samples are investigated. The reactions were extremely rapid at room temperature, and the absorbance values remained unchanged after 24 h for all reactions. Beer's law was obeyed in the concentration ranges 0.15-19.8, 0.15-19.8 and 0.05-34.1 microg x ml(-1) for CPR, BCP and BCG, respectively. The proposed methods were applied successfully for the determination of LTG in pharmaceutical formulations, and human urine samples in the presence of other antiepileptic drugs such as carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine and phenobarbital, with good accuracy and precision. PMID:19069238

  3. Purple Urine Bag Syndrome: Time for Awareness

    PubMed Central

    Alex, Reginald; Manjunath, Krishna; Srinivasan, Rajan; Basu, Gopal

    2015-01-01

    Purple urine bag syndrome occurs commonly in long-term catheterized patients causing significant stress for patients, care takers, and health care providers. This may lead to unwarranted investigation as well as treatment when not identified early. Demographic changes in Indian population with increasing geriatric care make it a case to increase awareness of this condition among health care providers in primary and secondary care settings.

  4. A Novel Way to Monitor Urine Concentration: Fluorescent Concentration Matrices

    PubMed Central

    Luckova, Iveta; Sabo, Jan; Karabinos, Anton

    2015-01-01

    Background: The amount of water found in urine is important diagnostic information; nevertheless it is not yet directly determined. Indirectly, the water content in urine is expressed by its density (specific gravity). However, without the diuresis value it is not possible to determine whether the increase in density of urine is due to a decrease in water secretion or an increase in the concentration of secreted substances. This problem can be solved by the use of fluorescent concentration 3D-matrices which characterise urine concentration through the p? (or -log?) value of the first fluorescence centre. Materials and Methods: The urine fluorescent concentration 3D-matrix was created by the alignment of the synchronous spectra of the dilution series of urine starting from undiluted (p? = 0) to 1000-fold diluted urine (p? = 3). Results: Using the fluorescence concentration 3D-matrix analysis of the urine samples from healthy individuals, a reference range was established for the value p?, determining the normal, concentrated or diluted type of urine. The diagnostic potential of this approach was tested on urine samples from two patients with a chronic glomerulonephritis. Conclusion: The p? value of the urine fluorescence concentration 3D-matrix analysis determines whether the urine sample falls within the normal, concentrated or diluted type of urine. This parameter can be directly utilised in sportsmen’s hydration state monitoring, as well as in the diagnosis and treatment of serious diseases. An important advantage of this novel diagnostic approach is that a 12/24 h urine collection is not required, which predetermines it for use especially within paediatrics. PMID:25737974

  5. Enantiomeric separation and quantitation of (+/-)-amphetamine, (+/-)-methamphetamine, (+/-)-MDA, (+/-)-MDMA, and (+/-)-MDEA in urine specimens by GC-EI-MS after derivatization with (R)-(-)- or (S)-(+)-alpha-methoxy-alpha-(trifluoromethy)phenylacetyl chloride (MTPA).

    PubMed

    Paul, Buddha D; Jemionek, John; Lesser, David; Jacobs, Aaron; Searles, Douglas A

    2004-09-01

    In drug testing, the presence of methamphetamine in urine is generally confirmed by a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method. Derivatization of the compound to a perfluoroalkylamide, prior to confirmation, typically yields better chromatographic separation. Once methamphetamine is detected, a second GC-MS test is necessary to distinguish positive results from the use of over-the-counter medication, Vicks inhaler, or from use of a prescription drug, selegiline (Deprenyl). R-(-)-Methamphetamine is the urinary product from legitimate use of these medications. The second GC-MS test is to confirm illicit use of (S)-(+)-methamphetamine. In the procedure, the two methamphetamine isomers are changed to the chromatographically separable diastereomers by a chiral derivatizing agent, (S)-(-)-trifluoroacetylprolyl chloride (TPC). But the method has inherent limitations. Racemization of the reagent produces mixed diastereomers even from pure (S)-(+)-methamphetamine. Instead of using TPC, we utilized (R)-(-)-alpha-methoxy-alpha-(trifluoromethyl)phenylacetyl chloride (MTPA) to prepare the amides of diastereomers of methamphetamine. No racemization was observed with this reagent. The method was extended to resolve GC peaks of (R)-(-)- and (S)-(+)-isomers of amphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), N-methyl-MDA (MDMA), and N-ethyl-MDA (MDEA). Three ions from the drug and two ions from the deuterated internal standard were monitored to characterize and quantitate the drugs. For MDEA, only one ion was used. The quantitation was linear over 25 to 5000 ng/mL for MDEA and 25 to 10,000 ng/mL for all other drugs. Correlation coefficients were > 0.996. Precision calculated as the coefficient of variation at the calibrator concentration of 500 ng/mL was within +/- 11% for all drugs. The method was applied to test 43 urine specimens. In 91% of the methamphetamine-positive specimens, only the (S)-(+)-isomer was detected. In all MDMA-positive specimens, the concentrations of (R)-(-)-isomer were greater than the (S)-(+)-isomer indicating longer retention of (R)-(-)-isomer in the human body. The specimen concentrations (R + S) compared well with that of a non-chiral method that used 4-carboethoxyhexafluorobutyryl chloride as derivatizing agent. But the MTPA method has some advantage. It alone can replace the two GC-MS methods needed to confirm the presence of (S)-(+)-isomers of amphetamine and methamphetamine. PMID:15516295

  6. A systematic review of acute pancreatitis as an adverse event of type 2 diabetes drugs: from hard facts to a balanced position.

    PubMed

    Giorda, C B; Nada, E; Tartaglino, B; Marafetti, L; Gnavi, R

    2014-11-01

    The question whether antidiabetes drugs can cause acute pancreatitis dates back to the 1970s. Recently, old concerns have re-emerged following claims that use of incretins, a new class of drugs for type 2 diabetes, might increase the relative risk of acute pancreatitis up to 30-fold. Given that diabetes is per se a potent risk factor for acute pancreatitis and that drug-related acute pancreatitis is rare and difficult to diagnose, we searched the medical databases for information linking acute pancreatitis and type 2 diabetes drugs. Among the biguanides, both phenformin and metformin (the latter in patients with renal insufficiency) have been cited in case reports as a potential cause of acute pancreatitis. Sulphonylureas, as both entire class and single compound (glibenclamide), have also been found in cohort studies to increase its risk. No direct link was found between pancreatic damage and therapy with metaglinide, acarbose, pramlintide or SGLT-2 inhibitors. In animal models, thiazolinediones have demonstrated proprieties to attenuate pancreatic damage, opening perspectives for their use in treating acute pancreatitis in humans. Several case reports and the US Food and Drug Administration pharmacovigilance database indicate an association between acute pancreatitis and incretins, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors, and GLP-1 receptor agonists. To date, however, a clear-cut odds ratio for this association has been reported in only one of eight pharmacoepidemiological studies. Finally, none of the intervention trials investigating these compounds, including two large randomized controlled trials with cardiovascular endpoints, confirmed the purportedly increased risk of acute pancreatitis with incretin use. PMID:24702687

  7. Effect of antiepileptic drug polytherapy on crystalluria.

    PubMed

    Go, Tohshin

    2005-02-01

    Urolithiasis is a rare side effect of antiepileptic drugs. To clarify the risk factors for urolithiasis induced by antiepileptic drugs, the effect of antiepileptic drug monotherapy on crystalluria was studied, and zonisamide or sulthiame therapy and alkaline urine were demonstrated to be risk factors. In the next investigation, the effect of antiepileptic drug polytherapy on crystalluria was retrospectively studied in epilepsy patients treated for more than 1 month during the last 7 years. A total of 278 urine specimens from epilepsy patients aged between 7 months and 36 years were enrolled in this study. The mean age was 12.3 years. There were 109 samples from females and 169 from males. Antiepileptic drugs administered in this study were valproate (174 urinary samples), zonisamide (139), carbamazepine (138), phenobarbital (65), phenytoin (52), acetazolamide (17), clonazepam (15), sulthiame (6), ethosuximide (6), nitrazepam (4), and clobazam (4). Epilepsy patients treated with antiepileptic drug polytherapy were frequently found to have crystalluria in patients demonstrating alkaline urine and taking acetazolamide, zonisamide (particularly with high serum levels), or many antiepileptic drugs in combination. Regular urinalysis seems to be necessary in these patients, and the evaluation for urolithiasis should be performed if persistent crystalluria is demonstrated. PMID:15664771

  8. Infrared spectra of urine from cancerous bladders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moharram, M. A.; Higazi, A.; Moharram, A. A.

    1996-06-01

    The infrared spectra of organic constituents of urine from cancerous bladders of some patients were recorded. The spectra of the organic part of the samples were classified into five types according to the bulk constituents. Samples with type A spectra consisted mainly of proteins with only trace amounts of lipids. Their spectra were characterized mainly by the absorption bands of proteins at the frequencies 3330, 3075, 2960, 2850, 1650, 1530, 1450, 1400 and 1320 cm-1, in addition to a weak band at 1720 cm-1 due to the absorption of lipids. Samples with type B spectra were characterized by high amounts of proteins and low amounts of lipids and phosphate compounds. The presence of phosphate compounds was indicated by the absorption bands at the frequencies 1100 and 1030 cm-1. Samples giving spectral type C were characterized by high urea contents as indicated by the presence of two strong bands at 1670 and 1630 cm-1. Samples with the spectral type D consisted of urea and phosphate compounds whereas the last spectral type E consisted mainly of calcium oxalates, uric acids and phosphate compounds. The presence of calcium oxalates was indicated by the presence of its diagnostic bands at the frequencies 1630 and 1330 cm-1, while the presence of uric acid was indicated by the bands at the frequencies 1360, 1130, 1020 and 880 cm-1. On the other hand, the spectra of the organic part of urine from some normal bladders exhibited the characteristic bands of urea only. Careful examination of the spectra of the inorganic part of urine revealed that some samples consisted mainly of hydroxyapatite. The absorption bands of hydroxyapatite appeared at the frequencies 568, 603, 985, 1037 and 1128 cm-1. The spectra of other samples showed that the bands of basic phosphates at the frequencies 568, 620, 727, 890, 1035 and 1140 cm-1. The spectra of the inorganic part of urine from a number of normal bladders displayed the bands of basic phosphates. The relationship between urine constituents and pathological types of bladder tumor tissue was discussed.

  9. New drugs of abuse.

    PubMed

    Rech, Megan A; Donahey, Elisabeth; Cappiello Dziedzic, Jacqueline M; Oh, Laura; Greenhalgh, Elizabeth

    2015-02-01

    Drug abuse is a common problem and growing concern in the United States, and over the past decade, novel or atypical drugs have emerged and have become increasingly popular. Recognition and treatment of new drugs of abuse pose many challenges for health care providers due to lack of quantitative reporting and routine surveillance, and the difficulty of detection in routine blood and urine analyses. Furthermore, street manufacturers are able to rapidly adapt and develop new synthetic isolates of older drugs as soon as law enforcement agencies render them illegal. In this article, we describe the clinical and adverse effects and purported pharmacology of several new classes of drugs of abuse including synthetic cannabinoids, synthetic cathinones, salvia, desomorphine, and kratom. Because many of these substances can have severe or life-threatening adverse effects, knowledge of general toxicology is key in recognizing acute intoxication and overdose; however, typical toxidromes (e.g., cholinergic, sympathomimetic, opioid, etc.) are not precipitated by many of these agents. Medical management of patients who abuse or overdose on these drugs largely consists of supportive care, although naloxone may be used as an antidote for desomorphine overdose. Symptoms of aggression and psychosis may be treated with sedation (benzodiazepines, propofol) and antipsychotics (haloperidol or atypical agents such as quetiapine or ziprasidone). Other facets of management to consider include treatment for withdrawal or addiction, nutrition support, and potential for transmission of infectious diseases. PMID:25471045

  10. Determination of buprenorphine, norbuprenorphine and naloxone in fingernail clippings and urine of patients under opioid substitution therapy.

    PubMed

    Tzatzarakis, Manolis N; Vakonaki, Elena; Kovatsi, Leda; Belivanis, Stamatis; Mantsi, Mary; Alegakis, Athanasios; Liesivuori, Jyrki; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and validate a method for the determination of buprenorphine (BUP), norbuprenorphine (NBUP) and naloxone (NAL) in fingernails and urine samples collected from former heroin users under suboxone substitution therapy. The analytes were extracted by solid-liquid or solid-phase extraction and were analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The validation of the analytical methods developed included linearity, recovery, accuracy, precision, ion suppression, sensitivity of interfaces and limits of determination and quantification. The validated methods were applied to samples from 46 individuals. The majority of the urine samples were positive for all analytes (93.5% for BUP, 95.7% for NBUP and 84.8% for NAL). In nails, a higher detection rate was observed for NBUP and BUP (89.1%), compared with NAL (10.9%). The median values of the NBUP/BUP and the NAL/BUP ratio were 2.5 and 0.3 in urine and 0.8 and 0.3 in nails, respectively. A statistically significant correlation was found between the BUP, NBUP and total BUP (BUP and NBUP) concentrations in urine and those in nails. A weak correlation was observed between the daily dose (mg/day) and total BUP (P = 0.069), or NBUP (P = 0.072) concentrations in urine. In contrast, a strong correlation was found between the total amount of BUP administered during the last 12 months and total BUP (P = 0.038), or NBUP (P = 0.023) concentrations in urine. Moreover urine BUP, NBUP and total BUP concentrations correlated significantly. Our study demonstrated successfully the application of the developed method for the determination of the three analytes in urine and nails. PMID:25663675

  11. Production of slow-released nitrogen fertilizer from urine.

    PubMed

    Ito, Ryusei; Takahashi, Eri; Funamizu, Naoyuki

    2013-01-01

    Human excreta, especially urine is rich in nitrogen that can be utilized for agricultural purposes, while the slow-release fertilizer allows effective utilization of nutrients in agricultural production. The direct formation of slow-release fertilizer--methylene urea--from urine was being proposed in this study. The experiments were tried to prove formation of methylene urea from human urine, and to investigate the effect of pH and salt concentration on the reaction rate. The synthetic urine and real urine were used for the urea source of the reaction. As a result, the precipitates were prepared from synthetic urine, while the small molecule fractions generated then they grew into precipitate. The nuclear magnetic resonance, infrared spectroscopy, element analyses showed the precipitates in synthetic urine were the same compound found in the urea solution, which was methylene urea. The reaction rate was high at low pH value. The reaction rate in the buffer solution was lower than the synthetic urine at the same pH, because some salts may work as a catalyst. The urea concentration reduction rate in real urine showed the same trend with synthetic urine at the same pH, while the precipitation was quite similar to methylene urea. PMID:24527645

  12. Association of Alcohol Abuse and Injection Drug Use with Immunologic and Virologic Responses to HAART in HIV-positive Patients from Urban Community Health Clinics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy J. Henrich; Naudia Lauder; Mayur M. Desai; Andre N. Sofair

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the association of alcohol abuse and injection drug use (IDU) with the immunologic\\u000a and virologic responses to highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) in urban community health clinics. The medical records\\u000a of 293 HIV-infected adult patients who visited either of two urban health clinics in New Haven, Connecticut, from June 2003\\u000a to December

  13. Testing for drugs of abuse in saliva and sweat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David A. Kidwell; Janel C. Holland; Sotiris Athanaselis

    1998-01-01

    The detection of marijuana, cocaine, opiates, amphetamines, benzodiazepines, barbiturates, PCP, alcohol and nicotine in saliva and sweat is reviewed, with emphasis on forensic applications. The short window of detection and lower levels of drugs present compared to levels found in urine limits the applications of sweat and saliva screening for drug use determination. However, these matrices may be applicable for

  14. Comparison of self-obtained penile-meatal swabs to urine for the detection of C. trachomatis, N. gonorrhoeae and T. vaginalis

    PubMed Central

    Dize, Laura; Agreda, Patricia; Quinn, Nicole; Barnes, Mathilda R; Hsieh, Yu-Hsiang; Gaydos, Charlotte A

    2013-01-01

    Background Self-obtained penile-meatal swabs and urine specimens have been used for Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) for outreach screening in men. Objective To compare the sensitivity of self-collected male penile-meatal swabs and urine for the detection of CT, NG and TV. Methods Matching penile-meatal swabs and urines were collected at home after recruitment to the study; via the internet programme, http://www.iwantthekit.org. The instructions directed the participant to place the tip of a Copan flocked swab at the meatal opening of the urethra to collect the penile-meatal sample. Two ml of urine was collected after the swab onto a Copan sponge-on-a-shaft collection device. Both swab and urine were placed into individual Aptima transport media tubes and mailed to the laboratory for testing. All specimens were tested for CT and NG using the GenProbe Aptima Combo2 Assay and for TV using GenProbe Aptima Analyte Specific Reagents with TV oligonucleotides. Results Of 634 men, 86 (13.6%) were positive for CT, 9 (1.4%) were positive for NG and 56 (9.3%) positive for TV. For CT, swab sensitivity was 81/86 (94.2%), and urine sensitivity was 66/86 (76.7%). For NG, swab sensitivity was 9/9 (100%) and urine sensitivity was 8/9 (88.9%). For TV, swab sensitivity was 45/56 (80.4%) and urine sensitivity was 22/56 (39.3%). Conclusions Self-obtained penile-meatal swabs provided for the detection of more CT, NG and TV, than urine specimens. PMID:23093735

  15. Analysis of scopolamine and its eighteen metabolites in rat urine by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chen, Huaixia; Chen, Yong; Wang, Hong; Du, Peng; Han, Fengmei; Zhang, Huashan

    2005-10-31

    A rapid and sensitive method is described for the determination of scopolamine and its metabolites in rat urine by combining liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Various extraction techniques (free fraction, acid hydrolyses and enzyme hydrolyses) and their comparison were carried out for investigation of the metabolism of scopolamine. After extraction procedure, the pretreated samples were injected into a reversed-phase C18 column with mobile phase of methanol/ ammonium acetate (2mM, adjusted to pH 3.5 with formic acid) (70:30, v/v) and detected by an on-line MS/MS system. Identification and structural elucidation of the metabolites were performed by comparing their changes in molecular masses (DeltaM), retention-times and full scan MS(n) spectra with those of the parent drug. The results revealed that at least 18 metabolites (norscopine, scopine, tropic acid, aponorscopolamine, aposcopolamine, norscopolamine, hydroxyscopolamine, hydroxyscopolamine N-oxide, p-hydroxy-m-methoxyscopolamine, trihydroxyscopolamine, dihydroxy-methoxyscopolamine, hydroxyl-dimethoxyscopolamine, glucuronide conjugates and sulfate conjugates of norscopolamine, hydroxyscopolamine and the parent drug) and the parent drug existed in urine after ingesting 55mg/kg scopolamine to healthy rats. Hydroxyscopolamine, p-hydroxy-m-methoxyscopolamine and the parent drug were detected in rat urine for up 106h after ingestion of scopolamine. PMID:18970269

  16. Drug Usage and Attitude Toward Drugs Among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Herbert J.; Keir, Richard G.

    1971-01-01

    Results of the data presented suggest that there is considerable experimentation among college students with illegal drugs, especially marijuana. Their attitudes toward other drugs still seems cautious. Marijuana, however, seems-to be accepted and generally positively evaluated. (Author)

  17. Spot Protein/Creatinine Ratio in Preeclampsia as an Alternative for 24-Hour Urine Protein

    PubMed Central

    Demirci, Oya; Kumru, P?nar; Ar?nkan, Arzu; Ard?ç, Cem; Ar?soy, Resul; Tozk?r, Elif; Tando?an, Bülent; Ayvac?, Habibe; Tu?rul, Ahmet S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Proteinuria is a major component of preeclampsia. Urine protein measurement after 24-hour urine collection is the traditional standard method for the detection of proteinuria. It is time-consuming. As an alternative, random spot sampling for a urine protein to creatinine (P/C) ratio has been investigated. Aims: The aim of the study was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of the protein to creatinine ratio (P/C) compared with 24-hour urine collection for the detection of remarkable proteinuria and to evaluate the P/C ratio for different proteinuria ranges in patients with preeclampsia. Study Design: Case-control study. Methods: Two hundred and eleven pregnant women who met the criteria of preeclampsia comprised the study group and fifty three pregnant women were taken as the control group. Spot urine specimens for measuring P/C ratio were obtained taken immediately before 24-hour urine collection. The correlation between the P/C ratio in the spot urine samples and urinary protein excretion in the 24-hour collections was examined using the Spearman correlation test. Results: It was found a good positive correlation between the P/C ratio and 24-hour protein excretion, with a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.758. The best cut-off which gave the maximum area under the curve was 0.45 for 300 mg, 0.9 for 1000 mg, 1.16 for 2000 mg, 1.49 for 3000 mg, 2.28 for 4000 mg and 2.63 for 5000 mg per 24h. A P/C ratio above 0.9 strongly predicts significant proteinuria for more than 1 gram (AUC 0.97, 95% CI: 0.94–0.99 and sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value of 91%, 95.4%, 95.2%, and 91.2%, respectively). Conclusion: The P/C ratio can be used as a screening test as a good predictor for remarkable proteinuria. The P/C ratio seems to be highly predictive for diagnosis to detect proteinuria over one gram and it could be used as a rapid alternative test in preeclamptic patients not to delay implementation treatment.

  18. Analysis of buserelin in urine by online combination of capillary zone electrophoresis with electrospray mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Stanová, Andrea; Marák, Jozef; Maier, Vítezslav; Ranc, Václav; Znaleziona, Joanna; Sevcík, Juraj; Kaniansky, Dusan

    2010-04-01

    A fast and precise analysis of the synthetic peptide buserelin in urine using CZE-ESI-MS method has been demonstrated. Formic acid at 50 mmol/L concentration served as background electrolyte in CZE stage and it is compatible with MS detection in positive ionization mode. Two injection modes were tested, i.e. pressure (50 mbar for 5 s) and electrokinetic injection (5 kV for 5 s), of which electrokinetic injection provided better calibration parameters. Buserelin LODs were 0.47 microg/mL in water and 0.63 microg/mL in ten times diluted urine samples using pressure injection, while they were 0.32 microg/mL in water and 0.34 microg/mL in ten times diluted urine samples using electrokinetic injection. Repeatability of buserelin migration times was below 6% (pressure injection mode) and 1% (electrokinetic injection mode). Repeatability of buserelin peak area in SIM mode (m/z=620.5+/-0.5) was less than 12% (pressure injection mode) and 5.8% (electrokinetic injection mode). In this work, no interferences were observed during the analyses of spiked urine samples. PMID:20209567

  19. Urine Is Not Sterile: Use of Enhanced Urine Culture Techniques To Detect Resident Bacterial Flora in the Adult Female Bladder

    PubMed Central

    Hilt, Evann E.; McKinley, Kathleen; Pearce, Meghan M.; Rosenfeld, Amy B.; Zilliox, Michael J.; Mueller, Elizabeth R.; Brubaker, Linda; Gai, Xiaowu; Wolfe, Alan J.

    2014-01-01

    Our previous study showed that bacterial genomes can be identified using 16S rRNA sequencing in urine specimens of both symptomatic and asymptomatic patients who are culture negative according to standard urine culture protocols. In the present study, we used a modified culture protocol that included plating larger volumes of urine, incubation under varied atmospheric conditions, and prolonged incubation times to demonstrate that many of the organisms identified in urine by 16S rRNA gene sequencing are, in fact, cultivable using an expanded quantitative urine culture (EQUC) protocol. Sixty-five urine specimens (from 41 patients with overactive bladder and 24 controls) were examined using both the standard and EQUC culture techniques. Fifty-two of the 65 urine samples (80%) grew bacterial species using EQUC, while the majority of these (48/52 [92%]) were reported as no growth at 103 CFU/ml by the clinical microbiology laboratory using the standard urine culture protocol. Thirty-five different genera and 85 different species were identified by EQUC. The most prevalent genera isolated were Lactobacillus (15%), followed by Corynebacterium (14.2%), Streptococcus (11.9%), Actinomyces (6.9%), and Staphylococcus (6.9%). Other genera commonly isolated include Aerococcus, Gardnerella, Bifidobacterium, and Actinobaculum. Our current study demonstrates that urine contains communities of living bacteria that comprise a resident female urine microbiota. PMID:24371246

  20. Drug level monitoring in a double-blind multicenter trial: false-positive zidovudine measurements in AIDS clinical trials group protocol 019.

    PubMed Central

    Krogstad, D J; Eveland, M R; Lim, L L; Volberding, P A; Sadler, B M

    1991-01-01

    Twenty-three different laboratories using four different assay methods reported zidovudine (ZDV; azidothymidine) measurements in a double-blind trial of ZDV for asymptomatic human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients (AIDS Clinical Trials Group Protocol 019). The risk of false-positive ZDV measurements was defined with coded specimens containing no ZDV in a quality control testing program. This testing identified six problem laboratories which reported ZDV levels of greater than or equal to 100 ng/ml for specimens with no ZDV; all of these laboratories used high-performance liquid chromatography. These six laboratories reported a disproportionately high fraction of positive assays for subjects randomized to the placebo group (31% for these 6 laboratories versus 4% for the other 17 laboratories; P less than 0.0001). The high number of false-positive ZDV results reported by these six laboratories suggested that many of the positive results that they reported for patient specimens were also false-positive results. This hypothesis was examined by retesting specimens from patients in the placebo group that had been reported as positive by these laboratories. Ninety percent (19 of 21) of these specimens were negative on retesting at the reference laboratory. These results confirm the hypothesis; they demonstrate the need for quality control testing to avoid the misinterpretation of multicenter trials because of incorrect laboratory data. PMID:1929258

  1. Water recovery by catalytic treatment of urine vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Budininkas, P.; Quattrone, P. D.; Leban, M. I.

    1980-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to demonstrate the feasibility of water recovery on a man-rated scale by the catalytic processing of untreated urine vapor. For this purpose, two catalytic systems, one capable of processing an air stream containing low urine vapor concentrations and another to process streams with high urine vapor concentrations, were designed, constructed, and tested to establish the quality of the recovered water.

  2. "Pink urine" in morbidly obese patients following gastric partitioning.

    PubMed

    Deitel, M; Thompson, D A; Saldanha, C F; Ramshaw, P J; Patterson, M C; Pritzker, K P

    1984-04-15

    A pink coating on the inner surface of plastic urinary tubing, which gave the impression that the urine was pink, had frequently been noted 4 to 24 hours following gastric partitioning by means of a stapler in morbidly obese patients. A study was therefore done in 187 such patients as well as in 14 patients of normal weight who had undergone abdominal surgery of comparable magnitude. Postoperatively "pink urine" was observed in 32% of the obese patients but in none of the nonobese patients; however, a pink sediment remained following centrifugation of urine collected postoperatively from all the obese patients. Microscopy of this sediment showed crystals of uric acid dihydrate; these were infrequent in the preoperative specimens but present in high concentration in the postoperative specimens, particularly those of "pink urine". X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the nature of the crystals. Preoperatively the obese patients had high-normal serum levels of uric acid. Postoperatively in all the groups of patients the serum levels of uric acid decreased while the urine levels and the urinary clearance of uric acid increased; the last two values, however, were significantly greater, both preoperatively and postoperatively, in those who were morbidly obese. Compared with the patients who did not have "pink urine" the patients with "pink urine" were significantly more obese and had a significantly lower postoperative urine pH. The latter also had a marked postoperative increase in urine osmolality and were the only patients to have a significant postoperative decrease in urine output. Thus, the pink colour of this group's urine was attributed to precipitation of uric acid crystals, fostered by a decrease in pH and an increase in concentration of the urine. PMID:6704846

  3. Black Coloured Urine following Organophosphorus Poisoning: Report of Two Cases

    PubMed Central

    Mookkappan, Sudhagar; Shanmugham, Vijay; Kulirankal, Kiran

    2014-01-01

    Organophosphorus poisoning is common in rural Asia. Clinical features result from overactivity of acetylcholine receptors. Blackish discoloration of urine is not a feature of organophosphorus poisoning. Only one case of black colored urine following quinalphos poisoning has been reported in literature. We report two cases of organophosphorus poisoning from two different compounds, following which patients passed black colored urine, in the absence of haemolysis or rhabdomyolysis. These cases indicate that blackish discoloration of urine in organophosphorus poisoning might not be as uncommon as it was believed to be. Besides, urinary excretion of metabolites might be an underlying mechanism, rather than hemolysis. PMID:24826348

  4. Determination of calcium in urine by manual microtitration with EDTA.

    PubMed

    Kratochvil, B; Jeremy, P G

    1977-02-01

    A simple, direct method for the determination of total calcium in urine by manual microtitration with EDTA at pH 12, with Calocin as fluorescent indicator, is proposed. By use of urine sample volumes of only 0.01-0.05 ml, interference from phosphate and natural fluorescence is minimized. For strongly naturally fluorescing urines the addition of potassium dichromate provides effective quenching. Agreement between results obtained by the proposed method and by atomic-absorption spectroscopy for a series of urine samples was satisfactory. PMID:18962041

  5. Surveillance of transmitted HIV type 1 drug resistance among HIV type 1-positive women attending an antenatal clinic in Kakinada, India.

    PubMed

    Thorat, Smita R; Chaturbhuj, Devidas N; Hingankar, Nitin K; Chandrasekhar, Velura; Koppada, Rajasekhar; Datkar, Sharda R; Srikantiah, Padmini; Garg, Renu; Kabra, Sandhya; Haldar, Partha; Reddy, Dandu C S; Bachani, Damodar; Tripathy, Srikanth P; Paranjape, Ramesh S

    2011-12-01

    The World Health Organizations HIV Drug Resistance (WHO HIVDR) Threshold survey method was used to assess transmitted HIVDR in newly diagnosed HIV-1-infected primigravida women attending the Prevention of Parent to Child Transmission (PPTCT) centers in Kakinada, in whom it is likely that the infection had recently occurred. Out of the 56 consecutively collected eligible specimens, 51 were tested using the ViroSeq RT-PCR method (Abbott Germany) to obtain 47 consecutive sequences for the HIV-1 protease (PR) and reverse transcriptase (RT) region. As per the 2009 WHO list of mutations for surveillance of transmitted HIVDR, only one nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) mutation was detected at K101E from all specimens tested, suggesting a low prevalence (<5%) of resistance to NNRTIs and no mutations were detected at other sites, suggesting a low prevalence (<5%) of resistance to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI) and protease inhibitors (PI) drug classes as well. Phylogenetic analysis showed all sequences belonged to HIV-1 subtype C. In the wake of antiretroviral treatment (ART) scale-up, future evaluation of transmitted HIVDR is essential in Kakinada as well as in other regions of India. PMID:21568760

  6. An Automatic Critical Care Urine Meter

    PubMed Central

    Otero, Abraham; Fernández, Roemi; Apalkov, Andrey; Armada, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays patients admitted to critical care units have most of their physiological parameters measured automatically by sophisticated commercial monitoring devices. More often than not, these devices supervise whether the values of the parameters they measure lie within a pre-established range, and issue warning of deviations from this range by triggering alarms. The automation of measuring and supervising tasks not only discharges the healthcare staff of a considerable workload but also avoids human errors in these repetitive and monotonous tasks. Arguably, the most relevant physiological parameter that is still measured and supervised manually by critical care unit staff is urine output (UO). In this paper we present a patent-pending device that provides continuous and accurate measurements of patient's UO. The device uses capacitive sensors to take continuous measurements of the height of the column of liquid accumulated in two chambers that make up a plastic container. The first chamber, where the urine inputs, has a small volume. Once it has been filled it overflows into a second bigger chamber. The first chamber provides accurate UO measures of patients whose UO has to be closely supervised, while the second one avoids the need for frequent interventions by the nursing staff to empty the container. PMID:23201988

  7. Urine-activated paper batteries for biosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bang Lee, Ki

    2005-09-01

    The first urine-activated laminated paper batteries have been demonstrated and reported in this paper. A simple and cheap fabrication process for the paper batteries has been developed which is compatible with the existing plastic laminating technologies or plastic molding technologies. In this battery, a magnesium (Mg) layer and copper chloride (CuCl) in the filter paper are used as the anode and the cathode, respectively. A stack consisting of a Mg layer, CuCl-doped filter paper and a copper (Cu) layer sandwiched between two plastic layers is laminated into the paper batteries by passing through the heating roller at 120 °C. The paper battery is tested and it can deliver a power greater than 1.5 mW. In addition, these urine-activated laminated paper batteries could be integrated with bioMEMS devices such as home-based health test kits providing a power source for the electronic circuit. A portion of this paper was presented at The 4th International Workshop on Micro and Nanotechnology for Power Generation and Energy Conversion Applications (PowerMEMS 2004), 28 30 November, 2004, Kyoto, Japan.

  8. A sensitive spectrophotometric method for the determination of pregabalin in bulk, pharmaceutical formulations and in human urine samples.

    PubMed

    Gujral, Rajinder Singh; Haque, Sk Manirul; Shanker, Prem

    2009-12-01

    A simple and sensitive spectrophotometric method was developed and validated for the determination of pregabalin in bulk, pharmaceutical formulations and in human urine samples. The method was based on the reaction of drug with the mixture of potassium iodate and potassium iodide. The method was linear in the range of 0.5-3.5 ?g/ml. There is no official method for the determination of pregabalin. The absorbance was measured at 353 nm. The method was validated with respect to accuracy, precision, specificity, ruggedness, robustness, limit of detection and limit of quantitation. This method was used successfully for the quality assessment of five pregabalin drug products and in human urine samples with good precision and accuracy. PMID:23675167

  9. SELDI-TOF-MS Proteomic Profiling of Serum, Urine, and Amniotic Fluid in Neural Tube Defects

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhenjiang; Yuan, Zhengwei; Zhao, Qun

    2014-01-01

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) are common birth defects, whose specific biomarkers are needed. The purpose of this pilot study is to determine whether protein profiling in NTD-mothers differ from normal controls using SELDI-TOF-MS. ProteinChip Biomarker System was used to evaluate 82 maternal serum samples, 78 urine samples and 76 amniotic fluid samples. The validity of classification tree was then challenged with a blind test set including another 20 NTD-mothers and 18 controls in serum samples, and another 19 NTD-mothers and 17 controls in urine samples, and another 20 NTD-mothers and 17 controls in amniotic fluid samples. Eight proteins detected in serum samples were up-regulated and four proteins were down-regulated in the NTD group. Four proteins detected in urine samples were up-regulated and one protein was down-regulated in the NTD group. Six proteins detected in amniotic fluid samples were up-regulated and one protein was down-regulated in the NTD group. The classification tree for serum samples separated NTDs from healthy individuals, achieving a sensitivity of 91% and a specificity of 97% in the training set, and achieving a sensitivity of 90% and a specificity of 97% and a positive predictive value of 95% in the test set. The classification tree for urine samples separated NTDs from controls, achieving a sensitivity of 95% and a specificity of 94% in the training set, and achieving a sensitivity of 89% and a specificity of 82% and a positive predictive value of 85% in the test set. The classification tree for amniotic fluid samples separated NTDs from controls, achieving a sensitivity of 93% and a specificity of 89% in the training set, and achieving a sensitivity of 90% and a specificity of 88% and a positive predictive value of 90% in the test set. These suggest that SELDI-TOF-MS is an additional method for NTDs pregnancies detection. PMID:25054433

  10. Euphorbia hirta leaf extracts increase urine output and electrolytes in rats.

    PubMed

    Johnson, P B; Abdurahman, E M; Tiam, E A; Abdu-Aguye, I; Hussaini, I M

    1999-04-01

    Euphorbia hirta is locally used in Africa and Australia to treat numerous diseases, including hypertension and edema. The diuretic effect of the E. hirta leaf extracts were assessed in rats using acetazolamide and furosemide as standard diuretic drugs. The water and ethanol extracts (50 and 100 mg/kg) of the plant produced time-dependent increase in urine output. Electrolyte excretion was also significantly affected by the plant extracts. The water extract increased the urine excretion of Na+, K+ and HCO3-. In contrast, the ethanol extract increased the excretion of HCO3- decreased the loss of K+ and had little effect on renal removal of Na+. Acetazolamide, like the water extract, increased urine output and enhanced the excretion of Na+, K+ and HCO3-. The high-ceiling diuretic, furosemide, increased the renal excretion of Na+ and Cl-; but had no effect on K+ and HCO3- loss. This study suggests that the active component(s) in the water extract of E. hirta leaf had similar diuretic spectrum to that of acetazolamide. These results validate the traditional use of E. hirta as a diuretic agent by the Swahilis and Sukumas. PMID:10350369

  11. [The detection of amphetamines in urine samples using immunochromatographic test strips].

    PubMed

    Shanin, I A; Khan, O Iu; Petukhov, A E; Smirnov, A V; Eremin, S A

    2012-01-01

    This study has demonstrated the possibility of using immunochromatographic test strips for the reliable qualitative detection of amphetamine and methamphetamine in the urine samples at a cut-off level of 300 ng/ml. The test strips obtained from different manufactures are shown to be slightly different in terms of specificity as appears from the frequency of cross-reactions with various pharmaceutical products and narcotic drugs. Also, the use of the immunochromatographic strips makes it possible to determine amphetamine in a range of concentrations from 100 to 1000 ng/ml by measuring the intensity of test-line colour with the help of a TotalLab TL120 programmer and special scanning programs. The analysis for amphetamine using the NrcoStop (Osiris S) immunochromatographic strips failed to confirm the presence of this substance in the urine samples from the subjects who had drunk 0.5 l of energy drinks, such as Adrenaline RUSH, Red Bull, and Burn. It means that the presence of amphetamine in the urine should not be attributed to the consumption of such drinks. PMID:23008958

  12. Determination of candesartan cilexetil, candesartan and a metabolite in human plasma and urine by liquid chromatography and fluorometric detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helene Stenhoff; Per-Olof Lagerström; Cathrine Andersen

    1999-01-01

    Liquid chromatographic methods are described for the determination of a new effective anti-hypertensive drug candesartan (CV-11974), its prodrug candesartan cilexetil (TCV-116) and a metabolite, CV-15959 in human plasma and urine. The assays comprise liquid–liquid extraction and separation on a phenyl column with fluorometric detection. The methods give absolute recoveries of 70, 83 and 78% for candesartan cilexetil, candesartan and CV-15959,

  13. Club Drugs

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of club drugs include Gamma hydroxybutyrate (GHB), Rohypnol, ketamine, as well as MDMA (ecstasy) and methamphetamine ( Drug ... Club Drugs , National Institute on Drug Abuse, 2010). Ketamine is a dissociative anesthetic, mostly used in veterinary ...

  14. Analysis of chlormequat in human urine as a biomarker of exposure using liquid chromatography triple quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lindh, Christian H; Littorin, Margareta; Johannesson, Gunvor; Jönsson, Bo A G

    2011-06-01

    In this study, a method using liquid chromatography triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) is described for the analysis of the plant growth regulator chlormequat (CCC) in human urine. Analysis was carried out using selected reaction monitoring (SRM) in the positive ion mode. [(2)H(4)] labeled CCC as internal standard (IS) was used for quantification of CCC. The limit of detection (LOD) was determined to 0.1 ng/mL. The method was linear in the range 0.3-800 ng/mL urine and had a within-run precision of 4-9%. The between-run precision was determined at urine levels of 7.0 and 31 ng/mL and found to be 5 and 6% respectively. The reproducibility was 3-6%. To validate CCC as a biomarker of exposure, the method was applied in a human experimental oral exposure to CCC. Two healthy volunteers received 25 ?g/kg b.w. CCC in a single oral dose followed by urine sampling for 46 h post-exposure. The CCC was estimated to follow a first order kinetic and a two compartment model with an elimination half-life of 2-3h and 10-14 h respectively. One hundred 24h urine samples were collected from non-occupationally exposed individuals in the general population in southern Sweden. All samples had detectable levels above the LOD 0.1 ng/mL urine. The median levels were 4 ng/mL of CCC in unadjusted urine. The levels found in the population samples are several magnitudes lower than those found in the experimental exposure, which corresponds to an oral exposure of 50% of the ADI for CCC. PMID:21497564

  15. Evaluation of an Automated Rapid Diagnostic Assay for Detection of Gram-Negative Bacteria and Their Drug-Resistance Genes in Positive Blood Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Tojo, Masayoshi; Fujita, Takahiro; Ainoda, Yusuke; Nagamatsu, Maki; Hayakawa, Kayoko; Mezaki, Kazuhisa; Sakurai, Aki; Masui, Yoshinori; Yazaki, Hirohisa; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Miyoshi-Akiyama, Tohru; Totsuka, Kyoichi; Kirikae, Teruo; Ohmagari, Norio

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the performance of the Verigene Gram-Negative Blood Culture Nucleic Acid Test (BC-GN; Nanosphere, Northbrook, IL, USA), an automated multiplex assay for rapid identification of positive blood cultures caused by 9 Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) and for detection of 9 genes associated with ?-lactam resistance. The BC-GN assay can be performed directly from positive blood cultures with 5 minutes of hands-on and 2 hours of run time per sample. A total of 397 GNB positive blood cultures were analyzed using the BC-GN assay. Of the 397 samples, 295 were simulated samples prepared by inoculating GNB into blood culture bottles, and the remaining were clinical samples from 102 patients with positive blood cultures. Aliquots of the positive blood cultures were tested by the BC-GN assay. The results of bacterial identification between the BC-GN assay and standard laboratory methods were as follows: Acinetobacter spp. (39 isolates for the BC-GN assay/39 for the standard methods), Citrobacter spp. (7/7), Escherichia coli (87/87), Klebsiella oxytoca (13/13), and Proteus spp. (11/11); Enterobacter spp. (29/30); Klebsiella pneumoniae (62/72); Pseudomonas aeruginosa (124/125); and Serratia marcescens (18/21); respectively. From the 102 clinical samples, 104 bacterial species were identified with the BC-GN assay, whereas 110 were identified with the standard methods. The BC-GN assay also detected all ?-lactam resistance genes tested (233 genes), including 54 blaCTX-M, 119 blaIMP, 8 blaKPC, 16 blaNDM, 24 blaOXA-23, 1 blaOXA-24/40, 1 blaOXA-48, 4 blaOXA-58, and 6 blaVIM. The data shows that the BC-GN assay provides rapid detection of GNB and ?-lactam resistance genes in positive blood cultures and has the potential to contributing to optimal patient management by earlier detection of major antimicrobial resistance genes. PMID:24705449

  16. Positive and negative electrospray LC-MS-MS methods for quantitation of the antiparasitic endectocide drugs, abamectin, doramectin, emamectin, eprinomectin, ivermectin, moxidectin and selamectin in milk.

    PubMed

    Durden, David A

    2007-05-01

    Avermectin endectocides are used for the treatment of cattle against a variety of nematode and arthropod parasites, and consequently may appear in milk after normal or off-label use. The compounds abamectin, doramectin, and ivermectin, contain only C, H and O and may be expected to be detected by LC-MS in negative ion mode. The others contain nitrogen in addition and would be expected to be preferentially ionized in positive mode. The use of positive ion and negative ion methods with electrospray LC-MS-MS were compared. Using negative ion the compounds abamectin, doramectin, ivermectin, emamectin, eprinomectin, and moxidectin gave a curvilinear response and were quantified in raw milk by LC-MS-MS with a triethylamine-acetonitrile buffer over the concentration range 1-60 ppb (microg/kg) using selamectin as the internal standard. The limits of detection (LOD) were between 0.19 ppb (doramectin) and 0.38 ppb (emamectin). The compounds gave maximum sensitivity with positive ionisation from a formic acid-ammonium formate-acetonitrile buffer and were detected in milk (LC-MS-MS) also with a curvilinear response over the range 0.5-60 ppb. Although the positive ion signals were larger, with somewhat lower limits of detection (LOD between 0.06 ppb (doramectin) and 0.32 ppb (moxidectin) the negative ion procedure gave a more linear response and more consistent results. Comparison of spiked samples in the range 2-50 ppb showed a high degree of correlation between the two methods. PMID:17129769

  17. Drugs and driving in Vienna, Austria.

    PubMed

    Risser, D; Stichenwirth, M; Klupp, N; Schneider, B; Stimpfl, T; Vycudilik, W; Bauer, G

    1998-07-01

    Drugs that affect the central nervous system are generally assumed to have the potential to impair driving ability. In a retrospective survey, police files and the results of toxicological urine analysis from drivers suspected of driving under the influence of drugs in Vienna from 1993 to 1996 were investigated. Decisive for police intervention was "unsafe driving" (swerving, hesitating, going too slowly, etc.), driving at high speed within the city limits, driving through red lights or stop signs, and driving at night without lights. In one-fifth of the cases drivers caused a traffic accident. Casting suspicion on driving under influence of drugs was mainly caused by impaired coordination of movements, bloodshot eyes, slurred speech, drowsiness, conspicuous behavior, and changed pupils. In the majority of the study population more than two symptoms were recorded by police. In 94% of the cases police suspicions could be confirmed by toxicological urine analysis. PMID:9670505

  18. Relationship between methadone and EDDP (2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine) in urine samples from Norwegian prisons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-Paul Bernard; Mimi Stokke Opdal; Ritva Karinen; Jørg Mørland; Hassan Z. Khiabani

    2007-01-01

    Background  Methadone maintenance treatment is a widely used therapy in the rehabilitation of opioid addiction the world over. Methadone\\u000a is metabolised in the body to a number of inactive metabolites, but primarily to 2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine\\u000a (EDDP). The Division of Forensic Toxicology and Drug Abuse (DFTDA) of the Norwegian Institute of Public Health carries out\\u000a drug analysis of urine samples from inmates of

  19. Keys to a drug-free workplace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortuna, Joseph J.; Fortuna, Patricia B.

    1997-01-01

    What does it take to establish a drug free work place. Are technologies available other than urine testing for pre- employment screening and monitoring of employees. Various methods are now available to screen for illicit drug residues on items handled by individuals. The residues can be acquired from the surfaces of items such as telephones, door knobs, steering wheels, lockers, clothing, identification cards, etc. Test kits are also available for urine testing at NIDA threshold levels. Analysis of hair, saliva, and sweat is now possible. How good ar these methods and kits. What value are they to the public. What are the legal concerns facing employers. What do the screening test show. These questions and others are addressed in this paper. The authors review for the reader how drug abuse by US workers costs businesses. The paper then addresses the various aspects of the DOT regulations to determine why urine analysis (UA) is insufficient to eliminate drug abuse. The authors present applications of screening technologies in addition to UA. Finally, the authors provide a conclusion of findings and recommendations for businesses that truly want or need drug free work places.

  20. Anti-JCV antibodies detection and JCV DNA levels in PBMC, serum and urine in a cohort of Spanish Multiple Sclerosis patients treated with natalizumab.

    PubMed

    Dominguez-Mozo, Maria Inmaculada; Garcia-Montojo, Marta; De Las Heras, Virginia; Garcia-Martinez, Angel; Arias-Leal, Ana María; Casanova, Ignacio; Arroyo, Rafael; Alvarez-Lafuente, Roberto

    2013-12-01

    One of the most effective multiple sclerosis (MS) treatment is natalizumab. Nevertheless, it has been associated with an increased risk of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) caused by the JC virus (JCV). Our main objective was to assess the utility of testing JCV-DNA, apart from anti-JCV antibodies, to determine which natalizumab-treated MS patients has been previously in contact with the virus. For this purpose, 138 MS natalizumab/non-natalizumab treated patients participated in several studies. Cross-sectional study (CS): association of several epidemiological variables with anti-JCV antibodies and JCV-DNA levels in PBMC/serum/urine. First longitudinal study (A): evaluation of JCV-DNA prevalence in urine throughout the treatment. Second longitudinal study (B): simultaneous assessment of antibodies and viral DNA levels in PBMC/serum/urine at two time points. CS: The seropositivity rate for anti-JCV antibodies (62.3 %) and JCV prevalence in urine (59.4 %) were similar; although 26 % of our population was positive only using one of the two techniques. A: The viral prevalence in urine seemed to increase between the baseline visit and the others (Baseline-Visit/V18months, p?=?0.006). B: Our rate of positive antibody seroconversion was 36 %. Nearly all patients with detectable JCV-DNA levels in PBMC excreted the virus intermittently in urine; while our PML case, positive in PBMC and serum samples 2 month before the PML, excreted JCV permanently. In conclusion, the determination of JCV DNA levels in urine could be complementary to anti-JCV antibodies for identifying MS patients who has been infected by the JCV. Further research would be necessary to understand the different JCV excretion profiles in urine. PMID:23979860

  1. RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Changes in urine composition after trauma

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Changes in urine composition after trauma facilitate bacterial growth modifications in urine that could potentially influence bacterial growth were explored. Results: Growth of E of such modifications. Keywords: Nosocomial urinary tract infection, Escherichia coli, Bacterial growth, Trauma patients

  2. Microchemical urinalysis. IX - Determination of hydroxyproline in urine.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grunbaum, B. W.; Pace, N.

    1973-01-01

    A simplified procedure is described for the determination of hydroxyproline in human or monkey urine. In this procedure 1 ml of urine is subjected in succession to hydrolysis, oxidation, extraction, and color development. During these steps impurities and interfering substances are eliminated, thus resulting in a chromophore due to hydroxyproline alone.

  3. 9 CFR 311.37 - Odors, foreign and urine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Odors, foreign and urine. 311.37 Section...ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.37 Odors, foreign and urine. (a) Carcasses which give off a pronounced odor of medicinal, chemical, or other...

  4. Identification of volatile components of bobcat ( Lynx rufus ) urine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. I. Mattina; J. J. Pignatello; R. K. Swihart

    1991-01-01

    Bobcat (Lynx rufus) urine reduces scent-marking activity of woodchucks (Marmota monax) and feeding activity of snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus) and deer (Odocoileus virginianus, O. hemionus). In order to identify the semiochemicals responsible for these behavior modifications, a dichloromethane extract of the bobcat urine was analyzed by GC-MS. Among the known compounds identified in the extract are phenol, indole, dimethyl sulfone,

  5. Blood in the Urine (Hematuria) in Children (Beyond the Basics)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... BLOOD IN THE URINE OVERVIEW Hematuria is the medical term for blood in the urine. Blood in the ... or other qualified health care professional regarding any medical questions or conditions. The use of this website is governed by the UpToDate Terms of Use ©2015 UpToDate, Inc. References Top Diven ...

  6. Automated biowaste sampling system urine subsystem operating model, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fogal, G. L.; Mangialardi, J. K.; Rosen, F.

    1973-01-01

    The urine subsystem automatically provides for the collection, volume sensing, and sampling of urine from six subjects during space flight. Verification of the subsystem design was a primary objective of the current effort which was accomplished thru the detail design, fabrication, and verification testing of an operating model of the subsystem.

  7. NEW COLUMN SEPARATION METHOD FOR EMERGENCY URINE SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, S; Brian Culligan, B

    2007-08-28

    The Savannah River Site Environmental Bioassay Lab participated in the 2007 NRIP Emergency Response program administered by the National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) in May, 2007. A new rapid column separation method was applied directly to the NRIP 2007 emergency urine samples, with only minimal sample preparation to reduce preparation time. Calcium phosphate precipitation, previously used to pre-concentrate actinides and Sr-90 in NRIP 2006 urine and water samples, was not used for the NRIP 2007 urine samples. Instead, the raw urine was acidified and passed directly through the stacked resin columns (TEVA+TRU+SR Resins) to separate the actinides and strontium from the NRIP urine samples more quickly. This improvement reduced sample preparation time for the NRIP 2007 emergency urine analyses significantly. This approach works well for small volume urine samples expected during an emergency response event. Based on initial feedback from NIST, the SRS Environmental Bioassay Lab had the most rapid analysis times for actinides and strontium-90 analyses for NRIP 2007 urine samples.

  8. SIMULTANEOUS TITRIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF BICARBONATE AND TITRATABLE ACID OF URINE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    AZ Györy; KDG Edwards

    1967-01-01

    An acid-titration method for the determination of bicarbonate and titratable acid in the one sample of urine is described. The method needs only one manipulation of the sample of urine, and was devised to simplify routine laboratory methodology. The accuracy and precision of the urinary bicarbonate method during routine laboratory use is comparable to that obtained by using the Van

  9. The impact of free or standardized lifestyle and urine sampling protocol on metabolome recognition accuracy.

    PubMed

    Wallner-Liebmann, Sandra; Gralka, Ewa; Tenori, Leonardo; Konrad, Manuela; Hofmann, Peter; Dieber-Rotheneder, Martina; Turano, Paola; Luchinat, Claudio; Zatloukal, Kurt

    2015-01-01

    Urine contains a clear individual metabolic signature, although embedded within a large daily variability. Given the potential of metabolomics to monitor disease onset from deviations from the "healthy" metabolic state, we have evaluated the effectiveness of a standardized lifestyle in reducing the "metabolic" noise. Urine was collected from 24 (5 men and 19 women) healthy volunteers over a period of 10 days: phase I, days 1-7 in a real-life situation; phase II, days 8-10 in a standardized diet and day 10 plus exercise program. Data on dietary intake and physical activity have been analyzed by a nation-specific software and monitored by published protocols. Urine samples have been analyzed by (1)H NMR followed by multivariate statistics. The individual fingerprint emerged and consolidated with increasing the number of samples and reaches ~100 % cross-validated accuracy for about 40 samples. Diet standardization reduced both the intra-individual and the interindividual variability; the effect was due to a reduction in the dispersion of the concentration values of several metabolites. Under standardized diet, however, the individual phenotype was still clearly visible, indicating that the individual's signature was a strong feature of the metabolome. Consequently, cohort studies designed to investigate the relation of individual metabolic traits and nutrition require multiple samples from each participant even under highly standardized lifestyle conditions in order to exploit the analytical potential of metabolomics. We have established criteria to facilitate design of urine metabolomic studies aimed at monitoring the effects of drugs, lifestyle, dietary supplements, and for accurate determination of signatures of diseases. PMID:25403096

  10. Decoy cells and malignant cells coexisting in the urine from a transplant recipient with BK virus nephropathy and bladder adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Galed-Placed, Ignacio; Valbuena-Ruvira, Luis

    2011-12-01

    The search for decoy cells (DC) in urine is widely used as screening for BK virus (BKV) reactivation in transplant recipients. BKV cytopathic effect of DC must not be confused with high-grade urothelial carcinoma. This report presents a case of coexistence of DC and malignant cells in the urine from a transplant recipient with BKV-associated nephropathy (BKVN) and bladder adenocarcinoma. A 38-year-old female with type 1 diabetes mellitus and end-stage renal disease underwent a simultaneous pancreas and kidney transplant. Four years post-transplantation, BK virus studies were performed for renal dysfunction. Isolated DC and DC in casts were identified in urine. Also, the tests for BKV DNA were positive in serum and renal allograft biopsy. BKVN was treatment-resistant and the patient returned to hemodialysis. A kidney transplant nephrectomy was performed 2 years later. The next urine cytology showed, in addition to DC, other distinct cells with nuclear atypia highly suggestive of malignancy. Some cells showed both, malignant and DC features. A bladder adenocarcinoma was diagnosed on biopsy and BKV proteins were demonstrated on tumor cells, supporting a possible role for BKV in the oncogenic pathway in this clinical setting. The presence of DC in the urine from a transplant recipient is the hallmark of BKV activation, but it does not exclude the existence of carcinoma. Furthermore, the presence of highly atypical cells should raise, not eliminate, the possibility of neoplastic transformation of the bladder. PMID:22081531

  11. Metabolism studies of the Kratom alkaloid speciociliatine, a diastereomer of the main alkaloid mitragynine, in rat and human urine using liquid chromatography-linear ion trap mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Philipp, Anika A; Wissenbach, Dirk K; Weber, Armin A; Zapp, Josef; Maurer, Hans H

    2011-03-01

    Mitragyna speciosa (Kratom) is currently used as a drug of abuse. When monitoring its abuse in urine, several alkaloids and their metabolites must be considered. In former studies, mitragynine (MG), its diastereomer speciogynine (SG), and paynantheine and their metabolites could be identified in rat and human urine using LC-MS(n). In Kratom users' urines, besides MG and SG, further isomeric compounds were detected. To elucidate whether the MG and SG diastereomer speciociliatine (SC) and its metabolites represent further compounds, the phase I and II metabolites of SC were identified first in rat urine after the administration of the pure alkaloid. Then, the identified rat metabolites were screened for in the urine of Kratom users using the above-mentioned LC-MS(n) procedure. Considering the mass spectra and retention times, it could be confirmed that SC and its metabolites are so far the unidentified isomers in human urine. In conclusion, SC and its metabolites can be used as further markers for Kratom use, especially by consumption of raw material or products that contain a high amount of fruits of the Malaysian plant M. speciosa. PMID:21249338

  12. Quantitative analysis of creatinine in urine by metalized nanostructured parylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hui; Malvadkar, Niranjan; Koytek, S.; Bylander, J.; Reeves, W. Brian; Demirel, Melik C.

    2010-03-01

    A highly accurate, real-time multisensor agent monitor for biomarker detection is required for early detection of kidney diseases. Urine creatinine level can provide useful information on the status of the kidney. We prepare nanostructured surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) substrates without template or lithography, which provides controllable, well-organized nanostructures on the surface, for the quantitative analysis of creatinine concentration in urine. We present our work on sensitivity of the SERS substrate to urine samples collected from diabetic patients and healthy persons. We report the preparation of a new type of SERS substrate, which provides fast (<10 s), highly sensitive (creatinine concentration <0.5 ?g/mL) and reproducible (<5% variation) detection of urine. Our method to analyze the creatinine level in urine is in good agreement with the enzymatic method.

  13. Forgotten hardware: how to urinate in a spacesuit.

    PubMed

    Hollins, Hunter

    2013-06-01

    On May 5, 1961, astronaut Alan Shepard became the first American to fly in space. Although National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) had discounted the need for him to urinate, Shepard did, in his spacesuit, short circuiting his electronic biosensors. With the development of the pressure suit needed for high-altitude and space flight during the 1950s, technicians had developed the means for urine collection. However, cultural mores, combined with a lack of interagency communication, and the technical difficulties of spaceflight made human waste collection a difficult task. Despite the difficulties, technicians at NASA created a successful urine collection device that John Glenn wore on the first Mercury orbital flight on February 20, 1962. With minor modifications, male astronauts used this system to collect urine until the Space Shuttle program. John Glenn's urine collection device is at the National Air and Space Museum and has been on view to the public since 1976. PMID:23728129

  14. Phenylguanine found in urine after benzene exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Norpoth, K.H.; Mueller, G.; Schell, C.; Jorg, E. [Univ. Medical Center, Essen (Germany)

    1996-12-01

    Comparative investigations with synthetic N{sup 7}-phenylguanine were carried out to clarify whether this compound is eliminated via the urine of rats as a benzene-derived nucleic acid adduct. As sensitive methods for detecting trace amounts of the compound, gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy, high performance liquid chromatography, and two immunoassays (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and fluoroimmunoassay) with appropriate monoclonal antibodies were used. The results indicate the excretion of several benzene-related guanine adducts slightly different from N{sup 7}-phenylguanine that may possibly be hydroxylated. These adducts differ also from O{sup 6}-, N{sup 2}- and C8-phenylguanine, respectively. 29 refs., 12 figs.

  15. Detection of Wuchereria bancrofti DNA in paired serum and urine samples using polymerase chain reaction-based systems

    PubMed Central

    Ximenes, Camila; Brandão, Eduardo; Oliveira, Paula; Rocha, Abraham; Rego, Tamisa; Medeiros, Rafael; Aguiar-Santos, Ana; Ferraz, João; Reis, Christian; Araujo, Paulo; Carvalho, Luiz; Melo, Fabio L

    2014-01-01

    The Global Program for the Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF) aims to eliminate this disease by the year 2020. However, the development of more specific and sensitive tests is important for the success of the GPELF. The present study aimed to standardise polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based systems for the diagnosis of filariasis in serum and urine. Twenty paired biological urine and serum samples from individuals already known to be positive for Wuchereria bancrofti were collected during the day. Conventional PCR and semi-nested PCR assays were optimised. The detection limit of the technique for purified W. bancrofti DNA extracted from adult worms was 10 fg for the internal systems (WbF/Wb2) and 0.1 fg by using semi-nested PCR. The specificity of the primers was confirmed experimentally by amplification of 1 ng of purified genomic DNA from other species of parasites. Evaluation of the paired urine and serum samples by the semi-nested PCR technique indicated only two of the 20 tested individuals were positive, whereas the simple internal PCR system (WbF/Wb2), which has highly promising performance, revealed that all the patients were positive using both samples. This study successfully demonstrated the possibility of using the PCR technique on urine for the diagnosis of W. bancrofti infection. PMID:25424447

  16. Urine Annexin A1 as an Index for Glomerular Injury in Patients

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Pei-Yi; Chao, Tai-Kuang; Yang, Shun-Min; Chen, Jin-Shuen; Shui, Hao-Ai; Chen, Ann

    2014-01-01

    Background. We recently demonstrated high urine levels of annexin A1 (ANXA1) protein in a mouse Adriamycin-induced glomerulopathy (ADG) model. Objective. To establish ANXA1 as a potential biomarker for glomerular injury in patients. Methods. A time-course study in the mouse ADG model, followed by renal tissues and urine samples from patients with various types of glomerular disorders for ANXA1. Results. Urinary ANXA1 protein was (1) detectable in both the ADG model and in patients except those with minimal change disease (MCD); (2) positively correlated with renal lesions in patients; and (3) early detectable in diabetes patients with normoalbuminuria. Conclusions. ANXA1 is a universal biomarker that is helpful in the early diagnosis, prognostic prediction, and outcome monitoring of glomerular injury. Measurement of urinary ANXA1 protein levels can help in differentiating MCD from other types of glomerular disorders. PMID:24591769

  17. Synthesis and characterization of lipid immuno-nanocapsules for directed drug delivery: selective antitumor activity against HER2 positive breast-cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Moreno, Paola; Ortega-Vinuesa, Juan Luis; Boulaiz, Houría; Marchal, Juan Antonio; Peula-García, José Manuel

    2013-12-01

    Lipid nanocapsules (LNC) are usually developed as nanocarriers for lipophilic drug delivery. The surface characteristics of these colloidal particles are determinant for a controlled and directed delivery to target tissues with specific markers. We report the development of immuno-nanocapsules, in which some antibody molecules with different immuno-specificity are conjugated to the nanocapsule surface, offering the standardization of a simple method to obtain vectorized nanosystems with specific recognition properties. Nanocapsules were prepared by a solvent-displacement technique, producing an oily core coated by a functional shell of different biocompatible molecules and surface carboxylic groups. Three different antibodies (one a specific HER2 oncoprotein antibody) were conjugated with these nanoparticles by the carbodiimide method, which allows the covalent immobilization of protein molecules through carboxylic surface groups. The immuno-nanocapsules were completely characterized physico-chemically via electrokinetic and colloidal stability experiments, confirming the correct immobilization of these antibody molecules on the colloidal nanoparticles. Also, additional immunological analyses verified that these IgG-LNC complexes showed the expected specific immuno-response. Finally, different healthy and tumoral breast-cell lines were cultured in vitro with Nile-Red-loaded and docetaxel-loaded HER2 immuno-nanocapsules. The results indicate that our immuno-nanocapsules can increase their uptake in HER2 overexpressing tumoral cell lines. PMID:24134122

  18. Urine Output Changes During Postcardiac Arrest Therapeutic Hypothermia.

    PubMed

    Raper, Jaron D; Wang, Henry E

    2013-12-01

    While commonly described, no studies have characterized cold-induced diuresis or rewarm anti-diuresis occurring during the delivery of therapeutic hypothermia (TH). We sought to determine urine output changes during the provision of postcardiac arrest TH. We analyzed clinical data on patients receiving postcardiac arrest TH at an urban tertiary care center. TH measures included cooling by cold intravenous fluid, external ice packs, and a commercial external temperature management system. TH treatment was divided into phases: (1) induction, (2) maintenance, (3) rewarm, and (4) post-rewarm. The primary outcome measure was the mean urine output rate (mL/hour). We compared urine output rates between TH phases using a Generalized Estimating Equations model, defining urine output rate (mL/hour) as the dependent variable and TH phase (induction, maintenance, rewarm, and post-rewarm) as the primary exposure variable. We adjusted for age, sex, initial ECG rhythm, location of arrest, shock, acute kidney injury, rate of intravenous fluid input, and body mass index. Complete urine output data were available on 33 patients. Mean urine output rates during induction, maintenance, rewarm, and post-rewarm phases were 157?mL/hour (95% CI: 104-210), 103?mL/hour (95% CI: 82-125), 70?mL/hour (95% CI: 51-88), and 91?mL/hour (95% CI: 65-117), respectively. Compared with the post-rewarm phase, adjusted urine output was higher during the TH induction phase (output rate difference +51?mL/hour; 95% CI: 3-99). Adjusted urine output during the maintenance and rewarm phases did not differ from the post-rewarm phase. In this preliminary study, we observed modest increases in urine output during TH induction. We did not observe urine output changes during TH maintenance or rewarming. PMID:24380030

  19. Urine Output Changes During Postcardiac Arrest Therapeutic Hypothermia

    PubMed Central

    Raper, Jaron D.

    2013-01-01

    While commonly described, no studies have characterized cold-induced diuresis or rewarm anti-diuresis occurring during the delivery of therapeutic hypothermia (TH). We sought to determine urine output changes during the provision of postcardiac arrest TH. We analyzed clinical data on patients receiving postcardiac arrest TH at an urban tertiary care center. TH measures included cooling by cold intravenous fluid, external ice packs, and a commercial external temperature management system. TH treatment was divided into phases: (1) induction, (2) maintenance, (3) rewarm, and (4) post-rewarm. The primary outcome measure was the mean urine output rate (mL/hour). We compared urine output rates between TH phases using a Generalized Estimating Equations model, defining urine output rate (mL/hour) as the dependent variable and TH phase (induction, maintenance, rewarm, and post-rewarm) as the primary exposure variable. We adjusted for age, sex, initial ECG rhythm, location of arrest, shock, acute kidney injury, rate of intravenous fluid input, and body mass index. Complete urine output data were available on 33 patients. Mean urine output rates during induction, maintenance, rewarm, and post-rewarm phases were 157?mL/hour (95% CI: 104–210), 103?mL/hour (95% CI: 82–125), 70?mL/hour (95% CI: 51–88), and 91?mL/hour (95% CI: 65–117), respectively. Compared with the post-rewarm phase, adjusted urine output was higher during the TH induction phase (output rate difference +51?mL/hour; 95% CI: 3–99). Adjusted urine output during the maintenance and rewarm phases did not differ from the post-rewarm phase. In this preliminary study, we observed modest increases in urine output during TH induction. We did not observe urine output changes during TH maintenance or rewarming. PMID:24380030

  20. Contrast between innovator drug- and generic drug-induced renal dysfunction on coronary angiography (CONTRAST study).

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Ayumi; Miura, Shin-Ichiro; Sugihara, Makoto; Miyase, Yuiko; Norimatsu, Kenji; Shiga, Yuhei; Nishikawa, Hiroaki; Saku, Keijiro

    2014-09-01

    Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) has gained increasing attention in clinical practice, particularly during coronary angiography (CAG). However, some "bioequivalent" generic (GE) drugs are less effective than the innovator (IN) drug. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare contrast media (IN drug)-induced renal dysfunction with contrast media (GE drug)-induced dysfunction. We enrolled 44 patients who underwent elective CAG or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and randomly divided them into two groups that received contrast media (Iohexol, nonionic and low-osmolality contrast agent) containing either IN drug (Omnipaque) or GE drug (Iopaque). Blood and urine sampling were performed before and after (24 and 48 h) CAG or PCI. Biochemical parameters in blood (serum creatinine, cystatin C, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and pentraxin-3) and urine (urinary albumin/Cr and liver-type fatty acid binding protein/Cr) were measured. There were no significant differences in the biochemical parameters at baseline between the groups. In addition, there were no differences in changes in biochemical parameters in blood and urine before and after CAG or PCI between the groups, although one patient in the GE group had CIN. The degree of contrast in Iopaque-induced renal dysfunction was comparable with that in Omnipaque-induced dysfunction. PMID:24072136