Science.gov

Sample records for post site selection

  1. 15 CFR 921.12 - Post site selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Post site selection. 921.12 Section... MANAGEMENT NATIONAL ESTUARINE RESEARCH RESERVE SYSTEM REGULATIONS Site Selection, Post Site Selection and Management Plan Development § 921.12 Post site selection. (a) At the time of the coastal state's request...

  2. 15 CFR 921.12 - Post site selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Post site selection. 921.12 Section... MANAGEMENT NATIONAL ESTUARINE RESEARCH RESERVE SYSTEM REGULATIONS Site Selection, Post Site Selection and Management Plan Development § 921.12 Post site selection. (a) At the time of the coastal state's request...

  3. 15 CFR 921.12 - Post site selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Post site selection. 921.12 Section 921.12 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT NATIONAL ESTUARINE RESEARCH RESERVE...

  4. Rosetta lander Philae: Flight Dynamics analyses for landing site selection and post-landing operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurado, Eric; Martin, Thierry; Canalias, Elisabet; Blazquez, Alejandro; Garmier, Romain; Ceolin, Thierry; Gaudon, Philippe; Delmas, Cedric; Biele, Jens; Ulamec, Stephan; Remetean, Emile; Torres, Alex; Laurent-Varin, Julien; Dolives, Benoit; Herique, Alain; Rogez, Yves; Kofman, Wlodek; Jorda, Laurent; Zakharov, Vladimir; Crifo, Jean-François; Rodionov, Alexander; Heinish, P.; Vincent, Jean-Baptiste

    2016-08-01

    On the 12th of November 2014, The Rosetta Lander Philae became the first spacecraft to softly land on a comet nucleus. Due to the double failure of the cold gas hold-down thruster and the anchoring harpoons that should have fixed Philae to the surface, it spent approximately two hours bouncing over the comet surface to finally come at rest one km away from its target site. Nevertheless it was operated during the 57 h of its First Science Sequence. The FSS, performed with the two batteries, should have been followed by the Long Term Science Sequence but Philae was in a place not well illuminated and fell into hibernation. Yet, thanks to reducing distance to the Sun and to seasonal effect, it woke up at end of April and on 13th of June it contacted Rosetta again. To achieve this successful landing, an intense preparation work had been carried out mainly between August and November 2014 to select the targeted landing site and define the final landing trajectory. After the landing, the data collected during on-comet operations have been used to assess the final position and orientation of Philae, and to prepare the wake-up. This paper addresses the Flight Dynamics studies done in the scope of this landing preparation from Lander side, in close cooperation with the team at ESA, responsible for Rosetta, as well as for the reconstruction of the bouncing trajectory and orientation of the Lander after touchdown.

  5. Field site selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwarz, D. E.; Ellefsen, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    Several general guidelines should be kept in mind when considering the selection of field sites for teaching remote sensing fundamentals. Proximity and vantage point are two very practical considerations. Only through viewing a broad enough area to place the site in context can one make efficient use of a site. The effects of inclement weather when selecting sites should be considered. If field work is to be an effective tool to illustrate remote sensing principles, the following criteria are critical: (1) the site must represent the range of class interest; (2) the site must have a theme or add something no other site offers; (3) there should be intrasite variation within the theme; (4) ground resolution and spectral signature distinction should be illustrated; and (5) the sites should not be ordered sequentially.

  6. Site selection for Mars exobiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farmer, J.; Des Marais, D.; Greeley, R.; Landheim, R.; Klein, H.

    1995-01-01

    The selection of sites on Mars that have a high priority for exobiological research is fundamental for planning future exploration. The most immediate need is to identify targets for high resolution orbital imaging during the Mars Observer and Mars '94/'96 missions that can be used to refined site priorities for surface exploration. We present an objective approach to site selection whereby individual sites are selected and scored, based on the presence of key geological features which indicate high priority environments. Prime sites are those that show evidence for the prolonged activity of liquid water and which have sedimentary deposits that are likely to have accumulated in environments favorable for life. High priority areas include fluvio-lacustrine (stream-fed lake systems), springs, and periglacial environments. Sites where mineralization may have occurred in the presence of organisms (e.g. springs) are given high priority in the search for a fossil record on Mars. A systematic review of Viking data for 83 sites in the Mars Landing Site Catalog (MLSC) resulted in the selection of 13 as being of exobiological interest. The descriptions of these sites were expanded to address exobiological concerns. An additional five sites were identified for inclusion in the second edition of the MLSC. We plan to broaden our site selection activities to include a systematic global reconnaissance of Mars using Viking data, and will continue to refine site priorities for exobiological research based on data from future missions in order to define strategies for surface exploration.

  7. Hanford site post NPH building inspection plan

    SciTech Connect

    Wagenblast, G.R., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-09-12

    This plan establishes consistent post-NPH building inspection procedures and defines a procedure for prioritization of buildings for inspection to ensure the safety of facilities prior to reentry. Qualification of systems for restart of operation is not included. This plan takes advantage, where possible, of existing national procedures for post-NPH inspection of buildings, of existing structural design and evaluation documentation of Hanford facilities, and current and proposed seismic instrumentation located throughout the Hanford site. A list of buildings, prioritized according to current building safety function and building vulnerability (without regard for or information about a damaging natural forces event) is provided.

  8. SCHOOL SITES. SELECTION AND DEVELOPMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    REIDA, G.W.

    CERTAIN CRITICAL CRITERIA SHOULD BE CONSIDERED IN SELECTING THE SCHOOL SITE. IMPORTANT IS THE STUDY OF SUCH FACTORS AS PRESENT AND PROJECTED PUPIL POPULATION, THE SCHOOL MASTER PLAN, MAIN THOROUGHFARES, DWELLINGS, LAND USE, SOILS, (SHOWN BY SERVICE MAPS), EXISTING SCHOOL FACILITIES AND ATTENDANCE, BOUNDARIES, UTILITY SERVICES AND FLOOD CONTROLS.…

  9. Jamestown: A Site Selection Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Victory, James

    1982-01-01

    Describes a secondary, U.S. history simulation of the settlement of the Jamestown colony. Students are provided with a map and asked to decide where the fort and colony should be set up. They must state reasons for selecting a particular site and reasons for rejecting others. (AM)

  10. 15 CFR 921.11 - Site selection and feasibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... MANAGEMENT NATIONAL ESTUARINE RESEARCH RESERVE SYSTEM REGULATIONS Site Selection, Post Site Selection and... National Estuarine Research Reserve System. NOAA will give priority consideration to proposals to establish... of flora and fauna, and capacity to attract a broad range of research and educational interests....

  11. Viking site selection and certification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masursky, H.; Crabill, N. L.

    1981-01-01

    The landing site selection and certification effort for the Viking mission to Mars is reviewed from the premission phase through the acquisition of data and decisions during mission operations and the immediate postlanding evaluation. The utility and limitations of the orbital television and infrared data and ground based radar observation of candidate and actual landing sites are evaluated. Additional instruments and types of observations which would have been useful include higher resolution cameras, radar altimeters, and terrain hazard avoidance capability in the landing system. Suggestions based on this experience that might be applied to future missions are included.

  12. School Site Selection and Approval Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Div. of School Facilities Planning.

    This guide is designed to assist school districts in selecting school sites that provide both a safe and supportive environment for the instructional program and the learning process, and gain state approval for the selected sites. The guide includes a set of selection criteria that have proven helpful to site selection teams, information about…

  13. Optimizing Site Selection for HEDS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, J. R.

    1999-01-01

    MSP 2001 will be conducting environmental assessment for the Human exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) Program in order to safeguard future human exploration of the planet, in addition to geological studies being addressed by the APEX payload. In particular, the MECA experiment (see other abstracts, this volume), will address chemical toxicity of the soil, the presence of adhesive or abrasive soil dust components, and the geoelectrical-triboelectrical character of the surface environment. The attempt will be to quantify hazards to humans and machinery structures deriving from compounds that poison, corrode, abrade, invade (lungs or machinery), contaminate, or electrically interfere with the human presence. The DART experiment, will also address the size and electrical nature of airborne dust. Photo-imaging of the local scene with RAC and Pancam will be able to assess dust raising events such as local thermal vorticity-driven dust devils. The need to introduce discussion of HEDS landing site requirements stems from potential conflict, but also potential synergism with other '01 site requirements. In-situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) mission components desire as much solar radiation as possible, with some very limited amount of dust available; the planetary-astrobiology mission component desires sufficient rock abundance without inhibiting rover activities (and an interesting geological niche if available), the radiation component may again have special requirements, as will the engineers concerned with mission safety and mission longevity. The '01 mission affords an excellent opportunity to emphasize HEDS landing site requirements, given the constraint that both recent missions (Pathfinder, Mars '98) and future missions (MSP '03 & '05) have had or will have strong geological science drivers in the site selection process. What type of landing site best facilitates investigation of the physical, chemical, and behavioral properties of soil and dust? There are

  14. SCHOOL SITE STANDARDS AND SITE SELECTION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany.

    THIS REPORT PRESENTS ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY SCHOOL SITE DEVELOPMENT DATA COMPILED BY THE DIVISION OF EDUCATIONAL FACILITIES PLANNING, NEW YORK STATE EDUCATION DEPARTMENT. ENROLLMENT FIGURES USED REPRESENT THE ULTIMATE SIZE OF THE SCHOOLS. THE STANDARDS ARE MINIMUM FOR THE STATE OF NEW YORK WITH ELEMENTARY SCHOOL SITES BASED ON THREE ACRES PLUS…

  15. Use of a ground-penetrating radar system to detect pre-and post-flood scour at selected bridge sites in New Hampshire, 1996-98

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olimpio, Joseph R.

    2000-01-01

    Ground-penetrating radar was used to measure the depth and extent of existing and infilled scour holes and previous scour surfaces at seven bridges in New Hampshire from April 1996 to November 1998. Ground-penetrating-radar survey techniques initially were used by the U.S. Geological Survey to study streambed scour at 30 bridges. Sixteen of the 30 bridges were re-surveyed where floods exceeded a 2-year recurrence interval. A 300-megahertz signal was used in the ground-penetrating radar system that penetrated through depths as great as 20 feet of water and as great as 32 feet of streambed materials. Existing scour-hole dimensions, infilled thickness, previous scour surfaces, and streambed materials were detected using ground-penetrating radar. Depths to riprap materials and pier footings were identified and verified with bridge plans. Post data-collection-processing techniques were applied to assist in the interpretation of the data, and the processed data were displayed and printed as line plots. Processing included distance normalization, migration, and filtering but processing was kept to a minimum and some interference from multiple reflections was left in the record. Of the 16 post-flood bridges, 22 ground-penetrating-radar cross sections at 7 bridges were compared and presented in this report. Existing scour holes were detected during 1996 (pre-flood) data collection in nine cross sections where scour depths ranged from 1 to 3 feet. New scour holes were detected during 1998 (post-flood) data collection in four cross sections where scour depths were as great as 4 feet deep. Infilled scour holes were detected in seven cross sections, where depths of infilling ranged from less than 1 to 4 feet. Depth of infilling by means of steel rod and hammer was difficult to verify in the field because of cobble and boulder streambeds or deep water. Previous scour surfaces in streambed materials were identified in 15 cross sections and the depths to these surfaces ranged from

  16. Site Selection for the Southern Utah Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kieda, David; Springer, R. Wayne; Gondolo, Paolo; Lebohec, Stephan; Ricketts, Paul; Zimmer, Chris

    2008-10-01

    During 2007-2008, the University of Utah performed a survey of various high-altitude sites in southern Utah to select the site for the new 32" Southern Utah Observatory telescope. The site survey process consisted of evaluation of weather and climate databases as well as characterization of atmospheric seeing at each site over several months using several automated SBIG Polaris monitors that were deployed at selected sites. In this talk, I will describe the results of the site survey, including atmospheric seeing measurement histories at several potential sites. I will also describe the final selected site and the timeline for construction and operation of the telescope.

  17. SLS Test Stand Site Selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crowe, Kathryn; Williams, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Test site selection is a critical element of the design, development and production of a new system. With the advent of the new Space Launch System (SLS), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) had a number of test site selection decisions that needed to be made early enough in the Program to support the planned Launch Readiness Date (LRD). This case study focuses on decisions that needed to be made in 2011 and 2012 in preparation for the April 2013 DPMC decision about where to execute the Main Propulsion Test that is commonly referred to as "Green Run." Those decisions relied upon cooperative analysis between the Program, the Test Lab and Center Operations. The SLS is a human spaceflight vehicle designed to carry a crew farther into space than humans have previously flown. The vehicle consists of four parts: the crew capsule, the upper stage, the core stage, and the first stage solid rocket boosters. The crew capsule carries the astronauts, while the upper stage, the core stage, and solid rocket boosters provide thrust for the vehicle. In other words, the stages provide the "lift" part of the lift vehicle. In conjunction with the solid rocket boosters, the core stage provides the initial "get-off-the-ground" thrust to the vehicle. The ignition of the four core stage engines and two solid rocket boosters is the first step in the launch portion of the mission. The solid rocket boosters burn out after about 2 minutes of flight, and are then jettisoned. The core stage provides thrust until the vehicle reaches a specific altitude and speed, at which point the core stage is shut off and jettisoned, and the upper stage provides vehicle thrust for subsequent mission trajectories. The integrated core stage primarily consists of a liquid oxygen tank, a liquid hydrogen tank, and the four core stage engines. For the SLS program, four RS-25 engines were selected as the four core stage engines. The RS-25 engine is the same engine that was used for Space

  18. Randomness in post-selected events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phuc Thinh, Le; de la Torre, Gonzalo; Bancal, Jean-Daniel; Pironio, Stefano; Scarani, Valerio

    2016-03-01

    Bell inequality violations can be used to certify private randomness for use in cryptographic applications. In photonic Bell experiments, a large amount of the data that is generated comes from no-detection events and presumably contains little randomness. This raises the question as to whether randomness can be extracted only from the smaller post-selected subset corresponding to proper detection events, instead of from the entire set of data. This could in principle be feasible without opening an analogue of the detection loophole as long as the min-entropy of the post-selected data is evaluated by taking all the information into account, including no-detection events. The possibility of extracting randomness from a short string has a practical advantage, because it reduces the computational time of the extraction. Here, we investigate the above idea in a simple scenario, where the devices and the adversary behave according to i.i.d. strategies. We show that indeed almost all the randomness is present in the pair of outcomes for which at least one detection happened. We further show that in some cases applying a pre-processing on the data can capture features that an analysis based on global frequencies only misses, thus resulting in the certification of more randomness. We then briefly consider non-i.i.d strategies and provide an explicit example of such a strategy that is more powerful than any i.i.d. one even in the asymptotic limit of infinitely many measurement rounds, something that was not reported before in the context of Bell inequalities.

  19. 47 CFR 1.1604 - Post-selection hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Post-selection hearings. 1.1604 Section 1.1604 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Grants by Random Selection Random Selection Procedures for Mass Media Services General Procedures § 1.1604 Post-selection hearings....

  20. 47 CFR 1.1604 - Post-selection hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Post-selection hearings. 1.1604 Section 1.1604 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Random Selection Procedures for Mass Media Services General Procedures § 1.1604 Post-selection hearings. (a) Following the...

  1. 47 CFR 1.1604 - Post-selection hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Post-selection hearings. 1.1604 Section 1.1604 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Random Selection Procedures for Mass Media Services General Procedures § 1.1604 Post-selection hearings. (a) Following the...

  2. KAUAI COMMUNITY COLLEGE, SITE SELECTION REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MOGI, HITOSHI

    THIS STUDY WAS UNDERTAKEN TO AID IN THE SELECTION OF A MORE SUITABLE SITE FOR THE KAUAI COMMUNITY COLLEGE. FOURTEEN SITES FULFILLED THE GENERAL SIZE, ENVIRONMENT AND ADATABILITY REQUIREMENTS. THE SCREENING CRITERIA APPLIED TO THESE SITES WERE ACCESSIBILITY, ENVIRONMENT, ECONOMY IN DEVELOPMENT, AND POSSIBILITY FOR FUTURE EXPANSION. THE RECOMMENDED…

  3. Multiply enhanced site selective CARS spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steehler, J. K.; Wright, J. C.

    1985-10-01

    Three tunable lasers are used to perform site selective coherent anti-Stokes Raman (CARS) spectroscopy in pentacene:p-terphenyl crystals at 2 K. The vibrational and vibronic levels of pentacene in the individual substitutional sites of p-terphenyl can be selectively examined by matching the resonances of a particular site. The signals from a site and the selectivity between sites are much higher than CARS performed with two tunable lasers. The spectra are dominated by lines from processes where the vibrational and vibronic states involved in the four-wave mixing are associated with the same molecular mode. There are also important lines from processes where different vibrational and vibronic modes are involved in the nonlinear mixing. The intensities of lines from the resonant site are strongly dependent on the laser energy because of saturation of the electronic transition.

  4. 7 CFR 4280.48 - Post selection period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Post selection period. 4280.48 Section 4280.48... Grant Programs § 4280.48 Post selection period. Rural Development will notify the Intermediary in... agreement with general terms and conditions; (3) A note covering the repayment terms of the loan; and (4)...

  5. 7 CFR 4280.48 - Post selection period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Post selection period. 4280.48 Section 4280.48... Grant Programs § 4280.48 Post selection period. Rural Development will notify the Intermediary in... agreement with general terms and conditions; (3) A note covering the repayment terms of the loan; and (4)...

  6. 7 CFR 4280.48 - Post selection period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Post selection period. 4280.48 Section 4280.48... Grant Programs § 4280.48 Post selection period. Rural Development will notify the Intermediary in... agreement with general terms and conditions; (3) A note covering the repayment terms of the loan; and (4)...

  7. 7 CFR 4280.48 - Post selection period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Post selection period. 4280.48 Section 4280.48... Grant Programs § 4280.48 Post selection period. Rural Development will notify the Intermediary in... agreement with general terms and conditions; (3) A note covering the repayment terms of the loan; and (4)...

  8. 7 CFR 4280.48 - Post selection period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Post selection period. 4280.48 Section 4280.48... Grant Programs § 4280.48 Post selection period. Rural Development will notify the Intermediary in... agreement with general terms and conditions; (3) A note covering the repayment terms of the loan; and (4)...

  9. Students and Social Networking Sites: The Posting Paradox

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Robert; Parsons, Kristine; Lifer, David

    2010-01-01

    This article reports the results of a field study in which undergraduate students were questioned about their use of social networking sites and the appropriateness of the content that they post. The responses indicate that students routinely post content that they realise is not appropriate for all audiences, especially potential employers.…

  10. Selectivity of docking sites in MAPK kinases.

    PubMed

    Bardwell, A Jane; Frankson, Erlynn; Bardwell, Lee

    2009-05-01

    Protein kinases often recognize their substrates and regulators through docking interactions that occur outside of the active site; these interactions can help us to understand kinase networks, and to target kinases with drugs. During mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling, the ability of MAPK kinases (MKKs, or MEKs) to recognize their cognate MAPKs is facilitated by a short docking motif (the D-site) in the MKK N terminus, which binds to a complementary region on the MAPK. MAPKs then recognize many of their targets using the same strategy, because many MAPK substrates also contain D-sites. The extent to which docking contributes to the specificity of MAPK transactions is incompletely understood. Here we characterize the selectivity of the interaction between MKK-derived D-sites and MAPKs by measuring the ability of D-site peptides to inhibit MAPK-mediated phosphorylation of D-site-containing substrates. We find that all MKK D-sites bind better to their cognate MAPKs than they do to non-cognate MAPKs. For instance, the MKK3 D-site peptide, which is a remarkably potent inhibitor of p38alpha (IC(50) < 10 nm), does not inhibit JNK1 or JNK2. Likewise, MAPKs generally bind as well or better to cognate D-sites than to non-cognate D-sites. For instance, JNK1 and JNK2 do not appreciably bind to any D-sites other than their cognate D-sites from MKK4 and MKK7. In general, cognate, within-pathway interactions are preferred about an order of magnitude over non-cognate interactions. However, the selectivity of MAPKs and their cognate MKK-derived D-sites for each other is limited in some cases; in particular, ERK2 is not very selective. We conclude that MAPK-docking sites in MAPK kinases bind selectively to their cognate MAPKs. PMID:19196711

  11. 32 CFR 644.22 - Site selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... HANDBOOK Project Planning Military (army and Air Force) and Other Federal Agencies § 644.22 Site selection... Engineer to prepare a Real Estate Planning Report or Real Estate Summary, making reference to the...

  12. DAPPLE 2: a Tool for the Homology-Based Prediction of Post-Translational Modification Sites.

    PubMed

    Trost, Brett; Maleki, Farhad; Kusalik, Anthony; Napper, Scott

    2016-08-01

    The post-translational modification of proteins is critical for regulating their function. Although many post-translational modification sites have been experimentally determined, particularly in certain model organisms, experimental knowledge of these sites is severely lacking for many species. Thus, it is important to be able to predict sites of post-translational modification in such species. Previously, we described DAPPLE, a tool that facilitates the homology-based prediction of one particular post-translational modification, phosphorylation, in an organism of interest using known phosphorylation sites from other organisms. Here, we describe DAPPLE 2, which expands and improves upon DAPPLE in three major ways. First, it predicts sites for many post-translational modifications (20 different types) using data from several sources (15 online databases). Second, it has the ability to make predictions approximately 2-7 times faster than DAPPLE depending on the database size and the organism of interest. Third, it simplifies and accelerates the process of selecting predicted sites of interest by categorizing them based on gene ontology terms, keywords, and signaling pathways. We show that DAPPLE 2 can successfully predict known human post-translational modification sites using, as input, known sites from species that are either closely (e.g., mouse) or distantly (e.g., yeast) related to humans. DAPPLE 2 can be accessed at http://saphire.usask.ca/saphire/dapple2 . PMID:27367363

  13. Strategy for selecting Mars Pathfinder landing sites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeley, Ronald; Kuzmin, Ruslin O.

    1994-01-01

    A strategy for Pathfinder site selection must be developed that is fundamentally different from most previous considerations. At least two approaches can be identified. In one approach, the objective is to select a site representing a key geologic unit on Mars, i.e., a unit that is widespread, easily recognized, and used frequently as a datum in various investigations. The second approach is to select a site that potentially affords access to a wide variety of rock types. Because rover range is limited, rocks from a variety of sources must be assembled in a small area for sampling. Regardless of the approach taken in site selection, the Pathfinder site should include eolian deposits and provisions should be made to obtain measurements on soils. A recommended approach for selecting the Mars Pathfinder landing site is to identify a deltaic deposit, composed of sediments derived from sources of various ages and geologic units that shows evidence of eolian activity. The site should be located as close as possible to the part of the outwash where rapid deposition occurred because the likelihood of 'sorting' by size and composition increases with distance, decreasing the probability of heterogeneity. In addition, it is recommended that field operation tests be conducted to gain experience and insight into conducting science with Pathfinder.

  14. Electronic Tuning of Site-Selectivity

    PubMed Central

    Wilcock, Brandon C.; Uno, Brice E.; Bromann, Gretchen L.; Clark, Matthew J.; Anderson, Thomas M.; Burke, Martin D.

    2012-01-01

    Site-selective functionalizations of complex small molecules can generate targeted derivatives with exceptional step-efficiency, but general strategies for maximizing selectivity in this context are rare. Here we report that site-selectivity can be tuned by simply modifying the electronic nature of the reagents. A Hammett analysis is consistent with linking of this phenomenon to the Hammond postulate: electronic tuning to a more product-like transition state amplifies site-discriminating interactions between a reagent and its substrate. This strategy transformed a minimally site-selective acylation reaction into a highly selective and thus preparatively useful one. Electronic tuning of both an acylpyridinium donor and its carboxylate counterion further promoted site-divergent functionalizations. With these advances, a range of modifications to just one of the many hydroxyl groups appended to the ion channel-forming natural product amphotericin B was achieved. Thus, electronic tuning of reagents represents an effective strategy for discovering and optimizing site-selective functionalization reactions. PMID:23174979

  15. Electronic tuning of site-selectivity.

    PubMed

    Wilcock, Brandon C; Uno, Brice E; Bromann, Gretchen L; Clark, Matthew J; Anderson, Thomas M; Burke, Martin D

    2012-12-01

    Site-selective functionalizations of complex small molecules can generate targeted derivatives with exceptional step efficiency, but general strategies for maximizing selectivity in this context are rare. Here, we report that site-selectivity can be tuned by simply modifying the electronic nature of the reagents. A Hammett analysis is consistent with linking this phenomenon to the Hammond postulate: electronic tuning to a more product-like transition state amplifies site-discriminating interactions between a reagent and its substrate. This strategy transformed a minimally site-selective acylation reaction into a highly selective and thus preparatively useful one. Electronic tuning of both an acylpyridinium donor and its carboxylate counterion further promoted site-divergent functionalizations. With these advances, we achieve a range of modifications to just one of the many hydroxyl groups appended to the ion channel-forming natural product amphotericin B. Thus, electronic tuning of reagents represents an effective strategy for discovering and optimizing site-selective functionalization reactions. PMID:23174979

  16. Birds of the Hanford site: nest site selection

    SciTech Connect

    Rickard, W.H.; Fitzner, R.E.

    1983-03-01

    At least 62 species of birds regularly nest on the 1400 km/sup 2/ Hanford Site in the semi-arid interior of southcentral Washington. Birds showed nesting preferences for different kinds of vegetation, special natural landscape features and certain kinds of man-made structures. Vegetational nest site preferences were categorized as shrubsteppe, natural coppice, planted trees and cattail-reed marsh. The nonvegetational nest-site preferences were categorized as cliff, rock talus, riverine islands and industrial structures. Natural coppice vegetation was preferred by colorful passerine birds. Planted trees were selected by raptors, crows, ravens, herons and magpies. Shrubsteppe plant communities occupy most of the land area of the Hanford Site; only thirteen species of birds chose to nest in them. Nest-site selection by birds can be used for wildlife mitigation practices associated with the siting, construction and operation of energy related industries on the Hanford Site and in other undeveloped semi-arid regions in the western United States. 22 references, 5 figures, 2 tables.

  17. The Viking landing sites: Selection and certification

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Masursky, H.; Crabill, N.L.

    1976-01-01

    During the past several years the Viking project developed plans to use Viking orbiter instruments and Earth-based radar to certify the suitability of the landing sites selected as the safest and most scientifically rewarding using Mariner 9 data. During June and July 1976, the Earth-based radar and orbital spacecraft observations of some of the prime and backup sites were completed. The results of these combined observations indicated that the Viking 1 prime landing area in the Chryse region of Mars is geologically varied and possibly more hazardous than expected, and was not certifiable as a site for the Viking 1 landing. Consequently, the site certification effort had to be drastically modified and lengthened to search for a site that might be safe enough to attempt to land. The selected site considered at 47.5??W,22.4??N represented a compromise between desirable characteristics observed with visual images and those inferred from Earth-based radar. It lies in the Chryse region about 900 kilometers northwest of the original site. Viking 1 landed successfully at this site on 20 July 1976.

  18. Lunar resource evaluation and mine site selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bence, A. Edward

    1992-01-01

    Two scenarios in this evaluation of lunar mineral resources and the selection of possible mining and processing sites are considered. The first scenario assumes that no new surface or near-surface data will be available before site selection (presumably one of the Apollo sites). The second scenario assumes that additional surface geology data will have been obtained by a lunar orbiter mission, an unmanned sample return mission (or missions), and followup manned missions. Regardless of the scenario, once a potentially favorable mine site has been identified, a minimum amount of fundamental data is needed to assess the resources at that site and to evaluate its suitability for mining and downstream processing. Since much of the required data depends on the target mineral(s), information on the resource, its beneficiation, and the refining, smelting, and fabricating processes must be factored into the evaluation. The annual capacity and producing lifetime of the mine and its associated processing plant must be estimated before the resource reserves can be assessed. The available market for the product largely determines the capacity and lifetime of the mine. The Apollo 17 site is described as a possible mining site. The use of new sites is briefly addressed.

  19. A perspective of landing-site selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Henry J.

    1994-01-01

    The problems that now confront Mars Pathfinder are much the same as those that confronted Viking, but more and better information exists today. Like Viking, Mars Pathfinder must select a landing site compatible with lander and rover designs as evidenced by available data (Viking images, radar and thermal observations, albedo and color observations, visible-infrared spectra, etc.). Most regions at low elevations probably contain favorable sites, but some sites at low elevations with weak quasispecular echoes and low thermal inertias may be unfavorable.

  20. Crustal dynamics project site selection criteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allenby, R.

    1983-01-01

    The criteria for selecting site locations and constructing observing pads and monuments for the Mobile VLB1 and the satellite laser ranging systems used in the NASA/GSFC Crustal Dynamics Project are discussed. Gross system characteristics (size, shape, weight, power requirement, foot prints, etc.) are given for the Moblas, MV-1 through 3, TLRS-1 through 4 and Series instruments.

  1. Human telomeric proteins occupy selective interstitial sites

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Dong; Xiong, Yuanyan; Kim, Hyeung; He, Quanyuan; Li, Yumei; Chen, Rui; Songyang, Zhou

    2011-01-01

    Human telomeres are bound and protected by protein complexes assembled around the six core telomeric proteins RAP1, TRF1, TRF2, TIN2, TPP1, and POT1. The function of these proteins on telomeres has been studied extensively. Recently, increasing evidence has suggested possible roles for these proteins outside of telomeres. However, the non-canonical (extra-telomeric) function of human telomeric proteins remains poorly understood. To this end, we systematically investigated the binding sites of telomeric proteins along human chromosomes, by performing whole-genome chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) for RAP1 and TRF2. ChIP sequencing (ChIP-seq) revealed that RAP1 and TRF2 could be found on a small number of interstitial sites, including regions that are proximal to genes. Some of these binding sites contain short telomere repeats, suggesting that telomeric proteins could directly bind to interstitial sites. Interestingly, only a small fraction of the available interstitial telomere repeat-containing regions were occupied by RAP1 and TRF2. Ectopically expressed TRF2 was able to occupy additional interstitial telomere repeat sites, suggesting that protein concentration may dictate the selective targeting of telomeric proteins to interstitial sites. Reducing RAP1 and TRF2 expression by RNA interference led to altered transcription of RAP1- and TRF2-targeted genes. Our results indicate that human telomeric proteins could occupy a limited number of interstitial sites and regulate gene transcription. PMID:21423278

  2. Texas site selection and licensing status

    SciTech Connect

    Avant, R.V. Jr.

    1989-11-01

    Texas has identified a potential site in Hudspeth County in far West Texas near the town of Fort Hancock. Over the past year the Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority has been conducting detailed geology, hydrology, meteorology, soils, and flora and fauna evaluations. An authorization by the Board of Directors of the Authority to proceed with a license application, assuming that the detailed evaluation indicates that the site is suitable, is expected by September. A prototype license has been prepared in anticipation of the order to proceed with licensing, and the formal license application is expected to be submitted to the Texas Department of Health-Bureau of Radiation Control in December, meeting the license application milestone. Although site selection processes in all siting areas across the country have experienced organized opposition, El Paso County has funded a particularly well-organized, well-financed program to legally and technically stop consideration of the Fort Hancock site prior to the licensing process. Many procedural, regulatory, and technical issues have been raised which have required responses from the Authority in order to proceed with licensing. This has provided a unique perspective of what to expect from well-organized opposition at the licensing stage. This paper presents an update on the Texas siting activity with detailed information on the site evaluation and license application. Experience of dealing with issues raised by opposition relating to NRC guidelines and rules is also discussed.

  3. Selection of the Mars Pathfinder landing site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golombek, M. P.; Cook, R. A.; Moore, H. J.; Parker, T. J.

    1997-02-01

    The Mars Pathfinder spacecraft will land on a depositional fan near the mouth of the catastrophic outflow channel, Ares Vallis (19.5°N, 32.8°W). This site offers the prospect of analyzing a variety of rock types from the ancient cratered highlands, intermediate-age ridged plains, and reworked channel deposits. Analyses of these rocks by Pathfinder instruments will enable first-order scientific questions to be addressed, such as differentiation of the crust, the development of weathering products, and the nature of the early environment, as well as their subsequent evolution on Mars. Constraints imposed by (1) spacecraft and rover designs (which are robust), (2) entry, descent, and landing, (3) scientific potential at various sites, and (4) safety were important considerations in site selection. Engineering constraints require a 70 km by 200 km smooth, flat (low slopes) area located between 10° and 20°N that is below 0 km elevation, with average radar reflectivity, little dust, and moderate rock abundance. Three regions on Mars are between 10° and 20°N and below 0 km elevation: Chryse, Amazonis, and Isidis-Elysium. Science considerations favor sites at the mouths of outflow channels (grab bag sites offer an assay of rock types on Mars), highland sites (early crustal differentiation and climate), and sites covered with dark (unoxidized) material. Sites are considered safe if they are clearly below 0 km elevation, appear acceptably free of hazards in high-resolution (<50m/pixel) Viking orbiter images and have acceptable reflectivity and roughness at radar wavelengths, thermal inertia, rock abundance, red to violet ratio, and albedo. Recent 3.5-cm wavelength radar observations were used to verify elevation, reflectivity, and roughness within the landing ellipses. Three sites meet all of these criteria: Ares Vallis, Tritonis Lacus, and Isidis. Although Isidis appears to be safer than Tritonis and Ares, the greater scientific potential at Ares Vallis resulted in

  4. 40 CFR 146.93 - Post-injection site care and site closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Post-injection site care and site closure. 146.93 Section 146.93 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAM: CRITERIA AND STANDARDS Criteria and Standards Applicable to Class VI Wells §...

  5. Site selection for fat autotransplantation: some observations.

    PubMed

    Hudson, D A; Lambert, E V; Bloch, C E

    1990-01-01

    The use of autologous fat for implantation has recently received renewed attention in the plastic surgery literature. Autologous fat reportedly has been used for the treatment of wrinkles and Romberg's disease, and for buttock and breast augmentation. While some measure of success has been achieved, many surgeons report that substantial resorption of fat tissue occurs at the site of implantation. There is lack of unanimity regarding the ideal site for extraction or injection in order to minimize fat resorption. Adipose tissue samples were taken from women undergoing surgical procedures on the abdomen, gluteal-femoral region, and breast. Facial adipose tissue samples from men and women were also analyzed. Adipocytes were isolated chemically and sized microscopically. Activity of the lipogenic enzyme adipose tissue lipoprotein lipase (ATLPL) was measured in frozen samples. Results suggest that femoral site samples are somewhat larger (NS) and have greater lipogenic activity (p less than 0.03) than other sites. In our study, small facial samples had very low or unmeasurable levels of ATLPL activity. Perhaps cell size and lipogenic activity should be considered when selecting tissues for autotransplantation. PMID:2399850

  6. Site-selective chemical cleavage of peptide bonds.

    PubMed

    Elashal, Hader E; Raj, Monika

    2016-05-01

    Site-selective cleavage of extremely unreactive peptide bonds is a very important chemical modification that provides invaluable information regarding protein sequence, and it acts as a modulator of protein structure and function for therapeutic applications. For controlled and selective cleavage, a daunting task, chemical reagents must selectively recognize or bind to one or more amino acid residues in the peptide chain and selectively cleave a peptide bond. Building on this principle, we have developed an approach that utilizes a chemical reagent to selectively modify the serine residue in a peptide chain and leads to the cleavage of a peptide backbone at the N-terminus of the serine residue. After cleavage, modified residues can be converted back to the original fragments. This method exhibits broad substrate scope and selectively cleaves various bioactive peptides with post-translational modifications (e.g. N-acetylation and -methylation) and mutations (d- and β-amino acids), which are a known cause of age related diseases. PMID:27087443

  7. Atmospheric Constraints on Landing Site Selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kass, David M.; Schofield, J. T.

    2001-01-01

    The Martian atmosphere is a significant part of the environment that the Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) will encounter. As such, it imposes important constraints on where the rovers can and cannot land. Unfortunately, as there are no meteorological instruments on the rovers, there is little atmospheric science that can be accomplished, and no scientific preference for landing sites. The atmosphere constrains landing site selection in two main areas, the entry descent and landing (EDL) process and the survivability of the rovers on the surface. EDL is influenced by the density profile and boundary layer winds (up to altitudes of 5 to 10 km). Surface survivability involves atmospheric dust, temperatures and winds. During EDL, the atmosphere is used to slow the lander down, both ballistically and on the parachute. This limits the maximum elevation of the landing site to -1.3 km below the MOLA reference aeroid. The landers need to encounter a sufficiently dense atmosphere to be able to stop, and the deeper the landing site, the more column integrated atmosphere the lander can pass through before reaching the surface. The current limit was determined both by a desire to be able to reach the hematite region and by a set of atmosphere models we developed for EDL simulations. These are based on Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) atmospheric profile measurements, Ames Mars General Circulation Model (MGCM) results, and the 1-D Ames GCM radiative/convective model by J. Murphy. The latter is used for the near surface diurnal cycle. The current version of our model encompasses representative latitude bands, but we intend to make specific models for the final candidate landing sites to insure that they fall within the general envelope. The second constraint imposed on potential landing sites through the EDL process is the near surface wind. The wind in the lower approximately 5 km determines the horizontal velocity that the landers have when they land. Due to the mechanics of

  8. High Altitude Ballooning and Site Selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metcalf, John

    2008-10-01

    High altitude ballooning provides a near-space platform for amateur research projects in science and engineering. This venue allows new experiments, otherwise not conducted from costs or lack of transportation, from WSU and surrounding areas to be flown into the upper atmosphere. A highly skilled and motivated group of scientist and engineering students from WSU have contrived its own high altitude balloon to lift payload capsules filled with experiments and tracking equipment up to 120,000 feet where it then bursts and payload capsules are parachuted into a landing zone. Launch site selection is based upon the safety of those that come within the balloons projected flight path and terrain accessibility from the launch and landing zones. Restricted ground and airspace, mountainous regions, lakes and rivers, and densely populated or high air traffic areas were obstacles to be avoided. Computer flight simulations and region analysis show that there are several viable launch and recovery sites in Utah as well as SE Idaho, SW Wyoming, and NW Colorado.

  9. 40 CFR 228.6 - Specific criteria for site selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Specific criteria for site selection. 228.6 Section 228.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING CRITERIA FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF DISPOSAL SITES FOR OCEAN DUMPING § 228.6 Specific criteria for site selection. (a) In the selection of...

  10. Chemosensory Cues for Mosquito Oviposition Site Selection.

    PubMed

    Afify, Ali; Galizia, C Giovanni

    2015-03-01

    Gravid mosquitoes use chemosensory (olfactory, gustatory, or both) cues to select oviposition sites suitable for their offspring. In nature, these cues originate from plant infusions, microbes, mosquito immature stages, and predators. While attractants and stimulants are cues that could show the availability of food (plant infusions and microbes) and suitable conditions (the presence of conspecifics), repellents and deterrents show the risk of predation, infection with pathogens, or strong competition. Many studies have addressed the question of which substances can act as positive or negative cues in different mosquito species, with sometimes apparently contradicting results. These studies often differ in species, substance concentration, and other experimental details, making it difficult to compare the results. In this review, we compiled the available information for a wide range of species and substances, with particular attention to cues originating from larval food, immature stages, predators, and to synthetic compounds. We note that the effect of many substances differs between species, and that many substances have been tested in few species only, revealing that the information is scattered across species, substances, and experimental conditions. PMID:26336295

  11. Spatially-Correlated Risk in Nature Reserve Site Selection

    PubMed Central

    Albers, Heidi J.; Busby, Gwenlyn M.; Hamaide, Bertrand; Ando, Amy W.; Polasky, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Establishing nature reserves protects species from land cover conversion and the resulting loss of habitat. Even within a reserve, however, many factors such as fires and defoliating insects still threaten habitat and the survival of species. To address the risk to species survival after reserve establishment, reserve networks can be created that allow some redundancy of species coverage to maximize the expected number of species that survive in the presence of threats. In some regions, however, the threats to species within a reserve may be spatially correlated. As examples, fires, diseases, and pest infestations can spread from a starting point and threaten neighboring parcels’ habitats, in addition to damage caused at the initial location. This paper develops a reserve site selection optimization framework that compares the optimal reserve networks in cases where risks do and do not reflect spatial correlation. By exploring the impact of spatially-correlated risk on reserve networks on a stylized landscape and on an Oregon landscape, this analysis demonstrates an appropriate and feasible method for incorporating such post-reserve establishment risks in the reserve site selection literature as an additional tool to be further developed for future conservation planning. PMID:26789127

  12. Spatially-Correlated Risk in Nature Reserve Site Selection.

    PubMed

    Albers, Heidi J; Busby, Gwenlyn M; Hamaide, Bertrand; Ando, Amy W; Polasky, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Establishing nature reserves protects species from land cover conversion and the resulting loss of habitat. Even within a reserve, however, many factors such as fires and defoliating insects still threaten habitat and the survival of species. To address the risk to species survival after reserve establishment, reserve networks can be created that allow some redundancy of species coverage to maximize the expected number of species that survive in the presence of threats. In some regions, however, the threats to species within a reserve may be spatially correlated. As examples, fires, diseases, and pest infestations can spread from a starting point and threaten neighboring parcels' habitats, in addition to damage caused at the initial location. This paper develops a reserve site selection optimization framework that compares the optimal reserve networks in cases where risks do and do not reflect spatial correlation. By exploring the impact of spatially-correlated risk on reserve networks on a stylized landscape and on an Oregon landscape, this analysis demonstrates an appropriate and feasible method for incorporating such post-reserve establishment risks in the reserve site selection literature as an additional tool to be further developed for future conservation planning. PMID:26789127

  13. Site Selection for Mars Exopaleontology in 2001

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farmer, Jack

    1998-01-01

    The microbial fossil record encompasses a wide range of information, including cellular remains, stromatolites, biofabrics, trace fossils, biominerals and chemofossils. The preservation of fossils is strongly influenced by the physical, chemical and biological factors of the environment which, acting together, ultimately determine the types of information that will be captured and retained in the rock record. The critical factor in assessing the suitability of a site for a microbial fossil record is the paleoenvironment. The reconstruction of ancient sedimentary environments usually requires the integration of a wide variety of geological information, including the shape, geometry and internal structure of sedimentary deposits, their mineralogy, and geochemistry. For Mars, much of our knowledge about past environments is based on orbital imaging of geomorphic features. This evidence provides an important context and starting point for site selection. However, our knowledge of the martian surface is quite limited, and a major goal of the upcoming exploration effort is to reconstruct the history of Martian volatiles, climate, and hydrology as a context for the exploration for past or present life. Mineralogical mapping from orbit will be an important key in this effort. In exploring for evidence of past life, terrestrial experience suggests that the long-term preservation of biological information as fossils occurs under a fairly narrow range of geological conditions that are well known to paleontologists (1). In detrital sedimentary systems, microbial fossilization is favored by rapid burial in fine-grained, clay-rich sediments. In chemical sedimentary systems, preservation is enhanced by rapid entombment in fine-grained chemical precipitates. For long term preservation, host rocks must be composed of stable minerals that resist chemical weathering, and which form an impermeable matrix and closed chemical system that can protect biosignatures from alteration during

  14. Early Site Permit Demonstration Program: Siting Guide, Site selection and evaluation criteria for an early site permit application. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-24

    In August 1991, the Joint Contractors came to agreement with Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the Department of Energy (DOE) on a workscope for the cost-shared Early Site Permit Demonstration Program. One task within the scope was the development of a guide for site selection criteria and procedures. A generic Siting Guide his been prepared that is a roadmap and tool for applicants to use developing detailed siting plans for their specific region of the country. The guide presents three fundamental principles that, if used, ensure a high degree of success for an ESP applicant. First, the site selection process should take into consideration environmentally diverse site locations within a given region of interest. Second, the process should contain appropriate opportunities for input from the public. Third, the process should be applied so that it is clearly reasonable to an impartial observer, based on appropriately selected criteria, including criteria which demonstrate that the site can host an advanced light water reactor (ALWR). The Siting Guide provides for a systematic, comprehensive site selection process in which three basic types of criteria (exclusionary, avoidance, and suitability) are presented via a four-step procedure. It provides a check list of the criteria for each one of these steps. Criteria are applied qualitatively, as well as presented numerically, within the guide. The applicant should use the generic guide as an exhaustive checklist, customizing the guide to his individual situation.

  15. A Guide to School Site Selection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia State Dept. of Education, Atlanta. Facilities Services Unit.

    This report presents the guidelines for site evaluation and approval as mandated by the state of Georgia. This guide may be used by the School Site Approval Committee when making school site evaluations for official approval, and also may be used by local school systems as they make preliminary determinations regarding the acceptability of school…

  16. 20 CFR 638.303 - Site selection and facilities management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Site selection and facilities management. 638.303 Section 638.303 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR JOB CORPS PROGRAM UNDER TITLE IV-B OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Funding, Site Selection, and Facilities Management § 638.303 Site...

  17. 20 CFR 638.303 - Site selection and facilities management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Site selection and facilities management. 638.303 Section 638.303 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR JOB CORPS PROGRAM UNDER TITLE IV-B OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Funding, Site Selection, and Facilities Management § 638.303 Site...

  18. Selecting the Right Site: 10 Considerations to Chart the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boehlke, Mark S.

    2013-01-01

    When considering a new school construction project, the site selection and evaluation process is a critical step in early planning. Selecting the right site is paramount to the project and can have a major impact on the outcome of a referendum. Careful consideration and thoughtful attention to site-related issues and details can set the course not…

  19. Infiltration and soil erosion modelling on Lausatian post mine sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunth, Franziska; Schmidt, Jürgen

    2013-04-01

    Land management of reclaimed lignite mine sites requires long-term and safe structuring of recultivation areas. Erosion by water leads to explicit soil losses, especially on heavily endangered water repellent and non-vegetated soil surfaces. Beyond that, weathering of pyrite-containing lignite burden dumps causes sulfuric acid-formation, and hence the acidification of groundwater, seepage water and surface waters. Pyrite containing sediment is detached by precipitation and transported into worked-out open cuts by draining runoff. In addition to ground water influence, erosion processes are therefore involved in acidification of surface waters. A model-based approach for the conservation of man-made slopes of post mining sites is the objective of this ongoing study. The study shall be completed by modeling of the effectiveness of different mine site recultivation scenarios. Erosion risks on man-made slopes in recultivation areas should be determined by applying the physical, raster- and event based computer model EROSION 2D/3D (Schmidt, 1991, 1992; v. Werner, 1995). The widely used erosion model is able to predict runoff as well as detachment, transport and deposition of sediments. Lignite burden dumps contain hydrophobic substances that cover soil particles. Consequently, these soils show strong water repellency, which influences the processes of infiltration and soil erosion on non-vegetated, coal containing dump soils. The influence of water repellency had to be implemented into EROSION 2D/3D. Required input data for soil erosion modelling (e.g. physical soil parameters, infiltration rates, calibration factors, etc.) were gained by soil sampling and rainfall experiments on non-vegetated as well as recultivated reclaimed mine sites in the Lusatia lignite mining region (southeast of Berlin, Germany). The measured infiltration rates on the non-vegetated water repellent sites were extremely low. Therefore, a newly developed water repellency-factor was applied to

  20. Factors concerned with sanitary landfill site selection: General discussion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graff, W. J.; Stone, L. J.

    1972-01-01

    A general view of factors affecting site selection for sanitary landfill sites is presented. Examinations were made of operational methods, possible environment pollution, types of waste to be disposed, base and cover materials, and the economics involved in the operation.

  1. 20 CFR 638.303 - Site selection and facilities management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... center, facilities engineering and real estate management will be conducted by the Job Corps Director or... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Site selection and facilities management. 638... Facilities Management § 638.303 Site selection and facilities management. (a) The Job Corps Director...

  2. THE SCHOOL SITE--ITS SELECTION, ANALYSIS, DEVELOPMENT AND MAINTENANCE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BRUNING, WALTER F.

    SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS AND COMMUNITY PLANNERS CAN AID THE SCHOOL SITE SELECTION PROCESS BY WORKING TOGETHER ON A COMMUNITY MASTER PLAN. MANY COMMUNITIES HAVE DEVELOPED SUCH A PLAN UNDER THE STATE AND FEDERALLY AIDED 701 PROGRAM. SOUND SITE SELECTION PRINCIPLES REQUIRE CONSIDERATION OF OTHER FACTORS THAN STUDENT POPULATION DISTRIBUTION. IDEALLY…

  3. CONTAMINANTS AND REMEDIAL OPTIONS AT SELECTED METAL-CONTAMINATED SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document provides information that facilitates characterization of the site and selection of treatment technologies at metals-contaminated sites that would be capable of meeting site-specific cleanup levels. he document does not facilitate the determination of cleanup levels...

  4. Trocars: Site Selection, Instrumentation, and Overcoming Complications.

    PubMed

    Gaunay, Geoffrey S; Elsamra, Sammy E; Richstone, Lee

    2016-08-01

    In recent years, laparoscopy and robot-assisted procedures have become more commonplace in urology. Incorporation of these techniques into clinical practice requires extensive knowledge of the surgical approaches and complex instrumentation unique to minimally invasive surgery. In this review, focus will be directed to laparoscopic trocars including differing subtypes, placement in select urologic procedures, and proper use with emphasis on the avoidance of complications. Differing methods for the development of pneumoperitoneum and the associated risks of each will be discussed. The aim of this article is to provide a complete review of laparoscopic trocar use for the practicing urologist. PMID:27203364

  5. Site selection and licensing issues: Southwest Compact low-level radioactive waste disposal site

    SciTech Connect

    Grant, J.L.

    1989-11-01

    The low-level radioactive waste disposal site in California is being selected through a three-phase program. Phase 1 is a systematic statewide, regional, and local screening study. This program was conducted during 1986 and 1987, and culminated in the selection of three candidate sites fur further study. The candidate sites are identified as the Panamint, Silurian, and Ward Valley sites. Phase 2 comprises site characterization and environmental and socio-economic impact study activities at the three candidate sites. Based upon the site characterization studies, the candidate sites are ranked according to the desirability and conformance with regulatory requirements. Phase 3 comprises preparation of a license application for the selected candidate site. The license application will include a detailed characterization of the site, detailed design and operations plans for the proposed facility, and assessments of potential impacts of the site upon the environment and the local communities. Five types of siting criteria were developed to govern the site selection process. These types are: technical suitability exclusionary criteria, high-avoidance criteria beyond technical suitability requirements, discretionary criteria, public acceptance, and schedule requirements of the LLWR Policy Act Amendments. This paper discusses the application of the hydrological and geotechnical criteria during the siting and licensing studies in California. These criteria address site location and performance, and the degree to which present and future site behavior can be predicted. Primary regulatory requirements governing the suitability of a site are that the site must be hydrologically and geologically simple enough for the confident prediction of future behavior, and that the site must be stable enough that frequent or intensive maintenance of the closed site will not be required. This paper addresses the methods to measure site suitability at each stage of the process, methods to

  6. Site selection and containment evaluation for LLNL nuclear events

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, C.W.

    1993-06-01

    During approximately the past decade, the site selection process at LLNL has evolved as the Test Program needs and resources have changed, containment practices have been modified, and the DOE and other regulatory agencies have become more restrictive. Throughout this period the Containment Program and the Field Operations Program at LLNL have managed a cooperative effort to improve site selection. The site selection process actually is three inter-related tasks, namely, selection of a stockpile hole for a specific nuclear test, selection of a drill site for a stockpile hole, and selection of a new drill site for a specific test. Each proposed site is carefully reviewed for known or projected geologic structure and medium properties, nearby holes, containment experience in the region, likelihood of drilling problems, programmatic need for a given depth of hole, and scheduling of Test Program events and resources. By using our data bank, our general knowledge of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) geology, and other information sources, as well as our background in drilling large diameter holes at the NTS, we have been able to optimize our use of NTS real estate and programmatic resources. The containment evaluation of a site is facilitated by considering the location before the hole is drilled. Discuss imposed restraints and our criteria and guidelines for site selection and assignment of events to specific holes, along with the factors that influence selection of a Working Point (WP) depth. Since siting and containment evaluation are strongly related, most major factors related to the containment evaluation process will also be reviewed.

  7. Solar energy recorder. [for converter site selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lollar, R. B.; Mandt, R. R.

    1974-01-01

    A serious obstacle to the large-scale terrestrial application of solar energy lies in the scarcity of reliable data on the amount of solar energy at candidate converter sites. This paper describes a system designed to monitor and record, automatically, the values of the direct and total (sun and sky) solar radiation which would be seen by either tracking or fixed-type solar converters. A further pressing need addressed by the system is the means for efficiency testing and evaluation of solar cells, solar collectors and solar concentrator systems, under outdoor exposure to natural sunlight and weather conditions for extended periods. The design was accomplished in support of the Marshall Space Flight Center, NASA, where design concepts and materials for large-scale terrestrial solar energy converters are currently being evaluated.

  8. History of the production complex: The methods of site selection

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-09-01

    Experience taught the Atomic Energy Commission how to select the best possible sites for its production facilities. AEC officials learned from the precedents set by the wartime Manhattan Project and from their own mistakes in the immediate postwar years. This volume discusses several site selections. The sites covered are: (1) the Hanford Reservation, (2) the Idaho reactor site, (3) the Savannah River Plant, (4) the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, (5) the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, (6) the Fernald Production Center, (7) the PANTEX and Spoon River Plants, (8) the Rocky Flats Fabrication Facility, and (9) the Miamisburg and Pinellas plants. (JDH)

  9. Selection of promising sites for magma energy experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Carson, C.C.

    1985-01-01

    The Long Valley and Coso Hot Springs areas of California have been identified as the most promising sites for conducting a magma energy extraction experiment. These two locations were selected from among the potential sites on the basis of several factors that are critical to the success of the proposed long-term energy extraction experiment. These factors include the likelihood of the existence of shallow magma targets as well as several other drilling, energy extraction and programmatic considerations. As the magma energy extraction program continues, these sites will be analyzed in detail so that one can be selected as the site for the planned magma experiment.

  10. Site Selected for Colorado Plateau Coring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geissman, John W.; Olsen, Paul E.; Kent, Dennis V.

    2010-04-01

    Colorado Plateau Coring Project Workshop, Phase 2: 100 Million Years of Climatic, Tectonic, and Biotic Evolution From Continental Coring; Albuquerque, New Mexico, 8-11 May 2009; A workshop was convened in New Mexico to plan for the Colorado Plateau Coring Project (CPCP) and identify the target site for initial coring. The giant continental and nearshore to shallow marine epicontinental basins of the American Southwest are particularly well exposed on the Colorado Plateau and its environs and contain a rich record of early Mesozoic (˜251-145 million years ago) strata. This time period was punctuated by two major mass extinctions and is notable for the evolutionary appearance of the modern biota and its apparent dramatic climate changes. Classic studies of these basins, their strata, and their fossils have made this sequence instrumental in framing the context for the early Mesozoic world. Ambiguities in temporal resolution, uncertainties in global correlations with other early Mesozoic strata, and major doubts about latitudinal position still hamper testing of competing climatic, biotic, and tectonic models for the evolution of western Pangea.

  11. Site-specific climate analysis elucidates revegetation challenges for post-mining landscapes in eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Audet, P.; Arnold, S.; Lechner, A. M.; Baumgartl, T.

    2013-10-01

    In eastern Australia, the availability of water is critical for the successful rehabilitation of post-mining landscapes and climatic characteristics of this diverse geographical region are closely defined by factors such as erratic rainfall and periods of drought and flooding. Despite this, specific metrics of climate patterning are seldom incorporated into the initial design of current post-mining land rehabilitation strategies. Our study proposes that a few common rainfall parameters can be combined and rated using arbitrary rainfall thresholds to characterise bioregional climate sensitivity relevant to the rehabilitation these landscapes. This approach included assessments of annual rainfall depth, average recurrence interval of prolonged low intensity rainfall, average recurrence intervals of short or prolonged high intensity events, median period without rain (or water-deficit) and standard deviation for this period in order to address climatic factors such as total water availability, seasonality and intensity - which were selected as potential proxies of both short- and long-term biological sensitivity to climate within the context of post-disturbance ecological development and recovery. Following our survey of available climate data, we derived site "climate sensitivity" indexes and compared the performance of 9 ongoing mine sites: Weipa, Mt. Isa and Cloncurry, Eromanga, Kidston, the Bowen Basin (Curragh), Tarong, North Stradbroke Island, and the Newnes Plateau. The sites were then ranked from most-to-least sensitive and compared with natural bioregional patterns of vegetation density using mean NDVI. It was determined that regular rainfall and relatively short periods of water-deficit were key characteristics of sites having less sensitivity to climate - as found among the relatively more temperate inland mining locations. Whereas, high rainfall variability, frequently occurring high intensity events, and (or) prolonged seasonal drought were primary

  12. The economic and social aspects of sanitary landfill site selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graff, W. J.; Rogers, J. R.

    1972-01-01

    The factors involved in the selection of suitable sites for sanitary land fills are discussed. The economic considerations and problems of social acceptance are considered the most important. The subjects discussed are: (1) accessibility of land, (2) availability of cover material, (3) expected capacity of site, (4) cover material and compaction, (5) fire protection, (6) site location with respect to residential and industrial areas, and (7) land usage after landfill completion.

  13. When Web Sites Post Test Answers, Professors Worry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jeffrey R.

    2008-01-01

    Several Web sites have emerged in recent years that encourage students to upload old exams to build a bank of test questions and answers that can be consulted by other students. This article reports that some professors have raised concerns about these sites, arguing that these could be used to cheat, especially if professors reuse old tests.…

  14. Site Selection Criteria for Sheltering after Earthquakes: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Soltani, Ahmad; Ardalan, Ali; Darvishi Boloorani, Ali; Haghdoost, AliAkbar; Hosseinzadeh-Attar, Mohammad Javad

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Proper shelter site selection is necessary for long-term welfare of earthquake affected people. This study aims to explore the criteria that need to be considered after earthquakes. Methods: Through a systematic review, 273 articles found that were published till April 2014. Among these, seven articles have been selected and analyzed for the criteria that they introduced for sheltering site selection after earthquakes. Results: Out of 27 proposed criteria, accessibility and proximity to homes of affected people were stressed in all the papers. Moreover, seven other criteria were the same in most of the papers including suitable size, suitable distance from hazardous areas, geological hazards and land slope, suitable distance from medical centers, water supply and Security. We categorized all the mentioned criteria in six main categories. Size and location, disaster risk reduction, relief and rescue facilities, feasibility of the site, environmental and social aspects are the main categories. Conclusion: Selection and applying proper criteria for shelter site selection after earthquakes is a multi-disciplinary task. The decision needs relevant models and/or tools. Geographic Information System (GIS) is a useful tool for this purpose. Key words: Disaster, earthquake, shelter, site selection, systematic review PMID:25642367

  15. Evaluation of larviposition site selection of Glossina brevipalpis.

    PubMed

    Renda, S; De Beer, C J; Venter, G J; Thekisoe, O M M

    2016-01-15

    Tsetse species (Diptera: Glossinidae) are vectors of trypanosome parasites which cause disease in both humans and livestock. In South Africa Glossina austeni Newstead, 1912 and G. brevipalpis Newstead, 1911 are responsible for the cyclical transmission of animal trypanosomes causing African animal trypanosomiasis also referred to as nagana. Gravid tsetse females deposit a single larva in specific sites but little information is available on biotic and abiotic factors that govern site selection. This study therefore aimed to characterize some of the substrate conditions that may influence selection of larviposition sites. Colonised, gravid female G. brevipalpis were presented with a choice of four larviposition sites. Sites differed in qualities of pH (5, 7, 9), salinity (0, 1.3, 4g/L) and the presence of other tsetse pupae (G. brevipalpis or G. austeni). These trials indicated no significant selection by gravid females with regard to pH and salinity. Females selected significantly more often for sites with pupae (P<0.05), but also favored sites containing conspecific over heterospecific pupae (P<0.05). These results present the first indication of an aggregation effect of tsetse pupae in G. brevipalpis. This may imply that G. brevipalpis larvae produce a pheromone during pupation as seen in G. morsitans morsitans. Isolation of such semio-chemicals would allow the development of larviposition traps to attract gravid females. PMID:26790743

  16. Strong Purifying Selection at Synonymous Sites in D. melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Lawrie, David S.; Messer, Philipp W.; Hershberg, Ruth; Petrov, Dmitri A.

    2013-01-01

    Synonymous sites are generally assumed to be subject to weak selective constraint. For this reason, they are often neglected as a possible source of important functional variation. We use site frequency spectra from deep population sequencing data to show that, contrary to this expectation, 22% of four-fold synonymous (4D) sites in Drosophila melanogaster evolve under very strong selective constraint while few, if any, appear to be under weak constraint. Linking polymorphism with divergence data, we further find that the fraction of synonymous sites exposed to strong purifying selection is higher for those positions that show slower evolution on the Drosophila phylogeny. The function underlying the inferred strong constraint appears to be separate from splicing enhancers, nucleosome positioning, and the translational optimization generating canonical codon bias. The fraction of synonymous sites under strong constraint within a gene correlates well with gene expression, particularly in the mid-late embryo, pupae, and adult developmental stages. Genes enriched in strongly constrained synonymous sites tend to be particularly functionally important and are often involved in key developmental pathways. Given that the observed widespread constraint acting on synonymous sites is likely not limited to Drosophila, the role of synonymous sites in genetic disease and adaptation should be reevaluated. PMID:23737754

  17. Status of geologic aspects of site selection and investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Smedes, H.W.

    1983-12-31

    In the search for a nuclear-waste repository, the Department of Energy (DOE) is concentrating on specific sites in basalt lava, tuff, and salt. An exploratory shaft will be sunk in each of these three rock types for in situ testing, final characterization of geology and hydrology, and verification of site suitability to support application for license to construct a repository at the one site to be selected. A site has been selected in the basalt lava flows at the Hanford Site in Washington; a Site Characterization Report (SCR) has been issued, and drilling of an exploratory shaft has begun. A site has been selected in tuff at the Nevada Test Site; an SCR will be issued by the middle of this year and excavation of a exploratory shaft will begin this fall. By mid-year, one salt site will be selected from among those being studied in salt domes and bedded salt; an SCR will be issued later in the year and drilling an exploratory shaft is planned for early 1984. The recently enacted Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 authorizes the development of a small-scale Test and Evaluation Facility (TEF), which may be located at one of three sites that will have exploratory shafts. Retrievable emplacement of not more than 100 canisters of high-level waste or spent fuel --not to exceed 100 metric tons-- in the TEF will be part of a step-by-step program to gain experience with emplacement operations and to gain information and experience for final decision to construct full-scale facilities in th early 1990s.

  18. Selection of library services by post-registration nursing, midwifery and health visiting students.

    PubMed

    Yeoh, J; Morrissey, C

    1996-06-01

    This paper describes a small-scale survey undertaken with 300 nurses, midwives and health visitors on post-registration courses and registered for the ENB Higher Award. The aim was threefold: first to examine reasons for electing to use particular libraries; second, the relationship between workplace, home, teaching site and choice of library services; and third, the use of library enquiry services. There was a 56% response rate to the postal questionnaire and results indicated that the key factor in selecting a library was availability of resources rather than convenience to home or workplace. The third largest group of respondents worked in community organizations with little or no on-site access to resources and were dependent on access to other libraries. Most who used the library for literature searching needed to seek help in spite of preliminary user education sessions. Similar levels of assistance were needed to locate journals and use the computerized book catalogue. The paper recommends explicit information on strategic entry points, necessity of a broad central collection, integration of information retrieval into post-registration courses, use of self-study packs, better trust/university liaison and recognition of the need for resource transfer from teaching to learning. PMID:10164307

  19. Selecting objectively defined reference sites for stream bioassessment programs.

    PubMed

    Yates, Adam Gordon; Bailey, Robert C

    2010-11-01

    Our study develops and demonstrates an objective method for selecting reference sites for the assessment of ecological condition in freshwater ecosystems. The method uses widely available GIS data to group potential sites based on their natural environments. It then establishes the degree and types of human activities each site is exposed to prior to scoring the sites in each group by the relative amount of human activity present. Finally, the sites in each group with the least amount of human activity are categorized as reference sites, with the boundary between reference and test sites defined to maximize the distinctiveness of the two categories with respect to human activity. Application of this technique for the purpose of identifying headwater reference basins in rural areas of southwestern Ontario resulted in the classification of basins into six natural groups based on the dominant texture of the surface geology. Development of a human activity gradient indicated that basins varied according to the amount of exposure to agricultural activities with most basins having at least moderate exposure. Establishment of the reference test boundary indicated that the selected reference basins exhibited substantively lower extents of agricultural activity than test sites for most groups. Because this method uses only widely available GIS data, it enables rapid and cost-effective identification of candidate reference sites, even for large, remote, and understudied regions. PMID:19902368

  20. Post-Closure Inspection Letter Report for Corrective Action Units on the Nevada National Security Site

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2011-05-26

    This letter serves as the post-closure inspection letter report for corrective action units on the Nevada National Security Site for calendar year 2011. Copies of completed inspection checklists are included in this report.

  1. Optimizing landfill site selection by using land classification maps.

    PubMed

    Eskandari, M; Homaee, M; Mahmoodi, S; Pazira, E; Van Genuchten, M Th

    2015-05-01

    Municipal solid waste disposal is a major environmental concern throughout the world. Proper landfill siting involves many environmental, economic, technical, and sociocultural challenges. In this study, a new quantitative method for landfill siting that reduces the number of evaluation criteria, simplifies siting procedures, and enhances the utility of available land evaluation maps was proposed. The method is demonstrated by selecting a suitable landfill site near the city of Marvdasht in Iran. The approach involves two separate stages. First, necessary criteria for preliminary landfill siting using four constraints and eight factors were obtained from a land classification map initially prepared for irrigation purposes. Thereafter, the criteria were standardized using a rating approach and then weighted to obtain a suitability map for landfill siting, with ratings in a 0-1 domain and divided into five suitability classes. Results were almost identical to those obtained with a more traditional environmental landfill siting approach. Because of far fewer evaluation criteria, the proposed weighting method was much easier to implement while producing a more convincing database for landfill siting. The classification map also considered land productivity. In the second stage, the six best alternative sites were evaluated for final landfill siting using four additional criteria. Sensitivity analyses were furthermore conducted to assess the stability of the obtained ranking. Results indicate that the method provides a precise siting procedure that should convince all pertinent stakeholders. PMID:25666474

  2. The Swedish Program has Entered the Site Selection Phase

    SciTech Connect

    Nygards, P.; Hedman, T.; Eng, T.; Olsson, O.

    2003-02-25

    Facilities for intermediate storage of spent fuel and HLW and for final disposal of ILW and LLW together with a system for sea transportation have been in operation in Sweden for more then 15 years. To complete the ''back end system'' the remaining parts are to build facilities for encapsulation and final storage of spent fuel and HLW. The Swedish reference method for final disposal of spent fuel, KBS-3, is to encapsulate the fuel elements in copper canisters and dispose them in a deep geological repository. The Swedish program up to 2001 was focused on the establishment of general acceptance of the reference method for final storage and SKB's selection of candidate sites for a deep geological repository. In the end of year 2000 SKB presented a report as a base for a Government decision about the siting process. This report gave the background for the selection of three candidate sites. It also presented the program for geological surveys of the candidate sites as well as the background for the choice of the method for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel and HLW. In the end of 2001 the Swedish government endorsed the plan for the site selection phase and stated that the KBS-3 design of the repository shall be used as the planning base for the work. Permissions were also granted for the fieldwork from the municipalities of Forsmark and Oskarshamn where the candidate sites are located. Site investigations on these two sites started during 2002. The technical development and demonstration of the KBS 3-method is ongoing at the Dspv Hard Rock Laboratory and the Canister Laboratory. The goal for the coming five years period is to select the site for the repository and apply for licenses to construct and operate the facilities for encapsulation and final storage of spent fuel. The encapsulation plant and the repository are planned to be in operation around year 2015.

  3. Evaluating strawberry breeding selections for post-harvest fruit decay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The annual replicated yield assessments for the USDA-ARS strawberry breeding effort at Beltsville, MD, 2007 and 2008, were used to develop a method of assessing each genotype’s post-harvest decay. Detectability of statistical differences between genotypes was improved by treating harvest × plot comb...

  4. Site Selection for Surplus Plutonium Disposition Facilities at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Wike, L.D.

    2000-08-17

    A site selection study was conducted to evaluate locations for the proposed Surplus Plutonium Disposition Facilities. Facilities to be located include the Mixed Oxide (MOX) Fuel Fabrication Facility, the Pit Disassembly and Conversion Facility (PDCF), and the Plutonium Immobilization Project (PIP) facility. Objectives of the study include: (1) Confirm that the Department of Energy (DOE) selected locations for the MOX and PDCF were suitable based on selected siting criteria, (2) Recommend a site in the vicinity of F Area that is suitable for the PIP, and (3) Identify alternative suitable sites for one or more of these facilities in the event that further geotechnical characterization or other considerations result in disqualification of a currently proposed site.

  5. Unusual sleeping site selection by southern bamboo lemurs.

    PubMed

    Eppley, Timothy M; Donati, Giuseppe; Ganzhorn, Jörg U

    2016-04-01

    Selection of sleeping sites has consequences for individual fitness. Non-human primates often bias their selection towards arboreal sites, and the lemurs of Madagascar typically rest/sleep in trees, tree holes, and/or constructed nests. Three non-mutually exclusive hypotheses to explain sleeping site selection include protection from predators, avoidance of parasitic vectors, and improved thermoregulation. Here, we examine these hypotheses for the unusual sleeping site selections by the southern bamboo lemur (Hapalemur meridionalis). Within the Mandena littoral forest of southeast Madagascar, the southern bamboo lemur is known for its ecological flexibility compared to other bamboo lemur species, including a dietary niche expansion to feeding on the ground. Between October 2012 and December 2013, we observed bamboo lemurs from three social groups for 1778.67 h, conducting full-day focal follows on 11 adult individuals (five males, six females). During this period, all three groups were observed to sleep on the ground, with one of these groups also using an abandoned nest of a Madagascar crested ibis (Lophotibis cristata). We collected habitat and temperature data to examine whether selection was influenced by environmental variables. Terrestrial sleeping (N = 17) was observed in all individuals but one adult female, with individuals burrowing under thick vegetation more often during the hot austral summer. While difficult to rigorously test, it is possible that terrestrial sleep sites and/or sleeping in a bird nest may impair visual detection by some aerial and terrestrial predators. Neither of these sites (i.e., terrestrial sleeping or use of a bird nest), however, is likely to minimize exposure to parasites/vectors. Terrestrial sleeping appears to support a thermoregulatory strategy, whereas the use of a bird nest could not be empirically tested. Our observations of unique sleeping site locations used by southern bamboo lemurs further the complexity of their

  6. Is hyporheic flow an indicator for salmonid spawning site selection?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benjankar, R. M.; Tonina, D.; Marzadri, A.; McKean, J. A.; Isaak, D.

    2015-12-01

    Several studies have investigated the role of hydraulic variables in the selection of spawning sites by salmonids. Some recent studies suggest that the intensity of the ambient hyporheic flow, that present without a salmon egg pocket, is a cue for spawning site selection, but others have argued against it. We tested this hypothesis by using a unique dataset of field surveyed spawning site locations and an unprecedented meter-scale resolution bathymetry of a 13.5 km long reach of Bear Valley Creek (Idaho, USA), an important Chinook salmon spawning stream. We used a two-dimensional surface water model to quantify stream hydraulics and a three-dimensional hyporheic model to quantify the hyporheic flows. Our results show that the intensity of ambient hyporheic flows is not a statistically significant variable for spawning site selection. Conversely, the intensity of the water surface curvature and the habitat quality, quantified as a function of stream hydraulics and morphology, are the most important variables for salmonid spawning site selection. KEY WORDS: Salmonid spawning habitat, pool-riffle system, habitat quality, surface water curvature, hyporheic flow

  7. Site-Selective Acylations with Tailor-Made Catalysts.

    PubMed

    Huber, Florian; Kirsch, Stefan F

    2016-04-18

    The acylation of alcohols catalyzed by N,N-dimethylamino pyridine (DMAP) is, despite its widespread use, sometimes confronted with substrate-specific problems: For example, target compounds with multiple hydroxy groups may show insufficient selectivity for one hydroxyl, and the resulting product mixtures are hardly separable. Here we describe a concept that aims at tailor-made catalysts for the site-specific acylation. To this end, we introduce a catalyst library where each entry is constructed by connecting a variable and readily tuned peptide scaffold with a catalytically active unit based on DMAP. For selected examples, we demonstrate how library screening leads to the identification of optimized catalysts, and the substrates of interest can be converted with a markedly enhanced site-selectivity compared with only DMAP. Furthermore, substrate-optimized catalysts of this type can be used to selectively convert "their" substrate in the presence of structurally similar compounds, an important requisite for reactions with mixtures of substances. PMID:26970553

  8. Monte Carlo optimization for site selection of new chemical plants.

    PubMed

    Cai, Tianxing; Wang, Sujing; Xu, Qiang

    2015-11-01

    Geographic distribution of chemical manufacturing sites has significant impact on the business sustainability of industrial development and regional environmental sustainability as well. The common site selection rules have included the evaluation of the air quality impact of a newly constructed chemical manufacturing site to surrounding communities. In order to achieve this target, the simultaneous consideration should cover the regional background air-quality information, the emissions of new manufacturing site, and statistical pattern of local meteorological conditions. According to the above information, the risk assessment can be conducted for the potential air-quality impacts from candidate locations of a new chemical manufacturing site, and thus the optimization of the final site selection can be achieved by minimizing its air-quality impacts. This paper has provided a systematic methodology for the above purpose. There are total two stages of modeling and optimization work: i) Monte Carlo simulation for the purpose to identify background pollutant concentration based on currently existing emission sources and regional statistical meteorological conditions; and ii) multi-objective (simultaneous minimization of both peak pollutant concentration and standard deviation of pollutant concentration spatial distribution at air-quality concern regions) Monte Carlo optimization for optimal location selection of new chemical manufacturing sites according to their design data of potential emission. This study can be helpful to both determination of the potential air-quality impact for geographic distribution of multiple chemical plants with respect to regional statistical meteorological conditions, and the identification of an optimal site for each new chemical manufacturing site with the minimal environment impact to surrounding communities. The efficacy of the developed methodology has been demonstrated through the case studies. PMID:26283263

  9. Selective Metal-Site-Guided Arylation of Proteins.

    PubMed

    Willwacher, Jens; Raj, Ritu; Mohammed, Shabaz; Davis, Benjamin G

    2016-07-20

    We describe palladium-mediated S-arylation that exploits natural metal-binding motifs to ensure high site selectivity for a proximal reactive residue. This allows the chemical identification not only of proteins that bind metals but also the environment of the metal-binding site itself through proteomic analysis of arylation sites. The transformation is easy to perform under standard conditions, does not require the isolation of a reactive Ar-Pd complex, is broad in scope, and is applicable in cell lysates as well as to covalent inhibition/modulation of metal-dependent enzymatic activity. PMID:27336299

  10. Use of DOE site selection criteria for screening low-level waste disposal sites on the Oak Ridge Reservation

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, D.W.; Ketelle, R.H.; Stinton, L.H.

    1983-09-01

    The proposed Department of Energy (DOE) site selection criteria were applied to the Oak Ridge Reservation, and the application was evaluated to determine the criteria's usefulness in the selection of a low-level waste disposal site. The application of the criteria required the development of a methodology to provide a framework for evaluation. The methodology is composed of site screening and site characterization stages. The site screening stage relies on reconnaissance data to identify a preferred site capable of satisfying the site selection criteria. The site characterization stage relies on a detailed site investigation to determine site acceptability. The site selection criteria were applied to the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation through the site screening stage. Results of this application were similar to those of a previous siting study on the Oak Ridge Reservation. The DOE site selection criteria when coupled with the methodology that was developed were easily applied and would be adaptable to any region of interest.

  11. Selection of the Mars Science Laboratory Landing Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golombek, M.; Grant, J.; Kipp, D.; Vasavada, A.; Kirk, R.; Fergason, R.; Bellutta, P.; Calef, F.; Larsen, K.; Katayama, Y.; Huertas, A.; Beyer, R.; Chen, A.; Parker, T.; Pollard, B.; Lee, S.; Sun, Y.; Hoover, R.; Sladek, H.; Grotzinger, J.; Welch, R.; Noe Dobrea, E.; Michalski, J.; Watkins, M.

    2012-09-01

    The selection of Gale crater as the Mars Science Laboratory landing site took over five years, involved broad participation of the science community via five open workshops, and narrowed an initial >50 sites (25 by 20 km) to four finalists (Eberswalde, Gale, Holden and Mawrth) based on science and safety. Engineering constraints important to the selection included: (1) latitude (±30°) for thermal management of the rover and instruments, (2) elevation (<-1 km) for sufficient atmosphere to slow the spacecraft, (3) relief of <100-130 m at baselines of 1-1000 m for control authority and sufficient fuel during powered descent, (4) slopes of <30° at baselines of 2-5 m for rover stability at touchdown, (5) moderate rock abundance to avoid impacting the belly pan during touchdown, and (6) a radar-reflective, load-bearing, and trafficable surface that is safe for landing and roving and not dominated by fine-grained dust. Science criteria important for the selection include the ability to assess past habitable environments, which include diversity, context, and biosignature (including organics) preservation. Sites were evaluated in detail using targeted data from instruments on all active orbiters, and especially Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. All of the final four sites have layered sedimentary rocks with spectral evidence for phyllosilicates that clearly address the science objectives of the mission. Sophisticated entry, descent and landing simulations that include detailed information on all of the engineering constraints indicate all of the final four sites are safe for landing. Evaluation of the traversabilty of the landing sites and target "go to" areas outside of the ellipse using slope and material properties information indicates that all are trafficable and "go to" sites can be accessed within the lifetime of the mission. In the final selection, Gale crater was favored over Eberswalde based on its greater diversity and potential habitability.

  12. Selection of the Mars Science Laboratory landing site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Golombek, M.; Grant, J.; Kipp, D.; Vasavada, A.; Kirk, Randolph L.; Fergason, Robin L.; Bellutta, P.; Calef, F.; Larsen, K.; Katayama, Y.; Huertas, A.; Beyer, R.; Chen, A.; Parker, T.; Pollard, B.; Lee, S.; Hoover, R.; Sladek, H.; Grotzinger, J.; Welch, R.; Dobrea, E. Noe; Michalski, J.; Watkins, M.

    2012-01-01

    The selection of Gale crater as the Mars Science Laboratory landing site took over five years, involved broad participation of the science community via five open workshops, and narrowed an initial >50 sites (25 by 20 km) to four finalists (Eberswalde, Gale, Holden and Mawrth) based on science and safety. Engineering constraints important to the selection included: (1) latitude (±30°) for thermal management of the rover and instruments, (2) elevation (<-1 km) for sufficient atmosphere to slow the spacecraft, (3) relief of <100-130 m at baselines of 1-1000 m for control authority and sufficient fuel during powered descent, (4) slopes of <30° at baselines of 2-5 m for rover stability at touchdown, (5) moderate rock abundance to avoid impacting the belly pan during touchdown, and (6) a radar-reflective, load-bearing, and trafficable surface that is safe for landing and roving and not dominated by fine-grained dust. Science criteria important for the selection include the ability to assess past habitable environments, which include diversity, context, and biosignature (including organics) preservation. Sites were evaluated in detail using targeted data from instruments on all active orbiters, and especially Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. All of the final four sites have layered sedimentary rocks with spectral evidence for phyllosilicates that clearly address the science objectives of the mission. Sophisticated entry, descent and landing simulations that include detailed information on all of the engineering constraints indicate all of the final four sites are safe for landing. Evaluation of the traversabilty of the landing sites and target “go to” areas outside of the ellipse using slope and material properties information indicates that all are trafficable and “go to” sites can be accessed within the lifetime of the mission. In the final selection, Gale crater was favored over Eberswalde based on its greater diversity and potential habitability.

  13. 15 CFR 921.11 - Site selection and feasibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Site selection and feasibility. 921.11 Section 921.11 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT NATIONAL ESTUARINE...

  14. 15 CFR 921.11 - Site selection and feasibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Site selection and feasibility. 921.11 Section 921.11 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT NATIONAL ESTUARINE...

  15. Site-specific group selection drives locally adapted group compositions.

    PubMed

    Pruitt, Jonathan N; Goodnight, Charles J

    2014-10-16

    Group selection may be defined as selection caused by the differential extinction or proliferation of groups. The socially polymorphic spider Anelosimus studiosus exhibits a behavioural polymorphism in which females exhibit either a 'docile' or 'aggressive' behavioural phenotype. Natural colonies are composed of a mixture of related docile and aggressive individuals, and populations differ in colonies' characteristic docile:aggressive ratios. Using experimentally constructed colonies of known composition, here we demonstrate that population-level divergence in docile:aggressive ratios is driven by site-specific selection at the group level--certain ratios yield high survivorship at some sites but not others. Our data also indicate that colonies responded to the risk of extinction: perturbed colonies tended to adjust their composition over two generations to match the ratio characteristic of their native site, thus promoting their long-term survival in their natal habitat. However, colonies of displaced individuals continued to shift their compositions towards mixtures that would have promoted their survival had they remained at their home sites, regardless of their contemporary environment. Thus, the regulatory mechanisms that colonies use to adjust their composition appear to be locally adapted. Our data provide experimental evidence of group selection driving collective traits in wild populations. PMID:25274310

  16. Simulated rainfall experiments on water repellent post mine sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunth, Franziska; Schmidt, Jürgen

    2013-04-01

    Reclaimed lignite mine areas are heavily endangered by erosion by water. This leads to heavy soil losses, especially on hydrophobic and non-vegetated soil surfaces. Beyond that, erosion-induced discharge of detached dump particles in abandoned open pits leads to acidification of surface waters. Therefore land management in former mining regions requires long-term and safe structuring of recultivation areas. The objective of this ongoing study is the development of a methodology to determine erosion risks on slopes in recultivation areas with the help of the event-based physical erosion model EROSION 2D/3D (Schmidt, 1991, 1992; v. Werner, 1995). The widely used model is able to predict runoff as well as detachment, transport and deposition of sediments. Lignite dump materials show strong water repellency due to hydrophobic substances that coat soil particles. As affecting infiltration processes the effect of water repellency had to be implemented into EROSION 2D/3D. To obtain necessary input data for erosion modelling (hydraulic roughness, infiltration rates, calibration factors, etc.) a number of rainfall experiments on non-vegetated as well as recultivated reclaimed mine sites in the Lusatia lignite mining region (southeast of Berlin, Germany) were conducted. Very low infiltration rates were measured on non-vegetated water repellent sites. These processes could be described by EROSION 2D infiltration modelling. Changes of surface runoff and particle detachment and dynamic effects on infiltration are considered with the experimentally determined parameters "skin-factor", "resistance to erosion" and "hydraulic roughness". Current analysis show that a newly developed water repellency-factor helps to depict infiltration and erosion processes on water repellent dump soils.

  17. Periodical cicadas use light for oviposition site selection

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Louie H

    2006-01-01

    Organisms use incomplete information from local experience to assess the suitability of potential habitat sites over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. Although ecologists have long recognized the importance of spatial scales in habitat selection, few studies have investigated the temporal scales of habitat selection. In particular, cues in the immediate environment may commonly provide indirect information about future habitat quality. In periodical cicadas (Magicicada spp.), oviposition site selection represents a very long-term habitat choice. Adult female cicadas insert eggs into tree branches during a few weeks in the summer of emergence, but their oviposition choices determine the underground habitats of root-feeding nymphs over the following 13 or 17 years. Here, field experiments are used to show that female cicadas use the local light environment of host trees during the summer of emergence to select long-term host trees. Light environments may also influence oviposition microsite selection within hosts, suggesting a potential behavioural mechanism for associating solar cues with host trees. In contrast, experimental nutrient enrichment of host trees did not influence cicada oviposition densities. These findings suggest that the light environments around host trees may provide a robust predictor of host tree quality in the near future. This habitat selection may influence the spatial distribution of several cicada-mediated ecological processes in eastern North American forests. PMID:17015354

  18. Detection of multiple stresses in Scots pine growing at post-mining sites using visible to near-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Zuzana, Lhotáková; Lukáš, Brodský; Lucie, Kupková; Veronika, Kopačková; Markéta, Potůčková; Jan, Mišurec; Aleš, Klement; Monika, Kovářová; Jana, Albrechtová

    2013-10-01

    Heavy metal contamination, low pH and high substrate heterogeneity are multiple stress factors that often occur at the post-mining sites and make difficult the biological reclamation. Efficient tools for detection of the status of reclaimed vegetation at post-mining sites are needed. We tested the potential of visible to near-infrared (VNIR) spectroscopy to detect multiple stresses in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) at acidic substrates rich in As. The needle chemical traits (chlorophyll a + b - Cab; carotenoids - Car; Car/Cab; relative water content - RWC; soluble phenolics; lignin contents) were tested for sensitivity to different soil conditions of post-mining sites. For Scots pine growing on degraded substrates, at least three non-specific stress indicators (RWC, photosynthetic pigments and phenolics) are required to achieve good site separability corresponding to the stress load. We constructed and validated empirical models of selected needle chemical traits using VNIR spectroscopy: calibration of Cab (R(2) = 0.97, RMSE = 0.17 mg g(-1)), RWC (R(2) = 0.88, RMSE = 1.41 mg g(-1)), Car (R(2) = 0.66, RMSE = 0.08 mg g(-1)), phenolics (R(2) = 0.64, RMSE = 23.01 mg g(-1)) and lignin (R(2) = 0.45, RMSE = 3.32 mg g(-1)). The reflectance data yielded comparable site separability with the separability calculated from the laboratory data. The presented approach has potential for large-scale monitoring of Scots pine status, thus, assessment of reclamation quality in post-mining regions using air-born or satellite hyperspectral data. PMID:24108147

  19. A Potent and Site-Selective Agonist of TRPA1.

    PubMed

    Takaya, Junichiro; Mio, Kazuhiro; Shiraishi, Takuya; Kurokawa, Tatsuki; Otsuka, Shinya; Mori, Yasuo; Uesugi, Motonari

    2015-12-23

    TRPA1 is a member of the transient receptor potential (TRP) cation channel family that is expressed primarily on sensory neurons. This chemosensor is activated through covalent modification of multiple cysteine residues with a wide range of reactive compounds including allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), a spicy component of wasabi. The present study reports on potent and selective agonists of TRPA1, discovered through screening 1657 electrophilic molecules. In an effort to validate the mode of action of hit molecules, we noted a new TRPA1-selective agonist, JT010 (molecule 1), which opens the TRPA1 channel by covalently and site-selectively binding to Cys621 (EC50 = 0.65 nM). The results suggest that a single modification of Cys621 is sufficient to open the TRPA1 channel. The TRPA1-selective probe described herein might be useful for further mechanistic studies of TRPA1 activation. PMID:26630251

  20. Prediction and Analysis of Post-Translational Pyruvoyl Residue Modification Sites from Internal Serines in Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yang; Li, Bi-Qing; Zhang, Yuchao; Feng, Yuan-Ming; Gao, Yu-Fei; Zhang, Ning; Cai, Yu-Dong

    2013-01-01

    Most of pyruvoyl-dependent proteins observed in prokaryotes and eukaryotes are critical regulatory enzymes, which are primary targets of inhibitors for anti-cancer and anti-parasitic therapy. These proteins undergo an autocatalytic, intramolecular self-cleavage reaction in which a covalently bound pyruvoyl group is generated on a conserved serine residue. Traditional detections of the modified serine sites are performed by experimental approaches, which are often labor-intensive and time-consuming. In this study, we initiated in an attempt for the computational predictions of such serine sites with Feature Selection based on a Random Forest. Since only a small number of experimentally verified pyruvoyl-modified proteins are collected in the protein database at its current version, we only used a small dataset in this study. After removing proteins with sequence identities >60%, a non-redundant dataset was generated and was used, which contained only 46 proteins, with one pyruvoyl serine site for each protein. Several types of features were considered in our method including PSSM conservation scores, disorders, secondary structures, solvent accessibilities, amino acid factors and amino acid occurrence frequencies. As a result, a pretty good performance was achieved in our dataset. The best 100.00% accuracy and 1.0000 MCC value were obtained from the training dataset, and 93.75% accuracy and 0.8441 MCC value from the testing dataset. The optimal feature set contained 9 features. Analysis of the optimal feature set indicated the important roles of some specific features in determining the pyruvoyl-group-serine sites, which were consistent with several results of earlier experimental studies. These selected features may shed some light on the in-depth understanding of the mechanism of the post-translational self-maturation process, providing guidelines for experimental validation. Future work should be made as more pyruvoyl-modified proteins are found and the method

  1. Site-Selective Reactions with Peptide-Based Catalysts.

    PubMed

    Giuliano, Michael W; Miller, Scott J

    2016-01-01

    The problem of catalyst-controlled site-selectivity can potentially require a catalyst to overcome energetic barriers larger than those associated with enantioselective reactions. This challenge is a signature of substrates that present reactive sites that are not of equivalent reactivity. Herein we present a narrative of our laboratory's efforts to overcome this challenge using peptide-based catalysts. We highlight the interplay between understanding the inherent reactivity preferences of a given target molecule and the development of catalysts that can overcome intrinsic preferences embedded within a substrate. PMID:26307403

  2. Which came first, people or pollution? Assessing the disparate siting and post-siting demographic change hypotheses of environmental injustice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohai, Paul; Saha, Robin

    2015-11-01

    Although a large body of quantitative environmental justice research exists, only a handful of studies have examined the processes by which racial and socioeconomic disparities in the location of polluting industrial facilities can occur. These studies have had mixed results, we contend, principally because of methodological differences, that is, the use of the unit-hazard coincidence method as compared to distance-based methods. This study is the first national-level environmental justice study to conduct longitudinal analyses using distance-based methods. Our purposes are to: (1) determine whether disparate siting, post-siting demographic change, or a combination of the two created present-day disparities; (2) test related explanations; and (3) determine whether the application of distance-based methods helps resolve the inconsistent findings of previous research. We used a national database of commercial hazardous waste facilities sited from 1966 to 1995 and examined the demographic composition of host neighborhoods around the time of siting and demographic changes that occurred after siting. We found strong evidence of disparate siting for facilities sited in all time periods. Although we found some evidence of post-siting demographic changes, they were mostly a continuation of changes that occurred in the decade or two prior to siting, suggesting that neighborhood transition serves to attract noxious facilities rather than the facilities themselves attracting people of color and low income populations. Our findings help resolve inconsistencies among the longitudinal studies and builds on the evidence from other subnational studies that used distance-based methods. We conclude that racial discrimination and sociopolitical explanations (i.e., the proposition that siting decisions follow the ‘path of least resistance’) best explain present-day inequities.

  3. Selection of the Mars Exploration Rover landing sites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Golombek, M.P.; Grant, J. A.; Parker, T.J.; Kass, D.M.; Crisp, J.A.; Squyres, S. W.; Haldemann, A.F.C.; Adler, M.; Lee, W.J.; Bridges, N.T.; Arvidson, R. E.; Carr, M.H.; Kirk, R.L.; Knocke, P.C.; Roncoli, R.B.; Weitz, C.M.; Schofield, J.T.; Zurek, R.W.; Christensen, P.R.; Fergason, R.L.; Anderson, F.S.; Rice, J. W., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    The selection of Meridiani Planum and Gusev crater as the Mars Exploration Rover landing sites took over 2 years, involved broad participation of the science community via four open workshops, and narrowed an initial ???155 potential sites (80-300 ?? 30 km) to four finalists based on science and safety. Engineering constraints important to the selection included (1) latitude (10??N- 15??S) for maximum solar power, (2) elevation (less than - 1.3 km) for sufficient atmosphere to slow the lander, (3) low horizontal winds, shear, and turbulence in the last few kilometers to minimize horizontal velocity, (4) low 10-m-scale slopes to reduce airbag spin-up and bounce, (5) moderate rock abundance to reduce abrasion or strokeout of the airbags, and (6) a radar-reflective, load-bearing, and trafficable surface safe for landing and roving that is not dominated by fine-grained dust. The evaluation of sites utilized existing as well as targeted orbital information acquired from the Mars Global Surveyor and Mars Odyssey. Three of the final four landing sites show strong evidence for surface processes involving water and appear capable of addressing the science objectives of the missions, which are to determine the aqueous, climatic, and geologic history of sites on Mars where conditions may have been favorable to the preservation of evidence of possible prebiotic or biotic processes. The evaluation of science criteria placed Meridiani and Gusev as the highest-priority sites. The evaluation of the three most critical safety criteria (10-m-scale slopes, rocks, and winds) and landing simulation results indicated that Meridiani and Elysium Planitia are the safest sites, followed by Gusev and Isidis Planitia. Copyright 2003 by the American Geophysical Union.

  4. Optimizing Site Selection in Urban Areas in Northern Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plenkers, K.; Kraft, T.; Bethmann, F.; Husen, S.; Schnellmann, M.

    2012-04-01

    There is a need to observe weak seismic events (M<2) in areas close to potential nuclear-waste repositories or nuclear power plants, in order to analyze the underlying seismo-tectonic processes and estimate their seismic hazard. We are therefore densifying the existing Swiss Digital Seismic Network in northern Switzerland by additional 20 stations. The new network that will be in operation by the end of 2012, aims at observing seismicity in northern Switzerland with a completeness of M_c=1.0 and a location error < 0.5 km in epicenter and < 2 km in focal depth. Monitoring of weak seismic events in this region is challenging, because the area of interest is densely populated and geology is dominated by the Swiss molasse basin. A optimal network-design and a thoughtful choice for station-sites is, therefore, mandatory. To help with decision making we developed a step-wise approach to find the optimum network configuration. Our approach is based on standard network optimization techniques regarding the localization error. As a new feature, our approach uses an ambient noise model to compute expected signal-to-noise ratios for a given site. The ambient noise model uses information on land use and major infrastructures such as highways and train lines. We ran a series of network optimizations with increasing number of stations until the requirements regarding localization error and magnitude of completeness are reached. The resulting network geometry serves as input for the site selection. Site selection is done by using a newly developed multi-step assessment-scheme that takes into account local noise level, geology, infrastructure, and costs necessary to realize the station. The assessment scheme is weighting the different parameters and the most promising sites are identified. In a first step, all potential sites are classified based on information from topographic maps and site inspection. In a second step, local noise conditions are measured at selected sites. We

  5. An approach towards site selection for water banking in unconfined aquifers through artificial recharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhuiyan, Chandrashekhar

    2015-04-01

    Selection of sites for water banking is very crucial for successful recovery of groundwater at the time of need. Attempts were made earlier to demarcate artificial recharge sites, and several indices were proposed for post-event evaluation of site-efficiency. In the present study a step-by-step method has been proposed for pre-event site selection for groundwater banking, based on meteorological, hydrological, hydraulic and hydrogeological parameters. Further, an index has been developed to evaluate site-efficiency. The proposed Normalized Difference Water Recovery Index (NDWRI) is the normalized ratio of water input and output in terms of recharge and productivity. Greater the value of yield, productivity, and the NDWRI higher is the suitability of the site for subsurface water banking. The index assumes a linear relation between recharge and sustainability of well productivity. In this article, the proposed methodology is explained and the related issues are discussed with a case study in the hard-rock Aravalli terrain of India.

  6. Multivariate analysis of Buteo nest site selection in Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.G.; Bechard, M.; Knight, R.L.; Fitzner, R.E.

    1983-03-01

    Raptor breeding populations of grasslands and semi-arid grasslands of western North America include varying densities of three Buteo species, the Red-tailed Hawk (Buteo jamaicensis), Ferruginous Hawk (Buteo regalis) and Swainson's Hawk (Buteo swainsoni). These three species are behaviorially rather similar in their diurnal activity patterns and foraging habitats and exhibit similar diets comprised of small mammals and birds. Principal component analysis and discriminant function analysis were used to describe key similarities and differences in nest site selection of the three Buteo species. Differences in nest site selection may offer an explanation of how the three Buteo species may nest sympatrically and at times successfully at distances of less than 0.5 km despite apparent similarities in use of other resources. 15 refs., 1 fig., 9 tabs.

  7. Site-Selective Trimetallic Heterogeneous Nanostructures for Enhanced Electrocatalytic Performance.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xiaobin; Gao, Guanhui; Kang, Shendong; Shibayama, Tamaki; Lei, Yanhua; Gao, Duyang; Cai, Lintao

    2015-10-01

    Trimetallic Au/Ag/Pt hetero-nanostructures (AAPHNs) with distinctive, designed morphology are synthesized by galvanic replacement reaction and a site-selective strategy. The three metals present on the surface are shown to act synergistically to enhance the electro-catalytic performance and durability for methanol oxidation. The described structural modification of the nanocomposites increases the range of potential applications to include both the oxygen reduction reaction in fuel cells and photocatalysis of the hydrogen evolution reaction. PMID:26305161

  8. SITE CHARACTERIZATION AND SELECTION GUIDELINES FOR GEOLOGICAL CARBON SEQUESTRATION

    SciTech Connect

    Friedmann, S J

    2007-08-31

    Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) is a key technology pathway to substantial reduction of greenhouse gas emissions for the state of California and the western region. Current estimates suggest that the sequestration resource of the state is large, and could safely and effectively accept all of the emissions from large CO2 point sources for many decades and store them indefinitely. This process requires suitable sites to sequester large volumes of CO2 for long periods of time. Site characterization is the first step in this process, and the state will ultimately face regulatory, legal, and technical questions as commercial CCS projects develop and commence operations. The most important aspects of site characterizations are injectivity, capacity, and effectiveness. A site can accept at a high rate a large volume of CO2 and store it for a long time is likely to serve as a good site for geological carbon sequestration. At present, there are many conventional technologies and approaches that can be used to estimate, quantify, calculate, and assess the viability of a sequestration site. Any regulatory framework would need to rely on conventional, easily executed, repeatable methods to inform the site selection and permitting process. The most important targets for long-term storage are deep saline formations and depleted oil and gas fields. The primary CO2 storage mechanisms for these targets are well understood enough to plan operations and simulate injection and long-term fate of CO2. There is also a strong understanding of potential geological and engineering hazards for CCS. These hazards are potential pathway to CO2 leakage, which could conceivably result in negative consequences to health and the environmental. The risks of these effects are difficult to quantify; however, the hazards themselves are sufficiently well understood to identify, delineate, and manage those risks effectively. The primary hazard elements are wells and faults, but may include other

  9. The OSIRIS-REx Mission Sample Site Selection Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beshore, Edward C.; Lauretta, Dante

    2014-11-01

    In September of 2016, the OSIRIS-REx (Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, Security, REgolith eXplorer) spacecraft will depart for asteroid (101955) Bennu, and in doing so, will turn an important corner in the exploration of the solar system. After arriving at Bennu in the fall of 2018, OSIRIS-REx will undertake a program of observations designed to select a site suitable for retrieving a sample that will be returned to the Earth in 2023. The third mission in NASA’s New Frontiers program, OSIRIS-REx will return over 60 grams from Bennu’s surface.OSIRIS-REx is unique because the science team will have an operational role to play in preparing data products needed to select a sample site. These include products used to ensure flight system safety — topographic maps and shape models, temperature measurements, maps of hazards — as well as assessments of sampleability and science value. The timing and production of these will be presented, as will the high-level decision-making tools and processes for the interim and final site selection processes.

  10. Computer-assisted selection of donor sites for autologous grafts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krol, Zdzislaw; Zeilhofer, Hans-Florian U.; Sader, Robert; Hoffmann, Karl-Heinz; Gerhardt, Paul; Horch, Hans-Henning

    1997-05-01

    A new method is proposed for a precise planning of autologous bone grafts in cranio- and maxillofacial surgery. In patients with defects of the facial skeleton, autologous bone transplants can be harvested from various donor sites in the body. The preselection of a donor site depends i.a. on the morphological fit of the available bone mass and the shape of the part that is to be transplanted. A thorough planning and simulation of the surgical intervention based on 3D CT studies leads to a geometrical description and the volumetric characterization of the bone part to be resected and transplanted. Both, an optimal fit and a minimal lesion of the donor site are guidelines in this process. We use surface similarity and voxel similarity measures in order to select the optimal donor region for an individually designed transplant.

  11. Mars sample return: Site selection and sample acquisition study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nickle, N. (Editor)

    1980-01-01

    Various vehicle and mission options were investigated for the continued exploration of Mars; the cost of a minimum sample return mission was estimated; options and concepts were synthesized into program possibilities; and recommendations for the next Mars mission were made to the Planetary Program office. Specific sites and all relevant spacecraft and ground-based data were studied in order to determine: (1) the adequacy of presently available data for identifying landing sities for a sample return mission that would assure the acquisition of material from the most important geologic provinces of Mars; (2) the degree of surface mobility required to assure sample acquisition for these sites; (3) techniques to be used in the selection and drilling of rock a samples; and (4) the degree of mobility required at the two Viking sites to acquire these samples.

  12. Commercial facility site selection simulating based on MAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Yi; Li, Qingquan; Zheng, Guizhou

    2008-10-01

    The location of commercial facility decides the benefit of the operator to a large degree. Existing location methods can express the static relationships between site selection result and location factors, but there still are some limites when express the dynamic and uncertain relationship between them. Hence, a dynamic, stochastic and forecastable location model should be built which can introduce the customer's behavior into the model and combine the macro pattern and micro spatial interaction. So the authors proposes Geosim-LM based on MAS. Geosim-LM has 3 kinds of agents, CustAgent, SiteAgent and GovAgent. They represent the customers, commercial fercilities and government. The land type, land price and traffic are the model environment. Then Geosim-LM is applied in the bank branches site evaluation and selection in Liwan district, Guangzhou. In existing bank branches site evaluation, there are 70% consistent in score grade between result of Geosim-LM after 200 round runing and actual rebust location. It proves the model is reliable and feasible. The conclusions can be get from the paper. MAS have advantages in location choice than existed methods. The result of Geosim-LM running can powerfully proves that building location model based on MAS is feasible.

  13. Gas Hydrate Research Site Selection and Operational Research Plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collett, T. S.; Boswell, R. M.

    2009-12-01

    In recent years it has become generally accepted that gas hydrates represent a potential important future energy resource, a significant drilling and production hazard, a potential contributor to global climate change, and a controlling factor in seafloor stability and landslides. Research drilling and coring programs carried out by the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP), the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP), government agencies, and several consortia have contributed greatly to our understanding of the geologic controls on the occurrence of gas hydrates in marine and permafrost environments. For the most part, each of these field projects were built on the lessons learned from the projects that have gone before them. One of the most important factors contributing to the success of some of the more notable gas hydrate field projects has been the close alignment of project goals with the processes used to select the drill sites and to develop the project’s operational research plans. For example, IODP Expedition 311 used a transect approach to successfully constrain the overall occurrence of gas hydrate within the range of geologic environments within a marine accretionary complex. Earlier gas hydrate research drilling, including IODP Leg 164, were designed primarily to assess the occurrence and nature of marine gas hydrate systems, and relied largely on the presence of anomalous seismic features, including bottom-simulating reflectors and “blanking zones”. While these projects were extremely successful, expeditions today are being increasingly mounted with the primary goal of prospecting for potential gas hydrate production targets, and site selection processes designed to specifically seek out anomalously high-concentrations of gas hydrate are needed. This approach was best demonstrated in a recently completed energy resource focused project, the Gulf of Mexico Gas Hydrate Joint Industry Project Leg II (GOM JIP Leg II), which featured the collection of a

  14. Sleeping site selection and presleep behavior in wild pigtailed macaques.

    PubMed

    Albert, Aurélie; Savini, Tommaso; Huynen, Marie-Claude

    2011-12-01

    Several factors are likely to control sleeping site selection and presleep behavior in nonhuman primates, including predation risk and location of food resources. We examined the effects of these factors on the sleeping behavior of northern pigtailed macaques (Macaca leonina). While following a troop living in the surroundings of the Visitor Center of Khao Yai National Park (Thailand), we recorded the physical characteristics and location of each sleeping site, tree, the individuals' place in the tree, posture, and behavior. We collected data for 154 nights between April 2009 and November 2010. The monkeys preferred tall sleeping trees (20.9 ± SD 4.9 m) and high sleeping places (15.8 ± SD 4.3 m), which may be an antipredator strategy. The choice of sleeping trees close to the last (146.7 ± SD 167.9 m) or to the first (150.4 ± SD 113.0 m) feeding tree of the day may save energy and decrease predation risk when monkeys are searching for food. Similarly, the choice of sleeping sites close to human settlements eases the access to human food during periods of fruit scarcity. Finally, the temporal pattern of use of sleeping sites, with a preference for four of the sleeping sites but few reuses during consecutive nights, may be a trade-off between the need to have several sleeping sites (decreasing detection by predators and travel costs to feeding sites), and the need to sleep in well-known sites (guaranteeing a faster escape in case of predator attack). PMID:21898516

  15. Site selection modeling system for a production facility at Savannah River site

    SciTech Connect

    Shedrow, C.B.; Shedrow, D.M.

    1996-12-31

    The Savannah River site (SRS) is located along the Savannah River in southwestern South Carolina and encompasses an area of {approximately}832 km (198 344 acres). Major land covers include evergreen and deciduous forests, surface water, wetlands, and administrative/industrial areas. Less than 10% of the site`s surface area is developed. Several endangered and threatened species are found on the SRS, including the red-cockaded woodpecker, the southern bald eagle, the wood stork, and the smooth purple coneflower. With the cessation of the Cold War, the traditional defense-related missions at the SRS have been significantly reduced. The implementation of new missions at the SRS will require the utilization of effective siting and prioritization methodologies to ensure the best use of available land resources and protection of the environment. The objective of this paper is to describe the utilization of the Site Selection Modeling System (SSMS) for the selection of potential industrial development sites within the SRS. The SSMS is a raster geographic information system (GIS)-based system that integrates the graphical interface ArcView 2.1 with the GRID modeling functionality of ARC/INFO. The proposed industrial development being sited is a linear accelerator, which will be used for the accelerator production of tritium.

  16. Resource evaluation and site selection for microalgae production systems

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, E.L.; Folger, A.G.; Hogg, S.E.

    1985-05-01

    Climate, land, and water resource requirements of microalgae production systems (MPS) were examined relative to construction costs, operating costs, and biomass productivity. The objective was the stratification of the southwestern United States into zones of relative suitability for MPS. Maps of climate (insolation, freeze-free period, precipitation, evaporation, thunderstorm days), land (use/cover, ownership, slope), and water (saline groundwater) resource parameters were obtained. These maps were transformed into digital overlays permitting the cell-by-cell compositing of selected resource parameters to form maps representing relative productivity, make-up water, climate suitability, land suitability, water suitability, and overall suitability. The Southwest was selected for this study because of its high levels of insolation, saline water resources, and large areas of relatively low valued land. The stratification maps cannot be used for the selection of specific sites because of their low resolution (12,455-acre cells). They can be used to guide future resource studies and site selection efforts, however, by limiting these efforts to the most suitable regions. Future efforts should concentrate on saline water resources, for which only limited data are currently available. 13 refs., 44 figs., 5 tabs.

  17. GPR monitoring of rock mass stability in selected post-mining region in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golebiowski, T.

    2012-04-01

    Mining activity conducted over a period of many years may cause significant changes in the geological medium and in effect leads to strong degradation of the surface in mining and post-mining regions. One of the most dangerous effects of mining activity is appearance of sinkholes on the ground surface. These phenomena are related to the changes of initial stress-strain state of the rock mass as a result of mining works and the creation of fractures which migrate from excavations to the ground surface. The paper presents the results of selected GPR surveys carried out in the area of the coal mine "Siersza" in two sites, i.e. in the town of Siersza and in the village of Mloszowa (Upper Silesia, South Poland). The aim of the GPR research was 3D visualisation of fractured zones distribution generated by the mining activity and an attempt to make prediction where sinkholes would appear. In order to realize this aim the measurements were conducted in 4D mode (i.e. time-space analysis), which allowed to observe the fractured zones migration towards the ground surface. In order to obtain 4D information (x-y-z-t) GPR surveys were conducted for several years, along the same parallel profiles, separated by a constant distance equals 2.5m. The terrain measurements were carried out with RAMAC and PROEX GPR systems using 250, 200, 100 and 50 MHz antennae. Because of the limited length of this paper, only selected results from the 200-250 MHz antennae are presented. The results were presented in the form of the distribution of GPR signals energies calculated from Hilbert transform, applying the technique of energy inversion. In the site of Siersza, on the basis of 4D GPR visualisation, regions threatened with the formation of sinkholes were distinguished. A few years after the research, 2 cavities appeared in this site which proved that the interpretation was correct. Another fractured zone in this site was confirmed by a borehole. In the site of Mloszowa the GPR measurements

  18. Astronomical site selection for Turkey using GIS techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aksaker, N.; Yerli, S. K.; Erdoğan, M. A.; Erdi, E.; Kaba, K.; Ak, T.; Aslan, Z.; Bakış, V.; Demircan, O.; Evren, S.; Keskin, V.; Küçük, İ.; Özdemir, T.; Özışık, T.; Selam, S. O.

    2015-10-01

    A site selection of potential observatory locations in Turkey have been carried out by using Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) coupled with Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and satellite imagery which in turn reduced cost and time and increased the accuracy of the final outcome. The layers of cloud cover, digital elevation model, artificial lights, precipitable water vapor, aerosol optical thickness and wind speed were studied in the GIS system. In conclusion of MCDA, the most suitable regions were found to be located in a strip crossing from southwest to northeast including also a diverted region in southeast of Turkey. These regions are thus our prime candidate locations for future on-site testing. In addition to this major outcome, this study has also been applied to locations of major observatories sites. Since no goal is set for the best, the results of this study is limited with a list of positions. Therefore, the list has to be further confirmed with on-site tests. A national funding has been awarded to produce a prototype of an on-site test unit (to measure both astronomical and meteorological parameters) which might be used in this list of locations.

  19. Site selection for MSFC operational tests of solar heating and cooling systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The criteria, methodology, and sequence aspects of the site selection process are presented. This report organized the logical thought process that should be applied to the site selection process, but final decisions are highly selective.

  20. Field site selection: getting it right first time around.

    PubMed

    Malcolm, Colin A; El Sayed, Badria; Babiker, Ahmed; Girod, Romain; Fontenille, Didier; Knols, Bart G J; Nugud, Abdel Hameed; Benedict, Mark Q

    2009-01-01

    The selection of suitable field sites for integrated control of Anopheles mosquitoes using the sterile insect technique (SIT) requires consideration of the full gamut of factors facing most proposed control strategies, but four criteria identify an ideal site: 1) a single malaria vector, 2) an unstructured, relatively low density target population, 3) isolation of the target population and 4) actual or potential malaria incidence. Such a site can exist in a diverse range of situations or can be created. Two contrasting SIT field sites are examined here: the desert-flanked Dongola Reach of the Nile River in Northern State, Sudan, where malaria is endemic, and the island of La Reunion, where autochthonous malaria is rare but risk is persistent. The single malaria-transmitting vector at both sites is Anopheles arabiensis. In Sudan, the target area is a narrow 500 km corridor stretching from the rocky terrain at the Fourth Cataract--just above the new Merowe Dam, to the northernmost edge of the species range, close to Egypt. Vector distribution and temporal changes in density depend on the Nile level, ambient temperature and human activities. On La Reunion, the An. arabiensis population is coastal, limited and divided into three areas by altitude and exposure to the trade winds on the east coast. Mosquito vectors for other diseases are an issue at both sites, but of primary importance on La Reunion due to the recent chikungunya epidemic. The similarities and differences between these two sites in terms of suitability are discussed in the context of area-wide integrated vector management incorporating the SIT. PMID:19917079

  1. Selection and Characterization of Landing Sites for Chandrayaan-2 Lander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopala Krishna, Barla; Amitabh, Amitabh; Srinivasan, T. P.; Karidhal, Ritu; Nagesh, G.; Manjusha, N.

    2016-07-01

    Indian Space Research Organisation has planned the second mission to moon known as Chandrayaan-2, which consists of an Orbiter, a Lander and a Rover. This will be the first soft landing mission of India on lunar surface. The Orbiter, Lander and Rover individually will carry scientific payloads that enhance the scientific objectives of Chandrayaan-2. The Lander soft lands on the lunar surface and subsequently Lander & Rover will carry on with the payload activities on the moon surface. Landing Site identification based on the scientific and engineering constrains of lander plays an important role in success of a mission. The Lander poses some constraints because of its engineering design for the selection of the landing site and on the other hand the landing site / region imparts some constrain on the Lander. The various constraints that have to be considered for the study of the landing site are Local slope, Sun illumination during mission life, Radio communication with the Earth, Global slope towards equator, Boulders size, Crater density and boulder distribution. This paper describes the characterization activities of the different landing locations which have been studied for Chandrayaan-2 Lander. The sites have been studied both in the South Polar and North Polar regions of the moon on the near side. The Engineering Constraints at the sites due to the Lander, Factors that affect mission life (i.e. illumination at the location), Factors influencing communication to earth (i.e. RF visibility) & Shadow movements have been studied at these locations and zones that are favourable for landing have been short listed. This paper gives methodology of these studies along with the results of the characteristics of all the sites and the recommendations for further action in finalizing the landing area.

  2. Field site selection: getting it right first time around

    PubMed Central

    Malcolm, Colin A; El Sayed, Badria; Babiker, Ahmed; Girod, Romain; Fontenille, Didier; Knols, Bart GJ; Nugud, Abdel Hameed; Benedict, Mark Q

    2009-01-01

    The selection of suitable field sites for integrated control of Anopheles mosquitoes using the sterile insect technique (SIT) requires consideration of the full gamut of factors facing most proposed control strategies, but four criteria identify an ideal site: 1) a single malaria vector, 2) an unstructured, relatively low density target population, 3) isolation of the target population and 4) actual or potential malaria incidence. Such a site can exist in a diverse range of situations or can be created. Two contrasting SIT field sites are examined here: the desert-flanked Dongola Reach of the Nile River in Northern State, Sudan, where malaria is endemic, and the island of La Reunion, where autochthonous malaria is rare but risk is persistent. The single malaria-transmitting vector at both sites is Anopheles arabiensis. In Sudan, the target area is a narrow 500 km corridor stretching from the rocky terrain at the Fourth Cataract - just above the new Merowe Dam, to the northernmost edge of the species range, close to Egypt. Vector distribution and temporal changes in density depend on the Nile level, ambient temperature and human activities. On La Reunion, the An. arabiensis population is coastal, limited and divided into three areas by altitude and exposure to the trade winds on the east coast. Mosquito vectors for other diseases are an issue at both sites, but of primary importance on La Reunion due to the recent chikungunya epidemic. The similarities and differences between these two sites in terms of suitability are discussed in the context of area-wide integrated vector management incorporating the SIT. PMID:19917079

  3. 77 FR 48550 - Technicolor Creative Services, Post Production Feature Mastering Division Including On-Site...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Technicolor Creative Services, Post Production Feature Mastering Division Including On-Site Leased Workers From Ajilon Professional Staffing and KForce, Hollywood, CA; Notice of Affirmative Determination...

  4. 75 FR 42599 - Posting of Flight Delay Data on Web Sites

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-22

    ... comments in the Federal Register on June 21, 2010 (75 FR 34925). The direct final rule required that the... Office of the Secretary 14 CFR Part 234 RIN No. 2105-AE02 Posting of Flight Delay Data on Web Sites... amending the time period for uploading flight performance information to a reporting air carrier's Web...

  5. College that Requires Workers to Be Christians Allowed to Post Job Ads on Pennsylvania Web Site

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartlett, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Geneva College, a Christian institution in Pennsylvania, will be allowed to post job advertisements on a state-sponsored Web site even though the college requires employees to be Christians, according to the terms of a settlement reached in federal court. The college had sued the Pennsylvania Department of Labor and Industry and the U.S.…

  6. POST-REMEDIAL USE OF SUPERFUND SITES: SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC EFFECTS OF REMEDIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the report is to study the social and economic issues involved in cleaning up Superfund sites. EPA usually avoids making land use an explicit consideration when the Agency chooses a cleanup strategy. Yet post-remediation land use assumptions are part of the risk as...

  7. ExoMars 2018 Landing Site Selection Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vago, Jorge L.; Kminek, Gerhard; Rodionov, Daniel

    The ExoMars 2018 mission will include two science elements: a Rover and a Surface Platform. The ExoMars Rover will carry a comprehensive suite of instruments dedicated to geology and exobiology research named after Louis Pasteur. The Rover will be able to travel several kilometres searching for traces of past and present signs of life. It will do this by collecting and analysing samples from outcrops, and from the subsurface—down to 2-m depth. The very powerful combination of mobility with the ability to access locations where organic molecules can be well preserved is unique to this mission. After the Rover will have egressed, the ExoMars Surface Platform will begin its science mission to study the surface environment at the landing location. This talk will describe the landing site selection process and introduce the scientific, planetary protection, and engineering requirements that candidate landing sites must comply with in order to be considered for the mission.

  8. Site selection for manned Mars landings: A geological perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spudis, Paul D.

    1986-01-01

    Issues relating to the selection of initial landing sites for manned Mars missions are discussed from a geological viewpoint. The two prime objectives for initial manned exploration should be the youngest unambiguous lava flows (to tie down the late end of the cratering history curve for Mars) and old highland crust, which is best sampled and studied through the use of large impact basins as natural, planetary drill-holes. Exploration of these two sites will provide data on Martian chronology, volcanism, impact processes and gross chemical structure that will enable a first-order global synthesis through integration of these results with the global remote-sensing data already in hand from Viking and that to be provided by the Mars Observer Mission.

  9. Investigation of a novel approach for aquaculture site selection.

    PubMed

    Falconer, Lynne; Telfer, Trevor C; Ross, Lindsay G

    2016-10-01

    This study investigated the potential use of two "species distribution models" (SDMs), Mahalanobis Typicality and Maxent, for aquaculture site selection. SDMs are used in ecological studies to predict the spatial distribution of species based on analysis of conditions at locations of known presence or absence. Here the input points are aquaculture sites, rather than species occurrence, thus the models evaluate the parameters at the sites and identify similar areas across the rest of the study area. This is a novel approach that avoids the need for data reclassification and weighting which can be a source of conflict and uncertainty within the commonly used multi-criteria evaluation (MCE) technique. Using pangasius culture in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam, as a case study, Mahalanobis Typicality and Maxent SDMs were evaluated against two models developed using the MCE approach. Mahalanobis Typicality and Maxent assess suitability based on similarity to existing farms, while the MCE approach assesses suitability using optimal values for culture. Mahalanobis Typicality considers the variables to have equal importance whereas Maxent analyses the variables to determine those which influence the distribution of the input data. All of the models indicate there are suitable areas for culture along the two main channels of the Mekong River which are currently used to farm pangasius and also inland in the north and east of the study area. The results show the Mahalanobis Typicality model had more high scoring areas and greater overall similarity than Maxent to the MCE outputs, suggesting, for this case study, it was the most appropriate SDM for aquaculture site selection. With suitable input data, a combined SDM and MCE model would overcome limitations of the individual approaches, allowing more robust planning and management decisions for aquaculture, other stakeholders and the environment. PMID:27444724

  10. Assessing the potential for post-copulatory sexual selection in elasmobranchs

    PubMed Central

    Fitzpatrick, J. L.; Kempster, R. M.; Daly-Engel, T. S.; Collin, S. P.; Evans, J. P.

    2013-01-01

    This review highlights the potential role that post-copulatory sexual selection plays in elasmobranch reproductive systems and the utility of this group to further understanding of evolutionary responses to the post-copulatory processes of sperm competition and cryptic female choice. The growing genetic evidence for female multiple mating (polyandry) in elasmobranchs is summarized. While polyandry appears to be common in this group, rates of multiple paternity are highly variable between species suggesting that there is large variance in the strength of post-copulatory sexual selection among elasmobranchs. Possible adaptations of traits important for post-copulatory sexual selection are then considered. Particular emphasis is devoted to explore the potential for sperm competition and cryptic female choice to influence the evolution of testes size, sperm morphology, genital morphology and sperm storage organs. Finally, it is argued that future work should take advantage of the wealth of information on these reproductive traits already available in elasmobranchs to gain a better understanding of how post-copulatory sexual selection operates in this group. PMID:22497376

  11. Recruiting post-doctoral fellows into global health research: selecting NIH Fogarty International Clinical Research Fellows.

    PubMed

    Heimburger, Douglas C; Warner, Tokesha L; Carothers, Catherine Lem; Blevins, Meridith; Thomas, Yolanda; Gardner, Pierce; Primack, Aron; Vermund, Sten H

    2014-08-01

    From 2008 to 2012, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Fogarty International Clinical Research Fellows Program (FICRF) provided 1-year mentored research training at low- and middle-income country sites for American and international post-doctoral health professionals. We examined the FICRF applicant pool, proposed research topics, selection process, and characteristics of enrollees to assess trends in global health research interest and factors associated with applicant competitiveness. The majority (58%) of 67 US and 57 international Fellows were women, and 83% of Fellows had medical degrees. Most applicants were in clinical fellowships (41%) or residencies (24%). More applicants proposing infectious disease projects were supported (59%) than applicants proposing non-communicable disease (NCD) projects (41%), although projects that combined both topic areas were most successful (69%). The numbers of applicants proposing research on NCDs and the numbers of these applicants awarded fellowships rose dramatically over time. Funding provided to the FICRF varied significantly among NIH Institutes and Centers and was strongly associated with the research topics awarded. PMID:24865678

  12. Recruiting Post-Doctoral Fellows into Global Health Research: Selecting NIH Fogarty International Clinical Research Fellows

    PubMed Central

    Heimburger, Douglas C.; Warner, Tokesha L.; Carothers, Catherine Lem; Blevins, Meridith; Thomas, Yolanda; Gardner, Pierce; Primack, Aron; Vermund, Sten H.

    2014-01-01

    From 2008 to 2012, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Fogarty International Clinical Research Fellows Program (FICRF) provided 1-year mentored research training at low- and middle-income country sites for American and international post-doctoral health professionals. We examined the FICRF applicant pool, proposed research topics, selection process, and characteristics of enrollees to assess trends in global health research interest and factors associated with applicant competitiveness. The majority (58%) of 67 US and 57 international Fellows were women, and 83% of Fellows had medical degrees. Most applicants were in clinical fellowships (41%) or residencies (24%). More applicants proposing infectious disease projects were supported (59%) than applicants proposing non-communicable disease (NCD) projects (41%), although projects that combined both topic areas were most successful (69%). The numbers of applicants proposing research on NCDs and the numbers of these applicants awarded fellowships rose dramatically over time. Funding provided to the FICRF varied significantly among NIH Institutes and Centers and was strongly associated with the research topics awarded. PMID:24865678

  13. The LILIA experiment: Energy selection and post-acceleration of laser generated protons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turchetti, Giorgio; Sinigardi, Stefano; Londrillo, Pasquale; Rossi, Francesco; Sumini, Marco; Giove, Dario; De Martinis, Carlo

    2012-12-01

    The LILIA experiment is planned at the SPARCLAB facility of the Frascati INFN laboratories. We have simulated the laser acceleration of protons, the transport and energy selection with collimators and a pulsed solenoid and the post-acceleration with a compact high field linac. For the highest achievable intensity corresponding to a = 30 over 108 protons at 30 MeV with a 3% spread are selected, and at least107 protons are post-accelerated up to 60 MeV. If a 10 Hz repetition rated can be achieved the delivered dose would be suitable for the treatment of small superficial tumors.

  14. The LILIA experiment: Energy selection and post-acceleration of laser generated protons

    SciTech Connect

    Turchetti, Giorgio; Sinigardi, Stefano; Londrillo, Pasquale; Rossi, Francesco; Sumini, Marco; Giove, Dario; De Martinis, Carlo

    2012-12-21

    The LILIA experiment is planned at the SPARCLAB facility of the Frascati INFN laboratories. We have simulated the laser acceleration of protons, the transport and energy selection with collimators and a pulsed solenoid and the post-acceleration with a compact high field linac. For the highest achievable intensity corresponding to a= 30 over 10{sup 8} protons at 30 MeV with a 3% spread are selected, and at least10{sup 7} protons are post-accelerated up to 60 MeV. If a 10 Hz repetition rated can be achieved the delivered dose would be suitable for the treatment of small superficial tumors.

  15. Site-selective protein-modification chemistry for basic biology and drug development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krall, Nikolaus; da Cruz, Filipa P.; Boutureira, Omar; Bernardes, Gonçalo J. L.

    2016-02-01

    Nature has produced intricate machinery to covalently diversify the structure of proteins after their synthesis in the ribosome. In an attempt to mimic nature, chemists have developed a large set of reactions that enable post-expression modification of proteins at pre-determined sites. These reactions are now used to selectively install particular modifications on proteins for many biological and therapeutic applications. For example, they provide an opportunity to install post-translational modifications on proteins to determine their exact biological roles. Labelling of proteins in live cells with fluorescent dyes allows protein uptake and intracellular trafficking to be tracked and also enables physiological parameters to be measured optically. Through the conjugation of potent cytotoxicants to antibodies, novel anti-cancer drugs with improved efficacy and reduced side effects may be obtained. In this Perspective, we highlight the most exciting current and future applications of chemical site-selective protein modification and consider which hurdles still need to be overcome for more widespread use.

  16. 40 CFR 761.247 - Sample site selection for pipe segment removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sample site selection for pipe segment... Natural Gas Pipeline: Selecting Sample Sites, Collecting Surface Samples, and Analyzing Standard PCB Wipe Samples § 761.247 Sample site selection for pipe segment removal. (a) General. (1) Select the...

  17. 40 CFR 761.247 - Sample site selection for pipe segment removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sample site selection for pipe segment... Natural Gas Pipeline: Selecting Sample Sites, Collecting Surface Samples, and Analyzing Standard PCB Wipe Samples § 761.247 Sample site selection for pipe segment removal. (a) General. (1) Select the...

  18. 40 CFR 761.247 - Sample site selection for pipe segment removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sample site selection for pipe segment... Natural Gas Pipeline: Selecting Sample Sites, Collecting Surface Samples, and Analyzing Standard PCB Wipe Samples § 761.247 Sample site selection for pipe segment removal. (a) General. (1) Select the...

  19. 40 CFR 761.247 - Sample site selection for pipe segment removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sample site selection for pipe segment... Natural Gas Pipeline: Selecting Sample Sites, Collecting Surface Samples, and Analyzing Standard PCB Wipe Samples § 761.247 Sample site selection for pipe segment removal. (a) General. (1) Select the...

  20. 40 CFR 761.247 - Sample site selection for pipe segment removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sample site selection for pipe segment... Natural Gas Pipeline: Selecting Sample Sites, Collecting Surface Samples, and Analyzing Standard PCB Wipe Samples § 761.247 Sample site selection for pipe segment removal. (a) General. (1) Select the...

  1. Mars Exploration Program 2007 Phoenix landing site selection and characteristics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arvidson, R.; Adams, D.; Bonfiglio, G.; Christensen, P.; Cull, S.; Golombek, M.; Guinn, J.; Guinness, E.; Heet, T.; Kirk, R.; Knudson, A.; Malin, M.; Mellon, M.; McEwen, A.; Mushkin, A.; Parker, T.; Seelos, F., IV; Seelos, K.; Smith, P.; Spencer, D.; Stein, T.; Tamppari, L.

    2009-01-01

    To ensure a successful touchdown and subsequent surface operations, the Mars Exploration Program 2007 Phoenix Lander must land within 65?? to 72?? north latitude, at an elevation less than -3.5 km. The landing site must have relatively low wind velocities and rock and slope distributions similar to or more benign than those found at the Viking Lander 2 site. Also, the site must have a soil cover of at least several centimeters over ice or icy soil to meet science objectives of evaluating the environmental and habitability implications of past and current near-polar environments. The most challenging aspects of site selection were the extensive rock fields associated with crater rims and ejecta deposits and the centers of polygons associated with patterned ground. An extensive acquisition campaign of Odyssey Thermal Emission Imaging Spectrometer predawn thermal IR images, together with ???0.31 m/pixel Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment images was implemented to find regions with acceptable rock populations and to support Monte Carlo landing simulations. The chosen site is located at 68.16?? north latitude, 233.35?? east longitude (areocentric), within a ???50 km wide (N-S) by ???300 km long (E-W) valley of relatively rock-free plains. Surfaces within the eastern portion of the valley are differentially eroded ejecta deposits from the relatively recent ???10-km-wide Heimdall crater and have fewer rocks than plains on the western portion of the valley. All surfaces exhibit polygonal ground, which is associated with fracture of icy soils, and are predicted to have only several centimeters of poorly sorted basaltic sand and dust over icy soil deposits. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  2. Rocky Mountain snowpack chemistry at selected sites for 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ingersoll, George P.; Mast, M. Alisa; Clow, David W.; Nanus, Leora; Campbell, Donald H.; Handran, Heather

    2003-01-01

    Because regional-scale atmospheric deposition data in the Rocky Mountains are sparse, a program was designed by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Park Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, and other agencies, to more thoroughly determine the chemical composition of precipitation and to identify sources of atmospherically deposited contaminants in a network of high-elevation sites. Samples of seasonal snowpacks at 57 geographically distributed sites, in a regional network from New Mexico to Montana, were collected and analyzed for major ions (including ammonium, nitrate, and sulfate), alkalinity, and dissolved organic carbon during 2001. Sites selected in this report have been sampled annually since 1993, enabling identification of increases or decreases in chemical concentrations from year to year. Spatial patterns in snowpack-chemical data for concentrations of ammonium, nitrate, and sulfate indicate that concentrations of these acid precursors in less developed areas of the region are lower than concentrations in the heavily developed areas. Results for the 2001 snowpack-chemistry analyses, however, indicate increases in concentrations of ammonium and nitrate in particular at sites where past concentrations typically were lower. Since 1993, concentrations of nitrate and sulfate were highest from snowpack samples in northern Colorado that were collected from sites adjacent to the Denver metropolitan area to the east and the coal-fired powerplants to the west. In 2001, relatively high concentrations of nitrate (12.3 to 23.0 microequivalents per liter (?eq/L) and sulfate (7.7 to 12.5 ?eq/L) were detected in Montana and Wyoming. Ammonium concentrations were highest in north-central Colorado (14.5 to 16.9 ?eq/L) and southwestern Montana (12.8 to 14.2 ?eq/L).

  3. Lunar Observer Laser Altimeter observations for lunar base site selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garvin, James B.; Bufton, Jack L.

    1992-01-01

    One of the critical datasets for optimal selection of future lunar landing sites is local- to regional-scale topography. Lunar base site selection will require such data for both engineering and scientific operations purposes. The Lunar Geoscience Orbiter or Lunar Observer is the ideal precursory science mission from which to obtain this required information. We suggest that a simple laser altimeter instrument could be employed to measure local-scale slopes, heights, and depths of lunar surface features important to lunar base planning and design. For this reason, we have designed and are currently constructing a breadboard of a Lunar Observer Laser Altimeter (LOLA) instrument capable of acquiring contiguous-footprint topographic profiles with both 30-m and 300-m along-track resolution. This instrument meets all the severe weight, power, size, and data rate limitations imposed by Observer-class spacecraft. In addition, LOLA would be capable of measuring the within-footprint vertical roughness of the lunar surface, and the 1.06-micron relative surface reflectivity at normal incidence. We have used airborne laser altimeter data for a few representative lunar analog landforms to simulate and analyze LOLA performance in a 100-km lunar orbit. We demonstrate that this system in its highest resolution mode (30-m diameter footprints) would quantify the topography of all but the very smallest lunar landforms. At its global mapping resolution (300-m diameter footprints), LOLA would establish the topographic context for lunar landing site selection by providing the basis for constructing a 1-2 km spatial resolution global, geodetic topographic grid that would contain a high density of observations (e.g., approximately 1000 observations per each 1 deg by 1 deg cell at the lunar equator). The high spatial and vertical resolution measurements made with a LOLA-class instrument on a precursory Lunar Observer would be highly synergistic with high-resolution imaging datasets, and

  4. Generation of novel radiolabeled opiates through site-selective iodination

    PubMed Central

    Majumdar, Susruta; Burgman, Maxim; Haselton, Nathan; Grinnell, Steven; Ocampo, Julia; Pasternak, Anna Rose; Pasternak, Gavril W

    2011-01-01

    Tritiated opioid radioligands have proven valuable in exploring opioid binding sites. However, tritium has many limitations. Its low specific activity and limited counting efficiency makes it difficult to examine low abundant, high affinity sites and its disposal is problematic due to the need to use organic scintillants and its relatively long half-life. To overcome these issues, we have synthesized both unlabeled and carrier-free radioiodinated iodobenzoyl derivatives of 6β-naltrexamine (125I-BNtxA, 18), 6β-naloxamine (125I-BNalA, 19) and 6β-oxymorphamine (125I-BOxyA, 20) with specific activities of 2100 Ci/mmol. To optimize the utility of the radioligand, we designed a synthesis in which the radiolabel is incorporated in the last synthetic step, which required the selective iodination of the benzoyl moiety without incorporation into the phenolic A ring. Competition studies demonstrated high affinity of the unlabelled compounds for opioid receptors in transfected cell lines, as did the direct binding of the 125I-ligands to the opioid receptors. The radioligand displayed very high sensitivity, enabling a marked reduction in tissue, as well as excellent signal/noise characteristics. These new 125I-radioligands should prove valuable in future studies of opioid binding sites. PMID:21621410

  5. Generation of novel radiolabeled opiates through site-selective iodination.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, Susruta; Burgman, Maxim; Haselton, Nathan; Grinnell, Steven; Ocampo, Julia; Pasternak, Anna Rose; Pasternak, Gavril W

    2011-07-01

    Tritiated opioid radioligands have proven valuable in exploring opioid binding sites. However, tritium has many limitations. Its low specific activity and limited counting efficiency makes it difficult to examine low abundant, high affinity sites and its disposal is problematic due to the need to use organic scintillants and its relatively long half-life. To overcome these issues, we have synthesized both unlabeled and carrier-free radioiodinated iodobenzoyl derivatives of 6β-naltrexamine ((125)I-BNtxA, 18), 6β-naloxamine ((125)I-BNalA, 19) and 6β-oxymorphamine ((125)I-BOxyA, 20) with specific activities of 2100Ci/mmol. To optimize the utility of the radioligand, we designed a synthesis in which the radiolabel is incorporated in the last synthetic step, which required the selective iodination of the benzoyl moiety without incorporation into the phenolic A ring. Competition studies demonstrated high affinity of the unlabelled compounds for opioid receptors in transfected cell lines, as did the direct binding of the (125)I-ligands to the opioid receptors. The radioligand displayed very high sensitivity, enabling a marked reduction in tissue, as well as excellent signal/noise characteristics. These new (125)I-radioligands should prove valuable in future studies of opioid binding sites. PMID:21621410

  6. Vibrational Spectroscopic Observation of Atomic-Scale Local Surface Sites Using Site-Selective Signal Enhancement.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jian; Hoshi, Nagahiro; Uosaki, Kohei; Ikeda, Katsuyoshi

    2015-12-01

    Molecule-substrate interactions are sensitively affected by atomic-scale surface structures. Unique activity in heterogeneous catalysts or electrocatalysts is often related with local surface sites with specific structures. We demonstrate that adsorption geometry of a model molecule with an isocyanide anchor is drastically varied among one-fold atop, two-fold bridge, and three-fold hollow configurations with increasing the size of atomic-scale local surface sites of Pd islands on an Au(111) model surface. The vibrational spectroscopic observation of such local information is realized by site-selective and self-assembled formation of hotspots, where Raman scattering intensity is significantly enhanced via excitation of localized surface plasmons. PMID:26551000

  7. Greater Green River basin well-site selection

    SciTech Connect

    Frohne, K.H.; Boswell, R.

    1993-12-31

    Recent estimates of the natural gas resources of Cretaceous low-permeability reservoirs of the Greater Green River basin indicate that as much as 5000 trillion cubic feet (Tcf) of gas may be in place (Law and others 1989). Of this total, Law and others (1989) attributed approximately 80 percent to the Upper Cretaceous Mesaverde Group and Lewis Shale. Unfortunately, present economic conditions render the drilling of many vertical wells unprofitable. Consequently, a three-well demonstration program, jointly sponsored by the US DOE/METC and the Gas Research Institute, was designed to test the profitability of this resource using state-of-the-art directional drilling and completion techniques. DOE/METC studied the geologic and engineering characteristics of ``tight`` gas reservoirs in the eastern portion of the Greater Green River basin in order to identify specific locations that displayed the greatest potential for a successful field demonstration. This area encompasses the Rocks Springs Uplift, Wamsutter Arch, and the Washakie and Red Desert (or Great Divide) basins of southwestern Wyoming. The work was divided into three phases. Phase 1 consisted of a regional geologic reconnaissance of 14 gas-producing areas encompassing 98 separate gas fields. In Phase 2, the top four areas were analyzed in greater detail, and the area containing the most favorable conditions was selected for the identification of specific test sites. In Phase 3, target horizons were selected for each project area, and specific placement locations were selected and prioritized.

  8. Post-caesarean section surgical site infections at a Tanzanian tertiary hospital: a prospective observational study.

    PubMed

    De Nardo, P; Gentilotti, E; Nguhuni, B; Vairo, F; Chaula, Z; Nicastri, E; Nassoro, M M; Bevilacqua, N; Ismail, A; Savoldi, A; Zumla, A; Ippolito, G

    2016-08-01

    Few data are available on the determinants and characteristics of post-caesarean section (CS) surgical site infections (SSIs) in resource-limited settings. We conducted a prospective observational cohort study to evaluate the rates, determinants, and microbiological characteristics of post-CS SSI at the Dodoma Regional Referral Hospital (DRRH) Gynaecology and Obstetrics Department in Tanzania. Spanning a three-month period, all pregnant women who underwent CS were enrolled and followed up for 30 days. SSI following CS occurred in 224 (48%) women. Only 10 (2.1%) women received pre-incision antibiotic prophylaxis. Urgent intervention is needed to prevent and control infections and contain the rising rate of post-CS SSI at the DRRH. PMID:27125664

  9. Improving N(6)-methyladenosine site prediction with heuristic selection of nucleotide physical-chemical properties.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ming; Sun, Jia-Wei; Liu, Zi; Ren, Ming-Wu; Shen, Hong-Bin; Yu, Dong-Jun

    2016-09-01

    N(6)-methyladenosine (m(6)A) is one of the most common and abundant post-transcriptional RNA modifications found in viruses and most eukaryotes. m(6)A plays an essential role in many vital biological processes to regulate gene expression. Because of its widespread distribution across the genomes, the identification of m(6)A sites from RNA sequences is of significant importance for better understanding the regulatory mechanism of m(6)A. Although progress has been achieved in m(6)A site prediction, challenges remain. This article aims to further improve the performance of m(6)A site prediction by introducing a new heuristic nucleotide physical-chemical property selection (HPCS) algorithm. The proposed HPCS algorithm can effectively extract an optimized subset of nucleotide physical-chemical properties under the prescribed feature representation for encoding an RNA sequence into a feature vector. We demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed HPCS algorithm under different feature representations, including pseudo dinucleotide composition (PseDNC), auto-covariance (AC), and cross-covariance (CC). Based on the proposed HPCS algorithm, we implemented an m(6)A site predictor, called M6A-HPCS, which is freely available at http://csbio.njust.edu.cn/bioinf/M6A-HPCS. Experimental results over rigorous jackknife tests on benchmark datasets demonstrated that the proposed M6A-HPCS achieves higher success rates and outperforms existing state-of-the-art sequence-based m(6)A site predictors. PMID:27293216

  10. Post-Remediation Biomonitoring of Pesticides in Marine Waters Near the United Heckathorn Site, Richmond, California

    SciTech Connect

    Antrim, Liam D.; Kohn, Nancy P.

    2000-09-05

    Marine sediment remediation at the United Heckathorn Superfund Site was completed in April 1997. Water and mussel tissues were sampled in January 1998 from four stations near Lauritzen Canal in Richmond, California, for the first post-remediation monitoring of marine areas near the United Heckathorn Site. Dieldrin and DDT were analyzed in water samples, tissue samples from resident mussels, and tissue samples from transplanted mussels deployed for 4 months. Concentrations of dieldrin and total DDT in water and total DDT in tissue were compared to pre-remediation data available from the California State Mussel Watch program (tissues) and the Ecological Risk Assessment for the United Heckathorn Superfund Site (tissues and water). Biomonitoring results indicated that pesticides were still bioavailable in the water column, and have not been reduced from pre-remediation levels. Annual biomonitoring will continue to assess the effectiveness of remedial actions at the United Heckathorn Site.

  11. Post-Closure Inspection Letter Report for Corrective Action Units on the Nevada National Security Site

    SciTech Connect

    Boehleke, R. F.

    2014-05-06

    This letter serves as the post-closure inspection letter report for Corrective Action Units (CAUs) on the Nevada National Security Site for calendar year 2013. The inspections identified maintenance and repair is required at the following sites: sign and/or fence repair is necessary at CAUs 113, 137, 139, 140, 143, 262, 370, 371, 372, 374, 476, 478, 529, 542, and 560; animal burrows were identified at CAU 547; and erosion was identified at CAUs 366, 367, 383, 551, and 574. In addition, the following use restrictions were removed during 2013 and will no longer be inspected in 2014: 165, 357, and 528.

  12. Earthworms drive succession of both plant and Collembola communities in post-mining sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mudrák, Obdřej; Frouz, Jan

    2015-04-01

    Previous field observations indicated that earthworms promote late-successional plant species and reduce collembolan numbers at post-mining sites in the Sokolov coal mining district (Czech Republic). Here, we established a laboratory pot experiment to test the effect of earthworms (Aporrectodea caliginosa Savigny and Lumbricus rubellus Hoffm.) and litter of low, medium, and high quality (the grass Calamagrostis epigejos, the willow Salix caprea, and the alder Alnus glutinosa, respectively) on late successional plants (grasses Arrhenatherum elatius and Agrostis capillaris, legumes Lotus corniculatus and Trifolium medium, and non-leguminous dicots Centaurea jacea and Plantago lanceolata) in spoil substrate originating from Sokolov post-mining sites and naturally inhabited by abundant numbers of Collembola. The earthworms increased plant biomass, especially that of the large-seeded A. elatius, but reduced the number of plant individuals, mainly that of the small-seeded A. capillaris and both legumes. Litter quality affected plant biomass, which was highest with S. caprea litter, but did not change the number of plant individuals. Litter quality did not modify the effect of earthworms on plants; the effect of litter quality and earthworms was only additive. Species composition of Collembola community was altered by litter quality, but earthworms reduced the number of individuals, increased the number of species, and increased species evenness consistently across the litter qualities. Because the results of this experiment were consistent with the field observations, we conclude that earthworms help drive succession of both plant and Collembola communities on post-mining sites.

  13. Earthworms drive succession of both plant and Collembola communities in post-mining sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mudrák, Ondřej; Uteseny, Karoline; Frouz, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Previous field observations indicated that earthworms promote late-successional plant species and reduce collembolan numbers at post-mining sites in the Sokolov coal mining district (Czech Republic). Here, we established a laboratory pot experiment to test the effect of earthworms (Aporrectodea caliginosa Savigny and Lumbricus rubellus Hoffm.) and litter of low, medium, and high quality (the grass Calamagrostis epigejos, the willow Salix caprea, and the alder Alnus glutinosa, respectively) on late successional plants (grasses Arrhenatherum elatius and Agrostis capillaris, legumes Lotus corniculatus and Trifolium medium, and non-leguminous dicots Centaurea jacea and Plantago lanceolata) in spoil substrate originating from Sokolov post-mining sites and naturally inhabited by abundant numbers of Collembola. The earthworms increased plant biomass, especially that of the large-seeded A. elatius, but reduced the number of plant individuals, mainly that of the small-seeded A. capillaris and both legumes. Litter quality affected plant biomass, which was highest with S. caprea litter, but did not change the number of plant individuals. Litter quality did not modify the effect of earthworms on plants; the effect of litter quality and earthworms was only additive. Species composition of Collembola community was altered by litter quality, but earthworms reduced the number of individuals, increased the number of species, and increased species evenness consistently across the litter qualities. Because the results of this experiment were consistent with the field observations, we conclude that earthworms help drive succession of both plant and Collembola communities on post-mining sites.

  14. Surgical site infection after caesarean section: space for post-discharge surveillance improvements and reliable comparisons.

    PubMed

    Ferraro, Federica; Piselli, Pierluca; Pittalis, Silvia; Ruscitti, Luca E; Cimaglia, Claudia; Ippolito, Giuseppe; Puro, Vincenzo

    2016-04-01

    Surgical site infections (SSI) after caesarean section (CS) represent a substantial health system concern. Surveying SSI has been associated with a reduction in SSI incidence. We report the findings of three (2008, 2011 and 2013) regional active SSI surveillances after CS in community hospital of the Latium region determining the incidence of SSI. Each CS was surveyed for SSI occurrence by trained staff up to 30 post-operative days, and association of SSI with relevant characteristics was assessed using binomial logistic regression. A total of 3,685 CS were included in the study. A complete 30 day post-operation follow-up was achieved in over 94% of procedures. Overall 145 SSI were observed (3.9% cumulative incidence) of which 131 (90.3%) were superficial and 14 (9.7%) complex (deep or organ/space) SSI; overall 129 SSI (of which 89.9% superficial) were diagnosed post-discharge. Only higher NNIS score was significantly associated with SSI occurrence in the regression analysis. Our work provides the first regional data on CS-associated SSI incidence, highlighting the need for a post-discharge surveillance which should assure 30 days post-operation to not miss data on complex SSI, as well as being less labour intensive. PMID:27196552

  15. Co-transcriptional commitment to alternative splice site selection.

    PubMed

    Roberts, G C; Gooding, C; Mak, H Y; Proudfoot, N J; Smith, C W

    1998-12-15

    Production of mRNA in eukaryotic cells involves not only transcription but also various processing reactions such as splicing. Recent experiments have indicated that there are direct physical connections between components of the transcription and processing machinery, supporting previous suggestions that pre-mRNA splicing occurs co-transcriptionally. Here we have used a novel functional approach to demonstrate co-transcriptional regulation of alternative splicing. Exon 3 of the alpha-tropomyosin gene is specifically repressed in smooth muscle cells. By delaying synthesis of an essential downstream inhibitory element, we show that the decision to splice or repress exon 3 occurs during a limited window of opportunity following transcription, indicating that splice site selection proceeds rapidly after transcription. PMID:9837984

  16. Measurement of volatile organic chemicals at selected sites in California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Hanwant B.; Salas, L.; Viezee, W.; Sitton, B.; Ferek, R.

    1992-01-01

    Urban air concentrations of 24 selected volatile organic chemicals that may be potentially hazardous to human health and environment were measured during field experiments conducted at two California locations, at Houston, and at Denver. Chemicals measured included chlorofluorocarbons, halomethanes, haloethanes, halopropanes, chloroethylenes, and aromatic hydrocarbons. With emphasis on California sites, data from these studies are analyzed and interpreted with respect to variabilities in ambient air concentrations, diurnal changes, relation to prevailing meteorology, sources and trends. Except in a few instances, mean concentrations are typically between 0 and 5 ppb. Significant variabilities in atmospheric concentrations associated with intense sources and adverse meteorological conditions are shown to exist. In addition to short-term variability, there is evidence of systematic diurnal and seasonal trends. In some instances it is possible to detect declining trends resulting from the effectiveness of control strategies.

  17. Making good choices with variable information: a stochastic model for nest-site selection by honeybees.

    PubMed

    Perdriau, Benjamin S; Myerscough, Mary R

    2007-04-22

    A density-dependent Markov process model is constructed for information transfer among scouts during nest-site selection by honeybees (Apis mellifera). The effects of site quality, competition between sites and delays in site discovery are investigated. The model predicts that bees choose the better of two sites more reliably when both sites are of low quality than when both sites are of high quality and that delay in finding a second site has most effect on the final choice when both sites are of high quality. The model suggests that stochastic effects in honeybee nest-site selection confer no advantage on the swarm. PMID:17301012

  18. Playing quantum games by a scheme with pre- and post-selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weng, Guo-Fu; Yu, Yang

    2016-01-01

    We propose a scheme to play quantum games by assuming that the two players interact with each other. Thus, by pre-selection, two players can choose their initial states, and some dilemma in classical game may be removed by post-selection, which is particularly useful for the cooperative games. We apply the proposal to both of BoS and Prisoners' dilemma games in cooperative situations. The examples show that the proposal would guarantee a remarkably binding agreement between two parties. Any deviation during the game will be detected, and the game may be abnegated. By illuminating the examples, we find that the initial state in the cooperative game does not destroy process to get preferable payoffs by pre- and post-selections, which is not true in other schemes for implementing the quantum game. We point out that one player can use the scheme to detect his opponent's choices if he is advantageous in information theory and technology.

  19. 40 CFR 761.250 - Sample site selection for pipeline section abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sample site selection for pipeline... Disposal of Natural Gas Pipeline: Selecting Sample Sites, Collecting Surface Samples, and Analyzing Standard PCB Wipe Samples § 761.250 Sample site selection for pipeline section abandonment. This...

  20. 40 CFR 761.250 - Sample site selection for pipeline section abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sample site selection for pipeline... Disposal of Natural Gas Pipeline: Selecting Sample Sites, Collecting Surface Samples, and Analyzing Standard PCB Wipe Samples § 761.250 Sample site selection for pipeline section abandonment. This...

  1. 40 CFR 761.250 - Sample site selection for pipeline section abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sample site selection for pipeline... Disposal of Natural Gas Pipeline: Selecting Sample Sites, Collecting Surface Samples, and Analyzing Standard PCB Wipe Samples § 761.250 Sample site selection for pipeline section abandonment. This...

  2. 40 CFR 761.250 - Sample site selection for pipeline section abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sample site selection for pipeline... Disposal of Natural Gas Pipeline: Selecting Sample Sites, Collecting Surface Samples, and Analyzing Standard PCB Wipe Samples § 761.250 Sample site selection for pipeline section abandonment. This...

  3. 40 CFR 761.250 - Sample site selection for pipeline section abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sample site selection for pipeline... Disposal of Natural Gas Pipeline: Selecting Sample Sites, Collecting Surface Samples, and Analyzing Standard PCB Wipe Samples § 761.250 Sample site selection for pipeline section abandonment. This...

  4. Helium mining on the Moon: Site selection and evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cameron, Eugene N.

    1992-01-01

    The feasibility of recovering helium (He) from the Moon as a source of fusion energy on Earth is currently being studied at the University of Wisconsin. Part of this study is selection and evaluation of potential sites for lunar He mining. Selection and evaluation of potential mining sites are based on four salient findings by various investigators of lunar samples: (1) Regoliths from areas underlain by highland materials contain less than 20 wppm He; (2) Certain maria regoliths contain less than 20 wppm He, but other contain 25 to 49 wppm; (3) The He content of a mare regolith is a function of its composition; regoliths rich in Ti are relatively rich in He; and (4) He is concentrated in the less than 100-micron size fractions of regoliths. The first three findings suggest that maria are the most promising mining sites, specifically, those that have high-Ti regoliths. Information on the regional distribution and extent of high-Ti regoliths comes mainly from two sources: direct sampling by various Apollo and Luna missions, and remote sensing by gamma-ray spectroscopy and Earth-based measurements of lunar spectral reflectance. Sampling provides essential control on calibration and interpretation of data from remote sensing. These data indicate that Mare Tranquillitatis is the principal area of high-Ti regolith of the eastern nearside, but large areas of high-Ti regolith are indicated in the Imbrium and Procellarum regions. Recovery of significant amounts of He-3 will require mining billions of tonnes of regolith. Large individual areas suitable for mining must therefore be delineated. The concentration of He in the finer size fractions and considerations of ease of mining mean that mining areas must be as free as possible of sizable craters and blocks of rock. Pending additional lunar missions, information regarding these features must be obtained from lunar photographs, photogeologic maps, and radar surveys. The present study is decidedly preliminary; available

  5. Initial basalt target site selection evaluation for the Mars penetrator drop test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bunch, T. E.; Quaide, W. L.; Polkowski, G.

    1976-01-01

    Potential basalt target sites for an air drop penetrator test were described and the criteria involved in site selection were discussed. A summary of the background field geology and recommendations for optimum sites are also presented.

  6. Post-decontamination and dismantlement (D&D) characterization report for CFA-669 site

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.L.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents results of post-decontamination and dismantling (D&D) characterization surveys performed by EG&G Idaho, Inc. (EG&G Idaho), at Central Facilities Area (CFA)-669, which was the Hot Laundry Facility. The site was characterized to determine and document the radiological and chemical conditions of the site following D&D and to determine if the site satisfies the release criteria. Constructed in 1950, CFA-669 served as the ``hot`` and ``cold`` laundry for Idaho National Engineering Laboratory site contractors until the boiler exploded in 1981. The building was shut down at that time. Before D&D activities began in 1992, the facility was characterized and the results documented. D&D activities were completed in July 1994. The post-D&D radiological characterization consisted of radiation measurements and analyses of soil samples to identify man-made radionuclides and determine the specific activity of each sample. The chemical characterization consisted of toxicity characterization leaching procedure (TCLP) analysis for metals and for volatile and semivolatile organic contamination.

  7. 76 FR 29282 - Transfer of Post Office Box Service in Selected Locations to the Competitive Product List

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-20

    ... Post Office Box Service in Selected Locations to the Competitive Product List AGENCY: Postal Service TM... Postal Regulatory Commission to transfer Post Office Box service at approximately 6,800 locations from... request to transfer Post Office Box service at locations serving populations that reside within five...

  8. Post-remediation evaluation of a LNAPL site using electrical resistivity imaging.

    PubMed

    Halihan, Todd; Paxton, Stanley; Graham, Ivy; Fenstemaker, Thomas; Riley, Matt

    2005-04-01

    Present understanding of the earth's subsurface is most often derived from samples at discrete points (wells) and interpolations or models that interpret the space between these points. Electrical resistivity imaging techniques have produced an improved capability to map contaminants (especially NAPLs--NonAqueous Phase Liquids) away from traditional wells using actual field data. Electrical resistivity image data, confirmed by drilling, have demonstrated that LNAPL (Light NAPL--less dense than water, such as gasoline) contaminants exist outside of a delineated and remediated area in Golden, Oklahoma. The data also demonstrate that LNAPL exists between monitoring and remediation wells which indicate low contaminant levels when sampled. Additionally, the electrical images provided the drilling location with the highest concentration of hydrocarbon ever found on the site, even after two phases of remediation work had been performed, although the sampling protocols varied. The results indicate that current methods of post-remediation site characterization are inadequate for complete site characterization. PMID:15798793

  9. Reproductive delays in mammals: an unexplored avenue for post-copulatory sexual selection.

    PubMed

    Orr, Teri J; Zuk, Marlene

    2014-11-01

    Numerous mammalian taxa exhibit reproductive delays, pauses in reproduction that occur between mating and fertilization, between fertilization and implantation of the embryo, or after an embryo has implanted. Of the 27 mammalian orders, 9 are known to exhibit reproductive delays, including Diptrotodontia, Dasyuromorphia, Eulipotyphyta, Cingulata, Carnivora, Rodentia, Chiroptera, Lagomorpha and Cetartiodactyla. Most researchers interested in delays have focused on their evolutionary origins. However, the consequences of these delays have not been considered fully. Given the lengthening of the period over which reproduction occurs, it is possible that this unique aspect of reproduction facilitates post-copulatory sexual selection. When considered in the context of sexual selection, delays may allow sperm competition and female manipulation of fertilization (cryptic female choice) as well as other post-copulatory processes. We investigate the potential for reproductive delays to facilitate post-copulatory sexual selection and suggest avenues for research that may further our knowledge of sexual selection. We also provide a general review of reproductive delays in mammals. PMID:24517909

  10. Highly selective Lewis acid sites in desilicated MFI zeolites for dihydroxyacetone isomerization to lactic acid.

    PubMed

    Dapsens, Pierre Y; Mondelli, Cecilia; Pérez-Ramírez, Javier

    2013-05-01

    Desilication of commercial MFI-type (ZSM-5) zeolites in solutions of alkali metal hydroxides is demonstrated to generate highly selective heterogeneous catalysts for the aqueous-phase isomerization of biobased dihydroxyacetone (DHA) to lactic acid (LA). The best hierarchical ZSM-5 sample attains a LA selectivity exceeding 90 %, which is comparable to that of the state-of-the-art catalyst (i.e., the Sn-beta zeolite); this optimized hierarchical catalyst is recyclable over three runs. The Lewis acid sites, which are created through desilication along with the introduction of mesoporosity, are shown to play a crucial role in the formation of the desired product; these cannot be achieved by using other post-synthetic methods, such as steaming or impregnation of aluminum species. Desilication of other metallosilicates, such as Ga-MFI, also leads to high LA selectivity. In the presence of a soluble aluminum source, such as aluminum nitrate, alkaline-assisted alumination can introduce these unique Lewis acid centers in all-silica MFI zeolites. These findings highlight the potential of zeolites in the field of biomass-to-chemical conversion, and expand the applicability of desilication for the generation of selective catalytic centers. PMID:23554234

  11. The nest site lottery: how selectively neutral density dependent growth suppression induces frequency dependent selection.

    PubMed

    Argasinski, K; Broom, M

    2013-12-01

    Modern developments in population dynamics emphasize the role of the turnover of individuals. In the new approaches stable population size is a dynamic equilibrium between different mortality and fecundity factors instead of an arbitrary fixed carrying capacity. The latest replicator dynamics models assume that regulation of the population size acts through feedback driven by density dependent juvenile mortality. Here, we consider a simplified model to extract the properties of this approach. We show that at the stable population size, the structure of the frequency dependent evolutionary game emerges. Turnover of individuals induces a lottery mechanism where for each nest site released by a dead adult individual a single newborn is drawn from the pool of newborn candidates. This frequency dependent selection leads towards the strategy maximizing the number of newborns per adult death. However, multiple strategies can maximize this value. Among them, the strategy with the greatest mortality (which implies the greatest instantaneous growth rate) is selected. This result is important for the discussion about universal fitness measures and which parameters are maximized by natural selection. This is related to the fitness measures R0 and r, because the number of newborns per single dead individual equals the lifetime production of newborn R0 in models without aging. We thus have a two-stage procedure, instead of a single fitness measure, which is a combination of R0 and r. According to the nest site lottery mechanism, at stable population size, selection favors strategies with the greatest r, i.e. those with the highest turnover, from those with the greatest R0. PMID:24071631

  12. Site Selection for the MGS '01 Mission: An Astrobiological Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farmer, Jack; Nelson, David; Greeley, Ronald; Klein, Harold; Kuzmin, Ruslan

    1999-06-01

    include evaporites and ice, both of which have comparatively short crustal residence times on Earth. These "taphonomic" constraints provide a fairly narrow set of criteria for site selection. While they are difficult to apply in the absence of mineralogical information, their consideration is nevertheless essential if we are to follow a strategy founded in clear scientific principles.

  13. 40 CFR 228.5 - General criteria for the selection of sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... DUMPING CRITERIA FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF DISPOSAL SITES FOR OCEAN DUMPING § 228.5 General criteria for the selection of sites. (a) The dumping of materials into the ocean will be permitted only at sites or in areas... ocean dumping sites beyond the edge of the continental shelf and other such sites that have...

  14. Post-oral infusion sites that support glucose-conditioned flavor preferences in rats.

    PubMed

    Ackroff, Karen; Yiin, Yeh-Min; Sclafani, Anthony

    2010-03-01

    Rats learn to prefer a flavored solution (CS+) paired with a gastrointestinal glucose infusion over an alternate flavor (CS-) paired with a non-caloric infusion. Prior work implicates a post-gastric site of glucose action, which is the focus of this study. In Exp. 1, male rats (8-10/group) were infused in the duodenum (ID), mid-jejunum (IJ), or distal ileum (II) with 8% glucose or water as they drank saccharin-sweetened CS+ and CS- solutions, respectively, in one-bottle 30-min sessions. Two-bottle tests (no infusions) were followed by a second train-test cycle. By the second test, the ID and IJ groups preferred the CS+ (69%, 67%) to the CS- but the II group did not (48%). Satiation tests showed that ID and IJ infusions of glucose reduced intake of a palatable solution similarly, while II infusions were ineffective. In Exp. 2, rats (10/group) drank CS solutions in one-bottle, 30-min sessions and were given 2-h ID or hepatic portal vein (HP) infusions. The CS+ and CS- were paired with 10 ml infusions of 10% glucose and 0.9% saline, respectively. Following 8 training sessions, the ID group preferred the CS+ (67%) to the CS- but the HP group did not (47%) in a two-bottle test. The similar CS+ preferences displayed by ID and IJ, but not II groups implicate the jejunum as a critical site for glucose-conditioned preferences. A pre-absorptive glucose action is indicated by the CS+ preference displayed by ID but not HP rats in Exp. 2. Our data were obtained with non-nutritive CS solutions. HP glucose infusions are reported to condition preferences for a flavored food that itself has pre- and post-absorptive actions. Thus, there may be multiple sites for glucose conditioning with the upper or mid-intestines being the first site of action. PMID:20026145

  15. Autonomous site selection and instrument positioning for sample acquisition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, A.; Barnes, D.; Pugh, S.

    The European Space Agency Aurora Exploration Program aims to establish a European long-term programme for the exploration of Space, culminating in a human mission to space in the 2030 timeframe. Two flagship missions, namely Mars Sample Return and ExoMars, have been proposed as recognised steps along the way. The Exomars Rover is the first of these flagship missions and includes a rover carrying the Pasteur Payload, a mobile exobiology instrumentation package, and the Beagle 2 arm. The primary objective is the search for evidence of past or present life on mars, but the payload will also study the evolution of the planet and the atmosphere, look for evidence of seismological activity and survey the environment in preparation for future missions. The operation of rovers in unknown environments is complicated, and requires large resources not only on the planet but also in ground based operations. Currently, this can be very labour intensive, and costly, if large teams of scientists and engineers are required to assess mission progress, plan mission scenarios, and construct a sequence of events or goals for uplink. Furthermore, the constraints in communication imposed by the time delay involved over such large distances, and line-of-sight required, make autonomy paramount to mission success, affording the ability to operate in the event of communications outages and be opportunistic with respect to scientific discovery. As part of this drive to reduce mission costs and increase autonomy the Space Robotics group at the University of Wales, Aberystwyth is researching methods of autonomous site selection and instrument positioning, directly applicable to the ExoMars mission. The site selection technique used builds on the geometric reasoning algorithms used previously for localisation and navigation [Shaw 03]. It is proposed that a digital elevation model (DEM) of the local surface, generated during traverse and without interaction from ground based operators, can be

  16. Do pre- and post-copulatory sexually selected traits covary in large herbivores?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In most species, males compete to gain both matings (via pre-copulatory competition) and fertilizations (via post-copulatory competition) to maximize their reproductive success. However, the quantity of resources devoted to sexual traits is finite, and so males are predicted to balance their investment between pre- and post-copulatory expenditure depending on the expected pay-offs that should vary according to mating tactics. In Artiodactyla species, males can invest in weapons such as horns or antlers to increase their mating gains or in testes mass/sperm dimensions to increase their fertilization efficiency. Moreover, it has been suggested that in these species, males with territory defence mating tactic might preferentially increase their investment in post-copulatory traits to increase their fertilization efficiency whereas males with female defence mating tactic might increase their investment in pre-copulatory sexually selected traits to prevent other males from copulating with females. In this study, we thus test the prediction that male’s weapon length (pre-copulatory trait) covaries negatively with relative testes size and/or sperm dimensions (post-copulatory traits) across Artiodactyla using a phylogenetically controlled framework. Results Surprisingly no association between weapon length and testes mass is found but a negative association between weapon length and sperm length is evidenced. In addition, neither pre- nor post-copulatory traits were found to be affected by male mating tactics. Conclusions We propose several hypotheses that could explain why male ungulates may not balance their reproductive investment between pre- and post-copulatory traits. PMID:24716470

  17. Estimates of External Validity Bias When Impact Evaluations Select Sites Nonrandomly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Stephen H.; Olsen, Robert B.; Orr, Larry L.; Stuart, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    Evaluations of educational programs or interventions are typically conducted in nonrandomly selected samples of schools or districts. Recent research has shown that nonrandom site selection can yield biased impact estimates. To estimate the external validity bias from nonrandom site selection, we combine lists of school districts that were…

  18. Evaluating multicenter DTI data in Huntington's disease on site specific effects: An ex post facto approach☆

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Hans-Peter; Grön, Georg; Sprengelmeyer, Reiner; Kassubek, Jan; Ludolph, Albert C.; Hobbs, Nicola; Cole, James; Roos, Raymund A.C.; Duerr, Alexandra; Tabrizi, Sarah J.; Landwehrmeyer, G. Bernhard; Süssmuth, Sigurd D.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Assessment of the feasibility to average diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) metrics of MRI data acquired in the course of a multicenter study. Materials and methods Sixty-one early stage Huntington's disease patients and forty healthy controls were studied using four different MR scanners at four European sites with acquisition protocols as close as possible to a given standard protocol. The potential and feasibility of averaging data acquired at different sites was evaluated quantitatively by region-of-interest (ROI) based statistical comparisons of coefficients of variation (CV) across centers, as well as by testing for significant group-by-center differences on averaged fractional anisotropy (FA) values between patients and controls. In addition, a whole-brain based statistical between-group comparison was performed using FA maps. Results The ex post facto statistical evaluation of CV and FA-values in a priori defined ROIs showed no differences between sites above chance indicating that data were not systematically biased by center specific factors. Conclusion Averaging FA-maps from DTI data acquired at different study sites and different MR scanner types does not appear to be systematically biased. A suitable recipe for testing on the possibility to pool multicenter DTI data is provided to permit averaging of DTI-derived metrics to differentiate patients from healthy controls at a larger scale. PMID:24179771

  19. The genealogy of sequences containing multiple sites subject to strong selection in a subdivided population.

    PubMed Central

    Nordborg, Magnus; Innan, Hideki

    2003-01-01

    A stochastic model for the genealogy of a sample of recombining sequences containing one or more sites subject to selection in a subdivided population is described. Selection is incorporated by dividing the population into allelic classes and then conditioning on the past sizes of these classes. The past allele frequencies at the selected sites are thus treated as parameters rather than as random variables. The purpose of the model is not to investigate the dynamics of selection, but to investigate effects of linkage to the selected sites on the genealogy of the surrounding chromosomal region. This approach is useful for modeling strong selection, when it is natural to parameterize the past allele frequencies at the selected sites. Several models of strong balancing selection are used as examples, and the effects on the pattern of neutral polymorphism in the chromosomal region are discussed. We focus in particular on the statistical power to detect balancing selection when it is present. PMID:12663556

  20. Landing site selection for the mars exploration rovers.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, M.; Adler, M.; Arvidson, R.; Crisp, J.; Grant, J.; Golombek, M.; Parker, T.; Squyres, S.

    2003-04-01

    In May and June of this year, the United States will launch two rovers that will land on Mars early in January and February of 2004. The main objective of these rovers is to better understand the role that water has played in the evolution of the surface by making observations on the surface at sites where past water activity is suspected. During the last two years a large number of potential landing sites has been evaluated with respect to landing safety and science potential. At the time of writing the number of potential sites had been narrowed to four: Meridiani, Gusev, Isidis and Elysium. The Meridiani site (2.1S, 6.1W) is located within the highlands at a site where TES spectra indicate the presence of coarse-grained hematite, a mineral that was likely precipitated from water in either a lacustrine or hydrothermal environment. The hematite is in a low albedo unit draped over heavily cratered terrain which appears to be exposed on local highs such as crater rims. The Gusev landing site (14.8S, 184.8W) is in the middle of the floor of the 150 km diameter crater Gusev, the southern rim of which is breached by a large channel Ma'adim Vallis. Water from Ma’adim likely pooled and deposited sediments within the crater in late Noachian times, and the site appears to have been subsequently modified by impacts, wind and possibly volcanism. The Isidis site (4.3N, 272W) is located within the Isidis basin just to the north of the basin's southern rim. Fluvial valleys are common between the massifs of the rim. The site was chosen based on an interpretation that the site is on an alluvial fan comprised of ancient highland materials derived from the highland front. The three above site were chosen because of their science interest and because all appeared to satisfy the engineering requirements. Concern about turbulence and horizontal winds at the sites led to the choice of a site with minimal winds according to circulation models. This is the Elysium site (11.9N, 236.1W

  1. Hanford tank initiative test facility site selection study

    SciTech Connect

    Staehr, T.W.

    1997-04-03

    The Hanford Tanks Initiative (HTI) project is developing equipment for the removal of hard heel waste from the Hanford Site underground single-shell waste storage tanks. The HTI equipment will initially be installed in the 241-C-106 tank where its operation will be demonstrated. This study evaluates existing Hanford Site facilities and other sites for functional testing of the HTI equipment before it is installed into the 241-C-106 tank.

  2. Cumberlandian Mollusk Conservation Program. Activity 9: selection of transplant sites and habitat characterization. [Conradilla caelata

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkinson, J.J.; Heuer, J.H.

    1986-02-01

    This report describes the selection process and the composite analysis of 15 short reaches of free flowing streams in which the physical, limnological, botanical, and zoological components were examined. The purpose was to identify combinations of environmental conditions which occur in the study areas that support populations of Cumberlandian freshwater mussels and to select transplant sites which could support populations of selected Cumberlandian mussel species, especially Conradilla caelata, once they were (re)introduced. This report is divided into three major sections (selection of study reaches, selection of transplant sites, and habitat characterization) two of which appear to fall in reverse order. Chronologically, transplant sites for the birdwing pearly mussel, Conradilla caelata, were selected before the characterization of mussel habitat could be completed. Since the transplants were made based upon the comparison of sites presented in that analysis, the site selection description was retained in an unmodified state.

  3. Potential Selective Responding in a Parent Questionnaire Study of Post-Institutionalized Children.

    PubMed

    Hawk, Brandi N; Wright, Amanda; Julian, Megan M; Rosas, Johana M; Merz, Emily C; McCall, Robert B

    2013-01-01

    Selective responding bias, though under-researched, is of particular concern in the study of post-institutionalized children because many studies rely on mailed questionnaires and response rates are often low. The current study addresses the impact of selective responding in a single wave of data collection and in a multi-wave study. Participants were 121 parents from a larger four-wave study of post-institutionalized children, identified as Never Responders, Previous Responders (but not to the current wave), or Wave 4 Responders. Parents were telephoned and asked about their adopted child's family, school, peer, and behavioral adjustment. The children (47% male) ranged in age from 2 to 20 years (M = 10.79, SD = 4.59) and had been adopted between 5 and 54 months of age (M = 15.49, SD = 9.94). There were no differences in parent ratings of adjustment for a single wave of data collection; however, participants who never responded reported poorer family and peer adjustment than those who had responded to at least one wave of data collection. Within a single wave of data collection, there was no evidence that selective responding contributes much bias. Over a multi-wave study, however, results may under-represent adjustment difficulties, especially with family and friends. PMID:23710124

  4. 40 CFR 228.6 - Specific criteria for site selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... 228.6 Section 228.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING CRITERIA FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF DISPOSAL SITES FOR OCEAN DUMPING § 228.6 Specific criteria for site... area, including prevailing current direction and velocity, if any; (7) Existence and effects of...

  5. 40 CFR 228.6 - Specific criteria for site selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... 228.6 Section 228.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING CRITERIA FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF DISPOSAL SITES FOR OCEAN DUMPING § 228.6 Specific criteria for site... area, including prevailing current direction and velocity, if any; (7) Existence and effects of...

  6. 40 CFR 228.6 - Specific criteria for site selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... 228.6 Section 228.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING CRITERIA FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF DISPOSAL SITES FOR OCEAN DUMPING § 228.6 Specific criteria for site... area, including prevailing current direction and velocity, if any; (7) Existence and effects of...

  7. 40 CFR 228.6 - Specific criteria for site selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... 228.6 Section 228.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING CRITERIA FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF DISPOSAL SITES FOR OCEAN DUMPING § 228.6 Specific criteria for site... area, including prevailing current direction and velocity, if any; (7) Existence and effects of...

  8. Feasibility of growing olives on selected sites along coastal Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Five sites along the Texas coastline (Seadrift, Galveston, Brazoria, Santa Fe, and Orange) were evaluated for feasibility of growing olives in these areas. In addition, two non-coastal sites (Carrizo Springs and Weslaco) were also included in the study for comparative purposes. Flowering and fruit ...

  9. Rocky Mountain Snowpack Chemistry at Selected Sites, 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ingersoll, George P.; Mast, M. Alisa; Nanus, Leora; Manthorne, David J.; Clow, David W.; Handran, Heather M.; Winterringer, Jesse A.; Campbell, Donald H.

    2004-01-01

    During spring 2002, the chemical composition of annual snowpacks in the Rocky Mountain region of the Western United States was analyzed. Snow samples were collected at 75 geographically distributed sites extending from New Mexico to Montana. Near the end of the 2002 snowfall season, the snow-water equivalent (SWE) in annual snowpacks sampled generally was below average in most of the region. Regional patterns in the concentrations of major ions (including ammonium, nitrate, and sulfate), mercury, and stable sulfur isotope ratios are presented. The 2002 snowpack chemistry in the region differed from the previous year. Snowpack ammonium concentrations were higher at 66 percent of sites in Montana compared to concentrations in the 2001 snowpack but were lower at 74 percent of sites in Wyoming, Colorado, and New Mexico. Nitrate was lower at all Montana sites and lower at all but one Wyoming site; nitrate was higher at all but two Colorado sites and higher at all New Mexico sites. Sulfate was lower across the region at 77 percent of sites. The range of mercury concentrations for the region was similar to those of 2001 but showed more variability than ammonium, nitrate, and sulfate concentrations. Concentrations of stable sulfur isotope ratios exhibited a strong regional pattern with values increasing northward from southern Colorado to northern Colorado and Wyoming.

  10. 77 FR 74266 - Review of National Environmental Policy Act Categorical Exclusion Survey Posted on DOT/FHWA Web Site

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-13

    ... applicable (72 FR 44038 (Aug. 7, 2007), Docket No. FTA-2006-26604 and 77 FR 15310 (Mar. 15, 2012), Docket No... Categorical Exclusion Survey Posted on DOT/FHWA Web Site AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA... notice to advise the public that the CE survey review is now available on the FHWA Web site,...

  11. A vegetation management plan for Fort Union Trading Post National Historic Site: Final report for interagency agreement number F154910005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Symstad, Amy J.

    2012-01-01

    Summary: This report provides Fort Union Trading Post National Historic Site, a small NPS unit on the border of Montana and North Dakota, a framework and reasonable tools for future vegetation management at the site in the context of probable historic, current, and desired future vegetation.

  12. Site selection for low-level radwaste in the western province of Saudi Arabia

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Sulaiman, K.M.; Sabtan, A.A.; Shehata, W.M.; Abulfaraj, W.H.

    1996-10-01

    Selection of a low level radwaste site is a very complex problem where many interrelated factors affect the process as well as professional judgments of experts are involved. Six potential sites were selected near the city of Jeddah and after a brief reconnaissance studies, the sites were reduced to three. A single site was selected by using Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). The AHP analysis was based on ten factors namely-size of available area, precipitation, topography, rock and soil types, faulting, seismicity, volcanism, hydrology, hydrogeology, natural resources, and human settlement. Depending upon the available data and employing the AHP computer program, site No. 1 was superior over the others.

  13. A homology-based pipeline for global prediction of post-translational modification sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiang; Shi, Shao-Ping; Xu, Hao-Dong; Suo, Sheng-Bao; Qiu, Jian-Ding

    2016-05-01

    The pathways of protein post-translational modifications (PTMs) have been shown to play particularly important roles for almost any biological process. Identification of PTM substrates along with information on the exact sites is fundamental for fully understanding or controlling biological processes. Alternative computational strategies would help to annotate PTMs in a high-throughput manner. Traditional algorithms are suited for identifying the common organisms and tissues that have a complete PTM atlas or extensive experimental data. While annotation of rare PTMs in most organisms is a clear challenge. In this work, to this end we have developed a novel homology-based pipeline named PTMProber that allows identification of potential modification sites for most of the proteomes lacking PTMs data. Cross-promotion E-value (CPE) as stringent benchmark has been used in our pipeline to evaluate homology to known modification sites. Independent-validation tests show that PTMProber achieves over 58.8% recall with high precision by CPE benchmark. Comparisons with other machine-learning tools show that PTMProber pipeline performs better on general predictions. In addition, we developed a web-based tool to integrate this pipeline at http://bioinfo.ncu.edu.cn/PTMProber/index.aspx. In addition to pre-constructed prediction models of PTM, the website provides an extensional functionality to allow users to customize models.

  14. A homology-based pipeline for global prediction of post-translational modification sites.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiang; Shi, Shao-Ping; Xu, Hao-Dong; Suo, Sheng-Bao; Qiu, Jian-Ding

    2016-01-01

    The pathways of protein post-translational modifications (PTMs) have been shown to play particularly important roles for almost any biological process. Identification of PTM substrates along with information on the exact sites is fundamental for fully understanding or controlling biological processes. Alternative computational strategies would help to annotate PTMs in a high-throughput manner. Traditional algorithms are suited for identifying the common organisms and tissues that have a complete PTM atlas or extensive experimental data. While annotation of rare PTMs in most organisms is a clear challenge. In this work, to this end we have developed a novel homology-based pipeline named PTMProber that allows identification of potential modification sites for most of the proteomes lacking PTMs data. Cross-promotion E-value (CPE) as stringent benchmark has been used in our pipeline to evaluate homology to known modification sites. Independent-validation tests show that PTMProber achieves over 58.8% recall with high precision by CPE benchmark. Comparisons with other machine-learning tools show that PTMProber pipeline performs better on general predictions. In addition, we developed a web-based tool to integrate this pipeline at http://bioinfo.ncu.edu.cn/PTMProber/index.aspx. In addition to pre-constructed prediction models of PTM, the website provides an extensional functionality to allow users to customize models. PMID:27174170

  15. A homology-based pipeline for global prediction of post-translational modification sites

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiang; Shi, Shao-Ping; Xu, Hao-Dong; Suo, Sheng-Bao; Qiu, Jian-Ding

    2016-01-01

    The pathways of protein post-translational modifications (PTMs) have been shown to play particularly important roles for almost any biological process. Identification of PTM substrates along with information on the exact sites is fundamental for fully understanding or controlling biological processes. Alternative computational strategies would help to annotate PTMs in a high-throughput manner. Traditional algorithms are suited for identifying the common organisms and tissues that have a complete PTM atlas or extensive experimental data. While annotation of rare PTMs in most organisms is a clear challenge. In this work, to this end we have developed a novel homology-based pipeline named PTMProber that allows identification of potential modification sites for most of the proteomes lacking PTMs data. Cross-promotion E-value (CPE) as stringent benchmark has been used in our pipeline to evaluate homology to known modification sites. Independent-validation tests show that PTMProber achieves over 58.8% recall with high precision by CPE benchmark. Comparisons with other machine-learning tools show that PTMProber pipeline performs better on general predictions. In addition, we developed a web-based tool to integrate this pipeline at http://bioinfo.ncu.edu.cn/PTMProber/index.aspx. In addition to pre-constructed prediction models of PTM, the website provides an extensional functionality to allow users to customize models. PMID:27174170

  16. Cheat sensitive quantum bit commitment via pre- and post-selected quantum states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yan-Bing; Wen, Qiao-Yan; Li, Zi-Chen; Qin, Su-Juan; Yang, Ya-Tao

    2014-01-01

    Cheat sensitive quantum bit commitment is a most important and realizable quantum bit commitment (QBC) protocol. By taking advantage of quantum mechanism, it can achieve higher security than classical bit commitment. In this paper, we propose a QBC schemes based on pre- and post-selected quantum states. The analysis indicates that both of the two participants' cheat strategies will be detected with non-zero probability. And the protocol can be implemented with today's technology as a long-term quantum memory is not needed.

  17. Uncertainties in Eddy Covariance fluxes due to post-field data processing: a multi-site, full factorial analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabbatini, S.; Fratini, G.; Arriga, N.; Papale, D.

    2012-04-01

    Eddy Covariance (EC) is the only technologically available direct method to measure carbon and energy fluxes between ecosystems and atmosphere. However, uncertainties related to this method have not been exhaustively assessed yet, including those deriving from post-field data processing. The latter arise because there is no exact processing sequence established for any given situation, and the sequence itself is long and complex, with many processing steps and options available. However, the consistency and inter-comparability of flux estimates may be largely affected by the adoption of different processing sequences. The goal of our work is to quantify the uncertainty introduced in each processing step by the fact that different options are available, and to study how the overall uncertainty propagates throughout the processing sequence. We propose an easy-to-use methodology to assign a confidence level to the calculated fluxes of energy and mass, based on the adopted processing sequence, and on available information such as the EC system type (e.g. open vs. closed path), the climate and the ecosystem type. The proposed methodology synthesizes the results of a massive full-factorial experiment. We use one year of raw data from 15 European flux stations and process them so as to cover all possible combinations of the available options across a selection of the most relevant processing steps. The 15 sites have been selected to be representative of different ecosystems (forests, croplands and grasslands), climates (mediterranean, nordic, arid and humid) and instrumental setup (e.g. open vs. closed path). The software used for this analysis is EddyPro™ 3.0 (www.licor.com/eddypro). The critical processing steps, selected on the basis of the different options commonly used in the FLUXNET community, are: angle of attack correction; coordinate rotation; trend removal; time lag compensation; low- and high- frequency spectral correction; correction for air density

  18. Determination of ecologically vital groundwaters at selected sites in the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program

    SciTech Connect

    Vinikour, W.S.; Yin, S.C.L.

    1989-08-01

    The US Department of Energy is classifying groundwaters at sites in its Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). Of particular concern is the potential presence of groundwaters that are highly vulnerable to contamination and that are either (1) irreplaceable sources of drinking water or (2) ecologically vital. Conditions at nine FUSRAP sites were evaluated to determine if ecologically vital groundwaters are present. The sites evaluated were Wayne Interim Storage Site, Maywood Interim Storage Site, and Middlesex Sampling Plant in New Jersey; Ashland 2 Site, Seaway Industrial Park, Colonie Interim storage Site, and Niagara Falls Storage Site in New York; and the St. Louis Airport Site and Hazelwood Interim Storage Site in Missouri. The analyses indicated that groundwaters are vulnerable to contamination at all but two of the sites -- the Ashland 2 and Seaway Industrial Park sites in New York. Groundwater discharge points were identified within a 2-mile radius (i.e., the classification review area) of all of the sites. No ecologically vital groundwater areas exist in the vicinities of any of the nine FUSRAP sites evaluated. 35 refs., 17 figs.

  19. Is carbon sequestration on post mining sites driven by earthworm activity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frouz, J.; Pizl, V.

    2009-04-01

    Carbon storage was measured in seven types of forest (alder, oak, lime, willow-birch, pine, spruce and larch) about 30 years old developed in on e large post mining site as split plot design. The carbon storage in soil wary substantial and represent 10-100% of carbon storage in aboveground wood biomass. Carbon storage in soil do not show any correlation with litter input but correlate significantly and positively with earthworm abundance, and micromorphological traces of earthworm activity. Field and laboratory microcosm experiment showed that earthworm mediated soil mixing support carbon storage in soil. Detailed study of soil aggregates created by worms and other forces indicated that worm aggregates contain much larger content of POC. This indicate that soil bioturbation by earthworms may significantly increase carbon storage in soil.

  20. Soil formation in post mining sites: the role of vegatation soil microflora and fauna interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frouz, J.

    2009-04-01

    The role of vegetation and soil micro flora and fauna interaction during soil formation was studied in post mining sites in Czech Republic, Germany and USA. Vegetation and character of substrate substantially effect, micro flora, namely fungal bacterial ration, fauna composition and resulting microstructure of soil. Plants that bring more nitrogen in to the system support larger biomass of soil fauna and namely occurrence of earthworms which yield in larger bioturbation and associated faster production of A horizon in newly developing soil. Manipulation experiment show that presence of fauna have crucial effect of soil formation in these soil and positive effect of many plant species which are assumed to beneficial for reclamation is in fact indirect and caused by its positive effect on soil fauna development.

  1. Attachment site selection of ticks on roe deer, Capreolus capreolus

    PubMed Central

    Lödige, C.; Alings, M.; Vor, T.; Rühe, F.

    2010-01-01

    The spatio-temporal attachment site patterns of ticks feeding on their hosts can be of significance if co-feeding transmission (i.e. from tick to tick without a systemic infection of the host) of pathogens affects the persistence of a given disease. Using tick infestation data on roe deer, we analysed preferred attachment sites and niche width of Ixodes ticks (larvae, nymphs, males, females) and investigated the degree of inter- and intrastadial aggregation. The different development stages showed rather consistent attachment site patterns and relative narrow feeding site niches. Larvae were mostly found on the head and on the front legs of roe deer, nymphs reached highest densities on the head and highest adult densities were found on the neck of roe deer. The tick stages feeding (larvae, nymphs, females) on roe deer showed high degrees of intrastadial spatial aggregation, whereas males did not. Male ticks showed large feeding site overlap with female ticks. Feeding site overlap between larval-female and larval-nymphal ticks did occur especially during the months May–August on the head and front legs of roe deer and might allow pathogen transmission via co-feeding. Tick density, niche width and niche overlap on roe deer are mainly affected by seasonality, reflecting seasonal activity and abundance patterns of ticks. Since different tick development stages occur spatially and temporally clustered on roe deer, transmission experiments of tick-borne pathogens are urgently needed. PMID:20585837

  2. Precise Muscle Selection Using Dynamic Polyelectromyography for Treatment of Post-stroke Dystonia: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Dystonia has a wide range of causes, but treatment of dystonia is limited to minimizing the symptoms as there is yet no successful treatment for its cause. One of the optimal treatment methods for dystonia is chemodenervation using botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A), alcohol injection, etc., but its success depends on how precisely the dystonic muscle is selected. Here, we reported a successful experience in a 49-year-old post-stroke female patient who showed paroxysmal repetitive contractions involving the right leg, which may be of dystonic nature. BTX-A and alcohol were injected into the muscles which were identified by dynamic polyelectromyography. After injection, the dystonic muscle spasm, cramping pain, and the range of motion of the affected lower limb improved markedly, and she was able to walk independently indoors. In such a case, dynamic polyelectromyography may be a useful method for selecting the dominant dystonic muscles. PMID:27446795

  3. Directing reaction pathways by catalyst active-site selection using self-assembled monolayers.

    PubMed

    Pang, Simon H; Schoenbaum, Carolyn A; Schwartz, Daniel K; Medlin, J Will

    2013-01-01

    One key route for controlling reaction selectivity in heterogeneous catalysis is to prepare catalysts that exhibit only specific types of sites required for desired product formation. Here we show that alkanethiolate self-assembled monolayers with varying surface densities can be used to tune selectivity to desired hydrogenation and hydrodeoxygenation products during the reaction of furfural on supported palladium catalysts. Vibrational spectroscopic studies demonstrate that the selectivity improvement is achieved by controlling the availability of specific sites for the hydrogenation of furfural on supported palladium catalysts through the selection of an appropriate alkanethiolate. Increasing self-assembled monolayer density by controlling the steric bulk of the organic tail ligand restricts adsorption on terrace sites and dramatically increases selectivity to desired products furfuryl alcohol and methylfuran. This technique of active-site selection simultaneously serves both to enhance selectivity and provide insight into the reaction mechanism. PMID:24025780

  4. Reference site selection report for the advanced liquid metal reactor at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Sivill, R.L.

    1990-03-01

    This Reference Site Selection Report was prepared by EG G, Idaho Inc., for General Electric (GE) to provide information for use by the Department of Energy (DOE) in selecting a Safety Test Site for an Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor. Similar Evaluation studies are planned to be conducted at other potential DOE sites. The Power Reactor Innovative Small Module (PRISM) Concept was developed for ALMR by GE. A ALMR Safety Test is planned to be performed on a DOE site to demonstrate features and meet Nuclear Regulatory Commission Requirements. This study considered possible locations at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory that met the ALMR Prototype Site Selection Methodology and Criteria. Four sites were identified, after further evaluation one site was eliminated. Each of the remaining three sites satisfied the criteria and was graded. The results were relatively close. Thus concluding that the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory is a suitable location for an Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor Safety Test. 23 refs., 13 figs., 9 tabs.

  5. Site-directed alkylation of multiple opioid receptors. I. Binding selectivity

    SciTech Connect

    James, I.F.; Goldstein, A.

    1984-05-01

    A method for measuring and expressing the binding selectivity of ligands for mu, delta, and kappa opioid binding sites is reported. Radioligands are used that are partially selective for these sites in combination with membrane preparations enriched in each site. Enrichment was obtained by treatment of membranes with the alkylating agent beta-chlornaltrexamine in the presence of appropriate protecting ligands. After enrichment for mu receptors, (/sup 3/H) dihydromorphine bound to a single type of site as judged by the slope of competition binding curves. After enrichment for delta or kappa receptors, binding sites for (/sup 3/H) (D-Ala2, D-Leu5)enkephalin and (3H)ethylketocyclazocine, respectively, were still not homogeneous. There were residual mu sites in delta-enriched membranes but no evidence for residual mu or delta sites in kappa-enriched membranes were found. This method was used to identify ligands that are highly selective for each of the three types of sites.

  6. Post-Closure Strategy for Use-Restricted Sites on the Nevada National Security Site, Nevada Test and Training Range, and Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Silvas, A. J.

    2014-03-26

    The purpose of this Post-Closure Strategy is to provide a consistent methodology for continual evaluation of post-closure requirements for use-restricted areas on the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR), and Tonopah Test Range (TTR) to consolidate, modify, or streamline the program. In addition, this document stipulates the creation of a single consolidated Post-Closure Plan that will detail the current post-closure requirements for all active use restrictions (URs) and outlines its implementation and subsequent revision. This strategy will ensure effective management and control of the post-closure sites. There are currently over 200 URs located on the NNSS, NTTR, and TTR. Post-closure requirements were initially established in the Closure Report for each site. In some cases, changes to the post-closure requirements have been implemented through addenda, errata sheets, records of technical change, or letters. Post-closure requirements have been collected from these multiple sources and consolidated into several formats, such as summaries and databases. This structure increases the possibility of inconsistencies and uncertainty. As more URs are established and the post-closure program is expanded, the need for a comprehensive approach for managing the program will increase. Not only should the current requirements be obtainable from a single source that supersedes all previous requirements, but the strategy for modifying the requirements should be standardized. This will enable more effective management of the program into the future. This strategy document and the subsequent comprehensive plan are to be implemented under the assumption that the NNSS and outlying sites will be under the purview of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration for the foreseeable future. This strategy was also developed assuming that regulatory control of the sites remains static. The comprehensive plan is not

  7. 23 CFR 1340.5 - Selection of observation sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... STATE OBSERVATIONAL SURVEYS OF SEAT BELT USE Survey Design Requirements § 1340.5 Selection of... section. (d) Precision requirement. The estimated seat belt use rate must have a standard error of no...

  8. 23 CFR 1340.5 - Selection of observation sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... STATE OBSERVATIONAL SURVEYS OF SEAT BELT USE Survey Design Requirements § 1340.5 Selection of... section. (d) Precision requirement. The estimated seat belt use rate must have a standard error of no...

  9. 23 CFR 1340.5 - Selection of observation sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... STATE OBSERVATIONAL SURVEYS OF SEAT BELT USE Survey Design Requirements § 1340.5 Selection of... section. (d) Precision requirement. The estimated seat belt use rate must have a standard error of no...

  10. Remedial action selection report Maybell, Colorado, site. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    The Maybell uranium mill tailings site is 25 miles (mi) (40 kilometers [km]) west of the town of Craig, Colorado, in Moffat County, in the northwestern part of the state. The unincorporated town of Maybell is 5 road mi (8 km) southwest of the site. The site is 2.5 mi (4 km) northeast of the Yampa River on relatively flat terrain broken by low, flat-topped mesas. U.S. Highway 40 runs east-west 2 mi (3.2 km) south of the site. The designated site covers approximately 110 acres (ac) (45 hectares [ha]) and consists of a concave-shaped tailings pile and rubble from the demolition of the mill buildings buried in the former mill area. The site is situated between Johnson Wash to the east and Rob Pit Mine to the west. Numerous reclaimed and unreclaimed mines are in the immediate vicinity. Aerial photographs (included at the end of this executive summary) show evidence of mining activity around the Maybell site. Contaminated materials at the Maybell processing site include the tailings pile, which has an average depth of 20 feet (ft) (6 meters [ml]) and contains 2.8 million cubic yards (yd{sup 3}) (2.1 million cubic meters [m{sup 3}]) of tailings. The former mill processing area is on the north side of the site and contains 20,000 yd 3 (15,000 m{sup 3}) of contaminated demolition debris. Off-pile contamination is present and includes areas adjacent to the tailings pile, as well as contamination dispersed by wind and surface water flow. The volume of off-pile contamination to be placed in the disposal cell is 550,000 yd{sup 3}(420,000 m{sup 3}). The total volume of contaminated materials to be disposed of as part of the remedial action is estimated to be 3.37 million yd{sup 3} (2.58 million m{sup 3}).

  11. The plant physical features selected by wildcats as signal posts: an economic approach to fecal marking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piñeiro, Ana; Barja, Isabel

    2012-10-01

    The chemical signals of solitary and territorial felid species are essential for their intraspecific communication. We studied the selection of plant substrates during the fecal marking behavior of the European wildcat Felis silvestris from September 2008 to June 2009 in a protected area in Northwest Spain. The aim of the study was to examine the selection of plants as signal posts with respect to their physical characteristics. We hypothesized that wildcats deposit their fecal marks on plants with physical characteristics (e.g., size, species, and visual conspicuousness) that enhance the olfactory and visual effectiveness of the signal. Our results indicate that diameter, plant group, visual conspicuousness, and interaction between the diameter and plant group influence the decision of wildcats to deposit their fecal marks on plants. The wildcats chose plants with greater diameters and greater visual conspicuousness as scent-marking posts. Moreover, the wildcats chose woody and herbaceous plants, and certain plant species were marked more frequently than expected at random. Indeed, our results indicate that the fecal marks were not randomly distributed on the plants: the wildcats chose to place their marks on plants with certain physical characteristics that maximized the detectability of the signal by intruders and potential mates, thus facilitating the spatial distribution of the species.

  12. Hospital site selection using fuzzy AHP and its derivatives.

    PubMed

    Vahidnia, Mohammad H; Alesheikh, Ali A; Alimohammadi, Abbas

    2009-07-01

    Environmental managers are commonly faced with sophisticated decisions, such as choosing the location of a new facility subject to multiple conflicting criteria. This paper considers the specific problem of creating a well-distributed network of hospitals that delivers its services to the target population with minimal time, pollution and cost. We develop a Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis process that combines Geographical Information System (GIS) analysis with the Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process (FAHP), and use this process to determine the optimum site for a new hospital in the Tehran urban area. The GIS was used to calculate and classify governing criteria, while FAHP was used to evaluate the decision factors and their impacts on alternative sites. Three methods were used to estimate the total weights and priorities of the candidate sites: fuzzy extent analysis, center-of-area defuzzification, and the alpha-cut method. The three methods yield identical priorities for the five alternatives considered. Fuzzy extent analysis provides less discriminating power, but is simpler to implement and compute than the other two methods. The alpha-cut method is more complicated, but integrates the uncertainty and overall attitude of the decision-maker. The usefulness of the new hospital site is evaluated by computing an accessibility index for each pixel in the GIS, defined as the ratio of population density to travel time. With the addition of a new hospital at the optimum site, this index improved over about 6.5 percent of the geographical area. PMID:19477577

  13. Rocky Mountain Snowpack Chemistry at Selected Sites, 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ingersoll, George P.; Mast, M. Alisa; Nanus, Leora; Handran, Heather H.; Manthorne, David J.; Hultstrand, Douglas M.

    2007-01-01

    During spring 2004, the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the National Park Service and the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service collected and analyzed snowpack samples for 65 sites in the Rocky Mountain region from New Mexico to Montana. Snowpacks were sampled from late February through early April and generally had well-below-average- to near-average snow-water equivalent. Regionally, on April 1, snow-water equivalent ranged from 50 to 89 percent. At most regional sites monitored during 1993-2004, snowpack ammonium, nitrate, and sulfate concentrations for 2004 were lower than the 12-year averages. Snowpack ammonium concentrations in the region were lower than average concentrations for the period at 61 percent of sites in the region, but showed a new pattern compared to previous years with three of the four highest 2004 concentrations observed in northern Colorado. Nitrate concentrations in 2004 were lower than the 12-year average for the year at 53 percent of regional sites, and typically occurred at sites in Wyoming, Idaho, and Montana where powerplants and large industrial areas were limited. A regional decrease in sulfate concentrations across most of the Rocky Mountains (with concentrations lower than the 12-year average at 84 percent of snowpack sites) was consistent with other monitoring of atmospheric deposition in the Western United States. Total mercury concentrations, although data are only available for the past 3 years, decreased slightly for the region as a whole in 2004 relative to 2003. Ratios of stable sulfur isotopes indicated a similar regional pattern as observed in recent years with sulfur-34 (d34S) values generally increasing northward from northern New Mexico and southern Colorado to northern Colorado, Wyoming, Idaho, and Montana.

  14. THE ROLE OF GIS IN SELECTING SITES FOR RIPARIAN RESTORATION BASED ON HYDROLOGY AND LAND USE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Successful long-term wetland restoration efforts require consideration of hydrology and surrounding land use during the site selection process. This article describes an approach to initial site selection in the San Luis Rey River watershed in southern California that uses waters...

  15. 10 CFR 960.3-2-2-2 - Selection of sites within geohydrologic settings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Selection of sites within geohydrologic settings. 960.3-2... OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-2-2-2 Selection... Characteristics, Climatic Changes, Erosion, Dissolution, Tectonics, Human Interference, and Natural...

  16. 10 CFR 960.3-2-2-2 - Selection of sites within geohydrologic settings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Selection of sites within geohydrologic settings. 960.3-2... OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-2-2-2 Selection... Characteristics, Climatic Changes, Erosion, Dissolution, Tectonics, Human Interference, and Natural...

  17. 10 CFR 960.3-2-2-2 - Selection of sites within geohydrologic settings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Selection of sites within geohydrologic settings. 960.3-2... OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-2-2-2 Selection... Characteristics, Climatic Changes, Erosion, Dissolution, Tectonics, Human Interference, and Natural...

  18. 10 CFR 960.3-2-2-2 - Selection of sites within geohydrologic settings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Selection of sites within geohydrologic settings. 960.3-2... OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-2-2-2 Selection... Characteristics, Climatic Changes, Erosion, Dissolution, Tectonics, Human Interference, and Natural...

  19. 10 CFR 960.3-2-2-2 - Selection of sites within geohydrologic settings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Selection of sites within geohydrologic settings. 960.3-2... OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-2-2-2 Selection... Characteristics, Climatic Changes, Erosion, Dissolution, Tectonics, Human Interference, and Natural...

  20. Site selection criteria for the optical atmospheric visibility monitoring telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowles, K.

    1989-01-01

    A description of each of the criteria used to decide where to locate the Atmospheric Visibility Monitoring (AVM) telescope systems is given, along with a weighting factor for each of them. These criteria include low probability of clouds, fog, smog, haze, low scattering, low turbulence, availability of security and maintenance, and suitability of a site for a potential optical reception station. They will be used to determine which three of several sites under consideration will be used for monitoring visibility through the atmosphere as it applies to an optical ground-based receiving network as may be used in NASA space missions in decades to come.

  1. Off-Site Trip Leaders: Selecting Appropriate Staff.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Will

    1996-01-01

    Well-trained off-site trip leaders can turn a trip into a positive educational lesson. American Camping Association standards are referenced, and some personality traits are suggested as criteria for determining the suitability of staff to act responsibly "in loco director." Discusses factors that determine counselor-to-camper ratios, medical…

  2. 15 CFR 921.11 - Site selection and feasibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... and II); (2) The site's ecological characteristics, including its biological productivity, diversity... physical, chemical and biological factors contributing to the diversity of fauna, flora and natural... estuarine-dependent species, including those that are rare or endangered. When determined appropriate by...

  3. 15 CFR 921.11 - Site selection and feasibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and II); (2) The site's ecological characteristics, including its biological productivity, diversity... physical, chemical and biological factors contributing to the diversity of fauna, flora and natural... estuarine-dependent species, including those that are rare or endangered. When determined appropriate by...

  4. Nesting habitat and nest site selection by the bald eagle in Maryland. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mosher, J.A.; Andrew, J.M.

    1981-07-01

    Habitat at 70 bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) nest sites was quantified and compared with evaluations at 139 random habitat plots located in the Chesapeake Bay region of Maryland. Bald eagles selected vegetationally open habitats near water and away from selected human activities relative to random habitat plots. Successful nest sites were located in denser forest stands farther from water and unoccupied structures than unsuccessful nest sites.

  5. Site selection and assessment for a nuclear storage facility

    SciTech Connect

    Rutherford, D.A.; Zardecki, A.

    1996-09-01

    We investigate the structure and accuracy of the decision making process in finding an optimal location for stored nuclear materials for 25-50 years. Using a well-documented facility design, benefit hierarchy is set up for different sites to rank a given site for different options. Criteria involve safeguards standards, technical viability, environmental effects, economics, political impact, and public acceptance. Problem faced here is multi-criterion decision making. Two approaches are investigated: analytic hierarchy process (AHP) of Saaty, and fuzzy logic approach of Yager. Whereas AHP requires a pairwise comparison of criteria and pairwise comparison of alternatives, in Yager`s approach each alternative is considered independently, allowing one to extend the analysis without performing time-consuming computation.

  6. SiteSeek: Post-translational modification analysis using adaptive locality-effective kernel methods and new profiles

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Paul D; Ho, Yung Shwen; Zhou, Bing Bing; Zomaya, Albert Y

    2008-01-01

    Background Post-translational modifications have a substantial influence on the structure and functions of protein. Post-translational phosphorylation is one of the most common modification that occur in intracellular proteins. Accurate prediction of protein phosphorylation sites is of great importance for the understanding of diverse cellular signalling processes in both the human body and in animals. In this study, we propose a new machine learning based protein phosphorylation site predictor, SiteSeek. SiteSeek is trained using a novel compact evolutionary and hydrophobicity profile to detect possible protein phosphorylation sites for a target sequence. The newly proposed method proves to be more accurate and exhibits a much stable predictive performance than currently existing phosphorylation site predictors. Results The performance of the proposed model was compared to nine existing different machine learning models and four widely known phosphorylation site predictors with the newly proposed PS-Benchmark_1 dataset to contrast their accuracy, sensitivity, specificity and correlation coefficient. SiteSeek showed better predictive performance with 86.6% accuracy, 83.8% sensitivity, 92.5% specificity and 0.77 correlation-coefficient on the four main kinase families (CDK, CK2, PKA, and PKC). Conclusion Our newly proposed methods used in SiteSeek were shown to be useful for the identification of protein phosphorylation sites as it performed much better than widely known predictors on the newly built PS-Benchmark_1 dataset. PMID:18541042

  7. Wolf's post-herpetic isotopic response: Infections, tumors, and immune disorders arising on the site of healed herpetic infection.

    PubMed

    Ruocco, Vincenzo; Ruocco, Eleonora; Brunetti, Giampiero; Russo, Teresa; Gambardella, Alessio; Wolf, Ronni

    2014-01-01

    Herpes simplex viruses (HSV-1/HSV-2) and varicella-zoster virus (VZV) have several characteristics in common. Both are epidermoneurotropic, cause skin eruptions accompanied by sensory symptoms (itch, pain), damage peripheral sensory nerve fibers and cutaneous nerve endings, and interfere with neuromediator release, which can alter local mechanisms of immune control. For this reason, herpes-infected areas may become a preferential location for the subsequent onset of immunity-related skin disorders (infections, tumors, and dysimmune reactions), an event first reported by a neurologist and focused on by two brothers, a dermatologist and a pediatrician. The phenomenon therefore named Wolf's post-herpetic isotopic response (PHIR) refers to the occurrence of a new skin disorder at the site of a previous and already healed herpetic eruption (herpes zoster in most cases). Until now, we have been able to gather 189 well-documented cases of PHIR (all reported in the reference section), but our list is far from being complete. Some of the most emblematic cases are briefly described here. In some circumstances, the opposite of PHIR occurs, with diffuse skin disorders or eruptions that selectively spare herpes-infected areas (Wolf's post-herpetic isotopic nonresponse). Experimental investigations with patch testing have been performed in seven patients who were sensitized to nickel and had had herpes zoster in the past years. The tests were carried out bilaterally on the affected dermatomes and on the unaffected contralateral ones. The uneven immune responses we obtained have shown that the immune behavior of an herpes zoster-affected dermatome can be different from that of the corresponding contralateral dermatome, thus supporting the existence of immune dysregulation in herpes-infected areas. PMID:25160097

  8. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions: a selected bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, P.T.; Knox, N.P.; Fielden, J.M.; Johnson, C.A.

    1982-09-01

    This bibliography contains 693 references with abstracts on the subject of nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions. Foreign, as well as domestic, literature of all types - technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, conference papers, symposium proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions - has been included in this publication. The bibliography contains scientific (basic research as well as applied technology), economic, regulatory, and legal literature pertinent to the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Program. Major chapters are Surplus Facilities Management Program, Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning, Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program, Grand Junction Remedial Action Program, and Uranium Mill Tailings Management. Chapter sections for chapters 1 and 2 include: Design, Planning, and Regulations; Site Surveys; Decontamination Studies; Dismantlement and Demolition; Land Decontamination and Reclamation; Waste Disposal; and General Studies. The references within each chapter are arranged alphabetically by leading author. References having no individual author are arranged by corporate author or by title. Indexes are provided for (1) author; (2) corporate affiliation; (3) title; (4) publication description; (5) geographic location; and (6) keywords. An appendix of 202 bibliographic references without abstracts or indexes has been included in this bibliography. This appendix represents literature identified but not abstracted due to time constraints.

  9. Reassessment of selected factors affecting siting of Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, R.E.; Hanson, A.L.; Mubayi, V.; Nourbakhsh, H.P.

    1997-02-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory has performed a series of probabilistic consequence assessment calculations for nuclear reactor siting. This study takes into account recent insights into severe accident source terms and examines consequences in a risk based format consistent with the quantitative health objectives (QHOs) of the NRC`s Safety Goal Policy. Simplified severe accident source terms developed in this study are based on the risk insights of NUREG-1150. The results of the study indicate that both the quantity of radioactivity released in a severe accident as well as the likelihood of a release are lower than those predicted in earlier studies. The accident risks using the simplified source terms are examined at a series of generic plant sites, that vary in population distribution, meteorological conditions, and exclusion area boundary distances. Sensitivity calculations are performed to evaluate the effects of emergency protective action assumptions on the risk of prompt fatality and latent cancers fatality, and population relocation. The study finds that based on the new source terms the prompt and latent fatality risks at all generic sites meet the QHOs of the NRC`s Safety Goal Policy by margins ranging from one to more than three orders of magnitude. 4 refs., 17 figs., 24 tabs.

  10. Post-test evaluation of the geology, geochemistry, microbiology, and hydrology of the in situ air stripping demonstration site at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Eddy Dilek, C.A.; Looney, B.B.; Hazen, T.C.; Nichols, R.L.; Fliermans, C.B.; Parker, W.H.; Dougherty, J.M.; Kaback, D.S.; Simmons, J.L.

    1993-07-01

    A full-scale demonstration of the use of horizontal wells for in situ air stripping for environment restoration was completed as part of the Savannah River Integrated Demonstration Program. The demonstration of in situ air stripping was the first in a series of demonstrations of innovative remediation technologies for the cleanup of sites contaminated with volatile organic contaminants. The in situ air stripping system consisted of two directionally drilled wells that delivered gases to and extract contamination from the subsurface. The demonstration was designed to remediate soils and sediments in the unsaturated and saturated zones as well as groundwater contaminated with volatile organic compounds. The demonstration successfully removed significant quantities of solvent from the subsurface. The field site and horizontal wells were subsequently used for an in situ bioremediation demonstration during which methane was added to the injected air. The field conditions documented herein represent the baseline status of the site for evaluating the in situ bioremediation as well as the post-test conditions for the in situ air stripping demonstration. Characterization activities focused on documenting the nature and distribution of contamination in the subsurface. The post-test characterization activities discussed herein include results from the analysis of sediment samples, three-dimensional images of the pretest and post-test data, contaminant inventories estimated from pretest and post-test models, a detailed lithologic cross sections of the site, results of aquifer testing, and measurements of geotechnical parameters of undisturbed core sediments.

  11. Bed site selection by neonate deer in grassland habitats on the northern Great Plains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grovenburg, T.W.; Jacques, C.N.; Klaver, R.W.; Jenks, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    Bed site selection is an important behavioral trait influencing neonate survival. Vegetation characteristics of bed sites influence thermal protection of neonates and concealment from predators. Although previous studies describe bed site selection of neonatal white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in regions of forested cover, none determined microhabitat effects on neonate bed site selection in the Northern Great Plains, an area of limited forest cover. During summers 2007–2009, we investigated bed site selection (n  =  152) by 81 radiocollared neonate white-tailed deer in north-central South Dakota, USA. We documented 80 (52.6%) bed sites in tallgrass–Conservation Reserve Program lands, 35 (23.0%) bed sites in forested cover, and 37 (24.3%) in other habitats (e.g., pasture, alfalfa, wheat). Bed site selection varied with age and sex of neonate. Tree canopy cover (P < 0.001) and tree basal area (P < 0.001) decreased with age of neonates, with no bed sites observed in forested cover after 18 days of age. Male neonates selected sites with less grass cover (P < 0.001), vertical height of understory vegetation (P < 0.001), and density of understory vegetation (P < 0.001) but greater bare ground (P  =  0.047), litter (P  =  0.028), and wheat (P  =  0.044) than did females. Odds of bed site selection increased 3.5% (odds ratio  =  1.035, 95% CI  =  1.008–1.062) for every 1-cm increase in vertical height of understory vegetation. Management for habitat throughout the grasslands of South Dakota that maximizes vertical height of understory vegetation would enhance cover characteristics selected by neonates.

  12. The Importance of Site Selection for Radio Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umar, Roslan; Zainal Abidin, Zamri; Abidin Ibrahim, Zainol

    2014-10-01

    Radio sources are very weak since this object travel very far from outer space. Radio astronomy studies are limited due to radio frequency interference (RFI) that is made by man. If the harassment is not stopped, it will provide critical problems in their radio astronomy scientists research. The purpose of this study is to provide RFI map Peninsular Malaysia with a minimum mapping techniques RFI interference. RFI mapping technique using GIS is proposed as a tool in mapping techniques. Decision-making process for the selection requires gathering information from a variety of parameters. These factors affecting the selection process are also taken account. In this study, various factors or parameters involved such as availability of telecommunications transmission (including radio and television), rainfall, water line and human activity. This study will benefit radio astronomy research especially in the RFI profile in Malaysia. Keywords: Radio Astronomy, Radio Frequency Interference (RFI), RFI mapping technique : GIS.

  13. A dual site catalyst for mild, selective nitrile reduction.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhiyao; Williams, Travis J

    2014-05-25

    We report a novel ruthenium bis(pyrazolyl)borate scaffold that enables cooperative reduction reactivity in which boron and ruthenium centers work in concert to effect selective nitrile reduction. The pre-catalyst compound [κ(3)-(1-pz)2HB(N = CHCH3)]Ru(cymene)(+) TfO(-) (pz = pyrazolyl) was synthesized using readily-available materials through a straightforward route, thus making it an appealing catalyst for a number of reactions. PMID:24409456

  14. Site selection for concentrated solar thermal systems in Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Seki, A.

    1987-01-01

    This report identifies ares on the five major islands (Oahu, Maui, Molakai, Hawaii, and Kauai) that have the potential for concentrating solar thermal applications. The locations are based on existing solar insolation (mostly global and some direct normal) data, other meteorological information, land use, potential end-use, and existing facilities. These areas are: - Western coast of Oahu, especially near Kahe Point - Maui plains area - South-Central Molokai - Kona coast of the Big Island, especially Natural Energy Laboratory of Hawaii - Western and southern areas of Kauai. Monitoring stations are recommended at some of these sites to obtain direct normal insolation data for future evaluation.

  15. Site selective surface enhanced Raman on nanostructured cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lordan, Frances; Rice, James H.; Jose, Bincy; Forster, Robert J.; Keyes, Tia E.

    2011-07-01

    Presented here are angle dependence studies on the surface enhanced Raman (SER) signal obtained from dye placed on plasmon active nanocavity arrays. A comparative study was carried out between two modified array supports. One array had dye placed only on the interior walls of the cavities in the array. The other array had dye placed only on its top flat surface. Results show that Raman intensities as a function of angle depend on the location of the dye on the array; this was interpreted to arise from the presence of different plasmon polariton modes in these sites.

  16. Residual herbicide study on selected Hanford Site roadsides

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.L.; Kemp, C.J.; Sackschewsky, M.R.

    1993-08-01

    Westinghouse Hanford Company routinely treats roadsides with herbicides to control undesirable plant growth. An experiment was conducted to test perennial grass germination in soils adjacent to roadways of the Hanford Site. The primary variable was the distance from the roadside. A simple germination test was executed in a controlled-environment chamber to determine the residual effects of these applications. As expected, the greatest herbicide activity was found directly adjacent to the roadway, approximately 0 to 20 ft (0 to 6.3 m) from the roadway.

  17. Historical Site Assessment: Select Hanford Reach National Monument Lands --

    SciTech Connect

    Fritz, Brad G. ); Dirkes, Roger L. ); Poston, Ted M. ); Hanf, Robert W. )

    2003-07-31

    Consistent with its current mission, the U.S. Department of Energy Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) plans to transfer ownership of large tracts of the Hanford Site in the next 3 to 5 years. Specifically, DOE-RL plans to transfer ownership of a large portion of the Hanford Reach National Monument to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS). Before DOE can transfer ownership of these tracts, a radiological clearance of the lands must be performed. Fluor Hanford, Inc., (FHI) is responsible for the radiological clearance for DOE-RL. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is supporting FHI on this effort through various work agreements.

  18. Selective laser trabeculoplasty in treating post-trabeculectomy advanced primary open-angle glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, HONGYANG; YANG, YANGFAN; XU, JIANGANG; YU, MINBIN

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the safety and efficacy of selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT) treatment of patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) who could not obtain target intraocular pressure (IOP) through post-trabeculectomy medication. Sixteen patients with POAG (18 eyes), who could not obtain target IOP following medication and surgery, were treated with 360° SLT. The IOP, anterior chamber inflammation, and daytime and long-term IOP fluctuations before and 2 h, 1 day, 7 days, 1 month, 3 months, 6 months and 9 months after SLT were documented. SLT treatment success was defined as >20% IOP reduction compared with the baseline IOP at 6 and 9 months after the laser treatment date. Prior to SLT, the patients were administered different types (average, 2.8±0.8) of anti-glaucoma drugs and had an average IOP of 21.3±3.4 mmHg. Following SLT, the average IOP decreased to 16.2±3.0 mmHg and the success rate was 77.7%. The pre-SLT daytime IOP fluctuation was 4.1±1.4 mmHg, which decreased to 2.6±1.1 mmHg following the laser treatment (P<0.05). In conclusion, this study demonstrated that SLT could reduce the IOP in post-trabeculectomy patients with POAG, and reduce the daytime IOP fluctuations. PMID:26998042

  19. Selective separation of virgin and post-consumer polymers (PET and PVC) by flotation method.

    PubMed

    Burat, Firat; Güney, Ali; Olgaç Kangal, M

    2009-06-01

    More and more polymer wastes are generated by industry and householders today. Recycling is an important process to reduce the amount of waste resulting from human activities. Currently, recycling technologies use relatively homogeneous polymers because hand-sorting waste is costly. Many promising technologies are being investigated for separating mixed thermoplastics, but they are still uneconomical and unreliable. At present, most waste polymers cause serious environmental problems. Burning polymers for recycling is not practiced since poisonous gases are released during the burning process. Particularly, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) materials among waste polymers generate hazardous HCl gas, dioxins containing Cl, etc., which lead to air pollution and shorten the life of the incinerator. In addition, they make other polymers difficult to recycle. Both polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and PVC have densities of 1.30-1.35g /cm(3) and cannot be separated using conventional gravity separation techniques. For this reason, polymer recycling needs new techniques. Among these techniques, froth flotation, which is also used in mineral processing, can be useful because of its low cost and simplicity. The main objective of this research is to recycle PET and PVC selectively from post-consumer polymer wastes and virgin polymers by using froth flotation. According to the results, all PVC particles were floated with 98.8% efficiency in virgin polymer separation while PET particles were obtained with 99.7% purity and 57.0% efficiency in post-consumer polymer separation. PMID:19155169

  20. Selective separation of virgin and post-consumer polymers (PET and PVC) by flotation method

    SciTech Connect

    Burat, Firat; Gueney, Ali; Olgac Kangal, M.

    2009-06-15

    More and more polymer wastes are generated by industry and householders today. Recycling is an important process to reduce the amount of waste resulting from human activities. Currently, recycling technologies use relatively homogeneous polymers because hand-sorting waste is costly. Many promising technologies are being investigated for separating mixed thermoplastics, but they are still uneconomical and unreliable. At present, most waste polymers cause serious environmental problems. Burning polymers for recycling is not practiced since poisonous gases are released during the burning process. Particularly, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) materials among waste polymers generate hazardous HCl gas, dioxins containing Cl, etc., which lead to air pollution and shorten the life of the incinerator. In addition, they make other polymers difficult to recycle. Both polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and PVC have densities of 1.30-1.35 g/cm{sup 3} and cannot be separated using conventional gravity separation techniques. For this reason, polymer recycling needs new techniques. Among these techniques, froth flotation, which is also used in mineral processing, can be useful because of its low cost and simplicity. The main objective of this research is to recycle PET and PVC selectively from post-consumer polymer wastes and virgin polymers by using froth flotation. According to the results, all PVC particles were floated with 98.8% efficiency in virgin polymer separation while PET particles were obtained with 99.7% purity and 57.0% efficiency in post-consumer polymer separation.

  1. Ultra-small time-delay estimation via a weak measurement technique with post-selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Chen; Huang, Jing-Zheng; Yu, Yang; Li, Qinzheng; Zeng, Guihua

    2016-09-01

    Weak measurement is a novel technique for parameter estimation with higher precision. In this paper we develop a general theory for the parameter estimation based on a weak measurement technique with arbitrary post-selection. The weak-value amplification model and the joint weak measurement model are two special cases in our theory. Applying the developed theory, time-delay estimation is investigated in both theory and experiments. The experimental results show that when the time delay is ultra-small, the joint weak measurement scheme outperforms the weak-value amplification scheme, and is robust against not only misalignment errors but also the wavelength dependence of the optical components. These results are consistent with theoretical predictions that have not been previously verified by any experiment.

  2. Computational investigation of stoichiometric effects, binding site heterogeneities, and selectivities of molecularly imprinted polymers.

    PubMed

    Terracina, Jacob J; Bergkvist, Magnus; Sharfstein, Susan T

    2016-06-01

    A series of quantum mechanical (QM) computational optimizations of molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) systems were used to determine optimal monomer-to-target ratios. Imidazole- and xanthine-derived target molecules were studied. The investigation included both small-scale models (3-7 molecules) and larger-scale models (15-35 molecules). The optimal ratios differed between the small and larger scales. For the larger models containing multiple targets, binding-site surface area analysis was used to quantify the heterogeneity of these sites. The more fully surrounded sites had greater binding energies. No discretization of binding modes was seen, furthering arguments for continuous affinity distribution models. Molecular mechanical (MM) docking was then used to measure the selectivities of the QM-optimized binding sites. Selectivity was also shown to improve as binding sites become more fully encased by the monomers. For internal sites, docking consistently showed selectivity favoring the molecules that had been imprinted via QM geometry optimizations. The computationally imprinted sites were shown to exhibit size-, shape-, and polarity-based selectivity. Here we present a novel approach to investigate the selectivity and heterogeneity of imprinted polymer binding sites, by applying the rapid orientation screening of MM docking to the highly accurate QM-optimized geometries. Modeling schemes were designed such that no computing clusters or other specialized modeling equipment would be required. Improving the in silico analysis of MIP system properties will ultimately allow for the production of more sensitive and selective polymers. PMID:27207254

  3. Selective Permeabilization of the Blood–Brain Barrier at Sites of Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Connell, John J.; Chatain, Grégoire; Cornelissen, Bart; Vallis, Katherine A.; Hamilton, Alastair; Seymour, Len; Sibson, Nicola R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Effective chemotherapeutics for primary systemic tumors have limited access to brain metastases because of the blood–brain barrier (BBB). The aim of this study was to develop a strategy for specifically permeabilizing the BBB at sites of cerebral metastases. Methods BALB/c mice were injected intracardially to induce brain metastases. After metastasis induction, either tumor necrosis factor (TNF) or lymphotoxin (LT) was administered intravenously, and 2 to 24 hours later gadolinium- diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid, horseradish peroxidase, or radiolabeled trastuzumab (111In-BnDTPA-Tz) was injected intravenously. BBB permeability was assessed in vivo using gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and confirmed histochemically. Brain uptake of 111In-BnDTPA-Tz was determined using in vivo single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography. Endothelial expression of TNF receptors was determined immunohistochemically in both mouse and human brain tissue containing metastases. Group differences were analyzed with one-way analysis of variance followed by post hoc tests, Wilcoxon signed rank test, and Kruskal–Wallis with Dunn’s multiple comparison test. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results Localized expression of TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1) was evident on the vascular endothelium associated with brain metastases. Administration of TNF or LT permeabilized the BBB to exogenous tracers selectively at sites of brain metastasis, with peak effect at 6 hours. Metastasis-specific uptake ratio of 111In-BnDTPA-Tz was also demonstrated after systemic TNF administration vs control (0.147±0.066 vs 0.001±0.001). Human brain metastases displayed a similar TNF receptor profile compared with the mouse model, with predominantly vascular TNFR1 expression. Conclusions These findings describe a new approach to selectively permeabilize the BBB at sites of brain metastases to aid in detection of micrometastases and facilitate tumor

  4. Antagonistic pre- and post-copulatory sexual selection on male body size in a water strider (Gerris lacustris).

    PubMed Central

    Danielsson, I

    2001-01-01

    A crucial question in sexual selection theory is whether post-copulatory sexual selection reinforces or counteracts conventional pre-copulatory sexual selection. Male body size is one of the traits most generally favoured by pre-copulatory sexual selection; and recent studies of sperm competition often suggest that large male size is also favoured by post-copulatory sexual selection. In contrast to this general pattern, this study shows that pre- and post-copulatory sexual selection act antagonistically on male body size in Gerris lacustris. One large and one small male were kept together with two females in this experiment. Large males had a significant mating advantage, but small males copulated longer and gained higher fertilization success from each mating. Large and small males, however, gained similar reproductive success, and there was no overall correlation between mating success and reproductive success. These results suggest that estimates of male fitness based solely on mating success should be viewed with caution, because of potentially counteracting post-copulatory selection. PMID:12123301

  5. Post-Injection Geophysical Evaluation of the Winding Ridge Site CRADA 98-F012, Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Connie Lyons; Richard Current; Terry Ackman

    1998-09-16

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) from underground mines is a major environmental problem. The disposal of coal combustion by-products (CCB) is also a major national problem due to the large volumes produced annually and the economics associated with transportation and environmentally safe disposal. The concept of returning large volumes of the CCB to their point of origin, underground mines, and using the typically alkaline and pozzolanic attributes of the waste material for the remediation of AMD has been researched rather diligently during the past few years by various federal and state agencies and universities. As the result, the State of Maryland initiated a full-scale demonstration of this concept in a small, 5-acre, unmapped underground mine located near Friendsville, MD. Through a cooperative agreement between the State of Maryland and the U.S. Department of Energy, several geophysical techniques were evaluated as potential tools for the post-injection evaluation of the underground mine site. Three non-intrusive geophysical surveys, two electromagnetic (EM) techniques and magnetometry, were conducted over the Frazee Mine, which is located on Winding Ridge near Friendsville, MD. The EM surveys were conducted to locate ground water in both mine void and overburden. The presence of magnetite, which is naturally inherent to CCB'S due to the combustion process and essentially transparent in sedimentary rock, provided the reason for using magnetometry to locate the final resting place of the CCB grout.

  6. Post-discharge surveillance to identify colorectal surgical site infection rates and related costs.

    PubMed

    Tanner, J; Khan, D; Aplin, C; Ball, J; Thomas, M; Bankart, J

    2009-07-01

    A growing number of surveillance studies have highlighted concerns with relying only on data from inpatients. Without post-discharge surveillance (PDS) data, the rate and burden of surgical site infections (SSIs) are underestimated. PDS data for colorectal surgery in the UK remains to be published. This is an important specialty to study since it is considered to have the highest SSI rate and is among the most expensive to treat. This study of colorectal SSI used a 30 day surveillance programme with telephone interviews and home visits. Each additional healthcare resource used by patients with SSI was documented and costed. Of the 105 patients who met the inclusion criteria and completed the 30 day follow-up, 29 (27%) developed SSI, of which 12 were diagnosed after discharge. The mean number of days to presentation of SSI was 13. Multivariable logistic analysis identified body mass index as the only significant risk factor. The additional cost of treating each infected patient was pound sterling 10,523, although 15% of these additional costs were met by primary care. The 5 month surveillance programme cost pound sterling 5,200 to run. An analysis of the surveillance nurse's workload showed that the nurse could be replaced by a healthcare assistant. PDS to detect SSI after colorectal surgery is necessary to provide complete data with accurate additional costs. PMID:19446918

  7. Site selectivity of dopant cations in Ca3(SiO4)Cl2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilbert, M. R.

    2014-08-01

    A series of static lattice calculations were performed to determine the site selectivity of cations of differing size and valence when substituted onto the Ca sites of the calcium chlorosilicate (Ca3(SiO4)Cl2) lattice, a potential host phase for the immobilisation of halide-rich wastes arising from the pyrochemical reprocessing of plutonium. Atomic-scale simulations indicate that divalent cations are preferentially substituted onto the Ca1 site, whilst tri- and tetravalent cations are preferentially hosted on the Ca2 site, with the Ca1 site favoured for forming the vacancies necessary to charge-balance the lattice as a whole. Multi-defect calculations reveal that the site selectivity of the dopant cations is dependent on their ionic radii; as the ionic radii of the divalent cations increase, substitution onto the preferred site becomes more and more strongly favoured, whereas the inverse is true of the trivalent cations.

  8. Year 6 Post-Remediation Biomonitoring and Phase II Source Investigation at the United Heckathorn Superfund Site, Richmond, California

    SciTech Connect

    Kohn, Nancy P.; Evans, Nathan R.

    2004-04-02

    The Heckathorn Superfund Site in Richmond, California, encompasses the property of the former United Heckathorn pesticide packaging plant and the adjacent waterway, Lauritzen Channel. The site was used from 1945 to 1966 by several operators to produce various agricultural chemicals. The site was placed on the National Priorities List of Superfund sites in 1990, which resulted in the removal of pesticide-contaminated soil from the upland portion of the site and dredging the marine portion of the site. Post-remediation marine monitoring and associated studies conducted through 2002 indicate that the contamination in the channel continues to pose a significant risk to biota and human health. This report documents continued marine monitoring and source investigation studies conducted in 2003.

  9. Post-Closure Inspection Report for Corrective Action Unit 90: Area 2 Bitcutter Containment Annual Report, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    K. K. Knapp

    2003-09-01

    Area 2 Bitcutter and Post-Shot Containment Wells Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 90 Post-Closure Monitoring requirements are described in Section VII.B.8.b of the Nevada Test Site Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Permit for a Hazardous Waste Management Facility Number NEV HW009, Section VII, Revision 1, March 2003. Post-closure care consists of the following: Semiannual inspections of the unit using an inspection checklist; Photographic documentation; Field note documentation; and Preparation and submittal of an annual report. The annual report consists of copies of the inspection checklist, repair records (if any), photographs, and recommendations and conclusions for the period December 2002 to June 2003. The Post-Closure Inspection Checklists are provided in Attachment A, a copy of the field notes is provided in Attachment B, and copies of the inspection photographs are provided in Attachment C.

  10. Assessment of LED Technology in Ornamental Post-Top Luminaires (Host Site: Sacramento, CA)

    SciTech Connect

    Tuenge, Jason R.

    2011-12-01

    The DOE Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium has evaluated four different LED replacements for existing ornamental post-top street lights in Sacramento, California. The project team was composed of the City and its consultant, PNNL (representing the Consortium), and the Sacramento Municipal Utility District. Product selection was finalized in March 2011, yielding one complete luminaire replacement and three lamp-ballast retrofit kits. Computer simulations, field measurements, and laboratory testing were performed to compare the performance and cost-effectiveness of the LED products relative to the existing luminaire with 100 W high-pressure sodium lamp. After it was confirmed the LED products were not equivalent to HPS in terms of initial photopic illumination, the following parameters were scaled proportionally to enable equitable (albeit hypothetical) comparisons: light output, input wattage, and pricing. Four replacement scenarios were considered for each LED product, incorporating new IES guidance for mesopic multipliers and lumen maintenance extrapolation, but life cycle analysis indicated cost effectiveness was also unacceptable. Although LED efficacy and pricing continue to improve, this project serves as a timely and objective notice that LED technology may not be quite ready yet for such applications.